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Variations in the fur productivity of northern British Columbia in relation to some environmental factors Edwards, Roger York 1950

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VARIATIONS IN THE FUR PRODUCTIVITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  NORTHERN  IN RELATION TO SOME  ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS  ROGER YORK EDWARDS  A Thesis submitted  i n partial  the r e q u i r e m e n t s MASTER in  fulfilment of  f o r the Degree o f OF ARTS  the Department o f ZOOLOGY  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH Vancouver, April,  Canada WO  COLUMBIA  VARIATIONS IN THE PUR PRODUCTIVITY OP NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA IN RELATION TO SOME ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS by Roger York Edwards  Abstraot The y e a r l y reports of 155 r e g i s t e r e d trap l i n e s In northern and northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia have been analysed  and  grouped i n t o seven d i s t i n c t areas e x h i b i t i n g physiographic and v e g e t a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The trap l i n e data hate been reduced to production f i g u r e s , i n d i c a t i n g f o r each speoies, the number of square miles necessary to produce one  pelt.  Por most species these production f i g u r e s have been found to be h i g h l y v a r i a b l e among the seven sub-areas. An a n a l y s i s of the region w i t h respect to p r o v i d i n g s u i t a b l e environment f o r the various species has  suggested  reasons f o r production v a r i a b i l i t y . The speoies coyote, w o l f , weasel, s q u i r r e l , a n d muskrat appear to be taken i n numbers i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to the s i z e of trap l i n e s . The, s i z e of l i n e s , i n t u r n , appears to be an expression of the human popul a t i o n density, h a b i t a t m o d i f i c a t i o n , d e p l e t i o n of populations of expensive f u r species, and other f a o t o r s . The f u r speoies .... fox, marten, f i s h e r , mink, wolverine, l y n x and beaver appear to be taken,,.in numbers p r o p o r t i o n a l to the abundance of the species concerned. Highest production appears to r e s u l t from the most favourable environmental  c o n d i t i o n s . Raccoon, o t t e r ,  skunk, and cougar are not abundant,and the number of pelts produced  i s low.  In Appendix B, the value of fur i s examined f o r a l i m i t e d area about Fort Nelson. When the value i s calculated to compare with wood value from a forest with a 100 year rotation, the f u r has a gross value of over eight m i l l i o n dollars.  .Acknowledgments  I wish to express my thanks and a p p r e c i a t i o n to Dr.  Ian McTaggart Oowan f o r a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement  throughout the f u l l course of t h i s The  B.C. Game Commission rendered f u l l  Without f r e e access been p o s s i b l e .  study.  to t h e i r f i l e s  assistance.  t h i s study would not have  Gf the many employees of that  organization  I wish to e s p e c i a l l y thank I n s p e c t o r R.E. A l l a n . Mr.  A.E. C o l l i n s o f the B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e gave  e n t h u s i a s t i c h e l p , d e s c r i b i n g country arranging  f o r the examination of h i s r e p o r t s on f o r e s t  conditions i n northern I would l i k e  B r i t i s h Columbia. to s i n c e r e l y thank the f o l l o w i n g f o r  t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a s s i s t a n c e ; Hatter,  Dr. P.A. l a r k i n , Mr. James  and Dr. V.C. B r i n k o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia; Dr>  he has seen, and  Dr. I . B u t l e r o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto;  R.I. Peterson  and Mr. S.C, Downing of the Royal  and  Ontario  Museum of Zoology. Finally,  I wish to thank my parents, without whose  i n t e r e s t and a s s i s t a n c e I c o u l d not have attended university.  this  T a b l e  o f  C o n t e n t s  P a g e  1  I n t r o d u c t i o n  M a t e r i a l  T h e  o f  B o r e a l  S e c t i o n s  o f  t h e  N o r t h e r n  B o r e a l  F o r e s t  o f  6  M e t h o d s  T o p o g r a p h y  l o c a t i o n  T h e  a n d  t h e  i  n  F o r e s t  i  B r i t i s h  B o r e a l  n  C o l u m b i a .  B r i t i s h  .  .  .  .  C o l u m b i a .  8  .  .  .  10  11  C o l u m b i a  F o r e s t  .  .  .  .  16  F o r e s t  S e c t i o n  1  F o r e s t  S e c t i o n  2  1?  F o r e s t  S e c t i o n  3  2 4  F o r e s t  S e c t i o n  4  30  F o r e s t  S e c t i o n  5  34  F o r e s t  S e c t i o n  6  F o r e s t  S e c t i o n  7  S u m m a r y  o f  F a c t o r s  A f f e c t i n g  T h e  P r o d u c t i v i t y  F u r  B r i t i s h  t h e  1 7  .  3 7  D e s c r i p t i o n s  F u r  R a c c o o n .  .  o f  F o r e s t  S e c t i o n s  .  .  .  38  .  P r o d u c t i v i t y  o f  .  N o r t h e r n  .  .  .  .  .  B r i t i s h  4 1  C o l u m b i a .  .  .  .  .  .  .  50 53  C o y o t e  55  W o l f  F i s h e r  W e a s e l  4 7  49  .  F o x  M a r t e n  35  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  60  .  •  66  73  Page 75  Mink Wolverine  2  Otter. .  8  Skunk  83  Oougar  85  Lynx  87  Squirrel Beaver  . . . . . . • • ••  92 95 98  Muskrat C o n c l u s i o n s and Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  104  Literature Cited  112  Appendix A Appendix B  . . . . . . . .  . . . . . • • ...  H8 122  List  of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  F i g . No. 1.  Page The T r a n s i t i o n from the Coast F o r e s t to the S t i k i n e P l a t e a u . . . . . . . . . . .  21  2.  The L i a r d P l a i n  26  3.  F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the P r o d u c t i v i t y  L  of Trap L i n e  42  4.  Red Fox P r o d u c t i o n Trends by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s  51  5.  Coyote P r o d u c t i o n  55  6.  Wolf P r o d u c t i o n Trends by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s . .  58  7. 8.  Marten P r o d u c t i o n Trends by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s * Marten P r o d u c t i o n Trends, from West to E a s t , upon the Great P l a i n s . . .. • • «, »  61  9.  F i s h e r Production  Trends by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s .  68  10.  F i s h e r P r o d u c t i o n Trends, from West to E a s t , upon the Great P l a i n s . . . . . . . . . . . .  68  11.  Weasel P r o d u c t i o n Trends by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s ;  74  12i  Mink P r o d u c t i o n Trends by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s . .  77  13.  Mink P r o d u c t i o n Trends, from West to E a s t , upon the Great  14. 15.  Trends by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s  Plains. . . . . . .  ?Jolverine P r o d u c t i o n Trends by F o r e s t Sections . . . . . . . . . . . Wolverine P r o d u c t i o n  61  77 8l  Trends, from West to  E a s t , upon the Great P l a i n s .  . . . . . . . .  Trends by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s . .  81  16.  Lynx P r o d u c t i o n  89  17...  S q u i r r e l P r o d u c t i o n Trends by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s  94  18.  Beaver P r o d u c t i o n  Trends by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s .  96  19.  Muskrat P r o d u c t i o n Trends by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s  100  F i g . Up... 20.  Page  The Average S i z e of Trap Line i n each • Forest Section  100  The Physiography o f B r i t i s h Columbia, north of l a t i t u d e J54 degrees  119  22.  The Extent Columbia  120  23.  The Area Covered by Trap L i n e s from which Productivity is Calculated . . . . . . . . .  21.  of the B o r e a l F o r e s t i n B r i t i s h  121  VARIATIONS IN THE  FUR  PRODUCTIVITY  OP NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA RELATION TO  IN  SOME ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS  Introduction Fur has  played  h i s t o r y of Canada^ and still  a l e a d i n g r o l e i n moulding  over l a r g e areas of Canada i t i s  the major harvest  of the l a n d .  Fur was  lous to Canadian e x p l o r a t i o n , settlement, of trade; to the  the  and  an e a r l y stimuestablishment  the r i c h r e t u r n s i t gave to modest investment l e d  f i r s t European i n t e r e s t i n the Amerioan' North.  f o l l o w e d a vigourous and of t h i s r i c h resource Despite f u r , and  There  frequently destructive exploitation  that has  p e r s i s t e d to the present  s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s of widespread e f f o r t  to take  i t s importance to the economy of modern Canada,  day.  z. accurate knowledge concerning  nearly a l l aspects of the  biology of most fur-bearing animals i s l a c k i n g .  Only recently  has the desire to f u l l y u t i l i z e this resource, without unnecessarily damaging i t , culminated In research.  This study  was undertaken i n the hope that i t might contribute to t h i s desired knowledge, i n showing how environment may a f f e c t f u r production. For this study a more or less naturally defined area was sought which exhibited some e c o l o g i c a l uniformity throughout.  An area with some vegetatlonal uniformity was  a natural choice.  Vegetation  i n i t s e l f i s an expression of  the c l i m a t i c , edaphic, orographic, and other factors acting upon I t . The Boreal Forest In B r i t i s h Columbia, as defined by Halliday (1937), constitutes the area studied, and variations within the tree structure of t h i s forest are l a r g e l y the basis f o r i t s subdivision into Forest Sections. In describing the vegetation of these areas, trees are stressed more than i s lesser vegetation.  It i s fully real-  ized that vegetation i s not forest alone, and that trees are not the sole constituents of a f o r e s t . trees i s from necessity.  This stress upon  Most of northern B r i t i s h Columbia  is poorly known to science, and best known to persons who have t r a v e l l e d through i t , or l i v e d there f o r short periods. Their published reports, i f they describe any part of the vegetation, describe the trees.  I t i s , thus, possible to  construct from t h e i r writings a more or less complete  3. p i c t u r e of t r e e s and and  impossible  areas.  Since  tree aggregations  throughout the  region,  to do so f o r a l l p l a n t s except i n a few  local  t r e e s are to be s t r e s s e d , H a l l i d a y ' s f o r e s t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s admirably s u i t e d as a b a s i s f o r d e f i n i n g the B o r e a l F o r e s t , and The  area  i t s subdivisions.  d e s c r i p t i o n s are a d m i t t e d l y  long.  This  study n e c e s s i t a t e d as oomplete a d e s c r i p t i o n of the  region  i n v o l v e d as was  possible.  to be  f u l l y explored,  and  few  Since  the r e g i o n has  yet  p u b l i s h e d accounts o f known areas are  and s c a t t e r e d throughout the l i t e r a t u r e , most p e r t i n e n t  knowledge has The Hemisphere are  been i n c l u d e d . cireumpolar probably  c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s of the Northern  the most productive  areas i n the w o r l d w i t h r e s p e c t  fur  producing  to v a r i e t y and q u a l i t y .  T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n f a l l s upon the Northern Hemisphere  alone  beoause of the r e s t r i c t e d land a r e a s l y i n g at comparable l a t i t u d e s about the South Pole. Despite bearers, them.  the economic importance of b o r e a l f u r -  there i s but a l i m i t e d l i t e r a t u r e concerned  with  T h i s seems to be p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of E u r a s i a ,  although t h i s apparent c o n d i t i o n may knowledge of e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e soarcity.  stem from an  incomplete  r a t h e r than from an a c t u a l  In North America the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g  with  these mammals i s l a r g e l y economic i n treatment, or i f b i o l o g i c a l u s u a l l y i s based upon data c o l l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y f o r economic purposes and  tends to be r a t h e r g e n e r a l .  It i s  upon such d a t a t h a t most s t u d i e s of c y c l e s a r e based,  and  c o n s i d e r i n g the s t r i c t l y b o r e a l s p e c i e s , the l i t e r a t u r e t h e i r c y c l e s probably  surpasses  concerning a l l o t h e r b i o l o g i c a l  i n volume the  on  literature  aspects.  Our knowledge o f the ecology of f u r bearers i s limited.  Prom the d i f f i c u l t y  i n becoming f a m i l i a r w i t h  many s p e c i e s , c o n c l u s i o n s are f r e q u e n t l y drawn from a observations.  The  r e s u l t Is a s c a r c i t y of  few  information  w i t h even t h i s f r e q u e n t l y unusable because of  conflicting  statements. The p r e s e n t i n nature.  study  i s b o t h b i o l o g i c a l and  economic  While b i o l o g i c a l aspects have been s t r e s s e d  throughout, I t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n of f u r should be governed by f a c t o r s of both k i n d s , f r e q u e n t l y working to-gether almost Inseparably.  Since t h i s  study  i s based upon p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s , both b i o l o g i c a l and f a c t o r s have to be i n the  economic  considered, despite a greater i n t e r e s t  former. The bases of t h i s study are the annual r e p o r t s of  a l l w h i t e t r a p p e r s i n the area concerned d u r i n g the p e r i o d I929 to 1948.  Data from a t o t a l of 155  t r a p l i n e s a r e used.  The p e r i o d s of time f o r which d a t a are a v a i l a b l e averages 10„8  years per t r a p l i n e , and  i s 1^3.7  square m i l e s .  the average s i z e of t r a p l i n e  From these f i g u r e s , f o r most f u r -  b e a r i n g s p e c i e s , average annual p r o d u c t i o n has been c a l c u l a t e d f o r seven s e c t i o n s of the B o r e a l F o r e s t which a r e more o r l e s s d i s t i n c t on the b a s i s of v e g e t a t i o n ,  physiography,  and  i n some c a s e s ,  animal  p r o d u c t i o n among t h e s e light  o f broad  distribution.  Variations i n  s e c t i o n s have b e e n examined  e c o l o g i c a l a n d economic d i f f e r e n c e s known  t o e x i s t , a n d c a u s e s f o r some v a r i a t i o n s Studies and area has  of trap l i n e  p r o d u c t i o n a r e few.  i n the Chapleau D i s t r i c t  such p u b l i s h e d accounts British  Columbia.  with B r i t i s h  p r o d u c t i o n because Figures  f o r areas  The f i r s t  It i s adjacent  production  of a  small  (1946)  trap  line  T h e s e a p p e a r t o be t h e o n l y comparable t o n o r t h e r n f o r comparison  area has an a t y p i c a l l y t o an untrapped  i n the second paper, t r e a t i n g  reflect  Clay Belt  N e i t h e r : i s s o f much v a l u e  Columbia.  Peterson  o f O n t a r i o , a n d Hess  t h e c a t c h o f one O n t a r i o  f o r a fourteen year period.  not  suggested.  C r i c h t o n (1949) have e x a m i n e d t h e p r o d u c t i o n  published  i n the  f o r any l a r g e r  preserve.  o f one t r a p l i n e , area.  high  may  M a t e r i a l s and Methods  T h i s study i s based upon two a g g r e g a t i o n s o f d a t a . The most important necessary was  i s the f i g u r e s of f u r p r o d u c t i o n .  a reasonably complete  Also  d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e g i o n  to which the f u r d a t a a p p l i e d . The f u r d a t a o/«vr« compiled from the annual of  statements  t r a p p e r s , i n d i c a t i n g the number of f u r animals trapped i n  a g i v e n t r a p p i n g season. B r i t i s h Columbia system, complete  These records have been kept  p i o n e e r e d i n the r e g i s t e r e d t r a p  b e g i n n i n g the method i n 192^.  The  since  line  change over was  i n remote d i s t r i c t s u n t i l s e v e r a l years l a t e r .  not  These  d a t a hav* been kept through the years i n the f i l e s of the  B.C.  Game Commission, which f i l e s a l s o c o n t a i n maps of a l l r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s from which areas may  be c a l c u l a t e d .  From  these d a t a p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s were c a l c u l a t e d , on the b a s i s of the number of square miles necessary, on the average, produce  one p e l t o f a g i v e n k i n d i n one  P r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s used throughout form,  to  t r a p p i n g season.  t h i s work are a l l i n t h i s  r a t h e r than i n the form, animals taken p e r square m i l e . The t r a p l i n e d a t a a r e grouped  into forest sections  and p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s are the average f i g u r e s , f o r a l l l i n e s i n the s e c t i o n , f o r a l l years t h a t they operated. lines  Is not s t r i c t l y  true.  To say a l l  They are a l l l i n e s operated by  white t r a p p e r s , f o r there i s no r e c o r d o f the c a t c h from h e l d by Indian t r a p p e r s .  lines  Thus the p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s a r e  based upon t r a p l i n e s r e g i s t e r e d by white t r a p p e r s o n l y , and  are not n e c e s s a r i l y the same as f o r I n d i a n h e l d l i n e s .  This  c o n d i t i o n i s t r u e f o r a l l s e c t i o n s , however, and should not i n i t s e l f have much b e a r i n g upon the v a l i d i t y of comparing the c a l c u l a t e d p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s o f the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s . The second body of d a t a c o n s i s t s of d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s of the a r e a , w i t h r e s p e c t to physiography and f o r e s t s .  Changes w i t h i n these f e a t u r e s a r e  noted. The data thus c o n s i s t ;  of f u r p r o d u c t i o n w i t h noted  v a r i a t i o n s , and o f d e s c r i p t i o n s o f what, i n a g e n e r a l way, c o n s t i t u t e s environment  of f u r animals, w i t h v a r i a t i o n s  noted.  With an a d d i t i o n a l knowledge o f the broad environmental r e quirements  of the f u r mammals i n v o l v e d , I t has been p o s s i b l e  to suggest reasons, on the b a s i s o f environmental v a r i a t i o n , f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n f u r p r o d u c t i o n throughout the r e g i o n .  8.  The Topography of Northern The  two  British  Columbia  p h y s i o g r a p h i c p r o v i n c e s represented  in  n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia c o n t r a s t s t r i k i n g l y i n t h e i r graphy.  On the one  relief;  hand i s the Great P l a i n s , showing  little  on the o t h e r the C o r d i l l e r a n Region c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  h i g h , rugged mountain masses and ,  elevated plateaux  The Great P l a i n s , w h i l e f l a t  creased r e l i e f as prise  topo-  (Moore, 1944).  i n general, exhibits i n -  i t approaches the mountains.  F o o t h i l l s com-  I t s western p o r t i o n s w h i l e along the e a s t e r n p r o v i n c i a l  boundary, except  south of the Peace R i v e r , the l a n d i s low  and  rolling. The mountainous r e g i o n s west of the Great P l a i n s i s composed of f o u r more o r l e s s d i s t i n c t mountain masses, e x t e n s i v e area of h i g h p l a t e a u , and a low, (Bostock, 1948).  lntermountain  The mountain masses c o n s i s t of the  an. plain  Coast  Mountains b o r d e r i n g the coast i n the extreme west, the Rocky Mountain System b o r d e r i n g the Great P l a i n s to the e a s t , between these two,  and  the C a s s i a r and Omineca Mountains p a r a l l e l  and a d j a c e n t to the Rockies w i t h the Skeena Mountains conn e c t i n g the ranges of the Coast The form a  •U',  and Omineca Mountains  C a s s i a r , Omineca, Skeena, and  Coast  e n c l o s i n g an area of h i g h p l a t e a u .  (fig.21).  Mountains Most of  this  area c o n s i s t s of the S t i k i n e P l a t e a u , d r a i n e d by the S t i k i n e and Taku R i v e r s .  T h i s p l a t e a u Is continuous w i t h the Yukon  P l a t e a u to the n o r t h , which has but a s m a l l area w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia about the headwaters of the Lewes R i v e r , a  7. tributary  of  the  The n a r r o w Omineca Mountains 59 d e g r e e s N . , Liard Plain  21).  Yukon ( f i g .  Rocky M o u n t a i n T r e n c h s e p a r a t e s  from the  t h e s e two  lying  Rocky Mountains.  mountain  between t h e m .  continuous w i t h the  Great P l a i n s  Liard  the  Gap t r a v e r s e s  Rocky M o u n t a i n s (Camsell,  1936).  lntermountaln similar  to,  the  Thus the  Great  to  the  plain  east,  for  with (fig. the  Rocky M o u n t a i n S y s t e m n o r t h o f  p r o p e r which  plateau,  N o r t h of  masses d i v e r g e , This f l a t  the  end a b r u p t l y  Liard Plain,  appears Plains.  t o be  at  while  the is  Liard it  a  continuous with,  Cassiar—  latitude the 2)  low is  broad the River low and  L o c a t i o n of the B o r e a l F o r e s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia As may  be seen from the map  of H a l l i d a y  (1937),  the  B o r e a l Forest" i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s roughly a t r i a n g u l a r area, and  bounded by p r o v i n c i a l boundaries  to the n o r t h and  east,  l y i n g n o r t h of a l i n e drawn from the northwest oorner  the province  of  to the point were the Rocky Mountains out  o b l i q u e l y a c r o s s 120  degrees west l o n g i t u d e .  This forest  occupies the e n t i r e area l y i n g east of the Rocky Mountain system, to-gether w i t h  the area drained  R i v e r , by the S t i k i n e and  by the upper l a i r d  Taku R i v e r s * and  by the most  s o u t h e r l y headwaters of the Lewes R i v e r . The B o r e a l F o r e s t does not have a continuous t r i b u t i o n throughout t h i s l a r g e a r e a .  Only the lowest  of the C o r d i l l e r a Region are f o r e s t e d , and to r i v e r v a l l e y s i n the high plateaux. Great  P l a i n s are completely  covered  The  t r e e s are  areas  confined  Liard Plain  by f o r e s t s .  dis-  Within  and the  extensive mountain masses, the B o r e a l F o r e s t i s almost completely  absent.  The Boreal Forest i n B r i t i s h Columbia The Boreal Forest Region of Halliday (1937) i s the largest and most northern forest region i n North America. It covers most of Canada, from the A t l a n t i c coasts of Quebec and Labrador to the mountains i n the west. north of latitude 57,degrees N.,  i t penetrates the C o r d i l l e r a  Region, and follows the r i v e r valleys and plateaux into Alaska.  In the west,  intermountain  Closely a l l i e d forest regions occupy  the C o r d i l l e r a to the south. The Boreal Forest i s p r i n c i p a l l y coniferous, especially so i n climax.  White spruce (Picea glauca)occurs throughout  entire region as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c tree.  the  I t forms the climax  forest over the whole region, east of Alberta associated with balsam f i r (Abies balsamea).  Black spruce (Picea marlana),  tamarach (Larlx l a r l c l n a ) , and jack pine (Plnus bankslana) occur throughout the region, primarily as componants of serai stages.  Wide ranging broad-leaved trees are  aspen(Populus  tremuloldes), balsam poplar (Populus balsamlfera) and paper b i r c h (Betula papyrlfera). Throughout most of t h i s vast region stands of mixed white spruce and "balsam f i r are climax.  P o t e n t i a l l y , stands  of pure balsam f i r alone may be climax f o r that species i s more tolerant than spruce, but this condition i s r a r e l y attained because of the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of f i r stands to Insect attack, and because the spruce has a s l i g h t reproductive advantage from i t s habit of layering.  'Z.  Drainage throughout t h i s f o r e s t I s generally poor, w i t h swamps and bogs being t y p i c a l .  These are u s u a l l y matted w i t h  Sphagnum, overgrown w i t h v a r i o u s heaths ( E r i c a c e a e ) , and, depending upon the stage of succession, are grown to shrubby a l d e r (Alnus sp.) , tamarach, b l a c k spruce o r combinations of these. S e r a i f o r e s t s on d r i e r s o i l s tend towards pure stands of aspen, or Jack pine. The l a t t e r are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of poor, dry s o i l s and are t y p i c a l of areas swept by hot f i r e s , or repeatedly burned.  White b i r c h stands form pure f o r e s t s  l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , u s u a l l y o c c u r r i n g as s c a t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l s or groups, most commonly i n aspen stands and stands of young spruce and balsam, but f r e q u e n t l y , also" i n openings i n the mature climax. Balsam p o p l a r occurs i n the l i m i t e d but r i c h and w e l l watered bottomlands, e s p e c i a l l y on new a l l u v i a l s o i l s . I t s d i s t r i b u t i o n thus tends to be l i m i t e d to narrow b e l t s paral l e l i n g streams and r i v e r s . In many areas, dry, exposed s i t e s are f o r e s t e d by dwarfed b l a c k spruce and tamarach.  The s i t e s where these may  grow, e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of tamarach, are not l i m i t e d to bogs, but rather to areas where they can s u c c e s s f u l l y " compete. