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A survey and evaluation of the guidance practices provided by thirteen Vancouver secondary schools Woodrow, Alexander 1950

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A SURVEY AND EVALUATION OF THE GUIDANCE PRACTICES PROVIDED BY THIRTEEN VANCOUVER SECONDARY SCHOOLS by ALEXANDER WOODROW A Thesis submitted i n pa r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of EDUCATION The University of B r i t i s h Columbia October, 1950 ABSTRACT OF A SURVEY AMD EVALUATION OF THE GUIDANCE PRACTICES PROVIDED BY THIRTEEN VANCOUVER SECONDARY SCHOOLS by ALEXANDER WOODROW A Thesis submitted i n parti a l fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of EDUCATION The University of B r i t i s h Columbia October, 1950 1. ABSTRACT The present study was undertaken to find what guidance services are being offered i n the secondary schools of Vancouver and gen-erally to appraise the adequacy of those services. After an examination of research and other literature in the f i e l d i t was decided to use the questionnaire-survey method of appraisal, and to re s t r i c t the investigation to the administrative services provided for the following seven major aspects of guidance; orientation of the student, gathering and using information on pupils, educational guidance, vocational guidance, placement of drop-outs and graduates, individual counselling, and growth and improvement of the guidance program.' The report does not claim to evaluate the  operation or results of the program. Prior to gathering any data, c r i t e r i a were set up to afford a basis for appraising the adequacy of the services provided. A l i s t was made of specific practices considered by the experts to be de-sirable i n a guidance program and, on the basis of the c r i t e r i a , a questionnaire was prepared which contained 116 items, covering as f u l l y as possible the administration of the seven aspects of guidance being surveyed and evaluated. Interviews were held with the counsellors of each of the secondary schools in Vancouver. Using the questionnaire as a basis for question-ing, the different aspects of each program were reviewed and comments made on the form where necessary or applicable. The report i s so organized that each major aspect of the program 2. i s evaluated i n a separate chapter. The applicable data are analyzed f i r s t by questionnaire item, then by school. Comparative evaluations of the individual programs are based on the number of specific practices reported by each school for that particular aspect. Only three evaluation categories are used, "Inadequate," "Minimum," and "Extended." In the last chapter of the study the comparative evaluations made in the preceding chapters are recapitulated. From this summary conclusions are drawn regarding the services provided by each individual school for a l l the seven major aspects under consideration. The strengths and weaknesses are indicated and recommendations are made for each school. Another recapitulation shows the incidence of the three evaluation types of services in the thirteen schools for each of the seven major i aspects under consideration. From this summary general conclusions are drawn regarding t^he strong and weak elements i n the guidance programs of the Vancouver secondary schools as a whole. Throughout the investigation the data reported by the counsellors repeatedly discloses the same specific weaknesses i n many of the schools. These weaknesses are summarized i n the f i n a l chapter i n the form of recommendations. The study indicates the need for trained counsellors i n every school no matter how small. I t i s also apparent that much more un i -formity i s needed in the guidance services. I t i s therefore recom-mended that a central guidance divis ion be set up to coordinate a l l individual school services and carry out a systematic program of evaluation Suggestions are made for further studies to investigate the effectiveness of the practices, to determine the outcomes of the guidance in terms of the individual, to determine the effect on teachers and counsellors of the guidance program, to determine the areas of growth i n the guidance program, and to determine the per-manence of the effects of the guidance program. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In presenting this study the writer wishes to make the following acknowledge-ments! to the counsellors in the schools surveyed who gave so willingly of their time? to my principal, Mr. F. P. Lightbody, who cooperated i n every way possible -; and to Dr. J . R. Mcintosh and Dr. M. A. Cameron of the Education Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia for their advice, their encouragement, and their constructive criticism. CONTENTS Chapter Page I INTRODUCTION The Problem 1 Delimination of the "Problem 2 Justification of the Problem as an Area of Study 2 Background of the Problem and Related Studies 3 Development of the Evaluative C r i t e r i a 11 Preparation of the Questionnaire for the Survey 12 The Experimental Method 15 Organization of the Report 15 II EVALUATION OF REPORTED ORIENTATION SERVICES Statement of Criterion 23 Analysis of the Data by Questionnaire Item 17 Analysis of the Data by School 20 Comparative Evaluation of the Services Provided by the Schools 22 III EVALUATION OF REPORTED PRACTICES FOR THE ACCUMULATION AND UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION REGARDING EACH INDIVIDUAL PUPIL Statement of Criterion 23 Analysis of the Data by Questionnaire Item 26 Analysis of the Data by School 28 Comparative Evaluation of the Services Provided by the Schools 29 IV EVALUATION OF REPORTED EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE SERVICES Statement of Criterion 31 Analysis of the Data by Questionnaire Item 33 Analysis of the Data by School 34 Comparative Evaluation of the Services Provided by the Schools 35 Chapter Page V. EVALUATION OF REPORTED VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SERVICES Statement of Criterion 37 Analysis of the Data by Questionnaire Item 39 Analysis of the Data hy School 4-0 Comparative Evaluation of the Services Provided by the Schools 41 VI. EVALUATION OF REPORTED PLACEMENT AND FOLLOW-UP SERVICES Statement of Criterion 42 Analysis of the Data by Questionnaire Item 44 Analysis of the Data by School 44 Comparative Evaluation of the Services Provided by the Schools 45 VII. EVALUATION OF REPORTED INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING SERVICES Statement of Criterion 47 Analysis of the Data by Questionnaire Item 49 Analysis of the Data by School 50 Comparative Evaluation of the Services Provided by the Schools 51 VIII. EVALUATION OF REPORTED FACILITIES FOR THE GROWTH AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE GUIDANCE PROGRAM Statement of Criterion 53 Analysis of the Data by Questionnaire Item 55 Analysis of the Data by School 56 Comparative Evaluation of the Services Provided by the Schools 57 IX. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions regarding the Reported Services i n Each Individual School 58 General Conclusions 62 Recommendations Based upon the Weaknesses Dis-closed in the Investigation 64 General Recommendations 65 Suggestions for Further Study 66 APPENDIX A - Survey Questionnaire 68 BIBLIOGRAPHY LIST OF TABLES Table I. Orientation Practices in Thirteen Vancouver High Schools 18 II. Comparative Evaluation of the Administrative Services Provided by the Schools for Orientating Their Students 22 III. Practices for Gathering and Using Information Regarding Individual Students 24 IV. Frequency with which Informational Items are Recorded in Individual Counsellor Folders 27. V. Comparative Evaluation of thet Reported Administrative Practices Provided by the Separate Schools for the Accumulation and Utilization of Information Regarding their Individual Pupils 29 VI. Educational Guidance Services in Thirteen Vancouver High Schools 32 VII. Comparative Evaluation of the Administrative Services Provided for the Educational Guidance of Their Students by the Separate Schools 35 VIII. Vocational Guidance Services in Thirteen Vancouver High Schools 38 IX. Comparative Evaluation of the Reported Administrative Practices Provided for the Vocational of their Students by the Separate Schools 41 X. Placement and Follow-up Services in Thirteen Van-couver High Schools 43 XI. Comparative Evaluation of the Reported Administrative Practices provided by the Separate Schools for the Placement and Follow-up of their Graduates or Drop-outs 45 Individual Counselling Services i n Thirteen Van-couver High Schools Comparative Evaluation of the Reported Administrative Practices Provided by the Separate Schools for the Individual Counselling of their Students F a c i l i t i e s for Growth and Improvement of the Guidance Program in Thirteen Vancouver High Schools Comparative Evaluation of the Reported Administrative F a c i l i t i e s Provided by the Separate Schools for the Growth and Improvement of the Guidance Program Composite Summary of the Evaluations Summary of Types of Service Provided by the Thirteen Schools for the Seven Major Guidance Aspects In-vestigated CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION The Problem The guidance services i n the Vancouver schools have changed much since the year 1927, when the f i r s t appointments of counsel-lors for g i r l s and boys were made i n Kitsilano and Templeton Junior High Schools, but, as far as the records show, very l i t t l e attempt has been made to compare the practices i n different schools or evaluate them. The problem of this project became, then, to find what guidance services are being offered i n the schools and gen-erally to appraise those services. After an examination of the literature of the f i e l d , as reported later i n this chapter, five specific objectives were formulated: 1. set up c r i t e r i a by means of which a school*s guidance program might be evaluated. 2. To establish a l i s t of specific practices considered by experts to be desirable i n a guidance program. 3. On the basis of Objectives 1. and 2., to develop a check-l i s t for survey purposes. U. To survey the guidance practices i n the secondary schools of Vancouver. 5, To evaluate the said practices, draw conclusions, and make recommendations. 2 Delimitation. It was decided the investigation would be concerned with only the administrative aspects of guidance and not with the results obtained by the guidance services. Also, the project was restricted to seven major aspects of guidance: orientation, records, vocational guidance, educational guidance, placement, counselling, and organiza-tion for the growth and improvement of the program. I t i s readily admitted that there are other phases of guidance, such as group guidance, guidance personnel, and social guidance, that should be evaluated, but i t was f e l t that methods other than this type of questionnaire survey were necessary for their proper appraisal. Justification of the Problem as an Area of Study. Many authorities could be quoted, but from the following sampling i t can be seen that the general opinion amongst educators i s that progress becomes possible when there i s c r i t i c a l examination. Every issue of "Counseling, Guidance, and Personnel Work" i n the Review of Educational Research, under the heading of needed research, emphasizes the lack of evaluative studies of guidance programs. To quote from the la s t pertinent issue: The need for evaluative studies of personnel pro-grams i s evidenced by the relatively few reports of research i n this area which have appeared i n the l i t e r a -ture during the period covered by this review. C l i f f o r d P. Froelich*; specialist i n the training of guidance personnel for the U. S. Office of Education, points out that evalua-1. Paul C. Polmantier and Fred McKinney, "Programs of Personnel Work," Review of Educational Research, v o l . 18, no. 2, (April 194-8), pp. 150-156. 2. "-"lifford P. -^roelich, Evaluating Guidance Procedures. Washington, D. G», Federal Security Agency, D*. S. Office of Education, January, 1949. 3. tion i s the pre-requisite to progress, and that guidance programs have had the benefit of relatively few evaluative studies to indicate strengths and weaknesses. C l i f f o r d E. Erickson} Director of the Institute of Counseling, Testing and Guidance, Michigan State College, i s of the opinion that one of the best ways to improve guidance services i s by evaluating present practices. This i s true regardless of the adequacy,.of the program. Evaluation serves the dual purpose of finding strengths and weaknesses, and of clarifying the functions and purposes of guidance. Kefauver and Hand advocate evaluation studies of guidance programs i n the .following.statement: For the most part, secondary school principals are sensitive to the needs of guidance. However, some are skeptical about the actual achievements of the programs thus far developed. Objective evidence of the actual accomplishments, i f favorable, w i l l help to allay these doubts, provide the basis for obtaining support for guidance work, give direction to the program, and thereby make possible more adequate guidance service for adolescent youth. Background of the Problem and Related Studies. Probably no phase of the secondary school program i s mor d i f -f i c u l t to evaluate than i t s guidance service, chiefly because i t deals with intangibles, such as interests, ambitions, a b i l i t i e s , future achievements and adjustments. There are three main d i f f i -culties encountered i n attempts to appraise the outcomes of guidance. F i r s t , individual differences i n personality result i n differences i n extent of effect of guidance. Second, the results of much of 1. C l i f f o r d E. Erickson, A Basic Text for Guidance Workers, New York, Prentice-Hall, .Inc., 1947, P* 429. 2. Grayson N. Kefauver and Harold C Raid, "Measurement of outcomes of Guidance in Secondary Schools," Teachers College Record, vol. 33, (January 1932), pp. 3U-334. 