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The programme volunteer in leisure-time agencies : a study of the experiences and attitudes of a sample… Pollock, John Orr 1950

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THE PROGRAMME VOLUNTEER IN LEISURE-TIME AGENCIES A Study of the experiences and attitudes of a sample of volunteers i n fourteen building-centred agenoies i n Portland, Oregon,and Vancouver, B.C. by JOHN ORR POLLOCK Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the Department of S o c i a l Work 1950 The Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT Leisure-time agencies were planned and operated "by-volunteers long "before the profession of group work came into existence. They were the motivating force behind the e s t a b l i s h -ment of many of the present day s o c i a l services now enjoyed "by c i t i z e n s of the nation. Because of the entry of professional workers into the f i e l d of leisure-time a c t i v i t y , the importance of a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of function between volunteer and professional i s apparent. A l l agencies r e a l i z e the importance of the volunteer and are anxious to know the best manner by which to r e c r u i t , place, t r a i n , and recognize him. To obtain information regarding the extent of volunteer p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n leisure-time programmes, and to ascertain t h e i r current value i n agencies, interviews were arranged with fourteen agency administrators. This information was used throughout the thesis as background material. The f a c t u a l data, upon which the conclusions of the study are based, was obtained through the analysis of the answers to one hundred and twenty-two questionnaires returned "by volunteers active i n the fourteen agency programmes. To evaluate volunteer service the t h e s i s i s divided into sections, each of which represents an i n t e g r a l part of volunteer p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Recruitment, s e l e c t i o n , and placement are important areas i n evaluating volunteer service; motivation and recognition are of v i t a l importance i n understanding the performance of the volunteer; i n addition, t r a i n i n g and supervision must be evaluated. From the general Information, the current l i t e r a t u r e on the subject, and personal observation d i f f e r e n t kinds of volunteers have "been defined and the e s s e n t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of agency and volunteer outlined. Some of the most Important findings of the study are those that Indicate who serves as volunteers. Information obtained regarding many facto r s which influence lay p a r t i c i p a t i o n Indicated one f a c t o r which has been denied or neglected by some agencies the consistent affirmation on the part of volunteers that they want an i n i t i a l interview, t r a i n i n g and supervision on the job, and recognition of t h e i r e f f o r t s by the agency. The thesis, i n as f a r as i t indicates who are programme volunteers, and how they function to meet group, agency, and community needs might prove a p r o f i t a b l e basis f o r study and evaluation of volunteer services i n any single agency. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge great indebtedness to the volunteers cooperating i n the survey, without whose assistance the thesis could not have been completed. I take p a r t i c u l a r pleasure i n acknowledging the continuous helpfulness and encouragement of Miss Donalda McRae, Secretary of the Group Work D i v i s i o n , Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, and Dr. Leonard Marsh, Department of S o c i a l Work, Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, both of whom gave generously of t h e i r time to f a c i l i t a t e the completion of the study. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. The Importance of the Volunteer General value of volunteers. D e f i n i t i o n of volunteer service. Limiting the scope of the project. Lay and pro-f e s s i o n a l t h e i r contributions. Types of service. Methods of obtaining f a c t u a l data. Chapter 2. Sources of Recruitment On an in d i v i d u a l i z e d basis: agency part i c i p a n t s , known in d i v i d u a l s . On a group basis: women's clubs, men's clubs, college s o r o r i t i e s and f r a t e r n i t i e s , high schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s , inter-agency r e f e r r a l s . From the Volunteer Bureau. Summary. Chapter 3. The Type of Volunteer Recruited Analysis of volunteers on the basis of age, sex, occupation, distance of residence from the agency, length of volunteer service, degree of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and the a b i l i t y to secure other volunteers. Satisfactions and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s of volunteer service. Interpretation through the volunteer. Summary. Chapter 4. Selection and Placement Selection: agency views on sel e c t i o n . A volunteer's f i r s t v i s i t . The concept of resistance. One method to secure volunteers. Preparatory interviews and th e i r effectiveness. Placement: importance of understanding the purpose of the agency. The agency's r o l e i n placement. Chapter 5. Recognition and Motivation Recognition: the need f o r reassurance. The eff e c t of appreciation c l a s s i f i e d by age, length of time volunteering, sex, agency, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the agency, and securing other volunteers. Motivation: other studies. Analysis of motivations of the volunteers surveyed. Chapter 6. Supervision and Training Supervision: D e f i n i t i o n . Two facto r s influencing the volunteer's effectiveness. The value of supervision. Dis-advantages. Methods of supervision. Individual and group discussions t h e i r importance and value. Training: D e f i n i t i o n . The need f o r t r a i n i n g . Methods of t r a i n i n g . Types of t r a i n i n g . Disadvantages. The import-ance of d i r e c t i o n . Volunteers' attitudes c l a s s i f i e d by willingness, age, and type of r o l e . Summary. Chapter 7. Re s p e c t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s TJe p a r t n e r s h i p of l a y and p r o f e s s i o n a l workers. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the agency. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the v o l u n t e e r . Appendices: A. Sample l e t t e r and q u e s t i o n n a i r e 2* 5fv??n s f o r v o l u n t e e r i n g Vassar Summer I n s t i t u t e C. B i b l i o g r a p h y TABLES IN THE TEXT Page Table 1. Tasks Performed by Study Volunteers, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 . . . . 15 Table 2. Comparative Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Volunteers, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 26 Table 3. Agency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Volunteers, 1949 27 Table 4. Age of Volunteers, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 28 Table 5. Comparative Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Volunteers, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agenoies, 1949 30 Table 6. Age Differences of Volunteers i n r e l a t i o n to Agencies, 1949 31 Table 7. Occupations of Volunteers, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 # 32 Table 8. Average Distance of Volunteers from the Agency, 1949 34 Table 9. Length of Time Spent as Volunteers, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 . . . . 36 Table 10. Degree of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Agency S t a f f , Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 37 Table 11. Number of Volunteers Responsible f o r Securing Others, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 37 Table 12. Relationship between those Responsible f o r Securing Other Volunteers and Belonging to the Agency S t a f f , Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 38 Table 13. Relationship between the Frequency with which People ask about the Agency and the Degree of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the Agency S t a f f , Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 . . . . 39 Table 14. Degree of S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Volunteer Work, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 43 Table 15. Reasons for D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n Volunteer Work, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 44 Page Table 16. Reasons for S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Volunteer Work, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 45 Table 17. The Frequency with which People ask Volun-teers about the work the Agency i s doing, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 46 Table 18. Relationship between People asking about the Agency and those Responsible for Securing other Volunteers, Selected Van-couver and Portland Agencies, 1949 . . . . 47 Table 19. Relationship between I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the Agency Staff and Satisfac t i o n s i n Volunteer Work, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 49 Table £0. Introductory Interviews of Volunteers, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 53 Table E l . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Occurence of I n i t i a l Interviews on the basis of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n to Agency S t a f f , Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 54 Table 22. Helpfulness of the I n i t i a l Interview, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 . 55 Table 23. Appreciation shown the Volunteer, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 . . 59 Table 24. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of those who said they received Much Appreciation, Selected Vancouver *and.Portland Agencies, 1949. . . 60 Table 25. Service D i s t r i b u t i o n of Those who received Mueh Appreciation, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 61 Table 26. Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n of Those who received Much Appreciation, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 61 Table 27. Agency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Those who received Much Appreciation, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 63 Table 28. D i s t r i b u t i o n on the basis of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the Agency of those who received Mueh Appreciation, Selected Vancouver and Port-land Agencies, 1949 64 Page Table 29. D i s t r i b u t i o n on the basis of Securing other Volunteers of those who received Much Appreciation, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 65 Table 30. Comments of Volunteers on the Appreciation Shown, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 66 Table 31. Reasons f o r Volunteering, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 . 73 Table 32. Helpfulness of Individual Discussions, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 80 Table 33. Willingness of Volunteers to Attend Indiv-i d u a l Discussions, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 80 Table 34. Frequency of Attending Proposed Individual Discussions, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 81 Table 35. Relationship between the Helpfulness of Individual Discussions and the Willingness to Attend, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 82 Table 36. Helpfulness of Group Discussions, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 . . . 83 Table 37. Willingness of Volunteers to Attend Group Discussions, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 . 84 Table 38. Relationship between the Helpfulness of Group and Individual Discussions, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 . . • 85 Table 39. Comments of Volunteers on Individual and Group Discussions, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 87 Table 40. Volunteers* Recognition of the Purpose of the Agency, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 95 Table 41. Volunteers' Desire to Discuss Problems with S t a f f , Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 96 Table 42. A b i l i t y to Attend a Training Course, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 . . . 97 Page Table 43. Relationship between A b i l i t y to Attend a Training Course and the Desire to Discuss a Problem with a Staff Member, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 . . . 98 Table 44. Relationship between the A b i l i t y to Attend a Training Course and the Age of the Volunteer, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 99 Table 45. Relationship between the A b i l i t y to Attend a Training Course and the Type of Duty Performed, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 100 THE PROGRAMME VOLUNTEER IN LEISURE-TIME AGENOIES A Study of the experiences and attitudes of a sample of volunteers i n fourteen building-centred agencies i n Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, B.C. S*jg££gg_l» The I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e _ V o l u n t e e r The famous French p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r , A l e x i s de T o c q u e v i l l e , on h i s r e t u r n from a study of American democracy s a i d , "The h e a l t h of a democratic s o c i e t y may he measured by the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s performed by i t s c i t i z e n v o l u n t e e r s . " (1) The t r a n s i t i o n from the pioneer community to the modern Canadian n a t i o n has everywhere been i n f l u e n c e d by c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . V o l u n t e e r s founded, maintained, and strengthened the churches, s c h o o l s , and h e a l t h and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s of the new w o r l d . Today, as a r e s u l t of t h e i r e f f o r t s , the community enjoys modern school systems, park and r e c r e a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , c i v i c s e r v i c e s , church s e r v i c e s , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and other i n s t i t u t i o n s . Many of these, although they use p a i d personnel are s t i l l l a r g e l y planned, and extended through the v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t s of c i t i z e n s , who serve the community as t r u s t e e s , members of governing boards, and committee members. In a d d i t i o n , c o u n t l e s s numbers of v o l u n t e e r s g i v e t h e i r s e r v i c e s i n the day by day oper-a t i o n of the programmes of these i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Iduard C. Lindeman t r i e d t o v i s u a l i z e the importance of v o l u n t e e r s when he wrote: In r e c e n t y e a r s , as I have pondered over the v i c i s s i t u d e s of democracy, i t has o f t e n occurred to me to wonder what would happen i f , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , a l l c i t i z e n s who work f o r n o t h i n g , who serve as v o l u n t e e r s , were suddenly t o 'go on strike'...What would happen i f t h i s corps of c i t i z e n s who l a b o u r without pay, who e x e r c i s e t h e i r own f r e e w i l l i n choosing the f u n c t i o n s they w i l l perform, were to r e s i g n t h e i r p o s t s , r e f u s e to attend meetings, t o disengage themselves from a l l respon-s i b i l i t i e s ? (1) Lindeman, Eduard C , "The Volunteer - Democracy's Indispensable A s s e t " , Canadian Welfare, V o l . X I I I No. 5, October 15, 1946. Page 2. -2-He adds: " I wish I knew how to induce volunteers to appreciate the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e they play i n furnishing v i t a l i t y to the democratic e n t e r p r i s e , " ^ ) Relating to welfare f i e l d s i t has been said that, "active p a r t i c i p a t i o n by volunteer c i t i z e n s i n planning and working for the s o c i a l welfare of the nation i s the cornerstone of our democracy, w ^ In a statement of the p r i n c i p l e s of v o l -unteer service, the Community Chests and Councils, Inc. defined volunteer service as: ...that voluntary e f f o r t , given without pay, by any i n d i v i d u a l i n a community who wishes to serve therein the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of those democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s concerned with the advancement of human welfare. The opportunities of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n are the p r i v i l e g e of a l l . (3) Volunteer service i n leisure-time agencies i s only one small part of the function of lay workers i n our democratic society; however, i t i s an important function to be considered. From the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of ordinary c i t i z e n s h i p i n the Dominion, to cooperation i n building a backyard playground for the children i n h i s street, the average Canadian i s constantly asked to play a volunteer r o l e . The future of the Dominion and the safety of h i s own and h i s neighbours children l a r g e l y depends upon the time, e f f o r t , and i n t e l l i g e n c e he exerts v o l u n t a r i l y . In t h i s study the focus of i n t e r e s t i s upon a special area — - the volunteer i n group work and recreational building-(1) Lindeman, Eduard C , A Fantasy. Y.W.C.A. Volunteer Personnel Committee, New York, 1948. Page 1, (2) National S o c i a l Welfare Assembly Inc., Report of the National  Conference on S o c i a l Welfare Needs and the Workshop of  Cit i z e n ' s Groups. New York, 1948. Page 66. (3) Advisory Committee on Volunteer Service, Statement of  P r i n c i p l e s of Volunteer Service, Community Chests and Councils, Inc., New York, 1945. Page 2. -3-eentred agencies. Building-centred agencies are those which conduct programme l a r g e l y within a building, used permanently by one agency for leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s . Boy Scout and G i r l Guide a c t i v i t i e s are not considered as building-centred agencies. Here, also, the terms group work and recreation, for reasons of s i m p l i c i t y , are used synonymously. In the s t r i c t e s t sense group work i s the method employed by competent professionals to achieve personal growth i n each of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g members of a group, club, or association. However, not a l l rec r e a t i o n a l agencies practice group work; some provide f a c i l i t i e s without leadership, some concentrate t h e i r a c t i v i t y s o l e l y upon the physical advan-tages of recreation. Nevertheless, i n a l l agencies the volunteer has the opportunity to observe and a s s i s t many members taking part i n some a c t i v i t y . I f the purpose of the agency i s , broadly, to a s s i s t i n developing more mature c i t i z e n s , and i f volunteers are the persons who are i n almost constant contact with p a r t i -cipating members, then c l e a r l y much of the success of agency programme rests upon the shoulders of voluntary workers. In leisure-time groups, recreational agencies and other organizations, two types of volunteers are to be found: ^ 1. administrative volunteers, who are members of policy-making boards and advisory committees, and whose contribution centres around the administration rather than the programme of the organization. 2. service volunteers, who are act u a l l y associated with the operation of programme i n the agency or organization. (1) Community Chests and Councils Inc., Volunteers i n Community  Service, A Bibliography (unpublished! -4-The f i e l d of the present study i s limited to the second group, service volunteers, and p a r t i c u l a r l y to three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of service volunteers, namely: (a) group leaders — leaders of natural or friendship groups, int e r e s t groups, and chairmen or convenors of committees or councils. (b) receptionists or intake workers — persons who a s s i s t new participants to associate with agency programme and pro-cedure. (o) a c t i v i t y supervisors — - volunteers whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s the supervision of a p a r t i c u l a r room i n the agency, such as a lounge, games room, or reading room. An examination of the programme of a group work agency w i l l i n v a r i a b l y reveal that volunteers are responsible for a large share i n the functioning of the v i t a l machinery which makes the programme possible. This f a c t i s acknowledged by the vast majority of agency administrators. In a l l agencies the servioes of volunteers are u t i l i z e d to a larger or smaller degree, and i t i s recognized that they are a v i t a l part of the team of layman and professional, whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s to carry out t h e purpose of the agency. Harry Serotkin suggests that, "Volunteers are essential to group work. The professionals may come and go, but the volunteers are the people who make up the community, who l i v e i n i t , who always c a l l i t home!" ^ (1) Serotkin, Harry, "The Training and Placement of Volunteers," The Federator. V o l . 