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West Vancouver recreational survey : a study in community organization Hopkins, John Thomas 1950

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WEST VANCOUVER RECREATIONAL SURVEY A Study i n Community Organization by JOHN THOMAS HOPKINS Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the Department of Sooial Work 1960 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT This projeot reoorda a speoial "reoreational survey", undertaken i n the Municipality of West Vancouver, as a study i n oommunity organization. The survey helped the oommunity to determine i t s recreational needs. It established a "schedule of p r i o r i t i e s " which should enable the oommunity to decide on immediate, as well as long-range plans, to set up a programme f o r leisure-time interests and needs. The survey was an influence i n strengthening the intergroup r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and may be an a i d to future oommunity action. I t also helped define that recreation i s more than physical a o t i v i t i e s . The research method consisted of questionnaires, interview material u t i l i z e d , writer's own process records, and an analysis of the e f f o r t s of one l o o a l association, over a period of three years, to practice "community organization". Clarence King i n 1941 remarked "that as yet there has been too l i t t l e s c i e n t i f i c inquiry into the nature and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the oommunity organization process". An attempt i s made to show that the process Is an important part of community organization, and that i t i s affected by i n d i v i d u a l , group, and community issues. Some of the findings of Dr. E.C. Lindeman and Professor Jesse P.Steiner seem to repeat themselves here* The implications of the survey to the oommunity are described. AOMOWLEDGrEMEN TS The writer i s indebted to many ci t i z e n s and associations i n West Vancouver, f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , co-operation, and f r i e n d l i n e s s during the survey, whioh has, i n one way or another, assisted i n making t h i s study possible. Sincere appreciation i s acknowledged to the members of the Eeoreation Planning Committee. To Dr. L.C. Marsh, and Professor Elizabeth Thomas, goes the writer's p a r t i c u l a r thanks f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and many he l p f u l suggestions. Jack Hopkins TABLE OP CONTENT Chapter 1 Meeting the Community Earl y h i s t o r y of Community Organization* Community organization i s a method i n Sooial Work* The need to know the "dynamio" community. A description, of West Vancouver. A suburban settlement and i t s e f f e c t on the community. Local issues a f f e c t i n g community organization. Chapter 2 A Voioe i n the Community The o r i g i n of the West Vanoouver Community Associa-t i o n . Its support of the Youth Centre. The Community Association t r i e s a hand at "community organization". F i n a n c i a l problems. Community pressure modifies i t s objective. The r i s e of the Recreation Planning Commit-tee. The c a l l f o r assistance from the Department of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia* The product of "community organization" process influences the survey. Chapter 3 The Role of the Worker i n Community Organization The group and the process. Sooial Work methods, p r i n c i p l e s , philosophy. The'use of s o c i a l group work. The 'importance of developing a r e l a t i o n s h i p . The worker i s an "enabler". Meeting the Recreation Planning Commit-tee. The .worker helps the process. Some, attitudes to-wards the survey and the Recreation Planning Committee. The e f f e c t of the process. Community organization "helps people help themselves". Chapter 4 The Survey and the Community The survey method. The use of community organiza-t i o n . The story of the questionnaires. The survey as an influence i n strengthening the intergrbup r e l a t i o n -ships. An a i d to future "community eotion". Chapter 5 The ImplioatIons of the Study West Vanoouver wants "recreation". The meaning of recreation. The v i t a l need f o r "good group experience". The need f o r o v e r - a l l leadership to plan f o r immediate and long-range ohjeotives. Community organization i s a method to make the process more creative., It i s democracy i n a c t i o n . Appendices: A. Outline map of West Vancouver B. Samples of the questionnaires C. Survey report to the Recreation Planning Committee. D. Bibliography WEST YANGOUTER RECREATIONAL SURVEY A Study i n Community Organization Chapter 1 MEETING THE COMMUNITY "The s p i r i t i n this oommunity i s n ' t what i t used to be". I don't know what i s the matter with our oommunity". Remarks of t h i s kind were made to the writer i n d i f f e r e n t ways and by di f f e r e n t people, during a survey of "rec r e a t i o n a l " needs undertaken by a specially-appointed oommittee, i n the Munici-p a l i t y of West Vancouver. The comments open up a vast area of study. What i s a "oommunity"? What makes Up the s p i r i t i n a oommunity? What i s "oommunity organization"? For that matter, how f a r does a oommunity understand i t s "reoreetional" needs? The early beginnings of oommunity,organization have been traoed baok, by some writers, to the Charity Organization Movement whioh originated i n England i n 1869. Along with the r i s e of t h i s movement i n the l a s t h a l f of the nineteenth century, came the establishment of the s o c i a l settlements, a "widely d i f f e r e n t movement (from the Charity Organization Society), but oonoerned also with the problem of r e l i e v i n g the miseries of the poor...In general the a c t i v i t i e s of settlements have been s u f f i c i e n t l y broad and inc l u s i v e to cover the most important phases of oommunity l i f e . . . B u t i t s r e a l contribution has been i n the settlement idea, and i n the stimulus i t has given to oommunity work rather than i n the development of any formal method of organization". 1 "...To the Charity Organization Society must be given the d i s t i n c t i o n of being one of the f i r s t agencies to recognize the necessity f o r machinery that would enable cooperative e f f o r t to be oarried out s u c c e s s f u l l y . . . . " 2 In the early years t h i s Society l i m i t e d i t s organizing a c t i v i t i e s to the f i e l d of r e l i e f . But oommunity organization i s not confined to r e l i e f g i ving, whether by s o c i e t i e s or oommunity chests. Settlements belong to old s o c i e t i e s or c i t i e s , where poverty a r e a s have created groups i n need. The Community Centre movement, which has not been r e s t r i c t e d to any s o o i a l class, used a d i f f e r e n t approaoh to the problem of community organ-i z a t i o n . It worked through an association that comprised a l l the people or associations i n the community that make use of a community meetingplaoe. Important a c t i v i t i e s may not be included i n t h e i r association, but they j u s t i f y t h e i r use of the term community organization on the ground that; they are t r y i n g to e n l i s t the whole community i n support of c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s . P a r t i c u l a r l y a f f a i r s associated with the l e i s u r e -time habits of the c i t i z e n s . Community organization, i n t h i s l a t t e r sens?, i s not considered anything unusual today. It i s a "process" that goes on a l l the time, whenever there i s a s i t u a t i o n i n a 1. Steiner, Jesse Frederick, Community Organization, Century Co., Hew York and London, 192o, pp.114-118 oommunity that requires something "being done about i t . Jesse F» Steiner, years ago, made i t evident that the meaning of "community organization" d i f f e r e d with in d i v i d u a l s , and that i t "may be regarded as a general term expressive of a modern tendency In s o c i a l work rather than a technical term descriptive of a s p e c i f i c method of s o o i a l organization...The r e a l meaning of community-organization appears when i t i s looked upon as an e s s e n t i a l and continuous part of the s o o i a l process and not merely as an administrative device that has been developed within recent years..•Community organization, viewed i n t h i s manner, i s an inevitable process that i s c l o s e l y bound up with the•whole problem of s o c i a l change...." 3 Even i n a " r e c r e a t i o n a l " survey, the " i n e v i t a b l e " process i s at work. Jesse Steiner's studies i n the early part of the century, among others, have shed important l i g h t on basic p r i n c i p l e s which community workers can use today. This author suggested that plans f o r meeting communal needs should grow out of a thoroughgoing study of the whole oommunity, including those "subtle forces or undercurrents of petty s t r i f e and c o n f l i c t that so frequently disorganize communities and make consistent progress impossible...Community organiza-t i o n involves both the active p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the people In (local) a f f a i r s and the leadership of those best f i t t e d to d i r e c t i t s a c t i v i t i e s . . . . " 4 Jesse Steiner had i n mind a 3. Ibid. p.330 4. I b i d . pp.359-375 more complex study than with which t h i s survey i s concerned. But an attempt w i l l "be made to show how necessary i t i s , even i n seeking the leisure-time needs of people, to know something about the "whole oommunity", and i t s possible effects on a survey of t h i s kind. A l l t h i s i s what i s meant by community organization. Today i t i s generally accepted, along with case work and group work, as one of the three basic methods i n s o o i a l work. A r l i e n Johnson says that the "core of theory" common to these methods i s gradually becoming evident. "The f a c t that human beings are a product of i n t e r a c t i o n with t h e i r environment... makes the i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, and the community, symbols of an i n t e r r e l a t e d s o c i a l process...It involves i n d i v i d u a l , group and intergroup r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In a given l o c a l i t y the commun-i t y organization worker always finds a p a r t i c u l a r set of customs, i d e a l s , mores, some of which may be i n c o n f l i c t with the l o c a l i t y . . . . " 5 The purpose of t h i s study did not aim to get at the more serious aspects of disorganization which are often found i n r e l a t i o n to the economic, educational, and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s of a community. But problems of relationships were evident. In essenee, then, a person prac-t i s i n g community organization must know his d i s t r i c t w e l l . It involves again, "the discovery and d e f i n i t i o n of need... 5 . Johnson, A r l i e n , "Community Organization", Sooial Work Year Book, Russell Sage Foundation, 1946, p.y4 -5-the a r t i c u l a t i o n of resources and needs, and the constant readjustment of resources i n order to meet changing needs"6 This i s also true i n planning f o r "recreation'* and constitutes an important part of a survey of t h i s type. When enou€>h i s known about a l o c a l i t y , i t soon becomes clear that changes are continually taking place that, i n one way or another, a f f e c t the l i v e s of i t s c i t i z e n s . To t h i s West Vanoouver i s no exception. It i s a r e s i d e n t i a l area, with no i n d u s t r i a l and very small commercial development, spread along the twelve miles of narrow coast on the north shore of English Bay, though concentrated p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area between the Gapilano River and 28th s t r e e t , about three and a h a l f miles from the Capilano. This municipality i s situated on the beautiful south slope of Hollyburn Ridge, the most important topographic feature, which quickly attains an elevation above sea l e v e l of more than 2000 fe e t . Much of the t e r r a i n i s rocky and i s cut up by deep ravines. But to a v i s i t o r , the natural s e t t i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y the mountain range i n the background, and the s t r i k i n g views of the sea, possibly overshadows everything else, West Vancouver was incorporated i n 1912. A l o c a l paper recently reported that " the man who rowed across English Bay , on a November morning i n 1905 to help found the small commun-6. MoMillen, Wayne, Oommunity Organization f o r S o c i a l Welfare, University of Chicago Press, iy47, p.41 i t y that beoame West Vanoouver w i l l celebrate his n i n e t i e t h birthday...Mr* Lawaon, with three others.made the boat t r i p across English Bay to discover what that s t r i p of land that we could see from Prospect Point was l i k e " . In 1919 i t was a pioneer d i s t r i c t , "*..with i t s dilapidated tents and shacks along the waterfront, i t s wooden sidewalks, i t s rough and unpaved streets which gave* one the impression...of having reached the end of the e a r t h " . 7 Old-timers can s t i l l v i v i d l y r e l a t e the passage of the P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway along the waterfront on i t s way to Horseshoe Bay; The names of d i f f e r e n t t r a i n stops that served as stations i n the early days s t i l l remain, and today they represent neighbourhoods within the lar g e r area of West Vancouver. 8 The l e i s u r e l y and slow tempo of l i v i n g of the early days was-not to l a s t long. In 1938 the Lions' Gate Bridge opened up the North Shore. "...This great l i n k between the City of Vancouver and West Vanoouver should prove to be of immense value and convenience to residents on both sides of the In l e t , and w i l l o f f e r a glorious scenic a t t r a c t i o n to thousands of tourists...The substantial monetary investment r e f l e c t s a growing f a i t h from the heart of the Empire In the future destiny of the Port of Vancouver, and i n our own Municipality, which has been chosen as i t s most a t t r a c t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l area? 9 8 . See outline map of West Vancouver i n appendio A 7. West Van News, November 20, 1938 9. ''Progress supplement", West Van News, November 24, 1938. As a consequence of t h i s l i n k , West Vancouver grew into a much-extended suburban development, and associated with t h i s had to face many d i f f i c u l t issues. " I t i s r e a l i z e d today that there i s much more involved i n town and country planning than r e s t r i c t i o n s on the use of land and the mass provision of houses at lower densities than used to p r e v a i l . . . S o c i o l o g i s t s and others who have studied the effects of (unplanned housing and r e s i d e n t i a l growth) between the wars, say the almost unanimous conclusion i s that the general welfare has not been appreciably improved, and indeed, has often been harmed by what i s commonly c a l l e d suburban development. This kind of development i n i t s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c form has been marked by excessively large areas of housing occupied by people of one income group, with l i t t l e provision f o r other related buildings. These large aggregations created problems both s o c i a l and administrative of quite needless d i f f i c u l t y . The s o c i a l problem stemmed from the income and age-group segre-gation of the population, and the administrative from the b l u r r i n g of a l l boundaries, administrative or n a t u r a l . The s h i f t i n g , or unstable, population increased i n volume as the outward expansion took plaoe. The increase was due to two main oauses, f i r s t , i n d u s t r i a l and commercial development were unrelated to r e s i d e n t i a l development, and second, on a l l es-tates there was too much housing of one type...." 1 0 10. Abercrombie, P , "Oommunity Planning and Neighbourhood Units", Greater London Plan, 1945, pp.111-113 -8-This was the s i t u a t i o n i n Greater London and i t s many suburbs. Yet some of the findings seem to apply here. Vancouver i n the l a s t deoade, has beoome the fas t e s t growing c i t y i n Canada, and i t s expansion has created a number of suburban i | developments. Suoh aa Weat Vanoouver, where i t a newness and . many attractions have brought a 8teadily increasing popula-t i o n to l i v e there. It may be that Weat Vanoouver was envis-: aged as a "haven" f o r those who oould a f f o r d to b u i l d away from the hustle and buatle of the big c i t y . Yet i t i s also faced with some of the suburban development d i f f i c u l t i e s mentioned i n the Greater London Plan. However, the c i t i z e n s i n thia d i a t r i c t f e e l compensated i n the a p i r i t of l o c a l pride and optimiam. Weat Vancouver'a greateat growth haa been with-i n the laat f i f t e e n to twenty yeara, and a a i g n i f l e a n t increa-se waa recorded* only three yeara a f t e r the Lions' Gate Bridge waa b u i l t . The population then waa 8324, a jump of 73.9 per oent over the 1931 oenaus. Today residents are commonly e8t-imated at approximately 12000. Weat Vancouver i a l i k e any other oommunity i n that i t i a faced with the problem of providing the e s s e n t i a l services that i t s oitizena need. But i t haa additional d i f f i c u l t i e s , besides those r e s u l t i n g from the unplanned auburban a e t t l e -ment. One of the biggeat i a the great number of oommuters who muat t r a v e l to Vanoouver f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . The great majority of the c i t i z e n a "work i n Vancouver and aleep i n Weat i • • jVancouver". Naturally, thia often a t t r a c t s them back to the "big 1* c i t y , where business friends form the nucleus of much of t h e i r leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s . The geographic nature of the land does not help them make i t easy to b u i l d a single " i d e a l " community. A motor t r i p along the southern coast makes a v i s i t o r aware of the many small "neighbourhoods'! that extend a l l along t h i s twelve mile coast, ending i n Horseshoe Bay. Bus transportation becomes co s t l y to those i n the west-, ern part, and timer-schedules make i t d i f f i c u l t to participate i n a c t i v i t i e s held i n the more populous sections of the munici-p a l i t y . The records of the present study, r e l a t i n g to a v i s i t to Horseshoe Bay to seoure volunteer workers, i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s s t r i k i n g l y i n one instance: ...The chairman of the Recreation Planning Committee was int e r p r e t i n g the function of t h i s committee to three possible volunteers. A f t e r a short discussion, i t was suggested that a representative from Horseshoe Bay be asked to s i t i n on the main planning committee. One of the women mentioned the trouble associated with t r a v e l l i n g . She said, " i t ' s a long way to West Vancouver". The writer asked.what she meant, was not Horseshoe Bay included i n West Vancouver? The lady r e p l i e d "that West Vanoouver, to people i n Horseshoe Bay, meant c i t i z e n s l i v i n g east of West Bay.... 1 1 Besides the geographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , West Vancouver i s a r e s i d e n t i a l suburb of Vancouver. It has the reputation of being a " r i c h " man's settlement, but t h i s i s gradually change ing. I t would not he true to say i t is. without pny poverty. The Family Welfare Bureau has a Christmas Cheer Fund which t h i s year looked a f t e r over one hundred people i n need of 11. Unless otherwise stated such single-spaced material i s from the writer's own process records. assistance. Pe'ople