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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social assistance in New Westminster : a survey of origins, and the current pattern Willems, Harry Alexander 1952

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SOCIAL ASSISTANCE. IH NEW WESTMINSTER A Survey o f O r i g i n s , and the C u r r e n t P a t t e r n by HARRY ALEXANDER WILLEMS  A T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree o f Master Of S o c i a l Work i n the S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work -  Aeeepted as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree of Master o f S o c i a l Work  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  1952 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  -  i i -  TABLE OP CONTENTS Page C h a p t e r 1.  The N a t u r e  o f the Survey*  1  D e f i n i t i o n "of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . The means t e s t , as a n a s p e c t o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . E c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l f e a t u r e s o f New W e s t m i n s t e r . A comprehensive survey. Sources of research m a t e r i a l . C h a p t e r 2.  Development o f S o e i a l in  Assistance 10  New W e s t m i n s t e r .  S t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . How e l i g i b i l i t y c o n c e p t s and programs have c h a n g e d i n f i f t y years. O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Westminster Benevolent Soeiety. Experience of the depression. Formation of a s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e department. Amalgamation. C h a p t e r 3.  27  C a s e l o a d Changes i n New W e s t m i n s t e r .  C a s e l o a d c h a n g e s s i n c e 1903, Changes i n s o e i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o changes o f t o t a l c a s e l o a d , i n the l a s t f o u r y e a r s . Seasonal f l u c t u a t i o n s . Caseload turnover. A c t i v i t y o f s o c i a l worker i n r e l a t i o n t o these changes. C h a p t e r 4.  Classification  of S o c i a l Assistance  Cases.  40  S u r v e y o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e s i n 1951. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c a s e s ; f a m i l y s t a t u s , age and s e x . B i r t h p l a c e and r e s i d e n c e o f f a m i l y h e a d s . Occupational and employment b a c k g r o u n d o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e e a s e s . D i s a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f a m i l y heads. Major problems o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s . C h a p t e r 5.  Some I m p l i c a t i o n s  f o rSoeial Assistance.  59  D i f f e r e n t i a l treatment of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases. Employment o f an i n t a k e w o r k e r . Provision for marital and f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . Creation of categorical a i d program f o r the t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d . Extension of i n s u r a n c e schemes t o p r o v i d e f o r s u r v i v o r ' s i n s u r a n c e . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l r e t r a i n i n g . Appendices: I. C o n s t i t u t i o n o f Westminster Benevolent II. Summary o f E i g h t e e n C a s e s . III. Bibliography.  68 Society.  - iii  -  TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a)  Tables Page  Table  1.  Table  2.  Caseload  T r e n d s i n New  1947 - 1951.  Westminster following  Turnover i n the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Caseload ' i n New W e s t m i n s t e r f r o m A p r i l t o December,  1951.  Table  3.  Turnover i n " S i n g l e " cases, c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o . S e x , i n New W e s t m i n s t e r f r o m A p r i l t o December 19*51.  30  36  ;  Table  4.  Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n assistance  Table  5.  of s o c i a l  New W e s t m i n s t e r Table  Table  6.  7.  of persons i n r e c e i p t of  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r  Family Status  i n April  of married  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r Table  Table  8.  9.  i nApril  assistance  1951.  42  couples  i nApril  on t h e 1951. following  43  on a s s i s t a n c e  1951.  44  Birthplace  o f a l l f a m i l y heads i n r e c e i p t o f  assistance  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r  i nApril  Period of Residence of Family  Heads on  assistance  i n April  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r  41  eases i n  1951.  Age and S e x D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C l i e n t s b a s i s o f F a m i l y S t a t u s as o f A p r i l Income s o u r c e  37  1951.  47  1951.  48  Table  10.  O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f F a m i l y Heads on a s s i s t a n c e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r i n December 1951. following 49  Table  11.  Employment r a t i n g o f c l i e n t s p r i o r t o r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e compared w i t h t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e i n r e c e i p t o f a s s i s t a n c e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , December 1951. 51  Table  12.  D i s a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f F a m i l y Heads i n r e c e i p t o f a s s i s t a n c e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , December 1951. following  52  M a j o r p r o b l e m a r e a s , o t h e r t h a n f i n a n c i a l ones o f c l i e n t s i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , December 1951. following  54  M a j o r p r o b l e m a r e a s , o t h e r t h a n f i n a n c i a l ones r e l a t e d t o t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y h e a d s , New W e s t m i n s t e r , December 1951.  57  Table  Table  13.  14.  - iv -  (b)  Charts Following  Figure  Figure  1.  2.  P o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h o f New W e s t m i n s t e r compared w i t h t h e number o f p e r s o n s r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e (1901 - 1951) Changes i n s o c i a l New  Figure  Figure  3.  4.  assistance  W e s t m i n s t e r , June  1947  29  cases,  - June  1951  C a s e l o a d d i s t r i b u t i o n i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . A comparison of the s i z e o f the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d i n p r o p o r t i o n t'6 t h e t o t a l c a s e l o a d , i n d i c a t i n g a c t i v i t y on the p a r t o f the s o c i a l worker.  30  33  Changes i n t h e number o f p e r s o n s r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  1944  - 1950.  33  Figure  5.  C o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and New W e s t m i n s t e r o f t h e m o n t h l y f l u c t u a t i o n s of u n i t s of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , 1950 and 1951. 33  Figure  6.  Caseload turnover i n s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , A p r i l t o December 1951, New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  Figure  7.  Age d i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o s e x o f clients receiving assistance, A p r i l  45  1951. Figure  i  8.  34  Cases w i t h major problems o t h e r financial. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f 276 i n 195 c a s e s .  than problems 55  Page  -  V  -  Abstract  SOCIAL ASSISTANCE IN  NEW  WESTMINSTER  P e r s o n s not c o v e r e d by c a t e g o r i c a l a i d programs (such as o l d age a s s i s t a n c e and m o t h e r ' s a l l o w a n c e ) and i n s u r a n c e schemes ( s u c h as o l d age s e c u r i t y and unemployment i n s u r a n c e ) , are cared f o r by the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e program i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h i s r e s i d u a l g r o u p o f p e r s o n s i n one community - New W e s t m i n s t e r . The development of the p r e s e n t a s s i s t a n c e program i s t r a c e d , t h e changes i n c a s e l o a d t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n t h e l a s t f o u r y e a r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d , and a s u r v e y made o f t h e c a s e s t h a t r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e i n 1951. A s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m has b e e n i n o p e r a t i o n i n New W e s t m i n s t e r f o r t h e p a s t f i f t y y e a r s , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e m a j o r c h a n g e s have o c c u r r e d . The p r i n c i p l e o f l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a r i n g f o r t h e d e s t i t u t e has b e e n m o d i f i e d , and t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t t o d a y assumes m a j o r f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , and has f o r m u l a t e d the p o l i c y w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d by a l l p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e agencies i n the p r o v i n c e . I n c o n t r a s t t o the " r e l i e f days , unemployable p e r s o n s today comprise the major group of persons r e c e i v i n g h e l p . The employment o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s t o implement p o l i c y i s a l s o a r e c o g n i z e d principle. S o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r i s o n l y one f u n c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c a g e n c y . The s t i g m a a t t a c h e d t o c h a r i t y i n t h e r e l i e f d a y s has d e c r e a s e d and p e r s o n s i n n e e d a r e r e g a r d i n g a s s i s t a n c e as a l e g i t i m a t e r e s o u r c e i n times of f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s . The t o t a l c a s e l o a d o f t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r a g e n c y has i n c r e a s e d i n the l a s t f o u r y e a r s of j o i n t m u n i c i p a l p r o v i n c i a l o p e r a t i o n , b u t t h i s i n c r e a s e had b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y prominent i n the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d . M i n o r (and c o n s t a n t ) f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e number o f p e r s o n s r e q u i r i n g h e l p h a v e o c c u r r e d , and t h e r e i s a tendency f o r the a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d t o decrease i n l a t e summer. J u d g i n g f r o m t h e e i g h t - m o n t h p e r i o d i n 1951, the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a t u r n o v e r i n c a s e s as h i g h as one i n t h r e e . The s o c i a l w o r k e r has met t h e s e c h a n g e s by g i v i n g more o f h i s t i m e t o the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d . The p e r s o n s r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e a r e n o t a homogenous group. T h e y i n c l u d e p e r s o n s who r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e as a t e m p o r a r y m e a s u r e , and t h o s e f o r whom a s s i s t a n c e i s a permanent s o u r c e o f i n c o m e . A g a i n , the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e  - vi -  group i s made up of persons whose only problem Is f i n a n c i a l d e s t i t u t i o n , and those who have problems r e q u i r i n g casework h e l p . A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f the persons have been married a t one time but are now l i v i n g alone. The m a j o r i t y of the people on a s s i s t a n c e are over s i x t y years o f age, and these people s u f f e r from c r i p p l i n g a i l m e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y h e a r t d i s e a s e and arthritis. One-third of the 558 persons who b e n e f i t e d from a s s i s t a n c e i n A p r i l 1951 were dependent c h i l d r e n , one-half of them under t e n years of age. The m a j o r i t y of the dependents l i v e w i t h a widowed or separated woman. The m a j o r i t y o f the 122 men who r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e i n A p r i l 1951, had been p r e v i o u s l y employed as u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s . The m a j o r i t y . p f the 248 women who r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e were housewives w i t h no s p e c i f i c occupational t r a i n i n g . S o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n New Westminster i s a heterogenous r e s i d u a l category of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , with considerable f l u c t u a t i o n i n s i z e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e program needs t o be f l e x i b l e . 'The r a t e s o f a s s i s t a n c e a l s o need t o be more f l e x i b l e , t o permit adequate coverage f o r persons r e q u i r i n g temporary h e l p and f o r those r e q u i r i n g long-term f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . An a l t e r n a t i v e would be t o provide separate insurance programs f o r the major groups of d e s t i t u t e s , such as mothers w i t h dependent c h i l d r e n ; and c a t e g o r i c a l a i d programs f o r the t o t a l l y and permanently d i s a b l e d . I n order t o provide the casework h e l p t h a t s i x t y p e r cent of the cases need, the number of s o c i a l workers needs t o be i n c r e a s e d . The employment o f an experienced worker i s e s s e n t i a l t o provide (a) u n i f o r m p o l i c y r e s p e c t i n g e l i g i b i l i t y and (b) e a r l y d i a g n o s i s , t o ensure the a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment f o r the mixed groups o f persons comprising the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e category.  - v i l -  SOCIAL ASSISTANCE  I N NEW  WESTMINSTER  A S u r v e y o f O r i g i n s , and t h e C u r r e n t  Pattern  CHAPTER THE  The  NATURE OP  citizens  representatives,  that  provide  are  entered  unable life.  to provide The  Act",  to  indigents.  passed  Confederation,  the  the  provinces  In B r i t i s h  delegated  assistance  f o r themselves  this  i s f i n a n c i a l help,  given  c a r e , by  a g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , t o p e r s o n s who  "poor r e l i e f " . covering the  public  basie  assistance  "Poor r e l i e f "  was  an  has  as  i n cash medical are  necessities  of  b e e n known  as  all-inclusive  o f p e r s o n i n want, b u t  h i s t o r y of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e  various  term  primarly  included  i n Canada has  g r o u p s o f p e r s o n s , s u c h as  and  orphans, considered  out  o f the  general  t o be  c l a s s of  the  been  aged, the  more w o r t h y , have b e e n  indigents.  In  1920  widowed lifted  the  / The  1  unemployables. The  that  such s e r v i c e s  f o r themselves the  every kind  the  cities.  p r o v i s i o n of  Historically,  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to  or by  life".  to  Columbia  or kind,  unable to provide  the Act  Columbia  shortly after British  l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and "Public  elected  B r i t i s h North America  i t i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  assistance  "Municipal  SURVEY  have assumed some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  n e c e s s i t i e s of  states  THE;  of Canada, through t h e i r  t h o s e p e r s o n s who basic  ONE  1 Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Public Assistance U n e m p l o y e d , November 1951, page 3.  and  - 2 -  B r i t i s h Columbia l e g i s l a t u r e designed  to provide  children.  192?  In  f o r the the  for  the  legislature  age  pensions f o r those  financially  still  unable  over seventy The by  a new  t o the  Instituted  as  provided  f e d e r a l and  The  c o s t s of  of the  unemployables.  as w e l l  as  more mature various  to protect arising  and  who  indigent  the  depression  t o the  on  the  problem,  part  of  unemployed".  social  insurance  against  f r o m unemployment,  t r e n d when i n 1941  this  Act"  passed  to provide  the  1  indigent  i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s , such  individual  the  "Unemployment r e l i e f  embracing  systems of  was  this  were  disability,  "Unemployment  f o r f u t u r e unemployment  1 G r a u e r , A.E., P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e O t t a w a , 1939, page 10.  as  "budget-shattering"  p r e m a t u r e d e a t h o f t h e wage e a r n e r .  followed  unemployed  "Unemployment r e l i e f "  able-bodied  the  were  l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were  p r o v i n c i a l governments.  contingencies retirement  the  old  local municipalities.  for financial participation  Britain,  introduced  o f age  issuing relief  t h u s became a r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y  I n the  institute  an e m e r g e n c y measure t o d e a l w i t h  unemployables  with  such c a t e g o r i c a l a i d programs,  problem.  to bear the  was  years  remainder of  Act"  made i t p o s s i b l e  i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o  covered  as w e l l as  Great  widowed m o t h e r s  w i d e - s p r e a d unemployment d u r i n g  introduced  and  deserving  remained a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y The  a "Mother's Pension  Canadian parliament  destitute.  p o p u l a t i o n , not  passed  and  Social  Canada Insurance crises.  Insurance,  - 3 -  In  1951  for  the  f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t p a s s e d an  a contributory The  and  o l d age  essential difference  s o c i a l insurance g i v e n on  of  contribution  of  t h i s study, persons do  not  the  i s that  is  who  basis  and  Public  decency.  Public  a i d p r o g r a m s , and  c o v e r e d by  For  defined  help  the the  as  basis purpose  those  persons  the  essential for  requires  the  either the  i n Canada has the  to  living  health  use  of  a "means 1  been a f f e c t e d  creation  development of  communities these  residual  i s made f o r them? importance  of  of  i s i n n e e d o f help-.  