Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Edmonton community leagues : a study in community organization for recreation Farina, Alfred John Oswald 1950

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1950_A5 F2 E2.pdf [ 4.72MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106682.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106682-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106682-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106682-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106682-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106682-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106682-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106682-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106682.ris

Full Text

FT- £f 2-I THE EDMONTON COMMUNITY LEAGUES: A Study i n Community Organization f o r Recreation by A l f r e d John Oswald Parina A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1950 ABSTRACT This study traces the development of community recre-ation i n Edmonton from the time of the i n i t i a t i o n of the com-munity leagues to the present, and concludes with an evaluation of t h e i r present and possible future status. It i s p a r t i c u l a r l y pertinent because of the long h i s t o r y of community recreation i n Edmonton and because the Edmonton Recreation Commission i s probably the strongest public recreatiomi agenoy i n western Canada. The growth of the community league movement and of the Federation of Community Leagues are traced. The e s t a b l i s h -ment of the Edmonton Recreation Commission, the r e s u l t i n g c o n f l i c t with the Federation, and emerging re l a t i o n s h i p are discussed. Prom the study of Edmontoim and i t s agencies serving the recreation needs of the people, the next l o g i c a l step i n organization f o r recreation i n the c i t y i s indicated. The suggestions made f o r the future are based on accepted p r i n c i p l e s of professional community organization but the application of these p r i n c i p l e s i s predicated on a c l e a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of past and e x i s t i n g relationships between community agencies. One p r i n c i p l e p e c u l i a r l y applicable i n Edmonton i s that whenever possible the public recreation programme should be operated through only one organization i n eaoh community. Because of the Varied nature of recreation an organization with a broad objective i s best suited to this function but at the same time the functions of other agencies must be c l e a r l y defined to avoid duplication of e f f o r t . The suggested com-munity reorganization f o r recreation i n Edmonton i s an example of co-ordinating recreation agencies within a c i t y and re-defining t h e i r areas of concern. The problem i s not peculiar to Edmonton, and the suggested reorganization i s not necessarily applicable elsewhere. There are, however, methods and p r i n c i p l e s indicated that should be generally applicable to s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . Primary source material has been used wherever possi-ble including newspaper a r t i c l e s , minutes of community league meetings, the co n s t i t u t i o n of the- Federation of Community Leagues, personal interviews and personal experiences. In addition reference has been made to leading professional authorities i n the f i e l d of community organization f o r recre-ation, and to pamphlets and booklets issued by national and i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies i n the f i e l d . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge the very fi n e co-operation shown me by the o f f i c i a l s of the Edmonton Federation of Community Leagues. In p a r t i c u l a r , I wish to acknowledge the assistance of Mr. H. P. Brown who made available much material from h i s personal f i l e s which was i n -valuable i n recording the b i r t h of the community league movement i n Edmonton. I wish to express my gratitude to the Department of S o c i a l Work who made the com-pl e t i o n of t h i s thesis possible through t h e i r understanding of my problems. TABLE OF CONTENTS THE EDMONTON COMMUNITY LEAGUES: A Study i n Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r R e c r e a t i o n C h a p t e r 1 H i s t o r i c a l Background o f Edmonton -Jidmonton and i t s p a r t In Western Canadian h i s t o r y . The c i t y ' s " r a i s o n d ' e t r e . " Growth o f the c i t y and e t h n i c g r o u p s . G e o g r a p h i c a l d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the c i t y and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s . C h a p t e r 2 Community O r g a n i z a t i o n to Meet Community Problems  and Needs -J a s p e r P l a c e Community, and i t s problems and needs . The work o f H . P . Brown. Community o r g a n i z a t i o n to meet community problems and needs . C h a p t e r 3 Spread o f the Community League Movement and  F e d e r a t i o n -J a s p e r P l a c e form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a c c e p t e d as p a t t e r n by o t h e r communi t i e s . F e d e r a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g community l e a g u e s . E a r l y accompl ishments o f the F e d e r a t i o n . C h a p t e r 4 O t h e r Community A g e n c i e s and D e v e l o p i n g  R e l a t i o n s h i p s -N a t i o n a l and l o c a l a g e n c i e s , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . Community w e l f a r e problems d i v i d e d and a t t a c k e d . V a r i e t y o f p u r p o s e s , b u t common m e d i a . D i m i n i s h i n g need f o r g e n e r i c approach to Community Leagues to community w e l f a r e p r o b l e m s . C h a p t e r 5 The Edmonton R e c r e a t i o n Commission -War and the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the concept o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n to Edmonton. E s t a b l i s h -ment o f the Edmonton R e c r e a t i o n Commiss ion . I t s powers and l i m i t a t i o n s . I t s f u n c t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r c i v i c b o d i e s . F i n a n c i n g p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n . The R e c r e a t i o n Commission programme. The programmes o f the F e d e r a t i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l Community Leagues t o d a y . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between the R e c r e a t i o n Commission and the Community L e a g u e s . TABLE OP CONTENTS, Continued THE EDMONTON COMMUNITY LEAGUES: A Study i n Community Organization for Recreation Chapter 6 Community re Organization for Recreation: Its P o s s i b i l i t i e s -The problem and p r i n c i p l e s . Recreation Commission p o l i c i e s . A new function f o r community leagues. A new Recreation Commission. Related agencies and an integrated plan of community organization for recreation. THE EDMONTON COMMUNITY LEAGUES: A Study i n Community Organization for Recreation CHAPTER ONE THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OP EDMONTON The h i s t o r y o f the C i t y o f Edmonton i s i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up w i t h the development of Western Canada's v a s t h e r i t a g e of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and to t h a t extent d i f f e r s l i t t l e from the h i s t o r y o f o t h e r western Canadian c i t i e s . I t was the f u r trade which f i r s t sent the white man across the p r a i r i e s i n t o the v a s t n o r t h e r n area o f which Edmonton i s now the commercial c e n t r e ; but l a t e r , a g r i c u l t u r e , m i n e r a l s , timber and o i l each drew new quotas o f adventurous people to the d i s t r i c t from a l l p a r t s o f the wo r l d . The h i s t o r y o f the development o f the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s of the c e n t r a l A l b e r t a d i s t r i c t c o u l d w e l l serve as the h i s t o r y o f the c i t y o f Edmonton. Spread across the North Saskatchewan R i v e r a t a p o i n t approximately 200 m i l e s e a s t of the Rocky Mountains, Edmonton i s s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d athwart one of Canada's f i r s t g r e a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r t e r i e s . F o r t Edmonton was e s t a b l i s h e d a t the s i t e o f the pr e s e n t c i t y by the Hudson Bay Company i n 1794. I t was the p r i n c i p a l t r a d i n g c e n t r e f o r the t e r r i t o r y now known as A l b e r t a . From F o r t Edmonton the windings o f the North Saskatchewan R i v e r c o u l d be f o l l o w e d e a s t and west f o r hundreds of m i l e s . Overland t r a i l s l e a d b o t h south to the B l a c k f o o t country and n o r t h to the Athabasca R i v e r and the r i c h f u r b e a r i n g t e r r i t o r y o f the Cree and Y e l l o w k n i f e t r i b e s . F o r t Edmonton was the c o l l e c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n centre f o r a l l t h i s 2. area and the Indians made regular v i s i t s to the f o r t to ex-change t h e i r furs f o r the supplies, tools and novelties of the traders. Thus, holding the key p o s i t i o n for the commerce of nearly one quarter of the area of Canada, r i c h i n minerals, timber, water power, grazing and farm lands, and o i l , Port Edmonton was from the s t a r t destined to become a great c i t y . Following the merger of the Hudson Bay Company and the North West Company i n 1821 Fort Edmonton grew rapid l y u n t i l i n 1904, the year the c i t y was incorporated, the population was approximately 4,000. By this time a new industry, agriculture, which was to become the dominant factor i n the c i t y ' s economy was challenging the fur trade as the most important feature of the economy of the c i t y and d i s t r i c t . With the development of agriculture and the r e a l i z a t i o n of the wonderful f e r t i l i t y of the s o i l came the s e t t l e r s to work the land. The farmers f i r s t s e t t l e d near the c i t y and gradually spread out through the d i s t r i c t as s e t t l e r s continued to come into the area. The trappers, dependent as they were on a vast undeveloped and sparsely s e t t l e d hinterland, were gradually forced from the c i t y . This d i d not, however, a f f e c t the basic economy of Edmonton. The c i t y has always been and s t i l l i s a trading centre f o r the c e n t r a l and Northern Alberta d i s t r i c t . True, the c l i e n t e l e changes but the nature of i t s commerce does not. Edmonton merchants and traders have supplied the trappers, the farmers, the miners, the loggers and more recently the o i l d r i l l e r s . The development of each natural resource has brought 3 'new business to the c i t y and has not meant the loss of p r e v i -ously acquired business. Because of the variety of primary industry and great resources awaiting development the growth of Edmonton from the time of incorporation has been rapid and steady. During the years p r i o r to the F i r s t World War, both the Dominion Government and the Canadian Railway Companies sponsored ambitious immi-gration schemes that offered the prospective Canadians large land grants as an inducement to s e t t l e the p r a i r i e region. Whereas i n 1901 the population of the whole province of Alberta was just over 73,000, by 1911 i t had increased to 374,30c,1 and by 1916 was just short of the h a l f m i l l i o n mark. In 1905 Edmonton was made the c a p i t a l of the province, and by 1911 i t s population reached 24,900 and was 42,000 by 1916. In 1912 Edmonton and the r i v a l c i t y of Strathcona on the south bank of the North Saskatchewan River amalgamated under the name of the former whioh accounts to a great extent f o r the large increase recorded between 1911 and 1916. An important f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g population growth i n the whole of western Canada was the development of extensive r a i l r o a d f a c i l i t i e s . Because of i t s strategic l o c a t i o n and already established trade channels, Edmonton became an important l i n k i n the transcontinental r a i l r o a d network. As early as 1891 a branch l i n e from Calgary pushed northward to Strathcona and i n 1905 the Canadian Northern Railway Company constructed a l i n e from Winnipeg to Edmonton, thus giving the new c i t y d i r e c t Eighth Census of Canada 1941 - Vo. 1 - pp. 899 Kings P r i n t e r - Ottawa - 1946 4 access to the i n d u s t r i a l east and also affording a d i r e c t l i n e of communication f o r prospective European immigrants. In 1910, the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway from Winnipeg v i a Saskatoon reached Edmonton and pushed on to Prince Rupert thus l i n k i n g Edmonton with P a c i f i c Coast ports. The completion of each mile of new railway i n Western Canada meant the opening up of a new area of r i c h farmlands. The completion of each new railway into Edmonton brought an i n -crease i n both r u r a l and urban population and a r e s u l t i n g i n -crease i n commerce. The c u l t u r a l background and s o c i a l outlook of the c i t i z e n s of Edmonton were at the s t a r t t y p i c a l of a new Canadian c i t y . The early explorers were mostly Anglo-Saxons i n the employ of the Hudson Bay Company. They were either accompanied by or clo s e l y followed by the French Canadian and half-breed trappers and the B r i t i s h traders. Thes-e early pioneers intermarried quite f r e e l y with the natives, with the r e s u l t that a large half-breed population developed. Few of these early s e t t l e r s a c t u a l l y s e t t l e d , however, for with the development of farming the traders and trappers moved farther north i n pursuit of fu r s . Nevertheless some of the traders when they l e f t the employ of the Hudson Bay Company di d s e t t l e on small holdings close to Fort Edmonton. These were the pioneer farmers of the d i s t r i c t . This was B r i t i s h stock taking root i n the new land and to this day, despite the large i n f l u x of European s e t t l e r s Edmonton c i t y has remained predominantly B r i t i s h in make-up. 5 During the f i r s t deoade of th i s century when western Canada was opened to immigration thousands of s e t t l e r s flocked to the Edmonton d i s t r i c t . The newcomers, although mostly B r i t i s h , came from many lands and spoke many d i f f e r e n t languages and d i a l e c t s . Assimilation was out of the question as the new comers outnumbered the incumbent residents. What di d take place was an adjustment of old ideas and cultures to a new environment. The s e t t l e r s were on the whole an ad-venturesome and ambitious group and the majority managed the neoessary adjustments without d i f f i c u l t y . The following figures showing the time of a r r i v a l and the place of o r i g i n of the larger groups of s e t t l e r s i n Edmonton give a general picture of the make-up of the c i t y 1 s p o pulation: 1 B r i t i s h European American Before 1901 902 560 511 1901 - 1910 5128 1825 1705 1911 - 1920 7124 1979 1811 This table does not account f o r the number of s e t t l e r s from the older parts of Canada. While these s e t t l e r s were predominantly of Anglo-Saxon stock, there were also an appreciable number of French Canadian s e t t l e r s . The Dominion census of 1901 showed 4,511 persons of French extraction i n Alberta whereas t h i s number had increased to 20,600 by 1911 and was 30,913 by 1921. It i s not possible to determine how many of these s e t t l e d i n Edmonton but even i f only 1 per cent 1 Census of the P r a i r i e Provinces 1956 Vol. 1 - pp. 1016 - 1017 - Ottawa - 1938 6 had s e t t l e d there i t would make an appreciable group. In any event, Edmonton was from the s t a r t a predomi-nantly B r i t i s h c i t y with large American and European minority groups. The Americans, although hardly a r a c i a l minority, were d e f i n i t e l y a national minority. They quickly established them-selves, however, because they had not the adjustment problems to meet that had the European and the B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s . They were la r g e l y the overflow of American s e t t l e r s i n the mid western United States and had pushed northward with the re-tr e a t i n g f r o n t i e r . They were people i n search of a pioneer country and found t h e i r best adjustment i n a f r o n t i e r society. They brought with them the experience and ideas gained i n t h e i r own country i n establishing new settlements and Industries and a "New World" culture. In this respect the Americans had much in common with the s e t t l e r s from Canada. For the B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s , adjustment was r e l a t i v e l y easy; they were i n an English speaking country and B r i t i s h t r a -d i t i o n s had been c a r r i e d to the f a r west from the f i r s t days of discovery by explorers and traders of the f u r companies. The s o c i a l norms of the new c i t y d i d not, however, conform to those of Great B r i t a i n and some adjustment was necessary, -^ n f i t t i n g themselves to the new pattern of l i f e the B r i t i s h e r s used t h e i r own culture as a frame of reference and In so doing had an appreciable e f f e c t i n strengthening the e x i s t i n g B r i t i s h more3 and i n modifying those of other national groups. The European s e t t l e r s had the most d i f f i c u l t . - 7 adjustment to make. Many avoided most of the problems of ad-justment by s e t t l i n g i n groups with members of t h e i r own race, thus making t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s i m i l a r to that of the B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s , i.e. a mere physical adjustment, the f i t t i n g i n of t h e i r national culture to a new environment. The tendency to s e t t l e i n national groups was discouraged by the immigration authorities but with l i t t l e success. This s i t u a t i o n was not so noticeable however, i n the urban centres of the province where a smaller percentage of the Europeans s e t t l e d and a larger per-centage of English speaking people s e t t l e d . Suoh was the case in Edmonton where the Europeans found i t very d i f f i c u l t to withdraw into themselves and as a r e s u l t assimilation has been very good. Within the c i t y the s o c i a l and recr e a t i o n a l interests have from the s t a r t been predominantly based on the B r i t i s h -American pattern. Prom the days of the f u r traders dancing and horse racing have been the main recreational interests of Edmontonians. The European immigrants found l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y f i t t i n g themselves into this very r e s t r i c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l programme. They were f o r the most part of peasant stock, and had i n the past found t h e i r recreation i n the f o l k music and dances of the old country. The western dances with t h e i r i n f o r -mality and variety of simple steps were common meeting ground f o r a l l the new c i t i z e n s of Edmonton. These dances were not staged merely f o r the youmg adults of the community but were rather f o r every member of the family, young and o l d . As a 8 r e s u l t , In Edmonton, recreation and family fun have gone hand i n hand down through the years. Of course, many of the foreign-born c i t i z e n s d i d seek to avoid the necessity of making too many adjustments by with-drawing into national groups and therein continuing insofar as was possible the s o c i a l l i f e of the old world. For