2ZX No. 4, A p r i l , 1944. Page 11. -5 Eduard Lindeman i s even more emphatic when he writes, "Private s o c i a l agencies cannot survive without the volunteer. n ^ I f , therefore, volunteers are desirable i n a group work programme, i t i s important to discover t h e i r degree of p a r t i c i p -ation, and th e i r r o l e i n the agency. A professional worker i s employed by an agency to do a defined series of jobs. He i s trained to know what to do, and he i s supposed to understand what he i s doing. When an architect i s retained to design a modern building, one that w i l l be both b e a u t i f u l and p r a c t i c a l , h i s services are requested because he has knowledge of the profession, and because he can use that knowledge to create a s a t i s f a c t o r y e d i f i c e . So with the s o c i a l group worker; he i s employed because he has knowledge i n h i s f i e l d . But a professional person cannot be expected to be a "jack of a l l trades;" h i s programme s k i l l s are often l i m i t e d to an actual working knowledge of only two or three a c t i v i t i e s , such as drama, a r t , c r a f t s , and music, demanded by the pa r t i c i p a n t s . Warm and understanding though hi s approach may be to in d i v i d u a l s and groups, he cannot as one i n d i v i d u a l play the leader r o l e f o r a l l the d i f f e r e n t groups and i n d i v i d u a l s , who turn to the agency for t h e i r leisure-time s a t i s f a c t i o n s . But t h i s d i v e r s i t y of programme and t h i s large body of leadership can be assured, i f there are enough interested volunteers working i n cooperation with the employed s t a f f members to carry out the purpose of the agency. (1) Lindeman, Eduard C , "The Volunteer Democracy's Indispensable Asset." Canadian Welfare. Vol. XXII, No. 5. October 15, 1946. Page 3. -6-In practice, the respective contributions of both lay and professional workers depend l a r g e l y on the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n , and cer t a i n factors determine the s p e c i f i c respon-s i b i l i t i e s of both partners i n the team. These fact o r s have been l i s t e d by one writer as: (1) the kind of agency (2} the kind of programme (3) the auspices of the programme (4) the way the programme i s financed (5) the stage of development of the programme ^ To t h i s l i s t might be added one other factor the stage of development of each professional worker and volunteer i n terms of i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional maturity. Dorothy H. S i l l s con-firms t h i s point when she says there i s a difference i n the assignments and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of s t a f f and volunteers related to "the differences i n t r i n s i c i n t h e i r status, as well (2) as i n t h e i r preparation and t r a i n i n g . " Volunteers working i n l o c a l settings should be f r i e n d l y and understanding people, able to use t h e i r personal i n t e r e s t and s k i l l s f o r the benefit of the group and each of i t s members. They should be able to accept and p r o f i t from the supervision of the professional worker, and understand and accept, when interpreted, t h e i r own s p e c i f i c r o l e and l i m i t a t i o n s . In no other area of s o c i a l work are there such p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f r u i t f u l cooperation between professional and volunteer. (1) Anderson, Joseph P., "The Respective Roles of Laymen and Professional Workers i n S o c i a l Work," Canadian Welfare. Vo l . XXTV, No. 2, June, 1948. Page 7. (2) S i l l s , Dorothy H., Volunteers i n S o c i a l Service. New York, National T r a v e l l e r s Aid Association, 1947. Page 13. -7-Types of Volunteer Work Because of the varying c a p a b i l i t i e s and. i n t e r e s t s of the volunteers, and the d i f f e r i n g needs of the agency, many tasks are available to persons who wish to a s s i s t i n a volunteer capacity. Here the volunteer may perform d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t services. ^ Direct services are those which are focused on the actual programme, and are usually carried out within the confines of the agency grounds. Indirect services are those which are necessary f o r the maintenance of the programme, but are not d i r e c t l y connected to i t . Conducting a neighbourhood survey or helping to maintain an a u x i l i a r y service f o r the agency are examples of i n d i r e c t services. I t i s important to review some of the d i r e c t services of volunteers. Those which follow are i l l u s t r a t i v e ; they do not, however, constitute a complete l i s t of the possible duties that volunteers may perform. Leader of a friendship or natural group. A natural group, formed on the basis of friendship, i s organized for reereation and s o c i a b i l i t y . In the small club of usually l e s s than f i f t e e n members, the paramount in t e r e s t i s not the a c t i v i t i e s undertaken, but rather the association between the members. The aim of the agency with such a group i s the growth and development of the constituent members. This type of task requires the services of a volunteer s k i l l e d i n the process of group work, where he, as the leader, can aid the achievement of growth i n i n d i v -iduals and encourage development i n the group. I t i s with the (1) i b i d , pages 23-24. -8-natural group that group work can be practiced to the best advantage, and i t i s t h i s reason alone which makes i t of paramount importance that adequate supervision be given volunteers who perform t h i s task. The understanding of the reasons for human motivation i s perhaps more important i n leading a friendship group than i t i s i n leading other groups. Leader of an i n t e r e s t group. An i n t e r e s t group, formed on the basis of i n t e r e s t i n a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y , i s organized primarily to impart to members an increased knowledge and s k i l l of the a c t i v i t y , such as drama, a r t , or c r a f t s . Here the emphasis i s placed on the a c t i v i t y rather than the association of the members. A volunteer, whose task i s to lead an i n t e r e s t group, requires s p e c i a l s k i l l i n the area of i n t e r e s t . I f the i n t e r e s t i s art work, the volunteer must have knowledge of art which he can share with the members of the group. I f the i n t e r e s t i s basketball, he must know the rules of the game, and be able to a s s i s t the players to p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . While the volunteer assumes the r o l e of a teacher, he must also know something about the i n d i v i d u a l s within h i s c l a s s . He should be aware of t h e i r needs, and recog-nize the expression of these needs through the medium of the work done. Many volunteers are aotive i n t h i s category, and many agencies have based t h e i r entire programme on the use of t h i s type of volunteer. I t i s important to remember, however, that the leader of an i n t e r e s t group should not only come with technical knowledge of a p a r t i c u l a r hobby or sport, but he should also have some knowledge of the reasons why people act d i f f e r e n t l y , as they pursue t h e i r i n t e r e s t . Here again the -9-volunteer can use to advantage the contribution of the pro-f e s s i o n a l worker i n r e l a t i n g h i s subject to each person, rather than simply exposing the members of the group to the s k i l l , as he sees i t . In group work agencies the proficiency by which c r a f t s are learned i s not the only c r i t e r i a f o r evaluating the e f f e c t -iveness of the programme. The s a t i s f a c t i o n which the c r a f t or s k i l l affords the group and each of i t s members i s also important. When a boy creates something by himself, reasonably s a t i s f y i n g to him no matter i f i t f a i l s to a t t a i n adult standards, then the leader has helped him i n h i s development toward a f u l l e r l i f e , and assisted him to be a more mature person. The evolution from dependence to independence i n i n d i v i d u a l s can be influenced by persons i n positions of leadership often volunteers. This r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , alone, i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the need of volunteers as leaders of i n t e r e s t groups, but i t i s also a reminder of the necessity for r e c r u i t i n g competent, stable, and understanding leaders. Leader of a committee. The volunteer who i s the leader of a committee or house council has a unique duty to perform. The volunteer must be aware of h i s r o l e and understand his p o sition i n the group. He must have knowledge of the topic under discussion and be able to help the members understand the purpose of the committee or council. To be of maximum e f f e c t i v e -ness, the volunteer should be s k i l l e d as a discussion leader. Because such councils and committees are drawn from d i f f e r e n t groups i n the agency, the volunteer must be ready to accept advice from the professional worker i n regard to the varying r e l a t i o n s h i p s of groups and ind i v i d u a l s within the committee or council. Because i t i s d i f f i c u l t for a volunteer, i n h i s l i m i t e d time i n the agency to explore these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t i s generally conceded that the leadership of a house council i s usually the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a f u l l time s t a f f member. Volunteers might reasonably be asked to act as adult advisors on committees set up by such a council f o r sp e c i a l events or projects. Receptionist. A common function of volunteers i s as agency r e c e p t i o n i s t s . A volunteer, stationed at the entrance door, able cheerfully to d i r e c t members into a c t i v i t i e s i s a great asset i n terms of organizational e f f i c i e n c y and hospitable intake of new members. Amongst sehool children i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable to have a re c e p t i o n i s t , who i s able to set the tone of the agency as soon as the participant enters. In many agencies, the receptionist assumes the r o l e of an intake worker, and consequently i s responsible f o r "checking i n " members and receiving new memberships. I f the volunteer understands the importance of t h i s procedure, and i f he i s aware of the con-t r i b u t i o n made not only i n obtaining pertinent information about the new member, but i n o u t l i n i n g to that member what i s available for him within the agency, then that volunteer i s a decided asset to the agency. I t i s at the reception desk where much i s learned about the member, and t h i s information can be of d i r e c t value to a leader working with a small group. Noone should under-estimate the contribution made by the s k i l f u l r e c e p t i o n i s t . Supervisor of a loosely integrated a c t i v i t y . A games room, a lounge, a drop-in dance room, and a free-play a c t i v i t y period i n the gymnasium may be considered as loosely integrated a c t i v i t i e s . No regular members attend, and everyone can come -11 and go as he pleases. Here, the volunteer should be able to a s s i s t i n two ways: f i r s t , he should have some understanding of the a c t i v i t y i n progress, and thus be able to a s s i s t i n teaching the new a c t i v i t y . I f he i s the supervisor of a games room, he should know the rules of each game, and be able to help members i n playing. Second, and perhaps of more importance, the volunteer should be able to help i n d i v i d u a l s gain greater s a t i s f a c t i o n s from the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t y . So many times a person i s not included i n an a c t i v i t y . The leader can attempt to include him i n a game with others, thus giving him c e r t a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n knowing that he has at least been p a r t i a l l y accepted by the others. By joining i n a game with the others the volunteer can soon help the more timid members to a greater s e c u r i t y . I t i s true that d i s c i p l i n e must be maintained i n the room, but t h i s r o l e should not be foremost i n the v o l u n t e e r ^ mind. When active p a r t i c i p a t i o n by each person, on h i s own l e v e l of achievement i s encouraged by the leader, the question of d i s c i p l i n e , while s t i l l a factor, becomes of secondary importance. These, then,are the f i v e most important c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of volunteer service i n the area of programme. While i t i s recognized that a l l volunteers are, i n the aggregate, a deter-mining factor i n the success of any programme, a more adequate analysis of the f i e l d was best achieved by l i m i t i n g the scope of the study to these f i v e categories. I t was easier to survey t h i s group, since they proved to be the most regular attenders i n the agency. Others of lesser importance i n the study include: -12-J a n i t o r i a l and c l e r i c a l servioes; Great service i s contributed by people who help i n t h i s regard. I t can be c l e a r l y seen that these duties f a l l within the scope of the work done by paid personnel, but i n instances where laok of funds prohibit the use of paid workers, the volunteer service i s welcomed to a s s i s t i n completing the necessary duties. I d e a l l y , the work of the volunteer i s to supplement the work of the s t a f f person, but often pressing exigencies demand that volunteers be used to perform tasks which should be performed by paid workers. I t must also be remembered that many persons are anxious to a s s i s t i n the work of the agency, and many are s p e c i a l l y q u a l i f i e d to a s s i s t with stenographic duties. Again, persons wish to con-t r i b u t e to the agency by doing j a n i t o r i a l service. I t seems j u s t i f i a b l e to use these volunteers provided, however, that no present or prospective worker loses employment. Short-term, s p e c i f i c project volunteers. In a group work agency, as i n most other agencies, s p e c i f i c projects of short duration occur throughout the year. As with other types of activity,volunteers are asked to a s s i s t with these projects. Assistance i n planning f o r , and putting on a father and son banquet, the operation of a movie projector f o r a Halloween party, the giving of a speech for a special luncheon, or acting as master of ceremonies at a s o c i a l function, are examples of short-term, s p e c i f i c project volunteer services. Most agenoies have t r a d i t i o n a l annual celebrations, and a l l welcome the a s s i s t -ance of volunteers at these times. Many persons prefer to o f f e r t h e i r services for these short-term projects because they are unable to volunteer on a continuing basis. Many interested parents, because of the nature of t h e i r employment, cannot -13-volunteer on a permanent basis, but agencies should recognize the e x i s t i n g circumstances and be w i l l i n g to c a l l upon these in d i v i d u a l s f o r help. Through the use of volunteers on short-term projects these persons can be included i n active p a r t i -c ipation i n community programmes. There are many other services which volunteers give to the agency. Many of these services, while not d i r e c t l y a l ligned to the programme, are important to the complete function of the agency. I f volunteers are c a r e f u l l y r e c ruited, according to t h e i r s k i l l s and personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for any of the above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and i f a constant e f f o r t i s made to preserve the team re l a t i o n s h i p between volunteer and professional i n eaoh s p e c i f i c area, i t i s quite reasonable to presume that through the use of more leadership the agency can not only serve more people, but can serve them i n more acceptable and varied ways. Method of the Present Study For the basic information i n the study, volunteers were selected i n the c i t i e s of Vancouver, B.C. and Portland, Oregon. Representative building-centred agencies were selected i n eaoh c i t y , i n order to achieve a degree of uniformity i n the type of volunteer work performed. Vancouver agencies cooperating i n t h i s study were: Vancouver Boys' Club Association (comprising Kivan, Kimount, Kiview, and Rufe Gibbs Boys* Clubs), Alexandra Neighbourhood House, Gordon House (senior and junior houses), fche T.W.C.A. (main branch), and the Y.M.C.A. (main branch). 14 Portland agencies were: Junior Museum (a unit of the Bureau of Parks recreational network), Fri e n d l y House, Neighborhood House, Red Shield Boys' Club, the Y.W.C.A. (main branch), and the Y.M.C.A. (North East branch). Additional information was obtained from the North Vancouver Memorial Community Centre and from other units i n Portland's park system; however,it was not f e a s i b l e to use t h i s information i n the general body of the study because many of the tables had been compiled before t h i s information was received. Nevertheless, obser-vations from these two additional sources helped to v e r i f y the findings obtained from the other agencies. Each of these agencies was v i s i t e d or contacted, and material obtained, which indicated the function, scope, and li m i t a t i o n s of volunteer service within that p a r t i c u l a r centre. With the permission of the executive of the agency, and from l i s t s provided by them, a questionnaire was c i r c u l a r i z e d to 888 Volunteers. Accordingly, the study embraces the experience of volunteers i n f i v e boys' clubs, four neighbourhood centres, two Y.W.C.A.'s, two Y.M.C.A.'s, and a public r e c r e a t i o n a l project. Vancouver and Portland were chosen because the writer resided i n the former c i t y and served a s o c i a l work student placement period i n a Portland agency. It was at f i r s t thought that the information i n the two c i t i e s could be compared, to contrast d i f f e r e n t responses and conditions i n the two c i t i e s , but the material obtained a c t u a l l y showed such close corres-pondence that i t was decided to combine i t and present the information as the general consensus of volunteer opinion. -15 Of the t o t a l 388, 327 questionnaires were mailed to volunteers active i n Vancouver agencies, and 61 to volunteers i n Portland agencies. The reason for the wide variance i n numbers between Vancouver and Portland i s the f a c t that there were fewer agencies to choose from i n Portland, and the number of volunteers i n each agency was less than i n the agenoies i n Vancouver. Returns were 46 per cent of the t o t a l d i s t r i b u t e d , since 133 questionnaires were answered, 108 from Vancouver and 25 from Portland. Some were returned too l a t e to be included i n the t h e s i s , but only one was improperly answered, and could not be used at a l l . Therefore, out of a t o t a l of 133 returns, 123 were used i n the body of the study. These 132 questionnaires can be c l a s s i f i e d according to the type of task performed by each volunteer. Table 1. Tasks Performed by Study Volunteers, Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. Group Leaders Recept-io n i s t s A c t i v i t y Super-vis o r s Total Friendship Interest Mass A c t i v i t y Committee Advisors dumber 24 65 17 1 18 18 143 Four additional volunteers were included i n the study, but t h e i r duties, while they could not be classed as any outlined above, could be oombined i n a general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . In several instances a volunteer acted i n more than one capacity, and as a r e s u l t the t o t a l of volunteers i n each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s greater than the actual number of volunteers surveyed. - 1 6 -T h e a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h a v e b e e n i n t e r -p r e t e d g e n e r a l l y , a n d n o a t t e m p t h a s b e e n m a d e t o l i m i t t h e s c o p e o f t h e s t u d y t o o n e n a r r o w p h a s e o f v o l u n t e e r o p e r a t i o n . B y t h e a n a l y s i s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , c r i t i c i s m s , a n d s u g g e s t i o n s o f p r a c t i c i n g v o l u n t e e r s , b y t h e u s e o f a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l i n s o c i a l w o r k l i t e r a t u r e , a n d b y t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e w r i t e r i n w o r k i n g w i t h v o l u n t e e r s i n t h e t w o c i t i e s c o n c e r n e d , i t i s h o p e d t h a t s o m e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s m a y b e d r a w n u p , w h i c h i f i m p l e m e n t e d b y a g e n c i e s , v o l u n t e e r b u r e a u s , a n d o t h e r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g b o d i e s , w i l l e n r i c h t h e p r o g r a m m e i n g r o u p w o r k a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , a n d c l a r i f y a n d s t r e n g t h e n t h e r o l e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l v o l u n t e e r s i n t h e s e a g e n c i e s . -17-Chapter 2. Sources of Recruitment Where do volunteers i n recreational work come from? A review of the recruitment p o l i c y of the fourteen agencies surveyed, revealed many sources. The majority of the agencies recruited from t h e i r present agency p a r t i c i p a n t s , or from those who had formerly been active i n the agency. These people understood the p o l i c y and programme because they had been a part of i t . Recognizing the contribution which the agenoy had made to t h e i r own experience, they had some c r i t e r i a to apply to t h e i r leadership of groups, or service to i n d i v i d u a l s . This knowledge about the agency enabled them to move from a p a r t i c i -pant r o l e to that of a leader without too much d i f f i c u l t y . The Boys* Clubs, the Y.M.C.A., and the Y.W.C.A. u t i l i z e d t h i s means of recruitment more than the other agencies. Naturally, t h i s group w i l l be limited to those who had a reasonably happy time i n the agency, and who appreciated the fa c t that t h e i r former leaders were happy i n t h e i r r o l e . Mr. M. i l l u s t r a t e d t h i s quite c l e a r l y when he wrote, "there i s something that draws a fellow back to the agency, no matter where he goes. I have grown up i n the agency and hav;e reaped i t s benefits as a boy, and I am now returning that which I received by acting as a leader i n my turn." Here the volunteer was recruited from a graduate member of the organization, and he believed the experience derived from membership i n the agency warranted continuance i n the programme as a volunteer leader. The concept stressed by t h i s volunteer, who i s representative of many others, i s that of repaying a debt by giving leadership. - 1 8 -Without exception, i t was agreed by the administrators of the agencies that, i n order to obtain r e l i a b l e , understanding, and capable workers, eaeh prospective volunteer should be approaohed i n d i v i d u a l l y . The study further revealed that actual recruitment was best achieved when either the administrator, a s t a f f member, or another volunteer sought out and f i n a l l y obtained the services of a p a r t i c u l a r person f o r a specified volunteer service. By r e c r u i t i n g volunteer workers i n t h i s manner the agency knew what type of person they were asking to share i n the programme. This i n d i v i d u a l i z e d method of s e l e c t i o n was favoured by the majority of agencies, 40 per cent using t h i s means to r e c r u i t volunteer workers, but each agency using t h i s method to varying degrees. While an approach to i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s , on the recommendation of agency membership and s t a f f , was the most popular method of obtaining volunteers, agencies also appealed for workers through service clubs and organizations which included service work i n their programme and purpose. Thirty-three per cent of the agencies stated there had been a response to an appeal for workers made to some organization. F r a t e r n i t i e s , s o r o r i t i e s , women's clubs, and other service groups were cited by the agencies as good sources of volunteer leadership. While i t i s impossible to mention a l l the service clubs which assisted the agencies, the Junior League i s worthy of notice, since i t i s most active i n t h i s regard. In terms of e f f i c i e n t services the members of the Junior League are cited by several agencies as dependable, punctual, and teachable volunteers, concerned with t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r job, yet aware of and eager to advance the t o t a l function of the agency i n the community. -19-From the reports received there does not appear to be a men's servioe club which, l i k e the Junior League, couples actual volunteer service with f i n a n c i a l support. Nevertheless, i t i s through the e f f o r t s of men's service clubs i n both c i t i e s that some of the present day agencies were originated, housed, and i n t h e i r pioneer period often maintained. The Vancouver Boys' Club Association owes i t s inception to men's service clubs i n the c i t y of Vancouver. The rosters of the directorates of the group work agencies indicate that i n d i v i d u a l members of service clubs are active i n almost a l l community and youth agencies. In addition to t h i s volunteer work on administrative boards and committees, i n d i v i d u a l service club members act as programme volunteers. Although these persons were not r e c r u i t e d , on a group basis, i t can be assumed they are, to some degree, motivated by t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n with an organization active i n promoting the welfare of the community. Some agencies obtained the servioes of members of college s o r o r i t i e s and f r a t e r n i t i e s i n the volunteer programme. These members often volunteered as a group, and thus divided the work according to the time available and s k i l l s of t h e i r members. One f r a t e r n i t y member, Mr. L., indicated "one reason members of my chapter volunteered f o r service i n a group work agency was to show the public, i n whose minds f r a t e r n i t i e s have but one aim: 'wine, women, and song', that the type of leadership developed i n a f r a t e r n i t y i s a decided asset to the community. Twenty per cent of the agencies stated that high schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s provided volunteer leadership f o r them. I t must be remembered that college s o r o r i t i e s and f r a t e r n i t i e s were not included i n t h i s percentage, since they were classed -20-with the service groups i n the previous category. Many individu a l s i n t h i s grouping were persons who possessed an interes t i n s o c i a l work, and who wished to acquire some p r a c t i c a l experience i n the f i e l d before venturing into t r a i n -ing for the profession. Some persons just came to the agency and volunteered. Here i t i s esse n t i a l that the administrator determines i f the i n d i v i d u a l i s suited f o r the volunteer task i n question. I f a probationary period of service were offered the