trends;  various  make up  security  t h a n on  of  two  s o c i a l insurance residual  i n Canada t h a t  programs?  indigent  Who  These quest.ions a r e  of  are  are  g r o u p , and  a l l c o n c e r n e d w i t h the  by  categorical  What, h o w e v e r , i s h a p p e n i n g t o t h e  group i n the  that  assistance  assistance  individual.  assistance  assistance  separate  schemes.  i n public  community t o be  t o d e t e r m i n e who  two  between p u b l i c  i n need are  provide  have e n o u g h income t o m a i n t a i n a s t a n d a r d the  these  the  to  scheme.  of need, r a t h e r  made b y  c o n s i d e r e d by  test"  security  act  not  the  what  people  provision  paramount  future  of  our  social  program.  In B r i t i s h in  1945  to  t h i s Act  Columbia, the  makes p r o v i s i o n  f o r t h i s r e s i d u a l group.  s o c i a l assistance  o r f a m i l i e s , and  " S o c i a l Assistance  i s f i n a n c i a l a i d to  f i n a n c i a l aid to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  1 M a r s h , L.C., R e p o r t on O t t a w a , K i n g s ' P r i n t e r , 1943,  Social Security page 29.  for  Act",  passed  According individuals which  Canada  - 4 -  extend s e r v i c e s to people dependent f o r t h e i r maintenance.  on s o c i a l  assistance  S o c i a l Assistance also  includes  h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and o c c u p a t i o n t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g . "Of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e was  the i n c l u s i o n of  • c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s ' i n t h i s d e f i n i t i v e s e c t i o n of the A c t , or s e r v i c e s g i v e n by s o c i a l workers to p r e s e r v e and strengthen f a m i l y l i f e , whether f i n a n c i a l a i d was n e c e s s a r y or n o t " .  1  The p r e s e n t study i s concerned w i t h the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d and program of o n l y one community - New By a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of t h i s sample  Westminster.  area i t i s p o s s i b l e t o  pursue a number of q u e s t i o n s which have not been  fully  answered.  interest;  These q u e s t i o n s are of g e n e r a l p u b l i c  but of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o the a d m i n i s t r a t o r and t o the s o c i a l worker. The C i t y of New  Westminster was born i n the days of  the Gold Rush i n the l a t e 1850's.  I n p o p u l a t i o n New  Westminster  ranks as the t h i r d l a r g e s t c i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, h a v i n g r i s e n from a p o p u l a t i o n of seven thousand i n 1891 to the present p o p u l a t i o n of twenty-eight thousand. Westminster's major i n d u s t r y i s lumbering.  New In a d d i t i o n ,  s h i p p i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and f i s h i n g are i t s key industries.  Among the secondary i n d u s t r i e s are paper  making, i n d u s t r i a l machinery manufacturing, f o o d p r o c e s s i n g , and salmon canning.  The annual gross value of p r o d u c t i o n i s  1 B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, Annual Report of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, V i c t o r i a , 1948, page 25.  estimated  t o be e i g h t y m i l l i o n d o l l a r s  i n 1950  payroll  was a p p r o x i m a t e l y  million dollars.  a year.  twenty-one  New W e s t m i n s t e r p r o v i d e s  area f o r the study  The a n n u a l  and a h a l f  a good  of the o p e r a t i o n of the s o c i a l  p r o g r a m i n one a r e a , b y r e a s o n  sample assistance  of i t s size, history,  and  i n d u s t r i a l economy. New W e s t m i n s t e r h a s h a d a s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e for  the l a s t  fifty  and p r a c t i c e s have these  years.  Numerous c h a n g e s  occurred  during  this  c h a n g e s have b e e n and how t h e y  assistance  program are q u e s t i o n s  before.  The d e v e l o p m e n t  depicted  to provide  program  i n philosphy  period of time.  affect  What  the present  t h a t have n o t b e e n  explored  o f the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e program i s  a b a s i s f o r the assessment o f the present  program. A twofold caseload  approach t o the study  of the a s s i s t a n c e  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r i s u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o  d i s c o v e r who a r e t h e members o f t h e r e s i d u a l and why t h e y a r e i n t h i s the f i r s t Social  category  of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e .  p l a c e , t h e p o s t - w a r changes  A s s i s t a n c e Department  Secondly,  i n d i g e n t group  i n the c a s e l o a d  In  of the  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r a r e e x a m i n e d .  the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases  f o r the year  1951  are  studied. Some q u e s t i o n s  relating  t o t h e post-war changes i n  caseload  are studied i n d e t a i l .  caseload  changes  of  show a n y r e l a t i o n  New W e s t m i n s t e r ?  1950,  1 City page  Do t h e s o c i a l  assistance  t o the p o p u l a t i o n  What a r e t h e r e a s o n s  o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , I n t r o d u c i n g 4.  growth  f o r the  New W e s t m i n s t e r .  1  -6 fluctuations  i n the s i z e  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r ?  of the s o c i a l  I s the present  assistance  trend  towards the c r e a t i o n  o f more c a t e g o r i c a l a i d p r o g r a m s c o n t i n u i n g ? explore  these q u e s t i o n s ,  changes a r e s t u d i e s in  the other Of  of  the caseload,  The  turnover  sub  assistance  caseload  t o the changes t h a t  of p u b l i c  i s the turnover  occur  assistance.  i n cases that  i s studied  i n order  make up t h e  g r o u p and t h e c o m p a r i t i v e  The r e s i d u a l s o c i a l  occurs.  t o g a i n some  o f the groups of persons that  indigent  groups.  I n order t o  t o the s o c i a l worker, i n the handling  i h cases  understanding residual,  i n relation  categories  importance  the s o c i a l  caseload  size  assistance  of the  group i s not a  homongeneous c a t e g o r y s u c h a s t h e o l d age a s s i s t a n c e of p u b l i c  assistance i s .  In order the  social  t o a s c e r t a i n who t h e g r o u p s a r e t h a t  assistance  social assistance classified  and  sex d i s t r i b u t i o n .  previous  i s made.  on t h e b a s i s  assistance,  their  unemployable  indigent  public  persons.  c o r r e l a t e d with the length assistance.  This  assistance  of the d i s a b i l i t y  of those  b a c k g r o u n d , and These  importance  assistance  cases  s t a t u s , and age  are considered.  are of p a r t i c u l a r  that h i s t o r i c a l l y ,  The s o c i a l  occupational  comprise  study of the  of their family  The n a t u r e  employment r e c o r d  characteristics fact  c a t e g o r y an e x t e n s i v e  cases  are  .receiving  category  i n view of the  was g r a n t e d t o  These v a r i o u s  o f time the c l i e n t s  examination o f the cases  aspects are have  received  i s undertaken i n  - 7 -  order  t o a s c e r t a i n why  these  clients  of  a s s i s t a n c e and  by  knowing the background of the  size  of the  c a s e l o a d and  assistance-, can skills  and  The  what t h e i r  the  r a t h e r than  case.  The  for is  the  in April  preceding winter summer months. requested  therefore  who  are  advantage. nature  1951  o f an  extensive  i s s e l e c t e d as  a base  month  This  month  an a v e r a g e month.  1951  than  i s lower  in April offices  a l l cases  p o s s i b l e t o use cases  individual  i t represents  months, and h i g h e r  on  and  receiving  i n t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s of each  a l l welfare  Westminster  -of  an  Also  questionnaires  Only  agency, the n a t u r e  persons  i s i n the  month o f A p r i l  chosen because  category  problems a r e .  c o m p i l a t i o n of c a s e - s t a t i s t i c a l forms.  caseload  of  the  t o the b e s t  study  survey  specific  in this  s o c i a l w o r k e r hope t o e m p l o y h i s  h i s time  present  are  the  than  peak i n the the  provincial  caseload welfare  i n the p r o v i n c e  receiving  this  in this  the  to  assistance.  i n f o r m a t i o n on  study.  The  To p r o v i d e  the  i n the department  complete It is New  some f o r m  Camparison i n measuring c a s e l o a d t u r n o v e r , the  month  December 1951  made.  The  i s s e l e c t e d and  returns  survey  monthly s t a t i s t i c a l r e t u r n s , completed by  s o c i a l worker, are used occurred  a similar  i n the  i n s t u d y i n g c h a n g e s t h a t have  caseload  o f the  a l s o I n d i c a t e the  s o c i a l workers.  The  caseload with  the  agency.  These  the  monthly  amount o f work done by  monthly r e t u r n s are  m a t e r i a l f o r comparing  each  size  t o t a l caseload  of the of the  a l s o the  social  the source  assistance  agency.  - 8 -  The the  case  chief  source  themselves. the  files  o f t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r a g e n c y  of m a t e r i a l used  The A p r i l  classification  responsibility active  cases  to family survey  I n December a l l t h e  i n t h e a g e n c y were r e a d . i n the A p r i l  In a d d i t i o n t o the  survey,  the c l i e n t s *  and o c c u p a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d a r e n o t e d .  measure t h e d e g r e e o f s e v e r i t y o f t h e c l i e n t s ' a simple is  supplies  t o the b i r t h p l a c e and r e s i d e n c e  of the f a m i l y heads.  information obtained disabilities  according  I n a d d i t i o n the A p r i l  information with regard  the cases  f u r n i s h e s the m a t e r i a l f o r  of the cases  s t a t u s , age and s e x . the  survey  i n studying  provide  threefold rating  s c a l e i s used.  e m p l o y e d t o measure t h e c l i e n t s '  handicaps  A twofold  previous  To  rating  employment  records. On 1951  the b a s i s of the reading  an a t t e m p t  cases  other  than  disturbances  i s made t o l i s t financial.  of the f i l e s  I n December  problems e x i s t i n g  i n the  These problems a r e major  that the s o c i a l workers had e i t h e r  recorded  as r e q u i r i n g h e l p , o r were a l r e a d y e n g a g e d I n h e l p i n g . A tenfold case  classification  o f problems i s u s e d and e a c h  i s r a t e d as t o w h e t h e r one o r more p r o b l e m s a r e  present. The  method o f s t u d y  d e s c r i b e d above i s e m p l o y e d t o  illustrate  who t h e g r o u p s o f c l i e n t s  the  social  assistance category  are  i n this  On  a r e t h a t make up  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , why  g r o u p , and what some o f t h e i r  the basis of t h i s  they  major problems a r e .  information concerning  the s o c i a l  - 9 assistance  caseload  and p r o g r a m i n one  s e v e r a l recommendations relate  t o the present  caseload social and  a r e made.  handling  sample  These  area,  recommendations  of the s o c i a l  assistance  b y t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  of the  a s s i s t a n c e program t o the c a t e g o r i c a l a i d programs  insurance  schemes i n e x i s t e n c e  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  CHAPTER THE  DEVELOPMENT OF The  for  city  past  fifty  SOCIAL ASSISTANCE IN NEW  o f New  assistance  W e s t m i n s t e r has  to d e s t i t u t e persons  years.  recognised  TWO  At  t h a t the  from p u b l i c funds.  the b e g i n n i n g  WESTMINSTER  made p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n and of  families for this  century  it  was  d e s t i t u t e p e r s o n s were e n t i t l e d  to  help  The  private  city  provided  the  c h u r c h members, g i v i n g t h e i r  services  voluntarily,  determined The  and  implemented  depression  l a r g e number o f Paid  officials  f o r c e d a new  able-bodied  determine e l i g i b i l i t y  on  the  The  were o u t  first  issue r e l i e f  Westminster placed  that  against  a t t i t u d e was insurance social  the  the  time  orders.  a great  contingencies by  program at the  the  of  of those  p e o p l e who the  life.  federal level. left  present  emphasis  The  as  emphasis  unemployed.  change  o f an As  with  unable  i s on  the  unemployment  task  the  of  rehabilitation  employed t o o p e r a t e  the  assistance  i n the  the  new  concept  "Social Assistance  o l d concept  of  local  caring  t o work.  themselves.  the  his  in  a result, the  the  on  for  defined  a c e r t a i n extent  City  unable t o provide  a casework b a s i s , i n k e e p i n g w i t h  assistance  to  d e a l of  This  were d e s t i t u t e and  financially  S o c i a l workers are  o f work.  deal to shatter  s e t t i n g up  a s s i s t a n c e d e p a r t m e n t was  those  the  individual could protect himself,  reflected  In theory,  To  p e r s o n s who  p r o b l e m o f unemployment d i d a g r e a t  own,  on  approach because of  p r o v i s i o n o f some measure o f work t o t h e  philosophy  for  and  f u n d s and  policy.  were e m p l o y e d f o r the  C o u n c i l o f New  the  Act"  program of of  1945.  responsibility  - 11 has  changed, and  -  s i n c e 1947  assumed e i g h t y per cent  of the c o s t to the a c t u a l  granted to the d e s t i t u t e . aspect  S o c i a l assistance  of the wider w e l f a r e  department.  The  the p r o v i n c i a l government  present  f u n c t i o n of the  i s only  s o c i a l assistance  The The  be  i t i s the development  program.  Westminster Benevolent S o c i e t y was  formed i n  c o n s t i t u t i o n adopted by the c i t y c o u n c i l s t a t e d  the " S o c i e t y i s organized a l l cases of persons who from the C o r p o r a t i o n  recognized  1903.  that  f o r the purpose of d e a l i n g w i t h might r e q u i r e r e l i e f and  of the C i t y of New  assistance  Westminster, and  the d i s t r i b u t i n g of the same to the g r e a t e s t This quotation  one  assistance  purpose of t h i s chapter to c o n s i d e r b r i e f l y the of the  assistance  program can however, o n l y  assessed i n terms of i t s past h i s t o r y , and  has  of  advantage."  seems to i n d i c a t e that the c i t y c o u n c i l  that there were needy i n the c i t y and  1  t h a t these  needy persons might r e q u i r e h e l p from p u b l i c f u n d s . The  members of the  churches on the one "The  s o c i e t y represented  hand, and  and  a Vice-president  to be e l e c t e d from among the members".  expenses of the  other.  l a d i e s appointed from each  c i t y , w i t h the Mayor as  the C i t y C l e r k as S e c r e t a r y ;  Treasurer  local  the c i t y c o u n c i l on the  s o c i e t y i s composed of two  church c o n g r e g a t i o n i n the  the  President, and The  s o c i e t y were b o r n e . e n t i r e l y by the c i t y .  2 The  1 See Appendix One which g i v e s the complete c o n s t i t u t i o n of the Westminster Benevolent S o c i e t y adopted January 14, 1903. 2 Loc. c i t .  - 12 delegates  from the c i t y  investigation  o f cases  p e r s o n s was d e c i d e d  c h u r c h e s were r e s p o n s i b l e of d e s t i t u t i o n .  by a majority  f o r the  The e l i g i b i l i t y o f  vote  at the society's  monthly meetings. The  c i t y was d i v i d e d i n t o t e n d i f f e r e n t  provide  adequate  different the  coverage.  Two l a d i e s ,  c h u r c h e s , were a s s i g n e d  zones t o  representing  t o e a c h o f t h e zones f o r  purpose o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g requests  for assistance.  p r a c t i c e was t o a s s i g n t h e women t o t h e d i s t r i c t s they  lived,  families for  as i t was f e l t  i n need.  r e m u n e r a t i o n was p r o v i d e d  The given  t o t h e s o c i e t y e a c h month.  No  out the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . that a l l r e l i e f i n special  was t o be  cases.  In  a f a m i l y o r p e r s o n i n f i n a n c i a l n e e d was  at the l o c a l  store  or dairy f o r a specific  t r e a s u r e r would pay t h e accounts  passed by the s o c i e t y .  after  they  allowed amount.  had been  Only i n e x c e p t i o n a l cases,  f a m i l y had exceeded t h e c r e d i t , •considered  with  b y t h e s o c i e t y f o r t h e members  i n k i n d , and money o n l y  credit The  t h e y w o u l d be more f a m i l i a r  c o n s t i t u t i o n provided  practice,  i n which  E a c h team, o f two women, was r e s p o n s i b l e  making an o r a l r e p o r t  who c a r r i e d  The  where t h e  o r bought g r o c e r i e s n o t  e s s e n t i a l , d i d t h e s o c i e t y do t h e a c t u a l  ordering  of the g r o c e r i e s . The  a v a i l a b l e f i n a n c i a l records  s o c i e t y d a t e b a c k t o 1917 d a t e b a c k t o 1923.  o f the o p e r a t i o n  and t h e f i r s t  records  The m i n u t e s o f t h e s e  lists  of expenditures,  brief  summary o f t h e c a s e s  of the  o f minutes  meetings  contain  p e r s o n s r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e , and a discussed.  No i n d i v i d u a l  records  of  cases  the  were k e p t ,  13  -  and e l i g i b i l i t y  team, on a n i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s .  order during  1923  In May.1923,  the s o c i e t y spent  dollars. The  was d e t e r m i n e d , The a v e r a g e  was s i x t o e i g h t d o l l a r s a total  T h i s amount was s p e n t  by  grocery  per family.  