UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

On the oxygen supply to salmon eggs Wickett, William Percy 1951

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1951_A8 W5 O6.pdf [ 3.26MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106670.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106670-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106670-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106670-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106670-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106670-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106670-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106670-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106670.ris

Full Text

ON THE, OXYGEN SUPPLY TO SALMON EGGS by WILLIAM PERCY WICKETT A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF1 THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DECREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of ZOOLOGY We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OP ARTS. Members of the Department of Zoology THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1 9 5 1 ON: THE OXYGEN SUPPLY TO SALMON EGGS A preliminary study on pre-eyed chum salmon eggs in the gravel at Nile creek by William Percy Wickett ABSTRACT Both field and laboratory experiments have shown lethal effects from the deposition of s i l t on incubating salmon eggs. Because silting appears to deprive the eggs of sufficient oxygen, theoretical limits of flow and oxygen content of sub-surface water were studied. Data have been gathered on temperature, oxygen content, and rate of flow of water twelve Inches below the surface of the gravel at Nile creek. F-ielcfc determinations of oxygen consumption of pink, chum and coho eggs have been made. In heavily-silted portions of the bed there was an insufficient supply of oxygen for pre-eyed chum salmon eggs. A f i e l d method for determining oxygen content and apparent velocity of gravel water is presented. ..•oOo.•• CONTENTS Page I. INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem 1 Literature 1 II. FORMULATION OF PROBLEMS 5 Oxygen demand ' 6 Oxygen supply i n the gravel 7 Method of evaluating gravel water conditions . . . . . 9 III. DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF PRE-EYED CHUM EGGS 10 Method 10 Results 11-Discussion 14-IV. DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN CONTENT AND VELOCITY OF GRAVEL WATER 14 Method 14 Results 16 Discussion 17 V/. DEVELOPMENT OF GRAVEL WATER SAMPLER 18 Description . . . 18 Calibration 20 VI. EVALUATION OF OXYGEN SUPPLY AT NILE CREEK 22 VII. SUMMARY 23 VIII. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 24 IX. LITERATURE CITED 25 APPENDIX A - Oxygen consumption data . APPENDIX B - Gravel water data Figure 2 to follow 16 3 « 18 4 " " 21 5 « « 22 Table I " " 11 II .-• • " " 20 ...oOo••• - 1 -I. INTRODUCTION The Problem In a study of the freshwater development of the chum salmon (Onco-rhynchus keta) at Nile creek on Vancouver island, high losses (averaging 70$) have been found in the pre-eyed stage. It is believed that a real part of this loss is due to oxygen deficiency, associated with the pres-ence of s i l t in the salmon redds. To assess this, i t was necessary to obtain basic knowledge of the oxygen requirements of the eggs and of the oxygen available in the stream bed. A technique that may have general application in the field of fishery biology is required for the rapid assessment of oxygen availability in salmon redds. Literature Two studies of the natural incubation of salmonoid eggs are of major interest, those of D. Hobbs (1937, 194-0, 1948) in New Zealand and W.M. Cameron (1939, 1941) in British Columbia. In both places, pre-eyed losses were greater than eyed losses and were associated with the amount of very fine material in the redds during the development'of the ova be-fore eyeing. In his classic study of the natural reproduction of New Zealand salmonoids, Hobbs recognized an adequate oxygen supply as an important factor influencing egg survival. Mortalities at the various stages of development of eggs and alevins were observed by sampling redds in numerous localities. In New Zealand he concluded Mthat the extent of losses of fertilized ova in undisturbed redds depended primarily on the amount of very fine material in the redds during the development of ova before eyeing". However, these losses were less than 1 0 $ , and other losses were dominant and limited the population size. H:e listed seven factors to be considered i f anything in the nature of an exact determination of the permeability of a redd were attempted, with a view to ascertaining whether ova receive a sufficient amount of oxygen:: 1. The number and size of ova per unit volume of bottom material. 2. Their oxygen requirements. 3. The permeability of the redd material. 4-. The contours of the redd. 5« The rate of flow of water over the redd. 6. The amount of available oxygen per unit volume of water. 7« Water temperature. Hbbbs, however, was not able to satisfy his own conditions. Cameron suggested that for McClinton creek pink salmon there is a definite relation between pre-eyed and total mortalities of eggs and ale-vins, and that low mortalities are almost invariably associated with medium to coarse gravel, good circulation, and the absence of s i l t or plant material. This suggests that when pre-eyed losses are high they become dominant, and that conditions conducive to a plentiful supply of oxygen reduce this mortality. Recent work indicates a direct relation between flow of streams dur-ing the period of spawning (which includes the early pre-eyed stage) and chum salmon population size four years later in the Vancouver island district (Neave and Wickett, 194$). The size of particles carried by water is related to the velocity of flow (Mavis, Ho and Tu, 1935). If - 3 -the flow decreases at spawning time, increasingly fine s i l t may accumulate on the spawning beds. S i l t i n g may reduce the rate of flow of oxygen-bearing water i n the gravel since the permeability of a porous medium varies as the square of the diameter of i t s grains (Mavis and Wilsey, 1936). Mavis and Wilsey also found that the permeability of sand varied with the f i f t h or sixth power of the porosity, i.e., degree of consolidation, (page 5). This restriction of flow by consolidation i s emphasized by Ellison (1950) who says that deep-sealing of fields may be caused by the i n f i l t r a t i o n of turbid rainwater, the ground becoming nearly impervious to water within twenty-five years under certain conditions.' This process could very well be taking place i n stream beds. A third factor that may also be associated with reduced surface dis-charge of streams i s reduced