with small flared incomes are moving i n , and t h i s change w i l l , no doubt, a f f e c t the future development of the municipality. A large number of r e t i r e d people l i v e here, and they are apt to fear the possible effects of i n -creased taaoation more than the other c i t i z e n groups, On the other hand there i s a school population of over 1300 which comprises 10 per oent of the t o t a l number of c i t i z e n s . On top of t h i s , the Bartholomew Report shows that the trend of school enrolment means that by 1971 there w i l l be need f o r a school system containing at l e a s t four elementary schools, two junior high schools, and one senior high school. The junior and senior students, according to the same report, make up 45 per cent of t h i s school t o t a l , and t h i s age-group need a good leisure-time program, which i s bound to cost money. In r e l a t i o n to suoh a program, the report mentions: " I t i s d i f f i c u l t to present an accurate description of West Vancou-ver's park system due to the fact that there are many areas scattered throughout the Municipality, which though i n d i v i d -u a l l y desirable...are so small that they can hardly be c l a s s -i f i e d as parks. Nevertheless most of them are very valuable as they form the basis f o r future expansion...Those parks hav-ing s u f f i c i e n t areas f o r (recreational) f a c i l i t i e s , w i l l be costly to develop, owing to the steep grades or rooky t e r r a i n " Besides these general needs that must be faced, t h i s growing community has more s p e c i f i c items that have to be looked a f t e r ...A responsible employee of the Municipality pointed out that there are no sidewalks other than those on the "main" -11-s t r e e t . Roads are expensive to keep i n good repair, and t h i s winter they oraoked up due to the heavy f r o s t . A modern drain-age system f o r the o v e r - a l l oommunity i s lacking, and i t i s only a matter of time before i n d i v i d u a l septic tanks must be replaoed by pipes that serve the whole municipality. But, t h i s w i l l be expensive and a great deal of "resistance" can be found i n the community to t h i s ohange.... Again, the shortage of servioes i s greater than many at f i r s t r e a l i z e d : ...At present there i s a l i m i t e d water supply, and t h i s w i l l have to be overcome as the population increases. F i r e -prevention i s s t i l l p a r t l y on a voluntary basis. The writer became aware of t h i s one day a f t e r hearing the t e r r i f y i n g f i r e - s i r e n that a l e r t s the oommunity, as well as the volunteer* firemen who are at t h e i r place of work. The telephone opera-tor makes sure that such volunteers are n o t i f i e d — j u s t i n ease the s i r e n does not. The community i s without a h o s p i t a l , and the nearest one i s i n North Vancouver. An e f f o r t was made to have one established i n the oommunity, but f o r some reason i t was turned down by the voting ..citizens. During the flood that t h i s d i s t r i c t experienced t h i s year, the Red Gross had to set up an emergency h o s p i t a l unit to be prepared f o r any eventual-i t y . The writer was present one day during t h i s s e m i - c r i s i s , when a l o c a l doctor requested the police to make arrangements whereby the doctor oould d e l i v e r his patient to hospital on a moment's notice. A problem was created due to the temporary bridge over the Capilano River and the r e s u l t i n g slow stream of cars, to and from. West Vancouver.... A person working or l i v i n g i n West Vancouver for a period of time may become aware, as did the writer, of a community attitude that "something seems to be the matter with t h i s community". It comes from d i f f e r e n t age-groups and people from d i f f e r e n t s o o i a l status or professional l e v e l . People who have l i v e d a long time here expressed themselves i n a sim-i l a r vein. This .attitude was not clear out, but i t suggested that "a l o t of individualism existed", or that "everybody works against each other"; or again, "West Vancouver i d d i v i d -ed i n many ways, and there i s nothing to draw the people to--12-gether". One of the evidences of t h i s i s the l i a b i l i t y to being accused of belonging to a s p e c i a l group. ...In writer's e f f o r t s to seek volunteers he talked to some groups. One evening just before such an occasion, one young man said: "Do you mind i f I ask you a personal question? The answer was no. Then he said, "what group are you working for"? Each v i s i t threw more l i g h t on some such intangible things which are"bothering a l o t of c i t i z e n s , and which i n turn had some ef f e c t on the survey. ...In the January Site meeting of the Recreation Planning Committee some disoussion centered around the question of publicity...Slogans were suggested...One member proposed, "are we one municipality or f i v e " ? Another remarked, " i s West Vancouver a community or a suburb of Vancouver"? F i n a l l y someone explained that West Vancouver i s going through a t r a n s i t i o n period, and "perhaps i t i s almost a big c i t y " . It i s , of course, most d i f f i c u l t i n a short time, to get a true t o t a l - p i c t u r e of a oommunity. "A thousand s o o i a l i n t -erests are bound up within a oommunity", which makes communal l i f e very complex. R.M.Maclver desoribes some c r i t e r i a whioh can be used to determine community progress. He says that "with these c r i t e r i a before us, i f we have grasped the true r e l a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i t y to society, the main d i f f i c u l t y of estimating communal development disappears". F i r s t , he mentions "the regard or disregard of personality, and of l i f e and health as the basis of personality...." People must not be used as "means" s o l e l y , but should be considered "ends" as w e l l . Secondly; "the s i m p l i c i t y or the complexity, and the looseness or the strength of the autonomously determined re-l a t i o n s h i p between each member and the whole of any community to which he belongs...." These c r i t e r i a , he adds, do not r e f e r to i n s t i t u t i o n s "which are i t s common forms of organ-i z a t i o n , but i n the f i r s t place to the l i v e s whioh i t s several members and portion l i v e . . . . " 1 2 i n other words, the author i s concerned about the community's eff e c t on the people who l i v e within i t ; and i t s ef f e c t on the prooess or "dynamics" at work i n the community s e t t i n g . Other writers, also, see the pos-r s i b l e e f f e c t s of a community on Its o i t i z e n s . James Dahir, i n discussing the s o c i a l problem created where neighbourhood planning i s not followed, says: "that the provisions of amen-i t i e s on a neighbourhood basis...have far-reaching s o c i a l con-sequences would appear to be beyond dispute...For neighbour-hood planning i s the obvious l i n k between the i n d i v i d u a l home and the abstraction that i s o i t y planning...We are faced with the question-^-serious, complex, p e r s i s t e n t — r o f what the un-stable and undifferentiated o i t y i s doing to i t s mobile and anonymous population. We are faced with the assertion...that an environment making f o r informal, f r i e n d l y and repeated con-tacts i s a requirement of personal growth and psychological s t a b i l i t y . . . . " 1 3 The records of the present study did point out the importance of neighbourhood planning, even i n meeting one aspect of leisure-time a c t i v i t y : 12. Maolver, R.M., Oommunity, MaoMillan and Co., Ltd, London, 1917, pp. 181-183 13. Dahir, James, "Neighbourhood Planning", reproduced from the Journal of Housing, National Association of Housing O f f i c i a l s , October iy48. -14-...During a v i s i t to Horseshoe Bay, the discussion at one time centered around the L i b r a r y question. Someone asked i f t h i s area had been canvassed f o r donations towards b u i l d -ing a "oommunity" l i b r a r y . The answer was i n the negative. When asked i f they thought residents would contribute, the reply stated that they would, providing a branch l i b r a r y were constructed i n Horseshoe Bay* The distance to the main l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n chosen i n the more populated area of West Vancouver, was s a i d to be too f a r away f o r the convenience of c i t i z e n s i n t h i s most eastern part of the municipality.... West Vanoouver i s a young municipality. It i s challenged by many perplexing issues, whioh w i l l require the co-operation of i t s c i t i z e n s . In the ^ e a r l i e r days", many of the present-day factors influencing the l i v e s of the people did not pre-v a i l , and the "oommunity was the center of man's concern, where people worked, worshipped, played together". There has been so l i t t l e planned development of c i t i e s and suburbs, that the best physioal conditions whioh contribute a f e e l i n g of "belonging" to a community, are often lacking. Inspite of t h i s , the forces of group association and common interests are strong enough to bring people together even where surround-ings and f a c i l i t i e s are not favorable. Because of t h i s i t i s h e l p f u l to understand the concept which Bessie MoCienaham has c a l l e d a "communality". This i s the type of association "... where it s , members belong, not because they share a place of residence or are i d e n t i f i e d with the same oommunity, but sim-ply because they share l i k e i n terests...Their sense of res^ -16-p o n s i b i l i t y as related to plaoe i s vague,...T 1 4 West Vancouver appears to have most of the necessary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s making f o r a "community". What i t seems to lack i s the "like-minded-ness...which implies that the r e a l community does not exist u n t i l there i s a consciousness of group adherence. In other words there must be r e a l homogeneity of mind before a r e a l •* community comes into being"* 1 5 I t i s not possible f o r West Vancouver c i t i z e n s to "work" together i n the same d i s t r i c t , but what about leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s , which form an important inter e s t with most people? One of the ways of helping to b u i l d t h i s "like-raindedness" or co-operative s p i r i t , might be through a "re c r e a t i o n a l " survey, and further oommunity part-i c i p a t i o n i n t r y i n g to meet the findings of suoh a survey. 14. McGlenaham, Bessie Averne, ''The Communality--the Urban Substitute f o r the T r a d i t i o n a l Community"!, Sociology  and Sooial Research, 1945-6, p*264 -16. Lindeman, E.C., The Community, . Association Press 1921, Chapter 11 Chapter 2 A VOICE IN THE COMMUNITY " i n our present state of group...allegiance, i t i s f o l l y to think of the community as an association of i n d i v i d u a l s . It i s an association of groups. In the functional sense, i t i s these groups which give d i r e c t i o n and polioy to community act i o n . . . . " A study made by Dr. E.C. Lindeman of over seven hundred community projects "does not reveal that the ultimate success of a projeot i s affected by the manner i n whioh the consciousness of need originates. The manner i n which the projeot proceeds, a f t e r i t has once started, i s intimately re-l a t e d to the theory of Democraoy, and i s highly important i n so f a r as ultimate success i s concerned...." 1 6 The h i s t o r y of "oommunity organization" to meet the leiaure-time or "recreational needs" began i n Weat Vancouver when a Community Association was formed i n 1938. It compriaed many of the younger generation whoae objeotive waa to "promote and combine under one head a l l the aporting a o t i v i t i e s of the d i s t r i c t " T h e r e i s l i t t l e or no written evidence about t h i s group u n t i l 1942, when the purpoae of the group waa made part of the c o n s t i t u t i o n : "to eatabliah, own and operate a oentre i n the municipality of Weat Vanoouver where r e s i d e n t 8 thereof and p a r t i c u l a r l y the young people may meet and oarry on 16. Lindeman, E.C. Op. C i t . pp.119-125 17. Material used i n thia ohapter, unleas otherwise indioatea i s from the records of the Community Association, operators of the Community Centre. - I n -a c t i v i t i e s of any kind tending to improve t h e i r mental, moral and/or phyeioal well-being". Two years l a t e r , the West Vanoouver L i o n s 1 Club purchased the Hollyburn P a v i l i o n and opened i t as a Youth Centre. But due to increasing operating oosts, the Youth Centre was turned over by the service club to a board of di r e c t o r s , made up of members of the Community Association. This board then went ahead with plans to develop the Youth Gentre into a community centre. Problems associated with the running of a centre soon became apparent. "There was l i t t l e or no community organization i n connection with the Centre. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of o i t i z e n s , i n the formation of committees and the development of volunteer leadership, was slow and ineffective...The directors...began to be conscious of a need f o r professional advice...." In 1945 the Gentre began having "bad times". Steps were taken to reorganize the structure of the Centre, as well as improve the program. It was admitted to the Welfare Council of Greater Yancouver, and l a t e r to the Community Chest, on condition that "standards of s t a f f and program be raised'!. The Community Association then approached the Vanoouver YMCA i n October of the same year, and a member of the s t a f f was assigned as exeoutive secretary f o r the Centre. This action apparently followed a recreation survey, carried out i n 1945 by the Community Chest and Welfare Counoil of Greater Vancouver, under the d i r e c t i o n of Mr. L.E.Horrie. The survey-report said that there was no "obvious symptom of need, f o r delinquency--18-prevention recreation, but there i s need f o r a type of work... which offers a program and organization of small friendship groups under adult leadership, which i n turn i s supervized by trained professional personnel 1?. The survey-findings were that the Centre i s meeting a " r e a l need" i n the community, and i t was recommended "that West Vancouver Community Centre be r e h a b i l i t a t e d and that a j o i n t YM-^ YW program be developed t h e r e i n " 1 8 This was a s i g n i f i c a n t development and had a big ef f e c t on future plans by the Centre, and on the survey. This dual role—YMCA and Community Centre—confused the issue, and affected the purpose of an agency's service to the oommun-i t y . Experience has shown that i t Is d i f f i c u l t f o r a YMCA to function as a oommunity centre. In t h i s instance, community ' relationships were not improved. ...Talked to a responsible member of the Municipal s t a f f , flhe discussion got around to the Community Centre, and he explained the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Council and the Centre. This person s a i d that the Municipal Council was not prepared to finance the Centre because i t was not serving the needs of the t o t a l oommunity.... In the same year, the Bartholomew Report was c a r r i e d out i n West Vanoouver. Its emphasis was along a d i f f e r e n t l i n e and recommended that park areas, as well as home areas be de-veloped; and that the schools could "well be the centre of oommunity r e c r e a t i o n " . 1 9 These two surveys l e f t the c i t i z e n s 18. Uorrie, L.Ei Survey Report of Croup Work and Recreation  of Greater Vanoouver, Community, Chest and Welfare Council of Greater vanoouver, 1945. 19. A Preliminary Report on Parks and Recreation including  Schools, West Vancouver Town Planning commission, H. • Bartholomew and Associates, Consultants, 1945. -19-somewhat between two f i r e a , with no o f f i c i a l community leader-ship to follow up the recommendations. Had there been, af-f a i r s oould well have taken a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n . As ,it was, one group accepted the challenge to do something about "re-creation". Whether i t was due to the surveys or some other reason, the oommunity organization process was set i n motion by the Community Association. I t believed that the time had come for some planning and coordination i n community a f f a i r s . A.meeting was c a l l e d i n the early part of 1946 and approxi-r mately f i f t y members of d i f f e r e n t groups turned out. The purpose of the gathering was explained: "to form a council to plan and coordinate community a c t i v i t i e s but i n no way to op-erate them". An interim executive was formed and two cpmmit--tees, to f a c i l i t a t e the work of the council. It should be mentioned here that the formation of a Community Council i s i n l i n e with good p r i n c i p l e s of recreation planning. The idea of such a body should be to include representation from a l l ex-i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l organizations and services, public and pr i v a t e . I f the planning group i s to be worthy of i t s name, a l l delegates to such a council must have as t h e i r major i n t -erest the promotion of community-wide p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n recre-a t i o n . Such councils can be on a neighbourhood, municipal, p r o v i n c i a l , or federal l e v e l . Meanwhile the.work of the Community Association went ahead. In 1946 an increase i n grants from the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver made possible a reorganiza-t i o n of the Centre, and a closer t i e was effected with the -20-YMOA. But i t appears that c e r t a i n oommunity groups were not happy over the actions of the Centre. Consequently e f f o r t s were made to have a better understanding, on the part of the Centre, and meetings were arranged with the Munioipal Council, the Parks Board, and the School Board. Such sessions were carri e d over into 1947, when i n March a co-ordinating commit-tee was set up to discuss the "future p o l i c y of the Centre". I f nothing else, a l o t of p l a i n speaking issued, Out of t h i s conference i t was resolved: "that the a c t i v i t i e s of the Commu-n i t y Gentre be scaled down to cover out-of-school youth a c t i v -i t i e s , during the week, and that sohool children's interests be carried on during week-rends and afternoon periods. That the adult a c t i v i t i e s be transferred to the program of the Sohool Board. That a coordinating board be formed to review progress i n a l l r e s p e c t s " . 