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An experimental study of an hypothetical mechanism of suggestion and hypnosis McBain, William Norseworthy 1950

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• fl I?]  AH EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF AN HYPOTHETICAL MECHANISM OF SUGGESTION AND HYPNOSIS  by  William Nor sew or thy McB.ain  A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1950,  AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OP AN HYPOTHETICAL MECHANISM OF SUGGESTION AND HYPNOSIS  Abstract The present study i s designed to g a t h e r evidence con-? c e r n i n g two p r e d i c t i o n s made by Magda B. A r n o l d from her hypothesis as to the mechanism o f hypnosis and a g g e s t i o n . She b e l i e v e s t h i s mechanism to be based upon ideo-motor a c t i o n . As the i n d i v i d u a l imagines f o r , more p r e c i s e l y , images) the a c t i o n s , s i t u a t i o n s , and, emotions suggested, t h i s process tends to b r i n g them about. A s u g g e s t i o n i s not acted upon u n t i l the s u b j e c t begins t o t h i n k about i t and t o imagine the s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n the s u g g e s t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h r e e d i s t i n c t k i n d s o f o p e r a t i o n have been r e f e r r e d to as r e s u l t i n g from s u g g e s t i o n . The A r n o l d hypothesis a p p l i e s only t o the ideo-mot or or ' p r e s t i g e type, which i s most t y p i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d .by the H u l l Sway Test. I t i s h e l d t h a t sway occurs i n the H u l l t e s t o n l y as the s u b j e c t imagines h i m s e l f f a l l i n g . Because imagery i s e s s e n t i a l t o e f f e c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n i n both the waking and t h e hypnotic s t a t e s , the p r e d i c t i o n i s made t h a t a d i r e c t appeal to the s u b j e c t to imagine h i m s e l f f a l l i n g w i l l r e s u l t i n scores more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to h i s a b i l i t y to become hypnotized than w i l l the standard "you are f a l l i n g s instructions. The l a t t e r are b e l i e v e d to be e f f e c t i v e o n l y t o the degree t h a t imagery a c c i d e n t a l l y r e s u l t s from them. 1  A second p r e d i c t i o n i s t h a t o n l y those who can imagine most v i v i d l y and w e l l w i l l be capable of a t t a i n i n g the deepest s t a t e s of hypnosis. F o r the purposes of t h i s experiment score's obtained on the F r i e d l a n d e r and S a r b i n S c a l e of Hypnotic Depth are taken as a measure o f the ' h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y ' o f the s u b j e c t s , i n the same manner as H u l l Sway Test scores are used to i n d i c a t e their relative 'suggestibility'. '!Goodness of imagery" i s i n f e r r e d from the scores of t e s t s designed t o be c a r r i e d out i n terms of t h e k i n a e s t h e t i c and v i s u a l modes o f imagery. Two groups of t h i r t y students equated on sex, age, and sway i n an i n i t i a l sway t e s t u s i n g H u l l ' s standard " f a l l i n g " i n s t r u c t i o n s were s u b j e c t to a second sway t e s t . The second sway s c o r e s of the c o n t r o l group, which repeated the o r i g i n a l t e s t , c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the hypnosis s c a l e s c o r e s  to a degree s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than d i d the f i r s t scores. The second sway scores of the experimental group, obtained from a test i n which the instructions were to imagine f a l l i n g as v i v i d l y as possible, showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller c o r r e l a t i o n than Hid the f i r s t ones. This i s cont r a r y to Arnold's f i r s t prediction and i s evidence towards r e j e c t i n g the derived hypothesis. Using the scores of a l l s i x t y students a s i g n i f i c a n t though moderate c o r r e l a t i o n was found between imagery test scores and the r e s u l t s of the hypnosis scale. This i s i n accord w i t h the second prediction, and i s evidence towards accepting the, derived hypothesis. The f a i l u r e of a further analysis to show a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n to exist between scores of imagery and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y suggests the interpretation that imagery scores represent a factor which i s related to hypnotizability but independent of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y . A more, adequate experimental control of motivation and the establishing of the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the imagery tests used should precede the drawing of more d e f i n i t i v e conclusions. ' !  ACMOWLBDGEMM TS  This thesis r e s u l t s as much from the i n t e r e s t , c r i t i c i s m and assistance of f a c u l t y , s t a f f and fellow-students, as from the e f f o r t s of the; w r i t e r . Such help i s very g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. In p a r t i c u l a r , thanks are due to Dr. D.C.G. MacKay, Dr. E.I. Signori and Prof. E.S.W. Belyea for guidance and c r i t i c i s m ; to Prof. Belyea, Dr. J. Allardyce and Dr. F. X. Berry f o r apparatus loaned; to Dr. G.M. Shrum f o r making available a room f o r the experimental work; to Dr. G. A. Ferguson f o r advice on s t a t i s t i c a l procedures; to Miss I . I . Wilson for her generous views as t o a t y p i s t ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; to Mr. Bruce J a f f a r y for h i s photographic work; to eighty most cooperative assistants f o r t h e i r interest; and to my wife, Elizabeth, f o r her forbearance.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  PAGE  INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1. 2» 3.  II  1 4 6  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TEE STUDY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  III,  Introduction The 'Sway? Hypothesis The 'Imagery' Hypothesis  Introduction Suggestion aril Hypnotism Suggestion Ideo-motor Suggestion and the Sway Test Ideo-motor Suggestion and Hypnotism Imagery and the Ideormotor Response  8 12 13 15 17 21  THE EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH 1. 2* 3. 4, 5»  Design of the Experiment The Surroundings The subjects; Test Components of the Experiment The Sway Test (\i) Apparatus ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations ( i i i ) Scoring 6. The Progressive Finger Tracing Test ( i ) Apparatus ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations ( i i i ) Scoring 7. Memory: for Designs Test ( i ) Material Used ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations ( i i i ) Scoring 8. The Paper Cutting Test ( i ) Materials ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations ( i i i ) Scoring 9. Depth of Hypnosis Scale Mi) Apparatus ( i i ) Discussion of the Scale ( i i i ) Scoring  26. 31 33 37 38 43 44 48 51 52 54 54 56 58 58 60 60 62 64  2. TABLE OF CONTENTS  OHAPTEH 17  PAGE  ANALYSIS Of DATA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6» 7. 8.  V  1  67 67 68 69 73 74 76 80  A CRITICAL EVALUATION 03? THE STUDY 1. 2. 3. 4.  VI  Introduction Testing the 'Sway! Hypothesis Comparison of Groups Relation of Sway Test and Hypnotizability Scale Results Testing o f the 'Imagery Hypothesis Relation of Imagery Test and Hypnotizability Scale Results S u g g e s t i b i l i t y , Hypnotizability and Imagery Summary of Analysis  Controls Believed to be Adequate Inadequately Controlled Aspects The Experimental Design Additional Work Required  82 83 84 86  CONCLUSIONS 1. 2.  Interpretation Summary  88 89  REFERENCES  91  APPENDIX A APPEDDIX B APPENDIX C  LIST OF TABLES, PLATES, AND FIGURES  TABLE I  III IV  PAGE Comparison o f Control and Experimental Groups  70  Correlations —• Sway Test and Hypnotizability Scores  72  Correlations — Imagery Test and Hypnotizability Scores  74  P a r t i a l Correlation — Sway Test and Hypnot i z a b i i i t y Scores, Imagery scores 'partialed out!  78  Correlations - Sway Test and Hypnotizability Scores f o r Subjects matched on '2-test imagery!  79  PLATE I  II III IV  V FIGURE 1 2 3 . 4  PAGE General view of Experimental Room and Apparatus  32  Detection of Body Sway  39  Recording Apparatus for Body Sway  40  Administration of Progressive Finger Tracing Test  49  Administration o f Depth, of Hypnosis Scale  61  !Flow Diagram' of Experimental Design Sample Kymograph Record of Body Sway, I l l u s t r a t i n g method of Scoring  27 45  Design and Dimensions o f Progressive Finger Traeing Board  50  Designs used i n Memory For Designs Test  55.  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AMD  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  Introduction Hypnosis  as a phenomenon capable of being produced at  w i l l under conditions suitable for s c i e n t i f i c observation, has been known since the l a s t quarter of the eighteenth century.  In more recent years, certain aspects of what  has come to be known as 'suggestion! have become c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d with hypnosis, and the evidence i s strong that what difference e x i s t s between them i s i n degree rather than i n kind.  But. i n spite of the long h i s t o r y of ttese  a l l i e d phenomena, objective and v e r i f i a b l e facts concerning them are a l l too few. In 1933 Hull (28, p.18) remarked on the progress of knowledge concerning hypnotism:  ''Almost nothing of  significance has been accomplished during this period (the century following 1825) except the very gradual v  correction of errors which o r i g i n a l l y flowed d i r e c t l y from bad experimental procedures."  H u l l was himself l a r g e l y  instrumental i n stimulating a renewed interest i n the experimental, as opposed to the c l i n i c a l , approach to hypnotism, and much experimental work has been performed i n the past twenty years.  2.  Undoubtedly both the aura o f mysticism and supers t i t i o n which has surrounded the subject, and the concentration upon i t s c l i n i c a l aspects, have retarded the accumulation of accurate knowledge concerning i t .  Even  eager researchers are hesitant to entrust t h e i r professional reputations to a f i e l d i n which there exists such a welter of half-proven, semi-disproyen, and contradictory "facts!. The exact s c i e n t i f i c mind i s appalled at the task of finding order and consistency i n the experimental debris t  which has accumulated about t h i s subje ct i n the l a s t century and a half. The most serious deficiencies i n experimental work concerned with hypnosis and suggestion probably have a r i s e n from the lack of a t h e o r e t i c a l framework into which r e s u l t s could be f i t t e d , and from which essential controls might be inferred.  Opinion, rather than f a c t , has too often been  the s t a r t i n g point f o r investigation, and prestige, rather than knowledge, the goal.  Experimentation based on such  motives i s not t oo concerned by the lack of an o v e r a l l plan. In the interests of helping to, e s t a b l i s h a systematic t h e o r e t i c a l basis for the observed phenomena of hypnosis and suggestion, and g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n and impetus to future work, Arnold (1) has put forward an hypothesis concerning the mechanism which she believes to be active i n both  3  waking and hypnotic suggestion.  I t i s designed to explain  the "machinery of automatism'.' by which suggestions are translated into action without the subjective experience of ' w i l l i n g ' , and holds the ''goal directed a c t i v i t y " i n which the subject engages when suggestion i s brought to bear upon him i s not r s t r i v i n g to behave l i k e a hypnotized person' as 1  White ( 4 7 ) has stated, but " . . . s t r i v i n g to focus on the s i t u a t i o n the experimenter describes and to imagine himself in i t %  Arnold believes that an understanding of this  mechanism, which may almost be regarded as a psychosomatic process, w i l l allow the experimenter to explain many of the apparent inconsistencies appearing i n experimental work i n this f i e l d .  \ t*  Starting from the observed and v e r i f i e d fact that imagination of movements i n various body members does i n v a r i a b l y result i n s l i g h t muscular movements i n those members detectable i n some cases only with delicate e l e c t r i c a l instruments, Arnold contends that this imaginative process forms the basis of the group of phenomena which have been called ideo-motor s u g g e s t i b i l i t y .  Only as such movements  are imagined (or, more p r e c i s e l y , imaged) w i l l they take place.  The relaxed state which i s u s u a l l y considered a  prerequisite to hypnosis lessens the influences which normally prevent such mo-vements becoming noticeable, and  4.  the movements which then become apparent enhance the imaginative process and are i n t u r n amplified. The hypnotic state d i f f e r s from the waking mainly because the subject's thinking follows channels determined by the hypnotist, and the suggestions or commands of the hypnotist provide the subject with the d e t a i l s of a s i t u a t i o n which he can imagine and therefore unwittingly act out. Similar though less intense effects may be produced  i n a relaxed, cpn?-  centrated state when the thinking i s determined by the subject himself.  However, i n such cases i t i s obvious that  the concentration w i l l be l e s s complete,  as some attention  i s diverted to the determining of the d i r e c t i o n and focus of imagery. From the primary hypothesis that a suggestion i s acted upon only i f the subject begins to think about i t and to imagine the s i t u a t i o n described i n the suggestion, Arnold has made several predictions.  In the present study, i t  i s proposed to secure and analyse experimental data designed to test secondary hypotheses which are derived from two of these predictions. The t'Sway Hypothesis!! The Arnold Hypothesis holds that the r e s u l t s i n both hypnosis and ideo-motor  suggestion tests are determinedly  the extent to which mental images are formed and concentrated  5.  upon by the subject.  The Hull Sway Test has found con-  siderable acceptance as a measure of the ideo-motor of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y .  type  Various investigators have found a  p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the hypnotizr a b i l i t y of subjects and t h e i r score on the sway t e s t . In the sway t e s t , Arnold believes, the suggestion "you are f a l l i n g " , i s reacted to only as the person himself f a l l i n g .  imagines  From this s i t u a t i o n comes the f i r s t pre-  diction: ''We should expect a s t i l l higher c o r r e l a t i o n between h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y as measured by the sway test i f the subjects were asked to think of f a l l i n g forward instead of giving -them the suggestion 'you are f a l l i n g f o r ward', which he ( s i c ) may or may not believe and therefore may or ..may not v i s u a l i z e , i (1, p. 118) It should be noted that t h i s p r e d i c t i o n i s not concerned with the amount of the effect with which we are concerned, but only with an increase i n the extent to which the r e s u l t s of the sway test r e l a t e to a measure of the subject's hypnotizability. An experimental investigation of t h i s p r e d i c t i o n may best be designed by deriving from i t a secondary hypothesis stated i n .specific terms. hypothesis follows:  The statement  of such an  6,  " I f the members of two comparable groups are subject to a sway test, the f i r s t being given the standard Hull ' f a l l i n g * instructions, while the second are/asked to imagine themselves f a l l i n g as v i v i d l y as possible, the scores of the second group w i l l correlate with a measure of the extent to which, they become hypnotized to a degree s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than w i l l the scores of the f i r s t group,". The foregoing statement w i l l be referred to as the •'Sway Hypothesis !, and i s the primary subject of the present 1  investigation. The  !Imager y Hypot he s i s V If hypnotic e f f e c t s depend upon imagery, then the  a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l to form mental images becomes basic to h i s a b i l i t y to become hypnotized.  It i s upon t h i s  relationship that Arnold bases the second p r e d i c t i o n which i s considered i n t h i s study.  She says* (1, p.  118)  !'.". .on the basis of the evidenoe we could predict that; only those subjects, who can imagine sharply and w e l l i n the waking state w i l l have the," necessary vividness of imagination and,the necessary concentration to make, them good subjects for hypnosis." This does not say that poor hypnotic subjects w i l l not be found to have good imagery, but-rather that excellence of imagery i s a-prerequisite for achieving a deep hypnotic state..  7.  Restated i n terms applicable to the present study, this prediction w i l l he referred t o as the "Imagery Hypothesis", and i s worded as follows: '.'In a p a r t i c u l a r population there w i l l he found to he a s i g n i f i c a n t correlation between objective measures of goodness of imagery and of measures of tte a b i l i t y to become hypnotized, and i n p a r t i c u l a r those subjects who prove most hypnotizable will,secure imagery scores s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than those who prove least hypnotizable." The purpose of the present study, then, i s t o secure evidence bearing on the two hypotheses already stated.  The  scope must be s u f f i c i e n t l y broad, however, t o provide background material to enable the reader t o follow the content and to appreciate the p r i n c i p l e s involved*  to describe the  processes used i n gathering evidence; to interpret and evaluate the evidence presented; and to assess c r i t i c a l l y the procedures involved*  8.  CHAPTER I I . HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE .STUDY  Introduction In a recent book devoted to the subject of ''Hypnotism", G.H.  Estabrooks (19) has. made the following statements: ^'6ne i n every f i v e of the human race are highly suggestible, at least h a l f are suggestible to a very considerable degree. But here mere figures do not t e l l ; the story. That o n e - f i f t h has a power f a r beyond Its numbers, for t h i s type ofman, acting under d i r e c t suggestion i s no mere average person. He i s a fanatic in* the-highest — or lowest — sense of the word.'.' (p. 136) "Hypnotism i s merely a state of exaggerated s u g g e s t i b i l i t y induced by a r t i f i c i a l means." (p.130) ''.. . H i t l e r was the world's best hypnotist." (p.2©6)  These might f a i r l y be condensed and paraphrased somewhat as follows:' "Men such as H i t l e r , using a r t i f i c a l means to exaggerate natural s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , are able to hypnotize into a state of fanaticism one i n every f i v e of these upon whom t h e i r influence i s focussed." Such an extreme statement, made by a man w i t h knowledge and p r a c t i c a l experience of hypnotism gives considerable reason f o r thought.  