sub-surface flow through the gravel from the banks of streams, due to the lowering of the water-table, which is one of the primary causes of decreased stream flow. (Hoyt, 1942). Water transports the oxygen that i s consumed by salmon eggs. The oxygen consumption of salmonid eggs has been studied by several workers but none has related his findings to conditions i n gravel beds. The oxygen consumption of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) eggs has been carefully studied by Lindroth (1942) and by Hayes and his associates (Hayes, 1949). Kawajiri (1925) recorded the oxygen consumption of the eggs of Oncorhynchus masou, though the temperature of the experiments is not given. Smith and Kleiber (1950) give formulae for the relation of size and oxygen consump-tion of various f e r t i l i z e d eggs at 25°C Zeuthen (1947) made a general study of body size and metabolic rate i n the animal kingdom. - 4 -None of the above give data suitable for present requirements nor are any studies of the oxygen demand of chum salmon eggs known to the writer. Besides the two authors mentioned previously there i s ample evidence to indicate the importance of adequate water flow over incubating eggs i n the writings of Schaeperclaus (1933), Hata (1931), Vibert (1950), Hubbs, Greeley, Tarzwell (1932), Shetter, Clark, Hazzard (194-6), Hewitt (1931), White (194-2) and Moffett (194-9) • From these authors i t i s clear that an improvement of the quantity and quality (oxygen content, temperature, freedom from s i l t and chemicals) of the water supply usually improves the survival of incubating salmonoid eggs. Shaw and Maga (1943) carried out tests on the deleterious effect of mining s i l t . One or two points from their paper are of particular importance: " S i l t added during the i n i t i a l stages of incubation and continued for either a few days or a longer period, causes severe damage resulting i n low yields of fry. The emergence of f r y above the gravel i s retarded .... (and) .... i n general these fry were smaller and weaker than those of the control series and a number of deformities were noted. The larger number of whole eggs remaining i n the gravel at the conclusion of this experiment i s significant as i t shows a tendency for undeveloped eggs to resist decomposition, apparently due to a protective coating of s i l t . " The same effect has been noted i n the "controlled-water" section of Nile creek, where eggs planted the previous year have been found preserved in the gravel after twelve months. The composition of the stream bottom - 5 ~ in one such area was of consolidated large stones, sand, s i l t and small gravel, and the surface flow was good with l i t t l e surface silting. In another of these areas the gravel was (and s t i l l is) heavily silted. On the other hand, excellent incubation was found where there was reduced surface flow, much surface silting but a spring upwelled close by and the gravel was loose. In view of this, s i l t of itself did not seem to be lethal, but in certain instances i t would appear that circulation of the water i s so greatly reduced that there i s insufficient oxygen for the disintegration of dead eggs in gravel. . . . o O o . . . II. FORMULATION OF PROBLEMS Three main problems present themselves: 1. oxygen requirements of chum salmon eggs; 2. the mechanism of transport of oxygen to eggs in the gravel; 3« a method of evaluating water conditions in the gravel. In this study the following symbols are used: A = oxygen demand of the eggs, i.e., the amount of oxygen necessary for normal metabolism, in mg.02/egg/hr. R'. = radius of egg, in mm. p = porosity of gravel, i.e., total volume of pores-bulk volume u = component of true velocity in direction of flow, in mm*/hr. v = apparent velocity of water, i.e., discharge. area do = amount of oxygen dissolved in water, in mg.Oo/litre. - 6 -G z value of de at which A i s sharply reduced. n = number of eggs i n a column i n the direction of water flow. Oxygen requirements of chum salmon eggs The oxygen demand i s assumed to be the same for a l l eggs of similar past history at a given temperature and at a similar stage of develop-ment. For Salmo salar eggs the oxygen demand increases with age and tem-perature (Hayes, 194-9), but i s independent of the amount of oxygen dis-solved i n the water, provided the dissolved oxygen (do) i s above a c r i t i c a l value (G). The oxygen demand i s abruptly reduced when the amount of oxygen dissolved i n the water i s reduced below this c r i t i c a l value. For the stages immediately preceding hatching, the c r i t i c a l value i s greater than f u l l saturation because the oxygen consumption of the egg i s being limited by the rate of diffusion of oxygen through the capsule. The c r i t i c a l value of dissolved oxygen varies with the oxygen demand of the egg, the square of i t s radius and the rate of diffusion of oxygen through the egg (Krogh, 1941)• It may be expressed i n oxygen tension, i.e., partial pressure of oxygen i n millimeters of mercury multiplied by the percentage saturation; i n atmospheres, l*e., 760 mm. Hg pressure of oxygen; i n the degree of oxygen saturation of the water; or simply parts, per million at a given temperature. Values of the oxygen demand (A) of pre-eyed chum salmon eggs are required at temperatures that occur i n nature, and at values of dissolved oxygen (do) greater that the c r i t i c a l value (C). In view of the lack of specific knowledge, f i e l d determinations are preferable to deductions - 7 -made from the literature. A and G may be found by recording the reduction of do per unit time i n either moving or static volumes of water i n which the eggs are immersed. Oxygen supply i n the gravel The oxygen supply to eggs i n water w i l l depend on the volume of water per unit time (Q) delivering oxygen to the eggs, and the oxygen per unit volume (do) dissolved in the water; i.e., gross supply i s <Qdo. . The oxygen available for f u l l metabolism w i l l consist of the dissolved oxygen i n ex-cess of the c r i t i c a l oxygen content; i.e., the effective supply i s Q(do-G) (1.) The true velocity (u) of fluids i n gravel beds i s d i f f i c u l t to deter-mine. Nominal or apparent velocity (v) i s used i n practice and i s defined as the volume of discharge per unit time (Q) divided by the total cross section of the area (a) through which the f l u i d i s assumed to flow, just as though this area were f i l l e d with water only, i.e., v ='S a In the case of a clear area, v ° u. If a f l u i d discharges through a porous medium, and discharge (Q) and area of cross-section (a) are the same as for the clear area, then u i s greater than v, for Q. is coming from only the t o t a l area of the pores i n a. v i s a quantity capable of