2 0 The Community Council, set up to be a coordinating body f o r the whole of West Vancouver, appeared to be having d i f f i -c u l t y i n getting s t a r t e d . O p p o s i t i o n began within i t s own ranks. The objectivies of t h i s Council were explained as a f i r s t step towards devising an o v e r - a l l planning group for the oommunity. But i t pointed out that the Council was an out-growth of the Community Centre leadership. Relations between the School Board and the Gentre apparently were not improving, '20. "Minutes of the Coordinating Committee set up to discuss the Future P o l i c y of the Community Centre", Council Chambers, West Vancouver, March 25, 1947. - E l -and i n a s p e c i a l meeting, the Community Council executive was asked to act as " a r h i t r a t o r s " "between the School Board and the Centre. In March, 1947, the Community Association made a deter-mined e f f o r t to see that "the establishment of an adequate, proper, and f i t t i n g centre" "be formed i n West Vancouver. This group s a i d i t was speaking on "behalf of the Community Council. A s p e c i a l l e t t e r was sent to Mr. J . S i n c l a i r , M.P., "by the Community Association, asking his support i n reference to a new centre. The l e t t e r mentioned that the Community Council was made up of representatives of a l l organizations i n West Vancouver and they supported the new centre objective. As an after-thought, i t seems, the l e t t e r explained that a oommunity committee interested i n the establishment of a l i b r a r y would consider a " t i e - i n " with t h i s desired centre b u i l d i n g . Action along other l i n e s was taking place within the Municipal Council. A War Memorial Committee was b u s i l y making plans to f i n d out what the community thought would be a s u i t ^ able memorial. The Community Association sent i n t h e i r sug-gestion of what a "proper memorial" should be. As no reply had been received from the Municipal Council, a Community As-so c i a t i o n report of June 1947 explained that "while i t i s un-certain as to the War Memorial Committee ,s f i n a l recommenda-t i o n , i t i s u n l i k e l y that much can be done i n the way of fur -ther development of thi s project(a new community oentre)" . -22-In November of the same year, the Community Association i n -formed the War Memorial Committee by l e t t e r o f the progress towards the establishment of a "proper" centre. In addition, mention was made that "the Community Association stands ready to provide the i n i t i a l leadership i n furthering t h i s project whioh the Association f e e l s w i l l be the best possible l i v i n g memorial to those who gave the greatest servioe to t h i s oommu-n i t y " . There was some support f o r the actions of the Community Association i n i t s desire f o r a new oommunity centre. Possi-bly considerably more existed.... The l i t t l e Theatre group, according to one of the l o c a l newspapers, said that i t was "unable to produce a play since the Centre i s inadequate" and described i t as an "inapposite s h e l l " . The church, also "saw the permanency of the Centre, and looked forward to the day when they can turn over t h e i r leisure-time recreation program and expect the Centre to carry on, with the ohurohes co-oper-ating i n t h i s connection". However, the churches did want assurances "that an all-round program would be offered". The same newspaper reports,that the Town Planning Commission re-commends that a new municipal h a l l and l i b r a r y be b u i l t , as part of a c i v i o centre. But there was o r i t i c i s m or opposition i n other ways direc-ted towards the Community Association's e f f o r t s to b u i l d an "adequate centre". This was indicated at a meeting of the Centre, s t a f f e d by YMCA workers, and the Association, operators -23-of the Centre building; out of t h i s j o i n t session, i t was "ree-ommended that a statement of the Community Association's pro-gram be sent to the Sohool Trustees and teachers, and to memb-ers of the Community Council executive". Following t h i s sug-gestion, a meeting with the School Board was arranged. The Board indicated "that they? had never been approached by the Community Association with...any d e f i n i t e proposals...and that the s o l u t i o n to t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y was j o i n t planning and co-ordination with the teachers concerned, and more and better use of school f a c i l i t i e s " . By September 1947, the Community Centre was having i t s f i n a n c i a l troubles. Assistance was sought from the oommunity, and to do t h i s representatives from the Lions' club, Kinsmen club, Budget Committee of the Community Chest and Council, as well as P r o v i n c i a l Drector of Recreation, Mr. Ernest Lee, were brought together at a s p e c i a l session. The service clubs con-cerned would not commit themselves regarding the p o l i c y of making grants towards maintenance and operation of programme, rather than towards c a p i t a l expenditure. They appreciated the need f o r support that the Centre wanted, but s a i d that contin-uing such support was hindering the development of the Centre on a stable f i n a n c i a l basis rather than helping them, because i t was delaying the "facing of the r e a l issue". The service club representatives emphasized that costs should be borne by the Community Chest and Council with such tax-supported funds as the municipality or P r o v i n c i a l Government might supply, i n -24-addition to membership fees and oharges. The Community Chest and Council's view was that " I t believed that the Centre should have kept within i t s budget". This same meeting was also con-cerned "with relationships between the Association and the YMCA. Suoh relationships l i m i t s the degree of oommunity part-i c i p a t i o n because of the r e l i g i o u s aspects of such a f f i l i a t i o n ? The Community Council met again i n September 1947. It appears that the Council was concerned over the Centre's trou-bles, and stressed "that the Council seek to f i n d the needs of the community and recommend ways i n which these can be met through the Centre". But i t was decided that unless more money i s a v a i l a b l e , "operation of the Centre should suspend immediately". However, i n Ootober of the same year, new hope arose. The amount of $2700 appeared forthcoming from the Community Chest and Gounoil and the Lions' club. In addition, "subject to the approval of the board of direotors, an agreement i s completed to turn the Centre building and l o t s to the Parks Board who w i l l guarantee to cover the costs of maintenance services". The Community Association reviewed the effortB i t had made to secure a new oentre. A five-page outline was submit-ted to i t s members, whioh inoluded a f u l l description of the proposed centre, as well as a method of obtaining i t . Again i t was stressed that the outline was offered "as something tangible to give leadership to the many groups interested i n a -25T proper oommunity centre i n West Vanoouver". Further, the Association explained i t s objectives. They were threefold; running a program, operating the centre, planning and co-ordination. Thus i t hoped to o l a r i f y to the community that i t was prepared, as one organization, to help r e a l i z e the idea but not to sponsor i t . "Sponsorship", the Association s a i d , ^involves the cooperation* of groups i n the oommunity, and f o r t h i s reason i t suggested-that the Community Council afforded an excellent basis upon whioh to get suoh cooperation". Along with t h i s information, the Association mentioned "that the Community Council had i n mind a community recreation-survey to determine the municipality's leisure-time needs". But the seeds of t!ha Community Association were not yet to germinate. I t was informed by l e t t e r that the r e s u l t s of the referendum f o r a war memorial, held on December 13, 1947, had been deoided, and that a l i b r a r y would be the West Vancou-ver War Memorial. The referendum had asked the voters to de^ oide between a community centre, estimated to cost approximate-l y $500,000; a l i b r a r y suggested by the West Vancouver Library Committee, assumed to cost $35,000 f o r the building,etc., and an annual operating charge of $6000 to be borne by the Munici-p a l i t y . The t h i r d ohoioe was a shrine and scholarship sponsor-ed by Toc-H and endorsed by the Canadian Legion and AOTS club. The shrine and further development of the present Memorial Garden was to cost $15,000 with nominal charges to be borne by the Municipality, In addition the scholarship fund of $10,000 - 2 6 -was f o r the "benefit of veterans' children. In January, 1948, the Community Association formed a new committee, to sponsor the objeotive of a modern community centre, to be c a l l e d the Community Planning Committee. Representatives from the service clubs, legion, l i b r a r y , Municipal Council, church, town plan-ning, and Community Association were the key groups brought together as an o v e r - a l l planning body f o r the oommunity. The idea of doing such planning through the Community Council was waning. Yet, according to minutes of the Municipal Council dated June 1947, the Community Council was now supporting the Li b r a r y Committee. The new Community Planning Committee met on February 1948, but did not appear to function very w e l l . The meeting discussed the p r i n o i p l e of decentralization of Gentre f a c i l i -t i e s . A new approach to oommunity e f f o r t suggested that "one thing at a time should be done", and a schedule of p r i o r i t i e s was drawn up. Certain f r i c t i o n ensued regarding the name chosen, and the l i b r a r y representatives did not favor having the l i b r a r y i n the proposed new centre building, along with other f a o i l i t i e s . F i n a n c i a l questions were s t i l l bothering the Community Association, and f i n a n c i a l assistance was becoming hard to secure. At a s p e c i a l meeting of the Community Chest and Council Budget Committee, the business of further grants to the Association was discussed. The oommunity centre should be more self-supporting, and t h i s oould be done i f the Centre - 2 7 -met the "needs" of the oommunity i n a bigger way, i t was suggested. The meeting h i t at the "actions of the hoard of direotors of the Centre", and t h i s statement referred to the re l a t i o n s h i p between the Community Association and the YMCA. This arrangement, cert a i n individuals said, meant "too many s p l i t - d u t i e s f o r the executive d i r e c t o r of the Centre, which prevented him from doing a proper job^; By t h i s time the Reeve of the Municipality was discussing the need f o r "reform" i n planning to meet the leisure-time i n t e r e s t s of the oommunity. In an address to the Community Council, the Reeve was reported as saying that "good oommunity planning i s an orderly development, i n which the ci t i z e n s have shared. Plans must be i n step with the times". He mentioned the r e a l "need f o r an i n t e r l a c i n g of a l l groups i n the municipality" and suggested a t i t l e — t h e Community Plan-ning Association. The Reeve also wanted the c i t i z e n s ' ideas or opinions i n r e l a t i o n to the Community Centre, and comment-that the "Youth Centre cannot have the backing of the c i t i z e n s , due to i t s present condition". In February 1948, the Community Association prepared a report on "how progress i s NOT. made". It was a frank admis-sion "that what was planned did not develop and said that t h i s was due to the fact that i t was not supported by a majority of the organizations...there was no good i n continuing as a minority group t r y i n g to plan f o r the oommunity". A new organization was formed i n February of 1948,called -28-the Recreation Planning Committee. ...The idea of using the oommunity centre f o r tabulating the questionnaires was proposed...This was quickly squelched. Several members said that they had heard plenty of c r i t i c i s m re the part that the Centre i s suppose to he playing i n the Recreation Planning Committee. Writer asked why t h i s was so. It was explained that the Centre was " i n " from the beginning. ... Another person mentioned how the name of the o r i g i n a l planning committee had to be changed. Anything with the word oommunity centre just would not do.... It was to be a cooperative body, "with no strings attached" and "not to be dominated by any party or any person. The whole purpose was to bring together p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d "clubs, bodies, and groups" to plan f o r the recreational needs of West Vancouver. Actually, a new-comer to the d i s t r i c t was asked to be chairman, which i s rather s i g n i f i c a n t . Plans f o r a survey were discussed. The p o l i c y of t h i s new committee was set out i n writing " s o that a l l groups ooncerned might have a clear understanding as to t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n plan-ning and coordinating projects". The group then went to work. Arrangements were made with the Department of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, to have a "suitable person conduct a " r e c r e a t i o n a l " survey on behalf of the committee". A grant of $250 was given by the Municipality to a s s i s t t h i s committee i n i t s goal. At the same time the "assistance of the Group Work D i v i s i o n of the Community Chest and Council was sought to provide c l e r i c a l and other help i n connection with the survey". The community organization "process" was at work again. -29-The product,of the community organization "process", seems to vary i n accordance with the type of leadership. But leadership does not always mean the same thing to people. The experiences of many who have studied the successes and f a i l u r e s of "community organization", lead to the b e l i e f that leadership, among other things, should include j o i n t - e f f o r t of the many interested associations e x i s t i n g i n the oommunity In t h i s way, along with professional help i n many instances, the ^process" i s able to function i n a way that i t usually overcomes differences of opinions, and results i n enduring progress. On the other hand, lack of community p a r t i c i p a t i o n such as described i n t h i s chapter, results i n problems of rela t i o n s h i p s , which complicates the carrying out of future community action. The "recreational survey", whioh i s part of t h i s present study, had to face some of the consequences of that "process". -30-Chapter 3 THE HOLE OP THE WORKER IN OOMMUNITY ORGANIZATION One has only to t a l k with individuals i n a community to re a l i z e how intimately a group or an association a f f e c t s them. There are many i l l u s t r a t i o n s of t h i s , hut perhaps an example i from the survey w i l l remind the reader of many others. ...A lady telephoned to say that she had read i n the papers that volunteers were needed to help i n the survey... It was explained to her what the work involved, p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t i n g questionnaires to homes, so that the community-point -of -view on recreation would he obtained. This caused her to change her mind about helping. She frankly admitted that "her group" was only interested i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of securing Itriaing t r a i l s " i n West Vancouver. Her idea i n can-vassing, she said, would be to eontact only her friends who are r e a l l y interested i n " r i d i n g " , and w i l l i n g to vote f o r such t r a i l s . . . . Through group-experienoe, the i n d i v i d u a l secures personal and so o i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s ; his behaviour i s modified; standards of conduct are learned, and "sooiety passes on i t s customs, norms, and values". The story of "oommunity organisation" Just unveiled, i l l u s t r a t e s i n a general way how the "process" operates, when some group or groups attempt to " . . . a s s i s t i n att a i n i n g unity of purpose and acti o n . I t i s practiced, though often without recognition of i t s character, whenever the objective i s to achieve or maintain a pooling of the talents and resources of two or more groups i n behalf of ,either general or s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s " 2 1 21. McMillen, Wayne, "Community Organization", Sooial Work  Year Book, Russell Sage Foundation, 1947, p.110 -31-Jesse Steiner was aware of the character of certain problems i n oommunity organization many years ago, p a r t i c u l a r l y the p r o c e s s — t h e "give and take1*--—that results when people get together. Yet few advances have r e a l l y been achieved i n further understanding t h i s process. Today s o c i a l workers are concerned about the i n t e r a c t i o n between people i n a defined s i t u a t i o n . Group experience must get at more than i n d i v i d u a l and personal needs; " . . . i t i s also intended that there should be a dividend to society i n t h i s process, and that individuals should learn to a r t i c u l a t e themselves i n an e f f e c t i v e r e l a -t ionship to other groups which compose the community. It i s also intended that t h i s group s h a l l learn to p a r t i c i p a t e res-ponsibly i n the community process of r e l a t i n g themselves to other groups while furthering the s o c i a l action whioh seems to them important i n the process of f u l f i l i n g , modifying, and creating oommunity values...The s o c i a l worker's role i s one of employing s o c i a l work knowledge., method, and techniques i n meeting personal and community needs through the group". 2 2 Kenneth L.Pray explains that the s o c i a l worker i s concerned " o r u o i a l l y " with helping the process * by being an "enabler". By t h i s he means that the s o o i a l worker f a c i l i t a t e s problems which people face i n the " . . a c t u a l process of adjustment to each other, or to any part or aspect of t h e i r s o c i a l environ-ment. That i s to say, they are problems of r e l a t i o n s h i p s " 22. Hewstetter, Wilbur I, "The S o c i a l Intergroup Work Process" Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work, Columbia University Press, 1947, p.207 " — Further Mr. Kenneth L. Pray says that the s o c i a l work object-ives are such as to "...introduce and sustain a process that deals with matters of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and adjustment, which w i l l enable and a s s i s t those involved i n the problem to f i n d solutions s a t i s f y i n g to themselves and acceptable to the society of which they are a part".23 These objectives re-f l e c t the philosophy of s o c i a l work, which rests upon the great f a i t h i n human beings, i n t h e i r inherent and i n v i o l a b l e right to make t h e i r own decisions, within the framework of a democratic society. Sooial work methods and s k i l l s put t h i s philosophy into a c t i o n . It i s always a helping function and the s o c i a l work-er constantly reminds himself that the people he works with make t h e i r own ohoioe. However, the trained worker " c o n t r i -butes his own professional d i f f e r e n c e — i n the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of alternatives and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l consequences, i n the anal-y s i s of the factors that enter into the ohoioe, and i n the evaluation of those elements, i n r e l a t i o n to the ultimate ob-j e c t i v e s , i n terms of available resources, and i n the l i g h t of a broader s p e c i a l i z e d experience i n dealing with s i m i l a r problems"24 Mr. Uewatetter appears to agree with t h i s ex-planation, and says that the "role of the worker i n the i n t e r -23. Pray, Kenneth L.M, "When i s Community Organization Sooial Work Practice"?, Proceedings of the National Conference, Of Sooial Work, Columbia University Press, 1948, p.196 24. I b i d . p.198 - 3 3 -group process i s to bring s o c i a l work methods to bear on the attainment of the goals selected by the groups. The worker i s primarily i n the role of an enabler, and not a 'doer', aa are so many people operating i n the f i e l d of oommunity organ-i z a t i o n . .. . » 2 5 Sooial group work i s sai d to be one of the three basic methods i n s o c i a l work. In working with groups, the profes-s i o n a l l y trained group leader must f i r s t define to himself what his role i s to be, because t h i s modifies the a p p l i c a t i o n of the s o o i a l group work method. The type of group he i s re-lated to, w i l l define the " r o l e " he must play. The "meaning-f u l " contribution he renders i s i n his understanding of the process—the give and take?