these groups there wa3 very l i t t l e a s similation i n the f i r 3 t generation immigrants. They usually spoke the language of t h e i r mother country, worked with and married t h e i r countrymen and contained t h e i r s o c i a l and rec r e a t i o n a l l i f e within t h e i r national group. Their children, however, attended schools where they learned to speak English and where they came in contact with a l l r a c i a l groups, and t h e i r assimilation proceeded with a bare recog-n i t i o n of the process, except possibly some c o n f l i c t In the home where the new world and the old world Idea3 came Into d i r e c t and intimate c o n f l i c t . "The t o t a l number of marriages i n Alberta from 1905 to 1909 wa3 8,652. In 77.3 per cent of these both the contract-ing parties were English speaking and claimed Canada, the U.K. or the U.S. as country of o r i g i n . In 4.5 per cent of the marriages one of the contracting parties was a Canadian or from another English speaking country. In 5.2 per cent neither contracting party was a Canadian nor from another English speaking country but the bride and bridegroom belonged to d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s . In 13 per cent of the marriages the bride and bridegroom belonged to the same non-English speaking 9 n a t i o n a l i t y . " 1 P r o b a b l y , q u i t e as i m p o r t a n t as the r a c i a l group ings i n the new c i t y , have been the v e r y c l e a r l y d e f i n e d community b o u n d a r i e s and the r e s u l t i n g community c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h i n the c i t y . Edmonton today sprawls over an a r e a o f over 26,500 acres and has a p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 126,000 f o r a r a t i o o f about f i v e persons p e r a c r e , an amaz ing ly low f i g u r e f o r a l a r g e c i t y . The c i t y i s much l i k e a l oose c o n f e d e r a t i o n o f a number o f s m a l l communit ies many o f which are s e p a r a t e d from the whole by n a t u r a l g e o g r a p h i c b a r r i e r s . Most i m p o r t a n t o f these b a r r i e r s i s t h e mighty N o r t h Saskatchewan R i v e r , which sweeps t h r o u g h the c i t y i n a b r o a d w i n d i n g v a l l e y w i t h s teep one-h u n d r e d - a n d - f i f t y - f o o t banks t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f a m i l e a p a r t . A c r o s s the r i v e r the b u i l d i n g s o f N o r t h Edmonton f a c e those o f South Edmonton, f o r m e r l y S t r a t h c o n a . The r i v e r i s spanned b y 4 b r i d g e s w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s . South Edmonton has I t s own b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , the U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a and i t s own s u b d i v i s i o n . Of these Garneau , R i t c h i e and Scona are a d j a c e n t to the b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t and to one a n o t h e r . Windsor Park i s s e p a r a t e d from the r e s t o f the South Edmonton d i s t r i c t by the e x t e n s i v e U n i v e r s i t y Grounds , w h i l e P l e a s a n t v i e w on the s o u t h c i t y l i m i t s i s s e p a r a t e d by a m i l e b e l t o f p r a c t i c a l l y u n s e t t l e d bush l a n d . Bonnie Doon, a c r o s s a deep r a v i n e to the e a s t , Is l i k e a s epara te town and beyond t h a t r e a c h i n g to the e a s t e r n c i t y l i m i t s and s t i l l zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development i s the r u r a l community o f 1 Canada and i t s P r o v i n c e s - V o l . 19 - pp 279 -S h o r t t and A r t h u r Doughty M. - T o r o n t o - Glasgow, Brook and Co.1914 10 Forest Heights. Down on the r i v e r f l a t s , segregated by the high r i v e r banks from the rest of the South Edmonton d i s t r i c t and from one another by a deep ravine are the communities of Cloverdale and Walterdale. On the north bank of the r i v e r the same pattern of segregated communities evolves. Adjacent to the main business d i s t r i c t are Norwood, Central and the West End communities. Beyond the West End and separated by a ravine i s the recently developed and exclusive Glenora subdivision and west of that reaching to the c i t y l i m i t s i s Jasper Place. Almost i n the heart of North Edmonton i s the two square miles of Hudson Bay Reserve and adjacent to i t on the north i s the 750 acre Municipal A i r p o r t . The c i t y has grown around t h i s large un-s e t t l e d area. Central community i s on the southern fringe of this large area and recently has been gradually reaching farther into the Hudson Bay Reserve. On the western fringe of t h i s undeveloped area runs the main l i n e of the Canadian National Railways, beyond which and running p a r a l l e l to I t Is the com-munity of Westmount. North of the a i r p o r t i s Calder and the C. N. R . shops. This community i s at l e a s t a mile from any other community i n the c i t y and i s actually more a small town unto I t s e l f . At the north east corner of the c i t y , houses struggle out the Fort Saskatchewan T r a i l to the packing plants beyond which i s the small community of N 0 r t h Edmonton. Running to the eastern boundary of the c i t y and cut off from the down town area by Borden Park and the Exhibition Grounds i s 11 the Highlands community. Down on the r i v e r f l a t s on the north side of the r i v e r are the communities of Riverdale and Rossdale cut o f f from one another and from the r e s t of the c i t y . ia CHAPTER TWO COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION TO MEET COMMUNITY PROBLEMS AND NEEDS I t i s probable t h a t geography was the most important f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the need f o r some type of community o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s o f Edmonton, whereas, the form t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n took was mostly i n f l u e n c e d by h i s t o r y . The spread-out nature of the C i t y w i t h i t s n a t u r a l geographic b a r r i e r s between communities, c o n t r i b u t e d to the f e e l i n g o f com-munity by s h u t t i n g o f f one d i s t r i c t from another, and from the whole. Such a s i t u a t i o n was a l i e n to the m a j o r i t y o f B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s , in view of the B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n , w i t h i t s l o n g ex-pe r i e n c e i n democratic government, i t i s s m a l l wonder t h a t steps were taken by the c i t i z e n s themselves, without d i r e c t i o n from any branch of government, to remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n . And w i t h a background o f c e n t u r i e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m u n i c i p a l govern-ment, and w i t h the democratio h a b i t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n developed through g e n e r a t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l freedom, the attempted s o l u t i o n does not appear u n u s u a l . The f i r s t d i s t r i c t to org a n i z e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n an attempt to meet the needs of i t s c i t i z e n s was Ja s p e r P l a c e . In many r e s p e c t s , the problems f a c e d by a l l o f the o u t l y i n g com-munitie s o f the C i t y were more apparent i n t h i s d i s t r i c t , and f o r t u n a t e l y , there were competent c i t i z e n s w i t h i n the com-munity who were v i t a l l y concerned w i t h those problems, and who had the necessary background and v i s i o n to g i v e l e a d e r s h i p to 13 the residents. Jasper Place Problems and Needs -The Jasper Place d i s t r i c t of Edmonton, i n 1917, boasted a t o t a l population of about three hundred people scattered over an area of approximately one square mile. The great majority of the families i n the d i s t r i c t earned t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d i n the Ci t y of Edmonton, but supplemented t h e i r income by c u l t i v a t i n g small truck gardens. Land was p l e n t i f u l , even within the c i t y l i m i t s , and most homes had at lea s t one quarter acre of property. Jasper Place, when i t became a part of the c i t y i n 1913, was s t i l l a semi-rural community. Public u t i l i t i e s , u sually associated with urban l i v i n g , were not available; roads, sewers, and e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g were lacking i n most of the d i s t r i c t , and public transportation was woefully inadequate. There was an hourly streetcar service, which just came to the edge of the d i s t r i c t , and the l a s t streetcar at night l e f t down town Edmonton at 10:30 p.m., and l e f t Jasper Place at 11:00 p.m. With 142nd Street, the nearest boundary of the d i s t r i c t to down town Edmonton, more than three miles from the heart of the ci t y , any other means of transportation was not p r a c t i c a l f o r a v i s i t to the down town area. Poor transportation plus a rigorous climate con-tributed to the r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n of the Jasper Place d i s t r i c t from the res t of the c i t y . This s i t u a t i o n was, of course, no d i f f e r e n t than that of many r u r a l areas i n central Alberta. 1 4 T h e i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e w a s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s c o m m u n i t y t r a v e l l e d t o a n d f r o m t h e b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n o f E d m o n t o n d a i l y , i n t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . A c t u a l l y , t h e y w o r k e d i n t h e u r b a n c i t y o f E d m o n t o n , a n d l i v e d i n r u r a l J a s p e r P l a c e . T h r o u g h t h e i r w o r k , t h e y w e r e c o n s t a n t l y i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s o c i a l l i f e o f t h e c i t y , y e t , t h e y w e r e e x t r e m e l y h a n d i -c a p p e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e i r l e i s u r e t i m e . B r o w n , i n h i s f i r s t a n n u a l r e p o r t o f t h e C o m m u n i t y L e a g u e , g i v e n M a r c h 1 9 1 8 , d e s c r i b e s t h e e a r l y s t e p s i n o r g a n i -z a t i o n a s f o l l o w s : " I t w a s n o t , h o w e v e r , u n t i l a l i t t l e o v e r a y e a r a g o t h a t o n e o r t w o c i t i z e n s h a v i n g t h e m a t t e r a t h e a r t c o n v e n e d a m e e t i n g i n S t . J o h n ' s C h u r c h a n d i n v i t e d M i s s J e s s i e M o n t g o m e r y , o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E x t e n s i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a t o a d d r e s s t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e d i s t r i c t o n t h e S o c i a l C e n t r e o r C o m m u n i t y m o v e m e n t . A s a r e s u l t o f t h i s m e e t i n g , i t w a s u n a n i m o u s l y d e c i d e d t o o r g a n i z e s u c h a m o v e m e n t i n t h i s d i s t r i c t a n d a c o m m i t t e e w a s a p p o i n t e d t o g o I n t o d e t a i l s a n d d r a f t a c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d B y - L a w s t o b e p r e s e n t e d t o a f u r t h e r p u b l i c m e e t i n g . T h e c o m m i t t e e o b t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o t h e r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g s i m i l a r b o d i e s i n t h e S t a t e s , a n d t h e p r o p o s e d C o n s t i t u t i o n a n d B y - L a w s f o r a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o b e k n o w n a s t h e 1 4 2 n d S t r e e t D i s t r i c t C o m m u n i t y L e a g u e w a s d u l y d r a w n u p a n d p r e s e n t e d t o a p u b l i c m e e t i n g h e l d i n t h e o l d J a s p e r P l a c e s c h o o l o n M a r c h 3 r d , 1 9 1 7 e x a c t l y a y e a r a g o . 15 This c o n s t i t u t i o n was adopted with a few minor a l t e r a t i o n s , and o f f i c e r s elected- 1 It i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note that between the c a l l i n g of the f i r s t meeting i n the church and the arranging of the second meeting, permission was obtained to use the school b u i l d i n g , Mr. Brown has stated that t h i s came about through the tremendous support by the whole community of the f i r s t meeting and t h e i r u n i f i e d demands made to the school a u t h o r i t i e s . It i s unfortu-nate that there i s no record to support Brown's statement of p r a c t i c a l l y 100 per cent attendance of community residents at both of these early meetings. The constitution drafted by the committee, which included Brown, H a l l and Tighe, was adopted pretty much as pre-sented with only minor changes. In the preamble the reason f o r organizing was stated as follows: "We, the c i t i z e n s of 142nd Street D i s t r i c t of Edmonton, do constitute ourselves a de-l i b e r a t i v e organization or community league, to hold meetings i n the public school b u i l d i n g f o r the open presentation and free discussion of public questions, and f o r such other c i v i c , social, and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as give promise of common benefit." 2 In i t s f i r s t year of operation, the Jasper Place Com-munity league vigorously pressed f o r needed improvements i n the d i s t r i c t . The most tangible r e s u l t was that the school board, pressed by the community league, razed the old school b u i l d i n g and replaced i t with a new b u i l d i n g . The Community League was allowed to hold i t s regular meetings i n the school b u i l d i n g , 1 Report of the Secretary,142nd Street D i s t r i c t Community League  1918 - H. P. Brown 2 Constitution of 142nd Street D i s t r i c t Community League 16 and plans for the new b u i l d i n g were submitted to the Community League for comments and suggestions. A concession made to the Community League was the placing of the seats i n one room on skids so that s o c i a l evenings could be held during the winter months. Other improvements southt during the f i r s t year of the League's operation, were sidewalks, road g r a v e l l i n g , a modern sewage system, and improved public transportation schedule. Some progress was made i n a l l cases. As taxpayers to the c i t y , the c i t i z e n s of the 142nd Street d i s t r i c t were loud i n t h e i r demands fo r needed public u t i l i t i e s , f e e l i n g they had a r i g h t to these services, and as each i n d i v i d u a l made his views public, there grew the f e e l i n g that some form of concerted action was required. Closely related to the problem of i s o l a t i o n , was the need f o r recreation f o r a l l age groups close to home. This need was immediate, and Its f u l f i l l m e n t would to some extent r e l i e v e the urgency of those needs related to i s o l a t i o n . The most concrete problem facing the community how-ever, and the one which proved the greatest incentive to the formation of some representative community group, was the u t t e r l y inadequate school f a c i l i t i e s . Here the people of Jasper Place had an immediate v i s i b l e problem. The br i c k school serving the d i s t r i c t had been erected a few years e a r l i e r by the r u r a l municipality, before Jasper Place was in.-.the city.. The b u i l d i n g had been condemned i n 1916, but a new one, although due, was not l i k e l y to be constructed u n t i l 1920. 17 Parents were refusing to send t h e i r ohildren to school because of the danger of the b u i l d i n g c o l l a p s i n g . Thus the community was faced with several immediate needs, which could only be f u l f i l l e d through j o i n t action. I n d i v i d u a l l y the c i t i z e n s recognized t h e i r needs, and were quite vocal i n t h e i r demands. Now Jasper Place needed only competent leadership to organize u n i f i e d community action. The d i s t r i c t was very fortunate that men of v i s i o n were available, who were w i l l i n g to devote time and e f f o r t to the service of t h e i r community. Another project promoted during the f i r s t year of operation, was the arrangement of s p e c i a l meetings f o r the d i s -cussion of controversial public questions, and the discourage-ment of p o l i t i c a l meetings. Proceeding an e l e c t i o n , a l l candi-dates f o r o f f i c e were asked to attend a Community League meeting to state t h e i r case. So successful and acceptable, was t h i s arrangement to both the electorate and the candidates, that i t i s s t i l l the pattern followed In Edmonton during p o l i t i c a l campaigns• Several projects r e l a t i n g to the war e f f o r t were undertaken including the r a i s i n g of money for the Halifax R e l i e f Fund, and the development of gardens i n s i x t y vacant lots • i • , ; r - S ' . " ,- --i n the community with produce being turned over to the Food Cont r o l l e r . Funds were also raised for numerous other purposes d i r e c t l y related to the war e f f o r t . S o c i a l evenings were held regularly throughout the 18 f a l l and winter months, and a successful f i e l d day was held each May 24th. A small fee was charged for s o c i a l and recre-a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r the purpose of establishing a fund to purchase a new school piano. A skating rink was constructed fo r the young people of the community and plans were made f o r the formation of a dramatic club. Summarizing the League's a c t i v i t i e s i n the f i r s t annual report Mr. Brown, the Secretary states, "A retrospection of our a c t i v i t i e s during the past twelve months, leads us to doubt whether we have accomplished one h a l f of what we could, but f o r an infant, our League has done very well, and we f e e l i n c l i n e d to be s a t i s f i e d . We would suggest however, that this i s no time f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n , but the beginning of greater t h i n g s — " 1 1 Report of the Secretary, 142nd Street D i s t r i c t Community League 1918 - H. P. Brown. 19 CHAPTER THREE SPREAD OF THE COMMUNITY LEAGUE MOVEMENT AND FEDERATION With the success of the pioneer Community League as an example and an incentive, other leagues were soon organized In various d i s t r i c t s , u n t i l by 1921 there were ten leagues i n the c i t y , a l l modeled on the pattern established at Jasper Place. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note that most of these early leagues were formed i n those communities that were on the outskirts of the c l t y j f o r example, Bonnie Doon, Calgary T r a i l , (Park A l l e n ) , Forest Heights, Highlands, King Edward Park, West Edmonton (Calder), Westmount, and Jasper Place. The other two organized leagues at this time were Riverdale and South Side (now defunct). During this period, the rapid growth of the c i t y was such as to require l o c a l improvements much f a s t e r than they could be financed and i n s t a l l e d . Representatives from a l l d i s t r i c t s were continually pressing demands upon the c i v i c administrators with l i t t l e regard f o r anything but the needs of t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r area. In these, and many other matters, the com-munity leagues found themselves i n competition with one another. S i m i l a r l y many of the leagues were sponsoring various types of sports and games, and i n arranging inter-league contests i t was necessary to have co-operation between leagues. Again, as i n the case of the i n i t i a l organization of Jasper Place League, i t was the University of Alberta Extension Department which i n i t i a t e d action directed towards a solution of these problems. It can be assumed, however, that very active behind the scenes 20 was Mr. H. p. Brown, a member of both the Extension Department s t a f f and the Jasper Place executive. In any event, on January 24th, 1921, the Director of Extension of the University of Alberta i n v i t e d representatives of a l l Interested community leagues to a meeting to discuss the formation of some ce n t r a l body which could speak for a l l of the leagues. Federation of the Leagues -Professor Ottwell, a member of the f a c u l t y of the University of Alberta, presided at the meeting, and Mr. Brown was secretary. The purpose of the meeting and the function of a federation of community leagues was outlined, whereupon the following motion was unanimously passed, "In view of the growth of the community movement i n the c i t y , and the a d v i s a b i l i t y of closer co-operation between the d i f f e r e n t leagues, a federation be formed." ^ Discussion followed on what would be the basis of federation. It was agreed that membership should be confined to community leagues In the c i t y of Edmonton. Offi c e r s for the Federation were suggested as President, Vice President, and Secretary-Treasurer, to be elected by the delegates from t h e i r number. Elections were held immediately, and the o f f i c e r s elected were instructed to bring i n a d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n to the next meeting. Details of the constitution were discussed at the next two meetings, and the c o n s t i t u t i o n f i n a l l y adopted at the fourth meeting of the Federation, held March 24th. The aims 1 Minutes of f i r s t meeting of Federation of Community Leagues  January 24th. 1921. 21 and objects of the organization were stated as "To f a c i l i t a t e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of information between the u n i t s ; to promote suitable programmes, and to become a c l e a r i n g house f o r same; to take concerted action i n matters of common int e r e s t and i n the i n t e r e s t of the c i t y as a whole, and to come to the support of i n d i v i d u a l leagues as deemed advisable, when so requested. 1 The c o n s t i t u t i o n , on the whole, followed the accepted pattern and the complete text thereof i s given i n Appexdix A. The Federation as a C i v i c Body -With the organization of the Federation accomplished, attention was directed towards Immediate problems. That the general public had confidence i n this new organization to represent c i t i z e n opinion to the c i v i c government, i s evidenced b y the f a c t that at the second meeting of the Federation a delegation appeared asking f o r support. The delegation con-s i s t e d of representatives of the Y.W.C.A., the Boy's Work Board, and the Trades and Labour Council. They sought the support of the Federation i n pressing f o r the appointment by the c i t y c ouncil of a recreation supervisor for the c i t y . Following discussion, a motion was passed to the e f f e c t that the Feder-ation of Community Leagues f u l l y endorse the proposal, and suggest that c i t y council should be asked to appropriate $3500 fo r this purpose. That the f i r s t delegation to appear before the Feder-ation was also probably the most important that ever has ap-peared to date, apparently was not perceived by the Federation 1 Constitution of Federation of Community Leagues - 1921 22; members. Certainly, they d i d endorse the proposal and a com-mittee wa3 appointed to pursue the matter further. Reference to the matter i s seen continually throughout the minutes of the Federation meetings f o r the f i r s t year and a h a l f . References become continually less frequent however, and the whole a f f a i r f i n a l l y i s forgotten. Unfortunately, many delegates apparently considered other more Immediate and tangible problems more pressing. There was, however, a re l a t e d problem, that of adequate play areas, with which the Federation d i d com© to grips. Late In 1922, following agit a t i o n from i n d i v i d u a l Community Leagues, and the granting of property concessions to them, the c i t y commissioners met with representatives of the Federation to select and a l l o t to each Community League a block of land f o r development for r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. At that time, land was inexpensive, and the c i t y owned about one h a l f of the r e s i d e n t i a l property within i t s boundaries. The basis on whioh land was a l l o t t e d was that the Community Leagues were given ten i year leases on the property at a cost of $1.00 per year, and to date each lease has been renewed except where the Community League has ceased to operate. As a d i r e c t r e s u l t of this action, Edmonton today has very few communities without land available f o r development as playgrounds or recreation centres. The few exceptions are i n those d i s t r i c t s where the community leagues were not able to function continuously. P e c u l i a r l y , none of the twenty odd areas 23 set aside i n 1922 were developed to any extent by the com-munity leagues, and only since the establishment of the Cit y of Edmonton Recreation Commission i n 1944 have adequately equipped and supervised playgrounds been established i n most communities. Many of the community leagues, however, did show an active i n t e r e s t i n adult recreation. These leagues constructed small h a l l s on t h e i r properties and conducted a programme of edu-c a t i o n a l f i l m s , lectures, so c i a l 3 , and carnivals f o r the edu-cation and recreation of members. Following the i n i t i a l surge of new leagues, growth of the movement slowed considerably. In 1924, there were twenty leagues, members of the Federation, but by 1930, this number had increased by only two. Progress continued slow u n t i l the immediate post-war t o t a l to t h i r t y member leagues. t 24. CHAPTER POUR OTHER COMMUNITY AGENCIES AND DEVELOPING RELATIONSHIPS Many of the needs whioh led to the organization of community leagues and contributed to t h e i r r a p i d spread and growth i n the 1920's were being recognized by other community agencies at about the same time, and many of these agencies were, and s t i l l are, attacking s p e c i f i c aspects of the problems as contrasted to the very general approach of the community leagues. Included i n thi s category were both government and volunteer agencies on the l o o a l , p r o v i n c i a l and dominion leve l s of organization. The l o c a l school boards, the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education, the Home and School Association, a t h l e t i c clubs, service clubs, and the private group work agencies were only a few of these groups. At the l e v e l of municipal government, the Edmonton Public and Separate School Boards recognized that l i f e was some-thing more than earning a l i v i n g , and were gradually working towards a broadened curriculum which would also prepare the student to take h i s place i n society as a happy contributing c i t i z e n , with wholesome inte r e s t s beyond the making of a l i v i n g . Art, music, physical eduction, and manual arts were introduced into the school curriculum between 1925 and 1945, and drama, hobby clubs, journalism, and other recreation ac-t i v i t i e s were encouraged on an extr a - c u r r i c u l a r b a s i s . Stimu-l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n these a c t i v i t i e s , and s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g 25 t h e r e i n , soon came to be re c o g n i z e d as one o f the f u n c t i o n s of the modern s c h o o l . Very much r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s broadened s c h o o l c u r -r i c u l u m was the Home and School A s s o c i a t i o n . At the time the community leagues were formed there were o n l y two r a t h e r i n e f -f e c t i v e Home and School A s s o c i a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g i n Edmonton. Today there are twenty very a c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l l members of a c e n t r a l body f o r the c i t y , the Edmonton Home and School C o u n c i l . The Home arid School A s s o c i a t i o n s are p r i m a r i l y con-cerned w i t h the improvement o f education, and c o n s t a n t l y s t r i v e f o r improved f a c i l i t i e s and a p r o g r e s s i v e c u r r i c u l u m to keep abr e a s t of our c o n t i n u a l l y changing s o c i e t y . Demands f o r new and more modern s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , i n c l u s i o n of h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as r e q u i r e d courses i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , d i s c u s s i o n groups on a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and on s c h o o l p o l i c y , t e a c h e r - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and community use o f s c h o o l f a -c i l i t i e s a f t e r s c h o o l hours, are a l l matters which have r e c e i v e d d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n from v a r i o u s Home and. School A s s o c i a t i o n s or from the Edmonton Home and School C o u n c i l . At the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l A l b e r t a educators have been aware o f the ever i n c r e a s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the s c h o o l system. In 1944 the Dominion Government passed the N a t i o n a l E l t n e s s A c t , p r o v i d i n g grants up to a t o t a l of $225,000, to pro v i n c e s e n t e r i n g i n t o agreement wi t h the Dominion Government f o r p r o v i s i o n of a p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s programme. A l b e r t a e n t e r e d i n t o such an agreement and, through the Hea l t h and 26 Recreation Branch of the Department of Education, c a r r i e s on such a programme throughout the province. Training courses f o r leaders are held and the leaders then return to t h e i r own com-munities to conduct classes. Today, more than twenty-five auch leaders are functioning i n Edmonton conducting classes f o r f o r t y - s i x groups of a l l ages, and embracing such a c t i v i t i e s as keep f i t exercises, f o l k dancing, a t h l e t i c coaching, gymnastics, and tumbling. Again at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , the University of Alberta, through i t s Extension Department, i s providing to com-munities, short courses, educational aids^ and trained personnel f o r guidance i n establishing l o c a l adult education programmes. Although the Extension Department i s primarily concerned with the small towns and r u r a l areas of the province, Edmonton does ben e f i t greatly from t h e i r programme. For example, l a s t spring a leadership t r a i n i n g course, sponsored by the Extension De-partment, had an attendance of twenty-six students, twenty-two of whom were recreation workers from Edmonton. Also, extensive use i s made throughout the c i t y of the Extension Department f i l m l i b r a r y , and the services of the Extension Department personnel are continually being sought by l o c a l groups. The government agency which has probably had the greatest e f f e c t on the community leagues from the point of view of programme, i s the C i t y of Edmonton Recreation Commission, which, although formed only i n December 1944, has grown so r a p i d l y that very nearly every aspect of i t s programming 27 a f f e c t s e i t h e r an i n d i v i d u a l league or a l l the leagues i n the c i t y . The interdependence o f t h i s m u n i c i p a l agency and the leagues i s of such Importance t h a t i t i s d e a l t w i t h i n a sepa-r a t e c h a p t e r . V o l u n t e e r agencies now o p e r a t i n g i n Edmonton, which have to some extent i n f l u e n c e d the programming o f the com-munity leagues, are the Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., Boy Scouts, G i r l Guides, and the c o - o p e r a t i v e v o i c e o f both the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c agencies, the R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n o f the C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l A g e n c i e s . The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A., w i t h t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g gymnasiums, swimming pools and c l u b rooms, w i t h t h e i r t r a i n e d l e a d e r s and f i n e r e c o r d o f achievement, were q u i c k to g a i n p u b l i c support and were able to c a t e r to the I n t e r e s t s o f the most demanding of the c i t y ' s youth. The Scouts and Guides w i t h t h e i r p o l i c y o f community c e n t e r e d a c t i v i t y groups, were able to o f f e r t h e i r t r i e d and proven programme to any community d e s i r i n g t h e i r s e r v i c e . The Group Work D i v i s i o n o f the C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies, o n l y e s t a b l i s h e d s i n c e 1944, while not an agency a c t u a l l y s p o n s o r i n g a programme, i s a p l a n n i n g group f o r a l l the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies i n the f i e l d of r e c r e a t i o n and group work. As such, i t has the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e r v i n g a l l the agencies as a c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g body wherein areas of f u n c t i o n can be g e n e r a l l y I n t e r p r e t e d between the agencies, w i t h the o b j e c t i v e o f r e t u r n i n g to the c i t i z e n s of Edmonton the b e s t p o s s i b l e s e r v i c e from b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies. 28 Dividing and Conquering Community Problems -"The object of this organization s h a l l be the de-velopment of i n t e l l i g e n t public s p i r i t through the holding of meetings i n the school b u i l d i n g i n which there i s the open presentation and free discussion of public questions, and such other a o t i v i t i e s as s h a l l promote the welfare of thi s neighbour-hood." 1 Such i s the very general wording of the "object" of the f i r s t community league i n Edmonton. Despite the broad generality of these terms, there can be no doubt that i n Edmonton, i n the year 1918, this was a meritorious and l o g i c a l object f o r any organization, and one which could be worked towards without any duplication of e f f o r t on the part of the c i t i z e n s who were members, and without c o n f l i c t i n g with the inte r e s t s of other groups. Indeed, this statement of the objectives of a com-munity league was considered so p r a c t i c a l , that i t s t i l l forms the basis of the a r t i c l e on "object" f o r newly formed com-munity leagues. For example, the constitution of the Pleasant View Community League, formed as recently as M ay 1948, states: "The object of thi s organization s h a l l be the development of public s p i r i t and community pride through the sponsorship and presentation of worthwhile oommunity endeavours." 2 Such a statement of purpose was very p r a c t i c a l i n 1918 when the school curriculum was l i m i t e d to s t r i c t l y academic subjects, when the l o c a l property owners' association was weak and i n e f f e c t i v e , when there was no Home and School Association i n most communities, when servioe clubs were 1 Constitution and By-Laws - 142nd Street D i s t r i c t Community  League - 1918 2 Constitution - Pleasant View Community League - 1948 29 p r i m a r i l y luncheon c l u b s , when m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l and dominion branches of government had r e c o g n i z e d no, or v e r y l i t t l e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the f i e l d s of a d u l t education, w e l f a r e , and r e c r e a t i o n , and when there was no C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies i n Edmonton. • Nov/, however, w i t h a l l these o r g a n i z a t i o n s f u n c t i o n -i n g i n one or more of the same or r e l a t e d f i e l d s as do the com-munity leagues, i t i s sheer f o l l y f o r the community leagues to continue to s t a t e and pursue the same o b j e c t i v e s as were s t a t e d and pursued i n 1918. The aims and purposes of these o t h e r community o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to the o b j e c t s of a com-munity league bear examination. The o b j e c t i v e of modern educ a t i o n i s the education of the whole student i n those matters which w i l l b e s t make him a u s e f u l and c o n t r i b u t i n g c i t i z e n i n a democratic s o c i e t y . T h i s i n v o l v e s academic, s o c i a l , moral, and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . F u r t h e r , the modern educator does not l i m i t h i s conception of student to those i n r e g u l a r attendance at c l a s s e s , but i s anxious and w i l l i n g to o f f e r courses to young people and a d u l t s who are not r e g u l a r l y e n r o l l e d . S i m i l a r l y , at the other end of the c h r o n o l o g i c a l s c a l e , a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g given the p r e -s c h o o l aged youngster. In c a r r y i n g out such a broad programme, the educators are now able to make use of new e d u c a t i o n a l procedures which tremendously i n c r e a s e the number of i n d i -v i d u a l s exposed to competent t e a c h i n g . The r a d i o b r i n g s both f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n t o p r a c t i c a l l y every home. Motion p i c t u r e s , f i l m s t r i p s , and o t h e r v i s u a l education a i d s so are bringing knowledge to many who have been exposed to very l i t t l e formal education, i n addition, these new media of edu-cation are exerting a tremendous influence on the s o c i a l and moral attitudes of the people. Related to, and to a large extent basing t h e i r work on the concepts of modern education, are those organizations active i n the f i e l d s of recreation and welfare. Extra-cur-r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s are an i n t e g r a l part of modern education but such a c t i v i t i e s are primarily of a recreation nature. S i m i l a r l y , t r a i n i n g f o r c i t i z e n s h i p i s a primary function of the school, yet the recognition of that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by every c i t i z e n i s , broadly speaking, one of the primary objectives of welfare organizations. A casual survey of the s i t u a t i o n could possibly lead to the conclusion that i n the f i e l d s of education, recreation, and welfare, there was some duplication of e f f o r t , but a closer scrutiny indicates that the objectives of each of these broad f i e l d s of endeavour i s d i f f e r e n t although at times t h e i r methods, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y the media i n which they operate, may be very s i m i l a r . For the educator, physical a c t i v i t i e s serve the primary objective of bui l d i n g p h y s i c a l l y f i t c i t i z e n s , through teaching the student s p e c i f i c physical a c t i v i t i e s designed to promote physical health. There Is, of course, recognition of the rel a t i o n s h i p between physical and mental health. The recreation programme Includes many physical a c t i v i t i e s f o r the primary reason that people enjoy them, and that f o r many i n sedentary occupations, such a c t i v i t i e s are 31 relaxing. The welfare worker may U3e a programme of physical a c t i v i t i e s f o r the purpose of studying the i n t e r a c t i o n of individuals within a natural group with the objective of aiding the members of the group to make a better s o c i a l adjustment. To further complicate the picture of a modern com-munity there are Innumerable other organizations i n the f i e l d , each pursuing a s p e c i f i c objective, usually r e l a t e d to the objectives of several other groups, and often using the same media. Thus, a class i n handicrafts could serve many purposes. Inoa school, the learning of a new s k i l l would be the objective, i n a recreation agency, relaxation, fun, and the s a t i s f a c t i o n of mixing with people of l i k e Interest would be the objective, i n a s o c i a l agency the objective could be therapy f o r s o c i a l maladjustment, a some and School group may introduce suoh a class f o r the purpose of demonstrating a curriculum need, a service club may sponsor the project " f o r underprivileged children", while a h o s p i t a l may be using such an a c t i v i t y as a part of their physical therapy programme. Although there i s variety of purpose i n these various groups, there i s d e f i n i t e l y an overlap i n terms of the a c t i v i t i e s used to pursue the i n d i v i d u a l purposes. With so many groups, organized on a community basis, pursuing objectives which i n a l l cases are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to "the welfare of the neighborhood", the community leagues today are faced with the problem of redefining t h e i r object and reconsidering t h e i r programme of a c t i v i t i e s , and the purposes of that programme. 