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the B o r e a l Forest I s bordered by two p l a n t formations, and two c l o s e l y r e l a t e d but q u i t e d i s t i n c t forest regions. The Coast Forest has l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e upon the B o r e a l Forest.  The h i g h , rugged Boundary Ranges of the Coast  '3.  Mountains completely  s e p a r a t e t h e two  t h e y meet i n n a r r o w r i v e r v a l l e y s Of  these  Farstad  the S t i k i n e  valley  i s t h e most  (1937)  o f t h e T a k u and A l s e k R i v e r s .  the c l o s e  of the l a s t  these  corridors  few  i c e age,  through  t h e humid c o a s t on one  environments the  ice  glaciers  Swarth (1922)  the a r i d  enabled  i n the found  i s narrow.  At  probably obstructed DivergentAof l e e of  the s h a r p l y  life  the  contrasting  a s a f f e c t i v e l y b l o c k t h e gaps a s d i d  on  o f the Rocky Mountains degrees  the  the d i v i d e ' b e t w e e n  i n the Rocky Mountain T r e n c h ,  l a t i t u d e 57  F o r e s t Region  is  t h e whole o f t h e B o r e a l F o r e s t i n B r i t i s h  A c c o r d i n g t o H a l l i d a y ' s map,  oh a h a r r o w f r o n t  slope  connections  As  -influence of the Sub-alpine  throughout  Columbia.  Rivers  ranges.  itself. The  evident  to almost  i n the coast  the mountains.  m o u n t a i n s on t h e o t h e r / l a t e r  mountains. - B r i n k and  the ecotone  h a n d , and  where  Important.  shows narrow  i n h i s s t u d i e s a l o n g the S t i k i n e ,  on  t r a v e r s i n g the  (1949) c o n s i d e r i t a m a j o r gap  In a d d i t i o n H a l l i d a y valleys  r e g i o n s except  N.  in British  n a r r o w c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e  two  r e g i o n s meet  the F i n l a y and  and  It i s possible  two  a l o n g the Columbia  that  along the  Kechika  entire  south  east  of  there are  further  southern  edge o f  the S t i k i n e P l a t e a u . I n s e v e r a l ways the B o r e a l F o r e s t i n B r i t i s h can be that It  regarded  f o r e s t , and  exhibits  as an ecotone  b e t w e e n more t y p i c a l p a r t s o f  the"Sub-alpine  characteristics  Columbia  Forest (Halllday,  of both, but  since at  op.cit.). lower  e l e v a t i o n s at l e a s t the climax i s one o f white spruce, i t s closer a f f i n i t y  to the B o r e a l F o r e s t i s e v i d e n t .  occurs throughout, Mountains.  Black  spruce  though i t avoids the dry l e e o f the Coast  Aspen, balsam poplar, and s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s o f  paper b i r o h are u n i v e r s a l .  Tamarach i s found  s e c t i o n s e a s t o f the C a s s i a r Mountains.  throughout  those  Balsam f i r ( A b i e s  balsamea) does not occur, however, and jack pine  (Pinus  banksiana) has a l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n corner of the p r o v i n c e .  I t i s evident that t h i s f o r e s t , w h i l e  m o d i f i e d , has many t r e e s p e c i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the B o r e a l Forest. Three t r e e s from the Sub-alpine this region.  F o r e s t have  invaded  Lodge pole pine (Pinus c o n t o r t a ) r e p l a c e s jack  pine as a common tree on poor s o i l s , stands c o v e r i n g l a r g e areas.  f r e q u e n t l y i n pure s e r a i  I n the f o r e s t s a t h i g h e r  a l t i t u d e s , a l p i n e f i r (Abies l a s i o c a r p a ) may almost r e p l a c e white spruce as a climax dominant.  completely  The a l p i n e f i r , i n  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Englemann spruce  (Plpea englemannl) forms the  climax of the Sub-alpine F o r e s t .  Englemann spruce  i s recorded  i n the B o r e a l F o r e s t from a r e s t r i c t e d area a l o n g the east slope o f the R o c k i e s . spruces,  From d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i d e n t i f y i n g the  i t may be that t h i s speoies has a w i d e r  distribution,  as yet u n d e t e c t e d . The  i n f l u e n c e of tundra  f o r e s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  i s marked i n most n o r t h e r n  Upon the S t i k i n e and Yukon  Plateaux t h i s i n f l u e n c e i s most noteworthy, f o r here  forests  are l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o r i v e r v a l l e y s that t r a v e r s e vast  tundra-covered t a b l e l a n d s . and  the n o r t h e r n  general w e l l distances,  completely surrounded by  In f o r e s t s approaching t i m b e r l i n e  change i n both f o r e s t s t r u c t u r e and  and  in  long this  there  is  tree f^jr-m.  become more open than those at lower e l e v a t i o n s ,  l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of decreased temperatures and l i g h t rendering 1947).  low  below t i m b e r l i n e ; border upon tundra f o r  plant f o r m a t i o n .  Forests  f o r e s t s of the H a r d P l a i n ,  part of the Great P l a i n s , while  the former being  a progressive  The  As  amounts of  the t r e e s l e s s t o l e r a n t (Tourney and  Korstian,  to tree form, decreases i n t o t a l increment r e s u l t  i n s m a l l s i z e , and  there  i s a tendency towards s t o u t e r  form  than f o r the same s p e c i e s at lower e l e v a t i o n s (Tourney and Korstian,  op.cit.). A grassland  i n f l u e n c e i s pronounced i n the  about the Peace River, where aspen parklands are istic.  forests  character-  Pockets of t h i s ecotone oocur elsewhere upon the  Great P l a i n s , and  upon the H a r d P l a i n , but  d i c a t i v e of a s l i g h t  these are i n -  tendency towards g r a s s l a n d  areas i n the lee of h i g h mountains r a t h e r throughout c l o s e l y approaching g r a s s l a n d  ecotone i n  than of an conditions.  the f o r e s t i n which these i s o l a t e d pockets occur may be ecotone, but coniferous  Most o f indeed  i f so i t s s t r u c t u r e more c l o s e l y resembles  f o r e s t than i t does g r a s s l a n d .  the s t r o n g e s t  ecotone  evidence s u p p o r t i n g  o r i g i n a l range of the coyote, ani o r i g i n a l l y a grassland about the Peace R i v e r .  t h i s stand  i s that  open country and  s p e c i e s , was While  It i s believed  i t now  confined  to the  that  the  hence section  Occurs throughout  the  drainage  of the L i a r d R i v e r , i t a p p a r e n t l y occupied  t e r r i t o r y r e c e n t l y , and w i t h the i n d i r e c t a i d of  this  man.  S e c t i o n s of the B o r e a l F o r e s t Although  the B o r e a l F o r e s t , from the A t l a n t i c  Alaska,, e x h i b i t s a degree o f u n i f o r m i t y throughout,  to  the  d i f f e r e n c e s i n climate, e s p e c i a l l y of temperature and  pre-  c i p i t a t i o n p e o u l a r i a r to t h i s vast area, have had an  effect  Thus H a l l i d a y (1937) has  upon the v e g e t a t i o n .  recognized  twenty-seven S e c t i o n s i n h i s Boreal F o r e s t , o f which s i x cover a p p r e c i a b l e areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Throughput  study, H a l l i d a y s s e c t i o n s have been followed c l o s e l y , 1  have been m o d i f i e d  i n o n l y two  h i l l s S e o t i o n (B 19) those  Secondly,  south of the Peace R i v e r  of Whiteford  areas, w i t h considered and  about F o r t S t . John have been  the boundaries  changed to conform to the maps  and C r a i g (1918), and B r i n k and F a r s t a d (1949)  showing s u i t a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l areas B r i n k and  and  his foot-  h i s Aspen Grove S e c t i o n (B 17)  Mixedwood S e o t i o n (B 18) lumped, and  First,  has been d i v i d e d i n t o two  parts north and  separately.  major ways*  this  i n the d i s t r i c t .  As  F a r s t a d ( o p . c i t . ) c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e , t h i s area i s  synonymous w i t h areas of g r a s s l a n d and open wooded range. Thus, seven s e c t i o n s of the B o r e a l F o r e s t are cons i d e r e d i n t h i s study.  These s e c t i o n s w i l l  be  described  w i t h as much d e t a i l as i s p o s s i b l e f o r a v a s t , p a r t l y mountainous area w i t h l a r g e p o r t i o n s a s y e t undescribed by travellers.  F o r e s t S e o t i o n 1. T h i s f o r e s t s e c t i o n covers a l i m i t e d area i n the northwest  corner o f the p r o v i n c e , l y i n g w h o l l y w i t h i n the  area drained by the southern most waters o f the drainage system of the Yukon R i v e r . Bostock  ( I 9 4 8 ) . d e s c r i b e s the area as being w h o l l y  w i t h i n the T e s l i n P l a t e a u , the most southern o f a number of more o r l e s s d i s t i n c t plateaux that cover most of the c e n t r a l parts o f the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . plateaux form continuous  I n the aggregate,  the Yukon P l a t e a u .  these  lesser  The T e s l i n P l a t e a u i s thus  to the north and south withi o t h e r plateaux* and i s  bounded on the east and west by high mountain ranges, on the former by the S t i k i n e Ranges o f the G a s s i a r s , the l a t t e r by the Boundary Ranges of the Coast Mountains (Bostock, T h i s p l a t e a u i s an area of h i g h , p a r t l y eroded  1948).  tablelands with  v a l l e y s , cut down to e l e v a t i o n s of from 2,000 to 2,500  feet,  t r a v e r s i n g an u n d u l a t i n g upland w i t h an e l e v a t i o n o f about 5Q00 f e e t .  The area i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a number o f long l a k e s  l y i n g i n deep v a l l e y s .  The most important  of these are T a g i s h  l a k e , A t l i n l a k e , S u r p r i s e Lake and T e s l i n Lake..  Between  A t l i n and T e s l i n Lakes the t a b l e l a n d s are h i g h e r than  elsewhere,  w i t h s e v e r a l small mountain ranges present, as about S u r p r i s e lake (Swarth, 1 9 2 6 ) . The  t a b l e l a n d s have been rounded, and  the  river  v a l l e y s widened by e r o s i o n , but t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s not as marked as i n the r e l a t e d plateaux  to the n o r t h .  the S t i k i n e P l a t e a u to the south The  is little  f o r e s t area occupying  By c o n t r a s t , however, modified.  t h i s high, c o l d  plateau  i s synonymous w i t h Halliday.'s ( 1 9 3 7 ) Yukon S e c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. f o r e s t , one broader  I t invades the province as two narrow and  distinct  tongues of  enveloping T e s l i n l a k e , the  and e n c l o s i n g the l a k e s to the west.  probably not completely  separated  The  other tongues are  by tundra, s i n c e Swarth  ( 1 9 2 6 ) walked from A t l i n l a k e to T e s l i n Lake, v i a S u r p r i s e Lake encountering ;  The  o n l y s c a t t e r e d patches of meadow.  f o r e s t at t h i s h i g h l a t i t u d e and a l t i t u d e  to be c o n f i n e d to the v a l l e y s of major r i v e r s , and cluded from l a r g e areas of these by a r i d c o n d i t i o n s by the h i g h mountains to the west.  South, and  f a c i n g s l o p e s tend to be t r e e l e s s and  tends  i s exinduced  southwest  covered w i t h  grasses  ( H a l l i d a y , 1 9 3 7 ) , w h i l e v a l l e y f l o o r s are l a r g e l y f o r e s t e d w i t h open stands of aspen,  f o r e s t growth i s best on middle  slopes f a c i n g n o r t h and n o r t h e a s t where t r e e s are stunted c o n d i t i o n s are n e v e r t h e l e s s more f a v o u r a b l e than i n the c l i m a t e below, or i n the exposed, c o l d s i t e s above. spruce  i s the dominant climax  throughout  the spruce  tree.  but  dry  White  A l p i n e f i r i s found  f o r e s t s , r e p l a c i n g spruce p r o g r e s s i v e l y  with increased a l t i t u d e .  As  the f o r e s t nears  timberline  (approximately 3800 (Swarth, vey;  f e e t ) f i r completely  Collins  1926).  s t a t e s that merchantable  edges and narrow states,  almost  open g r a s s y  stands,  the  o f spruce  lodgepole  pine  on  soils.  poorer  As  climate  i s cold  of about  floors,  to l a k e  spruce  This would forests  with  aspen covers l a r g e areas i n  seeming t o invade  occurs  stands  better soils following  ( W h i t f o r d and C r a i g ,  i n small, l o c a l  groves  i n a n y a r e a w i t h marked  climate varies  sur-  s t a n d s , he  forty years.  removal of c l i m a x  forest  size.  On t h e v a l l e y  burning  are confined  Most commercial  i n the past  complete  t r e e s of commercial  i n h i sunpublished  forests  bottomlands.  have been l o g g e d  indicate  the  .(1944),  replaces .spruce  c o n s i d e r a b l y from  eleven inches, a figure  as s e r a i  stages  topographic, features.,  locality.  and d r y w i t h a n a n n u a l  1918).  average  comparable  Generally the precipitation  t o that o f  Kamioops. Swarth ( 1 9 2 6 ) vdescribes the f o r e s t e d v a l l e y s the v i l l a g e swamp,  of A t l i n  grass-covered  a s b r o k e n i n many p l a c e s by t r a c t s o f o r overgrown w i t h w i l l o w  s p e r s e d w i t h many s m a l l l s k e s . and  Swarthfs  lakes  The p r o m i n e n c e  thickets,  inter-  of l a r g e l a k e s  f r e q u e n t m e n t i o n o f marsh, swamps, and s m a l l ^  p o i n t to a poor drainage  Forest An  about  irregularly  throughout.  Section 2 .  shaped  forest  lies  T e s l i n P l a t e a u e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the d r a i n a g e  southeast  of the  s y s t e m of t h e  S t i k i n e R i v e r and  i t s tributaries.  This forest Bostdok (1948), distinct are  but  an  area  related  continuous  l i e s w i t h i n the S t i k i n e P l a t e a u  with  composed  plateaux the  Teslin Plateau  differences in altitude  apart.  The  Stikine Plateau  t e n s i v e mountain masses. unbroken b a r r i e r barring Coast  To  of mountains shuts  penetrating by  interior,  the  the  lee it  but  that set  them  s i d e s by  ex-  presence almost  south  and  completely  characteristic east a  east*  the  plateaux  and  the  the  t o the  of  Plains  These mountains  Skeena Mountains  southeast,  of  continuous  i n f l u e n c e o f the G r e a t  t o the  almost  are  south,  the  C a s s i a r Mountains  east. the  i s high  o f the  T e s l i n Plateau  and  Coast  cold, with a  Mountains.  i s g e n e r a l l y of s l i g h t l y  feet  on t h r e e  i n f l u e n c e s from  the  r a n g e s o f the  Like Plateau  out  the C o r d i l l e r a  the n o r t h ,  less  plateaux  O o a s t M o u n t a i n s f o r m an  the  and  Omineca M o u n t a i n s to the to  i s walled  The  These  topography  t o the w e s t , t h e i r  ( f i g . 1).  southern  formed  and  size.  to  i n f l u e n c e of w e a t h e r o r l i f e  Forest  series the  the  i n t u r n o f s i x more o r  of smaller  exhibit  of  high  (Bostock,  I948).  w i t h a marked f l a t t n e s s  depressions  markedly w i t h  climate  Contrasted  plateau  with  the S t i k i n e  from l y i n g  i n the  the  Plateau,  Teslin  lower e l e v a t i o n , being about I t s surfaoe  half.  n a r r o w , and  u p o n the  dry  characteristic  most marked i n i t s n o r t h e r n r i v e r v a l l e y s are  to the n o r t h ,  i s less  however,  throughout, a c o n d i t i o n  In being  streams flow surface.  eroded  4000  This  less  eroded  through  major  shallow  condition contrasts  the Y u k o n P l a t e a u where v a l l e y s a r e w i d e ,  F i g . l .  T h e  T r a n s i t i o n  t h e  3 t i k i n e  f r o m  f o r e g r o u n d , a n d r i g h t t h e  o f  f o r e g r o u n d B e l l  t h e  d i s t a n c e .  c e n t r e  L a k e  s  b e i  C o a s t  T h e  n  T a k u  H s k i n a  Y o n a k i n a  t h e  m a y i  t h e  P l a t e a u .  t h e  t h e r i g h t  R i v e r  R i v e r  i  t o i  n  t h e  i  n  t h e  o o o u p i e s  F o r e s t s  C o a s t  s  v a l l e y  M o u n t a i n  p i c t u r e . o f  M o u n t a i n s  i  F o r e s t  d i s t a n c e .  n  t h e t y p e .  zZ.  f r e q u e n t l y w i t h b r o a d b o t t o m l a n d s , and eroded to a r o l l i n g devoid  topography.  o f mountains,  t h e u p l a n d s have  In general  l e a d -Bostock to wonder w h e t h e r o r the C a s s i a r This  plateau i s  e x c e p t f o r the r e g i o n about  where r a n g e s a r e i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h p l a t e a u  plateau,  this  forest  to i n c l u d e  been  Dease  Lake,  i n a manner that  that  area with  this  Mountains.  section  i s t h e same a s t h e  Stikine  P l a t e a u S e o t i o n a s mapped by H a l l i d a y , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n  that  available  east  information fixes  i t s boundary  o f Dease Lake  i n the v i c i n i t y  extended  section  this  e a s t e r n boundary portant  gap  R i v e r has  a short  o f Cottonwood  distance  Greek.  Halliday  through the C a s s i a r Mountains  o f the m o u n t a i n s .  The  i n the C a s s i a r M o u n t a i n s ,  existence  following  to the  o f an  the Dease  been t e n t a t i v e l y s u g g e s t e d by B r i n k and  Farstad  (1949) and i s a p p a r e n t l y assumed by H a l l i d a y ( 1 9 3 7 ) . ( 1 9 4 8 ) g i v e s no  i n d i c a t i o n of i t .  a c o n t i n o u s narrow and Dawson following  strip  of f o r e s t  t h e Dease a t l e a s t  suggest a narrow e v i d e n c e would  for side  ( 1 9 4 4 ) h a s mapped  traversing  valley  and C o t t o n w o o d  crowded  suggest that  From t h e s t a n d  from Cottonwood  these  mountains,  o f the m o u n t a i n s , forms.  closely  point  by m o u n t a i n s .  of considering  i t would  Creek eastward,  Greek h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s  t h e p r o p o s e d gap,  the s p r e a d o f l o w l a n d l i f e  to h a r d y  Bostock  (I898) mentions r e l a t i v e l y broad bottomlands  t h o u g h b e t w e e n Dease L a k e  narrow.  Collins  im-  i f present, i s i t as an  between t h e f o r e s t s a p p e a r t o be  The  on  avenue either  favourable  only  This forest oross.  h a s the mapped f o r m o f an  One arm f o l l o w s  Telegraph  the S t i k i n e R i v e r ,  Greek n o r t h e a s t  Dease l a k e .  along  confined  t o the v a l l e y s , In a region  cannot  extensive  cover  Climatic Teslin Plateau. to support  pure s t a n d s gressed  is  crosses  and neighboring  areas  C r e e k t o Dease L a k e ,  even o n t h e e a s t e r n I926,  Tree s p e o i e s  areas  some a r e a s  Dawson ( 1 8 9 8 ) n o t i c e d  from Telegraph  Unforested  such a f o r e s t  to be much a s on t h e  the Coast Mountains  of aspen.  a p p e a r t o be s i m i l a r  may  support  t h a t a s he  of moister  conditions, the climate  W a t s o n and Mathews, 1 9 4 4 ) . altitudinal  distribution  t o c o n d i t i o n s on t h e T e s l i n  are s c a t t e r e d throughout  the lower e l e v a t i o n s ,  the  lower slopes, while  above 3000 f e e t above s e a l e v e l  fir  may  pure  Collins considers  this  commercially.  over large areas.  Plateau.  grasses  i n almost  (I944),  forest  pro-  the v e g e t a t i o n  f r i n g e s o f the p l a t e a u  and t h e i r  predominate  are too  and  occur  alpine  areas*  forests,  dry (Johnston,  forests  supporting  of n a r r o w v a l l e y s ,  c o n d i t i o n s appear  Next  t o the n o r t h ,  the t a b l e l a n d s  became p r o g r e s s i v e l y more i n d i c a t i v e but  b a s i n of Taku  the I n k l i n southeast,  As i n the p l a t e a u x  vegetation.  dry  Greek to e n c l o s e  d i v i d e and f o l l o w s t h e S t i k i n e t o i t s h e a d w a t e r s i n t h e  Omineca M o u n t a i n s , are  from west o f  Another extends from the r e s t r i c t e d  River, following i t s tributary the  Tanzilla  irregular  Spruce  dominates alpine  stands.  from the standpoint  as i n f e r i o r ,  In h i s opinion,  of a f o r e s t e r ,  and l a r g e l y  useless  the outstanding  feature  of this  area  i s i t s extensive areas  of g r a s s l a n d c o v e r i n g l a r g e  s e c t i o n s n e a r the h e a d w a t e r s of t h e S t i k i n e , w i t h area the  of lesser  e x t e n t about  are  nature  plateau.  I n t h i s same a r e a  of smaller lakes  Forest the f o r e s t s Great  boundary  their  regarding divergence  by t h a t  position  I948).  i t as l y i n g  part  lies  against  the northern northern  o f the l i a r d  R i v e r and  upon t h e L i a r d Plateau  I t s position  i s best  the Y u k o n T e r r i t o r y ,  by the  to t h e w e s t , and t h e  J?o t h e n o r t h  r  with  e n v i s i o n e d by  Plateau, geologically  mountains^ on t h e e a s t .  Plain,  t o the e a s t i n -  i n t h e a p e x o f a *v» c a u s e d  Of t h e C a s s i a r M o u n t a i n s  by m o u n t a i n s and h i g h  between  o f the Rocky M o u n t a i n s .  forest  R o c k y M o u n t a i n s and L i a r d  within  a central  It lies  p o r t i o n of the L i a r d  (Bostock,  con-  I948).  o f t h e p r o v i n c e midway between i t s two  southern  these  t h e e a s t e r n edge o f  t o t h e w e s t , and t h e f o r e s t s on  P l a i n s t o the e a s t .  of t h i s  lakes  S e o t i o n 3»  t r i b u t a r i e s l y i n g , west  cluded  Large  i s t h e most n o t e w o r t h y  (Bostock,  on t h e p l a t e a u x  Most  drainage  several, notably  along  s e c t i o n 3 occupies  c o r n e r s and i s d r a i n e d  the  although  and Tuya Lake a r e f o u n d  Forest  its  o f the u p l a n d s ,  few i n the n a r r o w v a l l e y s ,  centration  the  the U a h l i n R i v e r , a headwater of  poor w i t h many r e s u l t a n t m a r s h e s and swamps.  Dease Lake the  similar  Taku. From the f l a t  is  a  related to  i t reaches  well  and i s t h e r e e v e n t u a l l y bounded  plateaux..  The lative,  rather  province  area The  The  most o f  surface  relief,  wooded h i l l s  Plateau  lew  i n the  Mountains, w e l l valley  floors  only  depressed area the  Hard  Brink  and  broad  be  east  is a  rises  the  the  sea  gap  the  level.  G r e a t P l a i n s i n what  i n the  Farstadi  as  Plain,  described  Gassiars  to  Dease Lake* difference  penetrates  This last  Great  Section  has  this  forest  from the  (Gamsell,  covers the  the  east,  2,  probably  traverses  a n a r r o w arm  reaching  nearly  feature  c o n s t i t u t e s the  Section 3 of Seotion.  Halliday  his Stikine Forest  In  C a s s i a r M o u n t a i n s t o meet the U p p e r H a r d this  study,  only  t h i s study,  Forest  evidence r e s u l t i n g from  It  portion  i s probably  P l a i n s to  H a l l i d a y ' s Upper H a r d that  Rooky  River.  It i s  Rooky M o u n t a i n S y s t e m  to the  between F o r e s t  believed  other  suggests  that  the  to major sn&  words,  penetrated Forest,  and  the  while the  c forest  of  this  an  1949).  under F o r e s t the w e s t a s  Its  Mackenzie  I t s s o u t h e r n most  2000 f e e t above  level,  o f the  liard  t o merge w i t h  north.  sea  valleys (Fig.2).  continuation at  a  d e s c r i b i n g i t as  T h i s f o r e s t more o r l e s s c o m p l e t e l y Hard  called  feet lower.  timbered  rather abruptly  the  physiographic  t h a t r e s u l t s i n c o n t i n u i t y o f the  P l a i n to  most i m p o r t a n t 1936;  to  In a  (I948)'  Bostock  and  to t h e  s o u t h and  from i t s r e -  l i e s u n d e r 3000 f e e t above  whole area  little  o f low  plain  i t would undoubtedly  i t s c e n t r a l p o r t i o n i s 1000  has  Hard  as a  than i t s a c t u a l a l t i t u d e .  M o u n t a i n s , w h i c h end is  is classified  of lower r e l i e f  plateau. and  region  narrow gap  e x h i b i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  the  F i g . 2 . The L i a r d Plain;looking south from about seven miles east of Lower Post. The meandering Liard River Is i n the foreground, with the mouth of the Hyland River at the extreme l e f t . Bote the f l a t topography, and the Cassiar Mountains i n the f a r distance.  Liard  Forest. D e s c r i p t i o n s of the  intermountain  (1937)  Halliday "white and  p l a i n are  spruce  the  Biotic  of f o r e s t  i n r a t h e r sharp  s t a t e s t h a t the  Cowan ( 1 9 4 7 ) ,  Parkland  type  dominant and  area  found  in  this  disagreement.  i s heavily forested with  most a b u n d a n t  species".  Munro  i n c l u d e t h i s a r e a i n t h e i r Peace R i v e r  Area, which  i s d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g a  "pre-  dominance o f mature a s p e n s g r o w i n g i n s e m i - o p e n stands";. Dawson ( 1 8 9 8 )  d e s c r i b e s the w e s t e r n  p a r t i a l l y wooded w i t h g r o v e s He are  s t a t e s t h a t i t has frequent.  western  and  and  that there are  Rivers, note  mentioned,  forest  lodgepole  p i n e , and w h i t e  following  the A l a s k a H i g h w a y  descriptions reduce it  of the  the  w r i t e r can  find  aspen p a r k l a n d as a n following  the L i a r d  lodgepole  nothing  to  Dease  been  burned,  Aspen  Rand  (1944)  of  detailed difficult  In reading his a r e an  same  being described  c o u n t r y , w h i c h a r e , however,  p r e v a l e n t , and  grasslands  prairie.  presents a wealth  t y p e f r o m Munch0 P a s s to L o w e r P o s t .  The  a r e a has  spruce-alpine f i r *  seems e v i d e n t t h a t a s p e n s t a n d s  of  poplar".  b a s i n s o f the  present  t o an a l l e m b r a c i n g p i c t u r e .  are also  aspen  d e s c r i b i n g the  of fire-made  types  "open o r  patches  t h a t much o f the  large areas the  p i n e and  Craig (1918),  p o r t i o n s , more p a r t i c u l a r l y  Kechika  not  of black  a d r y c l i m a t e , and  Whitford  and  is  portions" as  aa  to  account,  important  forest  However, s p r u c e  stands  pine c o v e r s l a r g e a r e a s .  