4. the work In guidance are long delayed i n the l i f e of the individual. The third problem facing those who wish to measure the results of guidance l i e s i n the fact that there i s a dearth of measuring instruments. There are many ways of appraising the guidance program. One of the simplest i s to ask the pupils a series of questions regard-ing the effectiveness of the guidance services. Such evaluation has i t s place but for the purposes of formulating plans for im-proving the tot a l program, i t i s desirable to make a complete analysis of a l l aspects of guidance services. Sacks*'" suggested many ways of evaluating guidance programs, most of them of the self-evaluative variety. Some of her sug-gestions are: a. Tests of guidance information. b. Tests of a b i l i t y to apply principles. c. Questionnaires s o l i c i t i n g reactions of teachers and pupils to the guidance program. d. Follow-up studies. e. S t a t i s t i c a l studies of data about pupils* choices, marks, and the l i k e . Kefauver^ proposed seven types of evaluative studies: 1 . Measurement of the need for guidance—if the maladjustments that create the need for guidance continue to exist, the program i n operation cannot be said to be completely adequate. 2. Analysis and description of practices with relation to the 1. Georgia M. Sacks, "Evaluation of Group Guidance i n Junior High Schools," School Review, vol. 52, (April 1944), pp. 207-14. 2. Grayson N. Kefauver, "Proposals for a Program of Evaluation of Guidance," School Review, vol. 42, (September 1934-), pp. 519-26. 5. objectives of guidance. 3. Comparison of the practices i n a school with a "standard program.11 4. Comparison of characteristics of pupils before and after experience i n guidance. 5. Measurement of characteristics of pupils after having had the advantage of guidance service. 6. Comparison of characteristics of pupils under various types of guidance service. 7. Comprehensive investigation which follows a group of pupils through a well-planned program of guidance and makes care-f u l measurement at each grade l e v e l . Wrenn^ * suggests three broad approaches or methods to be used i n the evaluation of the f i e l d of personnel work: 1. The logical or survey method where the needs of students are determined and a survey made to see i f these needs are being f u l f i l l e d . 2. The experimental cross-sectional approach—this uses two groups,.one which i s exposed to guidance and second which i s not. He warns, though, that the results are not necessarily significant since no one factor ever operates i n a person i n isolation. 3. The developmental method—the acti v i t i e s of the student or students are followed over a considerable period of time i n order to determine the permanence of whatever changes have taken place. 1. G. Gilbert Wrenn, "The evaluation of Student Personnel Work: A Critique of the 'Guidance Movement'."School and Society, vol. 52, (November 2, 1940), pp. 409-414. 6. Of the f a i r l y numerous attempts at controlled experiments, two are especially worthy of mention. Bennet^ compared two groups of students, both with counselling service, but with group guidance the differentiating factor. The Orientation group who had group guidance made s t a t i s t i c a l l y re-l i a b l e greater gains on nearly a l l informational aspects of the work tested, and gave evidence of a quality of thinking superior to that of the control group with respect to educational, voca-tional and avocational plans. Tyler^ used 405 Testing Bureau cases and a control group matched upon objective data. Better total adjustment, using a composite criterion of adjustment, was found for the counselled group, and also better scholastic achievement. Beyond the demon-strated superiority of the counselled group in scholastic achieve-ment, the study's unique contribution was the establishment of, as an evaluation criterion, the individual's success i n reaching his claimed vocational-educational choice. The appraisal method involving the objective questioning of students, has been used by a number of investigators. . Kefauver and Hand- report a study involving a survey of stu-dents in secondary schools to determine the validity of their plans for the future, the vocational information they possessed, and the value accruing from a life-career course. 1. Margaret E. Bennet, An Evaluation of an Orientation or Group  Guidance Program in a Four-Year Junior College. Bulletin Ho. 72, Sixth Series, Stanford University, 1938, pp. 121-28. 2. Ralph W. Tyler, "The Place of Evaluation i n Modern Education," Elementary School Journal, vol. 41, (September 1940), pp. 19-27. 3. Grayson N. Kefauver and Harold C. Hand, Appraising Guidance in  Secondary Schools. Hew York, MacMillan Company, 1941. I « Working on the assumption that one of the prime objects of guidance i s to help pupils make better choices both academically and vocationally, Hedge and Hutson'*' made comparisons between pupils* judgments before having guidance and after. Moser^ used a check-list which he developed and administered to a l l graduating seniors during their last week of school. His findings have a value i n that they indicate strengths and weaknesses. As he himself points out, this method reveals a technique for evaluating the guidance services i n a particular school by the recipients themselves. Infrequent use i s made of the follow-up method of evaluation of guidance services. Barber^ evaluated the ten-year development of a high-school personnel program. Conclusions, based upon a follow-up study of graduates and the workings of the various aspects of the program, are to the effect that the program stimulated students and faculty a l i k e . I t i s significant that the curriculum was broadened, and plans for the reorganization of the school resulted from this eva-luation of the guidance program. Lorimer^- reports a follow-up questionnaire investigation of the effectiveness of counselling procedures relative to the Strong Vocational Interest Test. 1. J . W. Hedge and P. W. Hutson, "A technique for Evaluating Guid-ance A c t i v i t i e s , n School Review, vol. 39, (September 1931), pp. • 508-19. 2. W. E. loser, "Evaluation of a Guidance Program by Means of a Student's Check-list," Journal of Educational Research, vol. 42, (April 1949), pp. 609-17. 3. Joseph E. Barber, Evaluating School Guidance, Buffalo, N.< T., • Foster and Stewart Publishing Corporation, 1946. 4. Margaret Lorimer,- "An Appraisal of Vocational Guidance," Occu- pational Psychology, v o l . 17, (January 1943), pp. 6-16. 8 Stott. set up and appraised the following c r i t e r i a for a follow-up on occupational adjustment: a. wages, b. promotions, c. examination results, d. satisfaction of the worker with the post, e. instructor's reports i n training courses. She reported on several experiments that leave l i t t l e doubt that modern methods of ascertaining the vocational potentialities of young persons are a vast improvement to the old-fashioned methods, but concluded that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to ascertain the val i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and efficiency of vocational guidance. The favoured method of appraisal of guidance services i n school systems i s by using a questionnaire survey. During the year 1 9 3 2 - 1 9 3 3 , the secondary school administra-tors of Richmond, Indiana, carried out a survey of guidance by means of questionnaires to both students and advisers. The primary object of this study was to check up on the results of the guidance pro-grams and bring to the attention of the counsellors and adminis-o trators the points at fault and the needs for improvement. Bate reports that the survey had the desired results. The guidance programs in two hundred representative secondary schools of the United States were examined by using 2 1 0 c r i t e r i a l and 57 evaluation items. Four major aspects were studied, namely, articulation with other schools, data and information regarding each individual pupil, the organization of the program, and the 1 . Mary B. Stott, "The Appraisal of Vocational Guidance," Occu- pational Psychology, vol. 17, (January 1 9 4 3 ) , pp. 6 - 1 6 . 2 . William G. Bate, "School Surveys Its Own Guidance System," Hation's Schools, v o l . 17, (June 1 9 3 6 ) , pp. 4 0 - 4 1 . v. operation of the guidance service i n post-school and out-of-school relationships. Alstetter"*" reports that the committee found the guidance service probably less well organized and operating less effectively than any other phase of secondary school activity, but i t was of the opinion that a school which has carefully evaluated i t s guidance service on the basis of over two hundred c r i t e r i a , should be able to determine the relatively strong and weak elements, recognize the relationships between such elements, determine their relative importance, and thus effect improvements. In 1 9 4 0 a survey of 3 5 6 out of a possible 4 8 0 accredited high 2 schools i n Virginia was carried out by Williams. Her chief recommendation was for a more effective program. A questionnaire survey of the secondary school guidance pro-grams i n Ontario was conducted by Stevens^ in 1 9 4 0 . I t revealed the following weaknesses: 1 . Psychological tests and rating scales were infrequently given. 2 . Courses i n occupational information were infrequently given. 3 . Outside psychological c l i n i c s , social service agencies, and other organizations catering to the need3 of youth, were seldom consulted. 4. Most staffs neglected to learn of home conditions systematically . 5 . Students were not encouraged to do any self-appraising. 1 . M. L. Alstetter, "Guidance Service i n Two Hundred Secondary Schools," Occupations, vol. 1 6 , (March 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 5 1 3 - 2 0 . 2 . Nannie M. Williams, A Survey of Guidance i n the Accredited High  Schools of Virginia. Master's Thesis, Washington, D. C , George Washington University, 1 9 4 0 . 3 . V. S. Stevens, "Vocational and Educational Guidance in Ontario Secondary Schools," Occupations, v o l . 1 9 , (November 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 87 - 9 3 . 10.-The North Central Association conducted a questionnaire-survey study of guidance programs during the school year 1 9 4 7 - 4 8 . Fifteen characteristics were self-rated on a five-point scale, progressively arranged from an inadequate to an extended or optimum practice. Twenty-three hundred of a possible three thousand-odd high schools returned the questionnaire, and from the collected data, much valu-able information was obtained regarding the adequacy or inadequacy -of the guidance services. The committee which evaluated the guidance programs in ^an ^"rancisco used five techniques, a student questionnaire, a teachers 1 questionnaire, a grade counsellor's questionnaire, an administrative check-list and a descriptive analysis of one distinct phase of the program in each school. They attempted to determine the outcomes of guidance in terms of what i t does for the individual, to deter-mine the effect on teachers and counsellors of the guidance program, to determine the areas of growth in the guidance program, to deter-mine within limits the effectiveness of the program within the i n -dividual schools. According to Rathbun their major conclusions were that students tend to measure guidance in terms of immediate results, that guidance i s more successful in providing for adjust-ment than i t i s i n correcting maladjustment, that individual coun-sell i n g i s more effective the closer the problems are associated with school l i f e . 1 . "Report of the Self-study Survey of Guidance Practices i n North Central Association High Schools for the School Tear 1947-48," - North Central Association Quarterly, v o l . 23, (January 1 9 4 9 ) , pp. 276-303. • 2. - Jesse E. Rathbun, "San Francisco's Annual Evaluation of Counseling and Guidance," Clearing House, v o l . 20, (October 1 9 4 5 ) , pp. 95-97. Development of the Evaluative C r i t e r i a . The following comprehensive guidance works were examined to find which major services were thought to be essential in a guid-ance program by a majority of the experts: 1. Arthur J . Jones, Principles of Guidance. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1930. 2. Leonard V. Koos and Grayson N. Kefauver, Guidance i n Secondary  Schools. New York, MacMillan Company, 1933* 3. National Society for the Study of Education, Guidance i n Edu- cational Institutions. Thirty-seventh Yearbook, Pt. 1, Bloom-ington, I l l i n o i s , Public School Publishing Company, 1938. L. Shirley A. Hamrin and C l i f f o r d E. Erickson, Guidance i n the  Secondary, School. New York, Appleton-Century Company, 1939. 5. E. G. Williamson and M. E. Hahn, Introduction to High School  Counselling. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1940. 6. C. M. Smith and M. M. Roos, A Guide to Guidance. New York, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1941. 7. Jane Warters, High School Personnel Work Today. New York, McGraw-rHill Book Company, 1946. 8. C l i f f o r d E. Erickson, A Basic Text for Guidance Workers. New York, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1947. 9. Anna Y. Reed, Guidance and Personnel Services i n Education. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, 1947. 10. Frank G. Davis, Pupil Personnel Service. Scranton, Pennsylvania, International Textbook Company, 1948. I t was decided to r e s t r i c t the investigation to the following seven major aspects: orientation, records, vocational guidance, educational guidance, placement counselling, and organization for growth and improvement of the program. The following c r i t e r i a were formulated to be used to evaluate the seven aspects: 1 2 . 1. Each secondary school should provide for the orientation of a l l students coming from the lower school, and prepare i t s students for the change to a higher school. 2 . Each school should keep and use complete records of a l l i t s pupils. 3 . Each secondary school should provide curricula and courses sufficiently comprehensive and flexible to meet the needs of- a l l i t s students, and should guide i t s pupils in the acquisition of infor-mation helpful for the making of wise educational choices. U» Each secondary school should try to acquaint i t s students with the occupational world and should try to show them how to obtain information helpful for the making of vocational choices. 5. Each secondary school should make provision for aiding the student to locate and obtain suitable employment. 6. Each secondary school should make provision for systematic counsel for every student, while yet respecting the individual's right and recognizing his responsibility to make his own decisions and for-mulate his own plans. 