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An experimental study of an hypothetical mechanism of suggestion and hypnosis McBain, William Norseworthy 1950

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• fl I?] AH EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF AN HYPOTHETICAL MECHANISM OF SUGGESTION AND HYPNOSIS by William Nor sew or thy McB.ain A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1950, AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OP AN HYPOTHETICAL MECHANISM OF SUGGESTION AND HYPNOSIS Abstract The present study i s designed to gather evidence con-? cerning two predictions made by Magda B. Arnold from her hypothesis as to the mechanism of hypnosis and aggestion. She believes t h i s mechanism to be based upon ideo-motor action. As the individual imagines for, more p r e c i s e l y , images) the actions, s i t u a t i o n s , and, emotions suggested, th i s process tends to bring them about. A suggestion i s not acted upon u n t i l the subject begins to think about i t and to imagine the s i t u a t i o n described i n the suggestion. The r e s u l t s of three d i s t i n c t kinds o f operation have been referred to as r e s u l t i n g from suggestion. The Arnold hypothesis applies only to the ideo-mot or or 'prestige 1 type, which i s most t y p i c a l l y represented .by the H u l l Sway Test. It is held that sway occurs i n the Hull test only as the subject imagines himself f a l l i n g . Because imagery i s e s s e n t i a l to e f f e c t i v e suggestion i n both the waking and the hypnotic states, the p r e d i c t i o n i s made that a direct appeal to the subject to imagine himself f a l l i n g w i l l result i n scores more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to his a b i l i t y to become hypnotized than w i l l the standard "you are f a l l i n g s instructions. The l a t t e r are believed to be e f f e c t i v e only to the degree that imagery a c c i d e n t a l l y r e s u l t s from them. A second predi c t i o n i s that only those who can imagine most v i v i d l y and well w i l l be capable of attaining the deepest states of hypnosis. For the purposes of t h i s experiment score's obtained on the Friedlander and Sarbin Scale of Hypnotic Depth are taken as a measure of the 'hypnotizability' of the subjects, i n the same manner as Hull Sway Test scores are used to indicate t h e i r r e l a t i v e ' s u g g e s t i b i l i t y ' . '!Goodness of imagery" i s inferred from the scores of tests designed to be c a r r i e d out i n terms of the kinaesthetic and v i s u a l modes of imagery. Two groups of t h i r t y students equated on sex, age, and sway i n an i n i t i a l sway test using Hull's standard " f a l l i n g " instructions were subject to a second sway t e s t . The second sway scores of the control group, which repeated the o r i g i n a l test, correlated with the hypnosis scale scores to a degree significantly higher than did the f i r s t scores. The second sway scores of the experimental group, obtained from a test in which the instructions were to imagine f a l l i n g as vividly as possible, showed a significantly smaller correlation than Hid the f i r s t ones. This is con-trary to Arnold's f i r s t prediction and i s evidence towards rejecting the derived hypothesis. Using the scores of a l l sixty students a significant though moderate correlation was found between imagery test scores and the results of the hypnosis scale. This is in accord with the second prediction, and i s evidence towards accepting the, derived hypothesis. The failure of a further analysis to show a significant relation to exist between scores of imagery and suggestibility suggests the interpretation that imagery scores represent a factor which is related to hypnotizability but independent of suggestibility. A more, adequate experimental control of motivation and the establishing of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the imagery tests used should precede the drawing of more definitive conclusions. ' ! ACMOWLBDGEMM TS This thesis results as much from the interest, criticism and assistance of faculty, s t a f f and fellow-students, as from the efforts of the; writer. Such help is very gratefully acknowledged. In particular, thanks are due to Dr. D.C.G. MacKay, Dr. E.I. Signori and Prof. E.S.W. Belyea for guidance and criticism; to Prof. Belyea, Dr. J. Allardyce and Dr. F. X. Berry for apparatus loaned; to Dr. G.M. Shrum for making available a room for the experimental work; to Dr. G. A. Ferguson for advice on s t a t i s t i c a l procedures; to Miss I.I. Wilson for her generous views as to a typist's responsibilities; to Mr. Bruce Jaffary for his photographic work; to eighty most co-operative assistants for their interest; and to my wife, Elizabeth, for her forbearance. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1. Introduction 1 2» The 'Sway? Hypothesis 4 3. The 'Imagery' Hypothesis 6 II HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TEE STUDY 1. Introduction 8 2. Suggestion aril Hypnotism 12 3. Suggestion 13 4. Ideo-motor Suggestion and the Sway Test 15 5. Ideo-motor Suggestion and Hypnotism 17 6. Imagery and the Ideormotor Response 21 III, THE EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH 1. Design of the Experiment 26. 2* The Surroundings 31 3. The subjects; 33 4, Test Components of the Experiment 37 5» The Sway Test (\i) Apparatus 38 ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations 43 ( i i i ) Scoring 44 6. The Progressive Finger Tracing Test (i) Apparatus 48 ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations 51 ( i i i ) Scoring 52 7. Memory: for Designs Test (i) Material Used 54 ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations 54 ( i i i ) Scoring 56 8. The Paper Cutting Test (i) Materials 58 ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations 58 ( i i i ) Scoring 60 9. Depth of Hypnosis Scale M i ) Apparatus 60 ( i i ) Discussion of the Scale 62 ( i i i ) Scoring 64 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS OHAPTEH PAGE 17 ANALYSIS Of DATA 1. Introduction 67 2. Testing the 'Sway! Hypothesis 67 3. Comparison of Groups 68 4. Relation of Sway Test and Hypnotizability Scale Results 69 5. Testing of the 'Imagery1 Hypothesis 73 6» Relation of Imagery Test and Hypnotizability Scale Results 74 7. Suggestibility, Hypnotizability and Imagery 76 8. Summary of Analysis 80 V A CRITICAL EVALUATION 03? THE STUDY 1. Controls Believed to be Adequate 82 2. Inadequately Controlled Aspects 83 3. The Experimental Design 84 4. Additional Work Required 86 VI CONCLUSIONS 1. Interpretation 88 2. Summary 89 REFERENCES 91 APPENDIX A APPEDDIX B APPENDIX C LIST OF TABLES, PLATES, AND FIGURES TABLE PAGE I III IV Comparison of Control and Experimental Groups Correlations —• Sway Test and Hypnotizability Scores Correlations — Imagery Test and Hypnotizability Scores Partial Correlation — Sway Test and Hypnot iz a b i i i t y Scores, Imagery scores 'partialed out! Correlations - Sway Test and Hypnotizability Scores for Subjects matched on '2-test imagery! 70 72 74 78 79 PLATE PAGE I General view of Experimental Room and Apparatus 32 II Detection of Body Sway 39 III Recording Apparatus for Body Sway 40 IV Administration of Progressive Finger Tracing Test 49 V Administration of Depth, of Hypnosis Scale 61 FIGURE 1 !Flow Diagram' of Experimental Design 27 2 Sample Kymograph Record of Body Sway, Illustrating method of Scoring 45 3 Design and Dimensions of Progressive Finger Traeing Board 50 . 4 Designs used in Memory For Designs Test 55. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AMD STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Introduction Hypnosis as a phenomenon capable of being produced at w i l l under conditions suitable for s c i e n t i f i c observation, has been known since the last quarter of the eighteenth century. In more recent years, certain aspects of what has come to be known as 'suggestion! have become closely identified with hypnosis, and the evidence i s strong that what difference exists between them i s in degree rather than i n kind. But. in spite of the long history of ttese a l l i e d phenomena, objective and verifiable facts concern-ing them are a l l too few. In 1933 Hull (28, p.18) remarked on the progress of knowledge concerning hypnotism: ''Almost nothing of significance has been accomplished during this period (the century following 1825) except the very gradual v correction of errors which originally flowed directly from bad experimental procedures." Hull was himself largely instrumental i n stimulating a renewed interest in the experimental, as opposed to the c l i n i c a l , approach to hypnotism, and much experimental work has been performed i n the past twenty years. 2 . Undoubtedly both the aura of mysticism and super-stiti o n which has surrounded the subject, and the con-centration upon i t s c l i n i c a l aspects, have retarded the accumulation of accurate knowledge concerning i t . Even eager researchers are hesitant to entrust their professional reputations to a f i e l d in which there exists such a welter of half-proven, semi-disproyen, and contradictory "facts!. The exact sc i e n t i f i c mind i s appalled at the task of finding order and consistency in the experimental debris t which has accumulated about this subje ct in the last century and a half. The most serious deficiencies in experimental work concerned with hypnosis and suggestion probably have arisen from the lack of a theoretical framework into which results could be f i t t e d , and from which essential controls might be inferred. Opinion, rather than fact, has too often been the starting point for investigation, and prestige, rather than knowledge, the goal. Experimentation based on such motives is not t oo concerned by the lack of an overall plan. In the interests of helping to, establish a systematic theoretical basis for the observed phenomena of hypnosis and suggestion, and giving direction and impetus to future work, Arnold (1) has put forward an hypothesis concerning the mechanism which she believes to be active in both 3 waking and hypnotic suggestion. It i s designed to explain the "machinery of automatism'.' by which suggestions are trans-lated into action without the subjective experience of 'willing', and holds the ''goal directed activity" i n which the subject engages when suggestion is brought to bear upon him i s not rstriving to behave like a hypnotized person'1 as White (47) has stated, but "...striving to focus on the situation the experimenter describes and to imagine himself in i t % Arnold believes that an understanding of this mechanism, which may almost be regarded as a psychosomatic process, w i l l allow the experimenter to explain many of the apparent inconsistencies appearing i n experimental work i n this f i e l d . \ t * Starting from the observed and verified fact that imagination of movements in various body members does i n -variably result in slight muscular movements in those members detectable in some cases only with delicate electrical instruments, Arnold contends that this imaginative process forms the basis of the group of phenomena which have been called ideo-motor suggestibility. Only as such movements are imagined (or, more precisely, imaged) w i l l they take place. The relaxed state which i s usually considered a prerequisite to hypnosis lessens the influences which -normally prevent such mo-vements becoming noticeable, and 4. the movements which then become apparent enhance the imaginative process and are in turn amplified. The hypnotic state d i f f e r s from the waking mainly because the subject's thinking follows channels determined by the hypnotist, and the suggestions or commands of the hypnotist provide the subject with the details of a situation which he can imagine and therefore unwittingly act out. Similar though less intense effects may be produced in a relaxed, cpn?-centrated state when the thinking i s determined by the subject himself. However, in such cases i t is obvious that the concentration w i l l be less complete, as some attention i s diverted to the determining of the direction and focus of imagery. From the primary hypothesis that a suggestion is acted upon only i f the subject begins to think about i t and to imagine the situation described in the suggestion, Arnold has made several predictions. In the present study, i t is proposed to secure and analyse experimental data designed to test secondary hypotheses which are derived from two of these predictions. The t'Sway Hypothesis!! The Arnold Hypothesis holds that the results in both hypnosis and ideo-motor suggestion tests are determinedly the extent to which mental images are formed and concentrated 5. upon by the subject. The Hull Sway Test has found con-siderable acceptance as a measure of the ideo-motor type of suggestibility. Various investigators have found a positive and significant correlation between the hypnotizr a b i l i t y of subjects and their score on the sway test. In the sway test, Arnold believes, the suggestion "you are f a l l i n g " , is reacted to only as the person imagines himself f a l l i n g . From this situation comes the f i r s t pre-diction: ''We should expect a s t i l l higher correlation between hypnotizability and suggestibility as measured by the sway test i f the subjects were asked to think of f a l l i n g forward instead of giving -them the suggestion 'you are f a l l i n g for-ward', which he (sic) may or may not believe and therefore may or ..may not visualize, i (1, p. 118) It should be noted that this prediction i s not concerned with the amount of the effect with which we are concerned, but only with an increase i n the extent to which the results of the sway test relate to a measure of the subject's hypnotizability. An experimental investigation of this prediction may best be designed by deriving from i t a secondary hypothesis stated in .specific terms. The statement of such an hypothesis follows: 6, "If the members of two comparable groups are subject to a sway test, the f i r s t being given the standard Hull 'falling* instructions, while the second are/asked to imagine themselves f a l l i n g as vividly as possible, the scores of the second group w i l l correlate with a measure of the extent to which, they become hypnotized to a degree signi-ficantly greater than w i l l the scores of the f i r s t group,". The foregoing statement w i l l be referred to as the •'Sway Hypothesis1!, and is the primary subject of the present investigation. The !Imager y Hypot he s i s V If hypnotic effects depend upon imagery, then the a b i l i t y of the individual to form mental images becomes basic to his a b i l i t y to become hypnotized. It i s upon this relationship that Arnold bases the second prediction which is considered in this study. She says* (1, p. 118) !'.". .on the basis of the evidenoe we could predict that; only those subjects, who can imagine sharply and well in the waking state w i l l have the," necessary vividness of imagination and,the necessary concentration to make, them good subjects for hypnosis." This does not say that poor hypnotic subjects w i l l not be found to have good imagery, but-rather that excellence of imagery is a-prerequisite for achieving a deep hypnotic state.. 7. Restated in terms applicable to the present study, this prediction w i l l he referred to as the "Imagery Hypothesis", and is worded as follows: '.'In a particular population there w i l l he found to he a significant correlation between objective measures of goodness of imagery and of measures of tte a b i l i t y to become hypnotized, and i n particular those subjects who prove most hypnotizable will,secure imagery scores significantly higher than those who prove least hypnotizable." The purpose of the present study, then, i s to secure evidence bearing on the two hypotheses already stated. The scope must be sufficiently broad, however, to provide back-ground material to enable the reader to follow the content and to appreciate the principles involved* to describe the processes used in gathering evidence; to interpret and evaluate the evidence presented; and to assess c r i t i c a l l y the procedures involved* 8 . CHAPTER II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE .STUDY Introduction In a recent book devoted to the subject of ''Hypnotism", G.H. Estabrooks (19) has. made the following statements: '^6ne in every five of the human race are highly suggestible, at least half are suggestible to a very considerable degree. But here mere figures do not t e l l ; the story. That one-fifth has a power far beyond Its numbers, for this type ofman, acting under direct suggestion is no mere average person. He is a fanatic in* the-highest — or lowest — sense of the word.'