--which results from the r e l a t i o n -ship between members of a group, and the group leader. Re-lationships are a valuable means of understanding attitudes that people have and which hamper progress i n achieving def-i n i t e selected objectives. As an a i d to helping the process he makes use of his records of the process that goes on i n the group s i t u a t i o n . Recording makes i t possible f o r the worker to evaluate the relationships that evolve i n such a s i t u a t i o n . In t h i s way he has something concrete on which to measure his role i n making the group l i f e s a t i s f y i n g to the members. Program s k i l l i s another technique that the s o c i a l group worker r e l i e s heavily upon. It i s not so important that "25. Hewstetter, Wilbur I, Op. C i t , p.210 -.34-he be able to "lead" i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s , as to understand the place of program i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional, and psycho-l o g i c a l development of whatever group he works with. Natur-a l l y , the more s k i l l s he knows r e l a t i n g to " a c t i v i t i e s " , the more he can develop the much-needed-relationship between him-s e l f and the group. But fundamentally, the s o o i a l group worker uses a l l his techniques and s k i l l s to improve the rel a t i o n s h i p , because out of i t w i l l develop more quickly the prooess, and out of the process w i l l come "symptoms of need". These are clues as to what the role of the worker should be. The "oommunity organizer", however, must deal with i n -divi d u a l s , groups, and the community-at-large. But i n the instances of his work with indiv i d u a l s i t i s only to help the group-asr-a-whole to grow. Groups also show patterns of devel-opment. Individuals needing sp e c i a l i z e d attention are " r e f e r -red" to the s o c i a l oase worker. In working with the commun-i t y , the s o o i a l worker i n addition to knowing s o o i a l work methods must have a good understanding of administration i n i t s widest. sense,, which i s that of "getting the job done". According to Benjamin E. Youngdahl the "prooess of oommunity organization includes interpretation, f a c t - f i n d i n g and educa-t i o n . Yet a l l t h i s type of a c t i v i t y , however worthwhile, f a l l s short unless accompanied by some sort of purposeful action". Then he discusses f i v e possible steps i n order to achieve an objective. F i r s t , determination of need, which -35-re qui-res a survey or study, done In advance, which defines the need. The author adds that the " e a r l i e r community leader-ship oan he "brought into the planning, the greater the chances f o r success of the project". Secondly, an examination of the e x i s t i n g resources i n the community. This i s followed "by the development of a plan. The fourth step i s the most d i f f i c u l t , he says, which i s "the education of the whole community and the formal acceptance of the plan by the responsible agenoy concerned. And l a s t i s the execution of the plan. "These steps should,not be oonoeived-as a f i x e d pattern. No commun-i t y i s p r e c i s e l y l i k e another oommunity". In the carrying out of suoh steps Mr.B.E.Youngdahl emphasizes one fundamental p r i n c i p l e , "that of getting as many people as possible to p a r t i c i p a t e early i n the planning i t s e l f " . 2 6 The writer f i r s t met with the Survey Committee on October 18, 1949. This i s a sub-group of the Recreation Planning Committee* and serves as a steering committee, where prelimin-ary plans are disoussed and c e r t a i n decisions and recommenda-tions made, are presented to the RPC. In addition to the s i x regular members, there were four representatives from the Department of Sooial Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, at t h i s session. The main result of t h i s deliberation was that 26. Youngdahl, Benjamin E, "Community Organization i n Rural Ch i l d Welfare Services", Proceedings of the National Conference of Sooial Work, Columbia University Press, 1943, pp.171-177 -~ *. Hereafter abbreviated RPC - 3 6 -four typea of questionnaires were deoided on. A t o t a l -picture of the recreational interests of the oommunity was asked f o r , so that i t was planned to get responses by means of questionnaires, from the sohool children, the family, the young adults over 18 and not going to school, and the older people-the senior c i t i z e n s . Some of the community problems mentioned i n the f i r s t chapter were discussed at t h i s gatherr-ing, and i n addition, the writer became aware of relationship problems, which so often can a f f e c t the progress of a oommun-i t y survey. ...Some time was spent t a l k i n g about method of carrying out the survey. Experiences from' other surveys were discussed, and i n a l l of these i t was pointed out that a wide represent-ation from the community makes f o r success. Some of the techniques that oould be used were discounted, due to the geography of West Vancouver. Briefs from di f f e r e n t l o c a l groups were thought "dangerous". And out of the meeting i t was remarked that the RPO i s being accused of "dominating". The. examination of e x i s t i n g recreational resources was next deoided on, and the F a c i l i t i e s Committee, another sub-group appointed at the f i r s t meeting held on November 1,1949, was empowered to obtain an inventory of the leisure-time f a c i l -i t i e s i n the municipality. The worker prepared ahead of time an outline of what d e t a i l s would be necessary, so as to be able to help the committee with i t s work. Three of the four members admitted that they could see the value of the outline. The member from the Sohool Board raised objections to the program, but agreed to i t when the objective of the committee was explained, sinoe he had not been present when selected to act on t h i s task. Then a responsible d i v i s i o n was delegated -37-to each member to report on. For example, the School Board member agreed to.report on what f a o i l i t i e s existed i n the schools, which could be used f o r leisure-time a o t i v i t i e s . In addition other pertinent date was requested. Ryland and Wilson point out how any one who works with a group, i s at f i r s t considered an "outsider". "Every group puts the worker on t r i a l i n the i n i t i a l stages of t h e i r re-l a t i o n s h i p . Consciously or unconsciously, the members—and p a r t i c u l a r l y the indigenous leaders—!-are concerned to f i n d out whether he i s there to help them perform t h e i r funotions or to take t h e i r funotions away from them. In meeting t h i s situation.•.the group worker accepts his role as an outsider. ..." 8 7 At t h i s early stage of getting to know the group, that i s i n developing relationships, the worker observes and l i s t -ens. He oan gather much information to help him i n his func-t i o n as an enabler. This process was apparent i n the present study. The f i r s t meeting of the Planning Committee which the worker attended was on November i , 1949. The chairman passed over the,agenda very quickly with l i t t l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the members present. The chairman of the P u b l i c i t y Committee was asked to give a report. He sai d that he had nothing to announce, because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n interview-27. Wilson,Certrude and Ryland, Gladys, S o c i a l Group Work  Prac t i c e , Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1949, p.69 -38-ing a "big-name* advertising man. The worker asked about the composition of the p u b l i c i t y committee, and i t was apparent that the chairman was not c e r t a i n . F i n a l l y one representative present r e p l i e d that he "thought he was on t h i s committee". The worker's suggestion that some l o c a l newspaper person, and others should be asked to help with the publicity,was not followed up aii t h i s time. The meeting set a date of November 29, when a report would be expected from the F a c i l i t i e s Commit-tee and the worker would present the questionnaires for exam-ina t i o n by the EPC. ' A few days following t h i s session, the worker arranged to meet the ohairman of the p u b l i c i t y . ...Some t a l k developed over the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with p u b l i c i t y . Suggestions f o r t h i s were offered which the ohairman appeared glad to have. In fact,,he marked them down on a piece of paper,, and said he would do something about this the next day. . In regard to p u b l i c i t y material, c e r t a i n help was offered u n t i l the ohairman could get his committee working. There were other things.bothering him, such as the lack of p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the part of the committee members during the planning meetings.... Meetings were only part of the re l a t i o n s that the worker had i n the oommunity. Minutes, reports, and a l l available material that contained information about the community were examined. Talks took place with d i f f e r e n t people. S p e c i f i c information often resulted. ...In t a l k i n g to a responsible member of the Municipal Council, the worker obtained maps of the d i s t r i c t suoh as would give him some understanding of the physical resources, the population density, the areas of park development,etc. In addition attitudes towards organizations were voiced, In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r occasion some i n k l i n g of the relations with the Centre waff mentioned, and the 1 source inferred that the Centre had t r i e d to "force" the community to i t s a c t i v i t y pattern.... -39-Again-...A v i s i t to a School Board member...More information respecting the oommunity was talked about, such as the " l o t of older people i n West Vancouver with low fi x e d incomes, who feared increased costs...The member conversed regarding the "good work" of the Scouts. "There i s d i s c i p l i n e here" he said and compared t h i s with the Centre p o l i c y , assuming that d i s c i -p l ine was lacking i n Centre a c t i v i t i e s . This person explained how adequately the school met the recreational needs of the c i t i z e n s . He was p a r t i c u l a r l y h o s t i l e towards the function of the Centre.... On November 29, 1949, the Steering Committee met, The worker asked f o r a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of his r o l e , as there had been some t a l k about a "five-thousand d o l l a r report" r e s u l t i n g from the survey, a task whioh would require more time than was possible from a post-graduate student with other duties. There appeared to be some doubt i n the minds of the members regarding the main purpose of the survey. No one had a defin-i t e answer, but the ensuing t a l k cleared that the survey aimed at the ^establishment of f i r s t p r i o r i t i e s " . Previous to t h i s assembly the worker disoussed the representativeness of the R.P.C. This seemed to be necessary as the worker had some knowledge of "ourrent a t t i t u d e s " against the RPC, whioh might be corrected, i f a la r g e r number of oitizens ooUld be brought into the planning. Again, there were no women representativesi One member mentioned t h i s matter during the meeting, but i t was referred to the agenda of the main planning gathering which followed. Understanding relationships i s a means of helping the process. It i s not the purpose of t h i s present study to give a d e t a i l e d procedure of the process, of what takes plaoe, i n -40-the meetings, but to note relationships that show up. Eight-een members of the RPC arr i v e d f o r the meeting on the 29th of November. The session opened i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y l e with the chairman commenting that i t was "exactly eight o'clock—time to begin—and as long as I am chairman the meeting w i l l always s t a r t on time". One member suggested that more representation should be recruited from the community. There was a l o t of work to be done. More subcommittees could be formed, he said, with an appointee from the Planning Committee as chairman of suoh groups. The Centre and Parks Board representatives were against t h i s , as was the chairman of the evening. The chair-man l e ^ t the decision to those present, but offered l i t t l e leadership i n giving them a chance to p a r t i c i p a t e . Not every one finds i t easy to t a l k i n a group, yet often has some valu-able contribution to o f f e r . The worker followed up the sugges-t i o n of subcommittees. A f t e r a short discussion, a motion was passed to keep the RPC as i t was. As a consequence of t h i s process or i n t e r a c t i o n , the ohairman explained how he became ac t i v e . ...He was chosen because he "knew nothing" and only r e s i d -ed i n West Vancouver a short time...Then turning to the Centre representative, the chairman suggested that he had been asked by him to take the p o s i t i o n . The Centre member r e p l i e d "you oertainly are not remembering oorreotly tonight".... Suoh products of the prooess, when combined and related to other a f f a i r s i n the community begin to t e l l a story of the importance of the prooess. To the s o c i a l worker, the r e l a t i o n -ships emerging from the prooess are v i t a l clues to means of -41-understanding the effeot of the process on the individuals i n a group, i n some casea the r e l a t i o n can "be aggressive or sub-miaaive, f o r example, and i n e i t h e r ca8e the process does not reach the developmental l e v e l that i s poasible. Therefore, to the "worker", the process i a recognized aa equally aa impor-tant aa the understanding of the "Btructure" or admini8trative machinery, i n the ultimate s o l u t i o n of a project. preparations f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g the questionnaires went ahead while the worker kept i n touch with the committees. Reaching members of the ,committees was d i f f i c u l t , as they work i n Vancouver, so that the chief means of consultation between business sessions #as by telephone. Some of the RPC membera were not too happy. ...Telephoned the chairman of the Steering committee a f t e r one of the meeting8, and aaked him what he thought of the aession. The chairman was c r i t i c a l of the aotion of ce r t a i n members. He thought that they were not emphasizing the importance of the work involved...talked p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y about the survey and said that the RPC was "ahead of the people"...that there was not time enough l e f t to f i n i s h the project.... Other c i t i z e n s i n the community ^did not seem enthusiastic over the survey e i t h e r . A v i s i t to the high school, i n order to have the student questionnaires answered i n the school was arranged. ...After the usual introductions the purpose of the v i s i t was explained. The p r i n c i p a l was "hazy" about the public-opinion p o l l , but l i s t e n e d p o l i t e l y . In regard to using the sohool, permission would have to be secured from the School Board. "Recreation" was examined i n r e l a t i o n to i t s place i n the oommunity. The p r i n c i p a l remarked that' "ohildren today have too many a c t i v i t i e s " , and he did not seem to think that the survey was necessary.... -42-The January 10th, 1950, meeting of the Pla n n i n g committee s t a r t e d , as u s u a l , e x a c t l y a t e i g h t o ' c l o c k . Just p r e v i o u s t o t h i s , however, a p o l i o s e s e r g e a n t came i n t o say t h a t the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e would not be p r e s e n t . Then t h i s same person mentioned that he d i d not r e a l i z e t here was "so much o p p o s i t i o n " t o the L i b r a r y group. The worker was not ab l e t o f o l l o w t h i s up as those present minimized the amount of o p p o s i t i o n and then began t o t a l k of other t h i n g s . Except f o r one item on the agenda, the committee r e p o r t s were a l l n e g a t i v e . The s c h o o l r e f u s e d t o a l l o w a p o s t e r contest as p a r t of the p u b l i c i t y . Other media of p u b l i c i t y , which had been sought s i n c e the beginning of the survey, p a r t i c u l a r l y r a d i o , were dropped, as the "time was now con s i d e r e d t oo s h o r t " t o do a n y t h i n g about i t . At t h i s time the worker asked f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o organize a volunteer-committee from the RPC. The reason f o r t h i s request was due t o the gre a t amount of time spent r e o r u i t i n g h e l p . T h i s always meant i n t r o d u c i n g h i m s e l f , and e x p l a i n i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of the survey, But the RPC was not ready f o r t h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n y e t , most members say-i n g t h a t they were too busy. Three members o f f e r e d t o do some t e l e p h o n i n g t o secure v o l u n t e e r s , which was g l a d l y aooepted. Time was running s h o r t r e g a r d i n g the n e o e s s i t y of g e t t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s out i n t o the oommunity. The mechanics of the survey were ready; i t was now a matter of s e c u r i n g coopera-t i o n , T h e r e f o r e , i t was q u i t e a shock, when the ohairman of the P l a n n i n g oommittee telephoned t o say t h a t the School Board -43-had re fugged the request to use the sohool. This was somewhat surprising because the RPC was said to be representative of the oommunity, and i t s objectives were c e r t a i n l y worthwhile. But gradually, some answers were forthcoming. ...A v i s i t to the Sohool Board was deoided on to t a l k over the matter of the r e f u s a l . The member was quite h o s t i l e . Worker explained his role i n the community, that he had a job to do and wanted to do i t i n the best manner possible...Reach-ing the students through the school would help very much... The member disagreed immediately when i t was suggested that the RPC was representative. Then he went on to say that there was no need f o r t h i s survey...and emphasized that the commun-i t y had not been consulted. But he was d e f i n i t e that the School Board would not change i t s mind.... A delegation from the RPC met with the School Board on January 19, 1950. The Board explained i t s r e f u s a l by remark-ing that too many organizations want to use the school f o r various reasons, and that t h i s was against i t s polioy. The RPC delegates were then given an opportunity to state t h e i r oase. ...After thanking the Board f o r t h i s chance to appeal i t s decision, the ohairman pointed out factors whioh he believed made a difference...One School Board member o r i t i o i z e d the survey because he did not believe i n the idea of l e t t i n g students decide what they wanted. "The School Board decides what the children should have and do. and along with the parents are better able to know what i s best f o r them". F o l -lowing a clash of p e r s o n a l i t i e s , another Board member resumed the t a l k . This person said that the Board was not against the survey as such...but h i t at the idea that the Centre was be-hind the actions of the RPC...The question of what would hap-pen to the Library project was in t e r j e o t e d . . . F i n a l l y , the Board deoided to allow the RPC to go ahead with i t s plans re-garding the use of the sohool to di s t r i b u t e questionnaires to the students.... The s o o i a l process—the i n t e r a c t i o n — t h a t goes on between individuals i n a group or between groups i n the oommunity, be-comes a most important area that requires understanding. For -44-three years the Community Assooiation strove to convince the oommunity that i t needed a oommunity centre. Instead, of work-ing through the Community Council, which was said to he re-presentative of the oommunity, i t used other devices. Each attempt at forming a committee to organize e f f o r t s to secure the new oentre, f a i l e d , because the community did not share i n the early and subsequent planning during these years. I f i t had,the process would, no doubt, have exposed many of the re-l a t i o n s h i p problems that l a t e r developed. F i n a l l y , the RPC was organized and although quite representative of the oommun-i t y groups, i t s t i l l had enough tinge of sooalied" Centre influence" to create h o s t i l i t y among a number of individuals and groups who made the work of the survey more d i f f i c u l t . The product of t h i s e f f o r t might have been more suooessful, i f other a f f a i r s had not also been a c t i v e . There i s a group who favor using the school as the centre of oommunity leisure-time a o t i v i t i e s , whioh was suggested by the Bartholomew Report. With the best of intentions, the Youth Centre was renamed a oommunity centre, but a c t u a l l y developed into a YMCA. The l i b r a r y Committee i s endeavouring to b u i l d the o f f i c i a l War Memorial. A l l t h i s organization must have l e f t the people confused. It oertainly affected the work of the Recreation Planning Committee. Professor E.C. Lindeman, i n speaking of the process of oommunity action enumerates ten steps involved. "...A portion of these steps i n oommunity action are s o c i o l o g i c a l , and some -45-, are psychological. There i s no apparent means by whioh the sciences of sociology and s o o i a l psychology oan be separated i n t h i s a n a l y s i s " . 