7. The guidance program of each secondary school should be so organized that i t does not become static but i s energetic and pro-gressive. Preparation of the Questionnaire for the Survey. The literature and research i n the f i e l d were studied to secure questionnaire items which would permit a complete survey of the guidance services, and provide a basis for comparison and evaluation. The following sources were of particular help i n this respect: 13. 1 . Alvin and Wrennx listed many of the guidance services neces-sary to meet the needs of students. Although psychological tests were emphasized, they stressed the fact that these tests must be supplemented by observations, anecdotal records, and information on home background, community environment, goals, purposes, health records, and social development. 2. Yeo2 made extensive l i s t s of guidance practices reported in the literature, had these practices rated by numerous counsellors and authorities on a scale from minus two to plus two, and reported which practices were considered as desirable by the majority of raters. 3. Wilson-* formulated procedures for evaluating a guidance program by stating the functions of guidance, offering criteria for determining the success or failure of a guidance program in terms of those functions, and considering the factors which contribute sig-nificantly to that success or failure. U* The North Central Association's Sub-committee on Guidances-prepared a check-list of the elements in a minimum and an extended program of guidance and counselling under the following headings; infor-mation about pupils, organization and administration of the program, 1. A.. C. Eurich and C. G. Wrenn, "Appraisal of Student Characteris-tics and Needs," from Guidance in Educational Institutions, Thirty-seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Bloomington, Illinois, Public School Publishing Company, 1938, pp. 3 1 - 8 5 . 2. John W. Yeo, Desirable Guidance Practices for Secondary Schools. Doctor's Thesis, New-Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, 1939. 3. Frances M. Wilson, Procedures in Evaluating a Guidance Program. Doctor's Thesis, New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers Col-lege, Columbia University, 194-5• 4. "Characteristics of a High School Guidance and Counseling Program," North Central Association Quarterly, vol. 22, (October 1947), pp. 219-47. counselling, role of the teacher, community resources, placement and follow-up. 5« For the purpose of preparing a questionnaire appraisal-survey, since published by the United States Office of Education, Froelichl interviewed experts to determine which guidance a c t i v i t i e s they f e l t were essential. He l i s t e d seven a c t i v i t i e s which were a-greed upon as essential by eighty-eight of the ninety-three guidance leaders i n public schools and teacher-training institutions which he surveyed. These seven services, which gave heavy emphasis to vocational objectives, can be summarized as; a. providing occupational information, b. providing occupational try-out experience, c. collect-ing and making available information about students, d. assisting students to evaluate occupational information and exploratory experi-ences i n terms of their own characteristics, e. helping students to plan for vocational participation by providing educational opportunities, f . assisting pupils seeking placement in chosen occupations, and g. helping the student through employment supervision to progress in his chosen occupation. 6 . Erickson2 incorporated in his recent book an evaluation form developed for use by the principals of secondary schools in the State of Michigan. 7. Other publications that aided particularly i n this compilation of questionnaire items were Guidance in Secondary Schools, by Koos 1 . C l i f f o r d P. Froelich, Evaluating Guidance Procedures. Washington, D. C , Federal- Security Agency, U. S. Office of Education, 1 9 4 9 , pp. 1 - 2 6 . 2 . C l i f f o r d E. Erickson, A Basic Text for Guidance Workers. New York, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1 9 4 7 , pp. 4 2 9 - 4 3 4 . and Kefauver, and Guidance Practices in Public High. Schools. by Hamrin, Erickson, and O'Brien.^ From these sources and other literature, extensive l i s t s of practices were prepared. Then, after a great deal of weeding, the questionnaire i n Appendix A. was composed. It contains 116 items and attempts to cover as f u l l y as possible the administration of the seven aspects of guidance being surveyed and evaluated. The Experimental Method. Interviews were held with counsellors of each of the secondary schools i n Vancouver. Using the questionnaire as a basis for questioning, the different aspects of each program were reviewed and comments made on the form where necessary or applicable. Organization of the Report. Each major aspect of the program i s evaluated separately i n Chapters I I . to VIII. In each chapter the applicable data are analyzed f i r s t by questionnaire item, then by school. Comparisons are made between the different school programs regarding the major aspect con-cerned, and using the appropriate criterion as a basis, the strengths and weaknesses in the separate programs are indicated. Chapter IX. recapitulates the comparative evaluations made i n the preceding chapters, draws conclusions, and makes recommendations regarding the improvement of the guidance programs. Of the thirteen secondary schools surveyed, two were junior high schools, two were junior-senior high schools, six were senior high 1. L. V. Koos and G. N. Kefauver, Guidance i n Secondary Schools. New York, MacMillan Company, 1933. 2 . S. A. Hamrin, C. E. Erickson, M. ¥. O'Brien, Guidance Practices  i n Public High Schools. Bloomington, I l l i n o i s , McKnight and McKnight, 1940. 16. schools biased toward the academic curriculum, two were commercial high schools, and one was a technical high school. The following key w i l l be used to designate the individual schools, and also their types. Al» ^2 — Junior High Schools. B]_, B2 — Junior-Senior High Schools. C ^ - -— Senior High Schools biased toward the academic cu r r i -culum; D^- — Senior High Schools biased toward the commercial or technical curriculum. CHAPTER I I . EVALUATION OF REPORTED ORIENTATION SERVICES Criterion 1. Each secondary school should provide for the orientation of a l l students coming from the lower school, and prepare i t s students for the change to,a higher school. Orientation, lik e a l l other aspects of guidance, i s a process, not an event. A concept of personality development as a continuous interaction between a growing individual and his ever-changing environment, material and social, precludes the possibility of effecting any important l i f e adjustments merely by means of a discrete series of events directed narrowly toward the induction of students into a new school environment. An adequate orientation service i s an integral part of the whole guidance program, just as the latte r i s an ^ integral functioning part of the entire school program. Table I. reports and compares the orientation services i n the different secondary schools, using the practices on the survey questionnaire as a basis. From this over-all picture i t can be easily seen that the services provided by the different schools for this important phase of guidance were by no means uniform. Horizontal Analysis of the Data. When the reported data on the pre-admission orientation section of the survey i s scrutinized closely i n Table I., i t w i l l be noted 1. Margaret E. Bennet, "The Orientation of Students i n Educational Institutions," Guidance in Educational Institutions. Thirty-seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the S t u % of Educa-tion, Bloomington, I l l i n o i s , Public School Publishing Company, 1938, pp. 175-196. TABLE I. 2 ,2 ORIENTATION PRACTICES IN THIRTEEN VANCOUVER HIGH SCHOOLS 1 ° 3 o « Type of Activity Individual Schools (see key> p.16) «i r a A l A2 B l B 2 C l G2 i i . _k. o D l D2 Pre-Admission Orientation 1. Spring meeting with incoming pupils - x x x - - - - - - - - - 3 2. V i s i t from incoming pupils - X X - - - - - - - - - x 3 3. Staff member talks to incoming pupils i n spring x x x x x x x - x - x - x 10 Post-Admission Orientation 1. A "Freshman Day" i s held - . - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0 2. Incoming pupils are acquainted with school the f i r s t day - x x x x x x. - - x x - x 9 3. Older pupils are used as guides for incoming pupils - x x x x - x - - x x - x _ 8 4-. Incoming pupils are assisted to make intelligent use of library, cafeteria, eta x x x x x x x - x x x - x l l 5. A student handbook or comparative material i s issued . _ x x x x - - x - - x - - x 7 6. Records other than the formal academic cumulative cards are requested from feeder schools - - x x - - x x x x - x x 8 Orientation as Part of the Curriculum 1. Material i n student handbook or facsimile i s explained i n group guidance x x x x x - x - x x x - x l O 2. A handbook test i s carried out x x - - - - x - - x x - - 5 3. Pupil a c t i v i t i e s and organizations are provided x x x x x x x - x x x x x 12 U» An approach i s made to orient pupils i n the matter of sex - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 Pre-Graduation Orientation 1. Graduating seniors v i s i t the next higher institution of learning - - - - - - x - - x - - - 2 2. A member of the next higher institution talks to the graduating seniors _x - x - - x - - - _ , x — - 4-TOTAL PRACTICES PER SCHOOL J£ 10 11 _9_ _6 J> 10_ _1 J> 10 _7 _2 _9_ 19. that only three schools out of the thirteen organized a spring meeting with incoming pupils. Similarly only three made arrange-ments for incoming pupils to visit their schools prior to enroll-ment. The majority of the schools had a member of their adminis-trative or guidance staff talk to the incoming pupils in the spring, although three schools did not provide even this service. Under post-admission orientation, attention is drawn to the fact that a "Freshman Day" prior to school opening has not been attempted in any school, although i t has been recommended in the literature many times. In most of the schools incoming pupils were assisted to become acquainted with the school building and to make intelligent use of the library, cafeteria, and gymnasium as soon as possible, using older pupils as guides in most cases, but almost half the schools did not issue a student handbook even in mimeographed form. It was found, too, that there was virtually no practice of requesting from the elementary school information other than that shown on the academic or health record cards. Those schools fed by junior high schools, of course, re-ceived the prescribed individual cumulative record-folders auto-matically. The report on the section of the questionnaire concerning orientation as part of the curriculum, shows more uniformity through-out the schools. The material in the student handbook, or compara-tive material, was explained during group guidance classes in most of the secondary schools, yet the majority of the schools did not test their pupils on such material. It is gratifying to note that 20. pupil organizations and activities were encouraged in almost a l l schools to arouse avocational interests and stimulate the develop-ment of desirable personality and character traits. On the other hand, only a few schools reported even an informal approach for orienting their pupils in the matter of sex. Table I. indicates that very l i t t l e pre-graduation orientation was provided for those pupils moving on to a higher institution of learning. Only five out of the thirteen schools had any services of this kind beyond the information given by the adviser during the group guidance periods. Many senior high schools believed that some of their students made visits to the university, but no organized technique was employed. Several mentioned the sending of delegates to the Annual Conference of Student Representatives at the University of British Columbia, sponsored by the students of the Teacher Training Course. These delegates reported back to the graduating classes. There were varied opinions on the value of this last-mentioned practice. Vertical Analysis of the Data in Table I. Since no absolute measurement of the effectiveness of the guidance programs in the individual schools can be hoped for,, and since i t is not the intention of this investigation to give exact ratings, the evaluation has been attempted only on a comparative basis. Looking f i r s t at the two junior high schools designated by Ai and A2» i t can be seen that School A 2 reported more administrative practices conducive to better orientation of their pupils. The two junior-Senior high schools reported active orientation programs, 2 1 . although School Bi's program would appear from the survey to be some-what more active than that of School B 2* great variation comes in the orientation programs of the academic-biased senior high schools. School f ° r example, reported an energetic program as compared to School G^, which appeared to have almost no program at a l l . The program of one of the commercial high schools was inadequate, but as i t s f a c i l i t i e s were poor, and the school i s to be discontinued after this year, the fact i s understandable. Using only three designations for the types of orientation programs, namely, inadequate, minimum, and extended, and using as a basis the total number of practices indicated by the survey questionnaire, Table I I . attempts to classify the schools. How-ever, three points are emphasizedj one, that this i s a view of administrative aspects of the guidance programs onlyj two, that i t iB based on the supposition that a l l counsellors interviewed gave honest answers to the questions askedj three, that the comparison includes different types of schools. This report does not claim to evaluate the conduct or results of the program, but attempts only to compare the schools studied on the basis of the number of administrative services provided. I t may be argued that the counsellor's personality has a great influence on the success of any aspect of the guidance program, but this study i s based on the theory that i f there i s l i t t l e administrative provision of services for a certain aspect of the program, i t i s probable that that aspect i s being dealt with inadequately. It may also be true that certain aspects of the program are not as necessary in one type of school as they are i n another. The evaluation would become