.' (p. 136) "Hypnotism i s merely a state of exaggerated suggestibility induced by a r t i f i c i a l means." (p.130) ''.. .Hitler was the world's best hypnotist." (p.2©6) These might f a i r l y be condensed and paraphrased somewhat as follows:' "Men such as Hitler, using a r t i f i c a l means to exaggerate natural suggestibility, are able to hypnotize into a state of fanaticism one in every five of these upon whom their influence i s focussed." Such an extreme statement, made by a man with knowledge and practical experience of hypnotism gives considerable reason for thought. Any psychologist giving his views upon the validity of such a statement i s basing them on 9. opinion, or even, faith, rather than on fact. Hot enough facts are known concerning suggestion aftd hypnosis to contradict such a statement. And even the theoretical formulations concerning these phenomena are scant and inexact. Take the apparently simpler question of whether a subject w i l l commit under hypnotic influence a crime which he would not consider in the normal state. Wells (45) claims to have caused 'crimes' to be committed, while Erickson (18), working i n a similar way has f a i l e d to produce such action. Estabrooks (19) believes that because of the restrictions imposed upon them, this question w i l l never be answered by ethical pyschologists, though he feels that an approach;-, based on indirection could produce genuine acts outside the law. If the answers to such classical subjects of dispute are to be discovered and the 'dangers' associated i n tie public .rnind with this f i e l d of knowledge areto be c l a r i f i e d with any f i n a l i t y , there i s real need for more attention to basic theoretical formulations, based upon well-controlled experimental investigation. While such ends may seem secondary to more specialized and urgent appli-cations, the latter w i l l not gain wide acceptance, nor w i l l the majority of workers make use of hypnotic techniques, 1Q. u n t i l their respectability and freedom from undesirable side-effects have been established beyond doubt. Theoretical formulations sufficiently substantiated to use as a basis for refuting fantastic claims concerning the subject would seem to be a worthy goal for the experimenter in hypnosis. More fundamental in importance, though necessarily following in time, is the widespread application of hypnotic techniques. One of the most encouraging aspects of the latest revival of interest inthese, i s the tendency to regard them as tools rather than the whole machine; as means rather than end. This, is i n line with the recent emphasis on the dynamic and molar aspects of personality, and a 'far cry' from the days when Bernheim believed that the most efficient use to be made of hypnosis was the commanding of symptom dis-appearance "in a loud, clear voice".(5) Though this type of approach has become of decreasing importance, the Menninger Foundation i n 1945 (39) reported that such suppressive techniques have a useful place in treatment, complementing the more dynamic expressive or 'uncovering' uses. In contrast to the c l i n i c a l .uses of hypnotic methods, such investigators as Leuba (:35) have stressed their usefulness i n experimental laboratory situations. 11. Concerning one series of experiments he says* (35) The hypnotic state served the same purpose as the hunger drive, the soundproofing, and the exclusion of extraneous stimuli i n general, in P a v l o v's conditioned response experiments. 1 While Leuha's enthusiasm for hypnosis as a research tool may he justified, the attitude taken by Jeness is perhaps closer to the ideally dispassionate approach of science. He says: (30) "While there i s no doubt that hypnosis provided a means of demonstrating experimentally many normal and abnormal mechanisms of behavior, and that hypnosis may be u t i l i z e d conveniently as a technique for controlling many variables i n psychological experiments, i t must nevertheless be remembered that the use of hypnosis introduces a new variable, v i r t u a l l y an unknown one, yiz.,. hypnosis i t s e l f . " ''While objections may be raised against designating hypnosis an 'unknown' variable, yet i t seems to the writer that the nature of hypnosis is s t i l l so much of a mystery that scepticism ought to be maintained concerning i t as a 'control' i n psychological experiments. Such scepticism need not prevent research in hypnotism, or even the use of hypnosis as a tool i n other research; on the contrary, i t should f a c i l i t a t e investigation of the fundamental natmre of hypnosis itself.'! 1 We have evidence from the physical sciences (cf. electricity) that f u l l theoretical knowledge of a phenomenon is not an essential prerequisite to i t s useful application. But certainly, the reduction of mis-conceptions concerning i t , and the most efficient u t i l -isation of i t s admittedly great power, w i l l only follow a great deal of further work devoted to the s/ystematization 12. and experimental investigation of hypnotism. Suggestion and Hypnotism In the pages that, follow, only incidental reference is made to the historical aspects of research in suggest! on and hypnosis. Adequate appraisals and accounts of this earlier work may he found in Hull (28, pp.3-22), leCron and Bordeaux (34, pp. 16-27), Brenman and G i l l (6, pp. 3-14)., Jenness (30, pp. 466-502), Marks (38), Goldsmith (26) and Bisdale (17). Much of i t , especially that carried out i n the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth century tends to obscure rather than illuminate the subject. The value of a great part of i t may be inferred from 3< statement by Jenness: (30) "Probably no psychological phenomenon has been the subject of so much investigation and i s at tie same time so. l i t t l e understood as hypnosis..'? While Braid was possibly the f i r s t to cease treating hypnotism, as a physical phenomenon, considering i t to be of psychological origin, liebeault and Bernheim introduced the concept of suggestion as i t s causal factor.; i n their work at Nancy they were vigorously opposed by Charcot., the Paris neurologist who was,a champion:of physical causation. 1 There i s l i t t l e doubt that the concept of suggest! on was a i valuable one when used to emphasize the belief that the mechanisms involved were psychological. But since that 13 time i t has, followed the concept of 'instinct 1 in being placidly accepted as an explanatory term while actually functioning only in a descriptive way. As Brenman and G i l l put i t : (6) "...since the victory of the 'suggestionists', the 'concept of suggestion has lost its. impac* as a differentiating idea and has become a shallow cover- . a l l behind which our ignorance of the specific psychological mechanisms hides." Suggestion • Recently such careful experimenters and observers as Hull and Eysenck have scrutinized the concept of suggestion, and have separated out two or possibly three distinct kinds of procedure in which observed effects have been attributed to this 'force'. There i s evidence that these are not at a l l compatible with each other. Much of the confusion which has followed the identification of suggestion with hypnosis may be resolved following this realization that"the former term has actually served as a 'catchall' for the observations made of the result of a number of quite distince operations. The f i r s t type of operation which has been differentiated is of the ideo-motor type, and the effects observed have been referred to as arising from 'prestige' suggestion by Hull (28, p. 26) and 'primary* suggestion by Eysenck (20, p. 165). It i s best illustrated by the Hull 14 sway test (27), in which, when a blindfolded person i s told that he. is swaying or, f a l l i n g forward, movement w i l l usually be observed, typically i n the direction suggested. Many other types of bodily movement can be demonstrated to take place to varying degrees following the suggestion that they w i l l take place. A procedure typical of the second type, called by Hull (28, p. 350) 'non-prestige' suggestion, and by Eysenck (20, p. 167) 'secondary'* suggestion, is the Binet Progressive lines test, in which the subject is asked to reproduce a series of lines exposed one ;at a time, and the f i r s t five of which are of increasing length. Though sub-sequent, lines are a l l of the same length as the f i f t h , the typical reaction is the production of lines which continue to increase i n length, though in a decreasing amount. Hull (28, p. 357) says; "On the surface at least the distortion of judgment...appears somehow to result from the perseveration of the influence of a kind of habit or 'set! acquired by the subject i n reacting to the f i r s t five members of the series." In general, results are obtained i n suggestion of this sort by some form of deception practiced on tte subject, either direct or implied. Eysenck and Purneaux (22) facetiously suggest that ' g u l l i b i l i t y ' might be a better designation for this type of suggestibility.. 15. A third type, called by Eysenck (20, p. 168) 'prestige* suggestion, and not to be confused with the ideo-motor type, has as i t s main feature a change of attitude on the part of the subject on being told of the different attitude of some person or group whose, opinion has for him some prestige value. Asch (2) has analysed several experiments purporting to demonstrate this type of suggestion, and has concluded that much of the effect attributed to i t actually arises from the workings of social understanding. Kretch and crutchfield (32) believe that the ambiguity of the s i t -uation determines the acceptance of suggestion, and that the effect of 'prestige' suggestion is a particular aspect . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^... .... of the workings of the principles that hold for a l l changes in beliefs and attitudes. • • ./ Ideo-motor Suggestion and the SwayJCest What Hull ca l l s 'prestige 1 suggestion and Eysenck refers to as 'primary' suggestion, i s perhaps better referred to in a generic way as ideo-motor suggestion. Responses to this type of, suggestion take the form of a motor movement in the subject following, or coincidental with, the "•' > ' . suggestion that such a movement w i l l take place or i s occurring. While such devices as Chevreul's pendulum (34, p. 68) and Wolberg's hand levitation procedure (50) illustrate t h i s type of suggestibility, the body saay (or static ataxia) test as used by Hull has become almost 16. the standard measure of idep-motor suggestion. Edwards (13) (15) has devised a simple 'static ataxiameter' for measuring sway in "both the lateral and forward-ba,ck directions, hut Hull's type of apparatus offers greater simplicity and a permanent record. Considerable work has been done on body sway, both as an isolated phenomenon, and as an index of suggestibility. Edwards (14) in an analysis of results of. an investigation using 1,400 subjects, showed that such things as height, weight, and shoe condition did not influence sway, and. tii.at steadiness increased with age only up to about twenty years. In another study (16), he seemed to find evidence that increased interference with vis ion is accompanied with increased amounts of sway i n the body. In the same study i t was suggested that an increase in body tension (such as that brought about by increased effort when, eye-focus was interfered with) tended to increase the amount of sway, but the findings were not sufficiently clear to support this speculation,as a conclusion. Travis (44) found that mild exercise tended to increase body sway and attributed this, effect to increased respiration which influenced„,head-.movement. Edwards, however, using subjects who had not exercised prior to testing, found no significant difference between sway at head and hips with eyes closed.(13) 17 Berreman and Hilgard (4) found no significant difference in the; amount of sway produced "by experimenter suggestion, verbal autosuggestion, and autosuggestion entirely con-centrated upon imagination of falling., They also found a definite practice effect up to the f i f t h i n a series of six sway tests, but the amount of sway diminished on the sixth t r i a l . Eysenck has done a considerable amount of experimenting using the sway test as a measure of suggestibility (20), (21), (22). Some of his findings (20, p. 177) are directly opposed to those quoted above, notably those of Berreman and Hilgard, for he claims to find no practice effect in a repetition of a 2-jg- minute sway test on 100 subjects, no significant difference i n average sway being apparent. Ideo-MPtor Suggestion and Hypnotism Various investigators have reported a high degree of correlation between the amount of sway and the susceptibility to hypnosis, depending upon what sway test and what c r i t e r i a of hypnotizability have been used. .Eysenck and Furneaux (22) report a tetrachoric correlation of .73 between hypnotizability and sway induced by suggestions from the experimenter. Barry McKinnon ani Murray (3) obtained a correlation of .52 while White (46) secured one of .75. • • 18. Arnold (1, p. 118) cites several reports of failures, to establish a relation between the a b i l i t y to become hypnotized and scores on other tests of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y than the ideo-motor type. Eysenck (20, p. 171) found that of fourteen tests believed to measure suggestibility, there was no significant inter correlation between the group measuring primary, and that measuring secondary suggestibility, and only the f i r s t group of scores showed a relationship to measures of hypnotizability. While this doesnot show a necessary identity between ideo-motor suggestion and hypnosis, i t seems to indicate a relationship which is not apparent i n regard to other forms of suggestion. l u l l gives a concise opinion in this regard: (27, p. 393) '!... the mere susceptibility to prestige suggestion, no matter in what degree, i s not hypnosis. Its essence l i e s in the experimental fact of a quantitative shift in the upward direction which may result from the hypnotic procedure. So far as the writer can see, this quantitative phenomenon alone remains of the once imposing aggregate known by the name of hypnosis, But this undoubted fact is quite suffident to give significance and value, to the term.": Pew modern investigators differ widely from this conclusion. leuba (36), i n stating that the fundamental characteristic of hypnosis i s "...the limitation of the spontaneous mental l i f e of the subject, and the consequent limitation of attention to the stimuli provided by the experimenter?', .__ _ _ ; _ _ i 9 . holds that "... suggestibility flows from this limitation as a secondary phenomenon". This is a personal interpretation, but one not widely divergent from contemporary opinion, Irown (7), in conceiving hypnosis as a phenomenon related to hysteria, follows Janet but wins l i t t l e modern support. Indeed, Eysenck (£0, p. 191) with a mental hospital to work in and a staff of psychiatrists to diagnose his subjects, has produced almost conclusive evidence to the contrary. On the basis of available evidence, then, Arnold would seem justified i n applying her hypothesis, as.to the mechanism involved, to both the lesser and greater of these states of ideo-motor suggestion and hypnosis. In the follow-ing discussion i t w i l l be assumed that the difference between these two states i s quantitative.rather than qualitative, for this seems to be the consensus among workers in hypnotism. If ideo-motor suggestion and hypnosis form,something in the nature of a continuum why have so many investigators found disparities in their results? Both Eysenck and White have come to the conclusion that observations taken in situations where these phenomena are active contain not the direct result of a unitary force, but rather the resultant of at least two factors. These have been called by Eysenck (20) 'aptitude' and 1(attitude'. White (47), who puts the greatest stress on the motivation of the individual says* 20 "It is unlikely that^motivational factors alone .determine susceptibility to,t hypnosis. Most workers agree that in addition: to'willingness there must be a suitable aptitude, perhaps a constitutional capacity, i f the hypnot ic trance is t© take place.1? If this, view i s taken the scores obtained from tests of suggestibility or hypnotizability must be. conceived as reflecting mixtures of various degress, of aptitude and attitude. Only those peisons who have both the capacity and the motive to enter into such a state w i l l be capable of reaching the deepest states of hypnosis. Since i t is considered that aptitude changes with relative slowness, i f at a l l , while motivation may be redirected with rapidity, for a short-term experiment we may say that the person's aptitude for hypnosis is a limiting factor upon his a b i l i t y to become deeply hypnotized, regardless , of the strength of his motivation. Arnold's hypothesis seems to be concerned mainly with •aptitude'. The vividness of the mental imagery which the individual can c a l l up in response to aiggestion, she says, is the extent to which he w i l l respond to that suggestion. Notwithstanding her admission of the importance of motivational factors, this i s perhaps too inclined to minimize the 'attitude' factor by placing undue emphasis on the 'imagery a b i l i t y ' of the individual. The undue stressing of one or the other would seem to be reminiscent of the fruitless, 'mind* versus 'body' controversies. 