o f two h u n d r e d  on f o u r t e e n  families.  m i n u t e s o f t h e s o c i e t y r e v e a l a g r a d u a l change i n  policy.  Originally  only credit  Somewhat l a t e r  f o r f o o d was p r o v i d e d f o r  the  clients.  the  amount o f t e n d o l l a r s , were p r o v i d e d .  the  s o c i e t y p a i d $ 7 . 5 0 t o a d o c t o r f o r t h r e e home  and  this  i s the f i r s t  r e n t a l allowances,  record of medical  usually i n  In A p r i l  1924,  visits,  provisionf o r  indigents. Several years with  later  the s o c i e t y began t o cooperate  the Vancouver c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i e t i e s .  The W e s t m i n s t e r  Benevolent  S o c i e t y p a i d f o r s e v e r a l c a s e s where  were b e i n g  c a r e d f o r b y t h e two c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n  V a n c o u v e r . ' The r e p o r t s s u b m i t t e d followed with great interest, Westminster Benevolent children.  placements. society,  agencies  were  and i n s e v e r a l c a s e s t h e  S o c i e t y made p e r m a n e n t p l a n s  This interest  1930's when t h e l o c a l  by these  children  i n c h i l d welfare  f o r the  increased i n the  s o c i e t y made s e v e r a l p r i v a t e  B o a r d f o r t h e c h i l d r e n was p r o v i d e d b y t h e  and was u s u a l l y i n t h e amount o f t e n d o l l a r s a  month. In d e c i d i n g e l i g i b i l i t y , relative for  responsibility.  h e l p , were a p p r o a c h e d  strict  a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o  A l l relatives and a s k e d  of a person  to provide help.  applying In  - 14 -  many c a s e s  j o b s were p r o v i d e d f o r t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n s o  they could support  their parents.  e l d e r l y man was u n a b l e society  I n one ease  t o continue t o l i v e  on r e c o r d , an  by h i m s e l f .  The  d e c i d e d t o h e l p h i m , b u t a r e s o l u t i o n was p a s s e d a t  the monthly meeting  "that  living  Eventually a relative  relatives".  a l l e f f o r t s be made t o t r a c e any  Edmonton, who when a p p r o a c h e d the p e r s o n The  was l o c a t e d  by the s o c i e t y ,  agreed  in t o have  i n n e e d come and l i v e w i t h h i m .  Westminster Benevolent  S o c i e t y was c l o s e l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r C o u n c i l o f Women. year  t o t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r C o u n c i l o f Women.  New W e s t m i n s t e r C o u n c i l o f Women o f t e n s e n t  in the f i e l d The  Each  t h e s o c i e t y a p p o i n t e d t h r e e women as t h e i r  representatives The  1  of social  action,  Westminster Benevolent  t o the s o c i e t y f o r endorsement.  S o c i e t y endorsed  a s k i n g f o r an i n c r e a s e i n the p e n s i o n s o c i e t y d e c i d e d n o t t o endorse organization  held work.  The  calling  f o r the  o f a separate department o f p u b l i c w e l f a r e t o o f t h e government o f  Columbia.  The private  a resolution  t o t h e aged.  a resolution  embrace t h e v a r i o u s w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s British  resolutions  s o c i e t y worked i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r charity  societies.  I n November 1923, a m e e t i n g was  a t t h e YWCA o f a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n n e c t e d The p u r p o s e  of this  meeting  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r t o p r e v e n t  1 Loc. c i t .  local  with  relief  was t o d i s c u s s r e l i e f  duplications  of services.  work At  - 15 t h i s time the churches  still  f i n a n c i a l needs of t h e i r own  sought to meet the parishioners.  In answer t o  some l o c a l community c r i t i c i s m , there i s a n o t a t i o n i n the minutes of the s o c i e t y s t a t i n g " t h a t S a i n t Peters  Church  spent twelve hundred d o l l a r s f o r r e l i e f of i t s own  members  i n the l a s t year".  1  During the d e p r e s s i o n , the s o c i e t y continued t o f u n c t i o n i n a supplementary to persons who  were unable  way.  I t continued to g i v e a i d  t o q u a l i f y f o r r e l i e f , or  who  were i n the process of a p p l y i n g f o r a s s i s t a n c e . The  l a s t r e c o r d s of the s o c i e t y a v a i l a b l e are f o r the  year 1939.  D u r i n g the month of September 1939,  spent three hundred d o l l a r s whereas the c i t y department spent f i f t e e n hundred. g r a d u a l l y d i s c o n t i n u e d i t s work. to 1939  the  society  relief  A f t e r 1939,  the  society  F o r s e v e r a l years  prior  i t had g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  from the churches  and the work u s u a l l y f e l l t o three or  f o u r women.  A f t e r 1939,  the work was  c a r r i e d oh by the C i t y C l e r k w i t h the h e l p of  the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t .  The  no f o r m a l meetings were h e l d and  s o c i e t y continued t o operate i n  t h i s manner u n t i l 1946 when i t q u i e t l y disbanded.  In the  l a s t year of I t s o p e r a t i o n i t spent a t o t a l of $1,266.79. At t h a t time the c i t y r e l i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r performed d u t i e s of the d e l e g a t e s of the In 1929,  society.  the c i t y c o u n c i l r e a l i z e d t h a t the  Westminster Benevolent problem  the  S o c i e t y was  unable t o cope w i t h the  of the l a r g e number of unemployed.  1 Loc. c i t .  A separate  - 16  -  r e l i e f department, l o c a t e d was  organized.  at the Board of Work's o f f i c e ,  U n t i l the p a s s i n g of the  R e l i e f A c t " , b y the a  "Unemployment  f e d e r a l government, the  department  operated independently of p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l aid. W i t h i n the the  next few  years the f e d e r a l government passed  "Unemployment R e l i e f A c t " ,  R e l i e f Act",  and  the  the  "Unemployment and  " R e l i e f Act".  The  and  m u n i c i p a l governments shared the  and  work's programs.  able-bodied unemployed. f o r t y per  cent of the  provincial  c o s t s of the  In October 1938,  government segregated the  federal,  the  relief  provincial  unemployable persons from The  cost  Farm  the  p r o v i n c i a l government assumed  of r e l i e f to the  unemployable  persons. The and  h i s t o r y of f e l i e f  i s marked by  program changes on the p a r t  of the  senior  These changes made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the operate a s u c c e s s f u l  r e l i e f program.  necessitated  r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  unemployed.  On  a notice,  i n the  r e - r e g i s t e r and 19,  1931  governments.  city council  Each new  was  the  scheme  the  the  c i t y clerk published  On  to August  published again asking a l l  to r e - r e g i s t e r f o r work. to revamp i t s plans r e p e a t e d l y .  c i t y had  prepared a r e l i e f budget f o r  submitted the budget to V i c t o r i a .  s l a s h e d i n h a l f and  to  r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n of  i n s p e c i a l forms f o r work.  c i t y c o u n c i l had  $166,000 and was  fill  married men  In August 1930,  1930  policy  l o c a l paper asking a l l unemployed  another n o t i c e  s i n g l e and The  October 29,  continual  t h i s meant the  The  budget  c i t y c o u n c i l had  to  - 17 f o r m u l a t e new p l a n s .  The o r i g i n a l b u d g e t h a d b e e n  prepared  o f t h e number  relief,  on t h e b a s i s and p r o v i d e d  month u n t i l May  f o r work f o r 443  receiving relief. o f t h e men  days. the  the  office  found  the d e p r e s s i o n  the p o p u l a t i o n  received  a month.  t h a n on t h e b a s i s  of  slashed,  This  d e p a r t m e n t h a d 1400  heads  $27.00  1932,  discontinued. p e r cent during eases.  clothing,  food  about  The r e l i e f  a man, h i s w i f e  and one  N i n e d o l l a r s was  $3.50  t o 3000  department caseload.  child  a l l o w a n c e , and an a l l o w a n c e f o r  s h e l t e r and f u e l .  the f a m i l y ,  2500  r a t e was made up  The c l o t h i n g , s h e l t e r and f u e l  a l l o w a n c e was n o t t o e x c e e d f o r t y p e r c e n t allowance.  1055  received  s i z e of  The a s s i s t a n c e  married  were a b o u t  o f f a m i l i e s who  t o cope w i t h t h i s  a month.  o f two c a t e g o r i e s ;  there  would i n d i c a t e t h a t  six officials  I n December  of  but often  I n 1933,  assistance.  p e r s o n s were r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e .  received  on  underway were  I n M a r c h 1934,  dependents of m u n i c i p a l  employed  t o operate  o f t h e s e were s i n g l e c a s e s and 700 were  men w i t h d e p e n d e n t s .  $2.75  i t necessary  to give  of four  about t e n t o f i f t e e n  p e a k month, t h e r e l i e f  A b o u t 700  of people  a l t e r n a t i v e was  Not o n l y were b u d g e t s  p r o j e c t s w h i c h were a l r e a d y During  of  other  o f money a v a i l a b l e , r a t h e r  e x i s t i n g needs. the  relief  two d a y s o f work a month i n s t e a d  The r e l i e f  basis  The  t o r e d u c e t h e number  The o n l y  receiving  men f o r f o u r d a y s a  of the f o l l o w i n g y e a r .  d e p a r t m e n t was r e q u e s t e d  all  o f m a r r i e d men  of the food  allowed f o r food  f o r a second a d u l t  and  dependent under twenty-one y e a r s o f age.  f o r the head  $2.50  f o r each  "- 18 The  maximum a l l o w a n c e  f o r a single  man was  a d a y f o r f o o d , and t w e n t y c e n t s f o r c l o t h i n g , fuel.  1934,  Until  allowance.  the s i n g l e  man  twenty  s h e l t e r and  only received a food  The a d d i t i o n a l t w e n t y c e n t s was g i v e n on t h e  understanding  t h a t t h e man was  u p o n t o do s o , o r e l s e  expected  produce  t o work when  a medical  Any r e f u s a l  from  A c t u a l l y , v e r y few s i n g l e  any f u r t h e r r e l i e f .  e v e r r e q u i r e d t o work, b u t t h i s  test  see  to receive their The  During  to  stating debarring men  determine  the e a r l y  days  appear a t the r e l i e f  twenty cents  office  i n scrip.  r e l a t i o n between the r e l i e f  scale  and t h e w o r k ' s  p r o g r a m c a n b e s t be shown b y means o f an i l l u s t r a t i o n . the  case  was  expected  of a married  amount was  basis.  c o u p l e , w i t h no d e p e n d e n t s , t h e man  cents  an h o u r a m o u n t i n g t o $9.60 a month.  p a i d t o h i m i n c a s h on a w e e k l y o r m o n t h l y  I n a d d i t i o n t h e man r e c e i v e d a g r o c e r y o r d e r f o r  $ 6 . 5 0 and a s h e l t e r a l l o w a n c e of  $21.25  p e r month.  $5.00  of  F o r each c h i l d ,  work an e x t r a d a y a month. size  In  t o work t h r e e d a y s a month, f o r w h i c h he  received forty This  were  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i t was n o t an uncommon s i g h t t o  f o u r h u n d r e d s i n g l e men  daily  t o work meant  was u s e d  t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e men t o work.  called  certificate  he was n o t a b l e t o work.  of r e l i e f  cents  o f f a m i l y amounted t o  m a k i n g a t o t a l income t h e man was  The o r i e n t a l  $17.00  allowed to  s c a l e f o r t h e same  i n s t e a d of  $21.25  per  month. I n many c a s e s his  own wood f r o m  loaned  t o t h e men,  the c i t y uncleared  allowed city  and t h e c i t y  the r e c i p i e n t  lots.  The t o o l s  to cut were  s u p p l i e d the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  - 19 A  scheme was  with land  undertaken f o r supplying  and  s e e d t o grow t h e i r  o r g a n i z a t i o n was very  relief  r e c i p i e n t was  men,  vegetables.  The  d a i l y press  there  was  considerable  present  reported  evident  unrest  been  i n New  among t h e  on  uneasiness  f u r t h e r p r o g r a m had  at  M a r c h 16,  1933,  among t h e  men  because  the  month,  the  end  W e s t m i n s t e r was  s i n g l e men.  Several  C o u r t House p r o t e s t i n g  allowance  a t the  end  who  demonstrations the  to protest  the  state  meant t o keep t h e  only,  t h a t no  man  can  i n j u r y to his health  assistance  they pointed  the  fact  that  as  he  not  Burnaby r e f u s e d  work f o r t h e i r t o do  that  so  and  the  The  J u l y 15,  The  get  " i t is  relief  allowance  does n o t  i s w e l l known t o e v e r y o n e .  V a n c o u v e r do  out  present  this  of a l l  1933  they r e c e i v e d .  unemployed f r o m a c t u a l work on  in  relief.  a mass m e e t i n g o f a l l w o r k e r s on  necessary to  cut  a u n i o n made up  union held  statement they issued  and  particularly  were w o r k i n g f o r t h e i r  amount o f  the  1933.  of March,  R e l i e f W o r k e r ' s U n i o n was  unemployed men  of  that  announced.  at the  The  in  work's p r o g r a m w o u l d  were h e l d  This  prove  n e v e r s u r e when a c u t  authorization expired  The  is  The  which d i d not  a l l o w a n c e w o u l d come o r when t h e  end.  no  t o the  men  successful. The  his  l e f t up  own  a group of  In  a  not  allowance  starvation without  sufficient  food.  unemployed workers  relief,  the  unemployed  r e c i p i e n t s on  the  in in  North  - 20 S h o r e have q u i t fifty  also".  The u n i o n r e q u e s t e d a wage o f  c e n t s an h o u r and an i n c r e a s e  fifteen  dollars  a month.  preparation f o r a strike One hundred  strike  intention Board The  M e e t i n g s were c a l l e d i n vote.  was a t t e m p t e d i n t h e summer o f 1934.  the t o o l boxes. to strike  c i t y council would  No n o t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r  was g i v e n .  No e f f o r t was made b y t h e t o do t h e work.  met t h e same d a y and i t was d e c i d e d be g i v e n t o anyone who r e f u s e d  active  i n the s t r i k e  were o n l y  a very  that  t o work.  s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e B o a r d o f Works r e p o r t e d  those  One  one m o r n i n g and  o f Works t o s e n d i n o t h e r w o r k e r s  no r e l i e f The  i n the grant of  and t h i r t y men went on s t r i k e  picketed  1  that  small  p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e u n e m p l o y e d , and many o f t h o s e who downed  tools  d i d n o t do s o on t h e i r  own v o l i t i o n .  W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f t h e s e c o n d w o r l d war t h e number o f u n e m p l o y e d p e r s o n s d e c r e a s e d and I n 1940 t h e r e l i e f was  office  closed. D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1940 t o J u n e , 1947 t h e c i t y o f  New W e s t m i n s t e r social  assistance.  from the r e l i e f The  o p e r a t e d i t s own m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t o f T h i s p e r i o d was a t r a n s i t i o n a l  days t o t h e p r e s e n t w e l f a r e  c i t y was r e l u c t a n t  scheme o f o p e r a t i o n ,  t o come w i t h i n as a r e s u l t  stage  department.  the p r o v i n c i a l  o f poor  provincial-  1 T h i s statement i s quoted from a h a n d b i l l b y R e l i e f W o r k e r s ' U n i o n i n J u l y 1933.  distributed  municipal relations first by  three years of t h i s  two  was  d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n .  relief  period  officials.  The  d e p r e s s i o n , except  that  unemployable persons. relief  had  The  dropped  1943,  department  a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f o p e r a t i o n .  The  government  offered  municipalities based  on the  1941  to s o c i a l  New and  Under  indigent.  The  P e n s i o n s were l e f t the  city  their  services  cents per  own  c o u n c i l chose  to looking  to the  person  programs  for  with  the  after  the  latter  c i t y had  determined financial  on  need.  out  Its  financially and  an a d m i n i s t r a t o r and  carried  course  i n 1943.  t o the p r o v i n c i a l government.  w e r e , f o r t h e most p a r t ,  i n c a p a c i t y and  were  o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e was  to operate the program.  E l i g i b i l i t y was  cities  programs.  C h i l d W e l f a r e , Mother's Allowance,  stenographer  this  assistance.  limited  t o 1947,  were  several  larger  a S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Department  f u n c t i o n was  1943  program of  s o c i a l welfare  of f i f t e e n  to operate  Westminster  s e t up  The  to provide s o c i a l  census.  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s regard  own  a t the c o s t  on  separate welfare services  a r r a n g e m e n t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were o f f e r e d  their  were  150.  under the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Branch.  to operate  manned  i n the  p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t b e g a n i t s own  required  was  t h e number o f c a s e s  to approximately  The  the  mode o f o p e r a t i o n  most o f t h e r e c i p i e n t s By  a m a l g a m a t i o n i n 1942. brought  the department  method and  a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the r e l i e f  During  Old Prom  a  senior  Investigations, i n the  the b a s i s  of  Age  office. medical  - 22 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e c o n s i s t e d o f c a s h payments medical scale was  services.  The  city  of a s s i s t a n c e l e s s  used  separate  for clothing application  expenditures  five  of the  for social  to  seventy  260  Two  thousand  cases.  saving cent  160  During  and  c a s e l o a d s had  than  1943  Westminster Benevolent t h a t the  charge.  the  hundred d o l l a r s by  Society.  