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Sex, age and I.Q. differences in the responses to the M-B cards Bolton, Margaret Weldon 1949

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SEX, AGE AND I.Q. DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSES TO THE M-B CARDS by MARGARET WELDON BOLTON A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ^fewWiEH', 1949 ABSTRACT OF A STUDY OF SEX, AGE AND I.Q,. DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSES TO THE M-B CARDS by MARGARET WELDON BOLTON A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY, 1949 3 ABSTRACT The i n t e n t of t h i s study i s to show m a t u r a t i o n a l changes i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s , as i l l u s t r a t e d by the respon-ses o f 222 normal 5, 10 and 15-year-old c h i l d r e n to twenty-one white m a t c h - s t i c k drawings o f p a i r s of human f i g u r e s on a p l a i n b l a c k ground. The s u b j e c t s , d i v i d e d i n t o age, sex and I.Q,. groups, are asked t o s t a t e the i d e n t i t y and a c t i v i t y o f the f i g u r e s as each card i s shown. S c o r i n g takes i n t o account the sex and m a t u r i t y ( a d u l t or c h i l d ) a s s i g n e d to f i g u r e s , "emotional" s t a t e s p r o j e c t e d , i n t e r a c t i o n between f i g u r e s , " p o p u l a r i t y " of responses, and f a m i l y - f i g u r e s ( i n c l u d i n g s e l f ) r e c o g n i z e d . The w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t the t e s t f u l f i l s i t s purpose: s c o r i n g was found adequate f o r the p r e s e n t , p r e l i m i n a r y , study, although refinements are necessary, and appear f e a s i b l e , f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . F i n d i n g s are giv e n i n terms o f the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses, which guided the study. F i r s t , hypotheses r e g a r d i n g p r o j e c t i o n s o f the v a r i o u s sex or age groups: (a) That g i r l s w i l l see more women and g i r l s than w i l l boys: a t the 10 and 15-year-old l e v e l , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t . (b) That 5-year-olds w i l l see c h i e f l y men and women because they tend to i d e n t i f y w i t h p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s : s t r o n g s u p p o r t i n g evidence i s r e v e a l e d . (c) That 15-year-olds w i l l see fewer men and women than 5-year-olds, but more than 10-year-olds, because of t h e i r c l o s e n e s s to m a t u r i t y : no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s d i s c e r n i b l e . (d) That 15-year-olds w i l l see more boys and g i r l s t o -gether because of awakening i n t e r e s t i n the opp o s i t e sex, w h i l e 10-year-olds w i l l see more boys and/or g i r l s t o g e t h e r . Ten-year-olds gave more b o y - g i r l , as w e l l as more boy-boy responses than d i d 15-year-olds. (e) That 15-year-olds' r e c o r d s w i l l resemble those of a d u l t s more than they w i l l those o f the younger groups: i n many aspects o f the responses, t h i s was confirmed. ( f ) That 5-year-olds, p a r t i c u l a r l y o n l y - c h i l d r e n , w i l l tend t o see themselves: t h i s was found so . (g) That g i r l s w i l l see more mot h e r - f i g u r e s and boys more f a t h e r - f i g u r e s : r e s u l t s c o n f i r m the former p a r t of. t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n , but not the l a t t e r . Second, hypotheses r e g a r d i n g approach; (a) That 5-year-olds w i l l tend to p e r s e v e r a t e , mis-i n t e r p r e t f i g u r e s , see two f i g u r e s without i n t e r -a c t i o n , name the sex but have i t meaningless, and g i v e k i n a e s t h e t i c responses: although no s t a t i s -• t i c a l a n a l y s i s was done, the w r i t e r i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t these are r e v e a l e d as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s group. (b) That b r i g h t e r c h i l d r e n i n a l l groups w i l l g i v e more i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and fewer d e s c r i p t i o n s , and (c) That the lower the I.Q,., the more the approach w i l l resemble t h a t of a lower age group: these hypotheses could not be confirmed because of the combination of age and sex i n each I.Q. group. T h i r d , hypotheses r e g a r d i n g c o n t e n t ; (a) That boys w i l l g i v e more a g g r e s s i v e , c o n f l i c t responses: although i n c o n c l u s i v e , evidence appears to r e f u t e t h i s a s s e r t i o n . (b) That g i r l s w i l l g i v e more "emotional" responses: t h i s i s d e f i n i t e l y confirmed. (c) That boys w i l l see more o b j e c t s : r e s u l t s lead t o the r e j e c t i o n of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . The study proved h i g h l y p r o v o c a t i v e , and would seem to warrant f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I INTRODUCTION 1 I I THE PROBLEM TO BE INVESTIGATED 3 A. Hypotheses Regarding the S u b j e c t s 4 B. Hypotheses Regarding Approach 5 C. Hypotheses Regarding Content . 6 I I I AN HISTORICAL SURVEY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES FOR USE WITH CHILDREN 8 1. The Rorschach Ink B l o t s 8 2. Language Type of Test . . 20 3. A u d i t o r y Type o f Test 24 4. P i c t u r e Type of T e s t 25 5. E x p r e s s i v e Movement 33 6. P l a y and Drama 39 7. D i s c u s s i o n 45 IV PROCEDURE 47 1. D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Cards 47 2. D e s c r i p t i o n of the S u b j e c t s 48 3. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the M-B Technique 51 V RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION WITH THE M-B CARDS 54 A. The S c o r i n g of Each Category o f Response, and a Comparison o f Sex, Age and I.Q. Groups Regarding: 1. Sex a s s i g n e d to the f i g u r e s 54 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Chapter Page V RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION WITH THE M-B CARDS (cont'd) 2. C o n f l i c t Responses (those i n d i c a t i n g c o n f l i c t between the f i g u r e s ) 7 0 3. Emotional Responses (those i n d i c a t i n g an emotional s t a t e i n the f i g u r e s ) 7 3 4. Separate Responses (those w i t h no i n t e r -r a c t i o n between the f i g u r e s ) 7 5 5 . Popular Responses (those o c c u r r i n g a t l e a s t once i n every s i x r e c o r d s ) 7 7 6. F a m i l y - F i g u r e s (those i n d i c a t i n g some f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f i g u r e s S i B. R e s u l t s Regarding Each I n d i v i d u a l Card, w i t h Respect t o : 1. Sex Assigned to the F i g u r e s 2. C o n f l i c t Responses 3. E m o t i o n a l Responses 4. Separate Responses 5 . F a m i l y - F i g u r e s C. A Comparison of C h i l d r e n and A d u l t s Regarding: 1. The Responses 102 2. The Cards 102 D. Other D i f f e r e n c e s 106 VI CONCLUSIONS 108 A. Summary of F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s Regarding 108 Hypotheses B. C r i t i c a l A p p r a i s a l o f the Technique 113 C. Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Study 115 9 0 9 5 9 7 9 9 9 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A. P l a t e s of M-B Cards B. Frequency of Response Tables C. Sample Record Blank D. Sample Records TABLES TABLE I Number of MM Responses per Record 57 I I Number of FM Responses per Record 59 I I I Number of BB Responses per Record 61 IV Number of BG Responses per Record 63 V Number of FG Responses per Record 65 VI Number of FC Responses per Record 66 VII Number of MC Responses per Record 67 V I I I Number of ? Responses per Record 69 IX Number of C o n f l i c t Responses per Record 71 X Number of E motional Responses per Record 74 XI Number of Separate F i g u r e Responses per Record 76 X I I Number of Popular Responses per Record 80 X I I I Number of Father-and-Mother F i g u r e s per Record 82 XIV Number of F a t h e r - F i g u r e s per Record 84 XV Number of Mother-Figures per Record 85 XVT Number of S e l f - F i g u r e s or Two-Selves per Record 87 XVII Number of S i b l i n g - F i g u r e s and Other R e l a t i v e s per Record 89 Page 119 TABLES (CONTINUED) TABLE Page XVI I I Percentage of MM, EM, BB, BG, EG, FC, MC, ? Responses per Card 91 XIX Percentage of C o n f l i c t Responses per Card 94 XX Percentage of E m o t i o n a l Responses per Card 96 XXI Percentage of Separate Responses per Card 98 XXII Percentage of F a m i l i a l F i g u r e s per Card 100 XXIII Comparison o f C h i l d r e n and A d u l t s as t o the Mean Number of the V a r i o u s Responses 103 XXIV Comparison of C h i l d r e n and A d u l t s as to the Percentages o f Responses i n V a r i o u s C a t e g o r i e s 105 1 SEX, AGE AND I.Q,. DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSES TO THE M-B CARDS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Today's growing i n t e r e s t i n mental hygiene w i t h the i n -c r e a s i n g emphasis on p r e v e n t i o n r a t h e r than cure, has r e s u l t e d i n p s y c h i a t r y and psychology t u r n i n g a g a i n , as d i d Freud, to the study of c h i l d r e n and t h e i r emotional experiences i n order to understand the dynamics i n v o l v e d i n the development of a d u l t maladjustments. There are many and v a r i o u s techniques f o r r e v e a l i n g b a s i c c o n f l i c t s i n c h i l d r e n , but the c u r r e n t p o p u l a r i t y of p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t they are p r o v i n g , a t l e a s t e m p i r i c a l l y , to be the most u s e f u l . P s y c h i a t r i s t s would probably agree w i t h the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h adequate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f i g u r e s are more l i k e l y to become h e a l t h y minded a d u l t s . I f a c o n f l i c t a r i s e s between i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f i g u r e s , u s u a l l y the mother and f a t h e r , then the c h i l d i s apt to develop emotional d i s t u r b a n c e s . I t i s worth-while then to study i n v a r i o u s ways the amount and d i r e c t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s . For t h i s purpose a new technique, the M-B cards, has been d e v i s e d by the w r i t e r i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Marion MacDonald. I t i s hoped t h a t , by t h i s method, d i f f e r e n c e s i n i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n and p r o j e c t i o n can be demonstrated between (1) the three chosen age groups 5, 10 and 15-year-old children, (2) between the two sexes and (3) between high and low I.Q,. groups. 3 CHAPTER I I THE PROBLEM TO BE INVESTIGATED As s t a t e d above one of the aims of t h i s study i s to determine the d i f f e r e n c e s i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between the t h r e e g i v e n groups. I n order to do t h i s some understanding of the " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " process i s necessary. The normal male i n f a n t , w i t h h i s complete dependence on the mother f o r the f i r s t year or two of l i f e , tends to i d e n t i f y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d w i t h t h a t person who spends the g r e a t e s t amount of time w i t h him. He l i s t e n s f o r her v o i c e , waits f o r her f o o t s t e p , and l a t e r mimics her g e s t u r e s . When h i s h o r i z o n broadens to i n c l u d e the f a t h e r f i g u r e , a change i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d . T h i s change at school-age i s o f the utmost impor-tance f o r a h e a l t h y emotional adjustment i n l a t e r y e a r s . A prolonged p e r i o d of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the mother may hamper the c h i l d a l l h i s l i f e . He may grow up to be a p a s s i v e , effeminate and dependent man u n f i t t e d f o r the c u l t u r a l l y p r e s -c r i b e d male r o l e , or he may become an obnoxious b u l l y t o com-pensate f o r h i s f e e l i n g s of inadequacy. The d e s i r e d i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n f o r the female c h i l d i s w i t h the mother. A host of p e r s o n a l i t y problems can r e s u l t from f a u l t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s . About the n i n t h or t e n t h year another change i s expected. The c h i l d l o s e s i n t e r e s t i n h i s parents and becomes i n v o l v e d w i t h h i s own age-group, and p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h h i s own sex. This l a s t s u n t i l puberty when a g a i n he t u r n s to the opposite 4 sex with interest. His inner stirrings arouse curiosity and excitement with regard to hetero-sexual relation-ships. As adolescence proceeds he again identifies with adults—not necessarily with his own father, but with all adult males. The problem of this thesis is to discover if these changes are apparent in the child's responses to the M-B figures. The specific hypotheses will be listed briefly in statement form. A. Hypotheses Regarding the Subjects 1. That the girls in all age groups .will see more women and girls than do the boys. 2. That the 5-year-olds will see more men and women than will any other age group, because they tend to identify with parental figures. 3. That the 15-year-olds will probably see fewer men and women than the 5-year-olds but more than the 10-year-olds because of their closeness to maturity. 4. That the 15-year-olds will see more boys and girls together because of their awakening interest in the opposite sex; and likewise that the 10-year-olds will see more boys together and/or girls together because they are in that stage of development where interest is centered chiefly in t h e i r own sex. 5. That the 15-year-olds' r e c o r d s w i l l resemble t h a t of a d u l t s more than w i l l those o f the other two groups. 6. That more " s e x " — o r a t l e a s t "romantic", responses w i l l be g i v e n by 15-year-olds. 7. That the 5-year-olds, p a r t i c u l a r l y o n l y - c h i l d r e n , w i l l tend to see themselves because of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e g o - c e n t r i c i t y a t t h i s age. 8. That g i r l s w i l l see more "mother" f i g u r e s and boys more " f a t h e r " f i g u r e s . Hypotheses Regarding Approach 1. That the 5-year-olds' approach w i l l d i f f e r from the other two groups i n at l e a s t f i v e ways: (a) a tendency to p e r s e v e r a t e . (b) a tendency to m i s i n t e r p r e t f i g u r e s as o b j e c t s , animals, e t c . (c) a tendency to see two f i g u r e s w i t h no i n t e r a c t i o n between them. (d) a tendency to name the sex but to have i t meaningless:- t h a t i s , to c a l l a man "her" or to have women doing t y p i c a l l y masculine a c t i o n s (except where parents are named). (e) a tendency to more k i n a e s t h e t i c r e s p o n s e s — w i t h demonstration and d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a c t i o n s p r e v a l e n t . 2. That the b r i g h t e r c h i l d r e n i n a l l groups w i l l g i ve more i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and fewer d e s c r i p t i o n s . 3 . That the lower the I.Q,. the more the approach w i l l resemble t h a t of the lower age group. Hypotheses Regarding Content 1. That boys w i l l g i v e more a g g r e s s i v e , c o n f l i c t r e sponses. 2. That boys w i l l g i v e more responses c o n c e r n i n g s p o r t s and games. 3. That g i r l s w i l l g i v e more "emotional" responses. 4. That boys w i l l see more o b j e c t s . 5. That g i r l s w i l l g i v e more "romantic" responses. 6 . That g i r l s and boys w i l l g i v e approximately the same number of "popular" responses, but the 15-year-olds w i l l see more o f the a d u l t " p o p u l a r s " than the other two groups. The second aim o f t h i s study i s to l e a r n more about each card i n the s e t , to d i s c o v e r which ones can be expected to c a l l f o r t h c e r t a i n responses. Some c r i t e r i o n o f pre -d i c t a b i l i t y i s necessary. In order to d i s c o v e r the va l u e of each c a r d i t w i l l be necessary to determine f i r s t , the popular responses f o r the whole s e r i e s ; and next, those cards which seem to "suggest 1' emotion, c o n f l i c t , f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s , e t c . K l o p f e r * s c l a i m t h a t the more common a response i s i n the Rorschach, the l e s s p e r s o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i t has, should hold f o r t h i s technique as w e l l . 8 CHAPTER I I I AN HISTORICAL SURVEY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES FOR USE WITH CHILDREN As most o f our modern p r o j e c t i v e methods have developed almost independently of one another, the h i s t o r y of each type of t e s t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under separate headings except where one technique has grown d i r e c t l y from another. 1. The Rorschach Ink B l o t s (a) Pre-Rorschach H i s t o r y There has been a phenomenal growth of i n t e r e s t i n p r o j e c t i v e techniques d u r i n g the past two decades. To be understood, i t i s necessary to look back h a l f a century b e f o r e the term " p r o j e c t i v e " was even i n t r o d u c e d . A t t h i s time, Rorschach had not yet s t a r t l e d the p s y c h o l o g i c a l world w i t h h i s c l a i m s , and the i n k b l o t was merely a game c a l l e d " B l o t t o " . I n 1857, J u s t i n u s Kerner of Germany (83) saw psycho-l o g i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n " B l o t t o " and r e c o r d e d h i s m a t e r i a l i n a book e n t i t l e d " K leksographien". He was the f i r s t to wonder why such b l o t s assumed v a r i o u s forms and was impressed w i t h t h e i r b i z a r r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . However, i t was s t i l l as a game t h a t i n t e r e s t i n b l o t s gained momentum. This i n t e r e s t culminated i n a book f o r t y years l a t e r by S t u a r t and Paine (178) c a l l e d "Gobolinks', or 9 Shadow-pictures f o r Young and O l d " . The b l o t s suggested were a l l b l a c k and white. P s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t was again aroused i n 1 8 9 5 , when B i n e t and Henri (22) suggested the use of i n k b l o t s f o r i n -v e s t i g a t i n g v i s u a l i m a g i n a t i o n . B i n e t i s c r e d i t e d w i t h b e i n g the f i r s t person to r e a l i z e t h a t b l o t s could be used as a t e s t . I n 1 8 9 7 , Dearborn of Harvard d i s c u s s e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of u s i n g b l o t s i n experimental Psychology. S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s , Sharp (165) attempted to c l a s s i f y her s u b j e c t s on the b a s i s of t h e i r responses t o her ten b l o t s . A t the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y the technique was a p p l i e d t o c h i l d r e n f o r the f i r s t time by K i r k p a t r i c k ( 8 6 ) . He used o n l y f o u r b l o t s w i t h 500 p u p i l s from the elementary grades and he allowed o n l y one minute t o name as many a s s o c i a t i o n s as p o s s i b l e f o r each b l o t . .He found t h a t younger c h i l d r e n gave more responses but they were l e s s c r i t i c a l and more s u g g e s t i b l e . The o l d e r c h i l d r e n , however, saw more p o s s i b i l i t i e s . K i r k p a t r i c k ' s f i n d i n g s were confirmed i n 1913 by Pyl e (137) who used twenty b l o t s w i t h 151 white c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age from 8 to 14 y e a r s . Whipple i n c l u d e d b l o t s i n a b a t t e r y of t e s t s p u b l i s h e d i n 1910 ( 1 9 7 ) . Test 45 was a s e r i e s o f twenty z i n c b l o c k p r i n t s designed to t e s t v i s u a l imagery. He was a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n l i n g u i s t i c i n v e n t i o n , and f o r Test F o r t y - S i x he used a procedure developed by Sharp (165) who, a c t i n g upon the s u g g e s t i o n o f B i n e t and Henri, t e s t e d what she terms l i t e r a r y i m a g i n a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g three ways: the development of a sentence, g i v e n ft three words, and sentence completion; the development of a g i v e n theme; and the c h o i c e of t o p i c f o r composition. The f i r s t type of t e s t was l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d by B i n e t and i s s t i l l a f e a t u r e of the r e v i s e d S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e Test, whereas the second type has g i v e n r i s e to many and v a r i o u s p r o j e c t i v e techniques s i n c e then. The t h i r d type, however, has proved to be o f l i t t l e v a l u e . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o l o r to the i n k - b l o t technique came from B a r t l e t t i n 1916 (11). His s e r i e s c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t y -s i x b l o t s . H i s r e s u l t s show the b e g i n n i n g o f a g r a d u a l chang i n o r i e n t a t i o n from content to approach, which l a t e r became the t h e s i s of Rorschach. B a r t l e t t a n t i c i p a t e d the Rorschach technique i n o b s e r v i n g t h a t although some s u b j e c t s responded to the b l o t s as a whole, o t h e r s responded to d e t a i l s w i t h i n the b l o t s . He r e l a t e d ' t h i s "whole" tendency to i n d i v i d u a l i m a g i n a t i o n . He a l s o noted some movement responses which he thought were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n t e r e s t s and occupations of h i s s u b j e c t s . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , 1917, Parsons (129) gave the f i r s t ten o f the Whipple s e r i e s of b l o t s t o n i n e t y - s e v e n s u b j e c t s , aged 7 to 7 .5 . No time l i m i t was s e t and the s u b j e c t s were f r e e to t u r n the b l o t s as they p l e a s e d . She i n t r o d u c e d a pre l i m i n a r y p r a c t i c e b l o t which was l a t e r adopted by Ford w i t h her young s u b j e c t s (53). Parsons (129) found t h a t f i f t y - f o u r per cent o f the responses were animal or human f i g u r e s , a g r e e i n g i n t h i s r e s p e c t w i t h B a r t l e t t . I n Parson's a n a l y s i s boys gave more war a s s o c i a t i o n s and more landscapes, whereas the g i r l s gave more animal and human responses. Other sex d i f f e r e n c e s were found to be n e g l i g i b l e . (b) Rorschach and h i s " P s y c h o d i a g n o s t i o " Herman Rorschach ( 1 4 5 ) was "the f i r s t to r e a l i z e the tremendous p o t e n t i a l i t i e s i n the i n k - b l o t method. H i s p r e -o c c u p a t i o n w i t h b l o t s s t a r t e d as e a r l y as 1 9 1 1 and he pursued h i s i n t e r e s t f o r the next ten years w h i l e working i n v a r i o u s mental h o s p i t a l s . I n 1 9 3 1 he p u b l i s h e d the r e s u l t s of h i s s t u d i e s i n a monograph e n t i t l e d P s y c h o d i a g n o s t i o which he considered a p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t on h i s f i n d i n g s r a t h e r than a system of t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s . H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s w e l l summarized by K l o p f e r : ( 8 9 , p. 3 ) "In s p i t e of t h e i r p r e l i m i n a r y n a t u r e . . . . Rorschach's working hypothesis penetrated i n t o the t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s f o r h i s f i n d i n g s to an extent whioh i s amazing to present day f o l l o w e r s of h i s method. He combined to a marked degree, the sound e m p i r i c a l r e a l i s m of a c l i n i c i a n w i t h the s p e c u l a t i v e acumen of an i n t u i t i v e t h i n k e r . " The standard s e r i e s of b l o t s now used were the same t e n t h a t Rorschach s e l e c t e d a f t e r h i s years o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of h i s method i s the complete s h i f t i n emphasis from the i m a g i n a t i v e content o f the sub-j e c t ' s response to the method of h a n d l i n g the stimulus m a t e r i a l . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the b l o t s and the p e r s o n a l i t y o r g a n i -z a t i o n of the s u b j e c t i s r e f l e c t e d i n the f o r m a l s c o r i n g c a t e g o r i e s l a i d down i n the P s y c h o d i a g n o s t i o . These were l a t e r m o d i f i e d and r e f i n e d by K l o p f e r ( 8 8 , 9 0 , 9 1 ) and Beck ( 1 3 ) . (c) Developments S i n c e Rorschach's Death A f t e r Rorschach's u n t i m e l y death i n 1 9 2 2 , O b e r h o l t z e r (127), a c l o s e f r i e n d and co-worker, became the o u t s t a n d i n g exponent of the Rorschach movement. I n 1923 he p u b l i s h e d a paper d e s c r i b i n g a number of a d d i t i o n s and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s which Rorschach had developed i n the s h o r t time p r e c e d i n g h i s death. A l t h o u g h Rorschach h i m s e l f d i d l i t t l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e c h i l d development, s e v e r a l Swiss C o l l e a g u e s opened up t h i s new f i e l d of a p p l i c a t i o n . S t a r t i n g i n 1921, Behn-Eschenberg (14), D u b i t s c h e r (44), L o o s l i - U s t e r i (104), and Lopfe (105) made c o n t r i b u t i o n s which had f a r r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s i n the next t e n y e a r s . I n 1929 B l e u l e r (23) d i s c o v e r e d f a m i l y s i m i l a r i t i e s i n f o r t y - n i n e groups of s i b l i n g s compared w i t h a c o n t r o l group of u n r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s of s i m i l a r age. S t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s were e s t a b l i s h e d and confirmed l a t e r i n 1933. European i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n c l u d e d r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s found by Lopfe and L o o s l i - U s t e r i between Swiss c h i l d r e n o f French and German o r i g i n . The emphasis remained on normal c h i l d r e n w i t h an attempt to e s t a b l i s h r e l i a b l e norms f o r v a r i o u s ages. Lopfe (105) s t u d i e d d e t a i l responses and c o l o r and i t s e f f e c t s a t d i f f e r e n t age l e v e l s i n normal c h i l d r e n aged 10 to 13. He f e l t t h a t c o l o r bore l i t t l e r e l a t i o n t o a f f e c t i v i t y i n c h i l d r e n and found a decrease i n C and CF w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n age. A thorough search o f the content of c h i l d r e n ' s responses r e v e a l e d a g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y i n young c h i l d r e n than i n a d o l e s c e n t s . The former gave fewer human responses, more o b j e c t s f a m i l i a r i n nature and s t o r i e s , and they had an Yfo c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the o b j e c t L o o s l i - U s t e r i (105) working i n Geneva found movement answers uncommon i n c h i l d r e n between the ages 10 and 13. Her f i n d i n g s were c o n t r a d i c t e d by Schneider i n Germany (160). However, Behn-Eschenberg (14) noted changes i n experience balance i n e a r l y adolescence but not always i n the same d i r e c t i o n . P f i s t e r (133) undertook an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f feebleminded c h i l d r e n and compared them t o i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d r e n . He found t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s o f e t i o l o g y , the d u l l c h i l d gave an inadequate performance tending to l o o k f o r " c o r r e c t " responses. B l e u l e r (29) was i n t e r e s t e d i n the same problem and d i s c o v e r e d t h a t , where o l i g o p h r e n i a i s mixed w i t h other d i s o r d e r s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to separate the e f f e c t s o f the two i n the Rorschach r e s u l t s , (d) The Widespread Use of the Rorschach The e n t h u s i a s t i c acceptance of the Rorschach technique on the p a r t o f p s y c h i a t r i s t s and c l i n i c a l and r e s e a r c h psy-c h o l o g i s t s i s r e f l e c t e d i n world wide experimentation and a p p l i c a t i o n . From England came a major c o n t r i b u t i o n . I n 1934, Kerr (84) e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t norms f o r c h i l d r e n based on the responses of her 365 s u b j e c t s , who ranged i n age from 7 t o 12. I n Geneva the f o l l o w i n g year Suares (179) r e t e s t e d the same s i x t y - t h r e e s u b j e c t s used by L o o s l i - U s t e r i and S h a p i r o (I64) (pre-adolescent boys i n 1929; and p r e - a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s i n 1932). An i n c r e a s e i n movement responses, but no change i n c o l o r responses were noted. I t was a l s o found t h a t g i r l s tended to become more e x t r a t e n s i v e and boys more i n t r o v e r -s i v e a f t e r the age o f 14. The technique was used i n C z e c h o s l o v a k i a i n 1931 by Sankup (154). I n Germany, Schneider (159), Roemer (140) and D e r i a z (34) i n c l u d e d the technique i n b a t t e r i e s o f v o c a t i o n a l t e s t s . I n S p a i n , L i n a r e s (103) s t u d i e d i n t e l -l e c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , S a l a s (150) made a t e n t a t i v e s t a n d a r d i -z a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n from 5 t o 8 years and M i r a (117) s t u d i e d a f f e c t . Drohocki (43), a P o l i s h p s y c h i a t r i s t , i n v e s t i g a t e d the i n c i d e n c e of c o l o r i n the r e c o r d s o f e p i l e p t i c s . S c h a p i r o - P o l l a c k (157) s t u d i e d puberty i n f i f t y P a r i s i a n c h i l d r e n . Meanwhile r e s e a r c h e r s i n America were keeping pace w i t h t h e i r European contemporaries. Ross, L i n e and G r i f f i n (148) were comparing students and h o s p i t a l p a t i e n t s i n Canada, but the g r e a t e s t b u l k of i n v e s t i g a t i o n was being done i n the U.S.A. Hertz (70) found t h a t her r e s u l t s based on 300 J u n i o r High School students were comparable to other s t u d i e s on a d o l e s c e n t s . Sunne (180) e s t a b l i s h e d norms f o r young c h i l d r e n i n primary grades i n a g i g a n t i c study I n v o l v i n g 1655 white c h i l d r e n , 2068 negro c h i l d r e n and 712 mountain c h i l d r e n . K l o p f e r and Davidson (88) covered the same r a c i a l problem i n 1939. About t h i s time the s c o r i n g was r e f i n e d by K l o p f e r and Sender (91) to apply to young c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r to understand t h e i r b e h a v i o r problems. Twins came i n f o r a good d e a l of a t t e n t i o n from 1930 15 to 1935. Copelmann, Marinescu and K r e i n d l e r (32) s t u d i e d the responses of f i v e p a i r s of twins i n France. Verschuer (188) compared twenty-three p a i r s from age 10 to 20 and concluded t h a t mental t r a i t s which the t e s t p u r p o r t s to i n d i c a t e are due to h e r e d i t a r y f a c t o r s . Koehn (92) and Troup (I85) d i d s i m i l a r experiments. Even f u r t h e r a f i e l d , i n A u s t r a l i a , Ferguson (50) was -comparing the Rorschaoh and Word A s s o c i a t i o n . I n Japan, Kubo (96) t e s t e d e i g h t e e n feebleminded c h i l d r e n w i t h the Rorschach. One of the most r e c e n t r e p o r t s comes a l l the way from Jerusalem where Kadinsky has been experimenting w i t h c h i l d r e n from 7 to 13 years of age (78). The r e s u l t s of h i s study were d e t a i l e d and t e c h n i c a l . The o n l y s i g n i -f i c a n t f e a t u r e of concern here i s the f a c t t h a t over-p r o t e c t e d , i n f a n t i l e c h i l d r e n have a low Efo w i t h accompany-i n g diminishment of CF responses. (e) Recent S t u d i e s I n the l a s t decade, Rorschach r e s e a r c h has a l l but dominated the f i e l d . Only the more important s t u d i e s w i l l be mentioned, i n order of t h e i r appearance. I n 1941 Paulsen (131) s t u d i e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n 6-y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n . She found t h a t the sex d i f f e r e n c e s are always l e s s than i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s but t h a t g i r l s use more c o l o r and more d e t a i l s than boys. The boys on the other hand, have more M responses. The h i g h e r the,I,Q,. the more M, FM and H responses, the f r e e r the e x p r e s s i o n , the l a r g e r the F fo and the more popular and space responses. 16 The l a t t e r Paulsen i n t e r p r e t s as " a s s e r t i v e " t e n d e n c i e s . The d u l l e r c h i l d r e n had a h i g h e r Ffo. Hertz and Baker (71) a p p l i e d the Rorschach to seventy-s i x a d o l e s c e n t s ; f o r t y - o n e boys and t h i r t y - f i v e g i r l s r a n g i n g from 12 to 15 years of age, to determine p e r s o n a l i t y changes i n t h i s stage o f development. The 12-year-old group were more out-going and r e s p o n s i v e to the w o r l d . The 15-year-olds were more i n t r o v e r t e d and c r e a t i v e , and l e s s I m pulsive. K l o p f e r and M a r g u l i e s (90) i n a p r e l i m i n a r y experiment, submitted s i x t e e n r e c o r d s of c h i l d r e n aged 2 to 5 to Rorschach experts f o r b l i n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The p e r s o n a l i t y d e s c r i p t i o n s were then r e t u r n e d to two p s y c h o l o g i s t s t h o r -oughly f a m i l i a r w i t h the c h i l d r e n . I n one case a l l the c h i l d r e n were i d e n t i f i e d ; i n the second case, two o f the c h i l d r e n were in t e r c h a n g e d . I n c i d e n t a l f i n d i n g s showed s i m i l a r i t i e s between the r e c o r d s o f l i t t l e c h i l d r e n and some p a t h o l o g i c a l a d u l t s . S u c c e s s i v e p a t t e r n s o f approach were d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : ( l ) Under three years o f age a type of "magic" r e p e t i t i o n was employed, a type o f per-s e v e r a t i o n t h a t completely d i s r e g a r d e d the b l o t ; (2) a m o d i f i c a t i o n appeared s h o r t l y a f t e r age three when the c h i l d r e f u s e d to answer r a t h e r than r e p l y on the p e r s e v e r a t i v e method; (3) between 3 and 5 years a good d e a l o f v a r i e t y appeared. I n c o n c l u s i o n , K l o p f e r s t a t e s t h a t a c h i l d of 5 years or more who has not achieved v a r i e t y , however crude, "can d e f i n i t e l y be c o n s i d e r e d as I n f a n t i l e , d i s t u r b e d or r e t a r d e d " , (p.5) Sex d i f f e r e n c e s were agai n the focus of a t t e n t i o n i n 17 S t a v r i a n o s ' 1942 atudy (175). S i x t y - s e v e n boys and s i x t y -f o u r g i r l s aged 5 t o 11 were g i v e n the Rorschach w i t h r e s u l t s which c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l Paulsen's f i n d i n g s . Boys gave more vague whole responses; g i r l s more c o n c r e t e r e s -ponses, p a r t i c u l a r l y H and' ob j , and g i r l s 7 t o 9 showed more v a r i e t y o f content and were more i m p u l s i v e . Krugman (95) attempted a c l i n i c a l v a l i d a t i o n o f the Rorschach w i t h problem c h i l d r e n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s G o l d f a r b (58) r e v e a l e d a b a s i s o f emotional d i f f e r e n c e s i n e n e u r e t i c c h i l d r e n below the age of t e n . I n t h i s summary s i x o f e i g h t c h i l d r e n showed s t r o n g l y a g g r e s s i v e p a t t e r n s and two, f e a r and withdrawal or p o s s i b l y suppressed h o s t i l i t y , e i t h e r way i n d i c a t i n g emotional immaturity. Kay and Vorhaus (80) d i s c o v e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . The number of responses i n c r e a s e d w i t h age, the a c t u a l number o f whole responses i n c r e a s e d t o age s i x , although the W$ decreased. R e j e c t i o n s were fewer as age i n c r e a s e d . The percentage o f c h i l d r e n u s i n g each popular response i n c r e a s e d w i t h age but the a r b i t r a r y and pers e v e r a t e d W responses decreased. P i o t r o w s k i (136) d i d an a n a l y s i s o f M responses I n a d o l e s c e n t s . He was i n t e r e s t e d i n b a s i c a t t i t u d e s toward the world and t r i e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t the con c e p t i o n o f the r o l e the i n d i v i d u a l fundamentally d e s i r e s to p l a y i n the world i s man i f e s t i n t h e i r M responses to the Rorschach. P i o t r o w s k i d i s t i n g u i s h e d between the s u b j e c t s whose a t t i t u d e s may be d e f i n i t e and s t r o n g and those whose may be undecided and weak. The group w i t h d e f i n i t e and s t r o n g a t t i t u d e s , he subdivided into predominantly s e l f - a s s e r t i v e and predomin-antly submissive. I f no M responses are given he suggested that possibly the subject does not possess any inner basic attitude s u f f i c i e n t l y strong to exercise a constant and noticeable e f f e c t on his fundamental dynamic adjustment to the world, or he may be repressing i t , i n which case his basic attitude cannot manifest i t s e l f . Swift (181) attempted to match teachers' descriptions of t h i r t y preschool children enrolled i n the psychological laboratory at the State University of Iowa with Rorschach analyses. The teacher who knew each c h i l d best wrote a 250 word personal sketch of each c h i l d describing t h e i r school behavior. Two Rorschachs were given two weeks apart. Klopfer did the matching. He was more successful with the boys, getting eleven of the f i f t e e n correct, but only three of the g i r l s . As.they were a l l normal healthy c h i l d r e n with no problems the personality descriptions were so close as to be hardly distinguishable. On the whole the g i r l s showed greater stereotypy and more popular responses than the boys. An ambitious study was carried out by Borhaus (189) i n 1944 on 138 childr e n 2 to 7 years by comparing them with adults. She claimed that d e t a i l s which lend themselves to p a r t i c u l a r content are used i f the content i s within the realm of the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s . A d e f i n i t e change from concept domination to r e a l i t y was noted, with less per-severation as the c h i l d reaches f i v e or six years of age. In conclusion she states: "In s p i t e o f the s t r e s s on the need f o r . f u r t h e r study one f a c t stands out i m p r e s s i v e l y — n a m e l y , the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the approach and ways of l o o k i n g at t h i n g s on the p a r t o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s We have found s i m i l a r -i t i e s both i n the c h o i c e of l o c a t i o n areas (D and Dd) and i n the use of popular responses." (p.91) The f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n c h i l d r e n was done by G o l d f a r b and K l o p f e r (59). They concluded t h a t emotional d e p r i v a t i o n i n the f i r s t t h r e e years of l i f e r e -s u l t e d i n marked p e r s o n a l i t y changes. Human i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was l i m i t e d , emotional t i e s were weak and e a s i l y broken. In appearance the c h i l d r e n were a p a t h e t i c , but i n b e h a v i o r showed a g g r e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s ; were d i s t r a c t i b l e , l a c k e d a n x i e t y and ambition. They were a l l immature. In 1945 Werner (194) p u b l i s h e d the r e s u l t s of h i s com-prehensive study on the p e r c e p t u a l b e h a v i o r of b r a i n - i n j u r e d , m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e c h i l d r e n . He d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between d e f e c t i v e s by i n j u r y and c o n g e n i t a l d e f e c t i v e s . One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the study of s m a l l c h i l d r e n has been made by Ford (53). A l t h o u g h her i n v e s t i g a t i o n s are f a r too e l a b o r a t e to d i s c u s s at l e n g t h , she must be c r e d i t e d w i t h m o d i f y i n g the technique and es-t a b l i s h i n g norms f o r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Halpern (63) d e s c r i b e s a r e c e n t experiment i n symbolic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Under sodium amytol a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s gave crude s e x u a l responses r a t h e r than symbolic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Other problems now being s t u d i e d i n c l u d e e n e u r e s i s , f i r e -s e t t i n g and s t u t t e r i n g . S c h i z o p h r e n i c c h i l d r e n are under i n v e s t i g a t i o n by D e s L a u r i e r and Halpern (35). 20 Some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s were obtained from a r e c e n t study a t the B e r k e l e y Guidance C l i n i c on M responses i n problem c h i l d r e n , which has not y e t been p u b l i s h e d . C h i l -dren w i t h a poor r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r f a t h e r s saw no male f i g u r e s ; those w i t h a poor r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r mothers saw no female f i g u r e s , and those w i t h a poor r e l a t i o n s h i p to both parents saw e i t h e r no Movement responses o r v e r y poor ones. 2. Language Type of Tests (a) Word A s s o c i a t i o n and Free A s s o c i a t i o n F o r want o f a b e t t e r word, "language" type o f t e s t i n c l u d e s v e r b a l or w r i t t e n responses to a word, sentence or o t h e r form of "language" s t i m u l u s . Rosenzweig (146) and B e l l (15) g i v e e x c e l l e n t resumes of the development of the word a s s o c i a t i o n t e c h n i q u e . As e a r l y as 1 8 7 9 G a l t o n ( 5 6 ) experimented w i t h f r e e a s s o c i a -t i o n s to word s t i m u l i , and Wundt made s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n 1880; but i t was not u n t i l 1885 t h a t any s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s was attempted. In t h a t year Galton's r e s u l t s aroused the i n t e r e s t of C a t e l l and Bryant ( 3 0 ) , who developed the frequenoy t a b l e s which appeared i n I 8 8 9 . A l t h o u g h c l i n i c a l i n t e r e s t grew out of the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l movement, i t was B r y a n t ' s work which made t h i s type of i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e s p e c t e d branch of experimental psychology. Sommer, (173) i n 18991 f i r s t p r e d i c t e d i t s use as a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l . K r a e p e l i n (94) f o l l o w e d t h i s l e a d by s t u d y i n g the e f f e c t s of f a t i g u e , hunger and drugs upon word a s s o c i a t i o n s . E a r l y i n the t w e n t i e t h century Freud (55) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s were r e l a t e d to Inner d r i v e s and con-f l i c t s , and used dreams to i n i t i a t e f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n . The technique's i n t e r e s t f o r him l a y i n i t s t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t s . The f i r s t use of f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n as a p r o j e c t i v e t e s t o c c u r r e d i n 1904 when Jung (76) wrote h i s t r e a t i s e on the s u b j e c t , the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n appearing i n 1918. Jung s t a n d a r d i z e d the methods of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n , d i v i d i n g the content i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I n 1910 the Kent-Rosanoff 100 word l i s t (82) appeared, but was of d o u b t f u l v a l u e . Woodrow and L o w e l l (205) i n 1916 adopted h i s l i s t f o r c h i l d r e n , and developed norms based on 1000 youngsters between the ages of 9 and 12. They found marked d i f f e r e n c e s between a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n i n the types o f responses, w i t h verbs much more common f o r c h i l d r e n . An i n t e r e s t i n g study o f negro c h i l d r e n 4 to 15 years was done by M i t c h e l l , Rosanoff and Rosanoff i n 1919 (119). They decided t h a t at a l l ages the negroes'responses were i n f e r i o r ; however the s e l e c t i o n of samples may have been b i a s e d . I n 1935 a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the t e s t c a l l e d " c h a i n e d - a s s o c i a t i o n s " was used by M e l t z e r (116) to d i s c o v e r c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r p a r e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r Sanford (151) used the w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t w i t h c h i l d r e n b e f o r e and a f t e r meals, and, f i n d i n g more food r e s -ponses b e f o r e meals, concluded t h a t i m a g i n a t i v e responses r e f l e c t the c u r r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t a t u s of the i n d i v i d u a l . W e l l s (192) demonstrated t h a t a word-22 a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t i s a p r o j e c t i v e technique by comparing i t to a Rorschach. As other techniques were d i s c o v e r e d i n the t h i r t i e s , i n t e r e s t i n the w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n lagged. One o f the l a s t r e p o r t s i s by McGehee (114) i n 1938 who demonstrated age and sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the responses o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The r e c e n t a r o u s a l o f c u r i o s i t y i n K o r z y b s k i ' s study of semantics (93) has g i v e n new impetus to the study of words. H i s t h e s i s appears to have the same r a t i o n a l e as the w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t . I n 1943 Anthony ( 5 ) s t u d i e d the per-s o n a l i t y and adjustment of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n by a s k i n g 11 and 12 year o l d s u b j e c t s to rank nine words i n order of p r e f e r e n c e . A f t e r a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the responses she concludes t h a t t h i s method of a s s o c i a t i o n does get a t d i s -t u r b i n g emotional f a c t o r s . The L u r i a technique (111) of 1932 and i t s m o d i f i c a t i o n by Langer (97) i n 1936 and Shuey (169) i n 1937 p r e s e n t s a mechanical d e v i c e f o r measuring the emotional upset r e s u l t -i n g from a s s o c i a t i o n s to d i s t u r b i n g stimulus words. (b) Sentence Completion T e s t s As a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the work i n word-assocation, a new t e s t , which i s r e a l l y j u s t an e x t e n s i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n , was i n t r o d u c e d by Payne (132) i n 1928. He c a l l e d i t the Incomplete Sentences T e s t . Although of l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n i t s e l f , i t s t i m u l a t e d Rohde and H i l d r e t h (142), who f e l t t h a t t h i s technique would y i e l d r e s u l t s r i c h i n c o n t e n t and s u g g e s t i v e n e s s . They r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r f u r t h e r v a l i d a t i o n and have done a tremendous amount o f work on i t . They used s i x t y - f o u r items on 670 grade nine students averaging 15 years of age to determine the frequency and i n t e n s i t y o f each need, press and i n n e r s t a t e o f the i n -d i v i d u a l . R e t e s t c o n s i s t e n c y a f t e r an e l a p s e of e i g h t months gave a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .82 w i t h g i r l s , and .76 w i t h boys. However, they a l s o found t h a t r e s u l t s were not as r e l i a b l e w i t h a d u l t s . By 1930 Tendler (I84) foresaw the use of the Sentence-Completion t e s t as a p r o j e c t i v e technique f o r r e v e a l i n g emotional i n s i g h t by requested f u r t h e r v a l i d a t i o n . D e spert and P o t t e r (39), i n 1936, s t u d i e d the o r a l compositions of tw e n t y t w o c h i l d r e n ranging i n age from 4 to 13.11 years at the P s y c h i a t r i c I n s t i t u t e i n New York. His group was composed of s i x t e e n cases o f primary b e h a v i o r d i s o r d e r s , f o u r p s y c h o n e u r o t i c s and two p s y c h o t i c s . Three types of s t o r y were requested: (1) the r e p e t i t i o n o f common f a i r y t a l e s , (2) spontaneous compositions about a boy or a g i r l , and another about a f a t h e r and mother, (3) the r e p e t i t i o n of a s t o r y r e l a t e d by the p s y c h i a t r i s t . The f i n d i n g s i n -d i c a t e d that a c.hild's c o n f l i c t s determined h i s theme. Another i n t e r e s t i n g h y p othesis suggested by the experimenter i s t h a t the p r o d u c t i v i t y i s c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h the amount of a g g r e s s i o n . Age d i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o apparent w i t h the younger c h i l d r e n g i v i n g more emotional but fragmen-t a r y and l e s s d e t a i l e d responses. The th r e e major themes r e v e a l e d by the content were, (1) what the c h i l d i s a f r a i d of ( a n x i e t y ) , (2) what the c h i l d wishes ( w i s h f u l f i l l m e n t ) , 24 (3) what the c h i l d f e a r s he might do (sadism). I n a l a t e r study by Despert (38) on S c h i z o p h r e n i c c h i l d r e n o f p r e -s c h o o l age i t was concluded t h a t f a n t a s y found i n these p s y c h o t i c c h i l d r e n was dependent upon emotional f a c t o r s and not upon c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r thought p r o c e s s e s . Wright (206) would support Despert's c l a i m s . I n her s t u d i e s on an a r t i f i c i a l l y induced moral c o n f l i c t i n f i f t y -one c h i l d r e n she d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a f t e r a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n c h i l d r e n t e l l s t o r i e s dominated by c o n f l i c t such as; p u n i s h -ment, d e s t r u c t i o n , e t c . Of r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t i s Zucker's study of d e l i n q u e n t 1 3-year-old boys (207). The s u b j e c t s were presented w i t h three p a r t - s t o r i e s i n v o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s confirmed the f a c t s known about t h e i r p a r e n t a l attachments. Roody (144) v a r i e d the u s u a l method by r e q u e s t i n g her s u b j e c t s to rank the f i v e endings presented f o r each o f ten p l o t s i n order of p r o b a b i l i t y , and c l a i m s t h a t many a t t i t u d e s were r e v e a l e d . Sanford, l i k e Rohde and H i l d r e t h (142), i n v e s t i g a t e d Murray's concept of need-press by g i v i n g a Sentence-Completion Test i n combination w i t h a Completion of P i c t u r e s Test and an I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s T e s t . Her s u b j e c t s were from grades 3 to 9 and e x h i b i t e d c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y i n t h e i r responses. 3. A u d i t o r y Type of Tests The f i r s t experiment w i t h a p r o j e c t i v e technique i n an entirely different medium was done by Skinner (170) i n 1936. His auditory test, called the "Verbal Summator", consisted of a phonograph record repeating patterns of vowels which the subject must interpret. Shakow and Rosenz-weig (163) adopted and adapted this device as an auditory apperceptive test and re-christened i t the "tautophone". Although of h i s to r i ca l interest, i t has donated l i t t l e to the study of personality. Murray, in his "Explorations in Personality", (122), describes another auditory test by Kunze called the Musical Reverie Test. I t consists of six selections played to e l i c i t fantasies. Two kinds of mental processes were noted, free-association and thematic. Murray also describes an Odor Imagination Test i n which the subjects make up a story from suggestion arising from the odor. No results were published, however. Picture Type of Tests (a) Pre-TAT B r i t t a i n (28), a student of G. Stanley H a l l , is credited with the ear l ies t record of the use of pictures to study imagination, his experiments dating back to 1907. In the next year Libby (102) undertook a similar investigation of adolescent fantasy, which was not, however, intended to be diagnostic in purpose. I t was years l a te r , i n 1932, before pictures were used as a projective technique for unveiling the individual personality, apart from studying mere fantasy. At this time Schwartz (161) embarked on a 26 study of f o r t y d e l i n q u e n t boys. He used e i g h t b l a c k and white p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of experiences through which h i s d e l i n q u e n t group might have passed. A f t e r l o o k i n g a t a p i c t u r e f o r t h r e e minutes, the s u b j e c t was asked two questions o n l y : (1) What are your thoughts, and (2) What would you do i f you were he? S c h i l d e r and Wechsler (158) i n 1934 made some i n t e r -e s t i n g d i s c o v e r i e s about c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s towards death. U s i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e method supplemented by a s e r i e s of e i g h t p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g death, they concluded t h a t t h e i r s e v e n t y - s i x s u b j e c t s , aged 5 to 15 y e a r s , looked on d e a t h as a v i o l e n t a c t and an u n n a t u r a l end of l i f e ; as a mere absence, o r as an i n a b i l i t y t o move. The concept seemed u n r e l a t e d to themselves. In 1933, Murray began h i s e x p l o r a t i o n s which were to culminate i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Thematic A p p e r c e p t i o n Test (TAT) (122). One o f h i s f i r s t experiments (123) took p l a c e i n h i s own home when h i s 1 1-year-old daughter had f o u r other f r i e n d s to spend the weekend. Murray took a l l f i v e o f them on a p l e a s u r e t r i p and then presented them w i t h a s e r i e s of f i f t e e n photographs. The g i r l s had to t e l l whether the f a c e s were good or bad. F o l l o w i n g t h i s they i n -dulged i n f e a r - i n v o k i n g "murder" games and were presented w i t h the same p i c t u r e s as w e l l as a second s e r i e s o f f i f t e e n photos. A g a i n they went f o r a p l e a s u r e o u t i n g and on t h e i r r e t u r n were asked to t e l l whether the second s e r i e s of pho-tos were good or bad. Murray's r e s u l t s showed t h a t seventy-three percent of the f a c e s looked more m a l i c i o u s a f t e r f e a r was aroused. The e f f e c t of i m a g i n a t i o n i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and i t s f u n c t i o n s i n e a r l y development were i n v e s t i g a t e d by G r i f f i t h s (61) i n England i n 1935. (b) TAT A f t e r the 1938 p u b l i c a t i o n of Murray's book, " E x p l o r a t i o n s i n P e r s o n a l i t y " , h i s t e s t was used w i d e l y a l t h o u g h the amount o f work on c h i l d r e n has been l i m i t e d . Sanford (152) a p p l i e d Murray's method of a n a l y s i s to c h i l d r e n i n two s t u d i e s , 1941 and 1943. Her a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s t h a t the same i n n e r s t r u c t u r e which promotes, good p h y s i c a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n , or v i c e v e r s a , t h a t good p h y s i c a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n might be a f a c t o r l e a d i n g to the d e v e l o p -ment of a s t r o n g ego. The TAT was f i r s t used w i t h m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e g i r l s by Sarason (155) i n 1943, w i t h d e l i n q u e n t boys by W e l l s i n 1945 (193), and w i t h p s y c h o t i c c h i l d r e n by L e i t c h and S c h a f e r i n 1947 (98) . During the war Rautman and Brower (138) had an ex-c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y to study war themes i n c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s . They used t e n o f the TAT p i c t u r e s on 536 s u b j e c t s from grades t h r e e