too involved i f such a consideration were taken into account, but i t s possibility should be kept in mind. TABLE I I . COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE SCHOOLS FOR ORIENTATING THEIR STUDENTS Schools Bl B 2 C. Inadequate (1-5 practices) Type of Program Minimum (6-10 practices) Extended (11-15 practices) c6 x x "3 TOTALS x 8 23. CHAPTER III. EVALUATION OF REPORTED PRACTICES FOR THE ACCUMULATION  AND UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION REGARDING EACH INDIVIDUAL PUPIL Criterion 2. Each secondary school should keep and use complete records of a l l i t s pupils. It i s important that data, once found, be made a matter of record.' Having been placed on record, the information becomes usable for future guidance and counselling. But the gathering of information about a pupil, and the recording and preserving of i t , are not sufficient. The c r i t i c a l point about a l l information concerning a pupil i s that i t be used by his counsellor in an attempt to understand him better. Besides being necessary for yearly obser-vations and guidance of the individual, records provide information useful to higher schools and employers. Table III. gives a broad picture of the practices of the different schools * in this matter. o a 0 V| Q 0 H t a 4 (D t-1 H tn H -© 1 o t o o P S ^ •a co w O H M p. J» o o > CD O H H H H H H H H H O o | 0 » IlK 4 H 5 g a n 8 3^ «> C0. CD ft CD (0 £ 01 ffl P* 4 b c+ el- <D co m CO C+ «+ t n t o o o o CD t o CD 4 tn CD o 0 4 o o H j O * 4 t o CD 01 O c+- . Q 0) CD u CD 4 (B * g is-Oj CD O CD CD ^ O •8 # m H H- c4- c+ O CD CD (X O O p M o o p, CD P5 CO CD 1 4 CD tO 0 ct-C0 [' • X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 1' 1 X X X X X I X I X X X X X X X X I |M X M j?K IM M M I I I H M X S' H ' l H I g-IO IM I ^ X I X X I X s'0* ! • 1 x i i i i i i o o P-IS I M * X X I X X X X §l£ l» 1 X I I I I X X Sflr-1 I ^.100 I M > « X X » X X X X • |l> |xx x x x i x x x lo I No individual record folders kept. x x i x x x x I X X I X X X X X X x x x x x x x x x x x x M X X X X X X X X I X I I I X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X I X X X X X X X X X X I X I I X X X X X X X 1-3 M X X X X X X X X I X X X X X X X X I X |o I No individual record folders kept. i P oa <j so <» o U I O V O C O P H P P P O J P 4 P> o c+ H' O CD to K> JO o o o ? I $8 H CO & o o H» CO O OS tn CD CD CD T3 o o H 8 01 o o o CO S tr1 o M M HI i-3 M P I—I 3^ CO Total Number of Schools " 7 S TABLE III. (CONT'D) PRACTICES FOR GATHERING AND USING INFORMATION REGARDING INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS IN THIRTEEN VANCOUVER HIGH SCHOOLS Practices SUB TOTALS BROUGHT FORWARD jt 21.'* Aptitude test scores ' 2 2 . Interest inventory test scores 23. Sociomatric test scores 2 4 . Employer's information on interests, a b i l i t i e s and habits 2 5 . Information from the parent x 2 6 . Outcomes of parental interviews with other staff x 27. Teachers report on special aptitudes x 28. Anecdotal records are made -2 9 . A comprehensive record system i s provided x 3 0 . Guidance records are accessible x 3 1 . Adequate c l e r i c a l service provided -3 2 . Trained person for psychological testing x 3 3 . Complete case studies are made of problem pupils x 3 4 . Exchange of information i s made with community agencies x 3 5 . V i s i t s are made to pupils' homes x 3 6 . Case conferences on some students x 3 7 . Confidential records are not in folder open to inspection -3 8 . Teachers have access to psycholog-i c a l test results -x x X X X X X X X X X Individual Schools (see key p. 15) ix Ix ix ix ix W. 5L 18 15 1 7 17 1 6 8 1 9 H 18 16 0 1 7 0 X X X X X _ X X X mm. m m M — rX X X X — X — X X - X — — X - X — — — — — X — — — X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X TOTAL PRACTICES PER SCHOOL x X X X X 31 X X X X u © in 3 o ••a O O 1 7 7 6 5 11 10 7 8 9 10 10 12 8 8 21 -S to Horizontal Analysis of the Data* A l l the junior high schools, junior-senior high schools, and academic-biased senior high schools provided a set of counsellor cumulative-record folders for their pupils. One of the la s t named group, though, kept individual records for the g i r l s only, giving as i t s reason that no boys' counsellor had been appointed. Another did keep records of a sort for both boys and g i r l s , but since no counsellors had been appointed, those records kept had inadequate information on them. Only one of the three senior high schools i n the commercial-technical group kept individual folders. Seven of the thirteen schools' guidance departments -were f a i r l y satisfied with the c l e r i c a l help provided, although even i n these schools most of the recording was done by the counsellors themselves. Only eight of the thirteen schools surveyed had personnel trained i n the administration and evaluation of psychological tests. Because of this fact the testing technique was neglected i n many schools. Complete case studies of some problem cases were made i n most of the schools, but not to any great extent. Case conferences on pupils were held i n a l l except one school. Ten of the thirteen schools reported that there had been at least some exchange of i n -formation on pupils with community agencies, and that v i s i t s were made to some of the homes. Confidential information on pupils was kept separate from the individual folders i n eight of the thirteen schools. Eight schools reported that their teachers had ready access to the results of psychological tests. 27. To permit a more thorough inspection of the type of information gathered i n the counsellor folders, Table IV. l i s t s the items accord-ing to the frequency with which they were recorded or f i l e d i n the individual folders of the different schools. TABLE IV. FREQUENCY WITH WHICH INFORMATIONAL ITEMS ARE RECORDED IN INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLOR FOLDERS Items Schools No. _ i _ A record of a l l important interviews 1 1 8 5 * Scholarship information 11 8 5 * Work experiences 1 1 85% Educational and vocational plans 1 1 85% Extra-curricular ac t i v i t i e s 1 1 8 5 * Out-of-school activities 11 8 5 * Data on pupil's parents 10 77* Special aptitudes, interests, a b i l i t i e s 10 77* Home environment 9 6 9 * School interviews with parents 9 6 9 * Test scores on aptitude tests 8 6 2 * School attendance 8 6 2 * Parents' plans for pupil 8 6 2 * Elementary school academic record 8 6 2 * Case studies on problem pupils 8 6 2 * Test scores on interest inventories 8 6 2 * Home v i s i t s made by teachers 7 5 4 * Parents' information on special aptitudes, interests and a b i l i t i e s 7 54* Outcomes of parental interviews with other staff 7 5 4 * Test scores on diagnostic tests 6 4 6 * Test scores on personality tests 6 4 6 * Teachers' reports on special aptitudes, interests and a b i l i t i e s 5 3 8 * Cumulative health record 5 3 8 * Anecdotal records 5 3 8 * Test scores on sociometric tests 3 2 3 * Employer's information on special aptitudes, interests and a b i l i t i e s 1 8 * 28. Although volumes have been written on the use of psychological tests i n guidance work, only eight of the thirteen schools used aptitude tests and interest inventories, only six used diagnostic and personality tests, and only three used sociometric tests. The practice of gathering information from other sources, such as parents, part-time employers, and teachers, on special aptitudes, interests, and a b i l i t i e s , was not very current i n the schools. The technique of anecdotal records was used i n less than half the surveyed schools. It i s well to point out, though, that instruc-tion i s needed before good anecdotal records can be made. It would also appear that i n many cases teachers did not consult with the counsellors after parental interviews i n the school or after making home v i s i t s . Vertical Analysis of the Data i n Table III. An examination of Table III. shows that the rjunior and junior-senior high schools had f a i r l y uniform programs for accomplishing the needs of this phase of guidance. Four of the six academic-biased senior high schools also had adequate programs, but two had programs that l e f t much to be desired. One of the three schools i n the commercial-technical group had made an attempt to f u l f i l this aspect of guidance, but the other two had almost no programs at a l l . Using the same three designations used i n the evaluation of the orientation practices, Table V. attempts to appraise the individual programs with regard to provision for the accumulation and u t i l i z a t i o n of information regarding pupils. 29. TABLE V. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE REPORTED ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES  PROVIDED BY THE SEPARATE SCHOOLS FOR ACCUMULATION AND UTILIZATION REGARDING THEIR INDIVIDUAL PUPILS Schools A, Inadequate ( 1 - 1 3 items) Types of Programs Minimum ( 1 4 - 2 6 items) Extended (27-38 items) x x X G6 D, TOTALS x 2 JL 8 Once again i t is well to point out that this is a comparative evaluation, and that i t is an evaluation of only the administrative provisions, not of the operation or results of the practices. With regard to the commercial-technical group of schools the argument was raised by their counsellors that the need for individual JO. was not so great in these two types of school. There may be j u s t i f i -cation i n this argument, but since no concurrence could be found in the literature, i t was not taken into consideration i n the evaluation. 31. CHAPTER IV. EVALUATION OF REPORTED EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE SERVICES  Criterion 3. Each secondary school should provide curricula and courses sufficiently comprehensive and flexible to meet the needs of a l l it s students, and should guide i t s pupils in the acquisition of information helpful for the making of wise educational choices. Student questionnaire-surveys of guidance in many high schools and colleges indicate that the need for educational guidance usually heads the l i s t of student problems."'" Educational guidance is intended to aid the individual in choosing an appropriate program and in making progress in i t . Only a part of i t should be concerned with assisting the exceptionally able group. Teachers and counsellors have a debt of responsibility to the large middle group composed of students of normal abilities. Because competition for university entrance is very keen, many young people are unable to meet the requirements for admission to college. To prevent their experiencing the sense of failure that results when college admission i s denied, i t is important that very early in their high school careers, these students be directed toward other possible courses such as those of the technical and commercial types, or ithose that will develop special talents such as art, music, or dramatics. 1. Ruth Strang, Educational Guidance: Its Principles and Practice. Sew York, MacMillan Company, 1948, p. 3. TABLE VI. EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE SERVICES IN THIRTEEN VANCOUVER HIGH SCHOOLS Practices 1 . At least three curricula are provided 2 . There i s transfer without loss of credit 3 . Suggested curricula are mapped out 4. Entering pupils outline tentative pro-grams 5« A program of studies, arranged as to curricula and subjects, i s made av a i l -able to parents and pupils 6 . Pamphlets are issued, describing i n detail, contents, purpose, and value of courses 7. Explanatory talks are given concerning content and choice of curricula and courses 8. Bulletin boards are u t i l i z e d for guid-ance materials 9« Meetings are arranged between inter- . ested pupil groups and representatives of various colleges 1 0 . Parents of entering pupils are invited to confer with the school 1 1 . Data i s available on "type and extent of education or training required for occupations 1 2 . Catalogues of colleges, etc., are readily available to pupils.: 1 3 . The co-operation of ci v i c organizations i s u t i l i z e d in the program 1 4 . Visual aids are used i n the program TOTAL PRACTICES PER SCHOOL Individual Schools (see key p. 16) u CD ra 1 o 9 o •3W A, A„ B B c c c c c . D D 1 2 1 2 1 2 JL. c^ 6 1 2 -if ° X X X X X X X — — X — — x 9 X X X X X X X - — X - - x 9 X X X X X X X — X X — — x 10 - - X X X X X X X X - - - 8 X X X X X X X - X X X - X 11 X X X - X - X - - - - - 5 X X X X X X X X X X X X x 13 X X X X X X X - X X X X - 1 1 - - X — - X X - X - - - 4 X X X X X X X - X - - - x 9 X X X X X X X X X X X X x 13 X X X X X X X X X X X X x 13 X X X X X X X X X — X - 10 X X X - X X X X X X X X _x 12 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 1 1 1 11 1A 10, 1 2 _ 2 33. Table VI. gives an .overall picture of the administrative practices provided by the different schools for educational guidance. Horizontal Analysis of the Data. The fact that at least three curricula were not provided in two schools of the commercial-technical group was not surprising, but i t w i l l be noted that two other senior high schools did not offer three curricula either. In those schools offering three or more curricula, transfer was pretty well allowed without loss of credit. Copies of a program of studies, arranged as to curricula and subjects, were made available by most schools to pupils and their parents, and suggested curricula mapped out. A minority of the schools, however, issued pamphlets describing i n detail the content, purpose, and value of courses. In a l l schools explanatory talks were given concerning content and choice of curricula and courses, usually i n the group guidance periods, but sometimes to the whole student body. In a l l the junior-senior and senior academic-biased high schools the practice ?