the  city  giving  the  total desire to  determine By  and  of the  city  a five in  of  only actual cent  a l l assistance through Even though the  o n l y a b o u t two  f o r a s s i s t a n c e i t does to operate  eligibility  i n 1947,  the  per  1945.  the the  difference city  on  i t s own  i t s own  per  the  expenditures cent  of  illustrate  program w i t h  the the  freedom  standards.  the p a s s i n g of the " S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A c t "  implementing  report  c i t y made a  t h e work o f  per  to  c o u l d have made a s a v i n g o f s i x  society represented amount s p e n t  The  staff  in  risen  risen  t h a t the  were a 100  S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Department. of  had  o p e r a t i n g on  t o 1945,  s o c i e t y ' s funds  I n 1946,  dollars.  the p r o v i n c i a l government  the y e a r s  a  1944  summer t o 210  dollars,  S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Department performed  was  year  expenditures  d o l l a r s by  cent  Total  the  to note  per  the b a s i s of  thousand  d u r i n g the  provincial  five  later  thousand  scale  g i v e n on  thirty-nine  the  The  "means t e s t " .  It is interesting  o f two  lower  years  cent.  a s s i s t a n c e f o r the  caseload v a r i e d from  the w i n t e r .  per  allowances  amounted t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y The  c o u n c i l adopted  and  recommendation of the  in  1945  Goldenburg  t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t was  able  e s t a b l i s h b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  to In  - 23 June 1947,  -  the c i t y c o u n c i l decided  i t was  to t h e i r  advantage to come w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n of An amalgamated o f f i c e was government sharing h a l f the s o c i a l workers.  The  g e n e r a l i z e d welfare  set up w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l  c o s t of the  welfare  operation.  s a l a r i e s of  department o f f e r e d a  s e r v i c e , i n c l u d i n g Old Age  Mother's Allowance, S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e  and  Pensions,  C h i l d Welfare.  A f t e r f o r t y - f i v e years of g i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d to  the  d e s t i t u t e , s o c i a l workers were h i r e d to operate  the  program.  has  The  increased,  and  number of s o c i a l workers employed at the present  the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e The  the  time f o u r are working i n  Department.  major changes t h a t have occurred  i n the  past  f i f t y years are summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1.  Agency S t r u c t u r e : The  Westminster Benevolent S o c i e t y was  agency operated j o i n t l y by the church The the  semi-public  c i t y c o u n c i l and  the  local  delegates. R e l i e f Department was  c i t y under the The  a  a p u b l i c agency operated  by  j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Board of Works.  S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Department i s a m u l t i p l e - f u n c t i o n  p u b l i c agency under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of the c i t y and  the  s u p e r v i s i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l welfare  2.  Personnel P r a c t i c e s : Church members, appointed by the  under  department.  l o c a l churches,  performed the work of the Westminster Benevolent  Society.  No remuneration was  The  provided  f o r the work done.  c l e r k performed the d u t i e s of s e c r e t a r y of the i  city  society*  - 24 Paid Relief  officials  o f t h e c i t y were e m p l o y e d  Department.  S o c i a l workers, operating are  jointly  principle 3.  i n a professional  employed b y t h e c i t y  Method  local  and t h e p r o v i n c e .  council authorized  p u b l i c funds f o r the operation  The f e d e r a l government  the p r i n c i p l e  unemployment r e l i e f . was a u t h o r i z e d on t h e b a s i s  financial  or modified  the present  s o c i a l workers  o f the R e l i e f Department  received.  time, the c i t y  costs  established.  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government  o f the cost  administrative  was  some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  The B u d g e t  of f e d e r a l grants  e i g h t y p e r cent  4.  assumed  the use  of the program.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l government  the  The  of Financing:  During the depression,  At  capacity,  o f casework s u p e r v i s i o n has been a d o p t e d .  I n the e a r l y days the c i t y of  i n the  i s r e i m b u r s e d f o r about  of assistance.  The c i t y  and h a l f t h e s a l a r i e s  pays  of the  employed.  S e r v i c e s Rendered t o C l i e n t s : The W e s t m i n s t e r B e n e v o l e n t S o c i e t y p a i d f o r t h e  grocery per  family.  interest help  orders.  c l i e n t s become s e l f  eligible  some c a s e s . special  t o about e i g h t d o l l a r s  The women o f t h e s o c i e t y t o o k a  i n the c l i e n t s ,  During not  T h e s e amounted  and o f t e n t r i e d  to find  jobs t o  supporting.  the d e p r e s s i o n , forrelief,  personal  assistance  was g i v e n  to clients  and m e d i c a l c o s t s were p a i d i n  B o a r d was a r r a n g e d f o r o r p h a n e d c h i l d r e n i n  cases.  - 25 Relief to provide men.  In  p r o j e c t s were u n d e r t a k e n b y some work f o r t h e  1932,  relief  forty  S i n g l e men cents  The his  wife  cheque. nursing  a  orders,  amounting t o about  assistance  and  child.  one  home c a r e  a g e n c y has  and  other  A l l o w a n c e , and  other  p o l i c y of  d e t e r m i n e d on  the  s o c i e t y by  eligibility  an  care  i s provided  and  institutional  services  are In  addition  Assistance. Policy;  W e s t m i n s t e r S o c i e t y was  i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s by  i n the  Investigations office  delegates  and of  during  of d e s t i t u t e persons the  relief  were a d o p t e d b y  s u p e r v i s i o n was  the  days. city  a matter of f i n a n c i a l  of e l i g i b i l i t y  time the  i s followed.  the  flexible  vote.  of r e l i e f  present  by  Mother's  b a s e d on u n e m p l o y a b i l i t y The  i s issued  o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , s u c h as  the  determination the  man,  welfare,  most p a r t  Provincial rates  At  $69.50 f o r a  of  p e r t a i n i n g to c h i l d  a majority  c a r r i e d out  the  and  rate  chronic  Counselling  functions  O l d Age  was  and  twenty-  the  assistance  D e t e r m i n a t i o n of E l i g i b i l i t y  Provincial  at  i n r e c e i p t of a s s i s t a n c e .  categories  the  married  h i s wife  scrip  h o s p i t a l care  destitute.  the  are  i s p a i d f o r the  to those  For  t o a man,  with  rates  This  F r e e m e d i c a l and  available  was  were p r o v i d e d  present  are  The  o f Works  day.  c a s e s who  5.  Board  unemployed d e s t i t u t e  s e v e n d o l l a r s a month, were i s s u e d child.  the  the  most p a r t  certified  o f young c h i l d r e n , and  by  auditing,  responsibility.  provincial policy  For as  a local  council.  regarding  eligibility  a medical  i n some e a s e s t h e  is  doctor. lack  of  - 26 suitable 6.  -  employment, e n t i t l e s  persons to  Types of C l i e n t s i n R e c e i p t During  the  p e r i o d when the  of  assistance.  Assistance:  Benevolent S o c i e t y  h e l p was  given  t o d e s t i t u t e p e r s o n s who  f r o m the  local  churches or from p r i v a t e agencies.  caseload  of the  a g e n c y was  number o f o t h e r h e l p was was  s m a l l , and  d i d not  confined  to those  receive  In  f a m i l i e s where the  the general,  wage-earner  disabled. During  the  depression,  were a b l e - b o d i e d p r o v e d t o be  the  majority  u n e m p l o y e d men.  a s p e c i a l problem.  The  of  the  clients  single transient  I t was  d i s a b l e d person to receive r e l i e f  the  than p r i o r  depression  of the  population  The  present  several different They r e p r e s e n t  to  i t .  clients  g r o u p s o f p e o p l e who per  cent  a r e s i d u a l g r o u p who  are  not  categories  or by  of  are  the  covered  social  during per  cent  1933.  in  social assistance  a b o u t two  assistance  About f i f t e e n  received r e l i e f  men  considerably  e a s i e r f o r the  are  aid  The  varied with  p u b l i c programs i n o p e r a t i o n .  operated,  are  composed  unemployable.  population by  insurance  other  and  public  schemes.  of  CHAPTER CASELOAD  CHANGES IN NEW  S o c i a l assistance assistance, that  there  THREE  i s a r e s i d u a l category of p u b l i c  and b e c a u s e  of. t h i s  philosophy  size  that New  assistance.  assistance  The  changing  and t h e c h a n g i n g  s i t u a t i o n are f a c t o r s that  apparently  caseload.  a f f e c t the  These f a c t o r s a r e  i n t e r r e l a t e d and p a r t l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e c h a n g e s  occur  i n t h e number o f s o c i a l  assistance  cases i n  Westminster. The  detail, the  I t i s t o be e x p e c t e d  f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e number  of s o c i a l assistance,  of the s o c i a l  closely  fact  w i l l be c o n s i d e r a b l e  of persons r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l  economic  WESTMINSTER  purpose of t h i s  i s t o e x a m i n e , i n some  t h e changes i n the s o c i a l  welfare  occurred total  chapter  department  i n the l a s t  caseload  increase  assistance  caseload,  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h a t  four  years.  i n the s o c i a l  but this assistance  category.  I n a d d i t i o n t o the o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e ,  assistance  caseload  fluctuations. cases, and  During  i n the s o c i a l  there  caseload  i s subject the past assistance  are i n d i c a t i o n s that have a h i g h e r  turnover  have  I n New W e s t m i n s t e r t h e  of the agency has i n c r e a s e d ,  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y high  the s o c i a l  to a large  number o f m i n o r  four  the t u r n o v e r .in  years  caseload,  has been  o f t h e changes t h a t The  up  term "caseload"  and c a r r i e d b y t h e New  large  c e r t a i n areas of t h i s than other  areas,  changing f u n c t i o n o f the s o c i a l worker i s s t u d i e d light  of  The i n the  are o c c u r r i n g . r e f e r s t o t h e number o f f i l e s s e t Westminster agency, d u r i n g  one- .  - 28 -  month. less  A p p l i c a n t s f o r a s s i s t a n c e who r e c e i v e h e l p f o r  t h a n two weeks  assistance  are n o t i n c l u d e d i n the s o c i a l  caseload.  An o l d age p e n s i o n e r whose  supplemented by s o c i a l  income i s  a s s i s t a n c e , f o r t h e payment o f  n u r s i n g home c a r e , i s n o t c l a s s i f i e d as a s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e case f o r the purpose  of this  study.  However, a s p o u s e o f  an o l d age p e n s i o n e r , who r e c e i v e s s o c i a l classified  as a s o c i a l  assistance case.  designated  as a " s h a r e d  service"  assistance, i s Such a case i s  and i s c o u n t e d  a s o n l y one  case. "Units of  persons,  of s o c i a l  An " a c t i v e " t o a case  "active"  on w h i c h t h e w o r k e r h a s s p e n t indicating  time  during  an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the  case.  case  The d e c i s i o n a s t o w h e t h e r a c a s e i s  work s h e e t s .  these d a i l y of active  In  w o u l d n o t make a n open  i s made b y t h e w o r k e r , a n d i s i n d i c a t e d b y h i m on  daily  number  the s o c i a l worker's s t a n d p o i n t ,  income s t a t e m e n t s ,  an " a c t i v e "  uses  financial aid,  The c l e r i c a l r o u t i n e o f m a i l i n g c h e q u e s , o r  receiving  his  number  a i d , I n any c a l e n d a r month.  case, from  t h a t month, u s u a l l y client.  to the t o t a l  a d u l t s and d e p e n d e n t s , r e c e i v i n g  o t h e r than temporary  refers  assistance" refers  A t t h e e n d o f t h e month t h e w o r k e r  sheets  i n order t o compile  the t o t a l  c a s e s f o r t h e month.  the l a s t f i f t y  years  New W e s t m i n s t e r h a s a l m o s t increase  coming i n t h e l a s t  presents  a comparison  the p o p u l a t i o n of  t r e b l e d , w i t h most o f t h e twenty y e a r s .  b e t w e e n t h e number  F i g u r e One o f persons  - 29 receiving  assistance  difficulties  are  and  the  population  encountered  The  totals  are  u n o b t a i n a b l e f o r the  taken.  -  f o r the  I t i s only  i n making t h i s  same y e a r s  possible  the  to v e r i f y  received  about o n e - h a l f  assistance  persons, or f i f t e e n i n 1933.  relief  receiving  per  cent  D u r i n g the  assistance  receiving who  are  there  was  no  social  of  population  Three  received  of  persons  the  receiving in  correlation with  Westminster. f o r the  i s t o be  the  found  number o f i n the  D u r i n g the  war  T o d a y , the  very  not  few  a s s i s t a n c e , were a b l e  of  persons  depression  p r o g r a m and  u n e m p l o y e d do  persons  kind  D u r i n g the  insurance relief.  wide v a r i a t i o n  the  able-  large receive  people  many h a n d i c a p p e d p e r s o n s , who  themselves.  thousand  number o f p e r s o n s  definite  g r o w t h and  able-bodied  w o u l d have r e c e i v e d support  of the  population,  the  for assistance.  assistance.  u n e m p l o y e d , and  that  explanation  unemployment  the  of the  shows no  b o d i e d unemployed r e c e i v e d majority  cent  cent  population  eligible  per  war  g r o w t h i n New  by  statistics.  s i x hundred persons are  assistance,  years,  per  of a s s i s t a n c e  between the  five  was  of  d e c r e a s e d t o one  1951,  of the  number  number o f  I t i s apparent  Part  census  the  assistance.  population  last  assistance  years  In  the  the  the  from p u b l i c funds.  population.  receipt  f o r the  o r i g i n a l monthly  1926,  In  that  Several  comparison.  number o f p e r s o n s r e c e i v i n g  persons r e c e i v i n g assistance checking  growth.  were  at other  to obtain  times  jobs  to  A g a i n , many f a m i l i e s were i n a  f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n to support p h y s i c a l l y handicapped  members  FIGURE QUE A.  POPULATION GKO'VTH OF NEV '/ESTMINSTER ( 1901  - 1951  )  (Thousandths)-i  7 , 0  T  - 20  - 20  1901  1911  1921  1931  1941  1951  Souroet Dominion Census Bureau B. NUMBER OF PERSONS RECEIVING ASSISTANCE (1901-1951) (Thousandths)  "I  3  1  1926  1933  1945  1951  x  Source: Annual reports of ^ew Westminster  of t h e i r living  family.  Due  not  In view of t h i s ,  per  cent  of the  the  last  s i x years,  population  help  i s not  does n o t  more f i n a n c i a l  persons  welfare  the  able  support  an  to  alarming  in  social  The  d a y s , has  1949.  autumn o f  been a f a i r l y assistance The not  the  same as The  i n the  the  shifted,  there  partly  for  is  disappeared  turning  to  public  assistance  as  a  social  right.  assistance the  major  increase  persons, s t a r t e d i n  Two).  1949,  Since  i n the  relation c a s e s was  cases.  and  social  total  increase  about n i n e t e e n  assistance  The  number o f  the  there  has  social  cases.  a l l other  i.e.,  Figure  steady increase  increase  caseload. and  (See  not  two  during  proportion.  indicates that  cases,  to  stigma of c h a r i t y ,  need are  June 1947,  assistance  f r o m one  to p u b l i c agencies  A d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f the since  of  unemployable  n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t  agencies f o r f i n a n c i a l  caseload  cost  increase  turning  relief  in financial  high  the  destitution.  associated with  present  receiving assistance,  t h a t more p e r s o n s a r e  financial  and  -  t o the  most f a m i l i e s a r e  relatives.  fact  30  i n the  cent  1950  and  of the  social  between s o c i a l relatively  per  In  caseload  agency i s  assistance  assistance  uniform  up  to  cases 1950,  1951  this  proportion  a s s i s t a n c e became a l a r g e r p a r t  1 T a b l e One shows t h e s o c i a l assistance caseload a g e n c y f o r the p e r i o d 1947  1  o f a l l c a s e s were s o c i a l  r e l a t i o n between the s i z e and the t o t a l c a s e l o a d o f 1951.  of  the  of the the  TABLE ONE SUMMARY OF CASELOAD TRENDS  Other Categories  S o c i a l Assistance Cases  A l l Cases Year  1947-1951  Per cent of A l l Cases  Total  Active  Per cent  146  16  168  31  18  19  719  115  954  176  18  167  46  28  18  789  1949  1105  248  22  211  77  37  19  1950  1269  270  21  290  102  35  1951  1381  371  27  357  148  1119  242  22  235  Active  1947  887  1948  Average  81 .  Total  Persons per case  16  289  1.72  130  17  320  1.92  894  171  19  409  1.94  23  979  168  17  530  1.85  44  26  1024  223  21  620  1.84  34  21  881  161  18  434  1.85  i  Source:  Monthly S t a t i s t i c a l Returns.  Total  Active Per Cent  Per cent  Total  T o t a l Persons (Social Assistance)  FIGURE TWO CHANGES IH SOCIAL ASSISTANCE CASKS Hw W.rtminater, Jan. Vjlfl - Jun« 1^1  - 31 total  caseload, r i s i n g  total  c a s e l o a d i n 1951.  responsible receiving similar social  I f e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s were  solely  f o r t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f p e r s o n s  a s s i s t a n c e , then  i t w o u l d be e x p e c t e d  that  i n c r e a s e would o c c u r i n t h e cases o t h e r  than  assistance,  receiving The  t o twenty-six per cent of the  i . e . , i n t h e number o f p e r s o n s  o l d age p e n s i o n and m o t h e r ' s  allowance.  