21 Whether imagery i s the only 'aptitude' which is relevant is also somewhat questionable. Jenness (30) mentions the probability that verbal control, a certain minimum intelligence and sensory acuity, and the a b i l i t y to relax properly may also be relevant. Thus, with a complex and partly unconscious motivational pattern, aad tie probability that the 'aptitude' factor may be compound rather than simple, the d i f f i c u l t y inherent i n an experi-? mental attack on the problems involved becomes a l l too apparent. Imagery and the Ideo-motor Response That the thought of moving a body member i s inevitably linked with some degree of movement in that member, seems to have been well established experimentally. Jacpbson (29) provides evidence concerning the relationship between imager and motor experience. Max ( 3 7 ) , investigating the extremely behavioristic 'motor theory of consciousness', i s able to say that action currents have some specific connection with the thinking process i t s e l f . But his investigations do provide further evidence that muscular movement has some inevitable connection with imagery. Arnold (1) and Eysenck (20) summarize other evidence i n this field. Though Arnold consistently uses the expression 'imagination', her context clearly indicates that 'imagery' is a more precise expression of her meaning i f this term is equated with a l l possible modalities rather than with zz visual recapitulation alone. Dexter, (13), in a review of the literature on imagination, states that imagery "connotes the mental calling up of sensations". On the other hand, referring to "imagination 1, he says: "The world i s used as synonymous with almost any thouglfc process; worry, reyery, resourcefulness with tools, r e c a l l , and so on," Prior to Arnold's publication, there had been speculations concerning the relationship between imagery and suggestibility, Jenness says: (30) , "In an unpublished study by Jenness and J.F.I. McC lure, the amount of postural sway was found to be positively correlated with ratings of the vividness of kinesthetic imagery, but actually this correlation was insignificant. The writer knows of: no attempt to study the relationship between vividness of imagery and hypnotizability, but i t seems a l i k e l y hypothesis that persons whose imagery is generally vivid would be more readily hypnoti zable than tlhose whose imagery is poor." This hypothesis was probably suggested by a previous study, by Jenness and Jorgensen (31), i n which i t was found that "both sleep talkers and sleep walker? tend to estimate their waking imagery as more vivid than that of non-somnambulists i n a l l modalities, the differences, being most significant in visual and kinesthetic modalities." The relationship between such nocturnal activities and hypnotizability has commonly been noted, and i s commented upon by LeCron and Bordeaux (34, p. 72). 23. Though such ratings lack somewhat in objectivity, Davis (9) has shown in several tests designed to be best carried out through the use of various modalities of imagery, that there is a high degree of correspondence between reports as to the manner of their performance (i.e. type of imagery employed), and the objective results. He claims this as supporting his conclusion that 1 , 1 imagery' has functional reality". Kubie and Margolin (33) in discussing the process of hypnosis and the nature of the hypnotic state feel that the process of induction makes possible states of hypnagogic reverie in which vivid sensory memories and images are released. "The sensory vividness of these reveries in turn opens the way to burried memories and particularly to buried affects which are related to such sensory memories."' Eysenck has worked out a hypothesis of suggestibility, paralleling very closely that of Arnold, and published at almost the same time. He says* (20, p. 196) "We submit, then, that, experimental evidence Is overwhelmingly In support of the contention that an idea or image of a movement tends to produce the precise movement imagined, or a modified form of i t . The strength of this tendency varies from person to person .... This t r a i t of possessing a strong or weak ideo-motor tendency we shall c a l l a person's 'aptitude"...(and I t ) . . . w i l l be contrasted with 'attitude',, which also plays an important part in our theory of suggestibility." 24. ' In several experiments using the sway test (28) (22) (4), appeals to imagination have "been substituted for direct f a l l i n g suggestions with no significant changes i n the mean amounts of sway having been detected. However, such experiments have not been designed to minimize the likelihood that imagery would occur in tests previous to those in which i t is actually requested. One design provided for a recap-itulation of a l l instructions i n advance of any sway records being taken, in effect inviting the subject to take his pickl Such experiments have been concentrated upon the similarities of the effects obtainable by differing means rather than upon the differences. , The foregoing discussion indicates the area that l i e s open to research in the f i e l d of hypnotism and suggestion, and the possible u t i l i t y of such work. The realization that 'suggestion' i s a descriptive rather than an explanatory concept, and that i t is not in any case unitary, has focussed attention upon the ideo-motor type of suggestion and i t s relation to hypnosis. There seems l i t t l e doubt that a relation does exist, and there is some evidence that it may be of a quantitative rather than a qualitative .nature. The concept of hypnosis as a condition which can be -brought abort only i n the presence of a ..favour able 'attitude* 25, and. a certain degree of 'aptitude 1, has been advanced. This draws attention to the probable complexity of an apparently simple 'hypnotizability' score. At the same time i t raises the p o s s i b i l i t y of the equating of 'aptitude' for hypnosis and the capacity for imagination which is central to Arnold's hypothesis. Though probably over-simplified, this may prove a f r u i t f u l approach to experimentation. 26. CHAPTER III  THE EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH . Design of the Experiment The experimental session was planned to allow the administration of a battery of six individual tests, and Some questions intended to secure introspect!vet answers, in just under one hour. On the basis of the f i r s t of these tests i t permitted the subjects to be equated into two groups. A 'Flow Diagram' of the experimental session is given in Figure I. The detailed procedure is set out in Appendix A. A typical subject was f i r s t seated, given certain information concerning the experiment, and an opportunity to enquire concerning any aspect of i t that might be bothering him. He wasthen blindfolded, his height recorded, and his body sway measured in the Hull sway test using direct suggestions of f a l l i n g . He was seated while the experimenter, on the basis of Ms sway, assigned him to either the experimental or control group, though of course he was not informed of this. S t i l l blindfolded, he performed the Progressive Finger Tracing Test, and with his blindfold removed, the Memory for Designs Test and the-Paper, Cutting Test. His sway A l l Subjects 27, SWAY TEST vl ( A l l Subjects) D i r e c t Suggestion of F a l l i n g C o n t r o l Exper. PROGRESSIVE FINGER TRACING SWAY TEST -v2 (Control) D i r e c t P a l l i n g Suggestion. Sway Test :l;:l repeated. MEMORY FOR DESIGNS PAPER CUTTING SWAY TEST #2 (Experimental) Requested to imagine f a l l i n g as v i v i d l y asr possible» ( i n t r o s p e c t i o n concerning sway t e s t s ) 11 SCALE OF DEPTH OF HY: ( A l l Subjects) PNOSIS | | ( I n t r o s p e c t i o n concerning Hypnosis Scale) C o n t r o l Group Mean Experimental Group Mean Figure 1. 'Flow Diagram 1 of Experimental Design. 28. was then recorded a second time. If assigned to the control group, sway test number £ consisted of an exact repetition of sway test number 1. Members of the experimental group were subjected to a repetition of the same procedure, but with instructions to imagine f a l l i n g as v i v i d l y as possible, rather than the repeated statements of the f i r s t test that they were f a l l i n g . The verbal stimulus in sway test number E was the only difference in treatment accorded members of the two groups. Following the second sway test, introspective data were obtained regarding imagery during the course of the sway tests. The modified Friedlander and Sarbin scale for determining the depth of hypnosis was administered, and further introspective material obtained concerning distractions during this test. To test the 'sway hypothesis' i t i s necessary to use the results of the f i r s t sway test to equate two groups which can be said to be comparable in this respect. This should be possible on the evidence of Eysenck (EO, p. 174) who established an average correlation of over .90 for retests on the sway test after a short interval. The comparisons of correlations between sway tests and scale of hypnotic depth scores should provide evidence to the 'sway hypothesis!. 29. It i s desirable to minimize carryover from one sway test to the other, and to minimize fatigue specific to this situation. Eysenck produces evidence that the verbal stimulus in the sway test has a certain cumulative effect in relation to the length of time during which i t is carried on (20). To minimize the likelihood ofthe specific effect obtained in the f i r s t test (e.g. a f a l l ) having a favourable or an unfavourable effect on the results of the second, some sort of ' f i l l i n g activity' i s indicated. As a measure of time economy, to f i l l the interval between sway tests, and to provide a change of act i v i t y which would be in effect a rest from the sway test situation, the three tests of imagery were used between sway tests number 1 and number 2. Since for the greater number of the subjects the opportunity to experience hypnosis i s the high point of the experimental situation, i t i s considered that motivation may be kept at a higher level by leaving this part of the experiment u n t i l a l l other tests are completed. The testing of the second or 'sway hypothesis' requires that the imagery test scores of a l l subjects be correlated with their scores on the scale of hypnotic depth. A significant correlation w i l l indicate that there is a greater tendency for high scores in one to go with so high, scores in the other, and i f the tests scores are taken as representing the degree to which sub jects possess 'imagery' a b i l i t y , and are 'hypnotizable', such a correlation w i l l support the hypothesis. The detailed procedure for the experimental session, which is given in Appendix A, was prepared i n advance, and administered uniformly to a l l subjects. A series of ten subjects was used for preliminary testing, and certain modifications arising from this work wexte incorporated into the procedure, but no data from these subjects are reported. Slight individual variations occurred from subject to subject during the main session, but only of such a kind as to encourage rapport, and make the pro-cedure seem less mechanical. A l l female subjects brought a friend to the experimental session. This was a precaution suggested i n deference to popular opinion concerning hypnosis, but Jenness (30) believes i t also encourages, relaxati on in fttch experiments. Of the male subjects, 11 of the control group and eight of the experimental group were accompanied. Because of control considerations and lack of space not more than one spectator was allowed to attend any session. The seating was arranged so that this person, while i n the room, was as ineonspfeuous as possible. In no ease 31. did the witness "behave in a way that was believed to have influenced the results of the experimental session. In a l l cases the witness as well as the subject was asked to preserve secrecy concerning the details of the experimental procedure, and there i s reason to believe that this was done. Each subject received notification of an appointment by 'phone c a l l , by mail, or by both. At, the arranged time he for she) was met at the door of the experimental room, and the procedure as detailed was carried out.. The complete session took just under one hour. The Surroundings A general view of the experimental room and apparatus i s given in. Plate I. For the i n i t i a l instructions, the Memory for Designs test, and the Paper Cutting test, the subject sat i n Position 1. for the Progressive Finger Tracing test he used the chair in Position 2. During the sway tests he stood i n approximately the position from which the photo-graph was taken, facing the camera. For the Scale of Hypnotizability, chair 2 was removed, the experimenter sat i n chair 1 (reversed i n position), and a canvas deck chair for the subject was placed in the angle of the two tables (see Plate VI for orientation). The desk lamp shown i n Plate I was pulled forward to the edge of the table, and served as a point of visual.fixati on. 33. The experimental room was the only one available i n which satisfactory experimental conditions could be approximated. It is a store room, entirely of concrete, and a r t i f i c i a l l y lighted. Stairs directly overhead, and transformers i n an adjacent room, were sources of uncontrolled noise upon which some subjects commented. Janitors ani electricians entering through a nearby door did not pass through a nearby door, did not pass through the curtained-off experimental space, and were cooperative i n making as l i t t l e noise as possible. The Sub je cts In a l l , eighty subjects were tested i n the process of gathering the data used in this study. Of this number, ten were tested i n preliminary work before the procedure was standarized, three were eliminated because of imperfect sway recordings caused by failure of the kymograph recording pen, five were 'surplus' in the matching on the amount of sway i n Sway Test number 1 9 and two were removed because one of the pair was much greater in age than any of the other subjects in the series. Results from the remaining sixty form the basis of this report. Of this number, eight in the control group and eight in the experimental group were female. 34. These subjects were obtained from an i n i t i a l appeal to a class of Introductory Psychology students for 'persons to assist' in an experiment dealing with the subject of hypnosis. A talk dealing with hypnosis including a ".demonstration of some of the : major phenomena, was announced and those interested, whether in assisting or merely in seeing ths demonstration, were asked to come. A form was provided, which those interested in assisting were asked to sign. A sample of this form is given in Appendix B. ' Approximately 200 individuals were present at the demonstration. During the eourse of this, a questionnaire (Appendix B) was distributed which dealt with certain aspects of another study being carried on by the writer. In addition to these questions, i t cnntained a space for the signatures of those willing to assist in the present study. A l l present were asked to return these questionnaires, and one hundred and forty five were returned. Despite a rather intimidatingly wo rded statement regarding the limitation of l i a b i l i t y for resulting i l l effects, which no attempt was made to minimize, seventy six volunteers were obtained. The talk consisted"of a brief history of hypnosis, a review of some of the most prevalent, current .misconceptions. 35. and a question period, during which some further mistaken ideas were discounted. The demonstration took the form of a rehearsal of the majority of items included in the scale of hypnotizability which was later used, with the additi on of a positive hypnotic hallucination. Further questions were answered at the termination of the demonstration, though limitations of time did not allow as much discussion as would have been desirable. The proceedings were kept as informal as possible and during the hypnotic demonstration an almost casual attitude was used in an attempt to keep as far as possible away from an authoritative,, 'magnetic1 approach, which might have proven intimidating to many potential subjects. A l l subjects who later took part in the study were present at this demonstration. Testing sessions were commenced during the following week, and completed within three weeks. During the course of.these sessions, six of the original volunteers indicated that they would prefer not to act as subjects. For this reason, as well as because of the number of subjects^'wasted' during the preliminary stages of testing, farther appeals were made to the members of the original introductory Psychology class for additional volunteers. Ten more subjects who had seen the demonstration were secured in this way. 36. Throughout the course of the work an attempt was made to keep motivation high, to induce a feeling of cooperation rather than of being 'used', and to give each subject the. maximum/feeling of being at ease during1 the testing session. The words 'subject', and 'experiment' were not used, but rather the less manipulative expressions 'assistant' and 'study'. Rapport was sought at the beginning ofthe testing session, and the subject was given an opportunity to enquire about any aspect of study that.was bothering him. Secrecy was requested of a l l subjects, and seems to have been maintained quite successfully. Later subjects pro-fessed to be in ignorance of the proceedings, some of them admitting this with annoyance. This i s no doubt partly because of the fact that a l l testing sessions were by appointment, and thus there was a minimum of contact amongst subjects. Though the i n i t i a l appeal was to members of an intro-ductory psychology course, there was inevitably an i n -f i l t r a t i o n from more advanced classes, and no attempt was • .  . . . made to eliminate sueh cases. For this reason, and because of the selective effect inherent i n a l l methods where volunteers are obtained, no assumption was made of psychological naivite, particularly in regard to hypnotism. Dorcus' (12) findings indicate that such an assumption i s unwise when applied to university populations. 37. A considerable number of the subjects were interested i n the application of hypnosis to assist academic progress, either in a 'magical'.sense, or as an aid to conosntration i n study. Many were curious. Some were frankly sceptical, and one or two individuals seemed to regard |he whole procedure as a test of 'will power'. No assumptions appaar warranted as to the uniformity of motivation. It appears that the only statement which can be made about the group as a whole is that i t represents university psychology students with more ; than average interest in hypnotism. Test Components of the Experiment The translation of concepts to the operational level i s always a d i f f i c u l t task, l u l l ' s sway test has achieved acceptance as a measure of ideo-motor suggestibility. White (49) implies that the "careful study" by Friedlander and Sarhin which resulted in the Scale of Hypnotic Depth used in this study, has provided an adequate means of estimating susceptibility to hypnosis. In the present study, certain of the tests used-are suggested as constituting a limited definition of 'imagery'. The exact procedure for a l l tests used is given in detail i n Appendix A, A sample of the form used for recording experimental data is given in Appendix G. 38 In the remainder of this chapter, each of these instruments w i l l be discussed in detail under three headings: ( i) Equipment, apparatus, or material used; ( i i ) Theoretical considerations in use; ( i i i ) Scoring - 7 methods, c r i t e r i a , etc. The Sway Test (1) Apparatus In general function, the apparatus used is the same as Hull's (27), Modifications are introduced i n the interests of accuracy and convenience, and to make use of available equipment. Plates II and III illustrate i t i n use. The detection of body sway i s illustrated i n Plate II, To a loop (L) at the rear of the 3/4" elastic webbing which holds the subject's blindfold i n place, i s attached a nylon thread (T]^). After being rubbed with resin to minimize slippage, t h i s i s passed l:f revolutions around the grooved . perimeter of a pulley (P-J which i s rigidly-coupled to the rotor of one of a pair of Selsyn 1 motors, (.Si^ilxiiA^weliglLt (see general view, Plate I) is attached to the free end of 1 Selsyn motors are used in pairs in^sucn a. ;way,that radial movement imparted to the rotor of one motor is trans-mitted accurately and with added power to the rotor of the second. The use of Selsyn motors to detect body sway and transmit i t to the recording apparatus permits a set-up with no mechanical connection between subject and recorder pen, thus permitting less opportunity for damage to equipment. The mechanical gain through electrical power allows a more convenient type of recording than the traditional smoked paper and the electric transmission permits exact timing of the recording period. 41. the thread, and is just heavy enough to take up the slack caused by tie subject's movements. The stand supporting Selsyn motor number 1 is adjustable i n height, I The timing and recording apparatus, and the power .supply for the Selsyn motors, is illustrated i n Plate III. To the rotor of the second Selsyn motor (Sg) i s r i g i d l y attached a pulley,(Pg), Radial movement from Selsyn number 1 i s thus transmitted to an endless nylon thread ( T 2 ) , held taut by a small c o i l spring (G). This thread passes around the perimeters of-. and an idling pulley (I), and moves on a lubricated rod (R), a light carriage to which i s r i g i d l y attached a glass capillary pen (G). i The ratio of P-^  to P 2 i s such that one inch of sway i s recorded as 1, centimeter, while the direction of move men t is such that when the kymograph record i s "read i n chrono-logical order from l e f t to right, forward sway is shown as a rising, line. : The power source for the Selsyn motors is a 25 volt transformer, A Universal Timer is used to revolve the kymograph drum, to time the recording period, and to shut off the. power to the Selsyn motors at the termination of the desired period. The sweep second hand is removed and to the axle is fixed a pulley of such a diameter that the kymograph drum revolves completely i n 250 seconds. One centimeter of horizontal tracing gives a very close approximation to five seconds of time, ; 42. . When set for short periods the timer stops when i t returns to zero, thus stopping the movement of the kymograph drum and simultaneously shutting off the current source pro-vided at the outlet (0), into which the transformer i s plugged. This automatically halts the action of the Selsyn motors and thus' the recording of sway. A Pierce wire recorder is used to record and reproduce the verbal suggestions, both of direct sway and of appeals to imagination. A constant volume setting i s used to record both types of suggestion, and to play back the recordings for each subject. Accuracy of sway recording apparatus. An accuracy check was made wh.en a l l the test sessions had been completed.. Two records were taken, one of nine, and the other of ten complete cycles to the limit of the recording a b i l i t y of the apparatus. The thread was pulled manually i n simulation of sway action, but with considerably less smoothness and a great deal more movement than in any of the previously recorded tests. The maximum error, both at the peak of the limit of 'forward sway' and in the return to the baseline, was found by measure to be t 1/32". 43. •Ike .Sway lest ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations Certain details of the Hull test as used i n this experiment were changed from the original form because of special conditions and in line with the findings of other investigators. Hull used a bent pin to fasten the recording thread to the subject's clothes at a fixed height. The variety, of attire encountered in the female subjects made this impractical. During the i n i t i a l stages of the investigation i t was deterr mined by observation that, with the instructions used, head movement was only encountered i n conjunction with other gross body distortions. This occurred at the extreme limit of forward sway and arose from efforts to maintain balance. This observation was reinforced by Edwards? (14) failure to find a significant difference between sway at head, and hips. It was therefore believed that an accurate record could be obtained by attaching the recording thread to the head. Since i t was found that very few cases exceeded 10" of. sway without making such body distortions, or actually f a l l i n g , sway in excess of tbat amount was a r b i t r a r i l y counted as a f a l l . This i s contrasted with the practice of Eysenck (20, p. 183) of giving a f a l l an arbitrary value of 12". 4 4 « The posture required of the subjects was that found by fearing as bringing about the maximum sway. (23). The degree of relaxation or tenseness has an important bearing upon the amount of sway which i s obtained. Eysenck (20) has attempted to overcome this by requesting maximum r e s i s t -ance to sway on the part of the subject, Hull (28, pp. 55-56) showed, and Arnold (1) agrees, that this i s l i k e l y to bring about negative sway, which is d i f f i c u l t to assess as to meaning* It was also believed that the possible consequent reduction in the amount of sway would reduce discrimination among the subjects and make ranking more d i f f i c u l t and less accurate, For these reasons an attempt was made to secure a relaxed, easy, body posture in a l l subjects and both types of verbal suggestions contained instructions to relax, Eysenck (20, p. 181) has shown that, while verbal instructions personally spoken are l i k e l y to bring about a greater amount of sway, recorded verbal instructions are l i k e l y to give more consistent results, For this reason the verbal instructions were a l l presented from a recording made by the experimenter. .The Sway Test ( i i i ) Scoring Figure, 2 represents a sample- kymograph recording of sway, and illustrates the method of scoring. Sway recording was carried out for two 2-minute periods 46. ¥ 1 NftME bRTP M R f r . a i / f o TlflE l l : ~3Q Figure 2. cample Kymograph Record of Body Sway, I l l u s t r a t i n g iiiethod of Scoring ci. 3 W EXP-46. for each subject, these being referred to as sway tests number 1 and number 2. No suggestion or stimulus was given for the i n i t i a l thirty seconds of each recording period. This was not a part of the test proper but, was designed to record a sample of the subject's normal postural movement under test conditions. Each subject, following sway test number 1 was assigned on the basis of his raw sway score on that test to one of eight groups as follows; 1. Sway under 2" 5. Sway over 8" and (including negative) including 10" 2. Sway over 2" and 6. Sway over 10", or f a l l including 4" in last 30 sees, of test 3. Sway Over 4" and 7. Sway over 10'' or f a l l including 6" i n second 30 sees. of test 4. Sway over 6" and 8. Sway over 10" or f a l l including 8" in f i r s t 30 sees. of test The groups were equated by treating the f i r s t subject Scoring i n each of these categories as a control subject, the second as an experimental subject, and so on alternately u n t i l a l l subjects were tested. Male and female subjects were, equated separately. 47. Sway records may be scored by determining the slope of the line representing postural position as has been done by Arnold (1) and McOurdy (40). This gives a neasure of the •rate of f a l l ' . However, the sway record is rarely in the form of a smoothly rising curve and the approximation of the slope may become quite subjective. This study has used a method which is essentially a refinement of that used by Eysenck (20), which is believed to be more objective. On the kymograph recording, the point median to the maximum forward and backward movement during the I n i t i a l 'normal' period is taken as the baseline and the maximum deviation from this i n inches of actual sway is the numerical score obtained. Forward sway is referred to as positive, and backward as negative:. This i s the Raw Sway Score. Since sway exceeding, ten inches i s counted a ' f a l l * , scores for f a l l s are reported i n seconds from the time that suggestion begins. The height of attachment of the recording thread la recorded for each subject. Using this figure, each Raw Sway Score Is reduced to the equivalent of what i t would have been had the thread been attached at a uniform height of five feet, according to the formula: Corrected Sway Score = , 60X Raw Sway Score Height of Thread littachment 48. The, height of attachment was recorded to the nearest 0.5", Sway was read from the kymograph record to the nearest 0.1% and after correction again reduced to the nearest 0,1". The time of f a l l s was read to the nearest second and no correction was made in this reading. Progressive ginger Tracing Test (i) Apparatus The apparatus for this test was designed and constructed by the writer. It is illustrated in use i n Plate IV. It consists of two 24" square pieces of plywood, hinged at the top. In use i t i s mounted withthe top edge about 48'! from the floor (centre of board at shoulder height of average subject when seated, board height depending on chair used). The rear piece of plywood is r i g i d l y attached to the wall in such a manner that the hinged front piece may swing upward and outward. From the front piece a %y' slot i s cut in the symmetrical design shown i n Figure 3. On the rear board i s drawn a similar design, the centre-line directly behind that of the top design, but the; edges separated byl-jM'. At the centres of the shaded areas shown in Figure 3 are small holes into which f i t pins which hold in position small square, blodss of plywood. These are used in symmetrical pairs, and serve as temporary obstacles in the pattern formed by the groove, and also as position-indicators on the rear piece of plywood. PLATE IV Administration of Progressive Finger Tracing Test 50. Figure 3. Design and Dimensions of Progressive Finger T r a c i n g Board. 51. In use, the subject was. seated with his preferred shoulder opposite the centre-line of the board. With two blocks inserted symmetrically at position 1, his forefinger was pressed against the left-hand block, and he was instructed to trace the groove through to i t s end. A retracing was done in the same manner. Prior to the third t r i a l the front sheet of plywood was l i f t e d so that the groove was not avail-able as a guide and the subject was instructed that in his next two attempts he was to retrace the pattern as accurately as possible by the ' f e e l 1 . The same procedure was repeated in turn with the blocks at positions E, 3,4 and 5. The apparatus was covered by a curtain when not. in use, as shown in Plate I; the subject at no time had any visual cues as to the pattern involved. Progressive. Finger Tracing Test ( i i ) Theoretical considerati one An extensive search of the, literature disclosed no suitable test designed to measure objectively .kinaesthetic imagery. It was thus necessary to devise a method of getting a measure of performance from which the a b i l i t y of a subject to r e c a l l kinaesthetic sensation could be inferred, It is recognized that kinaesthetic imagery per se is probably not capable of being isolated for, even in this test, some subjects remarked that they had a tendency to translate the 52 kinaesthetic sensations into a visual image; from this they attempted to retrace the required design. Nevertheless, because of the complete lack of visual cues available to the subject, i t is considered that this test i s predominately concerned with kinaesthetic imagery. Though there is a doubtful possibility of establishing the validity of this test, i t should have been possible to gain some idea of i t s r e l i a b i l i t y . Because of the nearness of the fi n a l exams at the time the experimental work was completed, i t was not possible to secure the cooperation of subjects to carry out the necessary retesting. For this reason the findings must be regarded as indicative or suggestive rather than as conclusive. i •> i Progressive Finger Tracing Test ( i i i ) Scoring The c r i t e r i a of scoring were set up i n an arbitrary way, but with consideration given to results obtained i n the preliminary stages of the experimental work. As i t seemed reasonable to assume that success in the i n i t i a l , simpler patterns would be more easily obtained than in the later, more complicated ones, these were given a lower score, Similarly, success in the second retracing was believed to.be more d i f f i c u l t than in the f i r s t , because of the assumed rapid fading of kinaesthetic sensations. Both these assumptions appear to have been, borne out by the results 53. obtained. An analysis of a l l t r i a l s made has shown that the number of complete failures to score in the successively more complicated patterns are: 33, 45, 51, 75 and 72. This indicated the increasing d i f f i c u l t y of the succeeding patterns, with the possible exception of the last. The greater d i f f i c u l t y of accurate retracing on the second t r i a l was shown by the increase in the number of failures to score, from 124 on a l l f i r s t t r i a l s to 152 on a l l second t r i a l s . I n i t i a l l y i t was intended to have only two scoring categories, 'plus' for a retracing entirely within the guide lines, and 1 minusf- for one that deviated from this path, This was found to be too stringent and the minus category not sufficiently differentiating for the various qualities of performance which i t contained. Therefore the following three categories were set up: (1) PLUS: , Retracing ent i r e l y within the limits of the 1-| inch guidelines. , (2) HALF: Pattern retraced accurately, but distorted in proportion in such a way that, either retracing is 50$ or more w ithin the guidelines, or t r i a l is completed within a'2 inch radius of the correct position for termination. (3) MINUS: None of foregoing c r i t e r i a satisfied. 