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Mothers' attitudes and nursery school children's adjustment Bene, Eva Mary 1948

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3 3 ^ 6 C O / 6 . / MOTHERS' ATTITUDES AND NURSERY SCHOOL CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT EVA MARY BENE tt&iHH* A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT of PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY •JC-iiX-Xtt The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia September. 1948. MOTHERS' ATTITUDES AND CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT. BY EVA MARY BENE ABSTRACT A q u e s t i o n n a i r e c a l l e d the Mothers' Question-n a i r e was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the purpose o f measuring mothers' a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r n u r s e r y s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n . To e s t a b l i s h whether there i s any r e l a t i o n s h i p between mothers' answers to t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the adjustment o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , a second q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the purpose o f the measurement o f c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment. T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was to be answered by the nu r s e r y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r s o f the c h i l d r e n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were f i r s t a d m i n i s t e r e d to a group o f twenty mothers and to the nu r s e r y s c h o o l super-v i s o r s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and then to a group o f 124 mothers and the nu r s e r y school s u p e r v i s o r s o f these mothers' c h i l d r e n . On the b a s i s o f these two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s three r e v i s i o n s were made o f the mothers' q u e s t i o n n a i r e and one was made of the n u r s e r y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Each new form was developed through the e l i m i n a t i o n o f those items from the p r e v i o u s form t h a t d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between h i g h and low s c o r i n g s u b j e c t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d between mothers' a t t i t u d e and c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment scores was s i g n i f i c a n t but not h i g h enough to permit p r e d i c t i o n from one to the oth e r . During f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between mothers' a t t i t u d e s and c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment i t was found t h a t mothers o f o n l y c h i l d r e n have on the average l e s s d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s than those who have s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n . Mothers have g e n e r a l l y the best a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r n u r s e r y s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n when th e r e are o l d e r c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y . T h i s study a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t whereas mothers w i t h d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n r a r e l y have c h i l d r e n who are p o o r l y a d j u s t e d i n n u r s e r y s c h o o l s , mothers wit h u n d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s f r e q u e n t l y have w e l l a d j u s t e d c h i l d r e n . There does not seem to be a simple s t r a i g h t -forward r e l a t i o n s h i p between mothers' a t t i t u d e s and c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment. Good mothers have a stronger i n f l u e n c e on the adjustment o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n than have mothers w i t h u n d e s i r -a b l e a t t i t u d e s . TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I . OBJECT OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE .... 1 I I . ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE . ... 4 I I I . UNDESIRABLE MATERNAL ATTITUDES 7 A. The i n f l u e n c e o f u n d e s i r a b l e maternal a t t i t u d e s on c h i l d adjustment 7 B. P e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f mothers who have u n d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r , c h i l d r e n 9 IV. MATERNAL ATTITUDES ASSESSED BY THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE 12 V. THE METHOD EMPLOYED IN THE QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION 15 A. Method developed by Thurstone 15 B. Method developed by Murphy & L i k e r t . . 16 C. D i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the measurement o f a t t i t u d e s 21 D. The stages o f development o f the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 22 VI . THE CONTENT AND ARRANGEMENT OF THE ITEMS OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE 25 V I I . THE INITIAL TRYOUT OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE 28 A. C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a Q u e s t i o n n a i r e by which c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment can be e v a l u a t e d 28 B. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 29 C. Rank d i f f e r e n c e c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d 30 Chapter Page V I I I . DEVELOPMENT OP THE SECOND FORMS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES 32 A. R e v i s i o n o f the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 32 B. R e v i s i o n o f the " Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s " 34 IX. ADMINISTRATION OF THE SECOND FORMS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES 36 A. S u b j e c t s of the second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 36 B. S c o r i n g o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 37 C. C o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d 37 X. ANALYSIS OF THE SECOND FORMS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES FROM THE POINT OP VIEW OF THEIR ITEMS 40 A. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the answers t o the items o f the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 40 B. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y o f the items o f the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 42 C. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y o f the items of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s 45 XI. DEVELOPMENT OF THE THIRD AND FOURTH FORMS OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE .... 47 A. Attempt a t r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment scores 47 B. Development o f the t h i r d form of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 48 C. Development of the f o u r t h form of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 51 C h a p t e r " Page XII. THE INFLUENCE OF OTHER CHILDREN IN THE FAMILY ON MOTHERS' ATTITUDES AND CHILD ADJUSTMENT 5 A XIII. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTHERS' ATTITUDES AND NURSERY SCHOOL CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT 57 XIV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS • 61 XV. BIBLIOGRAPHY * 6A APPENDIX I : THE RATIONALE OF THE ITEMS OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE. APPENDIX II: MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE. APPENDIX III: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE NURSERY SCHOOL SUPERVISOR. APPENDIX IV : MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE. (Form 2) APPENDIX V : QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE NURSERY SCHOOL SUPERVISOR. (Form 2) APPENDIX VI : CLASSIFICATION OF THE ITEMS OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTION-NAIRE (SECOND FORM) ON THE BASIS OF THE DISTRIBUTIONS OF THEIR ANSWERS. APPENDIX VII: THE INFLUENCE OF THE POSITION OF THE ANSWERS TO THE ITEMS OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE ON THE ENDORSEMENTS MADE BY THE MOTHERS. T a b l e Page 1. RAM DIFFERENCE CORRELATIONS OBTAINED ON THE BASIS OF THE ORIGINAL FORMS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES 3 0 2 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SUMS OF THE VALUES OF THE ANSWERS ENDORSED BY THE 30$ OF MOTHERS SCORING HIGHEST AND THE"30$ SCORING LOWEST ON EACH OF THE SUB/SCALES 3 2 3 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SUMS OF THE VALUES OF THE ANSWERS ENDORSED BY THE NURSERY SCHOOL SUPERVISORS WITH REGARD TO THE 30% HIGHEST AND 30% LOWEST SCORING CHILDREN . 3 4 4 . PRODUCT MOMENT COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION OBTAINED ON THE BASIS OF THE SECOND FORMS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES 3 g 5 . DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AVERAGE VALUES OF ANSWERS ENDORSED TO ITEMS BY TOP AND BOTTOM GROUPS OF MOTHERS ^ 6. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SUMS OF VALUES OF THE ANSWERS ENDORSED BY THE NURSERY SCHOOL SUPERVISORS WITH REGARD TO THE LOWEST AND HIGHEST SCORING 26% CHILDREN ^ 6 7. MEAN SCORES OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN' OF THE SAME NURSERY SCHOOLS AND THE RANK ORDER COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN THEM... ^ 8. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SUMS OF THE VALUES OF THE ANSWERS ENDORSED BY THE 12$ HIGHEST AND THE 12$L0WEST SCORING MOTHERS ON THE THIRD FORM OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE . ^ 9 . MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE .. 53 10. SIBLINGS IN THE FAMILY AND MOTHERS' ATTITUDES 5 4 11. SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCES (WITH REGARD TO DATA IN TABLE 10) \, 55 12. SIBLINGS IN THE. FAMILY AND CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT $3 13. SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCES (WITH REGARD TO DATA IN TABLE 12) 55 1 Table Page 14. ADJUSTMENT OF CHILDREN OF POOR? MEDIUM AND GOOD MOTHERS 57 l g . SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCES (WITH REGARD TO TABLE 14)) 58 16. ATTITUDES OE MOTHERS OF POOR? MEDIUM AND GOOD CHILDREN , 58 17. SlfMFieANei OF DIFFERENCES (WITH REGARD TO TABLE 16) 58 18. CONTINGENCY TABLE OF MOTHERS' ATTITUDES AND CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT 59 19. CHI-SQUARE VALUES FOR THE CELLS IN TABLE 18 59 F i g u r e 1 1. THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE MOTHERS' RESENTMENT SCORES 37 2. THE .DISTRIBUTION OF THE MOTHERS' OVER,^ ANXIETY SCORES 37 3. THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE MOTHERS' FEAR-CONDITIONING SCORES • 37 A. THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE MOTHERS' TOTAL SCORES... 37 5. THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE CHILDREN'S SCORES AS ESTABLISHED BY NURSERY SCHOOL SUPERVISORS 37 6. THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCORES ON THE THIRD FORM OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE 50 7. .THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCORES ON THE FOURTH FORM OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE 52 CHAPTER I OBJECT OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE Many nurs e r y s c h o o l s p r o v i d e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e f o r the parents o f c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d In the s c h o o l s . Parents are a i d e d i n h a n d l i n g problems they may encounter i n b r i n g i n g up t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n a way which promotes the mental h e a l t h of the c h i l d r e n . The aim i s to h e l p the c h i l d r e n t o become w e l l a d j u s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . Because of the shortage o f c o u n s e l l o r s and the expense Involved, the time a c o u n s e l l o r can spend w i t h any one mother i s u s u a l l y l i m i t e d t o the b a r e s t minimum. During one or two i n t e r v i e w s the c o u n s e l l o r must f i n d out what k i n d o f d i f f i c u l t i e s the mother has wit h her c h i l d , what i n the past o f the parents caused these d i f f i c u l t i e s t o a r i s e , and the manner i n which the c h i l d has been handled up t o now. A f t e r some l i g h t has been shed on these questions the coun-s e l l o r must g i v e the mother a b e t t e r understanding of what causes the c h i l d t o a c t as he does, and how h i s behavior c o u l d be improved. T h i s i s a tremendous ta s k t o accomplish i n one or two i n t e r v i e w s . But under the c o n d i t i o n s o f to-day t h e r e i s l i t t l e hope t h a t parents w i l l be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e i r problems with t r a i n e d people as f r e q u e n t l y and at such l e n g t h as appears n e c e s s a r y . I t would appear t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r c o u l d use h i s time t o b e t t e r advantage i f he had some i n f o r m a t i o n about - 2 -the a t t i t u d e s o f the mothers, and t h e i r b ehavior towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n b e f o r e the i n t e r v i e w Is s t a r t e d . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n might be o b t a i n e d through a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which c o u l d be g i v e n to the mothers as a r o u t i n e procedure, and which would permit the e v a l u a t i o n i n q u a n t i t a t i v e terms o f a mother's a t t i t u d e s towards her c h i l d . The f i l l e d out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o u l d be kept i n the nu r s e r y s c h o o l f i l e s , t o g ether w i t h the u s u a l data on p a r e n t s , such as age, income, o c c u p a t i o n e t c . Such a q u e s t i o n n a i r e would be u s e f u l t o the c o u n s e l l o r f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s : 1. Before the c o u n s e l l o r s t a r t s the i n t e r v i e w he would have some i d e a o f how the mother f e e l s and how she a c t s towards her c h i l d , and i f the d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the c h i l d are due to a wrong approach on the p a r t o f the mother. T h i s knowledge of the mother's a t t i t u d e s towards her c h i l d would serve the c o u n s e l l o r as a b a s i s from which t o s t a r t the i n t e r v i e w . 2. The scores the mothers r e c e i v e on the b a s i s o f t h e i r answers t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e would permit a comparison of the mothers, i n q u a n t i t a t i v e terms, r e g a r d i n g the a t t i t u d e s they have towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I t would be u s e f u l f o r the c o u n s e l l o r to know how the a t t i t u d e s o f the mother he is. d e a l i n g w i t h compare w i t h those o f other mothers. - 3 -3. As t h e r e are u s u a l l y more mothers who want t o see the c o u n s e l l o r than he has time to see, the mothers' scores on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o u l d be used t o f i n d out which mothers need h e l p most, and they c o u l d be g i v e n f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r . On the b a s i s of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s an attempt has been made t o c o n s t r u c t a q u e s t i o n n a i r e by which a mother's a t t i t u d e s and behavior towards her c h i l d c o u l d be e v a l u a t e d . I f such an e v a l u a t i o n were of a s s i s t a n c e t o the c o u n s e l l o r i n h i s attempt to improve the a t t i t u d e s o f a mother towards her c h i l d i t f o l l o w s t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e would be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n improving the c h i l d ' s adjustment. - 4 -CHAPTER I I ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE  MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE ' 1. The b a s i c assumption u n d e r l y i n g the "Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " i s t h a t the behavior of the c h i l d i s t o a l a r g e extent determined by h i s s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Under f a v o r a b l e circumstances the c h i l d w i l l l e a r n adjustment mechanisms t h a t make f o r a harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i m s e l f and other people. But i f the circumstances of the environment are too d i f f i c u l t f o r the c h i l d t o handle In a c o n s t r u c t i v e manner, he may l e a r n modes*of adjustment t h a t w i l l handicap h i s f u t u r e development. I f a s m a l l c h i l d has l e a r n e d u n d e s i r a b l e modes of adjustment the reason f o r these may be sought i n the un-s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s he has had. G e s e l l (15, p. 32) goes so f a r as to d e f i n e a c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y as "... the end product of a l l the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s i n which he becomes i n v o l v e d . " A c c o r d i n g to F. H. A l l e n (1, p. 61) "The s e l f o f the c h i l d i s not to be under-stood i n i s o l a t i o n from the other persons who r e p r e s e n t so much t h a t i s necessary f o r h i s e x i s t e n c e . " L. B. Murphy (28, V o l . I I , p. 658) w r i t e s about the experiences o f s m a l l c h i l d r e n as they grow and develop. "... our r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of the mother and others In the f a m i l y l a r g e l y determine what these new c a p a c i t i e s f o r experience - 5 -w i l l mean to the c h i l d , what new s e c u r i t i e s they may b r i n g , and what new t h r e a t s they may p r e s e n t . " 2. In the case o f almost every North American c h i l d below the age of f i v e , the most important i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t w i t h h i s mother. I t i s t r u e t h a t the small c h i l d i n t e r a c t s w i t h many pe o p l e : The f a t h e r , s i s t e r s and b r o t h e r s , u n c l e s and aunts, grandparents, n e i g h b o r s , f r i e n d s o f the f a m i l y , playmates e t c . c o n t r i b u t e t o h i s s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s . They are a l l sources o f s a t i s f a c t i o n or f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t r e - e n f o r c e or counterbalance each o t h e r . But under the u s u a l circumstances i n our c u l t u r e p a t t e r n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d and h i s mother has the most f a r -r e a c h i n g consequences. I t Is the mother more o f t e n than any other person who determines the f a m i l y p o l i c y f o r h a n d l i n g the c h i l d : She p r a i s e s or punishes the c h i l d , s m i l e s or frowns at him, accepts or r e j e c t s him, and makes the world appear f r i e n d l y or dangerous, an e m o t i o n a l l y warm or a c o l d p l a c e . G e s e l l (15, p. 65) w r i t e s : "Emotional p a t t e r n s a r e , o f course, s u b j e c t t o great i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s ; but they suggest a s t r o n g m a t r i a r c h a l o r i e n t a t i o n . " G e s e l l 1 s b e l i e f t h a t human behavior i s markedly i n f l u e n c e d by maternal a t t i t u d e s i s shared by otherwise c o n t r a d i c t o r y s c hools of thought. Watson d i s c u s s e s maternal I n f l u e n c e In terms of e a r l y c o n d i t i o n i n g , Freud i n terms of super ego, Oedipus - 6 -complex, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e t c . In t h e i r p r a c t i c a l work p s y c h i a t r i s t s and s o c i a l workers f i n d t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p a c l i e n t had with h i s mother i n f l u e n c e s him a l l through h i s l i f e . 3. The a t t i t u d e s mothers express through t h e i r answers to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e would I n d i c a t e how they behave and f e e l towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Some mothers may answer c l o s e r to f a c t s than other mothers. But as the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s not supposed t o r e p l a c e the i n t e r v i e w , but only t o gi v e some i n f o r m a t i o n about the c l i e n t beforehand, d i s c r e p a n c i e s between expressed a t t i t u d e s and r e a l a t t i t u d e s might be d i s -covered d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w . As a matter of f a c t , even such d i s c r e p a n c i e s c o u l d g i v e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about a mother, as her need f o r d i s t o r t i o n sheds some l i g h t on her p e r s o n a l i t y . In g e n e r a l , however, i t i s assumed, w i t h Murphy and L i k e r t (27, p. 28) t h a t v e r b a l d e c l a r a t i o n s o f o p i n i o n s and a t t i t u d e s can be used as an i n d i r e c t method o f measuring d i s p o s i t i o n s toward ove r t a c t i o n . CHAPTER I I I UNDESIRABLE MATERNAL ATTITUDES A. The i n f l u e n c e of u n d e s i r a b l e maternal a t t i t u d e s on c h i l d adjustment. I t has been found t h a t c h i l d r e n who have l e a r n e d u n d e s i r a b l e forms of b e h a v i o r , or who have developed c e r t a i n forms o f psychosomatic d i s o r d e r s come from a s o c i a l e n v i r o n -ment to which they found i t d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t . Small c h i l d r e n are wholly dependent upon, and must be c a r e d f o r by a mother or mother s u b s t i t u t e . Unless they r e c e i v e adequate car e , and u n l e s s t h i s care i s g i v e n i n a f r i e n d l y and a f f e c -t i o n a t e manner they l o s e t h e i r t r u s t In other p e o p l e . C h i l d r e n must a l s o develop and l e a r n more and more s k i l l s i n order to grow i n t o s e l f r e l i a n t a d u l t s . I f they are not p e r m i t t e d to develop t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s i n t o a b i l i t i e s they cannot l e a r n how to s o l v e t h e i r problems i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e manner. Lack o f p r o t e c t i o n and a f f e c t i o n on the p a r t of the mother have been found by the w r i t e r s mentioned below to be the cause of the f o l l o w i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s of c h i l d r e n : Symonds (34) : e x c e s s i v e a c t i v i t y , r e s t l e s s n e s s a t t e n t i o n g e t t i n g b e h a v i o r , l a c k of c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n c e , apathy, antagonism towards s o c i e t y . F i e l d ( 1 0 ) : primary behavior d i s o r d e r s o f such s e v e r i t y t h a t the c h i l d r e n had t o be r e f e r r e d to a p s y c h i a t r i c i n s t i t u t e . - 8 Wolberg (38 ) : extreme dependency r e a c t i o n s w i t h the symptoms of s t r o n g need f o r r e a s s u r a n c e , f e e l i n g s of h e l p l e s s n e s s , j e a l o u s y , e a s i l y aroused h o s t i l i t y . Need f o r dominance t o such an extent t h a t any s u b o r d i n a t i n g s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t s i n p a n i c , f e a r or a g g r e s s i o n . Pear of a l l c l o s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s as b e i n g p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous. A g g r e s s i v e n e s s . I n a b i l i t y t o delay present g r a t i f i c a t i o n f o r a f u t u r e one. I n f a n t i l e h a b i t s such as thumb-sucking, n a i l - b i t i n g , masturbation, w e t t i n g , screaming. M i s s i l d i n e (26), found t h a t c h i l d r e n who had r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , d e s p i t e normal i n t e l l i g e n c e and good h e a r i n g and e y e s i g h t o f t e n had r e j e c t i n g h o s t i l e , c o e r c i v e mothers. Bruch ( 7 ) , found t h a t obese c h i l d r e n o f t e n have r e -s e n t i n g mothers. In the eyes of these c h i l d r e n f o o d came to stand f o r s e c u r i t y and s a t i s f a c t i o n , s i n c e t o many mothers the o f f e r i n g of f o o d was the only way In which they c o u l d express some semblance of a f f e c t i o n . Latimer (20), s t u d i e d c h i l d r e n w i t h t i c syndromes and found t h a t t h e i r mothers were over s o l i c i t o u s and r e s t r i c t i v e towards them. - 9 -F r i e d l a n d e r (11), s t u d i e d the c h i l d h o o d o f s c h i z o p h r e n i c and psychopathic p a t i e n t s and found t h a t t h e i r parents had been over s o l i c i t o u s or extremely r e j e c t i n g . 