32 Indicative of the s i t u a t i o n as i t has developed over the past several years i s the constantly s h i f t i n g programme emphasis within the i n d i v i d u a l community leagues. One of the f i r s t successful programme features of community leagues was meetings where a l l candidates f o r public o f f i c e were asked to present t h e i r platforms. Attendance and i n t e r e s t was high at these meetings and a l l candidates considered them the most es s e n t i a l part of t h e i r campaign. During the past few years, however, attendance has been so poor that more frequently than not a meeting i s attended by more speakers than l i s t e n e r s . The Edmontoti Journal, commenting on the opening of the 1948 c i v i c elections campaign, states, "Last year a f u l l parade of twenty-three mayoralty, aldermanic, and public school board candidates attracted only fourteen persons to the campaign opening". This i s not, of course, a l o c a l phenomenon but rather i s the r e s u l t of the development of radio and i t s use f o r p o l i t i c a l cam-paigning. People j u s t f i n d i t easier to s i t home and l i s t e n to the campaign speeches i n the comfort of t h e i r l i v i n g room and r e t a i n the p r i v i l e g e of turning o f f the speaker i f they are not interested, or lose i n t e r e s t i n the speeches. Another very successful programme feature of com-munity leagues i n past years was the presentation of q u a l i f i e d lecturers who gave informative types of talks, usually followed by discussion groups. Today, i n p r a c t i c a l l y every community i n the c i t y , Home and School Associations meet r e g u l a r l y once a month and at p r a c t i c a l l y every meeting there i s a guest 33 speaker who discusses a topic of p a r t i c u l a r Interest to a group whose purpose Is the establishment of ever improving standards of education. Usually the topic could be considered under the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of curriculum, extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s , "or adult education. Thus, i n p r a c t i c a l l y every f i e l d of a c t i v i t y the community leagues now f i n d themselves In competition with some other community organization which has the tremendous advantage of having i t s focus of attention directed towards one very s p e c i f i c objective. The organization of leagues and tournaments i s now done by the Recreation Commission; teen age groups are organized by the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A.; demands f o r l o c a l improvements are made by the Property Owners' Association; hockey and skating rinks are now maintained by both the c i t y and the school boards, while teams In a l l organized sport are sponsored by commercial firms, a t h l e t i c clubs or both. Does the solution to this problem i n community organ-i z a t i o n necessarily l i e i n the community leagues abandoning t h e i r generic approach to community welfare? Before an answer Is proposed the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l leagues, the Federation and the Edmonton Recreation Commission must be thoroughly understood. 34 CHAPTER FIVE THE EDMONTON RECREATION COMMISSION During the Second World War, the governments of the western a l l i e s r e a l i z e d the tremendous importance of recre-ation to the physical and mental well being of both combatants and non-combatants. There was ample proof that i n d i v i d u a l well being, promoted through wholesome recreation, paid dividends i n terms of increased e f f i c i e n c y . Edmonton, during the war years, had plenty of opportunity to observe the f a i t h of government i n recreation as a f a c t o r i n national defence, from many points of view. Within the c i t y were numerous m i l i t a r y establishments of both the B r i t i s h Commonwealth of Nations and the United States of America. Also, there were several large i n d u s t r i a l plants engaged i n war production employing thousands of workers. Never before, and i t i s doubtful I f since, had there been such an extensive recreation programme operated i n the c i t y . To a large extent the armed services and the war industries sold recreation to Edmonton. Early i n 1944, Alderman H. D. Alnlay, who had cam-paigned on the basis of broader recreation opportunity f o r a l l , proposed to the c i t y council that some form of municipal agency be created to promote and co-ordinate recreation a c t i v i t i e s i n the c i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y those involving public f a c i l i t i e s . Private agency leaders, representatives of the Federation of 35 Community Leagues, prominent i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s , were prompted to meet i n f o r m a l l y under the sponsorship of the C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l Agencies and d i s c u s s the p r o p o s a l . S e v e r a l meetings were h e l d w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the c i t y and Alderman A i n l a y f i n a l l y was able to prese n t to c i t y c o u n c i l i n December 1944, By-Law 1069. T h i s By-Law was passed by c o u n c i l and the C i t y of Edmonton R e c r e a t i o n Commission came i n t o b e i n g . By-Law 1069 gave the R e c r e a t i o n Commission power to a c t i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y to C o u n c i l i n r e l a t i o n to the "development, maintenance, e x t e n s i o n and use" of a l l r e c r e -a t i o n a l grounds owned or c o n t r o l l e d by the C i t y C o u n c i l i n -c l u d i n g b u i l d i n g s and equipment, and s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ; to co-operate w i t h and encourage a l l e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s promoting any s p o r t o r r e c r e a t i o n ; to work i n co-o p e r a t i o n w i t h and a d v i s e the C i t y Commissioners on the d i r e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l grounds w i t h i n the C i t y , i n c l u d i n g the drawing-up of t i m e t a b l e s f o r the most e f -f e c t i v e use o f such grounds and b u i l d i n g s by c l u b s or teams; to r e p o r t and recommend to C o u n c i l r e g a r d i n g the f u r n i s h i n g of adequate equipment and f a c i l i t i e s to be d i s t r i b u t e d to r e c r e -a t i o n a l grounds and b u i l d i n g s f o r v a r i o u s types of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y ; to co-operate w i t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies, c i v i c , s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , so that the most b e n e f i c i a l and e f f i c i e n t use c o u l d be made of a l l r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s ; and f i n a l l y , to hear and c o n s i d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s from any body of c i t i z e n s on any matter r e l a t i n g t o r e c r e a t i o n 36 whether r e p r e s e n t i n g an e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n or not. The p r i v a t e agencies and a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Edmonton who were most concerned w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a m u n i c i p a l r e c r e -a t i o n agency were anxious t h a t they be r e p r e s e n t e d on the R e c r e a t i o n Commission. The c i v i c government was, however, op-posed to t h i s p r i n c i p l e , p o s s i b l y f e a r i n g the establishment of a p r e s s u r e group. Pleased to see any type of o r g a n i z a t i o n s e t up, the p r i v a t e groups withdrew t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s . In a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , however, a compromise has been worked out i n t h a t i n s o f a r as Is p o s s i b l e , of the f i v e members appointed to the R e c r e a t i o n Commission by the nominating committee of c i t y c o u n c i l , one i s u s u a l l y chosen as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s p o r t s , but not as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Edmonton A t h l e t i c C o u n c i l , another i s chosen as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the a r t s , a lthough not as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Edmonton A r t s C o u n c i l , and a t h i r d i s u s u a l l y suggested by the C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies but does not r e p r e s e n t t h a t group. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, no member who c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the F e d e r a t i o n of Com-munity Leagues was chosen. F u r t h e r , r e c r e a t i o n l e a d e r s i n the c i t y f e l t t h a t the powers of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission should extend to a l l c i t y owned r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and should embrace a l l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v i n g m u n i c i p a l support. E s t a b l i s h e d departments and branches of the c i t y government were, however, r e l u c t a n t to g i v e up c o n t r o l of revenue-bearing f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s , and i n o r d e r to assure passage o f the By-Law, exceptions were 37 made of the p u b l i c g o l f courses and swimming pools which are c o n t r o l l e d by the Parks department, the arena which i s con-t r o l l e d by Edmonton E x h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n and boxing and wrest-l i n g which i s c o n t r o l l e d by the Edmonton Boxing and W r e s t l i n g Commission. One of the s t r o n g e s t arguments used i n f a v o u r of es-t a b l i s h i n g the R e c r e a t i o n Commission was t h a t i t would c o s t the c i t y v ery l i t t l e . The R e c r e a t i o n Commission was to be p r i m a r i l y a promotional and c o - o r d i n a t i n g body. Once, however, the oper-a t i o n of playgrounds was assumed and the playground system was e n l a r g e d the o p e r a t i n g budget of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission i n c r e a s e d tremendously. In 1945 the budget was $3000.00, i n 1946 i t was #7500.00, i n 1949 i t was $30,000.00 and i n 1950 i t i s $80,000.00. Each y e a r t h a t the R e c r e a t i o n Commission pr e -sents i t s budget to c i t y c o u n c i l the o l d argument t h a t " i t would not c o s t very much" has to be fought. F o r t u n a t e l y the c i t y c o u n c i l must f e e l they are r e c e i v i n g f u l l value f o r t h e i r money as i n the p a s t three years not one cent has been taken o f f the R e c r e a t i o n Commission estimates as submitted, •'•t i s , however, becoming more and more d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y expenditures f o r new programmes i n view of the very g e n e r a l and vague statement of the powers o f the R e c r e a t i o n Commission as l a i d down i n the By-Law. That "the R e c r e a t i o n Commission s h a l l a c t i n an ad-v i s o r y c a p a c i t y to C i t y C o u n c i l on a l l questions r e l a t e d to the development, maintenance, e x t e n s i o n and use o f a l l r e c r e a t i o n 3 8 grounds owned by the c i t y , " i s b r i e f l y what By-Law 1069 says r e g a r d i n g the f u n c t i o n of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission. There i s i n Edmonton a Parks Department which was e s t a b l i s h e d by a r e s o l u -t i o n of c o u n c i l and there i s no w r i t t e n statement of i t s powers as there i s i n the case of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission. I t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed, however, t h a t the Parks Department i s con-cerned w i t h the development, maintenance and e x t e n s i o n of a l l c i t y owned park l a n d s . T h i s of course i n c l u d e s those park areas devoted to a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n . I t would seem, then, t h a t a very b a s i c c o n f l i c t or purposes e x i s t s between two branches of the c i v i c government. The c i t y c o u n c i l i n 1944 p r o b a b l y had no I n t e n t i o n of c r e a t i n g a R e c r e a t i o n Commission t h a t would f u n c t i o n as an o p e r a t i n g branch o f the c i v i c government but r a t h e r , thought they were e s t a b l i s h i n g a mere a d v i s o r y committee. A c t u a l l y the need f o r a p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a u t h o r i t y i n Edmonton was not proven u n t i l a f t e r the a u t h o r i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d . In other words the R e c r e a t i o n Commission demonstrated a p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n programme and s o l d i t to the c i t y c o u n c i l . T h i s was a c h i eved by i n t e r p r e t i n g the needs of the people i n terms of r e c r e a t i o n and programming to meet those needs. With the passage o f the By-Law i n December 1944, the R e c r e a t i o n Commission was d u l y appointed and o f f i c i a l l y s t a r t e d f u n c t i o n i n g January 1st, 1945. Mr. A i n l a y , who had sponsored the By-Law was appointed as one of the c i t y c o u n c i l r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s and d u r i n g the f o r m a t i v e months of the group, he was most i n f l u e n t i a l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g p o l i c y i n r e l a t i o n to the By-Law. 39 Mr. W. C. R i c h a r d s , a man who had l o n g been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a t h l e t i c s , was e l e c t e d chairman, and has h e l d t h a t p o s i t i o n ever s i n c e . The F i r s t Years o f the R e c r e a t i o n Commission -D u r i n g the f i r s t year o f i t s o p e r a t i o n , the R e c r e a t i o n Commission h e l d s e v e r a l open meetings at which r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n groups i n the c i t y were g i v e n an oppor-t u n i t y to express t h e i r s p e c i f i c needs and to suggest how the R e c r e a t i o n Commission c o u l d b e s t work towards meeting these needs. At the s t a r t there was much c o n f u s i o n amongst the r e c r e a t i o n groups of the c i t y as to what the f u n c t i o n of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission s h o u l d be. For example, one group r e -quested a c e r t a i n number of b a s e b a l l s , while another expressed a need f o r c e r t a i n stage p r o p e r t i e s . The most urgent need, i t appeared, from these meetings was a d d i t i o n a l p l a y f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n . The R e c r e a t i o n Commission asked i t s s u p e r v i s o r to make a survey of the c i t y , and to b r i n g i n a p l a n of development of p l a y f a c i l i t i e s . The c h i e f s u p e r v i s o r completed h i s survey by October 1945. No annual r e p o r t on the o p e r a t i o n s o f the R e c r e a t i o n Commission was i s s u e d f o r the years 1945 to 1946. I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, to o b t a i n a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of what was accomplished d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d from m a t e r i a l on f i l e at the R e c r e a t i o n Commission o f f i c e . For the most p a r t i n i t s second year of o p e r a t i o n , the R e c r e a t i o n Commission con c e n t r a t e d i t s a t t e n t i o n on expanding the c i t y playground system and, i n t h i s r e g a r d , i n the summer of 1946, they doubled the number of 40 playgrounds under s u p e r v i s i o n i n the c i t y . F o r t u n a t e l y , they were not f a c e d w i t h the expense of a c q u i r i n g l a n d f o r playground purposes, as due to the f o r e s i g h t o f the c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a q u a r t e r c e n t u r y b e f o r e , each community had under l e a s e a f a i r l y adequate p i e c e of p r o p e r t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n use. I t was necessary, however, to work out some b a s i s of agreement whereby the R e c r e a t i o n Commission would use the l a n d under the c o n t r o l of the i n d i v i d u a l Community Leagues. There i s no r e c o r d of any w r i t t e n agreement between the c i t y and the community leagues i n t h i s regard, but r a t h e r the R e c r e a t i o n Commission operates s u p e r v i s e d playgrounds on community league p r o p e r t y on the b a s i s of a v e r b a l under-s t a n d i n g . The p o l i c y i s , t h a t the R e c r e a t i o n Commission sup-p l i e s playground l e a d e r s h i p and apparatus, and a minimum of s u p p l i e s , while the community leagues are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r maintenance and development o f the p r o p e r t y . P r o v i n g s a t i s -f a c t o r y , t h i s p o l i c y has been adhered to u n t i l the p r e s e n t , and has allowed the number of s u p e r v i s e d and equipped p l a y -grounds to i n c r e a s e s t e a d i l y . With the e n t r y of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission i n t o the f i e l d of playgrounds o p e r a t i o n , the Gyro Club of Edmonton w i t h -drew from the f i e l d and turned t h e i r a s s e t s , c o n s i s t i n g of three f u l l y equipped playgrounds, over to the c i t y . A l s o , the Gyros' made a v a i l a b l e the amount of $7,500 f o r purchase of playgrounds equipment over the f o l l o w i n g f i v e year p e r i o d . T h i s amount was the balance i n the c l u b ' s playground fund. 41 Thus assured of at least $ 1,500 per year f o r equipment, and with space f o r playgrounds available i n most communities, the rapid expansion of playground f a c i l i t i e s was pretty well assured i n Edmonton. -*-n 1947, eleven playgrounds were operated, and 1948, f i f t e e n playgrounds, and four tot l o t s . For 1950, the Recreation Commission budgeted f o r twenty f i v e equipped and supervised playgrounds, and fourteen tot l o t s . The ultimate goal of the Recreation Commission i s a playground within one h a l f mile of every child ' s home, and i t i s estimated-that