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The journey beyond three seas of Afanasij Nikitin in A.D. 1466-1472 : establishment of text, translation… Belkov, Gregory 1950

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L c $ty If So A % Cop THE JOURNEY BEYOND THREE SEAS of AFANASIJ NIKE TIN IN A.D. H66-LV72 Establishment of Text Translation and Commentary by GREGORY BELKOV A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of The requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the department °f SLAVONIC STUDIES THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1950 ABSTRACT The Journey Beyond Three Seas of Afanasij N I k i t i n Establishment of the text Translation and Commentory The text established f o r t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s based primarily on the T r o i c k i j copy. Interpolated variant readings are drawn from the f u l l text of the Undol'skij copy and from variant readings of the Archive copy and the Etterov copy. The Journey Beyond Three Seas of Afanasij N i k i t i n In the spring of 1466 a certain merchant of Tver, Afanasij N i k i t i n , set s a i l down the Volga with two ships, accompanied by the ambassador of Shirwanshah. At Astrakhan the Tartar Khan Kasim captured and plundered both ships. Empty handed, they crossed the f i r s t sea - the Caspian sea, to Derbent. N i k i t i n and the other Russians then went to the -2-horde of Shirwanshah to ask for funds to go to Rus* . When they were refused, they parted on t h e i r various ways. N i k i t i n , with courage and enterprise, set out to t r a v e l through strange and foreign lands. In May of 1469 he s a i l e d from Ormuz to India i n a "tava" carrying horses. "And here i s the Indian country. The people a l l go about naked, t h e i r heads are uncovered and- t h e i r breasts are bare...." In Junnar Asad-Khan took N i k i t i n ' s s t a l l i o n and threatened to keep i t and to take a thousand pieo©S ©f g©l& on the f o r e f i e t of his head i f he did not accept Islam. Fortunately a digni t a r y from Khorasan arrived and interceded on behalf of the Russian t r a v e l l e r . The merchant of Tver then enumerates the commerce of India. He adds that the Moslem convey t h e i r goods by sea and pay no t a r i f f "but f o r us the t a r i f f i s high and there are many pirates on the sea." In Bidar, N i k i t i n describes the "pleasure r i d e " of the young sultan Muhammad I I I , Bahmani and his. entourage. The Russian t r a v e l l e r notes that the nobles are foreigners, men of Khorasan, Arabia and Chagatai. They l i v e i n luxury while the common people l i v e i n poverty. When the Hindus found that he was a C h r i s t i a n and not a Moslem they took N i k i t i n to t h e i r Idol house at S r i s a i l a . He was the only European, of whom there i s a record, to see S r i s a i l a while i t was s t i l l i n f u l l splendor. -3-In Gulbarga the t r a v e l l e r described i n d e t a i l , with considerable exaggerations, the preparation of the campaign by Muhammad I I I and Malik-ut-Tujjar against Vijayanagar. N i k i t i n had set out on a trading mission to Persia, but ;through misfortune, spent s i x years t r a v e l l i n g through Persia and India. Now the way to Rus' was blocked by revol t s i n P e r s i a . Three months before Easter, 1472 he s a i l e d from Dabhol to Ormuz but was driven to the shores of E t h i o p i a . F i n a l l y he reached Ormuz. A f t e r crossing Persia he was delayed while Hasan-beg was invading the Ottoman Empire. In Trebizond the Turkish "pasha" gave him much trouble f o r he had come from the horde of Hasan-beg. He set s a i l across the t h i r d sea - the Black Sea but contrary winds drove him back to the shores of Asia Minor three times before he f i n a l l y reached Kaffa i n November 1472. Acknowledgments It i s a great pleasure to record here my acknowledgments and thanks to a l l the people who have so kindly helped me to prepare this thesis. My special thanks are due to Dr. James Fe r r e l l for his patient and generous aid. Without his assistance in interpreting Old Russian, German, Persian and Sanskrit, this translation could not have been possible. I should also like to thank the following: Dr. F. V. WInnitt, Department of Semitics, University of Toronto, for kindly giving his time to transcribe material in Persian and Arabic; Walter H. Maurer, Reference Librarian, South Asia Section, The Library of Congress, for preparing and sending a detailed bibliography on Indian mythology} Father Leonid Kas-persky, Russian Orthodox Church, Vancouver, B. C , for explaining the Rus-sian, church terminology; Dr. Dmitri Cizevsky, Harvard University, for interpreting several d i f f i c u l t passages of the translation; and Professor A. W. Wainman for kindly proof-reading the manuscript before f i n a l typing. Finally I should l i k e to thank Dr. James 0. St.Clair-Sobell, the head of our department. The success of this work i s to a large measure, due to the sound training he has given me in Slavic linguistics, and l i k e -wise due to the wisdom with which he has built the Department of Slavonic Studies. I should like also to thank Dr. St.Clair-Sobell for the encour-agement he has given throughout the year and for his assistance i n the f i n a l preparation of the manuscript. Gregory Belkov Table of Content I Preface i II Transcription of non-English words i i i III Notes on the text iv IV The text established v i i V The journey beyond three seas of Afanasij N i k i t i n . A Journey from Tver to Ormuz, I466-I469 1 B From Ormuz to India i n L4&9 9 0 India and i t s people (1) Fir s t impressions 10 (2) Troubles with the Khan of Junnar 15 ( 3 ) Commerce i n India 17 (4) The rulers of Moslem India 22 D Journey to the idol house at S r l s a i l a 26 E The Hindus, their manner of praying and eating 30 F Statistics on travel i n India and the Far East 34 G Reflections on Christianity 42 H Parade of the Bahmanid Sultan and his entourage 44 1 No way by which to return to Rus' 48 J Campaigns of Malik-ut-Tujjar (1) Capture of Goa 49 (2) Capture of Belgaum 52 K Return journey to Rus' (1) Departure from Gulbarga 57 (2) Set s a i l from Dabhol 58 (3) In the horde of Hasan-beg 60 U ) Arrival at Kaffa in November 1472 62 L The f i n a l prayer 62 VI Appendix I 64 VII Bibliography 65 Preface When Dr. Ferrell f i r s t introduced me to the Journey beyond three  seas of Afanasij Nikitin, I accepted the challenge of rendering the f i r s t f u l l English translation 1 of the "Journey" with a certain air of martyr-dom. I was going to donate my time in the interest of learning. I found, however, that the work was both pleasing and exciting. Throughout the pages of the translation, Afanasij Nikitin comes to l i f e as a courageous, enterprising merchant. After having been robbed at the beginning of his journey, Nikitin sets out to travel alone in strange and foreign lands without the official recognition of his government. Although he was uned-ucated, the merchant of Tver proved to be a keen,intelligent observer of the commerce, religion and ways of l i f e of the peoples of India. He travels freely among Moslems and Hindus alike, recording his observations \ with a great deal of impartiality. In spite of the great importance of Nikitin's work in throwing light on the economic enterprise of the merchants of Tver on the eve of 2 that great city's incorporation into the state of Muscovy, Walter Kirchner is able to observe that there is not a single book on Russia, written in 1 An English translation of the "Journey" called "Travels of Athanasius Nikitin" was made by Count Wielhorsky, secretary of the Russian legatiai at the Court of St. James, and edited by R.H. Major, India in the f i f - teenth century, London, printed for the Hakluyt Society, 1857 • This translation, however, is not complete. Count Wielhorsky was limited to a single manuscript. He did not have the benefit of Russian transla-tions of the large number of passages in Eastern languages. In addi-tion the technical knowledge of scientific interpretation of Old Russian manuscripts was strictly limited a century ago. 2 Kirchner, Walther, "The voyage of Athanasius Nikitin to India 1466-1472", The American Slavic review, Menasha, Wisconsin, The George Banta publishing company, 1946, V, p.46. English, that, to his knowledge, makes a single mention of Nikitin's journey. "From the time of Marco Polo to that of Vasco da Gama, no great eastern voyage of which we possess a f u l l record, has received less atten-tion here than the gallant Athanasuls Nikitin's journey...." It is, there-fore, gratifying to notice that writers of Indian historyl have given credit to the Russian traveller. It is, perhaps, not surprising that a fifteenth century Russian monument receives l i t t l e attention among English writers. Prince Tru-beckoj,2 writing in 1926, observes that even in Russia the monuments of early Russian literature are just beginning to receive their just evalua-tion. I sincerely hope that this translation may add somewhat to our knowledge of both Russia and India. I regret that my personal limitations have, perhaps, not done justice to Afanasij Nikitin. Gregory Belkov 1 Majumdar, A.C, Raychaudhuri, H.C*, Datta, Kalikinkar, An advanced  history of India, London, Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1948, pp. 362-363. "We get a glimpse of the condition of the common people in the Bahmani kingdom from certain observations made by the Russian traveller, Athanasius Nikitin...." 2 Trubeckoj, Kh. H.C. "Khozenie za t r i morja Afanasija Nikitina kak literaturnyj pamiatnik", Svjatopolk - Mirskij, Kn. D.P., and others ed., Versty, Paris, 1926, I, 164. The Transoription of Non-English Words The transcription of non-English words has offered some dif-ficulties. I have used the standard Czech transcription for the Russian words. For the geographic names, I have used the spelling given in the Times Atlas. 1 In other cases, where the transcription is not cited from a source, I am indebted to Dr. Ferrell and to Dr. Winnitt. 1 Bartholomew, J. G-., The Times survey atlas of the world, London, "The Times", 1920. Khozenie za Tri Morja Afanasija Nikitina Notes on the Text A manuscript of the Khozenie za t r i morja Afanasija.Nikitina was first discovered by the historian, N.M. Karamzin (1766-I826), in the l i b -rary of the Troica-Sergievaja Abbey,<included in a collection of historical manuscripts of the sixteenth century. In a short time two other copies going back to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were discovered. By the beginning of the twentieth century, in a l l , six copies had been found.-*-The following manuscripts of the Khozenie are extant: 1 . The Troickij copy, manuscript 8665, found by Karamzin is preserved in the V. I . Lenin State Public Library. The Khozenie is included in the six-teenth century historical collection on leaves 369-392 obverse. A copy of this manuscript, F.iv.328, made for Karamzin, is located in the Saltykov-Sctedrin State Public Library. 2. The Etterov copy, manuscript F.iv.l44> is preserved in the Salty*-kov-S^Jedrin State Public Library. The Khozenie is included in the Lvov Chron-icle under the year 1475 on leaves 441 ob. - 458 ob. 3. The Archive copy, manuscript No. 4-371, sixteenth century, is located in a library collection of the Central State Archive of Bygone Deeds (formerly the Archive of the Ministry of External Affairs). The Khozenie is included in the Sofija chronicle under the year .1475. A copy made from 1. Grekov, B.D;, Adrianovo j-Peretc, V.P. ed., Khozenie za t r i morja Afan- asija Nikitina (1466-1472), Moscow - Leningrad, Izdatel 1 stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1948, pp. 131-134. The text of Khozenie za t r i morja Afan- asija Nikitina will hereafter be referred to as the Khozenie. V . the Archive manuscript for Academician 7. I. Lamanskij at the end of the nineteenth century is preserved in the archives of the Academy of Sciences USSR, Ko. 19.3.70. 4 . The Undol'skij copy, manuscript No. 754, seventeenth century, is loc-ated in the V. I. Lenin State Public Library. This condensed version of the Ehoz'enie is included in the Kratkij chronicle under the year I 46 I on leaves 300-319. The Voskresenskij copy of the Sofija chronicle retains only a preface and the final paragraph of the ghoienie. The body of the text is not extant. The copy of the Khoz'enie belonging to I.P. Sakharov and publish-ed by him in Skazanija Russkogo Naroda (1849) is at present untraced. This copy was apparently of the same edition as the Archive and Etterov copies. A comparative study of the manuscripts has revealed that they can be divided into three groups or editions. A. The Etterov, Archive and Voskresenskij copies originate from a common edition. B. The Troickij copy is characterized by a fuller text than those of group A. and originates from a different and earlier edition. C . The Undol'skij copy is a condensed version either of the Troickij copy or of its original. It repeats even the more obvious errors of the Troickij copy, eg: both the-Troickij and the Undol'skij copies read "Turk-merskaja" in place of "Turkmenskaja". The Undol'skij redaction excludes a l l the passages written in Eastern tongues retaining only single words. Lengthy episodes are abbreviated and many passages are simplified. On the other hand the Undol'skij copy, in several instances, preserves a f u l -ler or more plausible reading than either of the other manuscripts. The following translation of the Khozenie is based primarily on the Troickij copy (M 8665) with interpolated variant readings drawn from the f u l l text of the Undol'skij copy (No. 754) designated as U variant, and from variant readings of the Archive copy (No. 4-371) desig-nated as A variant, and of the Itterov copy (F.iv.144) designated as B variant. Variant Readings to the Troickij Copy-Leaf 369 L.9 After "manastyr" read B "Koljazin" L . l l After "Makarija" read AB"k svjatyja" L.14 After "Pleso" read AB "priekhal esmi dobrovol'no, i priekhal esmi" Leaf 3690b.L.l In place of "V gorod" read AB"mimo gorod dve nedeli" L.5 After "Kazan' esmja1* read AB ?proekhali dobrovol'no nevidali nikogo" L;14 After "tovariscli." read "Poekhali esmja mimo" Leaf 370 L.15 After "bereg" read AB "a tut est' gorodok Tarkhi a ljudi vysli na bereg" Leaf 373 I.16 After "doroga tesna," read AB "a dvemy" Leaf 374 L.13-14 In place of "ino vozjat ac"e morem, inyi posliny ne dajut'. A ljudi inye nam provezti posliny na dadut, i polliny mnogo," read U leaf 304 L.13-14: "besermeni vozjat morem, i oni pofi'lin ne dajut, a nam posliny v e l i k i i , " Leaf 376 L.9 In place of "saltan velik" read AB "saltan nevelik" Leaf 380ob.L.10 After "MoSkata" read AB "6 dni, a ot Mo^kata" L . l l After "Ku^'zrjata" read AB "10 dni, a ot Kuct'zrjata" v l i i . Leaf 380ob.L.12 After "Dabylja" read U leaf 309 L . l l "6 dni" Leaf 383 L.7 In place of "A syto" read "A sy to" Leaf 383ob.L.2-3 . In place of "ino is tekh vonja vykhodit,' da est, to tot ne svez." read U leaf 311ob.L.2-3 " i ta vonja ne stol' blagoukhana, ne svez' bo est'.'* Leaf 384 L.13 In place of "sam" read B "kamo'* Leaf 3840b.L.-5 In place of "sotvorikh" read AB "ne sotvorikh" Leaf 3860b.L.9 In place of "ne obrenila" read AB "ne okrepila" Leaf 387ob.L.10 After "slonov," read AB "a te vzjali beztfisleno jakhontov" Leaf 388 L .3 In place of "neju" read AB "nimi" Leaf 391ob.L.4 In place of " i bykb." read AB " i v Lari bykb." L.6 After "15• read AB "dni" Tiie Journey Beyond Three Seas of Afanasij N i k i t i n In return for the prayer of our holy fathers, 0 Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God have meroy on your s i n f u l slave Afanasij, son of N i k i t a . I have written this;, my s i n f u l 1 2 journey beyond three seas; the f i r s t , the Derbent Sea 3 the sea of Khvalyn; the second, the Indian Ocean - the sea of Hindustan; the t h i r d , the Black Sea - the sea of Istambul. I went f o r t h from the folden-domed church of the Holy Saviour 1 Grekov, Khozenie, pp. 107-108. The term "khoz*enie" was used i n early Russian l i t e r a t u r e to mean an actual journey or the wr i t i n g of a jouney. From the beginning of the twelfth century "khozenie" was used synonymously with "kniga palomnik" (palmer book) and "kniga strannik" (wanderer book). 