r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e number o f p e r s o n s  assistance been s t a b l e  and t h e number o f s o c i a l throughout  the l a s t  five  assistance years.  receiving c a s e s has  The  average  number o f p e r s o n s  p e r case  i s 1.85.  number o f p e r s o n s  p e r case  i s 1.3, w h i c h i n d i c a t e s  l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of the cases single  I n Vancouver,  the that  a  i n V a n c o u v e r a r e made up o f  persons.  The increase  s o c i a l workers  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r  i n t h e number o f p e r s o n s  a s s i s t a n c e by a l l o c a t i n g category of p u b l i c of a l l s o c i a l cent  a  more o f t h e i r  assistance.  assistance  receiving  c a s e s were a c t i v e ,  social  social to this  I n 1947, e i g h t e e n p e r c e n t  o f a l l o t h e r c a s e s were a c t i v e .  t h e number o f a c t i v e  time  have met t h e  assistance  and s i x t e e n p e r  I n t h e n e x t few y e a r s , cases rose  from  e i g h t e e n t o f o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t , w h i l e t h e number o f a l l . other  cases  t h a t were a c t i v e  to twenty-one p e r c e n t . that  the s o c i a l  only increased from  Either  assistance  sixteen  the s o c i a l workers  c a s e s r e q u i r e d more  felt  attention  1 C i t y o f Vancouver, Report of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t , December 1951, page 1  1  - 32 than the other  cases,  or the persons  receiving  demanded more o f t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r ' s The  assistance  time.  number o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d was  from three been used  to four  i n 1950, and s i n c e  as a s t u d e n t p l a c e m e n t .  was more t h a n o f f s e t  1949 t h e a g e n c y h a s  This  by the t o t a l  increased  increase  increase  i n caseload  does n o t a c c o u n t f o r t h e p e r c e n t a g e  increase  of a c t i v e  social  assistance  cases.  The g r e a t e r  of a c t i v e  social  assistance  cases  cases,  indicates that  i n workers and  i n t h e number  i n relation  percentage  t o other  1  t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s have b e e n and -are  s h o w i n g more d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l a p p r o a c h t o the  handling  of the g e n e r a l i z e d  approach i s based greater  problems than o t h e r s ,  s o c i a l workers f e e l  as  The d i f f e r e n t i a l  on t h e r e a l i z a t i o n , t h a t  more r e a d i l y t o h e l p  help,  caseload.  and t h e r e f o r e ,  and t h a t  than others. that  social  some p e r s o n s  some p e r s o n s  assistance  c a s e s n e e d more  assistance  cases,  e n a b l e them t o become f i n a n c i a l l y  independent.  greater  assistance  be  i n active  t e n t a t i v e l y assumed t h a t  persons be  increase  social  the i n c r e a s e  i n r e c e i p t of assistance  respond  I t would appear t h a t the  are g i v i n g a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s ,  c o u n s e l l i n g , t o the s o c i a l  have  such  i n order  to  Without the  cases,  i t may  i n t h e number o f  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r w o u l d  higher.  1 An " a c t i v e " c a s e i s .an open c a s e i n w h i c h t h e s o c i a l worker helps the c l i e n t through i n t e r v i e w c o n t a c t . An "open" case i s a case i n which f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s c u r r e n t l y issued.  - 33 In i n New  the  last  five  years,  W e s t m i n s t e r have b e e n  these  social assistance  Again, one-third active  of a l l the  social assistance  the b a s i s  of the  of  s p e n t on  a v e r a g e number o f 235.  I n 1947,  168;  three  social  social three  social  social  the  assistance  assistance  assistance  average  that  caseload  the  present  i n the  Of  social  one  cases.  In  in  cases.  assistance 1951,  cases.  about  social  cases per  1  a g e n c y were  s o c i a l workers  w o r k e r s were e m p l o y e d .  assistance  argued  the  cases.  E a c h worker spent  Westminster agency, i t appears t h a t  t i m e was  a l l cases  o n e - t h i r d were a c t i v e  cases. the  average  assistance  a c t i v e cases  o f h i s t i m e on  be  social  cases,  one-third  New  about o n e - f i f t h of  On  the worker's  The month I s '  caseload the  was  average  i s 357.  Accordingly,  i t could  caseload  requires  social  six  workers. The  second major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  assistance is  the  month.  caseload,  constant (See  besides  the  Figure  Four).  pattern  the  of the  y e a r 1949,  the  the  social  increase occur  a p p e a r s t o be  in  The  there  used  i n order  -  1950,  i s a downward  most d e f i n i t e  With trend  in late  seasonal  2  swing  1950.  1 F i g u r e T h r e e shows t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the t o t a l caseload. 2 P e r s o n s on  size,  of minor f l u c t u a t i o n s .  number o f p e r s o n s r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e ,  summer o r e a r l y f a l l .  in  f r o m month t o  E a c h y e a r f r o m 1944  i t s own  in  overall  minor f l u c t u a t i o n s t h a t  seems t o have exception  of  social  to permit  assistance the  rather  i n c l u s i o n of  s i z e of s i z e of  the the  than cases i s  the  period  1944  -  46.  FIGURE THREE CASELOAD DISTRIBUTION I N NEW WESTMINSTER A comparison o f the s i z e caseload  i n proportion  indicating  activity  of the s o c i a l  t o the t o t a l  on t h e p a r t  Social  Assistance  Active  Cases  SOURCE:  Table  ( 1947  1951  assistance  caseload,  o f the s o c i a l  One  -  worker.  )  FIGURE FOUR CHANGES I H THE NUMBER OF PERSONS RECEIVING ASSISTANCE IN NEW WESTMINSTER, 1944-1950  1950  570  550  490  1949  450  to G O  410  GO  u ©  370  u o u ©  -8  1948 330  1947  290  1946  Si  250  1944  210  ©  u e  •9 o  © fa  eg  or  © 5  to 3  bO  S3  <ai  e ©  © to  © o -p o  o  ©  ©  ©  •s e ©  O  ©  >  S3  - 34 The  m o n t h l y f l u c t u a t i o n s , i n t h e number  receiving follow  assistance  i n 1950  and 1951  the p r o v i n c i a l p a t t e r n .  i n number increase  summer and f a l l .  that  and a d e c r e a s e  show a n  applies  t o New  One f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s e a s o n a l o f employment  the m a r g i n a l unemployables.  percentage  o f the c a s e l o a d  1  throughput the  t h e d e c r e a s e comes l a t e r  a p p e a r s t o be t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y for  Westminster,  The p r o v i n c i a l c h a n g e s ,  The same p a t t e r n  Westminster except summer.  i n New  of people r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e , In late winter,  of persons  i n the decrease  opportunities  Again, a c e r t a i n  2  i s made up o f p e r s o n s who a r e  i n t h e low m a r g i n a l income, g r o u p , who o b t a i n w o r k i n summer and r e q u i r e  are only  able  to  s o c i a l assistance  In the  winter. The  third  caseload The  major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the s o c i a l  i n New  number  Westminster i s the l a r g e  o f cases c a r r i e d by the s o c i a l  d e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e months o f A p r i l equal.  turnover  o f t h e c a s e s were c l o s e d .  receiving  assistance  in April,  of  cases.  assistance  a n d December 1951 were  I n the nine-month p e r i o d from A p r i l  one-third  assistance  t o December,  Out o f t h e 331 c a s e s  219 were s t i l l  3  receiving  1 I n F i g u r e F i v e , t h e month o f J a n u a r y was s e t as 100 and t h e o t h e r months a r e compared w i t h J a n u a r y . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t F i g u r e F i v e does n o t attempt t o g i v e the c o m p a r a t i v e number o f p e r s o n s on a s s i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e p r o v i n c e and New W e s t m i n s t e r , b u t i s a c o m p a r i s o n o f fluctuations. of  2 B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, Annual Report t h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h , 1951, page 23  3 Figure turnover that  S i x d e p i c t s b y means o f a c i r c l e g r a p h t h e o c c u r s f r o m A p r i l t o December 1951*  FIGURE  COMPARISON  BETWEEN  WESTMINSTER UNITS  FIVE  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  AND  NEW  OF T H E MONTHLY F L U C T U A T I O N S  OF S O C I A L  ASSISTANCE,  1950  and  OF 1951  120  115  110  105  100  95 Jan.  Feb. Mar.April  Sourcet  Annual Monthly  May  Report  June  July  - Social  Statistical  Aug.Sept.  Welfare  returns,  O c t . Nov. D e c .  Branch,  New  1951.  Westminster.  •FIGURE s i x CASELOAD TURNOVER I N SOCIAL  ASSISTANCE  A p r i l t o December 1951, Nevr V e s t m l n e t e r  DECEMBER  - 35 assistance  i n December.  The h i g h turnover  implies  that  the s o c i a l workers spent a great d e a l of t h e i r time establishing e l i g i b i l i t y ,  I.e., 112 new cases were  approved and 112 cases were c l o s e d , making a t o t a l o f 224 cases where the workers considered  eligibility in  detail. I n order t o a s c e r t a i n which areas of the c a s e l o a d are s u b j e c t t o the g r e a t e s t t u r n o v e r ,  the caseload i s  d i v i d e d on the b a s i s o f f a m i l y s t a t u s .  I n A p r i l , 258 o f  the cases had s i n g l e persons as f a m i l y heads and 73 cases had m a r r i e d persons as f a m i l y heads.  "Single" r e f e r s to  any a d u l t person not l i v i n g w i t h a spouse r e g a r d l e s s o f t h a t person's previous  marital status.  two people l i v i n g together their legal status.  These two c a t e g o r i e s  1951.  are s u b d i v i d e d  are dependents other  than  The two s i n g l e c a t e g o r i e s are f u r t h e r  c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s o f sex. turnover  refers to  as man and w i f e , r e g a r d l e s s of  on the b a s i s of whether there spouses.  "Married"  that occurred  "New"  Table Two d e p i c t s the  i n cases from A p r i l t o December  r e f e r s t o those cases t h a t  received  a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g December and not i n A p r i l .  "Continuous"  r e f e r s t o those cases t h a t r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e b o t h i n A p r i l and December. received assistance The  "Closed" in April  r e f e r s t o those cases t h a t only.  number of f a m i l y heads who were married and had  dependents i n c r e a s e d  27 per cent  i n the nine-month p e r i o d .  Seventeen of the twenty-two cases i n t h i s category r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e b o t h i n A p r i l and December, which i n d i c a t e s a  - 36 relatively every  small turnover.  one t h a t was  Two  c a s e s were o p e n e d f o r  closed.  TABLE  TWO  TURNOVER IN THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE CASELOAD i n New W e s t m i n s t e r f r o m A p r i l t o December 1951.  Family  T o t a l Cases April Dec.  Status  Married: With Dependents Without Dependents Single W i t h Dependents Without Dependents Total  The  number  Continuous  Closed  + 21 - 28  17 27  5 24  11 10  77 181  64 202  - 17 4 11  43 132  34 49  21 70  331  331  219  112  112  of f a m i l y heads, married by f o u r t e e n cases  and w i t h o u t  i n the nine-month i n this  c a t e g o r y were  and c l o s e d b e f o r e December, w h i c h i n d i c a t e s  turnover.  New  28 37  Almost one-half of the cases  open i n A p r i l large  Cent  fihangfl  22 51  dependents'decreased period.  Per  One c a s e was  opened f o r e v e r y  a  two t h a t were  closed. The from  number  persons  77 t o 64 w h i c h i n d i c a t e s  which occurred Thirty-four The  of single  turnover  i n the m a r r i e d w i t h dependents  i s almost  category.  single  l a r g e s t number  as l a r g e as t h e t u r n o v e r  dependents persons  decreased  the opposite t r e n d t o t h a t  c a s e s were c l o s e d and o n l y t w e n t y - o n e  married without The  w i t h dependents  opened.  i n the  category.  without  of cases both  dependents account  i n April  and December.  f o r the The  - 37 number o f s i n g l e p e r s o n s w i t h d e p e n d e n t s i n r e c e i p t o f social  i n c r e a s e d b y e l e v e n p e r c e n t f r o m 181 t o  assistance  202 c a s e s .  S e v e n c a s e s were opened f o r e v e r y f i v e  were c l o s e d  i n t h e nine-month p e r i o d under  The  study.  s i n g l e men a c c o u n t f o r t h e m a j o r i n c r e a s e  number o f s i n g l e p e r s o n s i n r e c e i p t t h e number o f s i n g l e  that  i n the  of assistance, i . e . ,  men i n c r e a s e d f r o m 74 t o 9 0 .  The  number o f s i n g l e women d e c r e a s e d f r o m 184 t o 1 7 6 . The number o f s i n g l e women w i t h o u t d e p e n d e n t s increased, but this decrease  actually  I n c r e a s e was more t h a n o f f s e t b y t h e  i n t h e number o f s i n g l e women w i t h d e p e n d e n t s .  TABLE THREE TURNOVER J E N "SINGLE";. CASES C L A S S I F I E D ^ ACCORDING TO SEX. I n New W e s t m i n s t e r f r o m A p r i l t o December' 1 9 5 1 . t  Category  April  Single with Depencl e n t s  Single without Dependents  Male  Male  Female  4  Cases  Female  Total Male  Female  70  111  74  184  December C a s e s  2  62  88  114  90  176  Continuous  2  41  48  84  50  125  Closed  2  32  22  2?  24  59  • -  21  40  30  40  50  New  On t h e b a s i s  of this  one example  i t i s impossible t o  make a n y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g c a s e l o a d t u r n o v e r i n New W e s t m i n s t e r .  The o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e  i s the one-third  turnover be  o f cases  a slight  38 -  i n a nine-month p e r i o d .  t e n d e n c y f o r t h e number o f s i n g l e men w i t h o u t  dependents t o i n c r e a s e . increase  Another trend  o f t h e number o f m a r r i e d  On t h e b a s i s  of this  i s indicated i n the  persons with  dependents.  one s t u d y i t i s i m p o s s i b l e  why t h e number o f s i n g l e women w i t h decrease  T h e r e seems t o  dependents  to say, should  and t h e number o f s i n g l e women w i t h o u t  dependents  increase. On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s  examination of the caseload i n  New W e s t m i n s t e r i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t occurred.  The number o f s o c i a l  doubled i n the l a s t coming i n t h e l a s t  f o u r years two y e a r s .  proportion  t o the population  proportion  t o the increase  agency.  This  increase  s e v e r a l c h a n g e s have  assistance  cases has been  w i t h most o f t h e i n c r e a s e This  Increase  i s out o f  growth, and o u t o f  i n the t o t a l  i n social  caseload  assistance  of the  cases has been  marked, i n t h e a g e n c y , b y a n i n c r e a s e d  c o n c e n t r a t i o n on  the. p a s t  category  o f the s o c i a l worker, on t h i s  total generalized  caseload.  Minor and c o n s t a n t social  assistance  of the  f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e number o f  c a s e s do o c c u r ,  do n o t f o l l o w a d e f i n i t e  seasonal  b u t these f l u c t u a t i o n s pattern.  There i s a  tendency f o r the a s s i s t a n c e  caseload  late  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r b e a r s  summer.  correlation  This decrease  t o the p r o v i n c i a l  t o decrease  pattern  i n the some  of seasonal  fluctuation. The  social  a one-third  assistance  turnover  caseload  i n cases.  i s characterized by  The s i n g l e women a c c o u n t  - 39 for  the l a r g e s t  number o f c a s e s b u t t h e r e d o e s  appear  t o be a t r e n d t o w a r d s a g r e a t e r number o f s i n g l e receiving  assistance.  men  The h i g h e s t t u r n o v e r e x i s t s  c a s e s w i t h f a m i l y h e a d s who  i n the  a r e m a r r i e d and w i t h o u t  d e p e n d e n t s , and i n t h e c a s e s w i t h s i n g l e p e r s o n s  with  dependents. The  s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n New  a difficult  problem  number o f p e r s o n s minor f l u c t u a t i o n s and  the h i g h r a t e  because  of the steady Increase  i n receipt that  Westminster are f a c e d w i t h  occur  In the  of a s s i s t a n c e , the constant i n the s i z e  of turnover i n cases.  of the caseload,  CHAPTER FOUR CLASSIFICATION OF SOCIAL ASSISTANCE CASES  In city  a prosperous  like  year  like  1951, a n d I n a s i z e a b l e  New W e s t m i n s t e r t h e r e a r e p e o p l e who a r e  without  enough r e s o u r c e s t o m a i n t a i n t h e m s e l v e s .  purpose  of this  chapter  i s t o s t u d y t h e two p e r c e n t o f  t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n New W e s t m i n s t e r t h a t assistance see  f o rtheir  major source  the k i n d o f people  The  that  depend o n  social  o f income, i n o r d e r t o  r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e , and why i t  i s n e c e s s a r y f o r them t o r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e f r o m  public  funds. Several questions arise in  t h e months o f A p r i l  many o f t h e p e o p l e  pertaining  t o the caseload  a n d December, 1951.  First,  how  a r e men and how many a r e women?  S e c o n d , what k i n d o f work have t h e y b e e n d o i n g b e f o r e received  a s s i s t a n c e , and what h a n d i c a p s  them f r o m  c o n t i n u i n g t o work?  assistance? financial of  ones do t h e s e p e o p l e  of the destitute  The issued  have?  t o persons i n New  In  this  than  i n the  Westminster.  