this w i l l require approximately t h i r t y playgrounds. In a l l but a few cases the land i s available and the goal does not look too d i s t a n t . Important as playgrounds are, a more, s i g n i f i c a n t development i n community recreation since the Recreation Com-mission entered the f i e l d i s the placement of leadership i n the community leagues to develop and conduct a year round recreation programme f o r a l l age groups. This Is of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Edmonton, where the long winter, and the re-s t r i c t i o n s of climate, are l i m i t i n g factors i n the free ex-pression of recreation Interests. Following the playground season of 1946, four of the playground directors were taken on permanent s t a f f , and were placed i n community league h a l l s to conduct a winter recreation programme. There was l i t t l e overrall supervision, and each d i r e c t o r wa3 l e f t to work out a programme as he best saw f i t . The general pattern of programmes that developed Involved usually a play school type of programme 4a f o r pre school children, a simple c r a f t s and active games programme for s i x to twelve year olds, and a s o c i a l recreation programme f o r teen agers. Adult programme consisted of dances, whist drives, bingos, and s o c i a l s . This adult phase of recre-ation was, f o r the most part, nothing new, but had been c a r r i e d on from the early years of the community league movement. Unfortunately the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the directors en-trusted with the conduct of these community programmes, were li m i t e d . For the most part, they were engaged on the basis of demonstrated i n t e r e s t and s k i l l s i n recreation a c t i v i t i e s . Academic t r a i n i n g was a minor factor i n the selection of leaders. Problems of r e l a t i o n s h i p with the i n d i v i d u a l leagues soon arose and as the s t a f f of the Recreation Commission was not trained i n the p r i n c i p l e s and methods of community organization they often as not aggravated the problems rather than solved them. An important obligation assumed by the Recreation Commission was that of scheduling the use of a l l public recre-ation f a c i l i t i e s such as baseball and S o f t b a l l diamonds, hockey rinks, f o o t b a l l f i e l d s , p i c n i c grounds, stadiums, c r a f t rooms, club rooms and auditoriums. The f a c i l i t i e s of the public and separate school boards were excepted. In December 1946, the chief supervisor tendered h i s • resignation and i t was accepted. His primary reason f o r resigning was that he found his p o s i t i o n of multiple responsi-b i l i t y i n t o l e r a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view of administrative meddling by Recreation Commission members. As an employee of 43 the c i t y , the a d m i n i s t r a t i n g o f f i c e r of the R e c r e a t i o n Com-m i s s i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e to the mayor and c i t y commissioners. Through p r a c t i c e , however, he had a l s o become the e x e c u t i v e -s e c r e t a r y o f the R e c r e a t i o n Commission and was attempting to C a r r y out the i n s t r u c t i o n s and recommendations o f t h a t body, o f t e n i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to the wishes of the c i v i c adminis-t r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the c h i e f s u p e r v i s o r f e l t o b l i g a t e d to e n t e r t a i n suggestions from the F e d e r a t i o n of Community Leagues, as the R e c r e a t i o n Commission program was i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up w i t h t h a t o f the i n d i v i d u a l leagues. U s u a l l y , any s u g g e s t i o n from the F e d e r a t i o n came more i n the form of a demand, and when, many demands were not met a resentment grew up between the F e d e r a t i o n and the R e c r e a t i o n Commission. The F e d e r a t i o n seemed to f e a r , t h a t through the R e c r e a t i o n Commission the c i t y was going to take over a l l the oommunlty leagues. A p p a r e n t l y there was nobody capable of i n t e r p r e t i n g the f u n c t i o n of the Recre-a t i o n Commission i n r e l a t i o n to the F e d e r a t i o n and to the i n d i v i d u a l leagues. F o l l o w i n g the r e s i g n a t i o n o f the c h i e f s u p e r v i s o r no new appointment was made, but, r a t h e r the R e c r e a t i o n Commission, through i t s chairman, assumed an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e and c a r r i e d on f o r over s i x months without a c h i e f e x e c u t i v e . F i n a l l y , i n March 1947, the R e c r e a t i o n Commission a d v e r t i s e d f o r a new c h i e f s u p e r v i s o r . F o l l o w i n g t h i s an o f f e r was r e c e i v e d from Mr. L i o n e l S c o t t of Toronto to come to Edmonton and a c t as t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r to the R e c r e a t i o n Commission f o r a p e r i o d of s i x months, 44 d u r i n g which time he would organize and aet up a p u b l i c r e c r e -a t i o n programme a u i t e d to the p a r t i c u l a r needs of Edmonton. The o f f e r was accepted and Mr. S c o t t s t a r t e d work i n A p r i l 1947. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there was some resentment i n the c i t y a g a i n s t b r i n g i n g i n an o u t s i d e r and Mr. S c o t t met a c t i v e oppo-s i t i o n from s e v e r a l r e c r e a t i o n groups. His work was f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the vagueness r e g a r d i n g who was the c h i e f ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission, he or the chairman. Even under these d i f f i c u l t i e s , however, a s u c c e s s f u l summer programme was operated and much i n t e r p r e t i v e work was done w i t h the R e c r e a t i o n Commission members and community groups. In September 1947 Mr. S c o t t f i n i s h e d h i s work and presented a comprehensive r e p o r t on the p r i n c i p l e s of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as they a p p l i e d to Edmonton. The w r i t e r , who had been n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h the R e c r e a t i o n Com-m i s s i o n f o r about s i x months, was appointed c h i e f s u p e r v i s o r , e f f e c t i v e September 15, a l l o w i n g a two week o v e r l a p b e f o r e Mr. S c o t t l e f t . Much of the resentment t h a t had g r e e t e d Mr. Soott now f a c e d the new c h i e f s u p e r v i s o r , another " o u t s i d e r " . A t the time the w r i t e r assumed the p o s i t i o n of c h i e f e x e c u t i v e of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission the s t a f f c o n s i s t e d of f o u r f u l l time playground d i r e c t o r s and a s e c r e t a r y . Three of the d i r e c t o r s had a p p l i e d f o r the p o s i t i o n of c h i e f s u p e r v i s o r and a l l seemed to r e s e n t t h e i r new s u p e r i o r . On the o t h e r hand, the R e c r e a t i o n Commission seemed to have no c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r s t a f f and o f f e r e d to d i s c h a r g e the l o t of them and PLATE I Superintendent Director Secretary Director Director Director Figure 1, Chart Showing Staff Organization of Recreation Commission 1947 Superintendent Secretary Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Directors Directors Figure 2. Chart Showing S t a f f Organization of Recreation Commission 1948 45 s t a r t a f r e s h from top to bottom. D e s p i t e the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t u r m o i l w i t h i n the R e c r e a t i o n Commission the work of the p a s t few years had been w e l l enough performed to warrant an Increase i n the a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r 1948. T h i s allowed f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e s t a f f i n c r e a s e and made p o s s i b l e the promotion of the two most e f f i c i e n t of the o r i g i n a l s t a f f . Since t h a t time the l o y a l t y of the s t a f f has never been quest i o n e d . Comparative c h a r t s of departmental o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 1947 and 1948 are shown on p l a t e 1. A second, and more important, problem f a c i n g the R e c r e a t i o n Commission was t h a t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the R e c r e a t i o n Commission and the community leagues. Many Edmonton-i a n s , a c t i v e i n the f i e l d o f r e c r e a t i o n , f i n d t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p obscure and i t i s no wonder, as n e i t h e r the R e c r e a t i o n Com-m i s s i o n nor the F e d e r a t i o n know themselves from one day to another j u s t what t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s to one another, nor, what i t c o u l d be or should be. W i t h i n the c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , one s c h o o l of thought, r e c o g n i z e i n the F e d e r a t i o n a s t r o n g p r e s s u r e group which has i n the p a s t caused them some em-barrassment. T h i s group would l i k e to see the community league movement d i e out. There are, however, others who r e c o g n i z e t h a t i f the community leagues cease to e x i s t , the c i t y , through the R e c r e a t i o n Commission, would have to bear the f u l l c o s t of m a i n t a i n i n g the. r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s now c o n t r o l l e d by the leagues. The F e d e r a t i o n and the Leagues Today -The Community Leagues i n Edmonton, at t h i s time, 46 numbered twenty-nine. These v a r i e d from f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e community groups attempting to f o l l o w the o b j e c t i v e s of the movement to r e s t r i c t e d m i n o r i t y groups c a r r y i n g on much on the b a s i s of a p r i v a t e c l u b . Many of the leagues were t o t t e r i n g on the b r i n k of bankruptcy, w h i l e others were i n sound f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n . F a c i l i t i e s ranged from w h o l l y undeveloped l a n d , l e a s e d from the c i t y , to developed and equipped r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s complete w i t h playground, r e c r e a t i o n b u i l d i n g , r i n k s , r i n k houses, bo w l i n g greens, and t e n n i s c o u r t s . A l l of these leagues were members of the F e d e r a t i o n of Community Leagues. T h i s F e d e r a t i o n was a very loose o r g a n i -z a t i o n and e x e r c i s e d l i t t l e r e a l c o n t r o l over the a c t i v i t i e s and p o l i c i e s o f the member leagues. Even w i t h i n i t s l i m i t e d scope the F e d e r a t i o n r e c e i v e d , a t the b e s t , h a l f h e a r t e d support from the member leagues. In the minutes of the F e d e r a t i o n there are s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s to approximately h a l f the member, leagues b e i n g d e l i n q u e n t i n payment of the a f f i l i a t i o n dues, and a t -tendance at F e d e r a t i o n meetings seldom shows more than„half the leagues r e p r e s e n t e d . Most o f the work of the F e d e r a t i o n was c h a n n e l l e d through three a c t i v e s t a n d i n g committeesj e d u c a t i o n a l , c i v i c s , and s p o r t s . The e d u c a t i o n a l committee was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a r -r a n g i n g f o r speakers at the meetings o f the member leagues, i f so requested. T h i s committee, i n a d d i t i o n , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s c h e d u l i n g the F e d e r a t i o n moving p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r i n the v a r i -ous community league h a l l s . The c i v i c s committee was charged 47 w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f making r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s to the c i t y c o u n c i l or to oth e r agencies of the c i t y government on b e h a l f of the F e d e r a t i o n or of member leagues, when so requested, The sp o r t s committee was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n and conduct of inter-community league s p o r t s . Although the work o f the c i v i c s committee i s l a r g e l y of a n o n - r e c r e a t i o n nature, a l l three committees are i n c o n t i n u a l c o n t a c t w i t h the R e c r e a t i o n Com-m i s s i o n . There i s not, however, any necessary r e l a t i o n s h i p between the programmes o f the F e d e r a t i o n and those o f the i n d i -v i d u a l leagues. The c i v i c s committee of the F e d e r a t i o n w i l l r e p r e s e n t the leagues upon request b ut o f t e n as not the i n d i -v i d u a l leagues w i l l p resent t h e i r requests d i r e c t l y to the c i t y government. While most of the leagues p a r t i c i p a t e i n some of the F e d e r a t i o n s p o r t s leagues, few are re p r e s e n t e d i n them a l l , and some are r e p r e s e n t e d i n none of them. Less than h a l f the leagues are i n the h a b i t o f p r e s e n t i n g speakers a t t h e i r meet-ings and of those t h a t do many make t h e i r own arrangements. S i m i l a r l y , l e s s than h a l f the leagues make use o f the F e d e r a t i o n motion p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r , many of them l a c k i n g adequate f a -c i l i t i e s f o r such a programme. The programmes o f the i n d i v i d u a l leagues f a l l b r o a d l y i n t o f o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . There are those w i t h s m a l l member-s h i p , b u t p o s s e s s i n g a h a l l where a l l programme i s operated on a commercial b a s i s , w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n coming from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , r a t h e r than league membership. In such a league there 48 might be a "bingo" h e l d two n i g h t s a week, a dance h e l d on Saturday n i g h t , and as many of the remaining evenings i n the week as p o s s i b l e , the h a l l w i l l be r e n t e d to p r i v a t e groups. A second c l a s s i f i c a t i o n shows those leagues which are r e l a t i v e l y new and do not possess a h a l l . Membership i s u s u a l l y f a i r l y -r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the community and most programme i s d i r e c t e d towards r a i s i n g funds f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a h a l l . Dances, s o c i a l s , c a r n i v a l s , and c o n c e r t s , are f r e q u e n t l y h e l d i n s c h o o l , church, or lodge h a l l s , by the leagues i n t h i s group. A t h i r d group of leagues are those who have h a l l s and have f a i r l y r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e membership and who are t r y i n g to make t h e i r leagues and h a l l s a r e a l community a s s e t . These leagues make t h e i r h a l l s a v a i l a b l e to such community groups as Boy Scouts and G i r l Guides and u s u a l l y have a teen age s o c i a l group o r g a n i z e d and under the s u p e r v i s i o n of v o l u n t e e r s drawn from the league membership. Saturday n i g h t dances or s o c i a l s f o r league members are regu-l a r l y s c heduled. The f o u r t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of community leagues i s those who have a v a i l a b l e the s e r v i c e s of a f u l l time d i r e c t o r p a i d by the R e c r e a t i o n Commission. There were f o u r such leagues a t the b e g i n n i n g o f 1948. R e c r e a t i o n Commission - Community League R e l a t i o n s h i p s -At t h i s date, the f o u r d i r e c t o r s o f the R e c r e a t i o n Commission were l o c a t e d i n Westmount, R i v e r d a l e , Jasper P l a c e , and King Edward Park. E x c e p t i n g Westmount, where the d i r e c t o r had been working f o r n e a r l y a year, a l l o f these community league programmes, h a v i n g s t a r t e d o p e r a t i o n s In September 49 1947, r e p r e s e n t e d new ventures f o r the R e c r e a t i o n Commission. A l l d i r e c t o r s were p l a c e d on the b a s i s of the f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y l a i d down by the R e c r e a t i o n Commission; "In conducting a win t e r programme i t i s necessary f o r the R e c r e a t i o n Commission to make use o f f a c i l i t i e s other than i t s own, and consequently a d e f i -n i t e p o l i c y had to be worked out w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n s cont-r o l l i n g the f a c i l i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y was worked out over a p e r i o d o f three months and was deemed s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r f u t u r e w i n t e r programme o p e r a t i o n under e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s : The R e c r e a t i o n Commission makes a v a i l a b l e a q u a l i f i e d d i r e c t o r f o r a minimum of f o r t y hours per week, to a c t i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y and to s t i m u l a t e and broaden the r e c r e a t i o n programme. I t i s h i s duty to work through v o l u n t e e r l e a d s i n the community and to assure t h a t the programme i s a v a i l a b l e to a l l the people of the community. The R e c r e a t i o n Commission a l s o s u p p l i e s , to a l i m i t e d extent, games s u p p l i e s , h a n d i c r a f t m a t e r i a l s , and o t h e r equipment r e q u i r e d f o r the programme. The community i n t u r n must assure t h a t the r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r s h a l l be able to use the f a c i l i t i e s c o n t r o l l e d by the community f o r the programme, and they must i n a d d i t i o n e s t a b l i s h an a d v i s o r y body to a s s i s t the d i r e c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the needs of the community and i n p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g out the programme. I t i s not the d e s i r e of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission to impose a p r e c o n c e i v e d programme on the communities, but Irather to p l a c e a d i r e c t o r In the community who i s q u a l i f i e d to c a r r y out a programme co n c e i v e d by and s u i t e d to the needs o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r community." 