calculation and easy observation i n a laboratory. If we use i t instead of true velocity then an expression of limiting supply of oxygen to an egg i s possible. Acceptable conditions for f u l l metabolism w i l l obtain when the weight of oxygen per unit volume, in excess of the c r i t i c a l weight per unit volume, multiplied by the volume per - 8 -unit time equals or is greater than the weight of oxygen used per unit time, i.e., A- £ Q(do-C) (2) Whether an egg i s i n water only, or i n gravel of any given porosity does not matter i f v i s known. Because of variations i n speed of flow in different parts of the gravel, measurements of v may have to be made close to the eggs with several replications of v. Even so, estimating v i s much simpler than u because v i s calculated from a which i s a gross area that contains gravel, eggs and pores. Assume as a f i r s t approximation that i f the effective area (a e) presented by an egg to the flow of water is known, then (Q: may be calcu-lated from Q = va e For a single egg, i f oxygen diffuses from the adjacent 1 mm. of water only, a e w i l l be a maximum at T\ (R * 1) and the maximum supply of oxygen i s r, (R+l^vfdo-CUo" 6 mg.02/egg/hr. (3) For eggs i n an egg mass, the area of egg plus i n t e r s t i t i a l space per 2 egg presented i n one plane was found to be approximately l . l i R by meas-uring the area occupied by one layer of eggs, so the maximum supply i n this case i s l.l^Ri^Cdo-CjlO""6 mg.Oo/egg/br. (4) In expression,: (4) no allowance is made for a progressive decrease of do as the water passes successive eggs. In order that the last (n) egg of a column i n the direction of water flow, shall just receive suf-ficient oxygen, then the oxygen supply must be equal to n times the demand of one egg or the demand of one egg equals l/n times the supply. Us ten eggs i s a reasonable number of eggs to occur naturally in the direction of flow of water i n a salmon redd, and i s easy to calculate, i t may be taken as an arbitrary standard. If the oxygen demand, the c r i t i c a l value of dissolved oxygen, and the radius of the eggs i s known, the sufficiency of the oxygen supply i n the gravel may be estimated from the apparent velocity and oxygen content of the water i n the gravel, using this formula; nA £ ll5TR2v(do-C)10-'7 (5) Method of evaluating gravel water conditions The expression above requires data on the water 10 to 12 inches below the surface of a stream bed. Temperature i s required so that the oxygen demand of the eggs may be known. The dissolved oxygen content and velocity at that.' level are required so that the supply of oxygen may be known. Gole r (1932) describes a method of determining the dissolved oxygen content of the mud at the bottom of a pond. A glass tube with a f i l t e r on the bottom was forced into the mud aid withdrawn when f u l l of water. Tubes set permanently in the gravel would enable water samples to be drawn from the sub-surface water by inserting a suction tube, and temperature could be found by introducing a thermometer into the set pipes. Rose (1945), who has formulated the laws of fluids through granular materials, notes that exact velocities i n a particular part of a bed are virt u a l l y impossible to calculate. The possibility of observing veloci-t i e s , though, i s not ruled out. - I D . -The observation of true velocity, u, by means of tracers is depend-ent on the sampling positions being on the line of flow of water. This is not necessarily easy to determine»and;oit can/be shown., would'require that the porosity (p) be known. The act of sampling gravel changes the porosity, though a maximum value can be obtained by testing a dried sample of gravel. In view of the difficulties involved, the observation of true velocity will not be attempted. The observation of apparent velocity would require that the discharge from a given area be known. (In the field, ground water flow is calculated from the observed change in depth of water in wells around a pumped well.) For present purposes, a method is desired that will not change the hydrau-l i c conditions above or below the surface of the bed of a stream and will indicate v where a is small. Further research is required to provide a method fu l f i l l i n g these conditions (sections IV and V). ...oOo... III. DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF PRE-EYED CHUM BOGS Method Nineteen ordinary glass-top preserving jars of approximately 950 cc. volume were weighed dry and f i l l e d with water at 6°C. to determine their volumes to - 0 . 5 cc. Each top and bottle was numbered and used together. Eggs were placed carefully in the jars by means of "egg pickers", and the jars were fi l l e d with water which was led to the bottom of the jar by a tube from the hatchery head trough (at the Nile creek field station). The jars were capped without air bubbles and placed in the head trough - 11 -so that they were covered with water. A water seal and a f a i r l y uniform known temperature were thus obtained. Due to the extreme susceptibility of pre-eyed eggs to shock, the water over these eggs could not be stirred. In most cases, 100 eggs were used as a sample as they formed a single layer on the bottom of the jar, although samples of 50 and 200 eggs were used occasionally. Oxygen determinations were made on samples of water taken at the time of f i l l i n g . Procedures and equipment for oxygen determination are described by Tully (1949, 1950). After approximately twelve hours, the jars were opened carefully and water drawn off by siphon from the bottom of the sealer for the f i n a l oxygen determination. The oxygen sample bottle was rinsed and the sample for determination w,as that from the mid-section of the jars. To find out i f excessive amounts of carbon dioxide were being formed, the pH; of the water from some of the bottles was taken by a Beckman meter at the end of the experiment. The range found was 6.89 to 7.1, which was; v/ithin the normal range of the natural waters. After making the oxygen determination, the eggs were dried by r o l -l i n g them i n cheesecloth and then on f i l t e r paper, l i v e and dead were counted, weighed, and their volume determined by displacement. The radius of the eggs (R) was found by measuring a row of ten eggs. Tlie oxygen con-sumption for later stages of development of chum, pink, and coho eggs were taken as a check on the correct order of magnitude of oxygen demand. Results Results are given in Table I and appendix A. TABLE I OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF "PRE-EYED CHUM SALMON EGGS DETERMINED IN STATIC WATER AMD COMPARATIVE VALUES OF CONSUMPTION:" AND CRITICAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN FOR OTHER EGGS State and age of eggs at start (days) Consumption C r i t i c a l HO A C <** (mg/egg/hr.) (ppm.02) Temp. (°C) No. of eggs & replicates Oncorhynchus keta Pre-eyed 0 .00013 3.7-5.2 100 (11) t i 5 .0003 8.0-8.2 100 (3) « 12 .0002-.00028 0.1-0.7 100 (9) " dead .0003 0.1-0.7 40 (6) . • .oOo..