to s i x . R o t t e r (149) uncovered some important p r i n c i p l e s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n from h i s s t u d i e s . He found t h a t the s u b j e c t i s l i k e l y to i d e n t i f y w i t h a f i g u r e o f the same age and sex who has a s i m i l a r h i s t o r y to h i s own. The commonest i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s w i t h a c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r as 2 8 long as h i s behavior i s ac c e p t a b l e to the s u b j e c t . Iden-t i f i c a t i o n occurs when the s u b j e c t i s e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d . E r i c s o n (47) a p p l i e d the TAT to a group of d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age from s i x to t h i r t e e n . He found card 19 u s e l e s s , but the t e s t as a whole good f o r dynamic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . (c) Other P i c t u r e - S t o r y Methods Many n o v e l and p r o v o c a t i v e t e s t s have been developed i n the present decade. Amen (.4) used the p r i n c i p l e o f movable p a r t s i n f i f t e e n p i c t u r e s to study the responses of p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . D i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of performance were found, naming and enumeration o c c u r r e d i n the e a r l i e s t stages but as the c h i l d approached f o u r some i n f e r e n c e was drawn as to p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s . A l l groups m i s i n t e r p r e t e d the content. The "part-whole" balance i n p e r c e p t i o n was -manifested i n f . f i v e ways, (1) d e t a i l i n t e r p r e t e d as whole, (2) unanalyzed but r e l a t i v e l y complete wholes (3) inconr—'. p l e t e whole analyzed i n c o m p l e t e l y (4) wholes i n which some d e t a i l i s d i s c r i m i n a t e d (5) wholes r i c h i n d e t a i l s . Age l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n p r o g r e s s i v e changes i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process w i t h a broadening of s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s and i n c r e a s e d s t r u c t u r i n g o f i n t e r e s t s . S e v e r a l years l a t e r Amen c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h Temple, (183) to study a n x i e t y i n young c h i l d r e n 4.5 to 6 years of age. They attempted to d i s c o v e r the c h i l d ' s r e a c t i o n s to s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s ; p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and d a i l y r o u t i n e s . A c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n 29 between a n x i e t y and b e h a v i o r was found, w i t h c a r t h a r s i s r e s u l t i n g from i t s e x p r e s s i o n . Twelve w e l l designed cards were used: I d e p i c t i n g i n j u r y — m o t h e r and c h i l d , I I two c h i l d r e n swinging, I I I a g g r e s s i v e a t t a c k — t w o c h i l d r e n , IV mother s c o l d i n g c h i l d , V e a t i n g alone, VI p l a y w i t h a younger c h i l d , VII going to bed alone w i t h the parents i n the background, V I I I i s o l a t i o n from the s o c i a l group, IX n e g l e c t w h i l e the f a t h e r p l a y s w i t h a s i b l i n g , X a c h i l d as the o b j e c t of a g g r e s s i o n by an o l d e r person, XI p l a y w i t h o l d e r c h i l d r e n , X I I c h i l d w a l k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s . Vernon (187) d i d a s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n on young c h i l d r e n but h i s f i n d i n g s r e age d i f f e r e n c e s d i d not c o r -respond c l o s e l y to Amen's, which may be a r e f l e c t i o n on the complexity of h i s p i c t u r e s . H i s aim was to determine the r e l a t i o n between c o g n i t i o n and f a n t a s y . He found t h a t the l i t t l e c h i l d enumerates. A t age seven p a r t i a l i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n i n v o l v i n g simple d e s c r i p t i o n i s g i v e n , and at 11 y e a r s of age, c h i l d r e n i n t e r p r e t the p i c t u r e s as a whole, thus f i n a l l y achieving' the s y n t h e s i s between c o g n i t i o n and f a n t a s y . Symonds (182) d i d an e x t e n s i v e survey of a d o l e s c e n t f a n t a s y by means of the p i c t u r e - s t o r y method. His f o r t y -two p i c t u r e s were s p e c i a l l y drawn to c o n t a i n at l e a s t one adolescent f i g u r e w i t h which the adolescent boy or g i r l might i d e n t i f y . S t o r i e s were secured from twenty normal boys and twenty normal g i r l s i n j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . E x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n was gathered on each sub-j e c t and then the themes analyzed i n t o three l a r g e groups: (1) those of p s y c h o l o g i c a l nature, ( 2 ) those o f e n v i r o n -mental nature, ( 3 ) those d e r i v e d from s t y l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s the s t o r i e s . Although Symonds found l i t t l e o f d i a g n o s t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the content a n a l y s i s , the t e s t threw l i g h t on the u n d e r l y i n g dynamic p e r s o n a l i t y t r e n d s . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s were found to be s m a l l although boys gave more s t o r i e s of v i o l e n c e , death, p o l i c e , e t c . They a l s o had more lo v e s t o r i e s , w h i l e the g i r l s had more on f r i e n d -s h i p . Age d i f f e r e n c e s were i n t e r e s t i n g . The younger c h i l d r e n , under f i f t e e n , exceeded the o l d e r i n happy theme and the o l d e r expressed more concern w i t h discouragement, disappointment, a n x i e t y , f e a r and worry. Horowicz ( 7 2 ) d i d a very simple s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n study on nursery s c h o o l c h i l d r e n by p r e s e n t i n g them w i t h p i c t u r e s o f c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t races and a s k i n g "which one are you?" L a t e r , w i t h Murphy ( 7 3 ) , she developed another technique, ingenious but s t i l l l i m i t e d i n scope. I t c o n s i s t e d of f i g u r e s on c a r d s , the f a c e s o f which are l e f t b l ank. Two separate movable heads are p r o v i d e d and the c h i l d s e l e c t s one i n order to complete the c e n t r a l f i g u r e . The f a c i a l expressions on the heads vary; sad, happy or anxious. Although n o v e l as a technique l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h i l d was d i s c o v e r e d . Balken and Vander Veer (8) i n v e s t i g a t e d c h i l d r e n s ' needs, h o s t i l i t i e s , f r u s t r a t i o n s , a n x i e t i e s and c o n f l i c t s by means o f twelve p i c t u r e s s e l e c t e d from scrap-books, magazines and some from the TAT. F o r t y s u b j e c t s were used 31 d i f f e r i n g i n age from 5.5 to 15 years and i n I.Q,. from 82 to 150. Experimenters d i d not f i n d e x p r e s s i o n s of de e p l y r e p r e s s e d impulses. L i t t l e c h i l d r e n f o r c e d t h e i r responses and those t h a t were spontaneous were fragmented. Strong defenses were met i n a l l groups; s u p p r e s s i o n and d e n i a l were most common w i t h young c h i l d r e n , a v a r i e t y o f defences appeared w i t h the o l d e r ones. Haggard (62) v a r i e d the u s u a l p i c t u r e t e s t by employing a v a r i e t y o f comic s t r i p c h a r a c t e r s . Rosenzweig's P i c t u r e - F r u s t r a t i o n Test (146) was v e r y s i m i l a r . His p i c t u r e s were c a r t o o n - l i k e w i t h the c a p t i o n s or b a l l o o n s l e f t b l ank to be f i l l e d i n by the s u b j e c t . Wekstein's v a r i a t i o n (191) presented t e n p i c t u r e s of u n s t r u c t u r e d f a n t a s y c o n t a i n i n g D i s n e y - l i k e f i g u r e s o f many somatypes, i n c l u d i n g dwarfs, f a i r i e s , k i n g s , e t c . , the f a c i a l ex-p r e s s i o n s being c a r e f u l l y d e l i n e a t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s . The l a t t e r p i c t u r e s i n the s e r i e s i n t r o -duced c o l o r . The author c l a i m s to have found a r e l a t i o n -s h i p between f a n t a s i e s and a u t i s t i c thought which r e v e a l the i n n e r s t r i v i n g s and u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e o f p e r s o n a l i t y . Franck's study (54) of sexual symbolism, w h i l e some-what n a i v e , might have some b e a r i n g on Rorschach and oth e r symbolic i n t e r p r e t a t i v e systems. She used nine p a i r s o f p i c t u r e s c o n t a i n i n g male and female symbols and asked f o r cho i c e s between the p a i r s . Her female s u b j e c t s , who p r e f e r r e d male symbols, were adjudged b e t t e r a d j u s t e d on the b a s i s of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r a t i o n a l e and c r i t e r i o n of adjustment used are open to q u e s t i o n . 32 One of the most r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the f i e l d o f p i c t u r e - s t o r i e s i s by Shneidman (168). He c a l l s h i s t e s t the Make-a-Picture-Story (MAPS). The m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t s of twenty p i c t o r i a l backgrounds r a n g i n g from such d e f i n i t e l y s t r u c t u r e d ones as a bedroom and bathroom t o such l o o s e or ambiguous ones as a f o r e s t or vague g r o t t o - l i k e opening, s i x t y - s e v e n c u t - o u t f i g u r e s o f persons (young, o l d , c l o t h e d , nude, wounded, etc.) and animals. A m i n i a t u r e t h e a t r e does double duty as a c a r r y i n g c a s e . The s u b j e c t s e l e c t s the f i g u r e s he wants and p l a c e s them on the chosen back-ground t e l l i n g a s t o r y to account f o r h i s c h o i c e and arrangement. T h i s technique i s v a l u a b l e both as a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l and as an agent i n therapy. S t i l l i n press Is Blum's B l a c k i e Test which c o n s i s t s of drawings o f dogs which a c t as l e s s obvious i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n f i g u r e s f o r h i s young s u b j e c t s . The present M-B technique i s s i m i l a r to many o f these but r e q u i r e s i n e x p e n s i v e m a t e r i a l , l e s s time than most t e s t s and can be administered by i n e x p e r i e n c e d examiners. S t e r n ' s c l o u d p i c t u r e s (176) are c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o both the Rorschach and the p i c t u r e type of t e s t . A l t h o u g h i n l i t t l e use today they are of h i s t o r i c a l importance. I n 1930 S t r u v e (177) a t the s u g g e s t i o n of S t e r n , began h i s experiments w i t h cloud p i c t u r e s u s i n g 117 boys and 106 g i r l s to d i s c o v e r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n Imaginative t y p e s . The p i c t u r e s , c o n t a i n i n g t h r e e degrees of c h i a r o s c u r o were l e s s s t r u c t u r e d than i n k b l o t s and l e s s symmetrical, which the authors d e c i d e d gave f r e e r r e i g n to the i m a g i n a t i o n . S t e r n ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n appeared i n 1937. However, i t was Struve who gave the necessary impetus to i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The o n l y o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n of s i g n i -f i c a n c e i s t h a t of Jacobson (77), who found i t a u s e f u l t e s t o f s u g g e s t i b i l i t y . . E x p r e s s i v e Movement "There i s . . . a c e r t a i n mien and motion of the body and a l l i t s p a r t s , both i n a c t i n g and speaking, which argues a man w e l l w i t h i n . " - Laurence S t e r n e . As t h i s q u o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , the p r i n c i p l e s i n e x p r e s s i v e movement have been r e c o g n i z e d f o r many y e a r s ; although i t i s o n l y f a i r l y r e c e n t l y t h a t they have been a p p l i e d s y s -t e m a t i c a l l y i n the study of p e r s o n a l i t y . A l l p o r t and Vernon's d e f i n i t i o n i s almost i d e n t i c a l i n import w i t h the q u o t a t i o n , "Those aspects of movement which are d i s t i n c t i v e enough to d i f -f e r e n t i a t e one i n d i v i d u a l from another." (3). The g i g a n t i c study of Ozeretsky (128) l a i d the foun-d a t i o n f o r the f u t u r e work done i n t h i s f i e l d by Arnheim (6), W o l f f (199-203), and A l l p o r t and Vernon (3). Ozeretsky developed a s c a l e to measure motor development i n c h i l d r e n from age 4 to 16 y e a r s . Each age l e v e l c o n s i s t s of s i x t e s t s : s t a t i c c o o r d i n a t i o n , dynamic c o o r d i n a t i o n of the hands, g e n e r a l c o o r d i n a t i o n , speed, a s s o c i a t e d movements and s y n k i n e t i c movements. His t e s t was s t a n d a r d i z e d on 5,000 Russian c h i l d r e n . The importance of t h i s work i s i n 34 the c o n c l u s i o n s reached, t h a t e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n a l s o show motor d i s t u r b a n c e s . As o t h e r s t u d i e s along these l i n e s have fewer c l i n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s they w i l l be mentioned o n l y b r i e f l y . Enke (46) i n 1930, found c h a r a c t e r i s t i c movements a c c o r d i n g t o Eret s c h m e r i a n body t y p e s . Arnheim (6) s t u d i e d f a c i a l ex-p r e s s i o n s i n h i s comprehensive work. W o l f f (200) a p p l i e d h i s experimental f i n d i n g s to the p e r s o n a l i t y d i a g n o s i s o f c h i l d r e n . The problem i n v e s t i g a t e d by A l l p o r t and Vernon (3) i n 1933 was the d i r e c t measurement of the i n t r a -i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i s t e n c y of e x p r e s s i v e movements. A c t u a l l y o n l y t e n t a t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n s have been made i n t h i s a r e a although many experiments of s p e c i f i c e x p r e s s i v e movements have been done. (a) Graphology Although many experiments have been done on the a n a l y s i s of handwriting, very few have a p p l i e d t o c h i l d r e n . Paskind and Brown (130) i n c l u d e d 139 g r a d e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r study but r e p o r t e d l i t t l e . Roman-Goldzieher (143) analyzed the speed and pre s s u r e of the w r i t i n g o f 2145 boys and g i r l s between the ages of 11 and 18 y e a r s , and d i s -covered i n t e r e s t i n g sex and age d i f f e r e n c e s . A f u r t h e r study Included s t u t t e r e r s , deafmutes, d e l i n q u e n t s and back-ward c h i l d r e n . (b) V i s u a l - M o t o r T e s t s Bender's V i s u a l Motor G e s t a l t T e s t (16) i s the most o u t s t a n d i n g i n t h i s f i e l d . A l though she s t u d i e d c h i l d r e n her r e s u l t s are mainly a p p l i c a b l e t o a d u l t s . F a b i a n (49) 35 used the same test to evaluate the tendencies i n children to rotate figures i n perception. A similar test , the Visual Designs Test published by E l l i s i n 1927 was not standardized u n t i l 1940 when Wood and Shulman (204) examined 1,646 subjects ranging i n age from 8.6 to 17.6 years. Other studies made on children were by Lord, who found a definite relationship between the Visual Designs Test and intel l igence, and Wood, who did not (106). A related procedure, the Mirror-Drawing Test of Wechsler and Hartogs (190) supports the Ozeretsky findings, i . e. that a poorly integrated person w i l l also be disturbed on the motor l e v e l . A s t a t i s t i c a l val idat ion has not yet been published, but the test seems to hold considerable promise. In progress now at the University of Western Ontario i s an experiment to determine the worth of a new test, the Dif ferent ia l Diagnostic Test by Breen and North. I t i s an extension of the Bender Gestalt which re l i e s to a larger extent on the abstraction a b i l i t y of the subject. I t i n -cludes color reaction, memory and numerous other additions, which make d i f fe ren t ia l diagnosis possible.. Although s t i l l i n i t s early stages of experimentation i t seems l i k e l y that a good deal more w i l l result from i t , than from the Bender test which seems to show only those things that are 6bvious from mere c l i n i c a l observation. (c) Drawing and Painting Children's art was probably the f irs t , form of ex-36 pressive movement to be studied. In 1893 reports by-Barnes (10) and Herrick (68) appeared, followed i n the same decade by one from Lukens.(110). C l i n i c a l interest was f i r s t aroused by Mohr (120) and since then i t has been one of the most lucrative areas of investigation both for diagnostic hints and for therapy. So much has been done that only the major contributions w i l l be mentioned. Developmental s.tages have been described by Lowenfeld (109) and Seeman (162). One of the most profitable results of these findings was i n the stimulation Goodenough received, the end result of which, i s the celebrated Draw-a-Man Test (60). In the c l i n i c a l setting, free art work of children has been analyzed by Bender and Rapaport (17), Bender and WoIfson (18), Despert (36) and Naumberg (125), and i n the nursery school setting by Despert (37), Lerner, Murphy et a l (99). Racial group differences were studied by Wolff (199). Elementary and high schools have provided a r i c h source of material for Elkisch (45) and Hurlock (75). Levy (101) allowed free expression with an abundance of tools and materials but at completion requested an interpretation from the c h i l d . Levy's study, re lat ing expression to catharsis, i s of importance for anyone working with young patients. Mcintosh and Pickford (115) found special a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y whenever a strong conf l ic t was expressed unconsciously. Goodenough*s Draw-a-Man Test has been used with hope-f u l results as a projective technique by DesLauriers and Halpern (35), who c l a i m t h a t i t r e v e a l s n a r c i s s i s t i c t r e n d s . W o l f f (199, 203), B e r r i e n (21) and B r i l l (27) used i t as p e r s o n a l i t y i n d i c a t o r s and Oakley (126)- looked f o r p e r s o n a l t r a i t s i n the drawings of a d o l e s c e n t s by the same method. Probably the most comprehensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s t e s t as a d i a g n o s t i c a i d has been done by Machover, but i s s t i l l i n p r e s s . The most r e c e n t r e p o r t i s by M a r g o l i s (112), who found i t u s e f u l to measure the e f f e c t s o f therapy. B e l l g i v e s an admirable summary of the methods used i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a r t and the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f elements i n drawings and p a i n t i n g s . (15, p. 389) (d) F i n g e r - P a i n t i n g Because t h i s form of a r t e x p r e s s i o n i s so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d both to p l a s t i c s and to b r u s h - p a i n t i n g , i t i s t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y . The medium; f i r s t i n v e n t e d by Shaw (166) i n 1930, has been w i d e l y accepted i n America as w e l l as i n i t s o r i g i n a l home i n Europe, because of i t s marked t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h psycho-a n a l y s i s . The very f e e l of the p a i n t i s a p l e a s u r e to most c h i l d r e n a f t e r t h e i r i n i t i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n and p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t sensory g r a t i f i c a t i o n as w e l l as a permanent r e c o r d of the p a t t e r n s o f movements u t i l i z e d . S p r i n g (174), Fleming (52), Shaw and L y l e (167) r e p o r t on i t s t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t s w h i l e Lerner and Murphy (99) were among the f i r s t to use i t as a p r o j e c t i v e technique a p a r t from therapy. N a p o l i (124) has done the most thorough and systematic a n a l y s i s although h i s hypotheses are y e t t o be v a l i d a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y . 38 (e) P i c t u r e Completion Tests Although t h i s type o f t e s t was f i r s t used to measure i n t e l l i g e n c e , i t was soon found to have p r o j e c t i v e p o s s i -b i l i t i e s . The f i r s t r e p o r t i s by Berger i n 1939 on a t e s t d e v i s e d by Sander whose own account appeared i n 1943 (20). The Horn-He11ersberg Test was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1945 (66). A l l of these t e s t s were d e a l i n g w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y a p p r a i s a l . ( f ) Mosaic T e s t s The best known t e s t i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i s , of course, Lpwenfeld's Mosaic T e s t . Research has been i n p r o g r e s s s i n c e 1929 i n England and i s o n l y j u s t b e g i n n i n g to arouse i n t e r e s t i n America. The t e s t i s designed p r i m a r i l y to be a c l i n i c a l instrument f o r the assessment of p e r s o n a l i t y as a whole and s e c o n d a r i l y f o r use i n therapy. The t a s k of the s u b j e c t i s to "make something you l i k e " from the b r i g h t l y c o l o r e d p l a s t i c c h i p s . The complete set c o n s i s t s of 456 p i e c e s i n f i v e g e o m e t r i c a l shapes and s i x c o l o r s . Diamond and Schmale (42) worked w i t h 300 b l o c k s , v e r y s i m i l a r to Lowenfeld's. Other s t u d i e s which i n c l u d e d c h i l -d ren as s u b j e c t s were done by K e r r (84) and Wertham and Golden (195), a l l o f whom found the Mosaic t e s t to y i e l d d i a g n o s t i c evidence. The o n l y other " p l a s t i c " t e s t found i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i s t h a t of T w i t c h e l l - A l l e n (186), who used twenty-eight ambiguous ceramic p i e c e s r e p r e s e n t i n g geometric and a l s o o r g a n i c forms. P l a s t i c involvement occurs i n the BRL S o r t i n g T e s t although i t i s not a s t r i c t l y p r o j e c t i v e t e s t . Hanfmann and 3 9 Kasanin (64) developed t h i s t e s t which r e q u i r e d c h o i c e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of p l a s t i c m a t e r i a l . Now i n i t s f o u r t h year of experimentation i s the i n -t r i g u i n g B a s - R e l i e f Test f o r b l i n d s u b j e c t s (65). P l a t e s of v a r i o u s t e x t u r e s and shapes made of p l a s t i c , c l o t h , c l a y wax and s h e l l a c k e d paper comprise the s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l . A f t e r a n a l y z i n g the twenty-two o r i g i n a l p l a t e s f o r v a r i a t i o n i n response H a r r i s , the author, d i s c a r d e d a l l but seven. Rorschach p r i n c i p l e s o f s c o r i n g and i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n were employed. The t e s t has not yet been s t a n -d a r d i z e d but v a l i d a t i o n methods i n c l u d e a comparison w i t h b l i n d f o l d e d seeing s u b j e c t s , c l i n i c a l h i s t o r y , f i n g e r -p a i n t i n g and the Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y . Wolff (202) concluded t h a t i n a l l these forms of ex-p r e s s i v e behavior not o n l y are the movements and language o f the s u b j e c t important but a l s o t h a t the postures are o f the utmost s i g n i f i c a n c e . Thus i n a l l forms o f e x p r e s s i v e b ehavior, f i n g e r - p a i n t i n g , brush p a i n t i n g , p e n c i l drawings, e t c . , W o l f f examined both the s t a t i c p o s i t i o n s of the body as w e l l as the m a n i p u l a t i v e a c t s and dynamic body movements. In posture he found e x p r e s s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s and focussed h i s a t t e n t i o n on b a l a n c e , t e n s i o n and s i g n s of i n d i f f e r e n c e . 6. P l a y and Drama " A l l the world's a stage, and a l l the men and women merely p l a y e r s " - Shakespeare. 