2 8 He describes the steps that are usually taken. In the f i r s t place some person, either within or with-out the community, expresses the need which i s l a t e r represent-ed by the d e f i n i t e object. Step number two i s spreading the "oonsoiousness of need", when a leader, within some i n s t i t u -t i o n or group within the oommunity convinces his or her group, or a portion of the group, of the " r e a l i t y of the need". Then t h i s interested group attempts to project the "oonsoiousness of need" upon the leadership of the community. The "conscious-ness of need" becomes more general. The fourth step: i s taken, when some i n f l u e n t i a l assistance i s e n l i s t e d , i n the attempt to a r r i v e at a quick means of meeting the "heed". By t h i s time, presentation of other solutions to meet the need are offered by d i f f e r e n t groups i n the community, and as a r e s u l t " o o n f l i o t s of solution 1* r e s u l t . Various groups lend t h e i r support to one or the other of the various solutions presented. Professor Lindeman, on the basis of his studies, notes that this frequently culminates i n a period of i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; i t appears to be "increasingly customary to pause at t h i s point, and to examine the projeot with expert assistance". However, t h i s step i s often omitted, he s a i d , and the following one 28. Lindeman, Eduard 0, The Community, p.121 -46-takes i t s place. A public meeting or gathering of some kind i s held, at which the projeot is presented, and the group with the most influence attempts to secure adoption of their own plan. The role of the worker in community organization varies, depending on the situation and setting he finds himself i n . Because of knowledge of community organization derived from studies and experiences, the sooial worker is v i t a l l y ponoern-ed with how the process operates. This means getting at the different causes which affect the prooess. These causes are related to individual, group, and community problems, such as described in this study* The relationships developing from the process are leads that help the "oommunity organizer™ to understand the necessary helpful adjustments that often pan take place. The main role, accordingly, i s to be an "ensbier", and every means at his disposal is fooussed, to remedy i f pos-sible, the relationship problems associated with a oommunity project, This is particularly arduous when working with adults, since their experiences, both intellectual and emo-tional, have already conditioned them to react either to help, or hinder, the prooess. Social group workers are aware today, that before the process can operate creatively, the relation-ship between the group and the "leader" must be such that the group feels "free™ to allow the leader to make i t possible for them to do things as a group, which they cannot do as ^47 i n d i v i d u a l s . Community organization i B a method that makes i t possible "to help people help themselves™. Some such idea was i n the minds of those who planned the West Vancouver " r e c r e a t i o n a l " survey. Chapter 4 THE SURVEY AND THE COMMUNITY "Coimnunity organization i s one of the easiest things to t a l k about and one of the hardest things to do something about. It i s a subtle concept". 9 The present study developed out of a request from a group i n West Vanoouver, to have a post-grad-uate student carry out a publio-opinion-poll type of survey. There are many types of surveys. In t h i s " r e c r e a t i o n a l " survey, questionnaires were prepared to get at the l e i s u r e -time in t e r e s t s of the c i t i z e n s . I t i s part of the f a c t - f i n d -ing step. In order to obtain a representative cross-section of opinion from the residents, a plan was adopted whioh d i v i d -ed the municipality into four main d i v i s i o n s . Each d i v i s i o n i n turn was subdivided, and canvassers were a l l o t t e d respon-s i b l e areas. The need f o r volunteers was evident at t h i s time. A description of some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the survey to obtain volunteers has already been given. Things looked pretty hopeless for a time. But as the writer's r e l a t i o n s h i p with the RPC developed, things began to happen. But not be-fore many attempts to have the RPC co-operate i n securing volunteers. Persons suggested f o r the writer to interview, regarding helping i n the survey, were contacted. 29. Ford, Lymes S, "The E f f e c t of World War 2 on Community Organization", Proceedings of the National Conference of Sooial Work, Columbia unive r s i t y press., 1944. - 4 9 - , . . . T e l e p h o n e d a r e s p e c t e d a n d c o m m u n i t y - m i n d e d w o m a n . A f t e r t h e u s u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d e x p l a n a t i o n , t h i s p e r s o n " b e -g a n s t r o n g l y t o c r i t i c i z e t h e t i m i n g o f t h e s u r v e y . S h e t o l d a b o u t t h e o b j e c t i v e s a n d h i s t o r y o f t h e L i b r a r y m o v e m e n t i n W e s t V a n c o u v e r , a n d " f e a r e d " t h a t a l l t h e i r w o r k w o u l d g o f o r n o u g h t b e c a u s e o f t h e a c t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y c o m m i t t e e . . . Y e s , s h e t h o u g h t t h e s u r v e y , s u c h a s t h e R P C s p o n s o r e d w a s a g o o d p l a n , b u t w o n d e r e d w h y t h e y c o u l d n ' t h a v e w a i t e d f o r a m o r e p r o p i t i o u s o c c a s i o n . . . . O t h e r o i t i z e n s j u s t d i d n ' t h a v e t i m e . H o w e v e r t h e w r i t e r w a s f i n a l l y g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e t o s e e k w h a t e v e r h e l p h e c o u l d . M o s t o f t h e v o l u n t e e r a s s i s t a n c e e v - t e n t u a l l y c a m e f r o m t h e y o u n g o i t i z e n s — t h e t e e n a g e r — w h o d e -c i d e d t o c o - o p e r a t e t h r o u g h t h e i r g r o u p s . I t t o o k c o n s i d e r -a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b e f o r e t h e y w e n t t o w o r k . W r i t e r h a d p l a n -n e d t o h a v e i n t e r e s t e d a d u l t s c a p t a i n " t e a m s o f v o l u n t e e r s ™ , s o a s t o g i v e m o r e m a t u r e l e a d e r s h i p . S i n c e t h i s d i d n o t m a t -e r i a l i z e , m o r e t i m e w a s r e q u i r e d t o e x p l a i n t o t h e ' t e e n a g e r s , w h a t " t o e x p e c t a n d w h a t t o d h , s h o u l d t h e y r u n i n t o " t r o u b l e ™ . I n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f J a n u a r y c a n v a s s e r s w e r e r e a d y t o s t a r t , b u t t h e n the w e a t h e r i n t e r f e r e d . . D e e p s n o w a n d c o l d w e a t h e r a r e n o i n d u c e m e n t s f o r v o l u n t e e r s t o s e t o u t t o v i s i t h o m e s . O n e o f t h e a d u l t v o l u n t e e r s , a u n i v e r s i t y - e d u c a t e d w o m a n r e c o r d e d s o m e c o m m e n t s o f t h e o i t i z e n s w h e n a p p r o a c h e d t o f i l l i n q u e s t i o n h a i r e s . T h e a n s w e r s i l l u s t r a t e s o m e o f t h e a t t i -t u d e s w h i c h p r e v a i l e d , a n d m o d i f i e d t h e s u r v e y r e s u l t s . T h e r e p l i e s w e n t l i k e t h i s . ™ W h a t d o y o u t h i n k t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l w i l l d o a b o u t t h i s e v e n i f w e a l l d o f i l l t h e f o r m s o u r ? " M y h u s b a n d i s a l a w y e r — s o w e n e v e r t a k e s i d e s o n p o l -i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s " . " M o t i n t e r e s t e d i n s u r v e y s o r o a n v a s s e r s . -50-I look a f t e r my own family". And- "We don rt need oommunity planned a c t i v i t i e s . Let each family look a f t e r t h e i r own chi l d r e n " . Other canvassers commented on t h e i r reception, reporting that people classed the survey i n terms of "hints of regimentation"; "too many personal questions", and reaoted defensively i n that they "did not want to he organized, or "they are s a t i s f i e d with things as they are". Other answers wanted to "know how much t h i s i s going to cost", while others stated "there are other things we need f i r s t " . A description of many of the problems affeoting the survey i s given, so that the reader can read f o r himself, what community organization e n t a i l s . By the middle of A p r i l , 1950, the questionnaires were analysed. Information that can be u s e f u l l y used by whatever body i s to be responsible f o r re-creation was derived. The many fact o r s , described i n the present study, a f f e o t i n g community l i f e , reduced the e f f i c i e n -cy of the survey r e s u l t s . I t had been planned to oontaot 1000 homes. Instead only a 50 per oent goal was aohieved. Inspite of the obstaoles, a v a l i d oross-seotion of opinions was returned, whioh oan help the municipality plan f o r i t s " r e c r e a t i o n a l " needs. The story of the questionnaires follow.* *. Questionnaire samples are included i n appendix B. -51-West Vancouver c i t i z e n s responding to the questions, showed that the population i s composed of many n a t i o n a l i t i e s , Both husband and wife said that t h e i r "early l i f e " was spent i n Canada, England, Norway, New Mexico, Scotland, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, Wales, or Ireland. But the majority of those residing here today come from B r i t i s h Columbia, England, Alberta, Ontario, and Manitoba i n t h i s order, with approximat-e l y 23 per pent of the population coming from outside of Canada. The birthplaces ef the high sohool students answer-ing the forms were B r i t i s h Columbia, Alberta, Saskateohewan, Ontario, and England, with approximately 10 per cent born out-side of Canada. West Vanoouver i s s a i d to be a r e s i d e n t i a l area, where most people own t h e i r homes. Prom the analysis of the r e p l i e s , 81 per oent of the c i t i z e n s own t h e i r homes. The Bartholomew Report made i n 1945, stated that 90 per oent of the homes were owned. This difference might r e f l e c t a trend, that the "haven" i s changing, and-now includes more people who rent homes. In l i n e with the high percentage of homeowners, 60 per oent answered that they also own a car. ...Talked to one of the RPC members about his work. It was just at the time of the very oold weather, and he explain-the shortage of car antifreeze f o r his customers...Then he pointed out some of the issues facing the garageman. "Do you know", he sa i d , "That only about 60 per cent of the car owners have t h e i r cars serviced i n West Vancouver,..Many people f i n d i t more convenient to have t h i s servioe done i n Vancouver where they work".... It may be that years of residence has something to do with the " s p i r i t " of a community. The survey showed that just - 5 2 -under 5 0 per cent of the present population have l i v e d from one to f i v e years i n the municipality; 2 4 per cent indicated that they have resided from s i x to ten years, while the same percentage said that they have spent f i f t e e n or more years i n West Vancouver. In the answers from the f i f t e e n or more years of r e s i d e n c e , . 5 0 per oent of these people reside i n Horseshoe Bay. I t i s small enough to have that " f r i e n d l y and informal" a t t i t u d e . And i t was here that adult volunteers were very anxious "to co-operate. Another question asked the people f o r reasons why they did not pa r t i c i p a t e i n ^recreation". In the four areas sur-veyed, 36 per oent r e p l i e d that there were no neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s ; that there were not enough f a c i l i t i e s ; or that r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s were too f a r from t h e i r homes. Ap-proximately 17 per cent were of the opinion that there was no one to look a f t e r the children, so that they could p a r t i c i -pate In recreation. 2 5 per oent of those interested enough to.reply, gave as reasons that they had no money, time, or were not interested i n reoreation. The remaining 2 2 per oent suggested laok of leadership, transportation, and other rea-sons as harriers to joining i n leisure-time a o t i v i t i e s . "Re-creation" means many things to people, but s p e c i f i c a l l y the survey showed that the adults emphasized what might be c a l l e d "nature" or "home" a o t i v i t i e s . 31 per cent favored gardening as t h e i r present leisure-time p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Close to 34 per oent voted f o r home hobbies, reading, ana home entertainment -53-as t h e i r c h i ef present pastimes. When asked what a c t i v i t i e s they would l i k e to do i f possible, 25 per cent stressed use of beaches and parks. Over 25 per cent would l i k e either to play at or watch sport. The next major reply, about 34 per oent, suggested reading, hobbies,.eduoational classes, and group association, as things they would l i k e to do. It i s amazing how varied "recreation" can be to di f f e r e n t i n d i v i d -u a l s . There are too many? d i f f e r e n t personal interests to inolude here. The sohool population, 12 to 18 years, also expressed wide differences i n "recreation". But the biggest d i v i s i o n was the 73 per oent who voted sports, l i s t e n i n g to the radio, t a l k i n g with f r i e n d s , crafts and hobbies, t h e i r f i r s t choioe f o r during-the-week a c t i v i t i e s they do presently. F i r s t choice was explained to mean that such-and-such an a c t i v i t y l i s t e d should be considered as most important to students answering. Present week-end leisure-time p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s again widely varied, but 68 per oent l i s t e d a s . f i r s t ohoice, sports, t a l k i n g with friends, dating, movies, dancing, l o a f i n g and l i s t e n i n g to the radio, i n t h i s order. What would t h i s age group l i k e to do i f i t were possible? According to the survey, 67 per oent would desire sports, crafts and hobbies, team games, oamping, movies, and music, as t h e i r f i r s t choice, during-the-week a c t i v i t i e s . Individual preferences c e r t a i n l y described recreation as meaning different things to different people. The young school-age oitiz e n s would change t h i s order - 5 4 -on week-ends, voting f o r sports, oamping, dating, dancing, orafts and hobbies, movies, and hiking i n this preference. It would be i n t e r e s t i n g from the point•of view of anyone responsible for s e t t i n g up a recreation programme, to know that many of the young people go outside of West Vanoouver for p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . According to the questionnaire r e p l i e s , 76 per cent of the high sohool students indicated that they v i s i t outside of the municipality to enjoy movies, sports, dating, hiking, musio, and meeting with a club, i n t h i s order. When asked i f they did part time work, 55 per cent sai d yes. Baby s i t t i n g was the g i r l s * chief means of making extra spend-ing money. The questionnaires sought c e r t a i n information related to - "group experience". The majority of the 12 to 18 year.old Students answered that they belong to an "association" of one kind or another. It would seem that the community Centre sponsors 24 per oent of the olubs; the churches 18 per cent, with sport-clubs or teams apparently operated by the schools comprising another 18 per cent. But the r e p l i e s did not con-c l u s i v e l y interpret who assumed the greatest r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s phase of "recreation". They did show that there are many groups. However, nearly 25 per cent who r e p l i e d , said they did not belong to a club or team, but would l i k e t o. In answer to why they l i k e or would l i k e to take part i n club a o t i v i t i e s , 65 per cent of the boys s p e c i f i e d , i n order of im-portance to them, that they j o i n groups because; they l i k e -55-being with a group of boys and g i r l s ; i t helps them to make f r i e n d s ; there i s good equipment to play with, or they l i k e to make things. The g i r l s agreed with the boys i n the f i r s t three reasons, but changed the others to say olub l i f e meant: they learn to make things; t h e i r friends are members, or i t gives them confidence to enjoy themselves, i n t h i s order of importance to them. That i s how the oommunity "spoke". It might be i n t e r e s t -ing, at t h i s time, to. o f f e r the following comment on the corn-unity's f i r s t ohoioe f o r rec r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , which i s a oommunity centre, "One of the most in t e r e s t i n g s o c i a l phen-omena of our day i s the very great inte r e s t i n the community centre idea, which has become so widespread that i t i s fr e q -uently referred to as a movement...Aocording to a Gallup P o l l survey 90 per cent of Canadians would l i k e to see those who f e l l i n World War 2 commemorated i n t h i s way...Perhaps never before has there been such a large scale spontaneous movement i n Canada direoted at the enrichment of oommunal l i f e . Its f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s not easy to appraise at t h i s time, but the p o s s i b i l i t i e s are so great as to s t i r the imagination not only of the philosopher and the p o l i t i c i a n but also of the ordinary c i t i z e n s . . . . " * 5 0 But i t must not be forgotten, that i t requires good leadership to make a oommunity centre what many people believe i t can b e — a valuable assest to oommunal 30. Youth and Reoreation: New Plans f o r New Times, Canadian Youth Commission, 1946, pp.143-144. - 5 6 -l i f e . Thia requires a varied program of leisure-time a o t i v i -t i e s whioh the oitizens f e e l they want. The RPC was i n t e r e s t -ed mainly, i n getting opinions r e l a t i n g to what type of f a c i -l i t i e s should he b u i l t . Whether any use w i l l be made of the questionnaire oontent, w i l l depend on what the oommunity de-cides to do about "recreation". Already there are c e r t a i n agenoies i n the d i s t r i c t keenly aware of the help suoh i n -formation oan mean i n devising a program. No sooner had the questionnaires been returned, that the school referred an association to the writer, because It wanted certain inform-a t i o n regarding the interests of the young people. The survey established a "schedule of p r i o r i t i e s " which oan a i d the municipality i n planning f o r the leisure-time needs of i t s c i t i z e n s * 3 1 Then a bigger taak awaits them.... " I t i s one of the ironies of o i v i c development and a strange commentary on the laok of ciyio' foresight that West vanooUver whioh, i n the beginning, was wholly a reoreational area, should now f i n d i t s e l f short of recreational f a c i l i t i e s and be considering steps to get them. West Vanoouver started out as a series of summer re-s o r t s — c l u s t e r s of summer cottages here and there along the beach. The PGE came and clusters became a fr i n g e . Later "Marine Drive was put through and the Lions' Gate Bridge was b u i l t and the fringe thickened out...Now there i s a populous 3 . . The writer's report to the RPC, inoluding s t a t i s t i c a l tables, i s included i n appendix C. community with ten or twelve miles of some of the most magni-fioent water frontage anywhere, a l l of i t except a few skimpy "bits here and there, alienated, This does not mean that i t i s too la t e f o r West Vancou-ver to take steps to provide i t s e l f with some water frontage f o r public use and with areas f o r sport and recreation, and rel a x a t i o n . At the two ends of the municipality there are s t i l l areas that oould be turned to public use...As f o r the rest there is nothing to prevent West Vancouver building up a system of parks and playgrounds i f i t s c i t i z e n s are interested enought to undertake the job. But parks oost money—money f o r pur-chase and f o r maintenance. A survey would be an excellent s t a r t i n g point. The Municipality should know what i t needs. But the development of a c i v i c s p i r i t and c i v i c pride which w i l l not rest u n t i l the needs are s a t i s f i e d i s also important 1*. 