21 Levy (.20, 21, 22, 23A) found t h a t c h i l d r e n who had remained i n f a n t i l e i n t h e i r demands and ex p e c t a t i o n s , were quarrelsome and domineering, or over shy, f e a r f u l , obedient and dependent had never been g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o develop s e l f r e l i a n c e by t h e i r o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e mothers. B. P e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of mothers who have u n d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Mothers who, i n s t e a d of being a f f e c t i o n a t e and p r o t e c t i v e towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n , are c r i t i c a l and h o s t i l e , n e g l e c t i n g and a c c u s i n g , c o e r c i v e and c r u e l , are o f t e n women who have never l e a r n e d how t o a d j u s t t o t h e i r environment i n a healthfyl manner and t h e r e f o r e cannot a d j u s t to t h e i r c h i l d -r e n . They o f t e n l a c k e d a f f e c t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n i n t h e i r own c h i l d h o o d and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d not l e a r n t o l i v e i n harmony w i t h other people and with themselves. A l a r g e per-centage o f these women were unhappy i n t h e i r c h i l d h o o d because t h e i r homes were broken by death or d e s e r t i o n , or because they had parents who were s t e m and domineering or - 10 -i n e f f e c t u a l or n e u r o t i c . The home background o f such mothers i s w e l l d e s c r i b e d by F i e l d (10). Mothers who are o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and so stunt t h e i r development towards s e l f r e l i a n c e were s t u d i e d by Levy i&6, 21, 22, 234) and i t appears t h a t the c h i l d h o o d of these mothers has been v e r y s i m i l a r t o the c h i l d -hood o f the r e j e c t i n g , h o s t i l e mothers. These women too had e i t h e r l o s t a mother or f a t h e r a t an e a r l y age, or had dominating and s t r i c t , or n e g l e c t f u l p a r e n t s . Whereas the r e s e n t f u l and h o s t i l e mothers are d e s c r i b e d as women who are immature and n e u r o t i c , whose r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o other people are t i n g e d w i t h f e a r , h o s t i l i t y and I n o r d i n a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s (Wolberg 38), the o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e mothers are d e s c r i b e d by Levy (22) as r e s p o n s i b l e , r e l i a b l e and competent women, who were ambitious, whose ambitions towards a c a r e e r had been thwarted, and who wanted t o gi v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n what they themselves had been denied. The h o s t i l e and r e s e n t f u l mothers have g e n e r a l l y poor i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They are quarrelsome w i t h t h e i r husbands, i r r i t a b l e and f r e q u e n t l y n e g l e c t f u l o f t h e i r m a r i t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (Symonds 34). They are i n g e n e r a l unable t o a d j u s t to m a r r i e d l i f e (Wolberg 38). The over p r o t e c t i v e mothers, on the other hand, have t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s mainly i n the area o f g e n e r a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Most o f them seem to g i v e up a l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s - 11 a f t e r marriage (Levy 22). We see then, t h a t mothers who have u n d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n have o f t e n been found t o be people who have unhealthy i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n g e n e r a l , due to t h e i r u n f o r t u n a t e c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s . To be a b l e t o understand the behavior o f a c h i l d we must have a p i c t u r e o f h i s mother's a t t i t u d e s towards him, and to be abl e to understand these we must know what are those u n s a t i s -f i e d s t r i v i n g s , a r i s i n g from e a r l i e r needs, t h a t prevent her from making a mature adjustment to her c h i l d . As P. H. A l l e n (2, p. 2) p o i n t s out, p s y c h i a t r y was f i r s t I n t e r e s t e d i n the r e a c t i o n s o f a d u l t s , then i n the c h i l d h o o d of a d u l t s f o r the study of t h e i r problems i n t h e i r i n c i p i e n t stages, and i s now i n t e r e s t e d i n a d u l t r e a c t i o n s a g a i n from the p o i n t o f view o f t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of c h i l d r e n . The p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l s determine t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f these c h i l d r e n . - 12 -CHAPTER IV MATERNAL ATTITUDES ASSESSED BY THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE The e x p r e s s i o n "a mother's a t t i t u d e towards her c h i l d " r e f e r s to the thoughts, the emotions, the wishes and d e s i r e s , the hopes and f e a r s e t c . t h a t i n f l u e n c e her b e h a v i o r towards the c h i l d . Murphy and L I k e r t (27, p . 28) d e f i n e a t t i t u d e s as " d i s p o s i t i o n s toward over t a c t i o n " . These d i s -p o s i t i o n s cannot be d i r e c t l y observed. They can o n l y be I n f e r r e d from t h e o v e r t behavior of the person, from what the p e r s o n does or says. The most r e l i a b l e i n f e r e n c e s about a mother's a t t i t u d e s toward her c h i l d would be made from d i r e c t obser-v a t i o n of the mother's behavior i n h a n d l i n g the c h i l d . Observations of t h i s s o r t can only o c c a s i o n a l l y be made, due to the d i f f i c u l t i e s of i n t r o d u c i n g the observer un-o b t r u s i v e l y i n t o the home s i t u a t i o n . We must t h e r e f o r e make our i n f e r e n c e s from one stage f u r t h e r removed from the a t t i -tude, namely, we must ask the mother what she does and how she f e e l s i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s . Prom her statements about her b e h a v i o r i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s an i n f e r e n c e i s made about her a c t u a l b e h a v i o r from which her g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s are i n t u r n i n f e r r e d . I f we want to d i s c u s s mothers' d i s p o s i t i o n s toward o v e r t a c t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o c h i l d r e n we must sub-d i v i d e the concept "mothers' a t t i t u d e s " . Almost every i n v e s t i g a t o r of m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s has a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f h i s own, because each has had d i f f e r e n t e x p e r iences, and the purpose of each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was d i f f e r e n t . Wolfe (40, p. 152) groups u n d e s i r a b l e p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s i n t o three c l a s s e s : "The f i r s t comprises hate, i n d i f f e r e n c e , apathy, a n t i p a t h y and resentment. The second comprises pampering, s p o i l i n g , over-tenderness, over-s o l i c i t u d e , o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n and the murderous misuse o f l o v e . The t h i r d r u b r i c comprises a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , p a t r i a r c h a l i s m , nagging, p e r f e c t i o n i s m , p e r s o n a l v a n i t y and ambition." P r i e d l a n d e r (11) speaks of r e j e c t i o n versus o v e r - s o l i c i t o u s n e s s and o f r e p r e s s i v e d i s c i p l i n e versus over-undulgence. In the o p i n i o n o f Kanner (18) on the other hand, o v e r - s o l i c i t o u s n e s s and r e j e c t i o n a re very o f t e n the same t h i n g , and he w r i t e s about the frequent r e c o u r s e o f p a r e n t a l h o s t i l i t y t o c o l d , nagging, compensatory o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n . Symonds (35) and K l e i n (19) are o f the same o p i n i o n . They a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t parents who show the g r e a t e s t concern f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n are o f t e n those who f e e l h o s t i l e towards them. Wolberg (38) and F i e l d (10) speak o f r e j e c t i o n coupled w i t h domination, and r e j e c t i o n coupled w i t h n e g l e c t . Levy (21) w r i t i n g on over-p r o t e c t i o n c l a s s i f i e s i t i n two ways: i n d u l g e n t over-p r o t e c t i o n versus dominating o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n on the one hand, and o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n which i s compensation f o r r e j e c t i o n versus o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n which i s r e l a t i v e l y f r e e o f h o s t i l e elements on the other hand. - 14 -There Is no a p r i o r i way by which i t c o u l d be determined which c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s Is best f o r the purpose of i n v e s t i g a t i n g the i n f l u e n c e o f p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s on c h i l d adjustment. The o r i g i n a l s e l e c t i o n of the a t t i t u d e s to be a s s e s s e d by the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was done i n an a r b i t r a r y way, and was due to the w r i t e r ' s p e r s o n a l experiences w i t h mothers and t h e i r s m a l l c h i l d r e n . I t seemed t h a t the t h r e e a t t i t u d e c o n t i n u a o f 1. resentment - from a constant f e e l i n g o f l o v e t o r e j e c t i o n 2. anxiousness - from confidence to over-anxiousness 3. f e a r - c o n d i t i o n i n g - from never u s i n g f e a r t o the use of f e a r on a l l o c c a s i o n s f o r the establishment of c o n t r o l , would be the most l i k e l y t o r e v e a l a t t i t u d e s which have a b e a r i n g upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p between mother and c h i l d , and t h e r e f o r e on the c h i l d ' s adjustment. CHAPTER V THE METHOD EMPLOYED IN THE QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION A. Method developed by Thurstone. The c l a s s i c a l method o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a t t i t u d e •scales was developed by Thurstone (36). As q u a n t i t a t i v e comparisons must be based on a l i n e a r continuum of some s o r t , Thurstone proposed to l i n e up h i s statements r e f e r r i n g to the a t t i t u d e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n along a continuum, ranging from the most a f f i r m a t i v e to the most negative o p i n i o n on the i s s u e . He based h i s procedure on the p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l method of equal appearing i n t e r v a l s . The c o o p e r a t i o n of 200 to 300 people was obtained,, They arranged the statements i n e l e v e n p i l e s , ranging from the most negative to the most a f f i r m a t i v e p o i n t of view on the i s s u e . An ogive curve was made f o r each statement on the b a s i s of cumulated f r e q u e n c i e s o f s o r t on each succeeding step i n the s c a l e , and each statement was giv e n a s c a l e value which was t h a t p o i n t along the continuum from which h a l f the readers considered i t more a f f i r m a t i v e and h a l f more n e g a t i v e . From the l a r g e number of statements o r i g i n a l l y c o l l e c t e d , those were used i n the f i n a l s c a l e which had s c a l e values t h a t were a t roughly even d i s t a n c e s from one another, and showed a steep ogive curve. Those wi t h a steep curve were s e l e c t e d because an ogive w i t h a g e n t l e sldpe i n d i c a t e d t h at the readers concerned were of d i f f e r e n t 16 -o p i n i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to the meaning of that Item. Thurstone a d v i s e s t h a t the f i n a l l i s t s h o u l d c o n t a i n about t w e n t y - f i v e items. When the a t t i t u d e s c a l e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d the s u b j e c t s are asked to respond t o each Item w i t h "yes", "no" or " ? " . The score o f each person i s the median of the s c a l e v a l u e s he has endorsed ( t h a t i s , marked " y e s " ) . B. Method developed by Murphy and L i k e r t . A very much simpler method f o r measurement of a t t i t u d e s was developed by Murphy and L i k e r t (27). Murphy and L i k e r t made a g e n e r a l "Survey o f Opinion" on the b a s i s of which they b u i l t t h r e e a t t i t u d e s c a l e s d e a l i n g w i t h three s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . The items o f the s c a l e s were so c o n s t r u c t e d t h a t t h e r e were three t o f i v e p o s s i b l e answers t o each, r a n g i n g from the ne g a t i o n to the a f f i r m a t i o n o f the o p i n i o n expressed i n the item. For example: (27, p 39) " P r a c t i c a l l y a l l American h o t e l s should r e f u s e to admit negroes. S t r o n g l y Approve Undecided Disapprove S t r o n g l y approve disapprove" They found that many of the f i v e p o i n t answers f e l l i n t o a normal curve o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e assumed t h a t a t t i t u d e s are normally d i s t r i b u t e d , t h a t the answers t o each item form a s c a l e and t h a t a p e r s o n 1 s r e a c t i o n t o an i t e m can be g i v e n a s c o r e . T h i s makes I t p o s s i b l e t o do away - 17 -wit h the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n o b t a i n i n g the c o o p e r a t i o n of a l a r g e number of people when c o n s t r u c t i n g an a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In t h e i r I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e s t a t i s -t i c a l t echniques f o r a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , Murphy and L i k e r t experimented w i t h d i f f e r e n t methods o f s c o r i n g and of item a n a l y s i s . The s c o r i n g of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was done on the b a s i s o f two d i f f e r e n t methods by Murphy and L i k e r t . 1. Sigma method. For every Item the percentage of s u b j e c t s checking each p o s s i b l e answer was c a l c u l a t e d . From the percentages the sigma v a l u e s o f each answer were e s t a b l i s h e d . The score of a s u b j e c t was the sum of the sigma val u e o f the answers he had checked. 2. Method o f a r b i t r a r y weights. A r b i t r a r y weights of 1, 2, 3, 4 , 5 were a s s i g n e d t o the p o s s i b l e answers t o an item, r a n g i n g from the most a f f i r m a t i v e t o the most n e g a t i v e o p i n i o n . The score of a su b j e c t was the sum of the weights of the answers he had checked. When the two methods of s c o r i n g were compared i t was found t h a t they gave very much the same r e s u l t s . The c o e f f i c i e n t s - 18 -of c o r r e l a t i o n between the scores o b t a i n e d by the two methods were i n the neighborhood of +.99 (27, p. 44). The r e l i a b i -l i t i e s o f the s c a l e s were as h i g h when the s c o r i n g was done by the second method as when the s c o r i n g was done by the f i r s t method. As the second method takes very much l e s s time than the f i r s t , Murphy and L i k e r t advocate t h a t i t should be used. For the e l i m i n a t i o n o f those items which had no b e a r i n g on the i s s u e i n v o l v e d i n the a t t i t u d e s c a l e , they experimented a g a i n w i t h two methods. a. Method of e l i m i n a t i o n o f i r r e l e v a n t items by c a l c u l a t i o n o f c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n . For each separate item the v a l u e s o f the answers checked by the i n d i v i d u a l s were c o r -r e l a t e d w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l s ' scores on the b a t t e r y . The h i g h e r the c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n the more c o n s i s t e n t was what the item was measuring with what the s c a l e as a whole was measuring. b. Method o f e l i m i n a t i o n o f i r r e l e v a n t items by comparison o f extreme groups. I t was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r each item t o what extent those i n d i v i d u a l s who had a h i g h t o t a l score had endorsed an answer to- the? item; w i t h a h i g h 19 -a s s i g n e d weight, and t o what extent those i n d i v i d u a l s who had a low t o t a l score had endorsed an answer wi t h a low a s s i g n e d weight. T h i s was done by s e l e c t i n g a h i g h and a low group on the b a s i s of t h e i r t o t a l s c o r e s . For each item the weights of the answers checked by the members of the h i g h s c o r i n g group were added t o g e t h e r , as were those checked by the members of the low s c o r i n g group. The d i f f e r e n c e between these two sums was c a l c u l a t e d . The g r e a t e r the d i f f e r e n c e , the more c o n s i s t e n t was the item w i t h the s c a l e as a whole, and the b e t t e r d i d i t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between s u b j e c t s of d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s . On the b a s i s o f each of the two methods, the items were l i n e d up i n o r d e r , from the best t o the worst from the p o i n t of view of c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h the s c a l e as a whole. The rank order c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d between the two o r d e r s , and was found t o be +.91 (p. 288) which i s so h i g h t h a t Murphy and L i k e r t advocate the use of the second method i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , as on the b a s i s of t h i s much simpler and e a s i e r method l a r g e l y the same items w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d as by the time consuming method of c a l -c u l a t i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n . - 20 -In a f o o t n o t e Murphy and L i k e r t (p. 45) say: " I t w i l l be noted t h a t t h i s i n q u i r y was begun w i t h a s u s p i c i o u s a t t i t u d e toward the simple computations used i n r a t i n g s c a l e s , and t h a t these simple procedures were adopted only In the l i g h t of evidence showing t h a t the simpl e r methods gave the same r e s u l t s as the e l a b o r a t e . " B. R. R i k e r (30) made a comparison of the Thurstone s c a l e with other simpler s c a l e s . He used the Thurstone method, the graphic s e l f - r a t i n g method and the i n t e n s i t y o f f e e l i n g r a t i n g method t o t e s t the a t t i t u d e s o f three groups towards s i x i s s u e s . In the graphic s e l f - r a t i n g method a l i n e i s d i v i d e d i n t o equal i n t e r v a l s t h a t form a s c a l e between the two ends which symbolise the two extreme a t t i t u d e s . The s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n a l o n g the continuum by making the l i n e a t some p o i n t . In the I n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g method the s u b j e c t s check statements r e f e r r i n g t o the i s s u e , such as very Intense f e e l i n g p r o , i n t e n s e f e e l i n g pro, s t r o n g f e e l i n g p r o, moderate f e e l i n g pro e t c . He ad-m i n i s t e r e d a l l three s c a l e s t o each of h i s groups, and found t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s f e l l w e l l w i t h i n the r e l i a b i l i t i e s r e p o r t e d by Thurstone. H i s c o n c l u s i o n i s that these t h r e e types o f measures are p r a c t i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t , as they y i e l d s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s on the s c a l e s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s . I t seems then that the Thurstone technique (36) 21 l s more d i f f i c u l t t o employ, but not n e c e s s a r i l y b e t t e r than the simpler procedures. Amongst the s i m p l e r procedures t h a t advocated by Murphy and L i k e r t (27) seemed the most s u i t a b l e f o r the "Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " . C. D i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the measurement of a t t i t u d e s . The accuracy by which an a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e measures the r e a l a t t i t u d e s of people i s always l e s s than one would d e s i r e , however a c c u r a t e were the s t a t i s t i c a l means used. The answers of the s u b j e c t s are l i a b l e t o be d i s t o r t e d both i n t e n t i o n a l l y and u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y . Thurstone (36) p o i n t s out t h a t when we measure a t t i t u d e s we f i n d out what people say they b e l i e v e , which i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the same as what they r e a l l y b e l i e v e . He a l s o warns a g a i n s t u s i n g a t t i t u d e s c a l e s i n s i t u a t i o n s where one cannot reason-a b l y expect people t o t e l l the t r u t h about t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n s , f o r i n s t a n c e where they are a f r a i d t h a t a knowledge of t h e i r a t t i t u d e s c o u l d be used a g a i n s t them, or c o u l d expose them t o s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l . But i n what s i t u a t i o n can one be c e r t a i n t h a t people w i l l t e l l the t r u t h , even i f they are aware o f i t ? Another d i f f i c u l t y i n h e r e n t i n a t t i t u d e t e s t i n g i s mentioned by E. S. Marks (25) . Items t h a t d e a l w i t h f a c t o r s t h a t might have h i g h emotional s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be answered d i f f e r e n t l y at d i f f e r e n t times. - 22 -For i n s t a n c e an item r e f e r r i n g t o a mother's a n x i e t y about the h e a l t h o f her c h i l d might be answered d i f f e r e n t l y i f the c h i l d has j u s t been i l l than under normal circumstances. T h i s makes i t not only d i f f i c u l t t o get a constancy of mean-in g from one t e s t i n g t o another f o r the same i n d i v i d u a l , but makes i t a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o secure a constancy of meaning from i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l . But even apart from emotional c o n n o t a t i o n s , words do not b r i n g up the same a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d -u a l s , not even f o r the same i n d i v i d u a l at d i f f e r e n t times, and t h a t by i t s e l f would prevent a t t i t u d e t e s t s from being a c c u r a t e instruments o f measurement. Because o f a l l these d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n a t t i t u d e t e s t i n g , a t t i t u d e s c a l e s cannot g i v e an a c c u r a t e measure of a t t i t u d e s . But they can g i v e a u s e f u l i n d i c a t i o n of d i s p o s i t i o n s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s have towards o v e r t a c t i o n . D. The stages o f development o f the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 1. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f s e v e n t y - f i v e items r e f e r r i n g t o mothers' a t t i t u d e s o f resentment, o v e r - a n x i e t y and f e a r - c o n d i t i o n i n g was prepared. 2. A second q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h t h i r t y - o n e items r e f e r r i n g t o the behavior o f n u r s e r y s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n was c o n s t r u c t e d . T h i s second q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used t o determine i f - 23 -t h e r e i s any r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a t t i t u d e s expressed by a mother i n the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and her c h i l d ' s adjustment. 3. The Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was admini-s t e r e d t o twenty mothers o f n u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , and the adjustment o f these c h i l d r e n was e v a l u a t e d by t h e i r n u r s e r y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r on the b a s i s of the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The purpose of t h i s i n i t i a l t r y o u t of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t w o f o l d . a. To f i n d out i f I t has promise o f showing a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a mother's a t t i t u d e s and her c h i l d ' s adjustment. b. To determine which o f the items do not at a l l d i f f e r e n t i a t e between mothers o f extreme a t t i t u d e s . E i g h t e e n items were e l i m i n a t e d on the b a s i s of t h i s i n i t i a l t r y o u t . 4 . The second form o f the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d to mothers from t e n n u r s e r y s c h o o l s , and the adjustment of t h e i r c h i l d r e n was e v a l u a t e d by the n u r s e r y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r s by the use of the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e . On the - 24 -b a s i s of one hundred and twenty-four p a i r s of r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s two r e v i s e d forms of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were d e v i s e d . In one r e v i s i o n the g r e a t e r emphasis was l a i d on e x t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the items, t h a t i s , mothers' answers t o an item and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment. T h i s t h i r d form of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e has twenty-two items. In the other r e v i s i o n the g r e a t e r emphasis was l a i d on the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the items. T h i s f o u r t h form has twenty items. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of these procedures w i l l be g i v e n i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s . D - 25 -CHAPTER VI THE CONTENT AND ARRANGEMENT OF THE ITEMS OF THE  MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE The items o f the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were for m u l a t e d on the premise t h a t a mother's answers would r e v e a l her a t t i t u d e s o f resentment, a n x i e t y and f e a r - ' c o n d i t i o n i n g w i t h r e g a r d t o her c h i l d . They were d e r i v e d from the w r i t e r ' s experience w i t h mothers of n u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ; from l i s t e n i n g t o the e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f these mothers, as d i s c u s s e d among themselves, the complaints they had about t h e i r c h i l d r e n , the questions they asked d u r i n g t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r , the problems they brought up, e t c . T o p i c a l books and a r t i c l e s on c h i l d care f u r n i s h e d some m a t e r i a l f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F i n a l l y the w r i t e r d i s c u s s e d the questions and statements she had fo r m u l a t e d w i t h a number of mothers o f s m a l l c h i l d r e n . On the b a s i s o f t h e i r suggestions and comments some of the questions and statements were changed, and others were de v i s e d . Whether the qu e s t i o n s and statements of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were such t h a t answers t o them r e v e a l a mother's a t t i t u d e s towards her c h i l d c o u l d o n l y be a s c e r t a i n e d on the b a s i s of f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As suggested by Murphy and L i k e r t (27) the p o s s i b l e answers to the items are of the m u l t i p l e c h o i c e - 26 -v a r i e t y which permit a mother t o express one of the two opposed p o i n t s o f view on the i s s u e , o r a p o i n t o f view that l i e s between the extremes. The items were c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h the i d e a t h a t one of the extreme answers t o an item expresses a healthtj/l a t t i t u d e toward the c h i l d , whereas the other extreme answer expresses strong resentment, a n x i e t y or f e a r c o n d i t i o n i n g , depending upon the content of the item. Whether the extreme answers r e a l l y express h e a l t h y and un-he a l t h y a t t i t u d e s o f the mother, from the p o i n t o f view of the mental hygiene o f the c h i l d c o u l d only be a s c e r t a i n e d on the b a s i s of f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . When the items o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were formu-l a t e d an attempt was made to have as many items w i t h the d e s i r a b l e answer i n the a f f i r m a t i v e as w i t h the d e s i r a b l e answer In the n e g a t i v e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s attempt was not s u c c e s s f u l . I t proved t o be very d i f f i c u l t t o c o n s t r u c t items r e f e r r i n g t o the a t t i t u d e s o f resentment, a n x i e t y and f e a r c o n d i t i o n i n g , t o which the d e s i r a b l e answer i s In the a f f i r m a t i v e , t h e r e f o r e there are fewer o f the s e . The items are fo r m u l a t e d i n such a manner t h a t a blank space i s l e f t i n each f o r the name of the p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d about whom the mother i s answering. T h i s was done t o ensure t h a t the mother s t a t e s her f e e l i n g s and beh a v i o r w i t h r e g a r d t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , and not towards her c h i l d r e n i n g e n e r a l . - 27 -The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s u b - s c a l e s r e f e r r i n g to the a t t i t u d e s o f resentment, o v e r - a n x i e t y and f e a r - c o n d i t i o n i n g , and t h e r e f o r e the content of the items deals w i t h these three a t t i t u d e s . The statements and questions r e f e r r i n g to resentment, o v e r - a n x i e t y and f e a r -c o n d i t i o n i n g appear i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n random o r d e r , without any i n d i c a t i o n to the respondent of the p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e b e i n g a s s e s s e d by the item. The items of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a rat i o n a l e . , f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f each are g i v e n i n Appendix I . The Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e as o r i g i n a l l y f o r m u l a t e d i s shown i n Appendix I I . - 28 -CHAPTER VII THE INITIAL TRYOUT OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE A. C o n s t r u c t i o n of a Q u e s t i o n n a i r e by which c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment can be e v a l u a t e d . To e s t a b l i s h whether a mother's a t t i t u d e s as expressed by her answers to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e have any r e -l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the adjustment of her c h i l d , another q u e s t i o n -n a i r e had t o be c o n s t r u c t e d by which the adjustment of her c h i l d c o u l d be e v a l u a t e d . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o be answered by an a d u l t who had been i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h the c h i l d . I t would have been more s a t i s f a c t o r y t o o b t a i n an e v a l u a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment i n t h e i r homes, but t h i s was not p o s s i b l e as many parents cannot o b j e c t i v e l y evaluate t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r . The most p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n was t o o b t a i n the c o o p e r a t i o n o f n u r s e r y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r s . I t was assumed t h a t t r a i n e d n u r s e r y s c h o o l teachers c o u l d evaluate and r e c o r d the behavior o f c h i l d r e n under t h e i r c a r e . They can observe t h e i r p u p i l s under a v a r i e t y of circumstances, and l e a r n t o know them q u i t e i n -t i m a t e l y . C h i l d r e n of that age group have not y e t l e a r n e d t o d i s g u i s e t h e i r f e e l i n g s . T h e i r o v e r t behavior u s u a l l y g i v e s a r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r a c t u a l r e a c t i o n s . The items of the " Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s " were fo r m u l a t e d on the b a s i s of the w r i t e r ' s experience w i t h c h i l d r e n , d e s c r i p t i o n s of c h i l d r e n - 29 -i n l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t , and i n popular magazines, and through d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h n u r s e r y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r s and mothers of smal l c h i l d r e n . They are s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d q u e s t i o n s , r e f e r r i n g t o d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of c h i l d adjustment. The s t a t i s t i c a l treatment o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s i s the same as t h a t of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s as o r i g i n a l l y formulated, i s shown i n Appendix I I I . B. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A p r e l i m i n a r y t r y o u t o f the Mothers' Question-n a i r e was made on a group of twenty mothers of n u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The purpose o f t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t w o f o l d . a. To f i n d out i f t h e r e i s any r e l a t i o n s h i p between a mother's a t t i t u d e s as expressed through her answers t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and her c h i l d ' s adjustment i n nurs e r y s c h o o l . b. To d i s c o v e r and e l i m i n a t e those items from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between mothers who had h i g h and mothers who had low s c o r e s . The p r e l i m i n a r y t r y o u t o f the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was arranged by the s u p e r v i s o r o f one of the nu r s e r y s c h o o l s i n Vancouver. She asked twenty mothers t o answer the Mothers* so Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and she w i t h the other members of the n u r s e r y s c h o o l s t a f f f i l l e d out the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r the n u r s e r y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r s on the adjustment of the c h i l d r e n o f these mothers. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s c o r e d as proposed by Murphy and L i k e r t (27). Values from 1 t o 5 were g i v e n to the p o s s i b l e answers and the score o f a mother was the sum of the v a l u e s of the answers she had endorsed. Where th e r e were f i v e p o s s i b l e answers t o an item the best answer from the p o i n t of view of the mental hygiene of the c h i l d had a v a l u e of 1, and the worst answer a value of 5. That I s , the v a l u e s of the answers were 1, 2, 3, 4 , 5 from the best to the worst. Where th e r e were t h r e e p o s s i b l e answers t o an item the values o f the answers were 1, 3, 5 from the best t o the worst. (For reasons why answers were regarded as d e s i r a b l e or u n d e s i r a b l e see Appendix I.) C. Rank d i f f e r e n c e c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d . A f t e r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had been s c o r e d rank d i f f e r e n c e i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d between the mothers' s c o r e s on the resentment, o v e r - a n x i e t y and f e a r -c o n d i t i o n i n g sub-scores, the mothers' t o t a l s c o r e s , and the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment s c o r e s . The rho v a l u e s are shown i n Table 1. TABLE 1. TABLE 1 RANK DIFFERENCE CORRELATIONS OBTAINED ON THE BASIS OF THE  ORIGINAL FORMS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES N = 2 0 resentm. over-anx. f e a r - c o n d . t o t a l c h i l d a d j . resentm. +.32 +.42 +.74 +.43 over-anx. +.35 +.67 +.62 fe a r - c o n d . +.81 +.46 t o t a l +.61 With 18 degrees of freedom r must be .56 to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1% l e v e l , and .44 to be s i g n i f i c a n t on the 5% l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . As t h r e e of the mothers' a t t i t u d e scores c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment s c o r e s , the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was regarded as p r o m i s i n g enough to warrant f u r t h e r work towards i t s development. As the i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s between the mothers' scores on the s u b - s c a l e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t i t was d e c i d e d to r e t a i n the three s u b - s c a l e s . - 32 -CHAPTER VI I I DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECOND FORMS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES A. R e v i s i o n o f the mothers' questionnaire-. To improve the c o n s i s t e n c y o f the sub-scales o f the mothers' q u e s t i o n n a i r e , those items t h a t d i d not d i f f e r -e n t i a t e between mothers who had a h i g h score and mothers who had a low score on the sub-scale were e l i m i n a t e d . The method employed, which was a p p l i e d to every item s e p a r a t e l y , c o n s i s t e d of summing up the value s o f the answers endorsed by mothers w i t h the h i g h e s t scores on the s u b - t e s t to which the item belonged; and s i m i l a r l y , by t o t a l i n g the values of the answers endorsed by those mothers who had the lowest scores on the su b - t e s t to which the item belonged. I f no d i f f e r e n c e was found between the two sums, then the item d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the mothers from the p o i n t of view of the a t t i t u d e i n v o l v e d i n the s u b - t e s t . I f the d i f f e r -ence between the sums was ne g a t i v e , that i s , the mothers w i t h a low score had a h i g h e r sum than the mothers with a h i g h score, the item was a l s o u n s u i t a b l e f o r the sub- t e s t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Table 2 shows the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t i e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l items. TABLE 2. TABLE 2 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SUMS OF THE VALUES OF THE ANSWERS  ENDORSED BY THE 50$ OP MOTHERS SCORING HIGHEST AND THE 50$ SCORING LOWEST ON EACH OF THE SUB-SCALES. Resentment s c a l e Over-anxiousness F e a r - c o n d i t i o n i n g s c a l e s c a l e Item No. D i f f . Item No. D i f f . Item No. D i f f . 1 12 3 12 •5 13 2 11 11 8 7 9 4 7 16 7 10 0* 6 0* 19 7 12 12 8 1* 22 11 14 6 9 5 25 3 18 13 13 3 27 8 21 13 15 4 33 0* 24 4* 17 -4* 35 4 28 8 20 3 40 4 29 9 26 5 46 5 30 8* 31 12 49 4 34 3 32 4 54 12 39 7 36 4 59 10 41 11 37 3* 62 6 43 -6 42 -1* 64 1* 44 - 3 51 1* 67 3 45 4 52 6 72 7 47 17 55 6 73 10 48 4 57 -1* 50 6 60 15 53 5 61 11 56 3 63 10 58 1* 65 6 68 4 66 3 69 1* 70 8 71 0* • The Items marked w i t h * were dropped from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e because o f t h e i r l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y . - 33 -Items e l i m i n a t e d f o r other r e a s o n s : Four o f the items o f the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were dropped b e f o r e they were scored, and so do not appear i n Table 2. These items r e f e r t o b r e a s t f e e d i n g . The reason why the mothers' answers t o these items were not i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r scores i s as f o l l o w s : Of the twenty mothers, nine d i d not b r e a s t f e e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n at a l l , and s i x b r e a s t f e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r a p e r i o d s h o r t e r t h a n three months. Out o f these f i f t e e n mothers twelve gave as a reason f o r not br e a s t f e e d i n g the c h i l d at a l l , or not b r e a s t f e e d i n g him f o r at l e a s t three months, that t h e i r m i l k supply was i n s u f f i c i e n t . I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t out of twenty mothers to whom the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n the mammary development was i n s u f f i c i e n t i n the case o f twelve. More probably these questions are not of the k i n d t o which one can expect a reasonably honest answer. Items added or amended: The experience gained through the i n i t i a l t r y o u t of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e l e d t o the f o l l o w i n g changes besides the e l i m i n a t i o n of n o n - s u i t a b l e items: One new item r e f e r r i n g t o f e a r c o n d i t i o n i n g was added. T h i s item i s : "Do you have t o pr o d t o make him do th i n g s p r o p e r l y ? " - 34 -Items 3, 43 and 44 were changed t o the f o l l o w i n g : "Do you keep from p l a y i n g w i t h other c h i l d r e n t o prevent him from c a t c h i n g something?" "Do you t e l l t h a t other c h i l d r e n are b e t t e r behaved than he i s ? " "Does bother you by t o u c h i n g t h i n g s he ought not t o touch?" The second form of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s shown i n Appendix IV. B. R e v i s i o n of the " Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s " . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a l s o made more c o n s i s t e n t by the e l i m i n a t i o n of those items t h a t d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the h i g h e s t and the lowest s c o r i n g c h i l d r e n . Table 3 shows the d i f f e r e n c e s between the sums of the values of the answers endorsed by the n u r s e r y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r s w i t h r e g a r d to the 30$ h i g h e s t and 30$ lowest s c o r i n g c h i l d r e n . TABLE 3. The items t h a t were poore s t i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g and were t h e r e f o r e dropped, a r e : 3. Has the c h i l d d i s p l a y e d a g g r e s s i v e behavior? 5. Has the c h i l d d i s p l a y e d j e a l o u s y ? TABLE 5. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SUMS OF THE VALUES OF THE ANSWERS  ENDORSED BY THE NURSERY SCHOOL SUPERVISORS WITH REGARD  TO THE 50$ HIGHEST AND 50$ LOWEST SCORING CHILDREN. Item No. D i f f e r e n c e 1 11 2 8 3 -3* 4 9 5 2* 6 3 7 0* 8 1* 9 -2* 10 6 11 0* 12 12 15 12 14 10 15 6 16 4 17 2 * 18 0* 19 12 20 10 21 14 22 10 23 6 24 12 25 8 26 8 27 9 28 8 29 4 30 5 31 5 The Items marked w i t h * were dropped from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e because of t h e i r l a c k of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y . - 35 -7. Has the c h i l d appeared to he o v e r l y - s e n s i t i v e ? 8. Has the c h i l d been b o i s t e r o u s ? 9. Has the c h i l d t r i e d t o get a t t e n t i o n ? 11. Was the c h i l d bossy? 17. D i d the c h i l d day dream? 18. Has the c h i l d d i s p l a y e d r e g r e s s i v e behavior? I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t items 3 and 9 d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n a n e g a t i v e way because at n u r s e r y s c h o o l age a g g r e s s i o n and d i s p l a y o f d e s i r e f o r a t t e n t i o n are not unhealthy modes of b e h a v i o r . The reason why the other items are poor might be t h a t they r e f e r l e s s t o modes of behavior t h a t can be observed, than to u n d e r l y i n g reasons f o r behavior t h a t can only be i n f e r r e d . Items 30 and 31, r e f e r r i n g t o c h i l d r e n s ' e a t i n g and s l e e p i n g h a b i t s were dropped a l s o , as i t was found t h a t many o f the c h i l d r e n go home bef o r e l u n c h or bef o r e the a f t e r n o o n nap. The second form o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s i s found i n Appendix V. - 36 -CHAPTER IX ADMINISTRATION OF THE SECOND FORMS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES A. S u b j e c t s of the second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . From twenty nu r s e r y schools t h a t were approached, f o u r t e e n promised to co-operate i n t h i s study. They i n d i c a t e d the number of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s they were going to have f i l l e d out by the mothers of t h e i r c h i l d r e n and t h e i r s t a f f ; 256 p a i r s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent out on t h i s b a s i s , and 130 p a i r s were r e t u r n e d by the f o l l o w i n g n u r s e r y s c h o o l s . Gordon House, Alexandra House, Longview and A c a d i a n u r s e r y s c h o o l s i n Vancouver. Wendy House and Mother Goose K i n d e r g a r t e n In West and North Vancouver. S t . C h r i s t o p h e r House and The Creche i n Toronto. Nursery S c h o o l , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington i n S e a t t l e . Mary B. Eyre Nursery School, S c r i p p s C o l l e g e , C a l i f o r n i a . Some of these n u r s e r y schools were l o c a t e d I n rooming house d i s t r i c t s , and others near u n i v e r s i t i e s , so t h a t the mothers answering the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s probably f e l l i n t o a wide range w i t h r e g a r d to e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l s t a t u s . In the correspondence w i t h the n u r s e r y s c h o o l s they had been asked to use as s u b j e c t s only mothers of normally developed c h i l d r e n . But d e s p i t e t h i s , s i x of the c h i l d r e n were c h a r a c t e r i s e d as of "poor mental development". The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e f e r r i n g t o these s i x c h i l d r e n were not used i n the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures, as t h e i r i n c l u s i o n would have i n t r o d u c e d an a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e . The number of p a i r s 37 of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used was 124. B. S c o r i n g o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s c o r e d as i n the p r e v i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The score o f a mother was the sum o f the values o f the answers she had- endorsed. And the score o f a c h i l d was the sum of the va l u e s o f the answers the nu r s e r y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r had endorsed. F i g u r e s 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 show the d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the mothers' scores on the resentment, o v e r - a n x i e t y and f e a r - c o n d i t i o n i n g s u b - s c a l e s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the mothers' t o t a l scores and o f the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment s c o r e s . (As some o f the mothers d i d not answer some of the items, average scores were c a l c u l a t e d . ) FIGURES 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. The mothers' resentment scores approximate a normal curve o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , and so do the mothers' t o t a l s c o r e s . The over-a n x i e t y scores tend t o f a l l i n t o a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n and the f e a r - c o n d i t i o n i n g scores i n t o a skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n . The curve o f the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment scores i s the l e a s t s a t i s f a c t o r y of a l l . C. C o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d . Product moment c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n were p. 3 8 — c a l c u l a t e d t o e s t a b l i s h whether: 1. t h e r e l s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mothers' scores and the c h i l d r e n ' s scores 2. the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the t h r e e mothers' sub-scores are not too h i g h t o permit the retainment of the t h r e e s u b - s c a l e s . Table 4 shows the c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d between the t h r e e mothers' subscores, the mothers' t o t a l scores and the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment s c o r e s . TABLE 4. Prom t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between the mothers' a t t i t u d e scores and the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment scores o n l y the one between the mothers' t o t a l scores and the c h i l d r e n ' s scores i s s i g n i f i c a n t on the 1% l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the mothers' a n x i e t y scores and the c h i l d r e n ' s scores i s s i g n i f i c a n t on the 5% l e v e l o f c o n f i -dence. The c o r r e l a t i o n s of the mothers* resentment s c o r e s and f e a r - c o n d i t i o n i n g scores w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s scores are not s i g n i f i c a n t a t a l l . On the other hand the i n t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n s between the mothers' scores on the t h r e e sub-t e s t s are a l l s i g n i f i c a n t on the 1% l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . Because o f these r e s u l t s the i d e a o f d e v e l o p i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e s u b - s c a l e s was dropped, TABLE 4. PRODUCT MOMENT COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION OBTAINED ON  THE BASIS OF THE SECOND FORMS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES. N = 124 resentm. over-anx. f e a r - c o n d . t o t a l c h i l d adj resentm. +.48 +.26 +.66 +.15 over-anx. +.50 +.87 +.20 f e a r - c o n d . +.73 +.12 t o t a l +.26 With 122 degrees o f freedom r = .23 i s s i g n i f i c a n t on the 1$ and r = .18 Is s i g n i f i c a n t on the 5% l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . 39 -and the f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was done on the b a s i s of the mothers 1 t o t a l s c o r e s . I t seems i n t e r e s t i n g to note, t h a t on the b a s i s of t h i s study at l e a s t , the a t t i t u d e of o v e r - a n x i e t y on the p a r t of mothers i s more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the a t t i t u d e s of resentment and f e a r - c o n d i t i o n i n g , than resentment and f e a r -c o n d i t i o n i n g are r e l a t e d to one another. - 40 -CHAPTER X ANALYSIS OF THE SECOND FORMS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES FROM  THE POINT OF VIEW OF THEIR ITEMS A. The d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the answers to the items of the Mothers* Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . An i n s p e c t i o n o f the way the mothers had answered t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s showed t h a t t o l i m i t the p o s s i b l e answers by "almost always" and "almost never" had been a mistake. Nineteen o f the 124 mothers answered "never" i n -ste a d o f "almost never" by c r o s s i n g out the "almost" or u n d e r l i n i n g the "never". I t seems t h a t the answers to t h i s type of q u e s t i o n n a i r e should Include a b s o l u t e agreement and disagreement. An a n a l y s i s o f the answers g i v e n to the i n d i v i d u a l items of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e shows t h a t they d i d not a l l tend to f a l l i n t o normal curves of d i s t r i b u t i o n as suggested by Murphy and L i k e r t (27 p. 39). I n appendix VI i s shown a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the answers to the 57 items of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . As the number of mothers answering any one item was not more than 124, and as the maximum choice of answers was on l y f i v e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of some of the answers i s r a t h e r a r b i t r a r y , and t h e r e f o r e the c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t have been a r r i v e d at have to be taken with c a u t i o n . On the b a s i s o f t h i s study i t seems t h a t items r e f e r r i n g to s i m i l a r problems t e n d to f a l l Into s i m i l a r 41 -types of d i s t r i b u t i o n s . Those t h a t enable a mother to express resentment toward her c h i l d i n a s i t u a t i o n where such r e -sentment i s not s o c i a l l y disapproved, f a l l i n t o an a p p r o x i -mately normal curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n . Of the t e n items t h a t tend toward a normal curve, nine are of t h i s t y p e . The seven items t h a t permit mothers t o express worry about t h e i r success as mothers te n d toward a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n . So do those three items t h a t express p o s s e s s i v e f e e l i n g s towards the c h i l d . Items r e f e r r i n g t o punishment of the c h i l d w i t h r e g a r d t o problems t h a t have been much d i s c u s s e d by p a r e n t -e d u c a t i o n groups and magazines, such as items r e f e r r i n g t o e l i m i n a t i o n , m a n i p u l a t i o n o f sex organs, and thumb-sucking, show a s t r o n g l y skewed curve. Other items r e f e r r i n g t o punishment tend toward a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the answers t o i n d i v i d u a l items t e n d to resemble those o f the scores on the t h r e e sub-s c a l e s . The resentment scores approximate a normal curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n ; n e a r l y h a l f of the resentment items haSl t h e i r answers f a l l i n t o an approximately normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . The a n x i e t y scores f a l l i n t o a bimodal curve; more than h a l f of the a n x i e t y items had t h e i r answers f a l l i n t o a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n . The f e a r - c o n d i t i o n i n g scores show a skewed curve; h a l f of the f e a r - c o n d i t i o n i n g Items f a l l i n t o a skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n . - 42 -The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between contents o f items and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f answers suggested by t h i s study would need v e r i f i c a t i o n on the b a s i s o f the answers of a much l a r g e r group. That t h e r e might be such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n t e r e s t -i n g from the p o i n t of view of Thurstone's (36) and Murphy and L i k e r t ' s (27) t h e o r i e s o f a t t i t u d e t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n . Thurstone advocated the arrangement o f statements Into p i l e s from the most ne g a t i v e to the most p o s i t i v e item on the i s s u e because he d i d not b e l i e v e t h a t a t t i t u d e s are normally d i s -t r i b u t e d . Murphy and L i k e r t found t h a t some of the items had answers f a l l i n g i n t o normal curves o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e assumed as a working h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a t t i t u d e s are normally d i s t r i b u t e d . T h i s study, seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the curve o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s depends upon the i s s u e i n v o l v e d . B. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y of the items o f the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . To e v a l u a t e the u s e f u l n e s s o f each item of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y was i n -v e s t i g a t e d from two p o i n t s o f view; 1. How w e l l does the item d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the mothers who have the h i g h e s t and the lowest t o t a l scores? 2. How w e l l does the item d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the mothers who have the c h i l d r e n w i t h the h i g h e s t and the lowest adjustment scores? To o b t a i n an answer to the f i r s t q u e s t i o n the sums of the scores of the 12$ h i g h e s t s c o r i n g mothers were compared w i t h the sums of the scores of the 12% lowest s c o r i n g mothers. To o b t a i n an answer t o the second q u e s t i o n the mothers of the top and bottom 12% and of the top and bottom 24$ c h i l d r e n were used. The reason f o r t h i s was t h a t some of the mothers w i t h very poor scores had c h i l d r e n w i t h very good s c o r e s , and when mothers of the best and the worst a d j u s t e d c h i l d r e n were compared w i t h each other the d i f f e r -e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y of the items v a r i e d w i t h the percentage of mothers i n c l u d e d i n the c a l c u l a t i o n s , as these "poor" mothers of "good" c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d the c a l c u l a t i o n s more i f the percentage was s m a l l e r . I t seemed t h a t a more r e -l i a b l e way o f f i n d i n g out the a b i l i t y of an item to d i f f e r -e n t i a t e between the mothers of h i g h and low s c o r i n g c h i l d r e n would be to do i t In two ways; one by comparing the upper and lower 24$, and the other by comparing the upper and lower 12$. To make these d i f f e r e n t kinds o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y of items comparable, the c a l c u l a t i o n s were made In the f o l l o w i n g manner: The sum of the values of the answers endorsed by the top group was c a l c u l a t e d . The sum was d i v i d e d by the number of mothers i n c l u d e d i n the group to o b t a i n the average v a l u e endorsed by the group. I n the same - 44 -way the average v a l u e endorsed by the lower group was obtained. F i n a l l y the d i f f e r e n c e between these two average v a l u e s was c a l c u l a t e d . Table 5 shows the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y o f each item between the mothers of the top and bottom 24$ c h i l d r e n , and the mothers of the top and bottom 12$ c h i l d r e n . I t a l s o shows the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y of the items between the 12$ mothers who had the h i g h e s t and the 12$ mothers who had the lowest t o t a l s c o r e s . TABLE 5. The. d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y of the items v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y depending i f the mothers of the top and bottom 24$ or top and bottom 12$ c h i l d r e n were taken Into account. T h i s i s p a r t l y due to the f a c t t h a t some of the c h i l d r e n w i t h the best adjustment scores had mothers w i t h v e r y poor a t t i t u d e scores as has been mentioned b e f o r e . And the i n -f l u e n c e of these cases i s more n o t i c e a b l e when fewer mothers are taken i n t o account. Items 4, 6, 17, 31, and 46 d i f f e r e n t i a t e n e g a t i v e l y i n a c o n s i s t e n t manner. Item 4 seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t the best c h i l d r e n are not those who were e a g e r l y d e s i r e d by t h e i r mothers. TABLE 5 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AVERAGE VALUES OF ANSWERS ENDORSED TO ITEMS BY TOP AND BOTTOM GROUPS OF MOTHERS Average difference between mothers of highest and lowest scoring children Average difference between high-est and lowest scoring mothers 1. 3. 4. 5. 6. Is your health too poor to look after without undue strain on yourself? Do you have d i f f i c u l t i e s with because he eats so slowly? Do you keep from playing with other children to prevent him from catohing something? Was your pregnancy with desired? When has a temper tantrum do you try to make him stop by spanking or scolding him severely? If you should lose control over a few times you might lose control over the child for ever. the sort of child that 7. Is goes on people's nerves? 8. Do you worry about the way talks? 9. When showed interest in excretory matters did you make him understand that this is disgusting? 10. Are you troubled by the fact that looking after restricts your freedom? 24$ .06 .36 .80 -.30 .24 -.10 .30 .20 .13 .10 -.13 .47 .57 -.66 .20 -.27 .13 -.40 .00 .27 12$ .60 1.73 .90 .80 1.33 .33 •73 1.06 .80 .86 Table 5 - P.2 Average Average difference difference between mothers of between highest highest and lowest and lowest scoring children scoring mothers 24$ 12$ 12$ 11. Do you make understand that God knows about everything he does? .66 .40 2.40 12. While you were pregnant with did you wish for a child of the other sex? .07 .00 .40 13. Do you worry about »s manners? .27 -.33 2.26 14. Do you let see you when you are undressed? .26 .73 .70 15. Do you worry about other peoples' criticism of your methods of bringing up ? .57 .53 2,06 16. Do you spend some time playing with ? .27 .33 0.26 17. should learn to obey without asking questions. -.40 -.47 .93 18. Do you get upset when doesn't behave as he should in front of other people? .00 -.27 1.53 19. Are you lonely i f you are without for a couple of hours? .83 .00 1.73 20. Do you find that i s too slow-when he is supposed to get dressed, undressed or do other routine duties? .50 .87 2.20 21. Do you worry about 's t o i l e t training? .43 -.13 1.12 22. Do you praise ? .50 .20 .33 23. If played with his sex organs he should be spanked or scolded severely to teach him a lesson. -.03 -.40 .54 24. If you could afford i t would you prefer to pay someone to help with the housework or with the child? .26 .53 -.54 25. Has habits that you find annoying? .37 .20 1.26 26. Did you scold or punish for sucking his thumb? -.03 .00 .13 Table 5 - P.3 Average difference between mothers of highest and lowest scoring children Average difference between highest and lowest scoring mothers 27. Do you worry about other peoples* opinion of ? 28. Are you irr i t a t e d when you have to t e l l the same things over and over again? 29. Do you have to prod to make him do things properly? 30. If wet his pants did you spank or scold him severely to teach him a lesson 31. Do you worry that doesn't eat as well as he should? 32. When behaves badly do you t e l l him that he is a bad boy? 33. Do you t e l l that other children are better behaved than he is? 34. Does bother you by touching things he ought not to touch? 35. Is the sort of child that needs to be slapped or spanked? 36. Do you worry about when you are not with him even i f your reason t e l l s you he is perfectly safe? 37. If you spank or slap do i t so that i t really hurts him? 38. If won't eat his vegetables he shouldn't get any dessert? 39. Are you afraid that cannot stand up for himself? 40. If wet his bed did you spank or scold him severely to teach him a lesson? 41. Would you rather do some other kind of work than look after a small child? 42. When behaves badly do you threaten him with punishments such as spanking, being locked in a room, standing in a corner, etc? 24$ 12$ 12$ .54 .73 2.40 .70 1.00 1.93 .36 .47 2.33 .23 .27 ,86 -.14 -.67 1.26 .54 .47 1.40 .26 ,33 1,60 .14 -.13 1.46 .53 .40 1,80 .43 -.47 1.86 .07 -.14 1.26 -.20 .27 .40 .37 .53 1,86 ,20 -.06 .86 .04. .20 .33 .13 .20 1.80 Table 5 - P.4 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. Average difference between mothers of highest and lowest scoring children 43. Do you keep from playing with other children to prevent him from picking up bad habits? Does i t i r r i t a t e you i f gets dirty from playing? It is more important to see that should enjoy his meal than to ins i s t upon good table manners? Are you sorry that is growing up so quickly? Have you enough time for re-creation despite your responsibilities towards Are you ir r i t a t e d when refuses to do what you want him to do? Do you worry about 's health? Is so l i v e l y that he makes you nervous? Is your homelife more d i f f i c u l t since 's arrival? Do you hug and kiss ? Do you worry about ~s appearance? If showed interest in the sex organs of other children he should be spanked or scolded severely to teach him a lesson. While you bath, feed or dress do you feel harassed because of a l l the other things you have to do? Do you worry that has inherited some undesirable characteristics? Do you get worried when you have di f f i c u l t i e s with for fear that you aren't handling him properly? 24$ .27 .14 12$ .13 .00 Average difference between highest and lowest scoring mothers 12$ .60 1.06 .33 .34 .80 -.10 -.47 .26 .37 .34 1.13 .40 .33 1.80 .63 .53 2.46 .36 -.07 1.93 .23 .20 .26 .27 .20 .20 .54 .00 2.13 .10 -.27 .73 -.17 .07 .40 .10 .00 .86 .43 .60 1.53 - 45 -Some of these c h i l d r e n were probably wanted badly to f i l l some u n f u l f i l l e d needs of the mother. Items 6 and 17 have to do w i t h mothers' i n -s i s t a n c e on obedience. T h i s seems to make f o r b e t t e r a d j u s t -ment i n the nursery s c h o o l . Probably c h i l d r e n o f such mothers f i n d i t easy to a d j u s t to the demands of a n u r s e r y s c h o o l which are much l e s s than the demands they have t o meet at home. Item 31 might d i f f e r e n t i a t e n e g a t i v e l y because of the i n s i s t e n c e i n our c u l t u r e p a t t e r n on a w e l l balanced d i e t at every meal. Item 46 might have been understood by the mothers as r e f e r r i n g t o a d e s i r e t o get r i d of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The items t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between mothers of p o o r l y and w e l l a d j u s t e d c h i l d r e n had answers f a l l i n g Into normal, bimodal, or moderately skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n s . C. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y o f the items of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s . To e v a l u a t e the u s e f u l n e s s of the items of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s t h e i r d i f f e r -e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d by comparing the sums o f the v a l u e s of the answers endorsed to each item w i t h r e g a r d to the 26$ h i g h e s t and the 26$ lowest s c o r i n g c h i l d r e n . - 46 -Table 6 shows the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y o f the items. TABLE 6. A l l the items.of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s seem to d i f f e r e n t i a t e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . TABLE 6. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SUMS OF VALUES OF THE ANSWERS ENDORSED BY THE NURSERY SCHOOL SUPERVISORS WITH REGARD TO THE  LOWEST AND HIGHEST SCORING 26$ CHILDREN. D i f f e r e n c e 1. Has the c h i l d been i r r i t a b l e ? 48 2. Has the c h i l d been l i s t l e s s ? 48 3. Has the c h i l d been o v e r - c a u t i o u s ? 40 4 . Has the c h i l d been stubborn? 57 5. Was the c h i l d e a s i l y f r i g h t e n e d ? 56 6. D i d the c h i l d have temper-tantrums? 53 7. D i d the c h i l d cry? 54 8. D i d the c h i l d show l a c k o f s e l f - c o n t r o l ? 60 9. Has the c h i l d d i s p l a y e d n e g a t i v i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s ? 56 10. Has the c h i l d shown d e s t r u c t i v e tendencies? 40 11. D i d the c h i l d withdraw from a d u l t s ? 53 12. D i d the c h i l d withdraw from other c h i l d r e n ? 53 13. D i d the c h i l d withdraw from new s i t u a t i o n s ? 60 14. Was the c h i l d d e f i a n t ? 49 15. Was the c h i l d c h e e r f u l ? 41 16. Was the c h i l d c o o p e r a t i v e w i t h a d u l t s ? 46 17. D i d the c h i l d p l a y w e l l alone? 27 18. D i d the c h i l d p l a y w i t h other c h i l d r e n as w e l l as can be expected a t h i s stage of development? 52 19. Was the c h i l d f r i e n d l y w i t h other c h i l d r e n ? 45 20. Was the c h i l d f r i e n d l y w i t h a d u l t s ? 54 21. Was the c h i l d Independent enough f o r h i s stage o f development w i t h r e g a r d t o e a t i n g , d r e s s i n g and other r o u t i n e s ? 56 - 47 -CHAPTER XI DEVELOPMENT OF THE THIRD AND FOURTH FORMS OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE A. Attempt a t r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment s c o r e s . I t seemed p o s s i b l e t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mothers' a t t i t u d e s (as shown through t h e i r answers to the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) and the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment (as shown by the e v a l u a t i o n of the n u r s e r y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r s ) c o u l d be made c l e a r e r by a r e - e v a l u a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment s c o r e s . I t seemed p o s s i b l e t h a t d i f f e r e n t n u r s e r y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r s judged the c h i l d r e n w i t h d i f f e r e n t degrees of s e v e r i t y . I t might be thought t h a t t h i s c o u l d be compen-sa t e d f o r by a d j u s t i n g the d i f f e r e n t nursery s c h o o l scores i n such a way t h a t they a l l would have the same mean and sigma. To f i n d out i f t h i s would be an a d v i s a b l e procedure the mean scores of the c h i l d r e n and mothers of the t e n nursery schools were c a l c u l a t e d and the rank order c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d between them. Table 7 shows the mean scores o f the c h i l d r e n and mothers o f the t e n nursery s c h o o l s and g i v e s the rank order c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n t h a t was e s t a b l i s h e d between them. TABLE 7. TABLE 7. MEAN SCORES OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN OF THE SAME NURSERY  SCHOOLS AND THE RANK ORDER COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN THEM. Name of Nursery School C h i l d r e n ' s Mothers' mean mean Longview 157 503 Wendy House 186 575 Aca d i a 201 511 Mother Goose 205 697 S c r i p p s C o l l e g e 215 588 U n i v e r s i t y of Washington 221 631 The Creche 223 603 S t . C h r i s t o p h e r 235 706 Alexandra House 238 675 Gordon House 272 703 A l l n u r s e r i e s 217 62?, Rho between mothers' means and c h i l d r e n ' s means - +.81 As In the case o f 8 degrees of freedom r i s s i g n i f i c a n t on the 1% l e v e l of confidence i f I t i s .77, the rho between the c h i l d r e n ' s means and mothers' means i s s i g n i f i c a n t . - 48 -As t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the average scores of mothers and c h i l d r e n of the same nu r s e r y schools one d i d not f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n a r r a n g i n g the n u r s e r y s c h o o l scores around the same mean. As the items o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r the Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r had d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y between the c h i l d r e n with the h i g h e s t and lowest s c o r e s , no more changes w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e were made. The second form of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s f o r the prese n t i t s f i n a l form. The odd-even r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s s c a l e was c a l c u l a t e d and was found to be +.71. Stepped up f o r the whole s c a l e by the Spearman-Brown formula the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s was found t o be +.84. B. Development o f the t h i r d form of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The items o f the t h i r d form o f the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were chosen on the b a s i s of t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the mothers o f the c h i l d r e n w i t h the best and worst adjustment s c o r e s . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a b i l i t y o f the items was shown i n Table 5. Those items t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d r e l a t i v e l y the l e a s t w e l l , and those t h a t showed a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the upper and lower 24$ and upper and lower 12$ mothers were e l i m i n a t e d . Those t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d w e l l , but i n a n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n , were not - 4 9 Included e i t h e r , as i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o determine which of the a l t e r n a t i v e answers should be regarded as the b e s t , and which as the worst. What i s u s u a l l y done i n such cases i s to r e v i s e the v a l u e s g i v e n to the p o s s i b l e answers, that Is t o g i v e the h i g h e s t v a l u e t o the answer t h a t had the lowest, and v i c e - v e r s a . T h i s , i n case of item 4 , f o r i n -stance, would mean t h a t the best answer t o the q u e s t i o n "Was your pregnancy wi t h d e s i r e d ? " would be t h a t the pregnancy was "very unwelcome", which seems absurd from the p o i n t o f view of the a t t i t u d e t h a t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r the mental hygiene of the c h i l d . A f t e r the e l i m i n a t i o n of the n o n - s u i t a b l e items, twenty-two questions and statements were l e f t . The Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e - s c o r e d on the b a s i s of t h i s twenty-two-item s c a l e . As almost a l l of these items were answered by a l l of the mothers, there was no need f o r a v e r a g i n g t h e i r s c o r e s , and so the score of each mother i s the sum of the v a l u e s of the answers she had endorsed. Next, the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of t h i s s c a l e was c a l c u l a t e d . Table 8 g i v e s the twenty-two items o f t h i s s c a l e and the d i f f e r e n c e s between the sums of the scores on the items between the 12$ h i g h e s t and the 12$ lowest s c o r i n g mothers. TABLE 8. TABLE 8. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SUMS OF THE VALUES OP THE ANSWERS ENDORSED BY THE 12$ HIGHEST AND THE 12$ LOWEST SCORING  MOTHERS ON THE THIRD FORM OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE. D i f f e r e n c e 2. Do you have d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h because he eats so slowly? 26 3. Do you keep from p l a y i n g w i t h other c h i l d r e n to prevent him from c a t c h i n g something? 14 11. Do you make understand that God knows e v e r y t h i n g he does? 36 14. Do you l e t see you when you are undressed? 11 15. Do you worry about other people's c r i t i c i s m of your methods i n b r i n g i n g up? 31 16. Do you spend some time p l a y i n g w i t h ? 4 19. Are you l o n e l y i f you are without f o r a couple of hours? 26 20. Do you f i n d that l s too slow when he Is supposed t o get dressed, undressed or do other r o u t i n e d u t i e s ? 33 22. Do you p r a i s e ? 5 25. Has h a b i t s t h a t you f i n d annoying? 19 27. Do you worry about other people's o p i n i o n of ? 36 28. Are you i r r i t a t e d when you have t o t e l l the same th i n g s over and over again? 29 29. Do you have to prod - t o make him do th i n g s p r o p e r l y ? 35 32. When behaves b a d l y do you t e l l him that he i s a bad boy? 21 33. Do you t e l l t h a t other c h i l d r e n are b e t t e r behaved than he i s ? 24 35. Is the s o r t of c h i l d that needs t o be slapped or spanked? 27 39. Are you a f r a i d that cannot s t a n d up f o r h i m s e l f ? 28 45, I t i s more important t o see t h a t should enjoy h i s meal than to I n s i s t upon good t a b l e manners. 12 47. Have you enough time f o r r e c r e a t i o n d e s p i t e your r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards _? 17 48. Are you i r r i t a t e d when r e f u s e s to do what you want him to do? 27 49. Do you worry about 's h e a l t h ? 37 57. Do you get w o r r i e d when you" have d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h f o r f e a r t h a t you are not h a n d l i n g him p r o p e r l y ? 