2 Ibid., pp.140-141, (n.1-3). Derbent Sea - sea of Khvalyn are two names for the Caspian Sea used during the Middle Ages. N i k i t i n gives,a Russian name and a name used by the Moslems to each of the three seas. 3 Barthold, W. "Khwarizm", The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1927, I I , 908-912. .Khwarizm, Khorazm or Khiva iRussian "Khvalyn") was a kingdom, known since ci.1292 B.C., centering around the lower reaches of the Amu Darya (Oxus River). Both the Caspian and Aral seas were known by t h i s name during the Middle Ages. 4 Grekov, op.cit., p.141, (n.4). "Svjatago Spasa" - the cathedral O f Tver by which name the c i t y and a l l i t s lands were often referred to i n documents. (Tver i s now renamed K a l i n i n ) . with his grace,, and from my sovereign the Grand Prince Mikhail Horisovic', 1 land from Genadij, bishop of Tver. I 2 sailed down the Volga and came into the K a l j a z i n monastery, to the holy life-beginning T r i n i t y and to the holy martyrs, Boris and Gleb, and having received a blessing from the abbot Makarij and the holy brothers, I went from K a l j a z i n to UgHd* and from Uglic' to Kostroma to Prince Aleksandr 4 with a l e t t e r . 5 The Grand Prince of a l l Rus 6 allowed me to go unhindered. 1 Pares, Bernard, A History of Russia, Hew York, Alfred. A. Knopf 1947, pp.73-87. Mikhail Borisovid, Grand Prince of Tver (1461-1485) was the last of the deoendents of Jaroslav of Tver (1263) to rule over an independent Tver. In 1485 Ivan III Grand Prince of a l l Rus 1 (1462-1505) incorporated the state of Tver into the t e r r i t o r y of Moscow. 2 Grekov, op.cit., p.141,(n.7). T r i n i t y Monastery was founded at K a l j a z i n on the Volga by the abbot Makarij i n 1459. In 1521 Makarij was canonized by the Orthodox Church. 3 Gudzy, U.K. History of early Russian Li t e r a t u r e , t r a n s l . Susan Wilbur Jones, Hew York, The Maomillan Company, 1949, pp.98-106. Boris and Gleb were s l a i n by order of t h e i r elder brother Svjatopolk on the death of t h e i r father St. Vladimir (1015). In 1071 Boris and Gleb were cononized. A number of churches were named i n t h e i r honour, including a church i n K a l j a z i n . 4 Grekov, op.cit.,p.l41,(n.9). Prince Aleksandr Vasi l ' e v i S of Kostroma was under the authority of Tver. Kostroma was on the border of the t e r r i t o r i e s of Tver and Moscow. 5 The meaning of the phrase "s ynoju gramotoju" i s not clear from the context. The Russian t r a n s l a t i o n (Grekov, Khozenie, p.53) interprets i t as; "The Grand Prince of a l l Rus 1, having given me another l e t t e r . . . " In the German tran s l a t i o n , (Mejer.k., "Die Fahrt des Athanasius N i k i t i n liber die d r e i Me ere", Quellen zur russischen Gesohichte, Leipzig, 1920, p.13.) the phrase i s interpreted as; "...to Prince Aleksandr with another l e t t e r , with which the Grand Prince of a l l Rus'..." 6 See note 1 above. I came to Pies unhindered and proceeded into Niznij-Novgorod to Mikhail Kiselev, the deputy, and to Ivan Saraev, the excise c o n t r o l l e r and they l e t me pass unhindered. V a s i l i j Papin had passed by the c i t y two weeks previously, but I waited i n Novgorod two weeks for the Tartar ambassador of Shirwanshah, Hasan-beg. ^ He was coming from the Grand Prince Ivan with gerfalcons, he had ninety of them. And I t r a v e l l e d with him down the Volga. We passed Kazan f r e e l y and saw no one, and we passed the Horde, 4 Us lan v., Sarai, and Berekezany unhindered. 1 Pares, Russia, pp.76-80. Niz'nij-Novgorod (renamed Gor'kij) was the last c i t y under Moscow rule that N i k i t i n would pass through before entering the Tartar t e r r i t o r y of Kazan. 2 Grekov, o p . c i t . , p . l 4 2 , ( n . l l ) . Vasiii,} Papin was an Ambassador sent by Ivan III to the court of Shirwanshah. 3 Loc.cit, x(n.12). "Shirwanshah" was the: t i t l e of the r u l e r of Shirwan, Farrukh Yassar (1461-1501) V a s i l i j Papin was sent by Ivan III i n reply to the embassy of Hasan-beg. 4 "Orda" or horde from Tartar "ordu" i s a place of residence, of a prince of khan and a l l h i s company. It apparently was not used as a proper name of a town. 5 Grekov, op.cit.,p.l4£,(nl4). Sarai, c a p i t a l of the Golden Horde, was founded by Bereke (1255-1266), brother of Batu, on the Akhtuba River near the present town of Leninsk. Sarai was f i n a l l y destroyed by Ivan III and the Crimean Tartars i n 1480. - 4 -We sai l e d into the r i v e r Buzan. 1 Here we came across three pagan Tartars who t o l d us fals e news; that i n the Buzan 2 the Sultan Kasim was on the watch fo r merchants and he had three thousand Tartars with him. The ambassador of Shirwanshah, Hasan-beg then gave them each a coat and a piece of l i n e n i n order that they would guide us past Astrakhan. And they took a coat each but informed the king i n Astrakhan. I l e f t my ship and together with my comrades boarded the ambassador's ship. We set out to pass Astrakhan at night, s a i l i n g by the moon. The king saw us~and the Tartars shouted "ka&'raa, 3 do not f l e e " . The king then sent a f t e r us his entire horde, and for our sins they overtook us on the Begun shallows. They shot one of our men and we- shot two of t h e i r s . Our small ship ran aground on some f i s h i n g p i l e s . 4 They straightway took i t and plundered i t , and a l l my cargo was on the smaller ship. 1 Brockhaus, F.A., Efron, I. P., ed., Enciklopedicieski j  S l ovar 1, St. Petersburg, 1894, VIII, 858. Buzan i s one of many arms of the Volga. It leaves I the main r i v e r t h i r t y miles up the r i v e r from Astrakhan and flows S.E. into another arm, the Akhtuba River. 2 Grekov, Khozenie, p.143,(n.13). Sultan Kasim"established the f i r s t khanate of Astrakhan, i n 1466, independent of the Golden Horde. 3 Sreznevskij, I.I., Materialy d l j a slovarja drevne- russkago jazyka, St. Petersburg, I'ipografija imperatorskoj akademii nauk, 1912. "kadf'ma" - Tartar f o r "do not f l e e " . 4 Brockhaus, op.cit., XXII, 567-568. Ez, jaz, zajazok i s a double row of p i l e s f i l l e d between with sand. Gates are provided i n which f i s h i n g nets are placed. - 5 -With, the larger ship we reached the sea bat ran aground i n the shallows at the mouth of the Volga. The Tartars took us here and we pulled the ship back to the f i s h i n g p i l e s . Here they seized our larger ship and also took four Russians, but they l e t us go to sea, completely robbed. They would not, however, let us go back up the r i v e r lest we bear the news. And we set s a i l for Derbent i n two ships: i n one ship there were the ambassador Hasan-beg, the Persians 1 and we ten Russians, and i n the other ship £ there were six Muscovites and six men of Tver. A storm arose at sea and the smaller ship was wrecked against the shore. Here l i e s the small town of Tarku and the populace came out on the shore, and the people of Kajtak came and captured a l l the men. And we arrived i n Derbent. V a s i l i j had arrived safely but we had been robbed. I petitioned V a s i l i j Papin and the ambassador of Shirwanshah, Hasan-beg with whom I came, to intercede for the men that were captured by the men of Kajtak at Tarku. And Hasan-beg took trouble and rode up the mountain 1 "Teziky" or "Tajiks" were formerly the inhabitants of a norther province of Persia. The area i s now calle d "Tadjik (Tajik) Soviet S o c i a l i s t Republic". £ Grekov, Khozenie, p.145,(n.24). "Furstovina", "a sea storm", possibly from "fortuna" (Latin); cf. Ukranian "Furtovina" - "storm".-3 Loc.cit.,(n.26). "Kajtak" or "Khajdak" is a geographic name. It includes the area of Daghestan extending N.W. from Derbent and including the f o r t r e s s town of Tarku on the Caspian coast. - 6 -to Bulat-beg who sent a messenger to the Shah of Shirwan ^ with the information that a Russian ship was wrecked at Tarku and that the men of Kajtak had come and captured the men from i t and had stolen t h e i r goods. The Shah of Shirwan immediately sent a messenger to his brother-in-law Khalil-beg, the Prince of Kajtak, saying: "My ship was wrecked at Tarku and your men came and captured the men and stole t h e i r goods, and you should, for my sake, send the men to me and gather the merchandise because those men were sent i n my name; and i f yea s h a l l require anything from me, then send to me and I w i l l not refuse you for you are my brother, and you should w i l l i n g l y set them free for my sake.r^ And Khalil-beg w i l l i n g l y sent a l l the men straightway to Derbent and from Derbent they were sent to the Shirwanshah into the horde, his place of • 2 residence. 1 Barthold, Islam, 17, 383-385. The t i t l e "Shirwanshah" probably dates from the pre-Mohammedan period. The p r i n c i p a l c i t i e s were Shamakhl, Baku and Derbent. During the rule of Farrukh Yasar (1462-1501) there was a period of peace and great prosperity in Shirwan. 2 Grekov. op.cit.,p.145,(n.29). "Kojtul" (transcribed from Russian), a Turkic term for :."horde" i . e . a place of residence or armed camp of a khan or prince and h i s company. - 7 And we went to Shirwanshah, at h i s residence, and we begged him to have p i t y on us and to grant us the wherewithal to get to Rus', bat he gave us nothing for there were many of us, and we departed i n tears on our various ways. He who had anything i n Rus' went to Rus' but he who was i n debt went where his eyes led, some remained i n Shamakhl, others went to work i n Baku. And I went to Derbent, and from Derbent to Baku where the unextinguishable f i r e burns. 1 From Baku I crossed the sea to c'epakur ^ and l i v e d here for six months; and i n Sa r i , i n the Mazanderan country, I l i v e d for a month. And from there I went to Amol and l i v e d here for a month; and from there to Damavand and from Damavand to Rey. 1 Barthold, W. "Baku", Islam, 1,609-610. From the earliest h i s t o r i c times the region around Baku has been noted f o r i t s naphtha springs. Ibn Masudi describes two large springs i n Baku; one sprouting yellow or white naphtha and the other black or green. There i s no h i s t o r i c a l foundation for the b e l i e f that the "eternal f i r e " of Baku i s associated with f i r e worship i n Persia. 2 Grekov, Khozenie. p.148,(n.32). "Cepakur" (transcribed from Russian) i s a small town on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea to the west of Sari i n the Mazanderan province. -8-And here was s l a i n Shah Husain, one of the sons of A l i and grandsons of Mohammed, 1 and he cursed them, so that seventy-c i t i e s f e l l i n r u i n s . 2 From Rey I went to Kashan and stayed here a month; and from Kashan I went to Nain and from Nain to Yezd and I l i v e d here f o r a month. And from Yezd I went to S i r j a n and from S i r j a n to Tarum where domestic animals are fed dates, costing four altyns 3 a batman. 4 1 Lammens, H. "Al-Husain", Islam, I I , pp.339-340. Husain, the second and fa v o r i t e son o f ' A l l and Fatima (daughter of Mohammed) was s l a i n i n 680 A ' .D. at Karbala* i n Iraq. However, Rey and i t s surrounding c i t i e s were given to Omar Ibn-Said when he took command of the troops that slew Hasain. The destruction of Rey and i t s surrounding c i t i e s during the Tartar invasions were attributed to the work of God. 2 Grekov, o p . c i t . , p.36, Undol'skij copy leaf 304, l i n e s 1-3, variant reading: "... and i t i s said that he put a curse on them, and because of the curse i t seemed that seventy c i t i e s f e l l i n ruins, so say the i n f i d e l s i n t h e i r incantation." 3 Brockhaus, op.ci t . , I I , p.484 "Altyn" from Tartar " a l t y -t i j n " meaning"six s q u i r r e l s " , was a coin equal to s i x "deneg" or three kopeks. The Tartar gold altyn was worth s i x grains of gold, 4 Sreznevskij, op.cit., "Batman" a unit of weight - i t i s uncertain what weight N i k i t i n meant. In Tver "batman" was used a l t e r n a t e l y with"pood" (36 lbs.) In Russia during the sixteenth century "batman" usually equalled ten to twelve pounds. - 9 -From Tarum I went to Lar, and from Lar'to Bandar Abbas. 1 Here l i e s the port of Ormuz, and here i s the Indian Ocean, and i n the Persian tongue the sea of Hindustan; and from here i t i s four miles by sea to Ormuz. And Ormuz i s on an islan d and twice every day the sea encloses i t . Here I spent the f i r s t Easter, f o r I had arrived i n Ormuz four weeks before Easter. But even so I have not set down a l l the c i t i e s , many of them large c i t i e s . And i n Ormuz the sun i s scorching, i t could burn a man. I remained i n Ormuz for a 2 month, and after Easter; on St. Thomas' Sunday, I sa i l e d from Ormuz across 1 Minaev, I., "Staraja Indija", z'urnal ministerstva  narodnago prosveioenija, St. Petersburg, T i p o g r a f i j a V.S. BalaSeva, 1881, pp. 167-171. "Bender" or "bandar", i s Persian for harbour. The po r t - c a l l e d by N i k i t i n "Bender", was the old ci t y of Ormuz on the mainland. Early i n the fourteenth century the prince of Ormuz transferred the population to an island a half-day journey from the mainland to avoid nomadic robbers. Since then the island c i t y has been c a l l e d Ormuz. The cit y rapidly became the emporim of the Persian Gulf and the main international harbour f o r Oriental goods. After the capture of Ormuz by the Portuguese (1507) a new port (Bandar Abbas) was b u i l t by Sh5h Abbas (1622). 2 Russkij Nacional'nyj Kalendar', New York, St. Vladimir Society^ "Fomina nedelja" i s the f i r s t Sunday afte r Easter. Minaev ("Staraja Indija", p.173) calculates that Nikit in l e f t Ormuz on A p r i l 9-10, 1469. - 10 -the Indian Ocean i n a "tava" carrying horses. And we sai l e d ten days to Muscat, and then four days to Diu, and then to Gujarat and from Gujarat to Cambary; and here indigo 4 and lac are produced. From Cambay we sail e d six weeks to Chaul in a tava, and we l e f t Chaul on the seventh Sunday a f t e r Easter. And here i s the Indian country. The people a l l go about naked, t h e i r heads are uncovered and th e i r breasts are bare; and t h e i r h a i r i s twisted in a single braid; and the women go about b i g - b e l l i e d and bear children every year, and they have many children, and the men and women are a l l black. 1 Minaev, "Staraja Indija", p.174. "Tava", from Mahrati "daba", was the usual ship used i n the Indian Ocean. In capacity the "tava" varied from 150 to 250 tons, and were b u i l t e n t i r e l y of wood to avoid the disaster of having the ship f a l l apart when i t approached the legendary "magnetic mountain". The usual cargo was horses, wine and dates. Passenger accommodation was exeedingly crude. The owners of the vessel were not obliged to feed either the passengers or the crew. 2 Grekov, Kho£enie, p.158,(n.51). The climate of India was not suitable for breeding horses. Ormuz was the p r i n c i p l e port for the export of horses to India. Horse trading was a very p r o f i t a b l e enterprise; traders sold horses in India at ten times the purchase p r i c e . M i l i t a r y horses were brought to Ormuz from the steppes of S.E. Russia and southern Siberia as well as from Arabia. 