• Faintly eyed 67 ' .0002 0.1-0.7 100 (5) ii it 85 .00079 <5 (3.7) x 3.6-4.9 50 (13) 10 days before hatching 103 .002 8^6 (9.2"JX 5.9-6.1 200 (4) 0. gorbuscha Faintly eyed 28 .0003 6.2-6.9 100 (1) Eyed 33 .0006 7.9-8.3 100 (3) 7 days before (3) hatching 48 .0007 9*6 7.9-8.3 100 7 day alevin 62 .01 8.0-8-2 50 (3) 0. kisutch Faintly eyed 67 .0002 0.1-0.7 100 (5) Hatching 110 .003 4.3-4.9 10 (8) 0 day alevin 110 .009 4.3-4.9 10 (1) Salmo salar (lindroth, 1942) "Domed11 .00014 0.76 (0.66) s 5.5 Brain just ) .00028 4 developed ) .00068 13 Nearly hatching .0039 approx. 5.8 5 Hatching .0067 10 17 0. masou (Kawajiri, 1925) Pre-eyed .001 9 • Calculated from Harvey's formula i n Krogh (1941) - 12 -Oxygen consumption of the eggs was calculated as follows: A = (VB; - Vp)(D0 1 - D02) 1000 HOT where A = oxygen demand of the eggs mg. Oo/egg/hour Vg = capacity-bfsbottle. v.-.~. Vp = to t a l volume of eggs DOj = dissolved oxygen i n water at start of experiment mg./l. mg./l. cc. cc. D0 2 dissolved oxygen i n water at end of experiment H? number of eggs used T duration of experiment hr. (B0 X DOg) i s divided by 1000 to convert mg./l. to mg./cc The bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the water was found to be n i l , but the BOD of dead chum eggs at 0.1 - 0.7°C was found to be about -50% greater than the consumption of l i v i n g eggs. As the time of death of eggs i n the experiment was not known, corrections were not made for the BOD after death of eggs. C r i t i c a l values of dissolved oxygen (C) were not found for pre-eyed eggs as the value of do could not be reduced to this limit within the time of the experiment.- However i t was found for the eyed chum eggs. T.'o obtain an approximate value for pre-eyed eggs, the formula of Harvey (1928) quoted by Krogh (1941) was used, as i t gave, reasonable checks with both the eyed chum and Lindroth's (1942) data. It i s assumed that the egg i s a homogeneous spherical body i n which oxygen i s used up at a constant rate, the same throughout, and that the oxygen tension at the centre i s maintained at zero. (Oxygen tension i s the product of percent oxygen saturation and the partial pressure of oxygen i n air saturated with water vapour at 760 mm. Hg.). - 13: -Harvey's formula i s : 2 G_ - A.r atmospheres 0 "6D~ where: = c r i t i c a l concentration of oxygen i n atmospheres (760 mm. Hg.) at the surface of the egg. A = oxygen consumption i n ml./gm./min. r = radius of egg i n cm. D = diffusion coefficient of oxygen within the egg i n ml./atm/cm./cm. , assumed to be .000015. To convert to mm. of Hg., C Q must be multiplied by 760 mm. The partial pressure of oxygen (P 0) (approx. 157 mm.) must be divided into this figure to give the equivalent percentage saturation of oxygen. The c r i t i c a l value of do required i s found by multiplying the percentage saturation value by the p.p..m. oxygen (do-j^) required for f u l l satura-tion at the given temperature. The formula given i n Tully (1950) i s used to get a factor (approx. »7) to convert mg./l. to ml./l. The c r i t i c a l value of do is expressed thus: 2 0 = 760 A r do-jQQppm. W0 1. Pre-eyed chum eggs; age 0 days; temp. 3.7°-5°C; A = .00013 mg./egg/hr. A = .00013 mg./egg/hr. « .00013' x .71 = .00000394 ml./gm./min. .29 x 60 6 i G = 760 x 3.94 x 10" x 1.6 x 10 - 1 x: 12.8 = 0.39 ppm.02 6 x 1.5 x 10"5 x. 157.5 2. Pre-eyed chum eggs; age 5 days; temp. 8°C; A = .0003 mg./egg/hr. A = .0003 mg./egg/hr. = .0003 x .72 = 0.0000125 ml./gm./min. .29 x 60 G = 760 x 1.25 x IP" 5 x 1.6 x: 10" 1 x: 11.9 = 1.3 ppm.02 6 x 1.5 x 10" 5 x 157.2 3» Pre-eyed chum eggs; age 12 days; temp. 0 .1°- .7°C.; A = -0002 A = .0002 mg./egg/hr. = .0002' x: .7 = 0.00000805 ml./gm./min. -29 x 60 G = 760 x 8.05 x 1 0 " 6 x 1.6 x 1 0 " 1 x 14»4 = 0 . 6 0 ppro.02 6 x 1.5 x 1 0 " 5 x 157.9 -Discussion The results are not precise but are f i e l d determinations which establish the order of magnitude. Their general agreement with Lind-roth's results lead to the belief that they may be used i n the formulae developed previously to establish minimum values of velocity and oxygen content necessary to supply the f u l l demand of the eggs. These values of oxygen consumption are apt to be less than they should be, because the water was not stirred except i n the experiment with the 103-day eggs. . . . o 0 o . . • IV. DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN CONTENT AND VELOCITY OF GRAVEL WATER Method At Nile creek a side channel has been dammed and a water gate i n -stalled so that the water flow may be controlled. In this section freshly f e r t i l i z e d ova have been planted each f a l l since 1947. Data on gravel conditions were gathered here. The upper quarter was normal loose gravel, free of sand(pipes #1-5), the second quarter consolidated gravel (#6,7), and the lower half covered with a heavy layer of sand and leaf material (#8,9). 15 -Nine 1-g-" pipe r a i l fittings,known as "cross with side outlet" were fi t t e d with |-« pipe 24" long i n the side outlet, forming a standpipe with a 300 cc. reservoir, having four-4«5 cm. lateral openings at the base (Fig. 1 ) . These pipes were wrapped in wire mosquito netting and set 12 inches into the gravel along the centre of the "controlled-water" planting bed. The third one of the series was modified so that a recording thermometer bulb could be placed in i t . A second thermograph was set up to record surface temperature. Temperatures were measured in the other pipes by thermometer. Samples of water were taken by suction for oxygen determinations according to the method outlined previously. Dye was used to find the rate of sub-surface flow. Both eosin and methylene blue were used, but the methylene blue proved more satisfactory. Dye was added by pipette to the pipe, the water stirred and a sample taken. After several hours a second sample was taken. The samples were compared with standard concentrations to determine dilutions. Each standard was equivalent to the previous one with an equal volume of clear water added to i t . The number of volumes added per hour was calculated by dividing the difference on the scale of the two samples by the number of hours the dilution had been taking place. F i g . 