23 50 F i g u r e 6 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the scores on the t h i r d form of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . FIGURE 6. To f i n d out i f t h i s new s c a l e shows any r e -l a t i o n s h i p between mothers' a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment t o the nur s e r y s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n , the c o r r e l a t i o n between the mothers' scores on t h i s s c a l e and the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment scores was worked out. The product moment co-e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n was found t o be +.34. As i n the case of 122 degrees of freedom, r i s s i g n i f i c a n t on the 1% l e v e l of confidence i f i t i s .23; the mothers' scores on the t h i r d form of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment s c o r e s . But the c o r r e l a t i o n i s not h i g h enough to permit p r e d i c t i o n from a mother's score to h er c h i l d ' s score or v i c e - v e r s a . Without the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h i s s c a l e t o a new group o f mothers, i t s r e l i a b i l i t y cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d . As such an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was not p o s s i b l e , the a c t u a l r e -l i a b i l i t y o f the s c a l e i s not known. To o b t a i n an i n d i c a t i o n of what i t might be, the sums of the valu e s of the answers endorsed t o the odd and to the even items of t h i s s c a l e were c o r r e l a t e d with each o t h e r . The c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d was - 51 -+.66, Stepped up f o r the whole s c a l e by the Spearman-Brown formula, t h i s i n d i c a t e d a r e l i a b i l i t y o f + .80. G. Development of the f o u r t h form of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Some of the items of the t h i r d form of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e w e l l between the 12$ mothers who had the h i g h e s t and the 12$ mothers who had the lowest s c o r e s . These are items 14, 16, 22 and 45. These f o u r items have the best answer on the l e f t - h a n d s i d e , whereas a l l but one of the other e i g h t e e n items have the best answer on the r i g h t - h a n d s i d e . I t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t the answers t o the " r i g h t s i d e c o r r e c t " questions were more c o n s i s t e n t because t h e r e were so many of these t h a t a motor set i n answering developed. On the other hand i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that items l i k e "Do you spend some time p l a y i n g w i t h ?", "Do you p r a i s e ?" r e f e r t o something p o s i t i v e , which i s d i f f e r e n t i n k i n d from, and t h e r e f o r e not so c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the items t h a t r e f e r t o something u n d e s i r a b l e . Whatever might be the reasons f o r the u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of these f o u r items, i t seemed worthwhile t o attempt t o c o n s t r u c t a b e t t e r s c a l e , from which these items are e l i m i n a t e d , and such others s u b s t i t u t e d from the second form as are more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s c a l e as a whole. Two new items were added to the e i g h t e e n con-s i s t e n t ones. These a r e : - 52 -5. When c r i e s , whines or has a temper tantrum, ' do you t r y to make him stop by spanking or s c o l d i n g him s e v e r e l y ? 53. Do you worry about 's appearance? These items d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e too w e l l between the mothers of the best and the worst s c o r i n g c h i l d -r e n , but they were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the other e i g h t e e n items. The d i f f e r e n c e s between the sums of the scores between the 12$ h i g h e s t and the 12$ lowest s c o r i n g mothers were 20 on item 5, and 32 on item 53. F i g u r e 7 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the scores on the f o u r t h form of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . FIGURE 7. The product moment c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n between the scores on t h i s s c a l e and the c h i l d r e n ' s a d j u s t -ment scores was found t o be +.31, which i s s i g n i f i c a n t on the I$? l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . To o b t a i n an i n d i c a t i o n o f what the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s s c a l e might be, the sums of the v a l u e s of the answers endorsed t o the odd and the even items of t h i s s c a l e were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r . The c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d was +.72, which stepped up f o r the whole s c a l e by the Spearman-Brown formula i n d i c a t e s a r e l i a b i l i t y of +.84 . - 55 Whether the t h i r d or the f o u r t h form of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s more s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r measuring mothers' a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n , can onl y be e s t a b l i s h e d by a f u t u r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f these q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s t o mothers. At the p r e s e n t , the t h i r d form was chosen f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between mothers' a t t i t u d e s and c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment as the mothers' answers t o t h i s form showed a somewhat b e t t e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h n u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment than d i d the answers to the f o u r t h form. Table 9 shows the t h i r d form of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e arranged i n a manner which might be s u i t a b l e f o r a f u t u r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . TABLE 9. TABLE 9 MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Do you have d i f f i c u l t i e s with "because he (she) eats so slowly? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 2. Do you keep from playing with other children to prevent him (her) from catching something? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 3. Do you make understand that God knows everything he (she) does? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 4. Do you le t see you when you are undressed? ^ rarely almost never frequently occasionally never 5 . Do you worry about other people's criticism of your methods in bringing up ? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 6. Do you spend some time playing with ? every day on most days on some days hardly ever never 7. Are you lonely i f you are without for a couple of hours? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 8. Do you find that is too slow when he (she) is supposed to get dressed, undressed or do other routine duties? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 9. Do you pra»se ? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 10 e Has habits that you find annoying? none hardly any some quite a few a great many Table 9 - P.2 11. Do you worry about other people's opinion of continuously a great deal frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 12. Are you irr i t a t e d when you have to t e l l the same things over and over again? no slightly moderately quite strongly very strongly 13. Do you have to prod to make him (her) do things properly? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 14. When behaves badly do you t e l l him that he (she) is a bad boy (bad gir l ) ? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 15. Do you t e l l that other children are better behaved than he (she) is? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 16. Is the sort of child that needs to be slapped or spanked? frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 17. Are you afraid that cannot stand up for himself (herself)? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never 18. It is more important to see that should enjoy his (her) meal than insist upon good table manners? strongly agree agree undecided disagree strongly disagree 19. Have you enough time for recreation despite your responsibilities towards ? plenty quite enough just enough not enough much too l i t t l e 20. Are you irr i t a t e d -when refuses to do what you want him (her) to do? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never Table 9 - P.3 21. Do you worry about *a health? no slightly moderately to quite an a great deal extent 22. Do you get worried when you have difficulties with for fear that you are not handling him (her) properly? always almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never never •i 54 -CHAPTER XII THE INFLUENCE OF OTHER CHILDREN IN THE FAMILY ON  MOTHERS' ATTITUDES AND CHILD ADJUSTMENT. On the b a s i s of the data o b t a i n e d through the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i t was p o s s i b l e to ask whether mothers have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n i f t h e i r c h i l d r e n are o n l y - c h i l d r e n , or I f they are the youngest or e l d e s t c h i l d r e n In the f a m i l y . The data about the s i b l i n g s of the c h i l d r e n was o b t a i n e d from the f i r s t page of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment scores were taken from the Question-n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s . The mothers' a t t i t u d e scores were taken from the t h i r d form of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e as t h i s was the best i n showing a r e l a t i o n s h i p between mothers' a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment. Table 10 g i v e s the data t h a t are r e l e v a n t w i t h r e g a r d t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p o s i t i o n of a c h i l d i n the f a m i l y and h i s mother's a t t i t u d e s toward him. TABLE 10. Table 11 shows the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the a t t i t u d e s c o r e s of these groups of mothers. TABLE 10 SIBLINGS IN THE FAMILY AND MOTHERS ATTITUDES C h i l d ' s s i b l i n g s A t t i t u d e s o f mothers No i s o n l y c h i l d /fi has s i b l i n g s 76 s i b l i n g s a re older 32 s i b l i n g s a r e younger 36 i s middle c h i l d 6 ambiguous 2 Mean 55.95 50.50 47.60 53.55 Sigma 11.50' 9.30 9.00 8.85 Sigma o f the mean 1.66 1.07 1.59 . 1.A8 55 -TABLE 11. To check the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d , i t was asked i f there i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment depending on t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y . Table 12 g i v e s the data t h a t are r e l e v a n t t o o b t a i n an answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n . TABLE 12. Table 13 shows the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean adjustment scores of these groups of c h i l d r e n . TABLE 13. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study i n d i c a t e t h a t on the average mothers of o n l y - c h i l d r e n have the l e a s t d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s , and mothers who have an o l d e r c h i l d than the one i n n ursery s c h o o l have the most d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n of nursery s c h o o l age. The same ho l d s f o r the adjustment of the c h i l d r e n to the n u r s e r y s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n . TABLE 11 1 SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCES C r i t i c a l Chances of r a t i o d i f f e r e n c e Mothers who have and who do not have any other c h i l d r e n Mothers of only c h i l d r e n and of c h i l d r e n w i t h o l d e r s i b l i n g s Mothers of only c h i l d r e n and of c h i l d r e n w i t h younger s i b l i n g s 2.78 997/1000 3.65 999/1000 1.08 850/1000 Mothers of c h i l d r e n w i t h younger s i b l i n g s and of c h i l d r e n w i t h o l d e r s i b l i n g s 2.74 997/1000 TABLE 12 SIBLINGS IN THE FAMILY -AND CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT Child's s i b l i n g s Children's adjustment i s only c h i l d has s i b l i n g s s i b l i n g s are older si b l i n g s are younger i s middle c h i l d ambiguous No 4-8 76 3.2 36 6 2 Mean 4 9 . 8 0 4 2 . 1 3 4 0 . 6 0 4 4 - 3 5 Sigma 1 2 . 7 5 1.2.00 1 0 . 6 5 1 3 . 0 5 .Sigma of the mean 1 .84 1 .37 1.88 2 . 1 8 TABLE 13 SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCES o n l y c h i l d r e n and c h i l d r e n w i t h s i b l i n g s o n l y c h i l d r e n and c h i l d r e n w i t h o l d e r s i b l i n g s o n l y c h i l d r e n and c h i l d r e n w i t h younger s i b l i n g s c h i l d r e n w i t h younger s i b l i n g s and c h i l d r e n w i t h o l d e r s i b l i n g s C r i t i c a l •Chances o f r a t i o d i f f e r e n c e 3.33 999/1000 3.50 999/1000 1.91 970/1000 1.30 900/1000 - 56 -On the average, o n l y - c h i l d r e n have the p o o r e s t adjustment, c h i l d r e n w i t h o l d e r s i b l i n g s have the best adjustment, and the adjustment of c h i l d r e n w i t h younger s i b l i n g s i s i n be-tween t h a t of the other two groups. As the v a l i d i t y of the Mothers 1 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s has not been e s t a b l i s h e d , and as the sample i s not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole, the above c o n c l u s i o n can o n l y be accepted w i t h c a u t i o n . - 5 7 -CHAPTER X I I I THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTHERS' ATTITUDES AND NURSERY SCHOOL CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT. On the b a s i s o f the scores o b t a i n e d on the t h i r d form of the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r the Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s , i t c o u l d be asked whether t h e r e i s or i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , on the average, between the adjustment of c h i l d r e n o f mothers who have a h i g h , a medium, or a low score on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . And c o n v e r s e l y I t was asked i f t h e r e i s or i s not a s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e , on the average, between the a t t i t u d e s o f the mothers whose c h i l d r e n have a h i g h , medium, or low score on t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . For the sake of simpler language, l e t us c a l l mothers w i t h h i g h , medium and low scores "bad", "medium" and "good" mothers, and i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n l e t us c a l l c h i l d r e n w i t h h i g h , medium and low scores "bad", "medium" and "good" c h i l d r e n r e s p e c t i v e l y . Table 14 g i v e s the data about the adjustment of the c h i l d r e n o f bad, medium and good mothers. TABLE 14. Table 15 shows the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the adjustment scores TABLE 1 4 ADJUSTMENT OF CHILDREN OF POOR, MEDIUM AND GOOD MOTHERS 'Mothers' scores Children's' adjustment No Mean Sigma Sigma of the mean 57-81 (had) 3 6 48.27 14-50 2 . 4 2 4-6-56 (medium 5 4 4 7 . 1 0 1 1 . 4 5 1 . 5 6 3 1 - 4 5 (good) 3 4 3 7 . 7 5 9.70 1 . 6 7 a l l mothers 1 2 4 4 5 . 1 0 12.87 —__ - 58 -of these groups of c h i l d r e n . TABLE 15. Table 16 g i v e s the data about the a t t i t u d e s o f mothers o f bad, medium and good c h i l d r e n . TABLE 16. Table 17 shows the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e s between the a t t i t u d e s cores of these groups o f mothers. TABLE 17. These data show t h a t c h i l d r e n of good mothers are on an average s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a d j u s t e d than are c h i l d r e n of medium and bad mothers; and th a t mothers of bad c h i l d r e n have on an average s i g n i f i c a n t l y worse a t t i t u d e s towards them than have mothers of medium and good c h i l d r e n . T h i s p o i n t can be f u r t h e r i l l u m i n a t e d by t e s t i n g the independence o f c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment from mothers' a t t i t u d e s . TABLE 15  SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCES between children of bad and medium mothers between children of bad and good mothers. between children of medium and good mothers O r i t i c a l Chances of ra t i o difference .41 650/1000 3.58 999/1000 A.11 999/1000 \ TABLE 16 ATTITUDES OF MOTHERS OF POOR, MEDIUM AND GOOD.CHILDREN. Children's scores A t t i t u d e s of mothers No Mean Sigma Sigma of the mean 1 . 9 1 1.13 1 . 9 4 5 6 - 7 9 (bad) 32 5 8 . 5 5 10 .80 3 3 - 5 5 (medium) 5 9 51. 05 8 . 6 5 2 6 T 3 7 (good) 3 3 4 9 . 5 5 11 .15 a l l c h i l d r e n 1 2 4 52. 61 10 . 5 5 TABLE 17 SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCES between mothers of bad and medium children between mothers of bad and good children between mothers of good and medium children C r i t i c a l r a t i o 3.38 3.31 .67 Chances of difference 999/1000 999/1000 7A0/1000 - 59 ~ Table 18 shows the a s s o c i a t i o n o f mothers and c h i l d r e n from the p o i n t of view of t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and adjustment. TABLE 18. Table 19 shows the Chi-square v a l u e s f o r each c e l l i n Table 18. TABLE 19. The present study i n d i c a t e s t h a t the chances are l e s s than 1/100 t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment t o the nur s e r y s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n and mothers' a t t i t u d e s are a s s o c i a t e d on the b a s i s of chance. An a n a l y s i s o f the a s s o c i a t i o n s ex-h i b i t e d i n t a b l e s 18 and 19 shows t h a t good mothers have much fewer bad c h i l d r e n than can be expected on the b a s i s of chance, whereas bad mothers have about as many good c h i l d r e n as can be expected on the b a s i s of chance. Bad c h i l d r e n have much fewer good mothers as can be expected on the b a s i s of chance, whereas good c h i l d r e n have about as many bad mothers as can be expected on the b a s i s of chance. Good mothers seem t o have a much stronger I n f l u e n c e on the ad-justment o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the nur s e r y s c h o o l than have TABLE 18 CONTINGENCY TABLE OF MOTHERS' ATTITUDES AND CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT Mothers' a t t i t u d e s good medium bad t o t a l s C h i l d r e n ' s adjustment good ( 8.91) 16 ( H . 5 2 ) 7 ( 9.57) 10 33 medium (15.93) 16 (25.96) 32 (17.11) 11 59 bad ( 8.6A) 2 ( 1 A .08) 15 ( 9.28) 15 32 t o t a l s 34 54 36 124 P l a i n f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e p a i r s a c t u a l l y found i n the study. Fi g u r e s i n parenthesis i n d i c a t e p a i r s to be expected on the b a s i s of chance. TABLE 19 SHOEING CHI-SQUARE VALUES FOR TEE CELLS IN TABLE 18 Mothers' a t t i t u d e s good medium had t o t a l s good 5.64 3.89 .04 9.57 C h i l d r e n ' s adjustment medium bad t o t a l s -.00- 5.10 10.74 1.41 -06 5.36 2.18 3.53 5.75 3.59 8.69 21.85 When n-4, P=0.01 i f Chi-square i s 13.28 - 60 ~ medium or bad mothers. As the v a l i d i t y o f the Mothers' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Nursery School S u p e r v i s o r s has not been e s t a b l i s h e d , and as the sample i s not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole, the above c o n c l u s i o n can o n l y be accepted w i t h c a u t i o n . But n e v e r t h e l e s s t h i s study seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t good mothers do more good than bad mothers do bad, and that the adjustment mechanisms of f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s c o u l d be improved by improving mothers' a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n . - 61 -CHAPTER XIV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n s t r u c t e d on the b a s i s of the methods recommended by Murphy and L i k e r t (27) f o r the purpose of q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f mothers' a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r i g i n a l l y con-s i s t e d of t h r e e s u b - s c a l e s , r e f e r r i n g t o mothers' resentment, o v e r - a n x i e t y and f e a r c o n d i t i o n i n g towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n . But as i t was found that the i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s between these sub-scales were h i g h , they were u n i t e d i n t o one g e n e r a l s c a l e . Two forms o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e were f i n a l l y e volved, one c o n s i s t i n g of twenty-two items (Form 3) and the other of twenty items (Form 4 ) . The advantage of the twenty-two item s c a l e i s that i t shows a s t r o n g e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between mothers' a t t i t u d e s and c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment than does the twenty item s c a l e . The advantage of' the twenty Item s c a l e ' i s t h a t i t shows g r e a t e r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y than the twenty-two item s c a l e . The aim, however, o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a s c a l e by which the adjustment of c h i l d r e n c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d from mothers' a t t i t u d e s , has not been reached. I t was found, d u r i n g the p r o c e s s of c o n s t r u c t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , that, c o n t r a r y t o the assumption of Murphy and L i k e r t ( 2 7 ^ a t t i t u d e s are d i s t r i b u t e d f a i r l y normally; there are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h i s h o l d s o n l y f o r c e r t a i n k i n d s of a t t i t u d e s and t h a t other types of a t t i t u d e s - 62 -tend to f a l l i n t o bimodal or skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n s . A lthough i t i s the custom, i n the case of a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h m u l t i p l e c h o i c e answers, t o formulate the two extreme answers i n r e l a t i v e terms, such as "almost always" and "almost never", i t i s suggested t h a t a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s h o u l d be f o r m u l a t e d i n such a manner as to g i v e the s u b j e c t s a chance t o express a b s o l u t e a f f i r m a t i o n or n e g a t i o n . I t i s t r u e t h a t an a b s o l u t e "always" or "never" r a r e l y has j u s t i f i c a t i o n on an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s , but the g e n e r a l p u b l i c seems to f e e l f r e q u e n t l y i n terms o f a b s o l u t e s . B. I n v e s t i g a t i o n was made t o see i f a c h i l d ' s p o s i t i o n I n the f a m i l y has any i n f l u e n c e on h i s mother's a t t i t u d e s towards him. The r e s u l t s show that mothers tend to have b e t t e r a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n i f they are not o n l y - c h i l d r e n , and they have the best a t t i t u d e s towards them i f they are not the e l d e s t o f the f a m i l y . G. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between mothers of "good", "medium" and "bad" a t t i t u d e s and c h i l d r e n o f "good", "medium" and "bad" adjustment t o the nurs e r y s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n was i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t was found t h a t mothers w i t h "good" a t t i t u d e s have w e l l - a d j u s t e d c h i l d r e n , and t h a t p o o r l y -a d j u s t e d c h i l d r e n have mothers wi t h "bad" a t t i t u d e s more f r e q u e n t l y than would be the case on the b a s i s of chance. But on the oth e r hand, mothers wi t h "bad" a t t i t u d e s have - 63 -as many w e l l - a d j u s t e d c h i l d r e n as they would have on the b a s i s of chance. I t i s suggested t h a t t h e r e a s o n why the scores on the mothers' q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment scores i s t h a t t h e r e i s no d i r e c t and simple r e l a t i o n s h i p between mothers' a t t i t u d e s and c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment i n n u r s e r y s c h o o l such as had been t a c i t l y assumed. - 6 1 + -BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. A l l e n , F . H . 2 . A l l e n , F . H . 3 . B a l d w i n , L . A l f r e d A. B a r u c h , Dorothy 5 . Bergman, P a u l 6. B l a t z , W i l l i a m E . 7. B r u c h , H i l d e 8. C o l e , L u e l l a and Morgan, John J . B . 9 . D a v i s , C l a r a M . 10. F i e l d , Minna Psychotherapy w i t h c h i l d r e n ; N o r t o n and C o . , New Y o r k , 1942. E v o l u t i o n i n our treatment p h i l o s o p h y i n c h i l d g u i d a n c e ; M e n t a l H y g i e n e , 1930, 14, 1 - 1 1 . 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M a t e r n a l a t t i t u d e s found i n twenty-f i v e cases o f c h i l d r e n w i t h behaviour pr imary d i s o r d e r s ; The Amer. J . of O r t h o p s y c h . 1940, 10 , 293-311. 11 . F r i e d l a n d e r , Doroihee P e r s o n a l i t y development o f twenty-seven c h i l d r e n who l a t e r be came p s y c h o t i c ; J . o f A b n . and Soc . P s y c h . 1945, 40, 330-335. - 6 5 12. Gele e r d , R. E l i s a b e t h 13. Gerard, Margaret W. 14. G e s e l l , A r n o l d and I l g , Frances L. 15. G e s e l l , A r n o l d and I l g , F rances, L. 16. Is a a c s , Susan 17. I s a a c s , Susan 18. Kanner, Leo 19. K l e i n , Emanuel 20. Lat i m e r , Ruth 21. Levy, David M. 22. 23. Observations on temper tantrums i n c h i l d r e n ; Amer. J . of Orthopsych. 1945, 15, 238-246. Enures s, a study i n e t i o l o g y ; Amer. J. o f Orthopsych. 1939, 9, 48-58. I n f a n t and c h i l d i n the c u l t u r e o f todey; Harper and B r o t h e r s , New York, 1943. The c h i l d from f i v e to ten; Harper and B r o t h e r s , New York, 1946. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects o f c h i l d development; Univ. o f London I n s t i t u t e o f Edu c a t i o n , 1935. The Nursery y e a r s ; The Vanguard P r e s s , New York (no date given). The r o l e of the s c h o o l i n the treatment o f r e j e c t e d c h i l d r e n ; Nervous C h i l d , 1943, 3, 236-248. The i n f l u e n c e o f teach e r s and parents' a t t i t u d e s and behaviour upon c h i l d r e n ' i n wartime; Mental Hygiene, 1942, 26, 434-4-45. The parent c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i n c h i l d r e n a f f l i c t e d w i t h t i c s ; Nervous C h i l d , 1944-45, V o l . 4 353-358. M a t e r n a l o v e r p r o t e c t i o n ; P s y c h i a t r y , 1938, 561-591 . ' M a t e r n a l o v e r p r o t e c t i o n ; P s y c h i a t r y , 1939, 563-597 . M a t e r n a l o v e r p r o t e c t i o n ; P s y c h i a t r y , .1941, 567-626 . 