Any psychologist giving h i s views  upon the v a l i d i t y of such a statement i s basing them on  9.  opinion, or even, f a i t h , rather than on f a c t .  Hot enough  facts are known concerning suggestion aftd hypnosis to contradict such a statement.  And even the t h e o r e t i c a l  formulations concerning these phenomena are scant and inexact. Take the apparently simpler question of whether a subject w i l l commit under hypnotic influence a crime which he would not consider i n the normal state.  Wells  (45)  claims to have caused 'crimes' to be committed, while Erickson (18), working i n a s i m i l a r way produce such action.  Estabrooks  has f a i l e d to  (19) believes that because  of the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed upon them, t h i s question w i l l never be answered by e t h i c a l pyschologists, though he f e e l s that an approach;-, based on i n d i r e c t i o n could produce genuine acts outside the law. If the answers to such c l a s s i c a l subjects of dispute are to be discovered and the 'dangers' associated i n t i e public .rnind with t h i s f i e l d of knowledge areto be c l a r i f i e d with any f i n a l i t y , there i s r e a l need f o r more a t t e n t i o n to basic t h e o r e t i c a l formulations, based upon w e l l controlled experimental investigation. may  While such ends  seem secondary to more specialized and urgent  appli-  cations, the l a t t e r w i l l not gain wide acceptance, nor w i l l the majority of workers make use of hypnotic  techniques,  1Q.  u n t i l t h e i r r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and freedom from undesirable side-effects have been established beyond doubt. Theoretical formulations s u f f i c i e n t l y substantiated to use as a basis f o r refuting f a n t a s t i c claims concerning the subject would seem to be a worthy goal f o r the  experimenter  i n hypnosis. More fundamental i n importance, though necessarily following i n time, i s the widespread application of hypnotic techniques.  One of the most encouraging  aspects of the l a t e s t r e v i v a l of interest inthese, i s the tendency to regard them as tools rather than the whole machine; as means rather than end.  This, i s i n  l i n e with the recent emphasis on the dynamic and molar aspects of personality, and a 'far cry' from the days when Bernheim believed that the most e f f i c i e n t use t o be made of hypnosis was the commanding of symptom d i s appearance " i n a loud, clear voice".(5)  Though t h i s  type of approach has become of decreasing importance, the Menninger Foundation i n 1945  (39) reported that  such suppressive techniques have a useful place i n treatment, complementing the more dynamic expressive or 'uncovering' uses. In contrast to the c l i n i c a l .uses of hypnotic methods, such investigators as Leuba (:35) have stressed their usefulness i n experimental laboratory s i t u a t i o n s .  11.  Concerning one s e r i e s of experiments he says*  (35)  The hypnotic state served the same purpose as the hunger drive, the soundproofing, and the exclusion of extraneous stimuli i n general, i n P a v l o v ' s conditioned response experiments. 1 While Leuha's enthusiasm f o r hypnosis as a research t o o l may he j u s t i f i e d , the a t t i t u d e taken by Jeness i s perhaps closer to the i d e a l l y dispassionate approach of science. He says:  (30)  "While there i s no doubt that hypnosis provided a means of demonstrating experimentally many normal and abnormal mechanisms of behavior, and that hypnosis may be u t i l i z e d conveniently as a technique for c o n t r o l l i n g many variables i n psychological experiments, i t must nevertheless be remembered that the use of hypnosis introduces a new v a r i a b l e , v i r t u a l l y an unknown one, yiz.,. hypnosis i t s e l f . " ''While objections may be r a i s e d against designating hypnosis an 'unknown' v a r i a b l e , yet i t seems to the writer that the nature of hypnosis i s s t i l l so much of a mystery that scepticism ought to be maintained concerning i t as a 'control' i n psychological experiments. Such scepticism need not prevent research i n hypnotism, or even the use of hypnosis as a t o o l i n other research; on the contrary, i t should f a c i l i t a t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the fundamental natmre of hypnosis i t s e l f . ' ! 1  We have evidence from the physical sciences (cf. e l e c t r i c i t y ) that f u l l t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge of a phenomenon i s not an essential prerequisite to i t s useful application. conceptions  But c e r t a i n l y , the reduction of misconcerning i t , and the most e f f i c i e n t  util-  i s a t i o n of i t s admittedly great power, w i l l only follow a great deal of further work devoted to the s/ystematization  12. and experimental i n v e s t i g a t i o n of hypnotism. Suggestion and Hypnotism In the pages that, follow, only i n c i d e n t a l reference i s made to the h i s t o r i c a l aspects of research i n suggest! on and hypnosis.  Adequate appraisals and accounts of this  earlier  work may he found i n H u l l (28, pp.3-22), leCron and Bordeaux (34, pp. 16-27), Brenman and G i l l  (6, pp. 3-14)., Jenness  (30, pp. 466-502), Marks (38), Goldsmith (26) and Bisdale (17). Much of i t , e s p e c i a l l y that carried out i n the nineteenth and e a r l y part of the twentieth century tends to obscure rather than illuminate the subject.  The value of a  great part of i t may be i n f e r r e d from 3< statement by Jenness:  (30)  "Probably no psychological phenomenon has been the subject of so much i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i s at t i e same time so. l i t t l e understood as hypnosis..'? While Braid was  possibly the f i r s t  to cease treating  hypnotism, as a physical phenomenon, considering i t to be of psychological o r i g i n , l i e b e a u l t and Bernheim introduced the concept of suggestion as i t s causal factor.;  i n their  work at Nancy they were vigorously opposed by Charcot., the Paris neurologist who was,a champion:of physical causation.  1  There i s l i t t l e doubt that the concept of suggest! on was  i  valuable one when used to emphasize the b e l i e f that the mechanisms involved were psychological.  But since that  a  13  time i t has, followed the concept of ' i n s t i n c t  1  i n being  p l a c i d l y accepted as an explanatory term while a c t u a l l y functioning only i n a descriptive way. G i l l put i t  :  As Brenman and  (6)  "...since the v i c t o r y of the 'suggestionists', the 'concept of suggestion has lost i t s . impac* as a d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g idea and has become a shallow cover- . a l l behind which our ignorance of the s p e c i f i c psychological mechanisms hides." Suggestion • Recently such careful experimenters and observers as Hull and Eysenck have scrutinized the concept of suggestion, and have separated out two or possibly three d i s t i n c t kinds of procedure i n which observed e f f e c t s have been attributed to t h i s 'force'.  There i s evidence that these are not at  a l l compatible w i t h each other.  Much of the confusion which  has followed the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of suggestion with hypnosis may be resolved following t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n that"the former term has a c t u a l l y served as a 'catchall' for the observations made of the r e s u l t of a number o f quite d i s t i n c e operations. The f i r s t type o f operation which has been d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i s of the ideo-motor type, and the e f f e c t s observed have been referred to as a r i s i n g from 'prestige' suggestion by Hull (28, p. 26) and 'primary* suggestion by Eysenck (20, p. 165).  It i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by the H u l l  14  sway test (27), i n which, when a blindfolded person i s t o l d that he. i s swaying or, f a l l i n g forward, movement w i l l u s u a l l y be observed, t y p i c a l l y i n the d i r e c t i o n suggested.  Many  other types of bodily movement can be demonstrated to take place to varying degrees following the suggestion that they w i l l take place. A procedure t y p i c a l of the second type, c a l l e d by Hull (28, p. 350) 'non-prestige' suggestion, and by Eysenck (20, p. 167) 'secondary'* suggestion, i s the Binet Progressive l i n e s t e s t , i n which the subject i s asked to reproduce a series of l i n e s exposed one at a time, and the ;  f i r s t f i v e of which are of increasing length.  Though sub-  sequent, lines are a l l o f the same length as the f i f t h , the t y p i c a l reaction i s the production of l i n e s which continue to increase i n length, though i n a decreasing amount. H u l l (28, p. 357) says; "On the surface at least the d i s t o r t i o n of judgment...appears somehow to r e s u l t from the perseveration of the influence of a kind of habit or 'set! acquired by the subject i n reacting to the f i r s t f i v e members of the series." In general, results are obtained i n suggestion of this sort by some form of deception practiced on tte subject, either direct or implied.  Eysenck and Purneaux (22) f a c e t i o u s l y  suggest that ' g u l l i b i l i t y ' might be a better designation for t h i s type of suggestibility..  15. A t h i r d type, c a l l e d by Eysenck (20, p. 168) 'prestige* suggestion, and not to be confused with the ideo-motor type, has as i t s main feature a change of attitude on the part of the subject on being t o l d of the different attitude of some person or group whose, opinion has for him some prestige value.  Asch (2) has analysed several experiments  purporting to demonstrate t h i s type of suggestion, and has concluded that much of the effect attributed t o i t a c t u a l l y arises from the workings of s o c i a l understanding.  Kretch  and c r u t c h f i e l d (32) believe that the ambiguity of the s i t uation determines  the acceptance  of suggestion, and that  the effect of 'prestige' suggestion i s a p a r t i c u l a r aspect . . . . .  . . . . . . .  .  ^...  ....  of the workings of the p r i n c i p l e s that hold f o r a l l changes i n b e l i e f s and attitudes. • • Ideo-motor Suggestion and the SwayJCest  ./  What H u l l c a l l s 'prestige suggestion and Eysenck refers 1  to as 'primary' suggestion, i s perhaps better referred to i n a generic way as ideo-motor suggestion. t h i s type of, suggestion  Responses to  take the form of a motor movement  i n the subject following, or coincidental with, the "•'  >  '  .  suggestion that such a movement w i l l take place or i s occurring.  While such devices as Chevreul's pendulum  (34, p. 68) and Wolberg's hand l e v i t a t i o n procedure (50) i l l u s t r a t e t h i s type of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , the body saay (or s t a t i c ataxia) test as used by Hull has become almost  16.  the standard measure of idep-motor suggestion. (15) has devised a simple  ' s t a t i c ataxiameter'  Edwards (13) for measuring  sway i n "both the l a t e r a l and forward-ba,ck d i r e c t i o n s , hut Hull's type of apparatus offers greater s i m p l i c i t y and a permanent record. Considerable work has been done on body sway, both as an isolated phenomenon, and as an index of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y . Edwards (14) i n an analysis of r e s u l t s of. an i n v e s t i g a t i o n using 1,400  subjects, showed that such things as height,  weight, and shoe condition did not influence sway, and. tii.at steadiness increased with age only up to about twenty years. In another study (16), he seemed to f i n d evidence that increased interference with vis ion i s accompanied with increased amounts of sway i n the body.  In the same study  i t was suggested that an increase i n body tension (such as that brought about by increased e f f o r t when, eye-focus was interfered with) tended to increase the amount of sway, but the findings were not s u f f i c i e n t l y clear to  support  this speculation,as a conclusion. Travis (44) found that mild exercise tended to increase body sway and a t t r i b u t e d this, effect to increased r e s p i r a t i o n which influenced„,head-.movement. subjects who  Edwards, however, using  had not exercised prior to t e s t i n g , found no  s i g n i f i c a n t difference between sway at head and hips with eyes  closed.(13)  17  Berreman and Hilgard  (4) found no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  i n the amount of sway produced "by experimenter suggestion, ;  verbal autosuggestion, and autosuggestion e n t i r e l y concentrated upon imagination of f a l l i n g . , d e f i n i t e practice  They also found a  effect up to the f i f t h i n a series of six  sway t e s t s , but the amount of sway diminished on the sixth trial. Eysenck has done a considerable amount of experimenting using the sway test as a measure of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y (20), (21),  (22).  Some of h i s findings  (20, p. 177) are d i r e c t l y  opposed to those quoted above, notably those of Berreman and Hilgard, for he claims to f i n d no practice  effect i n a  r e p e t i t i o n of a 2-jg- minute sway test on 100 subjects, no s i g n i f i c a n t difference  i n average sway being apparent.  Ideo-MPtor Suggestion and Hypnotism Various investigators  have reported a high degree of  c o r r e l a t i o n between the amount of sway and the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hypnosis, depending upon what sway test and what c r i t e r i a of hypnotizability  have been used. .Eysenck and Furneaux (22)  report a tetrachoric  c o r r e l a t i o n of .73 between hypnotizability  and sway induced by suggestions from the experimenter.  Barry  McKinnon ani Murray (3) obtained a c o r r e l a t i o n of .52 while White (46) secured one of .75.  •  •  18.  Arnold (1, p. 118) c i t e s several reports of failures, to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n between the a b i l i t y to become hypnotized and scores on other tests of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y the ideo-motor type.  than  Eysenck (20, p. 171) found that of  fourteen tests believed to measure s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , there was no s i g n i f i c a n t inter c o r r e l a t i o n between the group measuring primary, and that measuring secondary s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , and only the f i r s t group of scores showed a r e l a t i o n s h i p to measures of hypnotizability. While t h i s doesnot show a necessary i d e n t i t y between ideo-motor suggestion and hypnosis, i t seems to indicate a relationship which i s not apparent i n regard to other forms of suggestion.  l u l l gives a concise opinion i n t h i s  regard: (27, p. 393) '!... the mere s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to prestige suggestion, no matter i n what degree, i s not hypnosis. Its essence l i e s i n the experimental fact of a quantitative s h i f t i n the upward d i r e c t i o n which may result from the hypnotic procedure. So far as the writer can see, t h i s quantitative phenomenon alone remains of the once imposing aggregate known by the name of hypnosis, But this undoubted fact i s quite suffident to give significance and value, to the term.": Pew modern investigators d i f f e r widely from t h i s conclusion. leuba (36), i n stating that the fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of hypnosis i s "...the l i m i t a t i o n of the spontaneous mental l i f e of the subject, and the consequent l i m i t a t i o n of attention to the stimuli provided by the experimenter?',  .__  _  _  ; _  _  i9.  holds that "... s u g g e s t i b i l i t y flows from t h i s l i m i t a t i o n as a secondary phenomenon".  This i s a personal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  but one not widely divergent from contemporary opinion, Irown (7), i n conceiving hypnosis as a phenomenon related to hysteria, follows Janet but wins l i t t l e modern support. Indeed, Eysenck (£0, p. 191) with a mental h o s p i t a l to work i n and a s t a f f of p s y c h i a t r i s t s to diagnose his subjects, has produced almost conclusive evidence to the  contrary.  On the basis of available evidence, then, Arnold would seem j u s t i f i e d i n applying her hypothesis, as.to  the  mechanism involved, to both the lesser and greater of these states of ideo-motor suggestion and hypnosis.  In the follow-  ing discussion i t w i l l be assumed that the difference between these two states i s quantitative.rather than q u a l i t a t i v e , for this seems to be the consensus among workers i n hypnotism. If ideo-motor suggestion and hypnosis form,something i n the nature of a continuum why have so many investigators found d i s p a r i t i e s i n their r e s u l t s ?  Both Eysenck and White  have come to the conclusion that observations  taken i n  situations where these phenomena are active contain not the d i r e c t result of a u n i t a r y force, but rather the resultant of at least two  factors.  These have been c a l l e d  by Eysenck (20) 'aptitude' and (attitude'. 1  White (47),  who  puts the greatest stress on the motivation of the i n d i v i d u a l says*  20 "It i s u n l i k e l y that^motivational factors alone .determine s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to, hypnosis. Most workers agree that i n addition: to'willingness there must be a suitable aptitude, perhaps a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l capacity, i f the hypnot ic trance i s t© take place. ? t  1  If this, view i s taken the scores obtained from tests of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y or h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y must be. conceived as r e f l e c t i n g mixtures of various degress, of aptitude and attitude.  Only those peisons who  have both the capacity and  the motive to enter into such a state w i l l be capable of reaching the deepest states of hypnosis.  Since i t i s  considered that aptitude changes with r e l a t i v e  slowness,  i f at a l l , while motivation may be redirected with rapidity,  f o r a short-term experiment we may  say that  the person's aptitude f o r hypnosis i s a l i m i t i n g factor upon h i s a b i l i t y to become deeply hypnotized, regardless , of the strength of his motivation. Arnold's hypothesis seems to be concerned mainly with •aptitude'.  The vividness of the mental imagery which the  i n d i v i d u a l can c a l l up i n response to aiggestion, she says, is the extent to which he w i l l respond to that suggestion. Notwithstanding her admission of the importance  of  motivational factors, t h i s i s perhaps too i n c l i n e d to minimize the 'attitude' factor by placing undue emphasis on the 'imagery a b i l i t y ' of the i n d i v i d u a l .  The undue  stressing of one or the other would seem to be reminiscent of the f r u i t l e s s , 'mind* versus 'body' controversies.  21 Whether imagery i s the only 'aptitude' which i s relevant i s also somewhat questionable.  