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Leadership in recreation : a study of the impact of leadership on the recreational programme in the city… Jones, George Vaughan 1950

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5 fa) LEADERSHIP IN BECHEATIOH A study of the impact of leadership oa the recreational programme in the city of Bellingham, Washington "by GEORGE YAUGrHAN JONES Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MA.STER OF SOCIAL WOHK in the Department of Social Work 1950 fhe University of British Colurahia ABSTRACT One of the main phases of recreation is the leadership which sponsors, administers, or carries out programmes. This study purports to set forth some of the features of leadership in recreation generally, and in Bellingham in particular. The criteria chosen apply to leaders individually or in groups. Four classifications of leaders are used* builder, representative, exponent and compeller. A further means of measurement is to assess motivation, goals, degree of participation, personal attributes, training, and the capacity of the leader to develop his group. The conditions that create leaders are described as: additions to existing responsibilities, social and economic status, and available time. Leaders also appear "because of needs and pressures from outside. An intelligent minority needs representation-. The study shows that leaders can "be grouped according to "communities." Leaders are classified with regard to their ratio to population, showing a gradation from the "best residential districts to the poorest. "Disenfranchised" groups, that i s , those with l i t t l e or no representation, are also revealed. Union representation in community councils is not as broad as might be expected, and some implications are stated. The-results of perpetuating and interlocking leadership are discussed as ways of gaining either strength or weakness. Individual leaders are assessed on the basis of Busch's classification-. Patterns of leadership - interlocking, democratic, wide lay participation - are discussed. From the patterns certain conclusions appear: the need to broaden the base of participation, and to increase possibilities for generating leaders. Both private and tax-supported agencies are shown to have a unique contribution to make to leadership. A distinction is made between the work of the professional social group worker and the volunteer. The study suggests some ways of generating leadership. There are abundant resources for training of volunteers in Bellingham, i f they were utilized. Social work can help in harnessing leadership to do its best job. Budgetting recreatinnal programmes through the Chest offers one method whereby sponsoring, administrative, and programme leaders can help each other. The study further suggests that agency leaders can work together for effective achievements in recreation: there is a strong relationship between good recreation and sound leadership. AC1OT0WIEDSEMEHTS Members of the Bellingham recreational survey committees and the executive directors of agencies, both public and private, supplied information for this study. I wish to acknowledge the help of these people. Especially I acknowledge the efforts of Miss Elizabeth V. Thomas and Dr. Leonard U, Marsh, both of the Department of Social Work, University of Br i t i s h Columbia. Miss Thomas supervised the f i e l d work upon J which the study is based. Dr. Marsh provided his patient criticism and adyice<* TABLE OF COHTEHTS Chapter Page 1 The Purpose of the Study The trend toward organized recreation. The ways recreation is evaluated. The objectives of the Bellingham Survey. Current concepts of recreation. Definition of leadership. Relation of leadership to recreation. Differentiation between professional and volunteer leadership. Scope of the study. Setting of the study*,,..,..% 1 2 Criteria for Measuring Leadership Definition of a group. Basis for choice of criteria. Four classifications of Busch: builder, representative, exponent, compeller* The democratic and the autocratic. Hierarchy of leaders. The self-perpetuating leader-. Further criteria: motivation, goals, degree of participation, personal attributes, training, dynamic or static, growth of the group*. ••»•» 11 3 Conditions that Create Leaders Increasing responsibilities of the leader. Social and economic status. Leisure affects what the leader can do. Inclination can help. Extraneous factors make leaders: needs, and pressures-. Relationship exists between the leader and his followers. Intelligent minorities and leaders. Conditions vary.......... 22 4 grouping of Leaders Grouping affects leadership-. The "communities" represented in Bellingham. How the sample of leaders was chosen. Representation of the "communities" by seventy-six leaders-* Leaders and their ratio to population. Community and -'Community Chest compared-. • Agency coverage of the city. The "Disenfranchised." Union representation. Some churches not represented; Bisenfranchisement by design. The Webbs on labour unions-. Perpetuation and grouping of leaders-. Interlocking between agencies. Representativeness in the grouping. 29 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter - Page 5 Individual Leaders A Representative Leader-, The Sponsor Type, The Leader as Builder. Builder and Sponsor.. The Leader as Exponent..,.........'* 48 6 Patterns of Leadership in Bellingham Some agencies work together. Interest has he en maintained. Further effects of interlocking* Are the patterns democratic? There is wide lay participation. The franchise is not used extensively. Implications of the patterns: need to broaden the base of participation even further; possibilities for leaders to develop. The part private agencies can play. The older leader. Vested interests. Over-participation affects the programme. Conflicts and rivalries* . The pattern in one agency, and what it can do... 59 7 Generating Leadership The future and leaders. Contrasting roles of professional and volunteer leaders* Aims of social group work. Function of social group worker in recreation: application of special skills* The professional strengthens the work of the volunteer. Obtaining graduate training for present professional leaders* Selecting and training volunteers: function of public and private agencies* Special role of the Community Chest leader. Leaders work together. The future is promising.........'* 76 Appendig A Bibliography- 93 FIGURES IN THE TEXT? After Page: Figure I. Distribution of Leaders by "communities" Bellingham, Wash-,. 1950. Sketch, map.............. 29 Figure 2-, Bepresentation of "communities" by seventy-six leaders.............................. 30 Figure 3. Seventy-six leaders distributed in relation to population, by types of "communities"•v..',.. 31 Figure 4. Comparison of Leaders in Community and Community Chest by Occupation, Based on 76 Community leaders and 46 Chest leaders........... 32 Figure 5-, Distribution of Agency Boards of Directors by "communities? 33 Figure 6, Interlocking of Agency Leadership, using the bases: "Board of Directors," "Wife on Board of Directors," "Active," "Yery Active".........45 SCHEDULES IE THE TEXT Page Schedule A. Busch's Classification of Leaders (Adapted)..12 Schedule B. Sources, Selection, and Training of Volunteer Leaders for Recreation, -.87 CHAPTER 1 THE PURPOSE OP THE STUDY Many people express surprise at the increasing trend of parents and children to leave their homes at frequent intervals in order to have friendships and find entertainment. To this trend are ascribed some of the i l l s and problems that beset homes and communities. On the other hand, there are those who welcome this change as an indication of the way in which ideas can be exchanged and relationships built up with other members of the community. For them, the value of recreation as a means of growth is highly prized. For others the quality of recreation in a city or neighbourhood is regarded as a very minor matter. On the whole, however, there has been an increased focus on what recreation is, and what i t can do for the individual and the group to which he belongs. Interest in the use of leisure time is indicated by the number and variety of ways in which needs are met-. Surveys by recreational agencies to determine the best way they can serve their members, attest to a continuing realization on the part of many people that the way in which man spends his hours away from duties, affects his all-round development-. Periodical evaluation of services which influence so many people is necessary i f the time, energy, and funds „. invested in the facilities and programmes'dkothe..various agencies are to be effective-,. Estimating whether or not i t has a balanced programme is frequently done by an agency itself. The tendency today seems more and more toward having the job of appraisal done by one central group in order that a cohesive, community-wide plan may result. This was the method adopted in Bellingham, Washington. The Community Chest of the city has, as one of its governing bodies, a planning unit called the Council Cabinet. Recently, in co-operation with the Recreation Commission, it has planned and undertaken a survey of recreation in Bellingham. The purpose of the Council, established in 1946, is indicated in this way: "The cabinet has spent a great deal of time defining its function and in orienting itself as to the cabinet's place in health, welfare, and 1 recreational planning and co-ordination in the community." The Council, has implemented surveys of individual agencies and supported local legislation to improve the health of the city, in these ways furthering its purpose* A recreation survey committee of the Council 2 Cabinet was set up and this committee invited the Social Work Department of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., to assist and participate. The Department placed two second-year students to help with the survey on a part-time basis. 1 Bellingham Community Chest and Council. Minutes  of Annual Meeting, Feb. 6, 1947, p. 1. 2 , 1949 Annual Report, p. 3. -3 A Central Steering Committee was authorized by the Community Chest and the Recreation Commission to carry on the survey. The Objectives Committee decided that the survey would seek to find out existing needs and resources in recreation, in order to see i f the city had a well-balanced programme. A brief examination of current concepts of recreation will indicate to some extent the significance of what the Bellingham survey had to deal with. Recreation can be described in several ways. Braucher says: Recreation is an expression of the inner nature of man; through i t each person is helped to be the man his inner nature demands. It is a form of leisure-ti&e experience in which physical, mental, or spiritual satisfaction comes to an individual from participation in certain forms of activity. Recreation not only has value for the individual as a means of self-expression and growth; i t also contributes to the development of a sense of community. People who play together, sing together, hike together, make things together, attain in its truest sense a community of feeling. Recreation is therefore receiving widespread recognition as an essential factor in modern l i f e . For the purposes of this study, a shorter definition is helpful. Recreation is taken to mean, "any kind of leisure activity engaged in for its own sake."^ The place of leadership in a recreational progranume is significant. Many authorities would agree with Braucher 3 Howard Braucher, "Recreation," in Russell H, Kurtz, ed., Social Work Year Book. 1947, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1947, p. 428. 4 L. E. Hinsie, and J. Shatsky, Psychiatric Dictionary. Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1949, p. 462. when he says: The success of recreation programs, whether under governmental or voluntary auspices, for the community at large or for special groups, is largely determined "by the quality of the leadership employed. Upon the calibre of the leaders much of the success or failure of the planning and execution of programmesiis •• .-/J thus seen to depend. This study was undertaken to ascertain what was the impact of leadership on recreation in Bellingham. It also purpprts to adduce some of the features of such leadership that are of special interest for social work. Leadership can mean many things, but for the purpose of this study i t is taken as including a l l those who are concerned with planning, financing, and operating recreational facilities and programmes-. Such planning may be completely informal and elastic as, for example, in a bridge club* Or i t may be formal, and limited by the policies of a long-established association, such as the Y.M.C.A., or the Camp Fire Girls. The recreational programme of the public schools is an important example which follows a pattern, in this case being set forth in a standard curriculum. Financing of the recreational programmes in Bellingham is done by both public and private funds. 5> Op.* cit'.'.* pv 428.* The former are obtained "by taxes and are used to carry on parks, playgrounds, and the school organization. Private funds are largely solicited and administered by the Bellingham Community Chest and Council, although many organizations outside the Chest are sponsors of recreation, and churches and neighbourhood bodies also provide funds. The actual operating of the programme may be carried on by either professional or volunteer leaders. The professional leader is qualified through special training to lead in recreation. The volunteer may carry on the duties concerned with administration, promotion, and finance, or may be chiefly interested in carrying out programme-,0 It is worth noting that the recruiting of new leaders, both professional and volunteer, is a problem in Bellingham, as i t is elsewhere. Current leadership includes both those who hold office in their organizations and those who are not officers,, but nevertheless make their influence felt in the community. Political leadership is also included because elected persons control both finances and policy as they affect parks, playgrounds, and schools. The impact of leadership in Bellingham is important. Of the place of the leader in the group, Memminger says: J5 For details of the work of the volunteer, a' recent, comprehensive source of information is: John Orr Pollock, The Programme Volunteer in Leisure-Time Agencies: A Study of the experiences and attitudes of a sample of volunteers in fourteen building-centered agencies in Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, B.C., Master's Thesis, Dept. of Social Work, University .of British Columbia, 1950. -6-Freud ascribed the cohesiveness of the group to a common devotion to a leader, a devotion in which the hostile elements are kept in abeyance through a kind of tacit recognition that ultimately he— the leader—will be replaced by one of the followers, who meanwhile suspend a l l mutual hostilities. Each follower thus identifies himself with the leader, and hence, to some extent with a l l the other followers. The hostility referred to by Menninger may not be evident in the recreational group, b-nt the identification of follower with leader, and follower with follower, underline the strategic position of the leader whether he functions in the realm of the professions, business, or leisure-time activities. The policies.and programme set up to meet the needs of the participants can be advanced or retarded largely through the type of leadership. The leader requires a unique ski l l for the tasks which he performs, i f the results of his influence in and with the group or association are to be fruitful. Wilson and Ryland suggest the multiplicity of functions that go to make up the successful leader: No one individual possesses the competence to meet a l l situations. Some situations call for specialized knowledge, s k i l l , or diplomacy. The leaders, then, should be the persons with the best equipment in the areas indicated. The role of leadership includes some aspects of teaching as well as of advising and implementing. In times of danger and uncertainty when fear dominates, members may respond to a leader with obedient acceptance. This situation creates the dictator. In every group, no matter what the dominant social and political philosophy of the members, the power and functions of the leaders are determined by the natural and social processes. 7 Karl Menninger, Love against Hate, New York, Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1942, p. 267. 