3 Ibid., p.159,(n.53). "Dega" - i t i s uncertain which port N i k i t i n i s referred to. P o s s i b l y - i t i s Diu, a regular port of c a l l from Muscat during the Middle Ages. 4 Ibid., p.160,In.55). "Kraska n i l " , "indigo" one of the chief exports of India. - 11 -Wherever I went I was followed by many'people, they were amazed at a white man. Their prince wears a cloth 1 on h i s head, another around his hips, and the nobles go about with a c l o t h around t h e i r shoulders and another around t h e i r hips, and the princesses go about with a cloth drapped over t h e i r shoulders and another about th e i r hips; and the servants of the prince and of the nobles wear a cloth upon t h e i r hips, and they carry a shield and a sword i n t h e i r hands, and some oarry a spear, and some a knife or a scimitar and others carry bows £ and arrows. And they are a l l naked and barefoot and strong. Aoid the women go about bare-headed and with t h e i r breasts uncovered. Boys and g i r l s up to the age of seven go about naked and do not hide t h e i r g e n i t a l s . And from Chaul we went eight days by land to P a l i , an Indian c i t y , and from P a l i to Urnra " took ten days, i t i s an Indian c i t y ; and from Umra to Junnar took six days. And here 1 Sreznevskij, op.cit., "Fota", a cloth of l i g h t material. 2 'Ibid., p.56. "Bolkaty" i s translated as sil'nye (strong). Sreznevsky, o p . c i t . , l i s t s i t as doubtful but possibly meaning "dark coloured". 3 Minaev, op.cit., p.187. "Umri" i s i d e n t i f i e d as the v i l l a g e "Oomra", just north of Pali,-but i t i s doubtful i f N i k i t i n could spend ten days on such a short distance. - I E -l i v e s Asad-Khan 1 of the Indian t e r r i t o r y of Junnar, a vassal 2 % of Malik-ut-Tujjar; and they say he holds seven f i e f s from Malik-ut-Tujjar, and Malik-ut-Tujjar holds twenty f i e f s . 4 And he has been warring with K a f f i r s f or twenty years. At times he i s defeated, frequently he defeats them. The khan i s carried about by men but he has many fine horses and elephants. And he has many f i ne-soldiers, men from Khorasan, for he brings them from the Khorasan country, and some from 1 Minaev, "Staraja Indija", p.191. Junnar was one of the eight provinces of Deccan. The p r o v i n c i a l commander was i n charge of only one c i t y , the other c i t i e s and fo r t s being under independent command. The Moslem h i s t o r i a n , Ferishta, c i t e s Fakhr-ul-Mulk as p r o v i n c i a l commander during 1469-71. Asad-Khan was probably the commander of Junnar and i t s f o r t . 2 Haig, S i r Wolsely, ed., The Cambridge History of India, Cambridge University Press, 1928, III, 414-417. Malik-ut-Tujjar, was the t i t l e of Mahmud Gavan, who was the chief minister of Muhammad I I I , Bahmani, sultan of the Moslem state of Deccan i n India. Junnar was one of the many f i e f s held by Mahmud Gavan. 3 Grekov, Khozenie, p.162,(n.65). "T'ma", Persian "tuman", meaning "ten thousand" was used i n Moslem India during the fourteenth century to .mean a feudal f i e f or a m i l i t a r y administrative d i s t r i c t designed for feudal levy of troops. The figures:;given by N i k i t i n appear to be exaggerated. 4 Bjorkman, W., "Kafir", Islam, II, pp.618-620. " K a f i r " or " k a f f i r " i s a general Moslem term for non-Moslems.. Here i t applies-to Hindus. Minaev (op.cit.pp.218-222) observes that Malik-ut-Tujjar fought almost continually against the Hindu kingdoms to the east and south of Deccan. The wars against the Hindus took on a r e l i g i o u s veneer. Great numbers of prisoners were taken, and the captured children were f o r c i b l y converted to Islam. - IS -Arabia, some from the Turkmen country and others from Chagatai. 1 They are always brought by sea i n "tavas", the ships of the Indian country. And I, s i n f u l one, brought a s t a l l i o n into the Indian land, and thank God a l l went well as f a r as Junnar, and the s t a l l i o n cost me a hundred rubles. Their winter began from 2 the day of the T r i n i t y . We spent the winter i n Junnar. We l i v e d there two months and every day and every night, f o r four months, there was water and mud everywhere. During these 3 4 days they plow and sow wheat, tuturgan, and peas and everything edible. They make wine- i n huge nuts, Indian vessels; 5 and they make a malt brew from palm bark. They feed horses 1 Cambridge India, III, 403-404. The Moslem rule r s of Deccan looked abroad f o r t h e i r ablest and most active servants and s o l d i e r s . Most of the nobles were foreigners; Afghans, Persians, Turks, Arabs and Mughuls. 2 Grekov, Khozenie, p.164,(n.73). By winter N i k i t i n refers to the beginning of the monsoon season, early i n June. T r i n i t y Sunday i s celebrated on the f i r s t Sunday afte r Pentecost. 3 Minaev, op.cit.,p.189. "Tuturgan" i s a word of unknown meaning. It may be a corruption of two .words, "tur" (Cyticus cajan) and "kan" "grain or cereal". 4 Grekov, op.cit.,p.l62,(n.74). "Nogut" from Persian "Nukhiid" - "peas". - . . . . 5 The manuscript appears to be corrupt for this sentence. The Russian translation, Grekov, Khozenie, p.56, seems to be guess work. - 14 -on peas, and they b o i l " k i c h i r i " 1 with sugar and o i l and feed 2 th e i r horses; i n the morning they give the horses r i c e cakes. In India horses are not bred. In t h e i r land oxen and buffalo are bred; on these they ride and thus they cart t h e i r goods and do everything. Junnar i s a c i t y on a rock island, " not made by man but created by God. A man has to climb a l l day to reach the c i t y , and they climb one at a time for the road i s too narrow 4 to go by twos. In India merchants are put up i n hostels and the hostesses prepare food f o r them; and they prepare a bed f o r the merchants and sleep with them. ' (If you wish to have intimate r e l a t i o n s with one or another of them, . 5 you give them two s e t e l ' . I f you do not desire intimate re l a t i o n s you give one s e t e l ' , for t h i s i s a woman, a g i r l 1 Grekov, op.cit.,p.178, (n.131). " K i c h i r i " was a common food i n India f o r both human beings and animals. It consisted of boiled r i c e and pulse with o i l , sugar, and seasoning added. It was r o l l e d into b a l l s and used as a food f o r horses and elephants. 2 Sreznevskij, op.cit., "Ses'eni" - "r i c e cakes". 3 Minaev, op.cit.,p.188. N i k i t i n i s r e f e r r i n g to the fo r t "Sivaneri", a strong c i t a d e l b u i l t on a high crag south-east of Junnar. "Sivaneri" was t&fcpa by B r i t i s h forces i n 1817. 4 Grekov, Khogenie, p.164,(n.83). "Podvor'e" - Sanskrit "dharmagaia" - "hostel". These hostels were -maintained by both private individuals and the state f o r the convenience Q f merchants and t r a v e l l e r s . 5 Ibid.,p.179,(n.138). " S e t e l 1 " - a s i l v e r coin. - 15 -friend; and the intimate r e l a t i o n s are free;) 1 f o r they love white people. In winter the people go about with a c l o t h on t h e i r hips, another on t h e i r shoulders and a t h i r d on t h e i r heads. At that time the princes and nobles put on trousers and a shirt and a coat, and they wear a cloth over t h e i r shoulders and gird themselves with another and they wrap a t h i r d c l o t h around t h e i r heads. 10 God, great God, true God, blessed God, merciful God.) There i n Junnar the khan took my s t a l l i o n , and finding that I was not a Moslem but a Russian, he said: "I w i l l return your s t a l l i o n and give you and thousand gold pieces i f you accept our f a i t h , Islam. But i f you do not accept our f a i t h , Islam, I w i l l take your s t a l l i o n and a thousand gold pieces on the f o r f e i t of your head. He set a time l i m i t of 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p.205.(n.368). The section i n Turkic i s taken from the Russian t r a n s l a t i o n (p.57) made by I. P. P e t r u l e v s k i j . N i k i t i n employs words, phrases, l e x i c a l and grammatical constructions of several Turkic languages, interspersed with words and phrases i n Arabic, Persian and Indie. N i k i t i n had either been on commercial journeys into the Tartar or Middle A s i a t i c countries previous to t h i s journey or he rapidly picked up the languages he uses from the merchants in Persia and India. He uses non-Russian expressions i n discussing sex, i n c r i t i c i z i n g the ru l e r s of Rus', and strangely, i n praying. 2 Ibid.,p.165,(n.84). N i k i t i n invokes God i n Arabic. The t r a n s l a t i o n i s from the Russian version p.57... ... 3 "Muhammad d i n i " , Persian for "the Mohammedan f a i t h " . - 16 -four days, to end on the Saviour's day during the fast of the assumption of our Most Holy V i r g i n . 1 And the Lord God took p i t y on me on his honoured holiday and did not deprive me, his s i n f u l servant, of his mercy, and bade me not to perish i n Junnar among the i n f i d e l . On the eve of the Saviour's day a dignitary, Mahmud of Khorasan, arrived and I begged him to intercede on my behalf. He rode into the ci t y to see the khan and he begged me o f f , that they should not compel me to become of the i r f a i t h ; and he even took my s t a l l i o n from the khan. Such was the Lord's miracle on the Saviour's day. But Chri s t i a n brethren of Rus',whoever of you wishes to go to the Indian country l e t him leave his f a i t h i n Rus' and c a l l upon Mohammed and go to India. 1" Russkij Kalendar', "Spasov den', uspenie presvjatoj Bogorodicy", "The Saviour's day, the assumption of the Most Holy Mother of God". A fast celebrated August 1-14 (Julian) July 19-Augustl. (Gregorian). The word "Spas" has three usages i n Russian.' (Usakov, D.N., ed. Tolkovyj slovar'  russkogo jazyka, Moscosif ogiz, 1935.) (1) The ikon of the Saviour, 12) a 'church i n His honour, (3) three holidays, August' 1, 6, 16, (Ju l i a n ) . H i k i t i n refers to the f i r s t day of the fast (Pervy«j Spas). 2 Grekov, Khozenie, p. 166, (n.88). "Khozjajocfi^ - t h i s word i s apparently corrupt. Possibly Turkic "Khazanchi" -"treasurer" or Persian "Khoja" - "minister". -- 17 -The Moslem dogs deceived me. They said I would f i n d many goods suitable f o r us, but there i s nothing for our land. A l l the goods are expensive, 1 f o r the Moslem country; as for pepper and indigo, these are cheap. (The Moslems convey t h e i r goods by sea and pay no t a r i f f , but for us the t a r i f f i s high) and there are many pirates on the sea. The k a f f i r s plunder everything. They are neither C h r i s t i a n nor Moslem 4 but worship stone images and they do not know Christ. We l e f t Junnar on the day of the assumption of the 5 6 Most Holy V i r g i n , for Bidar, t h e i r largest c i t y . We were 1 Sreznevskij, op.cit., "Beloj" i s l i s t e d as doubtful. However, Dmitri Cizevsky, (professor of Early Russian l i t e r a t u r e , Harvard University) considers " b e l o j " to mean "expensive". 2 See "Notes on the text" p.iiU, leaf 374, L. 13914. The Undol'skij-copy has a plausible but not l i k e l y an authentio reading. 3 K a f f i r s , see page 12 note 4. 4 AB readings add "nor do they know Mohammed". 5 August 15 (Julian) August 2 (Gregorian), the f i r s t day after the f a s t , see page 16 note 1. 6 Bidar, after 1435, was the c a p i t a l of the state of Deccan (under the Bahmanid dynasty) - 18 -a month on the road. From Bidar to Kulungir 1 takes f i v e days and from Kulungir to Gulbarga takes f i v e days. Between these large c i t i e s there are many c i t i e s , one passes three c i t i e s every day, and some days even four c i t i e s ; f o r every g kov there i s a c i t y . From Chaul to Junnar is a distance of twenty kovs, and from Junnar to Bidar i s f o r t y kovs, and from Bidar to Kulungir is nine kovs, and from Bidar to Gulbarga i t i s nine kovs. In Bidar there i s trade i n horses, and i n goods, and g brocade, and i n s i l k and a l l other goods, one can even buy black people. But there i s nothing to buy here; there are only Indian goods and edible f r u i t , but there are no goods for the Russian land. The people are a l l black and are e v i l -doers, and the women are prostitutes. Everywhere there are sorcery, robbery, l i e s , and poison with which they k i l l o f f t h e i r masters. In India a l l the princes and nobles are men of Khorasan. The Indians serve as infantrymen and they walk guickly. They are naked and barefooted. In one hand they 1 Minaev, op.cit., p.203. "Kulungir" i s cited by M k i t i n as a c i t y nine kovs (ci.55 miles) from Bidar. Minaev i d e n t i f i e s "Kulungir" as "Kolangouri". 2 "Kov", N i k i t i n l a t e r . i d e n t i f i e s "kov" with ten "versts" or 6.5 miles. 3 Grekov, Khozenie, p.168, (n.94). "Kamky", from Persian "kimkhab" - "brocade". - 19 -carry a shield and i n the other a sword. Other subjects carry long straight bows and arrows. In battle they always use elephants but they send the infantry i n front. The men of Khorasan are mounted; the men and t h e i r horses are in armour. To the trunk and to the tusks of the elephant they t i e huge, 1 forged swords, weighing a kantar each. The elephants are clad i n armour plates and on t h e i r backs they carry howdahs, and i n each howdah there are twelve men i n armour, armed with guns and arrows. There i s a place i n Aland, at the tomb of Sheikh 3 Ala-ud-din, where a bazaar i s held once a year. The entire country of India gathers there to trade, and they trade for ten days. From Bidar, a distance of twelve kovs, they bring as many as twenty thousand horses to s e l l , and they assemble 1 Sreznevskij, op.cit., "Kantar" Arabic "qan^ar" a unit of weight, at the end of the ...sixteenth century equalling 90 lbs . (Murray, James A. H. and others ed., The Oxford English dictionary, Oxford, Clarendon press, 1933.) "Kantar" i n 1555 "...one cantar i s a hundred pounds". 2 Cambridge India, I I I . 381, In 1365, aft e r a defeat of the Vijayanagar forces of Bukka by Muhammad of Deccan. Muham-mad"... sent orders to a l l the f o r t s of h i s (Bukka) kingdom demanding a detachment of a r t i l l e r y from each, and sent the elephants which he had captured...for the conveyance of the guns". This i s the f i r s t occasion that Moslems used guns for warfare i n Deccan. The guns were supplied c h i e f l y from Venice and were manned by European and Turkish gunners. 3 According to N i k i t i n the tomb of Sheikh-Ala-ud-din was located at Aland near G-ulbarga. This may be the tomb of Ala-ud-din Ahmad, sultan of Deccan, who died i n 1458. - 20 -kinds of goods. It i s the best f a i r i n a l l of the land of India. They buy and s e l l goods, of every type i n momory of Sheikh Ala-ud-din whose feast f a l l s on the Russian f e s t i v a l of the Mantle of the Holy V i r g i n . 1 In the same Aland there i s a bird c a l l e d gukuk that f l i e s by night and ories "gukuk". On whichever house i t a l i g h t s , there a man w i l l die, and i f anyone wishes to k i l l i t , then f i r e w i l l f l a s h from i t s mouth. The mamon prowl at night and catch fowl; they l i v e on the mountains or c l i f f s . Monkeys l i v e i n the forest and they have 1 Brockhaus, op.cit., XZIV, p.251. "Pokrov Presvjatoj Bogorodicy" - "Mantle (vestment) of the Most Holy Mother of God" i s a holiday of the Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches celebrated on October 1 (Julian) October 14 (Gregorian). The "Pokrov" i s celebrated i n commemoration of the day, when i n the middle of the tenth century, while Constantinople was being besieged by the Saracens, the Mother of God appeared i n the a i r above the c i t y with a host of Saints who spread t h e i r vestments over the Christians. The Greeks were imbued with courage and repulsed the attack. 