Jenness ( 3 0 )  mentions the p r o b a b i l i t y that verbal control, a c e r t a i n minimum i n t e l l i g e n c e and sensory acuity, and the a b i l i t y to relax properly may also be relevant.  Thus, with a  complex and p a r t l y unconscious motivational pattern, aad tie p r o b a b i l i t y that the 'aptitude' factor may be compound rather than simple, the d i f f i c u l t y inherent i n an experi-? mental attack on the problems involved becomes a l l too apparent.  Imagery and the Ideo-motor Response That the thought of moving a body member i s i n e v i t a b l y linked with some degree of movement i n that member, seems to have been well established experimentally.  Jacpbson (29)  provides evidence concerning the relationship between imager and motor experience.  Max ( 3 7 ) , i n v e s t i g a t i n g the extremely  behavioristic 'motor theory of consciousness', i s able to say that action currents have some s p e c i f i c connection with the thinking process i t s e l f .  But his investigations do  provide further evidence that muscular movement has some inevitable connection with imagery.  Arnold (1) and  Eysenck (20) summarize other evidence i n this field. Though Arnold consistently uses the expression 'imagination',  her context c l e a r l y indicates that 'imagery'  i s a more precise expression of her meaning i f t h i s term i s equated with a l l possible modalities rather than with  zz  v i s u a l r e c a p i t u l a t i o n alone.  Dexter, (13), i n a review  of the l i t e r a t u r e on imagination, states that imagery "connotes the mental c a l l i n g up of sensations".  On the  other hand, r e f e r r i n g to "imagination , he says: 1  "The world i s used as synonymous w i t h almost any thouglfc process; worry, reyery, resourcefulness with t o o l s , r e c a l l , and so on," P r i o r to Arnold's publication, there had been speculations concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between imagery and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y ,  Jenness says: (30)  , "In an unpublished study by Jenness and J.F.I. McC lure, the amount o f postural sway was found to be positively correlated with ratings of the vividness of kinesthetic imagery, but actually this c o r r e l a t i o n was i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The writer knows of: no attempt to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p between vividness of imagery and hypnotizability, but i t seems a l i k e l y hypothesis that persons whose imagery i s generally v i v i d would be more r e a d i l y hypnoti zable than tlhose whose imagery i s poor." This hypothesis was probably suggested by a previous study, by Jenness and Jorgensen (31), i n which i t was found that "both sleep talkers and sleep walker? tend to estimate their waking imagery as more v i v i d than that of nonsomnambulists i n a l l modalities, the differences, being most s i g n i f i c a n t i n v i s u a l and k i n e s t h e t i c modalities." The r e l a t i o n s h i p between such nocturnal a c t i v i t i e s and h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y has commonly been noted, and i s commented upon by LeCron and Bordeaux (34, p. 72).  23.  Though such ratings lack somewhat i n o b j e c t i v i t y , Davis (9) has shown i n several tests designed to be best carried out through the use of various modalities of imagery, that there i s a high degree of correspondence between reports as to the manner of t h e i r performance employed), and the objective r e s u l t s . supporting his conclusion that  1,1  ( i . e . type of imagery He claims t h i s as  imagery' has functional  reality". Kubie and Margolin (33) i n discussing the process of hypnosis and the nature of the hypnotic state f e e l that the process of induction makes possible states o f hypnagogic reverie i n which v i v i d sensory memories and images are released.  "The sensory vividness of these reveries i n  turn opens the way to burried memories and p a r t i c u l a r l y to buried a f f e c t s which are related to such sensory memories."' Eysenck has worked out a hypothesis of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , p a r a l l e l i n g very closely that of Arnold, and published at almost the same time.  He says* (20, p. 196)  "We submit, then, that, experimental evidence Is overwhelmingly In support of the contention that an idea or image of a movement tends to produce the precise movement imagined, or a modified form of i t . The strength of t h i s tendency varies from person to person .... This t r a i t of possessing a strong or weak ideo-motor tendency we s h a l l c a l l a person's 'aptitude"...(and I t ) . . . w i l l be contrasted with 'attitude',, which also plays an important part i n our theory of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y . "  24. ' In several experiments using the sway test (28) (4),  (22)  appeals to imagination have "been substituted for direct  f a l l i n g suggestions with no s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the mean amounts of sway having been detected.  However, such  experiments have not been designed to minimize the l i k e l i h o o d that imagery would occur i n tests previous to those i n which i t i s actually requested.  One design provided f o r a recap-  i t u l a t i o n of a l l instructions i n advance of any sway records being taken, i n effect i n v i t i n g the subject to take his pickl  Such experiments have been concentrated upon the  s i m i l a r i t i e s of the effects obtainable by d i f f e r i n g means rather than upon the d i f f e r e n c e s . , The foregoing discussion indicates the area that l i e s open to research i n the f i e l d of hypnotism and suggestion, and the possible u t i l i t y of such work.  The r e a l i z a t i o n  that 'suggestion' i s a descriptive rather than an explanatory concept, and that i t i s not i n any case unitary, has focussed a t t e n t i o n upon the ideo-motor type of suggestion and i t s r e l a t i o n to hypnosis.  There seems l i t t l e  doubt that a r e l a t i o n does e x i s t , and there i s some evidence that i t may  be of a quantitative rather than a  qualitative .nature. The concept of hypnosis as a condition which can be -brought abort only i n the presence  of a ..favour able 'attitude*  25,  and. a certain degree of 'aptitude , has been advanced. 1  This draws attention to the probable complexity of an apparently simple 'hypnotizability' score.  At the same time  i t raises the p o s s i b i l i t y of the equating of 'aptitude' for hypnosis and the capacity for imagination which i s central to Arnold's hypothesis.  Though probably over-  s i m p l i f i e d , t h i s may prove a f r u i t f u l approach to experimentation.  26. CHAPTER  III  THE EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH .  Design of the  Experiment  The experimental session was planned to allow the administration of a battery of s i x i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s , and Some questions intended to secure introspect!vet answers, i n just under one hour.  On the basis of the f i r s t of  these tests i t permitted the subjects to be equated into two groups.  A 'Flow Diagram' of the experimental session  i s given i n Figure I.  The detailed procedure  i s set out  i n Appendix A. A t y p i c a l subject was f i r s t seated, given c e r t a i n information concerning the experiment,  and an opportunity  to enquire concerning any aspect of i t that might be bothering him.  He wasthen blindfolded, his height  recorded, and h i s body sway measured i n the H u l l sway test using direct suggestions of f a l l i n g . while the experimenter,  He was  on the basis of M s  seated sway,  assigned him to either the experimental or control group, though of course he was not informed of t h i s . S t i l l blindfolded, he performed the Progressive Finger Tracing Test, and with his b l i n d f o l d removed, the Memory for  Designs Test and the-Paper, Cutting Test.  His sway  All Subjects  27,  SWAY TEST vl ( A l l Subjects) Direct Suggestion o f F a l l i n g  Control  Exper.  PROGRESSIVE FINGER TRACING MEMORY FOR DESIGNS PAPER CUTTING  SWAY TEST #2 (Experimental)  SWAY TEST -v2 (Control)  Requested t o imagine f a l l i n g as v i v i d l y as possible»  Direct P a l l i n g Suggestion. Sway T e s t l l repeated. :  r  :  ;  ( i n t r o s p e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g sway t e s t s )  11  SCALE OF DEPTH OF HY:PNOSIS ( A l l Subjects)  |  (Introspection  Control  F i g u r e 1.  |  c o n c e r n i n g Hypnosis S c a l e )  Group Mean  'Flow Diagram  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Mean  1  of Experimental  Design.  28.  was then recorded a second time.  I f assigned to the  control group, sway test number £ consisted of an exact r e p e t i t i o n of sway test number 1.  Members of the  experimental group were subjected to a r e p e t i t i o n of the same procedure, but with instructions to imagine  falling  as v i v i d l y as possible, rather than the repeated  statements  of the f i r s t test that they were f a l l i n g .  The verbal  stimulus i n sway test number E was the only difference i n treatment accorded members of the two groups. Following the second sway t e s t , introspective data were obtained regarding imagery during the course of the sway t e s t s .  The modified Friedlander and Sarbin scale  f o r determining the depth of hypnosis was administered, and further introspective material obtained concerning distractions during t h i s t e s t . To test the 'sway hypothesis' i t i s necessary to use the r e s u l t s of the f i r s t sway t e s t to equate two groups which can be said t o be comparable i n this respect.  This  should be possible on the evidence of Eysenck (EO, p. 174) who established an average correlation of over .90 f o r retests on the sway test a f t e r a short i n t e r v a l .  The  comparisons of correlations between sway tests and scale of hypnotic depth scores should provide evidence to the 'sway hypothesis!.  29. It i s desirable to minimize carryover from one sway test to the other, and to minimize fatigue this s i t u a t i o n .  s p e c i f i c to  Eysenck produces evidence that the verbal  stimulus i n the sway test has a certain cumulative  effect  i n r e l a t i o n to the length of time during which i t i s carried on (20).  To minimize the l i k e l i h o o d ofthe s p e c i f i c  e f f e c t obtained i n the f i r s t  test (e.g. a f a l l ) having a  favourable or an unfavourable  effect on the r e s u l t s of  the second, some sort of ' f i l l i n g a c t i v i t y ' i s indicated. As a measure o f time economy, t o f i l l the i n t e r v a l between sway tests, and to provide a change of a c t i v i t y which would be i n effect a rest from the sway test  situation,  the three tests of imagery were used between sway tests number 1 and number 2. Since for the greater number of the subjects the opportunity to experience hypnosis i s the high point of the experimental  situation, i t i s considered that  motivation may be kept at a higher l e v e l by leaving  this  part of the experiment u n t i l a l l other tests are completed. The testing of the second or 'sway hypothesis' requires that the imagery test scores of a l l subjects be correlated with t h e i r scores on the scale of hypnotic depth.  A s i g n i f i c a n t correlation w i l l indicate that there  i s a greater tendency for high scores i n one to go with  so  high, scores i n the other, and i f the t e s t s scores are taken as representing the degree to which sub jects possess 'imagery' a b i l i t y , and are 'hypnotizable', such a c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l support the hypothesis. The detailed procedure for the experimental session, which is given i n Appendix A, was prepared i n advance, and administered uniformly to a l l subjects.  A s e r i e s of ten  subjects was used f o r preliminary testing, and c e r t a i n modifications a r i s i n g from this work wexte incorporated into the procedure, but no data from these subjects are reported.  Slight i n d i v i d u a l variations occurred from  subject to subject during the main session, but only of such a kind as to encourage rapport, and make the procedure seem less mechanical. A l l female subjects brought a friend to the experimental deference  session.  This was a precaution suggested i n  to popular opinion concerning hypnosis,  but  Jenness (30) believes i t also encourages, r e l a x a t i on i n fttch experiments.  Of the male subjects, 11 of the control  group and eight of the experimental  group were accompanied.  Because of control considerations and lack of space not more than one spectator was allowed to attend any session. The seating was arranged so that this person, while i n the room, was  as ineonspfeuous as possible.  In no ease  31.  did  the witness "behave i n a way that was believed to have  influenced the r e s u l t s of the experimental session.  In a l l  cases the witness as well as the subject was asked to preserve secrecy concerning the d e t a i l s of the experimental procedure, and there i s reason to believe that t h i s was done. Each subject received n o t i f i c a t i o n of an appointment by 'phone c a l l , by mail, or by both.  At, the arranged time  he f o r she) was met at the door of the experimental room, and the procedure as detailed was carried out..  The  complete  session took just under one hour.  The  Surroundings A general view of the experimental room and apparatus i s  given in. Plate I.  For the i n i t i a l instructions, the Memory  for  Designs test, and the Paper Cutting t e s t , the subject  sat  i n P o s i t i o n 1.  f o r the Progressive Finger Tracing test  he used the chair i n P o s i t i o n 2.  During the sway tests he  stood i n approximately the p o s i t i o n from which the photograph was taken, facing the camera.  For the Scale of  Hypnotizability, chair 2 was removed, the sat  experimenter  i n chair 1 (reversed i n p o s i t i o n ) , and a canvas deck  chair f o r the subject was placed i n the angle of the two tables (see Plate VI for orientation).  The desk lamp  shown i n Plate I was pulled forward to the edge of the table, and served as a point o f v i s u a l . f i x a t i on.  33.  The experimental room was the only one available i n which s a t i s f a c t o r y experimental approximated.  It i s a store room, e n t i r e l y of concrete,  and a r t i f i c i a l l y lighted. transformers  conditions could be  S t a i r s d i r e c t l y overhead, and  i n an adjacent room, were sources of uncontrolled  noise upon which some subjects commented.  Janitors ani  e l e c t r i c i a n s entering through a nearby door d i d not pass through a nearby door, did not pass through the curtainedoff experimental  space, and were cooperative i n making as  l i t t l e noise as possible. The Sub je cts In a l l , eighty subjects were tested i n the process of gathering the data used i n t h i s study.  Of this number,  ten were tested i n preliminary work before the procedure was standarized, three were eliminated because of imperfect sway recordings caused by f a i l u r e o f the kymograph recording pen, f i v e were 'surplus' i n the matching on the amount of sway i n Sway Test number 1  9  and two were removed because  one of the pair was much greater i n age than any of the other subjects i n the s e r i e s .  Results from the remaining  s i x t y form the basis of this report.  Of this number, eight  i n the control group and eight i n the experimental were female.  group  34. These subjects were obtained from an i n i t i a l appeal to a class of Introductory Psychology students for 'persons to a s s i s t ' i n an experiment dealing with the subject of hypnosis. A t a l k dealing with hypnosis including a ".demonstration of some of the major phenomena, was announced and those :  interested, whether i n a s s i s t i n g or merely i n seeing ths demonstration, were asked t o come.  A form was provided, which  those interested i n assisting were asked to sign. of t h i s form i s given i n Appendix B.  A sample  '  Approximately 200 individuals were present at the demonstration.  During the eourse of t h i s , a questionnaire  (Appendix B) was d i s t r i b u t e d which dealt with certain aspects of another study being carried on by the writer. In addition to these questions, i t cnntained a space f o r the signatures of those w i l l i n g to a s s i s t i n the present study.  A l l present were asked to return these questionnaires,  and one hundred and f o r t y f i v e were returned. Despite a rather intimidatingly wo rded statement regarding the l i m i t a t i o n of l i a b i l i t y f o r r e s u l t i n g i l l e f f e c t s , which no attempt was made to minimize, seventy s i x volunteers were obtained. The talk consisted"of a b r i e f history of hypnosis, a review of some of the most prevalent, current .misconceptions.  35. and a question period, during which some further mistaken ideas were discounted.  The demonstration took the form of  a rehearsal of the majority of items included i n the scale of hypnotizability which was l a t e r used, with the additi on of a positive hypnotic h a l l u c i n a t i o n .  Further questions  were answered at the termination of the demonstration, though limitations of time did not allow as much discussion as would have been desirable.  The proceedings were kept as  informal as possible and during the hypnotic demonstration an almost casual attitude was used i n an attempt to keep as f a r as possible away from an authoritative,, 'magnetic  1  approach, which might have proven intimidating to many p o t e n t i a l subjects.  A l l subjects who l a t e r took part i n  the study were present at t h i s demonstration. Testing sessions were commenced during the following week, and completed within three weeks.  During the course  of.these sessions, s i x of the o r i g i n a l volunteers indicated that they would prefer not to act as subjects.  For this  reason, as well as because of the number of subjects^'wasted' during the preliminary stages of t e s t i n g , farther appeals were made to the members of the o r i g i n a l introductory Psychology class for additional volunteers. Ten more subjects who had seen the demonstration were secured i n t h i s way.  36.  Throughout the course of the work an attempt was made to keep motivation high, to induce a f e e l i n g of cooperation rather than of being 'used', and to give each subject the. maximum/feeling of being at ease during the testing session. 1  The words 'subject', and 'experiment' were not used, but rather the less manipulative expressions 'assistant' and 'study'.  Rapport was sought at the beginning ofthe t e s t i n g  session, and the subject was given an opportunity to enquire about any aspect of study that.was bothering him. Secrecy was requested of a l l subjects, and seems to have been maintained  quite successfully.  Later subjects pro-  fessed to be i n ignorance of the proceedings, some of them admitting t h i s with annoyance.  This i s no doubt  p a r t l y because of the f a c t that a l l t e s t i n g sessions were by appointment, and thus there was a minimum of contact amongst subjects. Though the i n i t i a l appeal was to members of an i n t r o ductory psychology course, there was i n e v i t a b l y an i n f i l t r a t i o n from more advanced classes, and no attempt was • .. . . . made to eliminate sueh cases.  