8 Gertrude Wilson, and Gladys Ryland, Social Group Work  Practice. New York, Houghton Mifflin Company, 194$, p. 5. -7-Scove of the Study This study is not a report of the findings of the survey. Therefore i t does not concern i t s e l f directly with standards i n recreation as a whole, except as these standards affedt leadership. The study is concerned with the a c t i v i t i e s of leaders within or without Bellingham,-as these activities deal with recreation. It discusses any or a l l of the leadership in recreation in Bellingham in public and private agencies. There were opportunities to see leaders in action, or to note the results of their efforts, so that the findings presented in Chapters 4 and 5, f i t , to a f a i r degree, the scope stated here-. Setting of the Study Recreation i n Bellingham was for many years largely under the direction of private agencies, clubs and associations. As an example, the Y.M.C.A. sponsored the basketball league, providing space and personnel for setting up the schedules and arranging competition with outside teams. The Y.F.C.A. performed a similar function with regard to recreation for women and g i r l s . Both Camp Fire Girls and BoyaScouts developed extensive programmes. In more recent years the public recreational programme has been expanding, and other organizations such as the Elks, Eagles, Rotary, and Junior Chamber of Commerce have sponsored recreation with funds, space, and volunteers. The conditions which influence or control leadership in Bellingham are significant. The geography of the city -8-and district is important for several reasons. First of a l l , the area of Bellingham is extremely large in relation to its population. This population is about 33,000 but the city boundaries comprise an area that would accommodate several times that number. This vast area is further divided into several quite distinct neighbourhoods by the hilly nature of the topography. The consequent thin spreading of the population has obvious effects on leadership. It tends to create its own brand of isolation within various districts. One of the problems presently facing Bellingham is the assimilation of a new district, Birchwood, incorporated into the city in January, 1950. The task of building cohesion among the leaders in the city is increased by this dispersal of population. Communication between leaders of various neighbourhoods and between the established agencies which are mostly grouped aroimd the centre of the city, creates a problem. Barent'ss living in districts such as Birchwood or Fairhaven are loath to send their children into the centre of the city, because of the distance they have to travel. Consequently the services of the professional leaders are in some cases lost to the very people who may need them most. This is not to imply that existing agencies shirk their responsibilities, but rather to underline the conditions under which the leaders have to work. Closely related to the geography of the city is that of the surrounding area. The recreational opportunities - 9 -that are present include deep-sea and fresh, water sailing, boating, swimming, and fishing. The near-by mountains offer both summer and winter diversions. These opportunities strengthen the community li f e in one direction and in another they weaken i t : leaders' are called on to plan programmes which, once established, are often abandoned for other interests. A case in point is that of the Birchwood district. The programme planned for the children was centred around the playground, but had to be abandoned because giost of the children went berryppicking for the months of July and August. These conditions would seem to point to the need for a flexible or mobile type of leadership which could be used as a type of "shock troops", i f , when, and .where needed. Leadership in Bellingham seems to f a l l into two main groups: those who sponsor the programme, and those who administer and execute i t . The sponsors are those who form policy, and raise funds: they may or may not execute the programme. Those who administer are attached to either public or private agencies. The city schools and Western Washington College of Education are public agencies, and so are the parks and playgrounds. The private recreation agencies under the Community Chest and Council are: Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., Tomahawk, Camp Fire Girls, Boy Scouts, Fairhaven Boys and Girls Club. The quasi-co-ordinating bodies for the recreational pro^ rammas^  aire-the. .Community^ ,Chest and Council and the Recreation Commission. Many other associations, clubs, and groups are carrying on programmes that meet the needs of various age groups in Bellingham, Essential as these may be, no attempt w i l l be made here to &o into details about a l l of them. The breadth of programme, the large area this programme must serve, and the consequent load placed on a l l types of leaders in recreation, give some indication of the influence of leadership in the community. CHAPTER 2 CRITERIA POH MEASURING- LEADERSHIP If i t is true that, "Any chance aggregate of people becomes a group on the "basis of mental similarity, which may be a consequence of a common emotion, a common Q interest or common need,** then there is room for a great variety of leaders. In looking for criteria, it is intended here to use those which might apply to measuring recreational leadership in Bellingham. One of the means of determining whether these criteria are met will be the performance of the leaders in the past, in other words, their record. Another will be to estimate the calibre of leadership as shown by present performance in connection with current recreational needs, or in the activities of the recreation survey. Busch-*-^  suggests four classifications of leaders: builder, representative, exponent, and compeller. The following schedule shows how leaders, whether singly or in groups, may be arranged according to Busch's classification. 9 Paul Pigors, Leadership or Domination. New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1935, p.. 5. 10 Henry M. Busch, Leader shin in Group ffork. New York, Association Press, 1938, p. 120 f f . -12-Schedule A: Busch's Classification of Leaders (Adapted), Leaders Leaders in Singly Group i 1. Builder ) 9 ) Dynamic Democratic Builds relationship Cant 1, Co-operate | 2. Representative) by: a, empathy b, ability to get along with people c.. ability to gain support d, morale builder 3. Exponent' ) May have qualities of a l l . 4. Compeller ) Static Tend to be: ) Autocratic 1, Hierarchical 2, Self-perpetuating According to Busch, the builder is "self-effacing, seeking to direct the interest of his group toward its organization program rather than toward himself. He seeks to discover within the group needs and interests which can be made the starting points or organizing centers for activity. He relies on stimulation, suggestion, and inspiration, rather than on personal authority." The representative may be "the spokesman of his group, yet using his own initiative, making decisions on the basis of his best judgment and periodically submitting himself to the checking of the electoral process. He may, on the other hand, attempt to sponsor only those measures for which he has been given a mandate from his clientele," The group exponent "represents in his personality the genius of a movement. People see in him an exemplification -13-of their ideals and he is elevated to leadership without his seeking i t . He may even he thrust into a position of control despite grave personal disqualifications for such office." The compeller, "dominates the group, doing its thinking or getting others to do i t for him, "but taking over their ideas and finally formulating the policies. He may secure adherence to his program by any means which promise success, ultimately relying upon coercion, i f necessary. Under normal conditions of modern life the rfcthlessness of the autocratic leader is rather successfully veiled,...the will-to-power which is basic in the compeller asserts itself in the show of force when force seems necessary." The democratic leader is the one who attempts to give his followers opportunities to determine what policies shall be applied to the problems which face them. He is not satisfied with using his own judgment, unsupported by the counsel of the members of his group. The autocratic leader, by contrast, makes what decisions he thinks are best suited to solve the problem, without consulting his group. When leaders are considered together they may form a hierarchy. Such a group are the leaders who retain to themselves the top positions and circulate these positions among a few by such means as the nominating committee, or by the system of electing to the top executive positions only those who have held certain lower grades of office previously. - 1 4 -Closely related to the hierarchy of leaders are those who are self-perpetuating. The leader holds his office for a period of years; possibly he is the vice-chairman of a recreational committee for five years, and after that period he is automatically raised to a higher position. Such continuity of membership and office-holding may signify a well-knit recreational administration, but it may also be a type of "in-breeding" which is inimical to the best interests of the community. That the latter is a possibility was indicated by Mr. W., a local newspaperman, who said that in many cases younger people were not represented in the controlling groups because they were "submerged by older people". It may be argued that age is not a criterion for leadership in recreation, but the factor of age is of concern in trying to estimate the representativeness of the leadership. Another type of leader who does not emerge in his most effective role in the community today is the one who is "institutionalized." By this is meant the person who, because he is closely connected to a programme, is unable to cut himself free and adapt his thinking to that of the community as a whole. He may be institutionalized as a leader because in the community he holds a position which keeps him from participating in any programme which is outside his own sphere of activity. Or the leader may be a member of an agency whose programme, while i t is intended to serve the recreational needs of Bellingham is, -15-nevertheless, partially geared to a national policy and the leader must conform to this. The institutionalized leader may see a l l suggested plans, or combinations of them, as partial solutions of Bellingham's recreation problem which is: how to get resources and services now in existence, or planned, to serve the most people in the best manner. Yet, because his institution has an over-all policy, he cannot circumscribe i t to dovetail his agency into the entire community picture. Motivation If motive is defined as that which impels a person to action, then motivation can be high among the criteria for judging leadership. These motives are not easily discerned. Pigors^^suggests the cause for some of the difficulty in determining real motives. From the community point of view i t may be asked, about the leader, "Does his record show community service? In what ways?" Furthermore it may be asked i f this participation is to satisfy a conscious self-interest, perhaps by being a "joiner" for the sake of his business. Such a person would be seeking to use his leadership to gain publicity for himself. But this negative motive may not be his only guide. On a higher level, he may merely wish to make leadership his own recreation. 11 O.P.. ci t . . p. 56. "They (adult dominators) deceive themselves unconsciously, and explaining their actions by noble sentiments and principles, they readily justify what is really prompted by self-interest." -16-By serving on committees, supporting programmes financially, and in various ways devoting his resources to others' leisure-time needs, he provides recreation for himself. Goals The personal goals which a man states, or indicates "by his actions, are very central to an estimate of the quality of his leadership. By an examination of definitions of leadership, some of the goals may evSlve. The following is a statement on leaders which suggests some of their objectives: Leadership is that quality in an individual which enables him to affect the intentions and voluntary actions of another....The best leadership comes out of a contributive pattern which encourages and provides opportunity for the contribution of each individual; decisions are fashioned out of the combined thinking of the group affected.... Once decisions have been made on the basis of intelligent interaction of the individuals in the group, then the leaders have the responsibility of implementation, reinterpretation and administration. Among the goals suggested are: developing contributions from each individual, and making decisions from the combined thinking of the group. These are goals which the social worker places high on the l i s t of criteria, because they are so closely connected with the needs of the individual and the group, -^ n example may serve to illustrate how the goals of the leader may be used to measure leadership-. 12 Harold Spears and Alice Miel, Leadership at Work. Washington, D.C., National education Association, 1943, p. 23 f f . Quoted by Harleigh B. Trecker in Group Process  in Administration, New York, The Woman's Press, 1946, p. 26. -17-The services of one man were sought "because i t was thought by the Central Steering' Committee that he would be very valuable in advising on techniques. At first he declined because of pressure of other activities. Later he accepted a position of responsibility, and in the meantime he became a member of the board of one of the recreational agencies. This leader's unconscious goal may be to establish himself in the capacity of director of whatever activities he joins. The unconscious motives and needs of the leader are difficult to assess. For example, in the case of this leader i t might be possible, after lengthy observation, to conclude that he has a need to dominate. Degree of -participation Closely connected to the leader's goal is the criterion of participation: the degree to which he carries out his part in the areas in which he chooses to. serve. Some of the measures of his participation may be: Is he active, moderately active, or inactive, as indicated by his continuous service, and by his membership and attendance in committees? Is he a policy maker? Does he help to control the budget used for recreation? Personal Attributes The true leader's sense of democratic values has been referred to. In councils this will mean the ability to hear and consider a l l sides of debatable issues, and to hear the views of small groups, of the minorities who appear in meetings from time to time, and who desire various services, ortftb take part in programmes. Some of these beneficial results are achieved through maturity, of which Pigors says: Maturity of both leader and follower is essential to the successful operation of leadership. Both must be old enough to be capable of working for an objective and possibly distant goal....the leader must be particularly self-controlled in order that he may guide and inspire others.^ Training Training for the position held is important. The training which the leader acquires in order to carry out the duties of his own profession or occupation has a bearing on what he can accomplish in the community, and i f this training is such that i t helps to extend his activities beyond the local scene and into State and Federal fields, then his contribution to local recreation stands to benefit from the broader experience and outlook. The status of the leader can be gauged to some degree by the number of instances in which he is named to carry out assignments requiring a high degree of performance. Mr. R. was named to committees such as those on Job Analysis, Objectives, and Background. His name appears throughout the survey records, although he did not serve on the committees. Can the leader assume responsibility and carry out specific duties? Mr. C. is an example of meeting this criterion. He undertook the Chairmanship of the Job Analysis Committee of the survey and produced a workable report. Later 13 Pigors, p. 122. -19-he was chairman of the committee to survey public-supported agencies. He attended and contributed to meetings regularly. Is the leader dynamic or static*: that is, can he grow and change with the changing needs of the community? This is also pertinent for the leader in recreation because needs vary with changing conditions and customs, and with changing demands on facilities and personnel. There are various instances of the way Bellingham leaders measure up to this criteria, and one will illustrate. The Y.T7.C.A. recently changed its practice of locking the door before mid-night. Under the old system the residents, or prospective guests, were put to great inconvenience because no effective policy v/as used to allow for their entrance or departure. How the residents can come and go as they would i f they were at home. The import for leadership, of this more flexible policy, is that this agency has met a need by making a change in a long-established system. In a city whose natural areas tend to be self-contained communities, such as those in Bellingham, the leader in recreation needs to know the other leaders, i f the various programmes are to be co-ordinated efficiently. It can be asked about the leader, with regard to this criterion of communication: is he.in touch with the leaders in the natural areas'1" Is he informed on the policies of the State and Federal programmes affecting recreation? Can he accept the leadership of higher authorities in the recreation programme, for the good of the community? Mr. L. -20-typifies the leader who can qualify. He is prominent in the tax-supported agencies, is a member of the Community Chest and Council; is on an agency hoard; sits on the fiecreation Commission, and acts as a programme leader. He considers that advisory committees are a useful method of obtaining both wider participation and a better informed public. The growth of the group of which he is a leader. is a prime-estimate of the value of leadership. Does he encourage participation on the part of the groups he is in? Does he enable the members to mature? Does he encourage the members to progress towards leadership themselves, and does he continue to broaden the base of his group by bringing in new members? Mr. K. is the head of several organizations. He has established the reputation of being able to get others to accept responsibility and hence to grow and develop. This need for a leader who can help the growth of the group as a whole, and its members individually, is referred to by Coyle: Then, too, the leader has a responsibility for  keeping the group realistic in its -program and  in its thinking. Groups often whip themselves up into an enthusiasm unrelated to such stern realities or indulge in illusions of grandeur which are l i t t l e short of fantasy. Such movements often have in them the very life stream of the organization, but i t must be channeled by realistic and far-reaching consideration of the true facts in their situation. It is upon their leaders that a group should be able to rely for the tempered balance growing out of f u l l knowledge and long-range thinking.