40 Thus w i t h remarkable i n s i g h t , Shakespeare sums up the c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e of c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s toward every human a c t i o n , movement and e x p r e s s i o n . As psychodrama i s to a d u l t s , so p l a y i s to c h i l d r e n * . The o l d e r t h e o r i e s of p l a y found i n present day p s y c h o l o g i c a l textbooks are g r a d u a l l y y i e l d i n g to the i n -f l u e n c e of the dynamic t h e o r i e s found i n the psychoanaly-t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . I n 1935 M i t c h e l l and Mason (118) e x p l a i n e d t h e i r " s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n " theory of p l a y as the b e h a v i o r a l consequences o f s a t i s f y i n g ego needs. Kanner's theory (79) i s e q u a l l y dynamic. P l a y i s " c a t h a r s i s " to r e l i e v e the c h i l d ' s t e n s i o n s . P l a y techniques o r i g i n a t e d w i t h Freud's account of the f i v e year o l d Hans who s u f f e r e d from a phobia. T h i s i n c i d e n t i n i t i a t e d a l ong and e x t e n s i v e l i n e of r e s e a r c h . I n Freud's notes we f i n d an a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of the p l a y b e h a v i o r of Hans, "For some time Hans has been p l a y i n g Horse i n the room: he t r o t s about, f a l l s down, k i c k s about w i t h h i s f e e t , and neighs...." (55) L a t e r , i n 1921, von Hug-Hellmuth e l a b o r a t e d t h i s c a s u a l use of p l a y spontaneously manifested by the c h i l d , i n t o a more d e l i b e r a t e attempt to e l i c i t such b e h a v i o r . A m i l e s t o n e was reached i n 1927 when K l e i n (87) s y s t e m a t i -c a l l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d p l a y techniques w i t h t o y s , as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h words. This sPsychodrama, as d e s c r i b e d by Moreno (121) has l i t t l e a p p l i -c a t i o n to c h i l d r e n and w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . method i s eminently suitable for very young subjects with whom i t had i t s o r ig in . Lowenfeld (108) regards play as an antecedent of language and an important means of communication. Free play, used by most therapists, i s unrestricted except for the person and property of the examiner; how-ever, controlled play permits greater direction on the part of the therapist. Solomon's experiment (171, 172) i s an excellent example of the l a t t e r . He l imited the play to dol ls and introduced one to represent the psychiatr is t . The most valuable results he found were i n the vent i la t ion of feelings, desensitization, and incorporation of thera-peutic suggestions. B e l l (15, p. 440) summarizes the uses of play i n therapy as follows: "1 . providing the chi ld with a natural avenue of approach to the therapist; 2. serving as • a diagnostic tool for the therapist, i n which the chi ld reveals his behavior, his ideas, his feelings, his wishes, his attitudes, and his fantasies; 3. offering a cathartic ex-perience to. the ch i ld , especially i n the re-lease of soc ia l ly unacceptable impulses and i n the discharge of feelings associated with trauma; 4. reducing anxiety; 5» providing a social relationship which i s , to the chi ld a new orientation to his world and those who populate i t ; and 7. restoring to a chi ld essential elements of growth of which he has been deprived." He also describes two lines of research, descriptive and technical. The former compares different groups of c h i l -dren with the aim of discovering and describing play a c t i v i t i e s . (a) D e s c r i p t i v e Experiments w i t h P l a y As these experiments do not d e s c r i b e s p e c i a l t e c h -niques they w i l l be mentioned o n l y b r i e f l y . I n 1937 s i b l i n g r i v a l r y was i n v e s t i g a t e d by Levy (100); c o n s t r u c -t i v e and d e s t r u c t i v e trends by Ackerman (1, 2 ) . The f o l l o w i n g year G i t e l s o n (57), p u b l i s h e d h i s r e s u l t s w i t h problem c h i l d r e n . Rogerson (141) s t u d i e d j e a l o u s y and hate and Baruch (12) a g g r e s s i o n . (b) T e c h n i c a l Experiments w i t h P l a y Horowicz and Murphy (73) d e s c r i b e some of the e a r l i e r experiments i n c o n t r o l l e d p l a y . I n 1923 Deutsch (41) attempted to measure s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y i n young c h i l d r e n by p r e s e n t i n g them w i t h a c h o i c e of toys and r e q u e s t i n g s t a t e -ments of preference f o r one o f a number o f houses, d r e s s e s , e t c . S h o r t l y a f t e r , i n 1925, Marston (113) claimed to have measured i n t r o v e r s i o n and e x t r a v e r s i o n by means o f a s t a n -dard toy s i t u a t i o n . Bonham and Sargent (26) used a s u i t -case f u l l o f toys w i t h two year o l d s to secure p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s . I n 1937 Despert (40) t r i e d a r a t h e r d a r i n g experiment. She gave her young s u b j e c t s a razor-edged k n i f e and a f t e r repeated warnings as to i t s sharpness, allowed them f r e e r e i g n i n s c r a p i n g a p i e c e o f cardboard. The shavings were l a t e r used i n c o n s t r u c t i v e p l a y . Despert found l a t e n t a g g r e s s i v e trends aroused by the s c r a p i n g process which were r e f l e c t e d i n the c h i l d ' s f a n t a s y . The c h i e f b e n e f i t of the technique seemed to be i n the p r o v i s i o n o f motor o u t l e t s f o r the r e l e a s e o f impulses. She a l s o i n c l u d e d a " f a m i l y " o f d o l l s to g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the c h i l d ' s f a m i l i a l s i t u a t i o n . The c o n t r o l l e d use of dramatic p l a y w i t h d o l l s was developed i n 1933 by F i t e (51) i n h i s study of. c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s . He v a r i e d the degree of s t r u c t u r i n g from f r e e p l a y to f ormal requirements and a l s o i n t r o d u c e d p l a s t i c m a t e r i a l s thereby r e v e a l i n g a t t i t u d e s toward d i r t , loud n o i s e s , preoccupations w i t h food, t o i l e t and sex, and r e s i s t a n c e of approach to c o l o r ( i n d i c a t i n g emotional t r e n d s ) . By u s i n g photographs f o r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , F i t e ex-p l o r e d c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s about themselves and o t h e r s , the c h i l d b e i n g asked t o i d e n t i f y w i t h one of two f i g u r e s i n a p i c t u r e or asked f o r a c h o ice between p i c t u r e s , e.g. of parents f i g h t i n g , working t o g e t h e r , e t c . B a rker, Dembo and Lewin (9) i n t r o d u c e d f r u s t r a t i o n to the p l a y i n t e r v i e w and found a dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount and i n t e n s i t y of f r u s t r a t i o n and the amount of r e g r e s s i o n . A n a l y t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the study of p l a s t i c i n -volvement are i n t e n s i f i e d by E r i k s o n ' s approach to p l a y (48). His a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d such v a r i a b l e s as e x t e n s i o n i n a c t u a l space and " p l a y d i s r u p t i o n " . He found i t necessary to exclude c e r t a i n t o y s because of the c o n f l i c t s aroused. He came to the d e c i s i o n t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , assurance, and c o n t r o l were nec e s s a r y to prevent r e g r e s s i o n and a r e t u r n of symptoms. W o l f e n s t e i n (198) experimented w i t h both k i n d e r g a r t e n and f o u r t h grade c h i l d r e n o b t a i n i n g v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n from both groups by combining p l a y w i t h drama. A t t i t u d e s toward the f a m i l y f i g u r e s and o p p o s i t e sex and toward a u t h o r i t y were r e v e a l e d . I n the. l a s t f i v e years Sears has d i r e c t e d numerous experiments a t the Iowa C h i l d Welfare Research S t a t i o n . Under h i s guidance Bach (7) d i d a q u a n t i t a t i v e , study of p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s f a n t a s i e s and found l e s s a g g r e s s i o n among the g i r l s . P i n t l e r (134) i n t r o d u c e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n the p l a y f o r comparison w i t h f r e e p l a y and found an i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i o n w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n by the t h e r a p i s t . Robinson (139) had d o l l s to r e p r e s e n t each member o f the s u b j e c t ' s f a m i l y and d i s c o v e r e d much s t r o n g e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , but no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the amount of a g g r e s s i o n expressed. P i n t l e r , P h i l l i p s and Sears (135) cooperated i n an experiment t o determine sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e s c h o o l p l a y w i t h the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : (1) g i r l s ' p l a y was more stereotyped and boys had g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y , (2) boys ex-ceeded i n non-human thematic p l a y and a l s o i n a g g r e s s i o n , (3) no d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n the amount of e x p l o r a t o r y a c t i v i t y or s e l f - t h e m a t i c p l a y . Henry and Henry (67) employed Levy's d o l l p l a y t e c h -niques w i t h twenty-four c h i l d r e n from p r i m i t i v e South American I n d i a n t r i b e s and found s i b l i n g r i v a l r y p a t t e r n s much l i k e , t h o s e found i n our own c u l t u r e . Sargent's i n v e s t i g a t i o n (156) of a normal 9 - y e a r - o l d boy led . her to conclude t h a t a normal c h i l d p r o j e c t s h i s 45 p e r s o n a l i t y problems i n t o a p l a y s i t u a t i o n i n much the same way t h a t a " n e u r o t i c " c h i l d does i n a t h e r a p e u t i c s e s s i o n . A combination of p l a y and drama i s evident i n both the World Test by Lowenfeld (107) and the Puppet P l a y s of Bender and Woltmann (19). By p r o v i d i n g animal puppets Bender has l e a r n e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount about i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n and i t s changes, as the r o l e s p o r t r a y e d become ac c e p t a b l e or non-acceptable to the watching c h i l d . Probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the whole f i e l d o f p l a y techniques has been the World Te s t i n v e n t e d by Lowenfeld i n 1929 and developed by B u h l e r (29). The f i n a l t e s t was p u b l i s h e d i n 1941 and c o n s i s t s of a box of 150 m i n i a t u r e wooden toys i n c l u d i n g houses, t r e e s , c a r s , people and animals. The most complete s c o r i n g schemes were developed by B o l g a r and F i s c h e r (25) who used a d u l t s u b j e c t s . K l e i n (87), Whiles (196) and others have used t h i s • t e s t f o r d i a g n o s i s , measurement of the e f f e c t s of therapy and as a t h e r a p e u t i c agent i t s e l f . K l e i n d i s a g r e e s w i t h many other t h e r a p i s t s i n t h a t she g i v e s an immediate i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of the "world" so c r e a t e d to the c h i l d , whereas Lowenfeld and Whiles d i s c u s s i t o n l y on terms of the c h i l d ' s own symbolic language. One of the major f u n c t i o n s of t h i s t e s t , says Lowenfeld, i s t h a t i t p r o v i d e s a means of com-munication i n therapy. 7. D i s c u s s i o n I t w i l l be obvious from the f o r e g o i n g survey t h a t not o n l y i s i n t e r e s t i n p r o j e c t i v e methods r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g , but a l s o that a p p l i c a t i o n i s becoming more widespread: the b e t t e r v a l i d a t e d of these techniques are no longer mere supplements to the c l i n i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n but are now i n t e g r a l to i t . Most p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s have been d i r e c t e d toward a p p r a i s a l of the t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y i n c l u d i n g o n l y i n c i d e n -t a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The present study, however, has as i t s primary aim the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s , any f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g other p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s b e i n g s u b s i d i a r y . CHAPTER I V PROCEDURE D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Cards The twenty-one cards used i n this, study c o n s i s t o f ma t c h - s t i c k drawings of two human f i g u r e s on a b s o l u t e l y p l a i n backgrounds w i t h no embellishments. There i s no t h i n g about any of the drawings to suggest e i t h e r sex. The o n l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between f i g u r e s i s i n s i z e where one, i n each of three c a r d s , i s s m a l l e r to suggest a c h i l d . P r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s used f o r t y - o n e cards approximate-l y 2" x 3" i n s i z e w i t h b l a c k m a t c h - s t i c k drawings on white ground. The f i r s t of these cards was merely a sample to accompany i n s t r u c t i o n s , the next twenty cards, S e r i e s A, d e p i c t e d s i n g l e f i g u r e s i n v a r i o u s poses and the l a s t twenty, S e r i e s B, showed two f i g u r e s . A f t e r approximately f i f t y t r i a l s these cards were r e j e c t e d on s e v e r a l grounds. The s u b j e c t s found f o r t y cards r a t h e r t e d i o u s , and s e v e r a l o f the drawings evoked the same response because they were too s i m i l a r ; these had to be r e p l a c e d by new drawings. Another important drawback from a p r a c t i c a l p o i n t of view was the f a c t t h a t the cards became s o i l e d too q u i c k l y . They were a l s o too s m a l l f o r comfortable and q u i c k h a n d l i n g . I n r e v i s i n g the cards f o r use w i t h c h i l d r e n , the 48 sample and a l l but the f i r s t card of S e r i e s A were om i t t e d . Those r e t a i n e d were enlarged to approximately 4" x 5" and photographed, r e s u l t i n g i n white l i n e s on b l a c k c a r d s . These u l t i m a t e l y proved to be f a r more s e r v i c e a b l e i n grubby l i t t l e hands. Some c u r i o s i t y was aroused i n the • examiner's mind as to the e f f e c t o f the b l a c k background on the s u b j e c t s . Only one o f the 222 c h i l d r e n even r e -marked on i t . She, a 5-year-old g i r l , commented, " I t ' s a dark n i g h t , must be." A p p a r e n t l y a d a p t a t i o n was q u i c k and the r e v e r s a l o f the u s u a l f i g u r e and ground had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the o t h e r s . The f i n a l s e t used i n the present study can be found i n Appendix A. 2. D e s c r i p t i o n of the S u b j e c t s For t h i s study 222 normal c h i l d r e n of t h r e e age groups were used, the groups being e q u a l i n s i z e and sex d i s t r i b u t i o n . The f i r s t group c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t y - s e v e n boys and t h i r t y - s e v e n g i r l s r a n g i n g i n age from 14.6 to 15.6 y e a r s . They were a l l grade nine students at K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r High S c h o o l . The cards were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n group form w i t h the p u p i l s r e c o r d i n g t h e i r own r e s -ponses, a f t e r l i s t e n i n g to i n s t r u c t i o n s . The second group c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t y - s e v e n boys and t h i r t y - s e v e n g i r l s between the ages 9.6 and 10.6. These c h i l d r e n were a l l grade f o u r p u p i l s a t Tecumseh S c h o o l . I n a few p r e l i m i n a r y experiments i t was found t h a t a 10-y e a r - o l d ' s d e x t e r i t y w i t h a pen was d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t e d . When recording their own responses they tended to write one word, and even so became bored—not apparently by the cards themselves, but by the effort required to wri te . To avoid these technical complications, a l l seventy-four protocols were recorded verbatim by the examiner. The th i rd group was comprised of thirty-seven boys and thirty-seven g i r l s ranging i n age from 4.6 to 5.6. Most of the subjects were obtained from various nursery schools. These schools were selected by d i s t r i c t s to give a variety of backgrounds and a cross-section of the economic conditions i n the homes from which they came. Ki ts i lano and Tecumseh Schools were chosen for the same reasons. Dawson School Annex and Alexandra Neighborhood House provided children of families with l imited cul tura l and f inancia l assets. Stratford House School and Cypress House School represented the middle-to-upper class. Veteran-students* children were obtained from Acadia and L i t t l e Mountain Camps. The children i n West Park Kinder-' garten and Mrs. Borden's Cooperative Play School came from the professional c lass . Several records were of children not attending school. The Bureau of Measurements provided Intelligence Test ratings on a l l of the 10 and 15-year-olds. Among the 10-year-olds the boys varied in I .Q. from 80 to 135 with a mean I.Q,. of 113.97; the g i r l s from 89 to 139 with a mean of 115.27. The 15-year-old boys ranged from 85 to 130, mean 109.84; the g i r l s from 88 to 127 w i t h a mean o f 112.97. I n most cases the N.I.T. was used, hut i n a l l cases the I.Q.'s were from group t e s t s . A l t h o u g h no I.Q. r a t i n g was p o s s i b l e w i t h the 5-year-o l d group, a meagre amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n was gleaned from the c h i l d . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n r e l i a b l e d a t a from a 5-year-old as he tends to embroider on r e a l i t y . However, the i n f o r m a t i o n was checked w i t h the s c h o o l r e c o r d s when-ever p o s s i b l e . The o c c u p a t i o n o f the f a t h e r was noted i n a l l cases and-whether or not the mother worked. The r e s t of the i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to the number of s i b l i n g s (ages recorded when a v a i l a b l e ) and other r e l a t i v e s , boarders, e t c . i n the home. I n t e l l i g e n c e Groups The t h i r t y - s e v e n s u b j e c t s i n each of the two sex groups, and o l d e r age groups (10 and 15-year-olds) were arranged i n ascendijag o r d e r o f I.Q. The twelve h i g h e s t I.Q.'s and the twelve lowest I.Q.'s were s e l e c t e d from each group, making f o r t y - e i g h t i n each o f the h i g h and low c a t e g o r i e s . A l t h o u g h they were not e n t i r e l y comparable, i t seemed to be the most v a l i d b a s i s o f s e c l e c t i o n . I n the high I.Q. group, the 10-year-old g i r l s ranged i n I.Q. from 117 to 139 w i t h a mean of 123.6; the boys, from 113 to 135, w i t h a mean o f 120.5; the 15-year-old g i r l s ranged from 120 to 127 wit h .a mean o f 124.2; and the boys, from 119 to 130 w i t h a mean of 122.6. The mean I.Q. f o r the t o t a l h i g h I.Q. group was 122.7. 51 In the low I .Q. group—the 10-year-old g i r l s ranged from 89 to 108 with a mean of 103.8; the boys, from 80 to 101 with a mean of 93.2; the 15-year-old g i r l s ranged from 88 to 113 with a mean of 103.8; and the boys, from 85 to 110 with a mean of 103.4. The mean I .Q. for the to ta l low I .Q. group was 101.5. 3. Administration of the M-B Technique For the group administration to the 15-year-oIds, examiner passed out record blanks and had each ch i ld f i l l i n the top of the sheet regarding personal data (see appendix C) . She then held up the sample, depicting a figure i n a kneeling posit ion, and said, "Here i s a drawing, t e l l me who you think i t looks l i k e , and what he or she i s doing." This aroused shouts, arguments and a variety of responses of which "a boy (or g i r l ) praying" was the most common. Then examiner said, "Now that you have the idea, look at these next twenty cards as they are passed down each row. Write down who each of the figures looks l i k e and what they are doing. Look at the le f t side of your sheet where i t reads *Who are they?' , mark who the l e f t -hand figure i s on the left-hand side of that column and who the right-hand figure i s on the right-hand side. In the next column write down what you think they are doing. Use your imagination and remember that there are no right or wrong answers, I just want to know what each one looks l i ke to you." Although i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n t o mark the l e f t and r i g h t hand f i g u r e s , the c h i l d r e n o b v i o u s l y became muddled and so i t was i m p o s s i b l e to study the sex of the f i g u r e s s e p a r a t e l y . The i n s t r u c t i o n s to the 5 and 10-year-old group had to be m o d i f i e d and changed f o r almost each s u b j e c t . I t was found by experiment t h a t a g r e a t e r s p o n t a n e i t y r e s u l t e d i f the examiner, on showing the sample to the c h i l d , f i r s t asked him to t e l l her who he thought i t looked l i k e , and then asked "and what do you t h i n k he (or she) i s doing?" As o f t e n happened w i t h the youngest group, t h i s approach produced n o t h i n g but a b l a n k s t a r e , so t h a t a v a r i e t y of changes were then presented i n such a query as, "I want you to t e l l me who you t h i n k t h i s looks l i k e ; i t might be a l i t t l e g i r l o r boy, a man,, a lady or even a mother or f a t h e r . Who does i t l o o k l i k e to you?" T h i s ' i n v a r i a b l y produced some response which was f o l l o w e d by some request f o r a c t i v i t y suggested. The next twenty c a r d s , each con-t a i n i n g two f i g u r e s , were presented w i t h a r e p e t i t i o n o f the i n s t r u c t i o n s , such as, "These next cards each have two f i g u r e s . I want you to t e l l me who both o f them are, and what they're d o i n g . " With g e n t l e encouragement l i t t l e r e s i s t a n c e was evoked. Only two c h i l d r e n r e f u s e d to comply; both of them were 5-year-old boys, one having a marked speech impediment and the o t h e r b e i n g a b e h a v i o r problem w i t h n e g a t i v i s m the o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e . Most o f the c h i l d r e n entered i n t o the t e s t w i t h enthusiasm, a l t h o u g h t h i s i n t e r e s t tended to wane about the n i n t h or t e n t h c a r d . However, w i t h the appearance of the s m a l l f i g u r e s on card 15 i n t e r e s t was reawakened. The problem of a c h i e v i n g the g r e a t e s t v a r i e t y by a change o f sequence w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under the heading "Suggested M o d i f i c a t i o n s " . 54 CHAPTER V RESULTS OP THE INVESTIGATION WITH THE M-B CARDS A. R e s u l t s Regarding the Groups of Su b j e c t s 1. S c o r i n g As to the Sex As s i g n e d to the F i g u r e s A l l o f the responses of the 222 s u b j e c t s to the twenty cards were scored as t o the sex assigned to each of the two f i g u r e s . However, as mentioned above, the s u b j e c t s who recorded t h e i r own responses were apt to con-fuse the r i g h t and l e f t - h a n d f i g u r e s , so t h a t accuracy i n t h i s r e s p e c t was i m p o s s i b l e ; t h e r e f o r e the two f i g u r e s were scored as a u n i t r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . In the f i r s t a n a l y s i s the f o l l o w i n g s c o r i n g symbols were used: MM - two men FM - a man and a woman FF - two women BB - two boys BG - a boy and a g i r l GG - two g i r l s FB - a woman and a boy FG - a woman and a g i r l FC - a woman and a c h i l d (sex indeterminate) MB - a man and a boy MG - a man and a g i r l MC - a man and a c h i l d (sex indeterminate) ? - a person o f indeterminate sex (e.g. teacher) o b j - a m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , u s u a l l y o b j e c t s but i n c l u d i n g animals. A f t e r c o u n t i n g a l l the responses i n each of the above c a t e g o r i e s , i t was found t h a t too few appeared i n s e v e r a l of them f o r ease i n s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s . There 55 seemed to be little significance attached to the sex assigned to the child figure when it appeared with an adult figure. The important fact seemed to be the adult-child relationship depicted. Subsequently, the FB, FG and FC responses were combined and scored as FC ; similarily, the MB, MG and MC responses were all represented by the MC symbol. So few FF and GG responses were found that these two categories were combined and scored as FG. Whenever a misrepresentation occurred, regardless of the second figure, the response was scored obj ; however, as these were scarce they were grouped in with the ? (indeterminate) category. In summary, the symbols used in the final analysis were as follows: MS. - two men FM - a man and a woman BB - two boys • BG - a boy and a girl FG - two women or two girls FC - a woman and child (boy, girl) MC - a man and a child (boy, girl) ? - indeterminate figure, object or animal The mean, median and mode number of responses, involv-ing the above combinations were computed for all subjects and for the various groups of subjects. The results are shown in Tables I to V I I I . On the basis of these results a "typical" record would include approximately two MM, four FM, four BB, four BG, one or two FG, two FC and two MC responses. Examination of the range of responses, however, shows that in the record of a normal child, one may find from zero to sixteen MM-res-ponses , from none to al l FM, BB and FG responses, from zero to e i g h t e e n BG responses, from z e r o to e i g h t FC and zero t o nine MC responses, and from zero to ten i n d e t e r m i n a t e responses. S i n c e the f i g u r e s i n the s e r i e s do not seem to suggest one type of r e l a t i o n s h i p more than another, what-ever d i f f e r e n c e s are found must be due to p r o j e c t i o n s o f the s u b j e c t ' s own p e r s o n a l i t y , and not to any i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the drawing. Comparison of Sex, Age and I.Q,. Groups as to the  Sex A s s i g n e d to the F i g u r e s (a) Number o f MM responses per Record On the b a s i s o f the r e s u l t s shown i n Table I , many s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s appear. While a l l boys gi v e a r e l i a b l y g r e a t e r mean number of MM responses than a l l g i r l s , i t would appear t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n age o f the s u b j e c t s . Table I i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes a t the 5-year-old l e v e l , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the 1 0-year-old l e v e l . However, when compared on an age b a s i s , the 5-year-olds and 1 5-year-olds b o t h see a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number o f MM's than 1 0-year-olds, but the 15-y e a r - o l d s see more than the 5-year-olds. I n terms of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , t h i s would tend to c o n f i r m the hypo-t h e s i s t h a t 1 5-year-olds have the s t r o n g e s t i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n w i t h a d u l t s , but t h a t 5-year-olds have a s t r o n g e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n than the 1 0-year-olds because of the i n f l u e n c e of " p a r e n t - f i g u r e s " , to be d i s c u s s e d TABLE I NUMBER OF MM RESPONSES PER RECORD fean Median Mode Sigma Range D-M N A l l boys 2.53 A l l g i r l s 1.28 5 Yr. old boys 1.86 5 Yr. old g i r l s p..59 10 Yr. old boys .95 10 Yr. old g i r l s .32 15 Yr. old boys |4.78 15 Yr. old g i r l s 1.95 A l l 5 Yr. olds A l l 10 Yr. olds A l l 10 Yr. olds A l l 15 Yr. olds A l l 5 Yr. olds A l l 15 Yr. olds A l l high I.Q.'s A l l low I.Q.'s 1.73 .65 .65 3.36 1.73 3.36 2.42 L.77 1.18 0 0 0 0 0 4.67 1.58 0 0 0 2.96 0 2.96 1.20 1.14 0 , 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 0 1-3 0 1-3 0 0 3.25 2.55 3.88 3.90 1.39 .77 .42 1.53 3.90 1.16 1.16 2.52 3.90 2.52 3.06 1.70 0-16 0-16 0-16 0-16 0-6 0-4 0-11 0-6 0-16 0-6 0-6 0-11 0-16 0-11 0-11 0-8 1.25 21 .63 2.83 1.08 2.71 1.63 .65 3.26 ,283 2.42 5-78 2.25 8.21 2.96 1.25 A l l subjects L.91 .59 0 2.99 0-16 111 111 37 37 37 37 37 37 74 74 74 74 74 74 48 48 222 Degrees of S i g n i f i c a n t at Freedom the .05 Level of Confidence S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 Level of Confidence N = 111 N - 74 N * 48 N = 37 220 146 94 74 t = t * t » t = 1.97 1.98 1.99 2.00 t = t -t -t = 2.60 2.61 2.63 2.65 S i g n i f i c a n t at . 0 5 " l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l . l a t e r . However, i n a l l groups except the 5-year-olds, the boys gave more MM responses. Although Table I suggests t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e has l i t t l e e f f e c t on the c h o i c e of response, i t i s q u i t e pos-s i b l e t h a t by combining age and sex i n the I.Q,. groups t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s c a n c e l l e d each o t h e r . F u r t h e r i n -v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s problem would seem to be i n d i c a t e d b e f o r e d e c l a r i n g t h a t I.Q. i s d e f i n i t e l y not a de t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r . (b) Number of FM Responses per Record Table I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s an even g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the number of FM responses g i v e n by a l l boys and a l l g i r l s , than i n the number of MM responses. A g a i n the boys g i v e more. However, t h i s i s not apparent a t e i t h e r the 5 or 10-year o l d l e v e l . I t might be deduced then, t h a t as the s u b j e c t approaches m a t u r i t y , t h e r e i s a wider divergence between the sexes. This p o i n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under the heading "BG" r e s -ponses" as the r e l a t i o n s h i p between FM and BG responses seems worthy of more d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A g a i n , age i s an important f a c t o r , as the 10-year-olds g i v e v e r y few FM responses, the 5-year-olds a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number, and the 15-year-olds more than e i t h e r of the other two age groups. T h i s , once again, adds c o n f i r -mation to the hypotheses mentioned e a r l i e r . I.Q. appears to have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s case e i t h e r , but the c a u t i o n s a p p l i e d to the same c o n c l u s i o n s TABLE II HUMBER OF FM RESPONSES PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range % t N A l l boys 4.86 2.38 0 6.78 0-18 .98 4.38 111 A l l g i r l s 3.88 1.94 0 4.79 0-20 111 5 Yr. old boys 8.22 7.0 0 7.43 0-18 2.06 1.28 37 5 Yr. old g i r l s 6.16 3.33 0 6.06 0-20 37 10 Yr.old boys 10 Yr.old g i r l s 1.27 .97 0 0 0 0 2.71 1.25 0-15 0-5 .30 .61 37 37 15 Yr.old boys 15 Yr.old g i r l s 5.11 4.51 4.62 4.33 2 0 3.59 3.50 0-14 0-12 .60 3.16 37 37 A l l 5 Yr. olds 6.18 4.25 0 7.06 0-20 5.05 5.87 74 A l l 10 Yr.olds 1.13 0 0 2.11 0-15 74 A l l 10 Yr.olds 1.13 0 0 2.11 0-15 3.36 8.84 74 A l l 15 Yr.olds 4.49 4.0 2 3.42 0-14 74 A l l 5 Yr. olds A l l 15 Yr.olds 6.18 4.49 4.25 4.0 0 2 7.06 3.42 0-20 0-14 1.69 1.85 74 74 A l l high I.Q.'s 3.10 2.10 0 3.48 0-14 .43 .61 48 A l l low I.Q.'s 2.67 1.70 0 3.30 0-15 48 A l l subjects 4.37 2.16 0 5.35 0-20 222 * S i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l . r e g a r d i n g MM responses would have to be r e - c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . A l l s u b j e c t s g i v e more FM and MM responses than any-o t h e r response. T h i s f a c t suggests the i n f l u e n c e o f c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s , t h a t i s , when two f i g u r e s are seen t o -gether, they are seen as " c o u p l e s " one male and one female, u n l e s s some a c t i o n or pose suggests d e f i n i t e "maleness" or "femaleness". T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e among the 5-year-o l d s who see the g r e a t e s t number o f FM responses; probably because they are i n f l u e n c e d by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o r , at the very l e a s t , concern w i t h parents, whether or not the parents are a c t u a l l y named. A 5-year-old c h i l d i s b o t h dependent upon and dominated by h i s p a r e n t s , so t h a t one would expect him to see a man and woman together as parents even though he g i v e s no s i g n of r e c o g n i t i o n , (c) Number of BB Responses per Record A very s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between boys and g i r l s i n t h i s category of response. I t would seem, from the r e s u l t s i n Table I I I , t h a t boys i d e n t i f y w i t h boys (when they are not i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h men) and g i r l s w i t h other g i r l s . T h i s holds f o r a l l age groups except the 5-y e a r - o l d s , who seem not to show much trend i n i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n as y e t . Once more, the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e i s found between the 10 and 15-year-olds. In accordance w i t h the hypothesis a l r e a d y mentioned, 10-year-olds appear to i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r own age group and not w i t h a d u l t s . P r a c -t i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e i s i n d i c a t e d on the b a s i s of I.Q. TABLE I I I  NUMBER OF BB RESPONSES PER RECORD . Mean Median Mode Sisma Ranee D M t* N A l l boys 5.03 3.20 0 5.55 0-20 2.07 3.23 111 A l l g i r l s 2.96 1.64 0 3.76 0-18 111 5 Y r . old boys 5 Y r . old g i r l s 4.05 1.57 0 0 0 0 6.90 3.95 0-20 0-17 2.48 1.11 37 37 10 Yr .o ld boys 8.43 7.67 ? 