Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Martha and Mary Children's Home : an analytical study of a Lutheran children's home in Poulsbo, Washington,… Erickson, Frank Wellington 1951

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1951_A5 E7 M2.pdf [ 9.4MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106693.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106693-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106693-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106693-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106693-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106693-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106693-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106693-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106693.ris

Full Text

MARTHA AND MARY CHILDREN'S HOME: An A n a l y t i c a l Study of a Lutheran Children's Home i n Poulsbo, Washington, and I t s P o s s i b i l i t i e s of Change i n Function. by PRANK WELLINGTON ERICKSON Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the Department of S o c i a l Work 1951 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Abstract This i s an e v a l u a t i o n study of a small c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u -t i o n i n Poulsbo, Washington, during a p e r i o d i n which changes i n i t s f u n c t i o n s were being considered. The Home i s part of a Lutheran f e l l o w s h i p of congregations, and i s of p a r t i c u l a r impor-tance to t h i s Church, since i t i s the only remaining c h i l d r e n ' s home on the North American continent being supported by the Church. The study was made at a point at which the i n s t i t u -t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n had g r e a t l y d e c l i n e d . The Board of D i r e c t o r s were concerned w i t h t h i s s i t u a t i o n , and s e v e r a l Board meetings were c a l l e d to discuss the problem. The w r i t e r attended these meetings. Also a member of the s t a f f of the School of S o c i a l Work of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia conferred w i t h members of the Board. The development of c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s i s examined a n a l y t i c a l l y , followed by a review of some of the guiding p r i n c i p l e s of these i n s t i t u t i o n s today. A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n f o r whom i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i s s u i t a b l e i s set out, as a background f o r a pop u l a t i o n study of admissions to the Home f o r the past three years. A f t e r a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the o r i -gins and development of Martha and Mary Children's Home, i t s present program i s evaluated i n terms of standards which have been l a i d down i n the State of Washington, i . e . , p l a n t , grounds and equipment, program, governing body and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , f i n a n c i n g , and personnel. The f a c t t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n has been.de-c l i n i n g seems to po i n t up the need f o r a r e v i s e d f u n c t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s c l e a r from the pop u l a t i o n study t h a t , on the whole, the Home gets c h i l d r e n who are not s u i t a b l e f o r f o s t e r home placement. A c c o r d i n g l y , an observation and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n f o r emotionally disturbed c h i l d r e n i s suggested as i t s p o s s i b l e f u t u r e f u n c t i o n . A more r e a l i s t i c goal f o r the present time, however, seems to be a r e s i d e n t i a l home f o r a d o l -escents. Recommendations are al s o made w i t h regard to s t a f f , program, and Board of D i r e c t o r s . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This i s to acknowledge w i t h g r e a t f u l a p p r e c i a t i o n the assis t a n c e given the w r i t e r by members of the s t a f f of the School of S o c i a l Work. Through l e c t u r e s and i n d i v i d u a l confer-ences with teachers, the w r i t e r was helped to absorb much of the philosophy regarding the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e aspects and r o l e of p r i v a t e c h i l d - c a r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . Moreover, t h i s t h e s i s could not have been w r i t t e n without the h e l p f u l advice and en-couragement given by the w r i t e r ' s t h e s i s a d v i s o r s , Dr. Leonard C. Marsh and Miss Helen Wolfe. Miss Wolfe encouraged the w r i t e r and gave f r e e l y of her time. Prom the wealth of her experience w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s , the w r i t e r was g r e a t l y b e n e f i t e d . Dr. Marsh helped the w r i t e r to focus on the subject and to organize and r e v i s e the m a t e r i a l . His gracious and f r i e n d l y manner were encouraging, and h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e comments and work i n the r e v i s i o n enabled the w r i t e r to complete the t h e s i s . TABLE OP CONTENTS Part I . Children's I n s t i t u t i o n s Chapter 1. The Development of Children's I n s t i t u t i o n s Indenture of c h i l d r e n . I n s t i t u t i o n s as almshouses. I n s t i t u t i o n s as orphan asylums. I n s t i t u t i o n s as schools. I n s t i t u t i o n s as c h i l d r e n ' s homes. I n s t i t u t i o n s as s o c i a l agencies. Summary of changing a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n i n s t i t u t i o n s . Chapter 2. Children's I n s t i t u t i o n s Today; Some Guiding  P r i n c i p l e s . The emphasis on group l i v i n g and i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of the c h i l d . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of c l o t h i n g , shopping t r i p s , and h o l i d a y s . S i g n i f i c a n c e of a t t i t u d e s of s t a f f members regarding a u t h o r i t y . The importance of f a m i l y t i e s . Summary of the r o l e of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Chapter 3. C h i l d r e n Suited f o r I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care C h i l d r e n who are emotionally unable to r e l a t e to f o s t e r parents. C h i l d r e n who are te m p o r a r i l y "unplaceabl C h i l d r e n who require s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s not a v a i l a b l e i n f o s t e r homes. C h i l d r e n whose parents cannot accept f o s t e r parents. C h i l d r e n who need p r o t e c t i v e care. C h i l d r e n needing s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r own homes or f o s t e r home s. Part I I . Martha and Mary Children's Home Chapter 4. Ori g i n s and Development The founder. The Lutheran Free Church i n North America. E a r l y beginnings of the home. Program and b u i l d i n g of e a r l y days. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new b u i l d i n g . Chapter 5. An E v a l u a t i o n of Present Program P l a n t , grounds, and equipment. Program and c h i l d development. Governing body and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Personnel. i i Chapter 6. The C h i l d r e n i n the Home Summary of population study. Cases of c h i l d r e n emotionally unable to r e l a t e to f o s t e r parents. Cases of c h i l d r e n t e m p o r a r i l y "unplaceable". Cases of c h i l d r e n emotionally d i s t u r b e d . Cases of c h i l d r e n whose parents could not accept f o s t e r parents. Cases of c h i l d r e n who req u i r e d f o s t e r home placement. Chapter 7. Facing the f u t u r e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n of f a c t s . The home as a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n f o r d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . The home as an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r adolescents. Conclusion: The home as a p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n , and i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the community. Part I I I . Facing the Future L i s t of Tables i n the Text Page Table 1 Age grouping of c h i l d r e n admitted to Martha and Mary Children's Home during 1948-1950 100 Table 2 Length of residence f o r c h i l d r e n admitted to Martha and Mary Children's Home during the three year p e r i o d 1948-1950 100 Table 3 Sources of r e f e r r a l of the c h i l d r e n 100 Table 4 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n according to needs (admissions to Martha and Mary Children's Home during the three year period. 1948-1950) 102 MARTHA AND MARY CHILDREN'S HOME: An A n a l y t i c a l Study of a Lutheran Children's Home i n Poulsbo, Washington, and I t s P o s s i b i l i t i e s of Change i n P u n c t i Chapter I The Development of Children's I n s t i t u t i o n s S o c i a l workers have long been t r o u b l e d about meeting the needs of c h i l d r e n away from t h e i r own homes. E a r l y leaders i n the f i e l d of c h i l d welfare f e l t t h a t indenture and the almshouse had f a i l e d t h e i r purposes as f a r as c h i l d r e n were concerned, and looked t o -wards the b u i l d i n g of separate i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n as a s o l u t i o n . The e a r l y orphanages, however, were c o l d , dreary places where c h i l d r e n learned to l a b o r and to pray, but where l i t t l e love and a f f e c t i o n were given. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the orphanages and the development of the f o s t e r home movement e v e n t u a l l y l e d to general condemnation of the i n s t i t u t i o n i n c h i l d care programs by many leaders i n the f i e l d of c h i l d w e l f a r e . The pendulum swung so f a r away from c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s i n North America that many i n s t i t u t i o n s c l o s e d t h e i r doors permanently. The h i s t o r y of the development of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i s a long one. Even the e a r l i e s t c o l o n i s t s had to provide some k i n d of p r o v i s i o n f o r dependent c h i l d r e n . Sickness, death, Indian massacres, and other misfortunes l e f t orphans and dependent f a m i l -i e s to be cared f o r out of the meager resources of the t i n y settlements. In such pioneer communities, help was u s u a l l y generously extended to neighbors whose needs and resources were w e l l known, but i t i s suspected that there was a l s o quick condemna-t i o n of those who d i d not bear t h e i r share of the burdens. The c o l o n i s t s t r i e d to apply the p r i n c i p l e s of the E n g l i s h Poor Law to New World c o n d i t i o n s , and they doubtless accepted the E n g l i s h view t h a t poverty was u s u a l l y the f a u l t of the p o o r / In the American col o n i e s a system of indenture, or apprentice-s h i p , developed. Apparently, t h i s was a carry-over from the p r a c t i c e of indenture i n England. In f a c t , young apprentices were among the e a r l i e s t s e t t l e r s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Large numbers of these c h i l d r e n were r e c r u i t e d from the almshouses and the poor of London, and were sent to V i r g i n i a i n the seventeenth century under apprenticeship agreements. While the purpose of t h i s c h i l d e x p o r t a t i o n was cloaked i n words of C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y , the r e a l reason f o r the professed i n t e r e s t of the V i r g i n i a Com-pany of London i n the c h i l d r e n ' s welfare i s f a i r l y obvious. Work-men were g r e a t l y needed i n the new country, and young c h i l d r e n who worked during t h e i r m i n o r i t y without pay were cheap and use-f u l . I f these c h i l d immigrants were able to s u r v i v e the hardships of the voyage, f a l l i n t o the hands of good masters, and p l a y the pa r t expected of them i n the work of c l e a r i n g the wilderness and b u i l d i n g homes, t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r securing land and economic independence were greater than i n England. But i t was a severe t e s t f o r these c h i l d r e n . Some of the c h i l d r e n d i e d , but many more must have s u f f e r e d from homesickness, i l l treatment, and overwork. But i t was not only these London c h i l d r e n who were apprenticed i n the c o l o n i e s . Apprenticeship was the u s u a l method of l e a r n i n g a s k i l l e d trade i n the c o l o n i e s as i n England, and i t soon became the accepted method of enabling poor c h i l d r e n to earn t h e i r way xGrace Abbott, The C h i l d and the S t a t e , Volume I I , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Presay 1938, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , p. 3. 3 and so not t o become a "burden t o the community". There are two f a c t s which stand out c l e a r l y w i t h respect t o indenture. The f i r s t i s t h a t unattached c h i l d r e n and c h i l d r e n whose parents neglected them or could not support them were attached to some person or f a m i l y who agreed to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r them. Second, the person assuming such r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and expense c o l l e c t e d the whole b i l l from the c h i l d ' s work before the e x p i r a t i o n of the term of indenture. The f o l l o w i n g quotation p o i n t s up the k i n d of agreement u s u a l l y entered i n t o i n the process of indenture: The f i r s t c h i l d placed out by p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y i n Massachusetts was Benjamin Eaton. He was i n -dentured i n 1636 by the Governor and a s s i s t a n t s of Plymouth Colony "to Bridget P u l l e r , widow f o r 14 y e a r s , she being to keep him at school two years and to employ him a f t e r i n such s e r v i c e as she saw good and he should be f i t f o r ; but not to t u r n him oyer to any other, without ye Gov'n consente". I t was not t h a t the c o l o n i s t s wished to be unkind to u n f o r -tunate c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r midst, but t h e i r theory of what c o n s t i t u t e d proper care l e d them to want these c h i l d r e n to l e a r n to work. Since i d l e n e s s has always been regarded as a s i n i n the poor, i t was e s p e c i a l l y so i n a new country where there was l i t t l e wealth or money, and a shortage of l a b o r . Moreover, the P u r i -tans and the Quakers regarded work as a necessary p a r t of the t r a i n i n g of a l l c h i l d r e n . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , not s u r p r i s i n g that the c o l o n i s t s regarded i t as e s p e c i a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r poor c h i l d -ren, who above a l l o t h e r s , i t was thought, needed to be taught " t h r i f t and i n d u s t r y " . However, the c h i e f value of indenture 2Grace Abbott, The C h i l d and the S t a t e , Volume 1, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1938, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , p. 189. 5Henry W. Thurston, The Dependent C h i l d , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York, 1930, p. 13. 4 to the c o l o n i s t s , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r pious r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s about i t , was the f a c t t h a t i t saved the town or county money.^ I t i s m o r a l l y c e r t a i n that the experiences of indentured c h i l d r e n v a r i e d a l l the way from that of being v i r t u a l slaves to that of being r e a l f o s t e r sons or daughters. However, the tendency In the system was f o r the employer to exact the pound of f l e s h from the indentured c h i l d , w i t h no one around to p r o t e c t the c h i l d and to see that no more than a pound would be taken. Neverthe-l e s s , the process of indenture d i d o f f e r to homeless and d e s t i -tute c h i l d r e n an opportunity t o have at l e a s t the d a i l y minimum of food, s h e l t e r , and c l o t h i n g . I n modern terms, i t might be s a i d that the process of indenture was i n general b e t t e r f o r the dependent c h i l d of the s i x t e e n t h , seventeenth, and eighteenth c e n t u r i e s than homelessness and vagrancy, i n t h a t i t gave the c h i l d : a c e r t a i n degree of s e c u r i t y and a "sense of belonging", i i f o nly to a hard and p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n master.^ The a p p r e n t i c e s h i p system as a method of p r o v i d i n g f o r de-pendent c h i l d r e n drew l i t t l e or no c r i t i c i s m u n t i l the end of the nineteenth century. Not a l l c h i l d r e n , however, were appren-t i c e d to earn the care they r e c e i v e d . There was some home r e -l i e f i n s mall settlements, and dependent f a m i l i e s were f r e q u e n t l y auctioned o f f t o the lowest b i d d e r s , sometimes w i t h a p r o v i s i o n i n the contract t h a t the c h i l d r e n were to have the p r i v i l e g e of :Abbott, op. c i t . , Volume I , p. 190 'Thurston, op. c i t . , pp. 17-18 5 going t o school i n the w i n t e r . The next development i n the care of neglected, dependent, and delinquent c h i l d r e n was i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. This development was interwoven w i t h s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s , and the p r e v a i l i n g understanding of c h i l d r e n and t h e i r needs. There have been various stages i n the growth of c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s , and we need to consider them i n order to understand them and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o the c h i l d care f i e l d of today. H i s t o r i a n s have i n d i c a t e d the f o l l o w i n g stages i n the development of c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s : 1. i n s t i t u t i o n s as almshouses or poor houses; 2. i n s t i t u t i o n s a3 orphan asylums; 3. i n s t i t u t i o n s as schools; 4. i n s t i t u t i o n s as c h i l d r e n ' s homes; and f i n a l l y , 5. i n s t i t u t i o n s as s o c i a l agencies. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l p o i n t up the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each of these f i v e stages, although i t must be r e a l i z e d t h a t a v e s t i g e of a l l these stages i s s t i l l i n t e r -mingled i n our i n s t i t u t i o n s of today. I n s t i t u t i o n s as almshouses One of the c h i e f advocates f o r the establishment of alms-houses f o r the use of both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n , was J . V. N. Yates, Secretary of State of New York from 1823 to 1824. Mr. Yates* argument was based on h i s observation of the s i t u a t i o n i n New York State at t h a t time w i t h respect to the poor of the s t a t e : The poor of t h i s sta'te c o n s i s t of two c l a s s e s — the permanent poor, or those who are r e g u l a r l y sup-ported during the whole year at the p u b l i c expense; and the o c c a s i o n a l , or temporary poor, or those who r e c e i v e o c c a s i o n a l r e l i e f , during a p a r t of the year, c h i e f l y i n the autumn or w i n t e r . 'Abbott, op. c i t . , Volume I I , pp. 3-4 6 Of the f i r s t c l a s s , according to the o f f i c i a l r e p o r t and estimates r e c e i v e d , there are i n t h i s s t a t e , 6896j and of the l a s t 15215, making a grand t o t a l of 22111 paupers. Among the permanent paupers there are 446 i d i o t s and l u n a t i c s ; 287 persons who are b l i n d ; 928 who are extremely aged and i n f i r m ; 797 who are lame, or i n such a con-firmed s t a t e of i l l h e a l t h as to be t o t a l l y i n -capable of l a b o r . . . There are 8753 c h i l d r e n of both c l a s s e s under 14 years of age, the greater number of whom i s en-t i r e l y d e s t i t u t e of education, and e q u a l l y i n want of t h a t care and a t t e n t i o n , which are so necessary to i n c u l c a t e c o r r e c t moral h a b i t s . I t i s feared t h a t t h i s mass of pauperism, w i l l at not d i s t a n t day form a f r u i t f u l nursery f o r crime, unless pre-vented by the watchful superintendence of the l e g i s -l a t u r e . As a summary of methods Mr. Yates f u r t h e r s t a t e s : In most, or a l l of the towns and v i l l a g e s i n the s t a t e , where there are no almshouse, the poor are disposed of by the overseers i n one of three ways: F i r s t , the overseers farm them out at s t i p u l a t e d p r i c e s to c o n t r a c t o r s , who are w i l l -i n g to r e c e i v e and keep them, on c o n d i t i o n of g e t t i n g what l a b o r they can out of the paupers; or secondly, the poor are s o l d by a u c t i o n — the meaning of which i s , t h a t he who w i l l support them f o r the lowest p r i c e s , becomes t h e i r keeper; and i t o f t e n happens, of course, t h a t the keeper i s almost h i m s e l f a pauper before he purchases, and he adopts t h i s mode i n order not to f a l l a burden upon the town. Thus, he, and another miserable human being b a r e l y s u b s i s t on what would h a r d l y comfortably maintain h i m s e l f alone — a species of economy must boasted of by some of our town o f f i c e r s and purchasers of paupers; or t h i r d l y , r e l i e f i s a fforded to the poor i n t h e i r own h a b i t a t i o n . Mr. Yates a l s o pointed out t h a t there was the problem of residence w i t h regards t o l o c a l p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care of the poor. L o c a l communities attempted to avoid care of non-resident poor, and many of the l a t t e r were moved, at great co s t , to d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the s t a t e under orders or warrants of j u s t i c e s . 7 In a d d i t i o n Mr. Yates i n d i c a t e d i n h i s argument i n fa v o r of the almshouse that i n sta t e s where the poorhouse system had pre-v a i l e d f o r the g r e a t e s t l e n g t h of time, the r a t i o of pauperism, and the expense of c a r i n g f o r paupers was l e s s than i n other s t a t e s . He recommended, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t one or more "houses of employment", i n each of the counties of New York be e s t a b l i s h e d . In connection w i t h each of these i n s t i t u t i o n s he suggested that there be a farm, the pauper to be maintained and employed at the expense of the r e s p e c t i v e counties, " i n some h e a l t h f u l l a b o r , c h i e f l y a g r i c u l t u r a l ; t h e i r c h i l d r e n to be c a r e f u l l y i n s t r u c t e d , and at s u i t a b l e ages, t o be put out t o some u s e f u l business or trad e " . Regarding pauper c h i l d r e n who were not i n almshouses, Mr. Yates had already s a i d : The education and morals of the c h i l d r e n of paupers are almost wholly neglected. They grow up i n f i l t h , i d l e n e s s , ignorance and disease, and many become e a r l y candidates f o r the p r i s o n or the grave. The evidence on t h i s head i s too voluminous f o r r eference. Mr. Yates, t h e r e f o r e , recommended almshouse care of dependent and neglected c h i l d r e n as a means t o t h e i r education and moral t r a i n i n g . Moreover, he suggested indenture as the process by which c h i l d r e n should be l a t e r removed from the almshouse and attached t o i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s where they could pay t h e i r own way. He thought that i n the almshouse, c h i l d r e n could be educated and set on the road t o a l i f e t h a t would f r e e them from ignorance, pauperism, and v i c e . Mr. Yates, and people i n general of that day, saw, of course, only the debasing i n f l u e n c e upon c h i l d r e n of incompetent, n e g l e c t f u l and depraved parents. What they 8 apparently d i d not appreciate was the sodden, coarsening and debasing atmosphere of the mixed almshouse. For i n these mixed almshouses which were b u i l t as towns grew l a r g e r , orphaned c h i l d r e n were consigned to l i v e w i t h the aged, the insane, the feeble-minded, and the diseased. They were u s u a l l y cared f o r by the o l d e r inmates and taught, i f at a l l , by ignorant employees.-P h y s i c a l needs were neglected, and t h e i r m o r t a l i t y was very h i g h . Those who sur v i v e d knew only the l i f e and ro u t i n e of a pauper 8 i n s t i t u t i o n . * '• • • • • -W i l l i a m Pryor Letchworth of B u f f a l o , a man of wealth who had given up h i s business, and thenceforth u n t i l h i s death devoted hi m s e l f w i t h d i s t i n g u i s h e d a b i l i t y to s o c i a l s e r v i c e , described one almshouse i n 1874 as f o l l o w s : At the date of October 28, 1874, there were i n t h i s poorhouse f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n . Ten of them were boys and f i v e were g i r l s -- s i x of the number were under two years of age...Five of the c h i l d r e n were born i n the poorhouse. The longest time any one had been there was f i v e y e a r s . . . S i x were under two years of age; seven between two and t e n , and two were ten and l e s s than s i x t e e n . Four were de-f e c t i v e . . . . These c h i l d r e n were found i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the poorhouse establishment as i s u s u a l l y the case. Four of them were i n a ward with women paupers. Among these was a g i r l of eight or nine years o l d . One of these women had a c h i l d of her own i n the same room, and among the c h i l d r e n . She had been an inmate twenty months; had a very i r r i t a b l e temper --so v i o l e n t t h a t she could not r e t a i n f o r any le n g t h of time a home outside of the poorhouse. She was strong and h e a l t h y , and a woman of very debased charac t e r . Such was one of the hour l y companions of these young g i r l s . Thurston, op. c i t . , pp. 19-26. Abbott, op. c i t . , p. 4. 9 A second group of c h i l d r e n — boys — were found i n the workhouse. They were i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h the inmates of the workhouse, around the cauldrons where the d i r t y c l othes were being b o i l e d . Here was an insane woman r a v i n g and u t t e r i n g g i b b e r i n g s , a h a l f crazy man was sardon-i c a l l y g r i n n i n g , and an overgrown i d i o t i c boy of m a l i c i o u s d i s p o s i t i o n was t e a s i n g , I might say t o r t u r i n g , one of the l i t t l e boys. There were s e v e r a l other adu l t s of low types of humanity. The apartment of t h i s d i l a p i d a t e d b u i l d i n g over-head was used f o r a sleepingroom, and the f l o o r was being scrubbed at the time by one of the not o v e r - c a r e f u l inmates; i t was worn, and the d i r t y water came through the cracks i n continuous droppings upon the heads of the l i t t l e ones, who d i d not seem to regard i t as a s e r i o u s annoyance. The discomfort was immediately checked when ob-served by the keeper. The t h i r d group were i n a back b u i l d i n g c a l l e d the insane department. They were the most promising c h i l d r e n of a l l , and yet the place was made i n t o l e r a b l e by the groanings and sighings of one of the poor insane c r e a t u r e s , who was sway-ing backward and forward. She was a hideous l o o k -i n g o b j e c t , and a great p o r t i o n of her time was passed i n t h i s e x c i t e d c o n d i t i o n . The c h i l d r e n are not sent to s c h o o l , n e i t h e r i s a school sus-t a i n e d upon the premises, the number being too s m a l l to warrant the h i r i n g of a teacher.... Charles A. Hoyt, f i r s t s e c r e t a r y of the State Board of C h a r i t i e s of New York, s t a t e d i n the Annual Report of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 1868 that during the year 304 c h i l d r e n were born i n almshouses i n New York. A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of these c h i l d r e n were i l l e g i t i m a t e . Mr. Hoyt urged county a u t h o r i t i e s to move c h i l d r e n from the poor-houses to orphan asylums. As e a r l y as 1856 a s e l e c t committee of the Senate of the State of New York had pointed out the value of the orphanage f o r pauper c h i l d r e n . R e f e r r i n g to the education of paupers i n mixed almshouses, they s t a t e d : The education which the s t a t u t e s provide f o r them i s not s u i t e d t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r case. Indoor i n -s t r u c t i o n i s o f t e n confided to u n f i t and v i c i o u s teachers.; 10 and the attendance of pauper c h i l d r e n at schools i n the v i c i n i t y of the almshouse i s accompanied by a s o r t of disgrace a t t a c h i n g to t h e i r p o s i t i o n which has a most unfavorable i n f l u e n c e . Orphanage i s not subject to the l i k e stigma; and therefore to go from an orphan asylum to a p u b l i c school does not expose the orphan to the same taunts and inconsiderateness that f o l l o w the pauper c h i l d who i s the inmate of a poorhouse; which i s g e n e r a l l y reputed i n i t s v i c i n i t y , as a h a b i t a t i o n of v i c e and degradation, so low has i t f a l l e n from i t s o r i g i n a l purpose. The r e a c t i o n against mixed almshouses f o r c h i l d r e n was strong. Prom the f i r s t decade of the nineteenth century, i t s t i m u l a t e d l o c a l groups of persons i n d i f f e r e n t places to found i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r dependent c h i l d r e n , i n order to keep them from the mixed almshouse I n s t i t u t i o n s as orphan asylums The e a r l i e s t i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n were created t o meet the emergent needs of c h i l d r e n . Pioneers saw the p l i g h t of waifs orphaned by Indian massacres, by yellow f e v e r , by the r u t h l e s s -ness of war and set themselves to p l a n f o r t h e i r care."^ I t was the nuns of the U r s u l i n e Convent i n New Orleans who were the f i r s t to undertake the care of c h i l d r e n separate from needy a d u l t s . An Indian massacre i n 1729 brought newly orphaned c h i l d r e n to be cared f o r by the S i s t e r s , thus emphasizing -the f a c t that the emergency needs of c h i l d r e n i n time of war and d i s a s t e r have a l -^Thurston, op. c i t . , pp. 27-38. 1 G S y b i l P o s t e r , "Co-ordination of I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care of C h i l d r e n w i t h other Services i n the Community", Proceedings  of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, 1936, p. 548 11 ways s t i m u l a t e d the founding of i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e i r care. The second orphanage e s t a b l i s h e d i n the United States was the Bethesda Orphanage, e s t a b l i s h e d i n Georgia i n 1738. Benjamin F r a n k l i n wrote the f o l l o w i n g concerning the e f f o r t s of the founder, George W h i t e f i e l d (1714-1770), a ce l e b r a t e d E n g l i s h clergyman and p u l p i t o r a t o r : Mr. W h i t e f i e l d , i n l e a v i n g us, went preaching a l l the way thro* the c o l o n i e s to Georgia. The s e t t l e -ment of that province had l a t e l y been begun, but, i n -stead of being made w i t h hardy, i n d u s t r i o u s husband-men, accustomed to l a b o r , the only people f i t f o r such an e n t e r p r i s e , i t was wit h f a m i l i e s of broken shop-keepers and other i n s o l v e n t debtors, many of i n -dolent and i d l e h a b i t s , taken out of the j a i l s , who, being set down i n the woods, u n q u a l i f i e d f o r c l e a r i n g l a n d , and unable to endure the hardships of a new settlement, perished i n numbers, l e a v i n g many h e l p -l e s s c h i l d r e n unprovided f o r . The s i g h t of t h e i r miserable s i t u a t i o n i n s p i r ' d the benevolent heart of Mr. W h i t e f i e l d w i t h the idea of b u i l d i n g an Orphan House t h e r e , i n which they might be supported and educated. Returning northward, he preach'd up t h i s c h a r i t y , and made l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n s , f o r h i s eloquence had a wonderful power over the hearts and purses of h i s hearers, of which I myself was an in s t a n c e . I d i d not disapprove of the design, but, as Georgia was then d e s t i t u t e of m a t e r i a l s and workmen, and i t was proposed to send them from P h i l a d e l p h i a at a great expense, I thought i t would have been b e t t e r t o have b u i l t the house here, and brought the c h i l d r e n to i t . This I a d v i s 1 d ; but he was r e -so l u t e i n h i s f i r s t p r o j e c t , r e j e c t e d my counsel, and I therefore r e f u s ' d to c o n t r i b u t e . I happened soon a f t e r to attend one of h i s sermons, i n the course of which I perceived he intended t o f i n i s h w i t h a c o l l e c t i o n , and I s i l e n t l y resolved he should get nothing from me. I had i n my pocket a handful of copper money, three or f o u r s i l v e r d o l l a r s , and f i v e p i s t o l e s i n go l d . As he proceeded I began to s o f t e n , and concluded to give the coppers. Another stroke of h i s o r a t o r y made me asham'd of t h a t , and determin'd me to give the s i l v e r ; and he f i n i s h ' d so admirably, that I empty'd my pocket wholly i n t o HHoward W. Hopkirk, I n s t i t u t i o n s Serving C h i l d r e n , R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, Hew York, 1944, p. 3. 12 12 the c o l l e c t o r ' s d i s h , gold and a l l . x c ' E a r l y investments i n i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n were made by Roman C a t h o l i c s and Protestants a l i k e i n the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century, but i t was not u n t i l the war between the stat e s that great a c t i v i t y was to be noted i n the b u i l d i n g of such establishments. The f r a t e r n a l orders, on the whole, began somewhat l a t e r than the churches and l a y groups to undertake the care of c h i l d r e n . The f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n founded by a f r a t e r n a l order was e s t a b l i s h e d by the Masons i n C a l i f o r n i a i n 1850, but i t had been preceded by s e v e r a l church or g a n i z a t i o n s i n that s t a t e . The Jewish Orphan Asylum of the Independent Order of B'nai B ' r i t h was founded i n New Orleans i n 1855; the Masons e s t a b l i s h e d an i n s t i t u t i o n — not the f i r s t — i n Kentucky i n 1867. Two or three c h i l d - c a r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d elsewhere i n the 1870's "from which time the f r a t e r n a l orders seem to have gone with the t i d e of orphanage b u i l d i n g t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d most parts of the country i n the 1880's and the 1890's, without embodying any d i s t i n c t i v e p o i n t s i n t h e i r programs". Excerpts from a statement by a Lutheran m i n i s t e r i n Pennsyl-vania who once l i v e d i n an orphan asylum provided a glimpse of what i t was l i k e to be a small boy admitted to an orphan asylum: Henry Adams i n h i s autobiography says: "Boys are w i l d animals r i c h i n the treasures of sense". Per-haps i t was the sense of s i g h t which was strongest i n a d e l i c a t e , t i m i d , young l a d as he stood one cold February morning between two gentlemen of the church, l o o k i n g up at a huge, dismal b r i c k b u i l d i n g , p i t t e d against a dark, grey sky, surrounded by black , dead, l e a f l e s s t r e e s , -^t was an orphan asylum (orphan 12 13-Abbott, op. c i t . , pp. 24-25. 'Hopkirk, op. c i t . , p. 3. 13 home — being a term used to hide r e a l i t y ) . I t was to be t h i s boy's f u t u r e home — f o r how long — no one had even a dini n o t i o n , nor d i d i t matter much. Perhaps "walls do not a p r i s o n make", but to a home-l e s s l a d of nine t h i s scene was not c h e e r f u l nor to h i s l i k i n g . . . . Sad, disappointed, a f r a i d , yet eager was he to see more of t h i s huge t h i n g , so he f o l l o w e d the two men through the narrow doorway. There along a long narrow h a l l stood a l i n e of boys, l i n e d up according to h e i g h t , a l l standing erect without a s m i l e . Watch-i n g them was a t a l l , m i l i t a r y - l o o k i n g German (not f o r g e t t i n g the mustache and g l a s s e s ) . He was the superintendent — my f u t u r e master. Although he greeted me k i n d l y , my i n t e r e s t was i n t h a t long l i n e of boys, who had somehow sensed a new a r r i v a l , and were craning t h e i r necks f o r a s i g h t of him. I have o f t e n wondered since i f t h a t was the f i r s t time I became conscious of myself. There I stood — a t h i n g apart — something to be looked a t , out of c u r i o s i t y and even h o s t i l i t y — f o r boys i n an orphan home are s t r a n g e l y s e l f - c e n t e r e d . But whether I had thoughts at t h a t time, I know not. I f I d i d they would be rudely h a l t e d by the clanging of a loud b e l l , which I discovered meant dinner. I soon found myself i n the l a r g e s t room I had ever seen, where there were dozens of long t a b l e s , around which crowded hungry boys and g i r l s . I t was i n the j a n g l i n g of knives and dishes t h a t I found a sense of r e l i e f , of f o r g e t f u l n e s s , and even managed to eat. The meal ended w i t h some s o r t of u n i n t e l l i -g i b l e German prayer. My two guardians were soon c l o s e t e d behind a door on which was n a i l e d the imposing word " o f f i c e " , w h i l e I was l e f t to wander as I saw f i t . To escape curious glances and open mouths, I wandered i n t o a l l the empty rooms, and to my d e l i g h t soon discovered a l i b r a r y . I f I had any thought that t h i s room might prove a r e -fuge f o r me, I was doomed to disappointment; f o r I afterward learned that i t was only on s p e c i a l occasions and w i t h s p e c i a l permission that a book could be used. Even i n 1913 a l l the homelike things and kindnesses of such an i n s t i t u t i o n were but a show and a sham to a l l a y the s u s p i c i o u s and i d l e c u r i o s i t y of v i s i t o r s and s o c i a l workers (that r a d i c a l and hated c l a s s ) . . . . Other excerpts of l i f e i n the i n s t i t u t i o n are given by the same Lutheran m i n i s t e r : I n an i n s t i t u t i o n the i n d i v i d u a l counts f o r n o t h i n g l Nor i s the w e l f a r e , temperament, or d i s p o s i t i o n of any 14 one c h i l d taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . What might be good or he a l t h y f o r one i s taken to be good or healthy f o r a l l . L i f e must be uniform, l o g i c a l , and conventional. Thus l i f e becomes stereotyped. The d u t i e s , t a s k s , and experiences of one day become the d u t i e s , t a s k s , and experiences of a l l the other three hundred and s i x t y -f o u r days of the year. The a c t i v i t i e s of every hour are planned. At s i x o'clock i n the morning our day began. For what reason I have never been able to f i n d out except the o l d proverb " E a r l y to bed and e a r l y to r i s e makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise". Ten minutes was allowed f o r d r e s s i n g , a f t e r which we were a l l marched down to that same narrow h a l l f o r our morning c a l i s t h e n i c s . Here i t was t h a t I t a s t e d the f i r s t b i t of c r u e l and t o r t u r o u s punishment I had ever known. I f any t h i n g (such as a cut while shaving) had aroused our master's German i r e , he would make us stand i n a long l i n e and h o l d out our arms h o r i z o n t a l l y u n t i l our faces assumed a l l s o r t s of agonizing t w i s t s . Anyone who has ever t r i e d h o l d i n g out h i s arms any length of time knows the meaning of such an experience. Promptly at seven o'clock we were marched to our morning bowl of oatmeal, dry bread and c o f f e e , which was served between German prayers and devotions. For r e l i g i o n h e ld an important place i n the d a i l y r o u t i n e . Then we were brought back to our dormitories and each had t o make h i s own bed. Perhaps you are i n t e r e s t e d to know how the work was done. Who was to wash a l l the dishes? Who was to clean a l l the rooms? Obviously out-side, help could not be brought i n and p a i d to do such work. So the g i r l s were given the work of the d i n i n g room and k i t c h e n ; while the boys w i t h p a i l s and brooms proceeded to sweep and scrub the f l o o r s , dust, and c l e a n the windows. The s m a l l e r boys and g i r l s , not able to do e i t h e r , were f i t t e d out w i t h needles and thread to l e a r n the a r t of sewing. "Useful t r a i n i n g " was the argument. And i t was t h a t ; f o r i t assured me a place i n the k i n g -dom of bachelordom. School was not neglected. That they h e l d the idea that education was the panacea f o r a l l e v i l , I doubt. At l e a s t they knew that i l l i t e r a c y was not necessary.... From 4:30 to 5:30 i n the afternoon we were f r e e ; at l i b e r t y to do as we wished, provided we wished not the impossible and stayed w i t h i n the bounds of the fence. F o o t b a l l , b a s e b a l l , "shinny" (an orphan boy's game of g o l f ) f i g h t s , f l y i n g k i t e s , a l l came i n t u r n as the seasons and k i n g of sports decided. At s i x o'clock food and prayers. Then to study, or 15 p o s s i b l y to read a good s t o r y , i f no one was watching. U n t i l at e i g h t o'clock t h a t dismal, haunting b e l l sounded f o r the l a s t time. Soon a strange s o l i t a r y s i l e n c e . The s p i r i t of n i g h t and of sleep had again spread her dark heavy mantle over her c h i l d r e n . Summer and v a c a t i o n to most boys means, as i t meant to Henry Adams, " r o l l i n g i n the grass, or wad-in g i n the brook, or swimming i n s a l t ocean, or s a i l -i n g i n the bay, or f i s h i n g i n the creeks, or e x p l o r i n g the pine woods and h i l l s " but to my companions and me i t meant three hours each morning of r e l i g i o u s i n -s t r u c t i o n i n the German language, and then a hot summer afternoon's work of weeding or hoeing on the farm. The only r e a l v a c a t i o n was an o c c a s i o n a l h a l f - h o u r of sport i n the "ol» swimmin' h o l e " , or an afternoon i n the hay f i e l d s . To l i e on the top of a l o a d of hay, w i t h i t s sweet s m e l l , and look up through the cracks of one's straw hat, at the blue sky, dotted here and there w i t h l a z y white clouds, was one of the most d e l i g h t f u l sen-s a t i o n s of my childhood. . Yet there was one day of the year when a l l had to be d i f f e r e n t — the day of a l l days f o r c h i l d r e n — Christmas. On a Sunday afternoon about a month before Christmas we were a l l t o l d to t h i n k of two presents we wanted Santa Claus (we knew there was no Santa Claus) to b r i n g us, one f o r twenty-five cents and one f o r f i f t y cents. For the next few weeks we searched eagerly through a l l the a v a i l a b l e magazines and newspapers f o r advertisements of t h i n g s wonderful, p r e c i o u s , and not exceeding f i f t y cents. We u s u a l l y ended by p i c k i n g out a k n i f e or a b e l t . Then anxious w a i t i n g u n t i l Christmas eve. R e l i g i o n to a c h i l d i s mostly a matter of s i g h t and of hearing. The scene of that chapel on Christmas eve, w i t h i t s s o f t music and the s i n g i n g of " S t i l l e Nacht, H e i l i g e Nacht", w i t h i t s two huge decorated Christmas trees on e i t h e r side of a c l e v e r l y constructed v i l l a g e of Bethlehem i n m i n i a t u r e , w i t h angels and a l i g h t e d s t a r , w i t h shepherds watching t h e i r f l o c k s on b u i l t -up h i l l s of mossy stones, and Mary and Joseph i n a l o w l y born C h r i s t - c h i l d — that scene s t i l l haunts me at t h i s date. Yet to a c h i l d i t was q u i c k l y f o r g o t t e n i n h i s hurry and eagerness f o r the long-waited presents. For a few hours and days a l l e l s e was f o r g o t t e n — we were completely happy. Would i t be a l t o g e t h e r out of place to speak of the r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g f o r a moment? For be i t under-stood, t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n was under the c o n t r o l of the church, w i t h a l l i t s s t i f f n e s s and c o l d f o r m a l i t y . Of r e l i g i o u s education, such as church leaders today speak, there was none. A l l i n s t r u c t i o n was i n the German 16 language (of which most of us were completely i g n o r a n t ) , and c o n s i s t e d of constant memorization. Luther's "Small Catechism" was memorized from beginning to end, chapters of the B i b l e , and many hymns of the church. On one occasion we had to l e a r n a long hymn which began Voeglein i n hohem Baum I could remember tha t f i r s t l i n e , but the second l i n e c o n s t a n t l y eluded me u n t i l my y o u t h f u l genius asserted i t s e l f w i t h t h i s r e s u l t , V oeglein i n hohem Baum P i c k up a stone and knock him down. But there was no need to r e j o i c e i n my a b i l i t y as i t got me i n t o very serious t r o u b l e . Thus r e l i g i o u s education as a whole meant simply the memorizing of words without t h e i r meaning, without adapting any of the m a t e r i a l to the needs of the c h i l d . I t was t h i s same r i g i d r e l i g i o u s c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y which produced another f a i l i n g , at l e a s t to my mind, as I now look back. I t was the complete se p a r a t i o n of sexes. Boys are kept as f a r as p o s s i b l e from the g i r l s , and to be seen t a l k i n g at any time to a g i r l meant severe punishment. This brought vague notions i n t o a c h i l d ' s h e a d — why should i t be so? What was there wrong.in i t ? The r e s u l t was that a f t e r a boy or g i r l l e f t the home at the age of s i x t e e n there came a com-p l e t e r e a c t i o n . That strange d e s i r e coupled w i t h com-p l e t e ignorance brought d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s . And many of those f i n e young l i v e s have been s p o i l e d or s e r i o u s l y handicapped. I know t h i s from the l i v e s of some of my companions. So passed f o u r years of my l i f e w i t h l i t t l e or no v a r i a t i o n . U n t i l one morning I was c a l l e d i n t o that f o r b i d d i n g - l o o k i n g o f f i c e . What i t was f o r I could not imagine, but I supposed I had done some t h i n g wrong again. Can you imagine my s u r p r i s e then, when asked i f I would l i k e to attend school i n R , to study f o r the m i n i s t r y . I , who had never been out of B , who had been i n bondage and who longed to be f r e e I I never heard the l a t t e r p a r t of the sentence that l i m i t e d my choice to the m i n i s t r y . In f a c t , I didn't even t h i n k , I simply s a i d "Yes". So one September morning, w i t h a l i t t l e g r i p i n one hand, and the superintendent's hand i n the other, I-walked up that long lane f o r the l a s t time as a c h i l d out i n t o l i f e . 