66 24. L e v y , David M. .25. Marks, E.S. 26. M i s s i l d i n e , W.H. 27. Murphy, Gardner and L i k e r t , R e nsis 28. Murphy, L o i s B a r c l a y 29. Powdermaker, F l o r e n c e and Grimes, L o u i s e 30. R i k e r , B.R. 3 1 . Spock, Benjamin 32. Spcok, Benjamin 33. Spock, Benjamin 34- Symonds, P e r c i v a l M. Chapter on "Maternal o v e r p r o t e c t i o n " i n Modern trends In c h i l d p s y c h i a t r y , e d i t e d by Nolan D.C Lewis and Bernard L. P a c e l l a , New York, 1945. S t a n d a r d i s a t i o n of a race a t t i t u d e t e s t f o r negro youth; J . Soc. Psych. 1943, 18, 245-278. The emotional background o f t h i r t y c h i l d r e n w i t h reading d i s a b i l i t i e s w i t h emphasis on i t s c o e r c i v e elements; Nervous C h i l d , 1946, 5, 263-271. P u b l i c o p i n i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l ; : Harper and B r o t h e r s , New York, 1938. Chapter on "Childhood expediences i n r e l a t i o n t o p e r s o n a l i t y development" i n P e r s o n a l i t y and behaviour d i s o r d e r s , e d i t e d by McVicker Hunt, Ronald P r e s s Co., New York, 1944-. C h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y ; F a r r a r and Rhinehart, New York, 1940. Comparison o f a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , J . o f Abn. and Soc. Psych., 1944-39, 24-42. A v o i d i n g b e h a v i o u r problems; The J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c s , 1945 27, 363-382. The o c c a s i o n s when f e e d i n g problems begin; Nervous C h i l d , 1943-44, 3, 162-164. Baby and C h i l d Care; Pocket Books o f Canada L t d . M o n t r e a l , 1946-A study o f p a r e n t a l acceptance and r e j e c t i o n ; The Am. J . Orthopsych., 1938, 13, 679-688. —67*" 3 5 . Symonds, P e r c i v a l M, 36. Thurs tone , L . L , 3 7 . Wadsworth, M . L , 3 8 . Wolberg , L . R . 3 9 . W o l f , Anna, W.M. AO. W o l f e , W.B. The dynamics o f human adjustment ; D. A p p l e t o n Century C o . , New Y o r k , 1946. A t t i t u d e s can be measured; Am. J . S o c , 1928, 3 3 , 529-554. P e r s i s t e n t E n u r e s i s i n A d u l t s ; Am. J . of Or thopsych . 1944> U , 313-320. The c h a r a c t e r s t r u c t u r e o f the r e j e c t e d c h i l d ; Nervous C h i l d , 19A3-AA, 3 , 7A-78. The p a r e n t s ' manual ; Simon and S c h u s t e r , New Y o r k , 1945. Readings i n psychology ; e d i t e d by C h a r l e s E . S k i n n e r , F a r r a r - a n d R h i n e h a r t , New Y o r k , 1935. APPENDIX I - l THE RATIONALE OF THE ITEMS OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE The questions and statements "of the mothers' q u e s t i o n n a i r e were c o n s t r u c t e d on the assumption t h a t the answers would r e v e a l the a t t i t u d e o f each mother towards her c h i l d . F o r purposes o f e x p l a n a t i o n the items which appear' a t random i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e are now grouped under t h r e e heads: A. Items r e f e r r i n g t o resentment B. Items r e f e r r i n g to over-anxiousness C. Items r e f e r r i n g to f e a r - c o n d i t i o n i n g The reason f o r the i n s e r t i o n o f each item now f o l l o w s . A. Items r e f e r r i n g to resentment. 1. I s your h e a l t h too poor to l o o k a f t e r without undue s t r a i n on y o u r s e l f ? There a r e many reasons why a mother might f e e l t h a t she i s not strong enough to l o o k a f t e r her c h i l d without s t r a i n . F r e q u e n t l y the reason does not p e r t a i n to the mother's h e a l t h but i n the f a c t t h a t she f i n d s the task o f c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d ' s needs f a t i g u i n g and b o r i n g . Whatever the reason the c h i l d w i l l f e e l t h a t he i s more burdensome than s a t i s f y i n g to h i s mother. 2. Do you have d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h because he eats too slowly? There i s no o b j e c t i v e measure o f "too s l o w l y " . T h i s i s measured by the p a t i e n c e o f te mother. Does she r e s e n t the time i t takes to see a c h i l d through h i s meal? Appendix 1-2 A. Was your pregnancy with desired? The assumption i s that the more a woman wants her child the better mother she i s l i k e l y to be. 6. Would you enjoy more i f he were of the other sex? A child might be resented because his sex i s resented. 8. After you put to bed do you t e l l him a story or do other things with him which the child enjoys? Children should not feel that they are put to bed because the adult wishes to be rid of them. Does the mother rush the child to bed or does she try to make this a pleasant time of the day? Spock (33) discusses the advisability of keeping bedtime agreeable and happy. The tired child should find his bed inviting and be pleased to go to i t i f the process has not been turned into an unpleasant duty. 9. Is the sort of child that gets on people's nerves? By giving the mother an opportunity to project her own feelings into other people she might reveal her own. 13. Are you troubled by the fact that looking after restricts your freedom? Does the mother resent the fact that earing for the child ties her down? 15. While you were pregnant with did you , wish for a child of the other sex? While a mother might not consciously resent the child's Appendix 1-3 sex after he i s born, she might reveal her resentment by-admitting that she desired a child of the other sex before the child's birth. 17. I f has a nightmare do you stay with him u n t i l he goes back to sleep again? Is she willing to take some discomfort upon herself i n order to reassure the child? 20.Do you spend some time playing with ? Children need the society of adults i n order to become social and intelligent beings. A mother who does not spend more time with her child than that required for i t s physical needs is probably not interested in this phase of the child's development. 23. For how long before the last breast feeding did receive other milk? Did she try to make weaning easy for the child, that i s , did she make It gradual? 26. Do you find that i s too slow when he i s supposed to get dressed, undressed or do other routine duties? Children learn by experimenting, and expermimenting takes time. An impatient mother resents the time taken by this learning process. 31. If you could afford i t would you prefer to pay someone to help with the housework or help with the child? Is the care of the child more of a chore,than the housework? Appendix 32. Has habits that you find annoying? In other words does the mother find her child annoying? 36. Are you i r r i t a t e d when you h ^ to t e l l the same things over and over again? As Powdermaker says (29) the attention span of a child Is short. When he i s young he heeds to be reminded very frequently of the task at hand, since he forgets easily what he i s told to do. 37. Are you satisfied with Is development? Parents tend to set a standard of perfection too high for children to attain, with the result that a child becomes discouraged and doubtful of his own capacities. He also feels resented when he realises that his mother does not approve of him as he i s . 38. Did you have a d i f f i c u l t time when you were weaning ? Was her way of weaning hard on the child? A2. Do you ever wish that were a more lovable child? Mothers sometimes need a show of affe ction more than do their children, and they resent the fact that the children do not show this affection. 51. Do you encourage i f he wants to help you while you are working around the house? Children must be given a chance to observe the world of adults, to get acquainted not only with toys but also with tools. As Susan Isaacs observes (17) i t i s necessary Appendix 3>5 that a child should watch his mother at her household tasks, go with her when she gardens or goes to the stores. This companionship with adults i s as necessary in calling out the child's intelligence as as are the playthings especially designed for the particular stage of understanding and manual s k i l l which he has reached. 55. Does i t i r r i t a t e you i f gets dirty from playing? The small children of a loving and understanding mother are not expected to think of cleanliness when they are playing. 57. When you play with do you enjoy i t ? Does the mother enjoy the child's company or force herself to endure i t in the interests of doing her duty? 60. Have you enough time for recreation despite your responsibilities towards ? Does she feel that she sacrifices her own pleasures for the sake of the child? 61. Are you irr i t a t e d when refuses to do what you want him todo? Some of the characteristics ascribed to children are %he following: "The two and a half year old does not have himself well in hand. He i s reputed to be variously impetuous, contrary, hesitant, dawdling, defiant, r i t u a l i s t i c , unreasonable and uncomprehensible.n Gesell (15,p. In describing the four year old Gesell writes (p.56)«He t e l l s t a l l tales, he brags, he tattles; he threatens, he alibies; Appendix 1-6 he c a l l s names...." With regard to the f i v e year o l d G e s e l l (p.66)) says t h a t he "cannot w e l l suppress h i s own p o i n t o f view to r e a l i s e hy r e c i p r o c i t y the p o i n t o f view of o t h e r s . " I n view o f the f o r e g o i n g , and when one t h i n k s o f the endless number o f t h i n g s a c h i l d i s t o l d t o do d u r i n g t h e course o f the day, and o f the number o f times he i s c r o s s e d i n h i s wishes, i t i s not s u r p r i s i ng t h a t a c h i l d v ery f r e q u e n t l y r e s e n t s a d u l t authority. I f then to the immaturity o f the c h i l d , and the f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s he meets i s added an i r r i t a b l e mother, d i f f i c u l -t i e s a r e bound to a r i s e . 63. I s so l i v e l y t h a t he makes you nervous? I f a mother r s e n t s her c h i l d ' s l i v e l i n e s s she d i s c o u rages h i s e f f o r t s towards l e a r n i n g muscular c o n t r o l and c o o r d i n -a t i o n and towards understanding space r e l a t i o n s e t c . I f she i s made nervous by h i s a c t i v i t y she r e s e n t s the c h i l d w h i l e her f e e l i n g o f nervousness l a s t s . 65. I s your home l i f e more d i f f i c u l t s i n c e 's a r r i v a l ? Unless the c h i l d Is a source of p l e a s u r e , o f good simple s a t i s f a c t i o n to the a d u l t s w i t h whom he l i v e s , n e i t h e r s c i e n t i f i c management nor meticulous care w i l l make up f o r t h i s l a c k . T h i s i s a p o i n t of view i n which most p s y c h o l o g i s t s are In agreement. Fo r example see Anna Wolf (39) 66. Do you hug and k i s s ? L i t t l e c h i l d r e n l i v e l e s s i n a world o f words and more i n Appendix 1-7 a world of deeds than do adults. Verbal expressions of love are not enough fo r them. They need the more concrete expressions of k i s s i n g and petting. 69. Do you f e e l that some of your friends are more fortunate i n th e i r children than you are i n having ? Or i n other words, would you rather have another c h i l d than the one you have? 70. While you bath, feed or dress do you f e e l harassed because of a l l the other things you have to do? Is the mother trying to rush the c h i l d through i t s routines? Does she resent the time th^se take? 71. Is there anything that you f i n d annoying about ', appeaance? Does she resent the child's looks? 7A. How lnng did you breast feed ? Did she breast feed the c h i l d f o r the normal term? 75. Why did you not breast feed or not breast feed him longer than you did? Did she refuse to breast feed the c h i l d , or stop the feeding without adequate reason? Appendix 1-8 B. Items r e f e r r i n g to over anxiousness. 3. Do you keep ____ from p l a y i n g with o t h e r c h i l d r e n t o prevent him from c a t c h i n g a contagious d i s e a s e ? T h i s q u e s t i o n was designed t o f i n d out i f a mother prevented her c h i l d from p l a y i n g w i t h other c h i l d r e n "because of imagined dangers. 11. Do you worry about the way t a l k s ? I f a c h i l d i s too o f t e n c o r r e c t e d i n h i s manner o f speaking h i s s e l f confidence may be shaken. 16. Do you worry about ' s manners? Does the mother r e a l i s e t h a t n u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a re too young to have any a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a d u l t s o c i a l e t i q u e t t e ? 19. Do you worry about o t h e r people's c r i t i c i s m o f your methods i n b r i n g i n g up ' ? I s she so u n c e r t a i n o f her own judgment t h a t i n t e r f e r i n g r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s make her worry about her methods? 22. Do you g e t upset when doesn't behave as he should i n f r o n t o f o t h e r people? I s her conf i d e n c e i n her a b i l i t y to b r i n g up c h i l d e a s i l y shaken? 25. A r e you l o n e l y i f you a r e without f o r a couple o f hours? Does she use the c h i l d t o s a t i s f y her own emotional needs? 27. Do you worry about 's t o i l e t t r a i n i n g ? I n w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l on the s u b j e c t there i s g e n e r a l agree-Appendix 1-9 . ment t h a t i f a mother wo r r i e s about her c h i l d ' s t o i l e t h a b i t s then the c h i l d w i l l f e e l tense and g u i l t y about them . Tenseness and g u i l t f e e l i n g s r e t a r d r a t h e r than h e l p s a t i s f a c t o r y development. 33. Do you worry t h a t i s not b r i g h t enough? I s the mother a f r a i d t h a t he does n o t compare w e l l w i t h .others i n t h i s - f o r our s o c i e t y - most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ? 35. Do you worry about ot h e r people's o p i n i o n o f , ? Does the c r i t i c i s m o f other people make her f e e l f e a r f u l and g u i l t y as a mother, or make her doubt the v a l u e o f her c h i l d ? A O . Do you worry t h a t doesn't eat .as w e l l as he should? "Most mothers seem to t h i n k t h a t i f t h e i r c h i l d does not f i l l up w i t h food s t a r v a t i o n w i l l s t a l k and overcome him , P- 1 3 9 ) before the next meal." Powdermaker (29., Indeed many a mother b e l i e v e s t h a t the way her c h i l d eats i s a measure o f her succe s s . "She must get him to eat p r o p e r l y , s u f f i c i e n t l y and w i t h d i s p a t c h . She s t r u g g l e s , f u s s e s , fumes. The c h i l d s t r u g g l e s , f u s s e s , fumes." Baruch (4 , p.227); I n l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t there i s g e n e r a l agreement t h a t the b a s i c cause f o r most feed i n g problems i s the mother's a n x i e t y . But a l l w r i t e r s do not l a y the blame e n t i r e l y on the moters. " I t i s true t h a t the 'over-Appendix 1-10 protecting 1 mothers i n general are more apt to have feeding problems. But even the f a i r l y stable mother i s commonly betrayed in t o wrong attitudes by the atmosphere of authority and a r b i t r a r i n e s s i n d i e t e t i c s that surround her i n our c i v i l i z a t i o n . She has been overawed by magazine and newspaper a r t i c l e s , health posters, radio programs, and by the tal k of r e l a t i v e s and neighbours, as we l l as by the advice of her own physicians. Research n u t r i t i o n -i s t s and practising physicians tend to stress the metabolic and s l i g h t the psychologic aspects of-feeding ..." Spock (32,p . l6^ A6. Do you worry about when you are not with him, even i f your reason t e l l s you he i s per f e c t l y safe? Has she i r r a t i o n a l fears i n connection with the w e l l being of her child? Does she see him threatened by Imagined or i exaggerated dangers? While there may be many reasons why a mother has morbid fears i n connection with her c h i l d , one that i s of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s survey Is now described. " I t i s not infrequent that the very mothers most concerned l e s t t h e i r children suffer accidents from automobiles or from drowning are the very ones who have unconscious h o s t i l e wishes towards t h e i r children. The presence of these h o s t i l e wishes i s very d i f f i c u l t f o r most persons to believe because i n these cases where the anxiety over possible harm i s strongest, they concern the very persons toward whom they have the deepest devotion and love." Symonds ,.(35, P. 14-6) Appendix 1-11 49. Are you a f r a i d t h a t cannot stand up f o r h i m s e l f ? I f a c h i l d ' s emotional growth i s to proceed n o r m a l l y there must be a proper balance of a f f e c t i o n and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . The l a t t e r cannot be developed i f the mother makes the c h i l d f e e l t h a t a t a l l times he needs her p r o t e c t i o n . 54* Do you keep from p l a y i n g w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n to prevent him from p i c k i n g up bad h a b i t s ? A c h i l d may be s t r o n g l y r e s t r i c t e d i n h i s p l a y a c t i v i t i e s and f r i e n d s h i p s i f h i s parents b e l i e v e that o t h e r p e o p l e 1 s c h i l d r e n are not good enough f o r t h e i r s . To quote Bergman (5, p. 53) " I f the parent shows condemnation o f and hate f o r (bad' neighbor c h i l d r e n , h i s own c h i l d , who may i n thought or a c t i o n i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h them, w i l l f e e l condemned by the parent's emotional r e a c t i o n . " Apart from t h i s , the c h i l d might a l s o get i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h our 'democratic i d e a l s ' . 59. Are you s o r r y t h a t i s growing up so q u i c k l y ? Does the mother r e s e n t h i s becoming more and more independ-ent? Has she a need t o remain the c e n t e r of h i s world? 62. Do you worry about 's h e a l t h ? Are her f e a r s exaggerated so t h a t they w i l l make fe c h i l d i n s e c u r e w i t h regard t o h i s b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s ? 64. Do you keep from p l a y i n g w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n to prevent Hm from g e t t i n g hurt? Running, jumping, c l i m b i n g e t c . a r e the means by which a Appendix 1-12 child develops i t s motor system. If he i s discouraged and made fearful this development w i l l be handicapped, which might lead to serious d i f f i c u l t i e s . In this connection Latimer (20. p. 355) writes: "It i s in the area of motor development particularly that the child-parent relationship i s of special importance i n these cases (children with typical t i c syndromes). Generally speaking we find these t i c patients frustrated and thwarted in muscular a c t i v i t i e s . " 67. Do you worry about fs appearance? This is another area in which a child can be made to feel insecure. 72. Do you worry that might have inherited undesirable characteristics? Does the mother make the child fear that he w i l l grow up to resemble some disliked relation, and that nothing can be done about i t ? 73. Do you get worried when you have d i f f i c u l t i e s with for fear that you are not handling him properly? It Is essential that a mother should feel capable of independent thought and action. She must feel secure enough i n herself to be able to meet new situations with realism and poise. Appendix C. Items r e f e r r i n g t o f e a r c o n d i t i o n i n g . 5. When c r i e s , whines or has a temper tantrum do you t r y to make him stop by spanking or s c o l d i n g him s e v e r e l y ? The g e n e r a l l y accepted p o i n t o f view i n t h i s matter i s t h a t punishment i s not a s o l u t i o n . B l a t z ( 6 , p. 134-) says: "...a 'rage 1 s i t u a t i o n i s one i n v h i c h the con-sequences:- are Inherent and adequate. Whenever a c h i l d i s enraged, h i s chances o f a c h i e v i n g h i s g o a l are l e s s e n e d i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to the i n t e n s i t y of h i s rage, and hence the proper t r a i n i n g procedure i s to l e a v e the c h i l d e n t i r e l y a l o n e . " G e l e e r d ( 1 2 ) departs from t h i s theory i n an i n t e r e s t i n g way. She b e l i e v e s t h a t some c h i l d r e n when they f e e l t h a t they have l o s t c o n t r o l over the s i t u a t i o n r e gress to the behaviour p a t t e r n o f young bab i e s , w i t h screaming and k i c k i n g . These a r e u s u a l l y c h i l d r e n w i t h a v e r y v i v i d phantasy l i f e t h a t h o l d s more a t t r a c t i o n f o r them than does r e a l i t y . They m a i n t a i n t h e i r weak h o l d on r e a l i t y as long as they f e e l secure, but whenever they f e e l f r u s t r a t e d they l o s e i t . She b e l i e v e s t h a t the b e s t way t o b r i n g them back to r e a l i t y i s by the reassurance o f a l o v i n g mother f i g u r e , j u s t as t h i s i s the b e s t way to stop a small baby from c r y i n g . Whatever the parents should do i n such s i t u a t i o n s however, they should not s c o l d or beat the c h i l d . C h i l d r e n who have tantrums, who c r y or whine, are f r u s t r a t e d c h i l d r e n who have not l e a r n e d any b e t t e r ways o f d e a l i n g Appendix I - l i j . w i t h t h e i r problems. Punishment w i l l o n l y make "them s t i l l more f r u s t r a t e d . 7. I f you should l o s e c o n t r o l over a few times you might l o s e c o n t r o l over the c h i l d f o r e v e r . A r i g i d a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e w i l l l e a d t o many c l a s h e s o f w i l l between parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , which i n t u r n w i l l o f t e n l e a d the c h i l d r e n i n t o ai over aggressive o r withdrawing p a t t e r n o f behaviour. 1 0 . When behaves badly do you t e l l him you don't l o v e him? Small c h i l d r e n a re wh o l l y dependent on t h e i r mothers, and i f they a r e t o l d t h a t t h e i r mo iters do not care f o r them any more t h e i r s e c u r i t y i s destroyed. A c c o r d i n g to Symonds (35, p. 65): "Perhaps the most g e n e r a l f r u s t r a t i o n of a l l i s l o s s o f l o v e . T h i s i s a f r u s t r a -t i o n t h at i s f e l t as a t h r e a t t o s e c u r i t y from b i r t h onward, and one that i s v i g o r o u s l y r e a c t e d t o . Loss o f l o v e does not have the e f f e c t o f c e r t a i n o t h e r more Immediately presented f r u s t r a t i o n s , but i t s consequences', are f a r - r e a c h i n g and u n d e r l i e many o f the oth e r f r u s t r a t i o n s o f i n f a n c y . A c c o r d i n g l y , most c h i l d r e n become h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e to cues and sigh s o f l o v e , o r i t s l a c k and tend to r e a c t w i t h t h e i r whole p e r s o n a l i t i e s to f r u s t r a t i o n s or l a c k s i n t h i s a r e a . " 1 2 . When showed i n t e r e s t i n e x c r e t o r y matters d i d you make him understand t h a t t h i s i s Appendix 1-15 d i s g u s t i n g ? C h i l d r e n l e a r n about t h i n g s by touching them and p l a y i n g w i t h them, and most c h i l d r e n w i l l a t one time or another p l a y w i t h t h e i r excrements, as w i t h anything e l s e . They cannot understand why a d u l t s are d i s g u s t e d w i t h the products of t h e i r b o d i e s , and s i g n s o f such d i s g u s t makes them f r i g h t e n e d and confused. 14. Do you make • understand t h a t God knows about e v e r y t h i n g he does? Small c h i l d r e n cannot understand the concept "God", and t e l l i n g them t h a t He knows about e v e r y t h i n g they do takes a l l p r i v a c y out o f t h e i r l i v e s . God can become a t h r e a t of punishment even f o r thoughts, and a k i n d of bogeyman used by p a r e n t s . 18. Do you l e t see you when you are undressed? T h i s q u e s t i o n was designed to f i n d out the parent's a t t i t u d e towards the human body. Does the c h i l d l e a r n to regard i t as something as n a t u r a l as the bodies o f b i r d s and bees and the shapes of f l o w e r s , or w i l l he a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h e v i l and f e e l a sense of g u i l t concerning i t ? 21. should le a m to obey without asking q u e s t i o n s . There are parents who expect t h e i r c h i l d r e n to obey q u i c k l y , q u i e t l y and without argument. "The extreme d o c i l i t y and obedience which t h i s k i n d of 'good Appendix I-l6 behaviour' requires can be achieved only by continually punishing or threatening to punish the child who obeys through fear. These methods are bound to curtail the child's i n i t i a t i v e and repress his natural curiosity. Later i n l i f e he i s l i k e l y either to be extremely resentful of any authority or else to follow the leader-ship of other people blindly." Powdermaker (29, B . 221) 2A. Do you t e l l 'm that the policeman or the bogeyman w i l l get him i f he isn't good? Threats of this kind may result i n irrational fears, and usually are not effective i n producing the desired behaviour. In one sense to threaten a child i s to dare him to do something, and to admit that he may disobey. Also threats which are not carried out, or which cannot be carried out, w i l l undermine the authority of a parent. 