4.67 0-20 2.92 2.95 37 10 Yr .o ld g i r l s 5.51 5.40 6 3.67 0-18 37 15 Yr .o ld boys 2.54 2.56 0-3 2.19 0-8 .73 4.87 37 15 Yr .o ld g i r l s 1.81 1.37 1.90 0-6 37 0 A l l 5 Y r . olds A l l 10 Y r . olds 2.81 6.97 0 6.41 0 5.78 4.45 0-20 0-20 4.16 4.89 74 74 A l l 10 Y r . olds A l l 15 Y r . olds 6.97 2.20 6.41 1.90 6 0 4.45 2.06 0-20 0-8 4.77 8.37 74 74 A l l 5 Y r . olds 2.81 0 0 5.78 0-20 .61 .86 74 A l l 15 Y r . olds 2.20 1.90 0 2.06 0-8 74 A l l high I . Q . ' s 4.48 3.00 0-3 4.20 0-19 .04 .05 48 A l l low I . Q . ' s 4*44 3.83 0 4.19 0-20 48 A l l subjects 3.99 2.42 0 4.9 0-20 222 •s Significant at .05 l e v e l . Significant at .01 l e v e l . 62 (d) Number o f BG Responses per Record The r e s u l t s i n Table IV show some i n t e r e s t i n g changes. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups, a l l boys and a l l g i r l s . However, when the groups are broken down marked d i f f e r e n c e s appear. The 10-year-olds, as a group, g i v e more BG responses than e i t h e r o f the other two age groups. This i s to be expected on the b a s i s o f the h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t a t the age of ten, i n t e r e s t i s cen-t e r e d c h i e f l y i n t h e i r own age group and away from a d u l t s . I f pre-pubescent i n t e r e s t i n ot h e r c h i l d r e n i s an i n d i c a t i o n of m a t u r i t y i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process o f 5-year-olds, then the s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number of BG responses given by the 5-year-old g i r l s would suggest t h a t they are c l o s e r than boys o f the same age to the 10-year-old l e v e l o f development. As the hypothesis a n t i c i p a t e d , the 10-year-olds gave the g r e a t e s t number of BG responses but i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to determine whether or not t h e r e i s any he t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r e s t i n v o l v e d ; c e r t a i n l y , t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between the sex groups i n the number of BG r e s -ponses g i v e n a t t h i s l e v e l . There i s a v e r y dependable d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean number of BG responses g i v e n by the 15-year-olds and there are two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the g i r l s ' g i v i n g more. E i t h e r the g i r l s are c l o s e r t o the 10-year-old l e v e l of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; o r , the BG response i s an a l t e r n a t e form of FM response. That i s ; g i r l s o f f i f t e e n are a c c e p t i n g a d u l t h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t t h e i r own l e v e l of development 63 TABLE I V NUMBER OF BG RESPONSES PER RECORD Mean M e d i a n Mode Sigma Range D M t * N A l l b o y s 3 .29 1.86 0 3 . 8 8 0 -18 1.62 1.24 111 A l l g i r l s 4 . 9 1 4 . 0 9 0 4 . 5 2 0-17 111 5 Y r . o l d boys 5 Y r . o l d g i r l s 1.97 0 . 88 0 4 . 2 1 6 . 1 1 0 -18 0-17 2 .57 2 . 0 9 37 37 4 . 5 4 0 10 Y r . o l d boys 5 . 3 0 4 . 5 0 1 4 . 0 8 0-15 .43 .46 37 10 Y r . o l d g i r l s 5 .73 5 . 8 8 ? 3 . 7 6 0-16 37 15 Y r . o l d boys 15 Y r . o l d g i r l s 2 . 6 5 4 . 4 3 2 . 3 8 4 . 2 5 0 4-5 2 . 1 8 3 .23 0-7 0-17 1.78 2 . 7 4 37 37 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s 3 . 2 6 0 0 5 . 4 0 0-18 2 . 2 5 2 . 8 8 . 74 A l l 10 Y r . o l d s 5 . 5 1 5 . 6 2 1 3 .93 0-16 74 A l l 10 Y r . o l d s 5 . 5 1 5 . 6 2 1 3 .93 0 -16 2 . 4 6 4 . 0 3 74 A l l 15 Y r . o l d s 3 .05 4 . 4 1 «? 3 . 4 1 0-17 74 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s A l l 15 Y r . o l d s 3 .26 3 .05 0 4 . 4 1 0 ? 5 .40 3 . 4 1 0 -18 0-17 . 2 1 . 28 74 74 A l l h i g h I . Q . ' s 4 . 3 3 3 . 0 0 0 3 . 7 2 0-15 .59 . 8 0 48 A l l l o w I . Q . ' s 4 . 9 2 4 . 3 8 4 3 . 5 1 0-16 48 A l l s u b j e c t s 4 . 1 0 2 . 9 8 0 1.37 0-18 222 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t a t . 0 1 l e v e l . and not view i n g i t as a form of a d u l t behavior remote from themselves, as seems to be the case among the 15-year-old boys who g i v e more FM responses. This l a t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n seems more p l a u s i b l e although no proof i s a v a i l a b l e . D i f f e r e n c e s on the b a s i s of I.Q,. are n e g l i g i b l e as presented. (e) Number of FG- Responses per Record Table V i n d i c a t e s the g r e a t e s t d i v e r g e n c e of responses so f a r encountered between boys and g i r l s , the d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r i n g m a i n l y a t the 10 and 15-year-old l e v e l s . As ex-pected, the g i r l s see more women and more g i r l s t o gether than do the boys. (f ) Number o f FC Responses per Record In accordance w i t h h y p o t h e t i c a l p r e d i c t i o n s the g i r l s at a l l age l e v e l s see more women and c h i l d r e n t o g e t h e r than do the boys as r e v e a l e d by Table V I . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note, however, t h a t b o t h the o l d e r groups give more FC responses than the 5-y e a r - o l d s . Any hypothesis t o account f o r t h i s f a c t would be inadequate without f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o the a c t u a l content of the responses. (g) Number of MO Responses per Record Table VTI shows o n l y one r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e , which i s , the g r e a t e r mean number of MC responses g i v e n by the 15-year-olds as compared to the 10-y e a r - o l d s . As most of the responses i n v o l v i n g p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s are concerned w i t h t e a c h i n g the c h i l d , l o o k i n g a f t e r him, TABLE V NUMBER OF F-G RESPONSES PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range D M t* N A l l boys A l l g i r l s .70 2.38 0 1.53 0 0 2.72 2.91 0-9 0-20 1.67 13.91 111 111 5 Y r . old boys .70 0 0 1.71 0-9 1.06 1.49 37 5 Y r . old g i r l s 1.76 0 0 3.94 0-20 37 10 Yr .o ld boys 10 Yr .o ld g i r l s .86 3.38 0 3.30 0 0 1.39 2.77 6-6 0-9 2.52 4.94 37 37 15 Yr .o ld boys 15 Yr .o ld g i r l s .60 2.05 0 1.89 0 2 .91 1.55 0-4 0-5 1.45 4.83 37 37 A l l 5 Y r . olds A l l 10 Yr.olds 1.23 2.08 0 1.10 0 0 3.09 2.49 0-20 0-9 .85 1.85 74 74 A l l 10 Y r . olds A l l 15 Y r . olds 2.08 1.32 1.10 .92 0 0 2.49 1.44 0-9 0-5 .76 2.24 74 74 A l l 5 Y r . olds 1.23 0 0 3.09 0-20 .09 .23 74 A l l 15 Yr.olds 1.32 .92 0 1.44 0-5 74 A l l high I.Q . ' s A l l low.I.Q . 's 1.56 1.67 .88 .83 0 0 1.87 2.19 0-7 0-8 .11 .26 48 48 A l l subjects 1.54 .77 0 1.89 0-20 222 -s. Significant at .05 l eve l . Significant at .01 l e v e l . TABLE VI NUMBER OF FC RESPONSES PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range DM t * N A l l boys 1.53 1.57 2 1.19 0-6 .87 5.12 111 A l l g i r l s 2.40 2.42 3 1.61 0-8 111 5 Y r . o l d boys 5 Y r . o l d g i r l s .86 2.08 0 2.41 0 1.07 1.91 0-3 0-8 1.22 3.36 37 37 3 10 Y r . o l d boys 1.89 1.90 2 1.27 0-6 .81 2.38 37 10 Y r . o l d g i r l s 2.70 2.37 2 1.61 0-8 37 15 Y r . o l d boys 1.84 1.75 1-2 .92 0-4 .57 2.28 37 15 Y r . o l d g i r l s 2.41 2.46 3 1.18 0-6 37 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s A l l 10 Y r . o l d s 1.47 2.30 1.10 2.11 0 1.62 1.50 0-8 0-8 •-.83 3.19 74 74 2 A l l 10 Y r . o l d s 2.30 2.11 2 1.50 0-8 .18 .82 74 A l l 15 Y r . o l d s 2.12 2.09 2' 1.09 0-6 74 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s A l l 15 Y r . o l d s 1.47 2.12 1.10 2.09 0 2 1.62 1.09 0-8 0-6 .65 2.96 74 74 A l l high I.Q.'s A l l low I.Q.'s 1.96 2.42 1.93 2.23 2 1 1.06 1.55 0-6 0-8 .46 1.70 48 48 A l l s u b j e c t s 1.96 2.00 2 1.49 0-8 222 •* S i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l . TABLE Y1I NUMBER OF MC RESPONSES PER RECORD Mean ] Median Mode Sigma Range % t * N A l l boys A l l g i r l s 1.73 1.62 1.34 1.30 1 0 1.57 1.64 0-7 0-9 .11 .5 111 111 5 Y r . o l d boys 1.92 1.44 0 1.79 0-7 .35 .83 37 5 Y r . o l d g i r l s 1.57 1.08 0 1.88 0-9 37 10 Y r . o l d boys 1.22 .97 1 1.28 0-6 .13 .42 37 10 Y r . o l d g i r l s 1.35 1.04 0-1 1.40 0-6 37 15 Y r . o l d boys 2.05 1.82 1-2 1.47 0-6 .10 .29 37 15 Y r . o l d g i r l s 1.95 1.73 2 1.54 0-6 37 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s 1.74 1.29 0 1.85 0-9 .46 1.63 74 A l l 10 Y r . o l d s 1.28 1.00 1 1.34 0-6 74 A l l 10 Y r . o l d s 1.28 1.00 1 1.34 0-6 .72 3.13 , 74 A l l 15 Y r . o l d s 2.00 1.77 2 1.42 0-6 74 A l l .5 Y r . o l d s 1.74 1.29 0 1.85 0-9 .26 .94 74 A l l 15 Y r . o l d s 2.00 1.77 2 1.42 0-6 74 A l l h i g h I.Q.'s A l l low I.Q.'s 1. 81 1.65 1.57 1.32 1-2 1 1.30 1.39 0-6 0-5 .16 .57 48 48 A l l s u b j e c t s 1.68 1.32 1 .42 0-9 222 S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l . n u r s i n g him, e t c . the c u l t u r a l l y accepted r o l e of the mother, one c o u l d expect more FC than MC responses. However, i f the f a t h e r steps i n as a d i s c i p l i n a r y f i g u r e d u r i n g a d o l e s -cence, then a change i n p a r e n t - c h i l d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n might r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n MC responses. A g a i n c o n f i r m a t i o n would depend on f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . (h) Number o f ? (indeterminate) Responses per Record Only one i n c i d e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e appears i n Table vTII; between the 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds. As t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s so many types of response, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to draw any c o n c l u s i o n s . However, w i t h i n t h i s c ategory almost a l l of the 5-year-olds 1 responses were o b j e c t s or animals; d e f i n i t e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s . For example, Card 5 e l i c i t e d such t h i n g s as a p o l i c e c a r , a barn or house, cows and two common ones, a t a b l e and a-telephone. Few such responses were g i v e n by the 10 and 15-year-old groups. The i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t here i s t h a t the 5-year-old boys and the 5-year-old g i r l s gave a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same number of o b j e c t responses. The 15-year-old group were more apt to l e a v e the sex unnamed, as i n p u p i l , t e a c h e r , p a r e n t , e t c . B e i n g somewhat more c r i t i c a l than the o t h e r age groups, they d i d not name the sex u n l e s s q u i t e decided about i t . But, even more important, the s e l f - r e c o r d e d responses of the 15-year-olds permitted omissions of sex to pass u n n o t i c e d whereas the 10-year-olds were requested to be d e f i n i t e . TABLE V I I I NUMBER OF ? RESPONSES PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range % t * N A l l boys A l l g i r l s .31 .55 0 0 0 0 .79 1.48 0-4 0-10 .26 1.50 111 111. 5 Y r . o l d boys 5 Y r . o l d g i r l s .43 .62 0 0 0 0 .92 1.28 0-4 • 0-10 .19 .53 37 37 10 Y r . o l d boys .14 0 0 .41 0-2 37 10 Y r . o l d g i r l s .05 0 0 .23 0-1 .09 1.00 37 15 Y r . o l d boys .38 0 0 .91 0-4 .48 1.56 37 15 Y r . o l d g i r l s .86 0 0 1.64 0-6 37 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s A l l 10 Y r . o l d s .58 .09 0 0 0 0 1.43 .33 0-10 0-2 .49 2.88 74 74 A l l 10 Y r . o l d s A l l 15 Y r . o l d s .09 .62 0 0 0 0 .33 .49 0-2 0-6 .53 .74 74 74 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s .58 0 0 1.43 0-10 .04 .23 74 A l l 15 Y r . o l d s .62 0 0 .49 0-6 74 A l l h i g h I.Q.'s .48 0 0 1.37 0-6 .33 1.50 48 A l l low I.Q.'s .81 0 0 .7 0-4 48 A l l s u b j e c t s .43 0 0 1.20 o- io • 222 «. S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l . 70 2. S c o r i n g o f " C o n f l i c t " Responses The responses of a l l 222 s u b j e c t s were score d as to the presence of c o n f l i c t or antagonism between the two f i g u r e s , whether v e r b a l or p h y s i o a l ; then each r e c o r d was scored as to the t o t a l number of c o n f l i c t responses i t c o n t a i n e d . Examples of responses scored " c o n f l i c t " are: "a man b e a t i n g a boy", "a mother s c o l d i n g her l i t t l e g i r l " , "two men a r g u i n g , looks l i k e t h e y're going to f i g h t " . The mean, median and mode numbers of c o n f l i c t r e spon-ses g i v e n by the s u b j e c t s as a whole and by d i f f e r e n t age, sex and I.Q,. groups are shown i n Table I S . On the b a s i s of these r e s u l t s the " t y p i c a l " r e c o r d would c o n t a i n t h r e e or f o u r p a i r s of f i g u r e s showing v a r i o u s degrees of an-tagonism toward each o t h e r . No attempt was made to r e f i n e the s c o r i n g of c o n f l i c t responses to r e v e a l such t r a i t s as dominance and submission; nor to i n d i c a t e the i n t e n s i t y and d i r e c t i o n of the antagonism; nor to determine the outcomes of the c l a s h e s . Comparison o f Sex, Age and I.Q. Groups as to Number of  C o n f l i c t Responses per Record The r e s u l t s shown i n Table IX suggest t h a t sex and I.Q. e x e r t l e s s i n f l u e n c e upon the mean number o f c o n f l i c t responses given by the groups than does the age of the s u b j e c t s . The g r e a t e s t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e appears between 5 and 15-year-olds, the next l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e between 5 and 10-year-olds and the l e a s t , but s t i l l v e ry s i g n i f i c a n t TABLE IX NUMBER OF CONFLICT RESPONSES PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range % t* N A l l boys A l l g i r l s 3.65 3.54 3.54 3.54 0-4 0 2.65 2.78 0-11 0-10 .11 .31 111 111 5 Yr .o ld boys 5 Yr .o ld g i r l s 1.27 1.24 0 0 0 0 1.95 1.89 0-10 0-7 .03 .07 37 37 10 Yr .o ld boys 10 Yr .o ld g i r l s 3.62 4.30 3*65 4.28 4 4 2.19 2.51 0-11 0-10 .68 1.24 37 37 15 Yr .o ld boys 6.05 5.89 6 2.40 2-11 .97 1.76 37 15 Yr .o ld g i r l s 5.08 5.37 7 2.25 1-10 37 A l l 5 Y r . olds A l l 10 Yr.olds 1.25 3.96 0 3.91 0 4 1.92 2.35 0-10 0-11 2.71 7.63 74 74 A l l 10 Yr.olds A l l 15 Yr.olds 3.96 5.57 3.91 5.71 4 2.35 2.19 0- 11 1- 11 1.61 4.24 74 . 74 7 A l l 5 Yr.olds 1.25 0 0 1.92 0-10 4.32 12.71 74 A l l 15 Yr.olds 5.57 5.71 2.19 1-11 74 7 A l l high I .Q. ' s 4.81 4.66 4-7 3.31 0-11 .10 .17 48 A l l low I .Q . ' a 4.71 4.93 7 2.21 0-10 48 A l l subjects 3.59 3.54 0 2.81 0-11 222 * Significant at .05 l e v e l . Significant at .01 l e v e l . d i f f e r e n c e , between 10 and 1 5-year-olds. The f a c t t h a t 1 5-year-olds more f r e q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e f i g u r e s i n c o n f l i c t suggests t h a t the ad o l e s c e n t s u b j e c t s are more aware of i n t e r - p e r s o n a l f r i c t i o n . P o s s i b l y at t h i s age they are more f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n f l i c t w i t h s o c i a l demands and, while not e x p r e s s i n g h o s t i l i t y o v e r t l y , a re able t o p r o j e c t i t i n such a technique as the M-B. The range f o r a l l s u b j e c t s was from zero t o e l e v e n w i t h a mean of 3 . 5 9 . F u r t h e r study would be r e q u i r e d t o d i s c o v e r the u n d e r l y i n g p e r s o n a l i t y dynamics which r e s u l t i n one s u b j e c t g i v i n g no c o n f l i c t response and another g i v i n g over h a l f of them as expressions of c o n f l i c t . For i n s t a n c e , the 5-year-olds tend to g i v e approximately one c o n f l i c t response per r e c o r d . I f t h a t i s the number ex-pected, why does one p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d g i v e ten? Only a c l i n i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n would be l i k e l y t o supply the answer, but f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s seems warranted. The f a c t t h a t there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes a t any of the three age l e v e l s , seems c o n t r a r y to f i n d i n g s from i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r t e c h -niques, as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I . However, a more thorough s e a r c h o f the content would pr o b a b l y d i s c l o s e the reason. For example; the boys' responses might show more a g g r e s s i o n w h i l e the g i r l s ' responses might r e v e a l o n l y v e r b a l c o n f l i c t . 7 3 3. S c o r i n g as to the Presence o f an "Emotional" S t a t e i n the  F i g u r e s The r e c o r d s of a l l s u b j e c t s were scored as to the number of cards which c o n t a i n f i g u r e s d e s c r i b e d as r e a c t -i n g e m o t i o n a l l y or b e i n g i n an emotional s t a t e ; the s c o r i n g symbol E was used. Examples of such responses a r e : " t h a t boy's sad 'cause he's l o s i n g and t h a t one's g l a d 'cause he's winning", "he's mad and won't p l a y " , "he's happy 'cause h i s daddy's going to take him to the c i r c u s " . On the b a s i s of the r e s u l t s shown i n Table X, c h i l d r e n ' s r e c o r d s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y from one age to another. I t i s extremely r a r e to f i n d E responses i n the r e c o r d s of 5 and 1 0-year-olds but two c o u l d be ex-pected i n the " t y p i c a l " r e c o r d of a 1 5 - y e a r - o l d c h i l d . The range was r a t h e r n a r r o w — n o t one of the s u b j e c t s g i v i n g more than e i g h t E responses. No attempt was made to score f o r more d e t a i l e d q u a l i t i e s such as i n t e n s i t y , d i r e c t i o n or type of f e e l i n g expressed. However, as t h i s type of response i s com-p a r a t i v e l y r a r e i n a l l c h i l d r e n , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of those s u b j e c t s who g i v e e i g h t E responses would probably be q u i t e rewarding. Comparison of Sex, Age and I.Q,, Groups as to the Number o f  E Responses per Record The r e s u l t s shown i n Table X suggest t h a t both age and sex are de t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s i n the amount of emotion TABLE X NUMBER OF EMOTIONAL RESPONSES PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range DM t * N A l l boys A l l g i r l s . 4 0 . 9 1 0 0 0 0 • 7 7 1 . 2 6 0 - 4 0-8 . 5 1 4 . 6 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s . 1 2 0 0 . 0 4 0-2 . 6 8 4 . 2 5 7 4 A l l 1 0 Y r . o l d s .80 0 0 1 . 3 6 0-8 7 4 A l l 1 0 Y r . o l d s A l l 1 5 Y r . o l d s . 8 0 2 . 0 8 0 1.95 0 1 1 . 3 6 1.28 0-8 0-5 1 . 2 8 4.92 7 4 7 4 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s A l l 1 5 Y r . o l d s • . 1 2 2.08 0 1.95 0 1 . 0 4 1.28 0-2 0-5 1.96 9 . 3 3 7 4 7 4 A l l h i g h I.Q,.' s A l l low I.Q.'s 1 . 0 6 . 7 9 . 7 3 0 0 0 1 . 2 0 1 . 1 2 0 - 4 0 - 4 . 2 7 1 . 6 9 4 8 4 8 A l l s u b j e c t s . 6 5 0 0 1.08 0-8 2 2 2 S i g n i f i c a n t at . 0 5 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t a t . 0 1 l e v e l . p r o j e c t e d i n t o the f i g u r e s . The g i r l s a p p a r e n t l y allow f r e e r e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g than do the boys. I t would a l s o appear t h a t the o l d e r the c h i l d i s , the more o f t e n emotion i s expressed. A comparison of these f i n d i n g s w i t h the Rorschach r e s u l t s would be worthwhile. A d o l e s -cents have been found to be more withdrawn and l e s s ex-p r e s s i v e than younger c h i l d r e n . I t i s p o s s i b l e then, t h a t while emotions are suppressed d u r i n g the e a r l y 'teens they may appear as p r o j e c t i o n s i n "outside' 1 f i g u r e s such as are d e p i c t e d i n the M-B c a r d s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would be needed to v e r i f y such an h y p o t h e s i s . S c o r i n g as to "Separate" F i g u r e Responses per Record The responses of a l l s u b j e c t s were scored as "separat i f t h ere was no i n t e r a c t i o n between the two f i g u r e s i n each c a r d . The s c o r i n g symbol S was used. Obvious examples o f S responses a r e : " t h i s boy i s s i t t i n g down and t h i s boy i s d o i n g a funny dance", "a man doing t r i c k s and a l a d y w a l k i n g " . U n l e s s t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e i n d i -c a t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n , a response was s t i l l scored S, e.g., "two boys s i t t i n g " . Many of the responses were d o u b t f u l , p a r t i c u l a r l y those g i v e n by the 15-year-olds who i m p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n but d i d not say so. However, s c o r i n g f o r t h i s type o f response was not intended to r e s u l t i n f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s but was merely a p r e l i m i n a r y survey of g e s t a l t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at v a r i o u s age l e v e l s . 76 TABLE XI NUMBER OF "SEPARATE" FIGURE RESPONSES PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range DM •s t N A l l boys 6.06 4.25 1 4.35 0-19 1.19 2.02 111 A l l g i r l s 4.87 3.35 3 4.54 0-20 111 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s A l l 10 Y r . o l d s 9.5Q 3.66 10.87 3.38 9-12 -i 4.42 2.80 0-20 0-12 5.84 9.41 74 74 1 A l l 10 Y r . o l d s 3.66 3.38 1 2.80 0-12 1.42 3.74 74 A l l 15 Y r . o l d s 2.24 2.19 3 1.71 0-11 74 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s 9.50 10.87 9-12 4.42 0-20 7.26 12.96 74 A l l 15 Y r . o l d s 2.24 2.19 3 1.71 0-11 74 A l l h i g h I.q.'s A l l low I.Q.'s 2.85 3.21 2.57 2.78 3 0 2.11 2.87 0-11 0-12 .36 .69 48 48 A l l s u b j e c t s 5.47 3.80 1 2.28 0-20 222 S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l . 77 Comparison of Sex, Age and I.Q,. Groups as to the Number  of S Responses per Record The r e s u l t s shown i n Table XI suggest tha,t age i s the most dominant f a c t o r a lthough the d i f f e r e n c e between boys and g i r l s i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . The g i r l s g i v e r e l i a b l y fewer S responses than do the boys. I f the v i s u a l i z a t i o n of t o t a l g e s t a l t s depends on maturation, then once aga i n the 5-year-old g i r l s would appear to be more mature than 5-year-old boys. The o l d e r the c h i l d i s , the more i n t e r a c t i o n he v i s u a l i z e s . T h i s would tend to support the theory t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n of separate f i g u r e s i n t o a g e s t a l t i s dependent upon matur-a t i o n . I f t h i s were t r u e , one would a l s o expect the higher I.Q. group t o g i v e fewer S responses. Only a comparison o f I.Q.'s w i t h i n each age and sex group would throw l i g h t on the t o p i c , as again the d i f f e r e n c e s may have been c a n c e l l e d out i n the combination of age and sex. 5. S c o r i n g as to Number of "Popular" Responses per Record A l i s t of "popular" responses was compiled f o r each c a r d . The s c o r i n g symbol P was used and i t a p p l i e d to any response to a g i v e n card which o c c u r r e d once i n every s i x cases or o f t e n e r — t h a t i s , a popular response i s one which was g i v e n by more than s i x t e e n percent of the s u b j e c t s . Only the a c t i v i t y and not the sex a s s i g n e d to the f i g u r e was taken i n t o account. P , ,responses were d e r i v e d from the Response Frequency Tables found i n Appendix B. •* The a r b i t r a r y b a s i s used i n the Rorschach Technique. 78 Although s i x t e e n percent of the t o t a l number of sub-j e c t s gave the popular response, i t f r e q u e n t l y happened t h a t s i x t e e n percent of one or another of the sub-groups d i d not g i v e i t , t h e r e f o r e , i n the f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f P responses, any sub-group f o r which the response was not popular, i s g i v e n i n b r a c k e t s . Popular Response ( o c c u r r i n g i n s i x t e e n percent of a l l s u b j e c t s ) Card 1 Card 2 Card 3 Card 4 Card 5 Card 6 Card 7 Card 8 Card 9 Card 1 0 Card 1 1 Card 1 2 hold-up, robbery n u r s i n g someone, d o c t o r i n g , e t c . jumping, no motive (a) h e l p i n g up, rescue (b) f i g h t i n g , pushing, e t c . (a) d e s c r i p t i o n — s i t t i n g (b) t a l k i n g , g o s s i p i n g spanking, b e a t i n g , e t c . v i o l e n t a g g r e s s i o n (a) h o l d i n g hands (b) h o l d i n g hands and walking (c) w a l k i n g , going f o r a walk (a) d e s c r i p t i o n (b) t a l k i n g , e t c . (a) h e l p i n g up, p u l l i n g up (b) a i d i n g f a l l e n or h u r t jaj d e s c r i p t i o n t a l k i n g , t e l l i n g s t o r i e s : d ancing Groups f o r which i t  i s not popular ( 5 - y e a r - o l d s , a l l g i r l s ) ( 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 1 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 5 - y e a r - o l d s , a l l boys, low I.Q.) ( 1 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 1 0 and 1 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 1 0 and 1 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) ( 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) 79 Popular Response (cont'd) ( o c c u r r i n g In s i x t e e n percent of a l l s u b j e c t s ) Card 13 Card 14 Card 15 Card 16 Card 17 Card 18 Card 19 Card 20 (a (b (a (b (c (a (b (a (b (a (b (a (b (a (b (a (b h o l d i n g up, l i f t i n g up a c r o b a t s , dancers Groups f o r which i t i s not popular (cont'd) (15-year-olds) (5-year-olds) (5-year-olds) s i t t i n g i n v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s s i t t i n g i n a d e f i n i t e p l a c e q u a r r e l , mad a t each other (5-year-olds) w a l k i n g , going f o r a walk going a d e f i n i t e p l a c e h o l d i n g c h i l d or c a r r y i n g i t . r o c k i n g , s o o t h i n g , or (5-year-olds) p u t t i n g to s l e e p d e s c r i p t i o n — s t a n d i n g , etc.(10 and 15-year-o l d s ) s c o l d i n g , spanking (5-year-olds) dancing k i c k i n g the other one s t r a n g l i n g , choking, e t c . f i g h t i n g or q u a r r e l i n g p u l l i n g , no motive p u l l i n g , the other one doesn't want to go (5-year-olds) (5-year-olds) (15-year-old s, h i g h I.Q,.) (5-year-olds) I t appears from t h i s l i s t t h a t a separate s e t o f popular responses f o r each age l e v e l would be more p r a c t i c a l . T h i s could be undertaken i n a f u r t h e r study. The r e c o r d o f each s u b j e c t was scored as to the number of P responses o c c u r r i n g . The mean, median and mode numbers of P responses given by the s u b j e c t s as a whole were com-puted. As shown by the r e s u l t s i n Table X I I , a t y p i c a l c h i l d c o u l d be expected to g i v e about h a l f popular responses. T h i s suggests t h a t e i t h e r the cards are too s u g g e s t i v e 80 TABLE XII NUMBER OF POPULAR RESPONSES PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range D M t N A l l boys 9.41 9.21 9 2.68 1-15 .36 .97 111 A l l g i r l s 9.77 9.92 10 2.87 0-16 111 A l l 5 Yr.olds 7.70 8.14 9 2.86 0-13 2.60 6.34 74 A l l 10 Yr.olds 10.30 10.10 10 2.03 6-15 74 A l l A l l 10 Yr.olds 15 Yr.olds 10.30 10.30 10.10 10.68 10 9 2.03 3.17 6-15 6-16 0 0 74 74 A l l 5 Yr.olds 7.70 8.14 9 2.86 0-13. 