suggest  extensive feature. downstream f r o m  common t r e e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r ,  the e x i s t e n c e MoConnell  Lower P o s t ;  of  (I898),  noted  black (lodgepole)  the pine,  white  spruce,  of l a r c h . and  a s p e n , and  Hear  the  l a k e s and  wooded", w i t h larch,  "rolling  marshes.  the  poplars,  is a  low,  to  scriptions  relatively  and  spruce,  area,  of  them.  stands, this  as w i l l  Whitford  and  lying  Plateau, as  reflected lands  one  the c l i m a t e  progresses  be  seen l a t e r  to t h e  tensive.  i n areas  east  east,  and  spruce  chaos.  As  of the  of on  the de-  Rockies,  are  to  and  this  the aspen  crossing  the  beoomes  change  and  east  situated i n  probably  is  aspen  park-  f o r e s t s more  d e s c r i b i n g the  the  westerly  while  grasslands  e x t e n s i v e , and  H a l l i d a y , t h e n , was  pine,  lee  immediately  i n t h i s area  to the  densely  i n the  laden  Dawson n o t e d  i n the v e g e t a t i o n w i t h  becoming l e s s  i n the  Craig's grasslands, As  innumerable  t h i s apparent  that Dawson^ grasslands  dry w e s t e r n s e c t i o n .  wetter  eastern  ex-  half^  i t a g r e e s q u i t e w e l l w i t h M c C o n n e l l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n known  to be  made i n t h e There  latively than  rainfall  I t i s evident and  Stikine  for  to reduce  hill,  black  r u g g e d , w i d e m o u n t a i n mass.  the f o r e s t s l y i n g  a  groves  alder.  m o u n t a i n masses i n t e r c e p t i n g t h e m o i s t u r e winds tend  climbed  i s everywhere  comes f r o m  flat  occasional  dotted with  trees-white  order  the w e s t , and of  plateau  birch, willow  Cassiar Mountains, a plateaux  plateau,  The  prinoipal  With study, This  poplar, w i t h  mouth of S m i t h R i v e r he  l a t e r wrote of a  small  balsam  dry,  i s the  east.  oan  be no  doubt t h a t  the whole  area  i s re-  though a s H a l l i d a y s t a t e s , i t i s more humid  Stikine Plateau.  by most a u t h o r s  in their  This reasoning  is  strengthened  d e s c r i p t i o n s of e x t e n s i v e  burns.  7  I t i s a l s o probably  true that there are patches of g r a s s l a n d s ,  or patches of f o r e s t - g r a s s l a n d eoetone i n the form of aspen parkland  throughout the area.  As noted by Raup ( 1 9 3 4 ) ,  such  seems to be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of the western B o r e a l F o r e s t , such patches o c c u r r i n g w e l l i n t o the MacKenzie Drainage System.  I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , however, that  these  warrant the c l a s s i f y i n g o f the whole area as parkland. Rand,'s ( o p . c i t . ) mention o f aspen f o r e s t s throughout the e a s t e r n s e c t i o n s does not weaken the argument. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the area has been burned over l a r g e a r e a s . stands a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c e r t a i n types o f Boreal burns.  Aspen  Forest  In some s e c t i o n s o f the area i t - i s apparent t h a t  lodgepole  pine f o r e s t s have overgrown burns.  l a r g e areas  so f o r e s t e d , and Dr. V.C. B r i n k  Rand mentions (personal  communication) t e l l s of l o o k i n g n o r t h a l o n g the v a l l e y of the Kechika,  and a c r o s s the v a l l e y of the L i a r d , at a f o r e s t  that  was pine as f a r as c o u l d be seen. A f t e r w r i t i n g tbs above, r e f e r e n c e was made to the r e c e n t , unpublished  d e s c r i p t i o n and map of C o l l i n s (1944).'  T h i s r e p o r t has n e c e s s i t a t e d l i t t l e change i n the above analysis.  He d e s c r i b e s most of the area as covered w i t h  immature c o n i f e r o u s stands w i t h an inorease  •  i n the eastern and c e n t r a l p o r t i o n s ,  i n deciduous s p e c i e s to the west, w i t h some  accompanying grasslands* T h i s r e p o r t s u b s t a n t i a t e s the e x i s t e n c e muskeg country (1898).  south  of a l a r g e  of the L i a r d , as d e s c r i b e d by MoConnell  There i s such an area  south of Lower Post,  enclosing  the  lower  reaches  muskegs and  parklands  probably occur  moist  areas.  data would suggest,  l a n d s and a s p e n  the w h i t e  the Dease a n d K e t c h i k a R i v e r s , where  lakes cover large  The  and  of b o t h  spruce  parallel  i n patches  type  slopes, while  t h e r e f o r e , that w h i l e  grass-  t h e m o u n t a i n s t o the w e s t ,  throughout,  most f o r e s t s a r e  i n climax, mixed w i t h a l p i n e  l a r g e areas are  i n serai  f i r on  p i n e and  of high  immature  spruce. Drainage The  low  such a  relief  throughout  o f the a r e a and  condition.  v a l l e y s and varifles  Gamsell  poor  drainage  This Great  northeastern corner region,  the  To  the west  the  t h r e e to f o l l o w ,  Odell,  1949),.  and  Columbia.  province.  of t h i s  north  of that  This section  i s the  a r e a i n the  I t embraces a l l of  section  mountains river  He  as rugged core  high southern ranges The  cover a l l of  the l i a r d  the  River,  and  the P o r t K e l s o n R i v e r .  Peace R i v e r , but w i t h a c e n t r a l these  (op.cit.),  constitutes a large  i n g e n e r a l n e i t h e r as h i g h nor  semble  flaring  S e c t i o n IV  e a s t o f t h e m o u n t a i n s d r a i n e d by  i t s major t r i b u t a r y ,  suggest  uplands.  four,.and of  poor.  flat valleys  w h i l e McConneTl  Plains within British  most n o r t h e r n o f the  i s probably  (1936) m e n t i o n s b r o a d ,  i n the  s e c t i o n and  forest  the b r o a d ,  meandering streams,  Forest  the  this  the R o c k y as south  o f mountains  (Bostock,  terminate  the w e s t e r n  at  1948;  Mountains,  of  the  that see  the l i a r d  boundary of t h i s  realso  River, section  i s  f o r m e d  t o  t h e  b y  n o r t h .  c o i n c i d e  s e t  o f  t h e  a t  t h e  T o  w i t h  t h e  h a s  l  w i t h  c e e d i n g  t h e r e  s  t o w a r d s  a  i  a l t i t u d e  p a r a l l e l ,  C r a i g ,  e  o f  t o p o g r a p h i c  t h i s  f r o m  i  n  i  f o o t h i l l s  y e a r s ,  i  s  w e s t e r n  a r e  a n d  f o r e s t e d .  T h e  H a l l i d a y ' s  M i x e d w o o d  h a v i n g  t o  b e  a  m a r k e d  t o  w h o l e  i  o f  s  u n i f o r m i t y  i n a c c u r a t e ,  a t  o f  l e a s t  s  t h a t  t h i s  t o  l o w e r  w h e r e  i  t h e  n o r t h ,  s  t h e  d a t e ,  t h a t  m o s t  s e c t i o n  l a r g e  d e s c r i b e s  a s  T h i s  a n d  f o r m  a  t h e  t r a n -  l y i n g  e a s t  f o r e s t s  o f  c o r n e r ,  u n t i l  o f  i s  b y  1 9 3 7 ) .  h a s  n o t  t h e  i  s  o f  c o v e r i n g  a n d  t h i s  b e e n  a r e a  p a r t  a r e a  S a s k a t c h e w a n ,  t h r o u g h o u t .  dQth  p o r t i o n s  n o r t h e a s t  a  a n  i n f l u e n c e d  ( H a l l i d a y ,  S e c t i o n ,  i n s o f a r  u p l a n d s  ( W h i t f o r d  t h i s  f o r e s t  e x -  g e n e r a l  f o o t h i l l s  c o n c e r n i n g  H e  I n  t h e  a r e a  s e a  e x t r e m i t y ,  a l o n g  E v e n  o f  a b o v e  w h i l e  t h e  a t  f e e t  h a v i n g  f e e t  p r o b a b l e  W i n n i p e g .  i  a n d  R i v e r  f e e t ,  e v e n  p a r t  s e c t i o n  l i m i t  N e l s o n  e x t r e m e ,  t h i s  t h e  s y s t e m s  1 9 4 - 9 ) .  s o u t h  f r a g m e n t e d  F o r e s t  A l b e r t a ,  t o  P o r t  i n f o r m a t i o n  I t  , 3 0 0 0  s o u t h e r n  f r o m  1 0 0 0  T h e  o f  r i s i n g  d r a i n a g e  r i v e r  F a r s t a d ,  p l a i n .  m u c h  a n d  s o u t h e r n  t w o  t h e  s e c t i o n ,  p o s s i b l y  m a p p e d .  n e a r l y  t h e  t o p o g r a p h y  a c c u r a t e l y  s o u t h e a s t  a n d  3 0 0 0  m e a g r e .  c e n t r a l  o f  a b o u t  o o r d i l l e r a  s e c t i o n  o f  o f  l i m i t s  N e l s o n  b e l o w  a l t i t u d e  t o  a r e  P u b l i s h e d  m o s t  n  2 ^ 0 0  t h e  o f  r e c e n t  a r e a s  t h e  s o u t h ,  s i g n i f i g a n c e .  l i e s  ( B r i n k  T h e  f r o m  t h i s  a r e a  s m a l l  h e i g h t  s i t i o n  t h e  l  t h e  T h e  s e p a r a t i n g  u p l a n d s  m o u n t a i n s  b o u n d a r i e s .  t h a n  t  n  t h e  O t h e r  t  1 9 1 8 ) .  e a s t  b e t w e e n  h e a d w a t e r s  o f  a n d  i  l a n d  d e c r e a s e -  t h e  n o r t h  l o w  o f  o n l y  t h a t  i  t h e  h e i g h t  M o s t  l e v e l ,  P l a t e a u ,  p r o v i n c i a l  P e a c e .  b o u n d a r y  l i a r d  r e a c h i n g  v a s t  a r e a  s t a t e m e n t  " u n i f o r m i t y "  i  s  a s  a p p e a r s  recognized i n t h i s  study*.  H a l l i d a y seems to d e s c r i b e w e l l  c o n d i t i o n s i n t h i s province when he mentions "a prominent s e r i e s o f rounded h i l l s ,  out by deep r i v e r v a l l e y s " .  Some  doubt a r i s e s , however, when f o r so l a r g e an a r e a he d e s c r i b e s the f o r e s t .  I t s main f e a t u r e seems to be a r e l a t i v e abundance  of  species.  deciduous  I t s p o s i t i o n would v a r i f y t h i s  statement  s i n c e i t borders upon aspen parkland on the south, and extends w e l l n o r t h i n the l e e of the C o r d i l l e r a w i t h s c a t t e r e d parkland patches  suggesting a tendency toward a c l i m a t e f a v o u r a b l e t o  grassland. out.  However, he d e s o r i b e s jack pine as growing  While t h i s s p e c i e s occurs i n n o r t h e a s t e r n  Columbia, i t i s almost ( C o l l i n s , 1944).  completely  through-  British  r e p l a c e d by lodgepole  pine  The small s c a l e map i n the Trees of Canada  (1949) shows i t s B r i t i s h Columbia range to be n e g l i g i b l e , and shows lodgepole pine c o v e r i n g most of the s e c t i o n .  It i s  f u r t h e r questioned that Halliday»s F o o t h i l l s S e c t i o n to the south, c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n part by abundant lodgepole  pine,  should have i t s n o r t h e r n l i m i t s a t the low h e i g h t of land between the drainage systems of the Peace and P o r t  Nelson  R i v e r s , when the mountains, w i t h t h e i r accompanying and  presumably w i t h s i m i l a r c l i m a t i c e f f e c t s ;  an a d d i t i o n a l two f u l l In the l i g h t  extend  foothills, north  degrees to the L i a r d R i v e r . of present incomplete knowledge there  i s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n , however, f o r e x p e c t i n g a change i n the forest  i n the n o r t h e r n h a l f of t h i s s e c t i o n .  no mountain b a r r i e r immediately plateau.  T h i s r e g i o n has  to the west, but i n s t e a d a  The nearest mountains i n t e r c e p t i n g the w e s t e r l i e s  are the Cassiars,'west  of the L i a r d P l a i n .  It i s tenable,  then, that the c l i m a t e i n the n o r t h , though no doubt dry, i s m o i s t e r than that of areas e i t h e r to the west or south. i s p a r t l y f o r t h i s reason and  p a r t l y f o r convenience  It  i n sub-  d i v i d i n g the p l a i n s f o r e s t that the s o u t h e r n boundary of s e c t i o n corresponds w i t h that of H a l l i d a y . formation i s a v a i l a b l e ,  this  U n t i l further i n -  the w r i t e r c o n s i d e r s t h i s s e c t i o n as,  g e n e r a l l y , w i t h h i g h e r p r e o i p i t a t i o n than has F o r e s t S e c t i o n 3 to the west, or F o r e s t S e c t i o n 5 to the south, and l e s s tendency  towards g r a s s l a n d ecotone  with  conditions i n i t s  vegeta t i o n . O o l l i n s r e p o r t (1944) on the f o r e s t s of t h i s r e g i o n c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s a change of f o r e s t  conditions coincident  w i t h the topographic change from a mountain i n f l u e n c e in- the west to p l a i n s i n the e a s t .  While  as a mosaic of e x t e n s i v e burns,  he maps the western  section  immature c o n i f e r o u s stands,  and stands of non-commercial cover, l a r g e l y aspen, the v a s t area east of the A l a s k a Highway, and n o r t h e a s t of the  Fontas  and Fort Nelson R i v e r s i s mapped as p o o r l y drained, and  largely  covered w i t h swamp and muskeg. D e s c r i p t i o n s by Rand (1944) suggest  t h a t drainage  i s poor w i t h swamps a not i n f r e q u e n t f e a t u r e of the country. R i v e r s tend to l i e i n broad*  f r e q u e n t l y deeply cut V a l l e y s ,  and maps of the area i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i v e abundance o f l a k e s when compared to the other f o u r e a s t e r n f o r e s t s e c t i o n s .  3Y.  Forest Seotion 5 This f o r e s t  s e c t i o n l i e s south  of the p r e c e d i n g  /Section, bounded on the west by the Rocky Mountains and on the east by the B r i t i s h Columbia - A l b e r t a Boundary* limit  I t s southern  i s f i x e d i n part a t the Peace R i v e r , and east o f t h i s  by the r e l a t i v e l y small j i r r e g u l a r , F o r e s t S e c t i o n 6 a s t r i d e the Peace R i v e r , next to the e a s t e r n p r o v i n c i a l T h i s s e c t i o n i s continuous  boundary.  to the n o r t h , e a s t , and  south w i t h f o r e s t e d p l a i n s , i t s only prominent  physiographic  boundaries being the mountains, and i n part the Peace R i v e r to the south.  The mountains a t t h i s l a t i t u d e have been d e s c r i b e d  as low and merging g r a d u a l l y w i t h C r a i g , I918). countryj  The topography i s rough and broken, a f o o t h i l l s  descending to the east as a s e r i e s of f l a t - t o p p e d  plateaux, 1937).  the p l a i n s (Whitford and  f r e q u e n t l y deeply c u t by r i v e r v a l l e y s ( H a l l i d a y ,  B r i n k and F a r s t a d , (1949) show the area  as l y i n g  below 3000 f e e t , except along the d i v i d e to the n o r t h , e l e v a t i o n s i n i t s southern and  while  r e g i o n s l i e mainly between 2000  2500 f e e t (Whitford and C r a i g , o p * c i t . ) . As  i n areas  to the n o r t h and south,  the c l i m a t e  tends t o be dry, w i t h an annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n Of about  fifteen  inches. T h i s s e c t i o n i s f o r e s t e d throughout, and comprises the f o r e s t e d area n o r t h of the Peace R i v e r , and d r a i n e d by that r i v e r * w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned s e c t i o n i n the south-east  corner.  F o r e s t S e c t i o n 5.  then, i s  almost the same as H a l l i d a y s F o o t h i l l s F o r e s t S e o t i o n l y i n g 1  n o r t h of the Peace R i v e r . as being i n the nature Subalpine  T h i s f o r e s t H a l l i d a y has  of an ecotone between the B o r e a l  F o r e s t Regions, w i t h lodgepole  ooourring subclimax the main f o r e s t  dominant.  and  pine a f r e q u e n t l y  White and b l a c k spruce  form  cover.  G o l l i n ^ s ( I 9 4 6 ) unpublished R i v e r Block g i v e s a few poorer  desoribed  r e p o r t on the Peace  notes on t h i s area.  The  tendenoy f o r  drainage w i t h i n c r e a s e d d i s t a n c e from the mountains  holds f o r t h i s s e c t i o n , although the r e s u l t as t o the n o r t h .  The  drainage  i s not as extreme  of the Beaton R i v e r i s de-  s c r i b e d as having numerous muskegs, while  the v a l l e y of the  Halfway to the west i s h e a v i l y burned. The  i n f l u e n c e of extensive  aspen parklands  i n the  immediate v i c i n i t y of the Peaoe R i v e r undoubtedly has b e a r i n g on the f o r e s t cover i n area covered  of t h i s s e c t i o n , with  a  an i n c r e a s e  by deciduous tree s p e c i e s as compared to  Section 4 . Drainage i n S e c t i o n 5 appears to be b e t t e r than i n the F o r t Nelson and  the country,  drainage  to the n o r t h .  Maps show few  i n being g e n e r a l l y rougher w i t h  sharply  cut r i v e r v a l l e y s , has more r a p i d l y f l o w i n g r i v e r s and little  o p p o r t u n i t y for lake  lakes;  offers  formation.  Forest Section  6.  F o r e s t S e c t i o n 6 i s a r e l a t i v e l y small area, f o l l o w i n g the Peace R i v e r west f o r two  degrees of l o n g i t u d e  from the eastern p r o v i n c i a l  boundary.  I t has an i r r e g u l a r  shape from i t s arms tending  to follow the t r i b u t a r i e s of  the  Peace f o r v a r y i n g d i s t a n c e s upstream from t h e i r mouths. The Peace R i v e r b i s e c t s the s e c t i o n i n t o more o r l e s s e q u a l The sides*  e n t i r e r e g i o n i s continuous w i t h  halves.  p l a i n s on a l l  I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s t i n c t i v e s o i l s and a r e -  s u l t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v e g e t a t i o n , and  d e l i m i t e d on t h i s b a s i s .  The; area c o i n c i d e s as n e a r l y as i s p o s s i b l e to the maps of W h i t f o r d showing those  and  small-soale  C r a i g (1918) and B r i n k and F a r s t a d (1949)  parts of the r e g i o n s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e .  Most of t h i s s e c t i o n l i e s a t e l e v a t i o n s between and  2400 f e e t , and has  been d e s o r i b e d as an area of low  s l o p i n g g e n t l y towards the major streams ( B r i n k and op.cit..).  relief/  Farstad,  From being enclosed more or l e s s completely  in a  r e g i o n showing f o o t h i l l s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i t i s probable surrounding  areas show a g r e a t e r r e l i e f *  to some extend  the  topography of; the  1800  that  t h i s feature a f f e c t i n g  s e c t i o n here under con-  sideration. The it  i s not  Whitford  e n t i r e s e o t i o n l i e s w e l l below t i m b e r l i n e ,  completely  forested,  l a r g e areas  support  but  grasslands,  and C r a i g ( I 9 I 8 ) e s t i m a t i n g that about one h a l f o f  the Peace R i v e r B l o c k i s i n "fire-made p r a i r i e " . s e o t i o n i n c l u d e s o n l y those  Since  this  p a r t s of the now n o n e x i s t e n t  Peaoe R i v e r B l o c k most l i k e l y to be i n p r a i r i e , t h i s f i g u r e may  be higher for F o r e s t S e c t i o n 6.  of the a r e a i s i n g r a s s l a n d , l a t i v e l y recent  I t i s probable  that most  or aspen parkland* w h i l e  a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y has  spread  re-  throughout  l a r g e areas (Rand, 1944;  Cowan, 1939)•  These open f o r e s t s  tend to merge w i t h spruoe and lodgepole pine stands on h i g h e r s l o p e s ( H a l l i d a y , 1937) and patches o f such c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t a l s o occur on the lowlands where s u i t a b l e edaphic and topographic c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l (Raup, 1934;  Cowan, 1939)•  Collins  (1946) has made a f o r e s t reconnaissance of the area, and r e p o r t s that w h i l e l a r g e ,  i s o l a t e d climax f o r e s t s o f white  spruoe occurred i n 1930, such stands have been logged  until  there i s only a remnant remaining.  He r e p o r t s e x t e n s i v e burns  i n the predominating aspen stands.  H i s map shows c l e a r l y  that l a r g e areas are e i t h e r c l e a r e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , open grassland,  or grown to aspen.  A c c o r d i n g to Cowan ( o p . c i t . ) streams are numerous i n those p a r t s o f t h i s s e c t i o n t h a t he v i s i t e d , w h i l e l a k e s and ponds, are not a prominent  C o l l i n s (1946) r e p o r t s  feature.  muskeg c o n d i t i o n s i n and near p a r t s o f t h i s  section.  Forest Section 7 The l a s t f o r e s t s e c t i o n to be c o n s i d e r e d c o n s i s t s of that part of the province, e a s t of the Rocky Mountains and south of the Peace R i v e r , e x c l u s i v e of that area occupied by F o r e s t S e c t i o n 6. T h i s s e o t i o n i s i n r e a l i t y continuous w i t h S e c t i o n 5,  and H a l l i d a y dioes not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between these two i n  h i s f o r e s t c3a s s i f i c a t i o n . f a i r l y similar,  T o p o g r a p h i c a l l y they are probably  the f o o t h i l l s  oharaoter o f both.  dominating  However Bostock  the  physical  (1948) notes a d i f f e r e n c e  /'  38.  i n the nature  of the  f o o t h i l l s , . South -of the Peace R i v e r  tend to be l e s s mountainous than n o r t h of that r i v e r . (1881) has d e s c r i b e d the two t o p o g r a p h i c a l dominating.  features  near the Pine R i v e r , he noted a broken h i l l y  rising  t o the south, while  and  to the n o r t h  foot-  plateau  the view was " s e a - l i k e  unlimited".. The  Whitford  forest  i s probably  s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f S e c t i o n 5.  and C r a i g (1918) d e s c r i b e the predominant f o r e s t  as being o f Englemann spruce  and a l p i n e f i r .  Raup (1934) i n t h i s r e g i o n confirms authors not  Dawson  pre-  From an e l e v a t i o n on the o u t s k i r t s o f the  hills,  they  d e s c r i b e the Sub-alpine  The work o f  s u s p i c i o u s that .the  first  F o r e s t o f the mountains and  the f o r e s t o f the p l a i n s and lower f o o t h i l l s .  observed t h a t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of lodgepole  Raup  pine*  t r e e s of  this; mountain f o r e s t are r a t h e r r i g i d l y c o n f i n e d to  the  mountains. Dawson ( l 8 8 l ) observed g r a s s l a n d s  and e x t e n s i v e  burns i n the lee of the mountains as he descended the R i v e r a f t e r c r o s s i n g Pine Pass. considered  prairie,  Pine  He did not encounter what he  however, u n t i l he reached the  vicinity  of Pouce Coupe. Summary o f the D e s c r i p t i o n s of F o r e s t The  area that has been d e s c r i b e d i s a l a r g e one, and  the accounts have come from many sources* there has been an attempt country  Sections  I n these  accounts  to g i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s adequate f o r a  that i s l a r g e l y wilderness  and thus not known t o most  readers, and at the same time an attempt brief.  to keep the account  In view of the amount of d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l pre-  sented i t seems n e c e s s a r y , even at the r i s k of some r e p e t i t i o n to b r i e f l y point out trends, and d i f f e r e n c e s , i n f a c t o r s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the seven f o r e s t  sections.  i n c l u d e d here because they a r e s u i t e d  A few new  data are  to a d i s c u s s i o n  based  upon comparison, r a t h e r than of the areas as e n t i t i e s . S e c t i o n s 1 & 2 have r e l a t i v e l y cover because of t h e i r high a l t i t u d e .  small areas o f f o r e s t In S e c t i o n 1 t h i s con-  d i t i o n has been accentuated through l o g g i n g .  The f i v e  eastern  s e c t i o n s are more or l e s s completely f o r e s t e d w i t h the exc e p t i o n of S e c t i o n 6 where g r a s s l a n d and aspen parkland, w i t h some a g r i c u l t u r a l areas, predominate.  Here, climax spruce  f o r e s t s have been removed. The c l i m a t e o f S e c t i o n 1 .& 2 i s dry and c o l d ; those< s e c t i o n s to the east g e n e r a l l y more humid.  In a l l s e c t i o n s ,  since a l l tend to be bounded on the west by high-mountains, there i s i n c r e a s e d p r e c i p i t a t i o n from west to east..  There i s  a tendency f o r t h i s c o n d i t i o n to be r e f l e c t e d i n f o r e s t s t r u c t u r e , w i t h deciduous t r e e s most abundant An e x c e p t i o n i s S e o t i o n 6, where p a r k l i k e dominate  throughout.  recent burns.  i n western areas  aspen stands pre-  Climate i s r e f l e c t e d i n the e x t e n t of  C o l l i n s (1944) shows l a r g e burns  w e s t e r n plateaux, few r e c e n t burns en the H a r d the Great P l a i n s , many burns next the mountains, eastward.  on the P l a i n , and but few  on  • Muskeg i s a prominent f e a t u r e of the e a s t e r n of those not  s e c t i o n s on the Great P l a i n s . . There thus seems to be  only an eastward inorease  these  portions  s e c t i o n s , but  i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n throughout  a s i m i l a r g r a d i e n t towards poorer  drainage.  Muskeg i s a l s o a f e a t u r e of the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n s o f the L i a r d Plain.  S e c t i o n 1 might be mentioned here as being w e l l  supplied with large lakes. Rockies,  South of the Peace B i v e r  f o r m e r l y w i t h a north-south  A l b e r t a boundary.  the  a x i s , t u r n toward the  S e o t i o n 7 i s thus under the  i n f l u e n c e of  a.  f o o t h i l l topography and any  other Great The  c l i m a t e t o g r e a t e r degree than i s A  Plains section.  i n f l u e n c e of g r a s s l a n d s , and ecetone, as exam-  p l i f i e d by aspen parkland,  dominates S e c t i o n 6, and  its in-  f l u e n c e i s undoubtedly extended i n t o part of S e c t i o n s j? & It  i s possible  that these  a l s o by the Sub-alpine  two  l a t t e r areas are i n f l u e n c e d  F o r e s t to- a degree not  present  other s e c t i o n s , s i n c e t h i s f o r e s t i s continuous w e s t e r n borders.  T h i s Sub-alpine  with  in their  forest influence i s a  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f the whole area under study appears to be weakest i n the northeast where lodgepole does not  completely  replace  7.  jack pine.  and pine  V/.  Factors The given  area  fashion.  A f f e o t i n g Fur  f a o t o r s a c t i n g to vary  are  many, and  I t i s not  be  often  the  w i t h a l l such f a o t o r s , only  unnecessarily  purpose of for  understood. those  influences  but  Figure  3  presented here. conditions taken, and  are  these  the  i s an  effective  logical,  the  other  and  that  the  fur  may  be  rather  effect.  