1 4 1 4 T h u r s t o n , op. c i t . , pp. 71-76. 17 This b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the l i f e of a boy i n an orphan asylum i n 1913 must c e r t a i n l y give the modern reader the f e e l i n g that the standards i n such i n s t i t u t i o n s were wretchedly low. While i t was recognized that c h i l d r e n needed as a minimum the p h y s i c a l n e c e s s i t i e s of s h e l t e r , food and c l o t h i n g , t r a i n i n g f o r work, and r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n ^ i t was b e l i e v e d that these things could be provided i n a wholesale, r o u t i n e way f o r a l l c h i l d r e n who were homeless or whose f a m i l i e s were so s h i f t l e s s as t o f a i l to provide decent care. Because there was no adequate as s i s t a n c e to parents and f a m i l i e s from p u b l i c funds i n most com-mu n i t i e s , and because care i n "orphan asylums" was considered so b e n e f i c i a l , h a l f orphans and others were a l s o taken i n t o these i n s t i t u t i o n s as p r o t e c t i o n from " d e s t i t u t i o n at home and outrage on the s t r e e t s " . C h i l d r e n were cut o f f from f a m i l y t i e s , and emotional needs were not considered. There was no i n d i v i d u a l i z a -t i o n and l i t t l e regard f o r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . A l l emphasis was upon mass p r o v i s i o n of long-time care i n a safe haven of refuge from the world. Many orphan asylums could have been b e t t e r l a b e l e d as " c h i l d r e n ' s monasteries" because they f r e q u e n t l y i s o l a t e d the c h i l d from nature, s o c i a l l i f e , and a l l the other experiences which might have developed h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . The f l a g r a n t n e g l e c t , even abuse, of c h i l d r e n i n these b i g congregate asylums f i n a l l y shocked the s o c i a l consciences of people i n t o r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t that i n s t i t u t i o n s as they ex-i s t e d d i d not produce good or even adequate c i t i z e n s . I n s t i t u t i o n s as schools Some i n s t i t u t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d out of concern f o r the t r a i n i n g needs of c h i l d r e n . Before the days of f r e e p u b l i c educa-18 t i o n , the i n s t i t u t i o n provided the only means of schooli n g f o r some c h i l d r e n . Separate i n s t i t u t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r groups of c h i l d r e n w i t h s p e c i a l needs such as the delinquent, mentally retarded, b l i n d , deaf, and c r i p p l e d . Other i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r de-pendent and neglected c h i l d r e n , and some e s p e c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the s o c i a l l y and emotionally unadjusted, emphasized s p e c i a l education and t r a i n i n g . However, they tended to give care which was i s o l a t e d from the r e s t of the world, C h i l d r e n who had l i v e d i n such i n s t i t u t i o n s found i t d i f f i c u l t to make an adjustment outside the o v e r l y p r o t e c t i v e and damaging w a l l s of the i n s t i t u -15 t i o n s . Our t h i n k i n g today i s that handicapped c h i l d r e n should have the opportunity to go to school w i t h normal c h i l d r e n i n order t h a t they might l e a r n to accept t h e i r own l i m i t a t i o n s . C h i l d r e n w i t h c e r e b r a l p a l s y , f o r example, are p r e s e n t l y being prepared f o r entrance i n t o r e g u l a r schools whenever p o s s i b l e . The normal c h i l d r e n i n the r e g u l a r schools who have been p r o p e r l y prepared f o r these handicapped youngsters take t h e i r c o n d i t i o n as a matter of course. Some concept of the i n s t i t u t i o n as a school has probably been present from the beginning of the care of c h i l d r e n i n i n -s t i t u t i o n s . I t has not been uncommon f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s — e s p e c i -a l l y the l a r g e r ones w i t h populations i n excess of 200 c h i l d r e n — to operate an elementary and sometimes a secondary sc h o o l , but at the present time there i s a d e f i n i t e tendency f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s to send t h e i r wards o f f the premises to attend p u b l i c or p a r o c h i a l Mary L o i s P y l e s , I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r C h i l d Care and Treat- ment, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., February, 1947, pp. 8-9 19 schools. The c h i l d r e n of the i n s t i t u t i o n of today may form those contacts and f r i e n d s h i p s i n community schools which i s the r i g h t of every c h i l d , and, t h e r e f o r e , have a gre a t e r opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n community l i f e . I n s t i t u t i o n s as c h i l d r e n ' s homes The. next step i n the development of c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s was the " c h i l d r e n ' s home". Probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t phase of t h i s development has been the movement towards cottage systems, and the r e d u c t i o n i n the s i z e of groups. I n some s i t u a t i o n s o l d e r , congregate s t r u c t u r e s have been abandoned i n fa v o r of new cottage b u i l d i n g s . I n other s i t u a t i o n s i t has been p o s s i b l e t© adapt o l d e r congregate b u i l d i n g s to cottage l i v i n g . In t h i s r e -spect a few i n s t i t u t i o n s have been s u c c e s s f u l i n c u t t i n g up dor m i t o r i e s by the use of c u b i c l e s resembling i n d i v i d u a l bedrooms. In other instances l a r g e dormitory groups have been so d i v i d e d as t o permit reasonably small u n i t s . However, the cottage p l a n does not mean merely a method of housing. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n the hands of some i n s t i t u t i o n a l managers i t has been capable of being as i n s t i t u t i o n a l as the congregate form of housing. This i s e s p e c i a l l y true i n those i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which cottage groups have been kept j u s t as lar g e as the o l d dormitory groups, or where the p r o p o r t i o n of t r a i n e d workers has not been increased. On the other hand, other cottage plans have o achieved a greater freedom from the conformity which haunts most congregate i n s t i t u t i o n s . 'Hopkirk, op. c i t . , p. 13 20 One, of the most s i g n i f i c a n t developments i n the movement towards sm a l l e r groups of c h i l d r e n has been the use of cottage parents f o r each cottage group. These are married couples who may become parent persons to those c h i l d r e n who need t h i s k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p . A l s o , they give the c h i l d from an unhappy home, or the c h i l d whose parents are separated or d i v o r c e d , an opportunity to witness the more normal l i f e of a h a p p i l y married couple, w i t h -out h i s needing to become emotionally i n v o l v e d , unless he wishes to do so. On the other hand, the c h i l d who needs mothering has a g r e a t e r opportunity to r e c e i v e t h i s from the housemother of a small cottage group than was p o s s i b l e i n the o l d , congregate i n s t i t u t i o n s . I n some cottage systems, the cottage f a t h e r s work i n the community at t h e i r r e g u l a r t r a d e s , and come home i n the evenings to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e cottages, i n the same way that most f a t h e r s do. I n other cottage systems i n close p r o x i m i t y to c o l -l e g e s , i t i s o f t e n p o s s i b l e f o r a young married man to attend c o l l e g e while he and h i s wife are employed as cottage parents by an i n s t i t u t i o n . A token of the s h i f t i n emphasis from asylums to homes i s i n the present-day use of the o l d board room which was formerly reserved f o r the use of t r u s t e e s at t h e i r monthly board meetings. U s u a l l y t h i s i s one of the most a t t r a c t i v e rooms i n a congregate type of i n s t i t u t i o n , and repeatedly, the t r u s t e e s of such i n -s t i t u t i o n s have turned t h i s room over to the use of s t a f f and c h i l d r e n . I n the asylum days c h i l d r e n would have entered the room only to p o l i s h i t s f l o o r s and dust i t s f u r n i t u r e ! The tendency to make i n s t i t u t i o n s more homelike can w e l l be expressed i n the f r e e r use by c h i l d r e n of p l a n t and equipment. 21 I n s t i t u t i o n s as s o c i a l agencies We f i n a l l y come to the present stage i n the growth and de-velopment of c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s . The i n s t i t u t i o n as a s o c i a l agency i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , a goal which many c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u -t i o n s have s t i l l to reach. Many i n s t i t u t i o n s have t r i e d t o do good jobs as schools or as homes, but there has been, oftentimes, something b a f f l i n g l y incomplete about t h e i r s e r v i c e . The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s come i n t o the l i v e s of c h i l d r e n because of s o c i a l problems and needs. The modern i n s t i t u t i o n cannot escape the task of h e l p i n g i t s c h i l d r e n w i t h f a m i l y problems or w i t h t h e i r own s p e c i a l needs. Because i t s purpose i s to a i d i n s o l v i n g s o c i a l problems and to help i n d i v i d u a l s reach s a t i s f y -i n g personal and s o c i a l adjustments, the i n s t i t u t i o n i s a s o c i a l agency and needs t o make use of s o c i a l work knov/ledge and s k i l l i n c a r r y i n g on i t s work. The i n s t i t u t i o n has some d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s as a s o c i a l agency, however, i n that i t s c l i e n t s l i v e together i n the same place that s o c i a l s e r v i c e s are given. Each c h i l d l i v e s w i t h a group w i t h whom he normally has no t i e s of k i n s h i p or previous acquaintance. The agency provides f o r the t o t a l aspects of d a i l y l i v i n g . D i f f e r e n t adults share i n the care of these c h i l d r e n . I t i s the group l i v i n g and group care s i t u a t i o n , moreover, which defines both the l i m i t a t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n . This should be a g u i d i n g f a c t o r i n determining the c h i l d r e n who come to i n s t i t u t i o n s and i t enters i n t o a l l e f f o r t s to help them. The past decade has marked a r e v o l u t i o n i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l f i e l d . There have been many new developments, notable among which i s the growing acceptance of the c h i l d - c a r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s 22 as a method of care f o r c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n . This development i s the r e s u l t of s u c c e s s f u l experiments i n group treatment of c h i l d r e n i n other c o u n t r i e s , notably i n A u s t r i a . These experiments l e d to a new philosophy i n regard t o the r o l e of the i n s t i t u t i o n i n a community program of c h i l d care. This new philosophy was popu-l a r i z e d i n the United States by Susanne Schulz, formerly of Vienna and l a t e r , a member of the f a c u l t y of the School of A p p l i e d S o c i a l Sciences of Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y of Cleveland, Ohio. There continues t o l i n g e r i n the minds of those acquainted w i t h the e a r l i e r methods, however, a c e r t a i n amount of a s s o c i a -t i o n w i t h the mass care of the almshouse days. C e r t a i n l y , the h i s t o r y of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care reveals many black passages. Even a f t e r ' t h e segregation of c h i l d r e n from the aged took p l a c e , and s p e c i a l b u i l d i n g s were b u i l t and programs inaugurated f o r de-pendent c h i l d r e n , f o r delinquents and the mentally r e t a r d e d , i n -s t i t u t i o n s s t i l l maintained t h e i r poor r e p u t a t i o n . Not even the progress evidenced by the movement from orphanages to schools or homes helped to d i s p e l the t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s towards such programs. The l a t e s t and most progressive step of converting these homes i n t o community centers or c h i l d r e n ' s v i l l a g e s met wi t h some r e s i s t a n c e as r e c e n t l y as the e a r l y t h i r t i e s . There are s t i l l some workers i n the c h i l d welfare f i e l d whose honest c o n v i c t i o n i t i s th a t a l l c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s should c l o s e and that the c h i l d r e n should be placed i n f o s t e r homes, i n homes of r e l a t i v e s , or i n t h e i r own homes w i t h adequate p u b l i c a s s i s -17 tance. The development of f o s t e r f a m i l y care having gone so C e c i l i a McGovern, Services to C h i l d r e n i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , (Washington: R a n s d e l l , Inc., 1948), p. 1. 23 f a r i n some communities as to r e s u l t i n the c l o s i n g of i n s t i t u -t i o n s , has even l e d some to i n f e r that i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n are both undesirable and unnecessary.^® Many of the e a r l y leaders i n the f i e l d of c h i l d w e l f a r e , hav-ing p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the forward-looking movement of e s t a b l i s h i n g orphanages f o r the b e t t e r care of c h i l d r e n , then drew back from the community's a c t i v i t i e s and spread t h e i r i n t e r e s t no f u r t h e r than the area circumscribed by the f o u r w a l l s of the i n s t i t u t i o n and there remained s t a t i c . I n so doing they l o s t touch w i t h the changing needs i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e communities. There are examples of these i n s t i t u t i o n s i n our own American communities today. A few other i n s t i t u t i o n s , however, have kept c l o s e t o the stream of community l i f e , and w i t h courage and f l e x i b i l i t y , have come 19 on t o new e x p l o r a t i o n and development. S t i l l a few other i n -s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n , having made l i t t l e progress f o r many 20 decades, have made some more r a p i d s t r i d e s i n recent years. 18 Hopkirk, op. c i t . , p. 40 19 An example of a c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n which changed i t s f u n c t i o n to meet changing needs i s a small church i n s t i t u t i o n i n Baltimore which opened j u s t before the 1800's to care f o r orphan and half-orphaned g i r l s . These g i r l s were o r i g i n a l l y taught sewing and cooking and t r a i n e d f o r domestic s e r v i c e . S h o r t l y a f t e r 1900 the p l a n of t r a i n i n g these g i r l s as domestics was abandoned f o r the more democratic i d e a l of g i v i n g them an oppor-t u n i t y f o r general education, thus p e r m i t t i n g them to enter f i e l d s of t h e i r own choice. This i n s t i t u t i o n i s now a school which i s s u c c e s s f u l l y .guiding the adjustment of d i f f i c u l t adoles-cent g i r l s as they l e a r n to meet l i f e i n our complex c i v i l i z a t i o n . 2 0 S y b i l P o s t e r , "Co-ordination of I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care of C h i l d r e n w i t h Other Services i n the Community", N a t i o n a l Confer- ence of S o c i a l Work, 1936, pp. 548-549 24 Moreover, w i t h the increased p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of workers i n i n s t i t u t i o n s as w e l l as i n f o s t e r homes and w i t h the growth and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of case work philosophy and technique, an i d e n t i t y of i n t e r e s t i s developing, namely, the c h i l d i n need of f o s t e r care and how he may be helped. The i n c r e a s i n g trend t o -wards the i n t e g r a t i o n of t h i n k i n g and f u n c t i o n i n g of workers i n the two f i e l d s , and toward the mutual e l a b o r a t i o n of the problems of c h i l d care and methods of treatment, l e d to the development of the present trend. This c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s the growing awareness t h a t both of these forms of c h i l d care, formerly a s s o c i a t e d and l a t e r i r r a t i o n a l l y considered to be i n competition w i t h each other,are complementary and each can be used at d i f f e r e n t times f o r the same c h i l d . That the trend i s r a t h e r l i m i t e d r e f l e c t s PI the l a g between p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i n k i n g and p r a c t i c e . ^ M a r t h a K e i s e r S e l i g , "Temporary Use of an I n s t i t u t i o n f o r C h i l d r e n i n Poster Care", American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, V o l . 12, 1942, pp. 466-473.. Chapter 2 Children's I n s t i t u t i o n s Today: Some Guiding P r i n c i p l e s I f the modern i n s t i t u t i o n i s to be a v i t a l part of the t o t a l c h i l d welfare program, i t must p a r t i c i p a t e i n community planning. The community and. a l l i t s s e r v i c e s should be so w e l l understood that the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s own s e r v i c e may be developed and adapted to f i l l the gaps i n the c h i l d - c a r e p i c t u r e . The i n s t i t u t i o n has c e r t a i n inherent f a c t o r s which d i f f e r e n -t i a t e i t from a f a m i l y home. I t n e c e s s i t a t e s group l i f e , and no c h i l d i s f o o l e d i n t o b e l i e v i n g that i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e i s l i k e f a m i l y l i f e , i n s p i t e of the l e g i t i m a t e e f f o r t s on the part of Boards of D i r e c t o r s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l superintendents to make i n -s t i t u t i o n s more "home-like". The true character of i n s t i t u t i o n s i s group l i v i n g and not f a m i l y l i v i n g . I n s t i t u t i o n s have been a b i t naive In assuming that a f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n could be obtained i n cottage groups of twelve or more c h i l d r e n . Granted that cer-t a i n elements of f a m i l y l i f e can be incorporated i n any group, i t does mean that l e s s f r u s t r a t i o n w i l l be experienced i f the cottage and dormitory of over twelve i s regarded as a "group" i n the social-work sense r a t h e r than a f a m i l y , and approached i n accordance w i t h the best-known group-work techniques. As a matter of f a c t i f t h i s i s done s k i l l f u l l y , many of the values of f a m i l y 22 l i f e may a l s o be r e a l i z e d . Many c h i l d r e n coming to the i n s t i t u t i o n have been subjected ^ L e o n a r d Mayo, "What May I n s t i t u t i o n s and Group Work Contribute to Each Other", Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference  of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1935, p. 332. 26 to experiences which have shattered t h e i r f a i t h i n others and even i n the world. This i s the chance f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n . Some one person on the s t a f f may be found to s t r i k e a spark i n the c h i l d . He comes to b e l i e v e that someone does care and he wants to please t h a t person or wants h i s approval. Because of t h i s , the s h e l l which he has b u i l t around himself opens a crack, and 23 from t h a t p o i n t on, a l l may work w i t h him. The person w i t h whom a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d chooses to form a r e l a t i o n s h i p may be anyone on the s t a f f . I t may be the caseworker, the cottage mother, the group s u p e r v i s o r , the gardener, a board member, or anyone e l s e . 2 4 Probably the greatest advantage of the i n s t i t u t i o n over the f o s t e r home i s the wide range of p e r s o n a l i t i e s on the s t a f f . I t has been g r a d u a l l y r e a l i z e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l and f o s t e r f a m i l y care are two supplementary and complementary kinds of care f o r c h i l d r e n away from t h e i r own f a m i l i e s . Poster care, defined i n d e t a i l , , i s any f u l l - t i m e care of a c h i l d by persons not b i o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d to him whether i t i s w i t h a group of other c h i l d r e n i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , or i n a f o s t e r f a m i l y home; whether i t i s of long or short d u r a t i o n ; whether i t i s p a i d f o r i n p a r t or e n t i r e l y by the c h i l d ' s own parents, r e l a t i v e s or guardian, or by p u b l i c or p r i v a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; and whether or not i t i s accom-panied by l e g a l t e r m i n a t i o n of the r i g h t s of n a t u r a l parents and t r a n s f e r of guardianship to a parent s u b s t i t u t e . . ._ F o s t e r f a m i l y care and i n s t i t u t i o n a l care each provide c e r -t a i n values which the other cannot o f f e r . The i n h e r e n t l y d i f f e r e n t 2 3 F o s t e r , op. c i t . , pp. 549-550 2 4The w r i t e r ' s own experience i n a small i n s t i t u t i o n , i s that c h i l d r e n w i l l o f t e n confide i n the cook as they help her i n the k i t c h e n or eat snacks which she gives them. The cook i s i n -v a r i a b l y a mother person to c h i l d r e n . 27 elements i n the l a t t e r are acknowledged i n the d e f i n i t i o n below: A c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n i s a group of un r e l a t e d c h i l d r e n l i v i n g together i n the care of a group of u n r e l a t e d a d u l t s . 2 5 In the i n s t i t u t i o n the s o c i a l worker and other members of the s t a f f may observe the c h i l d . This brings to bear p o i n t s of view based on d i f f e r e n t backgrounds of experience, which i s always v a l u a b l e . These f i n d i n g s , drawn together and analyzed, give a composite p i c t u r e of the c h i l d as he i s meeting l i f e from day to day. This i s a more i n t e n s i v e observation than u s u a l l y may be had i n a f a m i l y home. Some gu i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s The i n s t i t u t i o n should give to the c h i l d the q u a l i t y of a f f e c t i o n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p which he needs; he needs t o l e a r n s e l f -government through l e a r n i n g to p l a n f o r h i m s e l f ; he needs to be taught something about property values and money. Some--institu-t i o n s have put considerable thought i n t o the l a t t e r , and are de-veloping good systems of work and pay jobs, d i r e c t purchasing, and so on. Others have attempted group d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the ol d e r c h i l d r e n on economics and s o c i a l planning. I n s t i t u t i o n costs and sources of income have been gone over w i t h them, new expendi-tures discussed, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning asked of them. This i s h e l p f u l to overcome some of the i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which Is f o s t e r e d by I n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g ; because f i n a n c i a l support i s so f a r removed and i t s sources so vague, the r e a l i t y of i t s l i m i t a -^ P y l e s , op. c i t . , p. 10 2 6 P o s t e r , op. c i t . , p. 550 28 27 t i o n s i s hard to accept. I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n must be the keynote of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Mass care of c h i l d r e n — food, s h e l t e r , and even kindness — does not provide f o r i n d i v i d u a l needs. C h i l d r e n should be able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a c t i v i t i e s , to attend churches of t h e i r own choice i f t h i s i s at a l l p o s s i b l e , to p a r t i c i p a t e i n organiza-t i o n s such as Y.M.C.A. and Boy Scouts, to keep t h e i r own p e t s , e t c . V i s i t s by r e l a t i v e s , i f h e l p f u l to the youngster, should be on a f l e x i b l e , encouraging b a s i s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y they need to be i n v i t e d to dinner. The cottage mother or s o c i a l worker should f r e q u e n t l y attend parent-teacher meetings and one or the other should always be on hand when there are s p e c i a l doings i n which t h e i r c h i l d r e n take part.2® • The mental-health needs of c h i l d r e n can be simply summed up as: the need f o r s e c u r i t y and a f f e c t i o n ; the need f o r r e c o g n i t i o n as a person i n order to b u i l d self-esteem; and the need f o r ad-venture. I t i s reasonable to question the programs and s t a f f s of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which l o v e - s t a r v e d c h i l d r e n c l i n g to v i s i t o r s who show the s l i g h t e s t response to them, i n which c h i l d r e n seem subdued and do not converse f r e e l y w i t h v i s i t o r s , or i n which " p o l i t e " s a l u t a t i o n s are given to v i s i t o r s , w i t h promptings from matrons i n the background. Economy and p r a c t i c a b i l i t y from the housemother's p o i n t of 2 7 P o s t e r , op. c i t . , pp. 551-552. 2 8 K e n n e t h L. Messenger, "The I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of the C h i l d i n the I n s t i t u t i o n " , C h i l d Welfare League of America, I n c . , B u l l e t i n , Sept. 1941, pp. 1-5. 29 view should not be the only r u l e i n the purchase of c l o t h i n g f o r c h i l d r e n . C l o t h i n g can do so much to b u i l d self-esteem, p a r t i c u -l a r l y to the adolescent. Shopping expeditions should be arranged f o r the i n d i v i d u a l or small groups of c h i l d r e n , and each c h i l d should p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n of what clothes and shoes, what p a t t e r n s , c o l o r s , and s t y l e s , should be purchased f o r him. C l o t h i n g should always be considered to be personal property. I t should g e n e r a l l y not be "handed down", except p o s s i b l y w i t h i n s i b l i n g groups where t h i s might be customary, or i n the s i t u a t i o n where there are good clothes which one youngster has outgrown and may be q u i t e s u i t a b l e , when cleaned and pressed, f o r another youngster, p r o v i d i n g t h a t the l a t t e r youngster i s accepting of t h i s as a g i f t . C l o t h i n g should c e r t a i n l y not be worn a f t e r i t becomes outgrown and u n s u i t a b l e l o o k i n g . The custom of keeping o l d shoes which c h i l d r e n have outgrown f o r the use of other c h i l d r e n i s not only unhygienic but a poor p o l i c y because they are not l i k e l y to f i t another c h i l d ' s f e e t p r o p e r l y . Beyond t h i s , of course, there i s f a l s e economy i n handing down o l d shoes or o l d c l o t h i n g i f t h i s r e s u l t s I n lowered self-esteem. H a i r c u t s f o r i n s t i t u t i o n c h i l d r e n are another s i g n i f i c a n t " d e t a i l " . They may be a matter of regimentation, or e n t i r e l y i n d i v i d u a l and according to the c h i l d r e n ' s own t a s t e s , w i t h a reasonable degree of guidance. For the adolescent g i r l , smartly cut h a i r or even a permanent wave may be such an a i d to s e l f -confidence t h a t , from a casework angle, the investment may be even more j u s t i f i e d than some more us u a l and unquestioned expense. The w r i t e r ' s own observation has been that c h i l d r e n enjoy going on shopping expeditions f o r c l o t h i n g , away from the i n s t i t u -30 t i o n . A shopping t r i p seems to provide some of the need f o r ad-venture and t h r i l l which c h i l d r e n crave, e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s a t r i p of some distance from the "Home". There i s a d i f f e r e n t mean-ing to the c h i l d f o r c l o t h i n g purchased f o r him by the "Home" from c l o t h i n g which has been purchased by h i s own parents, as the c l o t h i n g purchased by the Home o f t e n brings to the f o r e f r o n t some of the c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s of r e j e c t i o n by parents. A worker may br i n g out some of these same f e e l i n g s even when he does other things f o r c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , as the c h i l d r e n are aware tha t something i s being done f o r them which t h e i r own parents could have done, had they loved t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I n t h i s r espect, s t a f f members' f e e l i n g s and needs about being " g i v i n g " persons and expecting " g r a t i t u d e " f o r g i v i n g should be understood, since h o s t i l i t y i s o f t e n the c h i l d ' s expression towards s t a f f members a f t e r having, what s t a f f thought might be, a pleasurable exper-ience. Holidays are perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t periods f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h whom parents have not made plans. The w r i t e r ' s experience of once b r i n g i n g a group of boys i n t o the c i t y on a Fourth of J u l y to see the parade and to go out to a park f o r a p i c n i c i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of t h i s p o i n t . The boys were so demanding and d i f -f i c u l t t h a t the experience was not pleasurable f o r anyone con-cerned, u n t i l l a t e r i n the afternoon when the youngsters had supper at the w r i t e r ' s home. I t i s only too c l e a r that the ch i l d r e n ' s f e e l i n g s of r e j e c t i o n by parents were q u i c k l y brought to the surface as they saw other c h i l d r e n enjoying the Fourth w i t h t h e i r parents. The f o l l o w i n g Fourth of J u l y was spent by the c h i l d r e n , who had not l e f t w i t h parents f o r the h o l i d a y , i n a 31 more r e l a x e d manner at the Home, w i t h a p i c n i c i n the orchard, and f i r e w o r k s i n the evening. The periods around h o l i d a y s need to be c a r e f u l l y handled f o r c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n . For Charles, f o r example, - a very r e j e c t e d c h i l d , who had been deserted by both parents and had been i n a s e r i e s of seven f o s t e r homes, ho l i d a y s needed c a r e f u l handling. Charles always went to the stores to s t e a l t h i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y candy (which he didn't seem to care much f o r ) , around the h o l i d a y p e r i o d s . He could not stand seeing other c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e g i f t s from parents. A f t e r the s t a f f got to know something about Charles* great needs f o r a t t e n t i o n and a f f e c t i o n , the caseworker had b r i e f t a l k s w i t h Charles s e v e r a l weeks before a h o l i d a y , e s p e c i a l l y Christmas, to t a l k over plans w i t h him f o r the h o l i d a y p e r i o d . Since i t was the p o l i c y of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r I n s t i t u t i o n to "evacu-ate" the i n s t i t u t i o n over the Christmas h o l i d a y s (except f o r youngsters who were i l l or who might be c l i n g i n g to the i n s t i t u -t i o n f o r s e c u r i t y ) by arranging f o r c h i l d r e n to go home to parents or to the homes of the s t a f f members, the caseworker made sure t h a t Charles knew n e a r l y a month i n advance where he would be going, i n order that he might have something to look forward t o . These precautions p a i d dividends i n Charles' case, since the s t e a l i n g episodes g r e a t l y diminished during h o l i d a y p e r i o d s . The p a r t played by p r i v a c y and personal possessions i n the i n s t i t u t i o n I n Improving self-esteem cannot be overlooked. Even a l o c k e r or cupboard space given the c h i l d as h i s very own can be of value. The things t h a t c h i l d r e n save and the way i n which they decorate t h e i r rooms i s f r u i t f u l f o r a p s y c h o l o g i c a l study of each c h i l d . I n d i v i d u a l rooms, e s p e c i a l l y f o r adolescents and 32 d i s t u r b e d youngsters, are f a r p r e f e r a b l e to d o r m i t o r i e s , although there i s always the youngster who f e e l s lonesome s l e e p i n g i n a room by h i m s e l f , and requests a partne r . Even the smallest o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and per-formance before the group give the c h i l d a chance to see hi m s e l f as a person. V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , too, i s one of the surest aids to self-esteem; f i n d i n g s p e c i a l aptitudes and h e l p i n g the c h i l d to develop them o f t e n gives him much st a t u s i n the group. The opportunity to earn, save, spend and give can a l s o a f f o r d the c h i l d r e c o g n i t i o n , and e s t a b l i s h that sense of property values and r i g h t s so e s s e n t i a l to ease i n l i v i n g . The c h i l d ' s l a s t need — that f o r adventure, excitement, and s u r p r i s e -- i s , perhaps, one of- the hardest to meet i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . In a small community, though, i t can be fun f o r the youngsters t o watch a volunteer f i r e department put out a f i r e , and i t may sometimes be pa r t of the caseworker's job t o provide t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of the youngsters to the f i r e , f o l l o w i n g i n the t r a i l of the f i r e engineI Without constant watching, even i n the most progressive program, regimenta-t i o n and rou t i n e q u i c k l y creep i n t o the d a i l y l i v i n g . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of a u t h o r i t y Whether they l i k e i t or not, the ad u l t s who l i v e i n close contact w i t h c h i l d r e n are forced i n t o a p o s i t i o n of le a d e r s h i p of one s o r t or another. The program stands or f a l l s through t h e i r e f f o r t s ; goals are a t t a i n e d or not a t t a i n e d through them; they are the most important persons i n the c h i l d ' s environment at the moment. T h e i r good mental h e a l t h , t h e i r understanding of themselves, i s e s s e n t i a l to success. The adult q u i c k l y becomes 33 the object of emulation and i m i t a t i o n by the c h i l d . Not only w i l l the c h i l d s t r i v e to l i v e up to the i d e a l s of an admired a d u l t , but he w i l l a l s o c l o s e l y copy s o c i a l behaviour, way of dress, and personal mannerisms, ^ t can be d i s c o n c e r t i n g to a s t a f f member, f o r example, when an adolescent repeats almost word f o r word something that he has s a i d . The t o l e r a n c e s , i n t o l e r a n c e s , p r e j u d i c e s , g e n e r o s i t i e s i n f a c t , a l l of the a t t i t u d e s — of the grown person markedly Influence the c h i l d i n the development of h i s a t t i t u d e s and h i s way of meeting l i f e . F r i c t i o n s and t e n -sions among the a d u l t s are always r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e through the behaviour of the c h i l d r e n . Therefore, those who deal d i r e c t l y w i t h c h i l d r e n must know something of t h e i r own behaviour i f they are to understand why c h i l d r e n behave as they do. S t a f f members i n c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s need to understand t h e i r f e e l i n g s about a u t h o r i t y . A s t a f f member needs to know whether he i s c a r r y i n g a command through to the f i n i s h because he s t a r t e d something, because he gets pleasure from dominating ot h e r s , because he fears h i s sup e r i o r s may t h i n k him unable to enforce d i s c i p l i n e , or because the safety, and good of the i n d i v i -dual or the group depends on compliance w i t h the command. In matters of y i e l d i n g to or e x e r t i n g a u t h o r i t y over others may f r e q u e n t l y see themselves responding much as they used to i n childhood years. I f t h i s i s allowed to happen, obedience and conformity are being gained not f o r the c h i l d ' s growth and wel-f a r e , but to s a t i s f y the needs of s t a f f f o r supremacy. This Is not a f a i r s i t u a t i o n f o r the c h i l d , and those adu l t s who cannot c o n t r o l t h i s need f o r domination should leave the f i e l d of d i r e c t care of c h i l d r e n . As w i t h the c h i l d , s t a f f members need the f e e l -34 in g of s e c u r i t y , or of being adequate to the s i t u a t i o n . A p o s i t i o n of l e a d e r s h i p w i t h c h i l d r e n demands m a t u r i t y of the a d u l t . I t demands of the adult a philosophy of l i f e . I t c a l l s f o r the a b i l i t y to give a f f e c t i o n and demand l i t t l e i n r e -t u r n . Leadership should not be by domination, but by example and s t i m u l a t i o n of each one i n the group to give h i s or her energies to the f u l l e s t and best. For the c h i l d care i n s t i t u t i o n s t h i s means wise s e l e c t i o n and c a r e f u l t r a i n i n g of personnel i f the atmosphere i s t o be con-ducive to the good mental h e a l t h of c h i l d r e n and s t a f f . Probably the greatest asset f o r the houseparent i s rugged good h e a l t h w i t h consequent endurance, buoyancy, and a "young" p o i n t of view, r e -gardless of age. "We need i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h true l i k i n g f o r people — liking"" f o r c h i l d r e n , f a u l t s and a l l — who are not un-duly i r r i t a t e d by the l e s s a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s . We need joyous, f u n - l o v i n g i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t a c t , s t a b i l i t y , and a sense of humor, that r a r e q u a l i t y which makes i t p o s s i b l e t o laugh at oneself as w e l l as at the o t h e r s . " 2 9 S t a f f t r a i n i n g should be w e l l c a r r i e d forward as the p s y c h i a -t r i c s e r v i c e f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n i s developed. I f the s k i l l s of the p s y c h i a t r i s t and s o c i a l worker are f a r beyond the understand-in g of the house s t a f f , d i f f i c u l t y w i l l a r i s e at once and t r e a t -ment plans w i l l be blocked. For in s t a n c e , the c h i l d who needs to express aggression may be making e x c e l l e n t progress i n r e l e a s i n g her emotions, but the housemother may not be able to accept t h i s behaviour. I n t h i s r e s p e c t , L i l l i a n Johnson p o i n t s out that no-F o s t e r , op. c i t . , pp. 549-563 35 where has the g u l f been wider than between the p r o f e s s i o n a l case-worker who planned f o r the c h i l d and p r o j e c t e d methods of t r e a t -ment and the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f person who, as f o s t e r - p a r e n t and group l e a d e r , was expected to apply those 30 methods. C a r e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , step by step, of the p s y c h i a t r i c concepts i n v o l v e d i s needed i f the house s t a f f are to p l a y t h e i r v i t a l p a r t i n the treatment p l a n s . Parents E m o t i o n a l l y , parents p l a y an extremely important p a r t i n the l i f e of the c h i l d , whether they are l i v i n g or dead, absent or present; and t h i s must not be overlooked. The c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n -ship , to them i n the past and i n the present c o l o r s h i s behaviour, h i s w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g , and h i s i d e a l i s m . Probably the one word which i s used i n c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s more than any other t o e x p l a i n b e l l i g e r e n t behaviour, f o r example, or s t e a l i n g , i s " r e -j e c t i o n " , as most behaviour has r e s u l t e d from attempts to gain the-love and acceptance of parents. Probably every c h i l d who enters a c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n has some f e e l i n g s of g u i l t — g u i l t over the f e e l i n g t h a t he i n some way i s responsible f o r h i s f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n and f o r h i s being i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . There i s some danger that t h i s g u i l t w i l l be r e i n f o r c e d i f r e l i g i o n i s over-emphasized by s t a f f members. Even r e l i g i o u s p i c t u r e s can do t h i s . P i c t u r e s should be of the gay, happy, k i n d t h a t stimu-l a t e happy phantasy f o r the c h i l d who i s n ' t r e a l l y happy. u L i l l i a n J . Johnson, "What We Learn From the C h i l d ' s Own Psychology to Guide Treatment i n a Small I n s t i t u t i o n " , Proceed- ings of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1938. 