-'--14 Grace L. Coyle, Group Experience and Democratic  Values. New York, The Yfoman's Press, 1947, p. 25. -21-Miss R. met this criterion in working in the survey. She was insistent in trying to have many people take part, and at the same time she v/as realistic in her recognition of the limitations that had to he applied because of changing conditions. There are innumerable criteria for measuring leadership. Those presented here are suggested as some which apply to persons who v/ould seek to develop both themselves and their groups. CHAPTER 3 CONDITIONS THAT CRSATE LEADERS The role of the community leader "becomes more and more strategic as society increases in complexity. Administrative and programme directors in a l l walks of lif e have, in general, more responsibilities, and consequently more powers and obligations than formerly. In some cases the leader may be almost unknown to his followers, or to those who choose him. The leader in a large corporation or in the council of a large city may be merely a name to the employee, or constituent. The type of leader who emerges in Bellingham is controlled partly, as in other communities, by personal factors such as social and economic status. The leader with social status is accepted. He is the person who holds a high position in the community in relation to others. In whatever organizations he chooses to participate: service club, fraternal organization, or church, he.is rated by his fellow-members as highly acceptable and is favoured to hold office. The one with economic status has material prosperity such that his opinions can influence the direction and development of the community. Economic status may make it possible for the leader to attend the numerous meetings related to membership, and provide the time to devote to the objectives of the groups to which he belongs. This is not to say that such a leader will have large amounts of idle time to devote to pursuits outside his business or personal interests, but rather that his daily programme is more flexible than that of the man who must f i t his schedule more closely to the demands of .others. The quality of the leadership of a man with economic and social status will he measured later, hut one instance will serve to illustrate, Mr. V. was President of the Community Chest and Council, and at the same time President • of Ziwanis and the Chamber of Commerce. He is President of one of the largest companies in Bellingham. This is only a partial record of his participation in community activities, but shows that the development of a leader is • affected by his economic and social status. He may not require a large measure of economic independence to be a leader, but i t helps. Whatever the features of social status may be, or however they are determined in his community, they place a person in a position to become a leader, should he so choose. While some leaders remain in a manipulatory position and do not participate in meetings of their organization, for the most part, membership, and especially leadership, implies the need for leisure time in order to carry out the duties of office. Not only must meetings he attended, but the leader is involved in the planning of these meetings, so that the element of time is, in itself, an essential in limiting what the leader can contribute to his organization, and consequently whether he will remain as a leader and be placed at the head of other organizations. Mrs. A. is active on several agency boards. One fellow committee member, in accounting for her accomplishments said, "Mrs, A. has leisure which gives her time to do these things. But -24-she also has vigour, and ability to organize her free time." The inclination of the leader also affects the role he assumes or is given by his fellow-members. He may participate because he makes this his own recreation. He finds stimulation in groups and may be able to initiate policies and programme. Of this initiating aspect of leadership Pigors says: The initiator is so constituted that the. enthusiastic acceptance of any cause or responsibility tends to permeate his entire being....While he is immersed in his cause he is that cause and the success of his efforts is in a large measure due to his devotion, his infectious enthusiasm and single-minded determination....The successful initiator is a self-constituted and self-sustaining 'center of action' who has unusual capacity to resist social pressure and the fear of isolation. It is not necessary that his ideas should be original. He need not discover anything hitherto unknown to mankind. The essential characteristic of the initiating leader is that he actively and continuously promotes his ideas. To do so he must be a well-integrated personality and willing to devote himself actively to his cause.15 In survey meetings, Mr. M. appeared to enjoy himself,-and to find inspiration in working with committees. He exemplifies the initiator as Pigors describes him. Extraneous Factors From outside the leader there are many factors which help to create him. One or two will illustrate. Crises develop in recreation, sometimes through a large influx of people, as during the war years; sometimes because of demands for different types of programmes or services. In Bellingham there appeared to be a need for 15 Paul Pigors, Leadership or Domination, p. 240 f f . -25-an organization to provide recreation for some of the high school students. A group of citizens established the Tomahawk Club for boys and girls to meet this need. Besides the leaders to organize this club, the programme itself has a leader. The wider implications for leadership are readily seen. The Community Chest and Council has assumed partial financing of this endeavour and so there is an added responsibility upon the leaders of both the Chest, and its member agencies. Outside pressure can be an important influence in creating leaders. For business purppses the management of a company may encourage its employees to take part in various programmes, to the extent of allowing them hours off, and paying part of their fees. It is not suggested that business promotion is the only incentive in such cases: the firm may feel that this is one of its best contributions to the community in which i t has its clientele. Mr. M., who holds several community positions in Bellingham, encouraged two of his colleagues to enter the survey. Their services were valuable. Their leadership, in this particular instance at least, stemmed from without themselves. Combined factors The relationship existing between the leader and 16 his followers is important. Pigors says the sentiment of gratitude is displayed in the continual re-election of 16 Ibid., p. 112 f f . leaders, so that leadership commonly becomes perpetual. He goes on to say that adulation and hero-worship re-enforce a tendency latent in most leaders to perpetuate their influence even when independence on the part of the followers is possible. Many people would rather be dominated than continue to be followers. They court dependence by the readiness with which they subordinate themselves without criticism to anyone who will think for them, act for them, and relieve them of responsibility. The calibre of the followers in an organization affects the choice and emergence of leaders. If they are aware of high standards of practice in recreation they will tend to choose leaders who will promote good practices. If they have the ability to co-operate with their leaders, then the resulting programme can be significant for the community. The feeling of security prevalent among the board members of both the Boy Scouts of America and the Y.M.C.A. in Bellingham v/ould appear to indicate a high degree of co-operation between leaders and followers. The agencies who have leaders with high records of performance appear to be those in which the follower is given, and expected to assume and execute, duties commensurate with the aims of the organization. Possibly the basis for expanding success exemplified by the Guardians in Camp Fire, is a reflection of the quality of roles fulfilled by both members and their parents. The young -27-leader is perhaps even more exposed to the influence of his followers, than is the older. He "wins his spurs" largely on how the members perform. The president of one of the high school clubs said, "Our club is only as good as its members. We could not operate v/ithout the help of our members in carrying the load." The question of intelligent minorities and their leaders is worth noting. In a city the size of Bellingham there may be groups who do not engage in the leadership of recreation. The inclusion of these groups in planning and executing programmes can be helpful. Mr. H., interviewed in the survey, said that his interests, either as participant or spectator, include swimming, wrestling, roller-skating, dancing, music, drama, and reading. He also enjoyed visits with his friends to the local taverns and he wondered why taverns were not listed on the survey questionnaire as worthwhile places of recreation. He thought that in our present society there were many people such as himself who would be financially well able to care for most of their needs, but might not be able to afford the cost of membership in fraternal organizations. Association with others who had like interests to his own was necessary, and he thought that the tavern was a place where people could get together to enjoy each other's company. He thought that the "uplifters" would frown on his suggestion of taverns as places for recreation. The point of view presented by this man may be that of a 828-minority, as far as ever being heard in the councils of recreation is concerned. An awareness of this minority view, and use of the leaders who represent such a view, cannot be overlooked i f a community-wide, broadly-supported programme is to be carried out. In discussing the competition that exists between various types of recreation, and hence between their leaders, one woman leader said, "Members of the church to which I belong have asked me to support a movement to suppress certain activities in Bellingham. I told them that i t v/as our chief business as citizens, to provide such attractive recreation that we could freeze out what we think are unworthy forms of diversion." This suggests the kind of person who thinks in terms of a l l groups in the city. These, then, are some of the conditions that cause leaders to emerge in a community. The causes are many, intricate, and difficult to trace, partly because any person can be a neutral, ineffective member on one occasion, or in a certain situation, an effective follower in another, or may achieve outstanding leadership in s t i l l another. CHAPTER 4 GROUPING OP LEADERS In estimating the way in which leadership operates in a community i t is valuable to determine how the leaders are grouped together. This grouping' may show v/hat areas of the community are most represented, what occupations are followed, and what are the different interests which attract leaders. An examination of such information may help to show whether there is a possibility that some phases of community life are well served by leaders, while others are not. It is not enough to know that a city has qualified leaders: to fix their relationships to one another, to their agencies, and to the community as a whole, is illuminating. An important measurement of the quality of leadership in recreation is to determine how representative i t is. To find this out i t is necessary to state who should be represented in the councils and bodies that establish policy and programme in recreation. For the city of Bellingham generally, there should be some representation from the main areas or "communities." Since the boundaries between the communities are not hard and fast, leaders from one may well represent people nearby. The following are the main areas of Bellingham, with their location: ".. Birchwood: north-west - Area ^ 2" Broadway Park: north Figure 1. Distribution of Leaders by "Communities.** Bellingham, •ash.. 1950. Sketch map. -30-Area "3" Eureka: north-east Lake Whatcom: east York Addition: central east Sehome Park The H i l l : overlooking Bellingham Bay, in vicinity of Western Washington College of Education Fairhaven: south Edgemo or: s outh-we s t Happy Valley: south Outside corporate limits These numbers and names refer to the map, Fig. 1. The greatest concentration of population is in the southern part of "2", and "3", The Whatcom County Department of Welfare has its heaviest load in the area called Eureka, The best residential district is Edgemoor, followed by the H i l l , and Broadway Park. Lake Whatcom is also a residential district. The other districts range in between Eureka and Edgemoor. The Docks area, along the waterfront, is the home of many of the single men, and transients. How these areas are represented can be partially indicated by showing a distribution of leaders. A comprehensive study of grouping would require an accurate count of the top leaders in the community. For the purposes of sampling the distribution of the leaders by "communities,1* the method used was to l i s t the area in which the members of the Central Steering Committee lived, together with the people whom this committee named v to expand the survey. This li s t was augmented by taking v Both workers kept records of survey meetings and of events as they transpired from week to week. These records are used in this chapter. Other references for source material on leaders are: clippings from the Bellingham  Herald, the Labor Hews, the files of news reports of the Community Chest and Council, bulletins of agencies, reports of the Chest and its member agencies, and personal interviews. The H i l l 28.4% Broadway Park 20.3% Sehome Park 12.2% Edgmoor 8.1% Outside 6.7% York Addition 5.5% Area "2" 5.4% Lake Whatcom 4.0% Happy Valley Pairhaven 2.7% 2^7% Birchwood 1.4.% Pig. 2. Representation of "communities" "by seventy-six leaders. -31-the names of leaders in service clubs, fraternal organizations, and other bodies which are prominent in various aspects of recreation. The people are promoters, sponsors, administrators, or programme leaders, both professional and volunteer. The number chosen on this basis is seventy-six. They are distributed in the communities according to the chart in Pig, 2. It would be worthwhile to show the ratio of leaders to economic groups. In this way i t would be possible to see to what degree people of varying wage levels have a voice in determining recreational policy. No breakdown of the population into economic groups is available at present, so that i t is not feasible to give the data. But an approximation of the way in which leaders are proportioned to population by economic classification is shown in Figure 3, The seventy-six leaders are distributed in an arrangement of communities estimated to be in these economic groups: "top", "above'average", "average," "average rand below," Allowing for the fact that a- true leader who limited his interests to those of his own community would be almost impossible to find, this figure shows the way a large part of the population may or may not have direct representation. It may be observed that, since some of the policy and programme is determined by local government, it is theoretically possible, through the franchise, for a l l areas to have some voice in deciding what shall be done. No jwoperty regulations apply to the vote, but residence of one year in the city, and ninety days in the wards, is required. (6.7% of leaders live outside corporate limits) Populations 17.5* Leaders - 56.8* UPPER: Edgmoor The H i l l Broadway Park Population8 21.8% 17.( ABOVE AVERAGE t Birchwood Lake Whatcom Sehome Park • •75 Populations 29.5% 13.5% AVERAGE; Area t ,2 H Area W3 W York Addition ••50 Populations 31.2% 5.49' -25 AVERAGE AMD BELOWl Happy Valley Eureka Pairhaven i— 0 25 50 75 100 Pig. 3, Seventy-six leaders distributed in relation — i — 50 — i-75 to population, by types of "communities,** -32-One group who participate extensively in recreation 17 in Bellingham are trade-union members and their families. The Community Chest and Council had three union representatives on their Board of Directors for the years L946 to 1949 inclusive. One of these members was invited to serve on various committees of the Chest, and was active in them. The others have a record of non-attendance at Chest meetings, but are named on the boards of agencies. The way in which people of various occupations appear as leaders in the community and in the Community Chest helps,to show in another manner the type of representativeness. Figure 4 gives the-comparison. The inset on this chart also shows the proportion of men and women leaders between city and Community Chest. Age Groups Mr. ID. and Mr. F., who are in charge of school recreation for winter and summer, respectively, are members of the Recreation Commission, so that the interests of school-age children are represented in this way. In so far as the Recreation Commission meets for a brief (one-or two-hour) session once a month, the effect of this representation is nullified to a large degree, because these men do not get the opportunity to interpret recreation fjB6 the lay members of the Commission. One of the results 17 The Y.M.C.A. return, "Registered Constituency of Patron by Occupation," shows 630 out of 1190 as belonging to families whose bread-winner is a member of a union. Community Leaders Community ~] Chest : at i » to t o 1 W to I CM -o*| # HI 8 in r - l a o • r t m to o u • B •rt +» OS +> B 0) H w P © 5 ^  ^ Pi 3.8 "2 C m •rt ai c fi •rt p h O (D O 91 ai to 0 o o CM ;•• • r t O Pig. 4. Comparison of Leaders In Community and Community Chest  by Occupation. Based on 76 Community leaders and 46 Chest leaders. -33-of the current survey should he that this interpretative job will he aided by the facts obtained. The "young adult" group, which includes those from 17 to 35 or 40 years of age, appears to be one of the chief problems of agency leaders. In many of the meetings of the objectives committee of the survey, concern v/as expressed that the needs of this group would be unfolded. V'ith specific information on these needs available to them, the agencies felt that they could adjust their ipsograteie'-'Af, and as required. Therefore representation of young ad-alts can be considered important. The survey committee included several young people, both married and unmarried. The Junior Chamber of Commerce is represented on the local civic council. Since the members of the Junior Chamber belong to the young adult group, some' representation is developing in this direction. To show the way in which agency leadership accomplishes coverage of the entire city it would be necessary to take into consideration every sponsor, administrator, and programme person. .Then it would be pertinent to gauge the way in which each of these persons reaches out into, and affects, the lif e and growth of the city at large. Within the scope of this study, valuable as i t would be, such an estimation of leadership has not been "possible. The manner in which each agency has its roots in the various parts of the city is pointed out, to some extent, by the percentage of the boards of directors Out- The Sehome B»dwy Area York Lake Happy Area Eureka Fair- Edgmoor Birch .tiavftn . . wood 33.3% 19,0% 14.8* 14.3% 14.3% Y.W.C.A. 29.4% 23.5% 11,8% 17,6% Boy Scouts 47.0% 11.8 17.6?? 