2 Grekov, Khoz'enie, p.169,(n.101). "Mamon" the Russian t r a n s l a t i o n interprets i t as a member of the monkey family from (Arabic maimun" - "monkey") Minaev suggests "serpent" from an Indio word "mamum". Count Wielhorsky in an English t r a n s l a t i o n of the Khozenie, published i n India i n the  f i f t e e n t h century R.H. Major, ed., 1857, sec.78 p.13, translates "mamon" as a "wild cat". This l a t t e r t r a n s l a t i o n f i t s well, but there appears to be no foundation for i t . - 2 1 -a m o n k e y p r i n c e w h o g o e s a b o u t w i t h h i s a r m y . I f a n y o n e t r i e s t o c a t c h t h e m t h e y c o m p l a i n t o t h e i r p r i n c e a n d h e s e n d s h i s a r m y a g a i n s t t h e o f f e n d e r ; a n d t h e y , h a v i n g c o m e a g a i n s t a t o w n , p u l l d o w n t h e h o u s e s a n d b e a t u p t h e i n h a b i t a n t s . I t i s s a i d t h a t t h e y h a v e m a n y t r o o p s a n d h a v e t h e i r o w n l a n g u a g e . T h e y b e a r m a n y o f f s p r i n g , a n d i f o n e i s b o r n u n l i k e e i t h e r i t s f a t h e r o r i t s m o t h e r i t i s c a s t a w a y b y t h e r o a d s i d e . S o m e I n d i a n s c a t c h t h e s e a n d t e a c h t h e m a l l - , s o r t s o f h a n d i c r a f t s ; s o m e t h e y s e l l a t n i g h t s o t h e y w i l l n o t k n o w t h e w a y b a c k ; g o t h e r s t h e y t e a c h t o p l a y g a m e s . S p r i n g b e g a n f r o m t h e d a y o f t h e M a n t l e o f t h e H o l y V i r g i n , 3 a n d t w o w e e k s a f t e r t h i s h o l y d a y t h e y h o l d t h e c e l e b r a t i o n i n h o n o u r o f S h e i k h A l a - u d - d i n , a n d t h e y c e l e b r a t e f o r e i g h t d a y s . T h e y h a v e s p r i n g f o r t h r e e m o n t h s , a n d s u m m e r 1 L a r d n e r , D . , a n d o t h e r s , e d . , T h e c a b i n e t c y c l o p a e d i a , " T h e h i s t o r y o f m a r i n e a n d i n l a n d d i s c o v e r i e s " , L o n d o n , L o n g m a n , R u s , O r r n e , B r o w n , a n d G r e e n , 1 8 3 0 , I . 2 0 2 . I n t h e w o o d s a r o u n d t h e f o o t o f A d a m ' s P e a k I b n B a t u t a s a w a m u l t i t u d e o f m o n k e y s o f a d a r k c o l o u r w i t h b e a r d s l i k e m e n . T h e s h e i k h O t h m a n a n d h i s s o n s , " p i o u s a n d c r e d i b l e " p e r s o n s a s s u r e d h i m t h a t t h e m o n k e y s h a d a k i n g w h o w o r e a t u r b a n o f l e a v e s a n d w a s w a i t e d o n b y f o u r m o n k e y s h o l d i n g r o d s . W i l l i a m s , M o n i e r , H i n d u i s m , L o n d o n , H e w Y o r k , P o t t , Y o u n g a n d C o . , 1 8 7 7 , p . 1 6 6 . A f t e r t h e g r e a t w a r d e s c r i b e d i n " R a m a y a n a " , R a m a g a v e a g r e a t p o r t i o n o f D e c c a n t o H a n u m a n t > t h e m o n k e y k i n g , a n d t o h i s m o n k e y f o l l o w e r s . H i k i t i n a p p e a r s t o c o n f u s e l e g e n d a r y t a l e s w i t h o b s e r v e d f a c t s . 2 G r e k o v , K h o z ' e n i e , p . 1 6 9 , ( n . 1 0 3 ) . " B a z y m i k a n e t " f r o m P e r s i a n " b a z l m i k u n a d " - " p l a y s g a m e s " . 3 O c t o b e r 1 4 . - 2 2 -f o r t h r e e m o n t h s , a n d w i n t e r f o r t h r e e m o n t h s , a n d a u t u m n f o r t h r e e m o n t h s . B i d a r i s t h e c a p i t a l o f M o s l e m I n d i a . 1 T h e c i t y i s l a r g e a n d t h e r e a r e v e r y m a n y p e o p l e . T h e s u l t a n i s 2 •* y o u n g , t w e n t y y e a r s o l d ; t h e n o b l e s h o l d t h e p o w e r a n d t h e m e n o f K h o r a s a n r e i g n a n d w a g e w a r . T h e r e i s a K h o r a s a n i a n n o b l e n a m e d M a l i k - u t - T u j j a r a n d h e h a s t w o h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d t r o o p s ^ a n d M a l i k - K h a n h a s a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d , a n d F a r a t - K h a n 4 h a s t w e n t y t h o u s a n d , a n d 1 M i n a e v , o p . c i t . , p p . 2 1 2 - 2 1 4 . B i d a r w a s t h e c a p i t o l o f t h e B a h m a n i d s t a t e o f D e c c a n . D u r i n g t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y D e l h i w a s t h e n o m i n a l c a p i t o l o f M o s l e m I n d i a . H o w e v e r , . D e c c a n w a s t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l s t a t e a n d B i d a r w a s t h e g r e a t e s t c i t y i n M o s l e m I n d i a . 2 C a m b r i d g e I n d i a , I I I . 4 1 3 - 4 1 4 . I n 1 4 6 3 , a t t h e a g e o f n i n e , M u h a m m a d I I I , o n t h e d e a t h o f h i s b r o t h e r , a s s u m e d t h e t h r o n e . T h e k i n g d o m w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e Q u e e n m o t h e r , K h v a j a J a h i n , a n d M a h m u d G a v a n . K h v a j a J a h i n w a s s l a i n i n t h e p a l a c e f o r t r y i n g t o g e t s u p r e m e c o m m a n d . M a h m u d G a v a n ( M a l i k - u t - T u j j a r ) b e c a m e c h i e f m i n i s t e r a n d - l i e u t e n a n t o f t h e k i n g d o m . T h e . a g e o f t h e s u l t a n i n 1 4 7 2 w o u l d b e e i g h t e e n . 3 I b i d . , p p . 4 1 4 - 4 1 7 . " M a l i k - K h a n " o r M a l i k - H a s a n , k n o w n g e n e r a l l y b y t h e t i t l e " N i z a m - u l - M u l k " w a s o n e t h e t h e i m p o r t a n t n a t i v e I n d i a n . . n o b l e s a n d m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , i n t h e s e r v i c e o f M u h a m m e d I I I . H a s a n h a d b e e n c a p t u r e d b y A h m a d t h e S a i n t d u r i n g t h e w a r a g a i n s t V i j a y a n a g a r a n d b r o u g h t u p a s a M o s l e m . D u r i n g N i k i t i n ' s s t a y i n D e c c a n t h e n o b l e s w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f D e c c a n e s e a n d h a l f f o r e i g n , n o t a l l f r o m K h o r a s a n a s N i k i t i n s t a t e s . 4 M i n a e v , o p . c i t . , p . 2 3 2 . " F a r a t - K h a n " i s i d e n t i f i e d a s F a k h r - u l - M u l k t h e c o m m a n d e r o f , t h e p r o v i n c e o f J u n n a r . -23-many khans have ten thousand troops each. The sultan i s accompanied by three hundred thousand troops of his own. The land i s heavily populated; the country people are very poor but the nobles have great wealth and much luxury. They are always carr i e d about on s i l v e r l i t t e r s , and before them are led as many as twenty horses i n golden harness, and behind them follow three hundred mounted men and f i v e hundred on foot, and ten trumpeters and ten kettle-drummers ^ and ten pipers. The sultan rides out f o r pleasure with his mother and his wife, and accompanying them are ten thousand mounted men and f i f t y thousand on foot, and they lead two hundred elephants clad i n gilded armour. In front of them there are one hundred trumpeters and one hundred dancers and three hundred spare horses i n golden harness, and behind him follow one hundred monkeys and one hundred concubines, ( a l l young maidens). 2 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p.174, (n.112). "Nagarniki" from Arabic "naqqara", "kettle-drum". 2 Minaev, "Staraja I n d i j a " , p.219. "Gauryky", and i n another part of the text "kovre", are considered by Minaev to be corruptions of the Sanskrit "gaurika". wThis interpretation, ..however, i s doubtful. Otto Bohtlingk, Sanskrit- Worterbuoh i n kurzerer Fassung, St. Petersburg, K. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1879, gives f o r "gaurika" the meaning "white mustard" or"an eight year old g i r l not yet having menstraated". The l a t t e r meaning, however, can not be quoted from the l i t e r a t u r e but i s c i t e d only from the l e x i c a . "Gauri", however, does mean "an eight year old g i r l " . Moreover, "gaurika" could scarcely have entered into any of the modern Indie d i a l e c t s without considerable phonetic change. - 24 -Seven gates l e a d i n t o the s a l t a n ' s p a l a c e and at each gate there are a hundred guards and a hundred k a f f i r s c r i b e s , but they do not allow f o r e i g n e r s 1 i n t o the c i t a d e l . Some r e c o r d the names of a l l who enter and others r e c o r d the names of a l l who l e a v e . H i s palace i s indeed very wonderful. Everywhere one sees c a r v i n g and g i l d i n g , even the l a s t stone 2 i s carved and w o n d e r f u l l y g i l d e d . And i n the pa l a c e there are v a r i o u s v e s s e l s . The c i t y of B i d a r i s guarded at n i g h t by a thousand g g a r r i s o n troops and they r i d e about on horseback and i n armour, and each one c a r r i e s ; a t o r c h . I s o l d my s t a l l i o n i n B i d a r and I had spent s i x t y and e i g h t futuns 4 on him f o r I had f e d him a year. In B i d a r snakes, two sazens ( f o u r t e e n f e e t ) i n l e n g t h , go about the s t r e e t s . I a r r i v e d i n B i d a r fyoAA. fat/ At* ny I f 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p.175,(n.115). " G a r i p " from A r a b i c " g h a r i b " " f o r e i g n e r s " . 2 " I p o s l e d n i j kamen'", "and the l a s t stone". I t i s not c l e a r from the context what stone N i k i t i n i s r e f e r r i n g t o . P o s s i b l y he means "even down to the l a s t stone". 3 Cambridge I n d i a , 111,411. "Kotwal" was the c h i e f of p o l i c e or m a g i s t r a t e of a c i t y . During the second h a l f o f the f i f t e e n t h century the "Kotwal" of B i d a r was one of the c h i e f m i n i s t e r s of the s u l t a n and commanded the troops s t a t i o n e d i n B i d a r . 4 Grekov, o p . c i t . , p.. 175. "Futun" or "fanam" a South I n d i a n c o i n of gold or s i l v e r : v a r y i n g i n value w i t h l o c a l i t y . - 25 -on the'eve before the fast of St. P h i l i p , I sold my s t a l l i o n at Christmas, and I reainined here i n Bidar u n t i l Lent. I beoame aquainted with many Indians and I tol d them about my f a i t h , that I was not a Moslem but that one who believes i n Jesus 2 i s a Christian. And I tol d them that my name was Afanasij and that my Moslem name was Khoja Yusuf Khurasanl. Then they did not undertake to hide anything from me about th e i r food or trade or prayers 3 or any other a f f a i r , and they did not try to hide t h e i r wives. I asked them a l l about t h e i r f a i t h and they said; "We believe i n Adam"; ^  and the "buts", 5 they said, are an et 1 Russkij Kalendar', " F i l i p o v post" begins on November 27 (Julian) November 14 (Gregorian). 2 Grekov, Khozenie, p.175.(n.118). "Isajadenieni", corruption of the Persian " f I s a d l n i " " b e l i e f i n Christ". 3 Loc.cit.,(n.120). "Manaz" i s a corruption of the Arabic "namaz". Steingass, F. Persian - English dictionary, London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co. Ltd. 1947. "Namaz", i n Persian - "prayers". 4 Dowson, J . , A c l a s s i c a l dictionary of Hindu mythology, London, Trubner and Co., Ludgate H i l l , 1879, There was no cult of "Adam" among the Hindus. Possibly N i k i t i n heard the word "Atma" or "Atman" "the supreme soul" or "the p r i n c i p l e of l i f e " . Perhaps he has Manu, the Indie "Adam" or f i r s t man, in mind. 5 Carra de Vaux, B., "Budd", Islam, I, 769-770. Persian "but", i s used variously to mean i d o l s . - 26 -a l l h i s elan. There are i n a l l eighty and four f a i t h s in India and they a l l believe i n "but". Those of one f a i t h w i l l not drink, eat or marry with those of another f a i t h . Some eat mutton, fowl, f i s h and eggs but no f a i t h eats beef." 1 I spent four months i n Bidar, and I agreed with some 2 Indians to go to Parvata; that i s th e i r Jerusalem, or i n the Moslem fashion, t h e i r Mecca, where th e i r i d o l house 3 i s located. I journeyed with the Indians for a month to reach „1 Bumeli, A. C , t r a n s l . The ordinances of Manu, London, Trubner and Co., Ludgate H i l l , 1884. Lect.5, 11-27 & 41. Scaly f i s h , except those for s a c r i f i c i a l purposes, may be eaten anywhere. Carnivorous, scavanger and f i s h eating birds are to be avoided. Animals with one row of teeth, except the camel may be eaten. "When the honey-mixture ( i s given) at a s a c r i f i c e and i n r i t e s to the manes and gods, on these occasions only, c a t t l e are to be s l a i n , not on any other -so said Manu." 2 Dowson, op.cit., Parvata (Srlparvata) i s more generally known as Sri-Sailam ( s r i s a i l a ) . The imperial gazetteer of  India, Oxford, The. Clarendon press,- 1908, XXIII, 110, 275-276. Srls*aila i s situated i n the Handikotkur taluk of Kurnool d i s t r i c t of the Madras province. The ruins of a once great c i t y and shrine stand i n the midst of a jungle and rugged h i l l s , on the south bank, overlooking the dees gorge of the Krishna River. During t h e - f i f t e e n t h century Sris'aila was outside Moslem j u r i s d i c t i o n . 3 Steingass, op.c i t . "Butkhanah", i n Persian - " i d o l house." - 27 the i d o l house. And they hold a f a i r at the i d o l house for fi v e days. 1 The i d o l house i s indeed very large, about half 2 the size of Tver. It i s b u i l t : of stone, and on i t are carved deeds of the "buts". Around i t , i n a l l , twelve wreaths are carved; how the "but" performed miracles and how he appeared to them i n many forms. F i r s t he appeared i n the form of a man; secondly as a man with an elephant's * - * 1 Gazetteer of India, XXIII, 110. S r i s a i l a has been deserted since 1565, when the great Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar was destroyed by the Moslems. Early i n the eighteenth century robber bands looted and desecrated the c i t y , nevertheless thousands of pilgrims s t i l l make the d i f f i c u l t journey to attend the grand S'ivaratri f e s t i v a l during February and March. 2 Mackenzie,CApt. Colin, "Pagoda at Perwuttum", A s i a t i c  researches, London, 1799, V, 303-314. Capt. Mackenzie v i s i t e d Parvata i n 1794. He believed himself to be the f i r s t European to see the c i t y . He gave the following description of the i d o l house: 'The several pagodas, choultries and courts are enclosed.by a wall 660 feet long and 510 feet broad. Around the enclosure were gardens and rese r v o i r s . On the south side lay the ruins of a once great c i t y . The wall was b u i l t of stone blocks, three feet by seven feet. Each block had figures carved out of i t . The stones were placed i n a manner that gave the impression'of sculptured rings running a l l the way around the wall. '• ( N i k i t i n counted twelve of these sculptured rings which he called "wreaths".) 3 Williams, Monier, Hinduism, pp.103, 106-107. Krishna was the eight avatar or incarnation of Vishnu. He was the direct manifestation of Vishnu himself i n human form. Krishna may be the figure H i k i t i n i s r e f e r r i n g to. - 28 -trunk; 1 t h i r d l y as a man w i t h the face of a monkey; 2 f o u r t h l y as a man hut i n the form of a f e r o c i o u s b e a s t . 3 He always appeared to them w i t h a t a i l and he i s carved i n stone and h i s t a i l r i s e s a sazen (seven f e e t ) over him. 4 The people of a l l I n d i a come to the i d o l house to witness h i s m i r a c l e s . Hear the i d o l house o l d women and g i r l s shave 1 Dowson, o p . c i t . , Ganesa (Ganesa), son of S i v a and P S r v a t I , was l o r d o f the troop o f ' i n f e r i o r d e i t i e s . He i s r epresented as a short f a t man with f o u r hands and w i t h the head of an elephant with o n l y one tusk. 2 I b i d . Hanumant was a c e l e b r a t e d k i n g of monkeys, and the son of Pavana, the wind. He i s a conspicuous f i g u r e i n the Ramayana. Hanumant a s s i s t e d Rama, (the seventh i n c a r n a t i o n of Visnnu) i n a war against Ravana, the king of Ceylon. Hanumant was c e l e b r a t e d f o r many e x p l o i t s . "His face i s a red as the b r i g h t e s t ruby, while h i s enormous t a i l spread out to an i n t e r m i n a b l e l e n g t h " . 