1 STANDPIPE - 16 -A photoelectric colorimeter was used as well, but i t was not convenient for f i e l d work. A more stable dye than methylene blue would be desirable. Volumes per hour were converted to apparent velocity (v) by calibra-ting the pipe i n a trough of gravel. (See page 20:) • In July and i n August 194-9 the planting bed was dug over and washed by hosing. On February 22-23, 1950 the bed was covered with fine sand experimentally. Results Data are shown i n appendix B. Thermograph records are f i l e d at the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B. C. Oxygen content of gravel water. Average values of oxygen saturation have varied from 56 percent to 88 percent i n the normal gravel (#1-5)• Low values (less than $%) were found i n consolidated portions (#6,7). Zero and near zero values were found i n the permanently silt e d portion (#8,9). Rate of sub-surface flow. The rate of flow of the sub-surface water was found to be closely related to the discharge i n the main stream when the surface flow was kept constant (Fig. 2). The average apparent velocity varied from 5 to 36 mm./hr. (0.4- to 2.8 ft./day). Temperature. A comparison of the thermograph records for pipe #3 (normal gravel) and the surface, show that the temperatures tend to be similar between six and nine o'clock i n the morning when the surface water i s coldest, but the gravel water lags up to eighteen hours i n reaching diurnal maxima. Temperature differences between surface and gravel waters were least at the upper end of the planting bed, near the inlet and at the highest level, and greatest i n the lower half which i s nearly level and 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 #2. MAIN STREAM GAUGE READINGS, feet Fig. 2. RELATION BETWEEN SUE-SURFACE WATER FLOW 12 INCHES UNDER "CONTROLLED • WATER" SECTION AND MAIN STREAM GAUGE READINGS Surface flow on "controlled-water" section was kept constant at 2" on a weir. Sub-surface flows are average readings of a l l standpipes. They may be converted to apparent velocity using figure 4« - 17/ -permanently silted (#8,9) . Differences i n temperature tend to be associa-ted with lowered oxygen saturation, but not with rate of sub-surface flow. Effect of digging and hosing gravel. Washing the stream bed sil t e d up the pipes at f i r s t , but after the pipes were also cleaned out, the average values of dissolved oxygen were raised, particularly i n the consolidated area. This previously consolidated area maintained a high saturation value (78-95$) for a year. The sil t e d area was raised from near zero to 4-5 percent but reverted to low values i n two months. The thermograph records show that the lag i n diurnal temperature maxima became zero to six hours. This effect lasted for ten weeks. Experimental s i l t i n g . S i l t i n g the bed experimentally caused no immediate change in the oxygen content of the v/ater but the average apparent velo-city was reduced by half, in spite of an increase i n surface flow. Discussion The data gathered are not complete enough for a clear analysis of ground water hydraulics but indicate that: The supply of water to gravel one foot below the surface, i s derived from surface flow and from sub-surface flow of water, of lowered oxygen content, from the banks. On another portion of the main stream, a spring at the edge of the creek had an oxygen content of 46»6-53*5$. When the main stream rises, there i s increased sub-surface flow from the water table on either side of the stream bed ( f i g . 2). The surface contribu-tion w i l l vary with the depth of the surface water and the permeability of the surface gravel. The permeability of the surface gravel varies with the presence or absence of s i l t and the degree of consolidation. - 18 -Average values are of interest perhaps in comparison of areas within streams, and of streams in different parts of the world, but individual values of dissolved oxygen and velocity are of greater importance i n this study i n view of Cameron's report (confirmed by the author's observations) that samples of eggs from redds show a preponderance of either high or low survival. Tests of the comparative survivals of eggs placed i n certain of the pipes were negated by excessive cold and flooding, but the areas i n which dead eggs from the previous year's planting have been found are those of lowered oxygen content. Some individual values, below the limiting values for survival calcu-lated from expression (5), are shown in f i g . 5* «..oOo... V. DEVELOPMENT OF GRAVEL WATER SAMPLER Description The "railing-pipe" standpipes set i n the stream had the advantage of giving a f a i r size volume of ground water for sampling dissolved oxygen. Dye samples when taken with a glass pipette required the removal of no more than 5 cc. so that the hydraulic disturbance was minimal. For gen-eral survey purposes a sampler i s required that could be driven into the stream bottom anywhere desired. Ruggedness and simplicity were necessary. At f i r s t a well point, commonly available i n hardware stores, was modified by blanking a l l but the lower inch of the perforations. This pointed perforated pipe was found to break at the threads after being driving cap Fig. 3- GRAVEL WATER SAMPLER After driving the sampler into the gravel to a known depth, a water sample is withdrawn by suction for oxygen determination. Apparent velocity i s found by comparing the rate of dilution of a dye, introduced into the chamber with a standard series of dilutions. driven into the gravel a few times. After experimentation, the model illustrated (Fig. 3) was made of heavy duty l£" tube and has been found satisfactory. A rubber gasket i s f i t t e d inside the. driving cap to minimize the i n -flux of surface water while the sampler i s being driven by sledge-hammer into the gravel. A half-inch pipe liner welded into the tube reduces the stagnant volume of dye when determining apparent velocity of flow. Per-forations i n the chamber at the bottom allow the sub-surface water to •flow through the chamber, diluting the dye. The sampling procedure suggested i s : 1. Rinse sampler free of sand and dye. 2. Screw on driving cap and tighten by hand. 3* Drive the sampler to a standard depth (say 10 inches) keeping the perforations i n known direction. 4-. If sand i s handy, pour i t around the pipe to reduce exchange of sur-face water next to the pipe. Remove the cap and note the time taken for the water to rise to stream lev e l . The ease of driving the samp-l e r and the time for f i l l i n g may give a general description of the compactness of the gravel. 5. If the water i n the sampler i s cloudy, draw off by suction several volumes u n t i l i t clears. Take a sample for oxygen determination and place a thermometer in the sampler. 6. Fix the water sample. 7. Take the temperature. 8. By means of a length of narrow bore (approx. •§*') glass tubing, pipette concentrated dye into the sampler. S t i r , stop the top of the glass - 20 -tube, insert to the bottom and open the top of the tube so as to take a dye sample from the bottom of the sampler. 