a s s i s t a n c e t o 331 c a s e s  o f these persons  on  These q u e s t i o n s a r e  i n New  Westminster  i nApril  These 331 c a s e s r e p r e s e n t 558 p e r s o n s . distribution  other  interested  S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Department  social  prevented  l o n g do t h e y r e m a i n  T h i r d , what k i n d o f p r o b l e m s ,  paramount i m p o r t a n c e  welfare  How  have  they  The s e x  i s summarized  study "dependents" Include  1951.  i n Table  Four.  children,  a d o l e s c e n t s , and a f e w m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e  persons  who a r e  - 41 o l d e r , and does n o t I n c l u d e spouse.  "Adults  or h e r spouse.  0  the f a m i l y head, o r h i s  includes both  t h e f a m i l y head and h i s  Two t h i n g s a r e q u i t e c l e a r .  d e p e n d e n t s r e p r e s e n t 34 p e r c e n t receiving  assistance.  F i r s t , the  o f a l l persons  who a r e  S e c o n d , t h e a d u l t women make up  44 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e r s o n s  r e c e i v i n g h e l p , a n d outnumber  t h e men two t o o n e . TABLE FOUR SEX  DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS IH RECEIPT OF ASSISTANCE I n New W e s t m i n s t e r i n A p r i l 1951. CATEGORY  MALE  Adults  The  248  370  95  93  188  217  341  558  f a m i l y s t a t u s o f t h e 331 c a s e s  Table F i v e .  "Single" refers  adult  i n the f a m i l y u n i t .  person  people  t o those  wife regardless of t h e i r of the cases  legal  half  single  before.  as man a n d  About  cases have  c a s e s , i . e . , i n 77. c a s e s  cases without  three-  p e r cent o f the s i n g l e  A  dependents o u t o f 99 c a s e s ,  only.  dependents account  o f the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases  About f i f t y  t o two  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r a r e s i n g l e .  d e p e n d e n t s a r e c a r e d f o r b y one p a r e n t The  c a s e s w i t h o n l y one  together  status.  higher p r o p o r t i o n o f the s i n g l e than the married  i s shown i n  "Married" refers  of the opposite sex l i v i n g  quarters  TOTAL  122  Dependents Totals  FEMALE  i n New  f o r over  Westminster.  c a s e s have b e e n  married  A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f those married before are  - 42 widowed p e r s o n s . single The  cases  The  i s those  -  second  largest  category  t h a t have n e v e r  d i s t i n c t i o n between the  of  the  been m a r r i e d  categories "separated"  o f agreement between the  before. and  "deserted"  i s one  partners.  I f t h e p a r t n e r s came t o a v e r b a l o r w r i t t e n  agreement t o s e p a r a t e , t h e "separated" separated  case.  In those  only ten per  cent  case  separated  is classified  as  a  c a s e s where t h e p a r t n e r s of the marriages  are  ended i n  divorce. TABLE F I V E  FAMILY STATUS OF i n New  CATEGORY  Married  SOCIAL ASSISTANCE CASES  Westminster  in April  1951*  PER  CENT  With Dependents  Without Dependents  TOTAL  22  51  73  22  Single: Widowed  2  5  84  109  33  Separated  23  19  42  12  Deserted  14  1  15  4  8  74  82  26  3  -  3  1  331  100  Never  Married  Dependents l i v i n g with .relatives Total  99  232  About o n e - q u a r t e r b y widowed p e r s o n s . f o r by married  o f t h e 99 d e p e n d e n t s a r e c a r e d f o r  Twenty-two d e p e n d e n t s a r e b e i n g  couples  and t w e n t y - t h r e e  cared f o r by separated persons. of  t h e widowed p e r s o n s  one-half  would i n d i c a t e  dependents are  However, o n l y  one-quarter  have f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , w h i l e  o f the separated persons,  deserted persons  cared  and the m a j o r i t y o f the  have f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  t h a t many d e s e r t e d a n d s e p a r a t e d  This persons  receive  a s s i s t a n c e because t h e i r f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  prevent  them f r o m s e e k i n g f u l l - t i m e  employment.  A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e age a n d s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the  clients  definite married  on t h e b a s i s o f f a m i l y s t a t u s r e v e a l s s e v e r a l  patterns.  t e n d t o be o l d e r t h a n  have d e p e n d e n t s . persons cent  Those p e r s o n s  are over  Sixty-two  persons  t h o s e who a r e s i n g l e a n d  p e r cent  s i x t y years  of the single  on a s s i s t a n c e , who a r e  o f the married  o f a g e , w h e r e a s o n l y 44 p e r  a r e over  sixty.  h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e m a r r i e d women t e n d t h a n t h e m a r r i e d men.  Again, a t o be o l d e r  A word o f e x p l a n a t i o n s h o u l d b e  g i v e n a s t o t h e g r e a t e r number o f m a r r i e d women married  men.  receiving reason  A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e m a r r i e d men a r e  t h e o l d age p e n s i o n ,  t h a n women and t h i s  they are not considered i n t h i s  Table  than  i s the  study.  S e v e n summarizes t h e income s t a t u s o f t h e  1 T a b l e S i x p r e s e n t s t h e age a n d s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l i e n t s o n t h e b a s i s o f f a m i l y s t a t u s as o f A p r i l 1951.  T A B L E SIX  Age and Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C l i e n t s on the B a s i s o f Family S t a t u s as o f A p r i l 1951  (a)  MARRIED PERSONS AGE GROUP  MEN  WOMEN  29 14  41  Over 60  40 • 60  20 • 40 Total  (b)  31 13  11 100  114  67  S i n g l e A d u l t Persons Without Dependents With Dependents T o t a l Per Cent Women Men Women Men  Age Group Over 60  40 - 60  Under 40  36 29 5  70 32  9  2 2 1  5 32 33  113 95 48  44 37 19  70  111  5  70  256  100  Total (c)  62 27  70  17 9  4 47  PER CENT  TOTAL  Dependents  Age Group  Dependents w i t h Two Parents Male Female  3  Dependents w i t h One Parent Male Female  Total  10 - 20  Under 10  10 11  2 8 14  30  7 27  34  17 75 92  Total  24  24  72  68  138  Over 20  (d)  5  37  Summary Age Group  Male  Female  Total  Per Cent  Over 60  67 45 18 88  116 81 60 83  183 126 78 171  32 23  218  340  558  100  40 - 60 20 - 40  Under 20 Total  14 31  - 44 married  couples.  receives  I n t h i r t y - t w o cases  t h e o l d age p e n s i o n w h i l e  social  assistance.  persons  receiving  pension. persons are  the spouse r e c e i v e s c a s e s r e p r e s e n t 114  a s s i s t a n c e and 32 r e c e i v i n g  However, f o r t h e p u r p o s e  of this  whose income i s d e r i v e d f r o m  studied.  t h e o l d age  study,  on s o c i a l  only  social assistance  T h i s does n o t a p p l y t o t h e s i n g l e  who d e p e n d e n t i r e l y source  The 73 m a r r i e d  one p a r t n e r  persons  assistance f o rtheir  major  o f income. TABLE SEVEN  INCOME SOURCE OF MARRIED COUPLES ON ASSISTANCE i n New W e s t m i n s t e r i n A p r i l  WITH DEPENDENTS  INCOME SOURCE  One p a r t n e r on p e n s i o n Both p a r t n e r s on a s s i s t a n c e Total  The  single  1931*  WITHOUT DEPENDENTS  TOTAL  4  28  32  18  23  41  22  51  73  persons  without  family  t e n d t o be o l d e r t h a n t h o s e w i t h f a m i l y Most o f t h e s i n g l e p e r s o n s  over  sixty  responsibilities responsibilities.  y e a r s do n o t have  d e p e n d e n t s , and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e  a r e women.  w i t h d e p e n d e n t s make up t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e under f o r t y Of  years  the t o t a l  Women  persons  of age. o f 256 a d u l t p e r s o n s  o n e - h a l f o f t h e s e men a r e o v e r  sixty  75 a r e men.  years  About  o f age, and  - 45 have no d e p e n d e n t s . forty  Only o n e - s i x t h o f the persons under  y e a r s a r e men.  men t e n d  A l a r g e r proportion of the s i n g l e  t o be y o u n g e r t h a n t h o s e who a r e m a r r i e d .  One-half o f the dependent of  age.  Half  o f the dependent  persons a r e under t e n years p e r s o n s a r e male a n d h a l f  are  female.  Seventy-seven s i n g l e  for  the care  o f 140 d e p e n d e n t s  and t w e n t y - t w o  c o u p l e s c a r e f o r 48 d e p e n d e n t s . dependents p e r m a r r i e d  April  receiving  c o u p l e i s 2.2, w h e r e a s t h e a v e r a g e  men.  p e r s o n i s 1.8.  1951, a b o u t t w e n t y p e r c e n t  of the persons  a s s i s t a n c e were b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f s i x t y - f i v e  and s e v e n t y . are  married  The a v e r a g e number o f  number o f d e p e n d e n t s p e r s i n g l e In  persons are r e s p o n s i b l e  Seventy-one  o f t h e s e a r e women and f o r t y - t w o  The m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e o v e r s i x t y - f i v e  transferred  t o t h e o l d age a s s i s t a n c e  program  w i l l be  i n January  1952, w h i c h w i l l mean a t w e n t y p e r c e n t d e c r e a s e i n t h e social  assistance  caseload.  p e r s o n s who a r e r e c e i v i n g of  t w e n t y and f o r t y - f i v e  men i n t h i s  is  1.  of this  social assistance  years  a r e between t h e ages  of age.  Of t h e t w e n t y - t w o  are dependents.  examination, i t i s clear  that  g r o u p i s n o t a homogenous g r o u p b u t  made up o f s e v e r a l d e f i n i t e  sub-groups.  Men; The  122 a d u l t men c o m p r i s e t h e s m a l l e s t  558 p e r s o n s r e c e i v i n g of  assistance  age c a t e g o r y , e i g h t  On t h e b a s i s the  The s m a l l e s t number o f  assistance  inApril  t h e s e men a r e o v e r s i x t y y e a r s o f a g e .  group o f the  1951.  One-half  The s i n g l e  men  FIGURE SEVEN AGE DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO SEX OF CLIENTS RECEIVING ASSISTANCE I n New W e s t m i n s t e r , A p r i l 1951  FEMALE  MALE  Age Group  8  10 70  42  7 1  65 15 12 1?  25 45 40 35 30 25 20  22 27 21  25  55 50  18  38  60  15 10 5  19 14 13 16 15 13 15 21 21 27  - 46 t e n d t o be y o u n g e r t h a n all  the married  ones.  Practically  t h e s i n g l e men have no f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  A  h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f men t e n d t o be y o u n g e r t h a n t h e women i n t h e same f a m i l y c a t e g o r i e s . 2.  Women; There a r e twice  Slightly years  less  than  o f age.  a s many women o n a s s i s t a n c e as men.  one-half  o f t h e women a r e o v e r  sixty  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s i n g l e women a r e  tinder f o r t y y e a r s  o f age o f whom t h e m a j o r i t y have f a m i l y  responsibilities.  Almost one-half  w i t h no d e p e n d e n t s . been m a r r i e d .  One-quarter  One-half  o f those  o f t h e women a r e s i n g l e  o f t h e women have  never  t h a t were m a r r i e d a r e  widowed. 3.  Dependents; O n e - t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l number o f p e r s o n s  from  a s s i s t a n c e are dependents.  one-half  are under t e n years  Of t h e s e  4.  Marital  o f the a d u l t persons  Only f i v e  p e r cent  who were m a r r i e d  the  single  the  separated persons  have f a m i l y  living  o r a widowed woman.  couples w i t h dependents." persons  and a r e e i t h e r  Groupings;  One-quarter married.  dependents  o f a g e . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e  d e p e n d e n t s have o n l y one p a r e n t , with a separated  benefitting  have never  o f the cases  Only  are married  one-third of the adult  are s t i l l  married.  a d u l t s a r e widowed p e r s o n s .  One-third of  The m a j o r i t y o f  and most o f t h e d e s e r t e d  responsibilities.  been  persons  One  criticism often  Assistance of  47 -  Department  l e v i e d against  I n New W e s t m i n s t e r , i s t h a t  the persons r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e  speaking f o r e i g n e r s . April  (See  On t h e b a s i s  i t Is noted that  receiving  assistance  Table E i g h t ) .  the S o c i a l most  are non-English o f the survey i n  one-quarter o f the f a m i l y  were b o r n i n t h e B r i t i s h  Isles.  O n e - h a l f o f t h e f a m i l y h e a d s were  b o r n i n C a n a d a , most o f them i n E a s t e r n  Canada.  f i f t e e n p e r cent  were b o r n i n n o n - E n g l i s h  countries.  This  group i n c l u d e d  Scandinavia  and E a s t e r n  Only  speaking  those born i n A s i a  and W e s t e r n E u r o p e . TABLE EIGHT  BIRTHPLACE OF A L L FAMILY HEADS IN RECEIPT OF ASSISTANCE i n New W e s t m i n s t e r i n A p r i l  BIRTHPLACE  TOTAL  B r i t i s h Columbia Prairies E a s t e r n Canada British Isles United States Scandinavia E a s t e r n Europe Western Europe Asia  37 57 75 85 25 11 27 7 7  Total  Another s i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m  331  i s o f t e n made t h a t  of the persons r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e Canada l o n g  1951.  most  have n e v e r l i v e d i n  enough t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s  country.  - 48 -  As was n o t e d b e f o r e , o n e - h a l f lived of  i n Canada a l l t h e i r  t h e f a m i l y h e a d s have  twenty y e a r s .  (See T a b l e  t h e cases have l i v e d  than  ten years.  Only  Nine)  The B r i t i s h  i nBritish  twenty  three p e r cent  i n Canada f o r l e s s  different  One-half  Columbia f o r over  lives. lived  residence gives a l i t t l e of  o f the f a m i l y heads have  picture.  than  Columbia One-third  Columbia f o r l e s s  have l i v e d  i n British  years.  TABLE NINE PERIOD OF RESIDENCE OF FAMILY HEADS ON ASSISTANCE i n New W e s t m i n s t e r i n A p r i l  LENGTH OF RESIDENCE Throughout  Life  CANADA  163  1951.  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  36  O v e r 40 y e a r s  76  40  30 t o 40 y e a r s  52  32  20 t o 30 y e a r s  30  53  10 t o 20 y e a r s  5  56  U n d e r 10 y e a r s  5  114  Total  .331  331  - 49 Occupational  Background of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e  In p r a c t i c e , s o c i a l destitute majority  p e r s o n s who of the  time  had  no  occupation  occupation.  A  twofold  of the  Table  Ten  of those  frequency  job was  held,  criteria  and  job  r a t i n g was  attempted  who  occupation  had  no  Seventy-four of i n December 1951, Of  t h e s e men,  receiving is  38  depicts  the  in receipt  of  employment  case f i l e s  employment r a t i n g .  on  record.  with  regard  the  No  last  used  as  employment  c a s e o f h o u s e w i v e s and  prior  the  i n December  work p e r f o r m a n c e , a r e  i n the  those  to r e c e i v i n g assistance.  136  men,  who  received  assistance  h a v e b e e n w o r k i n g as u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s . had  been working  assistance.  quite evident.  of  changes, l e n g t h of time the  general  i n making the  out  employment r a t i n g i s d e v i s e d  recipient's prior  of  great  O n l y 13  assistance  S o c i a l w o r k e r s ' comments i n t h e to the  The  to  r e c i p i e n t s have been  lives.  received  classification  assistance. the b a s i s  assistance  Cases.  i s granted  unemployable.  in their  f a m i l y h e a d s , who  1951,  assistance  are  social  employed a t one 331  -  The  O n l y 17  dearth men  had  sporadically prior  to  of p r o f e s s i o n a l persons been employed  s e m i - s k i l l e d m a n u a l w o r k , o f whom 14  had  been  in  employed  regularly. The  136  categories.  men  seem t o f a l l  The  first  into four  category  definite  i s comprised  had  a semi-skilled occupation  and  but  b e c a u s e o f some h a n d i c a p a r e now  o f 36  men  who  were employed r e g u l a r l y , on  assistance.  The  TABLE TEN OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FAMILY HEADS New Westminster, December 1951  OCCUPATION  EMPLOYMENT RATING  Men  Regular  Unskilled Labourer Semi-skilled Manual M i l l Worker Driver Sailor Salesman Bookkeeper Farmer Self-employed Miscellaneous No Occupation TOTAL  TOTAL  Sporadic  36  38  74  14 12 2 1 2  3 8 2 1 5 2 1  17 20 4 2 7 2 3 3 2 2  —  2 3 1  PER CENT  .—  1  55 %  13 15 3 1 6 1 2 2 1 1  73  61  136  100  5 7 6 2 6  1 2 6 4 2 5  6 9 12 6 8 5 1 1 136 11  3 5 6 3 4 2 .5 .5 70 6 100  Women Clerical Nursing Domestic Service Housekeeper Factory Worker Waitress Teacher Missionary Housewife No Occupation TOTAL  1 1  —  28  20  195  101  81  331  TOTAL Men and Women  - 50 second c a t e g o r y i s comprised skilled  occupation,  steady  job,  o f 2 3 men who h a d a s e m i -  but had l i t t l e  success  and a r e now o n a s s i s t a n c e .  i nholding  The t h i r d  a  category  i s made up o f 3 6 men who h a d no s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g a n d managed t o work r e g u l a r l y i n a l a b o u r i n g were h a n d i c a p p e d a n d f o r c e d  t o accept  job u n t i l  assistance.  they The  f o u r t h a n d l a r g e s t c a t e g o r y i s made up o f 3 8 men who were unable  to hold  receipt  jobs  as u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s  a n d a r e now i n  of assistance.  Seventy p e r cent occupation  other  o f t h e women have n e v e r h a d a n  than that  as a h o u s e w i f e .  The c l e r i c a l  and  nursing  g r o u p s , who make up a b o u t e i g h t p e r c e n t  195  f a m i l y heads,, have b e e n e m p l o y e d f a i r l y  to receiving assistance. cent  Over o n e - h a l f  domestic  h o u s e k e e p e r s , a n d f a c t o r y w o r k e r s have b e e n  occupational do  The women h a v e e v e n l e s s t r a i n i n g t h a n t h e men.  not represent  include  t h o s e who a r e f a m i l y  t o r e m a i n on a s s i s t a n c e those w i t h a sporadic  the  servants,  employed  specific  The 195 women  studied  a l l t h e women o n a s s i s t a n c e , b u t o n l y heads.  