36 C h i l d r e n can never w i t h advantage be i s o l a t e d , and t h e i r f a m i l y t i e s , however meager, cannot be disregarded. In our i n -s t i t u t i o n s of today we are d e a l i n g mainly w i t h c h i l d r e n possessed of at l e a s t one, and o f t e n two parents. (There i s seldom need f o r orphans being i n c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s s ince r e a l orphans without parents want parents; and want to go, and should go i n t o f o s t e r homes). There are, however, parents who, through incompet-ence, w i l f u l n e g l e c t , or pressure of circumstances beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , have f a i l e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n one way or another. The c h i l d must, t h e r e f o r e , be given help i n understanding and accept-ing t h i s without b i t t e r n e s s -- and he must be helped to c a p i t a l i z e on any assets which he may have. With the undesirable parents i t may even be a s e r v i c e to the c h i l d to allow some contact be-tween parent and c h i l d — g i v i n g him a chance to face the r e a l i t y of h i s parents' l i m i t a t i o n s r a t h e r than to cut the t i e s e n t i r e l y and t o f o r c e the c h i l d i n t o a most u n r e a l i d e a l i z i n g of them. The v i s i t i n g of parents at the i n s t i t u t i o n , the c h i l d ' s v i s i t s to h i s home, and work w i t h r e l a t i v e s , should be among the most c a r e f u l l y developed phases of the mental hygiene program. As one other w r i t e r p o i n t s out, the r e a l parents should be i n c l u d e d and used as much as p o s s i b l e by the i n s t i t u t i o n . Every p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to a c h i l d ' s l i f e that a parent can make must be accepted. I t w i l l t u r n the w e l l - r u n i n s t i t u t i o n upside down, but i t i s w e l l worth i t . The i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l understand the parents b e t t e r and they w i l l understand the i n s t i t u t i o n . The c h i l d r e n w i l l accept s t a f f , not as s u b s t i t u t e parents, but as supplementary parents. D e f i n i t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the parents 37 w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n s Is very h e l p f u l . Every resource must be exhausted before a c h i l d i s removed from h i s own home, since even a very poor home can o f t e n o f f e r the c h i l d a greater f e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y than any good s u b s t i t u t e home. Every e f f o r t should be made to work i n t e n s i v e l y with the f a m i l y to make removal necessary i n fewer i n s t a n c e s . When there are s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n i n one f a m i l y and one c h i l d presents p a r t i -c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t problems, more w i l l probably be gained through f a m i l y s e r v i c e d i r e c t e d toward the treatment of the t o t a l f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n than by the removal of any one c h i l d . P s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t -ment f a c i l i t i e s of modern f a m i l y agencies can help problems such as a l c o h o l i s m , i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y , and frequent d e s e r t i o n . House-j keeping s e r v i c e may be e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l i n a l l o w i n g c h i l d r e n 32 to remain i n t h e i r own homes when the mother i s i n c a p a c i t a t e d . o Only those c h i l d r e n should be admitted to the i n s t i t u t i o n whose needs can be met by i t s program. This i s one of the most d i f f i c u l t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of any i n s t i t u t i o n a l group, and at the same time, one of the most important. Too o f t e n a c h i l d i s admitted because h i s mother or uncle or older brother t h i n k s that the i n s t i t u t i o n may be the best place f o r him. Frequently a care-f u l study of the s i t u a t i o n , and an e v a l u a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s needs, plus an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l program, would con-vince these r e l a t i v e s that there i s a b e t t e r plan f o r t h e i r boy. 0 1 H e l e n A. Day, "The E v a l u a t i o n of a C h i l d ' s Progress i n an I n s t i t u t i o n " , Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference of  S o c i a l Work, (New.York C i t y : 1937), pp. 564-572. 5 2 H . S. Lippman, "Newer Trends i n C h i l d Placement", The Family, February 1941, pp. 323-324. 38 Pressure from working mothers to make a s o r t of boarding school out of a c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n i s something e l s e which i n s t i t u -t i o n a l d i r e c t o r s need to watch out f o r . Low assistance standards of the p u b l i c agency f o r mothers caring f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes may l e a d to placement, and i n s t i t u t i o n s must not permit themselves to c o n t r i b u t e to f a m i l y breakdown by accepting c h i l d r e n under such circumstances. I t i s f a r too c o s t l y , both f i n a n c i a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y , f o r such c h i l d r e n to l i v e away from t h e i r own mothers i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t i s to be hoped, too, that empty beds i n an i n s t i t u t i o n no longer provide a reason f o r accepting c h i l d r e n 33 i n order t h a t per c a p i t a costs may be lessened. I t i s no longer necessary to b e l i e v e t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l care should be a l a s t r e s o r t f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . S k i l l e d s e r v i c e s should be a v a i l a b l e to help preserve and improve f a m i l y homes to the extent of present knowledge and the a b i l i t y of human beings to change. When c h i l d r e n must be removed from t h e i r homes, good i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, with l e s s demanding personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s and more conditioned and d i r e c t e d environment, may be the f i r s t choice f o r some of the c h i l d r e n who have f i t t e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t o f o s t e r f a m i l y care i n the past. Care from good i n s t i t u t i o n s and good f o s t e r f a m i l y homes should be s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of the needs of the c h i l d r a t h e r than g e n e r a l i z e d ideas about the s u p e r i o r i t y of e i t h e r type of care. The group nature of i n s t i t u -t i o n a l care w i t h i t s weaker personal t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h many persons should be a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n i t s use f o r the c h i l d . 3 3Messenger, op. c i t . , pp. 1-2 Chapter 3 C h i l d r e n S u i t e d f o r I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care The clue to a p p r e c i a t i o n of the true r o l e of i n s t i t u t i o n s i s a r e c o g n i t i o n of the many d i f f e r e n t c ategories of c h i l d r e n who might p r o f i t more from i n s t i t u t i o n a l care than f o s t e r f a m i l y care. I t must be recognized, however, th a t there are some dangers i n attempting a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of these c h i l d r e n . The needs of i n -d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n defy c a t e g o r i z i n g at times, and there i s bound to be overlapping among c a t e g o r i e s . Moreover, there are a few i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n who may seem to f i t i n t o categories i n d i c a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement, but, other types of placement may be more b e n e f i c i a l . However, such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i f handled care-f u l l y , can be h e l p f u l i n p o i n t i n g up the needs of some c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n who may be able to use i n s t i t u t i o n a l care b e t t e r than f o s t e r f a m i l y care are given below: I . C h i l d r e n Who are Emotionally Unable to Relate to F o s t e r Parents Sometimes a c h i l d who must be cared f o r away from home has such a strong emotional t i e with one or both parents — whether a b e n e f i c i a l t i e or a harmful one — that he would f i n d i t im-p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h good r e l a t i o n s w i t h a f o s t e r f a t h e r and mother. A c h i l d of t h i s k i n d i f placed i n a group home, shares a housemother w i t h a dozen other c h i l d r e n . He has a chance to be w i t h a number of a d u l t s who do not have the emotional stake i n him that h i s own parents have and who do not demand of him as much response as would a f o s t e r f a t h e r or mother. A. The f i r s t grouping of c h i l d r e n of t h i s k i n d i n c l u d e s some of the c h i l d r e n of r e c e n t l y divorced or separated parents. Whether 40 or riot these c h i l d r e n can be b e n e f i t e d by i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement must be determined by an assessment of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I f the divorce or separation has been a f r i e n d l y one with l i t t l e or no tugging of the c h i l d between h i s two parents, i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement may not be i n d i c a t e d at a l l . 1. On the other hand, there i s the c h i l d who i s a pawn i n the game — used to meet the h o s t i l e needs of h i s parents, and t h i s s i t u a t i o n can be heightened when one or both parents have remarried. The i n s t i t u t i o n may o f f e r a more " n e u t r a l " environment f o r t h i s c h i l d , and i t may be In a stronger p o s i t i o n to c o n t r o l parents' a c t i o n s which might otherwise be u p s e t t i n g to the youngster. 2. There are a l s o the c h i l d r e n who have p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h both parents. Some of these c h i l d r e n have f e e l i n g s of d i v i d e d l o y a l t y towards t h e i r parents, and they may need help to decide between t h e i r parents. B. There are a l s o those c h i l d r e n who have s u f f e r e d severe r e j e c t i o n , and have been so traumatized that they cannot s u b s t i t u t e other love objects f o r l o s t parents. This grouping has a tendency to overlap to a c e r t a i n extent w i t h the previous grouping. For example, i n the case of the c h i l d who Is being used as a " f o o t -b a l l " by h i s parents, there may be a larg e element of r e j e c t i o n of the c h i l d by the parents. There are, of course, myriad forms of r e j e c t i o n of parent by c h i l d , and c h i l d by parent. These r e -j e c t i o n s may be cons c i o u s l y or unconsciously expressed and per-c e i v e d , but they have f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the c h i l d . The r e j e c t i o n s u f f e r e d by these c h i l d r e n o f t e n causes a h o s t i l e and r e g r e s s i v e emotional p a t t e r n which r e q u i r e s treatment. Some of these c h i l d r e n have l o s t both parents, as w e l l as t h e i r homes. Many have l i v e d i n a s e r i e s of f o s t e r homes. Th e i r r e -41 l a t i o n s h i p a w i t h people, t h e r e f o r e , have grown increasingly-shallow, as a r e s u l t of these devastating experiences. They need an environment i n which close personal r e l a t i o n s are not r e q u i r e d . The i n s t i t u t i o n may o f f e r t h i s k i n d of environment, since s t a f f members i n the i n s t i t u t i o n must be shared among many c h i l d r e n , and s t a f f , t h e r e f o r e , may not develop as close r e l a t i o n -ships w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d as would be the case w i t h f o s t e r parents. Such a c h i l d f i n d s i n a group home that he i s not alone i n h i s experience. Besides, an i n s t i t u t i o n , w i t h i t s group l i v i n g , i s as d i f f e r e n t from h i s own home, or any f a m i l y home, that he i s not l i k e l y to make comparisons between them. Then, too, when the c h i l d i s ready to reach out f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , there i s a greater v a r i e t y of p e r s o n a l i t i e s on the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s t a f f from which the c h i l d may choose. A l s o , t r a i n e d s t a f f can be more accepting of the problem behavior than the average f o s t e r parents. There are a l s o a l a r g e c l a s s of c h i l d r e n who may be somewhat l e s s r e j e c t e d and who need the i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n and a f f e c t i o n that f o s t e r parents can o f f e r , but the nature of t h e i r problem makes them so u n a t t r a c t i v e t h a t i t i s necessary to provide i n -s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r at l e a s t a preparatory p e r i o d . These are the c h i l d r e n who are o f t e n c a l l e d "pests" by s t a f f members i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . They c o n s t a n t l y t a n t a l i z e the other c h i l d r e n , and plague s t a f f members w i t h constant questions to the p o i n t of ex-a s p e r a t i o n . These are c h i l d r e n who are unwanted, ins e c u r e , and unhappy. They crave a t t e n t i o n and love but have a c e r t a i n amount of f r u s t r a t i o n , disappointment and b l o c k i n g which prevents t h e i r o b t a i n i n g a f f e c t i o n i n the u s u a l manner. A sudden avalanche of 42 a f f e c t i o n from f o s t e r parents u s u a l l y overwhelms such c h i l d r e n . On the other hand, i n the i n s t i t u t i o n i t i s p o s s i b l e t o give enough 34 a t t e n t i o n without overdoing i t . C. Other c h i l d r e n who might need i n s t i t u t i o n a l care are the c h i l d r e n l e f t w i t h only one parent. The v a l i d i t y of t h i s group-i n g can be determined only i n terms of the i n d i v i d u a l case. 1. There i s the oc c a s i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , f o r example, In which a group of s i b l i n g s are h o l d i n g on t i g h t l y to a parent, and w i l l not accept f o s t e r parents, although the court may not approve the parent f o r the custody and care of h i s c h i l d r e n . The s i b l i n g s may l i v e i n the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r a temporary.period, u n t i l the parent i s able to prove to the court that he i s a f i t parent. 2. There might a l s o be the s i t u a t i o n i n which a f a t h e r i s con-templating re-marriage, and the i n s t i t u t i o n may be used by the c h i l d r e n f o r a temporary p e r i o d u n t i l the proposed p l a n i s con-summated. I n s t i t u t i o n a l care, however, i s not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e d on the sole grounds t h a t the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d have love and secur-i t y from parents who cannot maintain a home f o r them. The com-munity needs a wide range of many programs such as f a m i l y and c h i l d r e n ' s casework, f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , homemaker or house-keeper s e r v i c e , day-care programs, c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s , school s o c i a l work, s p e c i a l schools i n l o c a l communities, and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s to help parents give adequate care to c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r 35 own homes wherever p o s s i b l e . :McGovern, op. c i t . , pp. 29-33. 'Pyles, op. c i t . , p. 17. 43 D. Another grouping might include those adolescents who can-not l i v e at home and who have a t t a i n e d some degree of emancipa-t i o n from parents. Perhaps the strongest case i n favor of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s i t s value f o r t h i s group of teenagers. I t i s n a t u r a l that the adolescent, w i t h h i s d r i v e f o r independence, should r e - a c t against a type of care s u p p l i e d by the average f o s t e r home, which tends at l e a s t f o r a while to make him more dependent. Many adolescents w i t h d i f f i c u l t behaviour have developed an i n -tense d e s i r e to break away from f a m i l y t i e s since i t i s through these r e l a t i o n s h i p s that they have s u f f e r e d . They are e s s e n t i a l l y n a r c i s s i s t i c , a r e s u l t of d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t i n those whom they loved. Frequently, t h e i r emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been so traumatic that they cannot r i s k developing emotional t i e s to anyone. I n some instances t h e i r behaviour i n f o s t e r homes, end-i n g i n the f o s t e r parents' demand f o r t h e i r removal, suggests t h a t they have a need to prove to themselves that a l l a d u l t s , l i k e t h e i r parents, are c r u e l and r e j e c t i n g . I n recent years the courts have been r e f e r r i n g f o r placement manyof t h e i r u n d i s c i p l i n e d , r e j e c t e d adolescents, hoping thereby to check t h e i r aggression and delinquency. In general, f o s t e r home treatment of these boys and g i r l s has not been s u c c e s s f u l . Sometimes f o s t e r parents have f e l t challenged and have been deter-mined to win over the adolescent and s o c i a l i z e him but have f i n a l l y g iven up i n d e s p a i r , admitting t h a t , i n a contest of w i l l s , they •z ft were no match. Untidy, i n s o l e n t , r e s e n t i n g adult c o n t r o l , ex-Lippman, op. c i t . , pp. 323-325 44 p l o d i n g from any spark, these maladjusted youngsters are apt to move from one home to another, each move making t h e i r u l t i m a t e adjustment more d i f f i c u l t . C h i l d r e n from 10 to 16 years of age have a n a t u r a l d i s p o s i -t i o n to form groups of t h e i r peers. Some c h i l d r e n , however, w i t h i n t h i s age group undergo only hardship i f they are placed i n groups. Therefore, i t i s most important to evaluate group placement c a r e f u l l y i n terms of the I n d i v i d u a l c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to use a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n to advantage — or, f o r t h a t matter, i n s t i t u t i o n a l group l i v i n g at a l l . There are c e r t a i n f a c t o r s inherent i n t h i s type of l i v i n g — no matter how good the i n s t i t u t i o n — t h a t may a f f e c t n e g a t i v e l y a c h i l d t h a t i s not emotionally ready f o r t h i s experience and thereby harm also the others l i v i n g i n the group w i t h h i m . 3 7 However, g i r l s and boys' of the teenages u s u a l l y , crave a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other a d o l -escents. This c r a v i n g , added to t h e i r n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n s to slough o f f p a r e n t a l r e s t r a i n t s , makes group l i f e i n an i n s t i t u -38 t i o n p r a c t i c a l f o r many of them. Some youths may be faced w i t h the a l t e r n a t i v e of g e t t i n g along w e l l i n some other place than t h e i r own home, or being com-m i t t e d to an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r delinquents. This means that a form of residence i s needed f o r these youngsters which w i l l l e s s e n t h e i r aggression and get them to accept d i s c i p l i n e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , without s u b j e c t i n g them to the company of more °'Susanne Schulze, How Does Group L i v i n g i n the I n s t i t u - t i o n Prepare the C h i l d f o r L i f e Outside?, Mimeographed, w i t h permission, by F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Administra t i o n , Children's Bureau, Washington 25, D. C , p. 6. 38 Hopkirk, op. c i t . , p. 46. 45 confirmed delinquents or g i v i n g them the f e e l i n g t h a t adults r e -gard them as a f a i l u r e . To most adolescents, parents and even s o c i a l agencies commitment to a school f o r delinquents does mean t h i s , despite the emphasis on a treatment r a t h e r than punishment program. For t h i s reason, i t would seem w e l l to have as many of the placements as p o s s i b l e i n small i n s t i t u t i o n s independent of the court —• i n s p i t e of the f a c t that the courts have been cooperative w i t h s o c i a l agencies and have attempted to minimize the stigma a s s o c i a t e d w i t h court appearance. The p r i v a t e i n s t i t u -t i o n may resemble a boarding school to the c h i l d and h i s f a m i l y , and they, t h e r e f o r e , f i n d i t e a s i e r to accept t h i s k i n d of placement. * In many cottage-plan i n s t i t u t i o n s the c h i l d r e n of adolescent ages have developed an atmosphere w i t h i n the cottage s i m i l a r to the c o l l e g e f r a t e r n i t y house. There i s an i n f o r m a l , gay s p i r i t w i t h considerable nonchalance and a great e f f o r t to impress the onlooking a d u l t s w i t h t h e i r new f e e l i n g of independence. Many of the boys and g i r l s work and have spending money and do t h e i r own shopping f o r c l o t h e s , e t c . I n most i n s t i t u t i o n s today there i s a s p i r i t of freedom, and the adolescent group t r a v e l back and f o r t h to sch o o l , to movies, and to a l l s o r t s of a c t i v i -40 t i e s i n the surrounding communities. I t has been the w r i t e r ' s observation that the teenager, l i v i n g i n a small i n s t i t u t i o n i n a small community, through contacts w i t h church congregations and p a s t o r s , farmers and businessmen, r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a d e r s , and 5 9Lippman, op. c i t . , pp. 323-325. ^McGovern, op. c i t . , p. 25. 46 p r o f e s s i o n a l men such as d e n t i s t s , accountants, doctors, lawyers, and school teachers, can o f t e n i d e n t i f y w i t h f a m i l i e s i n the community wi t h whom he can share some aspects of f a m i l y l i f e . This can be a valuable experience f o r him because i t does pro-vide some s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t a l contacts of " h i s very own" i . e . , he does not have t o share these people w i t h other youngsters or s t a f f i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . A l s o , i t gives him some opportunity to ex-periment w i t h h i s own f e e l i n g s and a b i l i t i e s to r e l a t e to parent persons and become part of a f a m i l y group, and to l e a r n to h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n , without h i s needing to become too i n v o l v e d emotionally. I f aggression i s so marked, however, that the adolescent w i l l repeatedly attempt to run away from a cottage of t h i s type, a place i s needed t h a t s t r e s s e s s u p e r v i s i o n even more — where the o p p o r t u n i t i e s to run away and get i n t o f u r t h e r delinquency do not e x i s t , and where emphasis i s on a treatment program. I t has been found, however, t h a t where the i n s t i t u t i o n has a stimu-l a t i n g program geared to meet the needs of the teenagers, there i s l e s s l i k e l i h o o d that the youngster who has run away from other types of placement, w i l l continue t h i s p a t t e r n while l i v i n g at the i n s t i t u t i o n . The i n s t i t u t i o n has one a d d i t i o n a l advantage i n t h a t the strong sex d r i v e s which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the adolescent p e r i o d may be b e t t e r handled i n a group s i t u a t i o n where a l l of the members of the group are going through the same growing pro-cess, and can use group p r o t e c t i o n i n the handling of these d r i v e s . In unsupervised groups the adolescent o f t e n gets sup-p o r t from the group to act out h i s forbidden impulses. W i t h i n 47 the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g , however, the group worker and other s t a f f members can help the adolescent to form healthy ego-ideals and to channel h i s behaviour i n t o s o c i a l l y acceptable forms. C e r t a i n l y many of the d r i v e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of adolescence can be sublimated i n group a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the i n s t i t u -t i o n cares f o r both sexes. One of the cues to the needs of teen-agers, i t may be sug-gested, i s the f a c t that a number of o l d e r adolescents l i k e to l i v e at Y.M.C.A.'s, Y.W.C.A.'s, e t c . , where there i s a very s t i m u l a t i n g environment. In those instances i n which "Y's" have permitted these youngsters to l i v e i n residence, they have a l s o made i t c l e a r ' t h a t they would not assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r super-v i s i o n of the youngsters. Under these circumstances, the youngster i s soon " s l e e p i n g i n " i n the mornings when he should be going t o s c h o o l , e t c . C e r t a i n l y , a small i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h a s t i m u l a t i n g program could s u b s t i t u t e f o r the "Y's" i n meeting the needs of the teen-ager who i s s t i l l a t tending s c h o o l , and yet a l s o provide the s u p e r v i s i o n and l i m i t a t i o n s which the adolescent needs. There i s a l s o an older group of employed young people, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a r g e r c i t i e s , who need residence f a c i l i t i e s , combined w i t h a l e s s e r degree of s u p e r v i s i o n . I I . C h i l d r e n Who are Temporarily "Unplaceable" A. There are a l a r g e group of c h i l d r e n who need s o c i a l i z a -t i o n and h a b i t t r a i n i n g before f o s t e r home placement. 1. Often these c h i l d r e n seem l i k e " w i l d animals". However, they may o f t e n be helped through the c o n s i s t e n t d a i l y r o u t i n e which i s followed by the group i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . Both the hyperactive c h i l d and 48 the l , f i r e s e t t e r " may be b e t t e r handled i n the I n s t i t u t i o n . I n -s t i t u t i o n s may o f f e r greater tolerance of t h i s k i n d of t r o u b l e -some behaviour and d i f f i c u l t p e r s o n a l i t y than can be found f o r some c h i l d r e n w i t h i n a f a m i l y and the usual community. 2. Some c h i l d r e n have h a b i t s which offend the s e n s i t i v i t i e s of ordinary people. But a few weeks i n an i n s t i t u t i o n may o f t e n b r i n g about conspicuous changes, such as c o r r e c t i o n of obje c t i o n a b l e t a b l e manners, t o i l e t h a b i t s , or language. 3. There are al s o c h i l d r e n who have l i c e or bad s k i n c o n d i t i o n s . The removal of these con-d i t i o n s gives these c h i l d r e n a g r e a t l y improved chance to adjust themselves h a p p i l y i n f o s t e r homes. 4. Some c h i l d r e n have l i v e d i n a s e r i e s of f o s t e r homes i n which there was l i t t l e or no s u p e r v i s i o n . The i n s t i t u t i o n may o f f e r these c h i l d r e n the s u p e r v i s i o n and r o u t i n e which the c h i l d r e n need. Often, i t i s the parents who demand tha t the i n s t i t u t i o n do t h i s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . ' .5. S i m i l a r l y , f o r the c h i l d who has had l i t t l e or none of the sch o o l i n g to be expected i n one of h i s age, i n t e n s i v e t u t o r i n g may f a c i l i t a t e h i s adjustments to school and even to 41 s u b s t i t u t e parents. One w r i t e r makes the f o l l o w i n g statement about some of the c h i l d r e n of these c a t e g o r i e s : Some c h i l d r e n who have to be cared f o r away from t h e i r own homes stand the t r a n s p l a n t i n g b e t t e r i f they go t o l i v e f o r a w h i l e , not I n a f a m i l y home, but w i t h other c h i l d r e n i n a group home. Take, f o r example, a c h i l d who has never known what i t i s to take a bath, to go to bed at a r e g u l a r hour, to sleep between sheets, and Hopkirk, op. c i t . , p. 48 49 t o eat three meals a day. Such a c h i l d may l e a r n to do a l l these things w i t h l e s s r e s i s t a n c e i n a group of c h i l d r e n than i n the closeness of a f a m i l y home. 4 2 On the other hand, many of the c h i l d r e n who need s o c i a l i z a -t i o n and h a b i t t r a i n i n g , and p a r t i c u l a r l y those w i t h undeveloped or misdeveloped h a b i t s of personal hygiene, due to serious neg-l e c t , may be d e a l t w i t h almost as r e a d i l y i n strong f o s t e r homes. This a l t e r n a t i v e to group care f o r the s o c i a l l y u n t r a i n e d c h i l d i s suggested p a r t i a l l y by reason of the f a c t t h a t there may be group r e j e c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y by the older c h i l d r e n , i n the group s e t t i n g . With the i n c r e a s i n g development of s k i l l s i n the case-worker i n the s e l e c t i o n and maintenance of f o s t e r homes d i r e c t e d toward i n d i v i d u a l treatment of the c h i l d , i t i s q u i t e conceivable th a t the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of the i n s t i t u t i o n i n " s o c i a l i z i n g " c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n may become obsolete. B. Perhaps the most g r a t i f y i n g r e s u l t s have been obtained i n recent years i n the use of the i n s t i t u t i o n to prepare c h i l d r e n f o r adoptive parents. An example of t h i s would be the c h i l d who has been " i n f a n t i l i z e d " by a f o s t e r mother. A p e r i o d of l i v i n g i n the group s i t u a t i o n of an i n s t i t u t i o n where there was r i c h s t i m u l a t i o n from the other c h i l d r e n , would enable the c h i l d to "grow up" q u i c k l y , thus preparing him f o r adoptive placement. Here, again, however, s e l e c t e d f o s t e r homes may a l s o be used s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r t h i s j ob. ^ D o r o t h y C u r t i s Melby, "Baltimore's Temporary Group Home Helps Troubled C h i l d r e n " , The C h i l d , Marom, 1949, p. 133 50 I I I C h i l d r e n Who Require S p e c i a l i z e d S e r vices Hot A v a i l a b l e i n Foster Homes A. There are many emotionally d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n whose primary need i s o b s e r v a t i o n , study, and c o n s i s t e n t , coordinated treatment. These c h i l d r e n need to be In I n s t i t u t i o n s which s p e c i a l i z e i n study and treatment of d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . 4 ^ Such i n s t i t u t i o n s must be a supplementary and i n t e g r a t e d t o o l i n any comprehensive program f o r c h i l d r e n . I t was j u s t a short time ago tha t the "study home" r e c e i v e d the emphasis among c h i l d welfare workers. I t has been r e a l i z e d i n c r e a s i n g l y , however, that study and treatment are a continuous process, interwoven from the s t a r t , t h a t one cannot be separated from the other and 44 th a t centers t h a t study must a l s o be prepared to t r e a t . 1.. There are some d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n who are in a c c e s -s i b l e .to casework treatment. This r e f e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y to the c h i l d r e n w i t h inner disturbances who cannot r e l a t e to a d u l t s . Many of these c h i l d r e n are too f r i g h t e n e d , i n a r t i c u l a t e , I n f a n -t i l e , and r e s i s t i v e to form r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s , but they ^ P r i v a t e l y administered i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h i s nature are Ryther C h i l d Center; S e a t t l e ; Children's A i d S o c i e t y of Cleveland; The Children's Service Center of Wyoming V a l l e y , Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania; St. Christopher's School, Dobbs F e r r y , New York; and the New. England Home f o r L i t t l e Wanderers, Boston. The pioneer among them i s the New England Home f o r L i t t l e Wanderers. The l a t t e r i n s t i t u t i o n Is l o c a t e d i n Boston and serves the e n t i r e New England area. Other i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h i s type are the Cedar Knolls-Hawthorne i n s t i t u t i o n s operated by the Jewish Board of Guardians i n New York. E l i z a b e t h M. C l a r k e , "The Children's I n s t i t u t i o n i n the C h i l d Welfare Program", P u b l i c Welfare, August 1944, p. 199. 51 can r e l a t e , at l e a s t s u p e r f i c i a l l y , to other c h i l d r e n i n a r e -sident group. 2. There are other c h i l d r e n whose behaviour cannot be t o l e r a t e d by the f o s t e r f a m i l y , school, or neighborhood. Examples of these c h i l d r e n are the youngsters who seemingly without pro-vocation break f o r t h i n severe rages i n which they smash windows and t e a r c l o t h e s , c h i l d r e n who set f i r e s , c h i l d r e n who p r a c t i c e sexual delinquency of a d i r e c t nature, c h i l d r e n with severe, un-expected, asthmatic a t t a c k s , and c h i l d r e n w i t h many other symptom p a t t e r n s . C e r t a i n l y , f o s t e r homes might n t a k e n some of t h i s d i f f i c u l t behaviour. The g i r l , f o r example, who compulsively combs her h a i r twenty times before going to school might be helped as much i n accepting a f o s t e r home as i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . A l s o , n i g h t t e r r o r s might be accepted and helped i n the f o s t e r home. Lik e w i s e , modern knowledge regarding s t e a l i n g patterns as meaning, i n so many cases, t h a t the youngster i s reaching out f o r love and a f f e c t i o n might i n d i c a t e f o s t e r home placement as o f t e n as i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement. T h e s e - c h i l d r e n are a c t u a l l y i n need of love and a f f e c t i o n and f o s t e r parents may meet t h i s need admirably. 3. Another group, r e q u i r i n g the f a c i l i t i e s of a t r e a t -ment i n s t i t u t i o n , Includes c h i l d r e n w i t h symptom patterns such as compulsion neuroses which need c a r e f u l , c o n t r o l l e d observa-t i o n of p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r s . There are a l s o c h i l d r e n w i t h emotional behaviour, such as unexplained mood swings, wi t h pos-s i b l e p h y s i c a l b a s i s . W i t h i n t h i s group may al s o be inc l u d e d the pseudo-defective behaviour w i t h elements of disturbance and mental defectiveness t h a t are d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e or t e s t i n the community. These are the c h i l d r e n who f a l l w i t h i n the 52 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f u n c t i o n a l r e t a r d a t i o n or pseudo-feebleminded-ness. The apparent i n t e l l e c t u a l impairment of these c h i l d r e n has emotional causation, and Is subject to treatment. Ryther C h i l d Center i n S e a t t l e , f o r example, has r e c e n t l y t r e a t e d three c h i l d r e n , a l l of whom had been o f f i c i a l l y diagnosed by r e s p o n s i b l e medical men as being t r u l y feebleminded. A l l had h i s t o r i e s of emotional d e p r i v a t i o n , each c h i l d having been removed from h i s n a t u r a l parents i n i n f a n c y , a l l having formed t e m p o r a r i l y s a t i s f y -i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s to parent s u b s t i t u t e s , two of them w i t h adoptive mothers and the t h i r d to a very m a t e r n a l i s t i c type of i n s t i t u -t i o n . Each c h i l d , furthermore, had h i s mother s u b s t i t u t e t r a u -m a t i c a l l y taken from him and each was t h r u s t subsequently i n t o an atmosphere of r e j e c t i o n or i n d i f f e r e n c e . While f o r c e d by t h e i r environment i n t o premature relinquishment of f e e l i n g , they r e s i s t e d t h i s process by r e f u s i n g to take on i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s and by o c c a s i o n a l l y b u r s t i n g out w i t h excessive emotion, u s u a l l y i n h o s t i l e form. Therapy f o r these three c h i l d r e n u t i l i z e d the combined resources of the Ryther C h i l d Center, i n c l u d i n g the t r e a t ' ment i n s t i t u t i o n , casework therapy, p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n , f o s t e r home placement, and o u t - p a t i e n t care. These cases would seem to e s t a b l i s h the value of a t r e a t -ment i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h i s type of c h i l d . They would a l s o seem to e s t a b l i s h beyond doubt the r i g h t of any c h i l d , considered as i n t e l l e c t u a l l y handicapped, to receive a complete diagnosis and h i s r i g h t to an opportunity f o r treatment, when t h i s i s i n d i c a t e d , before c u s t o d i a l school commitment. The success of Ryther C h i l d Center and other I n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h pseudo-feeblemindedness i n nowise precludes s i m i l a r success w i t h t h i s type of feebleminded-53 45 ness i n f o s t e r homes where i n t e n s i v e casework i s c a r r i e d on. ^ 4. The c h i l d who cannot r e l a t e to f o s t e r f a m i l y , community, s c h o o l , or neighborhood a l s o may r e q u i r e a treatment i n s t i t u t i o n . Examples which have been discussed i n recent a r t i c l e s i nclude a g i r l so anxious t h a t she cannot leave her home to attend school; a d i s t u r b e d boy approaching adolescence and i n t e n s i f y i n g h i s aggression toward parent persons; and a g i r l withdrawn from f o s t e r parents, s c h o o l , and neighborhood groups to such an extent that she was u n s a t i s f y i n g t o the f o s t e r p a r e n t s , 4 ^ B. There are many c h i l d r e n who might need periods of i n -s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r medical observation, treatment, or conval-escent care. Undoubtedly, there are c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g c o n v a l -escent care who should be g e t t i n g t h i s care i n t h e i r own homes. However, there are some youngsters, such as those w i t h rheumatic f e v e r , who o f t e n need i n s t i t u t i o n a l care I n cases i n which par-ents are uncooperative w i t h treatment, or during the acute stages 47 of the diseas e . S u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t a l contact i n the i n s t i t u t i o n i s v i t a l f o r these c h i l d r e n . The i n s t i t u t i o n may become some-t h i n g in-between a h o s p i t a l and home, such as i s the case w i t h the Children's Convalescent Home i n C i n c i n n a t i , Ohio. There are 4 5 J o h n D. Macdonald, A Study of Three Cases of F u n c t i o n a l  Feeblemindedness, August 1947, Monograph I I I , The ttyther C h i l d Center. A member of the s t a f f of the graduate school of s o c i a l work at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia was able to r e c a l l some eight cases of t h i s type i n a two-year p e r i o d , seven of which were d e f i n i t e l y helped i n f o s t e r homes. 4 6 M a r t i n G-ula, "Study and Treatment Homes f o r Troubled C h i l d r e n " , Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l  Work (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1948), pp. 334-335. 4 7Hughes, op. c i t . , pp. 137-139. 