3 W i l l i a m s , Monier, o p . c i t . p.106. Vi s l i n u assumed the form of half-man, h a l f s - l i o n (Narasimha) to f r e e the world from the tyranny of the demon, Hiranyakas'ipu. 4 "A khvost eerez nego sazen'. It i s d i f f i c u l t to determine the exact p o s i t i o n of the t a i l . The Russian t r a n s l a t i o n , Grekov, Khozenie, p.61, c o n s i d e r s the t a i l thrown over the "but's" shoulder. Below, N i k i t i n again says; "a khvost u nego-cerez-nego". K. Mejer, "Die f a h r t des Athanasius N i k i t i n " , p.25, t r a n s l a t e s the . l a t t e r as "und der Schwanz geht uber i h n h i n , " "and the t a i l goes over him". - -- 29 -t h e m s e l v e s ; t h e y s h a v e a l l t h e h a i r i n c l u d i n g t h e b e a r d s a n d t h e h e a d s , t h e n t h e y go up t o t h e i d o l h o u s e . F r o m e a c h / t/ 1 p e r s o n t w o s e s k a n i a r e t a k e n f o r t h e " b u t " , a n d o n h o r s e s 2 t h e r e i s a l e v y o f f o u r f u t u n s . M a n y p e o p l e come t o t h e i d o l h o u s e , i n a l l ( a t h o u s a n d " l a k " a n d a t t i m e s e v e n a h u n d r e d 3 t h o u s a n d " l a k " . ) I n t h e i d o l h o u s e t h e " b u t " i s c a r v e d i n s t o n e a n d i s v e r y b i g a n d h i s t a i l g o e s o v e r h i m . H i s r i g h t h a n d i s r a i s e d h i g h a n d o u t - s t r e t c h e d l i k e t h a t o f J u s t i n i a n , t h e E m p e r o r o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , a n d i n h i s l e f t h a n d he h o l d s 4 a s p e a r . He i s u n c o v e r e d , o n l y h i s b u t t o c k s a r e b o u n d w i t h a s m a l l c l o t h , b u t h i s f a c e i s t h a t o f a m o n k e y . 1 G r e k o v , K h o z e n i e , p . 1 7 7 , ( n . 1 2 6 ) , " S e k s e n " o r " S e s k a n i " , ( P e r s i a n ) a s i l v e r c o i n , e q u a l t o o n e - t e n t h o f a t a n g a . 2 S e e P a g e 2 4 , n o t e 4 3 G r e k o v , o p . c i t . p . 1 7 7 , ( n . 1 2 7 ) . " H a z a r l a k , v a q t i b a s a d s a d h a z a r h a l a k " , lis P e r s i a n f o r " a t h o u s a n d l a c s a n d a t t i m e s a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d l a c s . " S t e i n g a s s , o p . c i t . " l a c " ( S a n s k r i t l a k s ' a ) i n P e r s i a n m e a n s a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d . H i k i t i n a p p a r e n t l y u s e s " l a c " t o mean a " m u l t i t u d e o f p e o p l e " . y 4 K a r a d j i c , V . S . , S r p s k i R j e & a i k , t r e c ' e i z d a n ' e , B e l g r a d , S t a m p a r i j i K r a l ' e v i n e S r b i j e , 1 8 9 8 . " g u z i o a " - " z a d n i c a " -" b u t t o c k s " . S r e z n e v s k i j , o p . c i t . , t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f " g u z n o " i n t h e K h o z e n i e , s e e m s t o b e i t s f i r s t o c c u r a n c e i n R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e . - 30 -Other "buts" are completely naked and t h e i r (buttocks are exposed.) 1 The wives o f the "buts are carved naked w i t h t h e i r pudenda, and t h e i r c h i l d r e n are carved w i t h them. In f r o n t of the "but" stands a huge ox carved from b l a c k stone and a l l g i l d e d . The people k i s s h i s hoofs and they s c a t t e r f l o w e r s upon the ox, and they s c a t t e r f l owers upon the "but". The Indians do not eat any type of meat; n e i t h e r v e a l nor mutton nor f o w l nor f i s h nor pork, 2 although they have very many swine. They eat twice a day but do not eat at n i g h t . They d r i n k n e i t h e r wine nor honey water, n e i t h e r do they d r i n k nor eat w i t h Moslems. T h e i r f a r e i s bad. They do not eat w i t h one another or w i t h t h e i r wives. They eat r i c e and k i c h i r i and v a r i o u s herbs. The Indians eat e v e r y t h i n g w i t h t h e i r r i g h t hand but do not take anything w i t h t h e i r l e f t hand. They do 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p.61, "c otkrytym zadom", "with exposed b u t t o c k s " , t r a n s l a t e d from the Russian v e r s i o n . 2 Cf. page 26 note 1. Cf. a l s o Castes and t r i b e s of  Southern I n d i a , eg. IV, 192-193. "The "Kusavan" caste (Tamil p o t t e r s ) f o l l o w e r s of "Saivism.and Vaishnav" eat mutton, goat, horses and swine". Most of the c a s t e s eat meat on ceremonial occasions but t h e i r r e g u l a r d i e t i s v e g e t a r i a n . However, some c a s t e s eat no meat. 3 Grekov, op.cit.,p.178,(n.130). "brynec" from P e r s i a n " b i r i n j " " r i c e " . - 31 -not use knives and do not know of spoons. When t r a v e l l i n g each one has an earthenware pot and he cooks his porridge by the roadside. They hide from the Moslems so that the l a t t e r may not look into the pot or at the food. If a Moslem looks at t h e i r food then they w i l l not eat i t , and when some of them eat they cover themselves with a c l o t h so that no one w i l l see i t . The Indians pray towards the east as do the Russians. They raise both hands high and place them on the crown of t h e i r heads. Then they prostrate themselves on the ground and stretch themselves at f u l l length along the ground. Such i s t h e i r obeisance. When they s i t down to eat they wash both hands and feet and also rinse t h e i r mouth. 1 Their i d o l houses have no doors and face the east, and the "buts" also face the east. Whoever dies i s burned and h i s ashes are scattered upon the waters. I f a woman i s with c h i l d her husband acts as midwife. The father names the son but the mother names the daughter. But there i s no good i n them and they know not shame. When they depart or meet, they bow l i k e monks stretching both hands to the ground, and they say nothing. 1 Ordinances of Manu, lect.2; 53, "Let the Brahman always eat h i s food aft e r having rinsed h i s mouth, and (in a) col l e c t e d (state of mind); having eaten, l e t him thoroughly rinse h i s mouth..." •32-At Lent the Indians come to Parvata to t h e i r "but"; t h i s i s t h e i r Jerusalem, or i n the Moslem fashion - t h e i r Mecca, but i n the Russian fashion - Jerusalem; and according to the Indians i t i s Parvata. They congregate unclothed with only a cl o t h about t h e i r hips, and the women are naked with only a cloth about t h e i r hips. Others wear cloths and have pearls and sapphires about t h e i r necks and wear bracelets on th e i r arms and rings of gold on t h e i r hands - God be my witness. 1 They ride into the i n t e r i o r of the i d o l house on oxen whose horns have been tipped i n copper. Three hundred l i t t l e b e l l s are hung around t h e i r necks and t h e i r hoofs are shod, and these oxen are c a l l e d "father". Indeed, the Indians c a l l the ox "father" and the cow "mother"With t h e i r dung they bake bread and b o i l food; and with the ashes they paint on th e i r faces, along t h e i r foreheads, and over a l l t h e i r bodies, t h i s Is t h e i r mark. On Sundays and on Mondays they eat once a day. In India (women are considered cheap and of l i t t l e worth: i f you desire to know a woman - you give two setels, i f you wish to 1 Steingass, op.cit., "Allahu haqq" i n Persian "true God". 2 Miles, A., The land of the Lingam, London, Hurst and Blackett Ltd., 1933, p.43. The caste marks are worn on twelve regions of the body the most prominent being on the forehead from the h a i r l i n e down between the eyebrows. The paste i s a mixture of cow-dung ash, v e r m i l l i o n and sandal 4paste. - 33 -throw money away - you give six set e l s . Suoh i s t h e i r custom. Slaves and slave-women are cheap: for four futuns you get a be a u t i f u l one, for f i v e - a b e a u t i f u l one and dark too.) 1 From Parvata I arrived i n Bidar f i f t e e n days before 2 the Moslem f e s t i v a l , Ulu Bairam. But I know not the great day of the Resurrection of Christ. However, by signs I surmise that the Christian Easter comes nine or ten days before the Moslem Bairam. I have nothing with me, no books; but we did take books from Hus'. When I was robbed, they were taken, and I have forgotten a l l the Christian f a i t h and the Chr i s t i a n holidays. I know neither Easter nor Christmas, neither Wednesday nor Friday. And i n the midst of the f a i t h s (I pray God to protect me: "Lord God, true God, God thou art God the merciful, Thou art God the creator, Thou art the Lord".) There i s but one God; the King of glory, the creator of Heaven and earth. And I am returning to Rus' with the thought: (gone i s my- fa-i-frh, I-feorvo £&&t-ed 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p.62. Translated from the Russian version, t h i s i s one of the many Turkic sections i n the Khozenie. 2 Huart, C , "Bairam", Islam, vol.1, p.594, Bairam i s an Osmanil - Turkish word. There are two great Moslem f e s t i v a l s , "Kucuk Bairam" or l i t t l e f e s t i v a l , celebrated for three days at the breaking of the f a s t . "Kurban (Ulu) Bairam" the great f e s t i v a l l a s t i n g four days. 3 Grekov, op.cit.,o.62. Translated from the Russian version. - 34 -my f a i t h , I have f a s t e d on Mohammedan f a s t days.) The month of March has passed and I have not eaten meat f o r a month. I began to f a s t on Sunday w i t h the Moslems and d i d not eat anything f o r b i d d e n on f a s t days; and I d i d not eat any Moslem food but I kept e a t i n g only bread and water twice a day; (and I had no a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h women). 1 I prayed t o God who r u l e s the u n i v e r s e , who cr e a t e d Heaven and e a r t h , and I c a l l e d upon no other name. God (our c r e a t o r , m e r c i f u l God, God, Thou a r t the almighty God.) 1 From Ormuz to C a l i c u t one t r a v e l s t e n days by sea; from C a l i c u t t o D i u - s i x days; from D i u to Muscat - s i x days; from Muscat to Gujarat - t e n days; from Gujarat to Cambay- f o u r days; from Cambay to Chaul - twelve days; from Chaul to Dabhol - s i x days. Dabhol i s a seaport i n I n d i a , 2 the l a s t port h e l d by Moslems. From Dabhol to C a l i c u t takes 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p.63. T h i s s e c t i o n i s t r a n s l a t e d from the Russian v e r s i o n . 2 Cambridge I n d i a , I I I , 414-415. The coast south of Dabhol was under the Raja of V i j a y a n a g a r and independent Indian r a j a s , Goa being the c h i e f port o f V i j a y a n a g a r . Between 1469 and 1472 Mahmud. Gavan engaged i n a d i f f i c u l t campaign "to reduce to obedience the Rajas of Khelna, Sangameshwar, and other d i s t r i c t s whose p i r a t e f l e e t s had i n f l i c t e d , much l o s s on Muslim merchants and p i l g r i m s . " A f t e r t a k i n g these p o r t s Mahmud Gavan besieged and captured Goa. H i s r e c e p t i o n i n B i d a r a f t e r these e x p l o i t s i s d e s c r i b e d by H i k i t i n below. - 35 -twenty-five days; from Calicut to Ceylon - f i f t e e n days; " 1 v from Ceylon to Sabat one has to t r a v e l a month; from Sabat 2 to Pegu - twenty days; and from Pegu to Chin and Machin takes a month, and a l l these journeys are by sea. From Chin to Cathay one has to t r a v e l by land - six months, and by sea - four days. (And God w i l l protect me.) 1 Markon, I., Strana "Sabat" v khozenie za t r i morja  Afanasija N i k i t i n a v 1466-1472,-Minsk Trudy Belorusskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 1922, pp.304-325. The identity of the land c a l l e d by N i k i t i n , "Sabat", "Sibat", "Saibat", "s'ibait", remains a mystery, Sreznevskij, I.I., Khozenie za t r i morja Afanasija N i k i t i n a v 1466-1472^ St. Petersburg, Akademija nauk, 1866. p.76, i d e n t i f i e s "Sabat" with Shabazpur, an island i n the mouth of the Ganges River. Minaev, op.cit., July, p.55, considers "S*abat" to be Champu, known by European t r a v e l l e r s of the f i f t e e n t h and sixteenth centuries as "Chompa" and "Chamba". Markon, however, a f t e r examining these„and other arguments arrives at the conclusion that the land "Sabat" has no r e a l i t y . He i d e n t i f i e s "Sabat" with the legendary r i v e r , "Sambation" or "Shabation", beyond which, according to Jewish-and Christian legend, the l o s t , ten tribes of I s r a e l were to be found. 2 Grekov, op.cit.,p.182,(n.156, 157). "Chin" and "Machin" meaning China i n general, and South China i n p a r t i c u l a r , were the common terms used by Arab t r a v e l l e r s , e.g. Ibn Batuta c a l l e d South China "Sin",. "Chin", "Machin" and North China he c a l l e d "Cathay". 3 Loc. c i t . , (n.158). "Araste Khuda <5atum". (Persian) -"God my v e i l (protector) w i l l adorn". - 36 -Ormuz i s a vast seaport; people from a l l over the world dwell f>n i t , and every sort of merchandise that i s produced i n the world can "be found i n Ormuz. The duty, 1 however, i s large; they take ten percent on everything. Cambay i s a port for the entire Indian Ocean. AlL:kind * 2 of merchandise i s made there; Alaca, damask, and kandak. 4 They make indigo and produce lac and also cornelian and 5 s a l t . Dabhol i s a very large port and horses are brought there from Egypt, Arabia, Khorasan, Turkestan and 7 Isfahan; and they t r a v e l a month by land to Bidar and to Gulbarga. 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p.182,(n.160). "Tamga" - "duty". 2 Loc.cit.(n.162). "Alaca" - a cloth made from twisted cotton and s i l k thread... . 3 Minaev, "Staraja Indija", p.183. "Kandak" - "gingham" 4 _Grekov, op.cit.,p.182(n.167). "Akhyk" from Arabic " 'aqiq" -"sard" or "cornelian". 5 Loc.cit.,(n.168). "Lon" - The meaning of t h i s word is doubtful. In the opinion of Sreznevskij i t i s from "lanha" - "coconut". According to Minaev, (Staraja Indija", p.182) i t i s from Sanskrit "lavana" - " s a l t " . Salt known as "lon" i n modern Indie d i a l e c t s , has been a major export of Cambay. 6 Becker, C.H., "Egypt", Islam, II, 4. "Misjur" from Arabic, form of the Semitic,name "Misr" - "Maqr" - "Egypt". 7 Grekov, op.cit., p.183,(n.174). "Negostan" - an unidentified place or a corruption of the text.. Possibly i t i s "Isfahan". - 37 -i Caliout i s a port of the entire Indian Ocean, and God spare any ship 1 from passing i t by, and whoever s h a l l pass i t by, he w i l l not have made a safe passage. In p Calicut pepper, ginger and dye are produced, and also 3 4 5 nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, spice roots and fresh ginger and many roots of a l l kinds are grown here. Everything i s cheap i n Calicut, (and slaves and slave women are very a t t r a c t i v e and dark.) 1 Grekov, Khozenie, op.cit., p.183.(n.17 7). "Kestjak" probably from Persian "Kas'ti" - "ship". 2 Loc.cit.,(n.178). "Zenzebil" (Arabic zanjabll) (Latin "zenzebiris") - "ginger". 3 L o c . c i t . , (n.179). "Moskat", "muskatnyj orekh" -"nutmeg". 4 Lo c . c i t . , (n.180). "Kalajur" - "cinnamon". 5 L o c . c i t . , (n.182). "Prjanoe Korenie" a type of spice root, possibly a s p e c i f i c spice. 6. S.telngass, op.cit., Persian "adrak", Sanskrit "ardraka"-"fresh ginger". 7 Grekov, op.cit.,p.183.(n.184). "Kul", "karavas" (Turkic) "slave", "slave woman". " p i s ' j a r ' khub s i j a " corruption of Persian "bisyar khub siyah" - "very b e a u t i f u l , and black". 