For this reason, and because  of the s e l e c t i v e effect inherent i n a l l methods where volunteers are obtained, no assumption was made of psychological n a i v i t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard to hypnotism. Dorcus' (12) findings indicate that such an assumption i s unwise when applied to u n i v e r s i t y populations.  37.  A considerable number of the subjects were interested i n the  a p p l i c a t i o n of hypnosis to a s s i s t academic progress, either  i n a 'magical'.sense, or as an a i d to conosntration i n study. Many were curious.  Some were frankly s c e p t i c a l , and one or  two individuals seemed to regard |he whole procedure as a test of ' w i l l power'. the  No assumptions appaar warranted as to  uniformity of motivation.  I t appears that the only  statement which can be made about the group as a whole i s that i t represents university psychology students with more than ;  average interest i n hypnotism. Test Components of the Experiment The t r a n s l a t i o n of concepts to the operational l e v e l i s always a d i f f i c u l t  task,  l u l l ' s sway test has achieved  acceptance as a measure of ideo-motor  suggestibility.  White (49) implies that the "careful study" by Friedlander and Sarhin which resulted i n the Scale of Hypnotic Depth used i n t h i s study, has provided an adequate means of estimating s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hypnosis.  In the present study,  certain of the tests used-are suggested as constituting a l i m i t e d d e f i n i t i o n of 'imagery'.  The exact procedure for  a l l tests used i s given i n d e t a i l i n Appendix A,  A sample  of the form used f o r recording experimental data i s given i n Appendix G.  38  In the remainder of t h i s chapter, each of these instruments w i l l be discussed i n d e t a i l under three headings: (  i)  Equipment, apparatus,  or material used;  ( i i ) Theoretical considerations i n use; (iii)  Scoring - 7 methods, c r i t e r i a , etc.  The Sway Test (1)  Apparatus  In general function, the apparatus used i s the same as Hull's (27),  Modifications are introduced i n the i n t e r e s t s  of accuracy and convenience, and to make use of available equipment.  Plates II and III i l l u s t r a t e i t i n use.  The detection of body sway i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Plate I I , To a loop (L) at the rear of the 3/4"  e l a s t i c webbing which  holds the subject's b l i n d f o l d i n place, i s attached a nylon thread (T]^).  After being rubbed with r e s i n to minimize  slippage, t h i s i s passed l:f revolutions around the grooved . perimeter of a pulley (P-J which i s r i g i d l y - c o u p l e d to the rotor of one of a pair of S e l s y n  1  motors, (.Si^ilxiiA^weliglLt  (see general view, Plate I) i s attached to the free end of 1 Selsyn motors are used i n pairs in^sucn a. ;way,that r a d i a l movement imparted to the rotor of one motor i s transmitted accurately and with added power to the rotor of the second. The use of Selsyn motors to detect body sway and transmit i t to the recording apparatus permits a set-up with no mechanical connection between subject and recorder pen, thus permitting less opportunity f o r damage to equipment. The mechanical gain through e l e c t r i c a l power allows a more convenient type of recording than the t r a d i t i o n a l smoked paper and the e l e c t r i c transmission permits exact timing of the recording period.  41. the thread, and i s just heavy enough to take up the slack caused by tie subject's movements.  The stand supporting  Selsyn motor number 1 i s adjustable i n height, I  The timing and recording apparatus,  and the power .supply  for the Selsyn motors, i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Plate I I I .  To the  rotor of the second Selsyn motor (Sg) i s r i g i d l y attached a pulley,(Pg),  Radial movement from Selsyn number 1 i s  thus transmitted to an endless nylon thread ( T ) , held taut 2  by a small c o i l spring (G). perimeters  of-.  This thread passes around the  and an i d l i n g pulley ( I ) , and moves on a  lubricated rod (R), a l i g h t carriage to which i s r i g i d l y attached a glass c a p i l l a r y pen (G). The r a t i o of P-^ to P  2  i  i s such that one inch of sway i s  recorded as 1, centimeter, while the d i r e c t i o n of move men t i s such that when the kymograph record i s "read i n chronol o g i c a l order from l e f t to r i g h t , forward sway i s shown as a rising, l i n e . :  The power source f o r the Selsyn motors i s a 25 v o l t  transformer,  A Universal Timer i s used to revolve the  kymograph drum, to time the recording period, and to shut off the. power to the Selsyn motors at the termination o f the desired period.  The sweep second hand i s removed and to  the axle i s fixed a p u l l e y of such a diameter that the kymograph drum revolves completely i n 250 seconds. centimeter of horizontal tracing gives a very close approximation to f i v e seconds of time,  ;  One  42. . When set f o r short periods the timer stops when i t returns to zero, thus stopping the movement of the kymograph drum and simultaneously shutting o f f the current source  pro-  vided at the outlet (0), into which the transformer i s plugged.  This automatically halts the action of the Selsyn  motors and thus' the recording of sway. A Pierce wire recorder i s used to record and reproduce the verbal suggestions, both of direct sway and of appeals to imagination.  A constant volume setting i s used to record  both types of suggestion, and to play back the recordings for each subject. Accuracy of sway recording apparatus.  An accuracy check  was made wh.en a l l the test sessions had been completed.. Two records were taken, one of nine, and the other of ten complete cycles to the l i m i t of the recording a b i l i t y of the apparatus.  The thread was pulled manually i n  simulation of sway action, but with considerably less smoothness and a great deal more movement than i n any of the previously recorded t e s t s .  The maximum error, both  at the peak of the l i m i t of 'forward sway' and i n the return to the baseline, was found by measure to be t 1/32".  43. •Ike .Sway l e s t ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations Certain d e t a i l s of the Hull test as used i n t h i s experiment were changed from the o r i g i n a l form because of special conditions and i n line with the findings of other investigators. Hull used a bent p i n to fasten the recording thread to the subject's clothes at a fixed height.  The variety, of  a t t i r e encountered i n the female subjects made t h i s impractical. During the i n i t i a l stages of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was deterr mined by observation that, with the instructions used, head movement was  only encountered i n conjunction with other gross  body d i s t o r t i o n s .  This occurred at the extreme l i m i t of  forward sway and arose from e f f o r t s to maintain balance. This observation was reinforced by Edwards? (14) f a i l u r e to f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between sway at head, and hips.  It was therefore believed that an accurate record  could be obtained by attaching the recording thread to the head.  Since i t was  found that very few cases exceeded 10"  of. sway without making such body distortions, or a c t u a l l y f a l l i n g , sway i n excess of tbat amount was counted as a f a l l .  arbitrarily  This i s contrasted with the practice of  Eysenck (20, p. 183) of giving a f a l l an a r b i t r a r y value of  12".  4 4  «  The posture required of the subjects was that found by fearing as bringing about the maximum sway. (23). The degree of r e l a x a t i o n or tenseness has an important bearing upon the amount of sway which i s obtained.  Eysenck (20)  has attempted t o overcome t h i s by requesting maximum r e s i s t ance to sway on the part o f the subject,  Hull (28, pp. 55-56)  showed, and Arnold (1) agrees, that this i s l i k e l y to bring about negative  sway, which i s d i f f i c u l t to assess as to meaning*  It was also believed that the possible consequent reduction i n the amount of sway would reduce discrimination among the subjects and make ranking more d i f f i c u l t and l e s s accurate, For these reasons an attempt was made to secure a relaxed, easy, body posture i n a l l subjects and both types of verbal suggestions contained  instructions to relax,  Eysenck (20, p. 181) has shown that, while verbal instructions personally spoken are l i k e l y to bring about a greater amount o f sway, recorded verbal instructions are l i k e l y t o give more consistent r e s u l t s ,  For t h i s reason the  verbal instructions were a l l presented from a recording made by the experimenter. .The Sway Test ( i i i ) Scoring Figure, 2 represents a sample kymograph recording of sway, -  and i l l u s t r a t e s the method of scoring. Sway recording was c a r r i e d out f o r two 2-minute periods  46.  ¥  1  ci. 3  W  EXP-  NftME bRTP M R f r . a i / f o  F i g u r e 2.  TlflE  ll:~3Q  cample Kymograph Record of Body Sway, I l l u s t r a t i n g iiiethod of S c o r i n g  46.  for  each subject, these being r e f e r r e d to as sway tests  number 1 and number 2. for the i n i t i a l  No suggestion or stimulus was given  t h i r t y seconds of each recording period.  This was not a part of the test proper but, was designed to record a sample of the subject's normal postural movement under test conditions. Each subject, following sway test number 1 was assigned on the basis of his raw sway score on that test to one of eight groups as follows; 1.  Sway under 2" (including negative)  5.  Sway over 8" and including 10"  2.  Sway over 2" and including 4"  6.  Sway over 10", or f a l l i n l a s t 30 sees, of test  3.  Sway Over 4" and including 6"  7.  Sway over 10'' or f a l l i n second 30 sees. of test  4.  Sway over 6" and including 8"  8.  Sway over 10" or f a l l i n f i r s t 30 sees. of test  The groups were equated by t r e a t i n g the f i r s t  subject  Scoring i n each of these categories as a control subject, the second as an experimental  subject, and so on a l t e r n a t e l y  u n t i l a l l subjects were tested. were, equated separately.  Male and female subjects  47. Sway records may be scored by determining the slope of the l i n e representing postural p o s i t i o n as has been done by Arnold (1) and McOurdy (40). •rate of f a l l ' .  This gives a neasure of the  However, the sway record i s r a r e l y i n the  form of a smoothly r i s i n g curve and the approximation of the slope may become quite subjective.  This study has used  a method which i s e s s e n t i a l l y a refinement  of that used by  Eysenck (20), which i s believed to be more objective. On the kymograph recording, the point median to the maximum forward and backward movement during the I n i t i a l 'normal' period is taken as the baseline and the maximum deviation from t h i s i n inches of actual sway i s the numerical score obtained.  Forward sway i s r e f e r r e d to  as p o s i t i v e , and backward as negative:.  This i s the  Raw  Sway Score. Since sway exceeding, ten inches i s counted a ' f a l l * , scores for f a l l s are reported i n seconds from the time that suggestion begins. The height of attachment of the recording thread la recorded for each subject.  Using this figure, each Raw  Sway Score Is reduced to the equivalent of what i t would have been had the thread been attached at a uniform of f i v e feet, according to the Corrected Sway Score  =  height  formula: , 60X Raw Sway Score Height of Thread littachment  48.  The, height of attachment was recorded to the nearest 0.5",  Sway was read from the kymograph record to the  nearest 0.1%  and a f t e r c o r r e c t i o n again reduced to the  nearest 0,1".  The time of f a l l s was read to the nearest  second and no c o r r e c t i o n was made i n t h i s reading. Progressive ginger Tracing Test ( i ) Apparatus The apparatus f o r t h i s test was designed and by the writer.  constructed  It i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n use i n Plate IV.  It consists of two 24" square pieces of hinged at the top.  plywood,  In use i t i s mounted withthe top edge  about 48'! from the f l o o r (centre of board at shoulder height of average subject when seated, board height depending on chair used).  The rear piece of plywood i s r i g i d l y attached  to the w a l l i n such a manner that the hinged front piece swing upward and outward. i s cut i n the symmetrical  may  From the front piece a %y' slot design shown i n Figure 3.  On the rear board i s drawn a s i m i l a r design, the centreline d i r e c t l y behind that of the top design, but the; edges separated byl-jM'.  At the centres of the shaded areas shown  i n Figure 3 are small holes into which f i t pins which hold i n p o s i t i o n small square, blodss of plywood. i n symmetrical  These are used  p a i r s , and serve as temporary obstacles i n  the pattern formed by the groove, and also as p o s i t i o n indicators on the rear piece of plywood.  PLATE IV Administration of Progressive Finger Tracing Test  50.  F i g u r e 3.  Design and Dimensions of P r o g r e s s i v e F i n g e r Board.  Tracing  51.  In use, the subject was. seated with h i s preferred shoulder opposite the centre-line o f the blocks inserted symmetrically  board.  With two  at p o s i t i o n 1, his forefinger  was pressed against the left-hand block, and he was instructed to trace the groove through to i t s end. A r e t r a c i n g was done i n the same manner.  P r i o r to the t h i r d t r i a l the front  sheet of plywood was l i f t e d so that the groove was not a v a i l able as a guide and the subject was instructed that i n his next two attempts he was to retrace the pattern as accurately as possible by the ' f e e l . 1  The same procedure was repeated  i n turn with the blocks at positions E, 3,4 and 5. The apparatus was covered by a c u r t a i n when not. i n use, as shown i n Plate I; the subject at no time had any v i s u a l cues as to the pattern involved. Progressive. Finger Tracing Test ( i i ) Theoretical considerati one An extensive  search of the, l i t e r a t u r e d i s c l o s e d no  suitable t e s t designed to measure objectively .kinaesthetic imagery.  It was thus necessary to devise a method of getting  a measure of performance from which the a b i l i t y of a subject to r e c a l l kinaesthetic sensation could be i n f e r r e d ,  I t is  recognized that kinaesthetic imagery per se i s probably not capable of being i s o l a t e d f o r , even i n t h i s t e s t , some subjects remarked that they had a tendency to translate the  52 kinaesthetic sensations into a v i s u a l image; from t h i s they attempted to retrace the required design.  Nevertheless,  because of the complete lack of v i s u a l cues available to the subject, i t i s considered that this test i s predominately concerned with kinaesthetic imagery. Though there i s a doubtful p o s s i b i l i t y of establishing the v a l i d i t y of t h i s t e s t , i t should have been possible to gain some idea of i t s r e l i a b i l i t y .  Because of the  nearness  of the f i n a l exams at the time the experimental work was completed, i t was not possible to secure the cooperation of subjects to carry out the necessary r e t e s t i n g .  For t h i s  reason the f i n d i n g s must be regarded as indicative or suggestive rather than as conclusive. i •>  i  Progressive Finger Tracing Test  ( i i i ) Scoring  The c r i t e r i a of scoring were set up i n an a r b i t r a r y  way,  but w i t h consideration given to r e s u l t s obtained i n the preliminary stages of the experimental work. As i t seemed reasonable to assume that success i n the i n i t i a l , simpler patterns would be more e a s i l y obtained than i n the l a t e r , more complicated ones, these were given a lower score,  S i m i l a r l y , success i n the second retracing  was  believed to.be more d i f f i c u l t than i n the f i r s t , because of the assumed rapid fading of kinaesthetic sensations.  Both  these assumptions appear to have been, borne out by the r e s u l t s  53. obtained.  An analysis of a l l t r i a l s made has shown that the  number of complete f a i l u r e s t o score i n the successively more complicated patterns are: 33, 45, 51, 75 and 72.  This  indicated the increasing d i f f i c u l t y of the succeeding patterns, with the p o s s i b l e exception of the l a s t .  The greater  d i f f i c u l t y of accurate r e t r a c i n g on the second t r i a l was shown by the increase i n the number o f f a i l u r e s to score, from 124 on a l l f i r s t t r i a l s to 152 on a l l second t r i a l s . I n i t i a l l y i t was intended to have only two scoring categories, 'plus' for a r e t r a c i n g e n t i r e l y within the guide l i n e s , and minus - for one that deviated from t h i s 1  path,  f  This was found to be too stringent and the minus  category not s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g for the various q u a l i t i e s of performance which i t contained. Therefore the following three categories were set up: (1)  PLUS:  , Retracing ent i r e l y within the l i m i t s of the 1-| inch guidelines.  (2)  HALF:  Pattern retraced accurately, but distorted i n proportion i n such a way that, either r e t r a c i n g i s 50$ or more w i t h i n the guidelines, or t r i a l i s completed within a'2 inch radius of the correct p o s i t i o n for termination.  (3)  MINUS:  None of foregoing c r i t e r i a s a t i s f i e d .  ,  54.  The ten t r i a l s are scored 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10 i n order of t h e i r occurrence  i f plus score i s earned; h a l f the  assigned value i f half credit obtained; and otherwise  zero.  The score f o r tie Progressive Finger Tracing Test i n the t o t a l number of points earned by the subject when t a l l i e d i n this way. Memory for Designs Test  ( i ) Material used  The Memory f o r Designs test was Terman and M e r r i l l i n the 1937  based on that used by  r e v i s i o n of the Stanford-  Binet Scale, Form L, Year IX - 3 (43, p. 104). designs used i n t h i s test was complicated, design.  two  added a t h i r d , rather more  The card presented to the subjects  i s reproduced i n Figure 4, 60$ l i n e a r dimension. o r i g i n a l was  To the  The  on standard l e t t e r size paper, 8-&" x 11".  The numbers i n parentheses did not form part of the card as  presented.  Memory for Designs Test , (ii)  Theoretical Considerations Tefrnan (43, p. 248)  seems somewhat uncertain as to the  processes involved i n t h i s t e s t but he does mention the u t i l i z a t i o n of kinaesthetic cues i n p r a c t i c i n g the designs during the learning i n t e r v a l . i n the present study.  This has also been noticed  Thus i t would seem that the  56, i s o l a t i o n of kinaesthetic and v i s u a l imagery i s most d i f f i c u l t , but again there can be l i t t l e doubt as to the predominance of v i s u a l over kinaesthetic cues.  