2.60 6.34 74 A l l 15 Yr.olds 10.30 10.68 9 3.17 6-16 74 A l l high I .Q. ' s 10.60 10.62 «? 2.19 6-16 .14 .33 48 A l l low I .Q. ' s 10.46 10.25 9 1.92 6-16 48 A l l subjects 9.59 9.56 9 2.79 0-16 222 * Significant at .05 l eve l . Significant at .01 l e v e l . o f p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s o r t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g d r i v e toward c o n f o r m i t y i n c h i l d r e n . Probably b o t h are t r u e . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s u b j e c t s who g i v e v e r y few or very many P responses might be i n f o r m a t i v e . Comparison of Sex, Age and I.Q,. Groups as to the Number of  P Responses per Record The r e s u l t s shown i n Table X I I suggest t h a t age i s the o n l y cause of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . As l e s s con-f o r m i t y i s expected from 5-year-olds these r e s u l t s are not s u r p r i s i n g . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , however, to f i n d a b s o l u t e l y no d i f f e r e n c e between 10 and 15-year-olds. I t seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n f o r m i t y i s accepted at some time p r e v i o u s to the age o f ten and continues beyond the age o f f i f t e e n . S c o r i n g as t o F a m i l y F i g u r e s i n the Responses A l l the responses which mentioned f i g u r e s i n the f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n were scored f o r each r e c o r d . Res-ponses which d e s c r i b e d "a mother and f a t h e r " t ogether (as w e l l as "my f a t h e r and my mother") were counted f o r each r e c o r d . Those mentioning a " f a t h e r " or "my f a t h e r " , whether or not they were accompanied by f a m i l y f i g u r e s o ther than the mother, were counted i n the second category, f a t h e r - f i g u r e s . L i k e w i s e , m o t h e r - f i g u r e s were t o t a l l e d whether or not other f a m i l y members appeared w i t h them. I n the " s e l f " category, two types of response were scored; those d e p i c t i n g "two s e l v e s " (e.g. " t h a t ' s me and t h a t ' s me", and 'this me i s p l a y i n g w i t h t h a t me") and those 82 TABLE XII I NUMBER OF "FATHER AND MOTHER" FIGURES PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range D M t N A l l boys .86 0 0 2.86 0-17 .38 111 A l l g i r l s .72 0 0 2.57 0-16 .14 111 A l l 5 Yr.olds 2.08 0 0 4.35 0-17 1.89 74 A l l 10 Yr.olds .19 0 0 .51 0-3 3.71 74 A l l 10 Yr.olds .19 0 0 .51 0-3 .08 .80 74 A l l 15 Yr.olds .11 0 0 .67 0-5 74 A l l 5 Yr.olds 2.08 0 0 4.35 0-17 1.97 3.86 74 A l l 15 Yr.olds .11 0 0 .67 0-5 74 A l l high I .Q. ' s .08 0 0 .32 0-3 .20 1.54 48 A l l low I .Q. ' s .28 0 ' 0 .85 0-5 48 A l l subjects .79 0 0 2.72 0-17 222 Significant at .05 l e v e l . Significant at .01 l e v e l . 83 d e p i c t i n g the s e l f - w i t h - o t h e r s , t h a t i s s e l f w i t h mother, f a t h e r , s i s t e r or f r i e n d . I n a response such as "daddy-h o l d i n g my hand", one f a t h e r - f i g u r e was scored and one s e l f - f i g u r e was s c o r e d . S i m i l a r i l y , i n the " s i b l i n g and other r e l a t i v e s " category, " f a t h e r and s i s t e r " was scored t w i c e , once i n the f a t h e r - f i g u r e and once i n the " s i b l i n g s •and o t h e r s " c a t e g o r i e s . Although the m a j o r i t y of responses i n t h i s group were s i b l i n g s ( f r e q u e n t l y t w i n s ) , the o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r r a l to more d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e s such as "aunt" and "grandmother" were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . The mean, median and mode numbers of these responses were computed f o r each age, sex and I.Q,. group. The r e s u l t s are shown i n Tables X I I I to XVII. Gomparison o f Sex, Age and I.Q. Groups as to the Number  of F a m i l y - F i g u r e s per Record (a) Number of Father-and-Mother-Figures per Record A c c o r d i n g to the h y p o t h e s i s g i v e n p r e v i o u s l y , 5-year-o l d s were expected to i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r parents to a l a r g e r extent than the c h i l d r e n i n the o t h e r two age groups. The r e s u l t s shown i n Table X I I I would seem to c o n f i r m t h i s t h e o r y . Sex and I.Q., however, appear to bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the problem o f p a r e n t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . I t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t h a t I.Q. d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n each age group might be found i f these groups were broken down. (b) F a t h e r - F i g u r e s The r e s u l t s shown i n Table XIV suggest t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between age, sex and I.Q. groups TABLE XIV NUMBER OF "FATHER" FIGURES PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range % t * N A l l boys .67 0 0 1.00 0-4 .19 1.19 111 A l l g i r l s .86 0 0 1.37 0-9 111 A l l A l l 5 Y r . o l d s 10 Y r . o l d s .99 .69 0 0 0 0 1.60 1.01 0-9 0-5 .30 1.43 74 74 A l l A l l 10 Y r . o l d s 15 Y r . o l d s .69 .68 0 • 0 0 0 1.01 .92 0-5 0-4 .01 .06 74 74 A l l 5 Y r . old s .99 0 0 1.60 0-9 .31 1.48 74 A l l 15 Y r . o l d s .68 0 0 .92 0-4 74 A l l A l l h i g h I.Q.'s low I.Q,. 's .65 .85 0 0 0 0 .77 1.06 0-3 0-4 .20 1.05 48 48 A l l s u b j e c t s .77 0 0 1.23 0-9 222 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l . 85 TABLE XV NUMBER OF "MOTHER" FIGURES PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range DM *• t N A l l boys .91 0 0 1.13 0-4 .90 4.74 111 A l l g i r l s 1.81 1.74 0-3 1.54 0-8 111 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s 1.13 0 0 1.35 0-8 .61 2.77 74 A l l 10 Y r . o l d s 1.74 1.61 1 1.32 0-7 74 A l l 10 Y r . o l d s 1.74 1.61 1 1.32 0-7 .54 2.57 74 A l l 15 Y r . o l d s 1.20 .94 0 1.25 0-5 74 A l l A l l 5 Y r . o l d s 15 Y r . o l d s 1.13 1.20 0 .94 0 0 1.35 1.25 0-8 0-5 .07 .32 74 74 A l l A l l h i g h I.Q.'s low I.Q,.'s 1.33 1.75 1.25 1.43 1 1 1.09 1.48 0-5 0-7 .42 1.50 48 48 • A l l s u b j e c t s 1.36 .87 0 1.44 0-8 222 * S i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l . as f a r as i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the f a t h e r i s concerned. I t i s a g a i n p o s s i b l e t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s might have appeared w i t h i n each age group, as one would expect g r e a t e r f a t h e r -i d e n t i f i c a t i o n among the boys, a t l e a s t i n the 10 and 15-y e a r - o l d groups. (c) Mother-Figures Some i n t e r e s t i n g and very s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s are -shown i n Table XV. There appears to be a f a r g r e a t e r g i r l - m o t h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n than boy-mother i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . As noted i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the parent of the same sex i s to be expected and d e s i r e d . A l -though the r e s u l t s i n Table XIV do not c o n f i r m the theory t h a t boys are more l i k e l y to i d e n t i f y w i t h the f a t h e r , at l e a s t we have s t r o n g evidence t h a t g i r l s do tend t o i d e n t i f y " w i t h the mother. Once more age i s an important f a c t o r but, c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s , 1 0-year-olds g i v e a g r e a t e r number o f mother-f i g u r e s than e i t h e r the 5 or 1 5-year-olds. I t has a l r e a d y been demonstrated t h a t 1 0-year-olds are much more concerned w i t h c h i l d r e n t h e i r own age than w i t h a d u l t s , (BB and BG responses are more fre q u e n t than MM and FM) and t h a t they g i v e more FC responses than e i t h e r o f the o t h e r two age groups. I t might be d i s c o v e r e d then, t h a t whenever a d u l t f i g u r e s do appear i n the r e c o r d s o f 1 0-year-olds, they tend to be m o t h e r - f i g u r e s . C o n f i r m a t i o n would r e q u i r e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . (d) S e l f - F i g u r e s As p r e d i c t e d , 5-year-olds, w i t h t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c TABLE XVI NUMBER OF "SELF" FIGURES OR "TWO SELVES" PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range t * N A l l "boys . 7 5 0 0 3 . 7 3 0 - 4 1 1 1 A l l g i r l s . 5 5 0 0 2 . 5 5 0 - 2 0 . 2 0 . 5 0 1 1 1 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s 1 . 8 5 0 0 5 . 3 9 0 - 2 0 1 . 8 1 2 . 8 7 7 4 A l l 1 0 Y r . o l d s . 0 4 0 0 . 3 5 0 - 3 7 4 A l l 1 0 Y r . o l d s . 0 4 0 0 . 3 5 0 - 3 . 0 1 . 1 7 7 4 A l l 1 5 Y r . o l d s . . P 5 0 0 . 4 5 0 - 4 7 4 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s 1 . 8 5 0 0 5 . 3 9 0 - 2 0 7 4 A l l 1 5 Y r . o l d s . 0 4 0 0 . 4 5 0 - 4 1 . 8 1 2 . 8 5 7 4 A l l h i g h I.Q.'s . 0 8 0 0 . 5 7 0 - 4 . 0 2 . 2 0 4 8 A l l low I.Q.'s . 0 6 0 0 . 4 4 0 - 3 4 8 A l l s u b j e c t s . 6 5 0 0 3 . 2 0 0 - 2 0 2 2 2 * S i g n i f i c a n t at . 0 5 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t at . 0 1 l e v e l . e g o c e n t r i c i t y , g i v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number of s e l f -f i g u r e s than do the other two age groups. Table 2VI shows the r e s u l t s . Another problem c l o s e l y a l l i e d to the s e l f - f i g u r e r e s -ponse might w e l l be c o n s i d e r e d here, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o n l y - c h i l d and the two-selves response. Such responses were gi v e n o n l y by 5-year-olds, the group which i s so unconcerned w i t h r e a l i t y . Three of these young c h i l -dren, two boys and one g i r l , responded to a l l twenty cards w i t h " t h a t ' s me and t h a t ' s me". Of. these t h r e e , the two boys were o n l y - c h i l d r e n . Two-selves responses o c c u r r e d i n j u s t two o t h e r i n -stances; both of them were boys, one of them was an o n l y -c h i l d . The o n l y - c h i l d gave t h i s response to s i x t e e n o f the cards (the other f o u r being " h i m s e l f " w i t h another c h i l d ) and the second l i t t l e boy, who has one younger b r o t h e r , gave i t to f o u r of the cards (the other s i x t e e n b e i n g " h i m s e l f " w i t h h i s b r o t h e r , John). Responses i n the s e l f - w i t h - o t h e r s category were gi v e n by e i g h t of the c h i l d r e n , f o u r boys (one an o n l y - c h i l d ) and f o u r g i r l s (two of them o n l y - c h i l d r e n ) . I n the t o t a l group of 5-year-olds there were s i x t e e n o n l y - c h i l d r e n and f i v e of these gave s e l f - r e s p o n s e s . T h i s raw d a t a would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of o n l y - c h i l d r e n might be extremely p r o f i t a b l e . I t was f e l t t h a t t h e r e were "too few cases of o n l y - c h i l d r e n to t r e a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y , and too l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g them to r e s u l t i n v a l i d TABLE XVII NUMBER OE "SIBLING" FIGURES AND OTHER RELATIVES PER RECORD Mean Median Mode Sigma Range DM t * N A l l boys .30 0 .0 1.17 0-11 .56 2.55 111 A l l g i r l s .86 0 0 2.04 0-11 111 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s .68 0 0 2.72 0-16 .19 .58 74 A l l 10 Y r . o l d s .49 0 0 .82 0-3 74 A l l 10 Y r . o l d s .49 0 0 .82 0-3 ,16 .76 74 A l l 15 Y r . o l d s .65 0 0 1.63 0-11 74 A l l 5 Y r . o l d s .68 0 0 2.72 0-16 .03 .08 74 A l l 15 Y r . o l d s .65 0 0 1.63 0-11 74 A l l h i g h I.Q.'s .60 0 0 .99 0-4 .05 .17 48 A l l low I.Q,.'s .65 0 0 1.71 0-11 48 A l l s u b j e c t s .58 0 0 1.68 0-11 222 * S i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l . c o n c l u s i o n s f o r t h i s survey. (e) S i b l i n g s and Other R e l a t i v e s The r e s u l t s shown i n Table XVII i n d i c a t e t h a t sex i s the o n l y i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s a r e a of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The g i r l s g i v e t h i s category of response a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number of times than do the boys. Other r e l a t i v e s such as aunt, c o u s i n , grandmother, e t c . appear o n l y i n the r e c o r d s of g i r l s and o n l y at the 10 and 1 5 - y e a r - o l d l e v e l s ( j u s t one 5 - y e a r - o l d boy and one 5 - y e a r - o l d g i r l gave such r e s p o n s e s ) . Another r e l a t i o n s h i p , that of man-and-wife i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d much o f t e n e r by the g i r l s (none of the boys and only two of the g i r l s a t the 1 0 - y e a r - o l d l e v e l gave t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ) . Among the 1 5 - y e a r - o l d s ' r e c o r d s i t appeared i n twelve of the g i r l s ' r e c o r d s and i n o n l y f i v e of the boys' r e c o r d s . These f i n d i n g s combined w i t h the r e s u l t s a l r e a d y s e t out suggest that g i r l s tend to i d e n t i f y w i t h the whole f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n to a much l a r g e r extent than do the boys. B. R e s u l t s Regarding Each I n d i v i d u a l Card 1 . Percentages o f V a r i o u s Sex Scores E l i c i t e d by the  I n d i v i d u a l Cards Table XVTII shows the percentages o f MM, FM, BB, BG-, FG, FC, MC and ? (indeterminate) responses g i v e n by the sub-j e c t s as a whole to the i n d i v i d u a l c a r d s . Because the percentages are f a i r l y e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h o n l y one card ( e x c l u d i n g the three with the s m a l l f i g u r e s ) s u g g e s t i n g 91 TABLE XVIII PERCENTAGE OF MM, FM, BB, BG, FG, FC, MC, ? RESPONSES PER CARD MM FM BB BG FG FC MC «? Card 1 20 24 21 21 6 3 2 2 2 14 32 17 15 5 6 9 3 3 6 25 29 24 5 4 5 3 4 18 20 34 18 4 1 3 1 5 7 11 26 5 3 6 7 6 9 16 28 15 7 6 14 4 7 12 27 27 18 9 3 2 1 8 6 24 18 33 15 2 2 9 8 29 23 22 9 4 4 2 10 3 20 26 27 11 5 5 2 11 9 26 23 23 13 2 2 ' 2 12 5 33 16 33 11 1 1 13 24 17 25 18 2 9 5 14 9 29 17 32 10 2 1 15 1 7 6 4 52 30 1 16 1 4 4 3 63 24 1 17 1 9 4 3 41 41 1 18 13 20 25 27 12 1 1 1 19 22 28 23 14 5 1 4 3 20 6 28 16 28 17 1 1 2 one s c o r e to more than t h i r t y - t h r e e percent of the s u b j e c t s each card w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . Card 1 seems to e l i c i t the scores MM, BB, BG and I'M about evenly w i t h FM s l i g h t l y o f t e n e r . Card 2 seems to be more s u g g e s t i v e of FM than any other response. Card 3 evokes FM, BG and BB responses about the same number of times, but the BB percentage i s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r . Card 4 s t r o n g l y suggests BB. Card 5 b r i n g s f o r t h two c a t e g o r i e s more o f t e n than o t h e r s , FM and BG. Card 6 seems to suggest BB most f r e q u e n t l y . Card 7 i s evenly d i v i d e d between FM and BB s c o r e s , b o t h o f which appear twenty-seven percent of the t i m e . Card 8 i s most s u g g e s t i v e of the BG r e l a t i o n s h i p . Card 9 i s most s u g g e s t i v e o f the FM r e l a t i o n s h i p . • " Card 10 e l i c i t s more BB and BG responses. Card 11 i s f a i r l y e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d but FM responses appear s l i g h t l y o f t e n e r than BG and BB. Card 12 i s d e f i n i t e l y s u ggestive o f one male and one female, e i t h e r two a d u l t s o r two c h i l d r e n . Card 13 seems to have d e f i n i t e "maleness" as MM and BB scores occur most f r e q u e n t l y . Card 14 y i e l d s a g r e a t e r number of FM and BG responses The next-three c a r d s , 15, 16 and 17, d e p i c t i n g one s m a l l f i g u r e w i t h a l a r g e one, do not e l i c i t the same r e a c t i o n s . Cards 15 and 16 are more u s u a l l y seen as a •woman and a c h i l d , while Gard 17 i s evenly d i v i d e d between a woman and a c h i l d , and a man and a c h i l d , each o c c u r r i n g about f o r t y - o n e percent o f the time. Card 18 seems to r e p r e s e n t y o u t h f u l f i g u r e s as BB and BG are the commonest responses. Card 19 i s most o f t e n seen as an FM combination. Card 20 e l i c i t s e i t h e r FM or BG about e q u a l l y . Of a l l the cards e l i c i t i n g MM responses, o n l y t h r e e g i v e MM i n more than twenty percent o f the cas e s , Cards 1, 13' and 19. FM seems t o be the most popular combination, p a r t i c u l a r l y on Cards 1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 14, 19 and 20 ( r a n g i n g from twenty-four to t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t ) . BB scores o c c u r r e d most o f t e n on Cards 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 13 and 18 (ranging from t w e n t y - f i v e to t h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t ) , and BG scores on Cards 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, 18 and 20 (ranging from twenty-six to t h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t ) . A l t h o u g h never predominant, FG responses were more apt t o appear on Cards 8, 11, 18 and 20 (twelve to f i f t e e n p e r c e n t ) . Cards 15, 16 and 17 n a t u r a l l y had the l a r g e s t percentage o f FC and MC responses ( f o r t y p e r c e n t ) , the o n l y other card to which FC and MC responses were g i v e n was Card 6, by f o u r t e e n percent of the s u b j e c t s . Cards 5 and 13 were the most o f t e n m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . Objects were seen on these cards by seven percent and f i v e percent o f the s u b j e c t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t would appear from t h i s t h a t these two cards are l e s s s u g g e s t i v e of human f i g u r e s than any o f the o t h e r s . TABLE XIX PERCENTAGE OF CONFLICT RESPONSES PER CARD * i 21 2 8 3 16 4 19 5 3 6 24 7 27 8 1 9 18 10 6 11 17 12 8 13 7 14 8 15 0 16 2 17 14 18 18 19 40 20 37 95 These percentages shown i n Table XVIII would seem to Indicate that the series, as a whole, does not suggest one type of relationship much oftener than another. For this reason the individual choices, as wel l as group differences, are probably of greater significance as far as the iden t i -f ica t ion process i s concerned. The ambiguity of the figures permit a greater variance than would be the case i f they were def ini te ly weighted toward one or another category. 2. Percentages of Conflict Responses E l i c i t e d by the I n d i v i - dual Cards In order to compare the individual test cards with respect to their inherent suggestiveness of conf l ic t or antagonism between the two figures presented i n them, the percentage of conf l ic t responses given by the subjects was computed for each card. On the basis of the results shown i n Table XIX, one may conclude that the cards vary con-siderably as to the probability of their e l i c i t i n g a con-f l i c t response. The card with the highest probability i s number 19, which suggested antagonism to forty percent of the subjects. Four other cards which stimulated a concept of antagonism at least twenty percent of the time are Cards 1, 6 , 7 and 20. Those cards least l i k e l y to c a l l forth conf l ic t are 5, 15 and 16 (less than three percent). A detailed analysis of those records which reveal confl ict on the cards least l i k e l y to produce i t might TABLE XX PERCENTAGE OE EMOTIONAL RESPONSES PER CARD 1 Card 1 1 2 0 3 19 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 2 8 3 9 7 10 1 11 3 12 1 13 1 14 9 15 0 16 0 17 1 18 1 19 0 20 3 uncover some p e r s o n a l meaning f o r the s u b j e c t g i v i n g i t . I t -would seem worthwhile to compare these r e s u l t s w i t h those of a group of problem c h i l d r e n to determine whether or not there i s any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between be-h a v i o r problems and a g g r e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s , as i n d i c a t e d by the c o n f l i c t responses. Percentages of E Responses E l i c i t e d by the I n d i v i d u a l Cards I n order to d i s c o v e r which cards are most l i k e l y t o suggest an emotional s t a t e i n one or b o t h of the f i g u r e s , the percentages of E responses g i v e n by the s u b j e c t s were computed f o r each c a r d . On the b a s i s of the r e s u l t s shown i n Table XX i t can be s t a t e d t h a t o n l y one o f the c a r d s i s suggestive of an emotional s t a t e i n the f i g u r e s — C a r d 3. On t h i s card nineteen percent o f the c h i l d r e n noted some emotion i n one or both of the f i g u r e s . Those cards which d i d not e l i c i t any emotional s t a t e i n the f i g u r e s were Cards 2, 4, 5, 6, 15, 16 and 19. By comparing Tables XIX and XX an i n t e r e s t i n g paradox i s r e v e a l e d . The card e l i c i t i n g the g r e a t e s t number o f c o n f l i c t responses i s not i n the l e a s t s u g g e s t i v e o f emotion, which would l e a d one to t h i n k t h a t e i t h e r c h i l d r e n do not a s s o c i a t e emotion w i t h c o n f l i c t , o r t h a t c o n f l i c t presupposes emotion and t h e r e f o r e i s not mentioned. A f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t the c o n f l i c t , and i n p a r t i c u l a r a g g r e s s i o n , has c a t h a r t i c i z e d the emotion. F u r t h e r i n v e s -t i g a t i o n would be needed to determine which of these p o s s i b i l i t i e s i s c l o s e s t to f a c t . TABLE XXI PERCENTAGE OF SEPARATE RESPONSES PER CARD : 1 Card 1 36 2 24 3 66 4 34 5 46 6 33 7 32 8 17 9 27 10 21 11 42 12 13 13 7 14 48 15 12 16 5 17 21 18 32 19 11 20 15 99 4. Percentage of S Responses E l i c i t e d by the Individual Cards The percentage of subjects giving S responses to each card were computed. Four of the cards e l i c i t ed more than forty percent S responses—Cards 3, 5, 11 and 14. Con-versely, those cards which are most suggestive of in ter -action between the figures are; 8, 12, 13, 16 and 19 (less than twenty percent). I t would seem that the amount of suggestiveness of interaction i s f a i r l y evenly distributed and allows for great individual var ia t ion . Card 3 i s the only card that does not e l i c i t interaction in at least half of the sub-jects. 5. Percentages of Family-Figures E l i c i t e d by the Individual  Cards (a) Father-and-Mother-Figures I t can be seen in Table XXII that the d is t r ibut ion of father-and-mother-figures i s f a i r l y even over the seventeen cards containing two large figures. Of these Cards 18 and 20 have the highest percentages, seven per-cent each; Card 3, the lowest, with only two percent. (b) Father-Figures The three cards, 15, 16 and 17, do of course e l i c i t the greatest number of father-figures. Of these, Card 17 seems the most suggestive (twenty-four percent) and is the only card to r i v a l the suggestibi l i ty of a mother-figure (twenty-eight percent). Only one other card suggests a father-figure to as 100 TABLE XXII PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIAL FIGURES PER CARD Father and Mother To-gether F a t h e r Mother S e l f S i b l i n g s & Other R e l a t i v e s Card 1 4 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 2 2 3 2 5 5 3 1 3 3 6 4 4 4 3 2 7 6 1 2 3 3 8 4 1 3 3 9 5 2 3 3 2 10 3 1 3 4 5 11 5 1 2 3 3 12 5 1 4 4 13 4 1 1 4 2 14 5 1 4 2 15 16 36 5 8 16 12 47 5 3 17 24 28 5 7 18 7 . 1 4 2 19 5 2 1 4 3 20 7 1 4 3 many as four percent of the subjects and that one i s Card 6, which contains one figure kneeling and one stand-ing, leaning over. I t i s highly probable that because the figure i s kneeling i t appears smaller, and therefore more c h i l d - l i k e , consequently the other figure i s taken for an adult. This card, which apparently suggests a father as often as a mother, resulted i n frequent aggres-sive responses (see Appendix B) , which leads one to think that children expect punishment from the father as often as from the mother. I t is interesting to note further, that g i r l s gave fifteen MC responses and boys only s ix , so that while boys apparently do not regard fathers as more frequent punitive agents, the g i r l s do. More detailed investigation needs to be done in this f i e l d but the trends seemed worthy of note. (c) Mother-Figures The three cards, 15, 16 and 17, as expected, e l i c i t the greatest number of mother-figures. Card 16, depicting a large figure holding a t iny figure in i t s arms, evoked a mother-response in almost half of the cases, considerably more than either of the other cards d id . This card had the fewest father-figures of the three, which suggests that quite l og i ca l l y , t iny babies are more often associated with mothers than with fathers. (d) ' Self-Figures Again Cards 15, 16 and 17 e l i c i t ed a s l igh t ly greater number of self - ident i f icat ions than the other cards, although the difference i s hardly s ignif icant . 102 (e) S i b l i n g s - a n d - O t h e r - R e l a t i v e s The l a r g e s t percentages occurred on Cards 15 and 17, which suggests t h a t c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f y t h e i r s i b l i n g s o n l y when they are o f "walking" age and not as babes-in-arms. C. A Comparison of C h i l d r e n and A d u l t s A l t h o u g h a s t a t i s t i c a l comparison o f c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s i s postponed u n t i l a f u r t h e r study i s undertaken, f a i r l y obvious d i f f e r e n c e s can be found between the r e s u l t s noted h e r e i n and those r e p o r t e d by MacDonald (208) i n her t h e s i s on the use of the M-B technique w i t h a d u l t s u b j e c t s . For i n s p e c t i o n purposes, a comparison of the two groups of s u b j e c t s i s shown i n Tables XXIII and XXIV. 1. Comparison Regarding the Responses The mean number of responses i n v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s .shown i n Table XXIII suggests t h a t on the whole, c h i l d r e n do tend to i d e n t i f y w i t h other c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s w i t h o t h e r a d u l t s . The 1 5-year-old group appears to be somewhere i n the middle, except i n the two c a t e g o r i e s MM and C o n f l i c t , where t h e i r mean number of responses are c l o s e r t o a d u l t s . Although the c a t e g o r i e s shown i n Table XXIII are not e n t i r e l y comparable (FG- i n c l u d e s "two g i r l s " ) , i f they were, the d i f f e r e n c e s would be even more marked. 