9« Stop the top of the tube, remove from the sampler and compare the dye sample with a standard series i n test tubes made of the same tubing as the pipette. Note the reading. 10. Titrate the oxygen sample or compare with standard series. 11. In an hour take another dye sample from the bottom of the sampler. A longer period or a more finely graduated standard dye series (see below) may be necessary to get a change i n the reading. The use of the results i n conjunction with expression (5) i s considered i n the general discussion (page 22). Calibration Dissolved oxygen. The sampler was driven twelve inches into the gravel six inches from each of the set pipes i n the "controlled-water" section at Nile creek and dissolved oxygen determinations made on samples from each. The greatest difference noted, 1.9 ppm., was found where the dissolved oxygen i n the fixed pipes was less than one part per million. The sampler was l e f t four days and the difference became 0.4- ppm. I f the sampler is cleared of clouded water and the dissolved oxygen satura-tion not very low, oxygen determinations can be made within an hour. The sampler should be l e f t in the gravel for several days>if accurate readings are required at points of low oxygen saturation. liable II gives the results of the test. Velocity. A trough was made of 2" x 12" x 6' boards. Screens were set i n i t and the volume between them f i l l e d with gravel from Nile creek TABLE II CALIBRATION OF SAMPLER FOR DISSOLVED OXYGEN Water samples were taken by sampler six inches away from standpipes i n Nile creek "controlled-water" section. Temp. OC. DO ppm. Diff . 1443 June 30, 1950 Surface s 8B? Sampler 12.5 11.1 11.1 10.6 0.4 2.3 1-9 4g minutes to f i l l 1140 July 4, 1950 Surface 8B5 Sampler 1400 July 4, 1950 Surface 4 Sampler 1050 July 5, 1950 Surface 2 Sampler Surface 1 Sampler 0953 July 6, 1950 Surface 5 Sampler 11.8 11.2 10.2 12.9 12.6 12.5 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 12.0 10.6 0.13 0.54 10.4 5.2 5-3 10.9 6.7 6.25 10.9 9.8 8.9 10.8 8.5 8.5 0.4 0.1 -0.5 -0.9 2-| minutes to f i l l 4 minutes to f i l l 2 minutes to f i l l 0 Sampler i n gravel one hour. Four volumes discarded to clear water. 1110 July 6, 1950 Surface 6 Sampler 11 ..8 10.8 12.0 10.1 12.0 10.0 -0.1 F i r s t sample used; water clear. 1125 July 11, 1950 Surface 7 Sampler 11.0 10.8 10.8 11.0 9-6 9.8 + 0.2 xStandpipe number. - 2 1 -to give a bed 1 1 3 cm. x 2 2 cm. x 2 5 . 5 cm. and head and t a i l water pools at either end of the gravel bed. Water was lead into the head water pool where the water was maintained at a constant level by an overflow set so that there was no surface flow over the gravel. The outflow was a tap set in the centre of the end wall of the t a i l water pool. Samples of water were collected from the tailwater, measured by volume and timed to determine the rate of flow at the beginning and end of each test. One of the standpipes was set 1 2 centimeters into the centre of the gravel bed and the procedure for obtaining the dilution of dye outlined above was followed for various rates of flow. The apparent velocity was calculated by dividing the discharge (cc./hr.) by the cross-section of the bed ( 5 6 1 sq. cm.). Dye dilution i s reported i n equal volumes of water added per hour (vol./hr.). The standard series of dyes was made up by taking one volume of concentrated dye. An equal volume of water was added and one volume of this diluted dye was used as the f i r s t of the series, the remainder had one volume of water added and half of the second dilution became the second of the series, etc. (Dilutions half way between those above may be useful.) For some of the tests the standpipe was set with two of the openings i n line with the direction of flow and i n others, forty-five degrees off the line of flow. The dilution rate appears higher with two openings in line with the flow. Three comparison tests with the sampler and standpipes i n the creek bed gave identical results. From figure 4 i t appears that the standpipe at 4 5 ° from the direction of flow has a dilution rate similar' to the sampler. Velocities converted from dilutions at the higher rate 0 4 1020 mm./hr. ; 5 v o l . / h r . 0 1 2 3 4 5 DYE DILUTION, (equal volumes o f water added per hour) VOL./HR. Pig. A . CALIBRATION OF STAND PIPE AND SAMPLER FOR APPARENT VELOCITY V e l o c i t i e s were c a l c u l a t e d from d i scha rges through a t rough o f 561 square cent imeter c r o s s - s e c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g g r a v e l . V e l o c i t i e s encountered i n nature were below the i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t s . Average maximum p o r o s i t y was 23$. Fig. 5. CURVE OF LIMITING VALUES OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND APPARENT VELOCITY OF WATER TO SUPPLY THE FULL OXYGEN DEMAND OF PRE-EYED CHUM SALMON EGGS AT 8°C. For values to the right and above the curve, supply exceeds demand; be-low and to the l e f t , supply i s less than demand. Some low values found in the gravel of the Nile creek "controlled-water" section are plotted. - 22 when used i n expression (5) w i l l give a greater calculated quantity of oxygen being supplied. The maximum porosity of the gravel bed i n the trough was 23%. The porosity of samples from Nile creek was 22%. The sampler gives promise as a means of evaluating the dissolved oxygen content and apparent velocity of gravel water. It should be calibrated in the type of gravel to be sampled. . . . 0 O 0 . . . VI. EVALUATION OF OXYGEN SUPPLY AT NILE CREEK The standpipes at Nile creek do not give a f u l l coverage of the con-trolled water section nor were the readings taken consistently enough to evaluate the entire bed's oxygen supply during the pre-eyed stage, but certain values of dissolved oxygen and apparent velocity are compared with a curve of limiting values that just maintain f u l l metabolism of the pre-eyed eggs (f i g . 