38 -Ceylon i s also a considerable port of the Indian Ocean. Here, on the height of a mountain, i s found Father Adam.1 2 ^ Around him are found precious stones, rubies, c r y s t a l , 4 5 6 white agate, r e s i n , b e r y l and emery stone. Elephants 7 thrive here and are sold by the e l l , and ostriches are sold by weight. The harbour of Sabat i s a very large port i n the 8 9 Indian Ocean. Here they pay an allowance of a tanga a day 1 Lardner, Discoveries, I, 201. Ibn Batata, o i . 1340, went to Ceylon "...to v i s i t the footsteps of oar forefather Adam". Leading up the mountain of Serendib or Adam's peak are two paths - "the way of Baba" or Adam, "the way of Mama" or Eve. The impression of a foot on top of the mountain i s ca l l e d the "foot of Buddha" by,Hindus and "Adam's foot" by Moslems, Jews and. Christians. 2 Grekov, op.cit.,p.183,(n.188). "Cerv'ci" "rubies" or "garnets". 3 Loc.cit.,p.183,(n.189). " F a t i s " - " c r y s t a l " . 4 Ibid.p.184,(n.190). "Babogur' " - from Persian "Baba g u r i " - "white agate". 5 Loc.cit.,(n.191). "Bincaj" - r e s i n " . 6 Loc.cit.,(n.192). "Sumbada" - a type of stone used for f i n i s h i n g precious stones. 7 Loc.cit.,(n.192). "Devjakys" - Turkish "Devekus" -"camel-bird" - " o s t r i c h " . 8 Loc.cit.,(n.196). "Alafa", (Arabic) " 'alafa", "sustenance", "allowance'-', "stipend". 9 Oxford Dictionary, "Tanga" - a name given to various coins s t i l l used on the Malabar ...Coast. In 1857 a tanga was worth seven pence. - 3 9 -t o e a o h . K h o r a s a n i a n , y o u n g a n d o l d . A n d t o e a c h K h o r a s a n i a n w h o m a r r i e s , t h e p r i n c e o f S a b a t g i v e s a t h o u s a n d t a n g a s f o r a s a c r i f i c e a n d a s a n a l l o w a n c e , a n d h e g i v e s t e n t a n g a s e v e r y m o n t h f o r f o o d . I n s V b a t s i l k , s a n d a l - w o o d a n d p e a r l s a r e p r o d u c e d , a n d e v e r y t h i n g i s c h e a p . I n P e g u t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t , a n d i n P e g u l i v e 1 2 m o s t l y I n d i a n d e r v i s h e s . P r e c i o u s s t o n e s , r u b i e s a n d s a p p h i r e s a r e p r o d u c e d h e r e , a n d t h e s e p r o d u c t s a r e s o l d b y t h e d e r v i s h e s . T h e p o r t s o f C h i n a n d M a c h i n a r e v e r y l a r g e a n d i n t h e m c h i n a - w a r e i s m a d e , a n d ' t h e y s e l l t h e c h i n a - w a r e b y w e i g h t , b u t i t i s c h e a p . T h e i r w o m e n s l e e p w i t h t h e i r h u s b a n d s d u r i n g t h e d a y , 3 b u t a t n i g h t t h e w o m e n g o t o t h e f o r e i g n e r s a n d s l e e p w i t h t h e m . T h e y g i v e t h e m e r c h a n t s a n a l l o w a n c e a n d t h e y b r i n g w i t h t h e m s w e e t e n e d f o o d s a n d s w e e t w i n e s ; t h e y g i v e f o o d a n d d r i n k s o t h a t t h e m e r c h a n t s w i l l l o v e t h e m , f o r t h e y l o v e w h i t e m e r c h a n t s b e c a u s e t h e i r p e o p l e a r e v e r y b l a c k . I f a w o m a n c o n c e i v e s a c h i l d b y a m e r c h a n t , h e r h u s b a n d g i v e s a n a l l o w a n c e , i f t h e c h i l d i s w h i t e e i g h t e e n t a n g a s g o t o t h e m e r c h a n t , i f t h e c h i l d i s b l a c k , n o t h i n g ; b u t w h a t t h e m e r c h a n t a t e a n d 1 G r e k o v , K h o z e n i e , p . 1 8 4 ( n . 2 0 1 ) . " D e r b y s ^ i " - " d e r v i s h e s " -" B u d d h i s t m o n k s " . „ 2 „ L o c . c i t . , ( n . 2 0 2 , 2 0 4 ) . " M a n i k " a n d " k y r p u k " b o t h m e a n r a ° y . B a r b o s a c a l l e d t h e r u b y " c a r a p u c h " . 3 L o c . c i t . , ( n . 2 0 7 ) . " G a r i p " A r a b i c - " g h a r l b " - " f o r e i g n e r " . - 40 -drank i s h i s by law. 1 Sabat i s three months distant from Bidar and one travels two months by sea from Dabhol to Sabat. Machin and Chin are four months by sea from Bidar; and there they make china-ware, everything i s cheap. Bat one travels two months by sea to reach Ceylon. In s'abat s i l k , china-ware, pearls, and sandal-wood are produced, and elephants are sold by the e l l . In Ceylon mamons, rubies and cr y s t a l s are found. In Calicut pepper, nutmeg, cloves, betel-nut andcdye are produced. In Gujarat indigo i s produced, and i n Cambay cornelian i s produced. In Raichur .diamonds are produced from the old and the new mines. 2 A "poc'ka" 3 of diamond i s sold f o r f i v e rubles, a very good one for ten rubles. A "pocka" of a new diamond i s 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p.184,(n.209). " H a l i l " (Arabic) "permitted by law". 2 Ibid. p.185, (n.222). "plrkan", "navkan" (Persian) ''old mine", "new mine". 3 Brockhaus, op.cit., XLVIII, 790. "Poc'ka" was a unit of weight used i n Russia up to the seventeenth century. During the f i f t e e n t h century in Novgorod a "pocka" was equal to four and a half " d o l j a " or 198 milligrams. - 41 -1 2 % sold f o r f i v e "keni", a black one for four to s i x "keni", but a white diamond i s sold f o r one tanga.^ Diamonds are found i n a rocky mountain and t h i s mountain i s . sold. If i t contains diamonds of the new mine, i t i s sold at two thousand gold pounds an e l l . I f i t contains diamonds of the old mine, i t i s sold at ten thousand gold pounds an e l l . The land belongs to Malik-Khan, a vassal to the sultan; and i t i s t h i r t y kovs from Bidar. 5 6 ^ The Jews c a l l those people of Sabat Jews l i k e themselves, but they l i e , for the inhabitants of Sabat are neither Jews nor Moslems nor Christians but they are of another Indian r e l i g i o n . They neither eat nor drink with Jews or Moslems and they eat no meat. Everything i s cheap i n Sabat, and they produce s i l k and sugar very cheaply. In the woods there are mamons and monkeys and they attack people along the roads; and because of the mamons and the monkeys people do not 1 Grekov, op.cit.,p.185,(n.223). "Panj" (Persian) " f i v e " "keni", a small coin, a sixty - f o u r t h part of a tanga. -2 Loc.cit.,(n.224). "Siyah" (Persian) "black". 3 Loc.oit.,(n.225). "Chahar, sas keni" - "four to six keni". 4 Loc.cit.,(n.226). "Safed yak tanga" (Persian) "white (Diamond) one tanga". 5 Grekov, op.cit.,p.l85,(n.230). "Yahud" (Arabic) "Jews". 6 "Syto" appears to be a corruption. Dmitri Cizevsky (Harvard University) considers i t to be "sy to", r e f e r r i n g to the people of Sabat. - 4 2 -d a r e t o t r a v e l a l o n g t h e r o a d s a t n i g h t . F r o m S a b a t o n e h a s t o t r a v e l t e n m o n t h s b y l a n d a n d f o u r m o n t h s b y s e a i n a j u n k . 1 F r o m d e e r t h a t h a v e b e e n 2 p o i s o n e d t h e y c u t o u t t h e n a v e l , a n d i n t h e n a v e l m u s k i s p r o d u c e d , b u t t h e w i l d d e e r d r o p t h e i r m u s k - s a c k s i n t h e f i e l d s a n d i n t h e w o o d s ; f r o m t h e m , h o w e v e r , t h e s m a l l i s n o t s o p l e a s a n t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t f r e s h . I g r e e t e d E a s t e r d u r i n g t h e m o n t h o f M a y i n M o s l e m B i d a r , i n I n d i a . T h e M o s l e m s c e l e b r a t e d B a i r a m o n W e d n e s d a y , i n t h e m o n t h o f M a y , b u t I b e g a n t o f a s t o n t h e f i r s t d a y o f A p r i l . 0 t r u e b e l i e v i n g C h r i s t i a n s ; h e w h o t r a v e l s m u c h a m o n g m a n y l a n d s f a l l s i n t o m a n y s i n s a n d l o s e s h i s C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . I , s e r v a n t o f G o d , A f a n a s i j , h a v e l o n g e d f o r m y f a i t h ; a l r e a d y f o u r L e n t s h a v e p a s s e d , a n d f o u r E a s t e r s , y e t I , s i n f u l o n e , k n o w n o t w h i c h d a y i s E a s t e r o r w h i c h a r e f a s t d a y s . I d o n o t k n o w C h r i s t m a s o r t h e o t h e r h o l i d a y s a n d I d o n o t k n o w e i t h e r 1 G r e k o v , K h o z e n i e , p . 1 8 6 , ( n . 2 3 3 ) . " A u k i k " - a n u n i d e n t i f i e d w o r d , p o s s i b l y " j u n k " , ( a l a r g e v e s s e l b u i l t i n C h i n a c a r r y i n g u p . t o f i v e h u n d r e d - s a i l o r s a n d f i v e h u n d r e d s o l d i e r s a n d u s e d t o c o n v o y t w o s m a l l e r s h i p s . ( L a r d n e r , D i s c o v e r i e s , I , 1 9 9 . ) £ S r e z n e v s k i j , o p . c i t . , " O k o r m l e n n y j " i n o l d R u s s i a n u s u a l l y m e a n t " p o i s o n e d " b u t - i t c o u l d m e a n " f a t t e n e d " . -. 43 -Wednesday or Friday, for I have no books. When I was robbed my books were taken from me, and I, from much misfortune, went into India because I had nothing with which to go to Rus', having no merchandise l e f t . The f i r s t Easter I greeted in "Kain"; 1 the second i n Capakur, in the country of Mazanderan; the t h i r d Easter I spent i n Ormuz; the fourth Easter I spent i n Bidar with the Moslems. And here I greatly longed for the Christian f a i t h . The Moslem Malik t r i e d hard to force me to go over to the Moslem f a i t h . I, however, said to him: ("Sir, you say prayers and I also say prayers'. You say f i v e prayers and I say £ three prayers. I am a foreigner and you are a& t h i s land.") But he said to me; "You appear to be no Moslem but you do not know C h r i s t i a n i t y . " I then f e l l upon many r e f l e c t i o n s and I said to myself: "Woe i s me accursed one, for I have strayed 1 Grekov, op.cit.,p.186,(n.240). "Kain" i s an unidentified place. N i k i t i n l e f t Tver i n the spring of 1466. He passed the f i r s t Easter (1467) at "Kain"; the second Easter (1468) at Capakur; the t h i r d Easter (1469) i n Ormuz. If he did indeed pass the Easter of 1467 i n "Kain" then "Kain" i s probably a town i n Shirwan. If H i k i t i n has made an error and passed the Easter of 1467 in Capakur i n the Mazanderan province, then "Kain" may be a corruption of Nain, a point where he may well have passed the second Easter. 2 Grekov, Khozenie, p.66. Translated from the Russian version. The expression appears i n Turkic i n the T r o i c k i j copy. - 44 -from the true path, and I know not the path I w i l l now take. Lord God, r u l e r of the un i v e r s e , c r e a t o r o f Heaven and ear t h , do not t u r n Thy fa c e from Thy slave f o r I am near d e s p a i r . Lord.' p r o t e c t me and have mercy on me f o r I am Thy c r e a t u r e . Do not, Oh Lord, t u r n me from the true path but put me, Oh Lord, on Thy r i g h t path; f o r , when needed, I have done no good deeds f o r Thee my Lord, but I have spent my days i n e v i l , my Lord . (My Lord, God the p r o t e c t o r , almighty God, m e r c i f u l God, g r a c i o u s God. Glory to G o d J ) 1 I have alr e a d y passed f o u r E a s t e r s i n the Moslem land but I have not fo r s a k e n C h r i s t i a n -i t y ; f o r the f u t u r e , God knows what w i l l be. Lord, God I have p l a c e d my hope i n Thee, save me 0 my Lord God. In Moslem I n d i a , i n the great c i t y of B i d a r , I beheld the n i g h t before E a s t e r . On E a s t e r Sunday the B l e i a d e s and Orion arose at dawn and the Great Bear stood w i t h h i s head towards the ea s t . On the Moslem Bairam the s u l t a n took a 2 ple a s u r e r i d e , and w i t h him went twenty grand v i z i e r s and three hundred elephants c l a d i n s t e e l armour and c a r r y i n g howdahs. The howdahs are bound w i t h s t e e l , and i n each 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p.67. T r a n s l a t e d from the Russian v e r s i o n . 2 I b i d . , p.187,(n.247). " T a f a r r u j " (Arabic) "pleasure r i d e " . 3 "Elephant", Encyclopaedia, Americana. 1945, X, 221. "The p r i n c e s i t s i n a canupied huwuali...the s a d d l e c l o t h and tr a p p i n g s were encrusted w i t h g o l d and j e w e l s . . . " - 45 -howdah are s i x men i n armour and armed with guns and arquebuses, 1 and on large elephants there are twelve men. On each elephant there are two large banners, and to the tusks of the elephants huge swords, weighing a kantar each, are attached, and large iron weights are t i e d to t h e i r trunks. A man in armour s i t s between t h e i r ears and holds i n his hands a large iron hook, with which he guides the elephant. In . addition, there were a thousand spare horses i n golden harness, a hundred camels bearing kettledrums, three hundred trumpeters, 2 three hundred dancers and three hundred concubines. The sultan wears a coat a l l adorned with jewels and on his helmet i s a large diamond. His armament i s golden and decorated with jewels. He wears three scimitars encrusted with gold, and his saddle i s golden. In front of him runs a k a f f i r playing with a parasol, and following him are many on foot. Behind him walks 1 "Arquebus", Encyclopaedia Britannioa, 11th. ed., 1937, II, 641-642. The arquebus or harquebus was the immediate predecessor to the musket, and was replaced by the musket c i . 1570. 2 "Kovre" see page 23 note 2. 3 Grekov, Khozenie, p.187, (n.254). "Sagadak" (Tartar-"Sadak") (Russian "Saadak") i s the f u l l armament-of a horseman, including a bow and a quiver of arrows. - 46 » a trained 1 elephant a l l in brocade, and i t beats back the people. It holds i n i t s mouth a great iron chain and i t beats back people and horses so that none may come close to the sultan. The brother of the sultan s i t s on a golden l i t t e r and above him i s a velvet canopy, the crown of which i s of gold and studded with gems; twenty men carry him. The m a h m u d s i t s on a golden l i t t e r and above him is a s i l k e n canopy topped with gold. He i s borne by four horses with golden harnesses. Around him here i s a great mass of people, and before him are singers and many dancers, and a l l are armed with unsheathed swords or scimitars, or shields and lances or spears, or long straight bows. The horses are a l l in armour and scarry f u l l y armed warriors. And a l l the other men are completely naked with only a small cloth on t h e i r buttocks; t h e i r genitals are covered. 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p.67. "Blagoj" i s translated as "trained". Us'akov, op.cit., gives the meaning "mad" for '-'blago j " . ( N i k i t i n may be r e f e r r i n g to a 'must' elephant; a male i n a condition of - probably sexual - excitement, when a dark o i l y matter exudes from two pores i n the fore-head. The task of t h i s elephant, as described by H i k i t i n , suggests that he was trained). 2 Minaev, "Staraja Indija", p.218. "Mahmud" i s i d e n t i f i e d as Mahmud Gavan: i . e . , Malik-ut-Tujjar.-- 47 -I n B i d a r t h e moon i s f u l l f o r t h r e e d a y s . T h e r e a r e no sweet f r u i t s i n B i d a r . I n H i n d u s t a n t h e r e i s no s e v e r e h e a t . S e v e r e h e a t i s f o u n d i n Ormuz and i n B a h r e i n , w here p e a r l s a r e f o u n d , a n d i n J i d d a h , and i n B a k u , and i n E g y p t , and i n A r a b i a , and i n L a r . I n t h e l a n d o f K h o r a s a n t h e c l i m a t e i s h o t b u t n o t as much s o . B u t i n C h a g a t a i i t i s v e r y h o t , and i n S h i r a z , and i n Y e z d ; and i n K a s h a n i t i s h o t and a t t i m e s w i n d y . I n G- i l a n i t i s v e r y s u l t r y and e x t r e m e l y h u m i d , and i n S h a m a k h l t h e r e i s much h u m i d i t y ; and i t i s h o t i n B a g d a d and i n Horns, and i n Damascus i t i s v e r y h o t , b u t t h e c l i m a t e i s n o t v e r y h o t i n A l e p p o . I n t h e r e g i o n o f S i v a s and i n G e o r g i a goods a r e a b u n d a n t ; and t h e T u r k i s h l a n d i s v e r y r i c h , and i n W a l l a c h i a a l l e d i b l e goods a r e a b u n d a n t and c h e a p , and i n P o d o l i a e v e r y t h i n g i s p l e n t i f u l . (May God p r e s e r v e t h e R u s s i a n l a n d , God p r e s e r v e , God p r e s e r v e . T h e r e i s no l a n d on e a r t h l i k e h e r , a l t h o u g h t h e l o r d s o f t h e R u s s i a n l a n d a r e u n j u s t . B u t t h e R u s s i a n l a n d s h a l l be p u t i n o r d e r and . t h e r e s h a l l be j u s t i c e i n R u s ' . 