So  bearer  species)  given  broad  qualified literature  of  to  deal  be  seen  not  would  imply  not  fully  considerations  primary  to summarize  effort.  animal  importance.  the  that  information  two  broad  number o f  animals  In essense,  abundance  taken, the  basic  animals  concerned, one  i s bio-  treatment  there  consideration  (with notable  are  g o i n g no  faotors  exceptions  justified  to  see  For  an  Solomon  than  few  take a b a s i c  excellent  (I949).  cause,  deeper  In a  upon a n i m a l s i n g e n e r a l  than t h i s w r i t e r .  view-  influencing  by a number o f a u t h o r s f a r  field  two  view whioh seeks  i s known r e g a r d i n g  influences  in this  be  a b u n d a n c e of t h e  i t s seems h a r d l y  h e r e , and  complex  is'actually brief  a  economic.  populations  point  fur within  in a  attempt  i n f l u e n c i n g the  superficial  little  that  attempt  trapper  In a n a l y s i n g points  that  a p p e a r to  regarded as the  of  discussion  rather,  From i t , i t may  being  this  suoh an  follow,  that  catch  such a c o n s i d e r a t i o n would  long,  There w i l l  the  interrelated  a c o m p l e t e knowledge o f a s u b j e c t  of  Productivity  have  viewbeen  better  summary o f  the  NUMBER OF TRAPPERS  FIG.3  <«  WEATHER  * CENTRE OF ABUNDANCE  Factors A f f e c t i n g the Productivity of Trap Lines  43.  From t h e  standpoint  figure  shows t h a t f i v e  ance.  Inherant  they o c c u r a r e s  r a t h e r than  never  e v e n where  v e r y common, w h i l e  o t h e r s , t o go  i t i s most a b u n d a n t ,  T h u s the  can n e v e r  abundance o f f i e l d  m i c e e v e n when t h e l a t t e r  habitat.  t h a t an a n i m a l  number p r e s e n t there.  i s i n f l u e n c e d by  i s the most  have a marked intensity, trapped, catch.  are  reduce  to  the  numbers, and  F l u c t u a t i o n i n numbers and  production of an area,  M i g r a t i o n has  not  The  frequent  that  grizzly the  the  species  the  a r e a s where  of  The  centres Past  the  will  trapping  population  hence subsequent  fur  m i g r a t i o n , i n f l u e n c e the  former  been c o n c l u s i v e l y  to suggest  the  hence more  to such  size  to  phenomenon has  been  occurring i n fur populations.  r e f e r e n c e s to i t i n the  least  relation  where  i n marginal  c e n t r e s of a b u n d a n c e .  in relation animal  be  c f the  and  i n . o t h e r s , and  area with  t h o r o u g h l y e s t a b l i s h e d as  but  success  i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e numbers t a k e n .  i f great  may  than  success  p o s i t i o n of a trapped  fur  the  may  i n an a r e a ,  Many s p e c i e s a r e mere s u c c e s s f u l ,  numerous, i n some a r e a s there  occurs  reach  the  abund-  Some a n i m a l s  be e x c e e d i n g l y numerous.  Provided  cause,  c o n d i t i o n s i n f l u e n c e f u r animal  d e n s i t y i s of i m p o r t a n c e .  o t h e r e x t r e m e , may bear,  of e f f e o t ,  shown t o be  literature  i t may  be  are  so  widespread,  sufficiently  of some i m p o r t a n c e ,  at  locally. The  appear from  factors  influencing  the f i g u r e  encing animal to i n v e s t i g a t e  t o be more numerous  abundance, but these  effective  this  trapper  effort  than  those  influ-  i s the r e s u l t  o f an  attempt  f a c t o r s w i t h more  thoroughness.  At  the  same time, there i s no o l a i m f o r completeness r e g a r d i n g  this  part o f the f i g u r e . The  longest c h a i n of f a o t o r s i s i n i t i a t e d  e x p l o i t a b l e resources its vicinity.  of the trapped  by the  area c o n s i d e r e d ,  The r i o h n e s s of resources w i l l  or of  tend to be r e -  flected  i n a p r o p o r t i o n a l d e n s i t y of human p o p u l a t i o n .  creased  population w i l l ,  In-  i n the l o n g run, have three e f f e o t s .  There w i l l be a tendency towards an i n c r e a s e d number o f t r a p p e r s , reduced t r a p l i n e s i z e , and the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n , and c e r t a i n other elements, that c o n s t i t u t e animal environment.  The i n c r e a s e i n t r a p p e r s  hardly c o r r e l a t i n g p e r f e c t l y with  population,  i s a trend f o r an area  w i t h no r e s i d e n t humans may have trappers i n season, and beyond a c e r t a i n human d e n s i t y f u r - b e a r e r s may be Reduced t r a p l i n e  exterminated.  s i z e i s , i n part* a f u n c t i o n of c o m p e t i t i o n  f o r areas t o t r a p brought about by an increase i n t r a p p e r s . Thus, the vast w i l d e r n e s s  t r a p l i n e s c o n t r a s t markedly w i t h  those o f s m a l l s i z e i n r u r a l communities. t r a p p e r s and decrease i n area trapped inorease  in effort  i s more thoroughly it  r e s u l t s i n an o v e r a l l  to o b t a i n f u r , f o r a g i v e n u n i t of l a n d trapped.  i s frequently d i f f i c u l t  important  This i n c r e a s e i n  In an area e x p l o i t e d by humans, to determine which i s the  more:  oause o f f u r - b e a r e r e x t i n c t i o n o r d e p l e t i o n o f  numbers, heavy t r a p p i n g e f f o r t , o r h a b i t a t m o d i f i c a t i o n * The  modified  h a b i t a t can d i r e c t l y a f f e c t animal  through a g r i c u l t u r e , f i r e , factors*  abundance,  d r a i n i n g , and other r e l a t e d  I t may a l s o i n c r e a s e t r a p p e r e f f o r t ,  i n rendering  t r a p l i n e s more a c c e s s i b l e , which a g a i n would i n f l u e n c e t r a p l i n e s i z e because of an i n c r e a s e i n t r a p p e r s . m o d i f i c a t i o n thus a c t s both upon animal  Habitat  abundance, and upon  e f f e c t i v e trapper e f f o r t . Weather i s another  f a c t o r t h a t has t h i s dual  role.  V e g e t a t i o n , i n a sense, owes i t s e x i s t e n c e , and the geog r a p h i c a l extent  o f i t s success/  to weather, Animals, i n  being dependent upon v e g e t a t i o n , owe t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o weather, and the same f a c t o r may i n f l u e n c e animal i n time as w e l l as space.  abundance  The d i r e c t e f f e c t of weather upon  p o p u l a t i o n s i s also important.  In a d d i t i o n weather can i n -  f l u e n c e trapper e f f o r t , both through d e c r e a s i n g l i n e ibility,  access-  o r a more extreme c o n d i t i o n of the same i n f l u e n c e ,  d e c r e a s i n g the number of t r a p p e r s .  I n other words, i n severe  weather, a p o t e n t i a l t r a p p e r may not attempt  to t r a p .  Another s e t o f f a c t o r s a c t i n g upon e f f e c t i v e  trapper  e f f o r t .is- tk«.t..:-: stemming from the i n f l u e n c e s o f business. When f u r demand i s h i g h as compared to the supply the a u c t i o n p r i c e of f u r i n c r e a s e s .  T h i s p r i c e t r e n d i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  p r i c e s the trapper r e c e i v e s *  Supply, i n t u r n , i s l a r g e l y a  r e f l e c t i o n of past t r a p p i n g suooess, and demand a f u n c t i o n of fashion.  With i n c r e a s e d p r i c e s , the i n d i v i d u a l  t r a p p e r may  not o n l y increase h i s e f f o r t , but more t r a p p e r s be drawn i n t o the f i e l d , with a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e i n o v e r a l l e f f o r t This e f f e c t i s  resulting.  probably not so pronounoed under a r e g i s t e r e d  t r a p l i n e system, but i t probably  exists i n modified  form.  While the number, and area, of l i n e s i s r i g i d , room f o r i n c r e a s e d e f f o r t  i n l i n e owners, and  there i s s t i l l the a o t u a l  number of trappers can inorease s i n c e a s s i s t a n t s are l a w f u l . B r i o e works i n another way. of two k i n d s , coarse, and as muskrat and weasel,  fine.  Fur has been c l a s s e d as  Coarse f u r s are those,  that have a lew  value.  suoh  F i n e f u r s have  a r e l a t i v e l y higher value, as f o r example f i s h e r and  fox.  Since the f i n a n c i a l g a i n i s g r e a t e r i n o b t a i n i n g f i n e f u r , a l l other t h i n g s being equal, g r e a t e r e f f o r t w i l l be put obtaining  such f u r .  But  into  i f f i n e f u r i s scarce, as i n i n -  t e n s e l y trapped areas, more e f f o r t must be put i n t o o b t a i n i n g coarse f u r i f t r a p p i n g i s to be made a f i n a n c i a l  suooess.  These c o n d i t i o n s need'not always operate, however.  Where  muskrats are e x c e e d i n g l y abundant, even though f i n e f u r may plentiful,  the more p l e n t i f u l coarse f u r may  render  be  i t a more  v a l u a b l e harvest because of the l a r g e numbers o b t a i n a b l e * Finally,  trapper s k i l l  e f f e o t i v e trapper e f f o r t . d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n the  i s an important  i n f l u e n c e upon  S k i l l r e s u l t s l a r g e l y , from conpast.  There are o t h e r f a c t o r s that have come to mind.  For,  example, wars and economic d e p r e s s i o n s c e r t a i n l y can i n f l u e n c e the number of t r a p p e r s , and the term past t r a p p i n g i n v o l v e s a. host of i n t e r r e l a t e d f a o t o r s .  T h i s t a b u l a t i o n has been d i r -  ected towards the enumeration of what appear to be the most important  f a c t o r s * with emphasis upon any g i v e n time r a t h e r  than upon previous time.  The  i n f l u e n c e of some of these  f a c t o r s upon the f u r p r o d u c t i o n of n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h to "are presented elsewhere i n t h i s paper.  Columbia  V7.  The  F a r P r o d u c t i v i t y of N o r t h e r n  British  Columbia  S e v e n t e e n s p e c i e s o f mammals have b e e n r e p o r t e d by w h i t e Sixteen not  trappers of these  i n the Boreal Forest are included i n this  been i n c l u d e d  rarely  taken,  because  a n d most  species concerned.  of B r i t i s h study.  t h e y have l i t t l e  important,  records  taken  Columbia.  The b e a r s  have  fur value, are do n o t i n d i c a t e the  Of t h e s i x t e e n i n c l u d e d ,  the r a c c o o n .is  i  of a c c i d e n t a l o c c u r r e n c e . the  The o t t e r a p p e a r s  skunk and c o u g a r a r e f o u n d  production  i na restricted  i s from the s p e c i e s f o x ,  f i s h e r , weasel*  t o be r a r e , and  mink, w o l v e r i n e ,  coyote,  lynx,  area.  wolf,  squirrel,  Most f u r  marten,beaver, and  muskrat. There assess  i s no datum w i t h w h i c h to compare, a n d h e n c e  the magnitude o f p r o d u c t i o n .  said  t o have h i g h  high  i nrelation  production study  from  production to other  production high. duction  for a given species,  sections*  the S t i k i n e P l a t e a u  of f o x p r o d u c t i o n from l i n e s  i n the coast  bordering this  Thus t h e term h i g h  When a f o r e s t  section i s . i t i s only  A s a n example, f o x i s termed l o w . forest  may f i n d  plateau  a n d low c a n a p p l y  Yet a that f o x  is relatively t o !the  same  pro-  level. Actual  production  f i g u r e s are g i v e n i n Table  F i g u r e s 4 t o 1? i n d i c a t e p r o d u c t i o n  trends  .  1.  A l l production  f i g u r e s a r e g i v e n a s t h e number of" s q u a r e m i l e s  trapped  are  each  on the a v e r a g e , n e c e s s a r y  t o produce a p e l t  that  year.  Table The for  1.  Calculated  Fur Production  f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e square m i l e s t h e p e r i o d I929 - 1948.  Forest  by F o r e s t  to p r o d u c e  2  3  4  156.0  432.6  145.4  15.7  23.4  Coyote  34.8  109.6  538.9  818.4  Wolf  95.3  91.7  348.6  445.8  80.3  Fisher  --  Weasel  6.4  Fox  Marten  Mink Wolverine Otter Lynx Squirrel Beaver Muskrat  19.2  pelt  per y e a r  Sections  1 Red  one  Sections.  6  5  7  25.2  20.7  104.8  11.6  20.8  418*3  241.7  124.8  261.6  40.8  12.9  34.7  452.5  46.4  —•  260.0  664.4  468.6  348.4  159.0  21.1  56.2  12.6  7.4  1.4  2.0  65.I  58.9  40.2  230.8  81.7  121.1  236  352  426  697  1059  1783  1298  1334  1526  4385  9232  830 3029  54.7  220.1  34.5  24.8  78.3  324.0  84.5  2.8  67.8  33.1  •7*7  li-7  0.2  0*1  23.2  24.0  14.0  6.1  26.7  348*4  39.9  4.9  23.2  61.4  29.3  33.3  2.0  2*3  For s e v e r a l s p e c i e s , The  Great  P l a i n s n o r t h of the  Peace R i v e r have been examined f o r p r o d u c t i o n to e a s t .  In these c a l c u l a t i o n s , f o u r p a r a l l e l areas bounded  by the meridians used, and  trends from west  of l o n g i t u d e 120  to 124  i n c l u s i v e have been  p r o d u c t i o n c a l c u l a t e d f o r these i n the same manner  as f o r f o r e s t s e c t i o n s . The  f l u c t u a t i o u s i n numbers of fox, lynx, weasel*  marten, and  f i s h e r have been examined thoroughly  trends, and  the remaining  thoroughly. presented year  s p e c i e s have been examined l e s s  I t has been found  that most s p e c i e s , as r e -  by the numbers trapped,  to year, and  for cyclic  f l u c t u a t e c o n s i d e r a b l y from  that some tend to be c y c l i c .  Fluctuatious  are not always synchronous among the f o r e s t s e c t i o n s , but l a g s of a year  or two  are frequent.  These do not appear,  however, to b i a s production f i g u r e s based on the twenty year period* Raccoon (Procyon One studied.  lotor)  trapper has r e p o r t e d a raccoon  T h i s animal was  taken  taken  i n the  i n the t r a p p i n g season  42 by J . Suprenant i n F o r e s t S e o t i o n 7,  area  1941-  i n a t r a p l i n e on  the  headwaters of the Kiskatinaur R i v e r about f i v e m i l e s west of Beaverlodge Lake.  Rand (1948) records the s p e c i e s as r a r e i n  A l b e r t a , where i n the west i t occurs as f a r n o r t h as B a n f f , w i t h escaped c a p t i v e s taken T h i s s i n g l e animal the Pouoe Coupe country  f a r t h e r north. may  have been an; escape from  to the n o r t h , or the Grande P r a i r i e  area to the east, both w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h human p o p u l a t i o n s . Red Fox (Vulpes f u l y a ) The  p r o d u c t i v i t y o f r e d fox, by f o r e s t s e c t i o n s ,  f a l l s i n t o two w e l l d e f i n e d areas w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n production.  The intermountain E o r e s t S e c t i o n s 1, 2, and 3 are  r e l a t i v e l y low producers,  as compared to the f o u r s e c t i o n s ••  upon the Great P l a i n s ( F i g . 4 ) . Prom the apparent c o n t i n u i t y of S e o t i o n 3,  the l i a r d P l a i n , w i t h the f o r e s t of the p l a i n s  one would have thought t h a t f o x production, two  i f divisible  into  d i s t i n c t areas, would be so d i v i d e d by the C a s s i a r Mount-  ains. While the f o x i s a f o r e s t animal it  i n a broad  sense,  i s not most s u c c e s s f u l i n u n i f o r m l y climax, coniferous^  forests..  F o r e s t s , i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h meadows, c l e a r i n g s or  burns appear to f a v o u r the speoies, a s i s shown from i t s present abundance i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s , and as i s mentioned f o r n o r t h e r n A l b e r t a by Soper (1942). i s a l s o able to e x i s t  The animal  beyond t i m b e r l i n e , as i s noted  on the  b a r r e n grounds by C l a r k e (1940) and f o r a l p i n e tundra by  Rand (I945). While i t i s agreed  t h a t the r e d f o x can l i v e upon  tundra, a t l e a s t i n those areas w i t h n e i g h b o r i n g  forest,  h a b i t a t under most c o n d i t i o n s must be m a r g i n a l .  I t i s not '  t y p i c a l l y a tundra s p e c i e s .  such  Thus the r e s t r i c t e d F o r e s t  S e c t i o n s 1 and 2 may l o g i c a l l y be s a i d  to be low producers of  red f o x p e l t s because the s p e c i e s i s not as common there as  Fig.4. Red Fox Production Trends by Forest Sections  5Z  upon the lower, more or l e s s w h o l l y f o r e s t e d Great  Plains.  I t might even be o o r r e o t to c a r r y the a n a l y s i s f u r t h e r and suggest  that S e c t i o n 2 i s the lower  producer  of the two  be^  cause of i t s r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r areas of surrounding a l p i n e tundra, a r e s u l t of the p l a t e a u s u r f a c e being l e s s eroded i t s f o r e s t e d r i v e r bottomlands thus, by comparison, l e s s  and ex-  tensive. Upon the Great P l a i n s p r o d u c t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y high throughout, (fig.  and w h i l e v a r i a t i o n e x i s t s ,  i t i s not marked  4). Since there seems to be a c l e a r cut d i v i s i o n between  the d e n s i t y of the s p e c i e s i n the C o r d i l l e r a on one hand, and the Great P l a i n s on the other, p r o d u c t i o n from the P l a i n s was  Great  examined w i t h r e s p e c t to the i n f l u e n c e o f the  Rooky Mountains.  As has been done f o r a number of o t h e r  s p e c i e s , data f o r the p l a i n s n o r t h of the Peace R i v e r t a b u l a t e d f o r the four areas bounded by meridions itude. 16.5,  Por these f o u r areas, p r o d u c t i o n was 13,  17, and  45  square  one  was  of l o n g pelt  per  m i l e s , i n order from east to west.  I f i n the most w e s t e r l y area two  l a r g e t r a p l i n e s that are  probably under trapped are omitted from the c a l c u l a t i o n , i n d i c a t e d p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s  the  s t r i p b o r d e r i n g the mountains  r i s e s from One  p e l t per 45  square m i l e s .  This l a s t figure i s s t i l l  square m i l e s , to a p e l t per  than the s t r i p adjacent to i t . The  63  lower  p o s s i b i l i t y of the  production of the three G o r d i l l e r a n f o r e s t t i n u i n g down the Rocky Mountains and  percent  27  low  s e c t i o n s con-  i n f l u e n c i n g the B o r e a l  F o r e s t  i m m e d i a t e l y  T h e r e  d u c t i o n  o  p l a t e a u x  f  i  h a v e  s  r a t h e r  a  r a n g e s  d  m o s t  t  o  s  i  s  t h e r e  t a x o n o m y  o f  i m p e r f e c t l y  h  e  i  P e a c e  R i v e r  (I938) a n d  i  i  H  t  e  a  r  d  t  h  e  p r o b a b l y  t h e  P l a i n  4 0  s o u t h  c h a n g e d  t  o n l y  h  i  a r e a s  n  l  a  a  t h i s  f  s  a p p a r e n t .  f  o  t  h  r  w h i o h  n  d  f o r e s t  o  f  t h e  f  t  t i  a n i m a l  p r o -  (1946),  e x p l a n a t i o n ,  o  i  c o v e r .  d i f f e r e n t  p a r t  p r o -  w e s t e r n  A n d e r s o n  n  t h e  e  w i t h  a  o  o f  r s u c h  i  f  P l a i n s ,  w o r k  o  h  o  s u b s p e c i e s  t w o  f  t  t h a t  t o p o g r a p h y  t h e  o c c u r s  h  e  f  o  r  p r o v i n c e  o  d a y s  d e a d  P e l l y  e  f o r e s t s  o a u s e d  v e g e t a t i o n  h  t  e  e  v i c i n i t y  r  e  m o s t  m a r k e d .  a n i m a l  t  1898),  d y i n g  i  n  t  i  f i r e s  o  a n d  s  m e n  p o s s i b l e  t h a t  f a v o u r  f r e q u e n c y  t  o  e  f  h  e  i  Y u k o n  i  t h a t  f i r e s  e  t  e n t e r e d  h o r s e s  m e n  h  e  n  a  a n d  ( 1 9 4 5 }  p a s s i n g  c o u n t r y s i d e  a l t h o u g h  i  h  f o l l o w e d  t r a i l i n g  c o y o t e *  t  A l a s k a  t  t h a t  t  o  D i x o n  R a n d  o p e n e d  h  o f  t  i n f l u e n c e s .  t  w h e n  h o r s e s /  1912.  o f  h u m a n  e n t e r e d  f o l l o w i n g  I  o  t  i n v a d e r  B r i t i s h  p r i o r  o  a  h  t h a t  t  s p e c i e s  R i v e r  n o r t h e r n  s u g g e s t  r e c e n t  ( a b o u t  a g o ,  t  h  a  a n d  1 9 4 4 ) .  i n c r e a s e d  t  t h e  ( R a n d ,  e  a s  f  t h a t  y e a r s  t o  c o n d i t i o n s  s p r e a d  o n  t h r o u g h o u t  c o n f i n e d  s p e c i e s  r u s h  t r a i l ' s )  e v i d e n c e  r e g i o n ,  t h e  l i v e d  t h e s e  w  o  e  ( O a n i s  p r a i r i e  g o l d  a n d  h  b a s i s  s t r o n g  b e l i e v e s  h  t  t w o  f r o m  c o y o t e  t h i s  t h e  t r e a c h e d  t h r o u g h  a n d  n  s  t  s p e c i e s  e  s  w h e r e  ( 1 9 4 - 9 )  c a m p s  s a y s  f r o m  n  d e s c r i b e s  A l a s k a  t h e  i  h  i  a t t r i b u t e s  D o b i e  t h e  t  t h e r e  t w a s ,  a  r e a s o n  r e s e m b l e  G r e a t  i  u n d e r s t o o d .  W h i l e  1900  o  m o u n t a i n s  e v i d e n t  t h e  w i t h  C o y o t e  C o l u m b i a ,  t  t h a t  l i t t l e  t  t h e s e  n o  o f  s u g g e s t  s  o  b e  s i m i l a r  e v i d e n t  i  t  3  t h a t  c o i n c i d i n g  A  h o w e v e r ,  i s  n  t o  S e o t i o n  t h a n  t e m p t e d  d u c t i o n .  t h e  a p p e a r s  F o r e s t  c o n t i n u o u s  O n e  a d j a c e n t  d  r  y  t h e y  r e g i o n  s  w h e r e  n a t u r a l  b e f o r e  t h e  b u r n s  a r r i v a l  T h e  s e m i - o p e n  c o u n t r y ,  t e n d i n g  o f  f o r e s t s ,  D o b i e  o f  ( 1 9 4 9 )  t h e  w h i l e  i n  t o  ( 1 9 4 9  a )  i  n  t o  f o l l o w  i s  n o t  t h i s  t h a t  d u e  t o  t h e  i  s  a t  o f  t h e  w i t h  l e a s t  t  a n d  i  t  s  c o u n t r y s i d e  t o  o f  t h e  o f  a n  t h e  o p e n  a n d  I t  t h e  v e g e t a t i o n  e a s t  r a n g e s  C o l u m b i a  F a r s t a d  s u p p l a n t i n g  i n t o  -  f o r e s t s ;  B r i t i s h  c o y o t e  n  o o m m o n  s u i t a b l e  C o l u m b i a .  i  r a n g e .  t h e  B r i n k  a n a  i n h a b i t a n t  b e o o m e  o f  b y  o p e n  g r a s s l a n d  n o t  h a s  b e  B r i t i s h  s  o f  p r i m i t i v e  f r o m  s h o w n  a p p e a r s  c h a n g e s  i  n o r t h e r n  b e e n  i n v a s i o n  a  c l e a r i n g  b a r r e d  h a s  i  s p e c i e s  t h e  a n i m a l  I t  f r o m  t h e  n o r t h e r n  n a t u r a l  f e a t u r e  f o r e s t .  t h a t  p r e s e n t  i  n  g r a s s -  w o u l d  a p p e a r  n o r t h w e s t  f a v o u r  o f  s p e c i e s .  P r o d u c t i o n  s e c t i o n s  h i g h e s t  s h o w s  w o l f ,  a n d  h o w e v e r ;  a p p e a r s  t h e  p r o d u c t i o n  p o p u l a t i o n s  h a v e  t h e r e  e v i d e n t  A s  a n d  a  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  T e r r i t o r y ,  a t  c e n t r a l  a  t h e  o n l y  y e a r s .  f o r e s t  s  f o r e s t s  Y u k o n  r e c e n t  s  s h o w n  a p p a r e n t l y ,  u n t i l  i  i  b e e n  man...  o p e n  a s  h a s  h a v e  w h e r e  M i s s i s s i p p i  A l a s k a ,  l a n d  o f  c o y o t e  f l u e n c e  d a r k  m u s t  t o  t h e  o f  t r e n d s  i  n  m u s k e g  h a v e  m o d i f i e d  s w a m p .  m o r e  p e l t s  o t h e r  i  t r a p  n  t h e  i  l i n e s  S e c t i o n s  J5  a n d  s e v e n  f u r r e d  t h e  ( P i g .  F o r e s t  7  o w e  o f  A s  w i t h  h u m a n  i  n  t h e  e n v i r o n m e n t  S e c t i o n s  w i t h  t h e i r  s p e c i e s ,  5 ) .  p r o b a b l y  f o r e s t e d ,  f o r e s t  h i g h e s t  s u i t a b i l i t y  p r o d u c t i o n *  c o m p l e t e l y  t h e  w i t h  p r o d u c t i o n .  l o w  n  c o a r s e  s e c t i o n s  s m a l l e s t  v a r i a b i l i t y  r e l a t i v e l y  a n d  o f  t h o s e  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y  b e i n g  c o y o t e  3  a n d  b e c a u s e  l a r g e  o f  a r e a s  r e l a t i v e l y  4  t h e i r  o f  S6~  Fig.5. Coyote Production Trends by Forest Sections.  h i g h production, i n part, to the S e c t i o n 6, adjacent S e c t i o n s 1 and  to both.  prairie  The  influence of Forest  high western p l a t e a u F o r e s t  2 have a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o d u c t i o n .  It i s  evident t h a t coyotes are f a i r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s r e c e n t l y occupied area, and  i t i s p o s s i b l e that p r o d u c t i o n i s governed  by f a c t o r s s i m i l a r to those a f f e c t i n g w o l f . and  Small  trap l i n e s  the s c a r c i t y of f i n e f u r s p e c i e s i n S e c t i o n 1, and a  n a t u r a l s c a r c i t y o f f i n e f u r i n S e c t i o n 2 have l e a d to i n creased  trapper e f f o r t  i n a r e g i o n where game i s p l e n t i f u l  h i g h open ranges r a r e l y covered  on  by deep snow.  Wolf (Canus lupus) The w o l f occurs throughout the r e g i o n here considered,- and lines.  i s f r e q u e n t l y taken  by t r a p p e r s on r e g i s t e r e d  I t must be remembered that t h i s  w i t h coyote  and Cougar i s not  species,  taken upon r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s  alone, but a l l are s p e c i e s f o r which bounties are which may  be hunted by anyone.  Indian l i n e s does not  to-gether  Thus, w h i l e  figure in this  study,  paid  and  p r o d u c t i o n from there i s an add-  i t i o n a l unknown p r o d u c t i o n from the white p o p u l a t i o n f o r  these  three s p e c i e s . Wolf i s a coarse f u r , and as might  be expected,  pro-  d u c t i o n by f o r e s t s e c t i o n s tends to f o l l o w the trends o f other coarse f u r , though not w i t h  the c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n to t r a p l i n e  s i z e e x h i b i t e d by muskrat and weasel..  Rand (1944) w r i t i n g of  the area adjacent to the Alaska Highway i n S e c t i o n 4 where  trap l i n e s are l a r g e says that " l i t t l e  effort  i s made to se-  cure wolves except when b o t h e r i n g t r a p s , as the time t r o u b l e i s more p r o f i t a b l y spent V a r y i n g d e n s i t y of the d u c t i o n although generally  on more v a l u a b l e  and  furs".  