3 8 The survey, while establishing a long-term as well as an innediate plan f o r the community, did more than t h i s . "Exeoution" of the plan now becomes as big, or bigger, task. Many of the oitizens have been given an opportunity to p a r t i -cipate, and the writer believes that with proper leadership, many volunteers w i l l want to take part i n the set t i n g up of the plans. Possibly the biggest contribution i n the survey i s 32.. Vanoouver.Daily Province, May 25, 1949. the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to individuals and groups, of the object-ives of the RPC, where i t oould not e f f e c t i v e l y do t h i s f o r various reasons, not the least being the history of l e i s u r e -time organization i n the d i s t r i c t . "In a great measure the process goes on without conscious...direction, and does not become a matter f o r publio consideration u n t i l the.lmaladjust-ment of groups...makes e f f e c t i v e and united action impracti-c a l . Under suoh circumstances progress depends upon the dev-elopment of means that w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the,necessary adjust-ments between...groups...," 3 g "Planning" i s so often misunderstood as being a means to regimentation, that i t often causes differences of opinion between individuals and groups i n communities. This i s a mat t e r that requires some thought. Planning, i t i s true, can become an end i n i t s e l f . But the method associated with the survey makes i t possible f o r the "expert" and the people to work side by side, i n the planning and carrying out of the plan. As Kenneth L.M. Pray puts i t , "the expert and the people work side by side. The expert i s never—-almost never-on top; he i s always on tap"; The reoords of the present study i l l u s t r a t e one s i t u a t i o n , i n whioh t h i s p r i n c i p l e was followed: ...In discussing ways and means of d i s t r i b u t i n g the 33. Steiner, Jesse Frederick, Community Organization, Century Co., Hew York and London, 1 9 2 b 7 p«328 -59-questionnaires, a number of suggestions originated from the members of the RPC. Chief among these was the use of the mail...The writer i n t e r j e c t e d his opinion that experiences have shown that t h i s way i s not very successful. Usually a 10 per cent questionnaire-return results...Individuals pre-sent followed t h i s up, and the School representative admitted that the School had had "poor™ results when i t had u t i l i z e d the mail... .After further discussion the group decided against t h i s , i n favor of the method used.... C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was carried on throughout the survey, and i n every instanoe the members deliberated and decided on the important points that affected them. Even i n the work of tabulating the questionnaire r e s u l t s , the RPC members were asked, and some, did help. It has been said that one of the greatest temptations i n oommunity organization i s to do things f o r the oommunity rather than create the means whereby the community may do things f o r i t s e l f . The s o c i a l worker must always be aware of the role he i s playing. Professor E.G. Lindeman says that "the e s s e n t i a l problem of community organ-i z a t i o n i s to f u r n i s h a working r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Democratic Prooess and Specialism". The community organiza-t i o n "worker" must understand the individuals and groups who make the process, and his t r a i n i n g gives him a basis f o r doing t h i s . Wayne McMillen asserts that oommunity organization "... more than i n any other f i e l d , not even exoluding education, emphasis has increasingly been placed, not upon the attainment of immediate objectives, but upon methods of strengthening 34. Lindeman, Eduard G., The Community, Association Press, 1921, pi139. -60 the intergroup p r o c e s s " . d 0 . . . V i s i t e d the School to t a l k to a group of students regarding help i n the survey. Previous to t h i s worker had phoned the school p r i n c i p a l f or his permission, and at the •same time suggested that the group's adviser come along, whioh -he did. Afte r the t a l k to the student-teenagers, spent some time with the "'teacher-adviser". He t o l d worker that the address to the hoys cleared some prejudices he had, and gave him a d i f f e r e n t picture of the survey.... Through f a c t - f i n d i n g , use of volunteers, inter p r e t a t i o n , and the educational aspects of s o c i a l work, the survey has f a c i l i t a t e d future "community action" on the part of many of the o i t i z e n s , by making individuals aware of resources both within themselves and i n the oommunity. That problems of rel a t i o n s h i p e x i s t , i s not discounted, but they have been improved as. a resu l t of the survey method. Differences of opinion w i l l always e x i s t , but the product of the survey prooess cleared some of the differences, and leaves the way open f o r a determined e f f o r t to achieve the implications of the present study. •35. MoMillen, Wayne, "Community Organization", Social Work  Year Book, Russell Sage Foundation, 1947, pp.110-111 Chapter 5 THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY Community organization i s a method that operates within the Sooial Work frame of reference. Beoause of t h i s , there i s a v i t a l qonoern fo r the welfare of the i n d i v i d u a l and the group and the group i n the oommunity. Sooial Work praotioes democracy, since the core of i t s philosophy i s understanding the r e l a t i o n s h i p problems of people, helping them to adjust to t h e i r s o c i a l environment. The s o c i a l oase worker i s a s p e c i a l i s t i n i n d i v i d u a l problems; the s o o i a l group worker sp e c i a l i z e s i n working with groups. The s o c i a l worker i n community organization must understand the basio p r i n c i p l e s of each, emphasizing s o c i a l group work, but his perspective Is the ov e r - a l l oommunity r e l a t i o n s h i p s . This study has desoribed how community organization op-erates i n a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g . The "worker" makes use of a l l relevant resources present i n the area. L i t t l e by l i t t l e , he constructs the picture of the "patient" through knowing his community, examing his observations, the process, and so forms a "diagnosis" of the "health" of the community. I t becomes a part of thi s t h i n k i n g — s e e i n g the t o t a l p i c t ure. Every worker i n oommunity organization w i l l approach the p a r t i c u l a r task i n the l i g h t of his own personality, but he functions on the basis of S o c i a l Work p r i n c i p l e s , philosophy, and methods. At the beginning, the oommunity was desoribed. West Vancouver i s seen as a young growing suburban area, faoed -62-with speoial problems, both s o o i a l and administrative. These include the commuters, the muoh-extended development, and problems associated with "growing pains". It was pointed out that neighbourhood planning units appear to be part of the sol u t i o n to the d i f f i c u l t i e s . A review of the actions of a p a r t i c u l a r association or group, showed what can happen to the prooes, when the "commun-* Ity " does not pa r t i c i p a t e i n r a project which a f f e c t s i t . For three years t h i s action continued without any noticeable suc-cess. Then the Recreation Planning Committee was formed, r e s u l t i n g i n the survey. The role of the worker followed, describing his function i n the survey, the d i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n -ship issues at work due to the prooess, and i t s e f f e c t on the success of the Planning Committee's objective. The " r e c r e a t i o n a l " survey r e s u l t s indicated that many of the oiti z e n s are anxious f o r leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s . Re-oreation i s today considered as important as health, welfare, and education. Very few communities can provide a l l the "r e c r e a t i o n a l " servioes that are needed, l e t alone, desired. It i s because of t h i s that oommunity planning i s e s s e n t i a l . West Vanoouver, at least some of the o i t i z e n s , r e a l i z e that t h i s i s necessary. But i t i s important to keep i n mind that "recreation" i s not only supplying f a c i l i t i e s . Many commun-i t i e s have started with a program under the leadership of a pro f e s s i o n a l l y trained and experienced worker, even before t the desired physical resources are a v a i l a b l e . To secure the co-operation of the t o t a l oommunity, the meaning of reorea--63-t i o n must be borne i n mind. ...Addressed a women's olub yesterday. Previous to t h i s t a l k , the meaning of leisure-time or recreational a c t i v i t i e s was discussed. The president of the club reminded the worker that the questionnaires were t i t l e d " a recreational survey", and asked whether t h i s included c u l t u r a l interests as well as physical i n t e r e s t s . The reply was that to the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained worker, recreation is anything people want to do. Then from his own experience he explained how t h i s i s possible...Recreation i s considered not only an end unto i t s e l f , but i s a most valuable means towards personality development...But t h i s t a l k did help to focus t h i s point... that people do f e e l d i f f e r e n t l y about recreation.... S. R. Slayson, among other authors, discusses how the economy has made i t neoessary f o r people of d i f f e r e n t nations, to change.their thinking regarding "recreation". Reduction of work hours has greatly inoreased our leisure-time, which necessitates devising means f o r u t i l i z i n g constructively t h i s spare time, from the point of view of i n d i v i d u a l and the community's health. In his book, Recreation and the Total Personality, he attempts to show that a "store of a r t i f i c e s , games and f a c i l i t i e s , though important, are not i n themselves s u f f i c i e n t to serve the newly evolving requirement...The term 'recreation' has been used i n a sense opposed to 'educa-t i o n ' . For example, one was physical a c t i v i t y — p l e a s a n t and j o y f u l ; the o t h e r — i n t e l l e c t u a l and dreary...What was needed was the wedding of the two segments. Education had to be-come pleasanter and recreation more c o n s t r u c t i v e . . . . " 3 6 36. Slavson, S.R, Recreation and the Total Personality, Association Press, new York, 1946, p . v i - 6 4 -The nature and scope of recreation i s t r u l y wide. "...A host of ideas, many of them c o n f l i c t i n g , come to mind when one thinks of the meaning and values of recreation...What-ever the choice of recreation eaoh i n d i v i d u a l seeks to sat-i s f y some inner need...We are becoming increasingly more aware that ohoioe of recreation and hobbies i s related to i n -ner tensions and to character structure...The choice of a p a r t i c u l a r form of recreation i s determined also by opportun-i t i e s and the influences to which one i s exposed i n early l i f e . Preferences and ohoices are to a very large extent conditioned by the primary communities of the c h i l d — t h e home and the neighbourhood...Recreation was not always oon-soiously organized e f f o r t . When people l i v e d i n simpler com-munities, there were play opportunities and s o c i a l i z i n g ex-periences everywhere close at hand...Modern society was long i n grasping the implications of such a l i f e . . . a n d became aware of i t only when there were widespread breakdowns i n the pers o n a l i t i e s of many c h i l d r e n . . . . " 3 7 Communities are seeing reoreation i n a new l i g h t . In the past, physical a c t i v i t i e s were stressed, but today more people are aware of the need f o r "group experiences" which w i l l contribute to "good human relationships"* One main area of recreation which can contribute to the need f o r "good human re l a t i o n s h i p s " i s that of "group a c t i v i -37. I b i d . pp.8-18 t i e s " . The experiences of working with groups, focusses the need f o r oreative group experiences. "Sooiety, l i k e the chain i n the old adage, i s not stronger than i t s weakest l i n k . Individuals...(not) able to par t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n groups are the weak l i n k s i n society...These individuals need group experience, but neither they nor the group benefit unless they can make some pos i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n . . . . " 3 8 One of the major tasks facing s o c i a l workers i s to develop techniques and s k i l l s that oan he used to inorease p a r t i c i p a t i o n from members i n a group. Additi o n a l " t o p i s " are now being devel-oped, whioh, given the ohanoe to function w i l l mean better use of the s o o i a l process. We oan at least begin to help the younger generation. "Although the o r i g i n a l group that influences the struoture of the personality i s the family, the requirements of orderly growth include other group ex-periences of a deeply a f f e o t i n g nature. A l l important educa-t i o n i s derived from group experience. Whether i t i s learn-ing of facts or s k i l l s , t r a i n i n g of character, or developing of personality, the educative process i s a s o c i a l one; for i t qoours e i t h e r i n the family, the class, the gang, the club, or other such temporary or permanent groups...What i s i t that a c h i l d seeks when he joins a group or a club? A number of motives suggest themselves; the need f o r a f f e c t i o n , group 38. Wilson,Gertrude and Ryland, Sladys, Sooial Group Work -Praotioe, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, l y ^ y , p.64 -66-aoceptanoe, recognition, a c t i v i t y , s e curity, friendship, admiration, a sense of belonging...." In a report presented to a Committee on Community Org-anization, Department of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n March 1948, two c r i t e r i a were recommended for the evaluation of a t o t a l reoreation plan i n any oommunity. F i r s t , " f a c i l i t i e s and program f o r reoreation should be avai-l a b l e to a l l * with a balanced spread of a c t i v i t i e s to meet the needs of d i f f e r e n t age groups of both sexes, i n a l l areas". The second test was that "agenoies, public and pr i v a t e , conducting organized recreation should so conduct t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s as to strengthen positive personal and s o o i a l l i v i n g " . 4 * 1 ' It i s usually the function of private agenoies to sponsor programmes associated with "positive and s o o i a l l i v i n g " . But public agencies oan be concerned with such objectives, providing they have the q u a l i f i e d s t a f f and s i m i l a r philosophy. But 'one of the main points of t h i s study i s to recommend that any -oommunity recreation plan must think of the plaoe of servioes "whioh are primarily directed to meeting the needs of individuals through group a s s o c i a t i o n " 4 1 39. Slavson, S.R, Creative Group Education, Association Press, Hew York, 1945, p.10 40. Sorenson, Roy, Reoreation f o r Everybody: A Survey Report, Los Angeles Community Welfare Federation, C a l i f o r n i a . 41. Report of the Committee_on Community Survey, The Group, Volume 2, $4, Summer, 1949. Roy Sorenson supports t h i s thinking. "...What then are the group planning implioations f o r the future? Group work and recreation planning must he oriented -t,o,cthe big problem of our time; i n e q u a l i t i e s of opportunity and gaps in;.services f o r d i f f e r e n t parts of our population; the need of children and adolescents; r a c i a l needs and.tensions,...and the need f o r educating f o r demooraoy and world c i t i z e n s h i p " . 4 2 There are d i f f e r e n t l y aooepted means of s e t t i n g up a l e i -sure-time program. It i s not the purpose of t h i s study to ex-plore the advantages and disadvantages of each. Each commun-i t y w i l l meet t h i s problem as i t believes i s necessary. In West Vancouver the Recreational Planning Committee oould be-, oome the nucleus of a "reoreation commission". The main point, to the writer, i s that suoh a body must be composed of people interested i n reoreation, and helped through an employed ex-perienced professional worker, who i s aware of the implications of what leisure-time program can mean. The Recreation-Plan-ning committee was able to progress towards i t s objective, while the "co-ordinating committee set up i n 1947" remained more or l e s s s t a t i c . As i n everything else, good leadership i s the f a c t o r that makes f o r success. Process i s affected by understanding and trained leadership, otherwise the prooess leads to d i f f i o u l t and harmful relationships between groups i n 42. Sorenson, Roy, "Planning f o r Group Work Heeds", Proceedings of the national Conference of Sooial Work, ColumbTa University press, 1944, p.166 the oommunity. The Planning Committee went about i t s work In a s c i e n t i f i c manner. The survey aimed at what f a c i l i t i e s there are; what recreational needs e x i s t ; now the oommunity must plan to meet such needs. Whatever the organization that i s set up to plan f o r re-creation, i t w i l l be faced with many problems. Community re-oreation needs adequate areas and f a c i l i t i e s , This Was c l e a r l y shown i n the questionnaires, returned. Much can be done with l i t t l e equipment, but i t i s true that given proper f a c i l i t i e s the program can be abundantly enriched. Location of areas, cost of f a c i l i t i e s , maintenance and operation must a l l be con-sidered. A l l th i s can be part of an immediate and long-range plan, f o r acquiring areas and f a c i l i t i e s . West Yancouver muni-c i p a l leaders are. now planning a "master plan™ f o r the develop-ment of the community, ffihis would "co-ordinate the work of the various municipal boards™ and " a l l c i v i c projects would be categorized as to immediate needs, e s s e n t i a l heeds, and de s i r -able needs". 