54. The ten t r i a l s are scored 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10 i n order of their occurrence i f plus score i s earned; half the assigned value i f half credit obtained; and otherwise zero. The score for tie Progressive Finger Tracing Test in the total number of points earned by the subject when t a l l i e d in this way. Memory for Designs Test (i) Material used The Memory for Designs test was based on that used by Terman and Merrill i n the 1937 revision of the Stanford-Binet Scale, Form L, Year IX - 3 (43, p. 104). To the two designs used in this test was added a third, rather more complicated, design. The card presented to the subjects is reproduced i n Figure 4, 60$ linear dimension. The original was on standard letter size paper, 8-&" x 11". The numbers in parentheses did not form part of the card as presented. Memory for Designs Test , ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations Tefrnan (43, p. 248) seems somewhat uncertain as to the processes involved i n this test but he does mention the u t i l i z a t i o n of kinaesthetic cues i n practicing the designs during the learning interval. This has also been noticed in the present study. Thus i t would seem that the 56, isolation of kinaesthetic and visual imagery is most d i f f i c u l t , but again there can be l i t t l e doubt as to the predominance of visual over kinaesthetic cues. The presence of eidetic imagery would seemingly have a con-siderable effect on this test; indeed Carmichael (8) has proposed the Terman test as a screening test for eidetic imagery. In the light of the Arnold hypothesis, a study of the. hypnotiability of acknowledged eidetikers should be, of great interest. Memory for Designs Test ( i i i ) Scoring Terman's plus and minus basis of scoring seems to provide too coarse a grading for such a test. The following c r i t e r i a are based on a scrutiny, of the preliminary group results, On the basis of a grading by a second observer as to general 'goodness' of reproduction, they seem to provide a reasonably objective ani accurate basis of assessment. Once again, v a l i d i t y was assumed, while no attempt was made to ascertain r e l i a b i l i t y . Method Each design i s allowed ten points, penalties are sub-tracted as below, and the addition of the remaining points for each of the three designs gives the f i n a l score for the Memory.for Designs Test. Design 1 .Penalty (1) Central loop omitted (i.e. two end portions joined with single horizontal line) . -5 (2) End loop facing wrong way (each) -1 (3) End of loop not produced beyond vertical line (each) -1 (4) Central portion lower than bottom of end loops, or proportionately higher -2 (5) Distortion beyond given scoring standards (maximum penalty) -2 (6) Figure not symmetrical around ver t i cal axis, i f not caused only by carelessness {In addition to specific penalties) -1 Design 2 (1) Reproduced symmetrically around vertical axis -4 (2) Inner rectangle offset to l e f t -3 (3) Inner rectangle offset to right, but so l i t t l e as to raise question as to whether symmetry was intended -2 (4) Inner rectangle reproduced as square -3 (5) Inner rectangle missing -7 (6) Each connecting line misdrawn (except through carelessness), or missing ->1 68 Design 3 (1) for each of the five elements missing -1 or or distorted, according to seriousness of distortion -2 (2) Bottom projections" same size as, or larger than, top ones -2 (3) for each autonomous added, element -1 Paper- Cutting Test , (li) Materials This test was used exactly as described by Terman and Merrill for S.A. I l l - 4 (43,p?131), except that in the interests of economy a somewhat smaller, more standard-sized paper was used - one about 3f inches square* Paper Cutting. Test ( i i ) Theoretical Considerations This test, was included in the battery in the, expectation that the adequacy of the visual manipulation necessary for the successful reproduction of the appear-ance of the. unfolded paper would be reflected in the score obtained. On the basis of observation of performance, however, considerable doubt has arisen as to how close a relationship exists between vividness and 'goodness1 of imagery, and the results of this test. On both the finger Tracing and Memory for Designs tests there seemed to be a tendency for a delay in re-production to coincide with a lowering of score, i n 59 the Paper Cutting, on the contrary, an inferior answer was often pondered over for a considerable time, and f i n a l l y a perfect solution arrived at in a fashion suggestive of the Gestaltist 'insight 1. During the early part of tb i s investigation the tentative hypothesis suggested i t s e l f that the small positive correlation found between hypnotizability and !intelligence' by such investigators as White might arise because of the common factor of vi v i d imagery. Such tests as the Memory for. Designs i n the Revised Stanford-Binet Scale and the Digit Memory in the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale may depend considerably upon, this a b i l i t y . But, even in/the event that imagery . has a bearing on the correlation mentioned, the high average correlation of .60 discovered by Term an between ; this test and the composite score (43, p. 244), suggests that other factors, perhaps more relevant to general intelligence, have a greater bearing on the score obtained. Certainly a cursory view of the differences between the retention and reproduction of a visual image, and the rehearsal i n visual imagery of object manipulation in three dimensions, and the reproduction of what the unseen result should be, would suggest that^uch additional 60. a b i l i t i e s as spatial relations would come into play. For those reasons i t i s thought wise not to place too much, emphasis on the paper-cut ting test as a measure of visual imagery. Paper Cutting Test, ( i i i ) Scoring Creases and cut-outs correctly positioned, and cut-outs correctly shaped (maximum score) 5 Same, but. cut-outs wrongly shaped 4 Greases only correctly positioned 2 Other solutions 0 Depth of Hypnosis Scale ... (i) .Apparatus The administration of the Scale i s illustrated i n Plate V. The necessary apparatus includes a stop-watch, an Argon glow-lamp"*" set in a standard goose-neck reflector reading lamp and used as a fixation point, and a folding canvas deck chair in which the subject can relax comfortably. Since the experimenter s i t s to the side of the subject's direct line of vision, a mirror i s used to aid observation of eye-closure. Lighting is dim and indirect, and i s provided by a second goose-neck lamp containing a standard 25 watt bulb, directed against the wall. 1 General Electric,_AR-1, 2$ W., 105-125V. Plate V Administration of Depth of Hypnosis Scale 62. Depth of Hypnosis Scale ( i i ) Discussion of the Scale The scale used i n this study i s a modified version of one devised hy Friedlander and Sarbin (24) fromTthe best features of scales devised by Davis and Husband (10), Barry, McKinnon and Murray (3), White (46), and Hull (28). For this improved scale the investigators found a r e l i a b i l i t y averaging about .80, both with the same, and with different experimenters. While no attempt was made to verify this r e l i a b i l i t y in the present study, two retests were made on the scale in cases where some doubt was f e l t as to the adequacy of the measure of hypnotizability. In one case the same index was obtained and i n the other an index that varied by only one point. Appendix A contains this scale in i t s entirety, , The modifications introduced arise fro mythe particular needs of the present experimental situation as shown in the preliminary investigation. While they are probably not so extensive as to prohibit comparison with results from studies using the unmodified scale, this has not been the intention in the present study. What has been required, i s to compare a l l subjects in the matter of hypnotizability, and since the scale as modified has been used with each, i t is con-sidered that this object has been attained. In any case, caution should be used in making comparisons with other results. 63. The.most extensive changes made were in the 'challenges* in the second section of ths scale. To every challenge . except that of opening the eyes, there was added an assertion that the inhibited action could he performed as soon as the operator touched the affected part. This was with a view to the reduction of tension and anxiety which might he f e l t by the subject on finding himself unable to perform the desired action. In the original scale the f i r s t paragraph contained the statement that the a b i l i t y to be hypnotized has nothing to do with intelligence. Since the opposite statement, that there seemed to be a slight positive correlation between hypnotizability and intelligence had been made during the demonstration, this statement was deleted. Certain changes were made to conform to the conditions of the experimental room. Most of these arose from remarks made by subjects during the preliminary series. Thus, "warm and comfortable" was changed to "easy and comfortable" when i t was found that certain subjects felt s l i g h t l y cool. "You hear nothing but the sound of my voice," was modified to, ''You are concentrating on nothing but.. .etc., 1 1 as outside sounds which penetrated seemed to move certain subjects mentally to contradict this statement, and thus spoil concentration and possibly cause a questioning attitude 64. towards future assertions of t he experimenter. A few other small changes were made i n the scale, but of the order of those already mentioned. The structure of the scale i s such that continuing with hypnotic stimulus after eye closure w i l l result i n fewer points being obtained in the 'induction 1 section. However there i s a tendency for this lower score to be balanced by a reduced a b i l i t y on the part of the subject to resist the 'challenges' (because of the somewhat deeper trance state thereby induced) and so secure a higher score, in most cases, i f any doubt was f e l t as to the ,existence of eye closure, the stimulus was continued. Certain exceptions necessitated a change in scoring which i s given below. Depth of Hypnosis Scale ( i i i ) Scoring One change in scoring was introduced from that suggested by the authors. This was necessary because in some cases under the conditions used, i t was somewhat d i f f i c u l t to ascertain whether or not eye closure had taken place. The procedure required that when eye closure occurred the operator completed the paragraph being read, proceeded to paragraph VIII and thence to tte challenges, thus cutting off the hypnotic stimulus, for this reason i t was possible in exceptional cases to commence the challenges prior to 65. eye closure. If any subject resisted the eye challenge, and had not had the complete hypnotic stimulus sequence repeated twice, paragraph VIII was repeated. At the termin-ation of i t he was instructed to close his eyes before pro-ceeding to the second challenge. In each such case one' point was deducted from^he score obtained in', the 'induction! section of the scale. The scoring is in four sections Score (1) Eye closure (induction) Eye closure takes place by completion of paragraph V on f i r s t reading 5 VII on P reading 4 '! VIII_on M reading 3 " VII, on second reading 2 11 VIII on " reading 1 E. must close S*s eyes at end of second reading 0 (2) Negative Suggestion Count one point for each successful, challenge, (i.e.. not resisted within 10 seconds). Record time taken to resist unsuccessful challenges. Summate these times and count one point for each multiple of 10 seconds. (3) Hallucination Reported as being heard distinctly, or spontaneously remarked upon 5 Reported as faint; some 'prodding' needed 3 No hallucination reported 0 66. Score (4) Amnesia (Memories possible include 5 challenges, hallucination instructions, and amnesia instructions.) Nothing remembered 5 1 item remembered 4 2 items remembered 3 3 items remembered 2 4 or 5 items remembered 1 More than 5 items remembered 0 The hypnotizability index is the sum of scores of the four sections. 67. CHAPTER IY  ANALYSIS Og DATA . Introduction Two of the predictions which Arnold has made on the has is of her hypothesis have directed the method of en-quiry in the present study.. The hypotheses derived from these predictions have already been stated. Prior to examining the evidence concerning the, a recapitulation of the hypotheses may c l a r i f y the most appropriate methods of handling the data. Testing the 'Sway Hypothesis 1 Arnold's major hypothesis holds that the accentuated movement produced i n a sway test is the outcome of the incidental imagery engaged in by the subject consequent upon the 'fal l i n g ' suggestions given. Because she believes this imagery is also the basic mechanism actuated i n hypnotism, she predicts that a direct appeal to imagination in the sway test w i l l produce results more closely related to the subject's hypnotizability than w i l l the same test using Hull's standard instructions. Tol test, in a controlled experiment, the hypothesis derived from this prediction i t i s necessary to have two 68. groups which can he -'demonstrated to he comparable i n their responses to the standard sway test, as well as any other character!sties which are. known to influence the results of sway tests. If the members of one group (control) then repeat the sway test, while those of the other (experimental) are subjected to a second sway test in which they are asked to imagine f a l l i n g , the second sway test scores of the experimental group should correlated more closely with measures^ of their hypnotizability than w i l l those of the control group. It is therefore of primary importance to show that the two groups are equated. Comparison of Groups The members of the control and experimental groups were equated upon^ the results of sway test number 1 during the course of the testing session. At the conclusion of these sessions the results of certain subjects had to be discarded because of imperfect kymograph recordings of sway. This l e f t some of the eight equating categories with unequal numbers as between control.and experimental groups. In such cases, 'excess1 subjects were discarded by being picked out i n a random • manner. One female subject in the control group was found to be more than twice the mean age of the group and, since 69. Edwards (14) "has shown age to be related to sway test results, this subject and her opposite number inthe experi-mental group were eliminated. It was necessary to make a correction in the 'raw' sway scores for the height at which the recording thread was attached and a divergence of the mean sway of the two groups was thereby caused. One subject was therefore removed from each of the groups and was replaced from among those previously 'discarded* on the single basis of bringing the means of the two groups in Sway Test number 1 more closely together. Each group then contained 30 subjects, 8 females and 22 males. The characteristics of the two groups are noted in Table I. As worked out by Fisher's' method (42, p. 70) there is no significant difference between the means of the two groups. Relation of Sway Test and Hypnotizability Scale Results .'  The method used to score sway records results in a discontinuous series and, since there i s no way known to equate the value of ' f a l l s ' with amount of sway, the rank differences method of correlation is used in computing coefficients into which these data enter. From the obtained 'rho* is inferred the value of ' r 1 by the table given by Garrett (25, p.362). Table I Comparison of characteristics of Control and Experimental Groups. Number: Total Male JPemale Corrected Sway ST #1 EsE3 Mean Sigma Time of 'Fall! 1= 7 Mean Sigma ST#1 Control Group 30 28 8 3.82 ins. 2.13 43.0 sees. 20.40 i l l .146 ,290 Experimental Group 30 22 8 3.12 ins. 2.62 46.29 18.61 Age in Months . N» 30 Mean •Sigma Hypno t i zab i l i t y Index Na 30 Mean Sigma 246.50 mos. 26.15 8.87 pts. 4.76 .162 .247 247.63 26.97 8.57 4.47 © 71 In determining the rank to assign to various scores* the question of negative sway values arises. Based on correlations with various personality characteristics, Eysenck (20, p. 187) has stated that negative sway values aremore closely related to the same obtained positive values than they are to the smaller intervening scores. On the other hand, Berreman and Hilgard (4) found that on repetition in a six-test series, a l l negative values became positive, and positive values increased. This argues for something more in the nature of a continuum, with negative results at the lower end. The latter evidence seems to bear more relation to this study than the former. Since no negative values encountered exceed 1.5 inches, and the consequent rank displacement therefore i s not great, the most negative score i s considered as the smallest sway score throughout this treatment. Correlations carried out between sway test scores and hypnotizability indices provide the information given i n Table II. The r/sigma r ratios have to do only with th© probability of the obtained correlations differlag significantly from zero. A l l tests of significance are worked out by the methods suggested by McEfemar (41, pp. 122-125). • i-Table II Rank differences. Correlations between corrected sway test scores and hypnotizability jscores. Sway Test Number 1 (Direct Suggestion) Level of s Rho r Sigma r (inferred) Sigma r significance A l l S ' S 60 .438 .455 , .130 3.508 .0005 -Control S's 30 .464 .481 .186 2.586 ,01 Exper. S's 30 .397 .413 .186 2.220 .03 Sway Test Number 2 (Imagery of Falling) • Control S's 30 .686 .703 .186 3.780 ,0002 Exper, S's 30 .235 .245 .186 1.317 .19 -a to 73. It appears that a l l of the correlations secured are reasonably significant, with the exception of the one using sway test number 2 in the experimental group. The greater correlation shown in the second sway test by the control group, and the smaller correlation shown by the experimental group are also significant, the respective D z-z/sigma z- z ratios being 5.44 and 2.93. These are interpreted in the same way as t. These results appear to be directly opposed to those expected i n our hypothesis, from which i t would be anti-cipated that an increase would oecur in the correlation between sway and hypnotizability in the second test of the experimental group. Instead, there is a significant decrease i n the experimental group and a larger and more significant increase in the control group. Testing the 'Imagery HypothesisV The second hypothesis which the present study i s designed to test is derived from Arnold's prediction that only those subjects who can imagine sharply and well in the waking state w i l l have the necessary vividness of imagination and the necessary concentration to enable them to reach an advanced stage of hypnosis. 