1 1 Annual Report of Superintendent of P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n f o r the C i t y o f Edmonton R e c r e a t i o n Commission;-1947 pp 13 50 Although predicated upon the b r i e f experience of only-three months th i s p o l i c y has proven workable to both the com-munity leagues and the Recreation Commission and has worked so e f f e c t i v e l y that i t i s s t i l l i n force today. In Jasper Place community a well balanced programme of recreation was i n operation at the s t a r t of 1948. Co-operation of the community league was excellent and the terms of the p o l i c y , as l a i d down by the Recreation Commission, were followed to the l e t t e r and i n s p i r i t . The recreation programme offered a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l age groups and both sexes and ranged from a t h l e t i c s , to arts, and s o c i a l recreation. The smallness of the h a l l seemed to be the only factor l i m i t i n g the further expansion of programme. The community advisory group, under the guidance of the recreation d i r e c t o r , were c a r e f u l not to exclude such groups as the Boy Scouts and G i r l Guides from the Use of the h a l l . The pattern i n Riverdale was very s i m i l a r to that i n Jasper Place excepting some variations i n programme content. In king Edward Park, however, the s i t u a t i o n was somewhat d i f f e r -ent. The King Edward Park d i s t r i c t , on the very outskirts of the c i t y , i s s t i l l a more or less semi-rural community. The community h a l l i s not c e n t r a l l y located, but i s near the eastern border of the area. The people at the western end of the d i s t r i c t d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e to any extent In the programme. Because of the distance of many of the homes from the h a l l , attendance at programmes was small during the harsh winter 51 months. Nevertheless, a key group of community leaders worked with the d i r e c t o r , and a f a i r l y good programme was achieved. In Westmount the programme was operating f o r the second winter season. I t was i n this community that most of the experimental work was done that l a t e r formed the basis of the Recreation Commission p o l i c y i n regard to community recre-ation programmes. The picture was somewhat confused i n thi s d i s t r i c t as here, the Y.M.C.A. operated i t s only community branch. Another important factor i n Westmount was the existence of a community co u n c i l . This group had been formed at the in s t i g a t i o n of the Recreation Commission to prevent overlap and duplication of service between the Community Y.M.C.A. and the Recreation Commission - Community League programmes. "The Westmount Community Council, the co-ordinating and programming organization f o r this winter programme, had been an e f f e c t i v e force f o r long-range planning i n the Com-mission since i t s inception i n 1946. The organization i s com-posed of delegates appointed by member organizations which consist of the Westmount Community League, the Mountglen "Y", the Mountglen Home and School Association, and the St. Andrews Home and School Association. The important branch of t h i s organization i s the programme planning committee which takes a long range view of the community needs and plans programmes within the scope of the community as a whole to provide." 1 The Recreation Commission, however, i s not the only public agency operating a recreation programme i n Edmonton. 1 Ibid - Page 14 52 The H e a l t h and R e c r e a t i o n Branch of the Department of Education, o p e r a t i n g under the N a t i o n a l F i t n e s s A c t , p r o v i d e s r e c r e a t i o n l e a d e r s h i p throughout the p r o v i n c e . P r i o r to the establishment of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission i n Edmonton the H e a l t h and Recre-a t i o n l e a d e r s operated more o r l e s s independently, b e i n g r e - . s p o n s i b l e to t h e i r head o f f i c e s i n C a l g a r y . In 1946, however, the H e a l t h and Recreation- branch asked the R e c r e a t i o n Commission to approve any c e n t r e s operated by t h e i r l e a d e r s i n Edmonton. As the programme of the H e a l t h and R e c r e a t i o n branch was prima-r i l y one of p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n there was not n e c e s s a r i l y any d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t . D u r i n g the year 1948 the R e c r e a t i o n Commission es- . t a b l i s h e d c l o s e r l i a i s o n w i t h the H e a l t h and R e c r e a t i o n Branch and has made e f f e c t i v e use o f t h e i r l e a d e r s i n community ce n t r e s thus r e l i e v i n g the R e c r e a t i o n Commission d i r e c t o r s of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p h y s i c a l type of r e c r e a t i o n programme. As the R e c r e a t i o n Commission develops., more H e a l t h and Recre-a t i o n l e a d e r s h i p w i l l be drawn i n t o t h e i r programme. T h i s s h o u l d e l i m i n a t e the s m a l l one n i g h t independent programme now operated by many of the H e a l t h and R e c r e a t i o n l e a d e r s . The most r e c e n t s t e p of importance taken by the R e c r e a t i o n Commission i n r e l a t i o n to the community leagues was spons o r i n g the request o f Highlands league f o r a f i n a n c i a l grant from the c i t y to a i d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r new h a l l . The R e c r e a t i o n Commission s t r o n g l y supported the Highlands r e q u e s t and the c i t y made a grant o f $5,000.00 and i n 53 ao d o i n g e s t a b l i s h e d a p o l i c y o f grants to community leagues In r e g a r d to new b u i l d i n g s . T h i s p o l i c y was based to a l a r g e extent on recommendations made by the R e c r e a t i o n Commission, and subsequently two more such grants have been made, and s e v e r a l community leagues have been g i v e n the needed stimulus to s t a r t b u i l d i n g p l a n s . In a l l cases the R e c r e a t i o n Commission and the c i t y a r c h i t e c t s ' department are c o n s u l t e d a t the o u t s e t . I t w i l l be noted, t h a t whereas i t i s apparent t h a t a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s maintained between the R e c r e a t i o n Com-m i s s i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l leagues, the t o t a l p u b l i c programme i s c a r r i e d out without r e f e r e n c e to the F e d e r a t i o n . Indeed, i n matters p e r t a i n i n g to r e c r e a t i o n , the community leagues seldom make t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s to the c i t y government through the F e d e r a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r appeal d i r e c t l y to the R e c r e a t i o n Com-m i s s i o n . T h i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , has r e s u l t e d i n some f r i c t i o n between the F e d e r a t i o n and the R e c r e a t i o n Commission, and on two o c c a s s i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the F e d e r a t i o n have requested t h a t the R e c r e a t i o n Commission hear no d e l e g a t i o n s from the community leagues d i r e c t l y b u t o n l y through the F e d e r a t i o n . T h i s o f course, i s im p o s s i b l e under By-Law 1069. The i d e a o f l o o k i n g towards the R e c r e a t i o n Commission f o r h e l p and guidance r a t h e r than to the F e d e r a t i o n has taken f i r m h o l d i n the com-munity leagues. 54 CHAPTER SIX COMMUNITY RE ORGANIZATION FOR RECREATION: ITS POSSIBILITIES It l a estimated that 1949 saw an increase in popu-l a t i o n In Edmonton of 10,000, bringing the t o t a l to approximately 140,000. Indeed, the Edmonton Chamber of Commerce claims that Edmonton i s the fasteat growing c i t y i n Canada. Accompanying, and as a r e s u l t of thi s general population increase, was an increase i n the number of Community Leagues by two, the re-a c t i v a t i o n of two other leagues, and an increased membership and r e s u l t i n g strengthening of s t i l l other leagues. At the end of 1949, there were 31 more or less active community leagues i n Edmonton. There were, however, a few populous neighborhoods wherein no leagues existed and, what was worse, where there was no land available f o r establishment of a league. Regardless of these few exceptions, Edmonton had i n Community League property, very nearly adequate recreation space, properly d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the c i t y . Indeed, i n most cases, neighborhood areas had been dedicated to recreation use 25 years ago. It was, however, only since the establishment of the Recreation Commission that any planned development of these areas had been undertaken. x t had been the thought of the leagues that they would be developed as neighborhood play centres. Some leagues had established baseball diamonds on t h e i r property, others had b u i l t tennis courts, a few had put i n 5 5 bowling greens and p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of them had b u i l t skating or hockey r i n k s . In no case, however, had there been any plan-ned development p r i o r to the work done by the Recreation Com-mission. Rather, community f a c i l i t i e s developed i n l i n e with the s p e c i a l interests of the ^ controlling group i n the community league, and i n few cases d i d the c o n t r o l l i n g groups champion the cause of the chi l d r e n . The Federation made no attempt to state objectives or to e s t a b l i s h plans or p o l i c i e s under which com-munity grounds could be developed i n the best interests of the various communities. To them, the interests of the community league were of greater importance than the interests of the com-munity, and i n many cases the community league membership was less than 5% of the adult population of the community. This polioy, of course, worked i n a vicious c i r c l e . The Community League had l i t t l e regard f o r the community and often had a very small membership because of thi s lack of recognition of com-munity needs. There i s today a difference i n the work of the leagues as compared to 1920. Many of the community leagues which started out as genuinely representative community groups have developed into small groups protecting t h e i r s p e c i a l Interests as the d i r e c t r e s u l t of s t a t i c p o l i c y not geared to a constantly chang-ing community pattern. For example, the c i t i z e n s coming to Jasper Place i n 1920 would j o i n the Community League because that group was working toward better school f a c i l i t i e s f o r the children of the community. In 1930, however, that same c i t i z e n , 56 f o r the same reason, would be more i n c l i n e d to j o i n the l o c a l Home and School A s s o c i a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y the c i t i z e n i n 1920 who wished to p r o t e s t the a l i e n a t i o n o f a p i e c e of park p r o p e r t y would do so through h i s community league, but In 1948, the p r o t e s t would be made through the R e c r e a t i o n Commission. In s h o r t , the v e r y g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n which the l o c a l community leagues s e r v e d i n 1920, was not as e f f e c t i v e as the more spe-c i f i c f u n c t i o n s of newer agencies t h a t had developed. The Home and School A s s o c i a t i o n , was more s u c c e s s f u l i n d e a l i n g w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the s c h o o l to the community as I t s prime purpose, than was the community league i n d e a l i n g w i t h such matters as one o f s e v e r a l purposes. The R e c r e a t i o n Commission, w i t h i t s s p e c i f i c concern w i t h community r e c r e a t i o n , c o u l d d e a l more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h problems In th a t f i e l d than c o u l d the Com-munity League which h e l d community r e c r e a t i o n as o n l y one of i t s f u n c t i o n s . The s c h o o l , w i t h i t s e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme under t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l , was more able to meet the heeds of the com-munity i n terms of the a r t s , s p o r t s , and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programmes, than were the community leagues. Indeed, as Edmonton developed Into a c i t y , and many o f the agencies u s u a l l y a s s o c i -ated w i t h a c i t y developed, the very g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n o f the community leagues was broken down and d e a l t w i t h i n i t s s p e c i f i c aspects by va r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s devoted to a s i n g l e purpose. The c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n demands r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the pl a c e o f the community league i n the t o t a l community p i c t u r e . Should the Community Leagues be d i s s o l v e d ? Could the c i t y , 57 through the Parks Department, take over r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the maintenance, care and development o f community league b u i l d i n g s and p r o p e r t i e s ? Could the c i t y through the R e c r e a t i o n Commission assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the conduct of r e c r e a t i o n programmes i n t h o s e b u i l d i n g s and on those p r o p e r t i e s ? . Could the needs of the community i n r e g a r d to s c h o o l matters be b e s t s e r v e d through the Home and School A s s o c i a t i o n - And c o u l d many o f the avo-c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f the community be met through the sc h o o l ' s modern c u r r i c u l u m and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? The e x p e r i -ences of agencies reviewed i n t h i s study should p o i n t up the answers. P r i n c i p l e s and t h e i r A p p l i c a t i o n -Any t e x t on community o r g a n i z a t i o n or r e c r e a t i o n ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n , any r e c r e a t i o n . e x e c u t i v e , or any s u c c e s s f u l com-munity r e c r e a t i o n programme, i n d i c a t e that the common denominator o f success In the f i e l d of community o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n i s a democratic approach. The most w i d e l y used democratic approach i s that o f ha v i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s work wit h a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e community group, which a c t s i n an a d v i s o r y c a -p a c i t y and a s s i s t s In de t e r m i n i n g the needs and re s o u r c e s of the community. The N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , on the b a s i s of t h e i r v a s t experience i n t h i s f i e l d s t a t e : "The more r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y neighborhood people f e e l f o r t h e i r community c e n t r e the g r e a t e r w i l l be the success o f the centre as a r e a l neighborhood c l u b . For t h i s reason many c i t i e s are o r g a n i z i n g groups o r c o u n c i l s of neighborhood people around each c e n t r e 5 8 to act In an advisory capacity to the centre's s t a f f , and to put at the disposal of the workers t h e i r knowledge of neighborhood conditions and of the desires and needs of the people." 1 Indeed, so important i s t h i s advisory committee or council that many authorities maintain that the f i r s t step i n promoting community recreation i s to obtain such a group. In a pamphlet e n t i t l e d "Recreation i n your Community",.published by the American Legion, Department of Minnesota under the heading "How to Start", the opening sentence i s as follows: " F i r s t steps i n community recre-ation can be i n i t i a t e d by an i n d i v i d u a l , private groups or public body, and usually take the form of organizing a community recre-ation committee." 2 The Los Angeles survey group, i n th e i r very comprehensive report, made a recommendation which i n b r i e f stated: "A c i t i z e n ' s group i s needed i n each community or neighborhood". There i s evident agreement that a "must" i n the conduct of a community recreation programme i s some form of c i t i z e n ' s group organized around each community centre, and It would seem that Edmonton, with i t s already organized community leagues, has had for many years the basis of a comprehensive community recreation programme. True, many of the leagues are not t r u l y representative of the community, but they are so i n theory. Further, none of the leagues consider the promotion of recreation t h e i r only function, but a l l of them consider i t one of t h e i r most important functions. Although there are other c i t i z e n s groups i n many communities who have an intere s t i n recreation i t 1 The Conduct of Community Centres - National Recreation Assoc. 2 Recreation i n your Communitf - H m ggig a !g a L e SgfJfc ! 6 p t ' ° f 7, Rflc.TOBtinn for Evervbodv - Sorension - Daae 37. Los Angeles, 1946 59 la necessary, 11 to concentrate on one representative c i t i z e n ' s group i n each community. While the communities may germinate more than one group, and the various workers may need to have rela t i o n s to them, the objective should be to help develop only one strong central lay group with the o v e r a l l needs of the com-munity as i t s concern." ^ Mr. Scott, i n his- report to the City of Edmonton Recreation Commission, f u l l y r e a l i z e d the p r i n c i p l e that the community recreation programme should be developed through one community organization. H e says, "The community centre i s the heart, the very core of the whole community organization process. In and around the Centre with i t s adjacent playground, i s found the focus for the whole movement. The key organization i n this 2 movement i s the Community Council " Later i n h i s report he devotes a f u l l section to Community Councils. During h i s b r i e f stay i n Edmonton, an attempt was made to organize a community council i n Ritchie d i s t r i c t as had previously been done i n Westmount. The attempt i n Ritchie f a i l e d and Incurred the wrath of the Ritchie community league. The reason f o r this f a i l u r e was that whereas i n Westmount the community league Is a narrow, s e l f perpetuating group without r e a l community representation, i n R i t c h i e , the community league i s f a i r l y representative and considers community recreation i t s primary function. In Westmount the Community Council was more or less forced upon the com-munity league by the two Home and School Associations who re-cognized that the community league was not f u l f i l l i n g i t s 1 Recreation f o r Everybody, pp 38 - Sorenson - Los Angeles,1946 2 Municipal Recreation Report - L i o n e l Scott - Edmonton,1947 60 function. In Rit c h i e , the move was i n i t i a t e d , i n the face of considerable resistance, through the community league which was already doing i t s best to f u l f i l l i t s obligations i n the f i e l d of community recreation. Since the s t a r t of 1948, a new p o l i c y has been iri e f f e c t i n the Recreation Commission whioh i s i n keeping with the p r i n c i p l e of working primarily with only one community group, and a s s i s t i n g that group to become a t r u l y representative com-munity council, i n f a c t , i f not i n name. In Edmonton the l o g i -c a l group to work with i s the Community League. This p o l i c y appears to be supported by the findings of the Los Angeles survey group when they state as one of t h e i r recommendations that, w the name which the community chooses to c a l l the council or committee does not matter: They can be co-ordinating Councils, Community Councils, or anything else - providing they a c t u a l l y constitute a responsible group of c i t i z e n leaders working for the welfare of th e i r community.""'' At the s t a r t of 1948, the Recreation Commission had community centre directors placed on a f u l l time basis i n four Community Leagues. One of these, '^estmount, was complicated by the existence of a community council and the presence of a Y.M.C.A. community branch. There, an attempt was made to gradu-a l l y strengthen the community league to the point where the "extra" group, the community council, would no longer be neces-sary. Several of the key lay people who made up the community council were shown that i t was i n the best interests of the 1 Recreation for Everybody - page 38 - Sorenson, Los Angeles, 1946 61 community i f they would become active members of the community league. As a r e s u l t the community league i s becoming a more representative group, and Is gradually accepting community recre-ation as i t s primary- function. At the same time the Community Council i s gradually weakening and