/as for the entering pupils to outline a tentative but complete program of studies for at least the remainder of his career at that particular school, but the junior high schools and commercial-technical group apparently had no such policy. I t i s understandable that commercial schools might have f e l t that a tentative program.,, plan was unnecessary in their schools since their single curriculum was so narrowly defined, but educational authorities strongly advise 3-4. an early stated choice of educational goal for a l l pupils, even though that goal may be changed many times throughout a pupil's education. Four of the thirteen schools reported that they did not invite the parents of a l l entering pupils to confer with the school regard-ing the pupil's educational plans. Three schools had not u t i l i z e d the cooperation of the civic organizations, such as the chamber of commerce, in the guidance program. Almost a l l the schools used the visual aids, at least to some extent, in the guidance program, and eleven of the thirteen schools u t i l i z e d the bulletin boards to bring guidance materials to the attention of their pupils. Very few of the surveyed schools arranged meetings between interested pupil groups and representatives of various colleges, although this would seem an excellent method for i n s t i l l i n g motive i n their pupils. A l l schools did assemble catalogues of colleges, private schools, and vocational schools of various kinds, and f i l e d them where they could be freely consulted. They a l l likewise made available to their students data which showed the type and extent of education or training required for entrance into occupations. Vertical Analysis of the Data in Table VI. Most of the schools reported f a i r l y adequate administrative ser-vices conducive to good educational guidance, but there were some exceptions. I t w i l l be noted that a l l schools which provided less than three curricula had programs which received only a minimum rating on the following comparative evaluation table. This would suggest 3 5 . that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to provide adequate educational guidance services unless the school has a variety of educational offerings. Table VII. endeavours to evaluate comparatively the individual programs with regard to administrative provision for educational .guidance. TABLE VII. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES PROVIDED  FOR THE EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE OF THEIR STUDENTS  BY THE SEPARATE SCHOOLS  Schools Type of Program A i Ar Bi B, Inadequate ( 1 - 5 items) ( 6 - 1 0 items) Extended ( 1 1 - 1 4 items) x x X X X X X 5 % D, TOTALS 0 x _ 5 _ I t i s not intended that the foregoing evaluation be looked on as a censuring of certain school programs, since i t i s only an evaluation of the administrative aspects of the educational guidance services, not of the operation or results of those services. I t i s readily admitted that a small high school with one major curriculum, has l i t t l e incentive to provide services for a f u l l educational guidance program. Nevertheless, since a l l students have the right to complete guidance services, and since students' educational and vocational goals are known to he very changeable, a l l the school programs are evaluated on the same basis. 37 CHAPTER V. EVALUATION OF REPORTED VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SERVICES  Criterion A. Each secondary school should try to acquaint i t s students with the occupational world and should try to show them how to obtain information helpful for the making of vocational choices. One of the very important services of the guidance program should be that of providing adequate, accurate, timely, and effective occupational information. As Davis-*- points out, the i lack of adequate information concerning the industrial, business, and professional scenes, and the great number of vocations possible therein, as well as a lack of a real concept of what each occupation involves, have been frequent causes of unfortunate vocational choice. Vocational guidance i s closely related to educational guidance, although at times that relationship i s apparently lost sight of, and as a result educational plans are made in a vacuum, with only the immediate goal-graduation-in sight. A too early definite vocational choice i s undesirable, but that should not preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of each student's amassing a fund of vocational information about those vocations which he i s considering. Table VIII. gives an overall picture of the administrative practices provided by the separate schools for this significant aspect of guidance. 1 . Frank G. Davis, Pupil Personnel Service. Scranton, Pennsylvania, International Textbook Company, 194-8, p.258. TABLE VIII. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SERVICES IH THIRTEEN VANCOUVER SCHOOLS Practices 1. Courses are provided offering a variety of vocational experiences of a try-out or exploratory nature 2. A course i n occupations i s provided 3. Procedures for applying for a position are taught A* Reference materials on various occu-pations are assembled 5. Books and other occupational informa-tion are available i n a special section of the library 6. The assembled occupational information i s easily accessible to pupils 7. Excursions are conducted to industrial and business places 8. Interviews are arranged between inter-ested pupils and representatives of various fields of work. 9. Representatives of various fields of work address the students 10. Each v i s i t i n g speaker i s given a pre-pared outline of topics 11. An annual or biennial vocational con-ference between pupils and representa-tives from different occupational fi e l d s 12. Arrangements are made for an interested pupil or pupils to v i s i t and observe people at actual work TOTAL PRACTICES PER SCHOOL A, B^  B, Individual Schools (see key p. 16) C t Co C>2 Gi C c C/r Dn - 1 <• 3 . A _2_ p _JL u A H a o 3 o a 3 - P «H _ o o wt: X X X X X X X x 8 X X X X X X X X — X X — - 10 - X X X X X X X X X X X x 12 X X X X X X X X X X X X x 13 X X X X - X X - X X X X X 11 X X X X X X X - X X X X x 12 - X X X X - X - - - X X x 8 - X X X X - X - - X X X - 8 - X X X X X X X X - X - - 9 - - X X - - X - - X X - - 5 - - X X X - - - - X - - - A _— - - - X X - - — 5 -2 11 12 -2 _8 11 -1 _8 10 JZ 39 Horizontal Analysis of the Data. Courses offering a variety of vocational experiences of a try-out or exploratory nature, were provided i n the junior high schools, the junior-senior high schools, three of the academically-biased high schools, and i n the technical school. Most of the schools had a course in occupations during group guidance, but three schools did not. A l l the schools except one junior high instructed their pupils i n the methods of procedure i n applying for a position. Reference materials, including books, magazines, pamphlets, and descriptive material on various occupations were assembled by a l l thirteen schools, and i n twelve schools this material was readily accessible to the pupils. In a l l but two schools the library cooper-ated by setting apart a special shelf or section for the display of books or other materials on occupational information. Eight of the schools arranged conducted tours of industrial and business establishments, but comparatively few schools arranged for individuals or groups of pupils to v i s i t and observe people at actual work i n the occupations in which they were most interested. In many of the schools interviews were arranged between interested pupils and representatives of various f i e l d s of. work, but according to remarks of the interviewed counsellors, these arranged interviews occurred mainly at time of placement. Representatives from various fields of work were invited through-out the year to address the student body i n a l l but four of the thirteen schools, but only five schools issued to the speaker a pre-pared outline of topics to be covered. This practice of having speakers throughout the year was much more popular than an annual or biennial vocational conference. The main objection of the coun-sellors to an infrequent conference was that the students could hear, the the most, only two or three representative speakers talk on occupations. Vertical Analysis of the Data i n Table VIII. Junior High School 1^ reported more administrative provision for this particular aspect than Junior High School Ai« The reason given by A^'s counsellor for the school's lack of emphasis on this phase, was the feeling that the senior high school was better suited for this work. Both the junior-senior high schools reported f a i r l y adequate practices, but four of the six academically-biased senior high schools reported very minimum or inadequate administrative practices for this important aspect of guidance. The vocational guidance services i n the commercial-technical group of high schools was reported to be f a i r l y well prejudiced, since i t was f e l t that the students made their vocational choice on entrance to the school. Table IX. attempts to evaluate comparatively the administrative services provided by the schools for the vocational guidance of their students. Again i t i s emphasized that this i s an evaluation of the administrative aspect only, not of the operation or results of the program. TABLE IX. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE REPORTED ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES  PROVIDED FOR THE VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OF THEIR STUDENTS BY THE SEPARATE SCHOOLS Schools A, A, B, B, Inadequate (1-4 items) Type of Program Minimum (5-S items) Extended (9-12 items) x x X X D, X X TOTALS x X 6 CHAPTER VI. EVALUATION OF REPORTED PLACEMENT AND FOLLOW-UP SERVICES Criterion 5. Each secondary school should make definite provision for aiding the student to locate and obtain suitable employment. Helping the student to enter upon and to progress in an occupation i s as important a part of the vocational guidance process as i s helping him to choose and to pre-pare for an occupation. Both parts should always he ^ provided, and the two parts should never be separated. It may be that this phase of guidance i s overemphasized i n some parts of the United States, resulting i n a neglect of the other aspects of the guidance program, but i t would seem from this survey that this i s not so in Vancouver. Granted there i s a government placement bureau, but the school i s i n a much better position to give the employer intimate and exact information about the student, and to determine what type of occupation i s best suited to the student himself. Placement and follow-up may not be entirely the obligation of the school, but the school should certainly share i n the work. Table X. indicates the lack of administrative services provided by the majority of the schools to accomplish this important aspect of guidance. 1. Jane Warters, High School Personnel Work Today, New York, McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 194.6, p. 18. TABLE X. PLACEMENT AND FOLLOW-UP SERVICES IN THIRTEEN VANCOUVER SCHOOLS Practices 1. A record i s kept of graduates regard-ing employment, further education, etc. 2. An effort i s made to locate part-time or full-time employment for pupils 3. The school maintains a close r e l a -tionship with public employment bureaux in the placing of leaving pupils 4-. Interviews are held with parents of a l l pupils leaving school to enter employment before graduation 5. Provision i s made for counselling former pupils who are now employed or unemployed 6. Drop-outs are followed-up 7. Students make follow-up studies of graduates TOTAL PRACTICES PER SCHOOL Individual Schools (see key p. 15) x X D. _x 6 x X _ i _A -2 -A J J x -1 u <D 03 f 3 P O CO •a -P «H o o x 7 x 7 x 11 x 11 - 1 _z 2 -A 6 Horizontal Analysis of the Data. Excluding the junior high schools, because their graduates mainly proceed to senior high school, only seven of the eleven senior high schools kept a record of graduates, noting employment, further education or other such information. Scarcely half of the senior high schools reported any systematic effort to locate employment for their pupils. On the other hand, almost a l l the high schools maintained a close relationship with the National Employment Service, and also offered counselling to any former pupils who were then employed or unemployed. Only the junior and junior-senior high schools contacted the parents of pupils leaving school to enter employment before graduation. One school alone carried out a follow-up investigation of drop-outs, while only two schools reported any follow-up studies of their graduates. Vertical Analysis of the Data in Table X. It i s reasonable that a junior high school would not have as many placement services as a senior high school. For that reason, i n the following evaluation table the program of Junior High School Ag i s rated as "Minimum" rather than "Inadequate". Junior-Senior High School B i reported the provision of more administrative services for this aspect of guidance than any of the other schools. Of the academically-biased senior high schools, Schools and appeared to pay more attention to the placement phase than the 45 others, although not even they reported any follow-up practices. A good deal of placement work has been carried out by the three schools in the commercial-technical group of senior high schools, but only two of them reported any provision for follow-up work. Table XI. attempts to evaluate comparatively the administrative services provided by the separate schools for the placement and follow-up of their graduates or drop-outs. TABLE XI. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE REPORTED ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES PROVIDED BY THE SEPARATE SCHOOLS FOR THE PLACEMENT AND FOLLOW-UP OF THEIR GRADUATES OR DROP-OUTS Schools Type of Program Inadequate Minimum Extended (1-3 items) (4-5 items) (6-7 items) A l * -A 2 x B]_ x B 2 x G^ x °2 C 3 x h °5 ° 6 * 3 TOTALS ~6~ ~ ~ No claim i s made i n the preceding comparative evaluation to an appraisal of the operation or results of the placement and follow-up services i n the schools, but the indication i s that the guidance aspect under consideration does not receive the attention i t should i n most schools. 47. CHAPTER VII. EVALUATION OF REPORTED INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING SERVICES Criterion 6. Each secondary school should make provision for systematic counsel for every student, while yet respecting the individual's right and recognizing his responsibility to make his own decisions and formulate his own plans. It has been found, even i n the smallest high schools of one hundred or fewer pupils, that i f a program i s to be effective, one person should devote at least one hour per day to pupil counseling and personnel problems; for each additional one hundred pupils, another hour per day, pre-ferably by the same person, should be allowed for this work. The cooperation of other teachers, community leaders and specialists from the industries and the professions w i l l need to be sought and u t i l i z e d . As early as possible after his high school enrollment, each pupil should become well-known to a counsellor, who through interviews, home v i s i t s and the l i k e , i s able to speak on his behalf with somewhat more intimate knowledge than others when the occasion demands. I t i s readily accepted that the f a i l i n g pupil, the delinquent, and other kinds of deviates need special help, but i t i s less commonly accepted that nearly a l l normal pupils have problems and needs of sufficient importance to merit competent assistance. Table XII. gives a broad picture of the practices provided i n the secondary schools of Vancouver to effect individual counselling. 