54 a l s o cases i n which c h i l d r e n need the machinery f o r treatment which i s a v a i l a b l e only i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . An example of the l a t t e r type of i n s t i t u t i o n i s the Children's Orthopedic H o s p i t a l i n S e a t t l e , Washington. IV C h i l d r e n Whose Parents Cannot Accept F o s t e r Parents There are a number of c h i l d r e n of inadequate parents who, because of t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward f a i l u r e as parents, seem to prevent another f a m i l y ' s success w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . These parents refuse to l e t t h e i r c h i l d r e n have from any other f a m i l y the things which they cannot provide themselves. Extremely r e -j e c t i n g parents may c l i n g to the hollow semblance of t h e i r p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and stand i n the way of f o s t e r home care. The i n s t i t u -t i o n may be able to serve some c h i l d r e n of such b l o c k i n g parents while s p e c i a l case work e f f o r t s or court a c t i o n may make p o s s i b l e other care when i t i s e s p e c i a l l y needed by some children.4® V- C h i l d r e n Who Need P r o t e c t i v e Care A. There are a number of g i r l s who are unmarried mothers. These g i r l s need some s o r t of s h e l t e r e d care during t h e i r con-finement. I t i s very Important t h a t t h i s s o r t of planning be a part of the casework s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d these g i r l s , and th a t these s e r v i c e s a l s o i n c l u d e planning f o r the expected baby. Since becoming an unmarried mother i s an expression of disturbance i n the area of the g i r l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with her f a m i l y , i t i s very important that casework s e r v i c e s be o f f e r e d . B. An ever growing number of c h i l d r e n are being diagnosed P y l e s , op. c i t . , pp. 15-16. 55 as c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y feebleminded. These c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y r e -qu i r e c u s t o d i a l school commitment, and there Is growing pressure on s t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l governments to provide increased f a c i l i -t i e s f o r these c h i l d r e n . C. The delinquents c o n s t i t u t e another group. I t i s d i f -f i c u l t to draw a l i n e between these c h i l d r e n and those who are emotionally d i s t u r b e d . Study and treatment Is i n d i c a t e d f o r these delinquent c h i l d r e n , and at present a few s t a t e and p r i v a t e t r a i n i n g schools f o r c h i l d r e n adjudged delinquents have added to t h e i r s t a f f s p s y c h i a t r i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and s p e c i a l s o c i a l 49 workers to permit a p r a c t i c a l study of behaviour. D. Another grouping includes those c h i l d r e n who need pro-t e c t i o n from unstable parents. For example, the personnel of an i n s t i t u t i o n are i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to deny uncooperative and unstable or a l c o h o l i c parents access t o the c h i l d when they f e e l t h i s i s d e t r i m e n t a l . A l s o , a c h i l d who has been threatened w i t h kidnapping or death by a s a d i s t i c parent f e e l s much more secure i n the p r o t e c t i o n an i n s t i t u t i o n o f f e r s him. v I r o n i c a l l y enough, these c h i l d r e n o f t e n need parent s u b s t i t u t e s . Adoption at a d i s t a n c e , where l e g a l l y p o s s i b l e , i s o f t e n u s e f u l . On the other hand, mistreated c h i l d r e n whose own parents r e -spond to education and s u p e r v i s i o n u s u a l l y need p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e but t h i s may be measured i n weeks or months r a t h e r than years. 49Hopkirk, op. c i t . , p. 26. 5 0Lippman, op. c i t . , pp. 327-328. 56 VI C h i l d r e n Needing Services i n Their Own Homes or Fo s t e r Homes A. There i s a famous experiment i n education by Emperor F r e d e r i c k the Second, of the f i f t e e n t h century, who wanted to know i n what language a c h i l d would f i r s t speak i f he were untaught — the ancient languages, L a t i n , Greek, Hebrew, or h i s own n a t i v e mother tongue 1 He gave a number of new-born, homeless babies to nurses w i t h the order to give them a l l necessary care i n regard to feeding, bathing, d i a p e r i n g , warmth and p h y s i c a l p r o t e c t i o n but never to speak to them or i n t h e i r presence show any signs of a f f e c t i o n . But the i n f a n t s a l l died at an e a r l y age. I t was s a i d that "they could not l i v e without the a p p r e c i a t i o n , the f a c i a l expression and f r i e n d l y gestures and l i v i n g care of t h e i r nurses". ^ The above example i s a d r a s t i c one. But i t i s not as r e -moved from p o s s i b i l i t y as might be thought. Infants reared i n I n s t i t u t i o n s are permanently handicapped. C h i l d r e n cared f o r i n baby i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the f i r s t few years of t h e i r l i v e s have a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c type of p e r s o n a l i t y defect because of t h i s . These c h i l d r e n have warped p e r s o n a l i t i e s because they d i d not have a continuous r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h parents, or at l e a s t a mother person, throughout babyhood. They have a shallow i n f a n t i l e p e r s o n a l i t y which has no depth, no c a p a c i t y f o r i n s i g h t i n t o s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s , no true use of language as a means of s o c i a l communica-t i o n , no capacity f o r higher a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g , no a b i l i t y f o r the give-and-take of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , no c a p a c i t y f o r love or even f o r hate. They do not pass through the normal stages of emotional development, and are always Impulsive and demanding l i k e a newborn baby, which means that t h e i r a c t i v i t y never de-velops s u f f i c i e n t p a t t e r n and they cannot be t r a i n e d , educated, O J - L a u r e t t a Bender, M.C., "There i s No S u b s t i t u t e f o r Family L i f e " , C h i l d Study, Spring, 1946, p. 74. 57 or c o n t r o l l e d i n any way except i n an environment which gives them no opportunity f o r choice, expects no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from them and merely o f f e r s them a benign r o u t i n e . I t seems to be imperative t h a t a c h i l d spend the f i r s t three years of i t s l i f e 52 i n a continuous r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h one mother person. Pre-school c h i l d r e n are g e n e r a l l y not s u i t e d to i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g because of the emotional and p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs which con-ti n u e during t h i s p e r i o d . A l s o , from the p r a c t i c a l standpoint, the need f o r r e s t periods f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s housemothers, during the time of day when the c h i l d r e n are away at s c h o o l , makes a strong case against admitting these c h i l d r e n to the i n -s t i t u t i o n s . Having pre-school c h i l d r e n i n the i n s t i t u t i o n who must be c o n s t a n t l y supervised makes t h i s r e s t p e r i o d p l a n more d i f f i c u l t to accomplish. The one p o s s i b l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the admittance of pre-school c h i l d r e n to the i n s t i t u t i o n s may be i n the case where such a c h i l d i s a member of a s i b l i n g group and the advantages to the c h i l d of s t a y i n g w i t h h i s s i b l i n g s outweighs the disadvantages of Inconvenience to s t a f f . B. A lso orphans and c h i l d r e n i n d e f i n i t e l y deprived of f a m i l y l i f e do not belong i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . These c h i l d r e n need the s e c u r i t y of s u b s t i t u t e parents and f a m i l y l i f e . C. There are a l s o those adolescents who need parents, i n -stead of i n s t i t u t i o n s . These are the c h i l d r e n who, though a d o l -escent i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, have not reached adolescence i n terms of emotional m a t u r i t y . The youngster i n puberty, of course, i s also dependent on parents or parent persons and has not yet 5 2 L a u r e t t a Bender, M.D., "Infants Reared i n I n s t i t u t i o n s Permanently Handicapped", C h i l d Welfare League of America B u l l e t i n , September 1945, pp. 1-4. 58 reached the stage of wanting to emancipate h i m s e l f from parents, and t h e r e f o r e , a f o s t e r home may be p r e f e r a b l e to the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h i s youngster. D. Any c h i l d who has s p e c i a l needs which require extensive i n d i v i d u a l i z e d care and whose l i f e i s made more d i f f i c u l t by group l i v i n g should have some k i n d of placement other than i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement. This would in c l u d e the extremely shy and withdrawn c h i l d who would be overwhelmed by the impact of group l i v i n g , those who are very s e n s i t i v e , or those who s u f f e r from severe 53 s i b l i n g r i v a l r y . In summary, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n d i c a t e s the various groups of c h i l d r e n who might b e n e f i t from i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, and on the other hand, I t p o i n t s up those groups who need s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r own homes or i n f o s t e r homes. This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should serve as a background f o r e v a l u a t i n g the needs of c h i l d r e n admitted to Martha and Mary Children's Home during the past three years. I t als o should provide a broad p i c t u r e of the many fu n c t i o n s of c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s . ; T h i s i s the c h i e f c o n t r i b u t i o n of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, since the crux of the study i s t o p r o j e c t a p o s s i b l e f u t u r e f u n c t i o n f o r Martha and Mary Children's Home. P y l e s , op. c i t . , p. 17 Chapter 4 Ori g i n s and Development The Martha and Mary Children's Home i s a p r o j e c t of the Lutheran Free Church, l o c a t e d i n the l i t t l e town of Poulsbo, Washington. Together w i t h Ebenezer Old Folks Home, i t i s operated by the West Coast Lutheran School and C h a r i t y A s s o c i a t i o n , which i s the l e g a l t i t l e of the cor p o r a t i o n organized i n 1893 to give l e g a l status to the o r i g i n a l Martha and Mary Children's Home. This i n s t i t u t i o n came i n t o being i n Poulsbo i n 1891 as the "Martha and Mary Orphan's Home" and, as the t i t l e i n d i c a t e s , the c h i l d r e n admitted to the Home i n the e a r l y years were p r i m a r i l y orphans. For the past decade, however, the care of orphans has not been part of the f u n c t i o n of the Martha and Mary Home. The a r t i c l e s of i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the A s s o c i a t i o n permit a great v a r i e t y of e n t e r p r i s e s i n c l u d i n g the opera t i o n of a p r i n t i n g business, c o l l e g e s , and other schools, as w e l l as I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n and asylums and h o s p i t a l s f o r the aged. Except f o r a high school which was s t a r t e d i n 1894 and conducted f o r only two years by the A s s o c i a t i o n , however, the a c t i v i t i e s of the A s s o c i a t i o n have been l i m i t e d to the p r o v i d i n g of p h y s i c a l care and t r a i n i n g f o r dependent and neglected c h i l d r e n at Martha and Mary Children's Home, and the p r o v i d i n g of p h y s i c a l care f o r e l d e r l y men and women at Ebenezer Old Folk's Home. This has con-tinued to be the f u n c t i o n of the A s s o c i a t i o n down to the present day. The Founder of Martha and Mary Orphan's Home The founder of the Martha and Mary Orphan's Home was the Rev. Ingebright T o l l e f s o n , a Lutheran pastor w i t h great i n i t i a t i v e 60 and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a b i l i t y . He i s best known f o r h i s remarkable energy i n e s t a b l i s h i n g missions and c h a r i t a b l e e n t e r p r i s e s of a l l kinds i n many d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s . The extent of h i s labors can be seen today, spread over a wide geographical area. According to the m a t e r i a l which was gathered at the time of h i s death i n 1936, 5 4 Rev. T o l l e f s o n was born i n Norway i n 1860. When he was only two years o l d , h i s mother d i e d , and h i s uncle and aunt undertook the r e a r i n g of t h i s small c h i l d as t h e i r own son i n a d i s t i n c t l y r e l i g i o u s atmosphere. At the age of e i g h t , Ingebright emigrated w i t h h i s f o s t e r parents to America and they s e t t l e d i n Minnesota. Upon h i s o r d i n a t i o n from Augsburg Seminary i n 1887 Rev. T o l l e f s o n came out to the West Coast to become the p a s t o r of the F i r s t Norwegian Lutheran Church i n Tacoma, Washington, and 'pastor a l s o of the churches i n Poulsbo and B o t h e l l , Washington. In 1889 t h i s p a s t o r married Mina Josephine Moe, the daughter of a w e l l known Poulsbo pioneer, and i n 1894 he, together w i t h h i s f a m i l y , took up residence i n Poulsbo. He had already founded the Martha and Mary Orphan's Home which had been dedicated on May 30, 1891. From 1897 to 1931 t h i s pastor founded the f o l l o w i n g . i n s t i t u -t i o n s and missions i n the order named: The Deaconess H o s p i t a l i n Grand Forks, North Dakota; the Bethesda C i t y M i s s i o n i n New York C i t y ; the S i l o a h M i s s i o n i n S e a t t l e , Washington; and the Bethany Home f o r the Aged i n E v e r e t t , Washington. He al s o founded two j o u r n a l s : "Den Lutherske Missioneer" and "Evangelisk B i b l i o t h e k " . D 4 tThe descendants of Rev. T o l l e f s o n have given the w r i t e r most of the f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l regarding the l i f e of t h i s a c t i v e pastor. 61 The Lutheran Free Church i n North America To appreciate the s e t t i n g of the Children's Home, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n be considered i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Church. This i s a p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n since at l e a s t h a l f of the f i n a n c i a l income of the Children's Home i s derived from the voluntary g i f t s of the Sunday Schools, Ladies' A i d S o c i e t i e s , Martha and Mary S o c i e t i e s (set up by at l e a s t two con-gregations f o r the s p e c i f i c purpose of promoting the support of the Ch i l d r e n ' s Home), Luther Leagues, Men's Brotherhoods, and congregations of the Lutheran Free Church. I n t h i s r e s p e c t , Martha and Mary Children's Home i s p r a c t i c a l l y an i n s t i t u t i o n a l m i s s i o n of the Lutheran Free Church, although there are no l e g a l t i e s w i t h the Church, and a l l property and c o n t r o l i s vested i n the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the West Coast Lutheran School and C h a r i t y A s s o c i a t i o n . This l o c a l autonomy, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s to the congregations, i s one of the bas i c p r i n c i p l e s of the Lutheran Free Church, and i s indeed one of the p r i n c i p l e s on which t h i s church group was founded. The Lutheran Free Church was born out of controversy and stru g g l e i n North America i n 1897. This s t r u g g l e had i t s o r i g i n i n Norway between the State Church, which was Lutheran by confes-s i o n and a department of the n a t i o n a l government, and the "Haugean s p i r i t u a l awakening", d a t i n g from 1796. The l a t t e r movement emphasized the r o l e of the layman i n the church. This idea was qui t e f o r e i g n to the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l e r g y i n the State Church of that day, and they b i t t e r l y fought the trend. The Haugean move-ment spread to America, and the str u g g l e was, t h e r e f o r e , p r o j e c t e d on the American scene. I t came to a head i n 1893 when the two 62 viewpoints clashed openly /over whether Augsburg Seminary i n Minneapolis would become the property of a newly formed Lutheran synod which was dominated by the " o l d tendency". The "new tendency" had been espoused at Augsburg f o r many years, and the leaders of the c o l l e g e were r e l u c t a n t to hand the school over to the synod. The r e s u l t was the formation of a l o o s e l y - k n i t o r g a n i z a t i o n of pastors and l a y people c a l l e d the "Friends of Augsburg" to pr o t e c t the i n t e r e s t s of the i n s t i t u t i o n . The "Friends" then formulated a set of p r i n c i p l e s and r u l e s f o r a Lutheran Free Church, and these were adopted i n 1897. This has been considered t o be the formal beginning of the Lutheran Free Church. Although the Lutheran Free Church was born i n controversy and s t r u g g l e , the r e s u l t s of the controversy have been d e c i d e l y c o n s t r u c t i v e . Most Lutheran congregations founded by Norwegians i n North American coun t r i e s enjoy greater l i b e r t y and autonomy today than would have been t h e i r s now had i t not been f o r the str u g g l e i n the '90's, and congregations are perhaps more low-churchly and t h e i r pastors more democratic as a r e s u l t of the c l a s h of ideas. W i t h i n the Church, the st r u g g l e has produced a close f e l l o w s h i p among the i n d i v i d u a l s , congregations and agencies 55 of the Church. c ft The Lutheran Free Church today c o n s i s t s of 356 congrega-t i o n s I n the United States and Canada. Fourteen of these con-Clarence J . Ca r l s e n , The Years of our Church, The Lutheran Free Church P u b l i s h i n g Company, Minneapolis, 1942. 5 6 A n n u a l Report of Lutheran Free Church 54th Annual  Conference, p. 202, June .14-18, 1950. The Messenger Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 63 gregations are l o c a t e d i n A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan, and twenty-nine are i n Washington and Oregon. The balance of these congrega-t i o n s are l o c a t e d i n the middle-western s t a t e s . An a d d i t i o n a l n i n e t y - f i v e congregations are i n Madagascar and China. A f f i l i a t e d w i t h the Lutheran Free Church at the present time are the f o l l o w -i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s ! Augsburg College and T h e o l o g i c a l Seminary i n Minneapolis; Bethesda Home f o r the Aged i n Wilimar, Minnesota; the Lutheran Deaconess Home and H o s p i t a l i n Minneapolis; Oak Grove Seminary, a Lutheran h i g h school, at Fargo, North Dakota; and the West Coast Lutheran School and C h a r i t y A s s o c i a t i o n i n Poulsbo, Washington. Beginnings of the Martha and Mary Children's Home The m i n i s t r y of Rev. T o l l e f s o n brought him i n close contact w i t h the new s e t t l e r s . In 1890 there was an epidemic on the coast which may have been e i t h e r t u b e r c u l o s i s or typhoid f e v e r , or both. The st o r y has come down from the past that dying mothers begged t h i s pastor and h i s wife to care f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The To l l e f s o n s responded to t h i s plea i n many cases and brought some of these orphaned c h i l d r e n i n t o t h e i r own home to give temporary s h e l t e r . Rev. T o l l e f s o n then met w i t h h i s church board and asked f o r f i n a n c i a l help to s t a r t an orphanage. The present l o c a t i o n of Martha and Mary Children's Home i n Poulsbo was bought i n 1890. I t i s b e l i e v e d by Rev. T o l l e f s o n ' s descendants that Poulsbo was chosen as the s i t e f o r the new Home because farm land was wanted, and t h i s land was l e s s expensive i n Poulsbo. There was apparently a l s o the i n f l u e n c e of Rev. T o l l e f s o n ' s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , M r. I . B. Moe, a pioneer of Poulsbo and a generous g i v e r to the i n s t i t u t i o n . A house was b u i l t to accommodate twenty c h i l d r e n and the d e d i c a t i o n 64 ceremonies were h e l d on May 30, 1891. Eight c h i l d r e n were adm-m i t t e d to the Home on the f i r s t day, and Mrs. I . T o l l e f s o n served as the Home's f i r s t m a t r o n . 5 7 While the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e a r l y beginnings of Martha and Mary Children's Home re s t e d l a r g e l y w i t h Rev. T o l l e f s o n , a group of i n t e r e s t e d men and women r a l l i e d around him, and as he wrote about the new venture i n the Church papers, he created i n t e r e s t f o r the cause among people i n the Middle West. Consider-able support was received from that source, and t h i s support has continued down to the present day. Rev. T o l l e f s o n a l s o t r a v e l e d and made personal appeals f o r funds from i n d i v i d u a l s as w e l l as congregations. In some congregations Martha and Mary S o c i e t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d and these groups of women sewed to r a i s e money f o r the Home. As a r e s u l t of the p u b l i c i t y which the Children's Home r e -ceived i n those e a r l y years, the t i n y community of Poulsbo became b e t t e r known among a l a r g e number of the Church's people i n the mid-western s t a t e s than were.the names of Tacoma and S e a t t l e 58 during the l a s t decade of the former century. Poulsbo has been known as " L i t t l e Norway" f o r the obvious reason that most of i t s e a r l y day s e t t l e r s 5 7"0rphan's Home Old I n s t i t u t i o n " , K i t s a p County Herald  F o r t i e t h Anniversary E d i t i o n , p. 15, 1940. 5 8 T h i s i s a c t u a l l y the w r i t t e n observation of an e a r l y p a s t o r , which the w r i t e r has v e r i f i e d by t a l k i n g w i t h an old-time r e s i d e n t of Poulsbo who migrated there from the Middle West i n the e a r l y years. The town of Poulsbo was w e l l known to t h i s man i n the Middle West, even though he had never seen i t . When he a r r i v e d i n S e a t t l e , however, he was astonished when the t i c k e t agents didn't even know where Poulsbo was l o c a t e d or how to get there. 65 came from Norway. The us u a l route which was taken was to Minnesota or some other Middle Western s t a t e where there was a Scandinavian community, and thence to S e a t t l e and Poulsbo. Part of the a t t r a c t i o n of the K i t s a p Ce-unty d i s t r i c t was i t s resemblance t o the Norwegian c o a s t a l landscape.^9 The Martha and Mary Children's Home was e n t i r e l y i n the capable hands of i t s founder f o r the two years between 1891 and 1893. In 1893 the West Coast Lutheran School and C h a r i t y A s s o c i a t i o n was formed and t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n sponsored the work u n t i l 1897 when i t s management was t r a n s f e r r e d to the Deaconess Lutheran H o s p i t a l Corporation i n Minneapolis. In 1912 the management was t r a n s f e r r e d back to the West Coast Lutheran School and C h a r i t y A s s o c i a t i o n . The reason f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r operation of the Home being assumed by the Deaconess H o s p i t a l was that they could provide and maintain the s t a f f . A s e r i e s of deaconesses came from Minneapolis to serve as matrons f o r the H0me during t h i s p e r i o d . The o r i g i n a l Orphan's Home was a simple frame b u i l d i n g w i t h the appearance of an ordinary house. This house was remodeled and added to s e v e r a l times u n t i l i t was qu i t e a large t h r e e - s t o r y frame b u i l d i n g and had a ca p a c i t y of about s i x t y c h i l d r e n . This l a r g e , congregate b u i l d i n g , the o r i g i n a l part of which had been used f o r h a l f a century, was completely demolished a decade ago at the time that a new b u i l d i n g was completed. During the e a r l y years, intake was handled by the r e c t o r and the Board of D i r e c t o r s . There was apparently no lower age l i m i t on i n t a k e , since i n f a n t s were admitted. Parents and pastors 5 9!-Early S e t t l e r s Took Roundabout Route to Come to Poulsbo", K i t s a p County Herald F i f t i e t h Anniversary and Progress Issue, p. 1, October 5, 1950 66 made most of the r e f e r r a l s to the Home. According to a matron who i s now r e t i r e d , i n many cases c h i l d r e n were admitted whose mothers had died. The f a t h e r s were o f t e n woodsmen or fishermen who could not work and take care of the c h i l d r e n at the same time. These f a t h e r s would promise to pay f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s care at the Home, but o f t e n d i d not ca r r y through. O c c a s i o n a l l y a parent remarried and a home was r e - e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the c h i l d r e n . An attempt was made to f i n d good f o s t e r homes f o r c h i l d r e n who were s t i l l l i v i n g a t the Home at four t e e n or f i f t e e n years of age, although some c h i l d r e n l i v e d at the Home u n t i l they were o l d enough to go out i n t o the world to earn t h e i r own l i v i n g . Appar-e n t l y there were many c h i l d r e n who could have b e n e f i t e d by f o s t e r home placement, but there were no s o c i a l agencies to do t h i s work.1 There were some l a r g e d o r m i t o r i e s i n the o l d i n s t i t u t i o n . Twelve to fourteen boys ranging i n age from twelve to f i f t e e n years had one of these "dorms" on the east h a l f of the t h i r d f l o o r , according to a r e t i r e d deaconess who was matron from 1914 to 1923. The west end of the t h i r d f l o o r was separated by a store room and there was a room f o r s i x older g i r l s as w e l l as s i n g l e rooms f o r three members of s t a f f . The second f l o o r had three dormitories w i t h e i g h t youngsters i n each dorm, and two dorms w i t h s i x c h i l d r e n I n each, as w e l l as a sewing room where the i r o n i n g was brought and r e p a i r e d and c l o t h i n g problems solved. The w r i t e r has t a l k e d w i t h one man who once l i v e d i n the o l d i n s t i t u t i o n . He t o l d the w r i t e r that he thought that most of the c h i l d r e n i n the Home at the time he l i v e d there would have g l a d l y s e i z e d the opportunity to go to a f o s t e r home, but t h i s opportunity never presented i t s e l f . 67 There was a l s o a room on the second f l o o r f o r two s t a f f members. On the f i r s t f l o o r there were two l i v i n g rooms, one of which was "unused" except f o r Board meetings; one large playroom f o r younger c h i l d r e n ; a large d i n i n g room; and k i t c h e n , pantry and storeroom. Both the f r o n t and the back of the b u i l d i n g had large porches. The basement had a mil k room, f r u i t c e l l a r , furnace room, and u t i l i t y room. There was a laundry b u i l d i n g i n the back yard which a l s o contained a playroom and bathroom. The d i n i n g room contained f o u r long t a b l e s , and at each t a b l e there was a s t a f f member who dined w i t h the c h i l d r e n . S t a f f dur-ing those nine years from 1914 to 1923 consisted of f i v e women and the farm manager who had charge of the o l d e r boys. The Home operated a f o r t y - a c r e farm, and the ol d e r boys learned to care f o r a team of horses, m i l k cows, and take care of chickens and hogs. Operation of the farm was an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the Home's economy as i t provided food f o r c h i l d r e n and s t a f f . There was enough hay grown on the farm to feed the stock. The boys a l s o helped w i t h the vegetable garden during the summer. The farm manager and t e n or twelve boys would go to the Home's wood land east of Poulsbo to cut s u f f i c i e n t wood f o r the f u e l needs of the k i t c h e n and furnace. According to the matron, t h i s was a great time f o r the boys, since they had a p i c n i c dinner w i t h them and 68 61 when they returned to the Home, they could go swimming. The 30th of May c e l e b r a t i o n was an annual a f f a i r at the Children's Home to commemorate the founding of the HQme. This c e l e b r a t i o n brought thousands of v i s i t o r s to Poulsbo each year from as f a r north as Bellingham and as f a r south as Tacoma. At one time, as many as eigh t thousand persons came to the Home on a 30th of May. Chartered boats from communities a l l over the Puget Sound area brought v i s i t o r s to Poulsbo on t h i s day. Many of the v i s i t o r s brought p i c n i c lunches w i t h them, and spent the day at the Home. An afternoon program of music, speeches, and games f o r the c h i l d r e n on the grounds was always a part of the day's schedule. Ice cream stands were set up a l l over the grounds r to provide refreshments. This day was the h i g h l i g h t of the year f o r the c h i l d r e n who l i v e d at the Home, as w e l l as f o r a l l the O J"According t o impressions which the w r i t e r has received from one middle-aged man who l i v e d at the Home as a c h i l d , these work expeditions were h a r d l y any fun. The reward f o r such work, according to him, was sometimes the " p r i v i l e g e " o f going out to p i c k r a s p b e r r i e s to add to the Home's l a r d e r . According to another man who had formerly l i v e d at the Home as a small c h i l d — n o w a s u c c e s s f u l young businessman--the older adolescents " l o r d e d " i t over the smaller c h i l d r e n and a l -ways seemed to get anything they wanted from the s t a f f at the expense of the smaller c h i l d r e n . This comment may be understood i n the l i g h t of the f a c t that much of the a c t u a l work of the i n -s t i t u t i o n was done by the older boys and g i r l s . The "matron" apparently functioned i n the c a p a c i t y of a "s u p e r v i s o r " of the old e r g i r l s i n the housekeeping, sewing, cooking, e t c . , while the farm manager acted as "sup e r v i s o r " f o r the ol d e r boys who worked the farm. 6 2 T h i s t r a d i t i o n a l day of f e s t i v i t i e s f o r the Children's Home has p e r s i s t e d down to the present day, although i t has dwindled i n importance i n terms of f i n a n c i a l support and the number of people p a r t i c i p a t i n g . 69 c h i l d r e n i n the community. The w r i t e r has ofte n heard the comments from middle aged people i n Poulsbo regarding the meaning of t h i s day to them when they were c h i l d r e n . Apparently many of the c h i l d r e n attached greater value to t h i s day than they d i d to Christmas or the Fourth of J u l y . The matron i n 1941 of the o l d b u i l d i n g which served u n t i l the new b u i l d i n g was opened i n 1941, r e c a l l s that she enjoyed t r y i n g to make the c h i l d r e n ' s rooms a t t r a c t i v e , even though she di d not have much to work w i t h . The w a l l s and c e i l i n g s were i n need of p a i n t and p l a s t e r r e p a i r at t h i s time, but much of t h i s was f o r g o t t e n i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of moving i n t o the new b u i l d i n g . The d i n i n g room seemed depressive to s t a f f because i t was so large and gloomy. I t had been planned f o r a larg e household and was painted, w i t h c o l o r s chosen mostly to hide f i n g e r marks, but the number at the Home i n 1941 had d e c l i n e d from 60 c h i l d r e n to 13. The s t a f f now c o n s i s t e d of only the matron and her husband and the cook, as compared w i t h a s t a f f of nine i n the e a r l i e r years. The i r o n i n g and mangling were done i n one end of the d i n i n g room, and the c h i l d r e n would o f t e n do t h e i r studying or reading i n the evening at t h i s same end of the d i n i n g room. The farm was s t i l l being operated at t h i s p o i n t , and the herd of ten m i l k cows provided b u t t e r , cream, and m i l k f o r the c h i l d r e n . There was .also m i l k which was s o l d to the Ebenezer Old F o l k ' s Home, and some cream was s o l d to the creamery. The farm produced i t s own hay, but other feed f o r the stock had to be bought. There were 250 l a y i n g hens, and the surplus eggs were s o l d . According to the matron, most of the boys l i k e d to help w i t h the feeding of the stock, which i n c l u d e d two horses 70 and the c a l v e s , and one boy would be re s p o n s i b l e f o r pushing the cart of m i l k up to the Old Polk's Home. Even at t h i s l a t e date, i t was f e l t by the matron that the farm had a d e f i n i t e value i n terms of t r a i n i n g f o r the boys and f i n a n c i a l a s sistance f o r the Home. The c h i l d r e n were not permitted to go to t h e i r rooms dur-ing the daytime, because the matron f e l t that she could not watch the c h i l d r e n c l o s e l y enough t o permit t h i s freedom. Casework f o r the Home's c h i l d r e n was being provided at t h i s p o i n t by a worker from the p u b l i c agency. This may e x p l a i n the f a c t that there was such a small group of c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n t h i s l a r g e , congregated b u i l d i n g at t h i s time. The p u b l i c agency was a l s o making payments to the Home f o r the c h i l d r e n f o r whom they had assumed primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The matron r e c a l l s a brother and s i s t e r of co n f i r m a t i o n age who had been admitted at two and fo u r years, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The caseworker from the p u b l i c agency e v e n t u a l l y found a f o s t e r home i n Spokane f o r the two s i b l i n g s . A new b u i l d i n g to replace the o l d i n s t i t u t i o n was dedicated on May 30, 1941. This d e d i c a t i o n took place e x a c t l y f i f t y years a f t e r the d e d i c a t i o n of the o l d b u i l d i n g . The new b u i l d i n g was b u i l t s p e c i f i c a l l y to meet the needs of c h i l d r e n , w i t h a maximum c a p a c i t y of approximately twenty, as compared with the s i x t y or more c h i l d r e n who once l i v e d i n the o l d b u i l d i n g . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new b u i l d i n g was n e c e s s i t a t e d by reason of the f a c t t h a t the o l d b u i l d i n g was condemned as a f i r e - t r a p , while the s i z e of the o l d b u i l d i n g made i t q u i t e i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the r e l a t i v e l y small number of c h i l d r e n and s t a f f who were l i v i n g i n the b u i l d i n g at t h a t time. Rather than give up the work w i t h c h i l d r e n completely, 71 t h e r e f o r e , a new b u i l d i n g was constructed, although i t was taken f o r granted that the program w i t h c h i l d r e n would be c a r r i e d out on a much smaller s c a l e than had been done i n the "olden days". The church had t r a d i t i o n a l l y supported two i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n — t h e one i n Poulsbo and an i n s t i t u t i o n i n Willmar, Minnesota. The l a t t e r i n s t i t u t i o n was being disbanded by the church at t h i s time, and i t was f e l t by the Board that they wished to perpetuate the t r a d i t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the Lutheran Free Church by maintaining the small i n s t i t u t i o n at Poulsbo. No e f f o r t was made to change the program of the i n s t i t u t i o n at t h i s time, i n s p i t e of the f a c t that the i n s t i t u t i o n a l popula-t i o n had been dwindling. A new factor--World War II—made i t p o s s i b l e to postpone the d e c i s i o n as to the f u t u r e f u n c t i o n of Martha and Mary Children's Home. The war brought f a m i l y break-down i n some communities, and war work meant there were many mothers working i n business and i n d u s t r y . Since the supply of f o s t e r homes was not s u f f i c i e n t l y l arge to meet the needs of c h i l d r e n l i v i n g away from t h e i r own homes, pressure was brought to bear on c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s to admit these c h i l d r e n . Martha and Mary's met t h i s need and the home was f i l l e d to c a p a c i t y a l l during the war years. For a few years a f t e r the war, the Home continued to be f i l l e d w i t h c h i l d r e n . The p o p u l a t i o n then began to drop however, as the i n s t i t u t i o n became adjusted to more normal c o n d i t i o n s . The popu-l a t i o n has continued to d e c l i n e to the present time. A d e c i s i o n needs to be made now, t h e r e f o r e , regarding the f u t u r e f u n c t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Chapter 5 An E v a l u a t i o n of Present Program The State of Washington has set up a s e r i e s of standards f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n , based on improved p r a c t i c e s which have been developed by i n s t i t u t i o n s during the past decade. Both l a y people and p r o f e s s i o n a l people w i t h p r a c t i c a l experience i n the operation of i n s t i t u t i o n s have worked together to develop these Standards; and they r e f l e c t the growing r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o s t e r care has come to be an important and i n t e g r a l p a r t of a comprehensive program to meet the needs of c h i l d r e n . R e c o g n i t i o n i s given to the f a e t that the c h i l d ' s own home and f a m i l y are the n a t u r a l medium i n which normal s o c i a l and personal development can be assured, but that i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o s t e r care should be thought of as one type of resource to be u t i l i z e d when a c h i l d needs treatment and care to meet a s p e c i f i c problem i n h i s growth and development. The standards suggest that such care may prepare him f o r r e t u r n to h i s own home i f t h i s i s p o s s i b l e , or f o r a new l i v i n g arrangement. The scope of the standards i s comprehensive. They cover the f o l l o w i n g areas: Governing 63 Board, Finances, Personnel, P l a n t and Grounds, and Program, and i t i s obviously appropriate that an e v a l u a t i o n of the pre-sent status of Martha and Mary Children's Home should be made i n terms of these c a t e g o r i e s . P l a n t , Grounds, and Equipment Martha and Mary Children's Home i s a two-story, b r i c k b u i l d -Standards f o r I n s t i t u t i o n s Caring f o r C h i l d r e n , De-partment of S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , Olympia, Washington, February, 1950. 73 ing which i s c o l o n i a l s t y l e a r c h i t e c t u r e . I t has white p i l l a r s i n the f r o n t of the b u i l d i n g which are set o f f a t t r a c t i v e l y against the red b r i c k s . Even though i t r e q u i r e s some a d d i t i o n a l landscaping, the b u i l d i n g i s probably the most imposing residence i n Poulsbo today. There i s a driveway and a larg e lawn i n f r o n t of the Home. V i s i t o r s to the town have thought sometimes i t was the town mansion of one of the community's more prosperous business-men. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n that i t might be a c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i -t u t i o n . The Home i s s i t u a t e d on a f i v e - a c r e t r a c t of land. There i s , t h e r e f o r e , s u f f i c i e n t space f o r r e c r e a t i o n , although there i s a need f o r a d d i t i o n a l trees and shrubs. The farm i s no longer i n e x i s t e n c e , since the government purchased t h i s ground during the Second World War, and the s i t e was used f o r a housing pro-j e c t to house the f a m i l i e s of war workers who were employed i n various governmental i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n K i t s a p County. The i n t e r i o r of Martha and Mary Children's Home i s home-l i k e . The f r o n t door opens i n t o a comfortable l i v i n g room with,, a c o l o n i a l - s t y l e f i r e p l a c e . The l i v i n g room i s decorated and fu r n i s h e d i n a t a s t e f u l manner. There are two davenports w i t h s l i p c o v e r s of b r i g h t f l o r a l design. There are two f l o o r lamps, two table lamps, a r a d i o and the piano. The c e i l i n g s are low throughout the b u i l d i n g . The l i v i n g room, c h i l d r e n ' s l i b r a r y and o f f i c e have matching carpeting and dra p e r i e s . To the r i g h t of the l i v i n g room i s the o f f i c e , e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to the c h i l d r e n . The o f f i c e has been used by the caseworker. The la c k of p r i v a c y which the o f f i c e o f f e r s , however, makes i t u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y , as a place of work f o r the caseworker or the a d m i n i s t r a -t o r . I t should probably be used by the houseparents, since the 74 c h i l d r e n ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l supplies are o f t e n s t o r e d i n t h i s o f f i c e , and i t s convenient l o c a t i o n seems to make i t the "nerve center" f o r the d a i l y l i v i n g a c t i v i t i e s . On the l e f t of the l i v i n g room i s the " c h i l d r e n ' s l i b r a r y " . This i s a room w i t h a l a r g e , round table i n the center of the room on which the ch i l d r e n ^ read, play w i t h crayons, and do home-work, i f they wish. ^ t i s the room to which the c h i l d r e n can come at any time, regardless of the a c t i v i t y which i s going on i n the l i v i n g room. The number of books i n the l i b r a r y i s not very g r e a t , but there i s constant i n s p e c t i o n of them by s t a f f so that books which re q u i r e b i n d i n g or r e p a i r are e i t h e r destroyed or sent to the bindery. There are a few c h i l d r e n i n the Home who do considerable reading. The l i v i n g room i s used by the c h i l d r e n and s t a f f f o r occa-s i o n a l vesper s e r v i c e s , record p l a y i n g , l i s t e n i n g to the r a d i o , or j u s t p l a i n " t a l k i n g " . Maintenance i s g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d i n such a modern b u i l d i n g , but there i s not as much p r i v a c y f o r s t a f f as there was i n the older congregate b u i l d i n g s which had e x t r a l i v i n g - r o o m areas tucked i n here and there. Due to the f a c t space f o r s t a f f to use f o r l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s i s l i m i t e d , the use of the l i v i n g room by the c h i l d r e n i s at times r e s t r i c t e d . There i s hard maple f l o o r i n g on the f i r s t and second s t o r y f l o o r s . The h a l l f l o o r s are covered w i t h b r i g h t red asphalt t i l e - i which i s also very durable. There are s i x bedrooms on the f i r s t f l o o r which w i l l accommodate two c h i l d r e n i n each room. The w r i t e r has heard people comment tha t i t i s unusual t o see bed-rooms on the f i r s t f l o o r of many c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s . The second f l o o r contains f o u r bedrooms which a l s o accommodate two 75 c h i l d r e n i n each room. There are a l s o two small dormitories which w i l l accommodate four c h i l d r e n i n each dorm. These dormi-t o r i e s could e a s i l y be converted i n t o f o u r bedrooms. The reason f o r t h e i r existence i s not quite c l e a r , since the s t a f f considers bedrooms to be more s a t i s f a c t o r y and there i s considerably l e s s d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g c h i l d r e n to sleep at n i g h t when there are a maximum of two c h i l d r e n i n a room. At times when the i n s t i t u -t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n i s down, i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r some youngsters to have bedrooms of t h e i r own. The c h i l d r e n * s bedrooms are a v a i l -able to the c h i l d r e n at a l l times. Each c h i l d has adequate place f o r h i s own clothes and personal belongings i n h i s bedroom, since a l l bedrooms contain chests of drawers and metal l o c k e r s , as i s the case, w i t h a few rooms, there are c l o s e t s . The house-mother's room and the sewing room are also on the second f l o o r . The sewing room contains the off-season c l o t h i n g s u p p l i e s . There are two bathrooms on the f i r s t f l o o r , and two bathrooms on the second f l o o r . Sleeping f a c i l i t i e s and t o i l e t and bathroom f a c i l -i t i e s are, t h e r e f o r e , adequate. The basement f l o o r contains the k i t c h e n , d i n i n g room, two shower rooms, two storerooms, the laundry, furnace room, and a p l a y area f o r c h i l d r e n . The f l o o r i s of linoleum t i l e , and i s e a s i l y cleaned. This i s a d a y l i g h t basement, since i t i s on the ground l e v e l on the back side of the b u i l d i n g . The k i t c h e n i s l a r g e , compact, and i s f u l l y equipped. A l l equipment i s on a s c a l e which would be quite appropriate i n any f a m i l y - s i z e d home. There are two l a r g e work surface areas which are covered by green formica, a hard surfaced m a t e r i a l which i s a c i d - r e s i s t a n t and i s t o l e r a n t to considerable heat. The green c o l o r was chosen by 76 the c h i l d r e n themselves from samples. The d i n i n g room i s con-venient from the standpoint of s e r v i c e from the k i t c h e n , and i s a very compact room w i t h fo u r t a b l e s which w i l l accommodate s i x persons at each t a b l e . Members of the s t a f f eat w i t h the c h i l d r e n . There i s u s u a l l y at l e a s t one s t a f f member at each t a b l e . The d i n i n g room i s s m a l l , but i t i s cozy and i n v i t i n g . Dishes are made of a heavy p l a s t i c m a t e r i a l , peach-colored and a t t r a c t i v e , and these are easy f o r the c h i l d r e n to handle, since they are l i g h t i n weight. The importance which Scandinavians a t t a c h to good food i s g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n the n u t r i t i o u s and w e l l pre-pared food which c h i l d r e n and s t a f f enjoy. The p l a y room i s used by the boys g e n e r a l l y to store t h e i r b i c y c l e s . They a l s o p l a y there when the weather i s u n s u i t a b l e f o r outside p l a y . There i s an automatic washing machine and a d r i e r i n the laundry room. Both are no l a r g e r than would be found i n the average household. Linens are g e n e r a l l y sent to the commercial laundry. The Home has a deep-freeze u n i t , and there i s adequate space f o r the storage of food and s u p p l i e s . A l s o , there i s a s m a l l , economically operated, hot-water heating p l a n t , u s i n g o i l f o r f u e l . There i s l i t t l e doubt that the Home does meet, extremely w e l l , the requirements of the Washington Standards w i t h regards to p l a n t , grounds, and equipment. The i n s t i t u t i o n conforms i n b u i l d i n g , l i g h t i n g , v e n t i l a t i o n , h e a t i n g , temperature, and plumb-ing to l o c a l ordinances and b u i l d i n g codes. The requirement of the Washington Standards, however, that a l l outside openings, i n c l u d i n g windows, of rooms used f o r s l e e p i n g , t o i l e t purposes, 77 d i n i n g , cooking, and storage of food should be screened, i s not me t . Program and C h i l d Development For the past s e v e r a l years the i n s t i t u t i o n has provided care f o r c h i l d r e n of both sexes up t o t h i r t e e n years of age. There have been no geographical l i m i t s on i n t a k e . Intake has been s e l e c t i v e i n terms of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s a b i l i t y to b e n e f i t the c h i l d . The caseworker has studied each f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , and i n many cases, a l t e r n a t i v e s t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement have been i n d i c a t e d , i n which cases, the caseworker has helped parents to accept other plans f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Where I n s t i t u t i o n a l p l a c e -ment has been i n d i c a t e d , every e f f o r t has been made to prepare the c h i l d f o r placement. With older c h i l d r e n , f o r example, i t has o f t e n been p o s s i b l e f o r the c h i l d to v i s i t the Home p r i o r to placement and have supper w i t h the c h i l d r e n , i n order that he might have the opportunity to decide whether he wanted to l i v e at the Home. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n regarding the c h i l d ' s background and needs has been given other members of the s t a f f by the case-worker. Parents have signed agreements regarding board payments and a u t h o r i z a t i o n s f o r medical treatment. There have been a number of pre-school c h i l d r e n admitted to the Home, but i n the m a j o r i t y of cases they were members of s i b l i n g groups who were being admitted, and i t was f e l t that the younger c h i l d should remain w i t h h i s brothers and s i s t e r s . There has been casework s u p e r v i s i o n of a l l c h i l d r e n under care. The c l i n i c a l s e r v i c e s of p s y c h i a t r y and psychology have not been used, however, to the extent .that such s e r v i c e s could 78 have been used. The s o c i a l worker has worked w i t h both the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and has helped c h i l d r e n to keep i n touch w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I n d i v i d u a l conferences have been h e l d w i t h s t a f f members and i n f o r m a l group d i s c u s s i o n s have taken place i n which the problems of i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n have been discussed. There have a l s o been some s t a f f d i s c u s s i o n s centering around mater-i a l on c h i l d care which s t a f f members were reading. The case-worker has been the l i a s o n person between the i n s t i t u t i o n and s o c i a l agencies, schools, and i n d i v i d u a l s of the community with respect to planning f o r c h i l d r e n under care. With regards t o discharge, most of the c h i l d r e n who have l i v e d at the i n s t i t u t i o n have been helped to move on to other types of placement or helped to r e t u r n to t h e i r homes when they had received the maximum b e n e f i t of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. There have been some c h i l d r e n , however, who have not moved on to other placements at the p o i n t when they have been ready f o r t h i s . I n most cases, these have been the s i b l i n g groups wi t h close t i e s to one parent, u s u a l l y a f a t h e r . These f a t h e r s o f t e n have not been able to accept f o s t e r home placement or housekeeping s e r v i c e s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n because they had already t r i e d these arrange-ments and had been d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the r e s u l t s . I n one case, the eventual remarriage of the f a t h e r gave a home to h i s f o u r g i r l s a f t e r three years of l i v i n g at the i n s t i t u t i o n . In another case, a f t e r f i v e years of l i v i n g at the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r three b r o t h e r s , the f a t h e r f i n a l l y , i n desperation, returned two of h i s sons to t h e i r mother who had remarried, and. placed h i s eldest son w i t h a r e l a t i v e . At l e a s t the boys were happy wi t h t h i s p l a n l Since the i n s t i t u t i o n i s not l i c e n s e d to do f o s t e r home 79 placement, i t has fol l o w e d the p o l i c y of making r e f e r r a l to a p r i v a t e c h i l d p l a c i n g agency f o r boarding care or adoption p l a c e -ment of c h i l d r e n needing these types of placement. Such r e f e r r a l takes p l a c e , of course, i n those instances where the i n s t i t u t i o n has primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r planning. I n most cases, however, the p r i v a t e agency and the county welfare departments have had continu i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r planning f o r c h i l d r e n whom they r e f e r r e d to the Home f o r placement. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making f u r t h e r plans towards discharge, t h e r e f o r e , was t h e i r s . The i n s t i t u t i o n ' s caseworker acted i n an advisory capacity to these agencies regarding the progress of the c h i l d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n and the readiness of the c h i l d f o r discharge from i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. With regards to education and t r a i n i n g , the c h i l d r e n attend the p u b l i c schools of the community and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n those schools. Some youngsters have been members of the l o c a l Boy Scout troop. Also some boys have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Pee wee a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s of the community. The c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e small allowances, which are scaled accord-ing to the c h i l d ' s age. The purpose of the allowances i s to teach the youngsters how t o handle money. The c h i l d r e n perform assigned d u t i e s around the i n s t i t u t i o n , such as h e l p i n g w i t h the dishes, making t h e i r own beds, emptying waste baskets, e t c . These jobs are considered to be t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the making of the home. Older c h i l d r e n are encouraged to earn at l e a s t some of t h e i r spending money, and some of the older c h i l d r e n have earned sur-p r i s i n g l y l a r g e amounts by working f o r farmers during the summer months, p i c k i n g b e r r i e s and cascara bark, e t c . O c c a s i o n a l l y there 80 are o p p o r t u n i t i e s at the Home f o r c h i l d r e n to earn e x t r a spending money. R e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n has always played an important r o l e i n the program of the i n s t i t u t i o n . S t a f f members often have had some t r a i n i n g i n B i b l e I n s t i t u t e s , and t h i s has w e l l q u a l i f i e d them to i n s t r u c t the c h i l d r e n i n C h r i s t i a n teachings. In the rout i n e of the i n s t i t u t i o n r e l i g i o n plays an important p a r t , as i n prayers at mealtimes and vespers i n the evening before going to bed. C h i l d r e n have t r a d i t i o n a l l y attended the Lutheran Free Church i n the community, and some of the ol d e r youngsters p a r t i -c i p a t e i n the youth program, Luther League, of the church. The i n s t i t u t i o n has never employed a trained"group worker. Since the r a t h e r wide age range of the c h i l d r e n and the small s i z e of the group has made i t d i f f i c u l t to p l a n i n terms of organized r e c r e a t i o n , l i t t l e e f f o r t has been made i n t h i s respect. However, l a s t summer a young man was employed f o r the summer months to plan r e c r e a t i o n w i t h the c h i l d r e n . This c o n s i s t e d mostly of h i s going w i t h the c h i l d r e n to the lake f o r swimming, p i c n i c s , h i k e s , and other a c t i v i t i e s i n which the e n t i r e group could p a r t i c i p a t e . The p h y s i c a l needs of c h i l d r e n are g e n e r a l l y w e l l met i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . Meals are w e l l balanced and a t t r a c t i v e . C l o t h -i n g which the c h i l d r e n wear i s s u p e r i o r , the w r i t e r f e e l s , t o th a t of the c l o t h i n g worn by the average c h i l d i n the community. Medical and dental examinations are required p r i o r to admission. A Mantoux t e s t and a s e r o l o g i c a l t e s t f o r s y p h i l i s are also r e -quir e d i f recommended by the p h y s i c i a n . The i n s t i t u t i o n has not assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g e t t i n g c h i l d r e n immunized against 81 d i p t h e r i a or vaccinated against smallpox, since the p u b l i c schools have g e n e r a l l y assumed t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A l l c h i l d r e n see the d e n t i s t every s i x months. Annual medical examinations are u s u a l l y given i n the p u b l i c schools, so the i n s t i t u t i o n has not assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s . L o c a l p h y s i c i a n s i n the com-munity are c a l l e d when c h i l d r e n are i l l , and v i s i t s to the o f f i c e s of these p h y s i c i a n s are made when i n d i c a t e d . Medical and dental care i s paid by the Home on a fee b a s i s . A l l medical and dental appointments are recorded i n the c h i l d ' s record. A l o c a l h o s p i -t a l i s used f o r c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , and c h i l d r e n , i l l , not r e q u i r i n g h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , are cared f o r i n t h e i r own bedrooms at the Home. Governing Body and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The Governing Board of Martha and Mary Children's Home i s the Board of Trustees of the West Coast Lutheran School and Ch a r i t y A s s o c i a t i o n , the l e g a l t i t l e of a Washington c o r p o r a t i o n which operates both the Children's Home and Ebenezer Old Polk's Home. The Board c o n s i s t s of nine members who are f a i r l y represen-t a t i v e of the church community, but they do not represent the community at l a r g e , g e n e r a l l y speaking. The reason f o r t h i s i s that Board members must be members of the Lutheran Free Church. This requirement i s d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t i n g as to the s i z e of the group from which Board members may be drawn, and i s e s p e c i a l l y l i m i t i n g i n the case of the Poulsbo i n s t i t u t i o n s , s ince they are g e o g r a p h i c a l l y somewhat i s o l a t e d from the bulk of the sup-p o r t i n g church constituency. The present Board c o n s i s t s of two businessmen, two housewives, two m i n i s t e r s , an accountant, a 82 former farm manager of the i n s t i t u t i o n , and a p u b l i c school custodian. There are no re p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the Board at the present time from the f i e l d s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e most d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the program, i . e . , h e a l t h , r e c r e a t i o n , education, and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , ^ t i s suggested that t h i s s i t u a t i o n could be helped considerably through the use of advisory committees c o n s i s t i n g of people drawn from the community at l a r g e . Board members would then act as chairmen of these committees. The i n d i v i d u a l s drawn from the l o c a l community to serve i n an advisory capacity to the Board would serve the dual f u n c t i o n of supplement-i n g the strengths of the present Board as w e l l as a s s i s t i n g ' the Board to i n t e r p r e t program to the non-church community. The Washington Standards emphasize th a t the f u n c t i o n of board members r e l a t e s t o p o l i c y making and not to a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . This standard i s not f u l l y complied w i t h by the present Board. One reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t , t r a d i t i o n a l l y , the Board was an adminis-t r a t i v e body, and some r e s i d u a l of t h i s i d e a has p e r s i s t e d down to the present day. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f a c t t h a t the Board has f a i l e d to delegate f u l l executive r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e person. Considerable r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has been delegated by the Board to the caseworker. However, t h i s delega-t i o n has not been c l e a r l y defined, and the r e s u l t has been that the executive f u n c t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n have tended to be shared among s e v e r a l s t a f f members and the Board of D i r e c t o r s . This i s obviously a cumbersome and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n s , and assures no scope f o r a f u l l - t i m e q u a l i -f i e d executive who could o f f e r l e a d e r s h i p f o r the agency. The e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the A s s o c i a t i o n includes both 83 a C o n s t i t u t i o n and A r t i c l e s of I n c o r p o r a t i o n . Both documents are obsolete. The A r t i c l e s of I n c o r p o r a t i o n were w r i t t e n i n the year 1900, and are very much i n need of r e w r i t i n g . The statement of purpose i n the l a t t e r document covers an area of a c t i v i t y which i s too broad to be p r a c t i c a l i n terms of present.or conceivable f u t u r e f u n c t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Other changes since the w r i t i n g of t h i s document over a h a l f century ago include a change i n the name of the sponsoring church body. A l s o , the method of e l e c t i n g members to the c o r p o r a t i o n has changed. Corporation members ( l i m i t e d to 30) are today nominated at the Annual Meet-ing of the West Coast D i s t r i c t of the Church, and these nomina-t i o n s are voted on at the annual meeting of the Corporation. The Corporation, i n t u r n , e l e c t s the Board of Trustees. The Trustees are e l e c t e d to the Board f o r a p e r i o d of three years. At the end of that p e r i o d , the p r a c t i c e f o l l o w e d i s t h a t a Board member may be r e - e l e c t e d to the Board f o r an a d d i t i o n a l three years. At the e x p i r a t i o n of h i s second "term" he must r e t i r e f o r a p e r i o d of at l e a s t one year before being e l i g i b l e f o r e l e c t i o n again. Thus, there i s assured some r o t a t i o n i n o f f i c e . This p l a n of board turnover seems to meet the Washington Standards. The C o n s t i t u t i o n , a lengthy, d e t a i l e d document, defines the dut i e s of the r e c t o r and matrons of the i n s t i t u t i o n s , ^ t i s c l e a r from t h i s document that executive a u t h o r i t y f o r the i n t e r n a l management of the i n s t i t u t i o n s was vested i n the matrons. The r e c t o r was apparently an i n t e g r a t i n g person. The C o n s t i t u t i o n i s antiquated, and c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e of the Board of Trustees. The d e t a i l e d r u l e s i n the document cover-i n g the operation of the i n s t i t u t i o n s are not only obsolete, but 84 they do not belong i n a C o n s t i t u t i o n . I t i s suggested that a new C o n s t i t u t i o n be w r i t t e n which should be a b r i e f document, but should r e f l e c t present-day t h i n k i n g regarding c h i l d care. A Manual f o r the I n s t i t u t i o n should contain the bulk of the de-t a i l e d m a t e r i a l r e g a r d i n g Board r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , job d e f i n i t i o n s , personnel p r a c t i c e s , e t c . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the Board has had the f o l l o w i n g standing com-m i t t e e s : Personnel, B u i l d i n g s and Grounds, Furnishings and Equipment, and an Executive Committee which i n c l u d e s the fu n c t i o n s of a. Finance Committee. The Washington Standards suggest that i n a d d i t i o n to these, the f o l l o w i n g committees may be d e s i r a b l e : Membership, P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s , Nominating, and a b o a r d - s t a f f com-mittee concerned w i t h s e r v i c e to c l i e n t s . Washington Standards f u r t h e r suggest t h a t the chairmen of standing committees should be members of the board, but that other members may be added from the board, s t a f f , community, or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s . This suggestion seems to be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t f o r the Board under d i s c u s s i o n , since i t s small s i z e makes i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to form a s u f f i c i e n t number of committees to get suf-f i c i e n t membership on an i n d i v i d u a l committee without b r i n g i n g i n members from outside the Board to act i n an advisory capacity. On the other hand, i f members of the Corporation could be brought on to Board committees, the Board would then be able to take ad-vantage of the s k i l l s of Corporation members, and would a l s o be g i v i n g Corporation members an opportunity to view the p r a c t i c a l workings of the Board, so that when the time came when they, too, might be e l e c t e d to the Board, they would be prepared to assume t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 85 Financing Martha and Mary Children*s Home i s not a community chest agency. More than h a l f of i t s f i n a n c i a l support i s d e r i v e d from the church community through voluntary g i f t s and donations from i n d i v i d u a l s and congregations. The balance of the f i n a n c i a l sup-port of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s derived from payments from parents of c h i l d r e n under care, and payments from the county welfare depart-ments f o r c h i l d r e n f o r whom they have assumed primary f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s from the p u b l i c agency are based on a formula by which they pay a percentage of the i n -s t i t u t i o n ' s previous year's per c a p i t a cost towards the mainten-ance of an i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d f o r whom they have assumed r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y . The p u b l i c agency's c a l c u l a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s per c a p i t a cost i s made on the b a s i s of d e t a i l e d expense f i g u r e s submitted to i t by the i n s t i t u t i o n of the previous year's a c t u a l cash expenditures. Legitimate charges such as d e p r e c i a t i o n on b u i l d i n g s and equipment although they are p r i m a r i l y "bookkeeping e n t r i e s " , are not taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the p u b l i c agency i n i t s c a l c u l a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s per c a p i t a cost. This means th a t the p u b l i c agency's c a l c u l a t i o n of the per c a p i t a cost of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s always l e s s than the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s own c a l c u l a t i o n . At no time has the p u b l i c agency met the f u l l per c a p i t a cost of the i n s t i t u t i o n , and t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s accepted by the Board, s i n c e they f e e l that payment i n f u l l would lead to c o n t r o l and domination of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s p o l i c i e s by the p u b l i c agency. The Board has c o n s i s t e n t l y r e s i s t e d t h i s trend i n modern welfare a c t i v i t y . S i m i l a r l y , w i t h respect to the tendency of p r i v a t e 86 i n s t i t u t i o n s to a f f i l i a t e w i t h community chest agencies, the Board has shown r e s i s t a n c e towards the idea of s i m i l a r a f f i l i a -t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n , although the i n s t i t u t i o n i s , of course, a member agency of the Community C o u n c i l . The Board f e e l s that i f the i n s t i t u t i o n i s to continue to be a church i n s t i t u t i o n , the church should support i t . This i s not an i d l e assumption, since the w i l l i n g n e s s of the church people to support t h e i r C hildren's Home has been proved through the years. For s i x t y years the i n s t i t u t i o n has been supported f i n a n c i a l l y by the voluntary g i f t s of the church people. This i n d i c a t e s t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n does have meaning to the church body as a whole, even though the bulk of the supporting c o n s t i -tuency are s e v e r a l thousand miles away. The f a c t that the i n s t i -t u t i o n i s the only remaining c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n of the church on t h i s continent may con t r i b u t e to the d e s i r e on the part of the church people to perpetuate and maintain t h i s s m a ll i n s t i t u -t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new b u i l d i n g j u s t a decade ago to replace the o l d b u i l d i n g — at a time when most other p r i v a t e c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Washington seemingly were doing l i t t l e more than keeping t h e i r o l d b u i l d i n g s i n opera-t i o n — i n d i c a t e s something of the strong d e s i r e to c a r r y on the t r a d i t i o n of a c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n i n the church, as w e l l as meet the p h y s i c a l standards of present-day c h i l d care. The Home may f a i r l y be considered as representing more than j u s t another church i n s t i t u t i o n . I t i s a product of Norwegian Lutheran c u l t u r e i n North America, and a symbol of the c o n t r i b u -t i o n made by Norwegian Lutherans to the land of t h e i r adoption. The Board and the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s supporters are proud of t h e i r 87 Home, and are w i l l i n g to make s a c r i f i c e s t o maintain i t . Some of the i n t e r e s t which the supporters take i n the c h i l d r e n i s i n -d i c a t e d each Christmas when hundreds of g i f t s f o r the c h i l d r e n come pouring i n t o the Home, and the youngsters are d e l i g h t e d by every d e l i v e r y at the l o c a l post o f f i c e b r i n g i n g packages from the Middle West. This i s a l s o the time of year when the bulk of the Home's f i n a n c i a l g i f t s are r e c e i v e d , since many of the con-gregations have s p e c i a l o f f e r i n g s f o r the Home at t h i s time. A y e a r l y budget was r e c e n t l y inaugurated. This budget i s drawn up p r i o r to the f i s c a l year and i s approved by the Board. The Board has given the caseworker considerable freedom i n opera-t i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h i n the l i m i t s of t h i s budget. A l s o , the i n s t i t u t i o n has an e x c e l l e n t double-entry bookkeeping system, which takes i n t o account prepaid items, d e p r e c i a t i o n on equip-ment and b u i l d i n g s , e t c . . Accounting s e r v i c e i s purchased by the i n s t i t u t i o n , and there i s a y e a r l y audit of the books by a l i c e n -sed p u b l i c accountant. A l l disbursements, excepting the p e t t y cash items, are made by check and signed by the caseworker. Bond-ing of employees who handle funds has not been done, although t h i s does seem to be a standard which should be met. There are y e a r l y and semi-annual f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s . The w r i t e r doubts that monthly f i n a n c i a l statements, as suggested by the Standards, would be of any p a r t i c u l a r value to the o r g a n i z a t i o n unless there were monthly Executive Committee meetings, as suggested by. the Standards. The minimum requirement of f o u r r e g u l a r Board meetings a year as proposed by the Standards i s met by the Board under d i s c u s s i o n . 88 Personnel As has already been mentioned, the Board has not delegated f u l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to any one person i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , i t appears that the r e c t o r was a c o o r d i n a t i n g person i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . This person t r a d i t i o n a l l y had many dutie s r e l a t i n g to the i n s t i t u -t i o n s . These i n c l u d e d the p a s t o r a l work at both Homes and some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r records and bookkeeping. He was a l s o pastor of the l o c a l congregation. Beyond these d u t i e s he was the " t i e " w i t h the supporting church constituency. The p o s i t i o n of Rector d e t e r i o r a t e d through the years, and the persons i n t h i s p o s i -t i o n , w i t h the exception of one Rector, have not been apparently the leaders which the o r g a n i z a t i o n needed. There are some a d d i -t i o n a l reasons f o r t h i s beyond the f a c t t h a t the Board never delegated f u l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to him. These reasons are centered i n t h e . f a c t that the church has t r a d i t i o n -a l l y f o l lowed the p o l i c y of employing f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n pastors who were r e t i r e d from a c t i v e p a s t o r a t e s . This means that these men came to t h i s job w i t h l i t t l e experience or t r a i n i n g , and some-times they had l i t t l e i n t e r e s t or capacity f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . "Also, they came to t h i s r e l a t i v e l y r e s ponsible job at a point i n l i f e when they were unprepared to assume the heavy job of ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n . The present r e c t o r i s seventy years o l d . The Board i s pre-s e n t l y seeking another pastor to take h i s p l a c e , since he has reached a time i n l i f e when retirement i s i n d i c a t e d . I t i s hoped that I f f u t u r e pastors are employed by the o r g a n i z a t i o n they w i l l be known simply as "pastors" or " c h a p l a i n s " , and w i l l have c l e a r l y d e f i n e d duties of a r e l i g i o u s nature, c h i e f l y w i t h respect to 89 Ebenezer Old Polk's Home. The t i t l e of r e c t o r should be completely dropped on the retirement of the present r e c t o r , since the t i t l e has l i t t l e meaning to anyone. Future pastors of the organiza-t i o n should be made d i r e c t l y responsible to the a d m i n i s t r a t o r . I t does not seem l o g i c a l t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t o r of t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n should n e c e s s a r i l y be drawn from the m i n i s t r y , un-l e s s he were al s o t r a i n e d i n s o c i a l work. I n the f i e l d of educa-t i o n , f o r example, the preacher i s no longer used i n the adminis-t r a t i v e r o l e . P i e r c e Atwater describes t h i s development i n the denominational c o l l e g e s as f o l l o w s : There was a time when m i n i s t e r s headed most p r i -vate c o l l e g e s . I n years past, t r a i n i n g f o r the m i n i s t r y was not u n l i k e that f o r educational p o s i t i o n s . I t was thought that a m i n i s t e r who had headed a s u c c e s s f u l church had proven ca p a c i t y f o r l e a d e r s h i p and could be transported i n t o the educational f i e l d and preside over the d e s t i n i e s of a co l l e g e w i t h s i m i l a r success. As t r a i n i n g f o r education progressed, there developed a measure of resentment against the use of d i s t i n g u i s h e d m i n i s t e r s as c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t s . Even i n s e c t a r i a n c o l l e g e s there Is today a growing tendency to use educators as p r e s i d e n t s . Standards set by i n t e r c o l l e g -i a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s demand c e r t a i n minimum p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n f a c u l t y members. Men and women t r a i n e d i n education p r e f e r to work i n an atmosphere where the emphasis i s educational and not r e l i g i o u s . P r o p e r l y handled, there need be no serious c o n f l i c t between education and r e l i g i o n . Improperly handled, c o n f l i c t always r e s u l t s . The thorough-going educator does not want to chance t r o u b l e . He wants to enter an I n s t i t u t i o n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e where he w i l l have a reasonably f r e e hand. N a t u r a l l y he g r a v i t a t e s away from the denominational school when i t i s presided over by an executive without p r o f e s s i o n a l background i n education. Undoubtedly there i s a d e f i n i t e c o r r e l a t i o n between s u c c e s s f u l denominational c o l l e g e s and the adoption of high standards of f a c u l t y t r a i n i n g and ex-perience. More and more are those t r a i n e d i n the f i e l d of education being promoted to c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n c i e s . Less and l e s s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d m i n i s t e r s being given 90 these posts."** This trend of u s i n g t r a i n e d educators i n the p o s i t i o n s of denominational c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n c i e s , r a t h e r than preachers, i s a trend which has i t s equivalent i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work. I n c r e a s i n g l y , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the s o c i a l work f i e l d are being drawn from the ranks. P i e r c e Atwater describes t h i s trend as f o l l o w s : More and more executive p o s i t i o n s i n s o c i a l work are being f i l l e d from the p r a c t i t i o n e r group. The pre-sent managing personnel knows something about most f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y , but has had no i n t e n s i v e know-ledge of any. However, a record f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y performance i n some main branch of operation i s c e r t a i n l y no disadvantage i n o b t a i n i n g executive s t a t u s , and i n the near f u t u r e w i l l probably con-s t i t u t e one of the p r i n c i p a l requirements. Appren-t i c e experience seems s t i l l the best road to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e job. The normal steps would be something l i k e t h i s : (1) good educational background, (2) p r o f e s s i o n a l school c e r t i f i c a t e or degree, (3) case work, group work, or community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e , (4) supervisory or semi-executive experience, (5) management.6^ The recommendation of the Washington Standards w i t h regard to the background of the executive seems to s u b s t a n t i a t e the statement of P i e r c e Atwater. I t i s as f o l l o w s : I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t the executive be one t r a i n e d i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work, w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n -ing and experience i n s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n . He should have a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l and understanding of the needs of c h i l d r e n , and be competent to provide l e a d e r -ship w i t h i n the community i n the planning and care of c h i l d r e n . I t would seem that the a d m i n i s t r a t o r of the i n s t i t u t i o n s should be r e c r u i t e d from the f i e l d of s o c i a l work, since i t i s i n 6 4 P i e r c e Atwater, Problems of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n S o c i a l  Work, The U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota^ Press, Minneapolis, 1940, p. 7. 6 5 I b i d . , p. 6. 91 t h i s area that the i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs must be centered i n the days to come. The i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter of t h i s study has also described the h i s t o r i c a l progression of c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u -t i o n s from the e a r l y i n s t i t u t i o n s as almshouses or poor houses, i n s t i t u t i o n s as orphan asylums, schools and "Homes" to t h e i r modern sta t u s as s o c i a l agencies. This i s the proper e v o l u t i o n f o r p rogressive c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n regarding planning f o r the fu t u r e of the Children's Home should take i n t o account the f a c t that Martha and Mary Children's Home i s a s o c i a l agency, se r v i n g community needs. In t h i s connection, one w r i t e r . enlarges on the f u n c t i o n s of the executive of a s o c i a l agency as f o l l o w s ; Quite as d i v e r s i f i e d as the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d of the ca p t a i n of a ship are those of the executive s e c r e t a r y or d i r e c t o r of the average s o c i a l agency. Among the a c t i v i t i e s f o r which he i s d i r e c t l y or I n d i r e c t l y r e s ponsible are the f o l l o w i n g . He must i n i t i a t e plans f o r the e f f e c t i v e development of the agency's human s e r v i c e . He must provide mater-i a l , l e a d e r s h i p , and s e c r e t a r i a l s e r v i c e f o r the board and committees of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . He must conceive and execute an adequate p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s program. He must prepare and present a f i n a n c i a l budget. He must c o n t r o l expenditures w i t h i n that budget. He must devise and execute plans f o r the r a i s i n g of funds unless the agency i s a member of a community chest. I f i t i s a chest member (as most reputable p r i v a t e agencies now a r e ) , he should a i d the chest's f i n a n c i a l and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s . He i s res p o n s i b l e f o r the equipment and arrangement of h i s agency's o f f i c e o r v i n s t i t u t i o n a l p l a n t . He i s responsible f o r the employment and d i r e c t i o n of the s t a f f and, through the s t a f f , f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l care of the c l i e n t s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . He must p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n the j o i n t planning and a c t i o n of a community c o u n c i l of s o c i a l agencies. In sum, he must be a p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r , promoter, business manager, planner, s u p e r v i s o r , coordinator, and ambassador.6° D DElwood S t r e e t , S o c i a l Agency A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harper & Brothe r s , New York, 1948, p. 103. 92 This may be a somewhat c o l o r f u l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the need f o r a f u l l - t i m e executive. But i t nevertheless p o i n t s up the necessary fu n c t i o n s of any a d m i n i s t r a t o r who might be employed by the West Coast Lutheran School and C h a r i t y A s s o c i a t i o n i f a long view i s taken of the f u t u r e needs of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The p o s i t i o n of an adm i n i s t r a t o r a f f e c t s a l l other s t a f f . Normally the a d m i n i s t r a t o r employs, promotes, and discharges s t a f f members w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of the budget. I t i s i n t h i s area of a c t i v i t y that the i n s t i t u t i o n s have experienced considerable confusion, since t h i s executive f u n c t i o n has been d i s t r i b u t e d among the Board and s e v e r a l s t a f f members. This system prevented s t a f f development, and t h i s , i n t u r n , has ob-v i o u s l y hindered the development of the programs sponsored by the o r g a n i z a t i o n . I f the o r g a n i z a t i o n Is to grow and develop as a s o c i a l agency, the a d m i n i s t r a t o r should be given the a u t h o r i t y to employ, promote, and discharge s t a f f . The Board should leave the executive f r e e to do t h i s . I t i s recognized that the executive cannot c o n t r o l employment and d i r e c t h i s s t a f f i f he s u f f e r s i n t e r f e r e n c e from the Board i n t h i s area. The personnel committee of the Board should act i n an advisory c a p a c i t y to the executive on personnel matters and should make recommendations to the Board i n respect to the p r i n c i p l e s which are to be fol l o w e d . With the d e c l i n i n g i n f l u e n c e of the r e c t o r , the a c t i v e manage-ment of the Children's Home was assumed by the matron of the i n -s t i t u t i o n . This s i t u a t i o n was changed wi t h the employment of a caseworker three years ago. ^he a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s formerly e x e r c i s e d by the matron of the Children's Home were g r a d u a l l y 93 assumed by the caseworker, and the matron assumed the t i t l e of "housemother". The caseworker took charge of intake and business management of the Children's Home, as w e l l as the business manage-ment of the Ebenezer Old Polk's Home. I t may be seen by t h i s that the s o c i a l worker's r o l e has been somewhat d i s t o r t e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . Part of the d i f f i c u l t y may be due to the f a c t that a s o c i a l worker on the s t a f f was a new experience f o r the organiza-t i o n , and more time i s needed to c l a r i f y the f u n c t i o n of the s o c i a l worker. There has been unwise d e l e g a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by the Board again, to other s t a f f members. There has been a tendency on the pa r t of the Board, f o r example, to give r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u b l i c i t y m a t e r i a l s to the supporting church constituency, and speaking engagements w i t h l o c a l churches to the housemother of the Children's H0me. F o r t u n a t e l y , the amount of time spent by the housemother i n these e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i s not great , but i t might w e l l be t h i s i s a misuse of the housemother's time and a b i l i t i e s , since her time should be spent w i t h the c h i l d r e n . However, t h i s s i t u a t i o n does p o i n t up the f a c t , again, that the i n s t i t u t i o n s should have an executive. More r e c e n t l y , the problem of changing the program of the Children's Home i n order b e t t e r to meet needs i n the community has absorbed a great deal of the time of the Board, and out of t h i s i s emerging an increased awareness of s t a f f needs, and an attempt to define p o s i t i o n s more d e f i n i t e l y than before. I t i s hoped i n t h i s respect that there w i l l be developed a p o s i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n which w i l l give c l e a r job 94 d e f i n i t i o n s . 