The  presence of e i d e t i c imagery would seemingly have a considerable effect on t h i s test; indeed Carmichael (8) has proposed the Terman test as a screening test f o r e i d e t i c imagery.  In the l i g h t of the Arnold hypothesis, a study  of the. h y p n o t i a b i l i t y of acknowledged eidetikers should be, of great interest. Memory f o r Designs Test  ( i i i ) Scoring  Terman's plus and minus basis of scoring seems to provide too coarse a grading f o r such a t e s t .  The f o l l o w i n g  c r i t e r i a are based on a scrutiny, of the preliminary group results,  On the b a s i s of a grading by a second observer  as to general 'goodness' o f reproduction, they seem to provide a reasonably objective ani accurate basis of assessment.  Once again, v a l i d i t y was assumed, while no  attempt was made to a s c e r t a i n r e l i a b i l i t y . Method Each design i s allowed ten points,  penalties are sub-  tracted as below, and the addition of the remaining points for  each of the three designs gives the f i n a l score f o r the  Memory.for Designs Test.  Design 1  .Penalty  (1)  Central loop omitted ( i . e . two end portions joined with single horizontal l i n e ) .  -5  (2)  End loop facing wrong way  (each) -1  (3)  End of loop not produced beyond v e r t i c a l l i n e (each)  (4)  Central portion lower than bottom of end loops, or proportionately higher -2  (5)  D i s t o r t i o n beyond given scoring standards (maximum penalty)  -2  (6)  Figure not symmetrical around ver t i cal axis, i f not caused only by carelessness {In addition to s p e c i f i c penalties)  -1  -1  Design 2 (1)  Reproduced symmetrically around v e r t i c a l axis  -4  (2)  Inner rectangle o f f s e t to l e f t  -3  (3)  Inner rectangle offset to r i g h t , but so l i t t l e as to r a i s e question as t o whether symmetry was intended -2  (4)  Inner rectangle reproduced as square  -3  (5)  Inner rectangle missing  -7  (6)  Each connecting line misdrawn (except through carelessness), or missing  ->1  68 Design 3 (1)  f o r each of the five elements missing or d i s t o r t e d , according to seriousness of d i s t o r t i o n  -1 or -2  (2)  Bottom projections" same size as, or larger than, top ones  -2  (3)  f o r each autonomous added, element  -1  Paper- Cutting Test  , (li)  Materials  This test was used exactly as described by Terman and M e r r i l l for S.A. I l l - 4 (43,p?131), except that i n the interests of economy a somewhat smaller, more standard-sized paper was used - one about 3f inches square* Paper Cutting. Test  ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations  This test, was included i n the battery i n the, expectation that the adequacy of the v i s u a l manipulation necessary f o r the successful reproduction of the appearance of the. unfolded paper would be r e f l e c t e d i n the score obtained.  On the basis of observation of  performance, however, considerable doubt has arisen as to how  close a r e l a t i o n s h i p exists between vividness  and 'goodness test.  1  of imagery, and the r e s u l t s of this  On both the f i n g e r Tracing and Memory for Designs  tests there seemed to be a tendency f o r a delay i n r e production to coincide with a lowering of score,  in  59  the Paper Cutting, on the contrary, an i n f e r i o r answer was often pondered over for a considerable time, and f i n a l l y a perfect solution arrived at i n a fashion suggestive of the G e s t a l t i s t  'insight . 1  During the e a r l y part of t b i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n the tentative hypothesis suggested i t s e l f that the small positive c o r r e l a t i o n found between h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y and ! i n t e l l i g e n c e ' by such investigators as White might a r i s e because of the common factor of v i v i d imagery.  Such  tests as the Memory for. Designs i n the Revised StanfordBinet Scale and the D i g i t Memory i n the WechslerBellevue Intelligence Scale may depend considerably upon, t h i s a b i l i t y .  But, even in/the event that imagery .  has a bearing on the c o r r e l a t i o n mentioned, the high average correlation of .60 discovered by Term an between ; this t e s t and the composite score (43, p. 244), suggests that other factors, perhaps more relevant to general i n t e l l i g e n c e , have a greater bearing on the score obtained.  C e r t a i n l y a cursory view of the differences  between the retention and reproduction of a v i s u a l image, and the rehearsal i n v i s u a l imagery o f object manipulation in  three dimensions, and the reproduction of what the  unseen r e s u l t should be, would suggest that^uch a d d i t i o n a l  60. a b i l i t i e s as s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s would come into play. For those reasons i t i s thought wise not to place too much, emphasis on the paper-cut ting test as a measure of v i s u a l imagery. Paper Cutting Test,  ( i i i ) Scoring  Creases and cut-outs c o r r e c t l y positioned, and cut-outs c o r r e c t l y shaped (maximum score)  5  Same, but. cut-outs wrongly shaped  4  Greases only c o r r e c t l y positioned  2  Other solutions  0  Depth of Hypnosis Scale ... ( i ) .Apparatus The administration o f the Scale i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Plate V.  The necessary apparatus includes a stop-watch,  an Argon glow-lamp"*" set i n a standard goose-neck r e f l e c t o r reading lamp and used as a f i x a t i o n point, and a folding canvas deck chair i n which the subject can r e l a x comfortably.  Since the experimenter s i t s to the  side of the subject's d i r e c t l i n e of v i s i o n , a mirror i s used to aid observation of eye-closure.  Lighting i s  dim and i n d i r e c t , and i s provided by a second goose-neck lamp containing a standard 25 watt bulb, directed against the w a l l . 1  General Electric,_AR-1, 2$ W., 105-125V.  Plate V Administration of Depth of Hypnosis Scale  62. Depth of Hypnosis Scale (ii)  Discussion of the Scale The scale used i n t h i s study i s a modified version of one  devised hy Friedlander and Sarbin (24) fromTthe best features of scales devised by Davis and Husband (10), Barry, McKinnon and Murray (3), White (46), and Hull (28).  For  this improved scale the investigators found a r e l i a b i l i t y averaging about .80, both with the same, and with d i f f e r e n t experimenters.  While no attempt was made to v e r i f y t h i s  r e l i a b i l i t y i n the present study, two r e t e s t s were made on the scale i n cases where some doubt was  f e l t as to the  adequacy of the measure of h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y .  In one  case  the same index was obtained and i n the other an index that varied by only one point.  Appendix A contains t h i s scale  i n i t s entirety, , The modifications introduced arise fro mythe p a r t i c u l a r needs of the present experimental s i t u a t i o n as shown i n the preliminary investigation.  While they are probably not so  extensive as to p r o h i b i t comparison with r e s u l t s from studies using the unmodified scale, t h i s has not been the i n the present study.  intention  What has been required, i s to compare  a l l subjects i n the matter of h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y , and since the scale as modified has been used with each, i t i s considered that t h i s object has been attained.  In any case,  caution should be used i n making comparisons with other results.  63. The.most extensive changes made were i n the 'challenges* i n the second section o f ths s c a l e .  To every challenge  .  except that of opening the eyes, there was added an a s s e r t i o n that the inhibited a c t i o n could he performed as soon as the operator touched the affected part.  This was with a view  to the reduction of tension and anxiety which might he f e l t by the  subject on finding himself unable to perform the  desired a c t i o n . In the o r i g i n a l scale the f i r s t paragraph contained the statement that the a b i l i t y to be hypnotized has nothing t o do with i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Since the opposite statement, that  there seemed t o be a s l i g h t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e had been made during the demonstration, t h i s statement was deleted. Certain changes were made t o conform to the conditions of the experimental  room.  Most of these arose from remarks  made by subjects during the preliminary s e r i e s .  Thus,  "warm and comfortable" was changed to "easy and comfortable" when i t was found that certain subjects f e l t s l i g h t l y cool. "You hear nothing but the sound o f my voice," was modified to,  ''You are concentrating on nothing but.. .etc., as 11  outside sounds which penetrated seemed t o move c e r t a i n subjects mentally to contradict t h i s statement, and thus s p o i l concentration and possibly cause a questioning attitude  64. towards future assertions o f t he experimenter.  A few  other  small changes were made i n the scale, but of the order of those already mentioned. The structure of the scale i s such that continuing with hypnotic stimulus a f t e r eye closure w i l l r e s u l t i n fewer points being obtained i n the 'induction section. 1  However there i s a tendency for t h i s lower score to be balanced by a reduced a b i l i t y on the part of the subject to resist  the 'challenges' (because of the somewhat deeper  trance state thereby induced) and so secure a higher score, i n most cases, i f any doubt was  f e l t as to the ,existence  of eye closure, the stimulus was continued.  Certain  exceptions necessitated a change i n scoring which i s given below. Depth of Hypnosis Scale  ( i i i ) Scoring  One change i n scoring was introduced from that suggested by the authors.  This was  necessary because i n some cases  under the conditions used, i t was  somewhat d i f f i c u l t to  ascertain whether or not eye closure had taken place.  The  procedure required that when eye closure occurred the operator completed the paragraph being read, proceeded to paragraph VIII and thence to tte challenges, thus cutting off the hypnotic stimulus,  f o r this reason i t was possible  i n exceptional cases to commence the challenges p r i o r to  65. eye closure.  I f any subject r e s i s t e d the eye challenge,  and had not had the complete hypnotic stimulus sequence repeated twice, paragraph VIII was repeated.  At the termin-  ation of i t he was instructed t o close his eyes before proceeding t o the second challenge.  In each such case one'  point was deducted from^he score obtained in', the 'induction! section of t h e scale. The scoring i s i n four sections Score (1)  Eye closure (induction) Eye closure takes place by completion of paragraph  V on f i r s t reading VII on P reading '! VIII_on M reading " VII, on second reading VIII on " reading E. must close S*s eyes at end of second reading 11  (2)  Negative  5 4 3 2 1 0  Suggestion  Count one point for each successful, challenge, (i.e.. not r e s i s t e d within 10 seconds). Record time taken t o r e s i s t unsuccessful challenges. Summate these times and count one point for each multiple of 10 seconds. (3) Hallucination Reported as being heard d i s t i n c t l y , or spontaneously remarked upon Reported as f a i n t ; some 'prodding' needed No h a l l u c i n a t i o n reported  5 3 0  66.  Score (4)  Amnesia (Memories possible include 5 challenges, hallucination instructions, and amnesia instructions.) Nothing remembered 1 item remembered 2 items remembered 3 items remembered 4 or 5 items remembered More than 5 items remembered  The hypnotizability index i s the sum of scores of the four sections.  5 4 3 2 1 0  67. CHAPTER IY ANALYSIS Og DATA . Introduction Two  of the predictions which Arnold has made on the  has is of her hypothesis have directed the method of enquiry i n the present study.. The hypotheses these predictions have already been stated.  derived from Prior to  examining the evidence concerning the, a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the hypotheses may c l a r i f y the most appropriate methods of handling the data. Testing the 'Sway Hypothesis  1  Arnold's major hypothesis holds that the accentuated movement produced i n a sway test i s the outcome of the incidental imagery engaged i n by the subject consequent upon the ' f a l l i n g ' suggestions given.  Because she believes  t h i s imagery i s also the basic mechanism actuated i n hypnotism, she predicts that a direct appeal to imagination i n the sway t e s t w i l l produce r e s u l t s more c l o s e l y related to the subject's h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y than w i l l the same test using Hull's standard instructions. Tol test, i n a controlled experiment,  the hypothesis  derived from t h i s p r e d i c t i o n i t i s necessary to have two  68. groups which can he -'demonstrated to he comparable i n t h e i r responses to the standard sway test, as well as any other character!sties which are. known to influence the r e s u l t s of sway tests.  I f the members of one group (control) then  repeat the sway test, while those of the other (experimental) are subjected to a second sway test i n which they are asked to imagine f a l l i n g , the second sway test scores of the experimental group should correlated more c l o s e l y with measures^ of t h e i r hypnotizability than w i l l those o f the control group.  It i s therefore of primary importance to  show that the two groups are equated. Comparison of Groups The members of the control and experimental groups were equated upon^ the r e s u l t s o f sway test the course of the t e s t i n g session.  number 1 during  At the conclusion of  these sessions the r e s u l t s of certain subjects had to be discarded because of imperfect kymograph recordings of sway.  This l e f t some of the eight equating categories with  unequal numbers as between control.and experimental In such cases, 'excess  1  groups.  subjects were discarded by being  picked out i n a random • manner. One female subject i n the control group was found to be more than twice the mean age of the group and, since  69. Edwards (14) "has shown age to be r e l a t e d to sway test r e s u l t s , this subject and her opposite number inthe experimental group were eliminated. It was necessary to make a correction i n the 'raw' sway scores f o r the height at which the recording thread was attached and a divergence was thereby caused.  of the mean sway of the two groups  One subject was therefore removed from  each of the groups and was replaced from among those previously 'discarded* on the single basis of bringing the means of the two groups i n Sway Test number 1 more c l o s e l y together. Each group then contained 30 subjects, 8 females and 22 males.  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the two groups are noted  i n Table I. As worked out by Fisher's' method (42, p. 70) there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the means of the two groups. Relation of Sway Test and Hypnotizability Scale Results .' The method used to score sway records r e s u l t s i n a discontinuous series and, since there i s no way known to equate the value of ' f a l l s ' w i t h amount o f sway, the rank differences method of correlation i s used i n computing c o e f f i c i e n t s i n t o which these data enter.  From the obtained  'rho* i s inferred the value of ' r by the table given by 1  Garrett (25, p.362).  Table I Comparison of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Control and Experimental Groups. Number: Total Male JPemale Corrected Sway ST #1 EsE3 Mean Sigma Time of ' F a l l ! ST#1 1= 7 Mean Sigma Age i n Months . N» 30 Mean •Sigma Hypno t i zab i l i t y Index Na 30 Mean Sigma  Control Group  ill  30 22 8  30 28 8 3.82 i n s . 2.13 43.0 sees. 20.40  Experimental Group  .146  ,290  3.12 i n s . 2.62 46.29 18.61  246.50 mos. 26.15  .162  247.63 26.97  8.87 p t s . 4.76  .247  8.57 4.47  ©  71  In determining the rank to assign to various scores* the question of negative sway values a r i s e s .  Based on  correlations with various personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Eysenck (20, p. 187) has stated that negative sway values aremore c l o s e l y related to the same obtained positive values than they are to the smaller intervening scores.  On the  other hand, Berreman and Hilgard (4) found that on r e p e t i t i o n i n a six-test series, a l l negative values became p o s i t i v e , and positive values increased.  This argues for  something more i n the nature of a continuum, with negative r e s u l t s at the lower end.  The l a t t e r evidence seems to bear  more r e l a t i o n to t h i s study than the former. negative values encountered  Since no  exceed 1.5 inches, and the  consequent rank displacement therefore i s not great, the most negative score i s considered as the smallest sway score throughout  this  treatment.  Correlations carried out between sway test scores and h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y indices provide the information given i n Table I I . The r/sigma r r a t i o s have to do only w i t h th© p r o b a b i l i t y of the obtained correlations differlag s i g n i f i c a n t l y from zero.  A l l tests o f significance are worked out by the methods  suggested by McEfemar (41, pp. 122-125). • i-  Table I I Rank differences. Correlations between corrected sway test scores and h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y jscores. Sway Test Number 1  (Direct Suggestion)  s  Rho  All S'S  60  .438  .455  Control S's  30  .464  Exper. S's  30  .397  Sway Test Number 2  r Sigma r (inferred) ,  Level of significance  Sigma r  .130  3.508  .0005 -  .481  .186  2.586  ,01  .413  .186  2.220  .03  (Imagery of F a l l i n g )  •  Control S's  30  .686  .703  .186  3.780  ,0002  Exper, S's  30  .235  .245  .186  1.317  .19  -a  to  73. It appears that a l l o f the correlations secured are reasonably s i g n i f i c a n t , with the exception of the one using sway test number 2 i n the experimental group.  The  greater c o r r e l a t i o n shown i n the second sway test by the control group, and the smaller correlation shown by the experimental group are also s i g n i f i c a n t , the respective D -z/sigma z  z  z  r a t i o s being 5.44 and 2.93.  These are  interpreted i n the same way as t . These r e s u l t s appear to be d i r e c t l y opposed to those expected i n our hypothesis, from which i t would be a n t i cipated that an increase would oecur i n the c o r r e l a t i o n between sway and h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y i n the second test of the experimental group.  Instead, there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  decrease i n the experimental group and a larger and more s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n the control group. Testing the 'Imagery HypothesisV The second hypothesis which the present study i s designed to test i s derived from Arnold's p r e d i c t i o n that only those subjects who can imagine sharply and well i n the waking state w i l l have the necessary vividness of imagination and the necessary concentration to enable them to reach an advanced stage of hypnosis.  