Those p e r s o n s w i t h a r e g u l a r  presents  regularly prior  of the f i f t e e n p e r  o f t h e women e m p l o y e d a s w a i t r e s s e s ,  sporadically.  of the  employment r a t i n g a p p e a r  for a shorter  period  employment r a t i n g .  o f time  Table  than  Eleven  a c o m p a r i s o n o f employment r a t i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o  length  assistance. assistance  o f t i m e t h e f a m i l y h e a d s have b e e n i n r e c e i p t o f O n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e f a m i l y heads remained on f o r l e s s t h a n one y e a r , o n e - q u a r t e r r e m a i n e d on  - 51 assistance from  one t o two y e a r s , o n e - q u a r t e r  assistance from  two t o f i v e  on a s s i s t a n c e f o r more  y e a r s , and o n e - q u a r t e r  than f i v e  years.  t h o s e w i t h a r e g u l a r employment r a t i n g assistance f o r less  t h a n two y e a r s .  w i t h no employment r a t i n g longest. rating of  time  tended  The e i g h t y - o n e p e r s o n s  divide  remained  on  remained  The m a j o r i t y o f remained  on  The m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e  t o remain  on a s s i s t a n c e t h e  w i t h a s p o r a d i c employment  e v e n l y between the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f l e n g t h  on a s s i s t a n c e . TABLE ELEVEN  EMPLOYMENT RATING  OF CLIENTS PRIOR TO RECEIVING compared  with  THE LENGTH OF TIME I N RECEIPT OF i n New  Westminster.  Period Employment Rating  Less than One Y e a r  One t o Two Y e a r s  ASSISTANCE  December  ASSISTANCE 1951*  on A s s i s t a n c e  Two t o F i v e Years  Over F i v e Years  TOTAL  Regular  34  38  13  16  101  Sporadic  19  22  19  21  81  Sub-total  53  60  32  37  182  No R a t i n g Given  30  21  50  48'  149  Totals  83  81  82  85  331  - 52 D i s a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S o c i a l Assistance  Cases.  In p r a c t i c e , i t i s necessary f o r applicants f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o o b t a i n m e d i c a l evidence t h a t they are unemployable. received assistance  Of the 331 cases o r f a m i l y heads, who i n December 1951,  242 had m e d i c a l  certificates to establish their e l i g i b i l i t y assistance.  for  The 89 persons who d i d not submit m e d i c a l  c e r t i f i c a t e s were e i t h e r t o o o l d t o work, o r had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the care of young c h i l d r e n .  Of the  242  f a m i l y heads, who had m e d i c a l c e r t i f i c a t e s , 124 were  men  and 118 were women.  Table Twelve g i v e s  the d i s a b i l i t y  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the 242 f a m i l y heads who presented medical c e r t i f i c a t e s . b a s i s o f age and sex, disability.  These cases are c l a s s i f i e d on the and on the degree o f the  The t h r e e f o l d r a t i n g o f the s e v e r i t y o f the  handicap i s based on the d o c t o r ' s l e n g t h of the c l i e n t ' s  o p i n i o n as t o the  unemployability.  Of the f a m i l y heads who a r e d i s a b l e d , 175 are permanently d i s a b l e d and only 17 t e m p o r a r i l y .  A higher  p r o p o r t i o n of the women are permanently d i s a b l e d . high proportion  The  o f persons w i t h a permanent degree o f  d i s a b i l i t y i s understandable i n view o f the l a r g e number of persons who are over s i x t y years o f age. One-quarter of the d i s a b l e d f a m i l y heads are s u f f e r i n g from some form of h e a r t d i s e a s e .  A larger  number of women are s u f f e r i n g from a h e a r t d i s e a s e men.  than  Most o f the people s u f f e r i n g from h e a r t d i s e a s e are  TABLE 12 DISABILITY CLASSIFICATION OF FAMILY HEADS IN RECEIPT OF ASSISTANCE New Westminster, December 1951 AGE GROUP  DEGREE OF DISABILITY  DISABILITY  Permanent  Semipermanent  Temporary  20-40 Years  40-60 Years  Over 60 Years  TOTAL  25  40 13 15  Women Heart Disease Arthritis Psychological Fractures, e t c . Tuberculosis Respiratory Paralysis Internal Cancer Mental Defective Blind Senility Diabetic Overweight Skin Disease Glandular Sub-total  33 10 11 6 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 5 3 3 1 1 92  4 3 4  3  -  -  1 1 1 2 1 2  -  -  1 1 1  .  --  -  -4 5 1 2 1 2 1  2 -  11 6 7 2  7 3 4 2 2  2 2 3 2 3 1  —  1 2  -  -  1 5 3  -  3 1  1 1  18  43  57  3 13 5 7 7 3 2  21 10 3 4 1 7 43 3  -  -  1  -  20  6  1 9 5 3 5  1 1 1 3 3 1  2 1 1 1 1  1 -  -  -  -  2  1  -  -  7  4 5 4 5 4 5 2 5 3 3 1 2 118  Men —  Heart Arthritis Psychological fractures Tuberculosis Respiratory Paralysis Internal Cancer Mental Defective Blind Senility Diabetic Overweight Skin Disease Glandular  22 15 5 6 4  1 1  1 -  Sub-total  83  30  11  14  48  62  124  175  50  17  32  91  119  242  Total  9  5 3 3 2 4 2 1  -  -  -  -  -  2 3 1 4  1 1  1  -  2 2 2  3 2 1  -  -  No Physical D i s a b i l i t y Women Men T o t a l Number of Cases  24 25  11 12 12 10 7  4 5 3 5 2 1  2 1  77 12 331  - 53 over  s i x t y years  o f age.  tend  t o be y o u n g e r t h a n  The women w i t h h e a r t  t h e men.  heads a r e d i s a b l e d b y r e a s o n of  these  tend  a r e men.  of a r t h r i t i s .  The p e o p l e  suffering  t o be somewhat y o u n g e r t h a n  heart  condition.  Thirty-eight  those  disease family  The m a j o r i t y  from  arthritis  disabled by a  A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e women who  are d i s a b l e d b y r e a s o n  of arthritis  are permanently  disabled. Psychological d i s a b i l i t y cent o f the d i s a b i l i t y disabled  accounts  cases.  are younger than  f o r about t e n p e r  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y  the a r t h r i t i c  persons, i . e . ,  a b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f them a r e u n d e r f o r t y y e a r s In  Vancouver, the c h i e f  cause o f d i s a b i l i t y i s  t u b e r c u l o s i s w i t h h e a r t d i s e a s e and a r t h r i t i s second  and t h i r d  i n order of frequency.  New W e s t m i n s t e r , t u b e r c u l o s i s r a n k s Among t h e c a u s e s frequent  diseases, polio, women. in  such  ranking  1  In  fifth  i n frequency.  which are less  as f r a c t u r e s ,  respiratory  and b l i n d n e s s , t h e men outnumber t h e  The women, o n t h e o t h e r hand outnumber t h e men  the overweight The  years  of d i s a b i l i t y  i n occurrence,  of age.  and d i a b e t i c c a t e g o r i e s .  major causes  of d i s a b i l i t y  f o r men u n d e r  forty  o f age a r e t u b e r c u l o s i s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s a b i l i t y .  F o r women u n d e r . f o r t y y e a r s  o f age t h e m a j o r c a u s e s a r e  1 C i t y of Vancouver, Report o f the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Committee, January. 1949* page 3  - 54 psychological disability The  and h e a r t d i s e a s e .  m a j o r i t y o f t h e o l d e r men s u f f e r f r o m h e a r t  disease,  arthritis  and r e s p i r a t o r y  majority  o f t h e o l d e r women s u f f e r f r o m  heart  d i s e a s e and a r t h r i t i s .  Major  Problem  The  persons  that  some f o r m o f  i n receipt  of s o c i a l  assistance are  o f making an adjustment  they are d i s a b l e d , employed  i n the l a b o u r market.  partially  disabled  are unable  they are able to perform,  find  them f o r s p e c i a l i tdifficult  require  Many o f t h e  t o o b t a i n the type  jobs.  A g a i n , some o f t h e d i s a b l e d  t o accept the medical help  t o be r e h a b i l i t a t e d .  In addition  they face the problem  Aside from  these areas of d i f f i c u l t i e s  of assistance  which they are unable  o f work  o r do n o t have t h e t r a i n i n g t o  handicaps,  receipt  to the  and a r e n o t a b l e t o be  gainfully  fit  The  Areas;  f a c e d w i t h the problem fact  diseases.  they  to their  of f i n a n c i a l  destitution.  the persons i n  have o t h e r i n t e r r e l a t e d to solve themselves.  problems  .  In 41 per cent of the cases the s o c i a l workers no m a j o r p r o b l e m s o t h e r t h a n f i n a n c i a l  and m e d i c a l  I n 59 p e r c e n t o f . t h e c a s e s , t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s t h e r e were p r o b l e m s e x i s t i n g casework s e r v i c e s  that  saw  1  ones.  felt  e i t h e r needed the  of the s o c i a l worker, or e l s e  were  1 Table T h i r t e e n p r e s e n t s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the major p r o b l e m a r e a s o t h e r t h a n f i n a n c i a l and m e d i c a l o n e s . These p r o b l e m s a r e c l a s s i f i e d on t h e b a s i s o f w h e t h e r o n e , two o r t h r e e p r o b l e m s a r e p r e s e n t i n a c a s e .  TABLE THIRTEEN MAJOR PROBLEM AREAS, OTHER THAN FINANCIAL ONES. 1951.  New Westminster, December PROBLEM AREA  NUMBER OF PROBLEMS One  Marital relationships Child-parent relationships Mentally defective children  Two  TOTAL  Three  23  9  56  22  31  6  59  Illegitamacy  7 4  6 7  3 5  16 16  Alcohol  8  10  5  23  Housing  13  5 3  27  2  9 10  24  3  -  27  9  3  4  16  3  4  2  9  _  12  Transients Nursing home care No s u i t a b l e employment Poor standards  24  .  12  Misc.  15  Totals  128  106  42  276  Cases  128  53  14  195  SUMMARY  59 % 41 %  Cases w i t h major problems Cases w i t h no major problems  195 136  T o t a l cases  331  100  128 53 14  27  195  100  Cases w i t h one problem ' Cases w i t h two problems Gases w i t h three problems T o t a l cases  66 % 7  i i  - 55 being  already  The are  two  i n the  child  d e a l t w i t h by  major d i f f i c u l t i e s . t h e area  earlier  observation,  married  only  evidence The  of  These f i n d i n g s that  one-third  separations  majority  of  still  and  married.  The  i n the  area  of f a m i l y  the  community, i n v i e w o f  fact  the  E c o n o m i c d e p e n d e n c y has  their  parent  a month.  realize  the  task  two  that  the  the  the  The  c h i l d r e n on  The  anxiety  part  the  problem of p r o v i d i n g  of  are  the  of  effect  growth assistance seventy  imagination  rate  p a r e n t who  adequate f o o d ,  the  on  of  the  assistance.  i s faced  clothing  1 The t y p e o f f a m i l y u n i t most common i n a s s i s t a n c e i s a mother and h e r two c h i l d r e n .  1  to  i n t r y i n g t o meet this  to  children.  social  little  parent faces  that  one-third  c h i l d r e n i s about  I t needs v e r y  p h y s i c a l needs o f on  and  an  relationships  a f f e c t s the  children.  have  cases,  a psychological  which i n d i r e c t l y  dollars  high  s o c i a l w o r k e r , and  persons b e n e f i t t i n g from a s s i s t a n c e  r a t e f o r one  The  been  is further  l a r g e number o f  the  of  had  r e l a t i o n s h i p as  a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to  development  our  adjustment.  has  parents,  correlate with  desertions  with child-parent  have d i f f i c u l t i e s  parental-  those w i t h m a r i t a l problems  a d d i t i o n a l problem.  the  experience  o f t h o s e p e r s o n s who  are  of poor m a r i t a l  difficulties  clients  o f m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and  relationships.  incidence  him.  with and  social  2 B i r d , D o r o t h y , "How Relief Affect Parent-Child R e l a t i o n s h i p s " , P r a c t i c e o f Case Work i n P u b l i c A g e n c i e s , P.S.A.A., 1942, page 17.  2  FIGURE EIGHT  DISTRIBUTION OF 276 PROBLEMS IN 195 CASES  Child-Parent Relationship 21 % Alcohol  8 %  No a v a i l a b l e Employment  Marital Relationship 20 % Misc.  shelter  i s not  56  -  conducive  t o the c h i l d ' s  process.  Further, a large  deprived  o f the e x p e r i e n c e  t h e i r growing  years.  The  c h i l d r e n do have two  number o f t h e of having fact  that  children  a father  i s n o t w i t h i n the  i n some c a s e s  of t h i s  cause  determine  marital d i f f i c u l t i e s , are  economic problems.  of the d e s e r t e d  with children of  i t may  be  cases  that both f i n a n c i a l  present assist  is a direct the  available  clients  and  cases  the  in receipt  adjustment.  The are  s o c i a l worker  the m a j o r i t y o f those over  o f age  i n w h i c h i t was  thereby ensure  for their  to  who  had  of  an  children.  c a s e s w i t h no  s i x t y years  or  parents  marital difficulties  community r e s o u r c e s and  s i x t y years  of  t o make t h e most a d v a n t a g e o u s use  t h e f a m i l y heads a r e over  marital  c h a l l e n g e to the  adequate growth e x p e r i e n c e In  the s o u r c e  assumed t h a t many a r e  a s s i s t a n c e because of poor  fact  a  study to  whether the m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s I n the  the  e x i s t s between the p a r t n e r s . 1  scope  whether economic problems  are  during  p a r e n t s , does n o t mean t h a t  healthy marital relationship It  socialization  problems,  o f age.  Those  p r o b l e m s were  mostly  n e c e s s a r y f o r the  s o c i a l worker  to  g i v e h e l p i n o b t a i n i n g n u r s i n g home c a r e . One-half 60  age  these  o f the  group.  (See  are the  cases  standing  and  had  three problem  c a s e s were  Table Fourteen)  over  to  I t w o u l d seem t h a t  i n w h i c h the d i f f i c u l t i e s  accumulated  50  i n the  are  a long p e r i o d of  1 A p p e n d i x Two p r e s e n t s i n summary f o r m c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e i g h t e e n m a r r i e d cases dependents.  a with  of  long  time.  - 57 -  TABLE FOURTEEN MAJOR PROBLEM AREAS, OTHER THAN FINANCIAL ONES, RELATED TO THE AGE New  DISTRIBUTION.  Westminster, December  AGE GROUP  1951.  NUMBER OF PROBLEMS None  One  Two  Three  TOTAL  20 - 30  2  10  6  2  20  30 - 40  3  17  11  2  33  40 - 50  7  22  10  2  41  50 - 60  22  35  16  7  80  102  44  10  1  157  136  128  53  14  331  Over  60  Total  At the same time i t should be remembered t h a t t h i r t y per cent of the cases i n t h i s age group do not have difficulties  other than f i n a n c i a l .  any  I n the twenty to  t h i r t y age group n i n e t y per cent of the cases  had  difficulties. i On the b a s i s of t h i s examination  of the  social  a s s i s t a n c e c a s e s , i t would appear that the s o c i a l worker has a f u n c t i o n beyond t h a t of determining eligibility. his  skills  financial  In order to cope w i t h the t a s k of u s i n g  to the b e s t advantage, i t seems e s s e n t i a l  that the s o c i a l worker be able to determine  which cases  r e q u i r e casework h e l p and concentrate on these on a selective basis.  In working towards the  rehabilitation  of h i s c l i e n t s the s o c i a l worker needs t o keep i n mind  -  the  v a r i e d needs o f  the  58  social  assistance  groups.  CHAPTER F I V E  SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR  Public the  last  fifty  assistance meet t h e  assistance  was  years.  needs o f  p e o p l e who  depression the  the  unemployment  assistance  of  changed  During  the  public  f i n a n c i a l help  new  on  The  needs of d i v e r s i f i e d under the  One  T o d a y many  relief  in  insurance,  and  assistance  social  for their  assistance  program i s  a t t e m p t s t o meet  g r o u p s o f c l i e n t s , who and  do  coverage.  to a i d the  cities  if  l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t a l u n i t s were t o f u l f i l l  l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n s of p r o v i d i n g  provides  t i m e , the  per  cent  supervision  qualify  categorical aid  g o v e r n m e n t s had  about e i g h t y  the  not  senior  present  of  major  e x p e r i e n c e was  the  as  age  number  depression  At  such  old  r e s u l t of the  the  of  the  through sources  e x i s t i n g insurance  programs of n a t i o n a l  to  i n d i g e n t , most o f whom  f u r t h e r r e d u c e the  social  in  scheme, o r workmen's  o l d age  schemes s h o u l d  income.  attempted  u n a b l e t o o b t a i n work.  becoming a r e s i d u a l program t h a t  for help  depression,  financially  insurance  The  people that r e l y source  W e s t m i n s t e r has  would have r e c e i v e d  receive  compensation.  i n New  a "stop-gap" program t h a t  were e m p l o y a b l e b u t the  SOCIAL ASSISTANCE  f o r the  and  cost  of  the  municipalities their  financially  p r o v i n c i a l government  of the  that  destitute.  assumes  s o c i a l assistance  and  t o ensure uniform p o l i c y throughout  - 60 the New  province.  The  S o c i a l Assistance  Westminster o f f e r s a g e n e r a l i z e d  which s o c i a l Social  assistance assistance  i s only  welfare  one  i s subject  Department  are  not  The  to f l u c t u a t i o n s i n  f o r the  Westminster. proportion  The  but  present  the  increase  indicate that  employment  number o f p e r s o n s t h a t  assistance.  The  of  in an  social  program that  fluctuations.  are  i n cases  the  a  i t is  i s not  that  assistance  i s able  to  opportunities  A n o t h e r f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the  number  w h e t h e r t h r o u g h the  breakdown of  d e a t h of the  cope  seasonal  social  i s the  New alarming  require  assistance  the  do  of  family  wage e a r n e r o r The  associated  more p e o p l e  regarding  social  further April closed  social  assistance  t o December 1951, an  o n e - q u a r t e r of  as  a r i g h t to help  caseload  a large one-third  e q u a l number o f new the  stigma are  them i n  crises. -  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  and  d e c r e a s e d and  assistance  times of f i n a n c i a l The  has  unit,  through  marital discord resulting i n desertion. with r e l i e f  the  assistance  factors that  increase  a flexible  with unpredictable fluctuations  present  does i l l u s t r a t e  p r o g r a m must be  p e r s o n s on  therefore  t o account f o r a l l the  responsible  i t is  i n r e c e i p t of  a homogenous g r o u p , and  impossible  affect  persons  of  aspect.  