17.6% r6%-Camp Fire 15.0;- 35.0% 15.0% 15.0% Tomahawk 28.5% 14.3% l*-3% 7*1* 7.1* 7.1^ -Fairhaven 11» Ml ffP* . 5>fg 22 »29& Fig. 5 Distribution of Agency Boards of Directors "by "communities/ -34-who live in the communities. Figure 5. gives this information. In examining this chart i t is worth noticing that Birchwood is the newest addition to the city, and that both i t and Lake Whatcom are comparatively distant from the central offices of the agencies. The singularity of Fairhaven Boys and Girls Club as an agency making its speciality the servicing of needs in one district, is underlined by the fact that its board of directors comes from Fairhaven and adjacent communities. Senior citizens have an organization called the "Golden Age Club." It is sponsored by the Fraternal Council which is made up of two members from each fraternal organization in the city. It is estimated that the Fraternal Council represents some three thousand people, so that the sponsorship of the senior citizen's recreation is quite broad. Mrs. L. is the Fraternal Council's member on the survey committee. She is also active as a Freeholder in civic government so that the interests of this older group are presented to both private and public agencies. The "Disenfranchised" It would appear from the above that every segment of population has some form of representation among the leaders in recreation. The Community Chest states that there are upwards of one hundred and f i f t y organizations or associations actively concerned with recreation. The degree of represent-ativeness may, from some points of view, be considered high. -35-All groups; however, are not as well represented as they might he. Some are not represented at a l l . These may well he called the "disenfranchised." The resistance to the appearance of these leaders may he due to cnnditions they set up themselves, or to obstacles which are created for them. For example, the central steering committee of the survey includes the name of a representative of labour. This man did not appear at any meeting and no. reason for his non-appearance was given or sought. This means, in terms of representation in the councils of the community, that in one instance at least, both the man and those whom he represents do not have a voice in the policies established. The reasons why this man does not attepxL and does not participate are important and should be further traced. His absence and the absence of any other representatives from this group, in the formulation stages of the survey at least, would seem to indicate a serious gap in dontemporary leadership. In attempting to get at the root of this dieenfranchisement, a question was put to the minister of one of the large churches which has many wage-earning members. This minister is a member of several local groups, including the School Board. He has been a resident of Bellingham for over fifteen years and takes an interest in the well-being of people in every walk of l i f e . He was asked i f unions, including both skilled and unskilled labour, were represented among the leaders of the community. He replied that, -36-unfottunately, they were not. They were not included "because they refused repeated invitations. He felt unable to give an opinion as to whether they had the ability to lead, or not. He thought that the individual representatives of unions were congenial people to meet, but "they refused to assume as large a share of responsibility in civic affairs as might be expected, considering their numbers." There are indications that the part now played by unions and their leaders has not been fully appraised. The survey of recreation for the State of Washington showed that twenty-five percent of the adult population were union members. The city of Bellingham has fifty-two unions and it is estimated that about f i f t y percent of the adult population are union members. While these members live in many parts of the city, their heaviest concentration is in area "2", area "3", Eureka, Happy Valley, and York Addition. Do these union members take an interest in civic affairs and in the city's leadership? The secretary of one of the large unions v/ould not commit herself about the role played by union voters, but she did say, "In the 1950 elections we backed the mayor, some of the aldermen, some of the freeholders, and the chairman of the school board, a l l of whom were elected." The union representative on the survey reported that members, although not promoting a recreational plan themselves, were interested in the survey. The young adult group in the unions had cooperated in answering questionnaires and supplying other information. -37-Union leaders had heen encouraged by the membership to acquire the old Y.M.C.A. building for use as a social and recreational centre. The expressed policies of some of the labour organizations themselves show that they desire to give community leadership. Among the topics discussed by the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor at its convention in 1948 were: . Child Labor, u i v i l Rights, Education, Handicapped, Housing, World Health Organization. The Federation's concern for- children was stated in this way: "We reiterate our position that...the Federal Government should also afford every undeveloped child and youth.those services through which his health, welfare, social well-18 being and mental capacity will.best be developed." This report also refers to the emphasis that the organization thinks its local bodies should place on acting in the interests of the community. To assure that the policies espoused by the local union leaders will be those of the membership of the A.F.L., compulsory attendance is required, and a fine is imposed upon those who are not present.. This policy has been severely criticized, but the leaders favour i t , because they think i t is one sure means of keeping their organization alive to the issues of the day, and more democratic in their representation. The national body of the C.I.0. favours a 18 American Federation of Labor, Re-port of the Executive  Council to the Sixty-Seventh Convention. Cincinnati. 1948, p. 162. - 3 8 -close relationship between its members and community organizations. In its description of community services it says that the C.I.O. has a stake in community welfare. "We must do everything possible to strengthen these vital services and to guarantee that they are administered democrat-ically and to guarantee that they are administered in the 19 interest of the whole community. Commenting on who should serve on agency boards, the Committee remarks, Who Should Serve The union should suggest as board representatives people who can and will attend board meetings and serve effectively, A C.I.O. board representative who can't or won't attend agency meetings reflects no credit on his union and makes no contribution to the agency.20 Speaking of leadership, the same Committee says: New Leadership-The union counselling program has a way of bringing new and talented leadership to the fore in C.I.O. These men and women can be developed to serve as C.I.O, representatives on community agency boards and committees in many cases. With their training and day-to-day experience in attempting to meet health and welfare needs of their fellow-workers they are uniquely equipped to participate in community social planning and plan an important role in the service of their unions. In other publications of this series the Committee states its objectives to be merging of the strength and resources of the C.I.O. with those of other representative groups to provide more adequate health, welfare and recreation services. 19 National C.I.O. Community Services Committee, Community Services Program Guide No. 2, New York, C.I.O, 20 Ibid. 21 , Community Services Program Guide No. 4. New York, C.I.O. Whether some of the policies stated by these two large labour organizations are implemented on the local level, can only be ascertained by judging the performance of the leaders. Their part in civic government has been referred to. They appear on the boards of the agencies, as shown in the tabulations of directors. The Secretary of one of the larger unions was named to the State council on youth, part of whose dity is to arrive at functioning policies between local, area, and State bodies. The letterhead of the Community Che.st bears the endorsation of both A.P.L. and C.I.O. The executive director of one agency, when asked about union representation on its board of directors, said that one union man had been made a director. He did not attend any meetings. Was the meeting hour one which made it impossible to attend? The noon-hour was the time, and the man's employer had given his permission for any extra time off required, but the man s t i l l did not attend. This agency leader felt that, since so many of their members came from homes where union.people predominated, a direct contact with such homes, in the form of a representative, would be helpful to a l l concerned. In examining the charts of representation on agency boards it appears that some of the agencies have union members. Whether this is because the agency makes a special effort to gain labour representation, or whether - 4 0 -it is because the policies and services of the agency are more appealing to union people is not known. It would seem to indicate that there are instances of labour taking some of its share of interest and responsibility in the actual operation of recreational bodies. The Federation of Churches consists of the ministers of the churShes in Bellingham. As a body, i t is able to speak for the members of congregations represented, not only on questions concerning religion, but on health, welfare, and recreation. Many of the churches have extensive recreational programmes of their own. There are some congregations in Bellingham which are not represented on the Federation. Rules of their particular persuasion do not permit them to belong. This does not mean that they are inactive in community affairs. On the contrary, Rev. H., for example, has held office in the Red Cross for ten or more years. But i t does suggest that congregations whose ministers do not have complete freedom to take part in community planning, are thereby deprived of a chance for representation, and the city also loses some of the advantages of their ministers' academic training, their contact with their own parishes, and their understanding of the problems that affect a l l age groups in recreation as well as in other aspects of their living. Another factor in current recreational leadership is disenfranchisement by design. The nature of theddesign -41-is not readily perceivable, but some of the results are. Here is an example. Mr. R., a graduate of Western Washington College of Education, is the paid leader of a Boys and Girls Club. He is a member of the central steering committee of the survey. At a meeting of the executive of the survey the co-chairmen declined the suggestion that Mr. R. be included in the job-analysis committee. The reason given was that he was lacking in experience. Again, as with the other cases, the reasons behind his exclusion would need to be further examined to give them their proper perspective, but the implications of the decision, as they affect present leadership, would include the fact that a young, potential representative is not included in the inner councils. Furthermore, the group of young adults whose viewpoint he might logically interpret to the survey, are consequently unrepresented - by this means, at least. How far there is room in the present administration of recreation for the deviant and the innovator, remains to be seen. The analysis of the membership of the Community Chest and Council would seem to indicate that the "hierarchy principle" is working continuously. Continuity of office holding does not bring with i t an innate loss of good cUe&dar'sHip. On the other hand, continuity may bring the best results for Bellingham, The point raised here is whether there is sufficient opportunity for new ideas to -42-develop under the direction of new men. Does the exceptional man emerge in Bellingham? The co-chairmen of the survey committee named Mr. D, and Mr. L. to a special committee of the survey. They based their choice on their belief that these two men were capable of doing special work in setting forth the limits., to be covered by the functional committees of the survey. The naming of two public welfare persons by a business man and a professional, might indicate that the exceptional man comes to the fore. The whole problem of the disenfranchised is an important one for leaders. If recreation, as well as other community activities, is to be well organized and well administered, then the broader the base of participation, the greater should be the potential for leadership. Before leaving the question of disenfranchisement i t may be well to point out that the condition may arise from within an organization, and not from without. Pigors attributes some of the causes for lack of leaders in unions to the results of evolution within their own movement. In the beginning, workers met in local trade clubs and by a simple rotation of office, each member was prepared to share in the administrative burdens. But as shown by Sidney and Beatrice V/ebb, (industrial  Democracy). this- state of things did not endure. The state of warfare with employers which was characteristic of the early labor unions, soon necessitated the formation of small executive committees which could meet in secret and arrive at decisions quickly. Furthermore, as soon as the local trade clubs gave way to some form of - 4 3 -federal grouping i t was necessary to have a central agency which could act in the name of a l l . Thus there gradually developed a special class of leaders whose business i t was to look after the affairs of the affiliated groups of workmen. As soon as a special class of officials developed it became more and more difficult for each workman to participate directly in the management of his 'local' or of the entire federation. 