at the present time i s quite an unimportant group. The Recreation Commission r e a l i z e that in d e l i b e r a t e l y attempting, although i n d i r e c t l y , to dissolve a oommunity council they are taking a r a d i c a l step, but they are b o l d l y supporting the move. In regard to the community Y .M.C.A., a holding r e l a t i o n s h i p has been established on the basis of d i v i s i o n of programme r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The Recreation Commission, through the Community League, i s accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the age group up to twelve years and adult programme, while the Y .M.C.A, i s working primarily with teens and s p e c i a l i z e d groups in the 9 to 12 year old bracket. The Recreation Commission does not agree that mass programming f o r teen agers i s a legitimate function of the Y .M.C.A. but i s not yet challenging this point. Further community expansion of the Y .M.C.A. i n terms of f a -c i l i t i e s i s , however, being discouraged. Westmount has proven i t s e l f a t e s t i n g ground of public - private agency relationship and i n that regard has been valuable f o r both public and private agencies, and f o r the welfare of the people of Edmonton, In attempting to strengthen the four community leagues i n which di r e c t o r s were working a very general pattern was followed by the Recreation Commission. The f i r s t organized programme i n s t i t u t e d i n any community i n which the Recreation 62 Commission i s working was the play school f o r pre-school children. Registration of the children attending the play school i s kept, hut also, the mothers of the children are required to r e g i s t e r . In the conduct of the programme one volunteer mother i s needed for every ten children attending, and each mother i s required to serve as a volunteer i n order to keep her c h i l d e l i g i b l e to attend. Usually at least h a l f of the mothers are not members of the community league so the next step i s that the Recreation Commission informs the Community League that they are within t h e i r rights i f they i n s i s t that a l l the parents of children attending community league programmes be members of the league. This i s not done u n t i l the play school has been running a s u f f i c i e n t length of time that the parents can recognize the value of such a programme to the children. As a r e s u l t very nearly one hundred per cent of the parents j o i n the league without complaint. In some cases this p o l i c y has caused d i f f i c u l t y with-i n the community league, for not infrequently i t has happened that the mothers outnumber the t o t a l league membership. Generally these parents are interested only i n what the community league has to o f f e r t h e i r children and are not interested In any other aspects of the community league programme. To overcome th i s s i t u a t i o n , The Recreation Commission d i r e c t o r next attempts to organize the mothers into a club to prepare projects f o r the play school sessions and to raise finances and plan s p e c i a l parties f o r the youngsters. Through thi s club, an attempt i s then made to i n t e r e s t the mothers i n 63 some form of recreation for themselves, such as a handicraft programme or a keep-fit c l a s s . In actual practice, t h i s p o l i c y has been followed through as outlined i n Jasper Place and Riverdale and i s pro-ceeding according to plan In other centres. It Is hoped that a further step w i l l he possible, that of having the mothers club sponsor s p e c i a l occasions to which they w i l l i n v i t e t h e i r husbands and from t h i s a broad programme f o r adults could develop. It must be r e a l i z e d that the play school programme i s only one of many programmes the Recreation Commission sponsors with the Community Leagues. It i s , however, through the medium of this programme that the process of strengthening the Com-munity Leagues seems most l i k e l y to succeed. The Recreation Commission, through i t s community di r e c t o r s , are now a c t i v e l y co-operating with community leagues i n promoting recreation programmes f o r a l l age groups, and both sexes. T y p i c a l programmes include play schools f o r pre school children; handicrafts and games programmes fo r the 6 to 12 year old group, games, forums and s o c i a l recreation f o r the teens, s o c i a l recreation, keep-fit classes, and handicrafts f o r the adults. Organized sports and a t h l e t i c s are not considered with-i n the function of the Recreation Commission d i r e c t o r at the Community League l e v e l but rather some measure of co-operation between the leagues and the Recreation Commission i s achieved at the l e v e l of the Federation. The Recreation Commission, i n 1948, appointed a 64 supervisor of a t h l e t i c s who works c l o s e l y with the sports com-mittee of the Federation i n arranging schedules and a l l o t t i n g a t h l e t i c f a c i l i t i e s for the various community league sports. In practice the supervisor of a t h l e t i c s of the Recreation Com-mission Is a c t u a l l y the d i r e c t o r of the Inter-community league sports programme. This, however, Is only part of the work of the supervisor of a t h l e t i c s , as much of his time Is spent work-ing with the four a t h l e t i c clubs In the c i t y and with the v a r i -ous a t h l e t i c associations. The Edmonton A t h l e t i c Council, which brings together a l l groups Interested i n the promotion and ex-pansion of amateur a t h l e t i c s , act i n an advisory capacity to the Supervisor of A t h l e t i c s . The Federation i s represented on the A t h l e t i c Council and through that group, areas of function i n the f i e l d of organized sports and a t h l e t i c s have been defined. The four a t h l e t i c clubs are p r i m a r i l y concerned with sponsoring teams of boys between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one i n highly competitive leagues. In a l l cases, t h e i r teams are af-f i l i a t e d with the appropriate association governing the p a r t i -cular sport. The Federation i s concerned primarily with boys under the age of sixteen and with any boys who can not make a place on the a t h l e t i c club teams. The Recreation Commission, through the Supervisor of A t h l e t i c s , conducts t r a i n i n g schools i n various sports f o r any boy who i s not playing on any organ-ized team. Organization f o r a t h l e t i c s i n Edmonton, has been tending towards t h i s form f o r some years but It has only been since the formation of the A t h l e t i c Council, and more recently 65 the appointment of a Supervisor of A t h l e t i c s , that the areas of function of the various interested bodies, have been made clear. A New "Object" f o r Community Leagues -Prom t h i s background of Community Recreation i n Edmonton, i t seems that a clear, workable plan of community organization f o r recreation i s indicated, with the community leagues taking t h e i r place, with a new function, but s t i l l as the most important group i n the o v e r a l l scheme. What has been lacking i n the past i s f u l l time professional leadership to give the community recreation programme guidance, to give the innumer-able voluntary workers a sense of programme s t a b i l i t y and to i n t e r p r e t to the general public the value of the work being done. This professional leadership i s now available from the Recre-ation Commission. The community recreation programme i s no longer dependent upon one or two aggressive volunteers i n the community, and i s not so l i a b l e to s u f f e r from a change i n com-munity league personnel. The recreation d i r e c t o r i s always present to maintain the continuity of programme and to f e r r e t out new community volunteers and community leaders. I t i s obvious that, i f the community leagues were dissolved, some representative community group, to act i n an advisory capacity, would immediately have to be organized by the recreation d i r e c t o r s . Further, i f the c i t y , through the Parks Department or other departments, were to accept re-s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the maintenance and development of community league buildings and properties, then less c i t y funds would be 66 available f o r recreation leadership and much of the i n i t i a t i v e which communities displayed i n r a i s i n g funds to b u i l d h a l l s , would be destroyed. True, the Recreation Commission could assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the conduct of the recreation programme i n those buildings and on those properties, but the extent of the programme, and i t s success, i s d i r e c t l y dependent upon the amount of support and voluntary assistance given by the com-munity leagues. There i s no doubt that the needs of the community i n regard to school matters can best be served through the Home and School Association, with i t s focus of attention on such matters. Some people are i n c l i n e d to go further and suggest that, the modern school with i t s broad curriculum, extensive f a c i l i t i e s and trained personnel, could meet the recreation needs of the community. While i t i s undoubtedly the function of the school to teach the students a variety of recreation s k i l l s t h i s must be e s s e n t i a l l y a teaching s i t u a t i o n . Provision of oppor-tunity to practice these s k i l l s , as recreation, i s not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the schools. There i s no l o g i c a l reason, how-ever, why the f a c i l i t i e s used f o r the teaching s i t u a t i o n could not be used f o r recreation. Both the Recreation Commission and the Community Leagues welcome every opportunity to use school f a c i l i t i e s f o r recreation programmes. Recreation i s the fundamental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Recreation Commission and at the community l e v e l t h i s responsi-b i l i t y i s r e a l i z e d through the medium of the community leagues. 67 The function of the community leagues today i s not e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from that conceived by the founders of the movement but there i s a small difference and i t i s important. During the early years of the movement, the community leagues conceived and c a r r i e d out t h e i r own recreation programmes. Today the com-munity leagues conceive the programme and carry i t out, but under the guidance of trained professional leadership. The com-munity leagues are e s s e n t i a l l y a planning and advisory group. This new function i s e s s e n t i a l l y that which i s usually a t t r i -buted to a Community Council. "The Community Council consists of men and women l i v i n g i n the community and taking active part i n the d i r e c t i o n of community a c t i v i t i e s . They are not composed of an imported group of "leading c i t i z e n s " nor are they pro-f e s s i o n a l people who have grouped together to "do good" f o r the under-privileged. These Community Councils are the rank and f i l e of the neighborhood....Many of these Councils have themselves extended i n v i t a t i o n s to leading men and women....to j o i n with them as an advisory board, i n helping to plan and to co-ordinate a c t i v i t i e s i n the best interests of the neighborhood and com-munity." 1 Assuming that at the l o c a l l e v e l the community leagues can function as community councils and have a very e s s e n t i a l role to play i n community organization f o r recreation i n the neighbor-hood, the question arises as to how, or through what form of organization can the e f f o r t s of the various communities be co-ordinated i n the best interests of the c i t y as a whole. 1 Municipal Recreation Report,- page 149 - L. Scott,Edmonton, 1947. 68 In the past co-ordination of league e f f o r t s has been the t h e o r e t i c a l function of the Federation of Community Leagues. Unfortunately this body, from the s t a r t , has been given very l i t t l e r e a l power by the member leagues. The constitution of the Federation states that one of the objectives of the Federatio i s the promotion of "suitable community programmes" but there i s no power given the Federation to take any action i f a member league promotes unsuitable community programmes. No attempt was made to define what was and what was not a suitable programme and there was no overrall programme planning. True, the sports committees formed a t h l e t i c leagues, and the education committees sponsored lectures and fil m s , but i n each case the entire re-s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r organization rested with the i n d i v i d u a l league. As with so many organizations, the f a i l u r e or success of the programme i n any given league depended to a great extent upon the personnel of the executive rof the league at the time. U n t i l the establishment of the Recreation Commission, there was never any professional leadership available to provide guidance and s t a b i l i t y to the community recreation programme. The Federation had i n the past, o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n of the programme, but had never followed through on the Idea. If competent leadership personnel had been engaged by the Federation i t i s doubtful I f the Recreation Commission, as a separate organization, would have been formed i n Edmonton, ^ t was, to a large extent, due to the lack of i n i t i a t i v e of the Federation i n regard to paid leader-ship that the-Recreation Commission arose. In actual practice 69 the R e c r e a t i o n Commission i s to a g r e a t extent no more than an a d v i s o r y body to the l e a d e r s h i p p e r s o n n e l s e r v i n g the community leagues i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y . The community leagues c o n t r o l the m a j o r i t y o f the playgrounds and p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the community c e n t r e s i n which the R e c r e a t i o n Commission conducts i t s programme. Under the s u p e r v i s i o n of a p a i d s t a f f of r e c r e -a t i o n l e a d e r s the R e c r e a t i o n Commission i s r a p i d l y expanding the community r e c r e a t i o n programme and the community leagues are becoming more and more dependent on t h a t body, and l e s s and l e s s dependent on the F e d e r a t i o n . Although not c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z i n g the s i t u a t i o n , the F e d e r a t i o n f e e l s t h a t the R e c r e a t i o n Com-mi s s i o n i s t h r e a t e n i n g to supplant i t , and views w i t h s u s p i c i o n and alarm any e x t e n s i o n o f the R e c r e a t i o n Commission programme. Th i s s i t u a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s the major problem; f a c i n g community r e c r e a t i o n i n Edmonton today. The s o l u t i o n to this problem, i f viewed unemotionally, i s q u i t e s i m p l e . There are now two o i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b o t h p u r p o r t i n g to do e s s e n t i a l l y the same job. One i s appointed by the c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and the o t h e r i s a F e d e r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l community leagues; one i s supported by tax funds, the other i s supported by v o l u n t a r y donations, one has a v a i l a b l e a f a i r l y l a r g e s t a f f of p a i d r e c r e a t i o n l e a d e r s , and the other works through v o l u n t e e r s . There should be i n Edmonton, onl y one c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the conduct of community r e c r e a t i o n and t h a t group i s the C i t y of Edmonton R e c r e a t i o n Commission. I f , however, the F e d e r a t i o n of Community Leagues 70 ceased to f u n c t i o n , then the R e c r e a t i o n Commission would proba-b l y have to be r e o r g a n i z e d i n order to be more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the community leagues w i t h which they are working. The F e d e r a t i o n , over a p e r i o d of more than 25 years, has managed to demonstrate to the c i t y the importance of com-munity r e c r e a t i o n . Indeed, so w e l l have they done t h i s , t h a t the c i t y has accepted r e c r e a t i o n as a p u b l i c f u n c t i o n . Saving accomplished t h i s , the F e d e r a t i o n has not gone on to demonstrate new or f u r t h e r needs i n the f i e l d of community r e c r e a t i o n , b u t has r e s e n t e d the e n t r y of the c i v i c government i n t o a f i e l d they c o n s i d e r t h e i r p r i v a t e r e s e r v e . A New R e c r e a t i o n Commission -Agency f u n c t i o n s i n a changing s o c i e t y must be f l e x i b l e . True, the f l e x i b i l i t y of p u b l i c agencies i s g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d by government p o l i c y ; but p o l i c y i t s e l f need not neces-s a r i l y be s t a t i c , i t should change i n the f a c e o f community needs and agency s e r v i c e s designed to meet those needs. F o r t u n a t e l y f l e x i b i l i t y has been the b a s i s of R e c r e a t i o n Commission p o l i c y s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n of t h a t p u b l i c agency. I t i s the d e c l a r e d o b j e c t i v e o f the R e c r e a t i o n Com-mi s s i o n to p l a c e a f u l l time p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a d e r i n each of the t h i r t y or more communities i n Edmonton. T h i s l e a d e r , or d i r e c t o r , w i l l be charged w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n and conduct of the community r e c r e a t i o n programme and w i l l be ex-pected to s t i m u l a t e and broaden e x i s t i n g programme. The d i r e c t o r w i l l , i n g e n e r a l , f o l l o w the p a t t e r n s e t i n those communities 71 w h e r e t h e R e c r e a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n n o w h a s l e a d e r s w o r k i n g . I n e a c h c a s e , t h e c o m m u n i t y l e a g u e o r a c o m m i t t e e t h e r e o f , w i l l b e e x p e c t e d t o a c t i n a n a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y t o t h e d i r e c t o r , a n d t o a s s i s t h i m i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n e e d s a n d r e s o u r c e s o f t h e c o m -m u n i t y . A l l d i r e c t o r s w i l l b e d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e S u p e r v i s o r o f P l a y g r o u n d s a n d C e n t r e s w h o w i l l b e c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g s t a n d a r d s o f p r o g r a m m e , p r o v i d i n g p r o g r a m m e a i d s a n d f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e e x c h a n g e o f i d e a s b e t w e e n s t a f f m e m b e r s . H e w i l l e v a l u a t e t h e w o r k o f t h e d i r e c t o r s a n d s e e k t o s e c u r e t h e i r f u l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . F u r t h e r , t h e S u p e r v i s o r o f P l a y g r o u n d s a n d C e n t r e s w i l l o r g a n i z e i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y a n d c i t y w i d e e v e n t s , i n w h i c h i n d o o r a n d o u t d o o r c e n t r e g r o u p s w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e . W h i l e t h e d i r e c t o r s w i l l w o r k c o - o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d o n t h e c o m m u n i t y l e v e l , t h e S u p e r v i s o r w i l l d o s o a t t h e c i t y l e v e l . I t m u s t b e n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t i t i s n o t t h e d