28. Do you praise ? Thae are opposing opinions on this subject. According to Blatz (6) social approval or disapproval as incentives are ineffective since they alter the desirability or undesirability of the goal, inasmuch as the child may become more interested i n approval than in the task i t s e l f . Cole and Morgan (8, p. 117) express another/opinion. "Children desire to please others. A child soon learns that his emotional comfort depends upon his a b i l i t y to please other people. He become sensitive to their expressions of approval or disapproval, and w i l l go to Appendix 1-17 great lengths i n his attempt to please them. This desire becomes one of the strongest motivating factors in human l i f e j and i t i s probably not an exaggeration to say that, in the last analysis, most of what an individual does i s motivated by a desire to please another person. To be sure, thee are a few people whose only incentive seems to be to please themselves, but investi-gation w i l l usually reveal that these persons have resorted to this position because they have failed i n their social adjustments." 29. If played with his sex organs should he be spanked severely to teach him a lesson? Threats and punishments connected with masturbation can cause severe guilt feelings ani maladjustments, and can lead to the idea of 'unpardonable sin' so often found in the mentally i l l . No harmful effects of masturbation ha\e ever been proven, but a great many people suffer from the conflict created between the desire for gratification and te fear of wickedness and irreparable harm which in our society i s associated with masturbation. Threats and punishment do not often stop the practice, and the harm they cause i s not even compensated for by protection to the child from developing socially undesir-able behaviour. Bergman (5, p. 52) asks what the consequences would be i f parents were to admit., the facts of masturbation, and says: "We doubt very much i f Appendix I« l 8 parents who take a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the b a s i c f a c t of the c h i l d ' s endowment w i t h an organ capable of g i v i n g e x q u i s i t e p l e a s u r e w i l l see more masturbation i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n than o t h e r p a r e n t s . " The g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e towards t h i s problem i n the l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t , i s t h a t i f parents manage to arrange f o r t h e i r , c h i l d r e n a l i f e t h a t i s r i c h i n i n t e r e s t s and emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n s then t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i l l not be too i n t e r e s t e d i n the p l e a s u r e s g i v e n by masturbation. 30. should l e a r n t h a t everybody has to f i g h t h i s own b a t t l e s i n l i f e . I s t i e c h i l d being taught t h a t human s o c i e t y i s arranged on the b a s i s o f the laws o f the jungle? 3A. Do you s c o l d o r p u n i s h f o r sucking h i s thumb to make him stop doing i t ? Thumb sucking seems to g i v e children s a t i s f a c t i o n when they f e e l f r u s t r a t e d , bored or t i r e d . A c c o r d i n g to Baruch (4-) and Spock (33) the h a b i t does no harm to the permanent t e e t h i f i t stops before the age o f s i x . To make an i s s u e of the p r a c t i c e might have harmful consequences i n f r u s t r a t i n g the c h i l d and making him f e e l r e s e n t f u l . The best cure seems to be that o f f e r e d f o r masturbation, which i s , to g i v e 1he c h i l d a more s a t i s f y i n g l i f e . 39. When wets h i s pants do you spank or s c o l d him s e v e r e l y t o teach hirji a l e s s o n ? There i s g e n e r a l agreement i n l i t e r a t u r e t h a t punishment Appendix I-19 shame and scolding of the child because he wets himself are contra-indicated. An adult usually has to take the responsibility of renting a child, up to the age of four, to urinate at intervals. Most children who continue to wet i n the day time are tense and uneasy and have a tendency to procrastinate and s t a l l , which usually indicates that they are being bossdd around too much and habitually resist doing anything they are supposed to do. Al. When behaves badly do you t e l l him he is a bad boy? To give a child the idea that he i s bad makes him feel worthless and unwanted, which does not improve his personality. 4-3. Do you make comparisons between and other children, in his presence? Does the mother make him feej worthless by comparison? AA. Do you have to say 'don't' to ? A discussion of this item leads to instant controversy. Isaacs (17, p. 73) says; "Children learn by their fingers - without active touch their vision as yet t e l l s them l i t t l e ; and without their actual sensory experience of things what other people t e l l them means hardly anything at a l l . There could not be a more cruel or a more stupid thing said to l i t t l e children than "don 1t touch'. It simply means 'Don't learn, don't grow, don't be intelligent'." But, says Symonds (35) children must Appendix 1 - 2 0 be p r o t e c t e d from f a l l s , from p l a y i n g w i t h matches, and books and f u r n i t u r e must be p r o t e c t e d from d e s t r u c t i o n . T h i s means t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s must be c u r t a i l e d , even though t h i s c u r t a i l m e n t l e a d s to repeated f r u s t r a t i o n s which might have widespread i m p l i c a t i o n s . 4-5. I s _ t h e s o r t o f c h i l d t h a t needs to be slapped o r spanked? That i s , does the mother s l a p or spank her c h i l d ? B l a t z ( 6 , p. 66) says: "Punishment suggests a qui d pro quo s i t u a t i o n . The teacher says, ' I f you do thus and so, you w i l l s u f f e r t h i s and t h a t . ' S u r e l y i f the'miscreant' i s w i l l i n g to s u f f e r ' t h i s and t h a t ' he should be perm i t t e d to do 'thus and so'. Punishment never s o l v e s a problem; i t c r e a t e s a new one. Revenge s t a r t s a c y c l e of human r e t a l i a t i o n t h a t can never end." He a l s o p o i n t s out th a t a l l people must have the p r i v i l e g e o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r d i g n i t y as human beings. T h i s cannot be done i n a s i t u a t i o n where one human being i n f l i c t s p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e upon another. I t i s tr u e t h a t nature i n f l i c t s p a i n as a consequence of an a c t , as f o r example when a c h i l d touches a candle flame. E ut t h i s i s one of the important d i f f e r e n c e s between the human and the p h y s i c a l world. 46. I f you s l a p o r spank do you do i t so t h a t i t r e a l l y h u r t s him? There i s l i t t l e opposing evidence to the o p i n i o n t h a t " V i o l e n c e produces counter v i o l e n c e and b r u t a l i t y Appendix 1-21 produces b r u t a l i t y . " Symonds (35, p. 108) 4,8. I f won't eat h i s v e g e t a b l e s he shouldn't get any d e s s e r t . S i n c e the experiment o f Dr. C l a r a Davis (9) there has been g e n e r a l agreement i n l i t e r a t u r e t h a t mothers should see t h a t the proper food i s p l a c e d before the c h i l d , but should l e a v e i t up to the c h i l d to eat the food o r not. I f mealtimes are turned i n t o b a t t l e times c h i l d r e n w i l l a s s o c i a t e e a t i n g w i t h arguments, which does not make f o r a h e a l t h y approach to food. 50. When wets h i s bed do you spank or s c o l d him s e v e r e l y to teach him a le s s o n ? Enureses i s one of the most f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d problems i n l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d c are, and there i s g e n e r a l agree-ment i n condeming punishment as a method o f t r a i n i n g a c h i l d to remain dry. ' Baruch (4., p. 176) says: " C o n t r o l o f e l i m i n a t i n g l e a r n e d through storm and s t r a i n i s too f r e q u e n t l y accompanied by a t t i t u d e s o f a n x i e t y , s e l f -d i s t r u s t and g u i l t . These m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t mental h e a l t h and i n a d d i t i o n a f f e c t p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . " G e s e l l (14-) p o i n t s out t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n bladder c o n t r o l are o f t e n due to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n development and growth. Some c h i l d r e n are backward i n s p h i n c t e r c o n t r o l . With o t h e r s the p h y s i o l o g i c a l t h r e s h o l d o f the u r i n a r y system I s low and even s l i g h t t e n s i o n s w i l l f i n d t h e i r o u t l e t through t h i s system. There i s a l s o the f a c t t h a t i n some i n d i v i d u a l s t e n s i o n s Appendix 1-22 of any k i n d are r e a d i l y communicated to the bladder, •rendering i t l e s s capable of r e l a x i n g and of r e t a i n i n g u r i n e . A two or three year o l d c h i l d who has been dry f o r months might s t a r t wetting h i s bed again when a new baby i s born, or the f a m i l y moves to a new house, or even i f he has been f r i g h t e n e d by a dog. A c h i l d who l i v e s i l l a constant s t a t e of t e n s i o n might never have become dry i n the f i r s t p l a c e . Wadsworth (37) i n v e s t i g a t e d 100 cases of enuresis i n an army i n d u c t i o n center and found that most of. the subjects had harsh, unsympathetic parents a g a i n s t whom they f e l t r e s e n t f u l but had not r e b e l l e d . As a r u l e they had been i n a c t i v e c h i l d r e n , l a c k i n g the u s u a l amount of aggressiveness. T h e i r most stubborn and non-conforming c h a r a c t e r i s t i c had been enureses, which they had had ever since they could remember. Gerard (13) i n v e s t i g a t i n g 72 cases of enureses r e f e r r e d to p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e found that wetting was due to p h y s i c a l causes i n 7 cases, to f a u l t y t r a i n i n g i n 4- cases, and to psychogenic reasons i n 61 cases. With regard to the l a s t group she found that the wetting c o i n c i d e d w i t h the a r r i v a l of a s i b l i n g i n 5 cases. I n 8 cases the c h i l d r e n had h o s t i l e mothers or f a t h e r s . I n 4-6 cases she found a d e f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e between the boys and ^ n e g i r l s . The boys were passive and h e l p l e s s , the g i r l s a c t i v e and independent. Studying the parents of these c h i l d r e n she found that the boys had r e j e c t i n g Appendix 1-23 mothers, who t r i e d to make up f o r i t by e x c e s s i v e s o l i c i t o u s n e s s . The boys had become a f r a i d o f women and t r i e d to a v o i d the danger i n v o l v e d i n being a man i n the power of women by behaving i n a womanlike f a s h i o n . The g i r l s , oh the o t h e r hand, had become a f r a i d o f t h e i r a f f e c t i o n a t e f a t h e r s and t r i e d to s a f e -guard themselves by becoming as strong and independent as men. A l l these reasons g i v e n f o r bed w e t t i n g concern us o n l y i n d i r e c t l y s i n c e we are d e a l i n g with n u r s e r y school c h i l d r e n whose t o i l e t t r a i n i n g i s not expected to be completed before the age of three and a h a l f , and whose wetting cannot be c a l l e d enureses. The reasons concern us, however, i n s o f a r as they throw l i g h t on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between bed wetting and the a t t i t u d e o f parents towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n , a t t i t u d e s which are a l r e a d y m a n i f e s t when the c h i l d r e n are of n u r s e r y s c h o o l age. 53. When behaves b a d l y do you t h r e a t e n him w i t h punishments, such as spanking, being l o c k e d i n a room, standing i n a corner, etc.? As has been s a i d a l r e a d y w i t h regard to i t e m 2 4 , t h r e a t s are not a p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e v i c e . 56. I t i s more important to see t h a t should enjoy h i s meal than to i n s i s t upon good t a b l e manners. I n a study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c h i l d ' s e a t i n g Appendix I«2l+. habits, his home background and his nursery school behaviour, Baldwin (3) investigated 76 cases, of which 4-2$ had good appetites. Children with good table manners were found only in the good appetite group. The children with good appetites and good table manners were found to be poorly adjusted in the nursery school. They conformed i n a meek, cringing way, were shy and inhibited, and socially isolated. The children with good appetites but no table manners were socially poised, active, unafraid and tended to be leaders. Their parents were less coercive and exacting than the parents of the group with the good table manners. 58. Do you get your husband to spank or scold for something he has done while you were with the child? Does the mother assume responsibility for the child? 68. If showed interest in the sex organs of other children he should be spanked or scolded severely to teach him a lesson. Does the child learn to associate fear and guilt with sex? Appendix i i _1 MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE The purpose o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s to r e l a t e the way mothers b r i n g up t h e i r c h i l d r e n to the way t h e i r c h i l d r e n get along i n the n u r s e r y s c h o o l . There are no r i g h t o r wrong answers. We want to f i n d out what mothers a c t u a l l y do and how they f e e l w i t h regard to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h e r e f o r e a l l honest answers are good answers. The f i l l e d out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l - they w i l l not be seen by anyone who i s not d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h conducting t h i s study. Answer a l l q u e s t i o n s ; mark any q u e s t i o n which you f e e l i s hard to answer w i t h an X but answer i t to the be s t of your a b i l i t y . F i r s t read the statement o r q u e s t i o n . Then w r i t e the name of your c h i l d (the one about which you are answering) i n the blank space over the l i n e . F i n a l l y u n d e r l i n e the word or phrase which answers the q u e s t i o n or i s n e a r e s t to the way you f e e l about the statement. EXAMPLE: Do you get splashed when you g i v e JIMMIE h i s bath? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never WORK QUICKLY - DO NOT PONDER Appendix I I - 2 Mother's Name These answers are about her son daughter who i s years months o l d . The parents l i v e t o g e t h e r . The f a t h e r i s mostly away. The mother b r i n g s up the c h i l d without the h e l p o f a husband. Name and age o f br o t h e r s Name and age o f s i s t e r s 1. I s your h e a l t h too poor t o l o o k a f t e r without undue s t r a i n on y o u r s e l f ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 2. Do you have d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h because he (she) e a t s too slowly? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 3 . Do you keep from p l a y i n g with o t h e r c h i l d r e n to prevent him (her) from c a t c h i n g a contagious d i s e a s e ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Appendix II«3 4-. Was your pregnancy w i t h e a g e r l y d e s i r e d d e s i r e d not d e s i r e d hut welcome when o c c u r r e d unwelcome v e r y unwelcome 5. When • c r i e s , whines or has a temper tantrum do you t r y to make him (her) stop by spanking or s c o l d i n g him (her) s e v e r e l y ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 6. Would you enjoy more i f he (she) were of the other sex? a g r e a t d e a l somewhat no 7. I f .you should l o s e c o n t r o l over a few times you might l o s e c o n t r o l over the c h i l d f o r ever. s t r o n g l y agree agree undecided d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 8. A f t e r you put to bed do you t e l l him (her) a s t o r y o r do other t h i n g s w i t h him (her) which the c h i l d enjoys? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 9. I s the s o r t o f c h i l d t h a t gets on people's nerves? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 10. When , . behaves b a d l y do you t e l l him (her) t h a t you don't l o v e him (her)? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 11. Do you worry about the way t a l k s ? a g r e a t d e a l moderately no Appendix II-!}. 12. When showed interest in excretory matters did you make him (her) understand that this i s disgusting? very much so to some degree not at a l l 13. Are you troubled by the fact that looking after restricts your freedom? amost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never l'A. Do you make understand that God knows about everything he (she) does? yes not as a rule never 15. While you were pregnant with did you wish for a child of the other sex? very strongly moderately not at a l l 16. Do you worry about manners? a great deal to quite an extent moderately slightly no 17. I f , has a nightmare do you stay with him (her) u n t i l he (she) goes back to sleep again? almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never 18. Do you l e t see you when you are undressed? almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never 19. Do you worry about other people's criticism of your methods in bringing up j almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never Appendix I I - 5 20. Do you spend some time playing with every day on most days on some days r a r e l y almost never 21. should learn to obey without asking questions? strongly agree agree undecided disagree strongly disagree 22. Do you get upset when doesn't behave as he (she) should i n front of dher people? a great deal to quite an extent moderately s l i g h t l y not at a l l 23. For how long before the l a s t breast feeding did receive other milk? more than 4 weeks 3 - 4 weeks 1 - 2 weeks 4 - 7 days less than 4 dgrs This question does not apply as has not been breastfed. 24. Do you t e l l - that the policeman or a bogeyman w i l l get him (her) i f he (she) i s n ' t good? very frequently frequently occasionally r a r e l y almost never 25. Are you lonely i f you are without f o r a couple of hours? almost always frequently occasionally r a r e l y almost never 26. Do you f i n d that i s too slow when he (she) i s supposed to get dressed, undressed or do other routine duties? almost always frequently occasionally r a r e l y almost never Appendix I3>6 27. Do you worry about ' s t o i l e t training? a great deal to quite an extent occasionally rarely almost never 28. Do you praise ? very frequently frequently occasionally rarely almost never 29. I f played with his (her) sex organs he (she) should be spanked or scolded severely to teach him (her) a lesson. strongly agree agree undecided disagree strongly disagree 30. should learn that everybody has to fight his own battles in l i f e . strongly agree agree undecided disagree strongly disagree prefer to 3 1 . If you could afford i t would you/pay someone to help with the housework or help with the child (children) 3 2 . Has habits that you find annoying? a great many quite a few some hardly any none 3 3 . Do you worry that _ is not bright enough? a great deal to quite an extent moderately slightly no 3 4 . Do you scold or punish for sucking his thumb or make him stop doing i t ? almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never Appendix I I-7 35. Do you worry about other people's o p i n i o n o f a g r e a t * d e a l f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 36. Are you i r r i t a t e d when you have t o t e l l the same t h i n g s over and over again? v e r y s t r o n g l y q u i t e s t r o n g l y moderately s l i g h t l y no 37. Are you s a t i s f i e d w i t h _' s development? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 38. D i d you have a d i f f i c u l t time w i t h _, when you were weaning him (her)? v e r y d i f f i c u l t d i f f i c u l t moderately d i f f i c u l t h a r d l y d i f f i c u l t not d i f f i c u l t 39. When wets h i s (her) pants do you spank o r s c o l d him (her) s e v e r e l y to teach him (her) a lesson? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never AO. Do you worry t h a t doesn't eat as w e l l as he (she) should? a g r e a t d e a l f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never A l . When ____r___^ behaves b a d l y do you t e l l him (her) th a t he (she) i s a bad boy (a bad g i r l ) ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 42. Do you ever wish t h a t -: were a more l o v a b l e c h i l d ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y occasionally r a r e l y almost never Appendix II - 8 43. Do you make comparisons between and other c h i l d r e n i n h i s (her) presence? very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 44- Do you have to say "don' t n to [ ? c o n t i n u o u s l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 45. I s the s o r t o f c h i l d t h a t needs to be slapped o r spanked? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 46. Do you worry about when you a r e not w i t h him (her) even i f your reason t e l l s you th a t he (she) i s p e r f e c t l y safe? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 4 7 . I f you spank or s l a p . do you do i t so th a t i t r e a l l y h u r t s him (her)? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 48. I f won't eat h i s vegetables he (she) shouldn't get any d e s s e r t . s t r o n g l y agree agree undecided d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 49. Are you a f r a i d cannot stand up f o r h i m s e l f (hersa-fj? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 50. When wets h i s (her) bed do you spank or s c o l d him (her) s e v e r e l y to teach him (her) a l e s s o n ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never A p p e n d i x I I - 9 51. Do you encourage i f he (she) w a n t s to h e l p you while you are working around the house? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y rarebjc almost never 52. Would you r a t h e r do some other k i n d o f work than l o o k a f t e r a smal l c h i l d ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 53. When behaves badly do you t h r e a t e n him with punishments such as spanking, being l o c k e d i n a room, standing In the corner e t c . almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 54-. Do you keep from p l a y i n g w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n to prevent him (her) from p i c k i n g up bad h a b i t s ? very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 55. Does i t i r r i t a t e you i f gets d i r t y from p l a y i n g ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 56. I t i s more Important to see t h a t should enjoy h i s (her) meal than to i n s i s t upon good t a b l e manners. strongly agree agree undecided d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 57. When you p l a y w i t h do you enjoy i t ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost n e v e r 58. Do you get your husband to spank or s c o l d f o r something he (she) has done w h i l e you were w i t h the c h i l d ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Appendix 11-10 59. A r e you s o r r y t h a t i s growing up so q u i c k l y ? very much to q u i t e an extent moderately s l i g h t l y not a t a l l 60. Have you enough time f o r r e c r e a t i o n d e s p i t e your r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards ? p l e n t y q u i t e enough j u s t enough not q u i t e enough much too l i t t l e 61 . A r e you i r r i t a t e d when r e f u s e s to do what you want him (her) to do? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 62. Do you worry about »s h e a l t h ? a g r e a t d e a l to q u i t e an extent moderately s l i g h t l y no 6 3 . I s so l i v e l y t h a t he (she) makes you nervous? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 6 A . D 0 you keep from p l a y i n g w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n to prevent him (her) from g e t t i n g h u r t ? almost a lways f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never 65. I s your home l i f e more d i f f i c u l t s i n c e , ' s a r r i v a l ? a g r e a t d e a l to q u i t e an extent moderately more s l i g h t l y more no 66. Do you hug and k i s s ? V e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never >• Appendix 11-11 67. Do you worry about ' s appearance? a great deal to quite an extent moderately slightly no 68. If • JJ. showed interest in the sex organs of other children he (she) should be spanked or scolded severely to teach him (her) a lesson. strongly agree agree undecided disagree strongly disagree 69. Do you feel that some of your friends are more fortunate in their children than you are in having very strongly quite strongly moderately slightly not at a l l 70. While you bath, feed or dress do you feel harassed because of a l l the other things you have to do? almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never 71. Is there anything that you find annoying about ' s appearance? a great deal quite a lot some things few things nothing 72. Do you worry that ; might have inherited some undesirable characteristics? a great deal to quite an extent to some extent hardly at a l l no 73. Do you get worried when you have d i f f i c u l t i e s with for fear that you aren't handling him (her) properly? almost always frequently occasionally rarely almost never 74. How long did you breast feed _ over 9 months 6.