s p e c i e s appears to have modified  pro-  the i n f l u e n c e of trap l i n e s i z e i s s t i l l  evident. P r o d u c t i o n i s g r e a t e s t i n the two western s e c t i o n s  on the high plateaux and F o r e s t S e c t i o n s 3 and  i n F o r e s t S e o t i o n 6,  4, and  s i z e ( F i g . 20)  in  i n t e r m e d i a t e between these  i n S e c t i o n s j5 and 7 ( F i g . 6 ) . of t r a p l i n e  lowest  T h i s trend f o l l o w s the  i n g e n e r a l ; but w i t h one  two  trends note-  worthy e x c e p t i o n i n F o r e s t S e c t i o n 2. Forest Sections 1 and which are probably producers  of w o l f  sections.  i n having  i n t e n s e l y trapped, pelts.  necessarily a result these  6,  small trap l i n e s  are among the h i g h e s t  T h e i r high p r o d u c t i o n i s thus  o f r e l a t i v e l y higher w o l f  populations i n  The e q u a l l y high production of S e c t i o n 2,  an area where t r a p l i n e s are comparable i n s i z e to those S e c t i o n s 4 and  not  5» may  of  be i n d i c a t i v e of wolves being more  p l e n t i f u l i n that s e c t i o n than  i n any o t h e r .  This  reasoning  i s f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d by bounty payment f i g u r e s , wherein Telegraph Greek i s one  of the most important  province w i t h r e s p e c t to the payment of wolf (Mair, 1949).  While  c e n t r e s i n the bounties  there are other s e c t i o n s i n which wolf  p e l t p r o d u c t i o n i s at v a r i a n c e with d i f f e r e n c e s may  be due  in  trap l i n e s i z e , and  to v a r i a t i o n s i n topographic  the  and  v e g e t a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s e c t i o n s i n v o l v e d , the  Fig.6. Wolf Production Trends by Forest Sections.  d i f f e r e n c e s ma>y not be s i g n i f i g a n t , f o r they are  relatively  slight • In F o r e s t S e c t i o n 2, there i s l i t t l e formation r e g a r d i n g the ungulate abundance*  s p e c i e s o c c u r r i n g or of  Caribou are r e l a t i v e l y numberous upon the  t r e e l e s s t a b l e l a n d s (Dr. V.C. and  published i n -  the l i g h t  B r i n k , personal  their  extensive  communication),  s n o w f a l l of the e n t i r e r e g i o n probably  leaves  these animals more or l e s s a c c e s s i b l e to wolves throughout the> year.  Mountain sheep are s a i d to be abundant.  E l y et a l .  (1939) have d e s c r i b e d t h i s r e g i o n as one of the f i n e s t h u n t i n g grounds i n North America.  Since food s t u d i e s of the w o l f  show that i t i s p r i m a r i l y , an ungulate ;  Cowan, 1947), t h i s c o n d i t i o n may ance i n S e o t i o n  predator  1944;  i n part e x p l a i n w o l f abund-  2*  There may  be another  f a c t o r o p e r a t i n g to g i v e  production, i n Forest S e o t i o n 2 which, while omic f a c t o r ,  (Murie,  i s the r e s u l t  s e c t i o n i s n o t a b l y low  of environmental  high  d i r e c t l y an econconditions.  This  i n the production of f i n e f a r animals  r e q u i r i n g a f o r e s t e d environment.  Thus the t e r r e s t r i a l  species  fox, l y n x , and marten a l l are produced i n small numbers i n the area and  f i s h e r i s absent.  The  only f i n e  fur species  i n r e l a t i v e abundance are the a q u a t i c heaver and mink. s c a r c i t y of high p r i c e d fur s p e c i e s appears to be the  taken This result  of a r e s t r i c t e d f o r e s t area o c c u r r i n g at high e l e v a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t  of t h i s fine  fur s c a r c i t y *  f o r t r a p p e r s to take more coarse where f i n e f u r i s abundant.  i t would appear n a t u r a l  f u r than would  be the oase  In many ways t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s  comparable to t h a t of areas of r e l a t i v e l y dense human population,  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t there  i s not the same com-  petition for trap l i n e s ; I t might important  be argued that i f this economic f a c t o r i s  i n the h i g h w o l f  p r o d u c t i o n of F o r e s t S e o t i o n  that both muskrat and weasel p r o d u c t i o n for that area  2,  should  be of a l e v e l comparable to s e c t i o n s w i t h small t r a p l i n e s * I t appears, however, that these s p e c i e s are net s u f f i c i e n t l y abundant f o r t h i s  f a c t o r to operate.  I t has been shown that  but for a small area i n the north muskrat i s not numbers i n t h i s s e c t i o n , while weasel p r o d u c t i o n , lower than  i n sections with similar  r e f l e c t i o n of e q u a l l y l i g h t  i n being  t r a p l i n e s i z e , may  that the magnitude of  p r o d u c t i o n i s governed p r i m a r i l y by the f a c t o r s fur species.  In  be a  populations.  I t would appear, then*  other ooarse  taken  wolf  affecting  S e o t i o n 2 i s an e x c e p t i o n however,  wherein an apparent abundance of the s p e c i e s , combined w i t h a scarcity  of f i n e  f u r s p e c i e s as a r e s u l t  c o n d i t i o n s , have probably  of  environmental  i n f l u e n c e d p r o d u c t i o n to the  extent  that i t resembles t h a t of s e c t i o n s w i t h s m a l l t r a p l i n e s . Marten (Martes  americana)  The most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e of marten computed f o r the animal  seven s e c t i o n s  i n the w i d e l y  (Fig. 7).  production  i s the near absence of the  separated F o r e s t S e c t i o n s 1 and  6  Since these areas have been h e a v i l y trapped,  as has been shown* have been h e a v i l y logged r e l a t i v e  and  to the  1 2  3 FOREST  ^  5  6  7  SECTIONS  Fig.7. Marten Produotion Trends by Forest Sections  W.  E.  GREAT PLAINS Fig.8. Marten Production Trends,from West to East, upon the Great Plains.  r e s t r i c t e d areas o f merchantible sent, i t appears that these n e a r l y exterminate  spruce which were once pre-  two f a c t o r s have combined to  t h i s animal.  (MoCracken and Van C l e v e , 1 9 4 7 )  The marten i s easy t o trap and i s w i d e l y accepted  q u i r i n g climax c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t i n which to l i v e . . climax f o r e s t through burning,  two  Removal of  logging, or clearing f o r a g r i -  c u l t u r e i s u s u a l l y followed by the disappearance from the area a f f e c t e d .  o f marten  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , then,  f o r e s t s e c t i o n s supporting  as r e -  the h i g h e s t human  that the  populations  have the lowest marten p r o d u c t i o n . Of the remaining  f i v e s e o t i o n s , S e c t i o n 2 has a  p r o d u c t i o n about one h a l f t h a t of the lowest  o f the others*  T h i s c o n d i t i o n might l o g i c a l l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o r t i o n of the S t i k i n e P l a t e a u t h a t i s f o r e s t e d , but i t i s probable  that another  major f a c t o r l i e s i n the extensive  and many burns r e p o r t e d by C o l l i n s  ( 1 9 4 4 )  for this entire  area.  I t i s e v i d e n t that marten do s u c c e s s f u l l y i n h a b i t f o r e s t s approaching  tree l i n e .  Clarke  ( 1 9 4 0 )  reports i t i n outlying  stands upon the barren grounds, and Robinson  ( 1 9 4 6 )  states  that i t l i v e s i n the h i g h wooded v a l l e y s of the Mackenzie Mountains.  I t seems d o u b t f u l that such h a b i t a t , where c l i m a t i c  c o n d i t i o n s are severe, and where an o n l y moderately r i c h  fauna  and f l o r a undergoes an a d m i t t e d l y i n t e n s e but r a t h e r b r i e f productive season, can support a s high a marten p o p u l a t i o n as climax f o r e s t s at lower l a t i t u d e s or a l t i t u d e s .  I n t h i s con-  n e c t i o n , Dixon (1938) r e c o r d s i t i n Alaska as most abundant i n the h e a v i e r spruce  stands at lower e l e v a t i o n s .  I t follows  then  t h a t the  c l i m a x f o r e s t s of S e c t i o n 2 are  capable  of p r o d u c i n g  just  fully  as  now  the h i g h m a r t e n p o p u l a t i o n s o f  climax,  appear probable  In lower s e c t i o n s .  that the  t o be  productions  similar, with  the  lowest,  indicative  o f more e f f i c i e n t  Forest yielding  one  trapped. highly  Section 4  pelt  has  per y e a r  5*  be  1,  13  entirely  about F o r t N e l s o n *  tend  expected  i t s small trap  the h i g h e s t m a r t e n  on a p p r o x i m a t e l y  7  and  t r a p p i n g i n the  This h i g h c a t c h i s almost  productive area  i n Seotion  a s might 6 and  from i t s g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e from S e o t i o n lines  forests,  a l a r g e numbers o f m a r t e n .  of F o r e s t S e c t i o n s 3,  the l a s t  in-  I t would a l s o  s i m i l a r l y high forests,  depleted, never contained The  probably  past. production,  square  due  The  miles  to a  small,  seven t r a p  l i n e s w i t h i n , or p a r t i a l l y within, a r a d i u s of s i x t e e n miles o f t h i s community, the  south  p l u s one  s e c t i o n d u r i n g the trap lines  trapped is  in this  f o r which  two  are  both  s e c t i o n during  y e a r s , and  mile  two  c o n s i d e r e d as The  there  o n l y 18  represent  vicinity  stands  of lowland,  Forest  in British  larger  total  areas  the  this  circle  are  records  At  the  percent  two  of  the  same p e r i o d .  miles trapped  square  mile  of F o r t N e l s o n  merchantable Columbia.  for  Collins  the these  entire This  mile  f o r one  area  figure trapped  year,  years* contains  spruce  percent  same t i m e  y e a r s , where a s q u a r e  square  along  have p r o d u c e d 41  period 1930-1°48.  b a s e d u p o n square  for  outside  bank o f t h e Muskwa R i v e r ,  of a l l marten p e l t s  eight  just  the  finest  i n the e n t i r e  ( 1 9 4 4 ) has  of merchantable timber  Boreal  recorded  f o r the  Mard  Plain  ( F o r e s t  F o r e s t  b y  t h e  s m a l l  v a l l e y s  h a v e  l i t t l e  a r e a  o f  a  4.  S e c t i o n  o r e a s e d  i n  3)  S e c t i o n  o f  m a t u r e  5  4,  b o u n d e d  w a r d s  d e c r e a s e d  I  6  i  m a r k e d ,  t h e  s  t a b u l a t i o n  o f  f  f r o m  o n e  p e l t  t h e  r e m o v e d  p e r  e i g h t  t h e  f r o m  f r o m  d a t a  t h e  t h e  l o w  f o r  s e e m s  35,  2 0 ,  t o  b e  I t  a n i m a l s  m o s t  p o p u l a t i o n s ,  F o r e s t  43,  85  a n d  a  a n d  s e c t i o n  t h e  f o r  a r e a s ,  t o -  t h e  i  n  s q u a r e  a b o u t  t w o  m o s t  F o r e s t  t h e  b e o o m i n g ,  f r o m  l i n e s  l i n e s  t h e  f o u r  t e n d e n c y  1 2 4  p r o d u c i n g  e a s t e r n  n o t e w o r t h y ,  w o u l d  i  n  t r e n d  t h e  i  s  s a m e  S e c t i o n s  1  i  a n d  t  m i l e s .  T h e  t r e n d  s  t  i  l  l  a m o n g  t h o s e  h o w e v e r .  a p p e a r  a d v e r s e l y  s i n c e  s q u a r e  t h a t  t h e  a f f e c t e d  a l o n e  6.  i  O r ,  s  m a r t e n  b y  t h e  n e a r l y  i  f  t h i s  n  o f  ••-5  o r d e r ,  i  F o r e s t  i n t o  t r a p  45,  1 6 ,  d a t a  f i g u r e s  r e s u l t  d i s t a n c e  p r o d u c i n g  t h e  t h e  p r o d u c t i o n  1 6 ,  l a r g e  a  o f  s h o w s  e a s t ,  h i g h  f r o m  d a t a  t o  b e  -  f i g u r e s  r e f l e c t e d  Kiver,  P e a c e  i n c r e a s e d  w e s t  n o t  n  F o r e s t  t h e s e  p a r t s  t h e  l o n g i t u d e ,  w i t h  s  i  w i d e s p r e a d .  o f  a n d  f o u r  m o s t  a n d  f o r  f o r e s t  C o a s t  m a y  e a s t e r n  b e  o f  i  T h i s  m e r i d i p u s  r e m o v e d  a r e a s ,  3  t h e  o r d e r  a r e  S e o t i o n  t o  o f  t h a n  r e l a t i v e l y  o f  p r o d u c e  w e s t e r l y  e a s t  T h e  S e c t i o n  t h e  w e s t  t y p e  h o w e v e r ,  y i e l d . .  n  t h e  a r e a s  n o r t h  t h e s e  K e l s o n  i  t o  t h i s  s t u d y .  F o r e s t  p r o d u c t i o n  8).  h a v e  R a n g e ,  m a r t e n  6,  b y  n  l i n e s  t o  I n  m i l e s ( F i g .  i  p l a t e a u x  t i m b e r e d  t h i s  a p p e a r s  m o u n t a i n s .  a r e a s  f o r  t r a p  a n d  a r e a s  C o a s t  h i g h  w e s t  h i g h  h e a v i l y  t h e  f o r e s t  A  F o r t  p l a t e a u x  t i m b e r  o f  s p r u o e  S e c t i o n s  T h e  m e a n i n g  p a u o i t y  w e r e  t h e  b u t  p r o p o r t i o n a l l y  t h e  a n d  i s  i n f l u e n c e s  a b s e n t  f r o m  i s  t r u e ,  n o t  o f  h u m a n  b o t h  a n  l e s s  a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n may of the  species*  I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e r e may  wherein r e s i d e n t s are  similarly  wanderers from a d j a c e n t been suggested strict  for fisher  both  probably  be  a f f e c t e d by  a r e a s , may.keep up i n Seotion  h a b i t a t requirements  forest, the  l i e i n a rather sedentary  6.  other  forest  r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , and  but  production, I n view  removal  preventing  species  humans,  of  of m a r t e n f o r c l i m a x  apply,  habit  as  the  has rather  coniferous  exterminating  the  entrance  of  wanderers. The low  production  production The  these  sections indicate a  i n high forest spruce  approaching forests  and  i n the  due  t o an  partly  due  but  the  swamp  the  e x t e n s i v e muskeg and  of S e o t i o n  4.,  Marten occur  i n s m a l l numbers.  o f m a r t e n seem t o be  highest  quality,  the l o w l a n d  h e n c e of h i g h e s t  i n Manning P r o v i n c i a l forest,  the l a r g e s t  park;  o f a l l p r o p o r t i o n to i t s s i z e types  of forest*  The  reason  was  site,  spruce to  for t h i s  to  the  pro-  ex-  apparent  by  stand far  of marten  the a r e a s  of  sawmill.  were a s m a l l and w i t h  in  data,  forests  personal  productive  relative  this  a r e a s most  value  P a r k , B.C.  on a good l o w l a n d  t r e e s i n the  From  that those  T h i s c o n d i t i o n i s f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d by  of climax  mountains i s  to  ductive  perience  value.  o in  i s worth noting a suggestion  and  commercial  high  i n f l u e n c e of F o r e s t S e o t i o n  eastern half  eastern areas,  relatively  t i m b e r l i n e , and  of h i g h  i n p r o d u c t i o n eastward from  partly  the s o u t h , country  i n other  i n lowland  deorease  probably  it  trends  of  out other  correlation  may  be i n part due to lowlands being both more a c c e s s i b l e to  the  t r a p p e r and most able to f u r n i s h such s u p e r i o r  sites. are to  growing  However i n those F o r t Nelson l i n e s f o r which there  r e c o r d s f o r over t e n y e a r s , the number of p e l t s taken f a i l s , show s e r i o u s d e c l i n e s f o r l o n g p e r i o d s .  Thus f u r p r o d u c t i o n  does not seem to exceed the p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y of the animals and the y i e l d appears to be s u s t a i n e d .  I t would appear  that  such f o r e s t s provide the most favourable marten h a b i t a t . F i s h e r (Martes pennanti) The f i s h e r approaches  the n o r t h e r n l i m i t of i t s  r a n g e * i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Rand (I945) has no  f i n i t e r e c o r d s f o r the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , does occur i n the south. British  Columbia  de-  but b e l i e v e s that i t  As w i l l be seen, data from n o r t h e r n  support t h i s  view.  Even where the f i s h e r i s most abundant i t appears never to be a common mammal.  G r i n n e l l et a l . (1937) have  recorded t h a t i n C a l i f o r n i a , i n good f i s h e r country, i t i s unusual to f i n d more than one or two to a township. r e s u l t , the animal t r a v e l s over a f a i r l y l a r g e  As a  territory.  T h i s h a b i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n many animals b e i n g t r a c k e d down; r a t h e r than trapped. America's  The  p e l t of the f i s h e r i s one o f  r a r e s t and most v a l u a b l e f u r s .  As noted In  C a l i f o r n i a ( G r i n n e l et a l . , 1 9 3 7 ) and i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  at Anahim Lake and Manning Park from personal contaots w i t h t r a p p e r s , a f i s h e r c r o s s i n g a t r a p l i n e i s pursued, f o r often it  i s a wanderer that w i l l not r e t u r n to be trapped.  Its  value  justifies  such  seems j u s t i f i e d animal  special  to consider  as indicative  applicable  t o most  effort. the  From t h i s  trapping returns o f this  of p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d s  other  Differences  fur  t o a degree  on  the  coast  t o the Plain  absent  i n p r o d u c t i v i t y among the  southeast to the  f r o m the  from S e c t i o n s  to t h e w e s t  plateau  1 and  2,  I na l l cases,  these  s e c t i o n s by e x t e n s i v e  of lower e l e v a t i o n than the  Since  the  roached here  latter  i s found  northern  at this  limit  latitude  be a more e f f e c t i v e  However, S w a r t h traversed  by f o r e s t  of  Liard  barrier  north  end  i n the  Liard  inhabits forests  i s the  states  former."  fisher  they w o u l d  o f the  i s app-  farther  south.  Mountains  Stikine.  There  are also  centres  high,  dry,  There are  less  both  evidence  these  mountains .  a s f a r as A n v i l Mountain, west  Post.  of Dease Lake and  live  plateau  separated  Hamilton (1939)  f i s h e r have p e n e t r a t e d  t h a t have t h e i r  cannot  are  s h o w n ' t h a t the C o a s t  Plain at least  this  interior  Columbia, mountains would  than  valley  occurs  i n the C a s s i a r M o u n t a i n s , i n t h e v a l l e y o f  there  From  and  o f the  t h e McDame H u d s o n ! s Bay  numbers.  fisher  of t h e r a n g e in British  it  a n d on the  areas  than  i n the  Dease R i v e r , and  f r o m the  the  f a r t h e r north  (1922) has  a p p e a r s t o be a g a p the  does marten*  seotions  mountain masses.  G - r i n n e l l e t a l . (1937) r e p o r t t h a t t h e  that  although  I946),  (Anderson,  forest  The s p e c i e s i s  ( S t a n w e l l - F l e t c h e r , 1943),  east.  not  species*  show some i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n s ( F i g . 9 ) . apparently  information i t  than  two t r a p  twenty m i l e s  have t a k e n  fisher  i t would appear that  lines from  the  i n small the  species  Gold, s o r u b b y f o r e s t s o f t h e s e  F i g . ? . F i s h e r P r o d u c t i o n Trends by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s ;  W  E  GREAT PLAINS  F i g . 1 0 . F i sher Pro duct i o n Trends,frpm We 81 t o E a s t , upon the Great P l a i n s ;  4?.  n o r t h w e s t e r n  p l a t e a u x .  T h e  9).  ( F i g .  a n d  P r o d u c t i o n  f i s h e r  a r e  M o u n t a i n s ,  h a l f  a s  a s  i  n  h i g h e s t  s e p a r a t e d  159  a n d  a h d  f r o m  c a t c h  m i l e s  ( F o r e s t  t o  t h a t  t o  i s  a  l  l  t h e r e  i  t h e  w h i c h  t h e  o n e  t w o  p r o d u c e s  p r o g r e s s i v e  7,  T h u s  C a s s i a r  4  a  S e c t i o n  p r o d u c i n g  a r e  s  h i g h ,  t h e  S e o t i o n  s e c t i o n s .  7,  a n d  t r e n d  r e l a t i v e l y  p e n e t r a t i n g  F o r e s t  r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  t h e  t r a p p e d ,  t h e  t h e  o n e  f i s h e r  a r e a  o f  t r a p  i s  h a s  w i d e l y  p e l t  260  p e r  h i g h e s t  d e f i n e d  p e r  t h e n ,  y e a r  f o r  t h a t  C o l u m b i a ,  i  o o m e  n  325,  m o s t  i  t h e  ( F i g .  p r o -  a r e a s  t h e  o r d e r  f r o m  1033,  a n d  a n  I890  t a k e n  a r e a  o n  s q u a r e  i  n  t o  a d j a c e n t  r e - ,  i  t  i  n  s  t h e  a r e a  t h e  o f  s o u t h  w e s t  m i l e s  i  a r e  b o u n d e d  e a s t ,  s q u a r e  t h e  s  i  m i l e s  e a s t ,  w e s t  i  t h e  u n d e r t r a p p e d ,  t o  v a r i a t i o n  h a l f ,  d e g r e e s  s q u a r e  P l a i n s  e a s t ,  b o u n d a r y ,  2 4 6  p r o b a b l y  t o  T h u s  e v e r y 3 9 3 t o  t h i s  w e s t e r n  1 2 4  G r e a t  s e o t i o n s  w e s t  1 0 ) ,  a n d  f o r  f i s h e r  f r o m  t h r e e  f r o m  n  123  n o r t h e r n  c l a r i f i e s  t h e s e  r e d u c e d  l i n e s ,  l o n g i t u d e ,  6 )  p r o v i n c i a l  p r o d u c e s  s i m i l a r l y  B r i t i s h  t h e  b e t w e e n  t h i s  a n d  t a k e n  a n d  T h e  e v i d e n t ,  b y  t h r e e  t r e n d s  m o u n t a i n s  n o r t h  l a r g e  f i s h e r  a r e  t h e  f o r  p r o d u c t i o n  u n u s u a l l y  m e r i d i o u s  4 , 5 ,  R i v e r  a n d  t h r e e  o f  d a t a  f i s h e r  t o  t h e  P e a c e  l o n g i t u d e  I f  m o s t  o n  a n a l y s i s  S e c t i o n s  s h o w  a d j a c e n t  b o u n d e d  a  o f  3  3  s o u t h w a r d  a v e r a g e  S e o t i o n s  e v e n  i n t e r e s t i n g  c o m p a r i s o n ,  p r o d u c t i o n  F o r e s t  t a b u l a t e d  b y  t h e r e  a n  S e o t i o n  B y  a v e r a g e  p r o d u c t i o n .  a r e a  F o r e s t  s h o w  s e c t i o n s .  s e c t i o n s  f o u n d  n  a b o v e .  F u r t h e r  i n  S e c t i o n s  t h r o u g h o u t ,  n o t e d  s q u a r e  d u c i n g  i  t a k e n  m a n y ,  i n c r e a s e  t h e  r e m a i n i n g  f  t w o  o m i t t e d .  b y  p r o d u c e  m i l e s .  I  B o r e a l  F o r e s t  t o  e a s t  t h e  t  i  s  o f  s l o p e  of the Rocky Mountains, t u r n i n g westward at the l i a r d R i v e r to i n c l u d e the H a r d P l a i n .  Thus, the high f i s h e r , p r o d u c t i o n  areas appear to be those most i n f l u e n c e d by mountains as to topography, e f f i o i e n o y of drainage, The  relatively flat,  decidedly less  c l i m a t e , and  p o o r l y d r a i n e d areas  vegetation.  towards A l b e r t a are  productive.  I n s o f a r as i s p o s s i b l e , t r a p p i n g methods have been analysed  to determine i f these, r a t h e r than environment  the n a t u r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the animal, duction pattern. trap-line  produced t h i s  and  pro-  There i s no c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h f o r e s t  section  s i z e , a f a c t o r which r e f l e c t s t r a p p i n g i n t e n s i t y i n  a general way.  l i n e s are l a r g e s t on the H a r d  about the Peace R i v e r and there are no a p p r e c i a b l e  southward.  Plain,  smallest  Worth of the Peace R i v e r  d i f f e r e n c e s i n average l i n e s i z e f o r  the four areas bounded by meridians  of l o n g i t u d e .  As a f u r t h e  t e s t the most abundant f i n e f u r s p e c i e s i n the r e g i o n , the red fox* was  t a b u l a t e d l o n g i t u d i n a l l y f o r the p l a i n s north  Peace River.. governing  I t i s b e l i e v e d that i f t r a p p i n g e f f o r t  was  f i s h e r abundance s i m i l a r t r e n d s would appear f o r  fox p r o d u c t i o n .  There i s no  d u c t i o n i s n e a r l y constant and  of the  such s i m i l a r t r e n d .  Pox  pro-  among the three mos t? e a s t e r l y areas  there i s a drop i n the area next the mountains whioh  be s i g n i f i g a n t  (see under red f o x ) .  I t i s concluded  f i s h e r i s probably most abundant where p r o d u c t i o n Reasons for the e a s t e r n s e c t i o n s are now d u c t i o n o f S e c t i o n s 4 and  pr o d u c t i o n  trends  partially clarified. jj i s probably  the  i s highest.  i n the The  that  may  five low  the r e s u l t of  prolow  f i s h e r p o p u l a t i o n s i n t h e i r e a s t e r n h a l f s , even though t h e i r western h a l v e s have a h i g h p r o d u c t i o n comparable with highest production. to  to s e c t i o n s  The open, m o d i f i e d S e o t i o n 6 seems  d e r i v e i t s f a i r l y high p r o d u c t i o n from a d j a c e n t s e c t i o n s ,  since producing  l i n e s are those n e a r e s t other s e c t i o n s *  It i s  noteworthy that f i s h e r p r o d u c t i o n i n S e c t i o n 6 i s higher  than  marten p r o d u c t i o n i n the same area, a c o n d i t i o n the more notable When the u s u a l p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s of these s p e c i e s are considered* So l i t t l e  i s known of f i s h e r ecology  i t s h a b i t a t requirements requirements exist*  with  i n g e n e r a l and  i n p a r t i c u l a r that r a t h e r than match  broad environmental  c o n d i t i o n s known to  as has been done f o r most s p e c i e s i n t h i s study,  necessary  t o suggest  what i t s requirements  it is  are from c o n d i t i o n s  e x i s t i n g throughout areas where i t i a most abundantly found. I t would f i r s t unfavourable to  environments.  be of h e l p to note some a p p a r e n t l y I t has been noted  i n California  r a r e l y i n h a b i t the h i g h e r f o r e s t s ( G r i n n e l l e t a l , 1?37),  a statement s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the absence of the s p e c i e s on the high, western plateaux where most f o r e s t s are o f the scrubby type  t y p i c a l of f o r e s t s n e a r i n g  dinal l i m i t .  their altitudinal  or l a t i t u -  F u r t h e r the s p e c i e s i s present i n o n l y s m a l l  numbers on the p o o r l y d r a i n e d areas adjacent  to A l b e r t a , where  muskegs and swamps cover much of the country. It  i s noteworthy that f i s h e r are s t i l l taken  open, l a r g e l y deciduous f o r e s t s o f F o r e s t S e c t i o n 6.  