74, ^Imagination" as used "by Arnold has "been construed as the more precise term, imagery, and for the purposes of this study has been narrowly defined i n an operational way. The tests used confine this definition to the two modes of imagery which Arnold's investigations indicated as being most relevant to her hypothesis. In a letter to the writer she has indicated that she does not disagree with such a definition. Ho equating of groups is necessary for the testing of this second hypothesis. The necessary evidence concerns whether or not in the group being studied there exists a correlation between the scores on imagery tests and the scores obtained on the scale of hypnotic depth. Eolation of Imagery Tests and '" Hypnotizability Scale Results Using results from a l l subjects, the following correlations are found for the three imagery tests; Table III Product Moment Correlations between Imagery Test Scores and Hypnotizability Indices, using a l l subjects level of H r r/sigma r Significance Finger Tracing 60 .356 2.738 .006 Design Memory 60 .131 1.008 .32 Paper Gutting 60 7.047 .362 .75 75. The only one of these three tests showing a significant correlation with hypnotizability in the present study i s the Progressive Finger Tracing Test. The d i f f i c u l t y of distinguishing effectively between the results of kinaesthetic and visual imagery has been referred to previously. Because Arnold found a combination of these two modes more effective i n waking suggestion than either used.separately, according to introspective reports, the scores for the Design Memory and the Finger Tracing tests were added, and the sums correlated with the hypnotizability indices. This ',2-Test Imagery Score' proved to correlate r=.389 with hypnotizability, the t of 2.99 raising the level of significance to the .3$ point. A more refined s t a t i s t i c a l treatment might have established a higher relationship, but i t is believed that the present data are sufficient to provide evidence in favour of the existence of a relationship between imagery as measured i n this study and hypnotizability as estimated by the Friedlander and Sarbin scale. The '2-Test Imagery' score i s used i n a l l subsequent cal -culations involving imagery. As further evidence of the relationship referred to, the imagery scores are taken for subjects in the upper •quartile of the hypnotizability index distribution and 76. compared with those of subjects in the lower quartile. in cases where the same rank of hypnotizability index overlaps quartile boundaries, each subject i s given the average for that rank. This procedure gives a mean of 37.97 imagery points in the upper, compared with 30.52 in the lower, with a t of 2.34 which is significant at slig h t l y better than the 2$ level. If instead of the upper and lower 15 cases (quartile), the top and bottom six cases are taken (decile), the respective means become 43.78 and 25.83 with a t of 6.82. While there seems to be l i t t l e doubt that the present data indicate a relationship between imagery and hypnotiz-a b i l i t y , the moderate correlation discovered i s probably less than would be anticipated from the central position given to imagery by the Arnold hypothesis. Suggestibility, Hypnotizability, and Imagery Because' of the somewhat contradictory results so far obtained,1 a further analysis appears desirable. If our imagery score represents the a b i l i t y to imagine "vividly and Well" which Arnold believes to be basic to both waking and hypnotic suggestion, then the removal of the influence of imagery should leave a considerably reduced correlation between suggestibility as measured by the 77. sway tests, aid hypnotizability. By the partial correlation technique i t is possible to secure an estimate of the relationship which4ould hold between two variables i f a third, believed to influence the other two, is held constant. ,_. „ A partial correlation of the scores believed to represent suggestibility, hypnotizability and imagery gives the results shown i n Table II. Contrary to the effect anticipated from the hypothesis, removing the influence of imagery seems to increase rather than decrease the correlation between hypnotizability and suggestibility, though not to a significant extent. The examination of the scatter gram of r 1 3 for • a l l cases 1 as shown in Table IV, gives no evidence of the existence of a curvelinear relation. The difference between the control and the experimental groups in the. correlations of hypnotizability and imagery was found to be of the very doubtful significance, of a t of 1.1. If imagery were the basic factor common to both waking and hypnotic suggestion, then more meaningful results would be obtained from working with groups known to. be equated in this 'ability'. To check the results obtained above in the i n i t i a l analjSLs of the 'sway hypothesis', 16 subjects are selected from control and Table IV Partial correlation, indicating the relationship between corrected sway test scores and hypnotizability indices, with the influence of Imagery scores 'partialed out' Using Sway Test lumber 1 (Common to a l l subjects) N ?12 r _^  r13 r r23 r r12.3 sigma r sigma r sigma r A l l Cases 60 ,454 3.49 .004 ,03 .389 2,99 .492 Control Group 30 .481 2.59 - .001 ,005 .52 2.80 .564 Exper. Group 30 .413 2.22 - .007 .04 ,279 1,50 .432 iway Test Number 2 Control Group 30 .712 3.82 •15 .81 .521 2.80 .748 Exper. Group 30 .245 1.33 - .033 .18 .279 1.50 .265 79. experimental groups, equated only on the has is of obtained imagery score. Hank Differences correlations obtained are: Table y Rank differences correlations between corrected sway test scores and hypnotiz-abi11ty indices for 16 subjects matched on '8-Test Imagery! scores Sway Test Number 1. Sway Test Number 2. Control Group rho... .660 rho • • • .840 Experimental Group rho • • • .446 rho. .417 While the tendency for the experimental group to secure a lower correlation with hypnotizability from the results of sway test number 8 is not so obvious as previously, the control group's tendency to obtain a higher correlation in the second test i s even more apparent. ,A possibility exists that the arbitrary scoring of the Progressive Finger Tracing Test may obscure a relationship existing between the imagery 'ability' and suggestibility as measured by the sway test. The highest correlation secured with imagery is that of sway test number 8 in the control group, but i t is not significantly different from zero. When the finger tracing teste of the control group are resoored, using a weighting based on the d i f f i c u l t y of each item as determined for the whole group ( N-60), the 80. correlation of the revised scores with scores of sway test number 2 increases over the previous correlation only from .10 to .11, not a significant increase. Summary of Analysis Operationally defining suggestibility, hypnotizability, and imagery i n terms of the tests used in this study, data fromthe population investigated indicates: (1) A significant increase inthe relationship between hypnotizability and suggestibility when the latter is remeasured by the Hull Sway Test using a repetition of direct f a l l i n g suggestions. This i s contrasted with a significant decrease in the relationship shown in a comparable group when suggestibility i s remeasured by the Hull Sway Test.using instructions requesting the subject to imagine he i s f a l l i n g ; (2) Ho change i n the pattern of these results when individuals from the experimental and control groups are matched only on the basis of imagery; a 81.' (3) No decrease in the correlation between hypnotizability and suggestibility when the effect of imagery is held constant by a partial correlation technique; (4) No detectable correlation, linear or curyelinear, between suggestibility and imagery. No signi-ficant change upon applying.a more accurate Scoring method to the Pro gressive Finger Tracing test) ( 5 ) A significant, though moderate, correlation between hypnotizability and imagery, with a tendency which is not s t a t i s t i c a l l y signi-ficant towards a higher correlation i n the control than i n the experimental group. 82. CHAPTER V  A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF TEE STUDY Controls Believed to, be Adequate The mechanical aspects of the experimental situation are believed to be adequate. The error of kymograph record-ing i s shown to be less than the approximation to which records are read. The only sway recordings discarded for technical reasons were spoilt because of the failure of the recording pen. A l l time records were obtained by the use of a stpp watch or electric timer, and the latter operation was semi-automatic. . The two wire-re cor dings used in the sway test were recorded, at the same level of volume, and the • same setting was used for each play-back so that, objectively, each subject received the same stimuli as the rest of his group. The use of a previously prepared procedure and record sheet for the complete experimental session ensured uniformity of procedure, while the series of ten preliminary sessions aided the experimenter i n obtaining a uniform ad-ministration of a l l tests. Control, of visual stimuli carried out by use of a blindfold, a concealing curtain over the tracing board, and controlled illumination, reduced distractions in this sensory f i e l d , 93. Inadequately Controlled Aspects Unknown to the experimenter, the film "psychiatry i n Action" had "been shown to the Psychology 100 class from which most of the subjects were drawn. This would tend to give a focus, for imagination even without direct suggestion to concentrate upon imagining. A considerable number of subjects had been put though the experimental procedure before this > was discovered, so i t was thought better not to make any» changes. (In the film "Psychiatry i n Action1.' a ps/chiatric patient i s shown being subjected to the Eysenck version of the sway test, and f a l l i n g subsequent to the suggestions given.) During the introspective enquiry following the second sway test, five members of each group mentioned having seen the film. If this can be taken as a rough measure of the saliency of the subject for the two groups, they may also be said to be equated for this factor. It is therefore not l i k e l y of sufficient importance to dis-rupt the pattern of results. Of the physical aspects, noise seemed to be the most disturbing, and the least subject to control. The space used was not quiet, but was the only one available, fortunately, most of the disturbance occurred at the end of lecture periods when, as a rule, the session was completed or the f i n a l enquiry was being carried on. Ten members of the experimental group and twelve of the control group 84. complained of being distracted by noise during the adminis-tration of the hypnotizability scale, probably the part of the proceedings most vulnerable to such an influence. It would be the judgment of the experimenter, though a subjective one, that outside noise at these times was no more apparent than at others, i n such cases i t is possible that distraction by noise was more l i k e l y a result rather than a cause of lack of concentration. By far the greatest uncontrolled aspect of the experimental situation, however, appeared to be the variety of emotional and motivational pressures present i n the subjects. Though an attempt was made to reduce these by giving a prior demonstration, by answering questions, and by assuming a natural easy attitude, even casual observation revealed i t s Indifferent success. The same fascination with hypnotism which enabled this study to secure a large number of volunteers with comparative ease, apparently makes for pressures which should cause any except quite general inter-pretations of results to be made with. caution, particularly since the results hinge on the use of rela t i v e l y small numbers of subjects. The Experimental Design A criticism that may be made of the experimental design i s that the tests of imagery, as a task not entirely neutral, may have influenced the results of the second sway test in one way or another. But, since no significant 85. correlation can be demonstrated in any case between the results of the imagery tests and the sway tests, i t i s believed unlikely that there is sufficient in common between tie two activities for such an effect to have occurred. It i s apparent, moreover, that even the introduction of the 'variable' of different instructions in sway test number 2 for the two groups has done l i t t l e to affect the results, as there is no significant difference between the correlations of the f i r s t and second sway tests as between the two groups. In the control group they correlate .720, and in the experimental group .781. The t is 1.13. If the case causing the., most deviation is removed from each group, lowering the 1 to 29, these correlations become respectively .861 and .833, which seems to imply a high degree of s t a b i l i t y for this test i n spite of disturbing influences. It seems apparent, therefore, that the introduction of the 'imagination" instructions into the sway test has not had a great effect upon the order of the scores obtained. It also appears that whatever effect has occurred has influenced the relationship with hypnotizability in a manner quite different from that predicted by Arnold. A further possibility exists that the differing instructions for sway test number 2 given in the two groups has had a differential effect upon the hypnotizability indices obtained following these tests. Supporting this 86. view are the higher correlations obtained in the control group between hypnotizability and sway test number 1, and between hypnotizability and imagery. Opposed to this i s the lack of s t a t i s t i c a l significance i n these two differences, and the lack of a significant difference between the two means. Without further evidence than that contained i n the experimental data i t i s believed impossible to come to a definite decision, though the weight of evidence Beems to be against any such effect having taken place. Additional Work Required The present study was designed to secure objective, numerical data, which might be treated st a t i s t i c a l l y , in such a manner as to become evidence for accepting or rejecting the Arnold hypothesis. The above discussion indicates the writer's belief that this evidence i s open to question because it does not take sufficiently into account the motivational aspects which enter into the total situation. Further studies in the same general area, but more restricted i n scope, and with emphasis upon the conscious motivation of the subjects, their reasons for taking part, in the experiment, their attitudes towards hypnotism and the hypnotist, and similar questions, should provide information complementary to the present study. A study continuing over several months, in which a few 87. subjects could become thoroughly familiar with the experimenter and with the techniques used, might be valuable for equating motivational aspects. In work which involves hypnotism the relationship between Experimenter and Subject is so close that i t i s doubtful whether sufficient objectivity can be secured in the enquiry i f it is carried out by the individual inducing hypnosis. For, this reason i t seems desirable that future work along such lines should be carried out by at least two persons. A more immediate project, arising directly from this study, is the ascertaining of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the tests of imagery used. It was originally supposed that evidence securing concerning the 'imagery' hypothesis would be supplementary, to that bearing on the 'sway' hypothesis. When i t was realized that the imagery scores must be used i n further analysis of apparently contradictory evidence, neither the original subjects nor f a c i l i t i e s were available for retesting. The lack of evidence concerning r e l i a b i l i t y is a definite limitation upon conclusions drawn from findings based upon the use of these tests. 