2. Comparison Regarding the Cards A comparison o f percentages i n the v a r i o u s s c o r i n g c a t e g o r i e s appears i n Table XXIV. There seems to be l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y between the groups. A l t h o u g h Cards 4, 13 and 19 103 TABLE XXIII COMPARISON OF CHILDREN AND ADULTS AS TO THE MEAN NUMBER OF THE VARIOUS RESPONSES Response C h i l d r e n A l l Groups C h i l d r e n 15-Years-Old A d u l t s A l l Groups 1. Sex Assigned to F i g u r e s : Two Men (MM) 1.91 3.36 3.74 A Man and a Woman (FM) 4.37 4.49 9.62 Two Women (FF & FG) 1.54 1.32 1.17 A man & a C h i l d (MC) 1.68 2.00 1.17 A Woman & a C h i l d (FC) 1.96 2.12 2.63 Two C h i l d r e n (BB & BG) 8.09 5.25 1.62 2. C o n f l i c t 3.59 5.57 5.46 3. Popular 9.59 10.30 6.82 3E A l t h o u g h the two l i s t s o f populars d i f f e r , the same percentage b a s i s was used t o determine each l i s t . suggests more "maleness" to both groups, a great d i s c r e -pancy appears on other cards such as 6, 11 and IS. There i s , g e n e r a l l y speaking, more c o n s i s t e n c y found i n the FM cat e g o r y . A l t h o u g h the a d u l t s have much high e r percentages the same cards e l i c i t higher percentages of FM responses i n both groups of s u b j e c t s . Cards 3, 6 and 8 suggest two c h i l d r e n to a d u l t s more o f t e n than the other c a r d s . These same cards e l i c i t a h i g h percentage of BB and BG responses among the younger s u b j e c t s , but there the comparison ends. C h i l d r e n see f a r more c h i l d - f i g u r e s on a l l of the cards t h a n do the a d u l t s . In the FC category Card 16 i s the o n l y one which e l i c i t s approximately the same percentage; s i x t y - t h r e e percent o f the c h i l d r e n and s i x t y - f i v e percent of the a d u l t s . On the other hand, Card 3 has a h i g h percentage among a d u l t s ( f i f t e e n percent) and a low percentage among c h i l d r e n ( f o u r p e r c e n t ) . The divergence i n the MC category i s e q u a l l y e x t e n s i v e . In summary i t would appear t h a t t h e r e are very few cards which connote the same r e l a t i o n s h i p to both the a d u l t and the c h i l d r e n . A l t h o u g h the a d u l t s g i v e many more c o n f l i c t responses than do the c h i l d r e n , some p a r a l l e l i s m e x i s t s between the groups i n t h i s category of response. Cards 7, 19 and 20 seem most l i k e l y to evoke c o n f l i c t responses i n bot h groups The other percentages demonstrate o n l y r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s 105 TABLE XXIV COMPARISON OP CHILDREN AND ADULTS AS TO THE PERCENTAGES OF RESPONSES IN VARIOUS CATEGORIES CARD NO. MM CHIL-DREN ADULTS CHIL DREN FM ADULTS BB & CHIL-DREN BG ADULTS FC CHIL-DREN ADULTS MC CHIL-DREN ADULTS CONFLICT CHIL-DREN ADULTS 1 20 28 24 61 42 6 3 2 .5 21 69 2 14 25 32 62 32 2 6 9 1 8 2 3 6 16 25 48 53 18 4 15 5 2.5- 16 . 64 4 18 46 20 41 52 9 1 3 3 19 36 5 7 10 35 79 37 2 3 2 6 2.5 3 21 6 9 30 16 x 5 43 26 6 11 14 14 24 36 7 12 32 27 49 45 4 3 3 2 .5 27 65 8 6 7 24 .47 51 39 2 1 3 9 8 15 29 67 45 2 4 .5 4 1.5 18 31 10 3 8 20 55 53 10 5 17 5 6 6 2 11 9 20 26 62 46 2 2 .5. 2 17 5 12 5 7 33 81 49 6 1 8 7 13 24 37 17 58 43 1 9 3 7 24 14 9 19 29 56 49 4 2 8 28 15 1 13 1 52 68 30 31 3 16 1 8 1 63 65 24 34 2 17 1 13 3 41 74 41 23 14 28 18 31 20 49 52 10 1 .5 1 18 21 19 22 35 28 55 37 5 1 1. 4 40 70 20 6 6 28 77 44 14 1 2 1 37 79 106 D. Other D i f f e r e n c e s Undoubtedly, the q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the content of the responses would be found most s i g n i f i c a n t . A l t h o u g h no s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s has been done, even a c u r s o r y glance at the Frequency of Response Tables (appended to both theses) would be c o n f i r m a t o r y . The most marked d i f f e r e n c e s , of course, appear between the 5-year-old c h i l d r e n and the a d u l t s . Some o f the f e a t u r e s which appear o n l y i n the r e c o r d s o f the 5-year-old group could be mentioned here. In approach, the 5-year-olds are almost unique. They tend to p e r s e v e r a t e a p r e v i o u s response when they are unable to imagine a new one, much the same as the Rorschach evokes which K l o p f e r (89) c a l l s "magic p e r s e v e r a t i o n " . The amount of p e r s e v e r a t i o n v a r i e s w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . Only one 5-year-old, a g i r l , gave the same response to a l l 20 cards and even t h a t one had l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e to the drawings. The response, "A lady and a m a n — t h a t one's making soup and t h a t one's making mush", was v a r i e d o n l y s l i g h t l y f o r Cards 15 and 17; " l i t t l e l a d y " was s u b s t i t u t e d .for " l a d y " . The more u s u a l type o f p e r s e v e r a t i o n was f o r the c h i l d to r e p e a t a f a i r l y adequate response such as " p l a y i n g " and v a r y i t on o c c a s i o n to " p l a y i n g games" or " p l a y i n g hide-and-seek". Another common type of p e r s e v e r a t i o n was what might be named " d e s c r i p t i v e m e t h o d " — d e s c r i b i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f the f i g u r e s i n each c a r d . Some c h i l d r e n merely demonstrated the 107 p o s i t i o n s p o r t r a y e d i n the cards w i t h t h e i r own arms and bodies w i t h the accompanying response "doing t h i s " . Pronoun e r r o r s were frequent among the 5-year-olds. They would s t a t e the sex of the f i g u r e s and then r e f e r to them by the pronoun o f the o p p o s i t e sex. For i n s t a n c e , "a boy and a b o y — a n d she's h i t t i n g him". A comparison of 5-year-old boys and 5-year-old g i r l s was made as to the frequency of pronoun e r r o r s but no r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e was found. T h i s e r r o r o c c u r r e d so r a r e l y among the 10-year-olds t h a t no comparison was made e i t h e r between the sexes or between the 5 and 10-year-olds. A s i m i l a r type or " e r r o r " , t h a t of a s c r i b i n g a more u s u a l l y seen masculine a c t i o n t o a female, was g i v e n numerous times by the 5-year-old group. An example of t h i s type of response i s ; "A g i r l and a man—and the g i r l i s l i f t i n g the man up". E q u a l l y common was the p o r t r a y a l of a d u l t f i g u r e s engaged i n childhood a c t i v i t i e s , f o r example; "Mummy and d a d d y — p l a y i n g hopscotch". Many other q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be found i n a more d e t a i l e d study, these mentioned are o n l y the most obvious. 108 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS A. Summary o f F i n d i n g s and Con c l u s i o n s Regarding Hypotheses I t i s im p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e d o g m a t i c a l l y t h a t the d i f -f e r e n c e s found i n the f o r e g o i n g t a b l e s are due to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process a l o n e ; such a c o n c l u s i o n must await f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s . However, the d i f f e r e n c e s which were p r e d i c t e d i n the hypotheses do occur and can be d i s c u s s e d on the assumption t h a t changes i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n are the c a u s a l f a c t o r s . The e i g h t hypo-theses r e g a r d i n g the s u b j e c t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the order o f p r e s e n t a t i o n found i n Chapter I . 1. Hypotheses-Regarding the Su b j e c t s (a) That the g i r l s i n a l l age groups w i l l see. more women and g i r l s t h an do the boys. The r e s u l t s shown i n Table V i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s h ypothesis i s not e n t i r e l y confirmed. While t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e at the 5-year-old l e v e l i t i s not s i g n i -f a n t . T h i s , a l o n g w i t h other evidence r e g a r d i n g 5-year-olds, does suggest t h a t sex, as such, i s p r a c t i c a l l y meaningless to the ve r y young c h i l d . A t the 10 and 1 5-year-old l e v e l s c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s hypo-t h e s i s i s q u i t e e v i d e n t . (b) That 5-year-olds w i l l see more men and women than w i l l the other groups, because they tend to i d e n t i f y w i t h p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s . Tables I I and X I I I r e v e a l s t r o n g evidence t h a t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s j u s t i f i e d . (c) That the 1 5-year-olds w i l l p r obably see fewer men and women than the 5-year-olds but more than the 10-y e a r - o l d s because of t h e i r c l o s e n e s s to m a t u r i t y . Table I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t the 1 5-year-olds do see f a r more F M combinations than the 1 0-year-olds. They a l s o see fewer than the 5-year-olds, a l t h o u g h the d i f f e r e n c e i s h a r d l y r e l i a b l e . A p p a r e n t l y the 15-year-o l d s ' c l o s e n e s s to m a t u r i t y i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the 5-year o l d s ' p a r e n t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n so t h a t no s i g n i -f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s d i s c e r n i b l e . (d) That the 1 5-year-olds w i l l see more boys and g i r l s t o g e t h e r because of t h e i r awakening i n t e r e s t i n the opposite sex; and l i k e w i s e that the 1 0-year-olds w i l l see more boys t o g e t h e r and/or g i r l s t o g e t h e r because they a r e i n t h a t stage of development where i n t e r e s t i s centered c h i e f l y i n t h e i r own sex. The f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s does not h o l d . I t would seem t h a t the f a c t o r s c a u s i n g 1 0-year-olds to see c h i l d r e n and 1 5-year-olds to see a d u l t s outweigh the 'romantic" i m p l i c a t i o n s of a BG combination. A t any r a t e , the 1 0-year-olds g i v e more BG as w e l l as more BB responses than do the 1 5-year-olds. (e) That 15-year-olds 1 records w i l l resemble those of adults more than those of the other two groups. In approach, content and some of the scoring cate-gories this i s undoubtedly true, but i n other aspects i t i s not. In the number of FM and M C responses given and the number of popular responses given, the 15-year-old group more closely resembles the to ta l group of children. In the category BB and BG- they are about midway between a l l adults and a l l children. (f.) That more "sex", or at least "romantic", responses w i l l be given by 15-year-olds. While no detailed study was made of the content, this hypothesis i s probably confirmed. However, a d is t inc t ion should be noted for a later study between those subjects who give a "sex" response wi t t i ng ly and those who give i t unwittingly. In identifying their parents the 5-year-olds gave many unwitting "sex" responses. (g) That 5-year-olds, par t icular ly only-children, w i l l tend to see themselves because of their charac-t e r i s t i c egocentricity at this age. This hypothesis i s confirmed by the results shown i n Table XvT. Further elucidation of the problem re-garding only-children i s l e f t for a future study. (h) That g i r l s w i l l see more mother-figures and boys more father-figures. Tables XIV and XV c o n f i r m the former p a r t of t h i s theory but not the l a t t e r p a r t . S u r p r i s i n g l y enough, the r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the boys and g i r l s i n f a t h e r - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . An e x p l a n a t i o n to account f o r t h i s f i n d i n g would depend on a f u r t h e r study i n which boys and g i r l s were compared a t each age l e v e l . I t i s j u s t p o s s i b l e t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes i n c r e a s e s w i t h the age of the s u b j e c t . I f t h i s i s t r u e , then the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h i s study may have can-c e l l e d each other out i n Table XIV by the combination of age and sex i n the groups compared. 2. Hypotheses Regarding Approach Al t h o u g h no s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was done on the approach of the 5-year-old group, the w r i t e r i s q u i t e c o n f i d e n t i n p r e d i c t i n g t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s age groups would be dependable; as three of the f i v e f e a t u r e s n o t e d — p e r s e v e r a t i o n , c o n f u s i o n of s e x u a l r o l e s and k i n a e s t h e t i c responses o c c u r r e d r a r e l y o u t s i d e of the 5-year-old group, and the other two, m i s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n and l a c k of i n t e r a c t i o n , have a l r e a d y proved to be g r e a t e r i n the 5 - y e a r - o l d s . The two hypotheses r e g a r d i n g I.Q,. groups cannot be confirmed by the r e s u l t s found i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As s t a t e d s e v e r a l times, I.Q,. d i f f e r e n c e s might be apparent w i t h i n each age and sex group but they d e f i n i t e l y are not found i n t o t a l I.Q. groups. 112 3. Hypotheses Regarding Content (a) That boys w i l l g i v e more a g g r e s s i v e , c o n f l i c t responses. Table IX appears to r e f u t e t h i s t h e o r y , a l t h o u g h no c o n c l u s i v e evidence i s a v a i l a b l e as the c o n f l i c t responses were not d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to the amount of a g g r e s s i o n expressed. (b) That boys w i l l g i v e more responses concerning s p o r t s and games. No s t a t i s t i c a l ' a n a l y s i s was done to determine whether or not t h i s i s so. (c) That g i r l s w i l l g i v e more , ,emotional , , responses. The r e s u l t s shown i n Table X d e f i n i t e l y c o n f i r m t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . Age, as w e l l as sex, seems to have a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on the number of E responses g i v e n . (d) That boys w i l l see more o b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s shown i n Table V I I I ( i n which the ? responses were almost a l l " o b j e c t s " a t the 5-year l e v e l ) would l e a d one to r e j e c t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s : almost no d i f f e r e n c e was found between boys and g i r l s . No i n v e s t i g a t i o n was done to prove or d i s p r o v e the l a s t two hypotheses: t h a t g i r l s w i l l g i v e more "romantic" responses, and t h a t 15-year-olds w i l l g i v e more of the a d u l t popular responses than the ot h e r age groups. A t l e a s t i t i s t r u e t h a t boys and g i r l s see approximately the same number of " p o p u l a r s " . Even without f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t would seem reasonable to s t a t e t h a t the M-B cards a r e , i f not a t e s t o f , a t l e a s t a good i n d i c a t i o n o f, m a t u r a t i o n i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . Although the technique' i n t r i n s i c worth f o r p r e d i c t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l cases i s not determined as y e t , i t has p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r r e -v e a l i n g v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about a c h i l d ' s own i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p rocess: t h a t i s , whether or not the c h i l d f o l l o w s the expected d i r e c t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n — t h e male c h i l d w i t h other males, the female c h i l d w i t h other females, a f t e r the age o f f i v e y e a r s . C r i t i c a l A p p r a i s a l of the Technique Having completed t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y survey, the w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t the M-B cards t e s t what they p u r p o r t to t e s t , namely, the d i r e c t i o n o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n c h i l d r e n of v a r i o u s age groups, as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I . I t i s f e l t , however, t h a t some m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the cards would increase- the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the technique, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i t i s to be used w i t h young c h i l d r e n . With the changes made, there seems to be l i t t l e reason f o r not a p p l y i n g the t e s t t o even younger c h i l d r e n than were used i n t h i s i n -v e s t i g a t i o n . I n the s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s where i t was used w i t h other than the s u b j e c t s chosen f o r t h i s study, i t was found to produce f a i r l y adequate responses i n c h i l d r e n as young as two and a h a l f y e a r s . The changes suggested are as f o l l o w s : 1. As Cards 8, 11, 14 and 18 produce few gross d i f f e r e n c e s between i n d i v i d u a l s , they might be o m i t t e d . On the o t h e r hand the enthusiasm w i t h which the 5-year-olds approached Cards 15, 16 and 17 suggests t h a t more cards c o n t a i n i n g s m a l l f i g u r e s c o u l d be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r those omitted. 2. There seems to be no reason f o r l i m i t i n g the cards to two f i g u r e s , t h e r e f o r e i n c l u s i o n " of cards c o n t a i n i n g two a d u l t f i g u r e s and one c h i l d or one a d u l t f i g u r e and two c h i l d r e n , might allow g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i v i t y and i n c r e a s e the p o s s i b i l i t y of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the f a m i l y group. 3 . I n any event, the order of the cards should be changed so t h a t the s m a l l f i g u r e s appear e a r l i e r i n the s e r i e s r a t h e r than a l l t o g e t h e r as i s the case at p r e s e n t . Other m o d i f i c a t i o n s would have to be c o n s i d e r e d f o l l o w -i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . A p p r a i s a l of the S c o r i n g System Used The s c o r i n g system as d e l i n e a t e d i n Chapter V, seems t o have been q u i t e adequate f o r t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i -g a t i o n . However, i f a l l the s u b j e c t s were to be t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i t would probably be more v a l u a b l e to score each f i g u r e as to the sex assigned i t , r a t h e r than s c o r i n g the p a i r of f i g u r e s , as was done i n t h i s study. T h i s would a l l o w f o r more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s . For example, i n the " c o n f l i c t " responses, the examiner could determine whether the male f i g u r e s or the female f i g u r e s were the 115 a g g r e s s o r s . A d d i t i o n a l s c o r i n g symbols would be needed i f the many other q u a l i t a t i v e f e a t u r e s were to be s c o r e d , as suggested i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . G. Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Study I n d i s c u s s i n g the v a r i o u s t a b l e s of r e s u l t s , numerous suggestions f o r f u r t h e r study were made. These w i l l be l i s t e d again, b r i e f l y . The i n f l u e n c e of I.Q,. has proved t o be c o n s i s t e n t l y n e g l i g i b l e i n t h i s study but p o s s i b l y i t s e f f e c t c o u l d be demonstrated by comparing I.Q.'s w i t h i n each age and sex group. Under the heading " f a m i l y " f i g u r e s , s e v e r a l p e r t i n e n t q uestions arose which could bear f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I s there any s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the f a c t t h a t some s u b j e c t s mention "twins"? Do o n l y - c h i l d r e n g i v e more responses i n v o l v i n g two-selves? Do the FM and FC responses g i v e n by 10-year-olds tend to be m o t h e r - f i g u r e s ? I n a more d e t a i l e d study a measurement of the amount of p e r s e v e r a t i o n might show m a t u r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The responses d e p i c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the sexes a s s i g n e d could be i n c l u d e d i n the same a n a l y s i s . I n f a c t , there are numerous q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s to be i n v e s t i -gated: the type and i n t e n s i t y of emotional responses; the type, i n t e n s i t y and d i r e c t i o n of a g g r e s s i o n and con-f l i c t responses; the r e l a t i o n s h i p between emotion and a g g r e s s i o n ; i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the emotional and 116 c o n f l i c t responses and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to the c l i n i c a l h i s t o r y . S e v e r a l other f e a t u r e s not p r e v i o u s l y mentioned which could be s t u d i e d q u i t e p r o f i t a b l y are as f o l l o w s : 1. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of u s i n g proper names. More i n -formation about t h i s might g i v e v a l u a b l e l e a d s to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . 2. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of u s i n g "props" not i n c l u d e d i n the  drawings. O b j e c t s , p l a c e s and oth e r people i n c l u d e d i n the response but not appearing i n the drawing must have some p e r s o n a l meaning t o the s u b j e c t . "Good" responses, meaning i m a g i n a t i v e and w e l l - o r g a n i z e d concepts, of t h i s type might bear some r e l a t i o n s h i p t o I.Q,. 3. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of s e e i n g "dead" or " m u t i l a t e d "  f i g u r e s . Responses of t h i s type are uncommon but do appear p e r i o d i c a l l y . P o s s i b l y a study which i n c l u d e d b e h a v i o r problems and p e r s o n a l i t y problems among the s u b j e c t s would r e v e a l the s i g n i f i c a n c e of such a response. 4. Form l e v e l of the responses. Some c r i t e r i o n f o r the s c o r i n g o f form l e v e l would be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a s s e s s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f "good" responses to I.Q,. Included i n a study of form l e v e l would be a method of s c o r i n g f o r " o r i g i n a l " responses. More than any oth e r type, " o r i g i n a l " responses are prone to gi v e i n s i g h t s i n t o the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y . For example, the very o r d i n a r y response of 117 a 5-year-old to Gard 14 i s "two boys s i t t i n g back-to-back". There i s no comparison i n i m a g i n a t i v e c a p a c i t y w i t h the response " t h a t ' s me and John g e t t i n g o u r s e l v e s measured". Likewise the response t o Card 12 "a man and lady dancing" has not the s p o n t a n e i t y nor i n g e n u i t y t h a t the response "two g i r l s making a c h a i r out of t h e i r arms" has. I n s i g h t i n t o the home-life of c h i l d r e n i s p o s s i b l e by means of a content a n a l y s i s . For example, " t h a t ' s my b r o t h e r and me j u s t s i t t i n g on the steps w a i t i n g f o r mother t o come home from work" does not r e q u i r e too deep an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o deduce t h a t the c h i l d r e n p robably f e e l q u i t e n e g l e c t e d . Even though such d e d u c t i o n s are not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u t h s , they do g i v e l e a d s f o r f u r t h e r i n -v e s t i g a t i o n s about the c h i l d and h i s f a m i l y and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , of v a l u e to the c l i n i c a l worker. 5. F e e l i n g tone. By j u s t r e a d i n g a c h i l d ' s r e c o r d through some knowledge o f h i s " f e e l i n g tone" i s gained. A t t i t u d e s toward f a m i l y f i g u r e s , t e a c h e r s , other c h i l d r e n , e t c . can be found t o be g e n e r a l l y p l e a s a n t , unhappy or merely i n d i f f e r e n t . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of a l l of these q u a l i t a t i v e f e a t u r e s i n the p r o t o c o l s can be determined by e i t h e r of two methods: one, by comparing them to the re c o r d s o f c h i l -dren who are not considered "normal", t h a t i s , w i t h b e h a v i o r and p e r s o n a l i t y problems; or two, by i n t e r p r e t i n g the responses of each .record i n the l i g h t of the c h i l d ' s h i s t o r y and oth e r t e s t r e s u l t s . 118 6. Comparison -with other techniques. As suggested above, the s i m i l a r i t i e s found by a comparison of M-B p r o t o c o l s w i t h Rorschach r e c o r d s and TAT s t o r i e s would be an e x c e l -l e n t form o f v a l i d a t i o n . Even more v a l u a b l e would be the d i f f e r e n c e s r e v e a l e d by these methods. Small c h i l d r e n r a r e l y see human f i g u r e s i n a c t i o n on the Rorschach, so t h a t l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process can be deduced. On the TAT, c h i l d r e n r a r e l y g i v e s t o r i e s they merely answer the examiner's q u e s t i o n s , p o s s i b l y because the p i c t u r e s too s t r o n g l y resemble f a m i l i a l f i g u r e s w i t h whom the c h i l d i s i n c o n f l i c t . The M-B cards e l i m i n a t e both of these d i f f i c u l t i e s , because the drawings r e p r e s e n t more o b j e c t i v e , but s t i l l human, f i g u r e s without suggesting d i s t u r b i n g p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s u b j e c t may, t h e r e -f o r e , r e l e a s e h i s l e s s c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e s which would be suppressed i f the f i g u r e s were o b v i o u s l y one or another of the p a r e n t s . 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Char, and Person., 1935, 3, 327 - 44. 131 203. W o l f f , W. The e x p r e s s i o n o f P e r s o n a l i t y . New York: Harper, 19kT. 204. Wood, L., and Shulman, E. The E l l i s v i s u a l " designs t e s t . Educ. P s y c h o l . , 1940, 31, 591 - 602. 205. Woodrow, H., and L o w e l l , F . C h i l d r e n ' s a s s o c i a t i o n frequency t a b l e s . P s y c h o l . Monogr., 1916, 22, 110. 206. Wright, B. A. An e x p e r i m e n t a l l y c r e a t e d c o n f l i c t expressed i n a p r o j e c t i v e technique. P s y c h o l . B u l l . , 1941, 38, 718. 207. Zucker, H. The emotional attachment of c h i l d r e n to t h e i r parents as r e l a t e d to standards of behavior and delinquency. 0\ P s y c h o l . , 1943, 15, 31 - 40. ADDITIONAL REFERENCE 208. MacDonald, M. A. M. Sex, age and e d u c a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses to the M-B c a r d s . Master's T h e s i s , L i b r a r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,1949. APPENDIX A PLATES OF M-B CARDS Appendix A Page i P l a t e 1. Sample Card. P l a t e 2 . Cards 1 to 4. Appendix A Page i i Plate 3 . Cards 5 to 1 2 . APPENDIX B FREQUENCY OF RESPONSE TABLES CARD 1. SEX AGE I . 9,. TOTAL FM ALL 15 L. RESPONSE SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 H. D e s c r i p t i o n and 23 9 14 9 0 3 3 demonstration MM 1 1 1 FM 4 2 2 4 BB 7 4 3 2 5 2 1 BG 8 2 6 5 3 2 F-G 1 1 1 FC 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 E x e r c i s e s , P.T. 33 16 17 10 19 4 7 8 m 2 2 1 1 FM 4 3 l 4 BB 11 7 4 3 8 5 2 BG 9 3. 6 7 2 2 3 F-G 3 1 2 1 1 1 2 FC 1 1 1 MC 2 2 1 1 1 «? 1 1 1 Hold up, robbery 37 26 11 0 8 29 15 8 MM 28 21 7 8 20 11 7 FM 6 4 2 6 4 BG 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 l «? 1 1 1 V i o l e n t c o n f l i c t , 14 9 ? 4 3 7 3 3 b i t t i n g , pushing MM 3 1 2 1 2 1 FM 3 3 3 3 BB 6 4 2 2 2 2 1 BG 2 1 1 1 1 1 V e r b a l c o n f l i c t , 13 5 8 0 1 12 5 5 s c oId i n g , arguing FM 8 5 8 k BB 1 1 1 1 F-G 2 1 1 1 1 2 FC 2 2 2 P l a y i n g — g a m e s , 32 9 23 8 16 8 8 7 t r i c k , s p o r t s FM 1 1 1 BB 13 •2 11 3 7 3 4 3 BG 14 6 8 4 7 3 2 4 F-G 4 4 2 2 2 Dancing 19 7 12 19 0 0 0 0 FM 13 7 6 13 BG 2 2 • 2 F-G 1 1 1 FC 1 1 1 ? 2 2 2 (CONTINUED) CARD I (CONTINUED) SEX AGE I . Q,. RESPONSE % TOTAL ALL SUBJECTS B G '5' 10 15 H. L. T a l k i n g , t e l l i n g 8 3 5 2 3 3 1 2 s t o r i e s MM FM BG F-G BB 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 Standing, walking, 14 10 7 6 1 4 1 running mii FM BB BG ? 2 3 3 5 1 1 2 2 5 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 4 1 3 1 1 G r e e t i n g , embracing 7 2 1 4 2 1 2 Wi FC BB F-G 4 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Boxing, w r e s t l i n g 6 4 2 1 5 1 4 -MM BB • 5 1 3 1 2 1 4 1 1 3 1 Others 15 7 8 8 4 3 5 Omitted 1 1 1 Number of Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 2 SEX AGE I.Q,. TOTAL F ALL RESPONSE M SUBJECTS B G 5 10 15 H. L. D e s c r i p t i o n and 31 21 10 21 10 2 4 demonstration M M 5 4 1 3 2 FM 9 6 3 9 BB 10 8 2 4 6 1 3 BG 3 1 2 2 1 1 FG 3 2 1 2 1 1 MC 1 1 1 One s i c k , other 49 15 34 7 20 22 14 15 n u r s i n g , MM 6 4 2 3 3 2 2 d o c t o r i n g FM 17 7 10 1 3 13 6 6 BB 2 2 l 1 BG 9 2 7 2 5 2 1 3 FG 2 2 1 1 1 FC 5 5 5 1 4 MC 7 1 6 2 3 2 3 ? 1 1 1 A r t i f i c i a l 27 13 14 4 23 8 8 r e s p i r a t i o n MM 10 5 5 2 8 3 2 FM 6 4 2 6 l 3 BB 2 1 1 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 MC 6 3 3 1 5 2 2 «? 2 2 2 2 V i o l e n t a g g r e s s i o n , 20 11 9 5 9 6 10 3 s t r a n g l i n g , choking MM 2 1 1 1 1 1 FM 6 4 2 1 5 4 1 BB 6 3 3 6 3 1 BG 3 1 2 1 2 2 MC 2 i 1 1 1 1 ? 