i n the  It i s  a s m a l l olue perhaps, but i s suggests fisher  t h a t u n l i k e marten, the  i s not so dependent upon climax' c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t .  The  o t h e r r e g i o n s where i t occurs i n g r e a t e s t abundance, on the Great P l a i n s adjacent  t o the Rockies and upon the L i a r d  have been noted as having a deciduous  Plain,  i n f l u e n c e i n the f o r e s t ,  not only from the dry o l i m a t e producing a s u g g e s t i o n of eootone to g r a s s l a n d c o n d i t i o n s , but also from Large areas uous s e r a i stages because of numerous burns.  i n decid-  Pisher  prod-  u c t i o n i s thus highest i n low areas where the olimate appears to be dry, and the f o r e s t s , have a deciduous most part s e r a i ,  but i n some cases climax.  d u c t i o n could be the r e s u l t  area.  suggestion has m e r i t .  however, that such  This h i g h  pro-  of h i g h f i s h e r p o p u l a t i o n s i n the  mountains b o r d e r i n g t h i s deciduous may show t h i s  element, f o r the  F u r t h e r knowledge  I t seems  improbable,  i s the case when the s p e c i e s i s known t o  be u n s u c c e s s f u l i n f o r e s t s approaching  timberline.  These  f o r e s t s are not only c o l d , but r e l a t i v e l y wet ( H a l l i d a y , I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note  that i n the Coast F o r e s t ,  1937).  areas  producing the most f i s h e r are not the wet f o r e s t s o f the outer coast, but the d r i e r  f o r e s t s , sometimes w i t h a s t r o n g de-  ciduous element i n t h e i r s t r u c t u r e , l y i n g i n the v a l l e y s , and approaching  c o n d i t i o n s of the I n t e r i o r ( C F . MacLeod, M.S.).  I t should also be noted  t h a t one of the h i g h e s t  areas f o r f i s h e r i n B r i t i s h  production  Columbia i s i n the n o r t h e r n part  o,f the d r y Montane F o r e s t ( H a l l i d a y , op^.cit.), about F o r t F r a s e r and S t u a r t Lake (Anon., 1948),  and that t h i s area has  been h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e s i n c e the e a r l y days  of the f u r trade  (MaeFarlane, I908).  T h i s area i s i n r e a l i t y a  from the dry Montane F o r e s t to the wet (Halliday,  transition  Sub-alpine  Forest  op,cit.). While the i n f o r m a t i o n i s g e n e r a l , i t would appear  -  that f i s h e r are most s u o o e s s f u l i n the d r i e r f o r e s t s of the province, or perhaps, r a t h e r , i n t r a n s i t i o n a l such dry areas.  f o r e s t s bordering  I t seems to a v o i d high f o r e s t .  There i s a l s o  evidenoe to c l a s s i f y i t as an i n h a b i t a n t of s e r a i ,  deciduous  stages i n the lower,warmer c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s of the west. Weasel (Mustela The weasel i s taken  erminea)  throughout  B r i t i s h Columbia i n l a r g e numbers, i s a coarse  f u r , and  f i n e fur animals (I944) found  like  the B o r e a l F o r e s t i n the muskrat, weasel  i s sought with most energy i n areas where  are s c a r c e .  Along  the Alaska Highway Rand  that t r a p p e r s pay l i t t l e  a t t e n t i o n to i t , while  Robinson (1946) r e c o r d s that i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s i t i s an " i n c i d e n t a l f u r " w i t h l i t t l e  e f f o r t made by t r a p p e r s  to  take i t . As i n muskrat, p r o d u c t i o n by F o r e s t S e c t i o n s ( F i g . 11)  c l o s e l y f o l l o w s trap l i n e s i z e (Fig.  20).  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of t h i s s i m i l a r i t y  The c a l c u l a t e d i s .821,  with  0.02.  P equal t o It  has been noted  by s e v e r a l authors  t h a t weasel  numbers vary w i t h the abundance of s m a l l rodents  (Dixon,  G r i n n e l l et a l , 1937).  that  I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted  f o r e s t s maintain r e l a t i v e l y  small rodent  populations,  1938;  climax and  Fig,11. Weasel Production Trends by Forest Seotions  that an open o r semi-open c o u n t r y s i d e a f f o r d s more food and cover f o r them.  I t f o l l o w s that human i n f l u e n c e s upon a  forested region w i l l  tend to modify the v e g e t a t i o n i n favour  of small rodents, and hence of weasels. appear to operate  i n r a i s i n g weasel p r o d u c t i o n i n areas o f  r e l a t i v e l y h i g h human p o p u l a t i o n . increased*  Thus two f a c t o r s  The weasel p o p u l a t i o n i s  and t r a p p i n g e f f o r t t o take weasels i s i n c r e a s e d .  I t seems probable  that these f a c t o r s l a r g e l y govern the  d u c t i o n of weasel p e l t s i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h  pro-  Columbia.  Since a number o f forms of weasels occur i n the area s t u d i e d , and these show some d i f f e r e n c e a s t o h a b i t a t , preference i t has not appeared j u s t i f i a b l e to search f o r n a t u r a l environmental  trends.  The taxonomy and d i s t r i b u t i o n  of weasels i n t h i s r e g i o n i s as yet i m p e r f e c t l y known. Mink (Mustela  vison)  The mink i s an a q u a t i c mammal* i n h a b i t i n g a l l f o r e s t sections.  Rand (1943) s t a t e s t h a t country  s u p p l i e d with l a k e s are best producing Territory.  plentifully  areas i n the Yukon  Soper (1942) d e s c r i b e s i d e a l h a b i t a t i n n o r t h e r n  A l b e r t a as swampy wi th muskegs, ponds, l a k e s , s l u g g i s h streams, and i n g e n e r a l , a poor drainage. (1937) w r i t i n g of C a l i f o r n i a ,  Grinnell et a l .  s t a t e that low marshy lands  are b e t t e r h a b i t a t than mountain streams. Both G r i n n e l l e t a l . (1937) and Rand (1944) s t a t e that  the abundance, of mink depends l a r g e l y upon the abundance  of food*  Mink eat many forms of a q u a t i c , semi-aquatic, and  even t e r r e s t r i a l l i f e  ( G r i n n e l l et a l , o p . c i t . ) .  i s pro-  bable that the c o l d , r a p i d l y f l o w i n g waters o f rugged e i t h e r upon h i g h plateaux  or i n f o o t h i l l s adjacent  country,  to mountains,  w i l l c o n t a i n a l e s s abundant, l e s s v a r i e d fauna then the warmer waters of a s l u g g i s h drainage where s o i l r e s u l t e d i n a more l u x u r i a n t f l o r a .  deposition  In g e n e r a l ,  has  the same  reasoning would seem to a p p l y to r a p i d streams as compared to l a k e s and  ponds. ( F i g . 12)  Mink p r o d u c t i o n accordance w i t h  the drainage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  F o r e s t S e c t i o n 1* it  d e s p i t e the apparent  has been trapped,  t h i s speoies lakes.  muskrat, and section.  The  i n t e n s i t y w i t h which  because of the l a r g e part o f i t s area covered  T h i s topography favourable  where two  to lake f o r m a t i o n  i n t o the n o r t h e r n  by  i s noted  part of F o r e s t  Section  trap l i n e s produce a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of beaver, otter relative same holds  to the p r o d u c t i o n  true  of the whole  f o r mink, these two  lines  ducing  69  of  plateau, w i t h narrow r i v e r v a l l e y s , and high,  the  seotions;  appears to have maintained numbers of  elsewhere as extending 2,  appears to vary i n  percent  of a l l p e l t s taken i n the s e o t i o n .  t r e e l e s s t a b l e l a n d s y i e l d s r e l a t i v e l y few Forest S e o t i o n  6,  pro-  The  rest  flat,  mink.  the dry parkland  s e c t i o n , appears  to have the number of mink reduced by heavy t r a p p i n g f o r i t s production  i s the lowest of a l l s e o t i o n s .  productions proximity  of S e c t i o n s 5 and  to S e c t i o n 6,  and  7 may  be  t h e i r being  heavy t r a p p i n g o f that s e o t i o n and  other  The  r e l a t i v e l y low  i n part due  to t h e i r  i n f l u e n c e d by  the  i n f l u e n c e s of i t s  .  1  2  3  F O R E S T  4  5  6  7  S E C T I O N S  Fig.12. Mink Production Trends by Forest Seotions  — . 1  W.  E.  GREAT PLAINS Fig.13. Mink Production Trends,from West to East, upon the Great P l a i n s .  human p o p u l a t i o n . F o r e s t S e c t i o n s 3 and  4 re  of the f i v e e a s t e r n seotions, and  a  the h i g h e s t  produoers  these are both c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by l a r g e , f l a t areas w i t h poor drainage, meandering r i v e r s , swamps, muskegs, and s m a l l l a k e s . h i g h production  suoh poor drainage,  while  their  they c o n t a i n s m a l l areas  have a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e part of t h e i r  by broken f o o t h i l l country.  drainage  owe  to l a r g e areas of good mink h a b i t a t .  S e c t i o n s 5 and 7,  covered  These, then, may  area  There i s thus r a p i d  over l a r g e p a r t s of t h e i r s u r f a c e .  topography i s a f a c t o r  of  If this f o o t h i l l s  i n l o w e r i n g mink production, a study of  p r o d u c t i o n as compared to d i s t a n c e east of the mountains, as has been done f o r c e r t a i n other s p e c i e s , should  show h i g h e r  production adjacent  I f production  to A l b e r t a , than westward.  i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r the f o u r areas bounded by meridions l y i n g between the 60th p a r a l l e l and  l o n g i t u d e and River* pelt  the  p r o d u c t i o n from west to east i s found 77,  for 118,  45,  and 46  square m i l e s  f a r t h e s t east, and trapped are omitted the  the two  the Peace to be  ( F i g * 13).  from the i n t e n s e l y trapped S e c t i o n 6 i s omitted  of  one I f data  from the  area  l a r g e trap l i n e s thought to be under-  from the  data for the most w e s t e r l y  area,  p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s , g i v e n i n the same order, become one  p e l t for 63, suggest  77,  and 32  square m i l e s .  h i g h e r p r o d u c t i o n on  f o o t h i l l s , and 7 are  45  the f l a t  p l a i n s than  s u b s t a n t i a t e the suggestion  lower mink producers  These f i g u r e s i n the  that S e c t i o n s 5  than S e c t i o n s 3 and  4 because  c o n t a i n r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e r areas of what appears to be  and  they  7*  f a v o u r a b l e mink h a b i t a t . I t i s oonoluded t h a t mink p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h  the  e x c e p t i o n of F o r e s t S e o t i o n 6 which appears to have i t s mink reduced  i n numbers by o v e r t r a p p i n g , tends to vary  to the drainage Lakes, or a f l a t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  than areas with good drainage.  appear to be  of the  environmental  occurs  conditions  luseus)  i s taken r e g u l a r l y i n s m a l l numbers  i n a l l f o r e s t s e o t i o n s except  animals  production  favourable.  Wolverine (Gulp The w o l v e r i n e  i n a higher  Where poor drainage  at high a l t i t u d e s , as i n S e c t i o n 2,  terminated  s e c t i o n s concerns di  topography r e s u l t i n g i n s l u g g i s h r i v e r s ,  swamps, and muskegs, appear to r e s u l t  f o r mink do not  according  S e c t i o n 6...  I t i s probably  i n t h i s s e c t i o n , the records showing o n l y  ex-  two  taken near Hudson Hope i n the extreme western  end  area. The w o l v e r i n e  ( G r i n n e l l et a l ; 1937) i n high f o r e s t s (Dixon,  is t y p i c a l l y a timberline species and  ranges w i d e l y  1938).  Gierke  on the tundra  and  (1940) r e c o r d s i t f a r  out on the barren grounds, and Dixon ( o p . c i t . ) . d e s c r i b e s i t as c o m p l e t e l y at home among the high crags of A l a s k a . authors agree that i t i s a wide ranging s p e c i e s , and may  Most that i t  wander over a s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e a r e a . • The  p r o d u c t i o n t r e n d from northwest to southeast  B r i t i s h Columbia's B o r e a l F o r e s t seems to be s i g n i f i g a n t , c o r r e l a t e s w e l l w i t h the degree of i n f l u e n c e from high  in and  altitude  8o.  areas  (Fig.. 14).  the h i g h e s t  The two h i g h , western f o r e s t s e c t i o n s are  producers.  F o r a s p e c i e s such as t h i s ,  f o r e s t e d areas are no hindrance u l a t i o n , f o r i t oan l i v e lands, covered rangelands.  limited  to a r e l a t i v e l y dense pop-  e q u a l l y w e l l on the v a s t open t a b l e -  over much of t h e i r s u r f a c e s by r i c h , a l p i n e  The h i g h p r o d u c t i o n of F o r e s t S e c t i o n 1 i s note-  worthy, i n view o f the r e l a t i v e l y high human p o p u l a t i o n I t must be a t t r i b u t a b l e  to animals from surrounding  wandering onto t r a p l i n e s ,  there.  areas  f o r the. s p e c i e s i s noted f o r the  long d i s t a n c e s that i t t r a v e l s * The plateaux,  low H a r d P l a i n ,  bounded by mountains and h i g h  i s second i n p r o d u c t i o n  On the Great  only to S e c t i o n s 1 and 2.  P l a i n s , the most n o r t h e r n S e o t i o n 4 i s the  h i g h e s t producing a r e a , and the most southern being most thoroughly i s second.  S e c t i o n 7, i n  under the i n f l u e n c e of the f o o t h i l l s ,  S e c t i o n 5 i s , unaccountable, a lower producer  than e i t h e r S e o t i o n 4 to the n o r t h , or S e c t i o n 7 to the south.  Thus, the s e c t i o n s l i s t e d  1,2,3,4,7,  i n order o f production, a r e  5 and 6. I f , as has been done f o r some other s p e c i e s , the  Great  P l a i n s n o r t h o f the Peace R i v e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o  p a r a l l e l s t r i p s bounded by meridions  of l o n g i t u d e ,  four  there i s  a decrease i n p r o d u c t i o n i n p r o g r e s s i o n from west to east from the Rocky Mountains ( F i g . 15).  Thus, i f i n the seotions  g i v e n above i n order o f magnitude of production, d u c t i o n of the s t r i p adjacent  the pro-  to the mountains i s sub-  s t i t u t e d f o r F o r e s t Sections. 4,1 5,  and 6,  the order becomes,  1  2  3  FOREST  4  5  6  ?  SECTIONS  F i g ; 1 4 . Wolverine P r o d u c t i o n Trends by F o r e s t  Sections.  K  GREAT PLAINS F i g . 15". Wolverine P r o d u c t i o n Trends,from West t o E a s t , upon the Great P l a i n s .  1, 2, 3,  (4-3-6), 7.  T h i s t r e n d corresponds w e l l w i t h the  p r o x i m i t y of t i m b e r l i n e and  to the areas concerned.  Sections 1  2 are high f o r e s t s , and no part i s f a r from vast a l p i n e  areas.  S e o t i o n 3 i s surrounded by t u n d r a - b e a r i n g mountains  and t a b l e l a n d s . Rocky Mountains 1?37)  The  strip  down the e a s t e r n f o o t h i l l s of the  i s adjacent to tundra i n the n o r t h ( H a l l i d a y ,  but b u f f e r e d by Sub-alpine F o r e s t as It approaches  Peace R i v e r . from a l p i n e  the  S e c t i o n 7 i s s i m i l a r l y almost e n t i r e l y b u f f e r e d influences.  Upon the Great P l a i n s w o l v e r i n e are taken  through-  out the e a s t e r n areas as f a r as the p r o v i n c i a l boundary, and i n a few l i n e s are taken w i t h noteworthy sidering  regularity,  they are not anywhere common animals;  The  conevidence  c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s , however, t h a t f o r e s t s approaching tundra c o n d i t i o n s are the best producers, and such areas appear to be the most f a v o u r a b l e f o r e s t h a b i t a t o f the s p e c i e s . i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y no data f o r comparing tundra  There  high f o r e s t s with  itself. Otter (Lutra The o t t e r appears  canadensis) to be o f r a r e occurrence  out the B o r e a l F o r e s t of B r i t i s h Columbia.  through-  There are no  trap  l i n e r e t u r n s to i n d i c a t e that i t has been taken i n F o r e s t S e c t i o n 6, and  i t has been taken i n other s e o t i o n s only  o c c a s s i o n a l l y (Table 1 ) . result  These few r e t u r n s are probably a  of both the few animals present, and t r a p p e r s f i n d i n g  them d i f f i c u l t  to c a t c h and  the s k i n d i f f i c u l t ' to prepare  ( R a n d ,  s k i n  t o  1 9 4 4 ) .  o f  t h e  M o C r a e k e n  o t t e r  i  s  e a s i l y  F o r e s t  e x t e r m i n a t e d .  G o w a n  o f  f  t h e  m a m m a l s  b e l i e v e s  i  t  P r o d u c t i o n  v e r y  l o w  f a i r l y  t h a t  i  s  G l e v e  r e m o v e d  o  f i g u r e s  5  7  t  i  s  o  I  c o m m o n  a r e a s  t  i  t  o  s  ( 1 9 4 7 )  b u t  t h a t  i  n  a p p e a r  H  a  t o  r  j u n c t i o n  T u c h o d i  G r e a t  s t a t e  i  t  i  t h a t  s  G a p .  o  f  L a k e s  s e c t i o n ,  n  i  a d j a c e n t  x  t h e  s t a t e s  t h e  t h e  d i f f i c u l t  t h e  s c a r c i t y  o  t h a t  o t t e r  B r i t i s h  P l a i n s  t h e  f u r t h e r  o f  ( 1 9 4 4 )  ( l a t i t u d e  58  B  i  i  s  e  d e g r e e s  s  (I94B)  s e o t i o n s  a r e  3,  a  n  s  , i  a c c o u n t  A l b e r t a .  a n d  4  i n t e n s i t y  r a r e  a  i  6.  n  w h e r e  c o n t r i b u t i n g  g e n e r a l ,  a n d  b y  t h a t  u n -  i  n  s o m e  t r a p p e r s .  l i m i t  C o l u m b i a .  e v e n  s k i n s  l s o n  E,).  I  t  t h r o u g h  t a k e n  R i v e r s ,  H e  n  f i  d o e s  t  a n d  d o e s  o  t h e  a  e  o f  1 9 4 5 )  n  r  S e c t i o n  b e  n o r t h w e s t e r n  r e c o r d s  f  i  b e e n  m e p h i t i s )  B r i t i s h  F o r t  i  h  t r a p p i n g  m a y  r e d u c e d  ( M e p h i t i s  t h e  o  ( R a n d ,  f i s h  n  h a v e  p r o d u c t i o n  C o l u m b i a ,  C o r d i l l e r a ,  a n d  f  i  2,  o t t e r  T e r r i t o r y  t o  S o p e r  s p e c i e s  t h e  b e e n  1,  p a s t  Y u k o n  r e a c h e s  L i a r d  t h a t  t h e  a n d  l o w e r  t h e  t  f o r e s t  f o r ' S e o t i o n s  a n d  i  p a r t s  r e m a i n i n g  r e f l e c t s  S k u n k  R a n d  t h e  t h i s  a p p e a r s  m e n t i o n  t h e  h a v e  p e n e t r a t e  d  n o t  s  n o r t h e r n  s k u n k  o t t e r  d o e s  i  e  t h e  e x t e r m i n a t e d  t h a t  s n u m b e r s  t h e  h  c o n c l u d e d  T h e  o n  t  6>  F i g u r e s  S t r i p e d  r a n g e  r  (I94B)  t h r o u g h o u t  i  f  h a v e  a l s o  s u g g e s t e d  f a c t o r .  o f  p r o b a b l y  R a n d  a n d  p a r t s  t h r o u g h o u t ,  a n d  a p p e a r s  (1939)  1).  c o n s t a n t  A l b e r t a ,  r  S e c t i o n  e x t e r m i n a t e d  ( T a b l e  S e o t i o n s  l o w  V a n  f l e s h .  I n  i t  a n d  t  s  n o t  b r o a d ,  t h e  n e a r  o  t  t h e  r e c o r d  i t i n the Yukon (1945).  It has apparently been unable to reaoh  the Stikine drainage east of the Coast Mountains* f o r there are no records of i t s ooourrence there.  Stanwell-Fletoher  (1943)  records i t as occurring i n the.most northerly portions of the southern plateaux of the province, but the Skeena Mountains and high tablelands beyond have probably,prevented  i t s spread  northward. Munro ( 1 9 4 7 ) has recorded the species as unpopular with trappers, because of i t s odour, and the low value of i t s pelt.  It i s probable  skinned.  that.many trapped animals are never  As a result, the number of pelts sold i s probably  influenced as much by the abundance of fine fur on a trap l i n e as by the abundance of skunks. Most skins taken by trappers have come from those areas drained by the Peace River i n Forest Seotion 6, i n open and semi-open grassland ecotone.  Thirteen.have  been recorded  from t h i s section. In addition, four have been taken i n Section 7 i n the same period i n two adjacent of the Wapiti River (55  trap l i n e s i n the headwaters  degrees N. l a t i t u d e ) near the Alberta  boundary. . This species i s not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . o f boreal, coniferous forests i n C a l i f o r n i a ( S r i n n e l l et a l , 1 9 3 7 )  and i n .  Ontario i t i s most abundant i n the open and semi-open southern parts of the province where remaining  forests are predomin-  antly deciduous, or mixed from t r a n s i t i o n between southern  85.  h a r d w o o d s  l a n d  a n d  s e e m s  t  f o r e s t  i  n  s k u n k s  o c c u r  a  o  F o r e s t  h  e  t h e r e .  o f  L i a r d  a  n  d  a d d i t i o n  t  6  K o t c h o  T h i s ,  a  n  d  o  L a k e ,  F o r t  K o t c h o  a n i m a l  w a s  T r a p  G e n e r a l l y  a b u n d a n c e  s o u t h  t h r o u g h o u t  t  p r o v i n c e ,  o o m m o n  o n  a  i  n  r e c o r d s  t o  t  h  e  h  a n d  t  t  h a v e  h  e  f  t  o n l y  h  e  t  m o s t  i  h  s  e  t  h  e  c o n t a i n  t h i s  R i v e r  w a n d e r e r s  n  (op.cit.) T e l e g r a p h  t  h  e  o  r  r  f  o  t  h  e  s p e c i e s  t o o k  r  a  t h e  d e n o t e s  h  e  F o r e s t  j u n c t i o n  t h e  p r o v i n c e .  T h e  1947-48.  s e a s o n  r e f e r e n c e s  s p e c i e s  F o r e s t .  D i s t r i c t  o  o  t r a p p i n g  f e w  h  a  s  i  t  s t a t e s  a  s  C r e e k ,  o  n  d  r  o  t h e  o  r e c o r d s  of  t  i  t h a t  1939) a  t  o e n t r e  t h a t  n o t e d  P l a i n s  s  (1947)  i n t e r i o r  ( C o w a n ,  G r e a t  h  M u n r o  (1943)  at  f o r e s t s  o o n o o l o r )  S t a n w e l l - F l e t o h e r  p a i d  t  a n d  t h a t  p r o b a b l y  s o u t h e r n  b e e n  f  r e c o r d s  t h e  M u n r o  f  l i n e  n  w h e r e  s t a n d s .  r e o o r d  i  t h a t  C o l u m b i a  f r e q u e n t  s a m e  s o l i d  t h e r e f o r e ,  r e c o r d s  a  c l e a r e d  d o e s  d e c i d u o u s  d u r i n g  B o r e a l  f  e  s p e c i e s  ( F e l l s  o  r  R a n d ' s  t h i s  r e c o r d s  p l a t e a u x  P e a c e  h  t  i  n o  t  s  b o u n t i e s  I  t i  r e l a t i v e  p o r t i o n  o  f  t h e  a b u n d a n c e  s o u t h e r n  o  f  t h i s  i n t e r i o r  a n i m a l  i  P l a i n  p l a t e a u x  n t  a  n  h  d  s  (1944)  R a n d  L a i r d  i  e  A t l i n .  a n d  f  n o r t h .  T h e  n o r t h e r n  e  o  f  t h a n  B r i t i s h  R i v e r s ,  s p e a k i n g ,  H a z e l t o n ,  c o u g a r  r a r e  l i n e  n  w i t h  t a k e n  C o u g a r  a  f  t r a p p i n g  o  N e l s o n  o  o  t h e r e  a l o n g  P a r t i a l l y  n o t e w o r t h y ,  p u r e  t h e  7,  a n d  s  m a d e ,  t o w a r d s  p e n e t r a t i o n  o o u g a r .  i  F o r e s t  m a n  northernmost l a k e  It  B o r e a l  f o r e s t .  p o p u l a t i o n s  t e n d e n c y  n e a r  o o u g a r  t h e  t  S e c t i o n s  4,  S e c t i o n  n  n a t u r a l  s t r o n g  h i g h e r  p r o v i n c e .  i  I n  i n  c o n i f e r o u s  s u p p o r t  t h a t  o p e n i n g s ,  h a v e  n o r t h e r n  e  i  t  s  86. apparent absence north of the Skeena Mountains i n F o r e s t 1 and 2 suggest  e i t h e r an e f f e c t i v e  mountains or the i n a b i l i t y c o l d , dry plateaux  unusual.  b a r r i e r formed by the  o f the cougar t o l i v e upon.the h i g h ,  beyond.  S e c t i o n s 4* .6, and 7.  Sections  Trapping  data c o n t a i n r e c o r d s f o r  That f o r S e c t i o n 4 may be regarded as  A l l other records are f o r the country  south o f the  Peace R i v e r , where three have been taken i n S e c t i o n 6, and 15 i n S e c t i o n 7.  I n t h i s a r e a , t h e data suggest  taken are^wanderers.  Of these 1 8 animals,  the t r a p p i n g s e a s o n - 1 9 3 4 - 5 5 , s i x 1946-47.  one  1944-45,  that  those  one was taken i n ten  1945-46,  From the many y e a r s when none was taken,  sudden inorease  i n c a t c h d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1 9 4 5  and and the  to 1947,  there  appears to have been an immigrat ion o f cougar i n t o the f o o t hills  and Great  P l a i n s east of the Rookies and south of the  Peace R i v e r i n that p e r i o d . Reoords of the cougar n o r t h of the Peace R i v e r are few.  Gowan (1939) mentions h i s northernmost r e c o r d as a t the  j u n c t i o n o f Cypress Greek and the Halfway R i v e r , near l a t i t u d e 57 degrees W. i n S e o t i o n 5«  Rand  ( 1 9 4 4 )  reoords an animal  taken a t B i g Muddy Creek (another name f o r the Keohika R i v e r ) i n S e c t i o n 3 , and r e p o r t s o f t r a c k s seen a t T o b a l l y Lakes i n the Yukon and a t Buckinghorse R i v e r i n S e c t i o n 5. r e c o r d s may be added one a d d i t i o n a l reoord n o r t h  To these of the Peace  R i v e r , and the only one i n the r e c o r d s o f white t r a p p e r s i n t h i s area*  In the w i n t e r 1935-36j  C. Brant  Eotcho Lake, i n the n o r t h e a s t corner  took one near  of the province.  Of a l l  the records  s i t e d t h i s one  i s l o c a t e d f a r t h e s t from  the  mountains. The  cougar appears to be of uncommon occurrence  the B o r e a l F o r e s t of B r i t i s h Columbia, and  seems to be  in  present  as wandering animals o n l y i n the f o r e s t s e c t i o n s east of the G r i n n e l l et a i (1937) r e c o r d i t as  O a s s i a r Mountains.  animal of the t r a n s i o n a l zone i n C a l i f o r n i a , wandering to h i g h e r and has  lower e l e v a t i o n s .  though f r e q u e n t l y  Forest Section 7  produced most of the t r a p l i n e r e c o r d s and  i s p o s s i b l y the r e s u l t  an  this condition  of animals c r o s s i n g the mountains, here  r e l a t i v e l y narrow, from the P r i n c e George area on the  interior  p l a t e a u where bounty s t a t i s t i c s show that the s p e c i e s i s taken r e g u l a r l y (Munro, 1947),. suoh proximity to areas  S e c t i o n 7 i s the i n the  only s e c t i o n w i t h  province c o n t a i n i n g what i s  probably a r e s i d e n t cougar p o p u l a t i o n .  