2 2 Today the shop steward acts as liaison between worker and employer. He may collect dues and inform the men on changes of working conditions, and adjust minor differences. The necessity for active, individual participation has been lessened or eliminated by a centralization of functions in the hands of a few persons. In analysing the leadership in recreation in Bellingham this disenfranchisement of union members is important. Its significance is evident to many of the leaders in Bellingham. That i t is not a simple problem to solve is suggested by the above examples and the quotations. Perhaps, for the unions, i t may be that some of the representation on the leadership councils will have to be carried on by "Women of Unions", just as "iVomen of Rotary" have a contribution to make to the community which they consider their particular field. The way in which leadership is perpetuated is indicated to some extent by an examination of the tenure of officers in the Community Chest and Council. An analysis of the membership of the officers for the 22 0p_. Cit.. p. 110. -44-th re e years 1946, 1947, 1948 shows: Number of members serving as officers for three years: 2 n « « w n n « y e a r s : 2 n n n n « n •» o n e year: 3 Of these, one man served as President for two years, another as First Vice-president for two, and as President for one. The Board of Directors over the four-year period, 1946 to 1949 inclusive shows: Number of members serving four years: 10 " " n " three years: 4 " " w " two years: 8 n n w " o n e year: 9 The Council Cabinet shows, for the same four-year period: Number of members serving four years: 7 " " " " three years: 7 » *» « » two years: 6 " " " " one year: 12 The Community Chest elects its officers so that there can be continuity of policy by choosing members to serve for several years, and by reserving the top positions for those who have been schooled in the workings of the Chest, That this is a sound device seems apparent to the Chest, This modified type of closed membership has some inherent weaknesses. There is a tendency for the general public to become less and less well-informed on the policies and accomplishments of the Chest and member agencies, and to foist responsibilities upon a small group in a "Let George do i t , " attitude. In support of this point of view, one of the prominent officers in the Chest, when discussing the possibilities of a successful survey, consistently maintained, "Didn't I t e l l you that only a handful of people would actively concern themselves with this job?" There is a fair degree of interlocking between the leaders in the various agencies, A few examples will illustrate. Mr. Q. is: member of the Board of Directors of Chest, Y.M.C.A., Scouts. He is a member of Rotary and the Chamber of Commerce. Mr. R. is on the Chest, on Board of Y.H.C.A., Boy Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, President of Junior Chamber of Commerce, and is a Freeholder in the civic government of Bellingham. Mr. D. is on the Chest, Board of Y.M.C.A., Boy Scouts, Junior Chamber of Commerce, and is a Councillor in the civic government. How some of this interlocking applies to agencies is charted in Figure 6. V/hat are the implications of this interlocking? They are both positive and negative. Because of wide experiences in several agencies, some of these leaders may he able to help co-ordinate their policies. This is an objective toward which many of the leaders are looking. They may, because of their more intensive training, strengthen each organization to which they belong. On the other hand there may be a tendency to "water down" the policies of agencies to suit the weaknesses of the retarded, rather than to develop strengths of the advanced in recreation. The tendency to become institutionalized operates among CCC T3SS3A YWCA SCOUTS CAMP T0M4- C ofC JAYCEE SERVICE FBA- CHURCH POLIT- OTHER PI RE HAWK . TERKAL ICAL Mr. 3* X X X A A ? A ? Mr, D, . A X X A A A AA Mr. 0, X . - X w X A A A W W Mr-. E. . X . - ? X X AA A 2. ? ? Mrs. L. AA AA AA AA Mr. V» A . . X w A A Pig. 6. Interlocking of X Board of Directors Agenoy Leadership W Wife on Board of Directors A Active AA Very Active board members as well as among the paid executives of agencies They may view with unbased alarm the introduction of a new agency into what they consider to be-• their exclusive field. Does the Tomahawk Club f i l l a real or imagined need in recreation? Some leaders say i t f i l l s a real, others a definitely imagined need. V7hether i t is one or the other is., not too important for this study, except that this example points up some of the problems that emerge from interlocking leadership. So far, in discussing the grouping of leaders, the sponsoring leader has been considered. The programme leaders, those who actually carry out recreation in Bellingham, are also very important. Mr. D., referred to above as an example of interlocking leadership said, "The two most important features of recreation are leaders and finance. ^ithout good leaders any programme will f a i l . " Mr. L., one of the top leaders in the tax-supported agencies, said, "Our programme suffers for lack of leaders, we have some very good ones. But we haven't enough to cover the programme as we try to operate i t . Besides this, we don't have sources of new leaders. Not only must the leaders know the theory of recreation, they must, be able to demonstrate on the floor or field, so that kids can learn by good example. Then, too, the leaders must, have a good sound philosophy of recreation. Our programme is aimed, not at producing champions as such, but to teach skills to a great many participants." -47-When asked what this leader thought v/as the solution to the _pr.oh.lem of getting programme leaders he said, "At present v/e are trying to engage the services of one of the Western representatives of the National Recreation Assoeiation. This person is especially equipped to give an intensive course of such a flexible nature that those taking part benefit to a very high degree. This person's services v/ill be available, not only to our Bellingham leaders, but to those in the Granges, 4-H Clubs, and other rural groups. We have more participants than we have leaders to take care of their needs." The representativeness of men and women in the grouping of leaders is significant. During the last twenty -five years no woman has held a civic government position in Bellingham. Not until this year, when Mrs. L., a long-time resident, was elected a Freeholder. The very top positions in the Chest are not occupied by women. But women are active in the programme and form an important part of every fund campaign. The P.T.A. is active directly and otherwise in recreation in Bellingham. The League of Women Voters is influential in forming policies. In determining the ratio of men to women in a representative group, reference is again made to figure 4. To merely count and locate leaders is not a true measure of their effectiveness in any community. At the same time, the way in which they tend to group together is a sign of how they may, or may not, meet the needs of the people whom they desire to serve. CHAPTER 5 INDIVIDUAL LEADERS There are, obviously, many other factors which affect the emergence of leaders, and how representative they are, Without describing these factors more fully * it may now be worthwhile to evaluate some of the individual leaders on the basis of the criteria developed in Chapter 2. This evaluation is based on recorded observations. The goals of some of the leaders are suggested, while in other cases they are not, because of the infrequency of contacts which did not allow sufficient opportunities to get the necessary information. The f i r s t example is that of a man who speaks for business men in a strict sense. The place of economic affairs in the life.of the city is of paramount importance to him. He is actively interested in community development with an emphasis on how any change will affect business, Mr, G-. is a compe.ller. He has a v/ide community interest as shown by his membership in the Chamber of Commerce, the Elks, and the Rotarians. He is active in one of the largest churches in Bellingham, and serves on its Board. His position in the Chamber of Commerce makes him a policy-maker, for this body represents a high percentage of the economic interests of the city. His idea of what democratic values are and of the place of recreation in the community is coloured by his association with the Chamber of Commerce. He is not -49-well informed on the functions of the various recreational agencies and does not fully appreciate the type of work they are doing. Mr. G-. has a record of active participation in any organization to which he chooses, to belong. Because he is sincerely outspoken in his opinions, and because he is familiar with the historical growth of Bellingham, his contributions to community efforts are often sought. He is in touch.with the business interests of the city, and is able to communicate with a l l areas, and various shades of thought. For example, although he upholds the interests of the business enterprises of the city, he is named by labour unions when they seek a fair arbitrator in negotiations involving wages, hours of work, or other conditions. In conversation he did not suggest that he would favour wide participation by a representative group of citizens in community activity, but rather that "the businessmen' have the key to knowledge of what is best for the city. A Representative Leader Mr. V. is president of one of the timber processing companies of Bellingham. He was president of the Community Chest for 1949, and also of Kiwanis and the Chamber of Commerce. He was a member of the Chest Board of Directors for 1946, 1947, and 1948. In 1946 he served on the budget committee. Mr. V., in his membership, is an active participant. -50-His position on the Chest Board of Directors indicates that he is a policy maker in this activity. He is a leader in recreation in Bellingham largely because his economic position permits some flexibility in his working schedule, and he applies this feature to community work. He is not a sponsor only, and is shown as taking part in the Y.H.C.A. programme as member of the Boys' Work Committee and Boys' Camp Representative. His record in the organizations to which he belongs shows him to have the ability to plan and carry out, and to assume responsibility. The agencies and groups with which he is associated are growing and dynamic and their members are active. Because of his membership in different groups, his ability to communicate can be said to be high. Whether this ability carries over into the area of communication throughout Bellingham was not ascertained. The number of times that he is named to responsible positions in recreation would place him, i f not as a builder, at least in Busch's classification as a representative leader. The Sponsor Type Mr. P. is an independent businessman in Bellingham. His major community interests are the Community Chest and Council, and the Chamber of Commerce. He is a member of Rotary and of Knights of Columbus. One of his major contributions to recreational -51-work in Bellingham, during 1949-50, was his chairmanship of the Chest Fund Drive. Members of the Chest accorded Mr. P. credit for a major part in the success of this campaign which reached its quota, alone among its class. This leader is more the sponsor of recreation, than the active, face-to-face person. At times during the Chest drive he used autocratic methods, but objectives of these methods were in such harmony with the general wishes of the people of Bellingham that one might say he is more the exponent than the compeller. Becl;Use.:h:e i's economically secure Mr. P. is enabled to expand his interest in the community. The number of associations to which he belongs indicate that his participation is broad and that his service is continuous is shown by membership and attendance in the committees of which he is a member. At the annual meeting of the Community Chest, Feb. 15, 1950, his record of participation was stated by the President of the Chest. The ovation which he received would show that, for those present, this appraisal was vindicated. Because of his life-time residence in the city, Mr. P. is well acquainted with its history. He knows the trends of population change and how needs have varied. Whether he is able to develop the growth of leaders in the associations to which he belongs is not known, nor are any other qualifications he may have for leadership. -52-The Leader as Builder 'In the groups to which she belongs Miss R. is a builder. This is shown by her dynamic and democratic outlook. The plan of the survey was something new to Miss R., but she studied i t and made helpful suggestions for its execution. The question of how v/ide the participation in the survey should be, arose frequently, and she maintained a democratic position by asking that the survey people be as representative of a l l shades of thought as possible. Ability to relate to people is important for the leader. Her discussion of the problems facing senior citizens and young adults in their leisure-time activities showed that she has a high degree of empathy. In committee Miss R. appeared able to boost the morale of members who had doubts about accomplishing the survey objectives. Because of the feelings of admiration for her on the part of the group, she may well be called an exponent. This admiration appeared to be based on her ability to perform, rather than on emotional ties. On the other hand, there was no evidence that Miss R. is the compeller type of leader. Her procedure in committee meetings was to present a l l sides of questions as she saw them and as they were adduced by members. She then placed the questions before the meeting for its decision. There was a feeling among some members of the survey that the scope should be narrowed to an inventory -53-of facilities, rather than a concerted effort to find the needs of the people. Miss R. favoured the broader basis and in so doing appeared to show wide community interest and a motivation that went beyond personal needs. Miss R. participates actively in groups and programmes with which she is associated. One of the main reasons why she v/as chosen as chairman of the survey committee v/as her performance in other community activities, and her chairmanship of important meetings sponsored by Soroptimist v/as cited as a specific example of this performance. Her training for leadership in recreation involves her own position as head of a women's physical education department, while her duties in connection v/ith this have placed her on State, regional, and national bodies, thus giving her a broad experience in this field. To some extent this broad participation in activities outside Bellingham is both a help and a hindrance to her leadership. Whereas i t provides abundance of opportunities for growth and for expansion of interests and outlook in the field of recreation, at the same time her intimacy with the problems confronting the people of Bellingham is decreased. The nature of her duties in her own profession requires her to plan her programmes expediently in order to save time and effort and she brings to her community activities the benefits of this experience. The U.B.C. woirkers noticed that Miss R. v/as able to gather up the threads of - 5 4 -survey planning and to take advantage of the "briefing" on events intervening between meetings. It is not certain whether her grasp of recreation on a city-wide basis is as broad as her training and experience would appear to justify. At the same her obvious desire to accept responsibility, and her interest in the recreational needs of the people, should make i t possible for her to overcome any lack she might have in this direction. In one executive meeting Miss H. described to those present what was being done in other cities by unions which took part in recreation. She suggested that some of the recreational needs of young adults could be ascertained by working through unions and their members. U1 ile those present did not agree with this point of view, i t illustrates that this leader is able to present ideas to a group which would help in its growth. Her goal in life seems to be to do her own work with a high degree of proficiency and to invest her talents and energies for the benefit of the community in which she makes her home. To this goal she brings self-awareness, a high degree of security, an open mind which has been matured through extensive travel, and an understanding of the needs of the people who live around her. Builder and Sponsor . When the U.B.C. workers met with Mr. E. after his appointment as co-chairman of the survey, he said -55-his acceptance of the position was partly based on his feeling that he owed service to the community where he and his family gained their livelihood. The records of the meetings of the Central Steering Committee indicate that the majority of the members considered this service to be outstanding. He could be placed in the group of leaders whom Busch describes as builders. His method of procedure in meetings was to ask for opinions from a l l those present and, as far as time' would allow, discuss every aspect of debatable questions. Because of his long residence in Bellingham, and his business which brings him into contact with a l l groups in the community, he has developed into the represent-ative type of leader. His desire for direct action gives him some tendency to be a compeller, but this is far outweighed by his sense of democratic values. Possibly this sense has been developed by his contacts with some organizations which are basically broad in their outlook. An indication of his degree of participation is given by the following news item: Mr. E. was presented with the Luther Gulick award, highest award given by the National Camp Fire Council. E. has served as president, treasurer and head of various committees of the Bellingham Camp Fire council over a period of years, and particularly has contributed to the building of Camp Kirby on Samish Island for local and Skagit cotmty Camp Fire G i r l s . 2 3 23 "Awards given at Camp Fire Meet," Bellingham Heraihd. 