4 3 The chairman of a recreation commission, f o r example, could be part of the " c i v i c planning oommittee" res-ponsible f o r drawing up t h i s master plan. West Vanoouver i s already aware of many problems r e l a t i n g to playing areas,etc., brought out by the Bartholomew Report of 1945. Published standards exist f o r evaluating f a c i l i t i e s , playing areas, and even personnel i n reoreation, and these can be a reference 43. The Vanoouver Sun, February 5, 1950. source f o r whoever i s responsible f o r s e t t i n g up a recreational program i n West Vanoouver. i n the l i g h t of the material presented i n t h i s study, West Vancouver's "biggest need i s good leadership from the Municipal l e v e l . Not only from a group of reoreation~minded c i t i z e n s , "but with an experienced, preferably p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained direotor guiding the o v e r - a l l program. The main d i f f i c u l t i e s , reviewed i n the present study, would not neces-s a r i l y have happened had suoh leadership been a v a i l a b l e . A recreation program can well use the f a c i l i t i e s of the schools, churches, h a l l s , and other buildings both publio and private. Private agencies should be co-ordinated with publio programmes, and should supplement them as far, as possible. Reoreation lends i t s e l f b e a u t i f u l l y to neighbourhood p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The ci t i z e n s know what they want to do; what they need i s guidance i n how to make t h i s possible. It i s here that the professional worker can make his greatest contribution. In the e a r l y part of the twentieth century there were writers, such as Dr. E.C. Lindeman and Professor Jesse Steiner among others, who held the dimly-lighted torch of community organization a l o f t for. workers to follow, and b u i l d on to . Community organization i s more than co-ordination, which i s of course, an important p r i n c i p l e i n administration. Community organization i s both a method and process, helping people to meet t h e i r needs through co-operation; i n t h i s way i t helps to bu i l d the " s p i r i t i n a community. -70-Community organization i s a method that can "be used to a s s i s t the process to become more creative. It i s e s s e n t i a l l y demooraoy i n action, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l o c a l a f f a i r s , although many writers see i t i n i t s widest context. ",..Whether we move towards actual democracy i s no longer a matter f o r t h e o r e t i c a l discussions. I t goes to the very heart of the world predicament...The thing that matters sup-remely at t h i s moment i s to f i n d and develop methods by which those of us.who are ordinary c i t i z e n s can assume some (participation) i n the society of which we have become a pas-sive part, oan assert the authority and exercise the responsi-b i l i t y which, not only i n government but i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l • • departments of l i f e , we have c a v a l i e r l y delegated to others"? 4 Oommunity organization properly understood and carried out i s the reverse of delegation or " l e t George do it™. It i s a process of self-survey, which i s oreative. I f oommunity action does not f take t h i s course, i t may go the other way, and react l i k e the chain-reaction of atomio energy. Left out of control i t leads to s o o i a l destruction. Limited though the present study has been, i t suggests and i l l u s t r a t e s that oommunity or-ganization practices demooraoy. In a time when there i s great need f o r " r e a l " democracy, i t seems encouraging that a method oan be used that accomplishes t h i a , and at the same time, achieves i t s main objective. S o c i a l work t r a i n i n g i s directed towards, such goals. The West Vanoouver survey accomplished that. 44. Ferguson, Charles, A L i t t l e Demooraoy Is a Dangerous Thing, Association Press. -71-APPENDIX A OUTLINE MAP OP WEST VANCOUVER c .72-APPENDIX B SAMPLES OF QUESTIONNAIRES West Vancouver Recreational Survey Name, Address Grade, SCHOOL QUESTIONNAIRE (12 to 18.Years) .... Ago Sex: I or F (Please circle) Birthplace (•country or province) Do you ''do: part 'time work? Yes? No? (Please circle) What following activities do you take part in your leisure time at present? Number, in order of importance to you, that is; "1" for.the- activity taking up the greatest time; . "2" for-the- next most important; then '?3" > "4" ,, etc. .Activity ; • • • • During the week' \ weekends • Where? . '• ••• (N.. Van. ;w. Van. etc, Art.. ..'. . ....... ..'.. ... .. ... • What following activities would you like to do'if possible?.-Please number in order-of importance (1,2,3> etc..)  'Activity . During .the week weekends Reading.;.. Dating.................... Listen to the radio..... Handicrafts:& HP.bbiosw.., Dancing." Sports................... Movies. ......... Team games. Individual games... , Drama.. Music , A r t ' . . . ; . . . . . . . Study "group , Camping.. , Hiking...' , Other: (please write in), • • • • • 1 • * * * . • * * * • - • • * * . . " . * * . * * • • (Please turn over) Are you a member of a team? yes? No? Which one?, ( c i r c l e answer) To what club or clubs do you belong? please number i n order of importance ( 1 , 2 , 3 e t c t o you, i f you l i k e . Boy Scouts,... Sea Scouts.... T r a i l Rangers, Y.M.C.A Boys' Brigade. Boys Club Cubs Pro-Roc......... Teen town , CYO Tuxis. , Y.W.C.A . C.G.I*T.»« * .... Brownies G i r l Guides School Club Community Center. No club at a l l . . . Other. i n d i c a t e your reasons below why you l i k e or would l i k e to take part i n club a c t i v i t i e s ? I n d i c a t e your reasons by numboring i n order of importance ( 1 , 2 , 31 etc.) Because you l i k e being w i t h a group of the opposite sex?. Because you l i k e being w i t h a group of the same sex?........ Because'you l i k e being w i t h a group of boys and g i r l s ? Because there i s u s u a l l y good equipment t o play w i t h ? . . . Because club l i f e helps you make f r i e n d s ? Because you can l e a r n to make t h i n g s ? . Because you can l e a r n d i f f e r e n t hobbies?.... Because your f r i e n d s belong to a club?. Because the group gives you more confidence to enjoy y o u r s e l f ? Because i t i s e a s i e r to dis c u s s your personal problems? Because the lea d e r does a l l the planning f o r the program? Because the l e a d e r gives you some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n planning the program?,. Because the l e a d e r gives you a l o t of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n planning program?.. Because you have an opportunity of becoming a len d e r ? Because you can l e a r n about your community and c i t i z e n s h i p through d i s c u s s i o n ? Other • t • • • # 9 • • • Your community i s planning f o r f o l l o w i n g your community or d i order of importance (1 ,2,3,4, e t c ) , f o r fyoth columns. r e c r e a t i o n a l needs. I f you were asked which of the s t r i c t needs most, which would you say? Number i n ( F a c i l i t i e s ) One b i g community centre...... Smaller neighborhood centres.. One..main l i b r a r y A mobile l i b r a r y More developed parks..... More p l a y f i e l d s . Supervised playgrounds A T r a v e l l i n g playground....... Swimming pool ivuditorium. Gymnasium, Bowling greens, More use of school f a c i l i t i e s , C i v i c centre ., Camping s i t e s Other; ( A c t i v i t i e s ) Organized sports f o r a l l . , Forums and study groups, , Fr i e n d s h i p groups Pro-Rec Movies. Community play s & entertainment. Teenage canteens Nursery schools Opportunity to l e a r n s p o r t s . . . . . S o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . . . Drama groups. H a n d i c r a f t groups ..*.... Mus i c a l groups. Trained, l e a d e r s h i p a v a i l a b l e to groups i n your d i s t r i c t Other; , • WEST VANCOUVER RECREATION SURVEY FAMILY QUESTIONNAIRE. - • (for families with or without children) Name, (optional) Address.. .. •, (cross streets) How _ long have you lived in West'Vancouver? (Years): 1 2 3 1+ 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 or more? (Please circle) ' In what country did you spend your early l i f e (Province, if Canada) ALSO was it in an urban or rural (farm) centre? Husband Wife (coulntry) Urban Rural (Please 01 Urban' Rural' rcle) Do you own-a car? Yes? No? Do you own or rent a home? Rent? Own? •• > • • • Are you building a home? Yes J No? (Please circle your answers) . , . What following activities do members-of your family take ,part in at present? Number in order of importance. Ex. "1" for the activity taking up-the greatest time. "2" for the next most.important, than "3", "h", etc. Activities Members of the Family. Husband Wife Pre-school 5~^ 3 v r s teen Where? age (W.V.,'N.V.)'9t Picnics in tho park(summer)« Visits to the\beach(summer), Sports (playing)-Sports (watching) ».«,......, Use of library............., Attend the'movies.. Stay'home to road........... Listen to radio-Use the playground........., Use 'the community' centro. •. , Trips away from homo .., Play a musical instrumont. • , Entertain friends at home... Do homo hobbioso o. a..... e .-. , Belong to a club.,...„.»... Ico skate(winter). 0 o . o . . , . . Roller skate.o».c3a........ Night school classes , Kindergarten .............. Gardening Drama group. . Q O « . . , . . , Other: (P-loaso write in)..... What following activities would you or your family like to do i f possible? Please number, in order of importance. (1,2,3»U»'etc.) Activities . Husband Wifo Pre-school 5-13 y r s Teen Age Picnics in the park(summer) Visits to tho beach(sunner) Sports (playing).o. *....... • Sports (\vatching). • ••. c. •. •• (OVER. PLEASE) 0 » O a O o O j a o a o a o o a a o a a a • • a- » tt a * • o • • • • • * « I • • • • • © o o * » a a « a a » a a a a » » a » » * o » . » a i * * * * f f » l l l f t l H M I I I M I t t t l H , • • 0 • a • b a • •' « a « o a • a a • a a a a » * » « « ^ a • • a a a a a o a a a » a a a a a • •(continued) Husband Wife Use of .library, »«»#»..»»«»« *> •«.» « c c « o « •:» • • . • • • • • - » a • Attend the movies,,»»...,,.....;=,., Stay home to read#»•......«»., ; Stay home to listen to radio.«-, ^ ,.„, „, Use the•playground••«*r*»*»*.« Use the community centre. .«. Tri ps -away from''-home••••(•••on, Do home hobbies•»*«*..».•.•••«, Ice' skate (winter)#»*. < . a . . , « 0 < Ski (winter)4****»•'»•••»•HI<«. Belong to a club* »• *»*»>*•*««•• Night school classes»• *-.»«•»..• Drama' groups... a . a • « a . . 4 Kindergarten* • • Others: (Please f i l l in)Pre-school.-. 5-13 7 r s Teen Age ft ft • # • • • a f t 0 t t * ) O W * » * » »tt-0-ft{>*»*'*0 > • • • tt ft ft 0 -0 o • • * ft • « o • 0 1 i i o • • * • 9 I » I « » t • * 1 I M I I I I tt tt 0 o 0 ft • « * * 0 0 * 0 * 0 ft • • • • •'• tt' » * « » • • « » v » * A # • « • » • 0 • « 0 0 • 0 0 * 0 * 0 • a # • • 0 0 • 0 • 0 • v o t e * * • < 0 « 0 • • • « • • * • • • • * « 0 * 0 0 0 * * ) • • « * • • 0 e 0 • 0 0 0 * • * « • • • « # * * e 0 0 • • i> 9 » * 0 0 « 9 M t t e tt • e o « e • » « * • © • « 0 0 0 ft o • « 1 o * « • • • • ( > • • • 9 • • V * * • 0 ft ft « • * 0 « ft 0 ft * 4 • »'• tt * • • • • • Q • t • • ft • • a • » * • • • • * 0 •§ • • • • t • « » • • • • • 0 • 0 • 0 * * • • * • * * • 0 » #• • ft • 6 0 • » • • • • fl tt tt O 9 tt « 0 0 ft ft ft ft 0 E> « * tt * • 1* » o » a • » n a « • • 9 * O t t * • O t t * • C * ft « 0 0 • * ' 0 f t 9 9m • • • * • « • tt •••**•< • •••••« • a c» • a * • • ft 0 * ft ft ft 0 0 0 0 * * 0 0 ft * • tt » # ft « • •• tt f> tt • • • • a 0 « » • * • » * • > • • : * ! • « « & « * « 0 4 . 1 * « #> * .# *- • • i • 0 "* •* « 0 < < • * * ' « • • • • ' < '•»•• 1 • 0 » * • • • • 1 • i > 9 t t « « « * . 9 0 0* 9.9 ft » • * * * * t t » 0 0 4 > * ft -ft ft 0) ft I i * » • W ft • * ft I i 9 * •>-'*> * » *"» I t » • * » « • * « f i 0 9 .0 0 # « » tt> f* i * V t t t t « * * * l If you or your family are not able to join' in organized reoreation in your oommunity indicate below reasons for this« Mark your reasons • in-order of importanoej la2^9ht i f necessary. Wo available recreational facilities in your district for.the family? Mot enough.recreational facilities i n your district? «* * * *»•Q *# *••»*•» •Paoiltties -are too' far from your .home? . •Have•.no money to spend on recreation? •,. * • • 0 * • • 'Have no time --to *• spend • on recreation? #. * « . » * * • • » • » • • • • * • • • e • • « . .Not interested in 'recreation? «. • • •-•-*- • •» Ho-.opportunity to : join : a- club you like? • ITo- trained "leadership to organise' present -facilities? *>•••*>••• v-v»»> No •••one to look .after the children? •*«•••«.*«• •« M M M M M M « « •> •«»»• * ;"Have. no"- idea :what^facilities there .are i n the community?»• •»• •«• • Bus transportation too costly?•••.»••••»••.•••».• e»•••••«•«.•» Bus schedules make i t difficult to take part in community recreation? •Other-reasons :• (Please write • in)* •«--••«••-» 0 ••••«••••«••••«»•. * »»«• • •»• • 0 « ttO 0 * 9 * 0 tt ft O » tttttttttttVH O e 1 t I • Q I • • # * • ( ! • • • • * • • B * • * If 3 tt'ttt • * < • • tttttttttttttttttttttttll** C I * • "•» '» • • 0 « 9 * * t t « O * « * 0 • • • • • • • # • « # • « • • • • » • • » » • • • • » * • • • • • 0 9 9 0 9 0 « * * » • « » ' * « » * • e • • « t « » * • » • * * • • • • • • • • t i l * '« * ' . « ' • '« 0 9 * 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 » » e 9 v * # • 9 « * « * a • » # * tt *«9 « l> • •> * *) • •>••*••* * * * * * * * ^ • • • * • • • * • • 9 9 9 0 9 0 0 9 0 «.•*>*« * • • « « • « * » » *• f«»lff J ,-' Your 'comiuunity is. -planning for recreational' needs.- If -ycu were asked .which of'the following .your community needs most which would you say? • Number .in order of import-I j 2 y 3 y h a ' etc) if-necessary, ^ (Answer both-columns) . — — - —- — ancei « G tt « • One big community c e n t r e , * Neighborhood community .centres One central library*, a«. 0. .'•«•• More developed parks,*•o* More playfields Supervised playgrounds«. ••<>•• D A travelling playgroundso* © o • 6- A swimming -pool<>. * *«* # o» «> An ..-auditorium* ••««••«<>• -.-e # * A "^gymnasiumi.• »<»•»••• /•Bowling ..greens »•»#*• More use of school facilities. Civic centre.«•»• «•••«• * • ».*.»*« Camping sites«« • * ••»<> <»»••«•«•» Other*•*•«•*««••# o«•»***••0 go« • • • • • • « ! • • • • a D « * # t t « » « * t t « O t t a • * e « • * • • • » * * » • * • • • • • • • • « O t t O O # t t • • • * 8 * f} tt tt 0 S tt o a 0 • • 0 ^ • • 0 • e • tt • o • 0 9 «• n 4> o e w a e 0 © • • « » « * 0 4 » 0 i SI Ii W i O & W 1 <* » • • • • • • & y • a 0 p 0 • t 1 « a v o 0 o « e « « o • a « * « • * • * » * • • e 0 « 9 • «•'*.« • • 9 9 9 C P 0 © c • * n t> 1 i t * • a 0 e t 0 » 4 0 : » ft • O * B t 9 e t D B * * » « » e • • * ( M M Organized .sport"Er for .all»»-»» »•»»,# -PrO —lllOG a • 0 :•••» a • 6 « • • 0 * • • 0 * * « « » # * » » .Movies• s • • o « * * • ' • • • • - 0 : « ' « 0 - 0 • • * • * * • Forums ,and :-study groups»•-•--. «»'•-.-•• Friendship groups 900 • • • •••-#• ••'Coimaunity plays & .entertainmentf Teenage" canteens*.. • • • «>-• 0 0 . 0 * • • Nursery school* ««"•'»•«' •«•» Opportunity • to - :learn"' -sports * t'«-»:a-• Social -activitioswtt-.'»•. • • o 0 « • • • Drama- groups eHandicraft ..groups -Musical•groups . Trained, leadership - arailablev.-io -in the' -community. 0 ».tt-#-» •-•--0 Other© 0 f> 9 9 9 9 9 *"•) M l f C M I M f l t M M O t t * K t t t t 6 t t . t t t i 4 t t t t ^ 0 Ottttt t t t l * » « * t t t t » t t * t t t t t t • ' O * t t ' « * f l * # t t t t ' t t » « 0 t t « * 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 * 0 *'•.*> 0 ':0 • Ott I • f l I I • » « » * II «'l 9 * 9 9 9 • « » • # 0 • 0 00 f ft • • ft « 0 ft ft 0 * * « « ft • * 0 • • J » tt 0 # 0 f t * • ft 0 ft ft roups 9 0 9 9 0 0 0 0 f t * • ft » ft # WIST YANCOUVER"BECREATION SURVEY .-' : • GENERAL QUEST IONNAIHE (for single men and women 17yrs fc over) Name. (optional) Address V....... • .. (cross streets enough) How long have you lived.in West Vancouver? (years) 1 2 3 4 - 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 or more? (please circle your answer) !(In what country did you spend, your early Life?;ALS0 was it in an urban or rural ~. [ farm) center? •- . .; ' (country or province) ., ;• urban? rural? .. (please circle ^ 3ex: M or F? (Please circle) Are you living at home? alone?' :with friends? with relatives?: (Please :circle) What educational level did you have the opportunity of getting? Junior matric?; senior matric?; commercial?; Correspondence?; University? Other? (please circle your answer) Are you working-full time? part/time? Own a car? Yes? No? ( Pleaso circle answer) How do you spend your leisure time (when not working) at Present? Mark by "1" . the activity taking up the greatest amount of time; Mark "2" the next most important THEN " 3 » , e t c . in order of importance, (mark in the column indicated the things you would like to do, ,if possible). . Activities week days week ends , : - VChorG? • (W.V, N.V., etc* Would like to do i f possible •1 Modern dancing...... •....... Art•....*•..«.* *.»..#.*...... « • * * • • « Visits to places of interest. Pro—Re c.....»..«......,...... • a « Do vou belone to a club or e'roun? V -.-(please circle your answer) (please turn over) indicate-'your reasons why you like or would like to belong to a group*, order of importance (1,2,3,4,5) Number in Because you .can make new friends of the opposite sex easier in agroup?. Because you can make new friends of the same sex easier ic a group?...-. Because the leader can help the group to have a varied program?.,-. Because you can plan to do the things you want to do?,..,........-...... Because i t Is possible i i a group to discuss marital problems? Because i t is possible in a group to ialk about' your work problems?..., Because it is easier in a group to help^develop your community or district? Because you have more ppportunity of learning skills?.-. •Because you have more opportunity of making things?.... Because it gives you social standing?, Because being in a group, cuts'down individual expenses? .Qther reasons,: (please, .write in).,......,............... If you are not able to join in organized recreation in your community or district indicate-below reasons for this,-" Mark your rca'.sons In order of importance(1,2, etc Not - enough re-vreational fa c i l i t i e s in your district?........:». ............. Facilities are too far from your living- quarters?........ ,:, Have no Money to spend on recro-'ition? .'. No Opportunity to j oin a group you like?,.,...... ......-»-,...........,".... No trained leadership to organize present facilities?..-............... Have no idea what facilities there are In your district or comt.iurijty?........ Bus transportation too costly?..............» Bus schedules- make i t difficult to take -part '• in-Your district recreation?.... .-• Other reasons: (please write in).,.."....."...,',.»'-......:. your district - is planning for-recreational needs. :If you were asked which of the following.it needs most,, which would .you spy? Number in order of importance (1,2 -3,4,.ate.) • (please answer both columns,) • ; Facilities . One big community, center.;.... •Neighborhood community centers., One central library,......