6 7 During the past three years s t a f f has c o n s i s t e d of a case-worker, housemother, a s s i s t a n t housemother, cook, laundress, and maintenance man. The caseworker has been res p o n s i b l e f o r i n t a k e , business management and Board and community r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The housemother has had d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n of the c h i l d r e n and the maintenance s t a f f , as w e l l as r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the routine housekeeping. The a s s i s t a n t housemother has been the housemother's he l p e r , and has a l s o acted i n the c a p a c i t y of the housemother on the l a t t e r ' s days o f f and vacations. The cook has had r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r preparing meals and s u p e r v i s i o n of k i t c h e n , d i n i n g room, and s t o r e room. The laundress has had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r washing the c h i l d r e n ' s c l o t h i n g , i r o n i n g , and some sewing and mending of c l o t h e s . The maintenance man has had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the grounds. The recommendation of the Washington Standards that case-workers on i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f s should have completed two years of graduate work i n a recognized school of s o c i a l work i s met. The Standards p o i n t out a l s o that case work s u p e r v i s i o n must be provided f o r . This standard has not been complied w i t h by the i n s t i t u t i o n . Since the i n s t i t u t i o n i s a c t u a l l y too small to em-°'A short time ago, the caseworker and the Chairman of the Personnel Committee of the Board had a number of conferences together to discuss some of the personnel p r a c t i c e s of the Home. Out of these conferences developed a w r i t t e n statement which was patterned a f t e r that of another c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n . The statement seems q u i t e adequate i n terms of the Washington Stand-ards. A p o s i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n remains to be developed. 95 ploy a casework s u p e r v i s o r , t h i s means that casework c o n s u l t a -t i o n or p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n , on a part-time b a s i s , w i l l need to be purchased by the i n s t i t u t i o n , unless the executive i s q u a l i f i e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and experience to give t h i s s u p e r v i s i o n . Many of the housemothers i n recent years have been teachers by p r o f e s s i o n . A s s i s t a n t housemothers have usual l y been young women w i t h B i b l e School t r a i n i n g . The Children's Home has been fo r t u n a t e i n having e x c e l l e n t housemothers through the years, and many of them assumed considerable a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the H o m e . i n f a c t , t r a d i t i o n a l l y , i t was the matrons of the i n s t i t u t i o n s who made t h e i r " r e p o r t s " to the Board at Board meet-ing s ; but t h i s i s no longer the p r a c t i c e , as the caseworker assumed t h i s f u n c t i o n . Houseparents ( i . e . , man and w i f e ) — have long been needed at the i n s t i t u t i o n . However, the i n s t i t u -t i o n has learned through experience that i t i s extremely d i f f i -c u l t to get a married couple both of whom are q u a l i f i e d f o r the job. Probably the r e l a t i v e l y low s a l a r i e s i n t h i s f i e l d have kept many people out. In t h i s respect a statement by Howard Hopkirk i s The work of houseparents i s important enough to warrant t r a i n i n g f o r the job comparable to that expected of nurses. The s a l a r i e s provided f o r house-parents are so inadequate, however, as to make i t i m p r a c t i c a l to require any investment by these men and. women of time or money f o r preparatory t r a i n i n g . As the work becomes d i g n i f i e d by b e t t e r s a l a r i e s and more a t t r a c t i v e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , some s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n might more reasonably be r e -q u i r e d by employers. In time, a minimum of such t r a i n i n g might be c e r t i f i e d by those p r o v i d i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n or might even be represented by a p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s l i c e n s e i s sued by the s t a t e . I t s t i l l i s too e a r l y i n the development of f o s t e r care as an 96 occupation to warrant e i t h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n or l i c e n s i n g . 6 8 As already mentioned, maintenance s t a f f has u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e d of a cook, a laundress, and a caretaker. These people have had no p a r t i c u l a r educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r jobs, although cooks have n e a r l y always had previous experience i n t h e i r work. The present caretaker i s an older man who l i v e s w i t h h i s wife i n a cottage on the grounds. This h a p p i l y married couple act as grandparent persons to the youngsters. They are a f r i e n d l y , warm, g i v i n g couple who d i s p l a y a give-and-take s p i r i t between themselves. They have meant a great deal to the s t a f f and to the c h i l d r e n . In summarizing the s t a f f s i t u a t i o n , I t can be s a i d that the number of s t a f f has probably been f a i r l y adequate i n terms of the s i z e of the group of c h i l d r e n under care. The problem has been more one of s t a f f development than of a l a r g e r s t a f f . Except f o r the f a c t that the o r g a n i z a t i o n has a l i t t l e l i b r a r y of p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and a l s o , leave has been allowed s t a f f members f o r attending various l o c a l s o c i a l work confer-ences, there has been l i t t l e work done i n the area of s t a f f development. Since r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s t a f f development i s normally that of an e x e c u t i v e , t h i s l a c k has been due to the f a c t that the i n s t i t u t i o n has not had an executive person w i t h the r e q u i s i t e a u t h o r i t y . I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g at the i n s t i t u t i o n has g e n e r a l l y been neglected except f o r a type of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . The a s s i s t a n t housemother, f o r example, has t r a d i t i o n a l l y learned, Hopkirk, op. c i t . , pp. 79-80. 97 i n f o r m a l l y and while on the job, the job of the housemother. P r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e has been used by the housemothers, w i t h some success, according to t h e i r own testimony. Volunteer workers were once used to some extent at the Children's Home, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r sewing and mending the c h i l d r e n ' s c l o t h i n g . The l a t t e r job has always been the perpetual "headache" f o r s t a f f , s ince the job was not large enough to employ a f u l l time s t a f f member, and i n the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s r o u t i n e , I t seemed always to have been the job which was done l a s t . This means that the work tended to accumulate. O c c a s i o n a l l y , a volunteer group of women comes to the Home at the present time to a s s i s t w i t h the mending and sewing. A l s o , groups of women from some of the l o c a l garden clubs o c c a s i o n a l l y make fl o w e r arrangements f o r the l i v i n g room and d i n i n g room and l i b r a r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y around h o l i d a y p e r i o d s . Other than t h i s , there are few volunteer workers coming to the Home on a con s i s t e n t b a s i s . There i s need f o r a s k i l l e d group worker—perhaps on a part-time b a s i s — p a r t i c u l a r l y a man who has s k i l l s i n carpentry and c r a f t s . The Children's Home does have a hobby shop, but t h i s shop has never been used as an instrument i n treatment. T r a d i t i o n a l l y s t a f f was r e c r u i t e d from the supporting church constituency. This meant, i n most cases, that s t a f f was imported from the Middle West. This p r a c t i c e , however, i s g r a d u a l l y be-ing abandoned by the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Personal i n t e r v i e w s w i t h prospective s t a f f members are impossible under t h i s system un-l e s s agencies in<the Middle West are employed by the. organiza-t i o n to do t h i s job. Since the i n s t i t u t i o n s are only an hour's f e r r y distance from S e a t t l e , a metrop o l i t a n area of more than 98 h a l f a m i l l i o n people, i t seems l o g i c a l that the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the f u t u r e should attempt to r e c r u i t s t a f f from the l o c a l area. This means that the i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l be separated somewhat f u r -ther from the supporting church constituency, since s t a f f members w i l l come from a v a r i e t y of church backgrounds, but the advantages w i l l f a r outweigh any disadvantages. Chapter 6 The C h i l d r e n i n the Home I t i s h i g h l y important to review the types of c h i l d r e n who have been under care; and f o r t h i s purpose, case h i s t o r y sketches on a l l c h i l d r e n admitted to the Home during the years 1948, 19.49, and 1950 have been reviewed f o r t h i s chapter. The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n who have l i v e d i n the Home during these recent years (1948-1950) i s only t h i r t y - t h r e e , since t h i s was a pe r i o d of d e c l i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . The number of admissions during t h i s p e r i o d were f o r t y - t w o . The reason f o r t h i s apparent discrepancy i s the f a c t that nine of the admissions were readmis-sions of c h i l d r e n who had p r e v i o u s l y been admitted to the Home during the same three year p e r i o d . These readmissions are counted as separate admissions i n the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s t a t i s t i c s . Table 1 shows that there have been s i z e a b l e numbers i n a l l three age groups, three to s i x , seven to nine, and ten to twelve. I t a l s o p o i n t s up that there i s a preponderance of pre-school c h i l d r e n . Table 2 shows that the greater p r o p o r t i o n of the c h i l d r e n had residence at the Home f o r periods of l e s s than s i x months. A l a r g e number of these c h i l d r e n received only i n t e r i m care from the i n s t i t u t i o n . Table 3 shows that n e a r l y f o u r - f i f t h s of the r e f e r r a l s to the Home were from a p r i v a t e agency, the Associated Lutheran Welfare of S e a t t l e . 100 Table 1 - Age Grouping of C h i l d r e n Admitted to Martha and Mary Children's Home During 1948-1950 Age Number of C h i l d r e n Number Per Cent 3-6 19 45 7-9 14 34 10-12 9 21 T o t a l 42 100 Table 2 - Length of Residence f o r C h i l d r e n Admitted to Martha and Mary Children's Home During the Three Year P e r i o d 1948-1950 Number of Ch i l d r e n Length of Residence Number Per Cent Under s i x months 19 45 S i x months to one year 12 29 One year to one and a h a l f years 6 14 One and h a l f years to two ye ars 1 2 Over two years 4 10 T o t a l 42 100 Table 3 - Sources of Refe r i *al of the > C h i l d r e n Ch: Lldren Sources of R e f e r r a l Number Per Cent A p r i v a t e agency 33 79 Parents and r e l a t i v e s 5 12 County welfare departments 4 9 T o t a l C h i l d r e n (1948-1950) 42 100 101 In t h i s chapter are given case h i s t o r y sketches on a l l c h i l d r e n admitted to Martha and Mary Children's H0me during the past three years. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme as given i n Chapter 3 i s used to o u t l i n e the needs of these c h i l d r e n , since i t i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l i d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r d e f i n i n g the needs of c h i l d -ren who came to the Home f o r care. The sketches, t h e r e f o r e , are grouped according to the major sub-headings of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . These c h i l d r e n c o n s t i t u t e d forty-two admissions. Though not a lar g e number of admissions, the admissions are d i s t r i b u t e d , never-t h e l e s s , r a t h e r evenly among a l l the major sub-headings. I n gene r a l , the c a t e g o r i z i n g of the c h i l d r e n according to t h e i r needs, po i n t s up that the great m a j o r i t y of the c h i l d r e n were u n s u i t a b l e f o r f o s t e r home placement. Approximately ten per cent of the c h i l d r e n were emotionally unable to r e l a t e to f o s t e r parents, c h i e f l y because they were s u f f e r i n g from r e j e c t i o n . O n e - f i f t h of the c h i l d r e n were hyper-a c t i v e , had s k i n i n f e c t i o n s , or were from f o s t e r homes which gave l i t t l e or no s u p e r v i s i o n . This group were, t h e r e f o r e , unplaceable, and needed the r o u t i n e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g to become " s e t t l e d " and " s o c i a l i z e d " before f o s t e r home placement. Another group, c o n s i s t i n g of approximately one-fourth of the admissions, were emotionally d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n whose needs could not be met by the i n s t i t u t i o n , since s t a f f were not or i e n t e d to study and t r e a t -ment. The tragedy of t h i s s i t u a t i o n cannot be overemphasized. The Home was unprepared to help the c h i l d r e n who needed the f a c i l -i t i e s of an i n s t i t u t i o n the most! 102 Approximately o n e - f i f t h of admissions were youngsters whose parents could not stand the competition of f o s t e r parents of the same sex. These parents could not permit adults to develop a too close r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n because t h i s would point up t h e i r own inadequacy and f a i l u r e as mothers and f a t h e r s . Some of these parents r e j e c t e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n , but could not admit t h i s . . The i n s t i t u t i o n provided a n e u t r a l environment w i t h which the parents could f e e l comfortable. The arrangement a l s o provided a good opportunity to do casework w i t h the c h i l d r e n and the par-ents. S t i l l another group, c o n s t i t u t i n g approximately one-fourth of the c h i l d r e n , r e q u i r e d f o s t e r home placement at the time of admission. For.these c h i l d r e n the Home provided i n t e r i m care u n t i l s u i t a b l e f o s t e r homes could be found. The case h i s t o r i e s which f o l l o w w i l l p o i n t up, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the k i n d of work which the Home should do i n the f u t u r e . Table 4 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the C h i l d r e n According to Needs (Admissions to Martha and Mary Children*s H o m e During the Three Year P e r i o d 1948-1950) Group Needs No. of C h i l d r e n Number Per Cent I Ch i l d r e n e m o t i o n a l l y unable to r e l a t e to f o s t e r parents: a. C h i l d r e n s u f f e r i n g from severe r e j e c t i o n b. Adolescents who could not l i v e at home and had a t t a i n e d some degree of emancipation from parents 3 7 1 2 r o t a l number of c h i l d r e n emotion-a l l y unable to r e l a t e to f o s t e r parents 4 10 103 Group Needs No. of C h i l d r e n Number Per cent I I C h i l d r e n t e m p o r a r i l y unplaceable, and who needed i n s t i t u t i o n a l r o u t i n e : a. C h i l d r e n w i t h hyperactive behaviour 5 12 b. C h i l d r e n w i t h s k i n i n f e c t -i o n s , etc. 2 5 c. C h i l d r e n from f o s t e r homes which gave l i t t l e or no s u p e r v i s i o n 2 5 T o t a l number of c h i l d r e n who were temporarily unplaceable 9 21 I I I E m otionally d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n r e -q u i r i n g treatment i n a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n : a. Disturbed c h i l d r e n inacces-s i b l e to casework treatment 4 10 b. C h i l d r e n whose symptom patterns could not be t o l e r a t e d by f o s t e r f a m i l y , ' school, or neighborhood 3 7 c. C h i l d r e n whose symptom pat-terns needed p r o f e s s i o n a l observation and treatment 1 2 d. C h i l d r e n who could not r e -l a t e to f o s t e r f a m i l y , com-munity, s c h o o l , or neighbor-hood 2 5 Total number of emotionally d i s -turbed c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g t r e a t -ment i n a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n 10 24 104 No. of C h i l d r e n Group • Needs Number Per Cent IV C h i l d r e n whose parents could not accept f o s t e r parents 9 21 V C h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e d f o s t e r home placement at the time of admis-s i o n •io 24 Grand T o t a l (1948-1950) 42 100 I . C h i l d r e n Emotionally Unable to Relate to Poster Parents These cases i l l u s t r a t e the s i t u a t i o n i n which c h i l d r e n could not r e l a t e t o f o s t e r parents because of t h e i r ambivalent t i e s w i t h t h e i r own parents. The c h i l d i n the f i r s t case, f o r example, had experienced r e j e c t i o n from a l l the members of h i s f a m i l y . This caused a very h o s t i l e emotional p a t t e r n . The second youngster could not accept a s u b s t i t u t e mother, and was the p r o v e r b i a l "pest" i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . The t h i r d youngster was an adolescent who was emancipating h e r s e l f from parents. 1. EUGENE MYRTHENtt (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; almost two years' residence 1948-49, a l s o two months i n 1950). This husky t e n year o l d boy had been l i v -i n g w i t h h i s immature f a t h e r i n the home of the p a t e r n a l grandparents, since the divorce of h i s parents. This was an unhappy s i t u a t i o n f o r Eugene since h i s grand-f a t h e r was most severe w i t h him, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h h i s problem of bed-wetting. Eugene's mother had been awarded custody of Eugene and h i s s i s t e r i n the i n t e r -l o c u t o r y decree of divorce. She gave Eugene's f a t h e r the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c a r i n g f o r Eugene, however, because the f a t h e r would not s u s t a i n payments to her f o r the care of the c h i l d r e n . The mother continued to care f o r Eugene's s i s t e r . # A l l names given are f i c t i t i o u s . 105 Eugene's brother had already been adopted by another f a m i l y . Eugene had some very strong f e e l i n g s about t h i s , and blamed h i s f a t h e r f o r p e r m i t t i n g t h i s to happen. Eugene seemed to become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s -t r u s t f u l of h i s f a t h e r , as h i s f a t h e r neglected him i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . He h e l d on to h i s mother, and he often s a i d , "At l e a s t my mother keeps her promises." In s p i t e of h i s extremely b e l l i g e r e n t behaviour and constant de-fense of h i s r e j e c t i n g mother, Eugene was a l i k e a b l e boy. P o s t e r home placement was made i n the home of a f o o t b a l l coach i n the l o c a l area. This man had taken a great l i k i n g f o r Eugene. (Eugene was the best t a c k i e r on the Pee Wee f o o t b a l l team.) The boy had acquired a h e r o - l i k e worship f o r t h i s coach. Three months l a t e r , however, the f o s t e r mother died and Eugene returned to the Home. Eugene's mother then made arrangements f o r him to l i v e w i t h the maternal grandfather i n another s t a t e . I t i s apparent that Eugene had the capacity to form a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h f o s t e r parents because he d i d make a s a t i s f a c t o r y i n i t i a l adjustment i n the f o s t e r home where the f o s t e r mother's death brought the placement to an end. Another f o s t e r home p l a c e -ment f o r t h i s boy was i n d i c a t e d . The i n s t i t u t i o n met Eugene's needs during the periods when he could not accept f o s t e r parents. 2. HOWARD LEE (Referred from County Welfare De-partment; fourteen months residence 1949-50). This nine year o l d , red headed boy, together w i t h h i s s i s t e r , B e verly, was a ward of the County Superior Court i n the temporary custody of the County Welfare Depart-ment. Howard had been l i v i n g at the Detention Home as a r e s u l t of h i s having s t o l e n money amounting to s e v e r a l hundreds of d o l l a r s . He gave t h i s money to h i s mother who spent i t . The mother was committed f o r a few months to a s t a t e mental h o s p i t a l . The diagnosis was schizophrenia. Howard's emotional t i e to h i s mother was so strong that he d i d not want a f o s t e r home, but wanted to continue t o stay at the Detention Home. Since t h i s was not p o s s i b l e , p l a c e -ment was made at Martha and Mary's. At the Home, Howard took a great deal of the a t t e n t i o n of s t a f f members because he was c o n s t a n t l y making up questions f o r them to answer, and he became the Home "pest". He was s u s p i c i o u s , at f i r s t , when questions were asked him, and he would never answer spontaneously, but would c a r e f u l l y weigh every question 106 before answering. He seemed to avoid d i r e c t answers to questions. Howard and h i s s i s t e r were e v e n t u a l l y returned to l i v e w i t h t h e i r mother when she remarried. I t was apparent t h a t Howard was, b a s i c a l l y , an Insecure, unhappy, and r e j e c t e d c h i l d . He could r e -c a l l t hat h i s mother's b o y - f r i e n d once d e l i b e r a t e l y broke h i s arm. Howard's s t e a l i n g of money f o r h i s mother was apparently done to prove to h i s mother that he was able to provide f o r her, as a husband would do. I n s t i t u t i o n a l placement was i n d i c a t e d f o r Howard since he could not accept f o s t e r parents. 3. BEVERLY LEE (Referred from a County Welfare Department; t h i r t e e n months residence, 1949-50). Beverly came t o l i v e at the ^ome a few weeks a f t e r her b r o t h e r , Howard, had come. This eleven year o l d g i r l , very much adolescent i n her behaviour, was a l a r g e , blonde g i r l who was behind i n school. I t was suspected that Beverly had had sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the son of her mother's l o v e r , and there was the p o s s i b i l i t y that she might even be pregnant. I n the Some Beverly was untidy and e x p l o s i v e . This seemed to be normal adolescent behaviour. She accum-u l a t e d vast q u a n t i t i e s of s t u f f i n her bedroom. Oc c a s i o n a l l y Beverly would appropriate items belong-i n g to other g i r l s and add them to her own th i n g s . Her bedroom was n e a r l y always messy, and she r e s i s t e d the e f f o r t s of housemothers who wanted to help her w i t h her room. Beverly was r a t h e r r e l u c t a n t to leave the Home when her mother remarried. This adolescent wanted to continue to l i v e at the i n s t i t u t i o n because she enjoyed the s t i m u l a t i o n of group l i v i n g w i t h other teen-agers, and d i d not want to form a close r e l a t i o n ship w i t h her mother's new husband. A small r e s i d e n -t i a l home f o r adolescents w i t h a s t i m u l a t i n g program would have met the needs of t h i s youngster. I I . C h i l d r e n Temporarily "Unplaceable" These c h i l d r e n were mostly hyper-active youngsters who were unaccustomed to any ki n d of steady, c o n s i s t e n t , r o u t i n e . They a l l needed h a b i t t r a i n i n g which the i n s t i t u t i o n could o f f e r . 107 Three of the c h i l d r e n were s i b l i n g s who needed adoptive parents; two were s i b l i n g s who needed board and housing u n t i l t h e i r mother could make f u r t h e r plans; two were s i b l i n g s troubled with s k i n i n f e c t i o n s and s c r a t c h i n g i n the area of the g e n i t a l s ; and two were brothers who had l i v e d i n a s e r i e s of f o s t e r homes w i t h l i t t l e s u p e r v i s i o n . 1. MARLENE TANNER 2. PAUL TANNER 3. STEPHEN TANNER_(Referred from p r i v a t e agency; almost one year at the Home, 1949-50). These three a t t r a c t i v e s i b l i n g s , aged n i n e , seven, and s i x r e s p e c t i v e l y , were admitted to the Home since t h e i r mother, dying of cancer, could not accept f o s t e r home placement f o r them while she was l i v i n g . The mother gave custody to a p r i v a t e agency f o r permanent planning. Placement at the H o m e was con-sid e r e d to be temporary u n t i l a permanent p l a n could be worked out. In the i n s t i t u t i o n , Marlene's be-haviour was e s p e c i a l l y e r r a t i c , as she would f a l l down the s t a i r s , grab f o r food at the d i n i n g room t a b l e , and sometimes had a blank look on her f a c e . Stephen got h i s f i n g e r s i n t o e verything. P a u l , at f i r s t , would not take a f f e c t i o n . A l l three of the c h i l d r e n seemed to be u n d i s c i p l i n e d , as a t r i p to a c i t y store soon a f t e r placement pointed up; i t took two s o c i a l workers to manage the three c h i l d r e n , as they got i n t o everything at the store and had to be watched every minute. The r o u t i n e of the i n s t i t u t i o n helped to calm and s e t t l e these c h i l d r e n . A l l three of the c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d while at the Home, and they were found to be of su p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e . The c h i l d r e n ' s mother died while they were i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . The c h i l d r e n were eventu-a l l y placed i n a young c o l l e g e professor's home i n C a l i f o r n i a f o r adoption. This i s an example of using the i n s t i t u t i o n to pre-pare a s i b l i n g group f o r permanent placement. The c h i l d r e n ' s behaviour made them temporarily unplaceable. 108 4. DAVID PORSETH 5. PATRICIA PORSETH (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; s l i g h t l y lander one-half a year i n residence, 1948-49). These two s i b l i n g s , f i v e and s i x years o l d , were brought from Alaska to Washington by t h e i r mother. The reason f o r t h i s move was not c l e a r , although the mother i n d i c a t e d that she planned to f i n d employment i n Washington. David and P a t r i c i a had formerly l i v e d i n a v a r i e t y of u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y f o s t e r homes, one of which had twenty c h i l d r e n . The mother admitted that she had been w i t h the c h i l d r e n only a small p a r t of t h e i r l i v e s , and gave t h i s as ex-p l a n a t i o n f o r David's " w i l d " behaviour. This b r i g h t l i t t l e boy had a hyper-active behaviour i n the i n s t i t u -t i o n . He was f u l l of v i t a l i t y and had to be doing some-t h i n g every second. P a t r i c i a , too, seemed to be undis-c i p l i n e d . The mother soon remarried, and returned to Alaska w i t h her husband. The c h i l d r e n stayed at the Home u n t i l school was out i n the summer, and then returned to Alaska. The i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h i s case was used as a boarding p l a n while the c h i l d r e n ' s mother worked out her plans. David's hyper-active behaviour and P a t r i c i a ' s w i l f u l behaviour made these c h i l d r e n temporarily unplaceable. 6. DICK WAHL 7. JUDY WAHL (Referred by a r e l a t i v e ; i n residence f o r one year, 1948-49). These youngsters, aged seven and f o u r r e s p e c t i v e l y , together w i t h t h e i r brother Mel-v i n , were admitted to the Home since i t seemed that they needed immediate care. The mother brought the c h i l d r e n to Washington from C a l i f o r n i a , and l e f t them w i t h a middle-aged cousin who had p r e v i o u s l y cared f o r the c h i l d r e n under s i m i l a r circumstances. The cousin, how-ever, was not i n a p o s i t i o n to care f o r the c h i l d r e n at t h i s time. Before coming to Washington, the c h i l d r e n had been l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r parents i n a housing p r o j e c t . This seems to have been a poor environment f o r the c h i l d r e n . The f a t h e r was an immature person who spent pay-checks on l i q u o r and had r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other women. I t was suspected that the c h i l d r e n had witnessed the f a t h e r i n i n t e r c o u r s e with a woman. The mother and the c h i l d r e n were e v e n t u a l l y e v i c t e d from t h e i r u n i t f o r non-payment of r e n t . The mother was an immature, di s t u r b e d person who seldom came to the Home a f t e r the c h i l d r e n were admitted, 109 and she made no e f f o r t to pay f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s care, although she had signed agreements to do so. Dick was a f r a i d of the dark and was always s c r a t c h -i n g i n the area of h i s g e n i t a l s when he was f i r s t placed. Dick could take a l o t of a f f e c t i o n from s t a f f members, and was an appealing c h i l d . Judy was a v i v a c i o u s and a t t r a c t i v e c h i l d w i t h a winsome p e r s o n a l i t y . Both Dick and Judy had s k i n i n f e c t i o n s on placement. The r o u t i n e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g was very h e l p f u l f o r these c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n ' s c o u s i n , seemed to be the only steady i n f l u e n c e i n the l i v e s of the c h i l d r e n . She c o n s t a n t l y remembered them w i t h small g i f t s and l e t t e r s while they were at the Home, and t h i s meant a great deal to the c h i l d r e n . The youngsters were f i n a l l y returned to C a l i f o r n i a where they had residence, a f t e r a great deal of correspondence w i t h the C a l i f o r n i a a u t h o r i t i e s . The c h i l d r e n were d i s t r i b u t e d among r e l a t i v e s there. These s i b l i n g s r e q u i r e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement because they were temporarily unplaceable. The i n s t i t u -t i o n could have prepared these two s i b l i n g s f o r long-term f o s t e r home placement i f C a l i f o r n i a a u t h o r i t i e s had cooperated w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n . 8. NOEL GRANT 9. RONNY GRANT (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; i n residence more than two years, 1948-51). These two b r o t h e r s , both ten years o l d , had l i v e d i n f i v e f o s t e r homes p r i o r to admission to Martha and Mary's. These had a l l been p r i v a t e placements made by t h e i r mother. The mother was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the l a s t placement, since she f e l t t h a t the c h i l d r e n were not getting., the d i s c i p l i n e they needed. The f o s t e r mother had been send-ing them out to movies whenever they got too much f o r her. The boys were i n a group of youngsters who were i n v o l v e d i n the t h e f t of some money from a neighbor, and t h i s was the immediate reason f o r pressure from t h i s mother f o r placement In a c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n . The w r i t e r got to know the mother as an extremely s i c k person, emotionally. Casework w i t h the mother was i n the area of t r y i n g to help her to accept p s y c h i a t r i c treatment f o r h e r s e l f . The two boys were handsome, and i n t e l l i g e n t , and they were able to take a f f e c t i o n . There was overt r e -j e c t i o n of Noel by h i s mother, even p r i o r to h i s b i r t h . Ronny had had a more secure r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s mother. Noel had t r i e d to compete wi t h h i s brother f o r h i s 110 mother's a f f e c t i o n , but had been un s u c c e s s f u l , and he was jealous of a t t e n t i o n which h i s mother or anyone else gave h i s brother. Both boys were s u i t a b l e f o r f o s t e r home placement, but f o s t e r homes could not be found by the p r i v a t e agency responsible f o r r e f e r r a l . The boys are r e l u c t a n t at the present time to go to f o s t e r homes. Noel says that he wants to l i v e With ' h i s mother, and Ronald would r a t h e r continue to l i v e at the Home because he i s enjoying h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Pee Wee a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . N 0 e l has i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h a f a m i l y i n the community w i t h whom he o f t e n has meals and goes on shopping t r i p s . This gives him some opportunity to see what f a m i l y l i f e i s l i k e . Noel i s an e x c e l l e n t worker, ambitious, and i s always able to get part-time jobs i n the community. It. does not seem that the c h i l d r e n ' s mother w i l l be able to o f f e r a home f o r them. These two brothers might continue to l i v e at the i n s t i t u t i o n , p r o v i d i n g i t became an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r adolescents and had a stimu-l a t i n g program. These youngsters may be c l a s s i f i e d as having been tem p o r a r i l y unplaceable at the time of t h e i r admission. The i n s t i t u t i o n f a i l e d these c h i l d r e n , however, i n that i t d i d not make r e f e r r a l to the p u b l i c agency f o r f o s t e r home placement when the c h i l d r e n were ready f o r f o s t e r homes. I I I . Emotionally Disturbed C h i l d r e n Requiring Treatment i n a  Study and Treatment I n s t i t u t i o n . These are c h i l d r e n who required the s p e c i a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s of an observation and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n . Some of these c h i l d r e n could not form meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h people. Others had behaviour which could not be accepted by the community. S t i l l another c h i l d seemed to be mentally r e t a r d e d , and should have had the opportunity f o r a complete diagno s i s . Other c h i l d r e n could not r e l a t e to f o s t e r parents or to the community. 1. JIMMY LIEN (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; i n residence more than two years, 1949-51). This twelve year o l d youngster, together w i t h h i s brother, J e r r y , had been twice removed from t h e i r home because of the I l l frequent absences of the parents from the home and h a b i -t u a l d r i n k i n g , m a r i t a l d i s c o r d , and immoral p r a c t i c e s on the part of the mother. They had l i v e d i n two c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s and two f o s t e r homes p r i o r to placement at Martha and Mary's. Jimmy i s a very d i s t u r b e d youngster emotionally. I t i s f e l t t hat h i s disturbance i s i n the area of sex, and that he has some d i s t u r b i n g memories about the sex p r a c t i c e s of the adults i n h i s e a r l y environment. He has a l i k i n g f o r , and a s e n s i t i v i t y to the needs of animals and b i r d s , but i s unable to form meaningful r e -l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h people. His disturbance was expressed more r e c e n t l y when he l i g h t e d a f i r e i n an o l d house which caused the house to burn down. He has been making weekly t r i p s t o the c i t y f o r treatment i n t e r v i e w s with the p s y c h i a t r i s t . I t i s f e l t by i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f that these i n t e r v i e w s have been he l p i n g Jimmy because he seems to have more r e l e a s e from h i s "emotional burdens". Jimmy cannot respond p o s i t i v e l y to a d u l t s i n the casework or f o s t e r care r o l e . He could use, however, the immediate treatment i n the r e s i d e n t group of a treatment i n s t i t u t i o n . 2. JERRY LIEN (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; more than two years at the Home, 1949-51). J e r r y , ten years o l d , and h i s brother, Jimmy, were r e f e r r e d to Martha and Mary's a f t e r f a i l u r e of t h e i r f o s t e r home placement. This f a i l u r e was due to the f o s t e r mother's i n a b i l i t y to accept Jimmy's behaviour. Jimmy's great need f o r h i s brother, and J e r r y ' s r e f u s a l to be separated from h i s brother, made i t necessary f o r J e r r y to f o l l o w Jimmy to the i n s t i t u t i o n . I n a sense J e r r y was " s a c r i f i c e d " i n order t h a t Jimmy's needs could be b e t t e r met. In the i n s t i t u t i o n J e r r y was always defensive and p r o t e c t i v e of Jimmy. He was proud of the f a c t that he had so o f t e n taken the blame f o r Jimmy's behaviour, and thus protected Jimmy from punishment. J e r r y was a r a t h e r b e l l i g e r a n t c h i l d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . This unhappy c h i l d could not accept too close r e l a t i o n s h i p s or warmth from s t a f f . This youngster i s n e u r o t i c a l l y t i e d to h i s brother and needs treatment to help him to break t h i s t i e so he can e s t a b l i s h more normal r e l a t i o n s h i p s both w i t h i n and outside the f a m i l y . 112 3. DARRYL HARMUNSLIE (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; f i v e months 1948-49). D a r r y l i s a nine year o l d youngster, the son of a s u c c e s s f u l businessman whose s e v e r a l marriages brought chaos to the l i f e of the boy. At the time of admittance D a r r y l * s mother had separated from the f a t h e r and had gone East, accompanied by D a r r y l ' s s i s t e r . The mother had had three grown sons by her f i r s t husband when D a r r y l ' s f a t h e r married her. She was happy, there-f o r e when t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d turned out to be a g i r l . D a r r y l was born a f t e r h i s s i s t e r , and he was r e j e c t e d by h i s mother. This w i s t f u l - a p p e a r i n g c h i l d , a bed-wetter and a youngster who seldom t o l d the t r u t h , d i d make consider-able progress i n the n e u t r a l environment of the i n s t i t u -t i o n . D a r r y l ' s stay at the i n s t i t u t i o n was cut s h o r t , however, by h i s f a t h e r ' s remarriage. D a r r y l went to l i v e w i t h h i s f a t h e r and a new step-mother and the l a t t e r ' s son by a previous marriage. D a r r y l f a i l e d to adjust i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . This c h i l d needed the help of a treatment i n s t i t u -t i o n where he could experience a continued, c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h adults he could t r u s t and where he could exchange r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r phantasy. This f a t h e r whom D a r r y l worshipped, needed i n t e n s i v e t r e a t -ment. 4. LARRY JOHNSON (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; three months i n residence, 1949). L a r r y was not q u i t e f i v e years o l d at the time of admission, and he was considered very young f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement. How-ever, placement was to be temporary since i t was f e l t that L a r r y would be an adoption p o s s i b i l i t y , i f h i s par-ents could be helped to r e l i n q u i s h him f o r adoption. These very inadequate parents were a s s i s t e d to do t h i s while L a r r y was l i v i n g i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . Immediately p r i o r to placement at Martha and Mary's L a r r y had been l i v i n g i n a boarding home where he had been over - s h e l t e r e d . The f o s t e r mother had t r i e d to make twins out of L a r r y and a three year o l d c h i l d . When La r r y came to the i n s t i t u t i o n he was dressed l i k e a baby r a t h e r than w i t h c l o t h i n g appropriate f o r a l i t t l e boy. He was o v e r l y d o c i l e . At the i n s t i t u t i o n he was o u t f i t t e d i n t y p i c a l boy's c l o t h i n g . He was immediately accepted i n the group as the "baby" of the f a m i l y , and he was w e l l t r e a t e d by the older boys. L a r r y made r a p i d s t r i d e s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g i n changing from a baby to a more aggressive boy. A l -though making a poor adjustment at school at the s t a r t , h i s teacher n o t i c e d a d e f i n i t e change a f t e r h i s f i f t h 113 b i r t h d a y . He seemed to become more mature q u i c k l y . I t seemed that t h i s boy needed the i n f l u e n c e of a group of older boys from whom he could p a t t e r n h i s own behaviour. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l environment provided him w i t h t h i s opportunity f o r growth and development, and prepared him f o r adoption. This i s an example of using the i n s t i t u t i o n to help a c h i l d w i t h emotional c o n f l i c t s to develop normally. 