volunteer could decide i f he wished to remain as a worker i n the agency, and the agency could decide i f the person was suited f o r the pa r t i c u l a r volunteer duty. A few volunteers were recruited by means of i n t e r -agency r e f e r r a l s . Often a volunteer comes or i s sent to an agency to a s s i s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r type of service i n which he possesses great s k i l l . Just as often the agency to which he i s sent i s not able, f o r various reasons, to u t i l i z e the services of that volunteer. The far-sighted administrator w i l l not send the volunteer away from the agency d i s s a t i s f i e d , but rather he w i l l do a l l i n h i s power to see that the volunteer i s placed i n an agency where his services are needed, and where he can have the s a t i s f a c t i o n of knowing h i s of f e r of service was appreciated. The study revealed that l i t t l e inter-agency r e f e r r a l was practiced. This i s to be regretted since a l l agencies need volunteers, and volunteers to be happy and e f f e c t i v e workers, need to be placed i n positions most suitable to them. The remaining sources of volunteer workers include: the board of the agency, the volunteer bureau, and otherspecific sources known to the agency. -21-In studying the area of recruitment, i t i s impossible to overlook the importance of the volunteer bureau. Volunteer bureaus are i n existence i n many of the larger c i t i e s i n the United States and Canada, and have proven to be of great advan-tage i n c e n t r a l i z i n g the source and placement of volunteers, and i n eliminating unnecessary duplication of e f f o r t . A volunteer bureau i s , "a c e n t r a l l y located, non-partisan bureau where c i t i z e n s of a l l races, creeds, colours, sexes and ages may seek volunteer work." ^ With i t s finger on the pulse of volunteer p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the community, the bureau i s able to echo the viewpoint of volunteer thinking, and from i t s knowledge i s able to offer leadership to the volunteers, the agencies, and the community. To the volunteers, the bureau can be a motivating force i n d i r e c t i n g and a s s i s t i n g them i n t h e i r duties, so that greater personal s a t i s f a c t i o n and community welfare can be achieved. To the agencies, i t can be an agent i n blending the needs of the volunteer with the needs of the agency. The bureau i s able to provide community resources f o r the agencies, and be of assistance i n helping them i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g , placement, supervision, and recognition programmes. To the community, i t can be a factor i n keeping kindled an awareness of needs, which can and must be met by the resourcefulness and energy of the volunteers. In most instances a Council of S o c i a l Agencies i s the body which i s able to provide d i r e c t i o n and support from the community viewpoint. But how can the volunteer bureau a s s i s t (1) Volunteer Service Department, A Handbook on the Organization  and Operation of a Volunteer Servioe Bureau. Community Chest and Councils, Inc., New York, 1946. Page 3. —22— the group work agencies, and how can they, i n turn, be of aid to the volunteer bureau i n i t s planning on a broad scope? A good l i a i s o n between the agency and the volunteer bureau i s essential i f the c a l i b r e of volunteer leadership i s to be maintained at a high standard. I f a community centre desires a volunteer to teach leatherwork to a group of young adults, and the centre has not been able to obtain an i n s t r u c t o r from i t s own resources, the request i s sent to the volunteer bureau. The bureau, i n turn, i s able to consult i t s f i l e s , and match the s k i l l s of i t s workers with the needs of the agenoy. Having accomplished t h i s , the bureau must n o t i f y the prospective worker, and v e r i f y whether or not he i s s t i l l able to assume a volunteer p o s i t i o n . The volunteer might be asked to come down to the o f f i c e , where the bureau worker would explain i n more d e t a i l the job that the agency wished to have done, and would elaborate on the type and function of the agency where the person would be working. The r e f e r r a l process, from bureau to centre, should be done i n a f r i e n d l y , e f f i c i e n t , and business-like manner. Proper introduction to the centre should be arranged by the bureau s t a f f ; and i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the volunteer bureau to be acquainted with the current trends i n agencies where volunteers are sent. I t i s equally i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to follow up on the work done by the volunteers i n the agencies. This does not mean that the bureau acts as a parent body, farming out volunteers to various places of employment, and holding the reins of volunteer leadership i n the community. I t does mean f however, that the volunteer bureau should be aware of the -23-conditions under which the volunteers work i n each agency, hut i t should step out of the picture when the volunteer has been integrated into the agency programme, and has proved h i s a b i l i t y to the s a t i s f a c t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l agency. Although the bureau must keep abreast of the changing conditions i n the agency, i t s function i s primarily r e f e r r a l of adequate leadership to areas of need. I t i s with each agency where the l o y a l t y should be, because i t i s there that the duty i s performed. In discussing the r e l a t i v e r o l e s of agency and bureau i n the recruitment of volunteers, i t has been found that agencies would rather r e c r u i t t h e i r own volunteers, and the volunteer bureau would sooner have them do i t t h i s way. I t , therefore, seems that most e f f e c t i v e recruitment can be accomplished when the agencies r e c r u i t i n d i v i d u a l l y , at the same time remembering that any volunteers who cannot immediately be used should be referred to the bureau, so that th e i r services w i l l not be l o s t to the community. The volunteer bureau can then be used to obtain volunteers who would not otherwise be secured by the use of Individual campaigns. Volunteer bureaus have found several p r i n c i p l e s to be ef f e c t i v e when r e c r u i t i n g f o r volunteers, and these are h e l p f u l when applied to the i n d i v i d u a l recruitment p o l i c y of each agency. Recruitment should be continuous, but there are times when s p e c i f i c campaigns are needed. In either case, i t has been found best to r e l a t e the recruitment to a s p e c i f i c need; to have job description s p e c i f i c and v i t a l ; to indicate numbers of volunteers needed; and to be a l e r t by holding for the future the names of persons who may respond to but are unsuited for the job described. (1) -24-In Vancouver, the volunteer bureau i s a member agency of the Community Chest and Council. This bureau declared that, of a l l the demands made upon i t , those made by group work agencies were the most d i f f i c u l t to f u l f i l . Group work agencies required volunteers who were w i l l i n g to serve over a longer period of time than those i n other types of s o c i a l work. They required persons who possessed a certain degree of s k i l l i n a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y . In other areas of need, volunteers were required for a shorter term, and usually for less s k i l l e d tasks, suoh as d r i v i n g a woman to a c l i n i c , or d i s t r i b u t i n g pamphlets at a conference. Many persons, who came to the bureau, just wanted to do something us e f u l , and so were sent to the ageney where there was the greatest need. I f , however, the person desired to do a sp e c i f i o thing, he was referred to the agency where i t was possible for him to volunteer i n that capacity. There was some difference i n the number of volunteers referred to agencies by the Vancouver bureau. Gordon House received t h i r t y - f i v e volunteers during the year, Alexandra Neighbourhood House reoeived ten, and the Vancouver Boys* Club Association and the Jewish Community Centre received none. The reason for the wide variance i n numbers t h i r t y - f i v e to one agency, none to others — - was not obtained, although i t was discovered that most agencies did apply to the bureau for volunteer assistance. The radio, press, and service clubs were used by the Vancouver Volunteer Bureau to r e c r u i t volunteers. They found, however, that s a t i s f i e d volunteers were the best means whereby additional volunteers were secured. In Vanoouver, no t r a i n i n g course was offered, and no type of recognition given to the -25 volunteers. The bureau believed t r a i n i n g and recognition should be given i n the agencies, because i t was there that the volunteer was working, and meeting h i s problems. In Portland, no volunteer bureau was i n operation, since the Council of Soeial Agencies were of the opinion that recruitment of volunteers was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the i n d i v -i d u a l agencies. They thought agencies could r e c r u i t t h e i r own volunteers much better, and on a sounder basis, than a volunteer bureau could. The Council of S o c i a l Agencies, how-ever, has conducted, through i t s p u b l i c i t y department, a c i t y -wide campaign for the recruitment of volunteers. This campaign has necessarily been of short duration. To sum up, agencies r e c r u i t on both an i n d i v i d u a l and a group basis. On an i n d i v i d u a l basis, they r e c r u i t from present or former participants i n the programme, and from persons recommended to them. On a group basis, they r e c r u i t from service clubs, s o r o r i t i e s and f r a t e r n i t i e s , high schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s , inter-agency r e f e r r a l s , the volunteer bureau, and other areas known to the p a r t i c u l a r ageney. However, when a prospective volunteer, or a key person i n a service group was known to a member of the agency s t a f f , successful recruitment was found to be easier. -26-Chapter 5. The Type of Volunteer Recruited To plan an e f f e c t i v e volunteer programme agencies should know the type of volunteer who serves. I f volunteer workers can be combined into various categories of age, sex, occupation, and other c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , assistance i n planning a recruitment campaign can be obtained by studying the areas where s a t i s f a c t o r y leadership has been secured, and discover-ing the reasons why others f a i l e d to step into the volunteer r o l e . Sixty-one r e p l i e s to the questionnaire were received from men, and the same amount were received from women. (Table 2) Table 2. Comparative Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Volunteers, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies 1949  Sex Portland Vancouver Total Comparative Proportions Portland Vanoouver Total Male 5 56 61 26 54 50 Female 14 47 61 74 46 50 Total 19 103 122 100 100 100 However, the heavy returns from the Vancouver Boys* Club Association may have weighted these figures to show a great num-ber of male volunteers when, i n r e a l i t y , the majority of agencies had a predominance of women among t h e i r volunteer personnel. In fa c t , the Vancouver Boys* Club Association and the Vancouver Y.M.C.A. were the only organizations which showed a majority of masculine -27- . . workers. (Table 3) Evidence of the fact that the two above mentioned agencies could have weighted the returns i n favour of the male volunteer i s shown i n comparing the sex d i s t r i b u t i o n of volunteers i n each c i t y : Portland showed 26 per cent male and 74 per cent female volunteers; Vancouver showed 54 per cent male and 46 per cent female volunteers. Table 3. Agency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Volunteers, 1949  Agency Male Female Vancouver Y.M.C.A. 100 0 Vancouver Boys* Club Assn. 98 2 # Neighborhood House 50 50 ft Portland Y.M.C.A. 43 57 ft F r i e n d l y House 25 75 Alexandra House 19 81 Gordon House 10 90 § Junior Museum 0 100 ft Portland Y.W.C.A. 0 100 Vancouver Y.W.C.A. M 0 100 I n s u f f i c i e n t return of questionnaires from the Red Shield Boys* Club made t h i s percentage i n v a l i d . # indicates Portland agencies The most popular age group, from which volunteers were secured, was the 21 to 29 group, since 42 per cent of a l l workers were recruited from t h i s c l a s s . (Table 4) Volunteers i n Port-land agenoies were, however, s l i g h t l y older, and 37 per cent of them came under the 30 to 39 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Vancouver agencies, on the other hand, secured the majority of t h e i r volunteers 45 per cent from persons between the ages of 21 and 29 years. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that, of a l l the volunteers i n group work agencies, -28-83 per cent were below the age of 40. I t i s cle a r , therefore, that, i n the main, volunteers were obtained from a young adult age group, a group who seemed to have more time and i n t e r e s t to aid the community, through the medium of the group work agency. The group under 30 years of age contributed more than h a l f the t o t a l number of volunteers 70 per cent — - and each succeeding decade contributed a lower number, with the exception of those persons 50 years of age and over, who showed a noticeable inorease over the preceding decade. Retirement, loneliness, and the lack of r i g i d time l i m i t a t i o n s were instrumental i n t h i s increase i n the senior c i t i z e n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Table 4« Age of Volunteers, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949  Age group Portland Vancouver Total Number P.O. Under 18 2 21 23 19 19-20 0 11 11 9 21-29 5 46 51 42 30-39 7 9 16 13 40-49 2 5 7 6 50 and over 3 10 13 10 Unanswered 0 1 1 1 Total 19 103 122 100 Considering age and sex, more women volunteers were i n the upper age group. (Table 5) Those under 30 who volunteered were predominantly men; between 30 and 40 the numbers were equal; -29-but as the age increased more women were volunteering i n the agencies. Therefore, the number of women volunteers increased with the age of the worker. This i s of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e c r u i t -ing volunteers, because, i f males exceed i n number under 30 years of age, and females exceed over 40 years, i t i s h e l p f u l to know the type of volunteer most r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . Of course, i t must be recognized that the s e l e c t i o n of workers can never be made on the basis of age alone, since the needs of the agency, and the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the volunteers are fundamental to any adequately planned recruitment programme. Nevertheless, an i n d i c a t i o n of the age groups more l i k e l y to volunteer, and whether these volunteers are l i k e l y to be men or women, i s h e l p f u l i n future planning. The f a c t that most volunteers are between the ages of twenty and t h i r t y , and that i n t h i s group nearly two-t h i r d s are men, i s the r e s u l t of many f a c t o r s . Generally speaking, aft e r reaching the age of 30, persons have taken unto themselves more r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than they had i n t h e i r younger years. A large majority are married. A married woman i s often able to give a specified amount of time each week, while the man, once he has taken on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a home and a family, i s l e s s able to do so. Possibly the major reason why more men work with younger groups i s the type of a c t i v i t y i n the agency suited to that type of leadership. In a t y p i c a l community centre, programmes are offered for varying age groups; the teen-age and junior programme, however, occupies muoh of the time and energy of both s t a f f and volunteer personnel. The average c i t i z e n , when he thinks of a community centre, considers i t as a place where youngsters can have "a good time", and where they can learn new s k i l l s . I f the programme of most group work 30 agencies i s weighted toward the younger age group, i t i s to be expected that the leaders of such groups w i l l be i n the age span of 19 to 30 years. Observation of the many agencies i n Portland and Vancouver confirmed that leaders of t h i s age were delegated to younger groups, while the older volunteers were responsible for that part of the programme which concerned i t s e l f with young adult, adult, and senior c i t i z e n a c t i v i t i e s . A leader should be young enough to have a r e a l i z a t i o n of the problems of the group, but s t i l l be old and mature enough to give constructive leader-ship. Table 5. Comparative Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Volunteers, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 _ _ _ age Group Portland Vancouver Comparative Proportions J tfales Females Males Females Males Females Port. Van. Port. Van. Under 18 0 2 10 11 0 18 15 24 19 - 20 0 0 8 3 0 14 0 6 2 1 - 2 9 2 3 30 16 40 53 21 34 3 0 — 39 2 5 6 3 40 11 36 6 40 - 49 1 1 1 4 20 2 7 9 50 & over 0 3 1 9 0 2 21 19 Unanswered 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 Total 5 14 56 47 100 100 100 1 0 0 -31-Some agencies concentrate t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s wholly upon one sex group and, i f t h i s i s the case, the leaders are i n v a r i a b l y of the same sex. Other agencies state t h e i r purpose and function i n such a manner that they are able to serve a l l ages and both sexes; nevertheless, i n most agencies more i s offered f o r the junior and teen-age boy than f o r the g i r l . Consequently, i t i s easy to understand why most volunteers are under 30 years of age, and why those under 30 are mostly men. Although the modal groups are 21 to 29 years of age i n Vancouver, and 30 to 39 i n Portland, there are differences i n the actual makeup of these groups. In both Portland and Vancouver, the Y.M.C.A. had more volunteers between twenty and t h i r t y than i n other c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ; i n both c i t i e s , however, the Y.W.C.A. used volunteers 50 years and over to a great extent. (Table 6) Table 6. Age Differences of Volunteers i n Relation to Agencies. 1949  (modal groups taken as the representative situation) 1 Agency Age Portland: Junior Museum 21-29, 40-49 Portland Y.M.C.A. 21-29 Portland Y.W.C.A. 50 and over Neighborhood House 21-29, 30-•39 Friendly House 30-39 Vancouver: Vancouver Boys 1 Club Assn. 21 -29 Alexandra House under 18 Gordon House 50 and over Vancouver Y.M.C.A. 21 -29 Vancouver Y.W.C.A. 21 -29, 50 and over I n s u f f i c i e n t returns from the Red Shield Boys* Club made the modal class i n v a l i d . -32-In Vancouver, the Y.W.C.A. used many younger volunteers, and th i s i s also true of Portland, but not to the same extent as they used many older workers. Alexandra Neighbourhood House used the youngest volunteer workers, a concentration of persons under 18 years of age being found i n that agency. The volunteers studied were employed i n many occupations, and by c l a s s i f y i n g them, i t can be seen the occupational source from whioh they were obtained. Forty-eight per cent of the volunteers were either high sehool or college students. (Table 7) Table 7. Occupations of Volunteers, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. Occupation Portland Vancouver Tot a l Number Per cent ft.. Not G a i n f u l l y Employed: Students Housewives Retired 11 ~¥ 6 1 69 54" 13 2 80 58 19 3 66 17.5 16 2.5 B. Wage Earners: S k i l l e d trades C l e r i c a l Semi-skilled trades 5 2 3 0 18 9 6 3 23 IT 9 3 18.5 9 7 2.5 C. Professional: S o c i a l Workers Teachers Others 2 T 1 0 8 3* 2 3 10 "¥ 3 3 8 2.5 2.5 D. Business: Salesman Others 1 T 0 5 2 3 : 6 3 3 5 2.5 2.5 Unanswered 0 3 3 2.5 Total 19 1 103 122 100.0 -33-I t was impossible to discover the exact proportions of high school to college students, since no provision was made f o r t h i s i n the questionnaire. Nevertheless, i t was d i f f i c u l t to believe that nearly one-half of the volunteers were students. To discover the reason for the large number of student volunteers was indeed a d i f f i c u l t task, but some indications were obtained from agency administrators, when they stated that students seemed to have more time to o f f e r , and were more f l e x i b l e and e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r work. This one fact alone, that students are carrying the load of volunteer work, reveals that many others are either not aware of, are unable to, or for some other reason are not volunteering. I t seems that i f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community l i v i n g i s to be representative, i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the group work agency, and the Council of S o c i a l Agencies to discover why others are not volunteering, and having done t h i s , to t r y to reach them. Vancouver organizations r e l i e d to the extent of 52 per cent on student volunteers, while the Portland fig u r e was only 21 per cent. I t must be remembered that no volunteer was included i n the study who was required by any s o c i a l work course to complete a specified amount of time i n any group work agency. Housewives swelled the t o t a l of non-gainfully employed workers to the extent of 16 per cent, although Portland agencies claimed 32 per cent of t h e i r volunteers from the housewife c l a s s . In t o t a l , 66 per cent of a l l volunteers were recruited from the non-gainfully employed category. Wage earners comprised the next grouping - 19 per cent. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that only 8 per cent of those -34-volunteering could be c l a s s i f i e d within the professional c l a s s . Here Portland showed a higher proportion at 11 per cent, while Vancouver showed 8 per cent. I t i s surprising that only a small proportion of professional people offered t h e i r services as volunteers. In general, group work agencies serve a spe c i f i e d geographical area. Tobbe most e f f e c t i v e a volunteer should come from the area served. The success of volunteer duties depend upon i n d i v i d u a l aptitude rather than the area i n which the volunteer resides, but when volunteer workers are recr u i t e d from the community served by the agency, a greater community consciousness i s aroused, and greater community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s achieved. I t was found that the average distance volunteers t r a v e l l e d from t h e i r homes to work i n the agency was between two and three miles. (Table 8) Table 8. Average Distance of Volunteers from the Agency, 1949.  Portland Agenoy Miles Vancouver Agency Miles Neighborhood House 3.9 Y.W.C.A. 3.4 Junior Museum 3.1 Kiview Boys* Club 3.2 Red Shield Boys 1 Club 3.0 Alexandra House 2.9 Y.M.C.A. 2.6 Gordon House -Junior 2.8 Friend l y House 1.8 Y.M.C.A. 2.4 Y.W.C.A. 0.9 Kivan Boys* Club 2.3 Rufe Gibbs Boys 1 Club 2.1 Kimount Boys 1 Club 2.0 Gordon House -Senior 0.9 Portland Average 2.4 Vancouver Average 2.5 The Portland Y.W.C.A. and Senior House of Gordon House i n Vancouver had, on the average, volunteers r e s i d i n g within a radius of less than a mile from the agency. Neighborhood House -35-and the Vancouver Y.M.C.A. showed the highest average distance with 3.9 and 3.4 miles, respectively. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t for e f f e c t i v e planning to know the length of time volunteers serve i n the agencies. Ordinarily one would expect that at least one year would be spent i n the volunteer r o l e , but on the basis of the study, i t was found that a large proportion of persons - — 39 per cent — - had been serving for less than s i x months. (Table 9) In f a c t , 62 per cent had been doing so less than one year. With t h i s e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , i t i s evident that something must be wrong, either with the volunteers now serving, or with the agency where they serve. I t has been argued that a sound volunteer s t a f f , l i k e a good lawn, takes years to develop, and i t is only aft e r a period of time, when the more s a t i s f a c t o r y volunteers remain, and the le s s s k i l l e d ones depart, than an e f f e c t i v e volunteer s t a f f can be attained. The survey was made at a time when there was no reason to believe the agencies had just commenced to use volunteers, when, i f such was the case, they would have been i n service for less than a year. I t i s seen, therefore, that agenci have at least a 50 per cent turnover of volunteers during the course of one year. For e f f e c t i v e work over a continued period of time t h i s i s a poor po l i c y , and some e f f o r t should be made to encourage volunteers to remain over a longer period. In t h i s manner a more continuous programme could be carried out, and the v i s i o n of the agency could be on a broader scope than merely one year. -36-Table 9. Length of Time Spent, as Volunteers, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies.. 1949, Time Portland Vancouver . Total J Number Per cent! Just started 0 5 5 4 Under 6 months 4 39 43 35 7 mos. - 1 year 6 22 28 23 1 - 8 years 3 22 25 20 2 - 5 years 4 10 14 12 Over 5 years 2 4 6 5 Unanswered 0 1 1 1 Total • 1 9 103 122 100 I f a volunteer i s to function i n the best i n t e r e s t of the agency and the community, i t i s evident that he must acknow-ledge a c e r t a i n obligation to discharge f a i t h f u l l y h i s duties as a worker. In order to discharge t h i s o b l i g a t i o n he should i d e n t i f y , to some degree, with the body which i s conducting the broad programme. I f the volunteer i s able to i d e n t i f y with the agency, he i s then able to i d e n t i f y with the function of the agency, and thus become an i n t e g r a l part of the s t a f f . I f a volunteer functions more e f f e c t i v e l y when he i s not working i n a vacuum, but rather working with other s t a f f members and volunteers on a team, i t i s important to recognize how many of the,present volunteers do i d e n t i f y with the agency. (Table 10) Sixty-two per cent of the volunteers surveyed indicated they belonged to the agency s t a f f ; 15 per cent were doubtful; and 18 per cent indicated there was no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . -37-Table 10. Degree of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Agency S t a f f , Selected Vancouver and Portland, Agencies. 1949. Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Yes 9 66 75 62 No 4 18 22 18 Doubtful 3 15 18 15 Unanswered 3 4 7 5 Total 19 103 188 100 A volunteer has often been described as the best means of p u b l i c i t y f o r the programme and the best method of i n t e r -pretation of agency purpose. To gain some i n d i c a t i o n of the degree with which volunteers p u b l i c i z e the work of the agency, i t was sought to discover the number of addi t i o n a l volunteers who were secured by each present leader. (Table 11) From answers given by the volunteers i t i s seen that approximately one-half were responsible f o r securing other volunteers. Table 11. Number of Volunteers Responsible for Securing Others, Selected Vanoouver and Portland Agenoies. 1949.  Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Yes 9 52 61 50 Doubtful 6 16 22 18 No 3 32 35 29 Unanswered 1 3 4 3 Total 19 103 122 100 -38-There was a high r e l a t i o n s h i p between securing other volunteers, and the degree of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the ageney. (Table 12) By far the largest proportion 37 per cent answered both questions i n the af f i r m a t i v e . Out of the t o t a l of 62 per cent, who believed they were a part of the agency s t a f f , 10 per cent were doubtful i f they had secured others for the volunteer r o l e . A s l i g h t l y larger proportion, 13 per eent, had not secured others for volunteer work. The group which stated they were not responsible f o r securing others totaled 28 per cent, and t h i s t o t a l comprised 7 per cent who were doubtful i f they had secured others, and the same percentage which answered i n the negative. Table 12. Relationship between those Responsible for Securing Other Volunteers and Belonging to the Agency S t a f f , Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. Secured other Belong to Agency St a f f Volunteers Yes Doubtful No Unanswered Total Yes 37 3 7 3 50 Doubtful 10 4 3 1 18 No 13 7 7 1 28 Unanswered 2 0 0 2 4 Total 62 14 17 •> 100 While the percentages indicated that most volunteers do i d e n t i f y with the agency s t a f f , nevertheless, i t can be seen that those who did i d e n t i f y were more l i a b l e to r e c r u i t others f o r community work. The values of i d e n t i f y i n g with the -39-agency s t a f f can also be seen by an examination of the degree of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and the frequency with which people ask about the work of the agency. (Table 13) Table 13. Relationship between the Frequency with which People Ask about the Agency and the Degree of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the Agency S t a f f , Selected Yancouver and Portland Agencies! 1949  Frequency Degree of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Yes Doubtful NO Unanswered Total Many 30 3 2 3 38 Few 31 9 13 3 56 None 1 2 2 0 5 Unanswered 0 0 0 1 1 Total 62 14 17 7 100 The volunteers who indicated that many people asked them about t h e i r work, and what the agency, as a force i n the community, was accomplishing, showed that they belonged to the agency s t a f f . Of the 56 per cent who indicated few persons asked them about t h e i r work, the largest proportion — 31 per cent — i d e n t i f i e d c l o s e l y with the agency, and only 13 per cent said they were not part of the agency s t a f f . On the other hand, only 2 per cent s i g n i f i e d they were not part of the s t a f f , and were never asked about t h e i r volunteer work. I t can be seen that a close r e l a t i o n s h i p exists between the degree of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the agency, and the frequency with which people ask about the work the agency i s doing. This i s import-ant since the agency administrators agreed that the best source of new volunteers was the p u b l i c i t y given by the current volun-teers. I f t h i s p u b l i o i t y i s to an extent dependent upon the -40-degree of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the agency, i t i s imperative that agencies maintain conditions of work conducive to maximum e f f o r t . The agency must give to the volunteers duties comparable to t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s , so that they may have scope f o r t h e i r ambitions, and enjoy the s a t i s f a c t i o n of a job well done. The survey further indicated that only 13 per cent were d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r volunteer r o l e , but when t h i s factor i s related to the degree of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n toward the agency, i t can be seen that there was a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the degree of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and the s a t i s f a c t i o n derived from the work. Those who were doubtful or stated they did not belong to the agency s t a f f , were more prone to be d i s -s a t i s f i e d . The large majority, however, 86 per cent, considered they were not wasting t h e i r time i n giving volunteer service. (Table 14) In the questionnaire ample space was provided for the volunteer to indicate his reasons for s a t i s f a c t i o n , or f o r the lack of i t . Answers were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o categories as f a r as possible, and showed that the 24 per cent of those who were d i s s a t i s f i e d , blamed the lack of funds available i n the agency. (Table 15) This lack prohibited adequate expenditures f o r f a c i l i t i e s and equipment, and thus often hindered the f u l f i l m e n t of the volunteer's service. Volunteers indioated they had offered t h e i r time to teach a group a s p e c i f i c s k i l l , and on a r r i v i n g at the agency, discovered i n s u f f i c i e n t funds were available to carry on t h i s a c t i v i t y . Sixteen per cent blamed t h e i r discouragement on the lack of i n t e r e s t on the part of the members of the group; 12 per cent recognized t h e i r discouragement -41-arose from the u n r e a l i s t i c a n t i c i p a t i o n of speedy r e s u l t s . Some were of the opinion that they had not been given a v i t a l enough job, or that the agency was ambiguous i n o u t l i n i n g t h e i r duties. Others could not contend with the noise of the children, or were discouraged with the achievements of the group. Some stated they could not see the worth of t h e i r contribution since t h e i r task seemed so small that i t did not r e a l l y appear to matter. One person a c t u a l l y said there were too many volunteers i n the agency, and consequently h i s contribution was not needed. These reasons f o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n are tabulated i n Table 15. While some of the volunteers indicated t h e i r d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n with volunteer service, the vast majority 86 per cent said they d e f i n i t e l y were not wasting t h e i r time, and they gave reasons to prove t h i s point. These reasons are set f o r t h i n d e t a i l i n Table 16, but i t seems important to discuss some of the more v i t a l points. I t was d i f f i c u l t to separate the reasons for providing leadership, and the desire to be useful to the community. Included i n the t o t a l of those who "provided leadership" are those who showed a r e a l i z a t i o n that t h e i r small service was part of the programme and function of the agency, and that the agency was part of a larger f i e l d of group work. Included i n the t o t a l of those who volunteered "to be useful to the community" are those who gave no p a r t i c u l a r reason f o r t h e i r desire to serve. Here, the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two groupings was l a r g e l y based upon the f a c t that those who were c l a s s i f i e d as wanting to give leadership showed a more d e f i n i t e purpose i n volunteering than those who said they volunteered to be useful to the community. The usefulness to the community c l a s s i f i c a t i o n seemed to indicate l e s s d i r e c t i o n -42-as to the purpose of the service than did the former grouping. Eighteen per cent indicated they were giving leadership, while the same percentage said they were being useful to the community. The volunteers of both c i t i e s corresponded c l o s e l y i n the numbers who said they wished to be useful to the community. Next i n importance came reasons which indicated some personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , on the part of the volunteer, f o r the duty per-formed. Here, 12 per cent said they got a certain amount of s a t i s f a c t i o n from seeing a group learn new s k i l l s , or a new a c t i v i t y . Others were sure they were j u s t i f i e d i n volunteering because they either l i k e d the work, or enjoyed the i n t e r e s t , enjoyment, and appreciation of the group. Some thought that from t h e i r volunteer service they received a b e n e f i c i a l experience. Students contemplating s o c i a l work as a profession often volun-teered to gain some p r a c t i c a l experience. Others said i t was good experience, because i t helped them become more p r o f i c i e n t i n t h e i r occupation or hobby. Some were sure i t helped them gain a better understanding of people, and of themselves. A very small proportion thought t h e i r volunteer services were merely "to keep boys o f f the s t r e e t , " and to keep t h e i r time occupied "so they would not get into mischief, and f i n a l l y end up i n j a i l . " I t was enoouraging to f i n d only a small proportion of persons who had volunteered f o r t h i s reason, since much p u b l i c i t y has been given to the f a c t that group work agencies are primarily organized to eliminate juvenile delinquency. I t i s regrettable that more p u b l i c i t y has not been given to the fact that agencies are not intended only for the benefit of a selected group, but are for everyone to enjoy. A l l segments of -43-the population are included i f a group work programme i s proper-l y concerned i n s t r i v i n g toward the maximum enhancement of the i n d i v i d u a l . Table 14. Degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n Volunteer Work, Selected Vanoouver and Portland Agenoies. 1949. Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Never believe they are wasting t h e i r time 12 93 105 86 Often believe they are wasting t h e i r time 7 9 16 13 Unanswered 0 1 1 1 Total 19 103 122 100 -44-Table 15. Reasons for D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n Volunteer Work. Selected Vanoouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Lack of funds 2 4 6 M Lack of Interest of group 1 3 4 16 Want r e s u l t s too soon 1 2 3 12 Not a d i f f i c u l t enough or useful enough job 1 2 3 12 jack of accomplishment of group Z 1 3 12 Noisiness of children 0 2 2 8 Agency ambiguous re volunteer's job 1 1 2 8 Lack of understanding, cooperation, and appre-c i a t i o n of parents 1 0 1 4 Too many volunteers f o r the number of members 0 1 1 4 Total 9 16 25 100 -45-Table 16. Reasons f o r S a t i s f a c t i o n In Volunteer Work Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949 Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Giving leadership 1 24 25 18 Usefulness to community 3 22 25 18 Seeing a group learn a new s k i l l or a c t i v i t y (person-a l s a t i s f a c t i o n of volunteer) 4 13 17 12 Enjoy the work 4 11 15 11 Interest, enjoyment and appreciation of group and agency 2 10 12 8 Good experience for volunteer 3 7 10 7 Gain a better under-standing of people 2 6 8 5 Gain a better under-standing of oneself G 7 7 5 Help people less f o r -tunate than oneself 0 6 6 5 Help because agency i s understaffed 0 5 5 4 To keep boys out of mischief G 7 5 Make new friends 0 3 3 2 Total 19 . 121 140 100 -46-Since best p u b l i c i t y for r e c r u i t i n g new volunteers i s secured through the medium of the current volunteers, i t i s h e l p f u l to see how far-reaching t h i s p u b l i c i t y i s . A yardstick by which to measure t h i s oan be obtained from the number of persons who asked the volunteers about t h e i r work i n the agency, (Table 17) Thirty-eight per cent said many people asked them Table 17. The Frequency with which People ask Volunteers  about the work the Agency is_doing. Selected  Vancouver and Portland Agenoies. 19497 Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Many 7 40 47 38 Few 10 58 68 56 None 2 4 6 5 Unanswered 0 1 1 1 Total 19 103 122 100 about agency work, while 56 per cent indicated only few people inquired about the agency. Only 5 per oent said no one asked them what the agency was doing. Sixty-eight per cent either were responsible for securing other volunteers or were doubtful whether they had secured others or not. (Table 11.) In comparing these two f a c t o r s , i t i s noticed that a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p exists between the frequency with which people ask about the agency, and the frequency with which others are secured as workers by the current volunteers. (Table 18) By f a r the -47-l a r g e s t number 4 9 per cent were both r e s p o n s i b l e f o r se c u r i n g other v o l u n t e e r s and were asked about the work the agency was d o i n g . Only 3 per cent were not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e c u r i n g o t h e r s , and were never asked about t h e i r work. Table 18, R e l a t i o n s h i p between People A s k i n g about the Agenoy and those Responsible f o r S e c u r i n g Other  V o l u n t e e r s . S e l e c t e d Vancouver and P o r t l a n d  A g e n c i e s . 1949 Number ask i n g about the Responsi b l e f o r Others V o l u n t e e r i n g agency Yes D o u b t f u l No Unanswered T o t a l Many 34 5 9 1 39 Few 25 12 16 2 55 None 1 1 3 0 5 Unanswered 0 0 0 1 1 T o t a l 50 18 28 4 100 Some r e l a t i o n s h i p can be seen between the degree of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the agency s t a f f , and t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n s d e r i v e d from v o l u n t e e r i n g . Those who b e l i e v e d they were not wasting t h e i r time, and who a l s o s t a t e d they belonged t o the agency comprised 56 per cent. Only 5 per cent s t a t e d they were both d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r v o l u n t e e r r o l e , and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the agency s t a f f . F o u r t e e n per cent were c l a s s i f i e d as being s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r work, but they were not t r e a t e d as i f they were p a r t o f the agency s t a f f . (Table 19) -48-I t , therefore, can be seen that volunteers i n group work agencies are, for the most part, persons under thirty-years of age. They remain i n t h e i r volunteer r o l e on an average of less than one year. They generally believe what they are doing i s worthwhile, and they do i d e n t i f y with the organization and i t s s t a f f . They come from various avenues of l i f e , and are recruited from many sources. With these facts i n mind one i s able to see where volunteers are most l i k e l y to be secured. I t must be remembered, however, that while the survey indicates areas to r e c r u i t volunteers, i t does not necessarily follow that i t i s i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the oommunity that the agency should concentrate i t s recruitment campaign upon one segment of the population alone. I f the tasks required of volunteers cover a wide assortment of i n t e r e s t and c a p a b i l i t y , and i f they can be accomplished by a l l age groups, i t i s , then, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of agencies to augment t h e i r volunteer s t a f f with persons who w i l l be best suited to carry out these duties. I f an older person i s more suited to undertake some s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y , then the agency should make an e f f o r t to f i n d that sort of person, even i f i t w i l l be more d i f f i c u l t than r e c r u i t i n g a younger worker. I t seems a sound rul e that the volunteer should be recruited to meet the varying needs of the agency, because i t i s the needs of the agenoy which determine the type of volunteer required. When the volunteer i s working, i t should be the obligation of the administrator, and the s t a f f , to see that he i s an i n t e g r a l part of the larger organization, so that his work w i l l be more meaningful both to himself and to the group with whieh he i s working. I f agencies -49-ean accomplish t h i s , and i f they can operate a volunteer pro-gramme i n such a manner that volunteers remain over a continued period, r e s u l t s w i l l be maintained at a higher l e v e l than at present. Table 19. Relationship between I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the Agency  Sta f f and Satisfactions i n Volunteer Work. Selected  Vancouver and Portland Agenoies. 1949. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Work S a t i s f a c t i o n j Yes No Unanswered Total Yes 5 56 1 62 Doubtful 4 10 0 I 4 No 4 14 0 18 Unanswered 0 6 0 6 Total 13 86 1 100 J 5 0 -Chapter 4. Selection and Placement I t has been said by many agency administrators that the s e l e c t i o n and placement of volunteers, while important, can be overstressed i n r e l a t i o n to i t s p r a c t i c a b i l i t y . As i t i s , most agencies are i n great need of volunteers, and because the demand exceeds the supply, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to operate any w e l l -coordinated programme f o r s e l e c t i o n and placement. Selection: A l l agency administrators interviewed stated that volunteers are selected on the basis of t h e i r a b i l i t y and experience. Seldom i s anyone rejected, except i n cases where i t i s evident that the person i s grossly immature. However, because programme must be carried on, i n the majority of instances, the volunteer i s the person who c a r r i e s on the programme, the administrators i n a body agreed that, while i t would be i n the i n t e r e s t s of the programme and the community to inaugurate a more comprehensive s e l e c t i o n process, i t had been impossible to do so because of the lack of volunteers. Most of the agencies had no set pattern f o r the type of volunteer r e c r u i t e d . Sometimes, they were sought to meet a p a r t i c u l a r need i n the agency, and at other times a p o s i t i o n was created to make use of a p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l that the volunteer possessed. The agencies, i n general, were most f l e x i b l e i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n of volunteers, and t h i s seems to be a healthy sign, because i t i s seldom that a p o l i c y can be l a i d down specifying the exact type of volunteer required. Much depends upon the changing needs of the c l i e n t e l e . Because people, and the community which houses them, are ever-changing, agenoies, i f - 5 1 -they are to be progressive must be ever-changing, too. This dynamic s i t u a t i o n should be evidenced i n the changing programme offered. What often happens when a volunteer comes to the agency for the f i r s t time to offer h is services? He arriv e s at a time when programme a c t i v i t y i s at i t s peak. St a f f members are busy i n the operation of the programme, and the volunteer i s somewhat l o s t as he enters a strange place, a place which should show him some consideration f o r o f f e r i n g h i s services. Perhaps the volunteer i s required to wait u n t i l such time as the s t a f f person i s able to free himself from h i s duties. When the s t a f f person i s able to see the volunteer, i t may only be possible for him to spend a short time explaining about the agency, and the volunteer's p a r t i c u l a r function. I f such conditions e x i s t , the volunteer cannot be expected to perform a s a t i s f a c t o r y job. Often mechanieal d i f f i c u l t i e s prevent the devotion of much time to the volunteer on the part of the s t a f f person, but i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the agency to see that s u f f i c i e n t time i s devoted to the volunteer i n order that he may be made to f e e l at ease. The agency should provide a l l the information necessary to perform the duty required. Much of the information necessary should be given at an introductory discussion, p r i o r to actual service i n the agency. However, since at t h i s time i t i s not unusual f o r a volunteer to make his f i r s t appearance at the agency on the day when he commences his actual work, i t i s important that the s t a f f member be obligated to a s s i s t him i n every way possible, and give p r i o r i t y to h i s introduction to the agency and the group. As the ranks of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained and equipped people within the group work agencies increase, i t can be assumed that d e f i n i t e appoint-ments w i l l be made with prospective volunteers, and these appointments regarded as important as time set aside for i n t e r -view with co-workers or c l i e n t s . When a member comes to a group work agency, he brings resistance with him; he i s both wanting and fearing to enter. ^ This ambivalence i s also evident i n the volunteer's entry into the agency. Whatever doubts and fears he has regarding the agency, or about his adequacy to f i t into the programme, w i l l indeed be strengthened and fostered by any i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the part of the s t a f f , by a chaotic programme s i t u a t i o n , or by a poorly kept physical plant. I f the member of the s t a f f responsible f o r h i s introduction i s able to help him understand some of the si t u a t i o n s , r e a l i z e how hard pressed the s t a f f are, and accept the fac t that he has been chosen because he has a par t i c u l a r contribution to make, he w i l l s t a r t o f f securely. Most of the agencies did have a s e l e c t i o n process, although they indicated that i t could be strengthened. One agency administrator stated that his best volunteers were obtained on the recommendation of a s t a f f person or another volunteer. After the recommendation he personally interviewed the prospective volunteer, and outlined c l e a r l y what was required stressing that the volunteer must be w i l l i n g to give his services over a d e f i n i t e period of time before he was accepted. While i t was recognized that by t h i s preliminary s e l e c t i v e process, many volunteers would be l o s t to the agency, nevertheless, the administrator believed (1) Osborne, Hazel, "Some Factors of Resistance Which A f f e c t Group P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " The Group. Vol. 11 Wo. 2, January, 1949. Pages 3-11. -53-the volunteers who did meet the requirements, and were accepted were of a high c a l i b r e and, i n the long run, the agency would benefit by using t h i s method of recruitment. In surveying the volunteers, i t was discovered that 65 per cent had an interview before volunteering i n the agency, and 34 per cent started into volunteer work without an i n i t i a l preparatory interview. (Table 20) The e f f e c t that the lack of an i n i t i a l interview had Table 20. Introductory Interviews of Volunteers. Selected  Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Yes 14 65 79 65 No 5 37 42 34 Unanswered 0 1 1 1 Total 19 103 122 100 on the volunteer can be p a r t l y seen i n the compilation of the questionnaires. F i f t y per cent of the volunteers who had not had an interview with a s t a f f member before volunteering indicated that they considered themselves a part of the agency s t a f f . Thirty-one per cent i n the same group said they were part of the s t a f f , and twenty-eight per cent were doubtful about t h e i r status. (Table 21) Observing that only 34 per cent of the t o t a l did not have a preparatory interview, a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between t h i s factor and the factor of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the agenoy s t a f f . I f the lack of proper orientation of volunteers -54-hampers workers i n r e l a t i n g to the agency, i f i t tends to create v i s i t o r s instead of partners, a l l agencies should study and improve th e i r induction methods. • Table 21. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Occurrence of I n i t i a l Interviews  on the basis of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n to Agency S t a f f . Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. Judgement (part of agency No I n i t i a l Interview Total i n Group Per cent Yes 23 75 31 Doubtful 5 18 28 Ho 11 22 50 Unanswered 3 7 Total 42 122 The effectiveness of the preparatory interview i s of course dependent upon the time available for t h i s interview, and the a b i l i t y of the s t a f f member as an interviewer. No doubt some of the interviews reported i n the questionnaires were not conducted according to accepted professional standards. Despite t h i s , i n answer to the question, "Was the interview you had with a s t a f f person before volunteering h e l p f u l to you i n understanding the agency," the majority of volunteers — 65 per cent considered the interview very h e l p f u l to them, 28 per cent said i t was f a i r l y h e l p f u l , 4 per cent indicated i t was of l i t t l e help, and only 1 per cent said the interview was of no help. (Table 22) A d e f i n i t e enthusiasm was shown, then, for the interview, which makes evident the f a c t that -55 volunteers desire to be informed of the agency, and the duty to be performed i n an interview p r i o r to volunteering. This fa c t places the onus for providing the interview d i r e c t l y upon the agency, and no l o g i c a l reason can be seen f o r an agency neglecting to carry out t h i s important function i n i t s volunteer programme. Table 22. Helpfulness of the I n i t i a l Interview. Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Very h e l p f u l 8 44 52 65 F a i r l y helpful 6 16 22 28 Of l i t t l e h e l l 0 3 3 4 Of no help 0 1 1 1 Unanswered 0 2 2 2 Total 14 66 80 100 Placement; Both volunteer and professional should be acutely aware of the p a r t i c u l a r goal which i s entrusted to them. I f a volunteer does not understand where he f i t s into the agency structure, or i f he does not know the purpose of h i s work, his inte r e s t over a period of time w i l l probably diminish u n t i l the resultant d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n becomes great enough for him to con-sider discontinuing h i s volunteer duties. During the war there was a great i n f l u x of volunteers i n t o the many d i f f e r i n g types -56-of war work. They entertained the troops, they did office work, they canvassed for special drives, and they assisted in many ways during the period when volunteers were so urgently needed. The ultimate goal in recruiting these volunteers was simple i t was to win the war with a l l possible haste. Can the purposes in social work be so clearly stated? Does a volunteer in a group work agency know as clearly as the war volunteer did, why he i s donating his few hours a week? Does the volunteer see why his services are needed now, as they were needed during the war? It seems important for volunteers, whether they be school trustees or baseball coaches, to know precisely the purpose of their work, and how their small contribution helps to achieve the goal of the agency in the community. Perhaps the scarcity of volunteer personnel would be less i f group work agencies spent more time in acquainting the new volunteer with the purpose of his presence, and attempt to place him where his contribution w i l l be most needed. In many instances volunteers are recruited for definite roles, but this does not obviate the need for an adequate place-ment process in the agency. Many volunteers come to the agency with a desire to serve, but are not sure where they can be of most use. Often the agency can recruit without too much definite decision as to what the volunteer w i l l do. This can be decided after the i n i t i a l interview. Again, persons may volunteer for a specific position, and after the interview the administrator or the staff member may see another job for him. This necessitates an interpretation job on the part of the staff member, and one which requires a great deal of s k i l l . -57-Often i t i s advantageous for the volunteer to spend the intro-ductory time in one particular service in order to discover how he relates to people and to the agency. From there he may be replaced i n another activity. -58 Chapter 5» Recognition and Motivation Recognition: If agencies are to reduce the present 50 per cent yearly turnover of volunteers, an e f f o r t must be made to acquire interested, sincere, and responsible personnel. When persons with these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s have been acquired, they should be treated as i f the agenoy wanted them to remain, and to continue i n t h e i r volunteer capacity. In common with a l l other workers, volunteers are continually seeking a reassuring answer to the question, "Am I needed, am I wanted?" The group, i t s e l f , provides t h i s answer i n part, but the agency as a whole must give him some assurance of the value of h i s presence; i t must recognize him. Aside from the personal s a t i s f a c t i o n s which proper recog-n i t i o n brings the volunteer, the agency, by giving t h i s recog-n i t i o n f o r services rendered, benefits. Those i n the survey who did not receive s u f f i c i e n t recognition showed a tendenoy to get the volunteer job over with, and l i t t l e enthusiasm was shown f o r continued i n t e r e s t . The answers given to the questions on recognition t e l l much about i t s e f f e c t , and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the answers shed some l i g h t upon the type of recognition that should be given. To the question, "Does the agency show any appreciation for your work," 62 per cent stated that much appreciation was shown. A lesser proportion 28 per cent said only some appreciation was shown by the agency, while 3 per cent said l i t t l e was shown. No one said there was no appreciation given. (Table 23) These percentages have l i t t l e meaning unless i t can be discovered what other factors had a bearing upon the answers to t h i s question. -59 Table 23. Appreciation Shown the Volunteer. Selected  Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Much 11 65 76 62 Some 6 28 34 28 L i t t l e 0 3 3 3 None 0 0 0 0 Unanswered 2 7 9 Total 19 103 122 100 Considering those who stated the agency showed much appreciation for t h e i r services 62 per cent i t i s then possible to r e l a t e that figure to other factors concerning the volunteer. In analysing the t o t a l , i t was found that the higher percentage came i n the older age group. I t was noticed, i n f a c t , that the percentage increased progressively with the age of the v o l -unteer. (Table 24) Those under t h i r t y years of age were les s l i k e l y to state adequate recognition was received than those i n the older age group. Therefore, i t i s seen that the older the volunteer the more s a t i s f i e d he was with the appreciation he received. These figures may be interpreted i n various ways; perhaps an older volunteer has a tendency to be more appreciative of recognition than a younger one, when i n r e a l i t y i t i s sim i l a r i n character. -60-Table 24. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of those who said they  Received Much Appreciation. Selected  Vanoouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. Range Number Number i n Per Age Group cent 20 and under 20 34 59 2 1 - 2 9 30 51 59 30 - 39 10 16 63 40 - 49 5 7 71 50 and over 10 13 77 Unanswered 1 1 Total 7 6 122 1 Those receiving much recognition f o r t h e i r volun-teer work t o t a l 62 per cent see Table 23. When these same volunteers were c l a s s i f i e d according t to the length of time they spent i n the agency, another i n t e r -esting r e s u l t was noticed. The longer the volunteer had been serving i n the agency the more assurance he had of the agency's appreciation of h i s contribution. This percentage increased r e g u l a r l y from 40 per cent, representing those who had just started volunteering,to 83 per cent, representing those who had spent at least f i v e years i n the agency. (Table 25) Those serving a long time were f a i r l y consistent i n i n d i c a t i n g that they received ample recognition for what they were doing. When the factor of sex c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was related to the group, who said much appreciation was shown for t h e i r services, i t was -61-found t h a t t h i s i n f l u e n c e o n l y e f f e c t e d the f i g u r e s s l i g h t l y . Male v o l u n t e e r s showed by 66 per cent t h a t they were r e c e i v i n g much a p p r e c i a t i o n , and the females showed a 59 per cent t o t a l . (Table 26) When a p p l i e d to the 62 per cent average, i t can be seen t h a t the sex d i s t r i b u t i o n had l i t t l e e f f e c t upon the answers s t a t e d . Table 25. S e r v i o e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Those who r e c e i v e d Much A p p r e c i a t i o n . Selected" Vancouver and P o r t l a n d A gencies. 1949. Range 1 Number Just s t a r t e d Under 6 months 7 months to 1 year 1 t o 2 years 2 to 5 years 5 years and over Unanswered T o t a l I Number i n fRange Group 4 . 2 23 19 17 10 5 76 5 43 28 25 14 6 Per cent 40 53 68 68 71 83 122 Those r e c e i v i n g much a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r work t o t a l e d 62 per cent see Table 23. Table 26. Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n of Those who r e c e i v e d Much A p p r e c i a t i o n . S e l e c t e d Vanoouver and P o r t l a n d Agencies, 1949. Sex Number Number i n Sex Group Per' 1 cent j Male 40 1 66 J Female ^:36;'y £1 59 | T o t a l 76 |-totaled 62 per cent see Table 23. -62-Those who indicated much appreciation was shown, were related to the agency where they served, i n an e f f o r t to d i s -cover a l l the factors which influenced t h i s answer. In some cases the samples received from the agencies were too small to indicate any general trend, but i t was noticed that those agencies which housed many younger volunteers showed a lower percentage of po s i t i v e recognition than those who r e l i e d upon older volunteers for carrying out the programme. (Table 27) Noticeable here was the Y.M.C.A. i n Portland and Alexandra Neighbourhood House i n Vanoouver, whose volunteers showed the lowest percentages. Remembering that Alexandra Neighbourhood House uses, f o r the most part, a younger group of volunteers, i t i s understandable that t h i s agency should be less p o s i t i v e i n i t s approach to the present volunteer recognition programme. The percentages derived by c l a s s i f y i n g t h i s representative group i n t o agencies bears out w e l l the percentages that were obtained when the same group was c l a s s i f i e d according to age. A comparison which indicates the effeot recognition has upon the sense of belonging of the volunteer to the agency, i s the comparison between reassuring appreciation and i d e n t i f i -cation with the agency. A very high r e l a t i o n s h i p was seen between those who believed they were part of the agency s t a f f , and those who thought s u f f i c i e n t recognition had been given. I t cannot be said beyond question that one factor i s the cause or r e s u l t of the other, but i t i s reasonable to assume that some connection exists between the two f a c t o r s . Knowing that 62 per cent of the volunteers stated adequate recognition was received, i t was found that 77 per cent of those who said they were part of the agency s t a f f were of the opinion that adequate -63-recognition was given to them. Only 36 per cent of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n did not i d e n t i f y with the agency s t a f f , and 18 per cent were doubtful whether they were part of the agency s t a f f or not. (Table 28) These figures show that recognition Table 27. Agency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Those who Received Much  Appreciation. Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. Agency Number Number i n Per Agency cent Portland: Friendly House 4 4 100 Junior Museum 2 2 100 Neighborhood House 2 2 100 Y.W.C.A. 2 3 67 Y.M.C.A. 1 7 14 Vancouver: Y.W.C.A. 7 8 88 Kivan Boys' Club 10 12 83 Kimount Boys' Club 5 7 71 Gordon House 13 19 68 Y.M.C.A. 6 9 67 Kiview Boys' Club 12 18 67 Rufe Gibbs Boys' Club 2 4 50 Alexandra House 10 26 Unanswered 0 1 -Total 76 122 1 Those receiving much appreciation for th e i r work totaled 62 per cent see Table 23. given influences the mental attitudes of volunteers i n regard to t h e i r sense of belonging, and believing that they are a part of a larger organization. This inner security of personal adequacy and purpose has much to do with the degree of competency with which the volunteer performs his duty. ) -64-Table 88, D i s t r i b u t i o n on the basis of I d e n t i f i o a t i o n  with the Agenoy of those who received Much  Appreciation. Selected Yancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. Judgement J Number Number i n class Per cent Yes 58 75 77 No 8 88 36 Doubtful 5 18 88 Unanswered 5 7 Total 76 188 Those receiving much recognition f o r t h e i r work totaled 62 per cent — - see Table 83, The survey r e s u l t s suggest that proper recognition of active volunteers i s a factor i n r e c r u i t i n g p o t e n t i a l volunteers. Sixty-nine per cent of the volunteers who were responsible for r e c r u i t i n g new volunteers gave a po s i t i v e answer to the question regarding recognition, doubtful were 64 per cent, and 49 per cent answered i n the negative, (Table 29) Therefore, i t can be seen that the volunteers who were community-minded, i n that they assisted i n r e c r u i t i n g other volunteers for community work, were also those who thought much appreciation had been shown them i n t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r volunteer capacity. Recognition of a job well-done seems to have an influence on the attitudes of the volunteers with respect to t h e i r r o l e i n the agency and the community. The acceptance of the value of recognition and appreciation on the part of the - 6 5 -Table 29. D i s t r i b u t i o n on the basis of Securing Other  Volunteers of those who received Much Appre-c i a t i o n , Selected Vancouver and Portland  Agencies. 1949. Judgement Number Number Per i n Class cent Yes 42 61 69 Doubtful 14 22 64 No 17 35 49 Unanswered 3 4 -Total 76 122 Those receiving much recognition for t h e i r work totaled 62 per cent See Table 23. agency tends to increase the ageney consciousness and community awareness of the volunteer. To move out int o other community work, and to be interested i n other areas of s o c i a l welfare i s the l o g i c a l culmination of volunteer work. The volunteer who believes what he was doing i n h i s small way i s appreciated seems to be the one who i s able to emancipate himself from the agency to continue i n h i s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n role i n other f i e l d s of community service. Space was provided where the volunteer could indicate the manner i n which appreciation was shown. Not a l l of the volunteers answered t h i s question, and i n many cases where the question was answered, several reasons were c i t e d . The percen-tages quoted do not take into consideration those who f a i l e d to answer the question. The comments were most i n t e r e s t i n g because -66 they showed that appreciation was shown both by actions and words of the s t a f f . (Table 30} The large majority 44 per cent stated t h e i r recognition was received by the Table 50. Comments of Volunteers on the Appreciation  Shown. Selected Vanoouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. " "~" Comment Number Per eent I Verbal expression of appreciation and f r i e n d l i n e s s 63 44 Cooperative attitude of the s t a f f 21 15 Written expression of appreciation 15 10 General inter e s t of the s t a f f 15 10 Banquet f o r the volunteers 12 8 Inclusion of volunteers i n p o l i c y making discussions 5 4 Special f a c i l i t y p r i v i l e g e s 4 3 Not enough in t e r e s t shown by the s t a f f 2 2 Transportation to the agency should be given the volunteer 1 1 Buttons given f o r volunteer service 1 1 Improperly answered 3 2 Total 142 100 1 f r i e n d l i n e s s on the part of the agency s t a f f , and the words of thanks and encouragement they received throughout the year. A lesser proportion — 10 per cent received t h e i r recog-n i t i o n by a l e t t e r or some other medium of written expression. When the percentages were combined, i t was found that 79 per -67-cent of the volunteers received t h e i r recognition by the f r i e n d l i n e s s of the s t a f f , by verbal and written appreciation, and by the general i n t e r e s t shown by the agency. Several persons c r i t i c i z e d the recognition programme, but, for the most part, a l l were t r u l y appreciative of the recognition shown them. A very small percentage thought that i n s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t was shown. I t can be seen that much of the recognition i s given i n an informal manner by verbal expressions; however, i t might be advantageous to the agencies i f they made an attempt to include more formal methods of recognition i n t h e i r volunteer programme. Another factor, which has much influence upon the type of job accomplished by the volunteer worker, i s his attitude upon volunteering, and the reasons that prompted him to o f f e r his services. Motivation for Volunteering; Because, i n common with professional workers, the motivation of the volunteer cannot help but colour h i s experience i n the agency, one needs to know not only who the volunteer i s , but also why he wants to serve. D i f f e r e n t sources state some-what similar reasons why people devote t h e i r energy to volunteer work. The 1948 Report of the National Conference on S o c i a l YiTork cited three reasons why people volunteer: "a sincere concern f o r th e i r fellow men, an 'enlightened s e l f i n t e r e s t ' , and to receive recognition and prestige." (1) There should be fun and s a t i s f a c t i o n (1) National Social Welfare Assembly, Inc. Report of the National  Conference on Sooial Welfare Needs and the Workshop of Citizen's  Groups. New York, 1948. Page 61. 68 derived from being a volunteer. I t i s as much a part of l i f e as any other a c t i v i t y that may be engaged i n , and f o r t h i s reason i t should be done f r e e l y and n a t u r a l l y as a part of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l i v i n g i n a democratic neighbourhood. Besides t h i s , volunteer work has a duty tinge to i t . Many of the volunteers believe that i t i s t h e i r duty to volunteer i n community projects, and i t i s t h i s far-sighted view which i s most desirable i n recreational agencies. Lay p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the keystone of our democracy, and service i n a group work agency i s only one small part of t h i s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . ^ An analysis of the motivations of g i r l scout leaders i n the c i t y of Cleveland showed that 57 per cent served because t h e i r own children had persuaded them to act on an acknowledged i n t e r e s t i n working with people. The remaining 43 per cent volunteered because they wanted to get acquainted i n the neighbourhood, and were interested i n furthering the i n t e r e s t s of welfare work g i r l scout work i n p a r t i c u l a r — - i n the community. Included i n t h i s 43 per cent were those who had graduated from the g i r l scout movement themselves, and who wanted to give the same opportunity f o r a group experience to other g i r l s . Therefore, i t can be seen from previous studies that persons volunteer because they have an interest i n people; they want s a t i s f a c t i o n and prestige; and they are of the opinion they have an o b l i g a t i o n to f u l f i l a duty, required of a l l c i t i z e n s i n a democracy. (1) Symposium on Volunteer Motivations. Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York, July, 1948. Pages 3-4. (2) Broadie,-Wanda Irene, Volunteers i n Retrospect. Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, 1947. Pages 18-20. -69-To give some idea of the reasons persons .volunteer, excerpts of comments made by volunteers i n the study are l i s t e d . While each of these comments only represents the opinion of one person, they are to a great extent representative of the moti-vating factors which prompt many persons to offer t h e i r services. Many volunteers thought they served merely because they wanted to be useful i n the community. Mr. G. said t h i s i n h i s answer, "on the whole I thought the time was well spent, and I intend to volunteer again when I return to Vancouver i n September." Mr. L. exemplified why he wanted to be useful to the community when he wrote, "I had a very unhappy childhood, my father was k i l l e d i n World War I, and I was put out with other f a m i l i e s . I never knew what parents were, and being lonely at times I started to make things to amuse myself ..