1. United States, Federal Security Agency, Office of Education, Coop- erative Planning Pamphlet No. 102. Washington, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1947, p. 16. 1 TABLE XII. INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING SERVICES IN THIRTEEN VANCOUVER SCHOOLS Practices Individual Schools (see key, p. 16) u 0 ca 1 ° 3 o o - P <*-{ *1 A 2 h B 2 c l G 2 Ik. 2s. V 0 0 1 . A desirable counsellor-pupil ratio — X X X — — — — X X — - x 6 2 . Each pupil receives an average of one hour's counselling per year - - X X - - - — X - - - - 3 3 . Interviews are scheduled with each pupil at least twice each year — - X X - - X - X , - - - - 4 4 . Interviews are held with pupils who leave school before graduation - X X X X X X - X X X X X 11 5 . Interviews are scheduled during regular school periods X X X X X X X X X X X X x 13 6 . Counsellor office hours are provided for self - i n i t i a t e d interviews X X X X X X X X X X X X x 13 7 . Detailed studies are made of the com-plete individual record every year X X X X X X - - X X - - - 8 8. Notes ofrecognition for meritorial * service are sent to parents - - X - - — X - — — — — - 2 9 . Parents are informed in writing of un-satisfactory work of pupils X X X - X X X - X - X - x 9 1 0 . Reports of maladjusted pupils i n need of counselling are made by teachers . X X X X — X X - X X X X X 11 1 1 . A private counselling room i s provided X X X X - X X - X X - X x 10 12. Counsellor continues with same group u n t i l graduation - X - X X X X - X - X X - 8 1 3 . Personal interviews are kept confidential x X X X X X X X X X X X x 13 1 4 . Pupil's free expression i s encouraged X X X X X X X X X X X X x 13 1 5 . Written records are kept of interviews X X X X X X X - X X X X - 11 1 6 . Psychiatric and social welfare services are used X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13 17. Counsellors are freed from other work X X X X X - X - X X X - x 10 TOTAL PRACTICES PER SCHOOL 11 u 16 15. 11 12 i i _5 1 6 12 11 12 1 1 4-9. Horizontal Analysis of the Data. I t w i l l be noted from the table that less than half of the guidance departments in the different schools were of the opinion that a desirable counsellor-pupil ratio was i n effect. S t i l l more remarkable i s the fact that only three of the thirteen schools sur-veyed considered that each of their pupils, on an average, received, one hour's counselling i n each school year. The feeling i n some schools was, that since there was insufficient time to do a l l the needed counselling, the average uncomplaining pupil who was reluctant to i n i t i a t e an interview must be neglected. Very few schools, in fact only four out of the thirteen, scheduled interviews with each pupil twice a year to consider his school progress, problems, and change in educational or vocational plans. The wish was there but not the time. Most schools did, though, have a special interview with each pupil who l e f t school be-fore graduation, to consider his or her vocational plans and adjust-ment. A l l schools scheduled interviews during regular school periods, preferably keeping them to library and study periods. Besides, a l l counsellors provided office hours for s e l f - i n i t i a t e d interviews at times when pupils were generally free. In only eight of the thirteen schools was a detailed study of the complete record of each pupil made at least once a year. The majority of the schools did inform parents periodically, i n writing, of unsatisfactory work of pupils, but only two schools made i t a practice to send notes of recognition to parents of pupils who 5 0 . were doing work of exceptional merit, or who had rendered unusual school service. In most of the schools, teachers f i l e d with the counsellor re-ports of maladjusted pupils i n need of counselling, and a l l schools made use of psychiatric services. Not a l l , though, took advantage of social welfare services. In three of the thirteen schools, no private conference room was provided for pupil-counseller interviews, but a l l schools at-tempted to keep personal interviews confidential, and encouraged the counsellee to express himself freely. With the exception of two schools, written records were kept of a l l important interviews. The counsellor continued with the same group of students u n t i l graduation i n only eight of the thirteen schools. In the case of Junior-Senior High School B-^ , i t i s understandable that the pupil might change counsellors over the period of six years, but no good reason can be seen for the change of counsellor i n the other four schools. To a certain extent counsellors were freed from other responsi-b i l i t i e s to give them more time for counselling, but from the survey i t would appear that most of the counsellors s t i l l did not have sufficient time for their counselling duties. Vertical Analysis of the Data in Table XII. With few exceptions, the counselling services of the secondary schools of Vancouver have much to be desired. According to conversa-tions with the counsellors, much better counselling services are anticipated i n the school year 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 * 51. Table XIII. attempts to evaluate comparatively the administrative provision in the separate schools for the individual counselling of their students. TABLE XIII. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE REPORTED ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES PROVIDED BY THE SEPARATE SCHOOLS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING OF THEIR STUDENTS Schools Type of Program Inadequate Minimum Extended (1-6 items) (7-12 items) (13-17 items) x A2 x B l B2 x C l C2 x C3 x C 5 x c6 x D l x D2 * h _ — TOTALS _1_ _7_ _±_ Of the two junior high schools, School A£ reported more adminis-trative practices for this important aspect than School A-^ , but even i t s program did not provide each student with the amount of individual counselling advocated by research and other guidance literature. Both junior-senior high schools reported adequate provision for the individual counselling of their pupils. With regard to the six academically-biased senior high schools, the reported services rendered by School were rated as "inadequate while only two schools reported adequate practices. A l l three of the commercial-technical group of high schools reported comparatively minimum programs which l e f t much to be desired. 53. CHAPTER VIII. EVALUATION OF REPORTED FACILITIES FOR THE  GROWTH AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE GUIDANCE PROGRAM Criterion 7 . The guidance program of each secondary school should be so organized that i t does not become static, but is energetic and pro-gressive. A successful program of guidance in any school depends to a large extent upon the interest that the teachers and staff members of the school have in that program. According to Strang^, the philoso-phy of guidance should permeate the entire staff and each member of i t should be aided by competent leadership to contribute to the program according to the opportunities inherent in his or her position. Warters made the following statement with regard to studying and improving personnel work: Research and evaluation, with the object of improvement of personnel work, is held an essential service when per-sonnel workers are concerned for the future, as well as for the present effectiveness of the personnel program. Too often workers take for granted the effectiveness of their work. Without research they can never be sure that i t is what they believe i t to be, for mere opinion without objec-tive evidence does not suffice.^ Table XIV. presents a comparative picture of the facilities with-in the different schools for growth and improvement of their guidance programs. 1. Ruth Strang, The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1935, p.16. 2. Jane Warters, High School Personnel Work Today. New York, McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1946, p. 203. TABLE XIV. FACILITIES FOR GROWTH AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE GUIDANCE PROGRAM IN THIRTEEN VANCOUVER SCHOOLS Practices Individual Schools (see key, p. 14) ^ 1. i guidance committee i s maintained for studying needs and making recommendations x x x x x - - - - - - x - 6 2. Professional books and periodicals on guidance theory and practice are pro-vided for the use of the faculty x x x x x x x - x x x j x -11 3. One or more periods are provided weekly for homeroom guidance act i v i t i e s - - - - - - x - - - x - x 3 4-. Teachers and counsellors bear a con-sultative relationship to one another x x x x x x x - x x x x x l 2 5 . Conferences of teachers, administrators, and counsellors are provided to discuss problem cases x x x x - x x - x x - x - 9 6. Staff meetings of guidance officers i n the school and system are held and attended regularly x x x x - - x - x x - x - 8 7. One or more teachers 1 meetings through-out the year are devoted to a considera-tion of guidance problems x x x - - - x ~ - x x x - 7 8. Phases of the school's guidance program are interpreted to the community x - x - x - x - - - - - - 4 9. Provision-is made for the continual and systematic collection of occupational information materials x x x - x x x - x x - x - 9 10. Periodic studies are made of the nature ' , and extent of pupil failure x x x - - x - - x - x - - o 1 1 . Pupils are requested to record their, opinions of tne value of various guid-ance procedures - x - - x __- x - ~ __x _x _ r 5 TOTAL PRACTICES PER SCHOOL _ 2 _ l _ 2 _ i _ 6 _ i _ 2 _ 2 _ i _ Z - l - 2 _ 2 55. Horizontal Analysis of the Data. Less than half the schools maintained a guidance committee for the purpose of studying the guidance needs of the school and recommend-ing guidance practice. Of the six schools that did, in almost a l l cases the guidance committee and the guidance department were one and the same thing. Sometimes the principal or vice-principal were included but very seldom any other staff. Almost a l l the schools provided professional books and periodicals on guidance theory and practice for faculty members, and in a l l except four schools, provision was made for the continual and syste-matic collection of occupational materials for teach and pupil use. In the majority of schools there was no home-room guidance except for maybe ten minutes in the morning, five minutes in the afternoon. One of the junior high schools made a t r i a l of providing a home-room guidance period each week in grade seven, and found the service very promising. Teachers and counsellors bore a consultative relationship in a l l schools where counsellors had been appointed, and most of the s schools held conferences of teachers, administrators, and guidance specialists, in order to discuss problem cases. Almost a l l the schools had frequent staff meetings of guidance officers in the school, but only eight of the thirteen guidance departments attended or sent representatives to the periodic meetings of guidance officers in the system. Very few schools had one or more entire teachers' meetings throughout the year devoted to a consideration of guidance problems, but some devoted part of a number of meetings to a discussion of guidance. 56. Most of the schools reported that no systematic effort was made to interpret phases of the school's guidance program to the community, unless the school had a Parent-Teacher Association. Vertical Analysis of the Data in Table XIV. The two junior high schools reported f a i r l y adequate f a c i l i t i e s for the growth and improvement of their guidance programs. Of the two junior-senior high schools School reported much more provision for growth than School I^. With respect to the six academically-biased senior high schools, School reported f a i r l y adequate provision for the growth and im-provement of i t s guidance program, School reported almost no provision at a l l , while the other four schools reported only compara-tively'minimum f a c i l i t i e s for this important aspect of guidance. School D3 was the only school of the three in the commercial-technical group which reported anywhere near adequate f a c i l i t i e s for the growth and improvement of i t s program. The other two schools reported only minimum provision. Table XV. attempts to evaluate comparatively the f a c i l i t i e s reported by the schools for the growth and improvement of their guidance programs. From i t no conclusions or inferences can be drawn as to the operation of the program or the results obtained. 57. TABLE XV. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE REPORTED ADMINISTRATIVE FACILITIES  PROVIDED BY THE SEPARATE SCHOOLS FOR THE GROWTH AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE GUIDANCE PROGRAM Schools A, B, B, Inadequate (1-4 items) Type of Provision Minimum (5-8 items) x X Extended (9-11 items) x X X - 5  c 6 D l D0 x x TOTALS 58. CHAPTER IX. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Table XVI. i s a composite summary of the evaluations reached i n the preceding chapters. I t i s not to be interpreted as an  evaluation of the conduct or results of the guidance - practices. Conclusions Regarding Each Individual School. Junior High School Ai« Although the majority of the graduates from a junior high school usually proceed to a senior high school, there are s t i l l many students who discontinue their formal education either at graduation or before graduation, and who need guidance i n placement. From the reported practices i n this school i t appears that comparatively inadequate services are provided for this minority. The evaluation summary also indicates that more administra-tive provision should be made for the orientation, educational guidance, and individual counselling of the students. Junior High School A2 Although by comparison with the other schools i t appears this school provides f a i r l y adequately for most of the guidance aspects, the summary indicates the need for a more extended service with regard to the orientation and individual counselling of the students. TABLE XVI. COMPOSITE SUMMARY OF THE EVALUATIONS Schools Orientation Records  and their Utilization Type of Service Provided for Each Aspect Placement Educational- Guidance Vocational Guidance Individual Services Counselling F a c i l i t i e s  for Growth  and Improvement A l Minimum Extended Extended Minimum Inadequate Minimum Extended A 2 Minimum Extended Extended Extended Minimum Extended Extended B l Extended Extended Extended Extended Extended Extended Extended B 2 Minimum Extended Extended Extended Inadequate Extended Minimum Cl Minimum Extended Extended Extended Minimum Minimum Minimum C 2 Inadequate Minimum Extended Inadequate Minimum Minimum c 3 Minimum Extended Extended Extended Minimum Extended Extended H Inadequate Minimum Minimum Inadequate Inadequate Inadequate Inadequate h Inadequate Extended Minimum Mi-pi nrnni Inadequate Extended Minimum Minimum Extended Extended Minimum Inadequate Minimum Minimum D l Minimum Inadequate Minimum Extended Minimum Minimum Miwitmnn D 2 Inadequate Minimum Minimum Minimum Minimum Minimum Minimum D3 Minimum Inadequate Minimum Minimum Minimum Minimum Inadequate 6o. Junior-Senior High School B^. Evaluation of the administrative practices reported by this school indicates that i t made adequate provision for a l l phases of guidance under investigation. Junior-Senior High School B,-.. Apparently the aspect which especially needs more attention at this school i s that of Placement and Follow-up. The services for the orientation of the student, and f a c i l i t i e s for growth and improve-ment of the guidance program also merit some added consideration. Senior High School 0-^  Although at least "minimum" services are provided by this school for a l l seven aspects investigated, a more extended provision i s i n -dicated for the orientation of the student, for placement and follow-up work, for individual counselling, and for growth and improvement of the guidance program. Senior High School Cg. The fact that only a g i r l s ' counsellor was appointed at this school may p a r t i a l l y account for the large number of "inadequate" or "minimum" ratings showing on the evaluation summary. The appraisal of i t s reported administrative practices reveals the need for many more orientation and placement services. Practices could be well extended for the accumulation and u t i l i z a t i o n of informa-tion on students, for vocational guidance, for individual counselling, and for growth and improvement of the guidance program. Senior, Hjgh School Cy Except for the fact that the orientation and placement services seem to need more attention, the administrative guidance practices reported by this school indicate that i t makes provision for a f a i r l y 61. adequate program. Senior High. School C^. The number of "inadequate" ratings on the evaluation summary i s , i n a l l probability, largely due to the fact that no counsellors were specifically appointed i n this school. More administrative provision appears necessary for a l l aspects of the program, with perhaps less emphasis on the student-record and educational guidance phases since the practices with regard to these two aspects are at least rated as minimum. Senior High, School,,^. Here again, the orientation and placement services apparently need much more attention. The practices for the educational and vocational guidance of the student, and for the growth and improve-ment of the guidance program, could apparently he extended advanta-geously. Senior High, Sghpol fy* Table XVI. indicates that the administrative services provided by this school for the placement and follow-up of i t s students are inadequate. More practices for the orientation, vocational guidance, and individual counselling of i t s students, and for the growth and improvement of i t s guidance program, would apparently be beneficial. Senior High School D^. The fact that this school does not keep individual counsellor record-folders for i t s students accounts for the "inadequate" rating i t receives for this aspect in the evaluation summary. The table also indicates that more practices should be provided for the orientation and educational guidance of i t s students, for placement and follow-up work, for individual counselling, and for 62, the growth and improvement of i t s guidance program. Senior High School Dg. In this school extension of administrative practices i s indicated as necessary with regard to a l l phases of the guidance program and particularly with regard to the orientation of i t s Btudents. Senior High School D^. Table XVI. discloses the comparative lack of administrative provision i n this school for the requirements of a l l aspects of the program. Like School D-^  this school does mot provide individual counsellor record-folders, which largely causes the "inadequate" rating of i t s services,, for the gathering and using of information on i t s students. Its reported f a c i l i t i e s for the growth and improvement of it© guidance program also are rated as inadequate. General Conclusions Table XVII. i s a summary showing the incidence of the three evaluative types of practices provided by the schools for each of the seven aspects of guidance investigated i n this study. From this summary the following general conclusions are drawn: 1. The aspect receiving the best administrative provision i n the schools i s educational guidance. 2. The majority of the schools have adequate practices with regard to the gathering and using of information on their pupils, but extension of services i s needed i n some schools. 3 . Administrative provision for the vocational guidance aspect receives adequate attention i n slightly less than half the schools. Most of the remainder have "minimum" provision. 4. Approximately one third of the schools have adequate provision of individual counselling services and of f a c i l i t i e s for the growth and •63. improvement of their guidance programs, but the majority of the schools have only "minimum" practices for these two aspects. TABLE XVII. SUMMARY OF TYPES OF SERVICE PROVIDED BY THE THIRTEEN SCHOOLS  FOR THE SEVEN MAJOR GUIDANCE ASPECTS INVESTIGATED Guidance A g P e c t s Incidence of Type of Service in the Thirteen Schools Inadequate  No. % Minimum No. "56 Extended No. Orientation 3 1 * 6 1 * 8 * Records and Their U t i l i z a t i o n 1 6 * 2 3 * 8 6 1 * Educational Guidance 0 — 3 9 * 8 6 1 * Vocational Guidance 8 * 4 6 * 4 6 * Placement Services 4 6 * 4 6 * 8 * Individual Counselling 8 * 5 4 * 3 8 * F a c i l i t i e s for Growth and Improvement of the Guidance Program 2 1 6 * 5 4 * 3 1 * 5. The important aspect of orientation receives only "minimum" attention i n most of the schools, and "inadequate" attention i n many. 6. Placement services receive less attention than any of the other aspects of guidance. Recommendations Based upon the Weaknesses Disclosed i n the Investigation. 1. More and better provision i s indicated for the orientation of i n -coming pupils before admission, and for the orientation of graduating pupils before progressing to their next school. (refer T a b l e l * p.18) 2 . There i s need for a f u l l psychological testing program in the schools, especially the senior high schools, under personnel trained i n the administration and evaluation of psychological tests. (refer Table I I I . , p . 2 4 - 2 5 ) 3« The need i s indicated for at least three broad curricula i n each school, i and for the issue of pamphlets to a l l pupils and their parents des-cribing i n detail contents, purpose, and value of courses. (refer Table VI., p. 32) 4. On the basis of need i t i s recommended that arrangements be made by a l l schools for their pupils to v i s i t and observe people at actual work in the occupations in which the pupils are most interested. (refer Table VIII., p. 38) 5. The need i s indicated from the data for f u l l placement services i n a l l schools> including follow-up studies of drop-outs and graduates. (refer Table X., p. 43) 6. On the basis of need i t is recommended that a desirable coun-sellor-pupil ratio be i n effect in a l l schools. Counsellors for boys and g i r l s are needed no matter how small the school i s , with s u f f i -6 5 . cient time allowed for an average of one hour's counselling per pupil per year. (refer Table XII., p. 48) 7. There i s need for a rotating guidance committee in each school to study the guidance needs of the school and to recommend guidance practice. The need i s also indicated from the data for better interpretation of the phases of the school's guidance program to the community, for periodic studies of the nature and extent of pupil f a i l u r e , for periodic recording by pupils of their opinions concerning the value to them of the various guidance procedures included i n the school program. (refer Table XIV., p. 54) General Recommendations. 1. The foregoing evaluation of the administrative provisions for guidance in the Vancouver schools indicates wide discrepancies among the programs provided by the different schools. A great deal of this variation i s more than l i k e l y due to differences in training and outlook of the several guidance departments. A l l youth stands in need of organized guidance services. Neither the size of the school attended, the kinds of curricula or courses offered, or the type of community in which the school i s situated, can eliminate this need. Because of this i t i s recommended that trained counsellors be provided for each school i f possible, or i f not, that a supervised program of in-service training be instituted. 2. In the administration of the survey, i t was found that much interest was displayed by the counsellors interviewed. Many of them realized that their programs were in need of improvement, but because of lack 66.. of time or f a c i l i t i e s , they had not been able to effect such im-provement. I t i s recommended that a central guidance division be set up to coordinate a l l individual school services for guidance, with the object of making those services more uniform. 3. It i s recommended that a systematic program of evaluation should be put into effect, with the central guidance division carrying out periodic surveys of the administrative practices and personnel, and the individual schools providing for continuous self-evaluation by methods such as those suggested i n Chapter I. of this study. Suggestions for Further Study. Throughout this study, constant emphasis has been placed on the fact that the basis for evaluation has been only the number of specific guidance practices reported by the schools surveyed. Such evaluation provides no measurement of the effectiveness of the pro-gram. To investigate the effectiveness of the practices, to determine the outcomes of guidance i n terms of the individual, to determine the effect on teachers and counsellors of the guidance program, and to determine the areas of growth in the guidance program, i t i s sug-gested that an investigation such as the Sari Francisco study, reported by Rathbun^, be carried out. In order to determine the permanence of the effects of the guidance program i t i s suggested that developmental investigations be made in some or a l l of the schools, using follow-up studies of the 1. Jesse E. Rathbun, "San Francisco's Annual Evaluation of Counseling "and Guidance," Clearing House, vol. 20, (October 194-5), pp. 95-97. graduates. The report made by Barber on the evaluation of the ten-year development of a high school personnel program i s evidence that such research i s well worth while. 1. Joseph E. Barber, Evaluating; School Guidance. Buffalo, N. I., Foster and Stewart Publishing Corporation, 194.6. 68. APPENDIX A SURVEY OF GUIDANCE PRACTICES IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS  OF VANCOUVER. B. C. Name of School . . . . . . . . . Name of Counsellor . . . GUIDANCE FOR ORIENTATION Yes No Pre-Admlssion Orientation (1) Is a pre-enrollment spring meeting with incoming pupils arranged?  (2) Do the (junior high school) pupils v i s i t the (senior) (elementary ) (junior) high school prior to enrollment?.  (3) Does a member of the senior high school administrative or guidance staff talk to the incoming pupils i n the spring?  Post-Admission Orientation (1) Has a "Freshmen Day" just prior to school opening been tried?  (2) Are incoming pupils assisted to become acquainted with the school building the f i r s t day?  (3) Are the older pupils used as guides for the incoming freshmen?  (4) Are incoming pupils assisted to make intelligent use of the library, cafeteria, etc., at the f i r s t opportu-nity? (5) Is a student handbook issued to each new pupil? (6) Are records other than the formal academic cumulative record requested from the (junior high) school? (elementary )  Orientation as Part of the Curriculum (1) Is the material i n the Student Handbook explained to the new pupils i n Group Guidance classes?  (2) Is a handbook test carried out?  (3) Are pupil a c t i v i t i e s and organizations provided to arouse avocational interests and stimulate the development of desirable personality and character traits?  (4.) Is there orientation to sex education?  Pre-Graduation Orientation to Senior High School (1) Do the (senior) high school pupils v i s i t the (university ) (junior) (senior high school) prior to graduation? (2) Does a member of the (university ) administrative. ^— 2 — (senior high school) or guidance staff talk to the graduating pupils i n the spring?  Comment RECORDING AND UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION ABOUT STUDENTS (1) Does the administration provide for a comprehensive record system, meeting adequate standards of compactness, usability, and c l e r i c a l economy?  (2) Are a l l records relevant to guidance services readily accessible to counsellors and others authorized to use them?  (3) Is adequate c l e r i c a l service provided?  (4) Is a comprehensive cumulative record card kept for each pupil? ' (5) Do these record cards have the following information: (7) ( a (b (c (d (e (f; (g (h ( i (j (k (1 (* (n (o (P (q (r School attendance? Complete and up-to-date scholarship information? Pupil's work experiences? Educational and vocational plans? Pupil's extra curricular activities? Out-of-school activities? Parents' plan for the pupil? Home environment? Data concerning pupil's parents? Cumulative health record? Special aptitudes, interests and a b i l i t i e s of pupils? Pupil's elementary school record? A l l interviews held at school with the parents? A l l home v i s i t s made by teachers? Juvenile court experiences of problem pupils?  