1 March 1950, p. 5. -56-He is a district chairman of the Boy Scouts, with whose programme he has been active for several years. He is a member of the Community Chest: on the Council Cabinet in 1948, and served as Vice-chairman of the Cabinet in 1949. With his own children in high school and college he is in touch with the needs of young adults. While he disclaims knowledge of the professional training required for leadership in recreation, his long association with agencies like Boy Scouts and Camp Fire, has given him some first-hand information which he appears to be able to apply to the field of recreation as indicated in meetings of the survey. Membership in the Chamber of Commerce puts this leader in touch with many of the financial people in the community. This, and other contacts, together with his long residence in Bellingham, places him in a position to he able to communicate with other leaders. He is in touch with recreational agencies in the city to the extent that he can question their programmes, and suggest some changes that could be made. He is able to contribute to group growth as shown by his statement on Dec. 20, 1949, that final decisions regarding policy would be presented to the large central committee, rather than to the executive. To expand this quality s t i l l further, he will need to enlarge his idea -57-of who should participate. At a meeting of the executive which was to choose the Job Analysis Committee he questioned the appointment of one man because he felt that he might be too young. Yet this man is in a responsible position in charge of one of the agencies sponsored by the Chest. This one instance does not obviate Mr. E.'s long record, and his present performance shows that any group to which' he belongs will grow from his leadership. The Leader as Exponent Mr. M. is one of the prominent educationalists in Bellingham. His activities in the community appear to be in the direction of increasing the amount of participation. He was instrumental in establishing the council cabinet of the Chest, the function of which is to advance the standards of health, welfare and recreation in the city. He promoted the north-west branch of the State Mental Hygiene Society. By setting up of committees and stimulating the members to function, Mr. M. expands his influence. He is the exponent type of leader. His own personal goal may be to dominate, and to manipulate, although in group meetings he appeared willing to listen to discussion and to abide by group decisions. Of his own need for the group he said, n I get stimulation from the people I am with." His degree of activity may be measured by his record. During three years in the Chest he held these positions in the Council Cabinet: 1946, Vice-president; 1947, Second Vice-president; 1949, Chairman. He was president of Kiwanis. The programmes which he helps to initiate indicate that he is a policy maker. Mr. M. is active in meetings, and decisive when the facts have been presented. Mr. M. measures up to the criteria of training for his own profession, and for service to the community. His concern for the mental health of Bellingham people would suggest that his grasp of the purpoises of recreation is broad. The positions which he holds are indicative of the representative type of leader. The degree to which this leader can contribute to the growth of the groups he leads, cannot be assessed fully because of lack of opportunities to observe his activity in group situations. However, the type of programme with which he associates himself, and his ability to give positive support to committee member's, would tend to show that he does help a group to grow and that he is idynanri'c, rather than static, in his approach to new problems. Pumerous examples of leaders could be cited, but those stated show some of the classes- into which many leader-s can be placed. CHAPTER 6 PATTERNS OP LEADERSHIP The preceding chapters have endeavoured to present some of the highlights of leadership in recreation in Bellingham. A review of these shows that certain patterns emerge. Between some organizations, for example, there is a very close working relationship. Two of the larger agencies share both knowledge and personnel for their mutual benefit and, i t may well be added, this sharing of resources reflects itself in better services to the people of Bellingham. In another instance one of the leaders in a tax-supported agency contributes his administrative and programme abilities to several agencies. Between other agencies there is rivalry and competition not in keeping with the nature of the aims of the organizations, and the services which they purport to provide. No leadership can be expected to function to its f u l l capacity i f at the same time i t is expending some of its energies in concern with the competition from another agency which is also trying to f i l l a need in the city. The selfless devotion to high objectives that characterized the efforts of professional and lay leaders in their war-time, mutual consolidation of purposes, seems to have diminished. Yet the embers and sparks of such devotion remain. Many of the leaders in Bellingham, as evidenced by their year-round endeavours, are as strenuous in their pursuit of the well-being of the city, -60-and consequently of the state and nation, as they were during the crisis of hostilities. In fact, some leaders seem to have increased their burden of community duties. An examination of some of the patterns may be helpful in assessing the value of leaders' contributions. There is interlocking between programmes. That is, the administrative leaders of one agency are often on. the board of another. Granted that the present leaders are beneficial to the potential co-ordination of leadership and administration in recreation, the question'still arises: is this duplication of leadership the most effective way of broadening representativeness? How widespread can a comprehensive plan of recreation become i f certain areas, such as Eureka, are not included to a larger extent in councils, and hence in planning? One of the leaders in the public recreation programme said that possibly his chief objection to present policy on the part of governing bodies was their hesitancy to bring the parents and tax-payers into their confidence and t e l l them the facts about the needs in recreation and the funds required to meet these needs. He said that during the years 1946 to 1948, worn or outmoded school recreation facilities could have • been replaced but were not. He thought that well-substantiated facts, placed before the voters in ways they could understand and appreciate, would be better than leaving so many of the decisions to a very few leaders, tte v/as not, he emphasized, -61-criticizing the quality of such leadership, hut he was questioning the advisability of leaving essential decisions affecting several different agencies, in the hands of a few people. Whether the patterns of leadership are democratic would require more time and observation than this study encompassed. The fact that a survey was undertaken does show that the agencies are thinking about how their programmes . meet the needs of a l l the people. Yet there is rtoom to question how truly city-wide the leadership in this survey was. Miss I,, recognized by trade-unionists and by the community at large as a well-informed, energetic and forceful leader, was not included in the beginning stages of the survey, when her insight into certain aspects of recreation would have been almost indispensable. Such omissions or oversights, whether they occur by intent or accident, are detrimental to the furtherance of democratic participation. If a l l facets of community thinking are to be reflected in the combined efforts of the city, then as many of the qualified leaders as possible may well be included. The wide lay participation in agencies points to a possibility for democratic leadership. In weighing the contribution of the volunteers in her agency, one director said, "We could not operate without a l l the volunteers who take part in our work. Some of them have given years of -52-service which I am not sure the people of the city fully appreciate. Our leaders are carefully chosen and just as carefully trained because we feel that i f we do not have the right kind of leaders to carry out our aims, we would he better off not to form new groups. \7e try to get our leaders from every walk of li f e and from every part of Bellingham." An examination of the interest that the electorate takes in voting, points to the fact that in Bellingham, as in a large percentage of cities today, only about half the voters exercise their franchise. If institutions are to reflect growth in the membership, they must be based on active, continuous participation. If agencies are criticized for being undemocratic, then the critics might well pause and consider i f democratic agencies can exist in any community whose members are indifferent both to their privileges and their duties. One of the hopeful signs in the survey was the appearance of two people from Birchwood at a committee meeting. One said, "i'/e are just two mothers who are interested in recreation and in what you are trying to do in this survey. We are ready to take part i f you need us." Conversations with Bellingham people from every area of the city would indicate that this interest is not confined to any one locality. such interest, as much as any other sign, shows that the patterns of leadership, i f not democratic, could be. - 6 3 -Imnlications of the Patterns If by a recreational leader is meant one who can keep a group of children or adults "busy," then the value of leadership to any programme is not important. But i f the leader is seemas a person who must understand the far-reaching effects of his leadership, selection and training hold a paramount position in any programme that is developed. Nor is i t enough to have people who are economically able to contribute to the support of programmes, do so without being well informed on the over-all needs of the city, and how their contributions can f i t into either the present scheme or any that may be projected for the future. Mrs. G., a public welfare person of several years' residence, pointed out that from time to time organizations, inspired with the desire to do something constructive for recreation in the city, inaugurate a programme that either duplicates what another organization does, or is so expansive that their funds cannot possibly support i t over a period of years. The result is that the programme either reaches an unfortunate end, or becomes part of Community Chest responsibility. She felt that there was a real need for leaders who could envision and develop co-ordination between the various agencies, and between the needs of the different areas in the city. There needs to be a broadening of the base of leadership in Bellingham. The record of the present leaders speaks for itself both in quality and breadth of accomplishment. The duplications in the directorate of agencies would appear to have gone as far as i t should, i f not further. There is evidence to support this idea. The secretary of one of the agencies said that a survey would not be successful because only the same small handful of people would offer their services, and that these people would .not be very effective because of the number of commitments they had. It might be suggested that there would be fewer over-worked leaders, and more new leaders would develop, i f some arrangement could be made wl^ereby a leader would serve on the boards of a limited number of agencies, and for a limited number of consecutive years. Since so much of the activity in an agency is dependent on finance, i t could be argued, that business success is the most important criterion for judging whether a man should be given a position of leadership. On the other hand, i t can be questioned whether success in business should be given such a high priority in choice. An understanding of the needs of the participant in a recreational programme is not always an attribute of the person who has financial success. Bellingham agencies have' been fortunate in receiving unqualified contributions. Some examples are the original building of the Y.Y/.C.A., the community center at Lake Whatcom, and the present Y.II.C.A. building. -65-In spite of this generous support which has not been limited'to a few instances, there is need for a more varied group of leaders, i f the agencies are to reach their clientele most effectively. The problem of getting labour into policy-making bodies is not an easy one to solve. There appear to be obstacles both from within and without labour organizations, as suggested by the following: Organized labor in Bellingham this year plans the most important role in affairs of the Community Chest than ever before in its history. In previous years there has been much misunderstanding of this a l l important community function. Often at union meetings the chest and its affiliated agencies have been criticized. Much of this criticism was due to nothing more than misunderstanding on the part of union members of the functions of these organizations. Sad, but true, in past years very l i t t l e v/as done to clear up these misunderstandings either by the chest itself or by organized labor." When asked about his opinion of the 8ommunity Chest drive, one union member said, "I would not mind giving several times the amount asked, i f we were just allowed to use our own judgment." It is not enough to say that the base of leadership should be broadened. It is necessary to examine some of the possibilities for leaders to develop. The type of followers is important in deciding the type of leaders who appear in any community. Are they enthusiastic, consistent and persistent in their participation?. Do they accept 24 Labor News. Bellingham, Wash.-, 13 Sept. 1946, p. 1. -66-responsibility? The director of one of the agencies said that he did not dare advertise the programmes offered because those who came without the aid of advertising were enough to more than tax the capacity of both facilities and leaders. Referring to one neighbourhood in particular he said that the older school children, when not interfered with by the dominating type of adult, had set up an effective programme which only lacked suitable facilities to operate. One of the difficulties in this area has been to keep the younger children limited to hours that did not interfere with the programme for older children. This had been done {/ effectively, yet without working a hardship on-wiyone. This ability of younger participants to resolve their own problems is a feature of leadership in recreation that should not be overlooked when considering how the base can be broadened. One young man, when asked his opinion about leadership in Bellingham had this to say, "Next year I am leaving high'school. I will take a job and will earn my own living. By the leadership requirements of this town I ' l l have to wait twenty years before I ' l l be eligible to be a leader." In spite of this rather pessimistic view of the time it takes to reach a position of participation in leadership, there are indications that the type of activities offered in Bellingham, provide means for cultivating leaders. Curricula in a l l the schools are such that the students have a chance to plan programmes and to conduct them. The "open-house" evening in the Bellingham High School is sponsored by the parents and teachers, with the students taking a major part in presiding over various features, and in general assuming a good measure of responsibility. The contrast between the ease and despatch with which high school students perform now, and twenty years ago, suggests that followers and leaders are having ample opportunity to emerge at a high level of performance. The private agency has a real part to play in the development of leaders. To those of school age they give an opportunity for contact with leaders who know the requirements and standards that exist outside school walls. They provide a place for children and adults to meet and get a broader view of the community than is possible in strictly academic surroundings. The Bellingham Boy Scouts, for instance, comprise members from a l l areas of the-city. Consequently there develops among them an understanding that is not possible when recreational activities are confined to the school and playground. The recreational agencies in Bellingham depend upon their membership to provide much of their leadership. Mr. P. was trained as a boy in one agency. He now serves on its board, and is a programme leader of a group. He is an example of the type of leader who had had a life-time of participation, both as a receiver and jiven in his agency. -68-The implications of this type of leadership are many, because the member who proceeds from years of membership to a role of responsibility should be able to understand the needs of the members and be able to interpret them to the other board members. If a balance of leadership is to be maintained, then there needs to be an opportunity for the older leader to emerge, or to change from leadership in one type of activity to that of another. This opportunity appears to exist in Bellingham, i f the leader chooses to take advantage of i t . Mrs. L. is an example of one who has. She took an interest in many clubs and associations during a l l her lif e in Bellingham. How that her large family are married she is taking advantage of her new leisure time to participate in civic affairs. She is a member of the Pr&ternal Council which represents a l l the fraternal organizations in the city. She is the first woman to be elected to the city government in twenty-five years. One of her main interests is the revision of the city charter. Mrs. L, feels that she has a Contribution to make to the citizenship of her city. Mrs. L. did not find her entrance into political l i f e an easy one. She said, "When I hear the League of Women Voters, of which I am a member, criticized, I just smile and keep right on going, for I think that what we are trying to accomplish is for the good of Bellingham." There s t i l l exists the feeling that the "old guard" -69-controls much of the policy of the city. One man was overheard to say, "I thought that this town was becoming progressive, but I guess that the Chamber of Commerce is going to keep right on running things." Whether this is a valid, or widespread opinion, i t would be difficult to say. The Chamber of Commerce might reply that, through its surveys and opinion polls i t is trying to keep abreast of the best practices for the city as a whole. There are vested interests that prevent leaders from developing. Not a l l potential leaders find themselves in accord with the policies of existing agencies. To progress means to change, and i f some of the agencies, due to lack of funds, or a rigid policy, are unable to meet the specific needs of certain groups, there is bound to be, either a loss of this leadership, or the opening of another agency to meet the demand. One of the main interests of the agencies in the survey was to determine the facts of the needs, in order to adjust their policies to those needs, i f necessary. The relationship between such changing needs and the possibility for leadership growth should be considered at a l l times. The competition that exists in the form of glittering commercial entertainment is something that the established agencies cannot afford to overlook. Hor can the changes in education, as an influence in developing leaders. In speaking of these changes, one leader said, 2The girl who comes out of Junior High today is much more advanced -70-in her thinking than the g i r l who entered high school a few years ago. What interested the gi r l of those days, doesn't now. We have to keep pace with the changes, i f we are to attract and train the leaders for the present and the future. Over-participation has been referred to. It has been pointed out that many of the leaders could possibly do a more effective job i f they were not involved in so many activities. Moreover, the tasks of leadership, divided among more people, would enable the emergence of potential leaders. Mr. H. is a member of the board of