• Most boys are i n t e r -ested i n something i f you can fin d out what i t i s ... and too many people cannot be bothered with helping these ch i l d r e n . " Miss K. volunteered because, " I had been a volunteer leader at the agency l a s t summer, and when I was asked to volunteer t h i s year I did because I've been a camper many times myself, and, as I know how wonderful camp can be, I wanted to give others the opportunity to benefit from i t as I have." I t can be seen, therefore, that persons volunteer f o r a vari e t y Of reasons. They may want to help others to enjoy a f u l l e r l i f e , or they may believe i t i s t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to act as a leader i n the agency where they benefited i n former years. A question was asked regarding the reasons they thought others volunteered, together with a question about t h e i r own personal motivations. The larger majority stated they volunteered because they had a desire to do something u s e f u l . -70-The volunteers thought 70 per cent of other people served for th i s reason, and when the percentages for t h e i r own reasons were tabulated, i t was found that they too showed a 70 per cent desire to volunteer because they wanted to do something us e f u l . Many thought others volunteered because they needed to have some interest outside t h e i r home and job, since 40 per cent answered i n t h i s vein. Only 26 per cent stated that they volunteered f o r t h i s reason. Others were not sure why they had volunteered, but believed that volunteering did give them an outside i n t e r e s t . Some — 10 per cent thought others volunteered because of the p o s s i b i l i t y of meeting i n t e r e s t i n g people while performing the volunteer task, and the same percentage said they volunteered for p r e c i s e l y the same reason. Volunteering to enjoy the prestige and importance of the work accounted for 16 per cent of the t o t a l of motivations of most volunteers, but only 12 per cent said they served f o r thi s reason. One volunteer stated t h i s when he sai d , "Although I l i k e to think that i n volunteering i n the s o c i a l service f i e l d , I am able to help people, I must admit that I am, to some extent, influenced by the attention getting motive of s o c i a l approval. To t h i s s l i g h t f e e l i n g of hypocrisy I r a t i o n a l i z e by saying that many people have ego-centric tendencies. I f I can both help people and also s a t i s f y a.desire f o r attention and s o c i a l approval, society w i l l approve, and thus I s h a l l have a clear conscience." Perhaps t h i s volunteer i s ve r b a l i z i n g what many other volunteers believe, but were unable to set f o r t h so c l e a r l y . Volunteers, l i k e group members, often find i t easier to associate themselves with an agency, i f t h e i r own friends p a r t i c i p a t e i n the programme. Four per cent stated they had accepted r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n an agency because t h e i r friends were -71-also part of the volunteer s t a f f . The fa c t that 10 per cent thought other people volunteered f o r t h i s reason indicates that good fellowship r e s u l t s when people are associated i n t h i s type of work. Only 2 per cent said they volunteered "because i t was the thing to do," and approximately the same number ascribed t h i s reason to others. A good number of volunteers 11 per cent were acting as leaders because they wanted experience i n t h i s type of work. Some saw i t as t r a i n i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l or interes t a l l i e d to t h e i r d a i l y work; others as p r a c t i c a l preparation for professional t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l work. Miss X.'s comment i s representative of the thinking of t h i s group. She states, "My own motives f o r volunteering, apart from the s l i g h t urge to do something u s e f u l , were somewhat more s e l f i s h than any mentioned because I am entering s o c i a l work next year, and I wanted to learn something about group work, and about the functioning of a neighbourhood house." Only 3 per cent thought others were volunteering for t h i s reason, so these volunteers were not so unique as they thought they were. A few said they volunteered beeause they just could not say "no" to a request, and the percentage who thought t h i s reason applied to others corresponded very c l o s e l y . A small percentage served because i t was required by a service club that they volunteer i n some type of s o c i a l service work. Both one per cent served f o r t h i s reason, and one per cent thought others volunteered for the same reason. Smaller per-centages accounted f o r the other reasons c i t e d . A few persons volunteered because of loneliness. Mrs. B. can represent t h i s group: " I t was loneliness that made me volunteer, and from t a l k i n g to others they also were so motivated." -72-In view of the fac t that a great deal of misguided p u b l i c i t y has been released which over-emphasizes the prevent-ative r o l e of recreation, the small number of persons who v o l -unteered to keep boys out of penal i n s t i t u t i o n s , i s sur p r i s i n g . Perhaps, because such a large number of volunteers are drawn from agency part i c i p a n t s , there may be a question of personal status and pride involved. On the other hand, i t i s possible that through t h e i r a c t i v i t y i n the agency, volunteers have recognized that the purposes of group work supersede t h i s narrow goal, and that a group experience should be available f o r a l l persons regardless of t h e i r tendencies to an offenee. A more detailed analysis of the reasons f o r volunteering can be found i n Table 31. The questions on the reasons f o r volunteering were obtained from a questionnaire used at a symposium at the Vassar Summer I n s t i t u t e i n 1948. (1) Slight changes were made i n the presentation of the questions, but enough s i m i l a r i t y was kept so that comparison could be made with the findings of the I n s t i t u t e . At the I n s t i t u t e no preference was offered to the volunteers as to the precise reason f o r volunteering; consequently t h e i r tabulation indicates higher percentages than shown i n t h i s study. (Appendix B) The comparison between the two surveys d i f f e r s i n many respects. In t h i s survey there was a great s i m i l a r i t y between the reasons given for personal service, and the reasons for other volunteering. In the Vassar study the answers to the two questions varied to a great degree. Here, the volunteers seemed to judge others by t h e i r own reactions and (1) Symposium on Volunteer Motivations, i b i d . Page. 2, -73-Table 51, Reasons f o r Volunteering, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949 Reason Other Volunteers Yourself The desire to do something useful 70 70 The need to have some outside interes t 40 36 You meet i n t e r e s t i n g people while volunteering 17 | 17 Enjoy the prestige and importance of the work 16 12 Volunteer because your friends are volunteering 10 4 I t i s the thing to do 3 3 Volunteer for experience 3 11 Just can't say "no" to a request 3 4 Volunteer work required by serviee club membership 1 1 Want to work with own boy i n group 1 1 Like the work 1 1 Loneliness 1 1 Prevent juvenile delinquency 1 1 Agency needed volunteers 0 1 . ,_ In order to obtain the motivating reasons for volunteering, the volunteers were requested to indicate t h e i r preference by placing the figures "1", "3", or "3" before the answer which best applied. I t was found that many repl i e d by means of checks rather than by the sp e c i f i e d method. These were tabulated also, and the r e s u l t s t a l l i e d very c l o s e l y to those tabulated by the preference method. However, for purposes of uniformity, only those who answered by the preference method were included i n the t o t a l s presented i n above chapter. The t o t a l s exceed 100 per cent because of the duplication of answers. Percentages were tabulated out of a t o t a l of 610 ( i e . 133 possible answers with 5 points given f o r the f i r s t preference). -74-experienee, while i n the e a r l i e r study the volunteers believed they had volunteered f o r more j u s t i f i a b l e reasons than others had. In conclusion, there seems to be a genuine in t e r e s t on the part of most volunteers to offer t h e i r services, because they want to help others enjoy a f u l l e r l i f e . Granted that many volunteers serve because they have a need for prestige and importance, t h i s motivation must nevertheless be accepted as one which i s common i n a l l areas of community l i f e . I f i t i s recognized, accepted, and limited by the needs of agency members i t brings some of the most capable workers to the doors of the agencies. From the experience gained i n t h i s study, at l e a s t , i t may be assumed that the average volunteer recognizes the importance of the job to be done, and of his a b i l i t y to do t h i s job. The s a t i s f a c t i o n he receives may be small or great, but the contribution he makes to the welfare of h i s community i s greater. -75-Chapter 6. Supervision and Training In discussing the in-service t r a i n i n g of professional workers i t has been said that "learning i s more rapid when the value of usefulness of knowledge i s recognized." ^ This p r i n c i p l e i s equally well applied to the orientation and t r a i n -ing of volunteers. No matter how s k i l f u l l y the volunteer has been selected, interviewed, and placed, he soon find s himself faced with situations with which he cannot cope. The agency, through i t s professional s t a f f , must meet h i s need fo r knowledge, int e r p r e t a t i o n , and evaluation. This help can be given i n many ways, one of which i s the process of supervision. Dorothy H. S i l l s , looking at the t o t a l f i e l d of s o c i a l work, defines supervision as: A process by which a s p e c i a l l y informed and s k i l l e d per-son works with another who i s less well equipped, to promote the development of knowledge, understanding and s k i l l s and the person's integration and use of these i n carrying out assignments, i n order to insure a desirable quality i n the service given. (2) This d e f i n i t i o n i s generic, but i t applies aptly to s o c i a l group work. As outlined i n the chapter on recruitment, two factors are involved when a volunteer comes to a group work agency to off e r h i s services. Because of h i s education, employment, and experience he brings a c e r t a i n body of knowledge and s p e c i f i c s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s . These s p e c i f i c contributions cannot, (1) Hendrick, Thomasine, "The Learning Process i n an Agency Setting," Proceeds from the National Conferenoe of S o c i a l  Work. 1944. Columbia University Press, New York, 1944. Page 350. (2) S i l l s , Dorothy H., Volunteers i n Social Service. New York National Travelers* Aid Association, 1947. Page 28. -76-however, be i s o l a t e d from h i s t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y . TOiatever he does i n the agency w i l l be coloured by h i s needs, h i s s t r e n g t h s , and h i s weaknesses as an i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s presumed t h a t on the b a s i s of recommendations and i n t e r v i e w s , the v o l u n t e e r has been placed as a worker i n some p o s i t i o n where, i t i s judged he can meet the needs of a s p e c i f i c group. I n order to make t h i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y experience t o the group and t o him, he must be helped t o understand the group, h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i t , and the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of t h i s leader-group r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the agency. T h i s can be achieved i n p a r t through h i s c o n t i n u i n g s u p e r v i s i o n by p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f members. S u p e r v i s i o n : Methods and R e s u l t s S u p e r v i s i o n c o u l d be c a l l e d a s o r t of c l e a r i n g house between t h e v o l u n t e e r and the agency. The s u p e r v i s o r can a s s i s t the v o l u n t e e r i n programme suggestions, i n e x p l a i n i n g agency p o l i c y and the use of community r e s o u r c e s , and i n other q u e s t i o n s which i n v o l v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between members i n the group, and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e l e a d e r and members of h i s group. (1) Through the s u p e r v i s o r y conference the v o l u n t e e r i s a b l e to see the f u n c t i o n of h i s group as i t i s r e l a t e d t o the f u n c t i o n of the agency, and the agency as i t i s r e l a t e d t o the t o t a l community. I t i s only i n the s u p e r v i s o r y conference t h a t the v o l u n t e e r i s able t o c a n d i d l y d i s c u s s the important problems t h a t a r i s e . I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f the group and the agency, the v o l u n t e e r should g a i n some i n s i g h t about h i m s e l f (1) S e r o t k i n , Harry, "The T r a i n i n g and Placement of V o l u n t e e r s , " The F e d e r a t o r , V o l . XIX No. 4, A p r i l , 1944. Page 10. -77-before he can f u l l y understand and a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s i n the group toward development into responsible c i t i z e n s . I t i s recognized that the leader of a group has more problems dealing with human relationships than does an Intake worker, or a supervisor of an a c t i v i t y room, and for him super-v i s i o n i s more necessary. However, i t i s well f o r the agency s t a f f to keep abreast of the problems and achievements that each volunteer i s encountering. The frequency and the a d v i s a b i l i t y of these supervisory discussions, as they are related to the time available for each volunteer, w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n t h i s chapter, when the opinions of the volunteers and the current agency pattern of supervision are evaluated. The volunteer, l i k e the professional worker, i s usually a busy person, and h i s lack of time i s frequently mentioned as one reason f o r agencies f a i l i n g to e s t a b l i s h a process of volunteer supervision. Too often the agency i s a f r a i d to make legitimate demands of the volunteer, and the job he has to do i s described as "one group meeting a week," or "just two hours on the intake desk", when the actual time required to do an adequate job i s f a r i n excess of the time spent with the programme pa r t i c i p a n t s . I t takes courage to make suoh a request on a busy person's time, and courage to respond to such a request. Having explored the motivations of many volunteers, i t can be reasonably assumed that they are not interested i n such a sub-standard experience that i s almost i n e v i t a b l e without proper supervision. True, the time element may prove too great a ba r r i e r for some volunteers; on the other hand, the demand f o r more continued volunteer service i n the agency may screen out those persons who are not genuinely interested. I t must be remembered, too, -78-that many agencies have small and often overburdened s t a f f s , whose work embodies not only the supervision of a volunteer programme, but also many other areas of professional respon-s i b i l i t y . Therefore, while i t may be advantageous f o r super-v i s i o n to be included within the volunteer programme, i t i s often nearly impossible to fin d enough time to give i t on a sound and meaningful basis. I f t h i s i s true, i t i s the agency's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to increase the number of professional workers i f at a l l possible. I f a limited budget prohibits t h i s , the problem should be discussed with those responsible f o r budget increases, together with ample facts to substantiate the need for extra workers. I f t h i s i s not possible the agenoy programme should be reduced. Although supervision i s generally considered as a re l a t i o n s h i p between two persons, where ideas are interchanged and knowledge imparted, i t can be thought of i n d i f f e r e n t ways. A look at the agencies i n Portland and Vancouver revealed that supervision was conducted fundamentally i n three d i f f e r e n t ways: cooperation on the job, group discussions, and i n d i v i d u a l super-visory conferences. A l l agencies gave cooperation to the volunteer on the job. S t a f f members were reported as available at almost a l l times to a s s i s t the volunteer with any problem that might a r i s e . Some agencies brought the volunteers together for group discussions, where problems could be ironed out c o l l e c t i v e l y , and where areas of int e r e s t to a l l volunteers could be discussed. Other agencies supplemented t h e i r informal methods by using the in d i v i d u a l type of supervisory conference, i n which a s t a f f person was assigned to a s s i s t the volunteer wherever p r a c t i c a l -79-and possible. None of the agenoies conducted a t r u l y formal and continued type of supervisory process, but most agencies had discussions on a more informal basis, where the volunteer was encouraged to seek advice. Lack of time on the part of the s t a f f , and the volunteers, was the major reason cited f o r t h i s more informal type of supervision. I f group work agencies are anxious to keep good and capable volunteers, and i f they want to improve t h e i r programme, "they must f i n d time, somehow, to give them the supervision, encouragement and guidance which they need." (1) One question i n the questionnaire asked, "Do you think regular i n d i v i d u a l discussions with a s t a f f member would be h e l p f u l to you?" The persons answering t h i s question were both those who had, and who had not, been experiencing i n d i v i d u a l supervision with a s t a f f person. F i f t y per cent said the discussions would be very h e l p f u l to them, 34 per cent said the discussions would be f a i r l y h e l p f u l to them, and 9 per cent said the discussions would be of l i t t l e or no help. The remaining 7 per cent did not know, or did not answer the question. (Table 32) Therefore, 84 per cent believed that i n d i v i d u a l discussions with a s t a f f member would be h e l p f u l to them. This i s important i n considering a programme which should not only bring benefit to the agency, but be within the i n t e r e s t s of the volunteers concerned. Of course, t h i s does not indicate the frequency with which the volunteer would be w i l l i n g to attend these discussions, nor does i t take into consideration the number of people who would be w i l l i n g , or able, to attend, i f the discussions were made available i n the agency. The (1) i b i d , page 10. 80-Table 32. Helpfulness of Individual Discussions^ Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949 Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Very h e l p f u l 8 53 61 50 F a i r l y h e l p f u l 7 35 42 34 Of l i t t l e help 1 6 7 6 Of no help 1 2 3 3 Don't know 2 3 5 4 Unanswered 0 4 4 3 Total 19 103 122 100 question was then asked, "Would you be w i l l i n g to attend such i n d i v i d u a l discussions?" The great majority - — 91 per cent — indicated that they would; only 7 per cent said they would not be w i l l i n g to attend. (Table 33) These decisive figures should leave no doubts as to the volunteers' attitude on supervisory Table 55. Willingness of Volunteers to Attend Individual  DiscussionsT Selected Vanoouver and Portland Agencies. 1949^ Judgement Portland Vancouver Tot a l Number Per cent Tes 16 95 111 91 No 2 6 8 7 Unanswered 1 2 3 2 Total 19 103 122 100 -81-discussions. I t i s to be hoped that a l l agenoies w i l l i ncor-porate these discussions into t h e i r volunteer programme, beeause i t i s obvious that they are wanted by the volunteer personnel. But how often could persons attend i n d i v i d u a l discussions? The large proportion —— 31 per cent stated they could not attend oftener than once a month; 28 per cent said they would l i k e the discussions to be held every week. Others thought they should occur either more or le s s often, but the large majority — 77 per cent indicated they could attend within the frequency range of once a week to once a month. (Table 34) Table 54. Frequency of Attending Proposed Individual Discussions y Selected Vancouver and Portland^ " Agencies. 1949 Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent More than once week a 0 2 2 2 Once a week 1 31 32 28 Once every two weeks 4 17 21 18 Once a month 7 28 35 31 Less than once month a 1 0 1 1 Not sure 2 9 11 10 Unanswered 2 10 12 10 Total 17 97 114 100 -82-Therefore, i n summary, i t seems that most volunteers thought i n d i v i d u a l discussions would be h e l p f u l , stated t h e i r w i l l i n g -ness to attend, and stipulated that such sessions should be held more frequently than once a month, and less frequently than once a week. When the helpfulness of i n d i v i d u a l discussions was related to the willingness to attend, a close r e l a t i o n s h i p was found. (Table 35) Of those who stated they thought the d i s -cussions would be hel p f u l to them, 81 per cent said they would be w i l l i n g to attend, and only 2 per cent said they could not attend. Those who thought the discussions of no help, showed that they would not attend by 2 per cent. I t can be seen that Table 35. Relationship between the Helpfulness of Individual  Discussions and the Willingness to Attend. Selected  Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949 Helpfulness of Discussions Willingness to Attend Yes No Unanswered Tot a l Very h e l p f u l 48 1 1 50 F a i r l y h e l p f u l 33 1 0 34 Of l i t t l e help 5 1 0 6 0 f no help 0 2 0 2 Don't know 3 0 1 4 Unanswered 2 1 1 4 Total 91 6 3 100 83-i f the agency i s anxious to inaugurate or implement i t s super-visory conferences, i t must f i r s t be sure of the mental attitudes of the volunteers toward discussions. I f they are thought of as merely an unnecessary and time-consuming ordeal, i t i s u t t e r l y useless f o r the agency to launch into such conferences. However, such i s not the case, and the few instances of such attitudes informs the agency that much inter p r e t a t i o n needs to be done, and a more se l e c t i v e recruitment p o l i c y adopted. While recognizing that i n d i v i d u a l discussions were one means of supervision, i t was also recognized that some volunteers, and also some agencies, would prefer the group discussion method. Realizing that group discussions would be less time-consuming to the agency s t a f f , many agencies employed t h i s method. Volun-teers also believed t h i s method would be advantageous to them. The question was asked, "Do you think group discussions of volun-teers would be h e l p f u l to you?" Seventy-seven per cent indicated that group discussions would be h e l p f u l to them; 16 per cent said they would not be h e l p f u l to them, while 7 per cent did not answer the question. (Table 36) I t can be seen, then, that most Table 36. Helpfulness of Group Discussions. Selected  Vancouver and Portland Agenoies. 1949* Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Tes 13 81 94 77 No 4 16 20 16 Unanswered 2 6 8 7 Total 19 103 122 100 j -84-volunteers favoured both i n d i v i d u a l and group discussions, but l i t t l e preference was shown between the two, 84 per cent favouring i n d i v i d u a l and 77 per cent favouring group discussions. To be more certain of the type of supervision the volunteers wanted, a question was asked i n which the volunteer could indicate c l e a r l y what type of discussion he favoured most. The question gave the alternatives of rather attending i n d i v i d u a l discussions, rather group discussions,or attending both or neither. Forty-eight per cent said they would be w i l l i n g to attend both i n d i v i d u a l and group discussions, but i t was not discovered what type of discussion they favoured most. Twenty-one per cent thought they would rather attend group discussions, 5 per cent preferred i n d i v i d u a l discussions, while only 3 per cent were unwilling to attend either type of discussion. (Table 37) Table 37. Willingness of Volunteers to Attend group Disoussions, Selected Vancouver and Portland  A g e n e ^ e s < 1949. Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Rather than attend i n d i v i d u a l d i s -cussions 3 23 26 21 In addition to attene ing i n d i v i d u a l d i s -cussions 8 51 59 48 Would rather attend 1 d i v i d u a l discussions .n-1 5 6 5 Would attend neither group nor i n d i v i d u a l discussions 1 2 3 3 Not sure 3 7 10 8 Unanswered 3 15 18 15 Total 19 103 122 100 -85-Therefore, moat volunteers were w i l l i n g to accept the super-vi s o r y method as part of t h e i r volunteer r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . While no precise measurement was made of volunteer preference between i n d i v i d u a l and group discussions as methods of super-v i s i o n , some i n d i c a t i o n of what was favoured was obtained when the helpfulness of the two types was re l a t e d . (Table 38) Table 58. Relationship between the Helpfulness of Group  And Individual Discussions. Selected Vancouver  and Portland Agencies. 1949. Individual Discussions Group Discussions Yes No Unanswered Total , Very h e l p f u l 41 6 3 50 F a i r l y h e l p f u l 27 6 1.5 34.5 Of l i t t l e help 4 1.5 0 5.5 Of no help 1 1.5 0 2.5 Don't know 2 1 1 4 Unanswered 1.5 1 1 3.5 Total 76.5 17 6.5 100 Seventy-seven per cent said group discussions were h e l p f u l , and 84 per cent indicated i n d i v i d u a l discussions were h e l p f u l . From these figures l i t t l e preference can be seen. Sizty-eight per cent thought both group and i n d i v i d u a l discussions were h e l p f u l , and only 12 per cent who thought i n d i v i d u a l discussions h e l p f u l did not believe group discussions were h e l p f u l . While i t i s seen that i n d i v i d u a l discussions are favoured to a s l i g h t degree, i t -86-also can be seen that there i s a close r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two types of supervision. Volunteers want supervision, ana on the basis of t h e i r needs, the f a c i l i t i e s of the agency, and the s k i l l of the agency workers, either one or both methods of supervision should be made av a i l a b l e . Space was provided i n the questionnaire i n which the volunteer could comment on the values of the types of super-v i s i o n . Many volunteers did not comment, but the 42 who d i d , revealed many i n t e r e s t i n g attitudes on supervisory conferences. (Table 39) Twelve people thought i n d i v i d u a l discussions were not a necessity f o r the volunteer, and many showed ambiguity over the purpose of the discussions. This ambiguity was evidenced by the fac t that many were not sure what useful purpose the discussions would serve, or what content material the discussion would include. Some were not sure that the discussions would be related to the work they were doing, and others wanted to know the nature and content of the discussions before they would be w i l l i n g to attend. A po s i t i v e attitude was shown toward the helpfulness of group discussions, since the vast majority of persons commenting here indicated that by group discussions they could gain a broader outlook of the agency, and i t s purpose i n the community. Many believed that group discussions would a s s i s t i n integrating volunteer programme. Others thought that by group discussions they could benefit, since the exchange of ideas and opinions between volunteers and professional s t a f f would stimulate greater a c t i v i t y i n the agency. Agencies contemplating any changes i n t h e i r supervisory programme for volunteers, may f i n d the general attitude of a -87 Table 59. Comments of Volunteers on Individual and Group  Discussions. Selected Vanoouver and Portland  Agenoies. 1949. Judgement Individual Discussions Group Discussions Number Per cent Number Per cent Not too necessary 12 29 2 4 Only when problems arise 7 17 4 10 Time l i m i t a t i o n 7 17 6 14 Understand group and i n -dividuals i n i t better 4 9 2 5 Depends on the content of the discussion 4 9 3 7 Depends on the volunteer work being done 3 7 0 0 Gain a broader outlook, and helps to integrate programme 2 5 17 41 Introductory discussion with only occasional follow-up discussions 2 5 0 0 Stimulating to get an exchange of views 1 2 8 19 Total 4 8 100 42 100 selected group of volunteers of value. Summarizing the answers to the various questions r e l a t i n g to the supervisory experience, i t would appear that, while both i n d i v i d u a l and group discussions were thought to be of value, c e r t a i n comments made by volunteers indicate that group discussions, may, for most agencies, be the most p r a c t i c a l method at the present time. This method would c e r t a i n l y appear to be the l o g i c a l type of supervision i f no -88-previous supervision had been given i n the agency, or i f the s t a f f did not have s u f f i c i e n t time to allow f o r private i n t e r -views with each volunteer. On the other hand, those agencies which already provide regular group discussions, and which are ready to expand t h e i r educational programme with volunteers, might consider the value of experimenting with a more i n d i v i d u a l -ized type of guidance. Whichever type i s planned, group discussion or i n d i v -idual interview, the development of group programme, and the changing and expanding i n t e r e s t s of the volunteers from week to week demand more than a haphazard, sporadically-spaced programme. Supervisory sessions should be regular and continuous throughout the programme year. Leaders of friendship groups should be given the f i r s t consideration i n i n d i v i d u a l interviews, since i n the inter-personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s of such groups l i e s , on the one hand, the greatest opportunities for growth, and, on the other, the greatest hazards for the inexperienced leader. I d e a l l y , i n d i v i d u a l discussions should occur before or afte r the volunteer duty performed, since at t h i s time the supervision period can be more meaningful and convenient for the volunteer. Group discussion might be held, as suggested by the volunteer answers, bi-monthly. These discussions would not be focused so d i r e c t l y upon i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but would include discussions of problems of programme and leadership common to that p a r t i c u l a r group of volunteers. Training: Implications and Reasons Looking at an i n d i v i d u a l volunteer, members of the agency s t a f f have interviewed and placed him, and have assured -89-him of regular, continuous supervision, i n d i v i d u a l l y , or i n a group. In addition to t h i s , w i l l not the volunteer ask "Where can I f i n d a more general picture of leadership? Where can I f i n d out more about psychological development? Where can I learn the p r i n c i p l e s of c r a f t work?" The agency must f i n d answers fo r questions such as these. Training implies some interchange of knowledge from one person or several persons to another or a group of i n d i v -i d u a l s . Dorothy S i l l s defines t r a i n i n g as "the transmission of such pertinent knowledge and methods as have proven useful i n carrying out s p e c i f i c kinds of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . " Therefore, t r a i n i n g i n group work, as i n other professions, i s a teaching process by which those receiving t r a i n i n g are assisted i n carry-ing out t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the agency. When a person embarks upon a new type of experience, where he i s required to meet people, and to help carry out the function of a large organization, i t i s reasonable to expect that he should be well-equipped to f u l f i l l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y entrusted to him. In order that he should be better equipped to perform h i s task, he should either come to the organization trained i n group work methods, and technical s k i l l s , or be w i l l i n g to learn the p r i n c i p l e s involved and methods used i n the organization i n which he w i l l work. Many people are i n c l i n e d to the view that leaders are born, not made, and i f these "natural leaders" are chosen, (1) S i l l s , Dorothy H., Volunteers i n S o c i a l Service. New York National Travelers' Aid Association, 1947. Page 28. -90 i t i s not necessary to give them opportunities f o r learning, because t h e i r i n t u i t i o n and innate a b i l i t y to work with others i s a l l s u f f i c i e n t . The demand for and the introduction of pro-f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g for group and recreation workers has already proven the inadequacy of t h i s viewpoint as far as professional group workers are concerned. I f professional education has increased the contributions of the employed worker, would not the volunteer benefit from si m i l a r training? Each t r a i n i n g programme might be d i f f e r e n t , and need not be standardized as i s professional education, but b a s i c a l l y i t should be directed toward increasing the e f f i c i e n c y , security, and i n t e r e s t of the volunteer. As i n the process of supervision, t r a i n i n g can be achieved i n various ways. Training i s normally thought of as a class room lecture, but i t can be conceived of i n other settings. Disoussion groups, f i e l d v i s i t s , selected reading material, and a more indiv i d u a l i z e d type of i n s t r u c t i o n may a l l be part of a t r a i n i n g programme for volunteers. A l l these methods have the common purpose to transmit pertinent knowledge and methods useful i n f u l f i l l i n g the volunteer r o l e . Here the process of supervision and of t r a i n i n g are very c l o s e l y aligned. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to comprehend the precise scope of each process, and i t i s not important to know where t r a i n i n g stops and supervision begins. Both are part of a learning process, and are h e l p f u l and essential i n any volunteer programme. Many volunteers coming to the agency say that they do not see how a t r a i n i n g course can a s s i s t them i n teaching a s k i l l i n which they are already p r o f i c i e n t . A volunteer i n s t r u c t i n g a group i n leatherwork might wonder how any t r a i n i n g course, led by 9 1 -a s t a f f member who has never done l e a t h e r c r a f t , can be of value to him. The answer i s that the purpose of the agency not only includes the teaching of new and i n t e r e s t i n g s k i l l s , but also considers the e f f e c t that group association i n the hobby class has upon the i n d i v i d u a l . Hobbies a f f e c t people i n the doing of the "work"; and i t i s necessary to place the i n d i v i d u a l above the q u a l i t y of the a r t i c l e produced. Therefore, i t can be seen, that i n most cases, volunteers need a t r a i n i n g course. Training courses may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two types, although integration of both types into a t r a i n i n g course i s highly desirable. Courses may be tec h n i c a l i n nature where d e f i n i t e handicraft or a t h l e t i c s k i l l s are taught to a group, who can at a l a t t e r date i n s t r u c t these acquired s k i l l s to a special i n t e r e s t group. Courses on the other hand, may consist of orientating the already t e c h n i c a l l y s k i l l e d worker to service i n the group work agency. I t i s with t h i s second c l a s s i f i c a t i o n that the remainder of t h i s chapter i s concerned, since i t does not seem necessary to deal at length with the f i r s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The content of t r a i n i n g courses w i l l vary, to a s l i g h t degree, from agency to agency, but, i n general, a l l agencies should cover the broad p r i n c i p l e s upon which the profession of s o c i a l work i s founded. Orientation to the agency i s e s s e n t i a l , so that the volunteer can quickly adjust himself to the o v e r a l l a c t i v i t y . He should understand the structure, function, and programme of the agenoy, and what r o l e he i s required to play i n the t o t a l plan. The respective r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of volunteer and professional s t a f f should be c l e a r l y outlined, so that h i s l i m i t a t i o n s of authority and scope of duty can be understood. -92-The trends of group work practice i n the community, and the p r i n c i p l e s upon which the profession i s based should be made known, together with the experience found h e l p f u l from other f i e l d s of learning. Helpful i n a t r a i n i n g course i s a small booklet, prepared by the agency, and published to provide f u l l o r ientation for, the volunteer. Such a booklet provides pertinent information which can be digested at l e i s u r e by the new worker. Gordon House and Alexandra Neighbourhood House have u t i l i z e d t h i s means of orientation to good e f f e o t . However, i t can unquestionably be stated that some method of orie n t a t i o n i s a d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the agency. In planning the course, consideration must be given to the two factors which were discussed i n an e a r l i e r chapter. External and i n t e r n a l factors determine, to a large extent, the focus which the t r a i n i n g course w i l l take. The external f a c t o r s , those r e l a t i n g to the agency, help to decide what should be discussed, since the contents of the course should be compatible with the r o l e the agency i s playing i n the community. I f the agency has a d e f i n i t e purpose, then the volunteer should under-stand that purpose, so that he ean work more e f f e c t i v e l y to achieve t h i s i n his own sphere. The i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s , those r e l a t i n g to the volunteer, must be considered when planning a course, since the personality of the volunteer determines, to a large extent, hi s effectiveness i n h i s r o l e . The course should help him analyze h i s own motivations, discover why he volunteered, and o l a r i f y h i s attitudes to volunteering. The volunteer may have c o n f l i c t s over his course of action i n h i s volunteer service, and these too should be included i n the contents of any t r a i n i n g course. The question of authority, self-consciousness, -93-projeeting one's standards upon the group, and countless other areas where ambiguity remains i n the mind of the volunteer should also be included. Training i s h e l p f u l i n understanding the r o l e the volunteer has to play, but i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the areas which are considered to be i n the most need of t r a i n i n g : 1. r a i s i n g money 2. planning the week so as to secure time for community serviee 3. building programmes for organizations and groups 4. e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l action 5. e f f e c t i v e working plans for large groups 6. encouraging various ethnic groups to work together 7. getting out a news organ and press releases 8. presiding at large meetings (a) parliamentary procedure (b) group leadership and group p a r t i c i p a t i o n 9. breaking down barriers between segments of the community 10. developing concern i n "neutrals" 11, bringing i n new leadership ^ It must also be recognized that some disadvantages to a t r a i n i n g course e x i s t . These are si m i l a r to the disadvantages l i s t e d i n the section on supervision. In many instances the s t a f f are overburdened, and have not the time to devote to a concentrated t r a i n i n g session. Also, the volunteer may be r e s i s t a n t to any t r a i n i n g , and t h i s provides a problem for the agency administrator. Nevertheless, i f at a l l possible, t r a i n i n g courses should be a part of any volunteer programme, keeping i n mind that supervision and t r a i n i n g are inseparable i n p r a c t i c e . In surveying the experience of the administrators of fourteen group work agencies, i t was discovered that 38 per cent were providing regular t r a i n i n g courses for t h e i r volunteers. Of t h i s number, most of the agencies had a more formal type of (1) Symposium on Volunteer Motivations. Advisory Committee on C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Community Chests and Councils of America, Poughkeepsie, New York, 1948. Page 5 , -94-t r a i n i n g course, which usually met once a month. Some ageneies had been giving t r a i n i n g courses, but at the time the survey was made no course was i n operation. I t was noticed that the content of most courses focused upon the teaching of new s k i l l s . Here i t seemed that volunteers were more w i l l i n g to attend, and had more in t e r e s t when some tangible content i n the course was provided. While the teaching of new s k i l l s i s esse n t i a l , i t would seem that i f group work p r i n c i p l e s could be taught i n addition to such courses, the volunteers would not only be able to teach new things to t h e i r groups, but would also be able to see how th e i r p a r t i c u l a r tasks f i t t e d into agency pro-gramme, and how t h e i r teaching of s k i l l s could a s s i s t i n the accomplishment of agency purpose. For a volunteer to achieve maximum e f f i c i e n c y i n the service he i s performing, i t i s l o g i c a l to assume that he should know why he wants to volunteer, and how h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n can help the community. In order f o r him to know h i s time i n the agency i s well-spent, and that some d e f i n i t e r e s u l t s are occurring, he should understand what the agency i s doing, and what purpose i t i s serving. This was asked the volunteers sur-veyed by the question, "Do you f e e l that you know the purpose of the agency i n which you are working?" Ninety-seven per cent said they knew the purpose of the agency, and the high percentage i s to be expected, because to work for any length of time without d i r e c t i o n i s an unsatisfying experience, l i k e l y to foster d i s -content f i n a l l y climaxing i n withdrawal from volunteer duty. In no case did a volunteer indicate he did not know the purpose of the agency, and only 3 per cent stated that they were doubtful. (Table 40) I t i s unfortunate that no space was -95-Table 40. Volunteers' Recognition of the Purpose of the Agency. Selected Vancouver and Portland Agenoies. 1949. Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Yes 18 100 118 97 No 0 0 0 0 Doubtful 1 3 4 3 Total 19 103 122 100 provided i n which the volunteer could state what he a c t u a l l y thought the function and purpose of the agency was. I f such had been the case i t i s most probable that a wide v a r i e t y of reasons would have been c i t e d . Nevertheless, i t can be learned from these figures that the volunteers had a sense of d i r e c t i o n i n what they were doing. This consciousness of the worthwhileness of the job should be further encouraged i n order to increase the number, e f f i c i e n c y , and effectiveness of a l l volunteers. For a volunteer to function without knowing the purpose of the agency i s l i k e a ship foundering o f f the shore with no keel to steady i t and no rudder to guide i t . I f the volunteer i s to benefit from t r a i n i n g courses, he must f i r s t believe that the courses are worth while attending, and he must be sure there i s a need for them i n h i s busy week. I f a volunteer has needed assistance from the professional s t a f f , then there i s a r e a l i z a t i o n that the s t a f f can be of aid i n the many problems which occur i n the agency. I t was, therefore, asked, "Do you ever f e e l the desire to discuss a problem i n your -96 work with a s t a f f member?" The volunteers were emphatic i n i n d i c a t i n g that, for the most part, they were desirous of outside help. (Table 41) Twenty-one per cent said they frequently had the desire to discuss a problem, while 71 per cent said they occasionally wanted additional help. Only 7 per cent never wanted to discuss anything. Therefore, i t can Table 41. Volunteers' Desire to Discuss Problems with S t a f f , Selected Vanoouver and Portland Agenoies. 1949 Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Frequently 2 23 25 21 Occasionally 15 71 86 71 Never 2 7 9 7 Unanswered 0 2 2 1 Total 19 103 122 100 be seen that 92 per cent of the volunteers would l i k e to discuss problems i n t h e i r work with s t a f f members. This i s a high percentage and indicates that there i s c e r t a i n l y a need i n the agencies for some type of t r a i n i n g programme. The volunteers c l e a r l y expressed the need f o r help from the s t a f f , so the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s a t i s f y i n g that desire rests s o l e l y upon the shoulders of the i n d i v i d u a l agencies. The same question was asked the volunteers i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t manner, "Provided there were no i n d i v i d u a l 97-or group discussions i n the agency, would you be able to give one evening a week over a two month period to attend a t r a i n i n g course?" Sixty per cent said they were able, E l per cent stated that i t would be impossible f o r them to attend, 16 per cent were doubtful, and 3 per cent did not answer the question. (Table 4£) In comparing t h i s and the previous question, i t i s Table 4S. A b i l i t y to Attend a Training Course. Selected  Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. Judgement Portland Vancouver Total Number Per cent Yes 5 68 73 60 No 9 17 S6 E l Doubtful 3 16 19 16 Unanswered E E 4 3 Total 19 103 1SS 100 seen that while 9E per cent were of the opinion they needed help, only 60 per cent were able to receive i t i n the form of a t r a i n i n g course. I f those who were w i l l i n g to attend and those who were doubtful were included t h i s f i g u r e would be increased to 76 per cent. These t o t a l s were added because i n the majority of cases those i n d i c a t i n g that they were doubtful said they were doubtful because of time l i m i t a t i o n s . However, considering that over one-half the volunteers were- w i l l i n g and able to attend such a course, and knowing that t h i s would necessitate giving up an extra evening of the week, i t i s -98-e l e a r l y evident that the agencies have a moral o b l i g a t i o n to see that the volunteers receive t h i s t r a i n i n g . The a b i l i t y and willingness of volunteers to attend t r a i n i n g courses has been outlined, but i t may be h e l p f u l to re l a t e t h i s to three varying factors; namely, the desire to discuss a problem with a s t a f f person, the age of the volunteer, and the type of duty performed. (Tables 43, 44 and 45) Table 43. Relationship between A b i l i t y to Attend a Training  Course and the Desire to Discuss a Problem with a  Staff Member. Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949. Desire to Discuss a Problem A b i l i t y to Attend a Training Course Yes No Doubtful Unanswered Total Frequently 14 6 0 1 21 Occasionally 42 13 13 2 70 Never 3 2 2 0 7 Unanswered 0 0 1 1 2 Total 59 21 16 4 100 Those who desired to discuss problems with s t a f f members were most eager to attend a t r a i n i n g course, and the willingness to attend varied d i r e c t l y with the expressed need to discuss agency problems. Those who indicated they would not attend the course were consistently less eager to discuss problems than were those who had a more po s i t i v e attitude toward the courses, when the factor of age was related to the willingness of the volunteer to attend t r a i n i n g courses, i t was found that those of the -99-younger age group were more w i l l i n g to attend than those i n the older group. Generally speaking, younger volunteers said they would attend a t r a i n i n g course, and as the age increased less enthusiasm was shown. Perhaps the factor of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of time entered into t h i s breakdown, since, i n many cases, those of middle age have less time for a c t i v i t i e s outside the home than those who are of a younger age. When the type of duty performed was related to the desire to have a t r a i n i n g course, i t was found that the proportion of volunteers i n each job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g they would attend the courses, was mueh the same. Those conducting mass programmes were s l i g h t l y less w i l l i n g to attend, but on the average a great s i m i l a r i t y i n answers was noted. Table 44. Relationship between the A b i l i t y to Attend a  Training Course and the Age of the Volunteer Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies. 1949. A b i l i t y to Attend a Training Course Age Yes No Doubtful Unanswered Total Under 18 14 2 3 0 19 1 9 - 2 0 5.5 2 1 0 8.5 E l - 29 27 9 5 1 42 3 0 - 3 9 5.5 2 4 1 12.5 40 - 49 2 2 1 1 6 50 and over 5 4 2 0 11 Unanswered 0 0 0 1 1 Total 59 21 16 4 100 / -100-Table 45. Relationship between the A b i l i t y to Attend a Training Course and~the Type of Duty Performed, Selected Vancouver and Portland Agencies, 1949. DUTY A b i l i t y to attend Friend-ship Group Inter-est Group Mass Ac t i v -i t y Super visor of a Room Comm-i t t e e Advi-sor Cler-i c a l & Recept-i o n i s t Gen-er-a l Un-ans-wer-ed T 0 T A L Tes 11 30 6 4 .5 7 .5 0 59 No 3 9 4 1 0 3 1 0 21 Doubtful 3 6 3 0 0 3 0 1 16 CFnanswerec 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 4 Total 17 47 13 5 u 2.5 1 .00 In analyzing the answers given by the volunteers, a di s c e r n i b l e pattern emerges. On the whole, the volunteers want a t r a i n i n g course, and many would be able to attend a course i f i t were offered. More volunteers recognized they needed a s s i s t -ance from the s t a f f person than were able to attend formal t r a i n i n g sessions. I t seems, therefore, that some method w i l l have to be evolved whereby a short t r a i n i n g course i s offered i n conjunction with a more in d i v i d u a l i z e d type of supervision. Volunteers often cannot perform t h e i r weekly volunteer duty, attend an intensive series of supervisory conferences, and also attend a t r a i n i n g course, and i t i s often d i f f i c u l t for a s t a f f person to f i n d time to include t h i s i n h i s d a i l y workload. Therefore, i f t r a i n i n g courses could be offered f o r those who are able to attend, and more personal supervision given to those who are not able to come to the agency another evening i n the week, some improvement i n the volunteer programme would undoubtedly occur. -101-I t i s reasonable to hope that, l a t e r on, volunteers entering the agenoy would be w i l l i n g to include t r a i n i n g as part of the volunteer r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Agencies are deeply indebted to volunteers f o r the work they do, but the volunteer may well become more attached to the organization, i f i t takes steps to provide the g u i d a n c e , f a c i l i t i e s and equipment which make possible an enhancement of h i s own. 1 0 8 Chapter 7. Respective R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s I t i s abundantly evident from the experience reviewed i n t h i s study that to have maximum output --- both i n quantity and qu a l i t y the s t a f f , together with the directorate and volunteers, must work together as a team. S t a f f and volunteers are not two separate groups, but are indeed one e n t i t y , only as strong as each of i t s component parts. Both volunteers and s t a f f need each other: one cannot successfully function alone, and i t i s only when these two elements are working i n complete harmony and cooperation that the agency can operate at i t s best. Without the continued contribution of the volunteers no programme i n a community can be t r u l y a sucoess. The s t a f f of an agency might, i n some instances, be able to accomplish some projects alone, but without the continued support of the community i n a l l endeavours the agency undertakes, the ultimate success of the programme w i l l be greatly reduced. Each part of the team has a place i n the operation of the agency, and each i s charged with cert a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i f that programme i s to be successful. Res p o n s i b i l i t y of the Agency The agency's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward i t s volunteers i s an important part of i t s t o t a l function. The s t a f f of the agenoy must accept the fact that volunteers are part of the programme, and t h e i r services are of v i t a l importance to i t s success. This acceptance i s essential i n a f r u i t f u l partnership of s t a f f and volunteers. With the acceptance of the worth of the volunteer goes an acceptance of the worth of the i n d i v i d u a l ; a r e a l i z a t i o n that the volunteer has cer t a i n knowledge and s k i l l s to o f f e r , an understanding that the volunteer has strengths and weaknesses, -103-a willingness to share knowledge and experience with the volunteer, and an appreciation of the work the volunteer i s performing. Perhaps one of the most important r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the agency i s the obligation to inform the volunteer exactly what i s required of him before he ever s t a r t s to work there. I t i s only reasonable that the volunteer should know what hours he i s expected to work, the type of work he w i l l do, and what i s required i n the way of record keeping, extra meetings, h i s re l a t i o n s h i p to the group, and other duties. The volunteer can learn of these requirements i n the i n i t i a l interview, and by an orientation booklet. The agency has a further r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward the volunteer. I t must a s s i s t him wherever and whenever possible during the course of the year. The agency can do t h i s by means of supervisory conferences and t r a i n i n g sessions. I t has been discovered that volunteers want t h i s help, and are w i l l i n g to attend such discussions besides performing t h e i r regular volunteer serviee. The agency must make time to insure that the process of supervision and t r a i n i n g i s a worth-while exper-ience f o r the volunteer, and insure that i t i s thoughtfully prepared and d i l i g e n t l y given. The agency should give the volunteers every opportunity to develop t h e i r s k i l l s and use them to the f u l l e s t possible extent. To do less i s to be dishonest to the purpose of the organization. The agency should remember that much thought and time should be given i n preparing and carrying out the volunteer programme. A successful volunteer programme i s not one-sided; i t requires both s t a f f and volunteers working together to achieve -104-s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s . "The care and s k i l l of the agency i n carrying out i t s share of a volunteer programme i s as important as the capacities of the volunteers." (1) In short, the agency has r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n various areas. F i r s t , the agency should accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r a i n i n g , supervision, s e l e c t i o n , and placement. I t should also plan for recruitment, recognition, assigning work loads, and countless other d e f i n i t e d e t a i l s . Second, the agency should respect the volunteer as a person and accept the f a c t that volunteers are necessary i n programme. Complementary to the respect and acceptance by s t a f f members i s the actual assistance that the s t a f f must be w i l l i n g to give to a l l volun-teers. Ifrespect and acceptance are present, assistance w i l l follow. While i t i s recognized that the volunteer-staff r e l a t i o n s h i p should be one of mutual respect, i t i s also under-stood that i n t h i s partnership various elements tend to destroy the r e l a t i o n s h i p . However, i f each knows exactly the l i m i t of his j u r i s d i c t i o n and the scope within which he must work, the degree of c l a r i t y i n work assignments and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i l l r e s u l t i n better relationships being established. For harmonious working rel a t i o n s h i p s , both the members of the s t a f f and the volunteers should be mature people; they should be able to under-stand the reasons for grievances and, understanding these reasons, be able to s a c r i f i c e i f necessary f o r the inte r e s t of the work. At times the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a f f and lay-workers may not be at i t s maximum because of i n s e c u r i t y on the part of both (1) S i l l s , Dorothy H., i b i d , Page 13. -105-p a r t i e s . The volunteer may think he i s not as e f f i c i e n t and competent as he should be; the s t a f f member, on the other hand, may be insecure over h i s own professional competence, and, when the volunteer receives additional r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the agency, he may not be able to accept him as a co-worker. Such situations greatly a f f e c t the qual i t y of work produced, but i t i s only through understanding and consideration by the persons involved that such i n s e c u r i t y w i l l diminish. Both should recognize that each has a p a r t i c u l a r contribution to o f f e r . To lose perspective of the varying degree of knowledge and experience that each person brings i s to be immature i n appreciating a l l types of contribution. The old saying has i t that " i t takes a l l kinds of' people to make up the world"; i t i s equally as true that i t takes a l l types to make a successful programme most successful of a l l i f each i s a mature and sincere person. Responsibility of the Volunteer Obviously the volunteer has his own r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . When a volunteer o f f e r s his services to a group work agency he has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y both to the agency and the i n d i v i d u a l s entrusted to him. I t must be understood that "volunteer service i s no p o l i t e gesture casually made at the cost of a few odd hours." ^ Before o f f e r i n g h i s services, the volunteer must be prepared to set aside d e f i n i t e blocks of time f o r the volun-teer job, and he must be dependable i n h i s work assignments. To be true to the agenoy and himself, the volunteer must believe i n the value of what he i s doing, he must believe he i s not (1) Advisory Committee on Volunteer Service, i b i d , Page 2. -106-wasting h i s time, and that the contribution he makes i s a worth-while addition to the work of the agency i n the community. I f a volunteer i s interested i n his work, believes i n the purpose of the organization, and exercises i n t e l l i g e n t judgement i n carrying out that purpose, then, with the help of the s t a f f members, he can contribute greatly i n his volunteer capacity to the advancement of h i s community. In addition, the volunteer has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to increase h i s knowledge and a b i l i t y . He must be w i l l i n g to learn, and must have some capacity for personal growth and development. He must be ready to accept help given by the s t a f f i n the form of supervision and t r a i n i n g . The volunteer can thus further comprehend the agency's aims and functions, and be able to r e l a t e his p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l to the general purpose of the programme. Once a volunteer has offered to donate a d e f i n i t e block of time to the agency, he must be w i l l i n g to forego some of h i s own pleasures i f they c o n f l i c t with the needs of the service. This does not mean that the volunteer has to i s o l a t e himself i n the agency or deprive himself of a normal l i f e . Suoh i s o l a t i o n would be harmful to the work undertaken. I t does mean, however, that the volunteer should be dependable enough to ensure continuity i n the programme. I f 62 per cent of the volunteers remain with the agency for less than one year, t h i s shows that a large number are neglecting t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y not only to the agency, but more important, to members who are depending upon them. Success-f u l programmes need a degree of continuity, and i f by the lack of i n t e r e s t on the part of the volunteers t h i s continuity i s destroyed, then the onus can only be placed upon the volunteers themselves. I t i s the volunteer's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to remain i n -107-his l a y capacity for at l e a s t one year. Sometimes extenuating circumstances prohibit t h i s , but whenever possible the volunteer should only undertake the amount of service he can a c t u a l l y handle. I f he cannot conveniently come to the agency more than once a week, he should not accept an assignment whioh would c a l l for additional time-consuming e f f o r t . While i t would be possible to devote many pages to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that volunteers have i n every phase of leadership, i t i s obvious t h i s would necessitate ranging into f i e l d s far from the scope of the present study. Obviously there are many variations depending upon the task that i s undertaken, the type of agency, and the i n d i v i d u a l volunteer. However, i t i s clear that the best volunteer i s a mature person, endowed with s i n c e r i t y , and common sense, who has the a b i l i t y and willingness to learn further about what the agency i s attempting to do. The best volunteers, i n short, are a select group of p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d c i t i z e n s , who l i k e people and are w i l l i n g to a s s i s t even i n humble rol e s i n the creation of a better community. They are the back-bone of the rec r e a t i o n a l movement. -108 -APPENDIX A — SAMPLE LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Volunteer: I am making a study of volunteers i n rec r e a t i o n a l agencies and am seeking your support i n obtaining the basic information f o r t h i s study. The survey i s being made to get a true picture of the volunteer programme (as seen by the volunteers) i n the recreational agencies of the e i t y . Through your cooperation, the findings from t h i s survey ean r e s u l t i n recreational agencies understanding how t h e i r greatest s t a f f p o t e n t i a l i t y , the volunteers, can perform with most s a t i s f a c t i o n and e f f i c i e n c y . Results w i l l be com-bined s t a t i s t i c a l l y since what i s sought i s the general trend of volunteer thinking. Please answer a l l the questions c a r e f u l l y so that the study w i l l be r e a l l y meaningful. The r e s u l t s w i l l be compiled i n a t h e s i s required by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia for a Master's degree i n S o c i a l Work. I obtained your name from the agency where you volunteer and have received t h e i r permission to write you and ask questions about your volunteer work. Asking for your name and address i s i n order to know the average distance that volunteers l i v e from the agency. Exclude your name and address, i f by so doing you can more frankly give information, but please be sincere f o r upon your knowledge alone rests the worth of the survey. Please answer a l l the questions and return them to me as soon as possible. Feel free to add comments on the back of the sheet when necessary. A return envelope i s provided f o r your convenience. Thank you for your cooperation. Tours s i n c e r e l y , -108-A SURVEY OF VOLUNTEERS IN RECREATIONAL AGENCIES Please answer every question to the best of your a b i l i t y . I f more than one answer applies indicate t h i s i n the space provided. Use the back of the sheet f o r addi t i o n a l comments. Checks oan be used to answer most of the questions. The value of the survey depends upon your cooperation. I . Personal Information. Name: ; Sex: Male Female Address: . Occupation: Age: under 18 30 to 39 19 to SO 40 to 49 E l to E9 50 or over Name of Agency where you volunteer: I I . General Information 1. How long have you been a volunteer i n t h i s agency? just started 1 to 2 years under 6 months £ to 5 years 7 months to 1 year over 5 years S. What type of work do you do i n the agency? (In the space at ri g h t indicate your s p e c i f i c task.) leader of a group (state kind of groupj committee advisor supervisor of a p a r t i c u l a r room other types of work N.B. I f you perform more than one job, please indicate t h i s above. 3. How often do you come to the agency? more than once a week once a week __every E weeks less than once every S weeks -110-I I I . Aids for the Volunteer 1. Did you have an interview with a s t a f f person before volunteer-ing? Yes No If yes, was i t he l p f u l to you i n understanding the agency? very h e l p f u l of l i t t l e help f a i r l y h e l p f u l of no help 2. Do you think regular i n d i v i d u a l discussions with a s t a f f member would be he l p f u l to you? very h e l p f u l f a i r l y h e l p f u l of no help of l i t t l e help don't know 3. Would you be w i l l i n g to attend such i n d i v i d u a l discussions? Yes No If yes, how often could you attend? more than once a week once a month once a week less than once a month once every two weeks not sure Add comments, i f desired 4. Do you think group discussions of volunteers would be h e l p f u l to you? Yes No 5. Would you be w i l l i n g to attend such group discussions? rather than attending i n d i v i d u a l discussions i n addition to attending i n d i v i d u a l discussions _would rather attend i n d i v i d u a l discussions jsould not attend either i n d i v i d u a l or group "discussions not sure Add comments, i f desired 6. Do you f e e l that you know the purpose of the agency i n which you are working? Yes No Doubtful 7. Provided there were no i n d i v i d u a l or group discussions i n the agency, would you be able to give one evening a week over a two-month period to attend a t r a i n i n g course? Yes No Doubtful -111-IV. Staff Relationships. 1. Do you ever f e e l you are wasting your time i n volunteering? Yes No 2. Can you give reasons or indications f o r your l a s t answer? 3. Do you f e e l part of the agenoy s t a f f ? Yes No Doubtful 4. Do you ever f e e l the desire to discuss a problem i n your work with a s t a f f member? frequently - Occasionally Never _____ 5. Does the agency show any appreciation for your work? much some l i t t l e none _ 6. How i s t h i s appreciation shown? V. Reasons fo r Volunteering, 1. Various motives move people to accept community r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as volunteer workers. Consider each of the following and t r y to decide whether you think i t applies i n a general way to most  volunteers (there w i l l , of course, be some exceptions). I f you think i t does apply to most workers, place a oheok i n front of the item. I f you think several important, write i n the numbers "1,2,3", i n d i c a t i n g the order of importance. Check here for Check here.for question #1 Question #2 .(a > the need to have some interest outside home or job the desire to do something useful enjoy the prestige and importance of the work volunteer because your friends are volunteering you meet i n t e r e s t i n g people when volunteering just can't say "no" t o a request I t i s the thing to do other reasons (add any that are applicable) 2. Now consider your own motives i n a few of the tasks you have ac t u a l l y undertaken. Which of the above factors were import-ant to you? Please check these i n the space provided at the r i g h t hand side of the page, above. I f you think several important write i n numbers "1,2,3", i n d i c a t i n g the order of importance. -112-VI. Community Contacts l i Have you been responsible for someone else volunteering in any type of community work? Yes No Doubtful 2. Do many people ask you about the work the agency i s doing? Many Few None VII. Other Remarks Any comments on your experience as a volunteer, whether amplifications of what you have set out above, or some point not touched on by the questionnaire. (Use reverse side of sheet, i f neoessary) -113-APPENDIX B —REASONS FOR VOLUNTEERING VASSAR SUMMER INSTITUTE QUESTIONNAIRE for REGISTRANTS OF THE VASSAR SUMMER INSTITUTE For use at the S Y M P O S I U M July 16-18,1948 Sponsored by The Advisory Committee on C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n of Community Chests and Councils of America and the National S o c i a l Welfare Assembly's Sub-Committee on Education and Training i n conjunction with the Vassar Summer I n s t i t u t e . The findings of two questions only are included here since these were the ones most pertinent i n t h i s study. 3. Various motives move people to accept community r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as volunteer workers. Consider each of the following and t r y to decide whether you think i t applies i n a general way to most volunteer workers; there w i l l always be many exceptions. I f you think i t does apply to most workers, place a check i n front of the item. (Most people) ^Question 4.) 89.0 (a) need to have some intere s t outside home or job 56.7  84.8 (b) desire to do something useful 79.5 56.1 (c) prodded by a f e l t need for s e l f or family 47.0 78.0"*(d) enjoy the prestige and importance 32.5 55.7 (e) work because your friends are working 17.1 64.6 (f) you meet i n t e r e s t i n g people. 48.8 27.4 (g) just can't say "No" to a request 22.6 49.4 (h) i t i s the thing to do... 7.9 (i) ather: (add any that occur to you) 4. Now consider your own motives i n a few of the tasks you have undertaken. Which of the above factors were important, do you think? Please check these i n the blank at the r i g h t hand side of the page. -114-APPENDIX 0 — BIBLIOGRAPHY General References: Advisory Committee on Volunteer Service, To Have and To Hold Volunteers i n Community Services. New York, Community Chests and Councils, Inc. Advisory Committee on Volunteer Service, Statement of P r i n c i p l e s of Volunteer Service. New York, Community Chests and Councils, Inc., December, 1945. Advisory Committee on Volunteer Service, Youth Serves the Community. New York, Community Chests and Councils, Inc., November 1946. Broadie, Wanda Irene, Volunteers i n Retrospect. Cleveland, Western Reserve University, January 7th, 1947. Houtz, Fanny, "Volunteers i n Treatment," Survey Midmonthly. V o l . 80, No. 10, pp. 285-287, October, 1944. Lindeman, Eduard C , A Fantasy. New York, Y.W.C.A. Volunteer Personnel Committee, 1948. Lindeman, Eduard C , "The Volunteer Democracy's Indispensable Asset," Canadian Welfare. Vol. XXII, No. 5, pp. 2-8, October 15, 1946. National S o c i a l Welfare Assembly, Inc., Report of the National  Conference on Social Welfare Needs and the ¥/orkshop of Citizen's Groups. New York, 1948. Spec i f i c References: Advisory Committee on C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n , Highlights of the  Recognition Plan, New York, Community Chests and Councils, Inc. Advisory Committee on C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n , Symposium on Volunteer Motivations, Poughkeepsie, New York, Community Chests and Councils, Inc., July, 1948. Agnew, Helen, "To Share the P r o f i t s and the Risks — Period," Y.W.C.A. Quarterly. Toronto, National Council of the Young Women's Ch r i s t i a n Association of Canada, V o l . 5, No. 2, March, 1948. Anderson, Joseph P., "The Respective Roles of Laymen and Professional Workers i n S o c i a l Work," Canadian Welfare. Vol. XXIV, No. 2, pp. 3-7, 37-41, June, 19487 -115 Community Chests and Councils, Inc., A Handbook on the  Organization and Operation of a Volunteer Service  Bureau, New York, 1946. " Dabney, Mary K., "What Makes Volunteers Volunteer?" Community. Vol . 24, No. 1, pp. 8-9, September, 1948. Osborn, Hazel, "Some Factors of Resistance which A f f e c t Group P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " The Group. Vol. 11, No. 2, January, 1949. Pennock, Cla r i c e and Robinson, Marion, "Why We Volunteer," The Survey Midmonthly. Vol. 84, No. 9, pp. 273-276, September, 1948. Rudolph, K. Taylor, ed., The Role of the Volunteer i n Informal  Educational and Recreational Agenoies. New York, American Association for the Study of Group Work, 1940. Serotkin, Harry, "The Training and Placement of Volunteers," The Fed er at or. V o l . XLTC, No. 4, pp. 7-11, A p r i l , 1944. Shaw, Thelma, "A Volunteer Looks at Volunteering," The Compass. Vol. ZXVTI, No. 4, pp. 13-14, A p r i l , 1946. S i l l s , Dorothy H., Volunteers i n Sooial Service. New York, National Travelers' Aid Association, 1947. Thomson, L i l l i a n , "To Share the P r o f i t s and the Risks," Y.W.C.A. Quarterly, Toronto, National Council of the Young Women's Chr i s t i a n Association of Canada, Vo l . 4, No. 4, September, 1947. 

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