0 God, God, God, God, G o d . ) 1 L o r d my GodJ I n Thee I h a v e p l a c e d my t r u s t , s a v e me 0 Lord.' I do n o t know a way w h e r e b y I c a n g o f r o m H i n d u s t a n , 1 c o u l d go t o Ormuz b u t f r o m Ormuz t o K h o r a s a n t h e r e i s no 1 The p r a y e r f o r t h e R u s s i a n l a n d i s g i v e n i n T u r k i c i n t h e T r o i c k i j c o p y . H e r e i t i s t r a n s l a t e d f r o m t h e R u s s i a n v e r s i o n , G r e k o v , K h o z e n i e , p.68. - 48 -road, and to Chagatai there i s no road, and there i s no road to Bahrein, and there i s no road to Yezd. Everywhere there i s s t r i f e , everywhere the princes have been expelled. Jahan Shah Mirza 1 has been k i l l e d by Uzun Hasan-beg. The saltan Abu-2 Said has been poisoned. Uzan Hasan-beg has taken the throne in Shiraz bat the country has not confirmed him, and Mohammed Yadgar does not come to him, he i s a f r a i d . And there i s no other road to take. To go to Mecca i s to accept the Mohammedan f a i t h , f o r because of t h e i r f a i t h Christians can not go to Mecca (since they would have to accept Islam). To l i v e i n India one spends a l l he has, for everything i s expensive here. 1 Sykes, S i r Percy, A hi s t o r y of Persia, London, Maomillan and Co. Ltd., 1930. II, 139-140. Jahan Shah was the brother of the l a s t r u l i n g member of the "Black Sheep" dynasty (1378-1469), of Armenia and Azerbaijan.- Jahan Shah had conquered Georgia, Fars and Kerman. Then, shortly a f t e r taking Khorasan, he was surprised and k i l l e d by Uzun Hasan of the r i v a l "White Sheep" dynasty. £ Ibid. p.138. Abu Said (1452-1467), a desoendent of Tamerlane, seized Samarcand and established himself i n Transoxiana and northern Persia. In 1467 Abu Said invaded Azerbaijan but was captured by Uzun Hasan and handed over to Yadgar who put him to death. After the defeat of Ahu Siad and Jahan Shah, Uzun Hasan became the r u l e r of Persia. 3 The r e p e t i t i o n of content i n t h i s clause suggests that the clause was added by a copyist and does not belong to the text. * 49 -I am a s i n g l e man, bat two and a h a l f a l t y n s go f o r food d a i l y although I have drunk no wine or honey water. M a l i k - u t - T u j j a r took two Indian c i t i e s which were engaging i n p i r a c y on the Indian Ocean, 1 and he captured seven of t h e i r p r i n c e s and took t h e i r t r e a s u r y ; a loa d o f jewels, a loa d of diamonds and r a b i e s and a hundred loads of expensive goods. H i s troops took an inumerable q u a n t i t y of other goods. He had besieged the c i t y f o r two years w i t h an army of two hundred thousand men, a hundred elephants and three hundred camels. M a l i k - u t - T u j j a r approached B i d a r w i t h h i s army p on the.day of Kurbant Bairam, i n Russian on S t . P e t e r ' s day. The s u l t a n sent ten v i z i e r s to meet him at a d i s t a n c e of ten kovs ( i n a kov there are ten v e r s t s ) . Each v i z i e r was at the head of ten thousand o f h i s troops and ten elephants i n armour. 1 See page 34 note 2 . 2 Minaev, o p . c i t . , J u l y , p.1-2. M a l i k - u t - T u j j a r was met by a triumphal p r o c e s s i o n on June 29, 1471, when he approached B i d a r . Muhammad III and h i s mother were d e l i g h t e d by the b r i l l i a n t success of Mahmud Gavan and c o n f e r r e d new t i t l e s on him. A t M a l i k - u t - T u j j a r 1 s e v e r y d a y f i v e h u n d r e d m e n s i t d o w n t o d i n e . T h r e e v i z i e r s s i t a t d i n n e r w i t h h i m , a n d e a c h v i z i e r i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y f i f t y m e n , a n d a h u n d r e d v a s s a l n o b l e s . M a l i k - u t - T u j j a r k e e p s t w o t h o u s a n d h o r s e s i n h i s s t a b l e , a n d o f t h e s e a t h o u s a n d a r e k e p t s a d d l e d d a y a n d n i g h t i n r e a d i n e s s ; a n d h e h a s a h u n d r e d e l e p h a n t s i n h i s s t a b l e . E v e r y n i g h t h i s p a l a c e i s g u a r d e d b y a h u n d r e d m e n i n a r m o u r , t w e n t y t r u m p e t e r s , t e n k e t t l e d r u m s a n d * t e n h u g e d r u m s , e a c h s t r u c k b y t w o m e n . H i z a m - u l - M u l k a n d M a l i k - K h a n a n d F a r a t - K h a n t o o k 2 t h r e e l a r g e c i t i e s a n d t h e y h a d a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d o f t h e i r 1' M i n a e v , " S t a r a j a I n d i j a " , P . 2 2 7 . M a h m u d G a v a n w a s c e l e b r a t e d f o r - h i s g e n e r o s i t y , s p l e n d o u r a n d w i s d o m . F e r i s h t a t e l l s o f h o w h e e a r n e d t h e n a m e " G a v a n " i . e . " c o w " ( i n P e r s i a n ) . M a h m u d G a v a n w a s o n a t e r r a c e a l o n g w i t h t h e s u l t a n a n d s e v e r a l n o b l e s w h e n a c o w a p p r o a c h e d a n d g a v e a l o u d b e l l o w . S a i d o n e o f t h e n o b l e s ; " P e r h a p s t h e l e a r n e d m i n i s t e r c o u l d t e l l H i s H i g h n e s s w h a t t h e c o w s a i d . " " S h e s a i d , " a n s w e r e d M a l i k - u t - T u j j a r , " t h a t I a m o f h e r k i n d a n d t h a t I s h o u l d n o t b e t a l k i n g w i t h - a n a s s " . 2 C a m b r i d g e I n d i a , I I I , 4 1 5 - 4 1 6 . B e f o r e M a h m u d G a v a n r e t u r n e d t o B i d a r n e w s r e a c h e d t h e s u l t a n t h a t t h e H i n d u r u l e r o f S o u t h e r n O r i s s a h a d d i e d a n d w a s s u c c e e d e d , b y a n a d o p t e d s o n M a n g a l w h o r e f u s e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e p a y m e n t o f t r i b u t e . H i z a m - u l - M u l k w a s s e n t a t t h e h e a d o f a g r e a t a r m y t o p u t d o w n t h e r e v o l t . H i z a m - u l - M u l k d e f e a t e d M a n g a l a n d p u t t h e d e c e a s e d r a j a ' s c o u s i n , H a m b a r , o n t h e t h r o n e . T h e c i t i e s R a j a m u n d r y a n d K o n d a v i r w e r e c a p t u r e d , a n d n o w , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , t h e k i n g d o m o f t h e B a h m a n i d s e x t e n d e d f r o m s e a t o s e a . - 51 -soldiers and f i f t y elephants. They captured an immense quantity of-sapphires and precious stones of a l l kinds, and a l l these jewels and sapphires and diamonds they cornered for Malik-ut-Tujjar; and he forbade the artisans to s e l l them to the merchants who had come to Bidar on the day of the assumption of the Holy V i r g i n . The sultan rides out for recreation on Tuesdays and Thursdays and three v i z i e r s ride out with him. His brother rides out on Mondays with his mother and s i s t e r . Two thousand women come out on horseback and on gilded l i t t e r s , 1 and before them go a hundred spare horses i n golden harness, and very many people accompany them on foot. In addition there are two v i z i e r s , and ten v i z i e r s , and f i f t y elephants i n cloth blankets. On each elephant s i t four men, naked but f o r a clo t h on the i r buttocks. The women on foot are naked, and these women carry water f o r drinking and washing, but no one w i l l drink from another's vessel. Malik-ut-Tujjar set f o r t h from Bidar with his army to 2 conquer the Indians on the aniversary of Sheikh-Ala-ud-din, 1 Minaev, op.cit.,p.220. The women on horseback and on l i t t e r s are guards of the harem. Women soldi e r s are used to guard the harem of Emir Kabir of Hyderabad up to 1880. 2 Cambridge India, I I I , 416. When the revolt broke out i n Southern Orissa, the rajas of Belgaum and Bankapur, instigated by Virupaksha, of Vijayanagar, attempted to regain the port of Goa. Muhammad III and Malik-ut-Tujjar led the attack against the a l l i e s of Vijayanagar. - 52 -according to the Russian calendar, on the day of the mantle of the Holy V i r g i n ; and f i f t y thousand soldiers went f o r t h with him. The sultan sent f i f t y thousand of his men, and with him there went f o r t h three v i z i e r s , and with the v i z i e r s went t h i r t y thousand men and a hundred elephants equipped with howdahs and clad i n armour. On each elephant there were four men armed with arquebuses. Malik-ut-Tajjar went forth to conquer Vijayanagar, 1 a great Indian kingdom. The prince of Vijayanagar has three hundred elephants and a hundred thousand soldiers, and he has f i f t y thousand horses. The sultan departed from the c i t y of Bidar eight months after Easter, and with him there went fo r t h twenty and six v i z i e r s (twenty Moslem and six Indian viziers).. With the sultan there went f o r t h of his court a hundred thousand cavalrymen and two hundred thousand infantrymen and three hundred elephants equipped with howdahs and i n armour, and a hundred ferocious beasts, each with two chains. With the sultan's brother there went f o r t h of h i s court a hundred 1 There are no h i s t o r i c a l records of an attack by the Bahmanid sultan against the c i t y of Vijayanagar during the time H i k i t i n was i n India. However, H i k i t i n was i n Gulbarga, the headquarters, at the time, and was i n a good p o s i t i o n to know the aim of the campaign. Possibly the d i f f i c u l t y of capturing Belgaum and the death of the Queen Mother during the siege, discouraged the continuation of the campaign. 2 Minaev, op.cit.,p.225. Minaev suggests that the "ferocious beasts" are l i o n s or leopards, both of 'which were p l e n t i f u l i n Southern India. - 53 -thousand cavalrymen and a hundred thousand infantrymen. and a hundred elephants clad i n armour. With Malik-Khan there went f o r t h of h i s court twenty thousand cavalrymen and sixty thousand infantrymen and twenty elephants clad i n armour. With Bidar-Khan 1 there went f o r t h t h i r t y thousand cavalrymen, and with his brother there went f o r t h a hundred thousand infantrymen and twenty-five elephants clad i n armour and with howdahs. With the sultan there went f o r t h of his court ten thousand cavalrymen and twenty thousand infantrymen and ten elephants with howdahs. With Vizier-Khan there went forth f i f t e e n thousand cavalrymen and t h i r t y thousand infantrymen and f i f t e e n elephants clad i n armour. With Kotwal-Khan there went forth of his court f i f t e e n thousand cavalrymen and fo r t y thousand infantrymen and ten elephants. ?/ith each v i z i e r there went f o r t h ten thousand troops, and with another, f i f t e e n thousand cavalrymen and twenty thousand infantrymen. With an Indian autonomous r u l e r there went forth of his army f o r t y thousand cavalrymen and a hundred thousand infantrymen and fo r t y elephants clad in armour, and each elephant carried four men armed with aquebuses. 1 Bidar-Khan and below, Vizier-Khan and Kotwal-Khan are not proper names. Their i d e n t i t y can not be established with certainty. - 54 -With the s a l t a n t here went f o r t h t wenty-six v i z i e r s and wi t h each v i z i e r t here were ten thousand men and w i t h another v i z i e r there were f i f t e e n thousand cavalrymen and t h i r t y thousand infantrymen. There were f o u r Indian grand v i z i e r s and w i t h each there were of h i s army f o r t y thousand c a v a l r y -men and a hundred thousand infantrymen. And the s u l t a n became angry w i t h the Indians because few went f o r t h w i t h him, and he added twenty thousand infantrymen and two hundred thousand cavalrymen and twenty e l e p h a n t s . Such was the s t r e n g t h of the Moslem s u l t a n of I n d i a . (Islam h e lps i t s f o l l o w e r s ) 2 but (God knows the t r u e f a i t h ) . But God knows the t r u e f a i t h and the true f a i t h i s to know one God, and i t i s f o r the pure to invoke h i s name i n every pure p l a c e . 1 T h i s phrase appears i n P e r s i a n i n the T r o i c k i j copy. Trubeckoj, Kh. II. S. "Khozenie za t r i morja A f a n a s i j a N i k i t i n a kak l i t e r a t u r n y j pamjatnik", S v j a t o p o l k - M i r s k y j , D. P. andothers, ed., Y e r s t y , Paris,. 1926, I. 180. t r a n s l a t e s the phrase as "Islam pomogaet svoim posledovatelem" - "Islam helps i t s f o l l o w e r s " . 2 Grekov, Khozenie, p.190,(n.310). " D i n - i - r a s t khuda danest", P e r s i a n f o r "God knows the t r u e f a i t h " . - 55 -On the f i f t h Easter I bethought myself of Rus'. I set out from the c i t y of Bidar a month before the Moslem Ulu-Bairam (of the f a i t h of Mohammed, the apostle of God.) 1 But I do not know the Christian Easter, the resurrection of Christ; and I fasted with the Moslems according to t h e i r fasts and I broke my fast with them. I greeted Easter i n Gulbarga, twenty kovs from Bidar. The sultan, accompanied by his army, met Malik-ut-Tujjar f i f t e e n days after Ulu-Baifam, and they were a l l at Gulbarga. But t h e i r campaign was not successful. They took one Indian c i t y but many of t h e i r men perished and much of 2 th e i r treasury was spent; for the Indian sultan, kadam i s very powerful. He has many soldiers and he dwells on a mountain i n Vijayanagar. His c i t y i s very great. Around i t 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p. 191, (n.312)« "Muhammad d i n i rasu.1 A l l a h " , Persian for "the Mohammedan f a i t h , the apostle of God". 2 Minaev, op.cit., July, p.16-17. The name "kadam" was not the proper name of the r u l e r of Vijayanagar, nor i s i t known as a t i t l e . H i s t o r i c a l data i s lacking concerning t h i s period of the history of non-Moslem Southern India. The raja of Vijayanagar, between 1470-1472 may have been Pam-chandra-pao or Nara-sinkha-pao. 3 Cambridge India, I I I , 492, Vijayanagar was described by 'Abd-ur-RazzSq., the ambassador of Shah Rukh of Samarkand, i n 1442. The c i t y covered a space of sixty-four square miles and had seven enclosures and seven c i t a d e l s . The three outer walls enclosed f i e l d s and the dwellings of the land workers while the inner w a l l enclosed the palace of the r a j a . Canals were made to bring water into the ci t y from the Tangabhadra River. 56 -are three r a v i n e s , and a r i v e r flows through the c i t y . On one side of the c i t y i s a mighty j u n g l e , on the o t h e r s i d e i s a v a l l e y , a very wonderful plac e and s u i t a b l e f o r e v e r y t h i n g . From one side there i s no way to approach the c i t y . A road runAs through the c i t y but there i s no d i r e c t i o n from which to take the c i t y ; a great mountain and a dense j u n g l e p r e s s r i g h t up to the c i t y . The- army desieged the c i t y f o r a month. Men d i e d from t h i r s t and many p e r i s h e d from hunger and t h i r s t . They could see the water but there was no way to take i t . An Ind i a n c i t y 1 was captured by Khoja M a l i k - u t - T u j j a r and he took i t by f o r c e . He a s s u l t e d the c i t y day and n i g h t f o r twenty days, and h i s army n e i t h e r drank nor ate. They besieged the c i t y w i t h cannon and f i v e hundred p i c k e d men p e r i s h e d . Fftien the c i t y was captured they s l a u g h t e r e d twenty thousand men and women, and they took twenty thousand p r i s o n e r s , b i g and sm a l l , and s o l d the p r i s o n e r s at t e n tangas a head and some at f i v e tangas and c h i l d r e n at two tangas each. But there was 1 Minaev, o p . c i t . , p . 