74, ^Imagination" as used "by Arnold has "been construed as the more precise term, imagery, and for the purposes of t h i s study has been narrowly defined i n an operational way.  The tests used confine t h i s d e f i n i t i o n to the two  modes of imagery which Arnold's investigations indicated as being most relevant to her hypothesis.  In a l e t t e r to  the writer she has indicated that she does not disagree with such a d e f i n i t i o n . Ho equating of groups i s necessary for the t e s t i n g of t h i s second hypothesis.  The necessary evidence  concerns  whether or not i n the group being studied there exists a c o r r e l a t i o n between the scores on imagery tests and the scores obtained on the scale of hypnotic depth.  E o l a t i o n of Imagery Tests and Hypnotizability Scale Results  '"  Using r e s u l t s from a l l subjects, the following correlations are found for the three imagery tests; Table I I I Product Moment Correlations between Imagery Test Scores and Hypnotizability Indices, using a l l subjects l e v e l of H  r  r/sigma r  60  .356  2.738  .006  Design Memory  60  .131  1.008  .32  Paper Gutting  60 7.047  .362  .75  Finger Tracing  Significance  75. The only one of these three tests showing a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n with h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y i n the present study i s the Progressive Finger Tracing Test. The d i f f i c u l t y o f distinguishing e f f e c t i v e l y between the r e s u l t s of kinaesthetic and v i s u a l imagery has been referred to previously.  Because Arnold found a combination  of these two modes more e f f e c t i v e i n waking suggestion than either used.separately, according t o introspective  reports,  the scores f o r the Design Memory and the Finger Tracing tests were added, and the sums correlated with the hypnotizability indices.  This ',2-Test Imagery Score'  proved to correlate r=.389 with hypnotizability, the t of 2.99 r a i s i n g the l e v e l of significance to the .3$ point.  A more r e f i n e d s t a t i s t i c a l treatment might have  established a higher r e l a t i o n s h i p , but i t i s believed that the present data are s u f f i c i e n t to provide evidence i n favour of the existence of a relationship between imagery as measured i n t h i s study and h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y as estimated by the Friedlander  and Sarbin scale.  The  '2-Test Imagery' score i s used i n a l l subsequent c a l culations involving imagery. As further evidence of the relationship referred t o , the imagery scores are taken f o r subjects i n the upper •quartile of the hypnotizability index d i s t r i b u t i o n and  76. compared with those of subjects i n the lower q u a r t i l e .  in  cases where the same rank of hypnotizability index overlaps q u a r t i l e boundaries, each subject i s given the average f o r that rank.  This procedure gives a mean of 37.97 imagery  points i n the upper, compared with 30.52 i n the lower, with a t of 2.34 which i s s i g n i f i c a n t at s l i g h t l y better than the 2$ l e v e l .  I f instead o f the upper and lower 15  cases ( q u a r t i l e ) , the top and bottom s i x cases are taken ( d e c i l e ) , the respective means become 43.78 and 25.83 with a t of 6.82. While there seems to be l i t t l e doubt that the present data indicate a relationship between imagery and hypnotiza b i l i t y , the moderate c o r r e l a t i o n discovered i s probably less than would be anticipated from the central p o s i t i o n given to imagery by the Arnold hypothesis. S u g g e s t i b i l i t y , Hypnotizability, and Imagery Because' of the somewhat contradictory r e s u l t s so f a r obtained, a further analysis appears desirable. I f our 1  imagery score represents the a b i l i t y to imagine " v i v i d l y and Well" which Arnold believes to be basic to both waking and hypnotic suggestion, then the removal o f the influence of imagery should leave a considerably reduced c o r r e l a t i o n between s u g g e s t i b i l i t y as measured by the  77.  sway tests, a i d hypnotizability.  By the p a r t i a l  c o r r e l a t i o n technique i t i s possible to secure an estimate of the relationship which4ould hold between two variables i f a t h i r d , believed to influence the other two, i s held constant.  ,_. „  A p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n of the scores believed t o represent s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y and imagery gives the r e s u l t s shown i n Table II. Contrary to the e f f e c t anticipated from the hypothesis, removing the influence of imagery seems to increase  rather  than decrease the c o r r e l a t i o n between h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , though not to a s i g n i f i c a n t extent. The  examination of the scatter gram of r  • a l l cases  1  1  3  for  as shown i n Table IV, gives no evidence of  the existence of a curvelinear r e l a t i o n .  The difference  between the control and the experimental groups i n the. correlations of hypnotizability and imagery was found to be of the very doubtful s i g n i f i c a n c e , of a t of 1.1. I f imagery were the basic factor common to both waking and hypnotic suggestion, then more meaningful r e s u l t s would be obtained from working with groups known to. be equated i n t h i s ' a b i l i t y ' .  To check the r e s u l t s  obtained above i n the i n i t i a l analjSLs of the 'sway hypothesis', 16 subjects are selected from control and  Table IV P a r t i a l correlation, indicating the relationship between corrected sway test scores and hypnotizability indices, with the influence of Imagery scores 'partialed out' Using Sway Test lumber 1 (Common to a l l subjects)  A l l Cases  60  ,454  r _^ sigma r 3.49  .004  r sigma r ,03  Control Group  30  .481  2.59  - .001  ,005  .52  2.80  .564  Exper. Group  30  .413  2.22  - .007  .04  ,279  1,50  .432  Control Group  30  .712  3.82  •15  .81  .521  2.80  .748  Exper. Group  30  .245  1.33  - .033  .18  .279  1.50  .265  N  ?  12  r  13  r  23  .389  r sigma r 2,99  12.3 .492  r  iway Test Number 2  79. experimental groups, equated only on the has i s of obtained imagery score.  Hank Differences correlations obtained are: Table y  Rank differences correlations between corrected sway test scores and hypnotizabi11ty indices f o r 16 subjects matched on '8-Test Imagery! scores Sway Test Number 2.  Sway Test Number 1. Control Group  rho...  .660  rho • •  Experimental Group  rho • •  .446  rho.  •  •  .840 .417  While the tendency f o r the experimental group t o secure a lower correlation with h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y from the results of sway t e s t number 8 i s not so obvious as previously, the c o n t r o l group's tendency to obtain a higher c o r r e l a t i o n i n the second test i s even more apparent. ,A p o s s i b i l i t y exists that the a r b i t r a r y scoring o f the Progressive Finger Tracing Test may obscure a relationship existing between the imagery ' a b i l i t y ' and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y as measured by the sway t e s t .  The highest c o r r e l a t i o n  secured with imagery i s that of sway test number 8 i n the control group, but i t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero.  When the finger tracing teste of the control group  are resoored, using a weighting based on the d i f f i c u l t y of each item as determined f o r the whole group ( N-60), the  80. c o r r e l a t i o n of the revised scores with scores of sway t e s t number 2 increases over the previous correlation only from .10 to .11, not a s i g n i f i c a n t  increase.  Summary of Analysis Operationally and  defining s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , hypnotizability,  imagery i n terms of the tests used i n t h i s study, data  fromthe population investigated (1)  indicates:  A s i g n i f i c a n t increase inthe relationship between hypnotizability and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y when the l a t t e r is remeasured by the Hull Sway Test using a r e p e t i t i o n of direct f a l l i n g suggestions.  This i s  contrasted with a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n the relationship shown i n a comparable group when s u g g e s t i b i l i t y i s remeasured by the Hull Sway Test.using instructions requesting the subject to imagine he i s f a l l i n g ;  (2)  Ho change i n the pattern of these r e s u l t s when individuals from the experimental and control groups are matched only on the basis o f imagery;  a  81.'  (3)  No decrease i n the  c o r r e l a t i o n between  h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y when the effect of imagery i s held constant by a p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n technique; (4)  No detectable correlation, l i n e a r or between s u g g e s t i b i l i t y and imagery.  curyelinear, No s i g n i -  f i c a n t change upon applying.a more accurate Scoring method to the Pro gressive  Finger  Tracing test) (5)  A s i g n i f i c a n t , though moderate, c o r r e l a t i o n between hypnotizability and tendency which i s not  imagery, with a  statistically signi-  f i c a n t towards a higher c o r r e l a t i o n i n the control than i n the experimental group.  82. CHAPTER V A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF TEE STUDY  Controls Believed to, be Adequate The mechanical aspects of the experimental s i t u a t i o n are believed to be adequate.  The error of kymograph record-  ing i s shown to be l e s s than the approximation to which records are read.  The only sway recordings discarded f o r  technical reasons were s p o i l t because of the f a i l u r e of the recording pen.  A l l time records were obtained by the  use of a stpp watch or e l e c t r i c timer, and the l a t t e r operation was semi-automatic. . The two wire-re cor dings used i n the sway test were recorded, at the same l e v e l of volume, and the • same setting was used f o r each playback so that, objectively, each subject received the same stimuli as the rest of his group. The use of a previously prepared procedure and record sheet f o r the complete experimental session ensured uniformity of procedure, while the series of ten preliminary sessions aided the experimenter i n obtaining a uniform administration of a l l  tests.  Control, of v i s u a l stimuli carried out by use of a b l i n d f o l d , a concealing curtain over the tracing board, and controlled illumination, reduced distractions i n t h i s sensory f i e l d ,  93. Inadequately Controlled Aspects Unknown to the experimenter,  the f i l m "psychiatry i n  Action" had "been shown to the Psychology 100 class from which most of the subjects were drawn.  This would tend to give a  focus, for imagination even without d i r e c t suggestion to concentrate upon imagining.  A considerable number of subjects  had been put though the experimental procedure before t h i s > was discovered, so i t was thought better not to make any» changes.  (In the f i l m "Psychiatry i n Action .' a ps/chiatric 1  patient i s shown being subjected to the Eysenck version of the sway t e s t , and f a l l i n g subsequent to the suggestions given.)  During the introspective enquiry following the  second sway test, f i v e members of each group mentioned having seen the f i l m .  I f this can be taken as a rough  measure of the s a l i e n c y of the subject for the two groups, they may also be said to be equated f o r t h i s f a c t o r .  It  i s therefore not l i k e l y of s u f f i c i e n t importance to d i s rupt the pattern of r e s u l t s . Of the physical aspects, noise seemed to be the most disturbing, and the least subject to control.  The  space used was not quiet, but was the only one a v a i l a b l e , fortunately, most of the disturbance occurred at the end of lecture periods when, as a r u l e , the session was or the f i n a l enquiry was being carried on.  completed  Ten members of  the experimental group and twelve of the control group  84. complained of being distracted by noise during the administ r a t i o n of t h e h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y scale, probably the part of the proceedings most vulnerable to such an influence. I t would be the judgment of the experimenter, though a subjective one, that outside noise at these times was no more apparent than at others,  i n such cases i t i s possible that  d i s t r a c t i o n by noise was more l i k e l y a r e s u l t rather than a cause of lack of concentration. By f a r the greatest uncontrolled aspect of the experimental s i t u a t i o n , however, appeared t o be the v a r i e t y of emotional and motivational pressures present i n the subjects.  Though an attempt was made to reduce these by  giving a p r i o r demonstration, by answering questions, and by assuming a natural easy a t t i t u d e , even casual observation revealed i t s Indifferent success.  The same f a s c i n a t i o n with  hypnotism which enabled t h i s study to secure a large number of volunteers with comparative ease, apparently makes f o r pressures which should cause any except quite general i n t e r pretations of r e s u l t s to be made with. caution, p a r t i c u l a r l y since the r e s u l t s hinge on the use of r e l a t i v e l y small numbers of subjects. The Experimental Design A c r i t i c i s m that may be made o f the experimental design i s that the t e s t s of imagery, as a task not e n t i r e l y neutral, may have influenced the r e s u l t s of the second sway test i n one way or another.  But, since no s i g n i f i c a n t  85. correlation can be demonstrated i n any case between the results of the imagery tests and the sway t e s t s , i t i s believed u n l i k e l y that there is s u f f i c i e n t i n common between tie a c t i v i t i e s for such an e f f e c t to have occurred.  two  It i s  apparent, moreover, that even the introduction of the 'variable' of d i f f e r e n t instructions i n sway test number 2 for the two  groups has done l i t t l e to a f f e c t the r e s u l t s ,  as there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the correlations of the f i r s t and  second sway tests as between the two groups.  In the control group they correlate .720,  and  experimental group .781.  If the case causing  The  t i s 1.13.  i n the  the., most deviation i s removed from each group, lowering the 1 to 29, these correlations become respectively and  .833,  .861  which seems to imply a high degree of s t a b i l i t y  for t h i s t e s t i n spite of disturbing  influences.  It seems apparent, therefore, that the  introduction  of the 'imagination" instructions into the sway test has not had a great e f f e c t upon the order of the scores obtained. It also appears that whatever effect has occurred  has  influenced the relationship with h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y i n a manner quite d i f f e r e n t from that predicted by Arnold. A further p o s s i b i l i t y exists that the d i f f e r i n g instructions for sway test number 2 given i n the two  groups  has had a d i f f e r e n t i a l effect upon the h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y indices obtained following these t e s t s .  Supporting t h i s  86.  view are the higher correlations obtained i n the control group between hypnotizability and sway test number 1, and between h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y and imagery.  Opposed to t h i s i s  the lack of s t a t i s t i c a l significance i n these two differences, and the lack of a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the means.  two  Without further evidence than that contained i n the  experimental data i t i s believed impossible to come to a d e f i n i t e decision, though the weight of evidence Beems to be against any such effect having taken place. Additional Work Required The present study was designed to secure objective, numerical data, which might be treated s t a t i s t i c a l l y , i n such a manner as to become evidence for accepting or r e j e c t i n g the Arnold hypothesis.  The above discussion  indicates the w r i t e r ' s b e l i e f that t h i s evidence i s open to question because i t does not take s u f f i c i e n t l y into account the motivational aspects which enter into the t o t a l situation.  Further studies i n the same general area, but  more r e s t r i c t e d i n scope, and with emphasis upon the conscious motivation of the subjects, t h e i r reasons for taking part, i n the experiment, their attitudes towards hypnotism and the hypnotist, and similar questions, should provide information complementary to the present  study.  A study continuing over several months, i n which a few  87. subjects could become thoroughly familiar with the experimenter and with the techniques used, might be valuable for equating motivational aspects. In work which involves hypnotism the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Experimenter and Subject is so close that i t i s doubtful whether s u f f i c i e n t o b j e c t i v i t y can be secured i n the enquiry i f i t i s carried out by the i n d i v i d u a l inducing hypnosis.  For, t h i s reason i t seems desirable that future  work along such l i n e s should be carried out by at least two  persons. A more immediate project, a r i s i n g d i r e c t l y from t h i s  study, i s the ascertaining of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the tests of imagery used.  It was  o r i g i n a l l y supposed that evidence  securing concerning the 'imagery' hypothesis would be supplementary, to that bearing on the 'sway' hypothesis. When i t was r e a l i z e d that the imagery scores must be used i n further analysis of apparently contradictory evidence, neither the o r i g i n a l subjects nor f a c i l i t i e s were available for r e t e s t i n g .  The lack of evidence concerning  reliability  i s a d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n upon conclusions drawn from findings based upon the use of these t e s t s .  88. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION Interpretation I f i t i s assumed that the Finger Tracing and Memory for Designs tests do provide a r e l i a b l e measure of •imagination  1  i n the sense that Arnold uses the term, our  analysis seems to indicate that the mechanism of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y does not depend upon imagination to any s i g n i f i c a n t degree.  This may be inferred £om the f a i l u r e  to f i n d a c o r r e l a t i o n between the r e s u l t s of the two tests, and from the r e s u l t s of the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n carried out. There i s , however, evidence that imagination as so defined i s a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n hypnotizability.  