An  a l t e r n a t i v e source  of these animals i s from the A l b e r t a f o o t h i l l s and to the  mountains  southeast. l y n x (Lynx canadensis) The  l y n x is taken throughout northern  Columbia, the f o r e s t  British  s e c t i o n s e x h i b i t i n g trends i n production,  that are s i m i l a r to those  of marten*  While most authors  g i v e only general d e s c r i p t i o n s  of the environmental requirements of l y n x a l l agree that i t i s mainly c o n f i n e d  to the n o r t h e r n c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s .  goes beyond tree l i n e ,  both a l t i t u d i n a l l y ^ and  It  latitudinally,  only upon r a r e o c c a s i o n (Dixon,  1938; Clarice, 1940). I t s  range i n A l b e r t a would s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t i t does not g r a s s l a n d s , n o r ecotone o l o s e l y approaching g r a s s l a n d ditions,  s u i t a b l e h a b i t a t (Rand, 1948; Soper, 1948).  literature  food of the l y n x i s accepted ameriCanus) (Seton, most favourable has  The  1929),  species.  o f the  Since the c h i e f  a s being the v a r y i n g hare (Lepus  i t i s p o s s i b l e that the h a b i t a t s  to both s p e c i e s are  similar.  Maolulioh  (1937)  d e s c r i b e d h a b i t a t s i n which hares are most numerous and  these  are a l l s e r a i f o r e s t s where deciduous growth i s most  p l e n t i f u l , a s i n bogs, swamps, b r u l e s , and wet areas with  con-  sheds no l i g h t upon the s u c c e s s i o n a l stages  B o r e a l F o r e s t most s u i t a b l e to t h i s  find  overgrown  willows. lynx production  ( F i g . 16) i s lowest  in northern B r i t i s h  i n F o r e s t S e c t i o n s 2 and 6.  Columbia I n the former  s e c t i o n , where..,red f o x and marten are not produced i n l a r g e numbers, and where the f i s h e r i s absent, the low l y n x d u c t i o n may be a r e s u l t  of the r e s t r i c t e d f o r e s t e d areas, and  the a l p i n e i n f l u e n c e throughout those The  6.  pro-  speoies was probably  f o r e s t s t h a t do occur.  never abundant i n S e c t i o n  Soper (I948), w r i t i n g of an area i n A l b e r t a adjacent to  t h i s s e c t i o n , s t a t e s that the l y n x i n h a b i t e d the mixedwood f o r e s t b o r d e r i n g the probably  d i d not  aspen parklands*  occur  but i m p l i e s that i t  i n the parklands  themselves.  He  f u r t h e r s t a t e s that l y n x have been n e a r l y exterminated by t r a p p e r s i n the l a r g e r e g i o n he s t u d i e d about, and south  of,  Fig.16. Lynx Production Trends by Forest Section;  the Peace R i v e r .  Since both S e c t i o n s 5 and 7 have lower  d u c t i o n than s e c t i o n s immediately tbat these  pro-  to the n o r t h , i t i s probable  s e c t i o n s are i n f l u e n c e d by both the  unfavourable  l y n x h a b i t a t , and heavy t r a p p i n g i n t e n s i t y of S e o t i o n 6 adjacent to them. S e c t i o n 7,  of t h i s proposed i n f l u e n c e , i n  the nine trap l i n e s f a r t h e s t from S e o t i o n 6  hence c l o s e s t percent  In support  and 26  to the mountains, while they r e p r e s e n t o n l y  of the  t r a p l i n e s i n the s e c t i o n , have taken 70  of the l y n x p r o d u c t i o n of the area.  percent  A similar calculation in  S e c t i o n 5V wherein a l l l i n e s i n the s e c t i o n n o r t h of l a t i t u d e 57  degree H. are considered, do not  t h i s suggestion. duced 60  Here 44 percent  of the t r a p l i n e s have pro5.  percent of the l y n x p r o d u c t i o n of S e o t i o n F o r e s t Seotions 3 and  of lynx, and flat,  so c o n v i n c i n g l y support  these are the  4 are the h i g h e s t produoers  s e o t i o n s w i t h the l a r g e s t areas of  swampy f o r e s t r e l a t i v e to t h e i r s i z e .  Of a l l the  s e c t i o n s , these a r e a l s o those l e a s t i n f l u e n c e d by  either  tundra or g r a s s l a n d . An a n a l y s i s of p r o d u c t i o n i n Seotions  4 and  5 in  the f o u r areas bounded by meridicms of l o n g i t u d e shows but s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s that are probably not s i g n i f i g a n t ; west to east the p r o d u c t i o n of these areas i s one 38,  44, 38,  and 53  square m i l e s ^ and  From  pelt for  i f i n the most w e s t e r l y  area two u n u s u a l l y l a r g e t r a p l i n e s are dropped from the as has been done f o r other s p e o i e s , 58 35  square m i l e s ;  data  square m i l e s becomes  F o r e s t  S e c t i o n  2,  d e s p i t e  S e v e n t y - s e v e n  o o m e  f r o m  t h e  t o  a p p e a r  l i n e s  w e s t  t h e  h a l f  B o t h  u p o n  h i g h  w e a t h e r ,  ( a n d  o f  a n d  h e n c e  l y n x  t o  t h e  t h e  2,  i s  m a p s  r e s t r i c t e d  w i d e  o f  I t  v  a  l  l  F o r e s t  v a l l e y s ,  Y u k o n .  t h e  s o u t h ,  a  l a n d s .  e  y  s  t o  t h e  b e e n  h e n c e  i  m u c h  i s  r e l a t i v e  b e t t e r  t o  m o r e  g r o w t h  o f  t o  a r e ,  r i v e r s  t h e s e  l e s s  I945).  e x t e n s i v e  v e g e t a t i o n  i  t h a t  t h e  s  m a y  t h e  n  R e f e r e n c e  s h o w  S e o t i o n s  1  a n d  l  T h e  i  o f  i  i  n  n a r r o w  t h e  t  P l a t e a u  p e r h a p s  t h e  e  1  f o r e s t s  u n c o m m o n  u p o n  a n d  S e c t i o n  w h i c h  t h a t  t h a t  e x t e n s i v e  F o r e s t  n o t  b e  g e n e r a l  h u m a n  ( 1 9 4 8 )  n  a n d  n u m b e r  f o r  t h o s e  S t i k i n e  f o r e s t s ,  i  i  s i z e  r e l a t i v e l y  t h a n  a n d  I t  t o  n  p r o d u c t i o n  n  b u t  i  i  t o p o g r a p h y ,  l y n x  f o r e s t s ,  e x t e n s i v e  n u m b e r s  m a r k e d .  a s  r e s t r i c t e d  o f  n  b o t t o m l a n d s .  r e g u l a r l y  t h a t  i  t r a v e r s i n g  Y u k o n  b r o a d  n  I t  t r a p p i n g .  B o s t o c k  p r e v i o u s l y  b e i n g  ( R a n d ,  m o r e  h a v e  s i d e .  i  p r o b a b l y  o f  T e r r i t o r y  w i t h  n  f o r m e r .  l e a s t  r e s t r i c t e d  i  h a s  s e o t i o n  r e d u c e d  a p p a r e n t l y  a n d  t h e  e a s t  s i m i l a r  e v e n  t h a n  h e n c e  t h e  o f  l e s s  b e  o f  t h i s  i n t e n s i v e  a r e  a n d  n  a n d  o n  a n i m a l ,  ( 1 9 3 7 )  t a k e n  T e r r i t o r y  d u e  n  L a k e *  b e e n  2  w o u l d  w i t h  i  d i f f e r e n c e  n o t e d  f r e q u e n t l y  n  b y  o r  a n  v a l l e y  2,  i  t a k e n  h a s  T h e  Y u k o n  h a s  l y n x  t h e r e ,  i s  t h e  S e c t i o n  T h e  1  H a l l i d a y  c o n t i n u o u s  a r e  Y u k o n  a n c e  t o  o f  l  p r o d u c t i o n  p o p u l a t i o n , o f  A t l i n  a n d  m a r k e d ,  S e o t i o n  o f  f o r e s t s  s  t  o f  m o r e  v a l u a b l e  i  A  s e o t i o n  v e g e t a t i o n .  i n  r e a l l y  o f  1  h i g h e r  l y n x  s p e c i e s  t h e  a  h u m a n  t h e  S e c t i o n s  p r e s e n t )  p l a t e a u x .  t h e  o f  s o  h a s  o o m m u n i t y  p l a t e a u x ,  i n  i n f l u e n c e s  1  h i g h e r  o f  t h a t  e a s t e r n  l i e  t h e  p e r o e n t  t r a p  a c c e s s i b l e  w o u l d  S e o t i o n  s  t o  i  n  a b u n d -  t h e  a l s o  b o t t o m -  IZ.  The  l y n x i s a p p a r e n t l y not a d w e l l e r o f mature  climax f o r e s t s , as i s the marten, because l i t t l e occurs i n S e c t i o n 1 .  such f o r e s t  I t s apparent s c a r c i t y i n S e c t i o n 2 would  i n d i c a t e that the s p e o i e s does not t h r i v e i n f o r e s t s approaching t i m b e r l i n e .  I t has been shown that i t does not appear  o h a r a o t e r i s t i o l y t o i n h a b i t aspen parklands and that 6 , and 7 i s probably  relatively  low  p r o d u c t i o n i n Seotions 5 ,  due  t o t h i s f a c t o r as w e l l as to o v e r t r a p p i n g i n the past.  I t s h i g h e s t production- i s from S e c t i o n s 3 and 4 , low,  flat,  i n part  relatively  p o o r l y d r a i n e d areas with, as has been noted by  C o l l i n s ( 1 9 4 4 ) , nearly a l l forest i n various serai  stages  where hares, and hence a p p a r e n t l y l y n x , f i n d a f a v o u r a b l e environment; Red  S q u i r r e l (Tamiasoiurus  hudsonlous)  The r e d s q u i r r e l i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mammal of the B o r e a l F o r e s t and occurs Columbia.  throughout  that f o r e s t  i n British  While i t i s f r e q u e n t l y among the most abundant  mammals i n t h i s f o r e s t ,  t r a p p e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia have o n l y  r e c e n t l y come to regard i t as a p r o f i t a b l e h a r v e s t .  The r e -  cords of white trappers i n the area here c o n s i d e r e d  show that  none was r e p o r t e d i n the p e r i o d 1929 to 1 9 3 5 i n c l u s i v e , but one 1937,  trapper took the s p e c i e s i n 1 9 3 6 , nine and twenty i n 1 9 3 8 .  reported i t i n  By 1940 the number of t r a p - l i n e s  r e p o r t i n g t h i s s p e c i e s had i n c r e a s e d to 45, and from t h a t year to 1948 the p r o d u c t i o n of s q u i r r e l p e l t s has remained  / 93.  at a high l e v e l . years o n l y are  In the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n these l a s t  considered.  S q u i r r e l pelt the trends  p r o d u c t i o n by f o r e s t s e o t i o n s f o l l o w  of a t y p i c a l coarse f u r s p e o i e s ( F i g . 1 7 )  l a t i o n to t r a p l i n e s i z e  (Fig. 2 0 ) ,  F o r e s t S e c t i o n 2 has a low to the o t h e r s .  nine  1  i n re-  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n that  p r o d u c t i o n out of a l l p r o p o r t i o n  Omitting the data from t h i s s e c t i o n , the  d u c t i o n of s q u i r r e l p e l t s by s e c t i o n s , expressed number of square m i l e s r e q u i r e d to produce one  pro-  as the average  pelt,  was  t e s t e d f o r c o r r e l a t i o n w'ith the average s i z e of t r a p l i n e s i n each s e c t i o n * As has been found f o r both weasel and there i s p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n of  J . 8 6 4 .  0*01.  A f t e r c a l c u l a t i n g t , i t i s found  T h i s s t r o n g l y suggests  muskrat,  coefficient  that P I s l e s s  that as trap l i n e  size  decreases  there Is i n o r e a s e d s q u i r r e l p r o d u c t i o n from them, and as been noted elsewhere, t h i s may  be the r e s u l t o f both  trapper e f f i c i e n c y per u n i t area and animals  i n regions so  has  inoreased  the s o a r o i t y of f i n e f u r  trapped.-  It has been noted omitted  than  t h a t data from S e o t i o n 2 were  from t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n .  The  average s i z e of the t r a p  lines i n this seotion i s 2 0 0 . 1  square m i l e s , while  S e o t i o n j> average a comparable  2 0 7 w 2  production i n S e o t i o n 5 during  the nine year p e r i o d averaged  one  p e l t f o r every 1 * 7  more c o r r e c t l y ,  f o r one  square m i l e s .  square m i l e s trapped t r a p p i n g season).  d u c t i o n i n S e c t i o n 2 were governed by the  those  of  Squirrel  f o r one year ( o r ,  . If squirrel  pro-  same f a o t o r s as i n  9 V.  1 - 2 3 ^ 5 FOREST  6 7  SECTIONS  Fig.17, Squirrel Production Trends by Forest Seotions,  other s e o t i o n s , i t f o l l o w s that i t s p r o d u c t i o n should be comparable to that of S e o t i o n j>. p e l t from 67.8 The  I t s p r o d u c t i o n however; i s one  square m i l e s , a noteworthy d i f f e r e n c e . red s q u i r r e l i s a f o r e s t animal,.  shown elsewhere that other f o r e s t  I t has  been  inhabiting fur-bearing  mammals appear to be r e l a t i v e l y l e s s abundant i n the h i g h , scanty f o r e s t s of F o r e s t S e o t i o n 2, as dompared to apparent abundance i n other s e o t i o n s .  their  I t i s p o s s i b l e that the  red s q u i r r e l i s s i m i l a r l y l e s s abundant i n t h i s f o r e s t , c o n d i t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n low s q u i r r e l  this  p r o d u c t i o n from t r a p l i n e s  there, Beaver (Castor The  canadensis)  beaver occurs throughout n o r t h e r n  Columbia ( F i g . 18),  British  In comparing the p r o d u c t i v i t y of  the  seven f o r e s t s e o t i o n s the most s t r i k i n g feature i s the near absence of t h i s s p e c i e s i n S e c t i o n 6, where on the average i t has r e q u i r e d 348 per year.  square m i l e s o f t r a p l i n e  to produce one  Since the s e c t i o n s to the n o r t h and  p a r a t i v e l y high producers,  appears to be no reason why f o r t h i s low  population.  graphy i s f l a t , and  growth suggests  that beaver  through o v e r t r a p p i n g .  There  environment would be r e s p o n s i b l e  I t has been shown that the  drainage  Streams are numerous, and  south are com-  i t must be concluded  have here been n e a r l y exterminated  pelt  the  hence favourable  topo-  to the s p e c i e s .  predominance of deciduous  an adequate food supply.  In t h i s s e o t i o n the  r e d u c t i o n i n numbers took place p r i o r to 1929,  f o r there i s  v a r i a t i o n i n the c a t c h d u r i n g the p e r i o d I929-I94B.  little  Soper (I948) r e p o r t s low beaver populations s i m i l a r areas  i n adjacent and  to the east i n A l b e r t a , and a t t r i b u t e s the r e -  duced numbers to o v e r t r a p p i n g . A comparison of p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the remaining s i x seotions r e v e a l s r a t h e r constant to  fall  i n t o adjacent  pairs.  production, w i t h a tendenoy  The two high p l a t e a u f o r e s t s are  i n t e r m e d i a t e , the two Peace R i v e r drainage and  the L i a r d drainage  Liard  highest.  and Peace R i v e r drainages  f o r e s t s a r e lowest,  The d i f f e r e n c e between the i s probably  a  result  o f the  r e l a t i v e l y high human p o p u l a t i o n i n the l a t t e r area, w i t h most pronounced e f f e c t i n S e o t i o n 6 as shown, but w i t h some of  the i n f l u e n c e p e n e t r a t i n g i n t o Sections  5 and 7.  The r a t h e r  scanty f o r e s t cover upon the h i g h plateaux has not i n f l u e n c e d beaver p r o d u c t i o n there as much as was a n t i c i p a t e d .  This i s  probably l a r g e l y due t o the a b i l i t y of beaver to l i v e f u l l y above t i m b e r l i n e , as noted  1943;  Randi  194-5), where  by s e v e r a l authors  success-  (Gowan,  they may l i v e upon deciduous bushes.  The many l a k e s and g e n e r a l poor drainage  of Forest Seotion 1  have probably c o n t r i b u t e d towards h i g h p r o d u c t i o n i n that area.  These drainage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s penetrate  2 and oover a small r e g i o n .  into S e c t i o n  Two t r a p l i n e s i n t h i s area have  produced 57 percent  of a l l beaver taken i n the s e o t i o n during  the e n t i r e p e r i o d .  I t has been noted  have also produced 66 percent  that these  two l i n e s  of the muskrat, and 69  percent  of the mink. is,  The a q u a t i c mammal p e l t p r o d u c t i o n i n S e c t i o n 2  thus, l a r g e l y from t h i s r e s t r i c t e d a r e a .  I t i s a l s o note-  worthy that F o r e s t S e o t i o n 3 and 4* the h i g h e s t producing s e o t i o n s , are the most p o o r l y d r a i n e d e a s t e r n s e c t i o n s w i t h the l a r g e s t areas of bog and muskeg. Swarth (1936) recorded beaver as n e a r l y e x t e r minated about A t l i n .  Trapping reoords i n d i c a t e a marked i n -  orease i n produotion i n t h i s S e c t i o n a f t e r p e r i o d 1929  In the  i t took 7 7 square m i l e s to produce  to 1939  p e l t , while i n the f o l l o w i n g  p e r i o d * I94O to 1 9 4 7 , 16  m i l e s trapped produoed a p e l t . be due  1940*  one square  T h i s i n c r e a s e i n beaver  may  to a decrease of 25 percent i n the human p o p u l a t i o n  through the 1930*s, a r e s u l t Indian r e s e r v a t i o n s (Anon, Beaver i s a f i n e high p r i c e to the t r a p p e r .  of a marked d e c l i n e upon the 1944).  fur always b r i n g i n g a r e l a t i v e l y In being sedentary to an  unusual  degree w i t h i t s haunts c l e a r i n g i n d i c a t e d by b u t t i n g s , ponds, dams, and houses,  i t i s easy to l o c a t e and easy to t r a p .  Rather u n i f o r m produotion throughout  northern B r i t i s h  suggests that environmental changes have l i t t l e g e n e r a l l y , upon p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . fore,  Columbia  effect^  I t i s concluded, t h e r e -  that the e f f e c t of past t r a p p i n g i n t e n s i t y i s probably  the most important ductivity  f a c t o r governing d i f f e r e n c e s i n pro-  throughout  the a r e a .  Muskrat (Ondatra g i b e t h i c a ) The muskrat appears  to be a common mammal  throughout  a l l forest seotions.  I t occurs  throughout the B o r e a l Forest  i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y to the n o r t h (Rand, 19.4$) and (1940) records i t n o r t h to the extreme l i m i t c e n t r a l Canada. speoies.  The  of timber  I t does not appear to be an a l p i n e  Soper (1942) has  supporting h i g h e s t  in  tundra  s p e c i e s i s abundant throughout most o f  Great P l a i n s .  r i v e r s and  Clarke  the  described the h a b i t a t  populations as l a r g e marshes, and s l u g g i s h  streams. The muskrat i s a coarse  i t i s probable  f u r animal,  and as such  that the i n t e n s i t y w i t h which i t i s trapped  i s governed more or l e s s by the abundance of f i n e f u r animals It would f o l l o w that t r a p p e r e f f o r t to take muskrats w i l l h i g h where f i n e  f u r s p e c i e s are  scarce, and  be  c o n v e r s e l y where  f i n e f u r s p e c i e s are abundant there w i l l be a tendency t o wards reduced e f f o r t upon muskrats, and more c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon f u r s p e c i e s y i e l d i n g higher r e t u r n s * i t i s of i n t e r e s t  In t h i s  connection  to note t h a t F o r e s t S e o t i o n 6 has  the  h i g h e s t muskrat p r o d u c t i o n of a l l f o r e s t s e o t i o n s , i s a l s o highest  for the weasel, but i s the lowest  f i n e f u r s lynx, marten and mink.  I t i s not maintained  t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s a b s o l u t e , nor holds presented.  producer o f the  throughout the  that data  I t i s f a t h e r a tendency, based upon economic  theory, undoubtedly a f f e c t e d to v a r y i n g degrees by d i s t r i b u t i o n and  animal  the host of other f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g f u r  production. P r o d u c t i o n by f o r e s t s e c t i o n s i s shown i n F i g u r e 19, and  t h i s f i g u r e has a remarkable s i m i l a r i t y to F i g u r e  20  /co.  1  2  4  3  5  6  .7  FOREST SECTIONS  F i g . 1 9 . Muskrat Produotion Trends by Forest Seotions.  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  FOREST SECTIONS F i g . 2 0 . The Average Size of Trap Lines i n Eaoh Forest Seotion;  lot.  i n d i c a t i n g average t r a p l i n e  s i z e for the  t e s t f o r c o r r e l a t i o n between these two c o e f f i c i e n t of . 9 8 5 ,  pelt.  A  data g i v e s a c o r r e l a t i o n  w i t h P l e s s than 0 . 0 1 ,  f i g u r e s are expressions duce one  seven s e c t i o n s .  when the  production  of the number of square m i l e s  to  pro-  In other words, there seems to be a marked  tendency f o r small t r a p l i n e s  to produce r e l a t i v e l y more  muskrats than do l a r g e t r a p l i n e s . I t seems probable,  however, that a number of  r e l a t e d f a c t o r s act to b r i n g about t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n . been suggested p r e v i o u s l y that f u n c t i o n of the  s i z e of human p o p u l a t i o n s .  There i s a  the c o u n t r y s i d e crease  hence  i n c r e a s e d e f f e o t upon  by more people, many f i n e f u r s p e c i e s  i n numbers, or disappear*  t r a p p e r s turn to coarse able  t r a p p i n g and  f u r , and  Thus, w i t h  de-  f i n e f u r scarce,  on s m a l l e r trap l i n e s  to more e f f i c i e n t l y trap a l l p a r t s ' o f the .line.  i s the  ten-  t o acco-  modate more t r a p p e r s l i n e s must be more numerous and With Increased  I t has  trap l i n e s i z e i s probable a  dency, w i t h more people to have more t r a p p e r s , and  smaller.  inter-  f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t the growth of an  are There  agricul-  t u r a l oommunity takes place u s u a l l y , i n l e v e l country  with  s l u g g i s h drainage where s o i l c o n d i t i o n s are good.  Both of  these c o n d i t i o n s combine to produce dense muskrat  populations.  This c o n d i t i o n e x p l a i n s , i n part, the high muskrat of F o r e s t S e c t i o n 6, due  and  the high oatch of S e o t i o n 7 may  i n part to l i n e s adjacent  the former s e c t i o n .  production  to, and hence i n f l u e n c e d  be by  'OZ.  The  high p r o d u c t i o n of S e c t i o n 1 i s the r e s u l t of  different factors.  M i n i n g development has produced the ne-  oessary p o p u l a t i o n to r e s u l t  i n s m a l l t r a p , l i n e s , but the s o i l s  are not r i c h a g r i c u l t u r a l l y .  The high muskrat y i e l d appears  to stem from an abundance of l a k e s . more ponds and l a k e s (Swarth, 1926)  P l a c e r mining has c r e a t e d which may be o f f u r t h e r  importance. I t i s of i n t e r e s t  to note that most o f the S t i k i n e  P l a t e a u ( P o r e s t S e o t i o n 2) i s a very low producer The  production figure  two  trap l i n e s  duced  I948.  ,66  for t h i s  of muskrats.  s e o t i o n i s l a r g e l y governed by  i n the l a k e country i n the n o r t h which  percent  o f a l l muskrat taken  pro-  d u r i n g the p e r i o d I929-  The low production of S e c t i o n 3 may be the r e s u l t o f  the few l a k e s present, as w e l l as of l a r g e t r a p l i n e s . Seotions  4 and 5, i a having  l a r g e t r a p l i n e s , r e l a t i v e l y good  drainage  i n their western f o o t h i l l s ,  and a r e l a t i v e abundance  of fox, lynx, and marten, are poor muskrat  producers.  It would appear that muskrat p r o d u c t i o n i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia i s governed t o a marked degree by t r a p l i n e s i z e as determined i n t u r n by the s i z e of human p o p u l a t i o n . I t may also be true that through ohanae a h i g h human popu l a t i o n occurs  i n one s e c t i o n w i t h favourable muskrat h a b i t a t .  A g r i c u l t u r e and muskrat h a b i t a t o f t e n have the same r e q u i r e ments, a s i n S e o t i o n 6,  but the small l i n e s about A t l i n are  probably a r e s u l t o f chance m i n e r a l l o c a t i o n s by l a r g e of muskrat producing waters.  bodies  I t does not appear, t h e r e f o r e ,  that the c o r r e l a t i o n obtained i s e n t i r e l y the r e s u l t o f  muskrats ana humans o o n o e n t r a t i n g i n s i m i l a r regions because of s i m i l a r l a n a  requirements.  Conclusions  and  Summary  Speaking of f u r i n g e n e r a l , the magnitude of f u r  production  i t bas  been shown that  o f the Boreal F o r e s t  in  B r i t i s h Columbia appears to be governed by both b i o l o g i c a l and  economic f a o t o r s .  A f t e r basic consideration i t i s i n -  escapable that such would present  be so.  The  f u r b e a r i n g mammals are  because of b i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ,  because of an economic demand.  and  It i s rather  they are  trapped  the degree to  which each o f these groups of f a c t o r s determined p r o d u c t i v i t y that i s of i n t e r e s t . i n determining the  production  that i n some the two been p o s s i b l e ,  I t i s probable that  are  therefore,  the two  are  acting  l e v e l i n a l l f u r species,  a c t i n g almost i n s e p a r a b l y .  and  It  has  to examine the data o n l y f o r what  appears to be the most important f a o t o r s a c t i n g upon the d u c t i o n of each  species.  Innis (1927) has supply and  auctions,  by trends  i n supply  c h i e f l y i n London.  types of f u r , one  supply a p p a r e n t l y first  He  and  p r i c e at the  has  o f l i m i t e d supply,  the n a t u r a l abundance of the  The  c l o s e l y examined the balance o f  demand as i t a f f e c t s d i f f e r e n t k i n d s  examplified  r i s e s and  species,  of f u r as large fur  found that there  are  governed a p p a r e n t l y and  one  two by  i n which the  f a l l s to meet a v a r i a b l e demand.  of these he c a l l s f i n e fur,, the second coarse,  staple f u r , and  pro-  as might be expected, f i n e f u r s b r i n g  or  higher  p r i c e s not o n l y because o f b e t t e r q u a l i t y , but because i s h i g h demand i n the f a c e o f a more o r l e s s f i x e d While I n n i s * study on time,  there  supply.  i s of- f u r a u c t i o n s w i t h a b a s i s  t h i s study i s of t r a p l i n e s w i t h a b a s i s on space;  Time has not e n t e r e d  i n t o the present-study  because a l l pro-  d u c t i o n f i g u r e s used are based, w i t h but s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n , upon the same p e r i o d of time. have been found  t o hold t r u e , however.  unavoidable  The same p r i n c i p l e s The trapper has a  demand, as determined by the market demand and hence the p r i c e offered f o r various kinds of f u r ;  The supply i s the mammals  themselves, v a r i a b l e i n a g e n e r a l way j u s t as the numbers of the animals a r e v a r i a b l e .  