e s i r e o f t h e R e c r e a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n t o i m p o s e a p r e -c o n c e i v e d p r o g r a m m e o n t h e c o m m u n i t i e s , b u t r a t h e r i t i s h o p e d t h a t b y w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y l e a g u e a p r o g r a m m e c o n c e i v e d i n t h e o o m m u n i t y , a n d c a r r i e d o u t b y t h e p e o p l e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , c a n b e a c h i e v e d . I n E d m o n t o n , a t h l e t i c s a n d s p o r t s h a v e a l w a y s f u n c t i o n e d a p a r t f r o m t h e t o t a l c o m m u n i t y r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m m e , a n d i t s e e m s w i s e t o c o n t i n u e t h i s p o l i c y . T h e S u p e r v i s o r o f A t h l e t i c s f o r t h e R e c r e a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n I s a v a i l a b l e t o g i v e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d p r o m o t i o n o f s p o r t s , a n d w o r k s w i t h a l l e x i s t i n g a t h l e t i c g r o u p s i n t h e c i t y . D u r i n g t h e p a s t 72i year, he not o n l y o r g a n i z e d the inter-community league s p o r t s , but a c t u a l l y conducted the programme when the v o l u n t e e r appoint-ed by the F e d e r a t i o n was unable to f i n d the time necessary to do the jo b . There i s no reason why t h i s cannot be continued, and accepted as the p o l i c y of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission and the community leagues i n r e g a r d to s p o r t s . The S u p e r v i s o r of A t h l e t i c s now has, as one of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , the a s s i g n i n g of time to vari o u s teams on the p u b l i c s p o r t s f a c i l i t i e s , and the community leagues have always had to come to the R e c r e a t i o n Commission i n thi3 r e g a r d . The community c e n t r e and playground a c t i v i t i e s o f each community league should be under the d i r e c t i o n o f the Su p e r v i s o r of Playgrounds and Centres of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission, and the sp o r t s programme o f the community leagues should be under the d i r e c t i o n o f the S u p e r v i s o r o f A t h l e t i c s of the R e c r e a t i o n Com-m i s s i o n . While the R e c r e a t i o n Commission d i r e c t o r s w i l l have a v a i l a b l e a community a d v i s o r y group, there should a l s o be a c t i v e a d v i s o r y groups working w i t h the two R e c r e a t i o n Com-mi s s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s . The S u p e r v i s o r o f A t h l e t i c s a l r e a d y works c l o s e l y w i t h the Edmonton A t h l e t i c C o u n c i l which w h i l e not a s t r i c t l y community league group has on i t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the community leagues. S i m i l a r l y there should be orga n i z e d a group which would a c t i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y to the S u p e r v i s o r of Playgrounds and Cen t r e s . T h i s group c o u l d take a form, and perform a f u n c t i o n , s i m i l a r to t h a t o f a playground c o u n c i l , and 73 would be made up of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the r e c r e a t i o n a d v i s o r y groups of the v a r i o u s community leagues. To f o l l o w the organ-i z i n g process a step f u r t h e r , b o t h the Edmonton A t h l e t i c C o u n c i l and the Playground C o u n c i l or R e c r e a t i o n A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l should have r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the R e c r e a t i o n Commission, so they w i l l have a v o i c e i n the o v e r r a l l p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y making f o r the c i t y . The g r e a t weakness of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission i s t h a t , aside from the c i t y c o u n c i l and the s c h o o l boards, the membership does not r e p r e s e n t those groups who are most v i t a l l y concerned w i t h r e c r e a t i o n i n the c i t y . S c o t t r e c o g n i z e d t h i s and made s e v e r a l recommendations r e g a r d i n g the make-up of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission. He recommended t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the c i t y c o u n c i l and the two s c h o o l boards, there should be on the R e c r e a t i o n Commission r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l Agencies, Edmonton A t h l e t i c C o u n c i l , F e d e r a t i o n of Community Leagues and A r t s C o u n c i l . In a d d i t i o n , he recommended t h a t f o u r members be e l e c t e d from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . These recommendations were never f u l l y d i s c u s s e d by the R e c r e a t i o n Commission, and a f t e r a c u r s o r y r e a d i n g were d i s -missed. There was, however, much m e r i t i n these p r o p o s a l s . Under the p r e s e n t set-up, f o u r members of the Recre-a t i o n Commission are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of some branch of c i v i c government and the o t h e r f i v e are appointed by the nominating committee of c i t y c o u n c i l . T h i s s i t u a t i o n makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s to p l a y a l a r g e p a r t In d e t e r m i n i n g 74 the personnel of the Recreation Commission. Under a set-up wherein the Recreation Commission would consist of representatives .of various community organizations this danger would be minimized. There i s no doubt that the Federation, i f i t continues to e x i s t , should have representation on the Recreation Commission. The number of groups which should be represented on the Recreation Commission i s debatable. There should be, how-ever, at l e a s t representation from the Federation, the Council of S o c i a l Agencies, the Edmonton A t h l e t i c Council, and the Home and School Association. In addition there might be representa-t i v e s from the School Boards, the c i t y council, and the arts c o u n c i l . Let us consider, f o r the present, only those groups with a demonstrated in t e r e s t i n community recreation, i . e . the Federation, Edmonton A t h l e t i c Council, Council of S o c i a l Agencies, and the Home and School Association. I t w i l l be noted that the Federation has representa-tives on both the Edmonton A t h l e t i c Council and the Council of-S o c i a l Agencies, and i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the four active committees of the Federation are the c i v i c s , sports, education, and recreation. Does i t now seem l o g i c a l that these four functions; c i v i c s , sports, education and recreation could best be served through the Federation, the Edmonton A t h l e t i c Council, the Council of S o c i a l Agencies and the Home and School Associ-ation respectively? The Federation would be made up of repre-sentatives of the c i v i c s committees of the i n d i v i d u a l leagues; the representatives of the sports committees would be delegates PLATE I I Figure 1. E x i s t i n g voluntary organizations to be represented on Recre-ation Commission. Edmonton A t h l e t i c Council C i t y Recreation Commissio n Home & School Council Federation j>f Community-Leagues Council of Soc i a l Agencies Figure 2. Committee organization of l o c a l community league, Sports Community League Education Civics Recreation Figure 3. Staff organization and line s of authority of Recreation Commission. Si perintendent Supervisor of A t h l e t i c s Supervisor Playgrounds 8e Centres Directors i n l o c a l communities 75 to the Edmonton A t h l e t i c Council;; the representatives of the recreation committees would be delegates to the Council of Soc i a l Agencies, and the representatives of the education com-mittee would be delegates to the Home and School Association. It i s true of course, that t h i r t y delegates from the community leagues would swamp most of these central groups, but some formula to govern representation could be worked out. The suggested form of community organization i s shown i n chart form i n plate I I . Figure 1 shows the minimum group which would have representatives on the Recreation Commission. These four represented groups; the Edmonton A t h l e t i c Council, the Edmonton Home and School Council, the Federation of Com-munity Leagues and the Council of So c i a l Agencies are a l l e x i s t -ing voluntary community organizations. If any other organization came into being and was representative of an appreciable group functioning i n the broad f i e l d of recreation, then that organ-i z a t i o n would l o g i c a l l y be e n t i t l e d to representation on the Recreation Commission. For example, i f the various groups sponsoring musical a c t i v i t y In Edmonton formed a Music Council, or some such body, then that body would be e l i g i b l e f o r repre-sentation on the Recreation Commission. There may also be added such other groups as the c i t y c ouncil may i n s i s t be repre-sented. A t y p i c a l community league i s shown In figure 2, plate I I . The four standing committees; sports, education, c i v i c s and recreation are not a l l found i n every community PLATE I I I City Council Superintendent of Recreation I Recreation Commission Supervisor of A t h l e t i c s -Edmonton At h l e t i c Council Dele f r Sp gates om Home and School Council jorta Committees Dele frd> Edu<t Co Federation of Community Leagues sates m ation ttees Dele f C gates cs r Dm mrii Council of Social Agencies I v i Committees Dele f Rec Comm;. r o a Supervisor Playgrounds & Centres ates ro m tion ttees Local Community Leagues (30) Suggested co-ordination of voluntary organizations, Recreation Commission s t a f f and l o c a l community leagues. 76 league. Some leagues have less than the four standing committees while others have more. The four mentioned, however, represent the usual pattern of committee organization. The professional s t a f f of the Recreation Commission and the l i n e s of authority leading up to the c i t y council are shown i n figure 3 , plate I I . The three elements of community organization f o r recreation, the voluntary representative organ-iz a t i o n s , the l o c a l community group and the professional leader-ship are brought together as shown i n plate I I I , and the re-lationships between the components i s indicated. Under the straight-forward form of organization shown, the democratic process, so v i t a l to community recreation, has f u l l scope. At the administrative l e v e l the Recreation Com-mission, a body so constituted as to be f u l l y representative of the recreation interests of the c i t y , acts i n an advisory capacity to the executive o f f i c e r , the superintendent. The superintendent i s i n turn responsible to the c i t y council, the elected representatives of the people. At the supervisory l e v e l the groups most concerned with the work of the supervisors are able to o f f e r c r i t i c i s m and advice while receiving suggestions and guidance. The Supervisor of A t h l e t i c s f o r Instance depends upon the advice of the Edmonton A t h l e t i c Council In a l l matters pertaining to his work and to the extension of the a t h l e t i c programme i n the c i t y . As the A t h l e t i c Council i s composed of delegates from a l l sports and a t h l e t i c groups i n the c i t y i n -cluding representatives from the community league sports 77 committees, t h e i r support pretty well assures the success of any new a t h l e t i c project. S i m i l a r l y the Supervisor of Playgrounds and Centres works with the Recreation D i v i s i o n of the Council of S o c i a l Agencies. This organization includes representatives from the recreation committees of the i n d i v i d u a l community leagues as well as delegates from the private group work and recreation agencies. By working with t h i s organization duplication of programme can be avoided and gaps i n the t o t a l recreation pro-gramme can be determined. At the l e v e l of the l o c a l community, the basic l e v e l , each league has the services of a f u l l time recreation d i r e c t o r . Here a two-way process of guidance, c r i t i -cism and advice can function. The community league i s the plan-ning and p o l i c y making group, while the recreation d i r e c t o r serves as t h e i r administrative o f f i c e r . Today Edmonton probably has the basis f o r the most comprehensive community recreation programme i n Canada. There i s recognition of the f a c t that community organization f o r recreation i s not a stable thing, but rather i s a continuing process. With th i s recognition, the form which community recre-ation organization takes, i s bound to be i n a constant state of f l u x . The plan herein outlined, i s only proposed as the next l o g i c a l step.and,is not to be considered the permanent solution to the problem of community organization f o r recreation i n Edmonton. The adoption of the recommendations made i n this study seems highly probable. Edmonton has much to gain. rr APPENDIX A Constitution and By-Laws of The Edmonton Federation of Community Leagues NAME AIMS and OBJECTS MEMBERSHIP OFFICERS COMMITTEES FEES''' MEETINGS ELECTION DUTIES The name of t h i s organization s h a l l be "Edmonton Federation of Community Leagues". To f a c i l i t a t e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of information be-tween the u n i t s ; To promote suitable community programmes and become a clearing house f o r same; To take concerted action In matters of common i n t e r -est, and i n the interests of the c i t y as a whole; And to come to the support of i n d i v i d u a l leagues as deemed advisable, when so requested. The organization s h a l l consist of the federated com-munity leagues i n the C i t y of Edmonton, and there s h a l l be an executive council consisting of two representatives from each league, namely the President afnd Secretary. The o f f i c e r s s h a l l consist of President, Vice President and Secretary-Treasurer, elected by the delegates from among t h e i r number. There shall, be the following standing committees, namely, C i v i c s , Recreation, Education, and Finance, (the o f f i c e r s ) and the council s h a l l have power to appoint from time to time such other com-mittees from i t s own members, and delegate to them such powers as s h a l l be deemed advisable. The a f f i l i a t i o n fee payable by each league s h a l l be $ 5 . per annum. The council s h a l l meet at least onee each quarter, and at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the o f f i c e r s . A l l the o f f i c e r s s h a l l be elected at the annual meeting to be held i n the month of January and serve f o r a term of one year. v The President s h a l l preside at a l l meetings of the Federation or Council. The Vice President s h a l l preside at meetings i n the absence of or at request of the President. The Secretary Treasurer s h a l l keep the minutes of the proceedings of the Federation or Council i n a book - the property of the Federation, carry on the correspondence of the Federation, and f u l f i l l such APPENDIX A, Continued Constitution and By-Laws of The Edmonton Federation of Community Leagues DUTIES other s e c r e t a r i a l duties as may be necessary. He Shal l also handle the monies of the Federation, s h a l l keep a record of a l l monies received, spent, and on hand, and report upon the state of the treasury whenever c a l l e d upon to do so. AMENDMENTS This Constitution may be added to or amended, such changes being made by resolution at any meeting of the council, providing notice of motion of such changes has been given at a previous regular meeting. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bowers, Ethel, Recreation f o r G i r l s and Women, A. S. Barnes and Co., New York, 1934. Butler, Introduction to Community Recreation, McGraw and H i l l . Jacks, L. P., Education through Recreation, Harper and Bros., New York. Lee, Jloseph, Play In Eduction, National Recreation Association, 1942. Martin H. and Esther S. Newmeyer, Leisure and  Recreation, A. S. Barnes and Co. Meyers and B r i g h t h i l l , Community Recreation - A guide to  i t s Organization and Administration, D. C. Heath and Co., Boston, 1948. Mi t c h e l l and Mason, The Theory of Play, A. S. Barnes and Co., 1934. Romney, G..H., Off the Job Livi n g , A. S. Barnes and Co., National Recreation Association, Partners i n Play, A. S. Barnes and Co. National Recreation Association, Playgrounds, Their Administration and Operation, A. S. Barnes and Co. National Recreation Association, New Play Areas, Their  Design and Equipment, A. S. Barne3 and Uo., 1947. The International C i t y Manager's Association, Municipal  Recreation Administration, Chicago, 111., 1945. Periodicals Horney, Robert, "Public Recreation as I see i t To-day," Recreation, A p r i l , 1948. McLaggon, Isobel, "Community Organization f o r Recreation," Canadian Welfare, December 1st, 1948. Mayo, Leonard, W., "Community Organization Method and Philosophy i n 1946," Canadian Welfare, Sepember 1946. 9f P e r i o d i c a l s , Continued Metcalf, Harlan G., "Problems i n Recreation," Recreation, National Recreation Association, September 1948. Moses, Robert, "Philosophy of a Park System," Recreation, October 1948 Reports Bowie, W., "Recreation Survey Report, Notre Dame de Grace Ward, Montreal P.Q.," Montreal, 1948. Scott, L . "Municipal Recreation Report," Edmonton, Alberta 1947. Sorenson, Roy and Staff , "Recreation f o r Everybody", Vol. 1, Los Angeles, 1946. A Digest of the Report of the Recreational and Cul t u r a l Resources Survey of the State of Washington -Office of the Secretary of State, Olympia, Wash., "Recreation f o r A l l " , 1946. Recreation i n Canada - 1948, "Annual Report of the Recreation D i v i s i o n , Canadian Welfare Council," 1948. Pamphlets Kidd, John P., "Canadian Council of Education f o r C i t i z e n s h i p , " Community Centres, Ottawa. National Recreation Association, "A Community Necessity," Recreation Leadership. National Recreation Association, "Conduct of Community Centres" National Recreation Association, "Conduct of School Community Centres". The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , "Essentials f o r Developing Community Recreation," Chicago, 1946. National Physical Fitness D i v i s i o n , "Guide f o r Leaders i n Community Recreation," Kings.Printer, Ottawa, 1948. Federal Security Agency Publication 251, "Handbook f o r Recreation Leaders," United States Government P r i n t -ing O f f i c e , Washington,£>£., 1948. Pamphlets, Continued National Recreation Association, "Know Your Community", New York, 1943. National Recreation Association, "Recordings of the 29th National Recreation Congress, 1947," 1947. Recreation Commission Report, National Conference on Soci a l Welfare Needs, "Recreation - A Basic Human Need", March 1948. Federal Security Agency, "Recreation - A National Economic Asset", U. S. Government Pr i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1945. National Recreation Association, "Recreation Leadership". National Recreation Association, "Proceedings of the National Recreation Congress, 1946", New York, 1946. National Recreation Association, "Securing and Maintaining Standards i n Community Recreation Personnel". National Recreation Association, "Standards f o r Neighbor-hood Recreation Areas and F a c i l i t i e s " . National Recreation Association, "Training your Playground Leaders". 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106682/manifest

Comment

Related Items