directors of three agencies. He is much sought after as a leader in various undertakings, because he is able to get along with people and he seems to be possessed of boundless energy. He can grasp the essentials of problems placed before him. Yet is was noticed on more than one occasion that he v/as not able to attend meetings, and i f he did, was late, or had to leave early to attend another meeting. In speaking of participation, an agency director remarked, "We're over-organized in Bellingham: a few people seem to do everything." Some type of planning to avoid this condition seems indicated, both for the welfare of the agency, the city, and the leader who spreads his efforts and energies so broadly. Conflicts and Hivalries The area which at present appears to maintain the highest degree of esprit de corps among its members and leaders is Fairhaven. Here the Fairhaven Men's Club sponsors a recreational programme that uses the converted Fairhaven Hotel as" a community centre. There is no conflict between the leaders in Fairhaven and those of other areas, only an intense pride in their own accomplishments and a desire to promote the best programme possible. The newest area, added to the city at the beginning of 1950, is Birchwood. There appear to be no conflicts between the leaders here and in neighbouring areas. The problem is to provide facilities and leadership for Birchwood, and to integrate its services with the rest of the city, in recreation, as well as in other aspects of the people's living. In this district there is a strong movement to make more use of social and other recreational facilities in the schools, and to integrate these with parks and playgrounds, rather than to build separate centres. It may well be that existing agencies within the heart of Bellingham might consider how they could help in the training and supervision of volunteer leaders in such an area as Birchwood. Lake Whatcom has its own community centre, replete wdth swimming pool marked off at one end of the lake. This makes its leadership much of an area matter. Other communities, and the survey itself, might use Lake Whatcom's centre for a pilot study of the requirements for leadership and facilities in a location somev/hat distant from the main part of the city. -72-There are rivalries between the leaders of various agencies, although these are not unique to Bellingham. V/ithin any one agency the policy to be adopted to meet rapidly changing demands on its services is not always clear. It follows that there are bound to be differences of opinion between one agency and another, The over-all objectives of the agencies are so similar and are so close to the welfare of the entire community, that any rivalries and conflicts which are not healthy need to be resolved. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.17.C.A. are the long-established agencies for recreation which have their own permanent plants. As the originators of much of the present recreation programme in Bellingham they have a deep interest in the future of. recreation in the city. Other associations, such as the schools, the Boy Scouts, the Camp Fire Girls, also have a deep interest, but see the future and its needs in a different light. At a meeting of the central steering committee held on Nov. 29, 1949, there was considerable questioning of the point of view of the Y.M.CA.'s leadership in promoting extensions to their present plant. At the same meeting there were arguments for a civic auditorium that would house a number of different activities. These differences of opinion are vital to leadership. If differences can be resolved in such a way that the broad interests of the community can be served, then the leaders are free to do a much more effective job. The originators - 7 3 -of a Council Cabinet for the Community Chest no doubt had co-operation of leadership as one of their objectives. The question of what one agency can do, and consequently what its leaders can do, to f i l l a specific need, is paramount to this study. Some agencies appear to abrogate to themselves the right to provide recreation for certain age groups without regard to the growth of the individuals within that group. If, in their conflicts and rivalries, agencies do not keep in mind the purposes for which they are established, then their leaders may be unable to function proficiently. The need- for leaders to continually evaluate their contribution to meet the particular needs of their clients and members has to be carried on at a l l times, i f they are to allow to each other the privilege of developing for the benefit of the city, and not for themselves alone. The question of what services are best for the adolescent is one that keeps recurring. The needs of this group to grow and mature are often submerged under the approach of "what is best for them." What is best appears, in some instances, to be considered strictly from the point of view of agency policy, disregarding the ultimate goals of the community: to have mature men and women who take to themselves the responsibilities of home and city. Of the possibility of mis-directing leadership of the adolescent, Coyle remarks: There is a danger in the one-sex group after early adolescence i f i t does not serve as an escalator to move the group along toward the -74-more mature relations. For some children it provides a secure haven from this often-fearful prospect. For some i t makes too attractive a social l i f e with their own sex. There is sometimes a tendency on the part of leaders to prefer to keep children on an immature l e v e l — perhaps because of some unconscious need of their own to infantalize them and to keep them dependent upon the leader or perhaps because the complexities and dangers of helping them into the courtship era are frightening to the leader. However, as we realize the opportunity that such groups afford for serving as the bridge into normal and satisfying heterosexual relations we recognize them as one of the effective means to move into relations with the opposite sex. 2 5 There is no one answer to the rivalries between agencies, but i t might be suggested that leaders approach the problems of their members with an eye to their needs, and not to the established policy of the agency. Such leaders could increase their value to the members, themselves, other agencies, and hence to the entire population which, ostensibly, it is their wish to serve. The matter of conflicts of policy has been hinted at in these preceding remarks. This study suggests that, vital to the whole matter of leaders in recreation, is a thorough discussion of p o l i c y by those concerned. The vast spread of the city has been mentioned. Those now sponsoring recreation, or actively engaged in its leadership, are devoting great quantities of time, energy and money, in order that the citizens, young and old, will have their recreational.needs met on a high level. That there is need for more leaders, seems quite apparent from the load that every agency is carrying. Defining of the function of each 25 Grace Longwell Coyle, Group "7ork with American Youth. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1948, p. 77. -75-agency, recognition that i t has its limitations as well as its possibilities, should eliminate much of this rivalry about policy and should give real strength to the leaders. No attempt will be made here to exhaust the information on patterns of leadership in Bellingham. That could well be a study in itself, for the survey revealed hundreds of organizations, large and small, simple or intriaate, alive or moribund; each meeting, in its own way, some part of the recreational needs of the city. How to achieve better leadership and how to reach a common aim for the leaders, were concerns often expressed by varion.3 agencies. CHAPTER 7 GENERATING LEADERSHIP It would be impossible to say that the leadership of any community, whether in its business, professional, social, or leisure-time l i f e , is what i t should, or might be. The leader In business and the professions is judged by criteria that are rigid and difficult to meet. In social l i f e another set of criteria obtain. Recreation at times appears to have leaders who combine the best qualities of a l l three of these types of leaders. On the other hand, recreation also has the mediocre leader, and sometimes he is more difficult to train, or eliminate, than he is in business. The choice of future leaders is therefore of great import. So far this study has dealt with the past and present, A look of appraisal toward the future may be helpful in seeing what can be done about discovering, encouraging, and training leaders, and what recreation in Bellingham can expect in the way of leadership. Professional Leadership It was pointed out in Chapter 1 that the roles of the professional and the volunteer leader, both important in recreation, vary a great deal. The professional leader, in what he can and should do, differs from the volunteer. The work of one supplements and complements that of the other. The function of the professional leader is, in recreation, as in other walks of l i f e , dependent upon a high degree of specialized training, and in consequence, the responsibilities which he assumes are entirely different to -77' those of the volunteer. It may clarify the role of the professional leader i f some of the aims of social work are reviewed-. Says Harleigh Trecker: Social work seeks to improve human relations. Group work functions in this broad area by providing group associations and experiences which afford persons a controlled environment within which they may be helped to adjust and relate to each other. Another objective is to help develop the capacity and increase the skills of persons to participate effectively in the groups and communities of which they are a part. This is an essential requirement of democracy, which calls for people able to establish a participating relationship with others in the pursuit of social goals. Persons who are secure and accepted are better able to participate in cooperative activities-. Because of the relaxation and enjoyment of group lif e they are enabled to express themselves in a creative way. Fundamentally, social group work fosters the establishment of social relationships as complete and satisfying as possible.... Group workers have ski l l in helping groups form,,,,Skill is needed in discovering, mobilizing, and helping groups utilize community resources',^0 If, as this study would seem to show, there is an abundant supply of potential leadership people, with no overall method of training them, or having once trained them, no accepted means of getting them to work together and exchange their ideas and abilities, social workers trained in group relations might overcome some of the difficulties. As Trecker suggests, such workers might act as co-ordinators and interpreters between various programmes. 26 Harleigh B, Trecker, "Social Group Work," in Russell H-, Kurtz, ed,, Social Work Year Book. 1947, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1947, p, 485 f f . and areas. These workers services could he shared, for example, between the Fraternal Council, Tomahawk, Fairhaven, and any other agency, in a consultant capacity. The duties of such workers could include help with leader training, the development of referral processes between various agencies, and health and welfare departments. A beginning has been made in a council of youth leaders as a means of exchanging ideas between those in charge of programme. The heavy loads carried by the leaders in a l l agencies would seem to justify the use of persons skilled in developing relationships, to fuse and blend the sometimes herculean efforts of the present agency personnel. If the private agencies are to have a chance to demonstrate their unique contribution, they will need to have an opportunity to give more individual attention to their members. Part of the energies of the leaders might be conserved for service to members or clients i f there were a recognition of each agency*s limitations, as well as its special potentialities. Ho one agency can expect to meet the entire needs of the community, but, by seeing that it has its own function, and knowing that this function is recognized by the city as a whole, a more meaningful service could be rendered. The Community Chest, keeping in mind both its strengths and weaknesses, is an effective result of agreement to pool resources and to do a more planned, concerted job. What has been demonstrated on the financial side of recreation, might well be carried out in the services offered. In order to establish closer planning and execution of programme, social group workers with a broad training and experience in the fields of recreation, health and welfare, might well be employed. This does not imply a change in personnel, or additions, but the use of present professional leaders in a more intensive role. Besides helping to establish co-ordination between agencies, workers acquainted with recreation could be instrumental in assisting the proper functioning of a Recreation Commission. The resources now being used, with the addition of those that will likely develop to meet the future needs of the city, suggest that highly trained leaders have much at hand to build well-rounded programmes. The professional leader must he qualified to meet the major criteria which have been set down in this study. Above and beyond these criteria he must meet the standards of his profession as a specialist with very definite skills which he has acquired through training and experience. The social group worker who operates in the field of recreationiis^such a professional leader, because he is the product of a graduate school of social work. What do the courses which he takes qualify him to do? He is skilled in understanding the forces that build stroig relationships between people in the community, and in nurturing -89-those forces for the benefit of a l l . He may not agree with the social or economic philosophies of various groups in the community, hut he is trained to put the accent upon the positive features which evolve in the setting in vhich he finds himself. The social group worker in "Sie recreational field is a resource person, that is, he is able to supply to the agencies, the volunteers, and the community as a whole, a high type of service, commensurate with his training and his remuneration-. Communities which employ the services of professional leaders should be prepared to reimburse those leaders and at the same time they should expect a very high quality of performance which is geared to the needs of every group. Employment of professional leaders assures long-term planning and continuity in programme. Any community which embarks upon a recreational programme should have some indication that its original investments of time and energy on the part of civic-minded citizens, are to be fruitful for a period of years. The mushrooming of tempooary projects i s , in the field of recreation as elsewhere, highly disconcerting to the public who, whether by taxes or private contribution, must finally be responsible for expenditures-. The professional leader with bread and intensive training, and understanding of city-wide problems is seen, therefore, as a central figure in community planning. The work of the volunteer and the professional leader meet at various points. The professional should he able to weld the volunteers into a smoothly operating part of the agency, and the total recreational programme* 26 As Pollock points out, the volunteer needs specific conditions set forth and maintained i f he is to serve the community at his best. In his role of supervisor, the professional is able to accord the volunteer his rightful place in the agency, and to develop his potentialities-* One agency leader in Bellingham said, "Parents t e l l us of the splendid work that we are doing, but few will volunteer to help us on busy nightsr." It is not suggested that the professional social worker can wave a magic wand and overcome the inertia, indifference, and other brakes that sometimes hamper the efficient recruitment and use of volunteers, but among his skills he includes those which should create a greater desire to serve, and to direct energies into meaningful channels-. It is not sufficient to have a strong programme in any one agency. If the community is to have its needs met, in a l l areas, then there must be an emphasis upon co-ordination between agencies* The vehicle for such co-ordination may he the Council of a Community Chest, with 26 Pollock, The Programme Volunteer. Chapter 6, "Supervision and Training." -82-the executive director f i l l i n g some at least of the role of co-ordinator. If the executive director is to do this work then he must he, not only finance-conscious, he must have a wide knowledge of the community, ability to understand needs wherever they are, and the courage to tackle the problem of helping agencies to work together to get their services to people of a l l age and social levels. Such are some of the functions of the professional social group worker in recreation, and they apply to any community. But to confine the function of the social group worker to recreation is to overlook his ability to merge community efforts in related fields'. The question of the use of professional leaders poses problems for agencies, particularly those which are small and lack a budget. But i t should be possible for the larger agencies, by making relatively minor adjustments in their working arrangements, to send their personnel to recognized schools for further specialized training. In this way, persons now familiar with agency policy, and doing work in a known setting, would be trained to carry on in a more productive manner-. It is not enough for an agency to say that i t is meeting the needs of the conmiunity. The community, paying the costs of upkeep, 1B entitled, to the most up-to-date, efficient, services available