5. RICHARD DAHLEN 6. DONALD DAHLEN (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; f i v e months at the Home, 1949). These c h i l d r e n were s i x and four years, r e s p e c t i v e l y , at the time of admission. They were emotionally d i s t u r b e d brothers who had d i s t u r b e d parents. The f a t h e r r e j e c t e d Donald and t r e a t e d him c r u e l l y , but t r i e d to handle h i s f e e l i n g s of g u i l t by making up w i t h Richard f o r the mistakes which he made w i t h Donald. (The f a t h e r once struck Donald so hard that the youngster s u f f e r e d from concussion.) The mother, i n t u r n , favored Donald and took t h i s out on Richard. The mother placed tremendous pressure on the i n s t i -t u t i o n to accept these c h i l d r e n f o r care. I t was suspected by a church agency i n the middle west, which had been contacted by the parents, that the mother had t r i e d i n -s t i t u t i o n s a l l across the country, but had been refused i n most places because Don was a pre-school c h i l d . She began to press church agencies, t h e r e f o r e , as a l a s t r e s o r t . The parents were on t h e i r way to Alaska where the f a t h e r was being t r a n s f e r r e d i n h i s employment. Both youngsters sucked t h e i r f i n g e r s . Richard had been t r o u b l e d w i t h masturbation and would claw and s c r a t c h h i m s e l f . At the i n s t i t u t i o n , the youngsters seemed com-p l e t e l y u n d i s c i p l i n e d and got t h e i r f i n g e r s Into every-t h i n g . The mother had seen a p s y c h i a t r i s t who had r e -commended i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement, s t a t i n g t h a t the r o u t i n e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g might b e n e f i t the c h i l d r e n . The boys d i d settle'down some i n the Home, but they were removed by the mother before the f u l l value of i n -s t i t u t i o n a l care could be demonstrated. These c h i l d r e n needed the f a c i l i t i e s of a treatment i n s t i t u t i o n , and the parents needed p s y c h i a t r i c treatment. The c h i l d r e n ' s symptoms could not be t o l e r a t e d by the average f o s t e r parents. 114 7. DORIS BLAKE (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; two months i n residence, 1950). D o r i s , eleven years o l d , together w i t h her b r o t h e r , Gary, were wards of a County J u v e n i l e Court i n the custody of a p r i v a t e agency. There had been considerable m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t y between the parents which had l e d to a breakdown of the home. The mother was h o s p i t a l i z e d at a s t a t e mental h o s p i t a l w i t h a diagnosis of schizophrenia, paranoid type. She had been r i g i d and o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e of the c h i l d r e n , and f u l l of fears f o r them, and had not permitted them out of her s i g h t . The mother's worries and fears had suc-ceeded i n u p s e t t i n g D o r i s . The c h i l d r e n ' s s t e p - f a t h e r was completely uncooperative i n any p l a n f o r the c h i l d r e n except a p l a n which would r e t u r n them home. The c h i l d r e n had been l i v i n g i n the Detention Home, and were desperately anxious to leave t h i s place because i t was so c o n f i n i n g . This was the reason f o r placement at Martha and Mary's. D o r i s , however, could not take the comparative f r e e -dom or permissiveness of Martha and Mary's and repeatedly disappeared. She needed an environment which would give her more c o n t r o l s . She also d i s r u p t e d the s i t u a t i o n at s c h o o l , as she t o l d w i l d , i l l u s i o n a r y s t o r i e s about her own background and t r i e d to c o n t r o l the teacher by threaten-ing to inform the p r i n c i p a l against her. On her l a s t run-away from the Home, the w r i t e r went a f t e r her, f o l -lowing a t r a i l , o f v i c t i m i z e d shop-keepers, and e v e n t u a l l y found her w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of an o f f i c e r from the S h e r i f f ' s o f f i c e i n a p r i v a t e residence. She had t o l d the people.that an accoster was a f t e r her, and she accused the w r i t e r when he confronted her of being the accoster i n a f r i g h t e n e d " t h e a t r i c a l " manner. Since i t was f e l t that Martha and Mary's could not handle t h i s d i s t u r b e d g i r l who was accustomed to a r i g i d , c o n t r o l l e d environment, she was returned to the detention home from which she was promptly released to her parents. Doris needed treatment i n a c o n t r o l l e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g , because her behaviour could not be t o l e r a t e d by f o s t e r f a m i l y , s c h o o l , or community. 8. ROSEMARY KRISTENSEN (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; s l i g h t l y l e s s than one year at the i n s t i t u t i o n , 1948-49). Rosemary, s i x years o l d , came from a l a r g e , low income f a m i l y , but she was placed by her guardian, a r e a l estate agent, i n the home of a U. S. Army L t . Colonel and h i s w i f e . These f o s t e r parents were people of s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y , and they began to r e a l i z e that Rosemary was not p r o p e r l y placed w i t h them, as her I.Q. was discovered to be 84. The matter came to a c r i s i s when the Colonel was ordered overseas. The f o s t e r par-ents then decided not to keep Rosemary, although the f o s t e r mother seemed to be fond of the c h i l d . 115 I t was obvious on placement t h a t Rosemary had r e -ceived a considerable amount of t r a i n i n g i n the f o s t e r home. Rosemary had an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r music and rhythm. She playe-d at the piano, watered the p l a n t s i n the l i v -i n g room of' the Home without prompting from anyone, and a s s i s t e d the cook and laundress i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e jobs. She found i t d i f f i c u l t to take the competition of the other c h i l d r e n , however. A p r i v a t e agency assumed respon-s i b i l i t y f o r placement of t h i s c h i l d since she was con-si d e r e d to be a good adoption r i s k i f a home could be found where the academic standards were not beyond her reach. Rosemary, however, regressed markedly. The r e j e c -t i o n which she experienced at the hands of the f o s t e r parents was a traumatic experience f o r her. She became f a t and u n a t t r a c t i v e as she gorged h e r s e l f on food. The older c h i l d r e n r e j e c t e d her, and e v e n t u a l l y refused to s i t at the same table w i t h her i n the d i n i n g room. There f o l l o w e d two f o s t e r home placements, both of which f a i l e d . Since i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment f a c i l i t i e s were not a v a i l a b l e i n the State of Washington, Rosemary was returned to the s t a t e where she had residence. This c h i l d ' s behaviour i n d i c a t e d elements of emotion-a l disturbance combined w i t h apparent mental r e t a r d a t i o n , Rosemary could have used the d i a g n o s t i c and treatment f a c i l i t i e s of a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n . 9. CHARLES ERICKSON (Referred from County Welfare Department; one year i n residence, 1948-49). This twelve year o l d youngster's mother deserted him when he was t i n y . His f a t h e r deserted him i n 1943. There were a s e r i e s of seven f o s t e r home placements, one of which was e x p l o i t i v e i n nature i n that a l l of h i s newspaper earn-ings were taken from him by the f o s t e r parents. In s p i t e of so many r e j e c t i o n s , Charles was an out-going boy who made f r i e n d s e a s i l y . This youngster's needs were so great that many people seemed to i n s t i n c t i v e l y want to do something f o r him, and many who came i n t o contact w i t h t h i s boy f e l t that they had somehow or other f a i l e d to do the r i g h t t h i n g by him. Since he had been t r a n s f e r r e d from one f o s t e r home to another he had developed a great i n s e c u r i t y that g r a d u a l l y l e d to an i n a b i l i t y to l i v e i n a home where there were other c h i l d r e n because he attempted to supplant them and became jealous of the a t t e n t i o n they r e c e i v e d . Charles had al s o developed a s o r t of bravado and got a t t e n t i o n through s i l l i n e s s . This husky, adolescent boy acted out h i s f e e l i n g s 116 of r e j e c t i o n i n behaviour which untrained housemothers could not accept. The w r i t e r was the only person i n the i n s t i t u t i o n who could enforce l i m i t s which were set up f o r t h i s boy. Charles' behaviour was most acceptable on those occasions when he had a s t a f f member a l l to h i m s e l f . He could take a great deal of a f f e c t i o n at times from the w r i t e r , who had to be a f a t h e r person. In the i n s t i t u t i o n Charles was able to accept the f a c t that he was not the only c h i l d without parents. Group placement was h e l p f u l , t h e r e f o r e , i n treatment of t h i s d i s t u r b e d youngster. Since 14 was the upper age l i m i t at the Home, Charles went to l i v e on a f o s t e r home farm i n the l o c a l area. This p l a n e v e n t u a l l y f a i l e d , and he then v o l u n t a r -i l y went to l i v e w i t h the Indians w i t h whom he had o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f . This act had an element of r e j e c -t i o n of the white race i n i t , s ince Charles f e l t t hat he had been r e j e c t e d . Obviously Charles needed treatment of a k i n d that was not p o s s i b l e at the time of h i s r e s i -dence at Martha and Mary's. Charles could not r e l a t e to f o s t e r parents, s c h o o l , or community. 10. MELVIN WAHL (Referred by a r e l a t i v e ; one year i n r e s i d e n c e , 1948-49). This boy was nine years o l d at the time of h i s admission, together w i t h h i s brother and s i s t e r . Melvin d i d not get along with the other c h i l d r e n , as he t r i e d to boss them and c a l l e d them names such as "cheats" when he played w i t h them. He seemed to be always arguing w i t h the other c h i l d r e n and making w i l d statements. His treatment of the other c h i l d r e n caused them to r e j e c t him. He was o v e r l y pro-t e c t i v e of h i s brother and s i s t e r . M e lvin d i d not seem to have s u f f i c i e n t super-ego formation to c a r r y through assignments or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and s t a f f , t h e r e f o r e , could not t r u s t him. He had l i t t l e t olerance to f r u s t r a -t i o n . This d i s t u r b e d c h i l d could not respond p o s i t i v e l y to f o s t e r parents because he was c l i n g i n g so desperately to the hope that h i s parents would r e u n i t e . A treatment i n s t i t u t i o n might have helped t h i s f r u s t r a t e d c h i l d work through h i s f e e l i n g s of r e j e c t i o n . IV. C h i l d r e n Whose Parents Could Not Accept F o s t e r Parents The parents of these c h i l d r e n could not permit t h e i r c h i l d r e n to form close r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s u b s t i t u t e parents. These parents 117 were f a i l u r e s as parents, but could not allow other a d u l t s , p a r t i -c u l a r l y those of the same sex, to become parent persons to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . These parents were u s u a l l y accepting the i n s t i t u t i o n because r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the Home were l e s s close than i n the average f o s t e r home. A l s o , to them, i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement of t h e i r c h i l d r e n d i d not p o i n t up t h e i r f a i l u r e as parents as s t r o n g l y . These parents were most d i f f i c u l t to work w i t h , s i n c e , b a s i c a l l y , they were r e j e c t i n g t h e i r youngsters, but they could not face the world w i t h t h i s f a c t . 1. DAVE CHRISTIAN 2. JUDITH CHRISTIAN (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; f i v e months, 1948, f o u r months l a t e r i n 1948, ten months, 1950-51). This brother and s i s t e r , aged f o u r and s i x years, were admitted and discharged from the Home three times. The mother could not s u s t a i n a p l a n f o r the c h i l d r e n and she could not stand the competition of a f o s t e r mother f o r them. The c h i l d r e n were o r i g i n a l l y placed because the mother could not make ends meet on ADC and wanted to work. The mother had been reared i n f o s t e r homes and c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s h e r s e l f , and i t seemed th a t the c h i l d r e n were being f o r c e d i n t o the same p a t t e r n . The mother would take the c h i l d r e n from the i n s t i t u t i o n i n t o some u n s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangement such as t h e i r l i v i n g t o -gether w i t h another unstable f a m i l y . This p l a n would f a i l ; and a f t e r a s e r i e s of such f a i l u r e s , the mother would r e t u r n the c h i l d r e n to the i n s t i t u t i o n . Since i t i s questionable that t h i s mother had any i n s i g h t i n t o her problem, the worker's f u n c t i o n was prim-a r i l y to keep t h i s mother from c a r r y i n g out u n r e a l i s t i c plans f o r the c h i l d r e n . In t h i s case the i n s t i t u t i o n met the needs of a mother who was a f a i l u r e as a parent and could not permit the c h i l d r e n to have f o s t e r parents. 3. LOUISE HEGLAND 4. JOHN HEGLAND (Referred by t h e i r f a t h e r ; s l i g h t l y l e s s than one year i n residence, 1949-50). This brother, 118 seven years, and s i s t e r , s i x years, had been i n twelve boarding homes. These were a l l p r i v a t e placements made by the f a t h e r , and most of these arrangements provided board and room f o r the f a t h e r as w e l l as care f o r the c h i l d r e n . I t i s apparent that some of these placements d i d not work out because of the presence of the f a t h e r i n the f o s t e r home. One p a i r of f o s t e r parents w i t h whom they had boarded refused to continue to care f o r the c h i l d r e n unless the f a t h e r would permit them to adopt the c h i l d r e n . The f a t h e r refused to do t h i s . The f a t h e r i s a r e l a t i v e l y young man who, together w i t h h i s brother, were adopted at an e a r l y age by the pa t e r n a l grandparents. The fa t h e r s a i d that he had a great l i k i n g and respect f o r the p a t e r n a l grandfather who had been, according to him, a good f a t h e r to him during h i s youth. In h i s emotional development, however, he seemed to have considerable c o n f l i c t w i t h a u t h o r i t y and ambivalence toward parent f i g u r e s . The c h i l d r e n ' s mother and he were di v o r c e d , and the c h i l d r e n ' s mother was re a r i n g another f a m i l y with her second husband. The f a t h e r had custody of the c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n had been l i v i n g i n the p a t e r n a l grand-parent's home immediately p r i o r to placement at the Home. The f a t h e r was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s arrangement because he f e l t t hat the grandmother could not give the c h i l d r e n the d i s c i p l i n e which they needed. She was p a r t i a l t o John because she had reared a f a m i l y of boys h e r s e l f . She r e j e c t e d Louise, and i t i s suspected that she d i d t h i s because she i d e n t i f i e d Louise w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s mother. She was over l y p r o t e c t i v e w i t h John, and f a t h e r complained t h a t she was making a " s i s s y " out of John. He wanted to move the c h i l d r e n from the grandparent's home f o r t h i s reason. I n s t i t u t i o n a l placement was b e n e f i c i a l f o r these c h i l d r e n . I t enabled John to emancipate hi m s e l f from some of h i s dependency on h i s grandmother and to develop a stronger p e r s o n a l i t y as he had to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i -t i e s i n the group s i t u a t i o n . John's f a t h e r was one of the f i r s t to n o t i c e t h i s growth and was g r e a t l y pleased, by i t . Louise could e a s i l y express v e r b a l l y the r e j e c t i o n which she f e l t she rec e i v e d from her grandmother, and she could r e j e c t In r e t u r n . This a t t r a c t i v e c h i l d was " s i l l y " around boys, and sought to have boy f r i e n d s . This behaviour seemed appropriate f o r t h i s r e j e c t e d c h i l d . The c h i l d r e n went to l i v e w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r , against the choice of the agency, when he entered i n t o a common law marriage w i t h a woman who had two c h i l d r e n of her own. The f a t h e r t o l d the worker t h a t he would not marry the woman u n t i l he was sure t h a t the two f a m i l i e s could l i v e together h a p p i l y . The f a t h e r ' s immaturity was pointed up by t h i s unwise d e c i s i o n . 119 These c h i l d r e n needed i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement be-cause the f a t h e r could not accept f o s t e r home placement f o r them. 5. GARY BLAKE (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; two months i n residence, 1950). This nine year o l d youngster together w i t h h i s s i s t e r , D o r i s , had been l i v i n g i n the dete n t i o n home while h i s mother was h o s p i t a l i z e d w i t h schizophrenia. The parents could not accept f o s t e r home placement f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l p l a c e -ment was th e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e d f o r a temporary p e r i o d . Gary returned to h i s home to l i v e at the end of the school year. V. C h i l d r e n Who Required Poster Home Placement These c h i l d r e n needed the b e n e f i t s which could be derived from clo s e personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s u b s t i t u t e parents. I n s t i t u t i o n a l placement was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r these youngsters because they wanted t o be loved by parents. There were two s i b l i n g groups who could have responded to love and a f f e c t i o n from f o s t e r parents. Another c h i l d was much too young f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement and needed a mother. The l a s t c h i l d had such tremendous needs f o r a f f e c t i o n that only s e l e c t e d f o s t e r parents could have met t h i s need. 1. CAROL WILLIAMS 2. RONALD WILLIAMS (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; eight months i n residence, 1947-48, f i v e months, l a t e r , 1948). This b r o t h e r , s i x years o l d , and s i s t e r , f i v e years o l d , were wards of a county j u v e n i l e court i n the custody of a p r i v a t e agency. The f a t h e r was employed i n Alaska and the mother l i v e d i n a housing p r o j e c t near the Home. The mother was known to be promiscuous. She f a i l e d to manage on the money which her husband was send-ing to her f o r the support of the f a m i l y , and she was j a i l e d i n March of 1948 f o r having t r i e d to cash bad checks w i t h l o c a l businessmen. The c h i l d r e n were placed i n the Detention Home and f i v e days l a t e r were readmitted to the Home. (They had o r i g i n a l l y been admitted i n May 120 of 1947 but had been discharged to the mother i n the e a r l y p a r t of 1948 as p a r t of a p l a n of attempted r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of t h i s f a m i l y . ) The f a t h e r came down from Alaska, and he was helped to obtain a divorce from h i s w i f e . These c h i l d r e n were placed i n a f o s t e r home because they needed the exper-ience of l i v i n g w i t h s t a b l e parent s u b s t i t u t e s . 3. PAT DIGERNESS 4. JAMES DIGERNESS (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; seven months i n residence, 1949-50, two months l a t e r , 1950). This brother and s i s t e r , s i x and seven years o l d r e s p e c t i v e l y , had been i n a v a r i e t y of f o s t e r homes. Their parents were divorced and the f a t h e r had been granted custody of these two s i b l i n g s . Just p r i o r to placement at Martha and Mary's, the c h i l d r e n had been l i v i n g i n an unapproved boarding home i n which there were s i x t e e n c h i l d r e n . In order to a s s i s t the f a t h e r to r e t a i n the custody of h i s c h i l d r e n , i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c h i l d r e n be placed elsewhere. The c h i l d r e n had a close emotional t i e w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r . I n s t i t u -t i o n a l placement was decided upon because the f a t h e r was contemplating remarriage, and i t was f e l t that the c h i l d r e n would be at the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r only a short p e r i o d u n t i l the f a t h e r completed h i s plans. P a t r i c i a seemed much more l i k e an adult than a l i t t l e g i r l on placement, and s t a f f f e l t they had to t r e a t t h i s sweet, but s e r i o u s - f a c e d c h i l d as a mature person. The mother had apparently confided i n t h i s c h i l d as i f she were an a d u l t . In the n e u t r a l environment of the i n s t i t u t i o n , P a t r i c i a blossomed out i n t o a gay, saucy l i t t l e g i r l who was g r e a t l y l i k e d by s t a f f , and had many admirers among the boys. James seemed to disappear i n the group. He was a tremendous eater at meal times i n h i s q u i e t way, and t h i s seemed to i n d i c a t e h i s need f o r love and a f f e c t i o n . He seemed to express h i m s e l f a l i t t l e more a f t e r l i v i n g a while at the Home, but remained a very passive c h i l d . Undoubted-l y * p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g was i n d i c a t e d f o r t h i s c h i l d , but was never c a r r i e d out while he was.at the i n s t i t u t i o n . The c h i l d r e n were admitted and discharged twice. The f i r s t discharge was to a p a t e r n a l uncle's home. The i l l n e s s of the c h i l d r e n ' s aunt made i t necessary f o r the c h i l d r e n to r e t u r n to the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r a few months u n t i l they could be discharged to a f o s t e r home. The c h i l d r e n seemed to f i n d i t easy to move back to the i n -s t i t u t i o n the second time." P a t r i c i a , e s p e c i a l l y , i d e n t i -121 f i e d w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n , and found i t a l i t t l e d i f -f i c u l t to leave both times, as she found i t d i f f i c u l t to move from any placement. In t h i s case the i n s t i t u t i o n was used as a conven-ience to the f a t h e r to house and board h i s c h i l d r e n . I t gave the f a t h e r an opportunity to remarry, and thereby e s t a b l i s h a home f o r himself and the c h i l d r e n . These c h i l d r e n could have used a f o s t e r home as w e l l . 5. JOHN BERG (Referred from p r i v a t e agency; two months i n residence, 1948-49). John, almost f o u r years o l d , was a f o s t e r c h i l d of David and P a t r i c i a Proseth's mother, and was t r e a t e d by the Proseth c h i l d r e n as t h e i r l i t t l e b r o t her. I n Alaska John's f a t h e r l i v e d w i t h David and P a t r i c i a ' s mother and the two Proseth c h i l d r e n . John's f a t h e r was separated from h i s c h i l d ' s Eskimo mother. John was j u s t under four years o l d at the time of admittance. Obviously, he was too young f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement. H e was demanding of h i s f a t h e r on the l a t t e r ' s v i s i t s to the Home, as were the Proseth c h i l d r e n . The f a t h e r had hoped to marry P a t r i c i a and David's mother, but her remarriage to another man c a n c e l l e d t h i s p l a n . This f a t h e r took h i s c h i l d from the i n s t i t u t i o n as soon as he heard of the marriage. This c h i l d was too small to b e n e f i t from group l i v -i n g i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . He needed the i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n -t i o n and care which f o s t e r parents could g i v e . 6. BETTY PJERAN (Referred from County Welfare Department; three months i n residence, 1948). This e i g h t year o l d g i r l was from a large f a m i l y of eight c h i l d r e n . Both parents are sub-normal mentally, and three of her brothers have been committed to a s t a t e c u s t o d i a l school as being feebleminded. In the year previous to placement at the Home, Betty had l i v e d i n three f o s t e r homes wit h l i t t l e suc-cess. In one of these f o s t e r homes there was one c h i l d w i t h whom she was not able to compete mentally, so she t r i e d ,any means she could to get a t t e n t i o n . I n the f o s t e r home where she l i v e d immediately before p l a c e -ment at the Home, the f o s t e r parents were disgusted w i t h her behaviour which included masturbating, c h a t t e r -i n g , and demands f o r a t t e n t i o n . 122 Since Betty was from a lar g e f a m i l y and she l i k e d to be w i t h groups of c h i l d r e n , i t was f e l t that she would be happy i n a c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n . She was com-p l e t e l y r e j e c t e d by the other c h i l d r e n , however, as her great c r a v i n g f o r a t t e n t i o n and a f f e c t i o n l e d her to c r i t i c i z e and t a t t l e on other c h i l d r e n . She was a poor eater at the d i n i n g room t a b l e , as she was so busy watch-ing the other c h i l d r e n eat. This disgusted the ol d e r c h i l d r e n . She slung to s t a f f members, but they were un-able to s a t i s f y her unstable needs. Betty was returned to her own home when her mother proved to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the county welfare depart-ment that she could maintain an adequate home f o r the c h i l d . With her mental handicap, Betty might sometimes r e q u i r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l care of a s p e c i a l i z e d type. The i n s t i t u t i o n f a i l e d t h i s c h i l d as her needs f o r a f f e c t i o n were too great to be met i n a group s e t t i n g . She needed f o s t e r parents who could accept her w i t h her l i m i t a t i o n s . and who could give her the care she had missed i n her own home. These case h i s t o r y summaries of admissions to the Home w i l l be h e l p f u l as a background f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of p o s s i b l e f u t u r e f u n c t i o n s f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n . This d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w s i n the remaining chapter. Chapter 7 Pacing the Future There has always been a d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between periods of n a t i o n a l emergency or d i s a s t e r and the populations of c h i l d r e n ' i n s t i t u t i o n s . During such p e r i o d s , the pressure brought to bear upon c h i l d c a r i n g agencies has always increased to the point that the usual intake p o l i c i e s of c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s have to be m o d i f i e d . As has already been i n t i m a t e d , World War I I creat ed an emergency s i t u a t i o n which f i l l e d the Home w i t h many normal c h i l d r e n . The war and i t s aftermath, as i s w e l l known by people, brought breakdown i n f a m i l y l i f e . Divorces and separations among parents made i t necessary t o plan f o r c h i l d r e n who were v i c t i m s of these circumstances. At the same time mothers were moving i n t o the l a b o r f o r c e . This was often due to the f a c t that marginal workers were being employed at wages higher than the amounts allowed by the p u b l i c agency f o r assistance grants to mothers r e -maining i n t h e i r own homes w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . S o c i a l agencies bogged down i n t h e i r attempts to meet the needs of c h i l d r e n w i t h the resources at hand. U s u a l l y as a l a s t r e s o r t , they were com-p e l l e d to use c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the placement of many c h i l d r e n . One could c e r t a i n l y question whether or not i n s t i t u t i o n s should permit themselves to be used i n t h i s manner. One could question why s o c i a l and other community agencies cannot provide s u f f i c i e n t housekeeping s e r v i c e s or other s e r v i c e s to maintain c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes, or why there i s a shortage of f o s t e r homes. One can a l s o speculate about the breakdown i n cooperation 124 between c h i l d placement agencies and c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s r e -s u l t i n g from t h i s pressure; and, more important than anything e l s e , one can question the e f f e c t s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement on the I n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . These important questions are not a part of the present study; what i s r e l e v a n t , however, i s that Martha and Mary Children's Home was f i l l e d to cap a c i t y during the war years, and f o r a pe r i o d of se v e r a l years t h e r e a f t e r , and some c h i l d r e n were cared f o r who would have b e n e f i t e d from another type of placement. For the past three years, Martha and Mary Children's Home has experienced a d e c l i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . This de-c l i n e would have come sooner, but f o r the emergency con d i t i o n s brought about by World War I I . Another f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the d e c l i n e of the po p u l a t i o n was the r e t u r n of some l a r g e s i b l i n g groups to t h e i r own homes or to the homes of a remarried parent. A t h i r d f a c t o r was the increased use of f o s t e r homes f o r normal c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y by the p u b l i c agency. A l s o , the i n s t i t u -t i o n ' s own intake p o l i c i e s were somewhat more s e l e c t i v e during t h i s p e r i o d than p r e v i o u s l y . F o r t y - f i v e per cent of the c h i l d r e n admitted during the 1948-1949 p e r i o d were ages from three to s i x . I n s t i t u t i o n a l p l a c e -ment f o r t h i s age group i s s e r i o u s l y questioned by many w r i t e r s , f o r i t i s during the f i r s t s i x or eight years of the c h i l d ' s l i f e t hat he needs h i s mother and other members of the f a m i l y c i r c l e . I t i s during these years that the c h i l d i s b u i l d i n g confidence i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h members of h i s f a m i l y , and these warm personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s help the c h i l d to develop confidence i n him s e l f . Unusual s i t u a t i o n s during t h i s p e r i o d may provoke 125 a n x i e t y and d i s t r e s s i n the c h i l d because he has not had a back-69 ground of experience to guide him i n coping w i t h them. On the other hand, pre-school c h i l d r e n who have s u f f e r e d from many f o s t e r home placements have o f t e n been b e n e f i t e d by a pe r i o d of group l i v i n g . The p o p u l a t i o n study a l s o points up the f a c t t h a t almost thr e e - f o u r t h s of the c h i l d r e n admitted had residence i n the i n -s t i t u t i o n f o r a per i o d of l e s s than one year. A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h i s group received only i n t e r i m care from the i n s t i t u t i o n . Some w r i t e r s s t a t e that study and treatment f a c i l i t i e s may be 70 combined e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h i n t e r i m care. Martha and Mary's, of course, has never had t h i s combination of f a c i l i t i e s . Martha and Mary's has t r a d i t i o n a l l y had some fun c t i o n s which, perhaps, are somewhat unique among c h i l d caring i n s t i t u t i o n s . The Home has cared f o r the c h i l d r e n of fishermen whose jobs took them long distances from t h e i r own homes f o r long periods of time. The absence of the f a t h e r s has f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t e d i n f a m i l y break-down and d i v o r c e . The remarriage of the mothers, and the b i r t h of c h i l d r e n r e s u l t i n g from the new marriages, o f t e n made i t neces-sary to p l a n f o r some k i n d of placement f o r the c h i l d r e n of the o r i g i n a l union. The d i s t r u s t which these f a t h e r s have had f o r housekeeping arrangements and f o s t e r homes, both of which had u s u a l l y been t r i e d , seemed to i n d i c a t e the need f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l b y F l o r e n e e C l o t h i e r , " I n s t i t u t i o n a l Needs In the F i e l d of C h i l d Welfare", The Nervous C h i l d , A p r i l 1948, p. 158. on H. Richman, " R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r and use of Int e r i m and Emergency Placement", S o c i a l Service Review, Septem-ber, 1946, pp. 354-361. 126 placement. These c h i l d r e n were u s u a l l y the l a r g e s i b l i n g groups. A l s o , the i n s t i t u t i o n i n recent years has cared f o r a few c h i l d r e n whose parents were employed i n A l a s k a . The movement of these parents to take advantage of job o p p o r t u n i t i e s made placement of t h e i r c h i l d r e n necessary i n some i n s t a n c e s , the l a c k of adequate housing and schools i n Alaska being among the reasons advanced f o r placement by most of these parents. The i n s t i t u t i o n has had no geographical l i m i t s on i n t a k e , although f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, intake has been l i m i t e d to western Washington and Oregon, as w e l l as A l a s k a . The f a c t that the i n s t i t u t i o n i s p a r t of a world-wide church o r g a n i z a t i o n , and that i t s supporting constituency i s spread over Worth America, makes i t d o u b t f u l that there w i l l ever be geographical l i m i t s on i n t a k e . Suggestions f o r Changed Uses A number of suggestions have been made regarding the f u t u r e use of Martha and Mary C h i l d r e n ' s Home. The p u b l i c welfare agency on a s t a t e l e v e l has suggested i t might become a h o s p i t a l or con-valescent u n i t f o r p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n , or an i n s t i -t u t i o n f o r mentally d e f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n . A convalescent u n i t , however, should p r o p e r l y be l o c a t e d nearer medical resources than Poulsbo i s . Furthermore, the equipment and s t a f f would need to be s e l e c t e d and supervised by medical personnel. As f o r the care of the mentally d e f i c i e n t , I t has long been accepted that the s t a t e should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s group as w e l l as f o r the insane. I f the State's f a c i l i t i e s are not adequate, i t would seem to be b e t t e r planning t o promote increased f a c i l i t i e s 127 under s t a t e auspices, r a t h e r than to attempt to meet the problem through the use of the l i m i t e d funds of volun t a r y agencies. On the other hand, the l o c a l p u b l i c welfare agency has f e l t the need I n the community f o r a small i n s t i t u t i o n which could care f o r adolescents. There Is a l s o need f o r a small study and treatment center f o r emotionally d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . The need fo r the l a t t e r type of i n s t i t u t i o n i s pointed up by the po p u l a t i o n study which shows that twenty-four per cent of admissions r e -quired t h i s type of f a c i l i t y . The p u b l i c welfare agency on a st a t e l e v e l has i n d i c a t e d that both types of i n s t i t u t i o n s could be used i n the l o c a l area. Martha and Mary Ch i l d r e n ' s Home as a Study and Treatment I n s t i t u - t i o n f o r Disturbed C h i l d r e n To develop Martha and Mary Children's H o m e as an i n s t i t u -t i o n f o r emotionally d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , would i n v o l v e very ex-pensive p l a n n i n g . Some of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of a home f o r d i s -turbed c h i l d r e n and a home f o r adolescents w i l l be discussed i n terms of the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : (1) inta k e p o l i c y ; (2) personnel; (3) b u i l d i n g ; (4) l o c a t i o n ; and (5) r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . 7 1 The f i r s t requirement i s that intake p o l i c y must be s e l e c t i v e i n terms of age groups. A l s o , d i a g n o s t i c p r i o r i t i e s need to be es t a b l i s h e d i n terms of the problems to be t r e a t e d , such as the psychoneuroses ( c h i l d r e n with phobias, h y s t e r i a , and obsessions); the organ neuroses ( c h i l d r e n s u f f e r i n g from s p a s t i c bowel, asthma, eczema, hypertension, and the car d i a c i n v a l i d s without heart A pamphlet published by I l l i n o i s C h ildren's Home and Aid S o c i e t y , Plans f o r an I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Treatment of  Emotionally Disturbed C h i l d r e n , has been used as a reference i n what f o l l o w s , pp. 1-51. 128 d i s e a s e ) ; and the character problems (such as the h o s t i l e aggres-s i v e c h i l d ; the s o c i a l l y withdrawn; the c h i l d p r e s e n t i n g a sex problem; and the n e u r o t i c delinquent, i n so f a r as he can be a s s i m i l a t e d without danger t o o t h e r s ) . There would need to be freedom on the part of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f t o concentrate on p a r t i c u l a r problems f o r periods of time and to c o n t r o l admissions a c c o r d i n g l y i n order to advance current research and i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o j e c t s . The i n i t i a l study of each c h i l d would need to inc l u d e a medical h i s t o r y ; a s o c i a l and p s y c h i a t r i c h i s t o r y ; a p h y s i c a l examination; various p s y c h o l o g i c a l examinations, such as one or more standard t e s t s of i n t e l l i g e n c e ( v e r b a l and performance), the Rorschach, and the Thematic Apperception Test; a p s y c h i a t r i c examination; and observations on the c h i l d ' s behaviour i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . I n i t i a l treatment plans f o r an i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d would be decided at a d i a g n o s t i c s t a f f conference which would be attended by a l l those s t a f f members who had d i r e c t contact w i t h the c h i l d or w i t h h i s f a m i l y members. The various departments of the i n s t i t u t i o n would need to be so coordinated as to provide the maximum b e n e f i t s t o each c h i l d i n a l l aspects of h i s development: p h y s i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , r e -c r e a t i o n a l , and emotional. The program f o r each c h i l d should be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , determined p r i m a r i l y according to h i s p e c u l i a r needs and s e c o n d a r i l y , according to the researc h i n t e r e s t s of the s t a f f . The p l a n f o r care of the c h i l d a f t e r he leaves the i n -s t i t u t i o n would a l s o need t o be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and might i n c l u d e foster-home placement, school placement, or r e t u r n to h i s own home w i t h c o n t i n u i n g psycho-therapy as needed. I n order to ca r r y 129 out t h i s kind of program, the s t a f f would need to c o n s i s t of a number of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d persons. The c h i e f personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r s t a f f members would need to be f l e x i b i l i t y . The r e c o g n i t i o n by the worker of the experimental nature of h i s post would be the best insurance f o r the success of the p r o j e c t . S t a f f would need t o include a d i r e c -t o r , p s y c h i a t r i s t , p s y c h o l o g i s t , s o c i a l case workers, s o c i a l group workers, houseparents, s e c r e t a r i a l s t a f f , and maintenance personnel. The number of c h i l d r e n i n residence would need to be l i m i t e d to about twelve, since d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e i n d i v i -dual bedrooms. A l e s s i n t e n s i v e treatment i n s t i t u t i o n than the one presented, somewhere between the h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d treatment center and the t r a d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n ' s home, might buy the s e r v i c e s of con-s u l t i n g p s y c h i a t r i s t s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s on a part-time b a s i s , r a t h e r than employ r e s i d e n t persons. The l a t t e r plan would, of course, be e a s i e r f o r Martha and Mary's to b r i n g to f r u i t i o n s ince such s e r v i c e s could be obtained more e a s i l y on t h i s b a s i s . The r e s i d e n t s t a f f would need to include an a d m i n i s t r a t o r or execu-t i v e , a s o c i a l caseworker, a s o c i a l group worker, houseparents, s e c r e t a r i a l or stenographic s e r v i c e s , and maintenance personnel. Research and teaching would need to be provided f o r by the i n s t i t u t i o n . Members of the s t a f f would need to consider research a p r o f e s s i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n and a part of t h e i r job. Those s t a f f members most i n t e r e s t e d and q u a l i f i e d to undertake research should, however, be appointed to do t h i s work. These persons should be allowed s u f f i c i e n t time to pursue research and report upon i t , and should be given a voice i n determining intake p o l i c y 130 so t h a t they could concentrate on c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t i n g p a r t i c u l a r problems f o r periods of time i n order to advance current research p r o j e c t s . The i n s t i t u t i o n should a l s o o f f e r t r a i n i n g opportuni-t i e s f o r p s y c h i a t r i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , caseworkers, and p e d i a t r i -cians . Since Martha and Mary Children's Home was constructed f o r the s p e c i f i c purpose of cari n g f o r c h i l d r e n , the b u i l d i n g would be i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r the care of a small group of about twelve d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . On the other hand, Martha and Mary's was not constructed to provide adequate and p r i v a t e l i v i n g quarters f o r s t a f f . The Home does not contain an apartment f o r cottage parents, f o r example. There are only s i n g l e rooms a v a i l a b l e f o r these s t a f f members at the present time. The I l l i n o i s C hildren's Home and A i d S o c i e t y urge t h a t these overworked people need a r e t r e a t from the c h i l d r e n , and that i f t h i s i s not provided, the r e s u l t w i l l be that i t w i l l be hard to a t t r a c t and hold r e a l l y f i r s t - c l a s s cottage parents. Martha and Mary's has alr e a d y ex-perienced the l o s i n g of cottage parents because of l a c k of p r i v a t e l i v i n g space f o r these parent persons. The apartment f o r cottage parents should be a complete l i v i n g u n i t , c o n t a i n i n g a l i v i n g room, bedroom, bath, and k i t c h e n e t t e as a minimum number of rooms. The l o c a t i o n of Martha and Mary's i s e x c e l l e n t i n most r e s -pects, but does have some serious handicaps. The Home i s i n close p r o x i m i t y to cons o l i d a t e d p u b l i c schools, i n which the Home's c h i l d r e n have always been w e l l accepted. There Is no reason to b e l i e v e that d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n could not be i n t e g r a t e d i n the present school system, since the teaching s t a f f have been cooperative w i t h the Home's s t a f f i n working w i t h d i s t u r b e d c h i l d -131 ren i n the past. The community, t o o , has been q u i t e accepting of the behaviour of di s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . The d e s t r u c t i o n of a very old house i n the community by a f i r e which was s t a r t e d by a d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e s i d i n g at the Children's Home, r e c e n t l y put t h i s to the t e s t : There was l i t t l e r e percussion from the people of the community regarding t h i s . The Home i s i n close p r o x i m i t y to three churches, and to a small branch county l i b r a r y . There are, however, no r e c r e a t i o n centers, h o s p i t a l s , or c l i n i c s i n the immediate l o c a l i t y . Sewage d i s p o s a l , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , and water supply are a l l provided by the town. There are f i v e acres f o r play and r e c r e a t i o n . The Home i s s i t u a t e d on a prominent s i t e which a f f o r d s a good view. Since the town i s very s m a l l , moral hazards such as the commercial-i z e d v i c e i n most l a r g e c i t i e s , are not i n evidence. The gre a t e s t handicap, perhaps, i s the f a c t t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n i s somewhat i s o l a t e d from the center of popul a t i o n . Puget Sound separates the community from S e a t t l e . There are se v e r a l f e r r i e s which bridge t h i s gap at various p o i n t s , most of the crossings t a k i n g one hour or l e s s . I t i s p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , f o r s t a f f members and c h i l d r e n to r i d e a f e r r y i n the morning d i r e c t l y to Colman Dock, i n the heart of the S e a t t l e business area, spend the day i n the c i t y , and r e t u r n to the Home i n the evening. This makes f e a s i b l e the use of c l i n i c a l s e r v i c e s i n S e a t t l e f o r the c h i l d r e n , although t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs are expensive. P s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a -t i o n to the s t a f f i s a v a i l a b l e i n the same way. The cost of a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n — even i f on a modified s c a l e -- would be much greater than the i n s t i t u t i o n has experienced up to t h i s p o i n t . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of program to 132 the supporting church constituency would be extremely d i f f i c u l t . The a b i l i t y of a small i n s t i t u t i o n i n a small community to a t t r a c t the h i g h l y t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f which would be req u i r e d to s t a f f a treatment program would s e v e r e l y t e s t the s k i l l s of the f i n e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r . The w r i t e r suggests, t h e r e f o r e , that the immediate establishment of a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n i n Poulsbo f o r emotionally d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n would be premature. The Church and the Board of D i r e c t o r s are not yet ready f o r t h i s development, although there appears to be a great deal of i n t e r -e s t on the p a r t of s e v e r a l Board members. The Board and the Church, however, have not had the opportunity to become f u l l y acquainted w i t h what i s Involved i n s e t t i n g up and maintaining a treatment center program. Martha and Mary Children's Home as an I n s t i t u t i o n f o r Adolescents Even though not an immediate o b j e c t i v e , a study and t r e a t -ment i n s t i t u t i o n might s t i l l be a long-term goal f o r the organiza-t i o n . I n the meanwhile, however, an immediate o b j e c t i v e must be r e a l i z e d . In a sense, the Home i s already an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r adoles-cents, since the f i v e youngsters now l i v i n g at the Home are a l l adolescents. Pour of these c h i l d r e n c o n s t i t u t e the ten per cent of the t o t a l who have res i d e d at the Home f o r a p e r i o d of more than two years. None of these c h i l d r e n d e s i r e s f o s t e r home p l a c e -ment at the present time, since a l l of them p r e f e r the group l i v i n g at the i n s t i t u t i o n . This i s probably the best argument i n f a v o r of the development of Martha and Mary Ch i l d r e n ' s Home as a home f o r adolescents. 133 Care of o l d e r boys and g i r l s i s not a new i d e a w i t h the Children's Home. In the days when the Home was an orphanage, there were young men and women who l i v e d at the Home — some of them u n t i l they were as o l d as twenty years. I t i s commonly con-ceded that one of the c h i e f c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the old-time orphan's home was i t s care of these o l d e r boys and g i r l s . A present Board member and former farm manager f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n can r e c a l l that these o l d e r youngsters were d i f f i c u l t to handle. I t i s pre-sumed, however, that some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s were due t o the f a c t that the s t a f f were untrained. Trained s t a f f i n the i n s t i t u -t i o n would make a preat deal of d i f f e r e n c e . As was pointed out i n Chapter I I , adolescents comprise one of the most promising categories of youngsters who b e n e f i t from group l i v i n g . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note i n t h i s respect that i n s t i t u t i o n s such as p r i v a t e boarding schools and summer camps have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been used i n the education and t r a i n i n g of p r i v i l e g e d c h i l d r e n whose parents can a f f o r d i t . The l a t t e r , however, are o f t e n f a r l e s s i n need of such f a c i l i t i e s than the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d youngsters who roam the s t r e e t s . P r i v a t e board-ing schools have shown t h a t , even f o r w e l l - a d j u s t e d adolescents, 72 there i s value i n the experience of group l i v i n g . I t i s not at a l l hard to v i s u a l i z e Martha and Mary's as a r e s i d e n t i a l home f o r the community's u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d adolescents whose parents could not a f f o r d p r i v a t e boarding schools f o r t h e i r youngsters. This would be i n complete harmony with the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of c h a r i t y . The p u b l i c schools could be used f o r the 7 2 C l o t h i e r , op. c i t . , p. 161. 134 educational aspects. Adolescence i s a p e r i o d i n a youngster's l i f e when he i s s t r u g g l i n g to achieve s e l f - r e l i a n t independence from h i s parents. For the sake of h i s f u t u r e s e x u a l , m a r i t a l , s o c i a l and economic adjustment, i t i s v i t a l l y important that he sever h i s confused ambivalent t i e to h i s parents. As a member of a group of h i s contemporaries, he may do t h i s , and at the same time f i n d r e a s s u r -ance that compensates him f o r the l o s s of dependence on h i s par-ents. He develops an intense r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s contemporar-i e s as w e l l as l o y a l t i e s to h i s group leaders and group i d e o l o g i e s . A l s o , the adolescent yearns f o r adventure, drama and romance. So o f t e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d communities, these s a t i s f a c t i o n s are most e a s i l y found i n u n s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . On the other hand, the adolescent's enthusiasms and l o y a l -t i e s can be c a p i t a l i z e d on i n the f l e x i b l e r e s i d e n t i a l home. With t r a i n e d s t a f f and a s t i m u l a t i n g program, the adolescent f i n d s reassurance and gains s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e as he comes t o e x c e l i n some a c t i v i t y . A l s o , i n group p r o j e c t s there Is a s o c i a l i z -i n g o p portunity, as the youth responds to the common goals of the group w i t h h i s d r i v i n g energies. Since h i s pers o n a l h o s t i l i -t i e s are m i t i g a t e d under group pressures and peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the adolescent i s f r e e r to face h i s problems and cope w i t h them. The adolescent may r e s i s t f o s t e r f a m i l i e s who presume to take over the p a r e n t a l r o l e . Often, the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r standard of l i v i n g and th a t which he Is accustomed t o , gives him an a d d i t i o n a l reason f o r r e s i s t i n g . A r e s i d e n t i a l home w i t h attendance at the p u b l i c high school has an economic advantage, 135 t h e r e f o r e , besides s e r v i n g to keep the adolescent i n the commun-i t y . One can v i s u a l i z e Martha and Mary's as the k i n d of residence f o r adolescents from which the boy.or g i r l may go out i n t o the community to p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a c t i v i t i e s . I t w i l l be a d i f f i c u l t problem to maintain t h i s balanced r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the community and at the same time provide a r e s p o n s i b l e , i n -f l u e n t i a l l i v i n g experience and r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r the adolescent h i m s e l f . I t i s apparent, however, that some i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r adolescents have been reasonably s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s attempt. The Bethesda Children's C h r i s t i a n Home near P h i l a d e l p h i a , f o r example, has achieved some success i n working t h i s problem out 7 4 w i t h adolescent g i r l s . A c c o r d i n g l y , a r e s i d e n t i a l home f o r adolescents of e s s e n t i a l l y normal p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e who may, however, be s o c i a l l y d i s -t u r b i n g , i s p r o j e c t e d as the immediate f u t u r e f u n c t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n . F l e x i b i l i t y i n meeting i n d i v i d u a l needs while pre-paring these youngsters f o r community l i f e would need to be the aim of the i n s t i t u t i o n . A few emotionally d i s t u r b e d adolescents may be included i n the group, since i t i s recognized that a large group of r e l a t i v e l y w e l l adjusted adolescents w i l l do the pro p e r l y s e l e c t e d d i s t u r b e d adolescent more good than he w i l l do harm to the group. The i n s t i t u t i o n should be co-educational since the youngster's reabsorption i n t o the community would be f a c i l i t a t e d i f he has not been i s o l a t e d from the opposite sex. S t a f f , too, 7 3 I b l d . , pp. 162-163. 7 4 G r a c e I . Bishopp, The Role of Case Work i n I n s t i t u t i o n a l  Service f o r Adolescents, C h i l d Welfare League of America, I n c., September, 1943, pp. 3-34. 136 would need to c o n s i s t of both men and women f o r the same reason.' Intake would need to be s e l e c t i v e i n terms of those adoles-cents whose needs could be best met by group l i f e i n the i n s t i t u -t i o n . Obviously, the s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d adolescent, such as the pre-psychotic or severely psychoneurotic youngster would not be admitted. These c h i l d r e n would need h o s p i t a l - s c h o o l s which were c l i n i c a l l y and t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d . A l s o , the i n s t i t u -t i o n would, g e n e r a l l y , not serve the delinquent adolescent who needed a more h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d environment and more than the u s u a l amount of r e s t r i c t i o n . There i s no reason to b e l i e v e , however, that the i n s t i t u t i o n could not meet the needs of some of those youngsters who would normally be committed by the Court to boy's or g i r l ' s i n d u s t r i a l schools. I f the i n s t i t u t i o n d i d some experimental work i n t h i s area, the r e s u l t s might be very h e l p f u l to other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t may w e l l be asked whether the l a r g e , congregate i n d u s t r i a l schools are r e a l l y meeting the needs of a l l the c h i l d r e n who are committed to these i n s t i t u t i o n s . Small i n s t i t u t i o n s , attached to communities, and spread throughout a s t a t e or province might w e l l be more economical, both f i n a n c i a l l y and i n terms of the youngster's emotional needs, than the present system of b u i l d i n g huge i n d u s t r i a l schools which tend to be con-centrated i n some r u r a l spot i n a s t a t e or province where the adolescent i s i n complete i s o l a t i o n from h i s contemporaries of the opposite sex and from normal community l i f e . One cannot help but f e e l that the planning f o r i n d u s t r i a l schools i s l e f t too much to the p o l i t i c i a n s , and that s o c i a l workers have not been C l o t h i e r , op. c i t . , pp. 164-165. 137 s u f f i c i e n t l y c a l l e d In as a d v i s o r s . Another opportunity f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l home f o r adolescents would be experimentation w i t h self-government. This could be done through the use of a Council i n which the youngsters, house-mothers, and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f would be represented. The c h i l d r e n would have v o t i n g p r i v i l e g e s , and houseparents and case workers would act i n an advisory c a p a c i t y . This i s the plan f o l l o w e d by the Genevieve Home i n L o u i s i a n a . 7 6 The Council of the l a t t e r i n s t i t u t i o n may i n i t i a t e r u l e s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t s against the v i o l a t i o n by the group, or the p r o t e c t i o n of a group's r i g h t s from v i o l a t i o n by the i n d i v i d u a l . These r e g u l a t i o n s make the c h i l d r e n ' s experience' of l i v i n g t o -gether a good deal more pleasant. The Cou n c i l i s a l s o used as a s a f e t y valve. Regular Council meetings have a steadying e f f e c t upon the group, p a r t i c u l a r l y at times of s t a f f change or during any p e r i o d when there i s wholesale uneasiness. Grievances a i r e d i n C o u n c i l meetings l o s e some of t h e i r i n t e n s i t y , and the group i s given a sense of being able to do something about a t r o u b l i n g s i t u a t i o n . This r e l i e v e s pent-up f e e l i n g s . Changes or d i s -r u p t i o n i n normal r o u t i n e causes the youngsters to t u r n to r e -newed t e s t i n g - o u t of r e g u l a t i o n ; but, f i n d i n g i n Council that the o l d r e s t r i c t i o n s h o l d f i r m , the youngsters are reassured by the s t a b i l i t y of the agency that cares f o r them, thus f i n d i n g enough 7 7 s e c u r i t y to prevent t o t a l group d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . ' '"Lorene Putsch, Self-Government i n a Children's  I n s t i t u t i o n , C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., J u l y 1945, p. 10. 7 7 I b i d . , pp. 11-18. 138 I f the aim of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s to make l i v i n g f o r young people a p r a c t i c a l , o r d i n a r y , and f l e x i b l e experience which i s not too f a r removed from the youngster's previous l i v i n g exper-ience or h i s probable future place i n l i f e , then the i n s t i t u t i o n must provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r youngsters t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e i r l i v i n g at the Home. The g i r l s , f o r example, might a s s i s t the housemother i n housekeeping. Each g i r l might a l s o be respon-s i b l e f o r her own washing, i r o n i n g , and mending. C e r t a i n l y , some of the g i r l s could a s s i s t the cook i n the k i t c h e n , and a s s i s t i n s e r v i n g i n the d i n i n g room. The boys might take care of the Home's small vegetable garden, and manage the watering, mowing, and r a k i n g of the lawn, f o r example. The housefather would supervise the boys' work outside. No maintenance s t a f f , t h e r e -f o r e , would be r e q u i r e d , excepting f o r the cook. I m p l i c a t i o n s The proposed program f o r Martha and Mary's would r e q u i r e the f o l l o w i n g minimum s t a f f : an ad m i n i s t r a t o r f o r the t o t a l organiza-t i o n , a case worker (and i f p o s s i b l e , a group worker wi t h s k i l l i n h a ndling groups c o n s t r u c t i v e l y ) , and houseparents. The i n -s t i t u t i o n would need to buy part-time p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n , p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s , and s t e n o g r a p h i c - s e c r e t a r i a l help. The b u i l d i n g i s , f o r the most p a r t , i d e a l l y s u i t e d as a r e -s i d e n t i a l home f o r adolescents. Group p r i d e i n the b u i l d i n g should not be d i f f i c u l t to a t t a i n , since there seem to be few p r i v a t e residences f o r adolescents i n the state of Washington which have b e t t e r p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . Some changes w i l l need to be made i n the i n t e r i o r planning of rooms, however, or an 139 a d d i t i o n a l wing constructed to the b u i l d i n g . As already mentioned, the s t a f f has l i t t l e p r i v a c y as rooms are now used. They should have t h e i r own l i v i n g room which would be used e x c l u s i v e l y by the s t a f f , and i t should be comfortably f u r n i s h e d and decorated. I t should contain among other t h i n g s , a r a d i o and popular and p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . A l s o , as already mentioned, the house-parents must have t h e i r own apartment. A l l other s t a f f members i n residence should be provided with separate bedrooms, and ade-quate bathroom f a c i l i t i e s not used by the c h i l d r e n . L i v i n g quarters f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t o r would need to be provided e i t h e r on the grounds or very close to the i n s t i t u t i o n . The i n s t i t u t i o n should have an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t which should be separate from the c h i l d r e n ' s quarters to insure quiet and p r i v a c y , though i t should be r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e to the pub-l i c . 1 7 8 This a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t should i n c l u d e an o f f i c e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t o r , an o f f i c e f o r the caseworker, a separate o f f i c e f o r the stenographer, a w a i t i n g room f o r c l i e n t s , and a bathroom. I t should assure p r i v a c y f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t should be separate from the c h i l d r e n ' s l i v i n g quarters be-cause the a d m i n i s t r a t o r and the caseworker are not d i r e c t l y i n -volved i n the every-day care of the c h i l d r e n . The l a t t e r f u n c t i o n i s the job of the houseparents. F a i l u r e to define c l e a r l y the fu n c t i o n s of s t a f f members can r e s u l t i n u n t o l d confusion. Cottage parents or houseparents, f o r example, must be the s u b s t i t u t e parents i n the s i t u a t i o n . The '°A Guide Manual f o r Children's I n s t i t u t i o n s , Health and Welfare C o u n c i l , Inc., P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pennsylvania, pp. 22-26. 0 140 caseworker on the other hand, i s the treatment person on the s t a f f . The caseworker, i f not c a r e f u l to stay w i t h i n the l i m i t s of h i s unique f u n c t i o n , would threaten the houseparents. The caseworker should work through the houseparents i n the treatment process, and should f o r t i f y and guide the houseparents. I f the caseworker i s c a r e f u l to stay w i t h i n h i s own sphere of competence i n a s s i s t -i ng houseparents to work towards treatment of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d , then houseparents w i l l f e e l f r e e to come to the caseworker f o r help. The c h i l d who cannot accept a u t h o r i t y , f o r example, may be r e f e r r e d d i r e c t l y to the caseworker by the houseparents; not i n terms of the caseworker punishing the c h i l d f o r f a i l u r e to cooperate, but, by r e c o g n i z i n g h i s f a i l u r e to cooperate as being the c h i l d ' s own i n d i v i d u a l problem, and asking the c h i l d to t a l k to the caseworker about h i s problem. This should be the normal r e l a t i o n s h i p between the houseparents and the caseworker. The l o c a t i o n of the Home i n a small town, surrounded by small farms and woods-lands, makes i t an i d e a l s e t t i n g f o r adolescents i n some respects. During the summer months, there are job o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n ha r v e s t i n g berry crops, e t c . , f o r the farmers. Recently, one of the most p r o f i t a b l e e n t e r p r i s e s f o r the older boys has been the p i c k i n g of cascara bark. This bark, which i s used f o r me d i c i n a l purposes, i s s o l d by the youngsters f o r as h i g h as twenty-five cents a pound. One fourteen-year-old youngster earns as much as seventeen d o l l a r s a week p i c k i n g t h i s bark i n the woods, drying i t i n the sun, and sacking i t . His earnings are spent i n any way that he wishes to use them. I t i s qu i t e p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , f o r ambitious youngsters to earn money i n the l o c a l area. On the other hand, a youngster accustomed to 141 the ways and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n s of the b i g c i t y might not be s a t i s -f i e d w i t h l i v i n g i n a t i n y community such as Poulsbo. Further l i g h t on how such an i n s t i t u t i o n should be organized i s shown very e f f e c t i v e l y by the f o l l o w i n g , which are statements secured from s i x adolescents on what would improve the i n s t i t u -t i o n i n which they had l i v e d . These young men ranged i n age from 16 to 20,. and they had a l l been l i v i n g i n various i n s t i t u t i o n s up to a few months before the w r i t i n g of the statement. "1. A bed of my own. 2. Not too many boys i n the same room w i t h me. I never f e e l alone. And not too many b i g boys who are b u l l i e s and get away with i t . I l i k e to be alone.sometimes. And I l i k e to be w i t h my buddy sometimes. But you always made us do everything i n bunches. 3. A few shelves nearby, where I could p u t t e r w i t h my a i r p l a n e or stamp book before I went to bed. 4. A c l o s e t nearby where my own clothes could be kept. 5. A cottage mother who loves me l i k e a mother. I don't mind i f she's tough, i f she's f a i r . And not so o l d she can't have fun w i t h us once i n a w h i l e . And she should look f o r the best i n us k i d s , not the worst a l l the time. And she should have snacks w i t h us and laugh with us l i k e Mrs. X used to do. • 6. A cottage f a t h e r who l i k e s us k i d s , not a guy who's busy f i x i n g h i s car a l l the time and won't even l e t us stand around to see how he does i t . . He should take us out once i n a while to something s p e c i a l l i k e a c o l l e g e f o o t b a l l game or a hobby show or something. Who doesn't mind i f we y e l l sometimes and break a c h a i r . And he should be l i k e o l d My. y. He was o l d , but he always had fun w i t h us, and he was f a i r , and he never had much tr o u b l e w i t h us k i d s l i k e the other cottage f a t h e r s . And he shouldn't complain about the case-workers and the superintendent and the food. 7. Nice meals l i k e we.know k i d s have i n t h e i r own homes. In my i n s t i t u t i o n , whenever we saw beef stew we knew i t was Wednesday. And we were always r i g h t . The g i r l s used to say that the cook only 142 knew how to make seven t h i n g s , one f o r each day of the week. And we don't t h i n k i t ' s f a i r f o r the grown-ups to eat d i f f e r e n t things — except c o f f e e . And why weren't the g i r l s allowed to s i t at our tab l e once i n a w h i l e , s o r t of mixed up? 8. A chance to be w i t h the g i r l s and l e a r n how to dance and have. fun. Now we go to the "Y" and a l l we do i s stand by the door. . , 9. A l i t t l e workshop that could be open most of the time, where we could make things that we wanted to make or a place to make a model r a i l r o a d , l i k e Georgie, here, says he made i n h i s home. Or a place to have magic shows f o r money, — s e l l i n g t i c k e t s , and everything. And sometimes a chance to go out wit h the other k i d s i n town and not f e e l we were d i f f e r e n t a l l the time. And sometimes a chance to go to town alone and f e e l l i k e I was l i k e everyone el s e walking around. And maybe go to the Main St r e e t movie i n s t e a d of our movie i n the auditorium a l l the time. And j o i n the "Y" hobby club i n town. 10. And l a s t — you t o l d us we could only w r i t e the f i r s t ten things -- a b e t t e r chance to f i n d out about our f o l k s when we're i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . When they don t come and don't c a l l , we get worried. E s p e c i a l l y the l i t t l e k i d s and the new k i d s . And that's what was good about the s o c i a l worker. . She saw us once i n awhile, and sometimes we could f i n d out t h i n g s . " 7 9 I t i s hoped th a t Martha and Mary's could become the k i n d of i n s t i t u t i o n suggested by these young men. The a b i l i t y of the Board of D i r e c t o r s and the church to leave p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f f r e e to work w i t h these c h i l d r e n would determine the f a i l u r e or success, i n a larg e measure, of the program. Re l a t i o n s w i t h the Church The i n s t i t u t i o n s are c l o s e l y connected w i t h one l o c a l con-gregation of the supporting church constituency. The congregati has apparently never been s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , and has been r a t h e r Gula, op. c i t . , p. 191. 143 dependent on s t a f f s and populations of the i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r i t s membership. This has not been a wholesome s i t u a t i o n f o r the growth and development of the congregation. Neither has i t been a he l p -f u l s i t u a t i o n f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f s and populations. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , s t a f f was r e c r u i t e d from the supporting church constituency, and s t a f f a u t o m a t i c a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a c t i v i -t i e s of the l o c a l congregation. The s i t u a t i o n w i t h regards to s t a f f today, however, i s d i f f e r e n t . S t a f f i s being r e c r u i t e d i n many cases w i t h r e l i g i o u s backgrounds d i f f e r e n t from that of the supporting church constituency. This trend may be accentuated i n the f u t u r e as the o r g a n i z a t i o n reaches out f o r more p r o f e s s i o n -a l l y t r a i n e d people to s t a f f i t s programs. The Board of D i r e c t o r s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l need to come to g r i p s w i t h t h i s problem, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s to the p o p u l a t i o n of the Children's Home. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the "Home's c h i l d r e n " attended Sunday School and church s e r v i c e s at the l o c a l church. I t i s hardly r e a l i s t i c to assume, however, that a l l the adolescents l i v i n g at the Children's Home i n the f u t u r e w i l l be r e q u i r e d to attend a p a r t i c u l a r church. I t would seem that teen-agers might b e n e f i t . i n t h e i r own growth and development i f they were permitted to i d e n t i f y w i t h churches of t h e i r own r e l i g i o u s backgrounds and i n t e r e s t s . A very c a r e f u l e v a l u a t i o n of the ad-vantages and disadvantages of a close t i e - u p between an i n s t i t u -t i o n and a l o c a l church congregation would seem to be i n d i c a t e d . At the time of w r i t i n g , there i s considerable d i s c u s s i o n i n the supporting church constituency regarding the p o s s i b i l i t y of merger of the supporting church w i t h a number of other Lutheran synods. Should such a union be completed, much good might r e s u l t 144 w i t h respect to the Children's Home. In the l o c a l community, the u n i t i n g of the congregation of the supporting church w i t h another Lutheran congregation i n the community might make a s t r o n s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g congregation i n the community which would cease to lean on the i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r support. A l s o , union of synods would enlarge, presumably, the supporting church constituency to approximately t h i r t y times i t s present s i z e . I t seems v a l i d to presume t h a t , i f t h i s merger or union becomes an e v e n t u a l i t y , there w i l l be a g r e a t l y increased constituency i n the P a c i f i c Northwest area. In t h i s case, future support of the i n s t i t u t i o n might very w e l l be expected to come from the area which the i n -s t i t u t i o n serves, which would reduce the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s dependency on the Middle West. This would be a more r e a l i s t i c f i n a n c i a l support than the present system i n which f i n a n c i a l support f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n i s derived from a geographical area which has no opportunity to use the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s e r v i c e s . A l s o , i t would g r e a t l y broaden the group from which board members might be drawn and t h i s should strengthen the Board. I f the i n s t i t u t i o n becomes a home f o r adolescents a new name f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d . "Martha and Mary Children's Home" i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r adolescents. The B i b l i c a l reference to "Martha and Mary" cannot i n any way be l i n k e d to an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r adolescents. Also the term " C h i l d -ren's Home" might be r e s i s t e d by adolescents. To rename i t , noth in g seems m o r e . l o g i c a l than to commemorate the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s founder, the Rev. Ingebright T o l l e f s o n . Without the e f f o r t s of t h i s p a s t o r , the i n s t i t u t i o n would not e x i s t today. " T o l l e f s o n House" would be s h o r t , l a c k i n g any connotation of dependency, 145 and furthermore, c l e a r l y honoring the name of a man who made remarkable c o n t r i b u t i o n s to h i s church. In c o n c l u s i o n , i t must be s a i d that Martha and Mary C h i l d r e n Home i s a p r i v a t e c h i l d - c a r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h a proud p h i l a n -t h r o p i c t r a d i t i o n . N a t u r a l l y i t j e a l o u s l y guards i t s independenc However, there i s a general r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t , i n the intimacy of the r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d agency or i n s t i t u t i o n , there i s more warmth and p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n and fewer a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o u t i n e s and delay than i n more f o r m a l l y organized programs. Yet t h i s very f a c t p o i n t s up the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which i s that of the p r i v a t e agency and i n s t i t u t i o n . As Florence C l o t h i e r has s a i d i n her e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e on t h i s subject: Small p r i v a t e independent agencies and i n s t i t u -t i o n s w i t h t h e i r own i n t e r e s t e d boards have an im-portant r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to s o c i e t y i n a d d i t i o n to the c l i n i c a l or educational s e r v i c e they provide f o r the c h i l d r e n under t h e i r care. The greatest j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the p r i v a t e agency and i n s t i t u t i o n i s t h a t , because of i t s f l e x i b i l i t y and freedom i n regard to intake p o l i c y , i t can serve as a research l a b o r a t o r y i n the f i e l d of c h i l d w e l f a r e . Treatment programs and educa-t i o n a l measures can be t e s t e d i n the small homogeneous but f l e x i b l e i n s t i t u t i o n . Follow-up stud i e s can be c a r r i e d out. I n d i v i d u a l and group the r a p e u t i c programs can be evaluated. What i s learned i n the small agency and i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l , i t i s hoped, ev e n t u a l l y permeate and impregnate the p u b l i c c h i l d caring agencies which carry by f a r the heaviest case l o a d . I t must be confessed that p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies, by and l a r g e , are f a i l i n g to a v a i l themselves of t h e i r opportunity to be f u l l y u s e f u l to s o c i e t y to do the pioneering research jobs that the p u b l i c agencies cannot do. There i s a  place f o r p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies but only i f  they give up complete i s o l a t i o n i s m . Only when there i s continuous s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n and generous c o o r d i n a t i o n w i l l i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n get the type of s e r v i c e most s u i t e d to t h e i r needs. Only then w i l l each p r i v a t e agency and i n s t i t u t i o n f u l l y j u s t i f y i t s existence by i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to our store of knowledge. 146 147 B i b l i o g r a p h y S p e c i f i c References  Books Abbott, Grace, The C h i l d and the S t a t e , Volumes I and I I , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Chicago, I l l i n o i s Atwater, P i e r c e , Problems of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n S o c i a l Work, The U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1940 Ca r l s e n , Clarence J . , The Years of our Church, The Lutheran Free Church P u b l i s h i n g Company, Minneapolis, 1942 Hopkirk, Howard?/., I n s t i t u t i o n s Serving C h i l d r e n , R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, New York, 1944 McGovern, C e c i l i a , Services to C h i l d r e n i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , Washington: R a n s d e l l , Inc., 1948 Schulze, Susanne, How Does Group L i v i n g i n the I n s t i t u t i o n Prepare the C h i l d f o r L i f e Outside?, Mimeograph-ed, w i t h permission, by Federal S e c u r i t y Agency, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Children's Bureau, Washington 25, D.C. S t r e e t , Elwood, S o c i a l Agency A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harper & Brot h e r s , New York, 1948 Thurston, Henry W., The Dependent C h i l d , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York, 1930 Pamphlets and A r t i c l e s Bender, L a u r e t t a , M.C., "There i s No S u b s t i t u t e f o r Family L i f e " , C h i l d Study, Spring, 1946, pp. 74-76 "Infants Reared i n I n s t i t u t i o n s Permanently Handicapped", C h i l d Welfare League of  America B u l l e t i n , September 1945, pp. 1-4 Bishopp, Grace I . , "The Role of Case Work i n I n s t i t u t i o n a l Service f o r Adol escents, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., September, 1943^ Clarke, E l i z a b e t h M., "The Children's I n s t i t u t i o n i n the C h i l d Welfare Program", P u b l i c Welfare, August 1944 148 C l o t h i e r , F l o r e n c e , " I n s t i t u t i o n a l Needs i n the F i e l d of C h i l d Welfare", The Nervous C h i l d , A p r i l 1948, pp. 154-177 Day, Helen A., "The E v a l u a t i o n of a C h i l d ' s Progress i n an I n s t i t u t i o n " , Proceedings of the  N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, New York C i t y : 1937, pp. 564-572 F o s t e r , S y b i l , "Co-ordination of I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care of C h i l d r e n w i t h other Services i n the Community", Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, 1936, pp. 548-561 Gula, M a r t i n , "Study and Treatment Homes f o r Troubled C h i l d r e n " , Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1948, pp. 333-343 Hughes, James G., M.C., "Memphis Attacks i t s Rheumatic-Fever Problem", The C h i l d , March 1949, pp. 137-139 Johnson, L i l l i a n J . , "What We Learn From the Child's^ Own Psychology to Guide Treatment i n a Small I n s t i t u t i o n " , Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l  Conference of S o c i a l tfork, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1938, pp. 313-325 Lippman, H. s . , "Newer Trends i n C h i l d Placement", The Family, February 1941, pp. 323-328 Macdonald, John D., A Study of Three Cases of F u n c t i o n a l Feeblemindedness, August 1947, Monograph I I I , The Ryther C h i l d Center Mayo, Leonard, "What May I n s t i t u t i o n s and Group Work Con-t r i b u t e to Each Other", Proceedings of  the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1935, pp. 331-338 Melby, Dorothy C u r t i s , "Baltimore's Temporary Group Home Helps Troubled C h i l d r e n " , The C h i l d , Marom, 1949 Messenger, Kenneth L., "The I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of the C h i l d i n the I n s t i t u t i o n " , C h i l d Yifelfare League of America, Inc., B u l l e t i n , Sept. 1941 Putsch, Lorene, "Self-Government i n a Children's I n s t i t u -t i o n , C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., J u l y 1945 149 P y l e s , Mary L o i s , I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r C h i l d Care and Treat-ment, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., February, 1947 Richman, Leon H., " R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r and use of Interim and Emergency Placement", S o c i a l Service Review, September, 1946 S e l i g , Martha K e i s e r , "Temporary Use of an I n s t i t u t i o n f o r C h i l d r e n i n Foster Care", American  J o u r n a l of Orthopsychiatry, V o l . 12, 1942 A Guide Manual f o r Children's I n s t i t u t i o n s , Health and Welfare C o u n c i l , Inc., P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pennsylvania Annual Report of Lutheran Free Church 54th Annual Conference, The Messenger Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota, June 14-18, 1950 "E a r l y S e t t l e r s Took Roundabout Route to Come to Poulsbo", K i t s a p County Herald F i f t i e t h Anniversary and Progress Issue, October 5, 1950 "Orphan's Home Old I n s t i t u t i o n " , K i t s a p County Herald F o r t i e t h Anniversary E d i t i o n , 1940 Plans f o r an I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed C h i l d r e n , 1 l l i n o i s Children's Home and A i d So c i e t y , Chicago, I l l i n o i s , 1946 Standards f o r I n s t i t u t i o n s Caring f o r C h i l d r e n , Department "of S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , Olympia, Washington, February, 1950 General References  Books Burmeister, Eva, F o r t y - f i v e i n the Family, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1949 Lundberg, Emma 0., Unto the Least of These, D. Appleton-Century Co., New York, 1947 Wilson, Thomas H., Embury Houset A Receiving Home f o r C h i l d r e n , a t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950 150 Pamphlets and A r t i c l e s A d l e r , Dan L. (Ronald L i p p i t t and Ralph K. White are co-authors) , "An Experiment w i t h Young People Under Democratic, A u t o c r a t i c , and L a i s s e y -f a i r e Atmospheres", Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York, pp. 152-158 B e r n s t e i n , Maurice, "The Focus of Case Work, i n a Children's I n s t i t u t i o n " , C h i l d Welfare League of  America B u l l e t i n , C h i l d Care and P r o t e c t i o n Supplement, A p r i l 1942, pp. 12-18 Burmeister, Eva, " I n s t i t u t i o n and F o s t e r Home Care as Used by an Agency O f f e r i n g Both S e r v i c e s " , C h i l d Welfare.League of America B u l l e t i n , C h i l d Care and P r o t e c t i o n Supplement, A p r i l 1942, pp. 18-23 Johnson, L i l l i a n J . , "Case Work w i t h C h i l d r e n i n I n s t i t u -t i o n s " , Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Con-ference of Social"Work, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P"ress, 1940, pp.. 335-343 M i l n e r , John G., "Some Determinants i n the D i f f e r e n t i a l Treatment of Adolescents", C h i l d Welfare, October 1950, pp. 3-8 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106693/manifest

Comment

Related Items