number o f p e r s o n s r e q u i r i n g h e l p > b e c a u s e r e s i d u a l program.  service  in  i n New  turnover of  Westminster i s i n cases.  a l l the  cases  f a m i l y heads r e c e i v e d  From  c a s e s were  opened.  About  financial  help  - 61 for  less  t h a n one  financially help  destitute persons s o c i a l  to t i d e  crises.  year, which i n d i c a t e s that  On  other  f a m i l y heads r e c e i v e d for  them s o c i a l  temporary  size  can  special  is difficult  for  assistance  f l u c t u a t i o n s and  cases presents It  hand, about  assistance  of income, u n t i l t h e y The  assistance  them o v e r t e m p o r a r y p e r i o d s the  of the  of  f o r o l d age  turnover  in social  i s such t h a t  s o c i a l worker t o g i v e  individual  amount o f a t t e n t i o n t t r e q u i r e s . W e s t m i n s t e r has  attempted  assistance  category.  this the  right  large  caseload  i t is  The  direction.  the  the size  to handle i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e  this  social seems  However, e v e n  various of the and  the  social  d i f f e r e n t i a l approach  d i f f e r e n t i a l approach to generalized  The  t o meet  g i v i n g more o f h i s t i m e t o t h e  a s t e p - i n the  assistance  each case  p r o b l e m by  This  source  worker.  permanent f i n a n c i a l h e l p . caseload  and  assistance  same p r o g r a m o f  f o r the  t o be  the  assistance.  social  impossible  w o r k e r I n New  of  a permanent  problems t o the  generalized  of  f o r over f i v e y e a r s  qualify  the  is  financial  one-quarter  represents  to operate  a i d and  f o r many  with  categories caseload  is  of too  rehabilitative  manner. Part to the of  of the  social  solution lies  assistance  cases themselves.  cases f o r i n t e n s i v e h e l p  of prospects s i n g l e man  in a differential  should  for rehabilitation.  over f i f t y ,  who  has  be The  The  made on  approach selection  the  basis  problems f a c i n g  n e v e r b e e n m a r r i e d , who  a is  -  an  a l c o h o l i c and  62  arthritic  problems of a separated support.  -  A g a i n the  are  d i f f e r e n t from  m o t h e r who  has  two  the  children  chances f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  of  a  widowed, who  i s o v e r s i x t y , whose c h i l d r e n h a v e l e f t  and  who  n e v e r had  are  d i f f e r e n t from those  family  has  to  any  s u p p o r t , who  specific  occupation  for a  home  training  o f a y o u n g m a r r i e d man  i s disabled  to  with  a  temporary  period. The the  t h a t make up  diagnostic  the  ability  rehabilitation. only  differential  s o c i a l worker's knowledge of the  clients his  success of the  social  About f o r t y per p r o b l e m s and  casework h e l p .  A l l clients  do are  financial  subsequent  eligibility  activity  of the  worker's r e c o g n i t i o n The  intake  importance  of the  service  to ensure the This  that  functions.  has  several  assistance essential  group are  w o r k e r i n New  The  require  given  intensive  a fair  means t e s t  and with.regard  for assistance,  The  employment  but  the  the clients.  agency i s of major  i s e s p e c i a l l y true  v a r i e d and  and  c a s e s have  b a s i c needs o f the  i n quickly assessing  rehabilitation.  of the  early recognition  c l i e n t ' s needs.  of  caseload,  w o r k e r i s b a s e d on  of the  on  potentiality for  cent  not  u n d e r s t a n d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n of the to t h e i r  major groups  assistance  to evaluate  financial  approach r e s t s  of  i n an  needs of the an  the  the agency social  adequate i n t a k e prospects  o f an  is  for  experienced  Westminster would f u r t h e r r e d u c e the  intake size  of the all  caseload  by  I t would a l s o  eligibility One  the  and  providing g r o u p as  i s the  only  on  well  as  to  a uniform  can  services  of  social  of  cases  social  that  assistance  casework agency o f f e r i n g Westminster.  services  "Social Assistance  to  be  met  the  Act"  The  social  p r o v i d e s f o r the  to. t h o s e p e r s o n s w i t h or n o t .  department  could  additional  c a s e w o r k e r s t o meet t h e  problem  of  assistance  requiring  i n e i t h e r of  whether they need f i n a n c i a l h e l p be  The  of  basis.  proportion  problems.  spend  l a r g e number  establishment  those persons not  assistance  "counselling"  to the  the  high  s e r v i c e s , I h New  counselling  financial  ensure  family  department i s the counselling  s o c i a l workers to  major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e  caseload  have m a r i t a l  the  services  for assistance  of  assistance  -  enabling  t h e i r time i n g i v i n g  clients.  The  63  expanded t h r o u g h t h e  two  ways.  giving  of  difficulties  The  present  employment  needs of  of  the  community. The  o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e a p p e a r s t o be  the  setting  of a separate agency o f f e r i n g m a r i t a l  and  counselling.  either a  one,  S u c h an  s u p p o r t e d by  court  operated  the  as  agency c o u l d community  a public  be  chest,  agency.  A  or  up  family private  else a  family  c a r e f u l l y defined  referral  p o l i c y to a private  family  w o u l d be  a great  c l i e n t s , many o f whom n e e d  and  want h e l p ,  because  of  the  help  but  are  t o the not  p r e s s u r e on  counselling  always able the  t o get  agency  this  help  s o c i a l worker's time.  A  - 64 family  c o u n s e l l i n g a g e n c y w o u l d be a sound  from the standpoint  of preventive  investment,  work i t c o u l d d o .  T h e r e a r e good i n d i c a t i o n s t o s u p p o s e t h a t many o f t h e cases, on  who now r e c e i v e  the assistance  f i n a n c i a l assistance  r o l e s had they r e c e i v e d  m a r i t a l p r o b l e m s when t h e p a r t n e r s together.  help  were s t i l l  with  c o u n s e l l i n g agency i s t h a t  partners  that  dependent  are separated  one-half  from t h e i r  of  of those  s p o u s e s have  children.  A n o t h e r group o f c l i e n t s  on s o c i a l  assistance are  s i n g l e t r a n s i e n t men who a r e a l c o h o l i c s .  problems o f a l c o h o l , t r a n s i e n c e y frequently  their  living  The c h i e f argument f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  a family  the  w o u l d n o t be  appear t o g e t h e r .  The  and b a d h o u s i n g  Most o f t h e s e  single  men  have n e v e r b e e n employed r e g u l a r l y and h a v e n o t r a d e o r regular  occupation.  arthritis  Many o f them a r e s u f f e r i n g f r o m  or b r o n c h i t i s , p a r t l y because  o f poor  housing  accommodation, l a c k  o f a d e q u a t e n u t r i t i o n due t o t h e i r  past  I n the past,  work h i s t o r y .  department has been c r i t i c i z e d community f o r p r o v i d i n g s p e n d on t h e p u r c h a s e  stating are,  assistance  b y some members o f t h e  t h e a l c o h o l i c s w i t h money t o  of a l c o h o l i c beverages.  those r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e relatively  the s o c i a l  i n this  category, f i n d i t  simple t o procure a m e d i c a l  certificate  they are unemployable, which i n r e a l i t y  and f i n d  they need.  i t impossible  In a large  part  to obtain this  Most o f  they  the medical  help  i s p e r h a p s due t o t h e i r  - 65 own u n w i l l i n g n e s s The  t o secure  agency experiences  help. r e g u l a r p e r i o d i c i n f l u x e s of  t r a n s i e n t s r e q u e s t i n g help and a great d e a l of the worker's time i s spent i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e s i d e n c e and eligibility.  The m a j o r i t y o n l y r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e f o r a  few months and then d r i f t on t o other s o c i a l offices.  welfare  To r e f u s e a s s i s t a n c e t o these men does not  appear t o be the answer, and y e t g i v i n g them money t o purchase a l c o h o l does not h e l p them e i t h e r .  To handle  t h i s problem adequately e n t a i l s the a c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n of the m e d i c a l , h e a l t h and p o l i c e a u t h o r i t i e s .  I t further  e n t a i l s the c o o r d i n a t i o n of e f f o r t s o f the v a r i o u s neighbouring  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and Vancouver t o f i n d a  s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem. The intended  present  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s are p r i m a r i l y  t o meet the temporary needs of persons f o r  assistance.  A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of those r e c e i v i n g  a s s i s t a n c e w i l l be i n r e c e i p t of a s s i s t a n c e f o r a long time.  I t seems too much t o expect a mother and her  dependent c h i l d r e n t o l i v e  on the present  assistance  during the whole time the c h i l d r e n are growing up.  rates The  s o l u t i o n appears t o l i e e i t h e r i n p r o v i d i n g f o r great flexibility  i n the present  s o e i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s and  d e s i g n them t o meet the needs of those who w i l l a s s i s t a n c e over s e v e r a l y e a r s , or e l s e provide  receive specific  programs t o meet the needs of two s p e c i f i c groups.  This  a p p l i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y t o those mothers w i t h young c h i l d r e n  - 66  and those who  -  are permanently  and t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d .  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s u r v i v o r s insurance scheme would seem to be a g r e a t h e l p t o the widowed, p a r t i c u l a r l y those w i t h dependents.  I t would g i v e them the s e c u r i t y of  a r e g u l a r d e f i n i t e allowance that would ensure them a b a s i c minumum of income.  S o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e could then be  used f o r supplementation on the b a s i s of e x i s t i n g need. The needs of the t o t a l l y and permanently d i s a b l e d would be b e t t e r met by a s e t t i n g up of a c a t e g o r i c a l a i d program. The s e t t i n g up of these two programs would make the a s s i s t a n c e category a r e s i d u a l program.  social  T h i s appears to  be i n l i n e w i t h the recommendation of the Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l who  f e e l t h a t the g e n e r a l a s s i s t a n c e program  should be.reduced  as much as p o s s i b l e through the a d o p t i o n  of p r e v e n t i v e measures and through the expansion of c o n t r i b u t o r y programs. As was  p o i n t e d out i n the l a s t chapter a l a r g e number  of s i n g l e persons who women who  were r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e , were  had no s p e c i f i c trade and found i t d i f f i c u l t  enter the labour-market.  The development  to  of v o c a t i o n a l  t r a i n i n g and s p e c i a l placement would be a g r e a t resource i n working w i t h t h i s group of c l i e n t s .  Support  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o enable those c l i e n t s who  through  are under  s i x t y t o procure v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n l i n e w i t h t h e i r a b i l i t y would seem to be a wise use of s o c i a l  assistance.  1 Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e and the Unemployed, November,, 1951 page 6  1  -  67  -  A l a r g e number o f t h o s e men and women who a r e n o t t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d c o u l d be r e h a b i l i t a t e d m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t and v o c a t i o n a l The  through  adequate  retraining.  p h i l o s o p h y o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e had developed  i n t h e p a s t f i f t y y e a r s i n New W e s t m i n s t e r a i d from p u b l i c funds f o r the d e s t i t u t e aspect of h e l p i n g people  and f i n a n c i a l  I s o n l y one  i n n e e d t o e n a b l e t h e m t o meet  the c o n t i n g e n c i e s of l i f e .  The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e  recommendations o u t l i n e d would  serve t o b r i n g  r e a l i t y t h i s p h i l o s o p h y a n d make more a d e q u a t e  into provision  f o r t h o s e p e r s o n s who a r e n o t c o v e r e d b y i n s u r a n c e a n d c a t e g o r i c a l a i d programs o f n a t i o n a l  V  coverage.  68 -  -  APPENDIX I Copy o f C o n s t i t u t i o n o f W e s t m i n s t e r B e n e v o l e n t Organization: dealing with and  The S o c i e t y  i s organized  Society  f o r the purpose o f  a l l c a s e s o f p e r s o n s who m i g h t r e q u i r e  assistance  from the Corporation  W e s t m i n s t e r and o f d i s t r i b u t i n g  relief  o f t h e C i t y o f New  t h e same t o t h e g r e a t e s t  advantage. Membership: appointed the  The S o c i e t y  from each Church congregation  Mayor as P r e s i d e n t ,  Vice-President, the  i s composed o f two l a d i e s i n the C i t y ,  t h e C i t y C l e r k as S e c r e t a r y ;  and T r e a s u r e r  t o be e l e c t e d f r o m  with a  among  members.  Order o f B u s i n e s s :  1.  Reading o f minutes o f  2.  Report  3.  R e p o r t s o f Committees  4.  Report  Duties  Treasurer  of cases of d e s t i t u t i o n  of O f f i c e r s :  The  President  have g e n e r a l the  of the  previous  s h a l l preside  s u p e r v i s i o n o f a l l work o f t h e S o c i e t y .  absence o f the P r e s i d e n t  perform The  a t a l l m e e t i n g s , and  the d u t i e s Secretary  the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t  i n c i d e n t t o the o f f i c e  of a l l  m e e t i n g s j o f a l l m o t i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s , s h a l l p r i n t e d n o t i c e s , and s h a l l p r e s e n t  the  years  proceedings  shall  of President.  s h a l l keep a c o r r e c t r e c o r d  all  In  a full  a t the annual meeting.  attend to  report of  -  The T r e a s u r e r  69  -  s h a l l r e e e i v e and g i v e r e c e i p t s f o r  a l l monies of the S o c i e t y , d i s b u r s i n g the same by order of the P r e s i d e n t and s h a l l render  a complete r e p o r t at  the annual meetings. Rules o f Order: Any r e s o l u t i o n o r motion put t o the S o c i e t y be decided by a m a j o r i t y vote o f those p r e s e n t ;  shall i n the  case of a t i e the P r e s i d e n t s h a l l have a c a s t i n g v o t e . In the absence of d i s a b i l i t y of any lady t o be present she  she may appoint  a s u b s t i t u t e from the Church  represents.  Meetings: Meetings s h a l l be h e l d on the 2nd Thursday of each month i n the C i t y H a l l a t 2:30 p.m. and seven members, e x c l u s i v e o f the P r e s i d e n t and S e c r e t a r y , c o n s t i t u t e a quorum.  shall  A s p e c i a l meeting may be c a l l e d at  any time by the P r e s i d e n t . Relief  Expenditures:  A l l r e l i e f s h a l l be g i v e n i n k i n d , money o n l y i n special  cases.  O f f i c e r s f o r 1903: Mayor W. H. Keary Mrs. A. J . H i l l Mrs. Chas Warwick W. A. Duncan  -  President Vice-President Treasurer Secretary  ( A d o p t e d January 14th, 1903. )  - 70 APPENDIX I I SUMMARY OF EIGHTEEN CASES I N NEW WESTMINSTER 1951 A l l M a r r i e d Couples w i t h Dependents, b o t h receiving assistance 1.  Ag^e  Age Group O v e r 60 50 - 59 40 - 49  Male  30 - 39 20 - 29 Total  2.  4 3  8  -  2  18  4.  5.  6  18  Disability Psychological Polio Tuberculosis Arthritis Age No s u i t a b l e employment Kidney t r o u b l e Total  3.  Female  2 3 5  3  Partners  Former  2 1 1 18  Occupation  Employment  Length  5 3 3 3  Unskilled labourer Bus and t r u c k d r i v e r s Salesman Self-employed Millworker Undertaker Interior decorator Total  7 3 2 2 2 1 1 18  Rating R e g u l a r l y employed S p o r a d i c a l l y employed Total  11 7 18  o f time  i n receipt  of assistance  Less than a year One t o two y e a r s Two t o f i v e y e a r s Over f i v e y e a r s Total  3 7 3 5 18  - 71  -  Major problems b e s i d e s  financial  Marital difficulties Defective children Parent-child relations Housing problem Low s t a n d a r d s Illegitimacy Alcohol Total  5 4 4 4 3 3 2 25  - 72 APPENDIX I I I  BIBLIOGRAPHY  B i r d , Dorothy, "How R e l i e f A f f e c t s P a r e n t - C h i l d R e l a t i o n s h i p s " , P r a c t i c e of Casework i n P u b l i c A g e n c i e s , New York, F a m i l y Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n of America, 1942. B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, Annual Report of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1948, 1949, 1950 and 1951. Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e and the Unemployed, November 1951• C a s s i d y , H. M., P u b l i c H e a l t h and Welfare O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada, Toronto, Ryerson, 1945. C i t y o f Vancouver, Report o f the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, 1948 and 1951. C i t y o f New Westminster, 1950.  I n t r o d u c i n g New  Westminster,  Grauer, A. E . , P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e and S o c i a l Insurance, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1939. Marsh, L. C , Employment Re sear ch, Toronto, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1935. Marsh, L. C , S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada, Ottawa, Ring's P r i n t e r , 1943.  

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