1 I 1 E x e r c i s e s 21 n 10 6 10 5 4 7 MM 2 2 1 1 2 FM 5 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 BB 6 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 BG 5 1 4 5 1 2 FG 2 1 1 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 P l a y i n g 18 12 6 16 1 1 1 MM 1 1 1 FM 7 7 6 1 1 BB 4 3 1 3 1 BG 6 2 4 6 (CONTINUED) CARD 2 (CONTINUED)  SEX AGE I.Q. TOTAL F ALL RESPONSE SUBJECTS B G 5 10 15 H. L. A i d i n g i n j u r e d or 18 8 10 4 10 4 5 5 " f a l l e n , p i c k i n g up MM 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 FM 7 5 2 3 2 2 2 1 BB 6 2 4. 5 1 2 2 BG 2 2' 1 1 FG 1 1 1 1 Going to bed or 13 5 8 1 4 8 4 2 g e t t i n g up FM 4 1 3 1 1 2 1 BB 1 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 1 FC 7 3 4- . 2 5- 2 1 Holding, h o l d i n g up 6 3 3 3 3 0 0 2 MM 2 1 1 1 1 1 FM 1 1 1 BB 1 1 1 BG^ 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 Others 18 12 6 10 3 5 1 1 Omitted 1 1 1 Number of Cases 222 ' 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 3 SEX AGE I . TOTAL F ALL RESPONSE M SUBJECTS B. G. 5 1 0 1 5 H. L. D e s c r i p t i o n and 1 8 1 0 8 1 7 1 0 0 0 demonstration MM 1 1 1 FM 4 3 1 4 BB 6 5 1 6 BG 4 1 3 3 1 FG 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 ? 1 1 1 Jumping (no motive) 6 5 3 3 3 2 4 3 7 1 7 1 8 MM 4 3 1 3 1 1 FM 7 3 4 5 2 1 1 BB 2 5 1 7 8 2 2 2 1 7 8 BG 2 1 8 1 3 3 1 6 2 7 5 FG 5 2 3 2 3 1 1 FC 1 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 ? 1 1 1 1 Anger, rage, shock, 2 2 4 1 8 5 1 3 3 7 e t c . MM 3 1 2 1 1 FM 4 4 i 3 2 BB 5 2 3 I 4 1 1 BG 6 6 1 5 3 FC 1 1 1 1 MC 3 1 2 3 1 Dancing, j i v i n g 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 5 2 4 2 2 FM 1 3 7 6 9 1 3 1 1 BB 2 1 1 1 1 1 BG 5 2 3 4 l 1 FC 1 1 1 One sad and one 1 8 9 9 0 3 15 9 5 happy (winning MM 1 1 1 1 and l o s i n g ) FM 2 2 2 1 1 BB 1 1 7 4 3 8 5 3 BG 1 1 1 FC 1 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 ? 1 1 1 1 Happy, j o y f u l , 1 7 1 0 7 0 5 1 2 7 3 good news FM 3 2 l 3 1 1 BB 6 5 l 3 3 3 1 BG 5 2 3 1 4 2 FG 1 1 1 1 FC 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 P l a y i n g — s k i p p i n g , 1 7 5 1 2 7 7 3 2 4 c a t c h i n g b a l l FM 2 2 2 BB 1 1 1 (CONTINUED) CARD 3 (CONTINUED) SEX AGE I . TOTAL TT ALL RESPONSE FM SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. P l a y i n g — s k i p p i n g , BG 7 2 5 3 4 1 2 c a t c h i n g b a l l FG 5 1 4 1 3 1 1 1 (cont'd) MC 1 1 1 «? 1 1 1 1 Having an,v argument, 13 10 3 0 2 11 5 5 s c o l d i n g , o r d e r i n g MM 1 1 l 1 FM 9 8 1 9 3 3 BB 1 1 1 1 BG 1 1 1 1 FC 1 1 1 1 E x e r c i s e s 12 7 6 4 2 2 1 MM 1 1 1 1 FM 2 2 2 BB 6 4 2 2 4 1 FC 1 1 1 1 «? 2 1 1 2 Proposing FM • 3 3 0 1 0 3 0 0 Others 15 9 6 9 2 4 1 3 Omitted 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 Number of Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 4  SEX AGE I.Q. TOTAL i? ALL RESPONSE M SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. D e s c r i p t i o n and 32 13 19 24 6 2 2 4 demonstration MM 1 1 1 FM 9 4 5 7 1 1 1 1 BB 6 4 2 4 2 1 BG 11 2 9 8 2 1 1 2 FG 2 1 1 2 FC 1 1 1 MC 2 2 - 1 1 H e l p i n g up, rescue • 43 14 29 • 6 20 17 13 7 MM 4 2 2 1 3 2 FM 11 3 8 3 1 7 2 3 BB 13 6 7 11 2 5 2 BG 10 3 7 1 8 1 3 1 MC 4 4 1 3 1 «? 1 1 1 1 F i g h t i n g , pushing 41 16 8 15 18 10 11 MM 10 6 4 1 4 3 FM 5 4 1 5 BB 24 14 10 1 14 9 6 7 BG 2 1 1 1 1 1 Boxing, f e n c i n g , 16 11 5 0 3 13 7 5 w r e s t l i n g MM 12 8 4 12 3 5 FM 1 1 1 l BB 3 2 1 3 3 E x e r c i s e s , . P . T . , 15 11 ' 4 5 5 5 1 3 Judo, acrobats MM 2 1 1 1 1 FM • 3 3 1 1 1 2 BB 7 5 2 1 4 2 1 1 BG 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 F a l l e n , knocked down 13 6 7 5 6 2 4 3 MM 1 . 1 1 FM 1 1 1 BB 7 4 3 2 5 3 2 BG 2 2 1 1 1 1 MC 2 1 1 1 1 Chasing (and one 11 5 6 5 5 1 2 2 t r i p p e d ) FM 3 1 2 3 BB 6 3 3 1 5 1 2 BG 1 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 (CONTINUED) Card 4 (CONTINUED)  SEX AGE I.Q. TOTAL RESPONSE M SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. P l a y i n g — t a g , s k a t i n g 10 5 8 2 0 1 1 MM 1 1 1 FM 2 2 2 BB 1 1 1 BG 4 2 2 3 1 1 FG 2 2 1 1 1 B a s e b a l l , f o o t b a l l 8 7 1 0 2 6 3 2 MM 4 4 1 1 BB 4 3 1 2 2 2 1 Jumping on/over 8 3 5 1 2 1.. 4 the other MM 2 l 1 1 1 1 BB 1 1 1 1 BG 4 l 3 4 1 1 FG 1 l 1 1 Swimming, at the 10 6 4 5 0 5 1 2 beach MM 1 1 1 FM 5 3 2 3 2 1 1 BB 1 1 1 BG 2 1 1 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 Running to the 6 2 4 0 5 1 3 3 o t h e r one. BB 2 2 2 1 1 BG 1 l 1 1 FC 2 2 2 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 Others 9 ? 6 7 0 2 0 1 Number of Cases 222 1.11 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 5  SEX AGE I.Q. TOTAL F M ALL RESPONSE SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. D e s c r i p t i o n — s i t t i n g > 65 36' 29 41 23 1 8 7 e t c . MM 4 3 1 3 1 1 EM 21 11 10 18 3 1 2 BB 8 7 1 3 5 2 1 BG 18 8 10 7 11 3 3 FG 5 .3 2 2 3 1 MC 4 4 3 1 ' 1 ? 5 5 5 T a l k i n g , g o s s i p i n g , 43 15 28 1 18 24 13 12 d i s c u s s i n g MM 1 1 1 FM 19 7 12 1 4 14 8 2 BB 4 2 2 4 3 BG 13 5 8 8 5 5 3 FG 2 2 1 • 1 2 MC 3 3 1 2 2 «? 1 1 1 Reading, s t u d y i n g 21 10 11 4 8 9 3 7 MM 1 1 l FM 8 3 5 2 2 4 1 2 BB 2 2 1 1 1 BG 4 3 1 2 2 2 1 FG 2 2 1 1 FC 2 1 1 1 1 2 «? 2 1 1 2 1 S i t t i n g i n a d e f i n i t e 20 10 10 5 8 7 6 5 p l a c e , on fence, FM 6 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 bench, l o g BB 4 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 BG 7 2 5 4 3 1 2 «? 3 2 1 1 2 2 1 T e l l i n g s t o r i e s , 16 11 5 0 5 11 5 3 f i s h s t o r y , e t c . MM 7 6 1 7 2 1 FM 1 1 l BB 1 1 1 BG 4 3 1 2 2 2 2 FG 1 1 1 MC 2 1 1 1 1 1 P l a y i ng—game s, 13 6 7 8 4 1 2 2 cards , t r i c k s , e t c . MM 1 1 1 1 FM 5 3 2 4 1 BB 3 3 2 1 1 BG 4 4 2 2 2 (CONTINUED) CARD 5» (CONTINUED) SEX AGE I . TOTAL F • ALL RESPONSE SUBJECTS B. G. 10 15 H. L. Teaching, showing 11 4 * 7 1 5 5 5 2 how MM 1 1 1 1 FM 2 1 l 2 2 BB 1 1 1 BG 3 3 1 2 2 FC 2 1 1 2 1 MC 1 1 1 «? 1 1 1 1 Ar g u i n g , s c o l d i n g , 9 5 4 0 1 8 3 4 o r d e r i n g MM - 1 1 1 i FM 5 2 3 5 2 2 FC 2 2 2 1 MC 1 1 1 1 Proposing, l o v e 3 2 1 .0 0 3 1 2 making FM1 2 1 1 2 1 1 BG 1 1 1 1 Others 16 10 6 14 1 1 1 1 Number of Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 6 SEX AGE I.Q,. TOTAL TP ALL RESPONSE J M SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L . Description—kneeling 34 20 14 2? 9 0 2 4 MM 2 2 2 FM 9 6 3 9 BB 13 11 2 6 7 2 2 BG 7 2 5 6 1 1 FG 1 1 1 FC 1 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 Aggression—beating, 70 31 39 10 21 39 17 24 pushing over, MM 5 4 1 5 3 1 spanking FM 7 2 5 3 4 1 BB 14 10 4 1 7 6 2 7 BG 5 3 2 5 2 2 FG 4 4 1 2 1 1 1 FC 9 4 5 2 4 3 2 3 MC 21 6 15 3 3 15 4 7 •? 5 2 3 5 2 3 Playing—leap-frog, horsie, old m i l l 33 16 17 7 14 12 11 7 FM 5 5 4 1 1 BB 16 10 6 1 9 6 6 -.5 BG 6 6 1 ' 3 2 2 1 FG 5 l 4 2 3 2 1 MC 1 1 1 Starting a race 13 7 6 0 1 12 3 2 MM 2 2 2 1 BB 2 2 1 1 2 BG 2 2 2 FC 1 1 1 MC 5 2 3 5 2 ? 1 1 1 Exercises, acrobats 13 8 5 6 6 1 1 3 FM 4 4 3 1 1 BB 4 3 1 1 3 1 BG 3 3 1 1 1 1 FG 2 1 1 1 1 1 Boxing, wrestling 12 8 4 0 6 6 6 1 MM 9 7 2 3 6 6 1 BB 2 1 1 2 MC 1 1 1 Crawling, creeping 12 5 7 6 6 0 4 1 MM 1 1 1 FM 1 1 1 BB 4 3 1 2 2 1 BG 4 4 2 2 3 FG 2 1 1 2 1 (CONTINUED) CARD 6. (CONTINUED)  SEX .- AGE I.Q. RESPONSE F M TOTAL ALL SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. lumping on, diving" 7 4 3 4 2 1 1 on, or chasing the Mil 1 1 1 other FM 1 1 1 BB 3 2 1 1 2 BG 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 1 Looking f o r 6 3 ? 6 1 3 something BB 1 1 1 1 BG 2 2 2 1 FG 1 1 1 1 FC 2 2 2 1 Gardening 5 2 ? 1 3 1 3 0 BB 1 1 1 BG 4 1 3 1 2 1 3 Others 16 7 9 14 0 2 0 1 Omitted 1 1 1 Number of Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 7. SEX AGE I . 9,-TOTAL TP ALL RESPONSE *M SUBJECTS B. G. 10 15 H. L. D e s c r i p t i o n 34 14 20 27 7 0 1 2 MM 5 3 2 5 FM 10 3 7 10 BB 5 4 1 3 2 1 BG 9 2 7 6 3 1 1 FG 3 3 2 1 MC 2 2 1 1 A g g r e s s i o n — f i g h t i n g , 45 29 16 6 13 26 13 17 pushing, choking MM 10 9 1 2 8 4 4 FM 7 3 4 2 • 5 2 2 BB 21 14 7 1 11 9 5 7 BG 4 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 FG 3 1 2 3 1 2 V e r b a l c o n f l i c t 24 8 16 0 6 18 11 4 MM 3 2 1 .3- 1 1 FM 7 2 5 1 6 3 1 BB 7 3 4 3 4 3 2 BG 5 1 4 1 4 3 FG 1 1 1 1 ? 1 1 1 Walking, Running, 24 15 9 12 8 4 4 4 Marching MM 2 2 1 1 FM 6 4 2 5 1 1 BB 6 4 2 2 4 2 BG 7 4 3 2 4 1 1 3 FG 1 1 1 FC 1 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 P l a y i n g — g a m e s , etc • 15 6 9 10 2 3 1 2 FM k 3 1 3 1 BB 4 1 3 3 1 1 BG 5 2 3 4 1 1 FG 2 2 1 1 1 G i v i n g orders 14 3 11 0 11 3 2 6 FM 1 1 1 1 BB 3 1 2 3 1 BG 4 1 3 3 1 1 1 FG 2 1 1 1 1 2 FC 4 4 4 2 (CONTINUED) CARD 7» (CONTINUED)  SEX AGE I . : Tf A l l RESPONSE M SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. Coaxing, p l e a d i n g 13 3 10 1 6 6 4 2 FM" 7 3 4 1 2 4 1 1 BB 2 2 2 1 BG 2 2 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 A c t i v i t y , e.g., 10 7 3 10 0 0 0 0 e x e r c i s e , s p o r t s FM 7 5 2 1 BB 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 «? 1 1 1 S t o r y t e l l i n g , r e a d i n g 10 9 1 0 3 7 2 1 MM 4 3 1 4 1 FM 2 2 2 BB 2 2 2 1 BG 1 1 1 1 FC 1 1 1 Boxing 8 8 0 2 4 2 4 1 MM 2 2 2 1 FM 1 1 1 BB 5 5 1 4 3 1 T a l k i n g , g o s s i p i n g 7 3 4 0 5 2 2 3 BB 2 2 2 1 BG 1 1 1 1 FG 4 1 3 2 2 1 2 G r e e t i n g or 7 3 4 0 - 6 1 2 3 f a r e w e l l FM 2 2 1 1 1 BB 2 1 1 2 2 BG 2 2 2 2 FG 1 1 1 Teaching, showing 4 0 4 0 2 2 2 2 how, e x p l a i n i n g Fli 1 1 1 1 BG 1 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 1 FC 1 1 1 1 Others 6 3 3 5 1 0 0 2 Omitted 1 1 1 NUMBER OF CASES 222 i n 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 8 . SEX AGE I . Q . RESPONSE FM TOTAL ALL SUBJECTS B. G. ? 10 15 H. L. Hol d i n g hands 61 29 32 30 18 13 10 12 MM FM BB BG FG MC 3 14 8 31 4 1 1 7 4 15 2 2 7 4 16 2 1 3 13 3 8 2 1 4 12 2 1 1 11 1 3 6 1 10 1 Walking, going f o r 39 22 17 6 13 20 . 12 8 a walk MM FM BB BG FG MC 1 12 5 11 9 1 1 10 2 6 3 2 3 5 6 1 1 3 , 1 1 2 4 1 5 1 7 10 3 3 1 3 4 1 2 2 4 Holding hands and 36 17 19 7 20 9 9 12 walking MM FM BB BG FG ? 1 6 13 8 7 1 1 4 6 4 2 2 7 4 5 1 1 4 2 1 9 4 6 1 2 4 1 1 3 3 2 1 2 5 3 2 Going to a d e f i n i t e 22 7 15 6 10 6 6 3 place FM BB BG FG 5 3 7 7 3 2 1 1 2 -1 6 6 2 1 2 1 2 2 6 3 2 3 1 1 2 Shaking hands 15 9 6 0 7 8 4 6 • MM FM BB BG 5 3 5 2 2 1 5 1 3 2 1 2 4 1 5 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 P l a y i n g 12 6 6 11 0 1 0 0 F M BB BG FG MC 3 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 1 2 1 Close attachment, 11 6 5 0 1 10 3 5 e.g., l o v e r s , buddies, e t c . FM BB BG 4 2 5 2 1 3 2 1 2 1 k 1 5 2 1 1 1 3 Running, marching 10 6 4 5 4 1 2 1 and dancing MM FM BB BG FG 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 l l 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 (CONTINUED) CARD 8. (CONTINUED) SEX AGE I . RESPONSE F M TOTAL ALL SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. Leading, p u l l i n g 4 1 3 0 1 3 1 1 MM BG 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Others 12 8 4 9 0 3 1 0 Number of oases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 9. RESPONSE D e s c r i p t i o n AGE" T a l k i n g , d i s c u s s i n g something C o n f l i c t — s c o l d i n g , A s k i n g , begging, coaxing, r e f u s i n g F i g h t i n g , pushing P l a y i n g I.Q.. TOTAL F ALL *M SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. 45 25 20 10 0 4 3 MM 3 2 1 3 FM 12 5 7 12 BB 11 10 1 8 3 2 1 BG 15 6 9 9 6 2 2 FG 2 . 2 2 MC 1 1 1 <? 1 1 1 37 20 17 1 16 20 13 13 MM 5 4 l 5 2 1 FM 8 4 4 1 2' 5 3 2 BB 10 6 4 6 4 2 4 BG 5 2 3 4 1 2 2 FG 6 2 4 3 3 3 2 FC 1 1 1 MC 2 2 2 1 1 33 11 22 1 17 15 8 11 MM 3 1 2 3 1 FM 9 4 5 1 3 5 1 4 BB 3 1 2 2 l 1 BG 9 2 7 8 . 1 4 3 FG 2 2 1 1 1 FC 2 1 1 1 1 1 MC 3 3 2 1 1 ? 2 2 2 2 19 8 11 2 1 16 9 6 MM 1 1 — 1 1 FM 10 4 6 1 9 5 2 BB 2 2 1 1 2 BG 1 1 1 1 FC 3 3 1 . 2 2 MC 2 2 2 1 1 18 9 9 5 8 5 2 3 MM 2 1 1 2 FM 2 2 1 1 BB 9 7 2 2 2 5 2 1 BG 4 1 3 4 2 FG 1 1 1 11 7 4 11 0 0 0 0 F¥ 5 5 BB 2 2 2 BG 1 l 1 FG 3 3 3 (CONTINUED) CARD 9. (CONTINUED) SEX AGE I .0,. TOTAL TP ALL RESPONSE FM SUBJECTS B. G. 10 15 H. L. G i v i n g orders 10 4 6 0 9 • 1 4 2 FM 2 1 1 2 1 BB 2 1 1 2 l 1 BG 6 2 4 5 1 2 1 Showing something 10 ? § 1 2 7 2 1 o f f W . 2 1 1 1 1 FM 3 2 1 3 2 BB 1 1 1 BG 2 1 1 1 1 1 FG 2 2 2 Teaching, e x p l a i n i n g , 8 4 0 4 4 4 2 showing how FM 1 I 1 1 BB 3 i 2 1 2 3 FC 2 2 2 MC 1 i 1 1 ? 1 i 1 1 Reading to the 6 5 1 0 5 1 2 1 other BB 5 4 1 4 1 1 1 BG 1 1 1 1 Others 22 11 11 16 2 4 0 5 Omitted 3 2 1 2 0 1 0 1 Number of Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 10.  SEX AGE I.d7 TOTAL RESPONSE F M S U B J E C T S B. G. 5 10 1? H. L. D e s c r i p t i o n , 33 19 14 3 0 1 2 s i t t i n g , e t c . FM 11 1 4 11 BB 9 8 1 7 2 1 1 BG 9 2 7 8 1 1 FG 2 1 1 2 MC 2 1 1 2 H e l p i n g up, 99 ?^ 50 10 39 50 27 29 p u l l i n g up MM 3 1 2 1 FM 17 10 7 4 13 5 1 • BB 29 17 12 1 20 8 8 11 BG 30 13 17 2 9 19 7 11 FG 9 2 7 1 4 4 3 2 FC 5 1 4 4 1 1 3 MC 5 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 ? 1 1 1 1 A i d i n g f a l l e n , 39 22 4 21 14 12 12 or h u r t MM 2 1 1 2 FM 3 2 . 1 1 2 1 BB 9 6 3 7 2 2 4 BG 10 4 6. 7 3 5 2 FG 8 2 6 6 2 3 3 FC 4 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 MC 1 1 1 «? 2 2 2 1 1 F i g h t i n g , pushing 13 10 3 5 5 3 2 2 MM 1 1 1 FM 2 2 2 BB 6 4 2 1 3 2 1 1 BG 3 2 1 1 2 1 MC 1 1 1 1 Playing--games 11 7 4 10 1 0 0 1 FM 4 4 4 BB 2 1 1 2 BG 5 2 3 4 1 1 S i t t i n g i n a d e f i n i t e 8 1 7 4 0 4 2 0 p l a c e MM 1 l 1 FM 1. l 1 BG 2 1 l 1 1 FG 2 2 1 1 1 FC 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 E x e r c i s e s , a c r o b a t s 6 3 3 3 2 1 0 2 FM . 2 2 2 BG 1 1 1 1 FG 3 3 1 1 1 1 Others 13 5 8 8 3 2 4 0 Number of Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 11.  SEX • AGE Q,.~ TOTAL F ALL RESPONSE M SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. D e s c r i p t i o n T a l k i n g , j o k i n g , t e l l i n g s t o r i e s 47 25 22 37 9 1 2 4 MM 3 2 1 3 FM 16 8 8 15 1 1 BB 14 10 4 7 6 1 2 2 BG 8 2 6 6 2 1 FG 3 1 2 3 FC 1 1 1 MC 2 2 2 45 19> 26 2 12 31 13 12 MM 6 5 1 6 3 • 3 FM 11 7 4 2 9 5 2 BB 4 4 1 2 1 1 2 BG 9 3 6 3 6 1 2 FG 10 2 8 3 7 3 1 FC 2 1 1 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 ? 2 1 1 2 1 One s i t t i n g , one f a l l i n g 33 12 21 7 18 8 13 10 MM 2 2 1 1 1 FM 4 2 2 4 BB 4 3 1 3 1 3 BG 15 6 9 2 10 3 7 5 FG 6 1 5 3 3 2 3 FC 1 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 T r i p p i n g t h e other 30 20 10 2 23 5 5 9 one MM 2 2 1 1 2 FM -3 2 1 2 1 1 BB 16 11 5 13 3 1 5 BG 7 4 3 6 1 2 3 FG 2 1 1 2 E x e r c i s e s , a c r o b a t s 12 9 3 8 2 2 0 1 MM 1 1 1 FM 5 4 l 5 BB 2 2 1 1 BG 2 2 2 FG 2 2 1 1 1 S i t t i n g i n a d e f i n i t e 10 4 6 4 1 5 3 1 pl a c e MM 1 1 1 FM 5 2 3 2 > 3 2 BB 2 2 1 1 1 BG 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 1 (CONTINUED) C A R D 11. ( C O N T I N U E D )  ' S E X 1 A G E 1 1 T Q ~ RESPONSE F M TOTAL ALL SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. F i g h t i n g , k i c k -i n g 9 7 2 3 1 5 3 2 MM FM BB FG 3 2 3 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 R e l a x i n g , 7 1 6 0 1 6 3 2 l o a f i n g MM FM BG FG 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 I • P l a y i n g games 7 5 2 5 0 2 0 2 FM BB BG 2 1 4 2 1 2 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 Dancing and 6 4 2 2 0 4 1 2 S i n g i n g FM BG 3 3 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 .1 Running i n t o 5 2 3 0 5 0 2 1 someone's arms BB BG FG FC 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 S l i d i n g i n t o 4 1 3 1 1 2 2 1 base MM BB 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Others 7 2 5 3 1 3 1 1 Number of Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 12  SEX AGE I.Q,. TOTAL TT ALL RESPONSE M SUBJECTS B . G. 5 10 15 H. L . Description, 30 16 IA 24 5 1 2 2 standing, touching MM 3 1 2 3 arms, etc. FM 7 5 2 7 BB 7 5 2 6 1 1 BG 7 3 4 5 1 1 1 FG 5 2 3 2 3 1 1 FC 1 1 1 Dancing and singing 72 39 3? 18 39 18 1? MM FM 1 37 1 20 17 1 10 8 19 11 5 BG 32 18 14 3 9 20 7 ' 10 FG 2 2 1 1 Holding hands, 29 16 13 13 10 6 6 6 arm-in-arm MM 2 1 1 2 FM 6 4 2 4 2 1 1 BB 8 6 2 4 3 1 2 1 BG 8 3 5 3 3 2 1 3 FG 5 2 3 4 1 2 1 Loving, k iss ing, 25 11 14 1 9 15 5 11 making up FM 9 4 -2 7 1 BG 15 7 8 1 6 8 3 7 FG 1 1 1 1 Shaking hands, 17 7 10 3 7 7 7 3 greeting MM 2 1 1 2 2 FM 4 2 2 1 3 2 BB 5 2 3 . 1 3 1 2 1 BG 2 2 1 1 1 FG 3 3 1 2 2 FC 1 1 1 Fighting, pushing down, arguing ' 16 7 9 4 10 2 4 4 MM 1 1 1 FM 2 1 1 2 • - -BB 8 2 6 6 2 1 3 BG 3 3 3 2 1 FG 2 2 1 1 1 Playing games 10 4 6 8 2 0 0 1 FM 3 3 3 BG 3 1 2 3 FG 4 4 2 2 1 Boxing, wrestling 7 4 3 0 5 2 2 3 MM 1 1 1 1 BB 5 • 3 2 5 1 2 ? 1 1 1 1 Others 16 7 9 6 8 2 4 3 Number of Cases 222 111 i l l 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 13.  S E l AGE TT TOTAL TP ALL RESPONSE FM SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. D e s c r i p t i o n 10 5 5 9 1 0 0 1 FM 3 1 2 3 BB 1 1 1 BG 4 2 2 3 1 1 FG 1 1 1 ? 1 1 1 Holding"up i n the 86 45 41 44 36 6 15 17 a i r , l i f t i n g up, MM 5 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 e t c . FM 20 13 7 20 BB 28 15 13 7 19 2 6 8 BG 18 8 10 7 11 5 4 FG 2 1 1 2 FC 1 1 1 MC 11 5 6 4 5 2 2 4 ? 1 1 1 A c r o b a t s , dancers, 53 22 31 2 26 25 12 14 show, c i r c u s MM 9 5 4 3 6 2 1 FM 8 3 5 2 4 2 2 2 BB 17 7 10 5 12 4 7 BG 13- 5 8 11 2 3 3 MC 6 2 4 3 3 1 1 W r e s t l i n g and Boxing MM 22 18 4 0 2 20 10 6 A c t of a g g r e s s i o n , 22 11 11 2 3 17 6 8 e.g. throwing o f f MM 12 8 4 1 11 3 4 a c l i f f FM 1 1 1 1 BB 4 2 2 2 2 1 2 BG 1 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 «? 3 3 3 1 1 P l a y i n g — j u m p i n g 14 ? 9 9 4 1 2 0 FM 2 2 2 BB 5 1 4 3 2 BG 5 1 4 2 2 1 2 MC 1 1 1 ? 1 1 1 F i g h t i n g 7 3 4 2 2 3 1 2 MM 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 FM 2 2 2 BB 1 1 1 1 Others 8 2 6 6 0 2 2 0 Number of Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 14. SEX AGE I T Q T TP TOTAL ALL RESPONSE *M SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. S i t t i n g i n v a r i o u s 111 65 4 6 5 7 39 15 18 20 p o s i t i o n s MM 8 5 3 6 2 1 FM 33 23 10 24 1 8 3 4 BB 2 5 18 7 8 17 7 3 BG 33 1 4 19 11 19 3 6 11 FG 9 4 5 5 2 2 1 2 MC 3 1 2 3 S i t t i n g i n a d e f i n i t e 46 2 4 22 5 12 2 9 16 10 p l a c e , t r a i n , c a f e MM 7 5 2 2 5 5 1 FM 18 9 9 3 4 11 5 4 BB 3 3 3 BG 1 4 5 9 2 3 9 5 4 FG 3 1 2 3 1 ? 1 1 1 1 Having q u a r r e l e d , 42 9 3? 2 21 19 13 11 mad or not MM 2 1 1 1 1 t a l k i n g FM 10 3 7 1 3 6 2 2 BB 5 1 4 4 1 3 1 BG 17 4 13 7 10 7 3 FG 7 7 6 1 1 4 ? 1 1 1 1 P l a y i n g — e x e r c i s e s 5 3 2 2 0 3 0 2 MM 1 1 1 FM 1 1 1 BG 1 1 1 l ' FG 2 1 1 2 1 Others 18 10 8 8 2 8 1 5 Number of Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 15. SEX , AGE I.Q,.' TOTAL F ALL RESPONSE *M SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L . Description, 7 ft 3 6 1 0 0 1 e.g. , standing FC 6 3 3 5 1 1 MC 1 1 1 Walking, going for 132 65 67 28 45 59 35 31 a walk FM 1 1 1 BB 5 4 -1 2 3 2 BG 8 2 6 1 3 4 2 2 FG 6 6 1 3 2 3 FC 67 27 40 9 26 32 16 16 MC 44 31 13 14 10 20 14 10 ? 1 1 1 1 Going a definite 42 20 22 16 15 11 7 9 place—store, BB 1 I 1 dentist , etc. BG 2 1 1 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 FC 26 13 13 10 11 5 4 5 ' MC 11 5 6 3 3 5 2 3 «? 1 1 1 1 Holding hands 28 18 10 16 10 2 5 4 BB 8 6 2 5 3 2 BG 2 1 1 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 FC 10 5 5 4 4 2 2 2 MC 7 6 1 5 2 1 1 Others 13 ? 8 3 2 1 3' Number of Cases 222 111 I l l 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 16. S E X A G E I.Q,. TOTAL T P ALL R E S P O N S E F M S U B J E C T S B . G . 10 1? H. L. H o l d i n g , c a r r y i n g , 120 60 60 61 40 19 24 17 walking w i t h c h i l d B B 7 7 4 3 1 1 B G 6 4 2 4 2 1 E G 4 •1 3 3 1 1 F C 71 30 41 27 28 16 19 14 MC 32 18 14 23 6 3 3 1 Rocking, s o o t h i n g , 74 3^  40 2 27 45 19 25 p u t t i n g to s l e e p B G 2 26 2 2 1 F C 58 32 2 23 33 15 21 MC 13 8 5 4 9 3 3 ? 1 1 1 1 H o l d i n g h u r t , 6 5 1 0 1 5 3 1 i n j u r e d , dead F C 4 3 1 4 1 1 c h i l d MC 2 2 1 1 2 Looking a f t e r 5 0 5 0 4 1 1 2 c h i l d B G 1 1 1 F G 2 2 2 1 1 F C 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 Others 17 12 ? 11 2 4 1 3 Number of Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 17. SEX AGE I . TOTAL "I? ALL RESPONSE % SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. D e s c r i p t i o n 41 24 17 37 0 2 1 BB 5 4 1 4 1 1 BG 5 3 2 4 1 1 FG 2 2 2 FC 13 6 7 13 MC 16 11 5 14 2 1 S c o l d i n g , spanking 45 19 26 1 14 30 15 14 FC 17 6 11 8 9 5 7 MC 26 12 14 1 5 20 9 6 ? 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Teaching c h i l d 29 15 14 3 9 17 11 6 BB 1 1 1 1 BG 1 l 1 FG 1 1 1 --FC 20 9 11 2 6 12 7 5 MC 6 5 l 2 4 3 1 T a l k i n g , r e a d i n g 26 18 8 1 17 8 7 7 s t o r i e s BB 5 5 1 2 BG 2 2 2 2 FC 5 3 2 3 2 1 MC 14 10 4 1 7 6 4 4 Walking to the o l d e r 23 4 19 12 4 7 1 7 one, to s i t on BG 1 1 1 1 knee, f o r comfortingSG. 2 ' 2 2 FC 13 l 12 7 2 4 3 MC 7 3 4 3 1 3 1 3 G i v i n g orders 19 8 11 1 14 4 7 6 BB 2 1 1 2 2 FG 1 i 1 1 FC 9 3 6 . 1 6 2 2 3 MC 7 4 3 5 2 3 2 P l a y i n g , dancing, 15 10 5 8 2 5 3 1 e x e r c i s i n g BB 5 4 1 3 1 1 FC 2 1 1 2 1 MC 8 5 3 5 1 2 2 1 C a l l i n g c h i l d , 13 7 6 4 9 0 2 4 beckoning BB 2 2 2 1 FC 6 3 3 2 4 2 MC 5 2 3 2 3 2 1 Others 9 • 6 3 5 1 3 0 2 Omitted 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 Number of Cases 2 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 18. SEX AGE I . q. TOTAL ALL RESPONSE SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. D e s c r i p t i o n — 12 7 5 9 3 Q 1 l s t a nding MM 1 1 1 FM 5 4 1 5 BB 2 2 2 1 l BG 2 2 2 FG 2 1 1 1 1 Dancing, v a u d e v i l l e , 93 41 52 35 22 36 22 17 chorus MM 6 5 1 3 1 2 1 1 FM 28 13 15 19 2 7 4 2 BB 8 6 2 6 2 1 1 BG 35 13 22 6 10 19 11 11 FG 13 4 9 7 6 3 2 FC 2 2 1 1 1 «? 1 1 1 1 K i c k i n g the oth e r 45 23 22 4 17 24 12 14 one MM 17 11 6 3 2 12 6 4 FM 3 1 2 3 1 BB 21 8 13 1 13 7 5 8 BG 3 3 2 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 S p o r t s — s k a t i n g , 7 6 1 0 3 4 3 4 f o o t b a l l , e t c . BB 4 4 1 3 1 3 BG 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 Jumping, s k i p p i n g 17 11 6 5 10 2 2 3 MM 2 1 1 2 BB 5 5 1 4 1 BG 4 1 3 2 2 FG 6 4 2 4 2 2 2 Walking, marching 10 5 5 8 1 1 1 0 FM 4 3 l 4 BB 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 BG 2 1 1 2 FG 1 1 1 Running, r a c i n g 9 5 4 0 7 2 4 5 FM 1 1 1 1 BB 6 4 2 4 2 3 • 3 BG 1 1 1 1 FG 1 1 1 1 Chasing 10 5 5 3 7 0 2 1 MM 1 1 1 BB 4 3 1 2 2 1 BG 4 2 2 4 1 1 FG 1 1 1 (CONTINUED) CARD 18. (CONTINUED) SEX AGE 1.077 TOTAL F ALL RESPONSE M SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L, P l a y i n g — t a g , games ___7 4 3 3 2 2 0 1 W 3! 1 I BB 1 1 1 BG 4 1 3 2 1 1 1 EG 1 1 1 Others 10 4 6 7 2 1 0 2 Omitted 2 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 Number o f Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 19. RESPONSE T O T A L F A L L M S U B J E C T S "SET B . G . TGE 10 15 I.ft. H. L . Description Strangling, choking, murdering Fighting, quarreling, pushing over Holding up, picking up, carrying Helping injured or fa l len Exercising, dancing, Judo One on top of the other or getting off the other 13 6 7 11 1 l 0 2 MM 2 2 2 F M 5 3 2 5 B B 3 2 1 2 l 1 B G 2 1 1 2 F G 1 1 1 1 74 41 33 4 17 53 26 21 MM 31 22 9 3 2 26 10 11 F M 21 11 10 2 19 7 3 B B 10 3 7 8 2 4 3 B G 3 2 1 2 1 2 F G 2 2 1 1 1 MC 4 2 2 3 1 1 2 ? 3 1 2 3 1 2 43 22 21 18 21 4 6 11 M M 7 5 2 5 2 1 F M 10 6 4 9 1 B B 17 9 8 1 16 4 6 B G 5 1 4 1 3 1 1 3 F G 3 1 2 2 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 29 14 15 14 13 2 3 4 MM 1 1 1 F M 7 3 4 5 2 B B 9 7 2 1 8 2 2 B G 8 3 5 5 3 1 2 F G 2 2 1 1 F C 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 25 9 16 4 16 5 9 4 MM 2 2 1 1 1 F M 6 2 4 3 3 3 2 BB 5 4 1 5 2 1 B G 7 2 5 1 5 1 2 F G 3 3 1 2 1 1 F C 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 14 6 8 4 5 5 4 3 M M 2 1 1 1 1 1 F M 4 3 1 3 1 1 B B 4 4 4 1 1 B G 3 2 1 3 2 MC 1 1 1 1 8 4 4 8 0 0 0 0 MM 2 2 2 F M 1 1 1 B B 1 1 1 B G 2 1 1 CARD 19. (CONTINUED)  SEX AGE I.Q,,  M  ™ ALL RESPONSE M SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L, P l a y i n g . 7 5 2 6 1 0 0 1 W H 3 I 4 BB 1 1 1 BG 2 1 1 1 1 1 Others 9 4 5 5 0 4 0 2 Number of Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 CARD 20. SEX AGE I . TOTAL ALL RESPONSE M SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H. L. Description 7 5 2 7 0 0 0 0 m 1 1 1 EM 3 3 3 BB 2 2 2 BG 1 1 1 One p u l l i n g , other doesn't want to go 58 20 38 5 25 28 19 17 MM 4 4 • 1 1 2 3 FM 13 4 9 3 1 9 3 4 BB 12 6 6 1 8 3 4 3 BG 10 5 5 7 3 3 3 FG 18 1 17 8 10 5 7 ? 1 1 1 1 P u l l i n g 53 26 27 13 25 1? 8 14 MM 4 3 1 2 2 1 FM 9 5 4 2 1 6 1 2 BB 10 8 2 3 6 1 • 1 1 BG 20 9 11 2 13 5 3 10 FG 9 1 8 3 5 1 2 1 FC 1 1 1 Running, walking, marching, skipping 26 18 8 10 12 4 6 5 MM 3 2 1 3 FM 5 4 1 3 1 1 1 BB 5 2 3 1 4 2 1 BG 9 7 2 2 5 2 3 1 FG 3 3 2 1 3 MC 1 1 1 Going a d e f i n i t e 18 9 9 3 7 8 4 4 place FM 5 3 2 l if 1 BB 3 1 2 2 1 1 1 BG 5 3 2 l 2 2 1 2 FG 3 3 l 2 1 FC 1 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 Holding hands 17 9 8 0 0 0 0 FM 12 8 4 12 BB 1 1 1 BG 3 1 2 3 FG 1 1 1 Playing—games 15 8 7 8 2 5 3 2 MM •1 i 1 1 FM 6 4 2 4 2 2 BB 1 1 1 BG 4 1 3 2 1 1 FG 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 (CONTINUED) CARD 20, (CONTINUED) •  fc>^ AGE I . Q. TOTAL : -iv ALL RESPONSE SUBJECTS B. G. 5 10 15 H . L. Dancing 13 9 4 5 2 6 2 5 FM 4 2 2 4 BB 1 1 1 BG 7 5 2 2 5 2 4 FG 1 1 1 1 Kidnaping 4 1 3 0 0 4 3 1 FM 2 1 1 2 1 1 MC 1 1 1 1 ? 1 1 1 1 D e p a r t i n g , waving 3 2 1 1 0 2 1 goodbye FM 2 1 1 2 1 «? 1 1 1 Others 8 4 4 5 1 2 2 0 Number of Cases 222 111 111 74 74 74 48 48 APPENDIX C SAMPLE RECORD BIANK APPENDIX C NAME: BIRTHDATE : AGE : SEX : ADDRESS: SCHOOL: GRADE:.; FAMILY: FATHER'S OCCUPATION MOTHER'S OCCUPATION IF WORKING . NAMES & AGES OF SIBLINGS. Card Who are they? No. L. R. What are they doing? APPENDIX D SAMPLE RECORDS Page i APPENDIX D NAME: SUBJECT A. AGE: 4.10' SEX: Female SCHOOL: NONE FAMILY: Father - P h y s i c i a n . S i b l i n g s - David age 6. C h r i s t o p h e r age 2 months. Card No. Who are L. they? R. What are they doing? 1. Boy Boy (L) E x e r c i s e s . (R) Punching him. 2. Boy Boy (L) S i c k (R) F i x i n g him. 3. Boy Boy (L) Walking away.(R) Mad at. him. 4. Boy Boy I guess t h i s one was running and pushed him down on purpose 'cause they was f i g h t i n g — s o . 5. Boy Boy Ooh'. I can't do that one. They're • s i t t i n g down l i k e t h i s . . 6. Boy Boy Punching him on the bottom 'cause he's been bad. 7. ' Boy Boy Maybe he's punching him. 8. Boy Boy H o l d i n g hands w a l k i n g — ( g i r l s don't p l a y w i t h boys). 9. Boy Boy He's punching him. I don't know why he stands l i k e t h a t . 10. Boy Boy Right g i v i n g l e f t an a p p l e . 11. Boy Boy S i t t i n g and t a l k i n g to each o t h e r . 12. Boy Boy Shaking hands. 13. Boy Boy Boy h o l d i n g up another f o r f u n . 14. Boy Boy T a l k i n g t o each other, i n a funny way. 15. Baby boy Fa t h e r Baby boy going t o the s t o r e w i t h h i s f a t h e r h o l d i n g hand. 16. L i t t l e boy F ather Father c a r r y i n g a l i t t l e boy because he's g e t t i n g t i r e d of walk i n g . 17. L i t t l e boy Daddy L i t t l e boy going to s i t on h i s Daddy's knee. 18. Boy Boy L e f t has been bad, so r i g h t c h a s i n g him Page i i APPENDIX D (cont'd) SUBJECT A, (cont'd) Card Who are they? No. L. R. What are they doing?  19. Boy Boy L e f t was d o i n g up the buttons on r i g h t ' s coat when r i g h t f e l l down. 20. G i r l G i r l H o l d i n g each o t h e r ' s hands and being f r i e n d s . Page i i i APPENDIX D NAME: SUBJECT B. SCHOOL: KETSILANO, Grade 9. FAMILY: F a t h e r - Real E s t a t e Mother - A t home S i b l i n g s - 2 Card No. Who are L. they? R. What are they doing? 1 M M Gunman.sticking up and robbing another man. 2 M ' W Man ready to s t r a n g l e s l e e p i n g woman. 3 M M One man l o s t the other won. 4 M M Two men f i g h t i n g . One has j u s t knocked the o t h e r down. 5 F M Woman a p o l o g i z i n g f o r b r e a k i n g c a r . 6 M M One man whipping the o t h e r . 7 M F Man going to stab woman w i t h k n i f e . 8 M F Walking through park hand i n hand. 9 M F Man t e l l i n g t a l l t a l e f o r coming l a t e . 10 M F Man h e l p i n g woman up. 11 M F F watching M j i t t e r b u g . 12 F M M and F dancing 13 M M M c a r r y i n g man a f t e r k i l l i n g him. 14 F M S i t t i n g back to back on a hay r i d e . 15 W G Walking t o s t o r e . 16 Baby W Mother c a r r y i n g baby. 17 M B Man t e l l i n g boy s t o r y . 18 B G J i t t e r b u g g i n g . 19 M M Man s t r a n g l i n g other man. '20 F M Man p u l l i n g woman to get m a r r i e d . AGE: 14.10 SEX: Male I.Q,.: 108 

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