Complete case studies record for problem pupils? Test scores on psychological tests? A complete record of a l l important interviews held between the counsellor and the individual pupil? (6) Are the following tests administered: Standardized diagnostic tests? Personality tests? Aptitude tests? (a (b (c (d (e Is the psychological testing program administered by persons with training i n tests and measurements? Interest Inventories? Sociometric tests? (8) Are complete case studies made of problem pupils? (9) Do teachers have access to the psychological test results of pupils?  70-* Yes No (10) Are contacts made with community agencies, such as social service agencies, relief agencies, church organizations, etc., for the exchange of information concerning pupils and their families?  (11) Are employers of pupils working on a part-time basis consulted for additional information regarding a pupil's interests, abilities, habits, etc.?  (12) Are visits made to pupils' homes?  (13) Is provision made for parents to report information concerning the pupil, which might have a bearing on his school success?  (14) Are reports of outcomes of conferences of administrators or other staff members with parents, concerning the pupil's plans or progress, systematically made to the pupil's adviser?  (15) Are definite arrangements made for a l l teachers to report particular aptitudes, special interests and outstanding abilities of pupils to their advisers?  (16) Do teachers of try-out courses f i l e periodic reports on the specific interests, abilities, and aptitudes shown by each pupil in the various units of work?  (17) Are case conferences held on some students?  (18) Are anecdotal records made?  (19) Is a differentiation made specifically between records of a confidential nature and those open to inspection?  Comment EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE (1) Are at least three curricula provided?  (2) Is there transfer from one to another in accordance with changing plans without loss of credit?  (3) If a constants-variable plan of curriculum is in use, are suggested curricula mapped out?  (4) Does each entering pupil outline a tentative but complete program of studies for the remainder of at least his .junior high school career?  (5) Are copies of a program of studies, arranged as to curricula, subjects, etc., made available to pupils and parents?  (6) Is a pamphlet or booklet issued describing in detail contents, purpose, and value of courses?  (7) Are explanatory talks given by the principal or other staff member to the student body concerning content and choice of curricula and courses?  Are bulletin; boards utilized to bring guidance materials to the attention of pupils? ] Are arrangements made for interested pupil groups to meet with the representatives of various colleges?  Are parents of a l l entering pupils individually invited to confer with the school regarding the pupils' educational and vocational plans?  (8) (9) (10) Yes No (11) Is data available to show the type and extent of education or training required for entrance into occupations?  (12) Are catalogues of colleges, private schools, and vocational schools of various kinds assembled and f i l e d where they may be freely consulted by pupils?  (13) Is the co-operation of the chamber of commerce, c i v i c organizations, etc,, u t i l i z e d i n the guidance program?  (L4) Do you use visual aids frequently for guidance purposes?  Comment VOCATIONAL.GUIDANCE (1) Are courses provided, offering a variety of vocational experiences of a try-out or exploratory nature provided?  (2) Is a course i n occupations provided?  (3) Is provision made for teaching pupils methods of procedure i n applying for a position? \ ( 4 ) Are reference materials, including books, magazines, pamphlets, descriptive material, etc., on various occupations assembled?  (5) Is a special shelf or section of the school library set apart for the display of books or other material on occupational information? • (6) Is the assembled occupational information made easily accessible to the pupils? (7) Are excursions conducted to industrial and business establishments?  (8) Are arrangements made for individual pupils to have interviews with representatives from various fi e l d s of work i n which they are interested? (9) Are representatives from various fields of work invited to address the student body concerning their particular occupation? ' (10) Is each v i s i t i n g speaker on occupations given a prepared outline of topics to be covered?  (11) Does the school sponsor an annual vocational conference of pupils and representatives from several different occupa-tional fields? . (12) Are arrangements made for individuals or groups of pupils to v i s i t and observe people at actual work i n the occupations i n which they are most interested? ;  Comment Yes No ' PLACEMENT SERVICES (1) Is a record kept of graduates' re-employment, further education, etc.?  (2) Does the school make a systematic effort to locate part-time or full-time employment for pupils?  (3) Does the school maintain a close relationship with public employment bureaus i n the placement of leaving pupils?  (4-) Are interviews held with parents or guardians of a l l pupils leaving school to enter full-time employment?  (5) Is any provision made for counselling former pupils who are now employed or unemployed?  (6) Are drop-outs followed up? ___ (7) Do students make any follow-up studies?  Comment COUNSELLING (1 Is a desirable counsellor-pupil ratio i n effect? Does each pupil receive i n one school year an average of one hour's counselling?  Are interviews systematically scheduled with each pupil at least twice each year, to consider his school progress, his educational and vocational plans?  Is an interview to consider vocational plans and adjust-ment held with a l l pupils leaving school before graduation? , Are interviews scheduled during regular school periods? Are office hours provided by the counsellor at times when pupils are generally free for interviews i n i t i a t e d by them? ] Is a detailed study made of the complete record of each pupil at least once each school year?  Are notes of recognition sent to parents of pupils who are doing work of exceptional merit, or who have rendered unusual school service? ; Are parents informed periodically, i n writing, of unsatisfactory work of pupils?  Do teachers f i l e reports of maladjusted pupils i n need of counselling? _____ Is a private conference room provided for pupil-counsellor interviews? ; ; Does the counsellor continue with the same group of pupils u n t i l graduation?  Are a l l interviews between pupils and counsellors confi-dential?  Is the pupil encouraged to express himself freely?  Does the counsellor keep a written record of the 73. Yes Ho (16) Is use made of psychiatric and social welfare services?  (17) Are the counsellors freed from other responsibilities i n order to give them more time for counselling? Comment ORGANIZATION FOR GUIDANCE AND RESEARCH (1) Is a guidance committee maintained for the purpose of studying the guidance needs of the school and recommending guidance practice?  (2) Are professional books and periodicals on guidance theory and practice provided for the use of faculty members?  (3) Are one or more periods provided weekly for homeroom guidance activities?  ( 4 ) Do teachers and counsellors bear a consulative relation-ship to one another?  (5) Are conferences of teachers, administration, and guidance specialists provided to discuss problem cases?  (6) Are staff meetings of guidance officers i n the school and system held periodically?  (7) Are one or more teachers 1 meetings throughout the year devoted to a consideration of guidance problems?  Are phases of the school's guidance program systematically interpreted to the coimnunity through Parent-Teacher Association programs, newspaper publicity, etc.  Is provision made for the continual and systematic collection of occupational information materials for teacher and pupil use?  (10) Are periodic studies made of the nature and extent of pupil failure?  (11) Are pupils periodically requested to record their opinions concerning the value to them of the various gui-dance procedures included i n the school program ?  Comment (9) BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 . Alstetter, M. L., "Guidance Service i n Two Hundred Secondary Schools," Occupations, v o l . 1 6 , (March 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 5 1 3 - 2 0 . 2 . Barber, Joseph E., Evaluating School Guidance. -Buffalo, N. Y., Foster and Stewart Publishing Corporation, 194-6. 3 . Bate, William G., "School Surveys Its Own Guidance System," Nation's Schools, v o l . 17, (June 1 9 3 6 ) , pp. 4 . 0 - 4 1 . 4 . Bennet, Margaret E., An Evaluation of an Orientation or Group  Guidance Program i n a Four-Year Junior College." 1 9 3 8 , pp. 1 2 1 - 3 8 . Bulletin No. 72, Sixth Series, Stanford University. 5 . Bennet, Margaret E., "The Orientation of Students i n Educational Institutions," from Guidance in Educational Institutions. Thirty-seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education Bloomington, I l l i n o i s , Public School Publishing Company, 1 9 3 8 , pp. 1 7 5 - 1 9 6 . 6 . "Characteristics of a High School Guidance and Counseling Program," North Central Association Quarterly, v o l . 2 2 , (October 1 9 4 7 ) , pp. 2 1 9 - 4 7 . 7 . Bavis, Frank G., Pupil Personnel Service. Scranton, Pennsylvania, International Textbook Company, 1 9 4 8 , p. 2 5 8 . 8 . Erickson, C l i f f o r d E.. A Basic Text for Guidance Workers. New York,_Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1 9 4 7 , pp. 4 2 9 - 4 3 4 . 9 . Eurich, Alvin C , and Wrenn, C. Gilbert, "Appraisal of Student Characteristics-and needs," from Guidance in Educational Institutions; Thirty-seventh Yearbook of the National Society for. the Study of Education, Bloomington, I l l i n o i s , Public School Publishing Company, 1 9 4 8 , pp. 3 1 - 8 5 . 10. Froelich, C l i f f o r d P., Evaluating Guidance Procedures. Washington, D. C , Federal Security Agency, U. $. Office of Education, January, 1 9 4 9 . 1 1 . Hamrin, S, A., Erickson, C. E., a n d O'Brien, M. W., Guidance  Practices i n Public High Schools. Bloomington, I l l i n o i s , McKnight and McKnight, 1 9 4 0 . 1 2 . Jones, Arthur J., Principles of Guidance., New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1 9 3 0 . 1 3 . Kefauver, Grayson N., "Proposals for a Program of Evaluation of Guidance," School Review, vol. 42, (September 1934) pp. 5 1 9 - 2 6 . p 1 4 . Kefauver, Grayson N., and Hand, Harold C., "Measurement of Out-comes of Guidance in Secondary Schools," Teachers College Record, vo l . 33, (January 1932), pp. 3H-34. 15. Kefauver, Grayson N., and Hand, Harold C., Appraising Guidance  i n Secondary Schools, New York, MacMillan Company, 1941. 16. Koos, Leonard V., and Kefauver, Grayson N., Guidance Secondary  Schools New York, MacMillan Company, 1933. 17. Lorimer, Margaret, "An Appraisal of Vocational Guidance," Journal  of Higher Education, vol. 15, (May 1944), Pp. 260-67. 18. Moser, E., "Evaluation of a Guidance Program hy Means of a Student's Check-list," Journal of Educational Research, vol. 42, (April 1949), pp. 609-617. 1 9 . National Society for the Study of Education, Guidance in Educational  Institutions. Thirty-seventh Yearbook, Pt. 1, Bloomington, I l l i n o i s , Public School Publishing Company, 1938. 20. Polmantier, Paul C., and McKinney, Fred, "Programs of Personnel Work." Review of Educational Research, vol. 18, no. 2 , (April 1948), pp. 150-56. 21. Rathbun, Jesse E., "San Francisco's Annual Evaluation of Coun-seling and Guidance," Clearing H o use. vol. 20, (October 1 9 4 5 ) , pp. 9 5 * 9 7 . 22. Reed, Anna Y., "Guidance and Personnel Services i n Education. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, 1 9 4 7 . 23. "Report of the S elf-study Survey of Guidance Practices in North Central Assocation High Schools for :'the I VSchool Year 1947-48," North Central Association Quarterly, vol. 23, (January 1949), pp. 2 7 6 - 3 0 3 . 2 4 . Sacks, Georgia M. "Evaluation of Group Guidance i n Junior High Schools," School Review, vol. 52, (April 1944), pp. 207-14. 25. Smith, C. M., and M. M . Roos, A Guide to Guidance. New York, . Prentice-Hall Inc., 1941. 26. Stevens, V. S,, »»Vocational and Educational Guidance i n Ontario Secondary Schools," Occupations, v o l . 19, (November 1940), , pp. 87-93. 27. Stott, Mary B., "The Appraisal of Vocational Guidance," Occu-pational Psychology.' vol. 17, (January, 1948), pp. 6 -16 . 28. Strang, Ruth, Educational Guidancet Its Principles and Practice, New York, MacMillan Company, 1948, p. 3. 71 29. Strang, Ruth, The Role of the Teacher i n Personnel Work, New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia Univer-si t y , 1 9 3 5 , p. 1 6 . 30. Tyler, Ralph W., "The Place of Evaluation i n Modern Education," Elementary School Journal, v o l . 4 1 , (September 19AO), pp. 19-27. 31. United States, Federal Security Agency, Office of Education j Cooperative Planning Pamphlet No. 1 Q 2 . Washington, U. S. Govern-ment Printing Office, 1 9 A 7 , p. 1 6 . 32. Warters, Jane, High School Personnel Work Today, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1 9 4 6 , p. 2 0 3 . 3 3 . Williams, Nannie M., A Survey of Guidance i n the Accredited Bjgt finVinnig Q f Virginia, Master's Thesis', Washington, D. G., George Washington University, 1 9 4 0 . 3 4 . Williamson, E, G, and Hahn, M. E., Introduction to High School  Counselling. New York, McGraw-Hill, Book Company, 1 9 4 0 . 35". Wilson, Frances M., Procedures i n Evaluating a Guidance Program. Doctor's Thesis, New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1 9 4 5 . 3 6 . Wrenn, C. Gilbert, "The Evaluation of Student Personnel Work: A Critique of the 'Guidance Movement', " School and Society, v o l . 5 2 , (Novembers, 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 4 0 9 - 4 1 4 . 3 7 . Yeo, John W. Desirable Guidance Practices for Secondary Schools. Doctor's Thesis, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, 1 9 3 9 . 

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