I f the  assumption concerning these tests i s not made, the i n v e s t i gation of the 'sway' hypothesis s t i l l gives reason to doubt the existence of imagination as a factor common to both ideomotor s u g g e s t i b i l i t y and hypnotizability. The  evidence obtained i n this study would appear to  indicate that  ' s u g g e s t i b i l i t y ' and 'imagery' as we have  operationally defined them are r e l a t i v e l y independent f a c t o r s , both bearing a r e l a t i o n to 'hypnotizability'. It i s possible that the 'imagery'; tests used may measure, something of the same type as the 'Heat I l l u s i o n ' t e s t , the scores from which Eysenck (EO, p. 171) found to relate to hypnotizability to a much higher degree than to primary or secondary s u g g e s t i b i l i t y .  89.  If imagery i s accepted as a factor which i s i n dependent of ideo-motor s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , then the appeals t o imagination which were contained i n the experimental group instructions i n sway test number 2 would act as a d i s t r a c t i n g influence, and the c o r r e l a t i o n obtained between the f i r s t and second tests would be understood i n terms o f the great number of factors i n common between the f i r s t and second s i t u a t i o n s , including the r e p e t i t i o n of the word "relax" and the phrase " f a l l i n g forward".  In the control group, the higher  correlation with h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y i n the second sway test might be p a r t l y explained by a greater f a m i l i a r i t y with the s i t u a t i o n bringing about a greater degree of relaxation, and hence l e s s i n h i b i t i o n of the sway action, a r i s i n g from whatever source i t may. Summary For the population studied,  the data gathered lend  no support to Arnold's prediction that i n the Hull sway test a direct appeal to the subject's imagination should produce scores more c l o s e l y related to h i s h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y than scores resulting from suggestions which may i n d i r e c t l y produce such imagination.  'Imagination' i s used i n such a way that the  more precise word 'imagery' seems more applicable. imagery operationally  Defining  i n terms of.one o r i g i n a l and one  adapted test of undetermined r e l i a b i l i t y , no r e l a t i o n s h i p could be established between t h i s factor and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y .  90. However, a moderately high c o r r e l a t i o n was found between imagery and hypnotizability, when the l a t t e r f a c t o r  was  defined i n terms of the Friedlander and Sarbin scale.  This  relationship seems to lend support to Arnold's second pred i c t i o n , that only those who  can imagine v i v i d l y and well  are capable of becoming deeply hypnotized. A possible interpretation of the data i s suggested: that ideo-motor s u g g e s t i b i l i t y and imagery are factors i n dependently related to hypnotizability, but with no necessary i n t e r r e l a t i o n . Arnold's major hypothesis, that ideo-motor  action  based on imagery i s the basic mechanism of both 'prestige' or  'primary* s u g g e s t i b i l i t y and hypnosis, does not f i n d  support i n the data secured i n t h i s study.  While further  studies i n t h i s area are indicated, directed t o the motivational aspects of the hypnotic s i t u a t i o n , and to the establishing of the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of objective tests of imagery, s u f f i c i e n t evidence i s a v a i l able to counsel great caution inthe acceptance of the Arnold Hypothesis.  91 REFERENCES 1.  ARNOLD, MAGDA B., On the mechanism of suggestion and hypnosis, "J.'abnorin. soc. Psychol*, 1946, 41, 107-128.  2.  ASCH, S.E., The doctrine of suggestion prestige and imitation i n s o c i a l psychology, Psychol. Rev., 1948, 55, 250-276.  3.  BARRY, H., MACKINNON, D.W. AND MURRAY, H.A,, Hypnotizability as a personality t r a i t and i t s topological r e l a t i o n s , Hum. B i o l . , 1931, 3, 1-36.  4.  BERREMAN, L.V. AND HILGARD, E.R., The e f f e c t s of personal . heterosuggestion and two forms of autosuggestion upon postural movement, J . soc. Psychol., 1936, 7, 289-300.  5.  BRAMWELL, J . MILNE, Hypnotism, i t s history, practice and theory, London, Alexander Moting Ltd.,1906.  6.  BRENMAN, MARGARET AND GILL, MERTON M., Hypnotherapy; a survey of the l i t e r a t u r e , (The Menniriger Foundation Monograph series No. 5), New.York, International U n i v e r s i t i e s Press, 1947.  7.  BROWN, W.,\Hypnosis., s u g g e s t i b i l i t y and progressive relaxation, B r i t . J. Psychol., 1938, 28, 39 6>411.  8.  CARMICHAEL, L., E i d e t i c imagery and the Binet t e s t , J. ed. Psychol., 1925, 16, 251-252.  9.  DAVIS, I.C., The functional significance of imagery differences, J. exp. Psychol.,1952, 15, 630-661. '  10.  DAVIS, LAWRENCE W. AND HUSBAND, RICHARD W, , A study of hypnotic s u s c e p t i b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n to personality t r a i t s , J . abnorm. soc. Psychol., 1931, 26, 175-188.  11.  DEXTER, E.S., What i s imagination?, J . gen. Psychol., 1943, 2$, 133-138.  12.  DORCAS, R.M., BRINTNALL, A.Z,, AND CASE, H.W.., Control i' experiments and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to theories of hypnotism^ J. gen. Psychol., 1941, 24, 217-221.  13.  EDWARDS, A.S., Static ataxiameter for* head and hips, Amer. J. Psychol., 1941, 54, 576-577.  92. 14.  EDWARDS, A.S., The measurement of s t a t i c ataxia, Amer. J. Psychol., 1942, 55, 171-188.  15.  EDWARDS, A.S., Helmet for ataxiameter, Amer. J. Psychol., 1942, 55, 422. '.' "  16.  EDWARDS, A.S., Body sway and v i s i o n , J. Exp. Psychol., 1946, 36, 526-535.  17.  ESDAILE, JAMES, Mesmerism i n India and i t s p r a c t i c a l application i n surgery and medicine, Chicago, The Psychic Research Company, 1902.  18.  ERICKSON, M.H., An experimental investigation of the possible a n t i - s o c i a l uses of hypnosis, Psychiatry, 1939, 2, 391-414.  19.  ESTABROOKS, G.H., Hypnotism, New York, E.P. Dutton and Co., Inc., 1948.  20.  EYSENCK "j H.J., Dimensions of •personality, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1947. "  21.  EYSENCK, H.J., S u g g e s t i b i l i t y and narcosis, a rejoinder, Psychol. BulL, 1948, 45, 163-164  22.  EYSENCK, H.J. AND FURNEAUX, W.D., Primary and secondary s u g g e s t i b i l i t y : an experimental and s t a t i s t i c a l study, J. exp. Psychol., 1945, 35, 485-503.  23.  FEARING, FRANKLIN S., The factors influencing s t a t i c equilibrium: an experimental study, J . eomp. Psychol., 1924, 4, 92-121, 163-183.  24.  ^FRIEDLANDER, J.W. AND SARBIN, T.H., The depth of hypnosis, J. abnorm. soc. Psychol., 1938, 33, 453*475.  25.  GARRETT, H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n psychology and education, (2nd ed.), New York, Longmans, Green and Co., 1940.  26.  GOLDSMITH, MARGARET, Franz Anton Mesmer, The history of and idea, London, Arthur Barker Ltd., 1934  27.  HULL, CLARK L. , Quantitative methods o f investigating '. waking suggestion, J. abnorm. soc. Psychol., 1929, • 24, 153-169.  London,  93. 28.  HULL, CLARK L., Hypnosis and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , an experimental approach, Hew York, D. AppletonCentury.Company, 1933.  29.  JACOBSON, EDMUND, Progressive r e l a x a t i o n - a Physiological and c l i n i c a l investigation of muscular states and their significance i n psychology and medical practice. Chicago, ' University of Chicago Press, 1938.  3 0  •  «XE!NNESS. A., Hypnotism, i n J. McV. Hunt (Ed, ), ~ Personafity and the behavior disorders, New York, The Ronald Press, 1944. !  31.  JENNESS, A. AND JORGENSEN, A.P., Minor studies from the psychological laboratory of the University o f Nebraska, XI ratings of vividness of imagery i n the waking'state compared with reports of somnabulism, Amer. 3. Psychol., 1941, 54, 253-259.  32.  KRETCH, DAVID AND CRUTCHFIELD, R.S., Theory and problems .... of. s o c i a l psychology. New York, McGrawrHill Book C,o. Inc. , 1948.  33.  KUBIE, L.S. AND MARGOLIN, S., The process of hypnotism and the nature of the hypnotic state, Amer. J. Psychiat., 1944, 100, 611-622. ~~  34.  LECRON, LESLIE, M. AND BORDEAU, JEAN, Hypnotism today, _ Grune . and . Stratton, 1947.,  35.  LEUBA» C., Imagery as conditioned sensations, J. exp. Psychol., 1940, 26, 345-351.  36.  LEUBA, C., The use of hypnosis f o r c o n t r o l l i n g ; variables i n psychological experiments, J. abnorm. soc.' Psychol. , 1941, 36, 271-274.  37.  MAX,  38.  MARKS, ROBERT W., The story of hypnotism, New Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1947.  39.  MENNINGER FOUNDATION, Hypnosis research project, B u l l . Menninger C l i n . , 1945, 9, 1-7.  L.W., Experimental study of the motor theory of consciousness, IV aetion current responses i n the deaf during awakening, kinaesthetic imagery and abstract thinking, J. comp. Psychol., 1937, 24, 301^344. York,  94. 40.  MCCUEDY, HAROLD GRIER, An experimental study of waking postural suggestion, J . exp. PsychoL, 1948 , 38, 250-256.  41.  MCNEMAR, QUINN, Psychological s t a t i s t i c s . lew York, Wiley and Sons Inc., 1949.  42.  SMITH, G. MILTOH, A s i m p l i f i e d guide to- s t a t i s t i c s , New York, Rinehart and Co.. Inc. , 1946.  43.  TERMAN, L.M.,, AND MERRILL, M.A., Measuring Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1937.  44.  TRAYIS, E.G., An experimental analysis of dynamic and s t a t i c equilibrium, J . exp. Psychol., 1945, 35, 216-234.  45.  WELLS, W. R., Experiments i n the hypnotic production of crime, J . Psychol., 1941, 11, 63-102..  46.  WHITE, M.M., The physical and mental t r a i t s of . persons susceptible to hypnosis, J . abnorm.soc. Psychol., 1930, 25, 293-298.  47.  WHITE, R.W., An analysis of motivation i n hypnosis, J. gen. Psychol., 1941, 24, 145-162. •  48.  WHITE, ROBERT W., The abnormal personality . New York, The Ronald Press Co., 1948.  49.  WHITE, ROBERT W. AND SHEVACH, B.J., Hypnosis and the concept of dissociation, J . abnorm. soe. Psychol., 1942, 37, 309-328.  50.  WOLBERG, LEWIS R., Medical Hypnosis, Vol. I, The . p r i n c i p l e s of hypnotherapy, New York, Grune and Strattpn, 1948.  Intelligence,  APPENDIX  A  DETAILED PROCEDURE FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL SESSION  (NOTE;  Instructions f o r the experimenter are given i n c a p i t a l s , i n parentheses.)  1. APPENDIX A DETAILED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE; (STUDENT ENTERS) Good day.  I'm glad you were able to come.  ____ aren't you. my name before.  I'm  You're Mr.  (Miss)  , i n case you didn't get  W i l l you s i t down here, please.  (IF WITNESS  PRESENT, SEAT IN CORNER.) You're probably wondering just what i s expected of you. What I am trying t o do i s to e s t a b l i s h a connection between 4  certain types of experimental reponses and what I r e f e r r e d to i n my talk as the 'aptitude' f o r hypnosis.  So the f i r s t  part of t h i s session w i l l be taken up by various kinds of fpr  tests, and later we w i l l attempt to assess your aptitude hypnosis.  In several of these tests we'll have to cover up  your eyes, but w i l l t r y to do i t i n the most comfortable  way  possible. Now  since i t i s quite necessary that you be relaxed and  easy i n your mind during t h i s session, I'd f i r s t l i k e to check tbat you have ttee whole of t h i s hour free, and aren't worrying about getting away to do something. s i t u a t i o n i n that regard? LATE, AND  (RECORD THIS.  What's your  IF SESSION BEGUN  IN EARLIER SESSIONS, CHECK ALSO FOR FIRST PART OF  FOLLOWING HOUR.)  I f you have any questions that you'd l i k e  to ask before we s t a r t , anyAing that you might be uneasy about, just go ahead.  (ANSWER, ALL QUESTIONS-.•THAT DO NOT BEAR  DIRECTLY ON THE PURPOSES OF THE EXPERIMENT, AND THE SPECIFIC PROCEDURE. )  2.  One thing I'd l i k e ID ask you.  Since t h i s work is being  done for my'M.A. t h e s i s , and since i t may prove worthless i f certain controls are not observed, I*d l i k e you to undertake not to disetuss what wedre going to do here today, except i n the most general terms. to questions  I would suggest that you say i n answer  only that you did a few tests that you have been  asked not to discuss, and that your aptitude f o r hypnosis was  tested.  the hypnotic  1 don't mind"youf ta^  in  Si  state, but would prefer Jrhat you don't disuuss  at a l l any details of the procedure, how f e l t i t was,  successful you  and things of that sort.  (CHECK AISO WITH WITNESS, ALSO THAT HE IS NOT FUTURE SUBJECT) (RECORD WHETHER OR NOT  TO BE A  A WITNESS IS PRESENT -  IF SO RECORD. NAME) '. ' NORMAL RECORD AND  SWAY TEST NUMBER 1  (HULL TEST)  ..  As I said there are several factors which I want to relate to the aptitude for hypnosis. body movement when standing.  The f i r s t of the, se is normal As you know, nobody can  stand  p e r f e c t l y steady, and under d i f f e r e n t conditions, the same person w i l l probably show d i f f e r e n t s o r t s of responses tn t h i s regard.  Now  I'm  going to put on this b l i n d f o l d , and I'd l i k e  you to stand up here — height (MEASURE AND —  f i r s t by the wall so I can get your  RECORD HEIGHT TO LOOP ON BACK OF BLINDFOLD)  and then just here.  Put your feet together  —  both heels  and toes, hold your head i n i t s natural p o s i t i o n without moving  3. your neck, and l e t your arms hang e a s i l y at your sides, . (ATTACH THREAD) Now just stand as s t i l l as possible f o r a moment. (ZERO KYMOGRAPH) position,  Now take up a relaxed, passive  Don't worry about any slight movements, but just  stand naturally, and. e a s i l y , and relaxed.  In a short time  I'm going to s t a r t a recording of my voice on which I want you to focus your f u l l attention, but i n the meantime just stand there naturally, e a s i l y ani relaxed. (START KYMOGRAPH* • • RECORD FOR £ MINUTE MARK KYMOGRAPH RECORD AND SIMULTANEOUSLY BEGIN WIRE RECORDER.) "As you l i s t e n to t h i s you'll f i n d yourself f a l l i n g forward* You are beginning to f a l l forward. You are f a l l i n g forward. You are f a l l i n g forward. You f e e l yourself f a l l i n g forward a l i t t l e more — a l i t t l e more. You are f a l l i n g forward. You are f a l l i n g forward, over on your toes. Relax your body now. You are f a l l i n g forward. F a l l i n g , f a l l i n g , A l i t t l e more. A l i t t l e mors. A l i t t l e more. You are f a l l i n g forward, forward on your toes. Forward. A l i t t l e more»q Relax your muscles. F a l l i n g . A l i t t l e more. More. You are f a l l i n g over now. You are f a l l i n g . You are f a l l i n g . F a l l i n g over. F a l l i n g . F a l l i n g . A l i t t l e more. Relax. You are f a l l i n g forward. You can't help yourself. Right over on your toes. F a l l i n g . F a l l i n g a l i t t l e more a l l the time. You're f a l l i n g forward a l i t t l e more a l l the time. Forward, forward, f a l l i n g straight ahead. F a l l i n g , f a l l i n g over on your toes, f a l l i n g forward, more and more a l l the time. F a l l i n g , f a l l i n g , f a l l i n g forward. (REPEAT FROM * TO FULL L# MINUTES. ) (SEAT SUBJECT BEFORE PROGRESSIVE LINGER TRACING BOARD WHILE DETERMINING BY MEASUREMENT OF RECORD WHETHER TO ASSIGN HIM TO CONTROL OR EXPERIMENTAL GEO,UP.  RECORD THIS, AND LF CONTROL  GROUP START WIRE RECORDER REWINDING.)  PROGRESSITE FINGER TRACING TEST — KINESTHETIC IMAGERY For t h i s next part of t h e procedure i t w i l l he necessary to keep the b l i n d f o l d on.  (SEAT S. PROPERLY BEFORE THE BOARD,  CHECKING WHICH IS HIS DOMINANT ARM AND PLACING THAT SHOULDER OPPOSITE CENJRE" OF BOARD.  RECORD WHICH IS DOMINANT ARM,  REMOVE CURTAIN FROM BOARD. ) On the w a i l there i s hung a board with a pattern out out < -i  •t *  of it, i n the form of a groove wide enough f o r your finger to traoe.  I w i l l put, your finger at the s t a r t i n g point, you w i l l  trace the groove, and give me your hand so that you can retrace i t a second time.  Then I w i l l take your hand and replace i t at  the s t a r t i n g point, and ask you to retrace the i d e n t i e a l pattern without the groove to guide you. You w i l l have two chances todo t h i s , then we'll repeat the whole procedure with a s l i g h t l y more complicated pattern.  Is that clear?  Carry out t h i s pro-  cedure f a i r l y r a p i d l y , and concentrate on the f e e l that you get i n your arm and shoulder.  I'd l i k e you to remember as much  as possible by the f e e l . Remember, you'll have two chances with the groove, and two without, on each pattern.  Do the  tracing f a i r l y rapidly, and concentrate on the f e e l i n your arm and shoulder. Any questions? (IN EACH TRIAL PRESS TEE FINGER AGAINST THE STARTING BLOCK IN THE SAME POSITION, BOTH WITH AND WITHOUT THE GROOVE. EACH TRIAL BY SAYING:) right." MINUS)"  START  "This time you start down (or) to the  (CONTINUE UNTIL BOTH TRIALS IN TWO POSITIONS ARE  MEMORY FOR DESIGNS AND PAPER GUTTING TESTS  VISUAL IMAGERY  (COVER PROGRESSIVE FINGER TRACING BOARD WITH CURTAIN, REMOVE BLINDFOLD, AND RETURN SUBJECT TO ORIGINAL POSITION AT TABLE) Memory f o r designs (HOLD CARD FACE DOWN AND SAY ,..) three drawings on i t .  I nave a card here with  I am going to show them to you for  ten seconds, then I will-- take the card away and l e t you draw from memory what you, have seen.  Be sure t o look at a l l three  drawings c a r e f u l l y . . (AT THE END OF FOUR SECONDS SAY QUIETLY) Look at a l l three,. (IMMEDIATELY.THE CARD IS REMOVED ALLOW S. TO REPRODUCE THE DESIGNS ON THE BACK OF THE EXPERIMENTAL RECORD SHEET)  Paper  cutting  (TAKE A 3 f INCH SQUARE OF P^PER AND SAY... )  Watch c a r e f u l l y  what I do.  (FOLDING IT ONCE  See, I f o l d the paper t h i s way.  OVER THROUGH THE MIDDLE)  Then I f o l d i t t h i s way (FOLDING IT  AGAIN SO THAT THE SECOND FOLD IS PARALLEL TO THE FIRST) And then t h i s way (FOLDING IT AGAIN IN THE MIDDLE; BUT THIS TIME AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE FIRST TWO FOLDS)  Now I w i l l cut out a piece  right here. (CUT OUT A SMLL PIECE, IN THE FORM OF AN EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE FROM THE SIDE WHICH":PRESENTS ONLY TWO EDGEB. LEAVE ' THE FOLDED PAPER EXPOSED, BUT PRESSED FLAT AGAINST THE TABLE. KEEP THE. FRAGMENTS OUT OF SIGHT.  PRESENT THE FACE OF THE  EXPERIMENTAL RECORD SHEET TO S. , BUT WITH PRINTING UPSIDE DOWN TO HIM, AND POINTING TO THE  3" X 3" SQUARE, SAY...)  Make a  ,.  drawing here to show how t h i s paper would look i f i t arere unfolded.  Draw l i n e s to show where the paper would he creased,  and show how and where i t would he cut.  (IF S. OMITS EITHER  THE CREASES OR THE CUTS, REPEAT.,.) Draw l i n e s to show where the paper would he creased and show how and where i t would he cut.  (ASK SUBJECT) Have you ever taken either of these two  tests before?  (RECORD)  NORMAL RECORD AND SWAY TEST NUMBER £. (CONTROL GROUP - HULL.TEST) (BXPERIMBNTAL GROUP- IMAGINATION TEST) Now I'm going to check your movement when standing again, so I?d l i k e you to replace the b l i n d f o l d and stand up as before your feet together, both heels and toes, your head held i n i t s natural p o s i t i o n without moving the neck, and the hands and arms hanging e a s i l y at your sides• (ATTACK, fHREAD) as s t i l l as possible f o r a moment.  Now just stand  (ZERO KYMOGRAPH -- IF  CONTROL. CHECK THAT WIRE RECORDER IS REWOUND) Now take up a relaxed, passive position.  