- 9 months 3 not at a l l - 5 months less than 3 months Appendix 11-12 Why d i d you not b r e a s t f e e d , or not b r e a s t f e e d him (her) l o n g e r than you did? c h i l d outgrew i t d e t r i m e n t a l to h e a l t h too i n c o n v e n i e n t i n s u f f i c i e n t m i l k supply d e t r i m e n t a l to your f i g u r e APPENDIX I I I ~ 1 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE NURSERY SCHOOL SUPERVISOR T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e f e r s to o b s e r v a t i o n s made o f the c h i l d ' s behaviour dur i n g the l a s t f o u r weeks. Name of the c h i l d The c h i l d has been i n the nu r s e r y s c h o o l months weeks. The h e a l t h o f the c h i l d i s e x c e l l e n t average poor The mental development o f the c h i l d i s e x c e l l e n t average poor Has the c h i l d been i r r i t a b l e ? almost always frequen t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Has the c h i l d been l i s t l e s s ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Has the c h i l d d i s p l a y e d a g g r e s s i v e behaviour? very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Has the c h i l d been over c a u t i o u s ? very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Has the c h i l d d i s p l a y e d j e a l o u s y ? very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Appendix I I I - 2 Has the c h i l d been stubborn? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Has the c h i l d appeared to be over s e n s i t i v e ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Has the c h i l d been b o i s t e r o u s ? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Has the c h i l d t r i e d to get a t t e n t i o n ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Was the c h i l d e a s i l y f r i g h t e n e d ? very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Was the c h i l d bossy? Very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Did the c h i l d have temper tantrums? very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Did the c h i l d cry? very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Did the c h i l d show l a c k o f s e l f c o n t r o l ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Has the c h i l d d i s p l a y e d n e g a t i v i s t i c tendencies? very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Appendix I I I - 3 Has the c h i l d shown d e s t r u c t i v e tendencies? very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Did the c h i l d daydream? e x c e s s i v e l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almostnever Has the c h i l d d i s p l a y e d r e g r e s s i v e behaviour? very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Did the c h i l d withdraw from a d u l t s ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Did the c h i l d withdraw from o t h e r c h i l d r e n ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Did the c h i l d withdraw from new s i t u a t i o n s ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Was the c h i l d d e f i a n t ? very f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Was the c h i l d c h e e r f u l ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Was the c h i l d c o - o p e r a t i v e w i t h a d u l t s ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Did the c h i l d p l a y w e l l alone? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Appendix I H ~ l j . Did the c h i l d p l a y w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n as w e l l as can he expected of h i s age? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Was the c h i l d f r i e n d l y w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Was the c h i l d f r i e n d l y w i t h a d u l t s ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y occasL o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Was the c h i l d independent enough f o r h i s age w i t h regard to d r e s s i n g , e a t i n g and o t h e r r o u t i n e s ? yes o c c a s i o n a l l y no D i d the c h i l d eat w e l l ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Did the c h i l d s l e e p w e l l ? almost always f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y almost never Appendix IV-» 1 MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE (SECOND FORM) The purpose of this questionnaire is to relate the way mothers bring up their children to the way their children get along in the nursery school. There are no right or wrong answers. We want to find out what mothers actually do and how they feel with regard to their children. Therefore a l l honest answers are good answers. The f i l l e d out questionnaires w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y confidential --they w i l l not be seen by anyone who is not directly concerned with conducting this study. Answer a l l questions; mark any question which you feel is hard to answer with an X but answer i t to the best of your a b i l i t y . F i r s t read the statement or question. Then write the name of your child (the one about which you are answering) in the blank space over the line. Finally underline the word or phrase which answers the question or is nearest to the way you feel about the statement. .. his bath? a l m o s t n e v e r EXAMPLE: Do you get splashed when you give J t - < -7 a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y WORK QUICKLY --DO NOT PONDER Appendix IV-2 Mother's Name s o n | | These answers are about her daughter J J who i s years months o l d , and goes to Nursery S c h o o l . [ j.The parents l i v e together. Q ' T h e f a t h e r i s mostly away. j~] The mother b r i n g s up the c h i l d without the h e l p of a husband. Name and age of b r o t h e r s Name and age of s i s t e r s 1. Is your h e a l t h too poor to look a f t e r „ without undue s t r a i n on your s e l f ? a l m o s t . a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 2. Do you have d i f f i c u l t i e s with. because he (she) eats too slowly? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 3. Do you keep . from p l a y i n g w i t h other c h i l d r e n to prevent him (her) from c a t c h i n g something? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 4 , Was your pregnancy with.., . e a g e r l y d e s i r e d d e s i r e d n o t d e s i r e d b u t w e l c o m e d w h e n o c c u r r e d u n w e l o o m e v e r y u n w e l o o m e Appendix IV~3 5. When c r i e s * whines or has a temper tantrum do you t r y to make him (her) stop by spanking or s c o l d i n g him (her) s e v e r e l y ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 6. I f you should l o s e c o n t r o l over a few times you might l o s e c o n t r o l over the c h i l d f o r e v e r . s t r o n g l y a g r e e a g r e e u n d e c i d e d d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 7. Is the s o r t of c h i l d t h a t gets on peoples' nerves? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 8. Do you worry about the way t a l k s ? a g r e a t d e a l m o d e r a t e l y n o 9. When showed i n t e r e s t i n e x c r e t o r y matters d i d you make him (her) understand t h a t t h i s i s disgus t i n g ? v e r y m u o h s o t o s o m e d e g r e e n o t a t a l l 10. Are you t r o u b l e d by the f a c t t h a t l o o k i n g a f t e r • r e s t r i c t s your freedom? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 11. Do you make understand that God knows about e v e r y t h i n g he (she) does? y e s n o t a s a r u l e n e v e r 12. While you were pregnant w i t h d i d you wish f o r a c h i l d of the other sex? v e r y s t r o n g l y m o d e r a t e l y n o t a t a l l 13. Do you worry about »_s manners? a g r e a t d e a l t o q u i t e a n e x t e n t m o d e r a t e l y s l i g h t l y n o 14. Do you l e t see you when you are undressed? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r Appendix IV-I4. 15, Do you worry about other peoples' c r i t i c i s m of your methods i n b r i n g i n g up ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 16. Do you spend some time p l a y i n g w i t h e v e r y d a y o n m o s t d a y s o n Borne d a y s r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 17. should l e a r n to obey without a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s . s t r o n g l y a g r e e a g r e e u n d e c i d e d d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 18. Do you get upset when doesn't behave as he (she) should i n f r o n t of other people ? a g r e a t d e a l t o q u i t e a n e x t e n t m o d e r a t e l y s l i g h t l y n o t a t a l l 19, Are you l o n e l y i f you are without f o r a couple of hours? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 20. Do you f i n d t h a t i s too slow when he (she) i s supposed to get dressed, undressed or do other r o u t i n e d u t i e s ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 21. Do you worry about »s t o i l e t t r a i n i n g ? a g r e a t d e a l t o q u i t e a n e x t e n t o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 22. Do you p r a i s e . : ? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 23. I f , pla y e d w i t h h i s (her) sex organs he (she) should be spanked or s c o l d e d s e v e r e l y to teach him (her) a l e s s o n . s t r o n g l y a g r e e a g r e e • u n d e o i d e d d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 24. I f you c o u l d a f f o r d i t would you prefer' t o pay someone to h e l p w i t h t h e h o u s e w o r k o r h e l p w i t h t h e c h i l d ( c h i l d r e n ) Appendix IV-5 25. Has h a b i t s that you f i n d annoying? a g r e a t m a n y q u i t e a f e w s o m e h a r d l y a n y n o n e 26. D i d you s c o l d or punish ____ f o r s u c k i n g h i s thumb? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 27. Do you worry about other p e o p l e s 1 o p i n i o n of ? a g r e a t d e a l f r e q u e n t l y ' o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 28. Are you i r r i t a t e d when you have to t e l l the same things over and o-ver again? v e r y s t r o n g l y q u i t e s t r o n g l y m o d e r a t e l y B l i g h t l y n o 29. Do you have to prod to make him (her) do things p r o p e r l y ? a g r e a t d e a l f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 30. I f wet h i s (her) pants d i d you spank or s c o l d him (her) s e v e r e l y to teach him (her) a lesson? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 31. Do you worry that doesn't eat as w e l l as he (she) should? a g r e a t d e a l f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 32. When behaves badly do you t e l l him (her) that he (she) i s a bad boy (a bad g i r l ) ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 33. Do you t e l l . t h a t other c h i l d r e n are b e t t e r behaved than he (she) Is? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r .34. Does • _..:trother you by t o u c h i n g things he ought not to touqh? c o n t i n u o u s l y f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r Appendix IV-6 35. Is , ___._fcb.e s o r t of c h i l d that needs to be slapped or spanked? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 36. Do you worry about when you are not with him (her) even i f your reason t e l l s you t h a t he (she) i s p e r f e c t l y safe? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 37. I f you spank or s l a p _ do you do i t so t h a t i t r e a l l y h u r t s him (her)? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 38. I f won't eat h i s veg e t a b l e s he (she) shouldn't get any d e s s e r t ? s t r o n g l y a g r e e a g r e e u n d e c i d e d d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 39. Are you a f r a i d t h a t . _ _ , cannot stand up f o r h i m s e l f ? ( h e r s e l f ) ? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 40. I f wet h i s (her) bed d i d you spank or s c o l d him (her) s e v e r e l y t o teach him (her) a lesson? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 41. Would you r a t h e r do some other k i n d o f work than look a f t e r a s m a l l c h i l d ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 42. When behaves badly do you t h r e a t e n him (her) w i t h punishments such as spanking, b e i n g l o c k e d i n a room, s t a n d i n g i n the c o r n e r , etc? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 43. Do you keep from p l a y i n g w i t h Other c h i l d r e n to prevent him (her) from p i c k i n g up bad h a b i t s ? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 44. Does i t i r r i t a t e you i f gets d i r t y from p l a y i n g ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r Appendix IV-7 45. I t i s more Important to see that. should enjoy h i s (her) meal than to I n s i s t upon good t a b l e manners. s t r o n g l y a g r e e a g r e e u n d e o i d e d d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 46. Are you s o r r y that i s growing up so q u i c k l y ? v e r y m u o h t o q u i t e a n e x t e n t m o d e r a t e l y s l i g h t l y n o t a t a l l 47. Have you enough time f o r r e c r e a t i o n d e s p i t e your r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards ? p l e n t y q u i t e e n o u g h j u s t e n o u g h n o t q u i t e e n o u g h raaoh t o o l i t t l e 48. Are you i r r i t a t e d when r e f u s e s to do what you want him (her) to do? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 49. Do you worry about. : *s h e a l t h ? a g r e a t d e a l t o q u i t e a n e x t e n t m o d e r a t e l y s l i g h t l y n o 50. Is so l i v e l y t h a t he (she) makes you nervous? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 51. Is your home l i f e more d i f f i c u l t s i n c e — ' 3 a r r i v a l a g r e a t d e a l t o q u i t e a n e x t e n t m o d e r a t e l y m o r e s l i g h t l y m o r e n o 52. Do you hug and k i s s ? V e r y f r e q u e n t l y • f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 53. Do you worry about , 's appearance? a . g r e a t d e a l t o q u i t e a n e x t e n t m o d e r a t e l y s l i g h t l y n o Appendix IV-8 54. I f showed i n t e r e s t i n the sex organs of other c h i l d r e n he (she) should be spanked or s c o l d e d s e v e r e l y to teach him (her) a l e s s o n , s t r o n g l y a g r e e a g r e e u n d e c i d e d d i s a g r e e " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 55, While you bath, f e e d or d r e s s . . do you f e e l harassed because of a l l the other t h i n g s you have to do? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r ' 56, Do you worry t h a t might have i n h e r i t e d some u n d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? a g r e a t d e a l t o q u i t e a n e x t e n t t o s o m e e x t e n t h a r d l y a t a l l n o 57, Do you get wo r r i e d when you have d i f f i c u l t i e s with _ _. f o r f e a r t h a t you a r e n ' t h a n d l i n g him (her) p r o p e r l y ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r Appendix V ~ l Q^STIONNAIRE FOR THE NURSERY SCHOOL SUPERVISOR (FORM 2) NAME OF NURSERY SCHOOL Thi s q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e f e r s to ob s e r v a t i o n s made of the c h i l d ' s behaviour d u r i n g the l a s t f o u r weeks. Name of the c h i l d The c h i l d has been i n nursery s c h o o l months weeks The h e a l t h of the c h i l d i s e x o e l l e n t a v e r a g e The mental development of the c h i l d i s e x o e l l e n t a v e r a g e p o o r p o o r 1. Has the c h i l d a l m o s t a l w a y s 2 . Has the c h i l d a l m o s t a l w a y s 3. Has the c h i l d v e r y f r e q u e n t l y 4. Has the c h i l d a l m o s t a l w a y s 5. Was the c h i l d v e r y f r e q u e n t l y 6. D i d the c h i l d v e r y f r e q u e n t l y been i r r i t a b l e ? f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y been l i s t l e s s ? f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y been ov e r - c a u t i o u s ? f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y been stubborn? f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y e a s i l y f r i g h t e n e d ? f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y have temper tantrums? f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r Appendix V-2 7. D i d the c h i l d cry? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y ' f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 8. D i d the c h i l d show l a c k o f s e l f - c o n t r o l ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 9. Has the c h i l d d i s p l a y e d n e g a t i v i s t i c tendencies? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 10. Has the c h i l d shown d e s t r u c t i v e tendencies? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 11. D i d the c h i l d withdraw from a d u l t s ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 12. 13. a l m o s t n e v e r a l m o s t n e v e r D i d the c h i l d withdraw from other c h i l d r e n ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y Did the c h i l d withdraw from new s i t u a t i o n s ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y 14. Was the c h i l d d e f i a n t ? v e r y f r e q u e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 15. Was the c h i l d c h e e r f u l ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 16. Was the c h i l d c o - o p e r a t i v e w i t h a d u l t s ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 17. D i d the c h i l d p l a y w e l l alone? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 18. D i d the c h i l d p l a y with other c h i l d r e n as w e l l as can be expected a t h i s stage of development? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y • o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r Appendix V-3 19. Was the c h i l d f r i e n d l y w i t h other c h i l d r e n ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 20. Was the c h i l d f r i e n d l y w i t h a d u l t s ? a l m o s t a l w a y s f r e q u e n t l y o o o a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y a l m o s t n e v e r 21. Was the c h i l d independent enough f o r h i s stage of development with regard to d r e s s i n g , e a t i n g and other r o u t i n e s ? y e s o o o a s i o n a l l y . n o APPENDIX VI. CLASSIFICATION OF THE ITEMS OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE  (SECOND FORM) ON THE BASIS OF THE DISTRIBUTIONS OF THEIR ANSWERS In the f o l l o w i n g are g i v e n the number o f endorse-ments to each p o s s i b l e answer f o r every item. To add g r e a t e r u n i f o r m i t y to the t a b l e s they have been arranged i n such a way th a t the number of the u n d e s i r a b l e answers i s shown on the l e f t hand side and the number of d e s i r a b l e answers i s shown on the r i g h t hand sid e i n case o f every item. A. Items tending towards normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . 2. Do you have d i f f i c u l t i e s with because he eats so slowly? 15 27 3 8 2 2 2 1 1 A . Do you l e t see you when you are undressed? 27 32 3 8 1 4 1 2 18. Do you get upset when doesn't behave as he should i n f r o n t of other people? 4 1 2 3 5 5 7 15 2 0 . Do you f i n d t h a t i s too slow when he i s supposed to get dressed, undressed, o r do other r o u t i n e d u t i e s ? 17 29 4 8 17 1 3 2 5 . Has h a b i t s that you f i n d annoying? 1 2 51 5 3 16 2 8 . Are you i r r i t a t e d when you have to t e l l the same thi n g s over and over again? 5 2 4 4 6 27 2 1 Appendix VI - 2 34- Does bother you by touching things he ought not to touch? 7 18 .36 33 30 47. Have you enough time for recreation despite your r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards ? 7 24 37 35 20 48. Are you i r r i t a t e d when refuses to do what you want him to do? 6 31 66 14 7 55. While you bath, feed, or dress do you f e e l harassed because of a l l the other things you have to do? 2 7 52 36 27 B. Items tending towards bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n . 5. When c r i e s , whines, or has a tempertantrum do you t r y to'make him stop by spanking or scolding him severely? 1 10 39 31 41 7. Is the sort of c h i l d that gets on people's nerves? 0 2 42 35 44 13. Do you worry about 's manners? 5 10 36 33 40 15. Do you worry about other people's c r i t i c i s m of your methods i n bringing up ? 1 8 31 26 58 17. should learn to obey without asking questions? 8 16 13 48 37 19. Are you lonely i f you are without f o r a couple of hours? 16 8 28 27 45 Appendix VI - 3 27. 29. Do you worry about other people's opinion of 4 6 35 26 53 31. Do you have to prod properly? 7 16 Do you worry that should? to make him do things 58 20 23 doesn't eat as well as he 12 8 35 23 46 32. When behaves badly do you t e l l him that he i s 51 19 31 35. a bad boy? 9 , 13 Is the sort of c h i l d that needs to be slapped or spanked? 0 4 46 31 43 36. Do you worry about when you are not with him 37. even i f your reason t e l l s you he i s per f e c t l y safe? 7 12 29 23 53 do you do i t so that i t I f you spank or slap r e a l l y hurts him? 12 32 34 39 38. I f any desert. 13 31 won't eat his vegetables he shouldn't get 19 41 17 41. Would you rather do some other kind of work than look a f t e r a small child? 10 34 25 50 42. When behaves badly do you threaten him with punishments such as spanking, being locked i n a room, standing i n a corner, etc.? 15 41 24 40 ppendix VI - 4 46. Are you sorry that i s growing up so quickly? 8 15 33 24 42 49. Do you worry ahout 's health? 9 16 37 27 . 34 50. Is so l i v e l y that he makes you nervous? 7 13 39 29 35 53. Do you worry ahout 's appearance? 14 19 49 12 30 57. Do you get worried when you have d i f f i c u l t i e s with -fo r fear that you aren't handling him properly? 8 28 49 15 23 C. Items tending towards a moderately skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n . 3. Do you keep from playing with other children to prevent him from catching something? 6 5 28 27 54 6. I f you should lose control over a few times you might lose control over the c h i l d for ever? 2 11 13 54 41 10. Are you troubled by.the fa c t that looking after r e s t r i c t s your freedom? . 2 2 23 34 63 11. Do you make understand that God knows about everything he does? 20 41 ' 61 16. Do you spend some time playing with ? t 0: .3. 28 44 49 22. Do you praise? 2 2 14 67 39 Appendix VI - §. 33. Do you t e l l t hat other c h i l d r e n are b e t t e r behaved than he i s ? 1 2 28 27 66 39. Are you a f r a i d that cannot stand up f o r himself? 4 5 28 28 - 58 4 5 . I t i s more important to see that should enjoy h i s meal than i n s i s t upon good t a b l e manners. 3 8 .15 52 46 D. Items tending towards s t r o n g l y skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n . 1. I s your h e a l t h too poor to look a f t e r without undue s t r a i n on y o u r s e l f ? 0 2 . 17 26 77 4. Was your pregnancy w i t h desired? 1 1 20 22 78 8. Do you worry about the way t a l k s ? 4 22 98 9. When showed i n t e r e s t i n e x c r e t o r y matters d i d you make him understand that t h i s i s d i s g u s t i n g ? 3 24 91 12. While you were pregnant w i t h did you wish f o r a c h i l d of the other sex? 7 25 91 21. Do you worry about 's t o i l e t t r a i n i n g ? 5 5 11 19 84 23. I f played w i t h h i s sexorgans he should be spanked or scolded s e v e r e l y to teach him a lesson. 6 5 5 24 84 2 4 . I f you could e f f o r d i t would you p r e f e r to pay someone to help w i t h the housework or help w i t h the c h i l d ? 1 2 107 Appendix VI - 6 26. Did you scold or punish f o r sucking h i s thumb? 0 3 6 11 100 30. I f wet h i s pants d i d you spank or scold him severely to teach him a lesson? 2 0 9 22 91 40. I f wet h i s bed d i d you spank or scold him severely to teach him a lesson? 1 1 6 17 98 43. Do you keep • from p l a y i n g w i t h other c h i l d r e n to prevent him from p i c k i n g up bad h a b i t s ? 0 3 15 23 83 44' Does i t i r r i t a t e you i f gets d i r t y from playing? 2 3 18 21 80 51. I s your homelife more d i f f i c u l t s i nce ' s a r r i v a l ? 4 15 13 19 70 52. Do you hugg and k i s s ? 0 0 15 57 52 54« I f showed i n t e r e s t i n the sex organs of other c h i l d r e n , he should ,be spanked or scolded s e v e r e l y to teach him a l e s s o n . 4 2 14 30 73 56. Do you worry that might have i n h e r i t e d some undesirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? 0 4 13 20 86 APPENDIX V I I . THE INFLUENCE OF THE POSITION QF THE ANSWERS TO THE ITEMS OF THE MOTHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE  ON THE ENDORSEMENTS MADE BY THE MOTHERS. Most of the d e s i r a b l e answers to the mothers'question-n a i r e were l o c a t e d on the r i g h t hand s i d e o f the pages and t h e r e f o r e the answers of the mothers might have been i n f l u -enced by a motor s e t . On the other hand most of the items were found to be o f i n t e r e s t to the mothers as was shown by the comments they made on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h i s i n t e r e s t i n the items might have prevented the development of a motor s e t . To show the s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n o f the mothers' answers graphs have been prepared showing the l o c a t i o n o f the answers of mothers from two nu r s e r y sch o o l s . 

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