88. CHAPTER VI  CONCLUSION Interpretation If i t i s assumed that the Finger Tracing and Memory for Designs tests do provide a reliable measure of •imagination1 in the sense that Arnold uses the term, our analysis seems to indicate that the mechanism of suggestibility does not depend upon imagination to any significant degree. This may be inferred £om the failure to find a correlation between the results of the two tests, and from the results of the partial correlation carried out. There i s , however, evidence that imagination as so defined is a significant factor in hypnotizability. If the assumption concerning these tests is not made, the investi-gation of the 'sway' hypothesis s t i l l gives reason to doubt the existence of imagination as a factor common to both ideo-motor suggestibility and hypnotizability. The evidence obtained in this study would appear to indicate that 'suggestibility' and 'imagery' as we have operationally defined them are relatively independent factors, both bearing a relation to 'hypnotizability'. It is possible that the 'imagery'; tests used may measure, something of the same type as the 'Heat Illusion' test, the scores from which Eysenck (EO, p. 171) found to relate to hypnotizability to a much higher degree than to primary or secondary suggestibility. 89. If imagery i s accepted as a factor which i s i n -dependent of ideo-motor suggestibility, then the appeals to imagination which were contained in the experimental group instructions in sway test number 2 would act as a distracting influence, and the correlation obtained between the f i r s t and second tests would be understood in terms of the great number of factors in common between the f i r s t and second situations, including the repetition of the word "relax" and the phrase " f a l l i n g forward". In the control group, the higher correlation with hypnotizability in the second sway test might be partly explained by a greater familiarity with the situation bringing about a greater degree of relaxation, and hence less inhibition of the sway action, arising from whatever source i t may. Summary For the population studied, the data gathered lend no support to Arnold's prediction that in the Hull sway test a direct appeal to the subject's imagination should produce scores more closely related to his hypnotizability than scores resulting from suggestions which may indirectly produce such imagination. 'Imagination' i s used in such a way that the more precise word 'imagery' seems more applicable. Defining imagery operationally in terms of.one original and one adapted test of undetermined r e l i a b i l i t y , no relationship could be established between this factor and suggestibility. 90. However, a moderately high correlation was found between imagery and hypnotizability, when the latter factor was defined in terms of the Friedlander and Sarbin scale. This relationship seems to lend support to Arnold's second pre-diction, that only those who can imagine vividly and well are capable of becoming deeply hypnotized. A possible interpretation of the data i s suggested: that ideo-motor suggestibility and imagery are factors i n -dependently related to hypnotizability, but with no necessary interrelation. Arnold's major hypothesis, that ideo-motor action based on imagery i s the basic mechanism of both 'prestige' or 'primary* suggestibility and hypnosis, does not find support in the data secured in this study. While further studies in this area are indicated, directed to the motivational aspects of the hypnotic situation, and to the establishing of the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of objective tests of imagery, sufficient evidence i s a v a i l -able to counsel great caution inthe acceptance of the Arnold Hypothesis. 91 REFERENCES 1. ARNOLD, MAGDA B., On the mechanism of suggestion and hypnosis, "J.'abnorin. soc. Psychol*, 1946, 41, 107-128. 2. ASCH, S.E., The doctrine of suggestion prestige and imitation i n social psychology, Psychol. Rev., 1948, 55, 250-276. 3. 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AND HUSBAND, RICHARD W, , A study of hypnotic susceptibility in relation to personality tr a i t s , J. abnorm. soc. Psychol., 1931, 26, 175-188. 11. DEXTER, E.S., What is imagination?, J. gen. Psychol., 1943, 2$, 133-138. 12. DORCAS, R.M., BRINTNALL, A.Z,, AND CASE, H.W.., Control i' experiments and their relation to theories of hypnotism^ J. gen. Psychol., 1941, 24, 217-221. 13. EDWARDS, A.S., Static ataxiameter for* head and hips, Amer. J. Psychol., 1941, 54, 576-577. 92. 14. EDWARDS, A.S., The measurement of static ataxia, Amer. J. Psychol., 1942, 55, 171-188. 15. EDWARDS, A.S., Helmet for ataxiameter, Amer. J. Psychol., 1942, 55, 422. '.' " 16. EDWARDS, A.S., Body sway and vision, J. Exp. Psychol., 1946, 36, 526-535. 17. ESDAILE, JAMES, Mesmerism in India and i t s practical application in surgery and medicine, Chicago, The Psychic Research Company, 1902. 18. 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GOLDSMITH, MARGARET, Franz Anton Mesmer, The history of and idea, London, Arthur Barker Ltd., 1934 27. HULL, CLARK L. , Quantitative methods of investigating '. waking suggestion, J. abnorm. soc. Psychol., 1929, • 24, 153-169. 93. 28. HULL, CLARK L., Hypnosis and suggestibility, an experimental approach, Hew York, D. Appleton-Century.Company, 1933. 29. JACOBSON, EDMUND, Progressive relaxation - a Physiological and c l i n i c a l investigation of  muscular states and their significance i n psychology and medical practice. Chicago, ' University of Chicago Press, 1938. 3 0 • «XE!NNESS. A., Hypnotism, i n J. McV. Hunt (Ed, ), ~ Personafity and the behavior disorders, New York, The Ronald Press, 1944. ! 31. JENNESS, A. AND JORGENSEN, A.P., Minor studies from the psychological laboratory of the University of Nebraska, XI ratings of vividness of imagery in the waking'state compared with reports of somnabulism, Amer. 3. Psychol., 1941, 54, 253-259. 32. KRETCH, DAVID AND CRUTCHFIELD, R.S., Theory and problems .... of. social psychology. New York, McGrawrHill Book C,o. Inc. , 1948. 33. KUBIE, L.S. AND MARGOLIN, S., The process of hypnotism and the nature of the hypnotic state, Amer. J.  Psychiat., 1944, 100, 611-622. ~~ 34. LECRON, LESLIE, M. AND BORDEAU, JEAN, Hypnotism today, _ Grune . and . Stratton, 1947., 35. LEUBA» C., Imagery as conditioned sensations, J. exp. Psychol., 1940, 26, 345-351. 36. LEUBA, C., The use of hypnosis for controlling ; variables in psychological experiments, J. abnorm.  soc.' Psychol. , 1941, 36, 271-274. 37. MAX, L.W., Experimental study of the motor theory of consciousness, IV aetion current responses in the deaf during awakening, kinaesthetic imagery and abstract thinking, J. comp. Psychol., 1937, 24, 301^344. 38. MARKS, ROBERT W., The story of hypnotism, New York, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1947. 39. MENNINGER FOUNDATION, Hypnosis research project, Bull. Menninger Clin., 1945, 9, 1-7. 94. 40. MCCUEDY, HAROLD GRIER, An experimental study of waking postural suggestion, J. exp. PsychoL, 1948 , 38, 250-256. 41. MCNEMAR, QUINN, Psychological s t a t i s t i c s . lew York, Wiley and Sons Inc., 1949. 42. SMITH, G. MILTOH, A simplified guide to- s t a t i s t i c s , New York, Rinehart and Co.. Inc. , 1946. 43. TERMAN, L.M.,, AND MERRILL, M.A., Measuring Intelligence, Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1937. 44. TRAYIS, E.G., An experimental analysis of dynamic and static equilibrium, J. exp. Psychol., 1945, 35, 216-234. 45. WELLS, W. R., Experiments i n the hypnotic production of crime, J. Psychol., 1941, 11, 63-102.. 46. WHITE, M.M., The physical and mental t r a i t s of . persons susceptible to hypnosis, J. abnorm.soc. Psychol., 1930, 25, 293-298. 47. WHITE, R.W., An analysis of motivation in hypnosis, J. gen. Psychol., 1941, 24, 145-162. • 48. WHITE, ROBERT W., The abnormal personality. New York, The Ronald Press Co., 1948. 49. WHITE, ROBERT W. AND SHEVACH, B.J., Hypnosis and the concept of dissociation, J. abnorm. soe. Psychol., 1942, 37, 309-328. 50. WOLBERG, LEWIS R., Medical Hypnosis, Vol. I, The . principles of hypnotherapy, New York, Grune and Strattpn, 1948. APPENDIX A DETAILED PROCEDURE FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL SESSION (NOTE; Instructions for the experimenter are given in capitals, i n parentheses.) 1. APPENDIX A DETAILED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE; (STUDENT ENTERS) Good day. I'm glad you were able to come. You're Mr. (Miss) ____ aren't you. I'm , i n case you didn't get my name before. Will you s i t down here, please. (IF WITNESS PRESENT, SEAT IN CORNER.) You're probably wondering just what i s expected of you. What I am trying to do i s 4 to establish a connection between certain types of experimental reponses and what I referred to in my talk as the 'aptitude' for hypnosis. So the f i r s t part of this session w i l l be taken up by various kinds of tests, and later we w i l l attempt to assess your aptitude fpr hypnosis. In several of these tests we'll have to cover up your eyes, but w i l l try to do i t in the most comfortable way possible. Now since it i s quite necessary that you be relaxed and easy i n your mind during this session, I'd f i r s t like to check tbat you have ttee whole of this hour free, and aren't worrying about getting away to do something. What's your situation in that regard? (RECORD THIS. IF SESSION BEGUN LATE, AND IN EARLIER SESSIONS, CHECK ALSO FOR FIRST PART OF FOLLOWING HOUR.) If you have any questions that you'd l i k e to ask before we start, anyAing that you might be uneasy about, just go ahead. (ANSWER, ALL QUESTIONS-.•THAT DO NOT BEAR DIRECTLY ON THE PURPOSES OF THE EXPERIMENT, AND THE SPECIFIC PROCEDURE. ) 2. One thing I'd like ID ask you. Since this work is being done for my'M.A. thesis, and since i t may prove worthless i f certain controls are not observed, I*d like you to undertake not to disetuss what wedre going to do here today, except in the most general terms. I would suggest that you say in answer to questions only that you did a few tests that you have been asked not to discuss, and that your aptitude for hypnosis was tested. 1 don't mind"youfSita^ i n the hypnotic state, but would prefer Jrhat you don't disuuss at a l l any details of the procedure, how successful you f e l t i t was, and things of that sort. (CHECK AISO WITH WITNESS, ALSO THAT HE IS NOT TO BE A FUTURE SUBJECT) (RECORD WHETHER OR NOT A WITNESS IS PRESENT -IF SO RECORD. NAME) '. ' NORMAL RECORD AND SWAY TEST NUMBER 1 (HULL TEST) .. As I said there are several factors which I want to relate to the aptitude for hypnosis. The f i r s t of the, se is normal body movement when standing. As you know, nobody can stand perfectly steady, and under different conditions, the same person w i l l probably show different sorts of responses tn this regard. Now I'm going to put on this blindfold, and I'd like you to stand up here — f i r s t by the wall so I can get your height (MEASURE AND RECORD HEIGHT TO LOOP ON BACK OF BLINDFOLD) — and then just here. Put your feet together — both heels and toes, hold your head in i t s natural position without moving 3. your neck, and l e t your arms hang easily at your sides, . (ATTACH THREAD) Now just stand as s t i l l as possible for a moment. (ZERO KYMOGRAPH) Now take up a relaxed, passive position, Don't worry about any slight movements, but just stand naturally, and. easily, and relaxed. In a short time I'm going to start a recording of my voice on which I want you to focus your f u l l attention, but i n the meantime just stand there naturally, easily ani relaxed. (START KYMOGRAPH* • • RECORD FOR £ MINUTE MARK KYMOGRAPH RECORD AND SIMULTANEOUSLY BEGIN WIRE RECORDER.) "As you li s t e n to this you'll f i n d yourself f a l l i n g forward* You are beginning to f a l l forward. You are f a l l i n g forward. You are falling forward. You feel yourself f a l l i n g forward a l i t t l e more — a l i t t l e more. You are f a l l i n g forward. You are f a l l i n g forward, over on your toes. Relax your body now. You are f a l l i n g forward. Falling, f a l l i n g , A l i t t l e more. A l i t t l e mors. A l i t t l e more. You are fall i n g forward, forward on your toes. Forward. A l i t t l e more»q Relax your muscles. Falling. A l i t t l e more. More. You are f a l l i n g over now. You are fall i n g . You are fa l l i n g . Falling over. Falling. Falling. A l i t t l e more. Relax. You are f a l l i n g forward. You can't help yourself. Right over on your toes. Falling. Falling a l i t t l e more a l l the time. You're f a l l i n g forward a l i t t l e more a l l the time. Forward, forward, f a l l i n g straight ahead. Falling, f a l l i n g over on your toes, f a l l i n g forward, more and more a l l the time. Falling, f a l l i n g , f a l l i n g forward. (REPEAT FROM * TO FULL L# MINUTES. ) (SEAT SUBJECT BEFORE PROGRESSIVE LINGER TRACING BOARD WHILE DETERMINING BY MEASUREMENT OF RECORD WHETHER TO ASSIGN HIM TO CONTROL OR EXPERIMENTAL GEO,UP. RECORD THIS, AND LF CONTROL GROUP START WIRE RECORDER REWINDING.) PROGRESSITE FINGER TRACING TEST — KINESTHETIC IMAGERY For this next part of the procedure i t w i l l he necessary to keep the blindfold on. (SEAT S. PROPERLY BEFORE THE BOARD, CHECKING WHICH IS HIS DOMINANT ARM AND PLACING THAT SHOULDER OPPOSITE CENJRE" OF BOARD. RECORD WHICH IS DOMINANT ARM, REMOVE CURTAIN FROM BOARD. ) On the wail there is hung a board with a pattern out out •t < - i * of it, i n the form of a groove wide enough for your finger to traoe. I w i l l put, your finger at the starting point, you w i l l trace the groove, and give me your hand so that you can retrace i t a second time. Then I w i l l take your hand and replace i t at the starting point, and ask you to retrace the identieal pattern without the groove to guide you. You w i l l have two chances to-do this, then we'll repeat the whole procedure with a slightly more complicated pattern. Is that clear? Carry out this pro-cedure f a i r l y rapidly, and concentrate on the feel that you get i n your arm and shoulder. I'd like you to remember as much as possible by the feel. Remember, you'll have two chances with the groove, and two without, on each pattern. Do the tracing f a i r l y rapidly, and concentrate on the feel in your arm and shoulder. Any questions? (IN EACH TRIAL PRESS TEE FINGER AGAINST THE STARTING BLOCK IN THE SAME POSITION, BOTH WITH AND WITHOUT THE GROOVE. START EACH TRIAL BY SAYING:) "This time you start down (or) to the right." (CONTINUE UNTIL BOTH TRIALS IN TWO POSITIONS ARE MINUS)" MEMORY FOR DESIGNS AND PAPER GUTTING TESTS VISUAL IMAGERY (COVER PROGRESSIVE FINGER TRACING BOARD WITH CURTAIN, REMOVE BLINDFOLD, AND RETURN SUBJECT TO ORIGINAL POSITION AT TABLE) Memory for designs (HOLD CARD FACE DOWN AND SAY ,..) I nave a card here with three drawings on i t . I am going to show them to you for ten seconds, then I will-- take the card away and l e t you draw from memory what you, have seen. Be sure to look at a l l three drawings carefully. . (AT THE END OF FOUR SECONDS SAY QUIETLY) Look at a l l three,. (IMMEDIATELY.THE CARD IS REMOVED ALLOW S. TO REPRODUCE THE DESIGNS ON THE BACK OF THE EXPERIMENTAL RECORD SHEET) P a p e r c u t t i n g (TAKE A 3f INCH SQUARE OF P^PER AND SAY... ) Watch carefully what I do. See, I fold the paper th i s way. (FOLDING IT ONCE OVER THROUGH THE MIDDLE) Then I fold i t th i s way (FOLDING IT AGAIN SO THAT THE SECOND FOLD IS PARALLEL TO THE FIRST) And then this way (FOLDING IT AGAIN IN THE MIDDLE; BUT THIS TIME AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE FIRST TWO FOLDS) Now I w i l l cut out a piece right here. (CUT OUT A SMLL PIECE, IN THE FORM OF AN EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE FROM THE SIDE WHICH":PRESENTS ONLY TWO EDGEB. LEAVE ' THE FOLDED PAPER EXPOSED, BUT PRESSED FLAT AGAINST THE TABLE. KEEP THE. FRAGMENTS OUT OF SIGHT. PRESENT THE FACE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL RECORD SHEET TO S. , BUT WITH PRINTING UPSIDE DOWN TO HIM, AND POINTING TO THE 3" X 3" SQUARE, SAY...) Make a , . drawing here to show how this paper would look i f i t arere un-folded. Draw lines to show where the paper would he creased, and show how and where i t would he cut. (IF S. OMITS EITHER THE CREASES OR THE CUTS, REPEAT.,.) Draw lines to show where the paper would he creased and show how and where i t would he cut. (ASK SUBJECT) Have you ever taken either of these two tests before? (RECORD) NORMAL RECORD AND SWAY TEST NUMBER £. (CONTROL GROUP - HULL.TEST) (BXPERIMBNTAL GROUP- IMAGINATION TEST) Now I'm going to check your movement when standing again, so I?d like you to replace the blindfold and stand up as before -your feet together, both heels and toes, your head held in i t s natural position without moving the neck, and the hands and arms hanging easily at your sides• (ATTACK, fHREAD) Now just stand as s t i l l as possible for a moment. (ZERO KYMOGRAPH -- IF CONTROL. CHECK THAT WIRE RECORDER IS REWOUND) Now take up a relaxed, passive position. Don't worry about any slight move-ments, but just stand naturally, and easily, and relaxed. In a moment you'll hear a recording of my voice again, and I want you to focus your f u l l attention on i t , but in the meantime just stand there, naturally, easily and relaxed. (START KYMOGRAPH RECORD FOR •§•..MINUTE, MARK KYMOGRAPHY RECORD AND SIMULTANEOUSLY BEGIN WIRE RECORDER, IF CONTROL GROUP, THIS IS •'FALLING'' RECORD,, IF EXPERIMENT All "IMAGINATION1'.) "I want you to imagine yourself f a l l i n g forward i n as vi v i d a manner as possible. Perhaps you can see yourself fa l l i n g i n imagination. Perhaps you can imagine the feelings that you i v -have when you do_ f a l l forward. Just relax your body and imagine yourself f a l l i n g in the most vivid and r e a l i s t i c way that you can. Concentrate the f u l l powers of your imagination on as vivid a sensation or image as possible of f a l l i n g forward. *Relax your body, but imagine f a l l i n g , f a l l i n g forward, i n as vivid and r e a l i s t i c a manner as possible ...