Don't worry about any s l i g h t move-  ments, but just stand naturally, and e a s i l y , and relaxed. In a moment y o u ' l l hear a recording of my voice again, and I want you to focus your f u l l attention on i t , but i n the meantime just stand there, naturally, e a s i l y and relaxed.  (START KYMOGRAPH  RECORD FOR •§•..MINUTE,  MARK KYMOGRAPHY RECORD AND SIMULTANEOUSLY  BEGIN WIRE RECORDER,  IF CONTROL GROUP, THIS IS •'FALLING''  RECORD,, IF EXPERIMENT All "IMAGINATION '.) 1  "I want you to imagine yourself f a l l i n g forward i n as v i v i d a manner as possible. imagination.  Perhaps you can see yourself f a l l i n g i n  Perhaps you can imagine the f e e l i n g s that you  have when you do_ f a l l forward.  iv -  Just relax your body and imagine  yourself f a l l i n g i n the most v i v i d and r e a l i s t i c way that you can.  Concentrate the f u l l powers of your imagination on as  v i v i d a sensation or image as possible of f a l l i n g forward. *Relax your body, but imagine f a l l i n g , f a l l i n g forward, i n as v i v i d and r e a l i s t i c a manner as possible ...(5 SECONDS)... Concentrate...imagine...relax...Imagine v i v i d l y ,  realistically,  that you are f a l l i n g forward (5SEC0NDS),..Concentrate your whole attention on imagining, imagining v i v i d l y ,  that you are  f a l l i n g , f a l l i n g forward.., (5 SECONDS )• •. (REPEAT FROM * FOR FULL 1 £ MINUTES) (REMOTE BLINDFOLD AND SEAT SUBJECT IN PREVIOUS POSITION TO SECURE INTROSPECTIVE REPORT.  ASK:... )  What were you thinking about during the f i r s t o f these " f a l l i n g " tests?. " " . What was your reaction t o being t o l d that you were  falling?  What were you thinking about during the second test? (Exp. group only) How d i d you imagine you were f a l l i n g i n second test? (IF UNCERTAIN ASK:...) Or were you able to imagine you were.failing? . ' i'  'i  8. SCALE OF HYPNOTIC DEPTH —  ADAPTED FROM FRIEDLANDER AND  SARBIN  (PLACE DECK CHAIR IN POSITION, AND SAY...)  j . . . . . . Now  .  ...  I'd like you to s i t i n t h i s chair.  I'm going to adjust  this glow-lamp where you can see i t conveniently, and want you to make yourself irery comfortable i n the c h a i r . T e l l me when .you're a l l set. PARAGRAPH I Keerp your eyes on that l i t t l e l i g h t and l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to what I say. Your a b i l i t y to be hypnotized depends e n t i r e l y on your willingness to cooperate. Anyone can w i l l himself not to be hypnotized. I f you want to, you can remain awake a l l the time and pay no attention to me. That wouldn't pirove anything about you or me, and would be a waste of time. But I assume that you are here because you wish to experience hypnosis. By paying close attention to what I say and following what I t e l l you, you can e a s i l y have that experience. There's very l i t t l e mysterious about hypnosis. It is merely a state of strong interest i n some p a r t i c u l a r thing. In a sense you are hypnotized whenever you see a good show and forget you are part of the audience, but instead f e e l you are part of the story. Your complete cooperation and i n t e r e s t , given i n a passive relaxed way i s a l l that i s necessary. On your relaxed cooperation depends the depth of hypnosis which you cam reach. Nothing w i l l be done, and no questions asked which would offend or embarrass you i n any way. PARAGRAPH I I  Now relax and make yourself e n t i r e l y comfortable. Keep your eyes on that l i t t l e l i g h t . Keep staring at i t a l l . the time, a l l the time. Keep s t a r i n g as long as you can; keep staring as hard as you can.  PARAGRAPH III  Relax completely. Relax every muscle i n your body. Relax the muscles i n your legs. Relax the muscles i n your arms. Make yourself p e r f e c t l y comfortable. Let yourself be limp, limp, limp. Relax more and more, more and more. Relax completely. Relax completely.  PARAGRAPH IV  Your legs feel heavy and limp, heavy and limp. Your arms are heavy, heavy heavy as lead. Your whole body f e e l s heavy -r heavier and heavier. You f e e l t i r e d and sleepy, t i r e d and sleepy. You f e e l drowsy, drowsy and sleepy, heavy and drowsy, drowsy and sleepy.. Your breathing i s slow and regular -- slow and regular.  PARAGRAPH  V  Your eyes are t i r e d from staring. Your eyes are wet from s t r a i n i n g . The s t r a i n i n your eyes i s getting greater and greater, greater and greater. You, would l i k e to close your eyes* and r e l a x completely, relax com-?< p l e t e l y . (FIRST READING ONLY - but keep your eyes open just a ' l i t t l e longer, t r y to keep your eyes open just a l i t t l e longerj just a l i t t l e longer.) You w i l l soon reach your l i m i t . The s t r a i n w i l l be so great, your eyes w i l l be so t i r e d , your l i d s w i l l become so heavy, your eyes w i l l close of themselves, close of themselves. (IF EYES CLOSED AT THIS POINT ON FIRST READING COUNT'S POINTS') ...... PARAGRAPH VI And then you w i l l be completely relaxed, com. p l e t e l y relaxed. Easy and comfortable, easy and comfortable. Tired and drowsy. Tired and sleepy. Sleepy. Sleepy. Sleepy. You are paying attention to nothing but the sound of my voice, l i s t e n i n g to nothing but the sound of my voice. You are concentrating on nothing but the sound of my voice. (EYES CLOSED AT THIS POINT ON 2ND READING - 2 POINTS) PARAGRAPH VII  Your eyes are blurred. You can hardly see, hardly see. Your eyes are wet and uncomfortable. Your eyes are strained. The s t r a i n i s getting greater and greater, greater and greater. Your l i d s are heavy. Heavy as lead. Getting" heav'le r and heavier, heavier and heavier. They're pushing down, down, down. Your l i d s seem weighted, weighted with lead, heavy as lead. Your eyes are b l i n k i n g , b l i n k i n g , closing, c l o s i n g , (EYES CLOSED FIRST READING *- SCORE 4PQINTS) v  PARAGRAPH VIII  You f e e l drowsy and sleepy, drowsy and sleepy. I s h a l l now being counting. At each, count you w i l l f e e l yourself going down, down, down, into a deep comfortable, a deep r e s t f u l sleep. L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y , one down, down, down. Two...three...four...more and more, more and more. Five... six...seven...eight...you are sinking, sinking, Nine...ten.,• eleven....twelve...deeper, and deeper, deeper and deeper. Thirteen...fourteen...fifteen...sixteen...(IF CLOSED) you are f a l l i n g f a s t asleep. (IF OPEN) Your eyes are closing, closing, closing. ...Seventeen...eighteen...nineteen...twenty. (IF CLOSED) You are sound asleep, f a s t asleep. (IF EYES STILL OPEN BEGIN AT PARAGRAPH I I AND REPEAT.) (IF EYES CLOSED FIRST READING SCORE 3 POINTS)(IF EYES CLOSED-SECOND READING SCORE 1 POINT)(SECOND READING.IF EYES STILL OPEN SAY...) Shut your eyes now, shut.them t i g h t . (CLOSE THEM WITH FLNGERS. )  10. CHALLENGES SCALE 3.  .  As you s i t there with your eyes closed and completely r e laxed, I'm going to talk to you, and as I t a l k y o u ' l l f i n d yours e l f becoming more and more relaxed and going more and more'into what i s c a l l e d an hypnoidal state. I?m going to give you some suggestions, some of which you w i l l be unable to c a r r y out. Shis won't alarm or disturb you, f o r you w i l l r e a l i z e that i t i s only a manifestation of the condition i n which you are. There w i l l be absolutely no l a s t i n g effect from any of the se. 1.  (FROM HERE USE A SLIGHTLY MORE FORCEFUL TONE. ) Your eyes are t i g h t l y shut, t i g h t l y sbut. No matter how hard you t r y , you cannot open your eyes, you cannot open your eyes. Try to open your eyes. You won't succeed, but t r y as hard as you can. (WAIT TEN SECONDS) Now relax, relax completely. (IF EYES OPENED, RE-READ PARAGRAPH VIII UNLESS COMPLETE PROCEDURE TWICE REPEATED) ( IF PARAGRAPH.VIII RE-READ DEDUCT 1 POINT FROM INDUCTION SCORE) • S. ' S.  Your l e f t hand i s heavy. Your arm and hand are heavy as lead,.heavy as iead. Heavy, heavy, heavy. You cannot raise your l e f t arm. Try as hard as you can. You won't be able to do i t for i t i s too heavy, too heavy. Try as hard as you can to raise your arm, (TEN SECOND PAUSE) (IF NOT RAISED SAY...) (A I touch the back of your hand y o u ' l l f i n d you can l i f t . i t easily) Now r e l a x completely, r e l a x completely. 8  3.  Raise your right arm and extend i t straight out i n front of you. Straight out. Straight out. Your arm i s becoming r i g i d . R i g i d and s t i f f . S t i f f as a poker, s t i f f as a steel poker. No matter how hard you t r y , you cannot bend your right arm. Try to bend your arm. Try as hard as you caa , as hard as'you can. (TEN SECOND PAUSE) (Now I ' l l touch your hand and y o u ' l l find i t , q u i t e easy to bend your, arm) Now r e l a x completely, relax completely. 4.  Put the palms of your hands together. Now i n t e r l o c k the f i n g e r s . Squaeze them together hard, hard. They're t o gether so t i g h t l y now that you can't separate them. -Too tight to separate. T»y, hard as you can, hard as you can. (PAUSE TEN SECONDS) (As I touch the back of your hand y o u ' l l f i n d they come apart,quite easily.) Now r e l a x completely, relax completely. 5.  You cannot say your name. No matter har hard you t r y , you cannot say your name. Try to say your name. Try as hard as you can. (PAUSE TEN SECONDS) (Now I ' l l touch your l i p s and you can say your name without any e f f o r t . )  11. Bow relax completely. In a moment I am going t o wake you up. When you awaken you w i l l remember nothing of what has happened, and as you concentrate on i t even now you find that i t i s already growing faint and confused l i k e a dream when you wake up. In a moment I w i l l count to three. As I count you w i l l gradually waken, u n t i l when I get to three you w i l l be wide awake, f e e l i n g quite":,, normal, but rested and refreshed as you would after a good sleep.,;!'' You w i l l remember nothing o f what has happened since your eyes closed, but immediately you awaken you w i l l hear someone c a l l i n g your name. Your memories w i l l a l l be_.faded away when you waken, but you w i l l d i s t i n c t l y have the sensation of someone c a l l i n g your name. Ready now, One...two...three..• there you are. 6,  7.  (WAIT TEH SECONDS) (IF NO RESPONSE ASK... ) Do you hear anything? (IF "YES" ASK... ) What? How d i s t i n c t l y ? (IF "NO,! ASK . . . j Did you hear, your name being called? 1  (GIVE THE SUBJECT'S EYES TIME TO BECOME ADJUSTED TO THE LIGHT, THEN...) . How l i k e : to Started t e l l me until I  do you f e e l now? Quite relaxed and rested? Now I'd have your r e c o l l e c t i o n s of what 'happened a f t e r you . looking at the l i g h t . Just run over i t b r i e f l y , and what comes to mind as being important from that time woke you up.  (RECORD ITEMS REMEMBERED, COUNTING THE FIVE CHALLENGES, THE AMBESIA SUGGESTION, AND-THE POST-HYPNOTIC HALLUCINATION SUGGESTION, BEFORE CONCLUDING ENQUIRY, .RECAPITULATE ITEMS MENTIONED AND ASK....).. Do . you remember anything else? That concludes this session. I t i s possible, but not l i k e l y that I ' l l want you f o r another b r i e f session, but I! 11 l e t you know.: In the meantime I c e r t a i n l y want to thank you for your help. (IF TIME) I have a minute i f you'd l i k e to ask a question.. I'd l i k e to ask you again to r e s t r i c t your discussion of this to your personal feelings when under hypnosis. You.were In a ( l i g h t * medium* deep) trance, but i t probably didn't conform with your ideas of what hypnosis should f e e l l i k e . Please don't t a l k about the experimental part of the session, or your views as to, i t s success. I f you want to discuss this further, see me i n the psychology laboratory after the exams. r  STUDY OF ARNOLD S & H HYP0TK3SIS Pers onal I.->f o rmatien-- Questi onnaire Please complete t h i s form whether or not you expect t o v o l u n t e e r t o a s s i s t i n t h i s study. A l l i n f ormation g i v e n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d p e r s o n a l and" 'confidential. I n d i c a t e answers t o a l l questions, and give each s e r i o u s cons i d e r a t i o n , even though i t may seem t o be p o i n t l o s s . -  Name (Surname f i r s t  - Print)  ,  ;  Audress  Pheno Age  -  years  • month,-:.  R e g i s t r a t i o n no.  Mark: the a p p r o p r i a t e answer i n each of the f o l l o w i n g w i t h an "X" (1)  I would r a t e my cLaiory Good Rather poor  as: E x c e p t i o n a l l y good Average _.  Very poor  >  (2)  By c o n c e n t r a t i n g on a page of s p o c i a l i n t e r e s t i n a book which I ' have j u s t road, I can: "'Hoad" the exact words of the t e x t "R3ad" the s e c t i o n headings V i s u a l i z e the page as a whole, but "read" no p a r t i c u l a r words ] R e c a l l tho p o s i t i o n of a s p e c i a l i t e m on the page Not r e c a l l tho page at e l l .  (3)  Even i f I t o l l no one about my noon: Always Frequently  (4)  I f I wore d o i n g mental a r i t h m e t i c i n the l i b r a r y without a time l i m i t , I c o u l d probably c o n c e n t r a t e : Very p o o r l y Not v e r y w e l l Moderately w e l l Quito w e l l Wouldn't bother me at a l l .  (5)  W i t h i n the ..last t h r e e years I have walked i'n my s l e e p : S e v e r a l times Not at a l l Not more than twice .  (6)  I have had  dreams, I can.remember them u n t i l Sometimes Rarely Never  s u c c e s s f u l experience w i t h c r y s t a l - g a z i n g : Often Occ as s i on a l l y Novorr I have s u c c e s s f u l l y operated cu oui'ja b o a r d : Often . "OccGBsionally Never ' I have had s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s i n automatic v / r i t i n g : . Often Occassional!7 - Never; -  •  •  ;  (7)  I can r e c a l l the s e n s a t i o n s which occur i n my f o o t when i t "goes t o s l e e p " ( s i t q u i e t l y f o r about ten seconds c o n c e n t r a t i n g on your f o o t ) So v i v i d l y i t f e e l s numb now__ Quite v i v i d l y , - but only i n snatches Can remember w e l l , but cen't r e c a l l much o i t h 3 " f o o l " Memory and " f e e l " q u i t e vague No r e c a l l at a l l  (8)  I t a l k i n my s l e e p :  (9)  I have at some time w r i t t e n a s t o r y or poem which I c o n s i d e r e d good enough f o r p u b l i c a t i o n : Several tiracs_ More than twice. Never  (10)  I have dreams:. Almost every n i g h t At r a r e i n t e r v a l s N^vor .  (11)  By c o n c e n t r a t i n g on i t , I con a c t u a l l y imagine h e a r i n g music: Very v i v i d l y , o r c h e s t r a "r\fi a l l Some p a r t s of the tune o f a f a m i l i a r number Very poorly", i f at a l l .  Never.  Sometimes  Often  Frequently  •  Fairly  often  APPENDIX B  •  ;.  CU))  Daydreams i n t e r f e r e w i t h my s t u d i e s : l e v e r Only at r a r e i n t e r v a l s Often enough t o be a n u i s a n c e Enough t o endanger my grade's P r a c t i c a l l y any time. I s t a r t t o s t u d y ' -  (13)  An attempt has been made t o h y p n o t i z e me: W i t h some success, , ' W i t h no s u c c e s s 1  With'complete success_ No-attempt made .  (14)  I have w i t n e s s e d h y p n o s i s under t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : Oa the stage In. a f i l m ; In a s c i e n t i f i c demonstration P r i v a t e l y , by an e x p e r i e n c e d o p e r a t o r P r i v a t e l y , by an'amateur Not at o i l  (15)  I n my opinion,- the above d e m o n s t r a t i o n [ s ) was (wore) p r e d o m i n a t e l y : 2ntlroly-'-suc''cossful Pertly successful A failure Have soon no d e m o n s t r a t i o n ..  An--experimental s t u d y on t h e ' g e n e r a l t o p i c of h y p n o s i s and suggesti b i l i t y w i l l bo c a r r i e d out, w i t h experimental, work commencing n e x t week and t e r m i n a t i n g b e f o r e t h e f i r s t of A p r i l . V o l u n t e e r s who w i s h t o a s s i s t i n t h i s - s t u d y w i l l bo asked t o h e l p f o r not more than'two h o u r s , and i n most cases- one.hour o n l y • N o t i f i c a t i o n w i l l b e ' g i v e n two days i n advance. The experimental, s e s s i o n s w i l l be i n d i v i d u a l , and w i l l be h o l d i n a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n on the campus. I i you w i s h t o t a k e ' p o r t i n t h i s , s t u d y , p l e a s e r e a d cud complete t h e f o l l o w i n g , and s i g n in_,..tho space p r o v i d e d below. - cOo. ...I w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t i n t h i s , s t u d y a t t h e t i m e s marked w i t h an "X" on t h e t i m e t a b l e - b e l o w : • ( P i o a s c mark a l l l i k e l y t i m e s . ) 8:30 - 9:30 9:30 -10:30 10:30 -11:30 11:30 -12:30 12:30 - 1:30 1:30 - 2:30 2:30 - 3:30 3:30 - 4:30 4:30 - 5:30 5:30 - 6:30 Evening  lvion.  Tucs.  .Wed.  Thurs.  Fri.  Sat.  I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t I w i l l be a v a i l a b l e at t h e address, (and phone number) g i v e n , d u r i n g .the months of May end June. - Y e s No I agr cc t o a s s i s t i n a r e s e a r c h s t u d y i n w h i c h I may bo s u b j e c t e d t o h y p n o t i c suggesti-on-and p l a c e d i n an h y p n o t i c state.. I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t no s u g g e s t i ons w i l l be g i v e n which-are- c o n t r a r y t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c e t h i c s , and on t h i s b a s i s agree to a b s o l v e b o t h the cxporimont o r and the Univ.orsnty of B r i t i s h Columbia f r o m r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any and a l l " r e s u l t i n g i l l o f f o c t s . I u n d o r s t a n d t h a t I may b r i n g a f r i e n d ' w i t h mc t o the e x p e r i m e n t a l s e s s i o n s , and t h a t - - i f f e m a l e , I must b r i n g a witness" b o f o r e any e x p e r i m e n t a l work may bo c a r r i e d o u t . P l e a s e s i g n w i t h your u s u a l s i g n a t u r e .  :.;:_PARI: S F T A L FALE/FET:ALE  RDCORD  #LS.T.  SC.  ~  ARNOLD  CONTROL/E:TP .  _Not f u t . S?_  Witness Ft.  Height to b l i n d f o l d : _  SWAY  TESTS:  Normal  #1 S.T.  (3)  i n . Adjust  Date  Kymograph L a b e l l e d ?  (2)  GROUP  Hour f r e e ?  Name  (1)  STUDY  #2  S.T.  VIS. IHA.GET7: Sc. Designs Sc.Paper Have you taken e i t h e r of these t e s t s b e f o r e ? None  Total:. Both  One  FINGER TRACING: (f or but § i f 5>0? i n s i d e l i n e s o r r e t . to stop) Pos. 1 Pos. 2 Dom.Arm Pos. 4 Pos. 5 Pos. 3J T r i a l 1 11 17 ! ! ! i 41 6' Trial 2 2 !a I 1 !LOl | T o t a l : 0  „  1  (4)  INTROSPECTION ON SWAY TESTS: (How d i d you r e a c t t o suggestions i n . . ) #L S.T.? "2  (5)  S.T.?  HYPNOTIZABILITY INDEX: I Eye C l o s u r e : Closed i n par. f i r s t / s o c o n d reading. This i s period . Score: Tost:...'  (-) or* (-):..  If  {-), timo:  eyos/  on  I I Negative S u g g e s t i o n : Heavy arm / S t i f f arm J interlocked/Name /  z z  /  z z  /  z z  /  Total /  Score III Distinct  Hallucination  F a i n t , prodding needed IV Amnesia:  Score i s $ - (No. of items r e c a l l e d )  None  Score_  Items remembered....  No minus s c o r e .  Score  H y p n o t i z a b i l i t y Index: T o t a l Wero you aware of d i s t u r b a n c e s , i n a b i l i t y to r e l a x , e t c , d u r i n g the i n d u c t i o n of hypnosis?  

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