within the limitations that exist-. With a foundation gained in a professional school of social work, the training of the leader is s t i l l not - 8 3 -complete. He should he exposed to the entire picture of recreation, both in tax-supported and public-supported agencies. If he is to work in a private agency then he should know the problems that confront the tax-supported agency, and other private agencies, and wherein l i e the potentialities and limitations of each. Although he may find his chief interest in the work of the private agency he should, nevertheless, because of his training, be able to interpret to the public the overall pattern of recreation in the community. In this way some of the continuous tendency for agencies to set themselves apart, without consideration for the capabilities of other agencies, could be obviated. Volunteer Leadership Because his relationship to the agency is apparent, and because his duties are often more specific and are carried out over a period of years, the professional leader's influence is usually more readily recognized than is-that of the volunteer. But the importance of the role of the latter, whether as administrator or programme leader, should not be minimized. The volunteer leader is so much a part of communities that there is an inclination to overlook the essential tasks which he performs, both in tax-supported and public-supported agencies. He serves on the boards of churches, hospitals, schools, trade organizations, museums, libraries, unions, welfare councils, safety commissions. Not only does he perform arduous tasks and - 8 4 -guide the destiny of the agency, he is often the visible link with whom the community associates both the strong and weak features of the agency. His selection and training are, therefore, of paramount importance. All the private agencies in Bellingham use the services of volunteers. In many cases the agency could, not continue its programme without the aid of these volunteers, many of whom provide services of inestimable value. References have been made to the volunteers who serve on agency boards in an administrative or consultant capacity. The programme leader is of equal importance, although his work is sometimes not so often noticed by the public. None of the private agencies said that they had a surplus of volunteer leaders, and a l l paid tribute to the part they play in achieving agency objectives. For instance, the head of one physical education department pointed out that an instructor had been with their agency for more than ten years continuous, free service, of such high quality that they considered his contribution to their programme to be the equal of professional work. The success of the Boy Scouts in Bellingham is due in large part to the quality of the leaders who serve under the director who has a long record of service, JL "University of Scouting" is held at intervals to train volunteer leaders. Instruction in the courses is given by specialists in their fields. In this way the leaders become secure in their knowledge of Scouting and develop -85-an esprit de corps which is indispensable to the type of work they are doing. The Y.M.C.A. also uses special methods for its leader training. Top members in the physical education classes are given special courses in a leaders' corps. An expansion of the system used by Boy Scouts, Camp Pire Girls, the Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A., in the light of the oft-expressed statement that leaders are lacking, is justified for the city as a whole. It is suggested that the entire area of leader training is one that the private agencies could develop to a high degree-. Looking Ahead The resources for training leaders in Bellingham may not be complete but they are worth using to the utmost. With the all-round training of students in the school programme, a large group of potential leaders is graduating every year. It may be possible that some of these could be encouraged to go on to college to advance their training. But whether they do this or not, before they reach college level there are opportunities for training and practical experience in Bellingham. It might be possible for a leaders' training council to be set up which would use the long experience of the leaders in the private agencies. A l l the success that these agencies have had in the cultivation of leaders could be pooled to the advantage of the entire community. Prom such a reorganization of leader training -86-there might evolve a special group of people who could he used where they are needed most. Then programmes in areas such as Birchwood, Eureka, Lake Whatcom could he expanded without placing a further strain on the over-taxed energies of present leaders. One possible method of selection and training would be as follows. The agencies would arrange periodical courses for the training of leaders. These might he held in a series, once a year. A leaders* council, representing a l l the agencies participating in the scheme would screen the candidates who could be proposed by any of the sources. It is not suggested that a l l leaders would take a long, involved course which would touch every agency. Rather, a satisfactory sequence of study could be worked out by a leaders' council which would ensure that the candidate for a position as an administrative or programme leader would be exposed to the best practices that would f i t him for the position he was to hold. The leader would reach the end of a course such as this with valuable information. He would know the over-all picture of recreation in the city. This would include seeing at first hand the various agencies, whether tax or public supported. He would know what services were offered by a l l the agencies so that he would not be inclined either to discourage the development of a new service which was urgently required, or, on the other hand, to encourage the development of a service which was already available. Schedule B sets forth this scheme-. Schedule B: Sources. Selection, and Training of  Volunteer Leaders for Recreation 1. SOURCES Y.M.C.A.. Y.W.C.A. counselling Schools club leading: mixed clubs swimming Agencies leaders' corps Camp Fire group discussion Boy Scouts Hi-Y, and Y-Teen leadership Y.M.C.A. Young Adult leadership T.W.C.A. duties of board members Fairhaven Camn Fire Tomahawk counselling camping Churches conference methods leader development methods Organizations Boy Scouts Fraternal Council leader selection League of Women Voters public relations Chamber of Commerce parent relations Junior Chamber of Commerce camping Service Clubs diversified programme Scouts, Rovers, Sea Scouts Unions Welfare Dent. referral of cases Miscellaneous Grouns knowledge of economic stress Any group could elect. function of public agency subject to screening. Probation Officer mutual referrals 2 . SELECTION Churches Screening by leaders' "University of Life" council. devotional programmes family recreation 3-. TRAINING group discussion School: Reoreation Commission apparatus broad problems of recreation games administration and financing dancing of public recreation coaching knowledge of public refereeing recreation resources music Library. Museum. Civic Theatre arts and crafts cultural potential of Bellingham College: Community Chest and Council academic fund raising leader corps budgetting arts and crafts costs of private agencies folk dancing public relations team games publicity coaching youth leaders' council refereeing co-ordination of agencies counselling handicraft inter-relation of health. welfare, and recreation campcraft - 8 8 -Since the leader who is a Chest officer does, and probably will continue to play, a very important role in the planning of recreation, his should be a training that enables him to use his abilities in the raising and budget ting of funds. He should also know about the main features of health, welfare and recreation. He needs to have an understanding of the purposes of each member agency, and of the non-member agencies. Factual knowledge of who are served, and where they live, would help him to he effective-. Then too he should have a knowledge of city, county, and state recreation legislation as i t affects the local programme. This knowledge would also help to avoid starting programmes that are covered by present services. The values of such training would be many. Persons who completed training in some aspects of recreation would be better informed. To the member of Chest or agency board i t would give a feeling of security. It would make the position of board member something to be more sought after. There might be an increase in the number of people who became well informed through contact with these trained hoard members. If, i t is argued, these leaders might not wish to continue as administrative or programme persons, they would at least he trained to know worthwhile standards in recreation, and any future planning could have the benefit of their training. This plan is not suggested - 8 9 -as a cure-all, but in the expectation that some of the present needs for leadership can be f i l l e d from the best source: the people of Bellingham themselves, with the use of their own facilities. ^ The help of leadership from outside Bellingham could he more profitably applied i f the agencies were working more closely together. From time to time national, regional, and area representatives of agencies visit their local branches. A method whereby the services of these leaders could be made available to any or a l l agencies, would be helpful. Both the administrative and programme leader might well be shared by the agencies and their funds pooled to pay the costs. For example, Camp Fire may have a local conference with one of its top consultants who is a specialist in helping members of a group to have as much freedom of initiative as possible in the development of programme. If, while recognizing Camp Fire's prior claim to this specialist's services, a l l the agencies in Bellingham could share in the consultant's wealth of accumulated knowledge and experience, then the whole of the city's leadership, and consequently the members of the agencies, would get added vitality-. Enough of such vitality, received consistently by a l l the agencies, could result in promoting continuous growth* Included as agencies in this respect are a l l - 9 0 -those organizations who meet the recreational needs of people of varying ages in Bellingham. The school, the agency, the church, and other such associations have a stake in the future. The success or failure of Fairhaven Boys and Girls Club, for instance, is important to the other agencies and henceforth to the city as a whole. Whether any agency can carry its load and do its job of recreating and character building is a vital concern of a l l associations, i f recreation is to mean anything significant. For the successes or failure of any leader or any agency is closely related, in the minds of the public, with the success or failure of a l l agencies to meet the needs that the community considers essential. The future for leadership in Bellingham can be bright or dull. The amount of thought, energy, and effort expended by the administrative and programme leaders in the field of recreation alone, is enormous. The conservation and redirection of a l l these efforts is vital i f the city is to reap the benefits that its potentialities warrant. One leader who formerly took a very active part in the administrative side of recreation, was asked why he had curtailed his efforts. He replied, rather bitterly, " I have helped to raise funds for recreation and other activities, year after year, I have seen these funds, in my opinion, i f not misused, at least not used to their best advantage. Some of the agencies are not fu l f i l l i n g -91-the purposes that they keep affirming so glibly-. Some of the leaders have lost sight of the needs that their organization was established to meet. We do not require more agencies: the leaders in the ones we have should get together and give Bellingham the services i t pays for-. Then we can expand, and we surely must expand our services, for our needs have changed, and will continue to change and grow*" Perhaps nothing could show more clearly than this criticism, the danger that accrues in a recreational programme, or any type of endeavour, as a result of mis-directed leadership. On the other hand, such criticism should surely provide incentives for agencies to take stock of their leadership, and to see that i t meets the most rigid standards-. The community as a whole must also require of its leaders a continuing desire to do more than merely occupy a position in the public eye. The criteria for successful leadership, although exacting, are not impossible to attain. The examples cited in this study show that recreation attracts leaders of such calibre as to assure to the community some very worthwhile results-. Profitable use of professional leaders, qualified through courses at recognized schools of social work, should more certainly guarantee attainment of these criteria by them-selves and the volunteer leaders, in whatever role they may occupy. The varied and multiple responsibilities that rest with leaders in recreation have appeared in this study* It is not enough to point to these responsibilities, or to the importance of sound leadership in resolving the attendant problems. The implications need to appear: good recreation and vital leadership are coexistent-. They are not solutions to many of the questions which confront Bellingham, but, with careful development, they can play their part in the lives of its citizens. To be effective, recreation has to be much more than just a way to keep busy. Its leaders ought to be chosen on the basis of sound, well-defined criteria and then trained to develop the all-round growth of their followers. For recreation includes the maturity of both the individual and the group to which he belongs. -93-APPENDIX A — BIBLIOGRAPHY  General References: Alexander, Franz, Our Age of Unreason. New York, Lippincott, 1942. Beavers, Helen, D., Administration in the Y.W.C.A.. "Principles and Procedures," New York, The Womans Press, 1944. Bunn, John Arthur, Utilization of the Group Work  Method in the Bellingham Recreational Survey. Master of Social Work Thesis, Dept. of Social Work, University of British Columbia, 1950. Gorhart, E.B., History of Bellingham. Washington. Bellingham, Argonaut Press, 1926. "Fifty Years of Progress," Bellingham Herald. 23 June, 1940. Follett, Mary P., Creative Experience. New York, Longmans, Green, 1930. Havinghurst, Robert J., Adolescent Character and  Personality. (Committee on Human Development of University of Chicago), New York, J-. Wiley, 1940. Hollingshead, August de Belmont, tilmtown's Youth. Committee on Human Development of University of Chicago), New York, J-. Wiley, 1949. Ingels, Belle, Administration in the Y-.W.C.A.."Planning." New York, The Womans Press, 1944. Jennings, Helen, J., Sociometry of Leadership. New York, Beacon House, 1947. Lynd, Robert S., and Helen Merrell Lynd, Middletown. New York, Harcourt Brace, 1929. Murphy, Albert, J., "A Study of the Leadership Process," American Sociological Review, vol. 6, Oct., 1941, 674-687. Park, Robert E., and Burgess, E.W., (edit.), The City. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1925-. Roth, Lottie, R.. History of Whatcom County. Chicago, Pioneer Historical Pub. Co., 1926, 2 vols. -94-Rtiss, Marie, Administration in the Y.W.C.A.. "The Electorate," New York, The Womans Press, 1944, Spranger, Eduard, Types of Men: Psychology and Ethics of Personality, Authorized Translation of the 5th German Edition, by Paul Pigors, Halle, Niemeyer, 1928. Warner, W, LlojKL, and Paul S, Lunt, The Status System  of a Modern Community. Yankee City Series, vol-, II, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1942. Whitehead, T.N., Leadership in a Free Society. Harvard University Press, 1936. Woman's Foundation, Reorganization of Community Services. New York, The Woman's Foundation, 1945-. Specific References American Federation of Labor, Report of the Executive Council to the Sixty-Seventh Convention. Cincinnati, 1949. "Awards given at Camp Fire Meet," Bellingham Herald. 1 March, 195G, p. 5. Bellingham Community Chest and Council, Minutes of Annual  Meeting. Feb. 6, 1947. . 1949 Annual Report. Braucher, Howard, "Recreation," In Russell H. Kurtz, ed., Social Work Year Book. 1947, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1947. Busch, Henry M., Leadership in Group Work. New York, Association Press, 1938. Coyle, Grace L., Group Experience and Democratic Values. New York, The Woman's Press, 1947. . Group Work with American Youth. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1948. Hinsie, L.E., and J-. Shatsky, Psychiatric Dictionary. Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1949. Menninger, Karl, Love against Hate. New York, Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1943-, National C.I.O. Community Services Committee, Community  Services Program Guide No. 2. New York, C.I.O. -95-Natlonal C.I.O. Community Services Committee, Community  Services Program guide No-. 4. New York, C.I.O. Pigors, Paul, Leadership or Domination. New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1935. Pollock, John Orr, The Programme Volunteer in Leisure-Time  Agencies. Master of Social ?/ork Thesis, Dept. of Social Work, University of British Columbia, 1950. Spears, Harold, and Alice Mlel, Leadership at Work. Washington, D.C., National Education Association, 1943-. "The Chest and Unions," Labor News. Bellingham, Wash., 13 Sept., 1946, p. 1. Trecker, Harleigh B., Group Process in Administration. New York, The Woman's Press, 1946. , "Social Group Work," in Russell H. Kurtz, ed«, Social Work Year Book. 1947, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1947. Wilson, Gertrude, and Gladys Ryland, Social Group  Work Practice. Houghton Mifflin, 1949. 


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