5)» nA - 117*R v(do-C)10"' i s taken as the expression of the sufficiency of oxygen supply. A,R,C, are constants for eggs of a given age and at a given temperature, v and do are variables. I f the oxygen supply just equals the demand, then expression (5) i s the equation of the positive values of a curve of the form x(y-C) = K that is the curve of limiting values of v and do. At any point above or to the right of the curve the oxygen supply exceeds the particular oxygen demand being considered. At any point below or to the l e f t , the f u l l demand i s not being met, probably with f a t a l results. Using the values A =.0003 mg./egg/hr., R = A mm., C = 1.3 ppm.02, for n = 1, expression (5) reduces to v(do-1.3) = 5«5, and for n = 10 to v(do-1.3) = 55• The asymptotes of these curves are v = 0 and do = I.3. In figure 5 there are plotted several points well to the l e f t or below the curve of limiting values. Those points with do<G indicate that there are portions of the "controlled-water" section i n which the f u l l oxygen demand of .0003 mg./egg/hr. cannot be met irrespective of velocity. These readings (do<C) were gathered i n the heavily sil t e d part of the bed. Thousands of chum eggs, planted there, died after the orig-inal s i l t i n g occurred. Surveys of the survival of naturally deposited eggs and of gravel water conditions as determined by the gravel vmter sampler are planned. Low rates of flow i n consolidated gravel and low oxygen saturation values in silted gravel are expected. Low rates of flow are also expected i n a l l parts of the spawning beds when the discharge of the stream i s low. If the major cause of egg mortality i n the gravel i s lack of oxygen then high survival rates should be associated with points above and to the right of a. curve similar to that i n figure 5 and low survival rate asso-ciated with points to the l e f t of and below i t . . . . 0 O 0 . . . VII. SUMMARY 1. The oxygen demand of pre-eyed chum salmon eggs was found to be between .00013 and .0003 mg./egg/hr. at temperatures of 0.1-8.2°C 2. By means of standpipes set i n the gravel, the oxygen content and apparent velocity of water was observed twelve inches belcwthe surface - 24 -of the gravel. 3« Theoretical limits of dissolved oxygen content and apparent velocity that just aupply the f u l l oxygen demand of salmon eggs were developed. The oxygen supply to eggs in an egg mass i s adequate i f : nA * 11 T\ R2y ( d o _ c ) 1 0 - 7 L. Portions of the "controlled-water" section at Nile creek were found in which there was an insufficient supply of oxygen to supply the demand of pre-eyed eggs. This may explain the high pre-eyed mortalities found in these areas. 5« A gravel water sampler i s described and a f i e l d method, using i t , presented for determining the oxygen content and apparent velocity of gravel v/ater. ...oOo... VIII. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS-: The interest and helpful criticism of Dr. J.P. Tully throughout this study and his generous help with background problems i s gratefully acknow-ledged . Mr. F. Neave of the Pacific Biological Station and Dr. W.S. Hoar of the University of Br i t i s h Columbia have fa c i l i t a t e d the work at a l l times. Miss Philp, Messrs. Neate, Caulfield, Eaton, Hollister, Morley and ' Sutherland of the staff of the Pacific Biological Station have made the work a pleasure by their cheerful and competent technical assistance. Doctors J.L. Hart and R.E. Foerster, directors of the Pacific Biolsgical Station have permitted the use of data and working time i n the presentation of this thesis. - 25 -IX. LITERATURE CITED Cameron, W.M., Cole, A.E., Ellison, W.D., Hata, K., Hayes, F.R., Hewitt, E.R., Hobbs, D.F., Hoyt, W..G., Hubbs, C.H., J.R. Greeley and CM. Tarzwell Kawajiri, M., Krogh, A., 1939 - A preliminary investigation of the natural spawn-ing, incubation and alvinage of the pink salmon. Univ. B.C., Dept.Zool., Unpub. Thesis. 19-41 - Mortality during the fresh-water existence of the pink salmon. Lib. Pac.Bio.Sta., Unpub. Man. 1932 - Method of determining the dissolved oxygen content of the mud at the bottom of a pond. Ecol., 13. (1)J 51-53, 1950 - S o i l erosion by rainstorms. Science, 111 (2880): 245-249. 1931 - On the influence of quantity of water upon the hatching of trout egg. J.Imp.Fish.Exp.Sta. (Japan). 2: 195-213- Eng. abst. p. 214« 1949 - The growth, general chemistry, and temperature relations of salmonoid eggs. Quart.Rev.Biol., 24. (4): 281-308. 1931 - Better Trout Streams. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York & London. 140 pages. 1937 - Natural reproduction of quinnat salmon, brown and rainbow trout i n certain New Zealand waters. N.Z. Mar. Dept. Fish. Bull., No. 6. 1940 - Natural reproduction of trout i n New Zealand and i t s relation to density of population. N.Z. Mar. Dept. Fish. Bull., No. 8-1948 - Trout fisheries i n New Zealand - their development and management. N.Z'. Mar. Dept. Fish. B u l l . , No. 9. 1942 - The run-off cycle: 507-513 in Meinzer, O.E. -Hydrology. Dover Public. Inc., 712 pages. 1932 - Methods for the improvement of Michigan trout streams. Bull. Inst. Fish. Res. 1, Univ. Mich. 154 pages. 1925 - On the oxygen consumption during development of the eggs and fry of the 0. masou (land-locked). J. Imp. Fish. Inst., 21 (2): 18-20. 1941 - Comparative physiology of respiratory mechanisms. Univ. Penn. Press, Phil. 172 pages. - 26 -Lindroth, A. 194-2 - Sauerstoffverbrau.cn der Fische. I. Verschiendene Entwicklungs - und Altersstadien vom Lachs und Hecht. Z. vergl. Physiol., 22 (4): 583-594-Mavis, F.T.,Chitty 1935 Ho and Yun-cheng Tu Mavis, F.T. and 1936 E.F. Wilsey Moffett, J.W. Neave, F. and W.P. Wickett Rose, H.E. Schaeperclaus, Shaw, P.A. and J.A. Maga Shetter, D.S., O.H. Clark and A.S. Hazzard Smith, A.H. and M. Kleiber Tully, J.P., Vibert, R., White, H.C., Zeuthen, E., 1945 1933 1943 1946 1950 1949 1950 1950 1942 1947 The transportation of detritus by flowing water -I. Univ. Iowa Stud. Eng., Bull. 5- 53 pages. A study of the permeability of sand. Univ. Iowa Stud. Eng., Bull. 7. 29 pages. 1949 - The f i r s t four years of king salmon maintenance below Shasta dam, Sacremento river, California. Cal. Fish. Game, 21 (2): 77-102-1949 - Factors affecting the freshwater development of Pacific salmon in Bri t i s h Columbia. S e v e n t h Pacific Science Congress. (In press). An investigation into the laws of flow of fluids through beds of granular materials. Pro. Inst. Mech. Eng. Gt. Br i t . 15_3_ (5): 141-148-Textbook of Pond Culture. U.S. Fish Wildlife S., Fish. Leaf. 311-The effect of mining s i l t on yield of fry from salmon spawning beds. Cal. Fish & Game, 9. ( l ) ! 29-41-The effect of deflectors i n a section of a Michi-gan trout stream. Tran. Am. Fish. S o c, 76: 248-278. Size and oxygen consumption in f e r t i l i z e d eggs. J. C e l l . & Comp. Physiol., 21 (1)* 131-140-Oceanography and prediction of pulp mill pollu-tion i n Alberni i n l e t . Bull. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 82: 1-169-Manual of oceanographic methods. Ocean. Mimeo. Can. Joint Com. La Methode "Vibert" et ses merveilleuses possib-i l i t e s . Les etab. Pezon et Michel-Amboise. Atlantic salmon redds and a r t i f i c i a l spawning beds. J. Fish. Res. Bd., 6 ( l ) : 37-44* Body size and metabolic rate i n the animal king-dom with special regard to the marine microfauna. Compt. Rend. Lab. Carlsberg, Ser. Chim., 26 (3): 17-161. APPENDIX A gen consumption data • •«o0o••• Bottle Wt. of Species Da.t& Time? Period Temp. Thio. D.0. ¥/ater D.0. l o . of Wt. of Vol. of Wt. of mg./egg/hr Age oc. cc. p.p^m. in reduc ed eggs eggs eggs chorion F r .624 bottle Live Dead 1949' Chum eggs Dec. 7 (1600 0 hr. 5-2 18.95 11.84 0 days (1700 1830 19.43 12.13 8 2215 301 hr.. 5.0 18.77 11.72 918.0 .41. 