-,.... More developed .parks........ •', More playfields................, Supervised playgrounds.......... A travelling playgrounds, , - A •swimming' pool.-,..............., An auditorium.:,...................-., A gymnasium.:........,....., Bowling greens.................., More use.of school facilities.., Civic center...................... Csjnping sites,.................. Other: (Please write in).,. , »•.., , *», . « . • * • . . • . . . . . « Activities Organized sports for a l l . . . . . . . . . ."Pro-Rec,,....................,. Movies.......-... ..... Forums and 3tudy groups.......... Friendship -groups.............. Community plays entertainment., '.Teenage canteens,. Nursery schools...........-. ..,..»• Opportunity to learn sports,,. Social, activities.., , Drama groups. Handicraft groups,...........*.... Musleal - groups ,-.., -,..... Trained leadership available td groups in the community............... Other..'-.> .-» * * • a WEST VANCOUVER RE GREATIOK SURVEY SENIOR CITIZEN' QUESTIONNAIRE (60 yrs. & Over) Name."..". Address. i (optional)' • -(cross -streets-will do ) Age....? Sex: ,;M or - F?- ' Married? Single? Widow? Widower? (Please oirole answers) Do you-live In your own house?'With your children? With relatives?' With friends?, (ploase circle your answer) How*long have you lived in West Vancouver?, (years') 1, '0,k\5, .6,7,8*,?,10,15,20,30 more? • (Please' circle your answer) In what country did you spend your early lif e (province), i f Canada? ALSO;, was i t in an urban or rural (farm) centre? (country or province) Rural? - urban? (Please circle answer) Do.you have to work'to make ends meet? Yes?. No? If yos, full-time? • part-timo? (Please circle, .answer) How-.much 16-isUr-e-timo do you havo each day?. - (Hours) 0'1-2 3-U' 5-6 more? (circle) T/ha-t. dOi you- do with your leisure- timo at pro sent? - Number in birder of "• importance (IJ2-, 3,U,etc. )• i f - necessary.- - • • ~" . . - >— - • »• • - • -. -Activities- week days weekends"' (w.e:rs.v,Et Hobb ios,.» • • • • • . • . • * . • • -• * • . . - • . . . • » « . . • . . . . * . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . »>• • • • • • • • < • • • • • • • • • • • • •'• • Quiet, games .(cards, bingo ). ,-. .......... .. .... . • •o.o O f t 0,0.-0 • • m * ft « i * • « - « ' • r • • • • • • « . * • ' A 4 3 0 -O C 0 0 * • • 0% 0 • t * • t> lO a o o o « o t o o.o • • ' 0 0 0 • . • . 0 . 0 » • o 0 • • » < 9 o e • • • • • 0 V 9 • 0 • I Flay.- chess, .. oheokors, oto. . . . i * . . > < • • « » « . , « . . * « : , . . . . . . . . . . o o o o o o a * o o « o » a 0 0 • 0 • • • • • f • • • • • ; . . - ' If i t - i s not possible for you to take part in leisure time recreation in-your district,: indicate .-your-reasons below. • Number • in-order of •  importance - (,l,>2;3»Ujeto. ) You , are physi cally unable to get around? .......... .v There are no recreational opportunities for your age group?........• Recreational facilities are too far from your home?..................... • Not enough leisure time recreation in your district?...,................. You have no idea what leisure time activities exist in your district?.... You are not interested in rocraation? .,,.«...».«,... No trained leadership to organize present facilities in your district?,.... Bus transportation too costly? . , . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bus schedules make i t difficult to join your district recreation?'.......... Because you are too busy at home?......................o.................. • a o o o o o o o * b • • • * Other reasons : (please write in) ««.».«•»«••»••*••«-• -.-.•»• «••••*»•»•••»• • » • • «•-.••-••••• »••••• ••••••••**•#»•» , a > a t . * t » t < « , * * « a . f t a a a a a . a . . . t a . t . , » « a a » » . a . * • * , . * * t « o < > t . . > a « < » a > a a > . e « a . a , . , . « . . * * » . « 8 a a » « » » « « « » . « « . » » » « a » » « » f t » a « . a a a a B » a t l t « f t a t . t a t . a a a a a . t a a . » » « » « » . » « 8 a » 0 » » « » f t « » » » Do you belong to a Senior Citizens' Club?. Yes? No? (please oirole answer) Do you belong to any group? Yes? No? : IMch one».*•....».*.... . v . . »*» •*««»«• •**»" Indicate your reasons why you like or would like to- bel&ng to: avgroup? lferk;;your > reasons In order of importance (1,2,3,U, etc.") i f necessary. You -could be with people of your own age,- and do things you like to do?.... You would not feel left out of everything?.«...,y«, ......... v . . . . . . . . . a . , a . You would like to learn special things to do?."............*«..»...••'•«.« •You--wculd- like to teach the skills you have?....................»*.«...«.«» You could learn to do things that are important for living today?...»**»•» You like to do simpie things?.....«••..........«..••.•.>......>....•....... Your group could arrange meetings with younger, and other groups for fun?.* Your group could do something for people in need of help? ..•.».»..«»....»».» Other .reasonss (Please write in)..*,.., * • . • . * t , » a a a » a a « o « * a . , . , . « . . . , , , , . a a a » o a t a t a o , a . « a » a t a t t e a a a a a a . » t . , , , , * . . , . , , • » • . > . . . . , * • . . . . . . . . . . . . . < i . . . » a • » . » . t t . » « • « » * • . • • • . i n . a o a . , . a . . . . , « • > » » l . ft t » t . • • t > . - » * . I t t l l > * . : » " - . a .* « • » 1 1 1 < I H i l l » « • . . « > • . . • « . . . t . » . •> « t . • • « t • • • • » • » • a • ft Your community or district is.planning for recreational needs. . rIf you were asked -which- of the- following it needs most, which-would-you say?, -Number your choices -in-order of importance (l,2,$,I).,oto.) i f necessary. - • Facilities Activitias O f t t . 0 One big community centre,»,,,, Neighborhood community centres One central- library..,....,,,, More developed parks More playfields. Supervised playgrounds«,...... A travelling playground..... A -swimming peel. . An auditorium........ -•»..... A gymnasium, »»:•«*»»«,• •»• «•'•*> -Bowling greens... ."»......... • • Moro uso of school .facilities. Civic center.* . >:Camping sites.:....... •'..-,-'. .. •. .Other: .(please- write In).•... • . « « • . • « • • • « • , . • e « •-. » » * • • • • « « » • K I H I K i l l l t l • ' » - » ' . . • . . . • . * ' » ' » . » t » • ft., « . t ) ' « • • • • • > • - • ' " * " « ' - , " . - » - , '« . • t I 0 e . o » t o « a « a o t . . • . . . O f t .''« . « ... t . « t ( H 4 B B . . . . e a • . o . , « 6't 0 » . 0 . 9 . . . a a * a . . a a a • a t a a * • a a a • O . . » ft , * a a « t Organi zed spo rts -for a l l . ....,, PrO "*R0 0 a . * a o a a a a a * a » • * • a . a a a • a » > MoVieS e t B O a . » a t . . t . a a ,"«•' a » a « • . Forums -and study groups..-.-«.«.. Friendship- groups, w» .•.-•>... »%-..•, Community plays & entertainment, Teenage canteens a . . . . » « • Nursery schools . . - a . a » - . . - . . • . Opportunity to-learn-sports*.a,, •Social activities.»'...:...,...... -Drama groups«*-.-»-*.. •». .. ••••. ..Handicraft groups ...,,., .«"*-, v.. -Musical groups,, • .•-».-,,-«».••»-»'*-,•»*-,Trainodieadership avallable to the district. ..«.--.»«»,-»*» Other; (pleaso write In) **»-*.-•«• o » a a . . . a o a o a a a a a a » a a a a » ft.aa.... a a « t a a t * a e a * a a e a a « » - > a a « a a a « . a * a . . . » • O f t . t i l l a . * a . , « a « » • » ft t tt ft . * • .» O S * . a e . « t a t . » a • , e a . . a « • » . ft . * . > A * « > « « • • t * . ft » c a , a a a-e . a, . . . ft , t » a *'««•* . ft . . a * » » * a a • . . . . . f t groups i n . » a » «-••»-« a ft < J -73-APPENDIX G SURVEY REPORT March 21st, 1950. TO ALL MEMBERS OF THE •RECREATION PLANNING COfft.gTT.EE Tho Recreation Planning Committee meeting of March lijth, 1950 roquested that I present a "concise" summary of my'remarks, as told to this group, regarding the results of the public-opinion-poll-survey of recreational interests in West Vancouver. Tho goal for tho survey was sot at 1000 questionnaires, or approximately one out of three in terms of homes. As Table 1 indicates, just over 500 were received, that is a l i t t l e better than 50%. This response is consid-ered good in a questionnaire-type of survey. It often runs to much less than this percentage, and seldom over. On the whole, this means that one-in-six homos.were reached. If weather conditions had been more favourable, a higher coverage would undoubtedly have been possible. Nevertheless, the regional distribution was good, and there is every reason to believe the -results are representative. As the members of the Recreation Planning Committee know, West Vancouver 'was divided into four main areas, so as to secure a cross-section of opinion of tho total community. About 70% the number of replies came from areas A and B, the more densely populated sections of the municipality, which was wanted. Because of the interested volunteer help in areas C and D, a good . coverage was obtained from those much spread-out communities. The adequacy of tho cross-section reply was duo to tho fact that volunteer canvassers followed the scheme suggested by tho director, so that the total area in each division, was represented in the opinions expressed. This was done to avoid a big number of votes from one particular area, which could have unduly prejudiced the quostionnairo responses. The main groups which the survey aimed to got at were tho school popula-tion and the parents. In each division, all four questionnaires wero pre-sented to tho homos visited, but for reasons obvious to those who canvassed, the senior citizens refused to be interested even loss than many families, and therefore there were not enough replies on which we could base a repre-sentative summary. Wo did secure some responses from tho young adult popula-tion, but again these were not sufficient on which to base an interpretation of.interest. A complete picture of the 508 questionnaires received is given in Table 1. Both tho parents and highschool students gave as number one choice' a "big community centre". A modern community cant re can be built to include other main preferences, such as a gymnasium and auditorium.- The big clash of opinion was over the swimming pool. In spite of the family vote being lower than expected, clear indication was given that after a centre and a -2-library, parks, playgrounds, and playfields are wanted. It is an accept-able procedure, in this instance of tho family response, to multiply the family votes by two, since there are twice as many adults as students. But in this case, the percentages for the family replies would not differ, and the greater numbers would merely strengthen the trend already indicated in the tables inoluded with this report. One of the most significant differences in the family vote is the emphasis, after the community centre and the library, given to neighbourhood centres and supervised playgrounds. The comparison between this and the highschool student votes is shown in Table II. It is my.opinion that the Recreation Planning Committee would be on solid ground, as a result of this survey, i f i t established a priority schedule, possible along such lines: 1 . Community Centre, to include an auditorium and gymnasium, and built for "multiple-use", 2. Main Library. 3 . More -developed parks, playfields and supervised playgrounds. [4.. It is clear however, that the role of subsidiary or neighbour-hood community centres should bo carefully explored, particu-larly for areas A and C. Such a "priority l i s t " would satisfy the general community, as it has ex-pressed itself through the questionnaires. As a result of the above suggestion, the main activity vote (see table III) could easily be met. There is a definite interest in Sport, on the part of both student and parent, and both outdoor and indoor sports would be possible, as well as most other interests indicated. Table IV compares "activity" interests from the point of view, of the two groups. Tho wide spread of votes among aotivities shows a lively interest in many leisure-time outlets, at least cn the part of these who responded to the enquiry. Recreation is today considered by many a community responsibility, ' as important as health, education, and welfare. Reoreation means differ-ent things to different people, and there is no single or simple way of meeting this need. However, under qualified professional leadership, able to mobilize the wealth of volunteer resources in the community, and working with a body of oitizens chosen for their understanding of what recreation can accomplish towards the development of the individual personality, as well as for "fun", there appears nothing'out of the ordinary to prevent West Vancouver developing over the years, a recreational program that will fully meet the wishes and needs of its citizens, irrespective of age, oolor, and creed. The aotual planning of the facilities, etc. will of course call for further consultation and committee leadership, over a period of years. But tho survey has certainly defined definite recreational objectives-The participation of the citizens and the work of the Recreation Planning Committee has kindled a different community spirit, which i f given a chance to grow, will moan much to the leisure-time welfare, of the people of West Vancouver. Respectfully submitted, Jack Hopkins, Survey Director. F a c i l i t i e s .Vote 1st Choi ce . Table I T o t a l T a b u l a t i o n Code A - Between 9 th - 17th S t r e e t B - Between 17th - 27th Street C - Between 27th-:-'-32nd Street D - Horseshoe Bay Area F a c i l i t i e s A B - . Arenas D Total One , -bi g Communi t; Centre T h2 31 23 10 106 . 20 Smaller Neighbor} Centres • lood 18 3 : a 3 ;" 10 hk 9 Auditorium - 12 ; •: h 27 5 -.Gymnasium 22 11 17 2 58 11 More developed Parks 11 . - 7 5 28 6 More . P l a y f i e l d s 6 2 ,, •,\,5 '.'5 16 3 Supervised - Playgrounds 7 k 7 \ • _ 2 20 U Swimming Pool 35 31 : 11: : 3 82 16 Ice Skating Rink, 6 5 •-.'•.-•-.••2 2 15 3 Main L i b r a r y 39 18 lU 75 15 Mobile L i b r a r y , 2 h 1 More use of -School F a c i l i t i e s 3 ; 6 1 C i v i c Centre '• •: 7 /:•'. 1 8 2 Camping S i t e 3 2 2 1 8 2 Miscellaneous k 2 2 12 2 TOTALS 217 . 1 3 3 , ' 108 ' 5 0 508 1 00 Tabulated from 3I4O School Questionnaires and 168 Family Questionnaires. Facilities Votes 1st Choice Showing distribution of Family and' School Vote Table II  Code A - Between 9th - 17th Street B - Between 17th - 27th Street C - Between 27th - 3 2 n d Street D - Horseshoe Bay Facilities A B Famil y D Total A B School D Tot a; L % One big Community Centre 9 8 15 3 35 23 2h 21 6 6 57 19 Smaller Neighborhood Centres k 1 6 8 19 13 lh 2 7 23 5 Auditorium h 1 3 1 9 6 5. U 1 2 12 3 Gymnasium 1 2 3 2 19 15 16 2 52 17 More developed Parks 3 1 1 h 9 6 7 14 6 1 18 6 Mo re playfields l 2 U 2 9 6 * 5 1 1 7 2 Supervised Playgrounds 3 h 7 2 16 11 1 Swimming Pool k 3 l 2 10 6 31 28 10 3 72 23 Ice Skating Pink 1 1 2 l 5 2 U 1 12 3 Main Library h 8 2 . 28 19 23 8 5 2 38 12 Mobile Library 2 2 k 1 More Use of School Facilities 3 3. 6 2 Civic Centre 2 2 1 3 1 1 Camping Site 2 1 1 1 5 1 Miscellaneous 1 1 3 1 6 3 2 1 6 2 TOTALS 36 28 he 27 1U8 100 151 93 58 20 321 100 Activities Votes 1st Choice Total Tabulation Table III  Code A - Between 9-17 Street B - Between 17-27 Street C - Between 27-J2 Street D - Horseshoe Bay Activities A B C D Total Organized Sports . for all 58 27 19 11 115 27 Opportunity to learn sports 31 • 17 12 6 66 15 Pro Re a. 7 h 2 5 27 6 Community plays and entertainment 11. 7 h 2 2h 5 Teenage Canteens 27 17 n 1 56 13 Social Activities 8 2 5 15 . 3 Movies 5 10 6 6 27 7 Forums and Study Groups 6 1 3 • 1 11 2 Drama Groups 5 2 l 8 2 Musical Groups h h 5 2 15 3 Craft Groups 9 8 9 1 27 7 Nursery Schools h 2. 2 8 2 Trained leadership, etc. 5 3 10 2 20 5 Mis oellaneous 9 2 3 lh 3 TOTAL 189 106 90 39 h2h 100 Activities Votes 1st Choice Showing distribution of Family and Sohool Vote Table IV Code A - Between 9 - 17 Street B - Between 17 - 27 Street C - Between 27 - 32 Street D - Horseshoe Bay Activities A B ''amil ^D I Totall' % A B Sc^oo Tota" % Organized sports for a l l 3 5 k 5 17 15 53 2i4 15 6 98 32 Opportunity to learn sports 6 h h 1 " 15 lk 25 13 8 5 51 16 Pro Rec 3 2 2 U 11 10 k 1 7 2 Community Plays and entertainment 3 2 5 9 7 1 • * 17 5 Teenage Cante ens 2 3 5 U 25 11 1 51 16 Social Activities 1 2 3 3 7 2 3 12 k Movies 1 l l 3 5 U 9 6 3 22 7 r oi uiiib aim Study Groups 3 2 1 7 6 2 1 3 1 Drama Groups 5 2 1 8 3 Musical Groups l 2 1 U U 3 u 3 l 11 3 Craft Groups h l 9 11+ 13 5 8 l 1U Nursery Schools 3 2 2 ' 7 6 l 1 Trained Leadership, etc. h 1 8 2 x5 'lU l 2 2 5 l Friendship Group 1 1 2 2 U 1 O y 3 Mis cellaneous 1 1 1 h h 3 11 3 TOTALS 32 21 37 21 111 100 152 95 55 18 320 100 - 7 4 -APPEHDIX D BIBLI OGrRAPHY Books Ferguson, Charles, A L i t t l e Demooraoy Is a Dangerous Thing, Association Press. Ford, Lymas S, "The Effe c t of World War 2 on Community Organ!zation", Proceedings of the National Conference of  Soci a l Work, Columbia university Press, 1944. ! Johnson, A r l i e n , "Community Organization", Sooial Work  Year Book, Russell Sage Foundation, 1946 Lindeman, E.C, The Community, Association Press, 1921 McMillan, Wayne, "Community Organization", S o c i a l Work  Year Book, Russell Sage Foundation, 1947 MoMillen, Wayne, Community Organization f o r Sooial Welfare, University of Chicago Press, 1 9 4 7 . " Maolver, R.M, Community, MoMillan and Co*, Ltd., London, 1917 MoClenaham, Bessie Averne, "The oommunality—the Urban Substitute f o r the Tr a d i t i o n a l Community", Sociology  and Social Research, 1945-6. Hewstetter, Wilbur I, "The S o c i a l Intergroup Work Process", Proceedings of the National Conference of  Sooiai Work, Columbia University Press, 1947 Pray, Kenneth,L.M,"When i s Community Organization S o c i a l Work Practice"?, Proceedings of the national Conference  of Speial Work, Columbia University Press, 1948. Slavson, S.R, Reoreation and the Total Personality, Association Press, .New York, 1946 " : Slavs on, S.R, Creative Grroup Education, Association Press, Hew York, 1945 ~" ~75— Sorenson, Roy, "Planning f o r Group Work Heeds", Prooeedings of the national Conference of Sooial Work, Columbia University Press, 1944 ~ ~ • Steiner, Jesse Frederick, Community Organization, Century Co., Hew York and London, 1925. Wilson, Gertrude and Ryland, Gladys, Sooial Group Work  Practice, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1$49~ Youngdahl, Benjamin E, "Community Organization i n Rural Ch i l d Welfare Services", Prooeedings of the national  Conference of So c i a l Work, Columbia University Press.1945 Youth and Reoreation: Hew Plans f o r Hew Times, Canadian Youth Commission, 1946 u newspapers The Vanoouver Daily Province, May 25, 1949. The Vanoouver Sun, February 5, 1950. West Van Hews, Hovember 20 and 24, 1938. Reports Aberorombie, P, "Community Planning and neighbourhood Units", Greater %London Plan, 1945 D a h i r , James, "neighbourhood Planning", reproduced from the Journal of Housing, national Association of Housing O f f i c i a l s , October, 1948. Horrie, L.E, Survey Report of Group Work and Reoreation  of Greater Vancouver, Community Chest and Welfare Council of Greater Vanoouver, 1945 A Preliminary Report on Parks and Reoreation including Schools, West Vancouver Town Planning Commission, H* Bartholomew and Associates, Consultants, 1945 Sorenson, Roy, Reoreation f o r Everybody: A Survey Report, Los Angeles Community Welfare Federation, C a l i f o r n i a . -76-Report of the Committee on Community Survey, The Group, Yolume 2, f4, Summer, 1949. Minutes of the "coordinating oommittee set up to disouss the future polioy of the Community Centre", Council Chambers, West Vancouver, March 25, 1947. Also minutes of the West Yancouver Community Association. 

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