(5 SECONDS)... Concentrate...imagine...relax...Imagine vividly, r e a l i s t i c a l l y , that you are f a l l i n g forward (5SEC0NDS),..Concentrate your whole attention on imagining, imagining vividly, that you are f a l l i n g , f a l l i n g forward.., (5 SECONDS )• •. (REPEAT FROM * FOR FULL 1 £ MINUTES) (REMOTE BLINDFOLD AND SEAT SUBJECT IN PREVIOUS POSITION TO SECURE INTROSPECTIVE REPORT. ASK:... ) What were you thinking about during the f i r s t of these " f a l l i n g " tests?. " " . What was your reaction to being told that you were falling? What were you thinking about during the second test? (Exp. group only) How did you imagine you were f a l l i n g i n second test? (IF UNCERTAIN ASK:...) Or were you able to imagine you were.failing? . ' i ' ' i 8. SCALE OF HYPNOTIC DEPTH — ADAPTED FROM FRIEDLANDER AND SARBIN (PLACE DECK CHAIR IN POSITION, AND SAY...) j . . . . . . . ... Now I'd like you to s i t i n this chair. I'm going to adjust this glow-lamp where you can see i t conveniently, and want you to make yourself irery comfortable i n the chair. T e l l me when .you're a l l set. PARAGRAPH I Keerp your eyes on that l i t t l e light and l i s t e n carefully to what I say. Your a b i l i t y to be hypnotized depends entirely on your willingness to cooperate. Anyone can w i l l himself not to be hypnotized. If you want to, you can remain awake a l l the time and pay no attention to me. That wouldn't pirove anything about you or me, and would be a waste of time. But I assume that you are here because you wish to experience hypnosis. By paying close attention to what I say and following what I t e l l you, you can easily have that experience. There's very l i t t l e mysterious about hypnosis. It is merely a state of strong interest i n some particular thing. In a sense you are hypnotized whenever you see a good show and forget you are part of the audience, but instead feel you are part of the story. Your complete cooperation and interest, given in a passive relaxed way is a l l that is necessary. On your relaxed cooperation depends the depth of hypnosis which you cam reach. Nothing w i l l be done, and no questions asked which would offend or embarrass you i n any way. PARAGRAPH II Now relax and make yourself entirely comfortable. Keep your eyes on that l i t t l e l ight. Keep staring at i t a l l . the time, a l l the time. Keep staring as long as you can; keep staring as hard as you can. PARAGRAPH III Relax completely. Relax every muscle in your body. Relax the muscles in your legs. Relax the muscles in your arms. Make yourself perfectly comfortable. Let yourself be limp, limp, limp. Relax more and more, more and more. Relax completely. Relax completely. PARAGRAPH IV Your legs feel heavy and limp, heavy and limp. Your arms are heavy, heavy heavy as lead. Your whole body feels heavy -r heavier and heavier. You feel tired and sleepy, tired and sleepy. You feel drowsy, drowsy and sleepy, heavy and drowsy, drowsy and sleepy.. Your breathing i s slow and regular -- slow and regular. PARAGRAPH V Your eyes are tired from staring. Your eyes are wet from straining. The strain i n your eyes is getting greater and greater, greater and greater. You, would like to close your eyes* and relax completely, relax com-?< pletely. (FIRST READING ONLY - but keep your eyes open just a ' l i t t l e longer, try to keep your eyes open just a l i t t l e longerj just a l i t t l e longer.) You w i l l soon reach your limi t . The strain w i l l be so great, your eyes w i l l be so tired, your l i d s w i l l become so heavy, your eyes w i l l close of themselves, close of themselves. (IF EYES CLOSED AT THIS POINT ON FIRST READING COUNT'S POINTS') ...... PARAGRAPH VI And then you w i l l be completely relaxed, com-. pletely relaxed. Easy and comfortable, easy and comfortable. Tired and drowsy. Tired and sleepy. Sleepy. Sleepy. Sleepy. You are paying attention to nothing but the sound of my voice, listening to nothing but the sound of my voice. You are concentrating on nothing but the sound of my voice. (EYES CLOSED AT THIS POINT ON 2ND READING - 2 POINTS) PARAGRAPH VII Your eyes are blurred. You can hardly see, hardly see. Your eyes are wet and uncomfortable. Your eyes are strained. The strain is getting greater and greater, greater and greater. Your lids are heavy. Heavy as lead. Getting" heav'levr and heavier, heavier and heavier. They're pushing down, down, down. Your lids seem weighted, weighted with lead, heavy as lead. Your eyes are blinking, blinking, closing, closing, (EYES CLOSED FIRST READING *- SCORE 4PQINTS) PARAGRAPH VIII You feel drowsy and sleepy, drowsy and sleepy. I shall now being counting. At each, count you w i l l feel yourself going down, down, down, into a deep comfort-able, a deep r e s t f u l sleep. Listen carefully, one down, down, down. Two...three...four...more and more, more and more. Five... six...seven...eight...you are sinking, sinking, Nine...ten.,• eleven....twelve...deeper, and deeper, deeper and deeper. Thirteen...fourteen...fifteen...sixteen...(IF CLOSED) you are fallingfast asleep. (IF OPEN) Your eyes are closing, closing, closing. ...Seventeen...eighteen...nineteen...twenty. (IF CLOSED) You are sound asleep, fast asleep. (IF EYES STILL OPEN BEGIN AT PARAGRAPH II AND REPEAT.) (IF EYES CLOSED FIRST READING SCORE 3 POINTS)(IF EYES CLOSED-SECOND READING SCORE 1 POINT)(SECOND READING.IF EYES STILL OPEN SAY...) Shut your eyes now, shut.them tight. (CLOSE THEM WITH FLNGERS. ) 10. CHALLENGES SCALE 3. . As you sit there with your eyes closed and completely re-laxed, I'm going to talk to you, and as I talk you'll find your-self becoming more and more relaxed and going more and more'into what is called an hypnoidal state. I?m going to give you some suggestions, some of which you w i l l be unable to carry out. Shis won't alarm or disturb you, for you w i l l realize that i t is only a manifestation of the condition in which you are. There w i l l be absolutely no lasting effect from any of the se. 1. (FROM HERE USE A SLIGHTLY MORE FORCEFUL TONE. ) Your eyes are tightly shut, tightly sbut. No matter how hard you try, you cannot open your eyes, you cannot open your eyes. Try to open your eyes. You won't succeed, but t r y as hard as you can. (WAIT TEN SECONDS) Now relax, relax completely. (IF EYES OPENED, RE-READ PARAGRAPH VIII UNLESS COMPLETE PROCEDURE TWICE REPEATED) ( IF PARAGRAPH.VIII RE-READ DEDUCT 1 POINT FROM INDUCTION SCORE) • S. ' S. Your l e f t hand is heavy. Your arm and hand are heavy as lead,.heavy as iead. Heavy, heavy, heavy. You cannot raise your l e f t arm. Try as hard as you can. You won't be able to do i t for i t is too heavy, too heavy. Try as hard as you can to raise your arm, (TEN SECOND PAUSE) (IF NOT RAISED SAY...) (A 8 I touch the back of your hand you'll find you can l i f t . i t easily) Now relax completely, relax completely. 3. Raise your right arm and extend i t straight out in front of you. Straight out. Straight out. Your arm is becoming ri g i d . Rigid and s t i f f . S t i f f as a poker, s t i f f as a steel poker. No matter how hard you try, you cannot bend your right arm. Try to bend your arm. Try as hard as you caa , as hard as'you can. (TEN SECOND PAUSE) (Now I ' l l touch your hand and you'll find it,quite easy to bend your, arm) Now relax completely, relax completely. 4. Put the palms of your hands together. Now interlock the fingers. Squaeze them together hard, hard. They're to-gether so tightly now that you can't separate them. -Too tight to separate. T»y, hard as you can, hard as you can. (PAUSE TEN SECONDS) (As I touch the back of your hand you'll find they come apart,quite easily.) Now relax completely, relax completely. 5. You cannot say your name. No matter har hard you try, you cannot say your name. Try to say your name. Try as hard as you can. (PAUSE TEN SECONDS) (Now I ' l l touch your lips and you can say your name without any effort.) 11. 6, Bow relax completely. In a moment I am going to wake you up. When you awaken you w i l l remember nothing of what has happened, and as you concentrate on i t even now you find that i t i s already growing faint and confused like a dream when you wake up. In a moment I w i l l count to three. As I count you w i l l gradually waken, unt i l when I get to three you w i l l be wide awake, feeling quite":,, normal, but rested and refreshed as you would after a good sleep.,;!'' You w i l l remember nothing of what has happened since your eyes closed, but immediately you awaken you w i l l hear someone calling your name. Your memories w i l l a l l be_.faded away when you waken, but you w i l l d i s t i n c t l y have the sensation of someone calling your name. Ready now, One...two...three..• there you are. 7. (WAIT TEH SECONDS) (IF NO RESPONSE ASK... ) Do you hear anything? (IF "YES" ASK... ) What? How distinctly? (IF "NO,1! ASK . . . j Did you hear, your name being called? (GIVE THE SUBJECT'S EYES TIME TO BECOME ADJUSTED TO THE LIGHT, THEN...) . How do you feel now? Quite relaxed and rested? Now I'd like: to have your recollections of what 'happened after you . Started looking at the light. Just run over i t briefly, and t e l l me what comes to mind as being important from that time until I woke you up. (RECORD ITEMS REMEMBERED, COUNTING THE FIVE CHALLENGES, THE AMBESIA SUGGESTION, AND-THE POST-HYPNOTIC HALLUCINATION SUGGESTION, BEFORE CONCLUDING ENQUIRY, .RECAPITULATE ITEMS MENTIONED AND ASK....).. Do . you remember anything else? That concludes this session. It is possible, but not l i k e l y that I ' l l want you for another brief session, but I! 11 let you know.: In the meantime I certainly want to thank you for your help. (IF TIME) I have a minute i f you'd like to ask a question.. I'd like to ask you again to re s t r i c t your discussion of this to your personal feelings when under hypnosis. You.were In a (light* medium* deep) trance, but i t probably didn't con-form with your ideas of whatrhypnosis should feel l i k e . Please don't talk about the experimental part of the session, or your views as to, i t s success. If you want to discuss this further, see me in the psychology laboratory after the exams. STUDY OF ARNOLD S & H HYP0TK3SIS Pers onal I.->f o rmatien-- Questi onnaire Please complete t h i s form whether or not you expect to volunteer to assist i n t h i s study. A l l i n f ormation given w i l l be considered personal and"-'con-f i d e n t i a l . Indicate answers to a l l questions, and give each serious con-sideration, even though i t may seem to be pointloss. Name (Surname f i r s t - Print) ; , Audress Pheno Age - years • month,-:. Registration no. Mark: the appropriate answer i n each of the following with an "X" (1) I would rate my cLaiory as: Exceptionally good Very poor Good Rather poor Average >_. (2) By concentrating on a page of spocial i n t e r e s t i n a book which I' have just road, I can: "'Hoad" the exact words of the text "R3ad" the section headings V i s u a l i z e the page as a whole, but "read" no p a r t i c u l a r words ] Recall tho position of a special item on the page Not r e c a l l tho page at e l l . (3) Even i f I t o l l no one about my dreams, I can.remember them u n t i l noon: Always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never (4) I f I wore doing mental arithmetic i n the l i b r a r y without a time lim-i t , I could probably concentrate: Very poorly Not very well Moderately well Quito well Wouldn't bother me at a l l . (5) Within the ..last three years I have walked i'n my sleep: Several times Not at a l l Not more than twice . (6) I have had successful experience with crystal-gazing: Often Occ as si on a l l y Novorr I have successfully operated cu oui'ja b o a r d : • • Often . "OccGBsionally Never ' I have had successful r e s u l t s in automatic v/riting: . Often Occassional!7 ;- Never; -(7) I can r e c a l l the sensations which occur in my foot when i t "goes to sleep" ( s i t q u i e t l y for about ten seconds concentrating on your foot) So v i v i d l y i t feels numb now__ Quite vividly,- but only i n snatches Can remember well, but cen't r e c a l l much oi th3 " f o o l " Memory and " f e e l " quite vague No r e c a l l at a l l (8) I t a l k i n my sleep: Never. Sometimes Often • (9) I have at some time written a story or poem which I considered good enough for publication: Several tiracs_ More than twice. Never (10) I have dreams:. Almost every night Frequently F a i r l y often At rare i n t e r v a l s N^vor . (11) By concentrating on i t , I con a c t u a l l y imagine hearing music: Very v i v i d l y , orchestra "r\fi a l l Some parts of the tune of a f a m i l i a r number Very poorly", i f at a l l . APPENDIX B • ;. CU)) Daydreams i n t e r f e r e w i t h my s t u d i e s : l e v e r Only at rare i n t e r v a l s Often enough to be a nuisance Enough t o endanger my grade's P r a c t i c a l l y any time. I s t a r t to study ' -(13) An attempt has been made to hypnotize me: With'complete success_ With 1 some success, , ' With no success No-attempt made . (14) I have witnessed hypnosis under the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : Oa the stage In. a f i l m ; In a s c i e n t i f i c demonstration P r i v a t e l y , by an experienced operator P r i v a t e l y , by an'amateur Not at o i l (15) In my opinion,- the above demonstration[s) was (wore) predominately: 2ntlroly-'-suc''cossful P e r t l y s u c c e s s f u l A f a i l u r e Have soon no demonstration .. An--experimental study on the'general t o p i c of hypnosis and suggest-i b i l i t y w i l l bo c a r r i e d out, w i t h experimental, work commencing next week and t e r m i n a t i n g before the f i r s t of A p r i l . Volunteers who wish to a s s i s t i n t h i s - s t u d y w i l l bo asked to help f o r not more than'two hours, and i n most cases- one.hour only• N o t i f i c a t i o n w i l l be'given two days i n advance. The experimental, sessions w i l l be i n d i v i d u a l , and w i l l be h o l d i n a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n on the campus. I i you wish to take'port i n t h i s , study, please read cud complete the f o l l o w i n g , and s i g n in_,..tho space provided below. - cOo. ...I w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t i n t h i s , study at the times marked w i t h an "X" on the timetable-below: • (Pioasc mark a l l l i k e l y times.) lvion. 8:30 - 9:30 9:30 -10:30 10:30 -11:30 11:30 -12:30 12:30 - 1:30 1:30 - 2:30 2:30 - 3:30 3:30 - 4:30 4:30 - 5:30 5:30 - 6:30 Evening Tucs. .Wed. Thurs. F r i . S a t . I t i s probable t h a t I w i l l be a v a i l a b l e at the address, (and phone number) given, during .the months of May end June. -Yes No I agr to hypnotic no suggesti s c i e n t i f i c t o r and the and a l l " r e s w i t h mc to a witness" b cc to a s s i s t i n a research study i n which I may bo subjected suggesti-on-and placed i n an hypnotic state.. I understand that ons w i l l be given which-are- contrary t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e t h i c s , and on t h i s b a s i s agree to absolve both the cxporimon-Univ.orsnty of B r i t i s h Columbia from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any u l t i n g i l l o f f o c t s . I undorstand that I may b r i n g a f r i e n d ' the experimental s e s s i o n s , and t h a t - - i f female, I must b r i n g ofore any experimental work may bo c a r r i e d out. Please s i g n w i t h your u s u a l s i g n a t u r e . : . ; : _ P A R I : S F T A L R D C O R D ~ A R N O L D S T U D Y F A L E / F E T : A L E # L S . T . S C . C O N T R O L / E : T P . G R O U P Name Hour free? Witness Height to blindfold:_ Kymograph Labelled? Ft. _Not f u t . S?_ i n . Adjust Date (1) S W A Y TESTS: Normal #1 S.T. #2 S.T. (2) VIS. IHA.GET7: Sc. Designs Sc.Paper Total:. Have you taken either of these tests before? None One Both (3) FINGER TRACING: (f or but § i f 5>0?0 inside l i n e s or r e t . to stop) T r i a l 1 T r i a l 2 Pos. 1 Pos. 2 Pos. 3 J Pos. 4 Pos. 5 11 1 7! ! ! „ 1 2 i 41 6' ! a I 1 ! LOl | Dom.Arm Total: (4) INTROSPECTION ON SWAY TESTS: (How did you react to suggestions in..) #L S.T.? "2 S.T.? (5) HYPNOTIZABILITY INDEX: I Eye Closure: Closed i n par. on first/socond reading. This i s period . Score: I I Negative Suggestion: Tost:...' eyos/ Heavy arm / S t i f f arm J interlocked/Name Total (-) or* (-):.. I f {-), timo: / z z / z z / z z / / Score III H a l l u c i n a t i o n D i s t i n c t Faint, prodding needed None Score_ IV Amnesia: Items remembered.... Score i s $ - (No. of items recalled) No minus score. Score H y p n o t i z a b i l i t y Index: Total Wero you aware of disturbances, i n a b i l i t y to relax, etc, during the induction of hypnosis? 


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