I n n i s has noted  there i s a tendency f o r the supply o f f i n e  t h a t i n h i s data f u r s to f l u o t u a t e .  When the supply o f f i n e f u r i s low the demand and hence the p r i c e of coarse f u r i n c r e a s e s , and so the supply i n c r e a s e s . There i s a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s c o n d i t i o n and t r a p l i n e p r o d u c t i o n trends i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. is,  There  i n t h i s r e g i o n , a tendency f o r areas w i t h a h i g h f i n e f u r  p r o d u c t i o n t o produce l i t t l e f i n e f u r i s scaroe ooarse  coarse f u r , and c o n v e r s e l y , where  f u r i s produced i n g r e a t e s t q u a n t i t i e  T h i s i s o n l y a tendency, however, and i s m o d i f i e d i n a number of i n s t a n c e s by p e c u l i a r i t i e s i n the abundance of c e r t a i n species.  Thus i n the seven f o r e s t s e o t i o n s . S e c t i o n s 1 and 6",  because o f heavy t r a p p i n g i n t e n s i t y i n the past, are now among the lowest  f i n e f u r producing  p r o d u c t i o n areas f o r coarse  furs*  areas and the h i g h e s t An e x c e p t i o n i s the h i g h  p r o d u c t i o n of the f i n e f u r mink from S e o t i o n 1, a p p a r e n t l y  the  result  o f a n abundance o f l a k e s  environment.  Similarly  producers of the f i n e are  among t h e l o w e s t  weasel, wolf, the  and s q u i r r e l .  ooarse f u r s a t f u r a u c t i o n s ,  governing  economic  to  of coarse  decrease  with  increase  i n human  i n c r e a s e s each trapper trapping  f u r speoies  appearance i s hastened their  by  become s c a r c e ,  the h i g h e f f i c i e n c y  crease  i s greater  different trapper  grade  i n some  size  trap l i n e  i s envisioned  becomes m o r © e f f i c i e n t  the t u r n  o f ooarse  of  fur*  place  the inorease trappers  i n t h a t he i s  With increased  species  suoh an  tends  as taking  Thus a s t h e number  i n some  size  and h e n c e w i t h  become t r a p p e d  areas  e i t h e r o p p o s i n g or  o u t and t h e i r  efficdis-  by t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f  h a b i t a t by t h e g r o w i n g number o f humans.  speoies  It further  fur produotion  progressively smaller areas.  fine  of  the chief f a c t o r s  to the p r o d u c t i o n  population,  t h e number o f t r a p p e r s .  iency,  noteworthy.  I t h a s been shown t h a t  i n trap l i n e  between  f a c t o r s however t h a t m o d i f y  be i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l  The  in  it*  muskrat,  a n d the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e s e  tendency as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d ,  magnifying  furs,  i n f l u e n c i n g the supply  f a c t o r s may be among  There are other  the h i g h e s t  The s i m i l a r i t y  seems to be a t l e a s t  the magnitude  economic  among  f o x , l y n x , m a r t e n , m i n k and b e a v e r  economic f a c t o r s a p p a r e n t l y  suggests that  s u i t a b l e mink  produoers of the coarse  coyote,  f u r s from land,  3 and 4,  Seotions  furs,  forming  to c o a r s e  As f i n e f u r  f u r i s aooentuated  o f t r a p p e r s ; and i t s p r o d u c t i o n i n -  t h a n i f t h e change  i n effort  t o take  a  o f f u r t o o k p l a c e w i t h no c h a n g e i n o v e r a l l  efficiency.  This complex of economic f a c t o r s operates i n s o f a r as b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s allow  them t o .  These  only biological  f a c t o r s are here c o n s i d e r e d as those; which are expressed  in  the numbers of f u r mammals w i t h i n a g i v e n area, e x c l u s i v e of those which are  the r e s u l t of d i r e c t  mammals and man. factor,  contact between the  Thus t r a p p i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d as an eoonomio  but h a b i t a t d e s t r u c t i o n by humans, while  cause, i s of b i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t .  of eoonomio  Throughout t h i s study i t has  been p o s s i b l e to examine the b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s o n l y i n a broad way,  with  dependence c h i e f l y upon v e g e t a t i o n to  express  the degree to which a given area provides s u i t a b l e environment for  a g i v e n s p e c i e s of f u r - b e a r i n g mammal.  these f a c t o r s have been f u l l y This d i s o u s s i o n w i l l , It has  For eaoh s p e c i e s  d i s c u s s e d and  c o n c l u s i o n s drawn.  t h e r e f o r e , point out o n l y broad  been noted  t h a t coarse  fur  seemsj to be the r e s u l t of economic f a c t o r s .  trends.  productions There are  note-  worthy d e v i a t i o n s i n s e v e r a l s p e c i e s , however, that i n d i c a t e biological factor modification.  The r e d s q u i r r e l  production  i n S e o t i o n 2 i s r e l a t i v e l y lower than that of a l l other s e o t i o n s , a p p a r e n t l y because of the r e s t r i c t e d nature f o r e s t s there.  Similarly,  the open nature  o f the  of the same s e c t i o n ,  together w i t h the abundance o f game, has r e s u l t e d , a p p a r e n t l y , i n a high coyote and w o l f sections.  The wolverine  p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i v e to that of other i s a coarse f u r , yet i t s p r o d u c t i o n  appears to be governed almost w h o l l y  by the degree to which  trapped areas are a f f e c t e d by h i g h f o r e s t s approaching berline.  tim-  I t has also been shown t h a t w h i l e part of F o r e s t  S e o t i o n 2 i s high i n muskrat p r o d u c t i o n , most o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y low i n p r o d u c t i o n because o f an apparent l a c k of s u i t a b l e environment.  These examples tend to support the  theory that w h i l e economic f a c t o r s may* alone, d i c t a t e the l e v e l of coarse  f u r production,  b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s enable  them.  economic f a o t o r s favourable  they do so o n l y i n s o f a r as I n the two extremes, d e s p i t e  to a h i g h muskrat p r o d u c t i o n i n a  given area, there oan be no p r o d u c t i o n i f t h e r e are no muskrats conversely,  i n an area where muskrats a r e extremely  abundant,  as i n c e r t a i n r i c h r i v e r d e l t a s , through sheer numbers a v a i l able, and despite an abundance of fine f u r s p e c i e s , t h e r e may be a g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n to t r a p p e r s that upon muskrat produotion  concentrate  alone;  Pine, f u r mammals appear to be trapped  i n numbers  more or l e s s p r o p o r t i o n a l to t h e i r a c t u a l number i n a g i v e n area.  Since t h e i r value i s high i t i s e c o n o m i c a l l y  t r a p p e r s to take them as they are a v a i l a b l e . l o n g run, i t seems probable a c t u a l abundance.  sound f o r  Thus, i n the  that p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l s  reflect  I f t h i s i s true p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s should  agree w i t h statements a s to abundance made by n a t u r a l i s t s , and failing should  such i n f o r m a t i o n h i g h e s t produotion of a g i v e n s p e c i e s be i n areas known t© have the most favourable e n v i r -  onment f o r that s p e c i e s . enabled  As f a r as a v a i l a b l e knowledge has  such comparisons, i t has. been found  agreement between p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l  that t h e r e i s  and t h i s other  In g e n e r a l i t ha s been found  information.  that the h e a v i l y  trapped F o r e s t S e c t i o n s 1 and 6 a r e low producers  of f i n e f u r y  not o n l y from heavy past modification. and mink are  t r a p p i n g , but  because o f h a b i t a t  Marten i s n e a r l y absent i n both. present  production i s low  Beaver, lynx,  i n s m a l l numbers i n S e o t i o n 6, and  i n S e c t i o n 1;  does not n e c e s s a r i l y doom f i n e  High trapping  fox  efficiency  f u r , however, as i s shown from  the r e l a t i v e l y high p r o d u c t i o n of beaver, l y n x and mink i n S e c t i o n 1, and  fox and f i s h e r  i n S e o t i o n 6.  In some of  s p e c i e s the environment appears to be e i t h e r f a v o u r a b l e r e s i d e n t s or s u i t a b l e to wanderers from n e i g h b o u r i n g Habitat destruction i s absolute, by marten, but  i n favourable  f i n e f u r s p e c i e s to m a i n t a i n  as appears to be  h a b i t a t i t may  these for  areas.  exemplified  be p o s s i b l e f o r a  i t s numbers d e s p i t e i n t e n s i v e  t r a p p i n g as appears to be true for the s p e c i e s noted above; The  a q u a t i c f i n e f u r s p e c i e s , beaver* mink,  o t t e r * show a tendency to occur most a b u n d a n t l y where c o n d i t i o n s are most f a v o u r a b l e . a flat  topography and l a r g e a r e a s  small l a k e s are among the highest and mink, while  drainage  Thus S e c t i o n s 3 and 4 w i t h c h a r a c t e r i z e d by.swamps and producing  s e c t i o n s o f beaver  the abundance of l a k e s i n S e o t i o n 1 has  abled a s u s t a i n e d c a t c h of beaver, mink, and intensive  and  en-  o t t e r despite  trapping. F o r e s t d w e l l i n g f i n e f u r s p e c i e s do not appear to  be numerous i n S e c t i o n 2 because of the and  the a p p a r e n t l y scanty nature  small forested area,  of much of the f o r e s t  present.  Thus marten production i s here not high, l y n x p r o d u c t i o n i s low* f i s h e r i s probably i s the lowest  e n t i r e l y absent, and  of a l l s e c t i o n s .  fox  production -—„  no.  Marten and l y n x produotion appears  to be highest  where the f o r e s t s are l e a s t i n f l u e n c e d by the e f f e o t s of tundra and g r a s s l a n d f a o t o r s and  by the hand of mart.  They thus  appear to reach t h e i r g r e a t e s t abundance i n f o r e s t S e o t i o n 4 which i s a l s o , perhaps f o r the same reasons, ducing s e c t i o n of both beaver and  the h i g h e s t pro-  fox.  A comparison of the p r o d u c t i o n s of f i s h e r marten, two  and  s p e o i e s so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d as to be i n the same  genus* shows some i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n the manner i n which the s u i t a b i l i t y f i n e f u r , and  of environment a f f e c t s the abundance of  thus, a p p a r e n t l y , the magnitude o f i t s p r o d u c t i o n .  I t has been shown that f i s h e r i s absent  from the h i g h f o r e s t s  of the S t i k i n e and Yukon Plateaux while  the marten i s found  there.  I t f o l l o w s that marten can s u c c e s s f u l l y l i v e 1  approaching  t i m b e r l i n e , while f i s h e r seems unable  I t has also  been noted  F o r e s t S e c t i o n 6*  marten was  to do  that marten are n e a r l y absent  probably because of t h r e e f a c t o r s .  f o r e s t s i n t h i s s e c t i o n are of aspen parkland type probably never abundant; the few  i n forests so.  from Most  wherein  c o n i f e r o u s stands  that were good marten h a b i t a t have been l a r g e l y removed; and heavy t r a p p i n g i n t e n s i t y has a l r e a d y induced  by inadequate  probably accentuated environment.  the  scarcity  F i s h e r , on the  other hand, i s taken i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n an abundance r a t h e r ' i n t e r m e d i a t e t o other producing s e o t i o n s . l a t i v e l y high production i s l a r g e l y  due  Even i f t h i s r e -  to the t r a p p i n g o f  wanderers, i t would appear that the aspen f o r e s t s of t h i s  III.  s e c t i o n are more s u i t a b l e t o f i s h e r , w i t h r e s p e c t to being favourable environment,  than they are to marten.  d i t i o n i s i n agreement w i t h the g e n e r a l h a b i t a t of the two s p e c i e s .  T h i s conrequirements  The marten i s w i d e l y accepted as being  c o n f i n e d l a r g e l y to f o r e s t s o f climax spruce, and the f i s h e r would appear t o be most s u c c e s s f u l i n c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s w i t h a strong deciduous  element i n i t s s t r u c t u r e .  Upon the Great  P l a i n s n o r t h of the Peace R i v e r , the production, and hence probably the abundance o f the two s p e c i e s , appears  to be  g r e a t e s t next the mountains and to decrease eastward.  This  g r e a t e r abundanoe i n the l e e o f the R o c k i e s seems to be due to the c u r i o u s f a c t that while i n g e n e r a l deciduous t r e e s appear to be more abundant there than eastward,  there a r e a l s o  lowland s i t e s present which are the best producers o f climax spruce  forests. I t may be seen from t h i s g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n * t o -  gether w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n given under the v a r i o u s s p e c i e s , that it  seems c o r r e c t  to group f u r bearing mammals as coarse and  f i n e f u r ^ i n the sense used by Innis when c o n s i d e r i n g t r a p l i n e ?  data.  The former  dictate,  seem to be taken as economic c o n d i t i o n s  i n s o f a r as the abundance of these mammals enables the  economic f a c t o r s to operate. appears  Pine f u r , on the other hand,  to be taken i n an abundance more or l e s s  to the abundance of the s p e c i e s concerned.  proportional  L i t e r a t u r e  1921-19  A n o n .  .  C i t e d  F  u  r  p r o d u c t i o n  M i m e o . B u r .  A n o n .  V . 2 ,  19  R e p o r t  4 8 .  p p .  B  f  u  r  .  1 9 4 1 .  S t a t . *  B r i t i s h  t r e e s  F  61,  o  r  O t t a w a .  C o l u m b i a 1947,  o  f  C a n a d a .  . S e r v .  B u l l .  O t t a w a .  C a t a l o g u e  1 9 4 6 .  D o m .  O t t a w a .  I-89.  D o m .  R . M .  C a n a d a .  C o m m i s s i o n ,  N a t i v e  1 9 4 9 .  A n d e r s o n ,  o  f  C a n a d a ,  D o m ,  G a m e  A n o n .  o f  o  R e p t s .  S t a t . ,  C e n s u s  1 9 4 4 .  A n o n .  A n n .  o  f  C a n a d i a n  r e c e n t  m a m m a l s . C a n .  D e p t .  N a t l .  102: B o s t o c k ,  H . S .  ''  M i n e s  M u s .  C o r d i l l e r a f e r e n c e t h e  f  C a n .  i  B r i n k ,  V . C . ,  a  n  d  T h e  1 9 4 9 .  t  f  t  y  o  o -  t h e f  i  f  t  t  h  e  C a n a d i a n  s p e c i a l a r e a  h  r  e  -  n o r t h  o  f  p a r a l l e l .  M i n e s  S u r v ;  a  M e m .  n  d  R e s o u r c e s  1-106.  2 4 7 :  p h y s i o g r a p h y  a g r i c u l t u r a l  F a r s t a d .  f  w i t h  D e p t .  G e o l .  L .  R e s o u r c e s  B u l l .  1-238.  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S t u d i e s ,  g e o l o g y  D e n t  a n d  O b s e r v a t i o n s m a m m a l s  i  n  f  o  S o n s ,  o  B i o l ,  1-136.  4 3 :  E l e m e n t a r y J . M .  M u n r o ,  N o .  f  r  C a n a d a .  T o r o n t o .  b i r d s  c e n t r a l  a n d  B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a . O c c .  M u n r o * I . M o T .  J . A .  a n d  1947.  A  - r e v i e w  o f  C o w a n .  B .  A .  1 9 4 4 ,  C .  T h e  N o .  1949.  o  f  P r o v .  w o l v e s D e p t .  P a r k s  N . E ,  P r o v .  M u s .  t h e  b i r d  f a u n a  C o l u m b i a . M u s .  S . p e o i a l  P u b l .  2: 1-285.  U.S..  O d e l l ,  B . C .  B r i t i s h  No. M u r i e ,  P a p e r s  6: I - I 6 5 .  No.  o  f  S e r v . ,  5:  M o u n t .  M c K i n l e y .  I n t e r i o r , F a u n a  N a t l , S e r i e s  1 - 2 3 8 .  E x p l o r a t i o n G e o r g e  o  ,  f  t h e ,  M o u n t a i n s  i  .  .  L l o y d n  B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a . C a n .  P e t e r s o n , V..  R . L .  a n d  1949.  T h e  G e o g .  f  C a n ,  R a n d ,  A . L . .  ,  u  r  r e s o u r c e s  D i s t r i c t ,  G r i c h t o n .  ,  1 9 4 4 .  T h e  J o u r ,  o  f  C h a p l e a u  O n t a r i o ; R e s . ,  s o u t h e r n  A l a s k a  38: 49-63.  J o u r . ,  h a l f  H i g h w a y  27: 68-84.  D ,  o  f  a n d i  t h e t  s  m a m m a l s . C a n , N a t l .  D e p t . M u s .  M i n e s C a n .  a n d B u l l .  R e s o u r c e s ,  98:1-50.  R a n d ,  A  .  L  .  1 9 4 4 a .  T h e  s t a t u s  o  f  t  h  e  f i s h e r  i  n  C a n a d a . C a n .  R a n d ,  A  .  L  I945.  .  M a m m a l s C a n .  .  L  .  1  9  4  5 a  .  C a n o l  n  d  R e s o u r c e s ,  . B u l l .  a  n  100: 1^-93.  Y u k o n  M i n e s  M u s .  M a m m a l s a n d  a  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  D e p t ;  N a t l .  1 9 4 8 .  C  a  n  o d  n t  h  e  N o r t h -  T e r r i t o r i e s .  O a n .  A.I...  Y u k o n ; M i n e s  R o a d ,  w e s t  R a n d ,  f  M u s .  M a m m a l A  o  D e p t .  N a t l .  R a n d *  58: 77-81.  F i e l d - N a t . ,  o  C  f  a  t  w e s t e r n  h  n  a  n  d  R e s o u r c e s , 99?  . B u l l .  e e a s t e r n  G r e a t  1-52.  R o c k i e s  P l a i n s  o  f  C a n a d a . C a n .  D e p t .  N a t l .  R a u p ,  H . M .  M i n e s  M u s .  C  a  n  ;  a  n  d  R e s o u r c e s ,  1-237.  Bull.108:  P h y t © g e o g r a p h i c  s t u d i e s  P e a c e  R i v e r  i  nt  h  e  1 9 3 4 . a n d - L i a r d  R e g i o n s ,  C a n a d a . G o n t r i b .  R o b i n s o n , J . L .  M . J . , a  n  d  1 9 4 6 *  R o b i n s o n .  F u r  F  I926.  .  G e o g .  F o r e s t  A n n  E . T . .  1929i  M . E .  1949.  n  t  h  e  N o r t h -  3_1: 34-48.  v a l u a t i o n . p u b l .  b  y  G e o .  W a h r ,  A r b o r .  l i v e s  T h e  i  J o u r . ,  o  f  g a m e  D o u b l e d a y ,  S o l o m o n ,  H a r v .  T e r r i t o r i e s .  P r i v a t e l y  S e t o n ,  A r b o r . ,  1-230  p r o d u c t i o n  w e s t C a n .  R o t h ,  A r n o l d  6;  U n i v . ,  a n i m a l s .  D o r a n  n a t u r a l  a  n  d  c o n t r o l  G o . , N . . Y .  o  f  a n i m a l  p o p u l a t i o n s * J o u r ;  A n i m .  M a m m a l s S o p e r ,  J . D .  1 9 4 2 .  o f  W o o d  M a m m . ,  M a m m a l J . D .  f  B u f f a l o  A l b e r t a  a  n  d  P a r k ,  D i s t r i c t  M a o K e n z i e *  J o u r .  S o p e r ,  o  n o r t h e r n  18: ,1-35*  E o o l . ,  n o t e s  23: f r o m  119-145. t  h  e  G r a n d e  1948. P r a i r i e  P e a c e  R i v e r  R e g i o n ,  A l b e r t a . J o u r .  M a m m . ,  29: 49-64.  if7.  3 tanwel1-Fle t eher,J.F..,1943. and T..C. S t a n w e l l Fletcher.  Some aooounts o l the f l o r a and fauna of the D r i f t w o o d V a l l e y Region o f n o r t h c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. Ooo. Papers B.C. Prov. Mus. No. 4: 1-97.  Swarth, H.S;  1922.  B i r d s and mammals o f the S t i k i n e R i v e r Region o f n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and southwestern A l a s k a . UniVi C a l i f ; Publ* Z o o l . , 24: 124-314.  Swarth, H.S.  1926.  Report on a c o l l e c t i o n o f b i r d s and mammals from the A t l i n Region, n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. Univ. C a l i f . Publ. Zool., 30: 51-162.  Swarth, H.S.  1936.  Mammals o f the A t l i n Region, northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. Jour. Mamm., 17: 398-405.  Tourney, J.W., and G.F. K o r s t i a n .  1947,  Foundations o f s i l v i c u l t u r e upon an e c o l o g i c a l b a s i s . John W i l e y and Sons, H.Y.  Watson, K.D., and W:.H. Mathews.  1944.  The T u y a - T e s l i n Area, n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. B.C.. Dept. Mines, B u l l . 19.  Whitford, H.N., and R.D. C r a i g .  I9I8.  F o r e s t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n , Ottawa.  118.  APPENDIX A.  Pig.21.  The  P h y s i o g r a p h y o f B r i t i s h Columbia n o r t h o f l a t i t u d e F i f t y - f o u r D e g r e e s U.  I  Fig.22.  The  E x t e n t o f the B o r e a l F o r e s t B r i t i s h Columbia.  in  ZO.  The A r e a C o v e r e d by t r a p l i n e s f r o m w h i o h Productivity i s Calculated.  IZ-Z.  APPENDIX B.  /Z3.  The The  value  upon t h e v a l u e lumber  Value  of f o r e s t s  of t r e e s , based  and o t h e r wood  values,  of Fort Nelson F u r  products.  F o r e s t s have o t h e r  the l a o k o f a c c u r a t e  These v a l u e s  philosophically,  tree  i n large areas  growth  exceeds  o f Canada.  the f u r resource  T h e r e are l a r g e a r e a s ,  probably  I n those  i s subordinate  however, where  t h a t o f the wood on t h e same  important  u p o n t h e same a r e a ,  i t i s evident  natural  in  the f u r value  probably  area.  that while  o f wood and the crop of  s a y , e v e r y 100 y e a r s ,  crop.  t o be c o m p a r a b l e , w o u l d c o n s i s t  wood v a l u e value  added  synonymous w i t h  value,  compound  i n v o l v e s a number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  these  Over l a r g e a r e a s  subject  annual o f the  p e r i o d o f the  to a sum t h a t i s a c c u m u l a t i n g  This computation C h i e f among  f u r i s an  on one hand, a n d on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e a n n u a l  o f the f u r , y e a r l y f o r the r o t a t i o n  forest,  best  importance.  wood may be h a r v e s t e d , The two v a l u e s ,  beoause  areas with  I n making a c o m p a r i s o n o f the v a l u e fur  have  data*  Wood and f u r a r e two o f the most resources  real  i n providing reoreation i n -  and i n p r o v i d i n g f u r .  s e l d o m been examined, e x c e p t  solely  i n t u r n upon t h e v a l u e o f  i n p r o t e c t i n g watersheds,  c l u d i n g hunting,  of  i s too f r e q u e n t l y based  i s the c h o i c e  "forestry"  "logging", rotation opinions.  however.  o f the c o r r e c t i n t e r e s t  o f Canada, where  to d i f f e r i n g  interest.  rate.  i s a term n e a r l y  p e r i o d s a r e unknown, o r  I t would  on the l a n d where c u t , i s the most  appear  that l o g  comparable  value  of wood to raw f u r ;  The eost to produce l o g s , and f u r , would  have t o be known, and the c o s t to t r a n s p o r t them to the place of f i r s t  s a l e s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o such a c a l c u l a t i o n . Despite these d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f  the value of f u r , some rough c a l c u l a t i o n s may show the value that f u r speoies may have i n a r a t h e r l i m i t e d  area.  There i s not enough i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to access the value of the mature f o r e s t s i n the v i c i n i t y o f F o r t Kelson.  A recent survey  ( C o l l i n s , 1944) e s t i m a t e s o n l y  11,680 a c r e s o f merchantable f o r e s t i n the e n t i r e watershed of the F o r t K e l s o n R i v e r , and 9,470 a c r e s on the a d j o i n i n g Muskwa R i v e r .  The p r o p o r t i o n o f t h i s acrage w i t h i n s i x t e e n  m i l e s o f F o r t Nelson i s not known. On the e i g h t t r a p l i n e s w i t h i n s i x t e e n m i l e s o f F o r t Nelson, w i t h a t o t a l area o f 84$ square m i l e s , (the same l i n e s r e f e r e d to under marten) l 8 0 1 marten have been produced i n a t o t a l o f 92 t r a p l i n e years, or the e i g h t l i n e s have produced approximately annual value $27.00.  157  p e l t s per year.  The average  o f a marten p e l t f o r the p e r i o d I929 to 1947 i s  The average annual gross r e t u r n i s , then,  $4,239*00  f o r the e i g h t l i n e s . Using compound i n t e r e s t , the value i n n years* o f an a n n u a l l y paid sum r , at i n t e r e s t r a t e p, i s r x ( 1 . o p " - l ) .op (Roth,  I926).  o f t e n accepted  Using the i n t e r e s t r a t e 3 percent, a r a t e i n f o r e s t r y c a l c u l a t i o n s , the g r o s s value o f  marten from these l i n e s i n 100 years, i s $ 2 , 5 7 4 , 4 8 6 . 0 0 .  Table II The Value of Fur i n the Fort Nelson Area. Calculated to compare with the value of wood on the same area when the tree crop rotation period i s 100 years.  Species.  Total No.Pelts.  Av.No.Pelts per year, 8 lines.  Ay. Pel-t-s.  Av. Annual Gross Income of 8 l i n e s .  Beaver  3461  301  21.03  6330.03  Fisher  34  3  58.68  176.04  Fox  977  85  11.03  937.55  lynx  636  55  27.62  1519.10  Marten  1801  157  27.00  4239.00  Mink  •332  29  12.61  369.69  356  31  1.36  42.16  21  2  17.41  34,82  5?  .85  50.40  7.84  15.68  7.50  30.00  11; 60  58.OO  Total  13,798.47  Muskrat Otter Weasel  - 684  ,  Wolverine  25  2  Coyote  44  4  Wolf  33  5  ' •  1  As an annual payment,  $13,798.47,  compounded, at 3 percent, i n 100 years becomes $8,375,671.29. This figure i s gross income.  One hundred y e a r s i s used a s a n a r b i t r a r y r o t a t i o n p e r i o d , p r o b a b l y t o o s h o r t f o r spruce a t t h i s l a t i t u d e . I f one c o n s i d e r s the annual r e t u r n s o f marten as i n v e s t e d a t 5 p e r c e n t , a h i g h but n o t u n u s u a l r e t u r n on some i n d u s t r i a l i n v e s t m e n t s , the g r o s s t o t a l i n 100 y e a r s i s $11,063,790.00. Table I I p r e s e n t s the average a n n u a l g r o s s income from these e i g h t l i n e s , w i t h a l l s p e c i e s o f f u r i n c l u d e d except s q u i r r e l .  I t may be Been t h a t the t o t a l income f o r  these l i n e s i s $13,798.47 per year* and t h a t i n 100 y e a r s such an annual i n v e s t m e n t , a t 3 percent i n t e r e s t , would have a t o t a l o f 18,375,671,29. These c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e v e r y rough, but i l l u s t r a t e the v a l u e a t t a i n a b l e o f the f u r r e s o u r c e , even upon a l i m i t e d a r e a , when t r e a t e d i n a manner t h a t e n a b l e s comp a r i s o n w i t h t h e v a l u e o f a wood crop*  

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