1 6 . Both the d e s c r i p t i o n of the c i t y and i t s capture suggest Belgaum r a t h e r than V i j a y a n a g a r . F e r i s h t a d e s c r i b e d the f o r t r e s s of Belgaum as be i n g surrounded by a deep r a v i n e and i n a c c e s s i b l e from any d i r e c t i o n . no treasury. They did not, however, capture the c i t a d e l . From Gulbarga I went to Kalur. In Kalur cornelian i s produced and here they f i n i s h i t and export i t to a l l the world. In Kalur there are three hundred diamond artisans; 2 they (decorate weapons). I remained here for f i v e months and from here I went to Golconda; and here there i s a very great market. From there I went to Gulbarga, and from Gulbarga I went to Aland, and from Aland to "Amindri",' and from "Amindri" tp "Naras", and from "Haras" to "Suri";' and from 1 Cambridge India, I I I , 416. When only the c i t a d e l remained i n his hands, Birkana, the raja of Belgaum, escaped from the stronghold and appeared i n the Moslem camp i n disguise. When he was led to the tent of Muhammad III he revealed h i s identity and begged for mercy. JHis l i f e was spared, and Belgaum was given to Mahmud Gavan whose f i e f i t adjoined. At t h i s point news reached Muhammad that h i s mother had died i n Bidar. The news grieved the_ saltan and he returned to Deccan to stay with Mahmud Gavan while the body was being prepared for b u r i a l . £ Steingass, op.cit., " S i l a h Mikunad", Persian f o r "decorate weapons". 3 Minaev, op.cit., July, p.57. It i s uncertain what towns H i k i t i n meant by "Amindri", "Haras" and "Suri". - 58 -"Suri" I went to Dabhol, a port of the great Indian Ocean. Dabhol i s a very large c i t y , and i n t h i s Dabhol gather a l l the coastal peoples of India and Ethiopia. And here I Afanasij, accursed servant of Almighty God, creator of Heaven and earth, bethought myself of the Christian f a i t h , and of the baptism of Christ, and of the fa s t s ordained by the Holy Fathers, and of the teachings of the Apostles; and I fixed my mind on returning to Rus'. I boarded a "tava" and agreed on the price 1 of the passage, to pay two gold pieces for myself to Ormuz. I boarded a ship from Dabhol three months before Easter, before the Moslem f a s t . I s a i l e d i n the "tava" f o r a month and saw nothing. The next month I saw the mountains of - • 2 Ethiopia and upon t h i s the people cried out; (Allah, protector, 3 Olio konkar, bizim basi munda nasip balmysti".) And i n 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p.193,(n.327). "Nalon" is the "payment of a sea passage". The word probably i s derived from the Greek "naulon" meaning "payment of a sea passage". 2 Steingass, op.cit., "Allah parwardagar", Persian for "Allah, protector". 3 Grekov, Khozenie, p.72. In the Russian version t h i s passage is translated as; "It i s apparent that we have been fated to perish here". 5 9 -R u s s i a n t h e y s a y ; "0 L o r d G o d , 0 G o d , 0 G o d a l m i g h t y , k i n g o f H e a v e n , T h o u h a s t d o o m e d u s t o p e r i s h h e r e . " I r e m a i n e d i n t h e l a n d o f E t h i o p i a f i v e d a y s a n d t h r o u g h t h e g r a c e o f G o d n o h a r m w a s d o n e m e . W e d i s t r i b u t e d m u c h r i c e , p e p p e r a n d m a n y l o a v e s o f b r e a d t o t h e E t h i o p i a n s a n d s o t h e y d i d n o t p l u n d e r t h e s h i p . F r o m h e r e I s a i l e d t w e l v e d a y s t o M u s c a t , a n d i n M u s c a t I g r e e t e d t h e s i x t h E a s t e r . T h e n I s a i l e d n i n e d a y s t o O r m u z a n d r e m a i n e d i n O r m u z t w e n t y d a y s . F r o m O r m u z I w e n t t o L a r a n d s t a y e d t h r e e d a y s . F r o m L a r I w e n t t o S h i r a z i n t w e l v e d a y s a n d s t a y e d i n S h i r a z s e v e n d a y s . F r o m S h i r a z I w e n t t o A b a r g u h i n f i f t e e n a n d r e m a i n e d i n A b a r g u h t e n d a y s . F r o m A b a r g u h I w e n t t o Y e z d i n n i n e d a y s a n d s t a y e d t h e r e e i g h t d a y s . F r o m Y e z d I w e n t t o I s f a h a n i n f i v e d a y s a n d s t a y e d i n I s f a h a n s i x d a y s . F r o m I s f a h a n I w e n t t o K a s h a n a n d r e m a i n e d i n K a s h a n f i v e d a y s . F r o m K a s h a n I w e n t t o K o m , a n d f r o m K o m I w e n t t o S a v e h a n d f r o m S a v e h t o S u l t a n i e h , a n d f r o m S u l t a n i e h t o T a b r i z , a n d f r o m T a b r i z I w e n t t o t h e h o r d e 1 o f 1 T h e h o r d e o f H a s a n - b e g w a s p r o b a b l y a t D i a r b e k r ( D i y a r B a k r ) . M i n o r s k y , V . , " U z u n H a s a n " , I s l a m , I V , 1 0 6 5 - 1 0 6 9 . T h e f o u n d e r o f t h e T u r k o m e n ( W h i t e S h e e p ) d y n a s t y w a s t h e p r i n c e o f D i y a r B a k r v U z u n H a s a n s t a r t e d h i s a t t a c k a g a i n s t T o k a t f r o m D i y a r B a k r a n d r e t u r n e d t o t h e s a m e c i t y a f t e r t h e a t t a c k . - 60 -Hasan-beg. 1 And I remained i n the horde t e n days f o r there was no way to go from t h e r e . Against the T u r k i s h s u l t a n he sent f o r t y thousand o f h i s s o l d i e r s and they took S i v a s . They captured and burned Tokat, and they took Amasia and plundered many v i l l a g e s ; and they advanced, f i g h t i n g , against Karaman. And I l e f t the horde and went t o Erz i n g a n and from E r z i n g a n I went to Treb i z o n d . p I a r r i v e d i n Tre b i z o n d on the day of the Mantle of the Holy Mother of God and e v e r - v i r g i n a l Mary, and I remained i n Trebizond s i x days and boarded a ship and agreed to pay a g o l d p i e c e as a f a r e f o r myself to K a f f a (Theodosia). In 1 Sykes, H i s t o r y of P e r s i a , I I , 140-142. Hasan-beg or Uzun-Hasan of the "White Sheep" dynasty, a f t e r d e f e a t i n g Abu Said and Jahan Shah, became the r u l e r of P e r s i a , Armenia and A z e r b a i j a n . Hasan-beg then made an a l l i a n c e w i t h the Doge of Venice f o r a combined a t t a c k a g a i n s t Mohamed I I (1451-1481), the s u l t a n of the Ottoman Empire, and conqueror of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . Hasan-beg had married Theodora the daughter of the l a s t emperor of Trebizond and hoped to r e g a i n the c i t y . C a t e r i n o Zeno, a nephew of Theodora, was sent as the ambassador of V e n i c e . He agreed to have the f l e e t s of Venice a t t a c k the coast o f Karamania (Karamah) while Hasan-beg would invade A s i a Minor. "In 1472...a horde of l i g h t horsemen ravaged A s i a Minor but a f l y i n g column under Mustafa, son of the s u l t a n , defeated a P e r s i a n army". A powerful army of the Osmanlis invaded P e r s i a but was stopped at the Euphrates. A f t e r ' , t h i s i n i t i a l f a i l u r e the a l l i a n c e was abandoned. 2 October 14, 1472. - 61 -1 2 Trebizond the shubash and the pasha made much trouble for me. They took my stuff up into the c i t a d e l on the mountain 3 and they searched through everything. They were looking for documents for I had come from the horde -of Hasan-beg. Through the grace of God I reached the t h i r d sea, the Black Sea and i n the Persian language the sea of lstambu|. I 4 sai l e d with the wind f i v e days and reached "Vonada" and here we met a northerly gale which drove us back toward Trebizond. We waited at Platana for f i f t e e n days, there being a strong contrary wind. And we set s a i l twice from Platana and each time we were met by a f i e r c e gale that would not l e t us make way by sea. (0 true God, God the protector), we know no 1 Kramers, J . H., "Su bashi" Islam, IV, 491-492. "Su bashi" i s an ancient m i l i t a r y t i t l e . During the Middle-Ages the "su bashi" was the chief o f f i c e r of the pol i c e and the co l l e c t o r of fines and revenues. 2 "Pasha", i n the given context, would be the governor of Trebizond. Deny, J., "Pasha", Islam, III, 1030-1032. "Pasha", during the f i f t e e n t h century, was the t i t l e of honour.of the f i r s t four of nine grades of the c i v i l service. 3 Grekov, Khozenie, p.139. AB readings add "and they p i l f e r e d a l l the small valuables". 4 Ibid., p.204,(n.360). "Vonada" i s aocape on the south shore of the Black Sea, to the west of Trebizond. 5 Steingass, op.cit., "Allahu haqq., A l l a h parwardagar" Persian for "True God, God-the protector". - 62 -other God -than him. I crossed the sea and we came to Balaclava and from there to "Gurzuf" 1 and remained here f i v e days. Through the grace of God I reached Kaffa nine days 2 3 before the fast of St. P h i l i p . (0 God the protector.) Through God's grace I have crossed three seas. (The rest God knows, God the protector knows. In the name of the merciful gracious God, God i s great, 0 blessed God, 0 blessed Lord, Jesus, s p i r i t of God, peace be with thee. There i s no God but,God the creator, glory to God, praise be to God. In the name of God the merciful, God the gracious, he i s God and there i s non other than he; knowing a l l that i s secret and that i s manifest; he i s merciful and gracious. He i s God and there i s none l i k e him. He i s the King, the l i g h t , the peace, the saviour, the guardian, the g l o r i f i e d , the mighty, the great, the creator, the recreator, 1 Grekov, op.cit., p.205, (n.364). "Gurzuf" i s a town on the south shore of Crimea. 2 Russkij nacional'nyj kalendar'. The fast of St. P h i l i p f a l l s on November 27 (Julian), November 14 (Gregorian). 3 See page 61, note 5. - 63 -the portrayer. He,is the judge of sins and the chastiser, granting, nourishing, ending a l l d i f f i c u l t i e s , knowing, accepting our souls, having spread out Heaven and earth, preserving everything, standing above a l l , r a i s i n g up, casting down, hearing a l l things, seeing everywhere. He i s the judge, just and r i g h t e o u s . ) 1 0 help Thy slave! 1 Grekov, Khozenie, p.73-74. The prayer of Afanasij N i k i t i n i s i n a mixture of Persian and various Turkic d i a l e c t s . The t r a n s l a t i o n i s from the Russian version. See Appendix 1 on N i k i t i n ' s use of non-Russian languages. The End. -64-Appendix 1 N i k i t i n ' s use of non-Russian languages. The many passages written i n Arabic, Persian and various Turkic d i a l e c t s can hardly be passed without a comment. The number of times N i k i t i n addresses " A l l a h " may cause some to suspect that he had become, to some extent,a Moslem. Prince Trubeckoj 1 thinks that N i k i t i n unquestionably remained a C h r i s t i a n throughout. Trubeckoj gives the following reasons f o r his conclusion. F i r s t ; The use of Eastern languages gave a certain " l o c a l colour" to his work, the f u l l psychological meaning of which, today, escapes both Russian and En g l i s h readers a l i k e . I t must be remembered that the merchant m i l i e u of Russia, i n the f i f t e e n t h century, was f a m i l i a r with Turkic and Persian. Second; N i k i t i n used Eastern languages to speak of experiences and to express opinions, the understanding of which should best be kept within his own m i l i e u . Third; There were great advantages to be gained by accepting Islam. 2 The merchant could t r a v e l more f r e e l y and pay a minimum duty. Nevertheless, N i k i t i n did not a v a i l himself of these advantages and so he could not pass through Mecca even though there was no other way to go to Rus'. 1 Trubeckoj, Versty, 1, 132-186. 2 Major, op.cit.,p.61, De Conti, t r a v e l l i n g over the Indian Ocean between 1419-1444, found i t necessary to renounce C h r i s t i a n i t y and to accept Islam. He was absolved by the Pope Eugene IV a f t e r he t o l d his story to the pope's secretary. •65-Bibliography Source Grekov, B. D., Adrianovoj-Peretc, Y. P., ed., Khoz'enie za t r i morja  Afanasija Nikitina, (1466-1472), Moscow-Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nayk SSSR, 1948. References "Aquebus", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th.. ed., 1937> II, 641-42. Bartholomew, J. G., The Times survey atlas of the world,- London, "The Times", 1920. Bohtlink, Otto, Sanskrit-W6rterbuch in kurzerer Fassung, St. Petersburg, K. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1879-Brockhaus F. A., Efron, I. P., ed., Enciklopedic'eski j Slovar', St. Petersburg, 1894. (a) "Altyn", II, 484. (b) >"Buzan"y VIII, 858. (c) "Ez", XXII, 567-568. (d) "Pocka", XLVIII, 790. (e) "Pokrov", XXIV, 251-Burnell, A. C., transl. The ordinances of Manu,' London, Trubner and Co., Ludgate H i l l , 1884. Dowson, J., A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology, London, Trubner and Co., Ludgate H i l l , 1879--66-"Elephant", Encyclopaedia Americana, 1945, X, 221. The Encyclopaedia, of Islam, 1927. (a) Barthold, ff., "Khwarizm", II, 908-912. (b) "Shirwanshah", IV, 383-385. (c) "Baku", I, 609-610. (d) Becker, 0. H., "Egypt", II, 4-(e) Bjorktnan, W., "Kafir", II, 618-620. (fj Deny, J., "Pasha", III, 1030-1032. (g) Kramers, J. H . , "Su bashi", IV, 419-492. (h) Lammens, H., "Al-Husain", II, 339-340. (i) Minorsky, V., "Uzun Hasan", IV, IO65-IO69. Gudzy, N. K., History of early Russian literature, transl. .Susan Wilber Jones, New York, The Macmill/an Company, 1949. Haig, Sir Wolsey, ed., The Cambridge History of India, Cambridge University Press, 1928, III. The imperial gazetter of India, Oxford, The Clarendon press, 1908, XXIII. Karadjic, Vi S;, Srpski Rjecnik, trece izdan'e, Belgrad, Stampariji Kral'evine Srpski RjeSnik, I898. Kirchner, Walther, The American Slavic review, Menasha, Wisconsin, The George Banta publishing company, 1946, V. Lardner, D., and others, ed., "The history of marine and inland discov-eries", The cabinet cyclopaedia, Longman, Rus, Orme, Brown, and Green, I83O, I. Mackenzie, Capt. Colin, "Pagoda at Perwuttum", Asiatic researches, London, 1799, V, 303-314. -67-Major, R. H., India in the fifteenth, century, London, printed for the Hakluyt Society, I857. Majumdar, A. C;, Raychaudhuri, H. C, Datta, Kalikinkar, An advanced history of India, London, MacmilL/an and Co., Ltd., 1948. Markon, I., Strana "Sabat" v Ehoaenie za t r i morja Afanasija Nikitina v 1466-14.72, Minsk, Trudy Belorusskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 1922, pp. 304-325. Mejer, K., "Die Fahrt des Athanasius Nikitin uber die drei Meere", Quellen und Auffabe zur russischen Geschichte, Leipzig, die Historia-Berlag Paul Schraepler, 1920. Miles, A., The land of the Lingam, London, Hurst and Blackett Ltd., 1933-Minaev, I., "Staraja Indija", Zumal ministerstva narodnago prosvescenija, St. Petersburg, Tipografija V. S. Balaleva, 1881, June, pp. I65-24I, July, pp. 1-58. Monier, Hinduism, London, New York, Pott, Young and Co., 1877* Murray, James A. H. and others ©d., The Oxford English dictionary, Oxford, Clarendon press, 1933* Pares, Bernard, A History of Russia, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1947. Russkij nacional'neyj kalendar', New York, St. Vladimir Society, 1948. Sreznevskij, I.I, Materialy dlja slovarja drevne-russkago jazyka, St.Peter-sburg, Tipografija imperatorskoj akademii nauk, 1912. Steingass, F., Persian-English dictionary, London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., Ltd., 1947. Sykes, Sir Percy, A history of Persia, London, Macmill£an and Co. Ltd., 1930, II. -68-Thurston, Edgar., and Rangachari, K., Castes and tribes of Southern India, Madras, Government press, 1909, V. Trubeckoj, Eh. H.C., "Khozenie za t r i morja Afanasija Nikitina kak literaturnyj pamjatnik", Svjatopolk-Mirskij, Kn. D.Pi, Versty, Paris, 1926, I. 164-186. Usakov, D.N., ed., Tolkovyj slovar' russkogo jazyka, Moscow, ogiz, 1935. 

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