120 0 33.0 .000101 17.75 11.09 917.4 .75 107 4 29.4 .000200 17.92 11.20 920.8 .64 99 0 25.4 .000189 12! 1810 122! hr. 3.7 16.78 IO.48 922.5 x6.6 1.36 95 0 25.5 .000105 16 .49 10.29 918.1 6.4 1-55 91 0 25.2 .000117 1915 16.51 10.31 923.7 6.4 1-53 98 0 25.2 .000115 16.38 10.23 916.3 6.1 1.61 111 2 28.7 .000109 13 1700 144 hr.. 3.7 16.9 IO.5 916.8 1.3' 77 0 20.9 .000105 14.18 8.86 916.9 2.98 89 0 23.8 .000208 17-95 11.21 916.7 •92 71 0 19.0 .000081 16.90 10.61 922.6 1.52 74 1 20.0 .000127 • xcolorimetric determinations. Average - .00013 Chum eggs Nov. 22 (0930 0 hr. 8.2; 18.5 11.55; 5 days (1000 2230 13 hr. 8.0 17.66 11.02 916.9 0.53 98 0 25.5 23.0 .00037 23 0930 24 hr. 8.0 17.71 11.05 923.7 0.50 100 0 25.0 .00019 2145 36 hr. 8.0 17.05 10.65 918.0 0..90 99 0 26.3 24.2 .00022 Average - .0003 1950 Chum eggs Jan. 23 (1330 0 hr. (0.1 22.21 13.61 12 day (1450 (0.7 28 1500 120 hr. 14.2 8.7 922.5 6.95 4.91 11 89 29.7 27.8 .016 .00038 16.1 9.88 923-3 3.73 72 28 28.8 26.6 .00028 15*45 9.48 917.4 4.13; 14 86 28.9' 27.0 .00031 16.4 10.05 916.9 3.56 .'•A 96 30.9 28.8 .00028 1600 15.7 9.63 923.7 3.94 16 84 3122 29.0 .00029 29 1015 146 hr. 13.7 8.40 918.0 5-21 18 82 32.3 29.9 .00032 15.32 9.37 918..I 4.24 40 57 28.7 26.5 .00027 16.69 10.2 916.7 3.4 56 41 28.8 26.5 .00021 1400 16.2 9-92 916.3 6.94 3.7 83 20 30.4 28.5 .00022 Chum eggs Dead Feb. 1 6 L4OO 0 hr. 1400 120 hr. 0.7 Average 23.39 12.51 13.2 13.05 13.55 15.0 13.55 13.4$ 14.33^ 8.26 260 264 260 261 265 265 262.5 6.07 0 40 11 .000317 Bottle I t . of Species Date Time Period Temp. Thio. D .0 . water pH D . 0 . No. of Wt. of Vol. of Wt. of mg./egg/hr. Age °C. cc. p.p.m. i n reduced eggs eggs eggs chorion F = -728, bottle Live Dead 1950 Ghum eggs Jan. 23 1330, 0*1 22.21 12.61 Eyed 1450 67 days 29 1155 145 hr. 0.7 17 *30 10.60 1231 16.70 10 ..22 1234 13.86 8.50 16.11 9.87 1320 16.13 9.88 Churn eggs Mar. 7 0900 0 hr. 4-9 17.6 12.81 85 days 9 (2035. 0 hr. 4-3 17.60 12.81 partly-eyed (2045: 30 days before 9-10 0901 hr. 4*1 16.88 12.30 hatching. 9-10 I4IO 18 hr. 4 .1 16.46 11.98 9-10 1450 18 hr. 4 .1 I6.46 11.98 7-8 0945 24 hr. 4.3 16.00 11.66 9-11 0811. 36 hr. 3-9 15.60 11.35 9-11 0819 36 hr. 3.9 15*36 11.18 7-8 2304 38 hr. 4*3 14*60 10.64 7-9 0946 48 hr. 4 .2 15.10 11.00 7-9 2107 60 hr. 4*3 14.04 10.23 7-9 2146 60 hr. 4*3 L i . 18 10.31 7-10 0916 72 hr. 4.1 13.47 9.80 7-13 1608 152 hr. 3.6 7*47 5.44 7-13 1626 152 hr. 3.6 9*62 7.00 Chum eggs Apr. 6 1015 0 hr* 5.9 16.44 11*98 Eyed 1415 4 hr. 5.9 13.80 10.12 103 days 10 days before 1030 0 hr. hatching 1830 8 hr. 6.1 11.82 8.61 1045 0 hr. 1945 9 hr. 6.1 11.10 8.09 1115 0 hr. 2145 10 hr. 6.1 10.72 7.82 920.8 2.01 88 12 26.5 25.0 .011 .000124 921.2 2.38 95 2 25.7 24.2 .000153 916.8 6.89 4.11 97 4 26.6 25.0 .00025 921.6 2-75 95 5 26.5 24.9 .00017 922.6 2.73 91 8 26.0 24-8 .00019 Average - .0002 917.6. .51 50 0 (14.17) 13.4 .015 .000738 920.8 .83 49 1 14.0 13.3 .000837 918.0 .83 50 0 14.35 13.5 .000834 920.8 1.15 45 4 14.2 13.0 .000884 920.8 I . 4 6 48 2 (14.17) 13.4 .000733 922.5 1.63 48 2> (14-35) 13*5 .000822 917.6 2.17 52: 5 15.7 14.9 .000905 920.8 1.81 43 1 13*7 12.8 .000697 916 *S 2.58 48 4 13.8 .000746 916 .3 2.50 48 5 14.0 .000710 921.6 3.01 46 5 13.7 .000745 922.6 6.95 7.37 37 13 13.9 13.2: .000884 921*2 6.95; 5.81 43 m 14.5 13.9 .000694 922.5 1.86 203 0 55.5 51.6 .00196 calala. ted for 4-8th hours .00168 923.3 3.37 202 0 57.0 53.2 f u l l period .00182 calculated for 9th hour .000242 917.4 3-89 198 0 56.4 52.5 f u l l period .00188 calculated for 10th hour .000069 916.9 4.16 203 0 57.4 53.5 f u l l period .00177 Bottle Wt. of Species Date Time Period Temp. Thio. D.Ol water pH D.O. No. of f/t. of Vol. of Wt. of mg./egg/hr. Age ° C cc. p.p.m. i n reduced eggs eggs eggs chorion F = .624 bottle Live Dead 1949 Pink eggs Oct. 18 1400 0 hr. 6.9 18.8 11.73 Eyed 20 0900 43 hr. 6.2 16.25 10.14 919.6 1.59 100 0 19-5 .001 .00033 28 days Pink eggs Nov. 7 2100 0 hr. 7*85 17.55 10.95 33 days 8 0900 12 hr • 7.9 16.35 10.20 922.5 0.75 95 6 24.4 23.0 .00055 8 2130 24 hr. 8.3 15.10 9.43 917.4 1.52 96 4 19-7 .00057 9 0945 36 hr. 8.2 15.09 9.42 923.7 1.53 95 5 19.7 .00039 Pink eggs Nov." 7 2100 0 hr. 7.85 17-55 10.95 48 days 8 0900 12 hr. 7.9 16.10 10.05 8 2130 24 hr. 8.3 15.25 9.51 9 0945 36 hr. 15.61 9.74 Pink alevins Nov. 22 0930 0 hr. 8.2 18.50 11.55 7 days old 2230 13 hr. 8.0 5.79 3.62 23 0930 24 hr. 8.0 5.05 3.15 23 2145 36 hr. 8.0 0.05 0.031 923.3 0.90 100 4 21.1 .00067 916.9 1-44 96 _ 4 19-7 .00054 918.0 1.21 93 7 19.2 .00032 922.5 7.94 62' 4 12.0 10.9 1 .0090 2 .0084 923.3 8.40 32 8 7.81 7.0 1 .0100 . 2 .0080 917.4 11.52 34 13 9-3 8.3 1 .0094 2 .0068 no opercular movement, heart beat 6-13/min., a l l subsequently died. 1. assumed death took place at beginning 2. assume no death Bottle Species Age Date Time Period Temp. °C. Thio. cc. F = .612 D.0. p.p.m. 1950 Coho eggs Jan. 23 1330 Eyed -1450 0 hr. 22.21 13.61 67 day 29 U 5 5 150 hr. 16.66 10.19 1516 0 . 1 15.31 9-38 1501 0 .7 16.77 10.25 1 5 H 16.36 10.-00 F = .728 Coho eggs Mar. 7 (0830 0 hr. 4-9 17.6 12.81 hatching (0955 8 0930 24 hr. 4 . 3 16.45 11.99 Coho eggs Mar. 7 0 hr. 4 . 9 17.6 12.81 nearly - 8 2253 38 hr. 4-3 16.06 11.70 hatching 9 0931 48 hr. 4*2 15 .62 11.38 2048 60 hr. 4 . 3 12.82 9.34 2135 60 hr. 4 . 3 14 .64 10.66 10 0950 72 hr. 4-1 15.78 11.49 1001 72 hr. 4 . 1 13 .62 9.93 1014 72 hr. 4 . 1 14 .36 10.45 Coho alevins Mar. 8 1050 0 hr. 4-3 17.6 12.81 just hatched 9 0826 21 .6 hr. 4 . 3 14.76 10.75 Wt. of water pH D.0. No. of Wt. of Vol* of Wt. of mg./egg/hr. in reduced eggs eggs eggs chorion bottle Live Dead 920.8 3-24 98 2 3 0 . 4 28.5 0.01 .000204 917.6 7.1 4-23 95 5 30.3 28.6 .000251 920.2 3-36 83 8 27.2 25 .4 .000220 917.4 3.61 94 3 29.4 27.6 .000220 average - . 0 0 0 2 4 1 916.7 0 .82 ' 8 egg 0 2 .9 2.65 ' x r> .00297 2 a l . 2 .00262 922.5 1.11 10 0 3 . 0 2 . 9 1 .00269 918.0 1-43 9 egg 0 3 - 0 2 .9 <C 1 .00272 1 a l . 2 .00203 923.3 3 .47 4 egg 0 ( 2 . 9 ) 1 .00532 6 a l . 2. .00008 917 .4 2.15 7 egg 0 ( 2 . 9 ) 1 .00328 3 a l . 2 .00090 923.7 1 .32 8 egg 0 ( 2 . 9 ) 1 . .00169 2 partly hatched ( 2 . 9 ) 2 • — 918.1 2 .88 6 egg 0 2.8 2 .7 1 .00366 4 a l . 2 .00025 916.9 2 .36 6 egg 2 2.9 2 .8 1 .00300 2 a l . 2 .00155 '1. Assume no hatching 2. Assume alevins hatched at start. 916.7 2 .06 10 a l . 0 2.5 2.3 .00881 APPENDIX B; Gravel water data ••.oOo.•• 1. Temp. °G. 2. D.0. 3. Vol./hr. L. pH. WATER CONDITIONS IN GRAVEL St and pipe numbers: 1-5 normal gravel 6,7 consolidated gravel 8-9 thick sand cover Standpipe number 2' 2* 8 A B Oct. 21/4-8 Air 1 3°C, Surface 8.9 #2 gauge 0.3 2. Nov. Air 6.1, Surf. 5*4-#2 gauge 2.1 3. Nov. 15/48 Air 6.5, Surf. 5*5 #2 gauge 1.6 4- Nov. 23/48 Air 6.6, Surf. 4.9' #2 gauge 1.6 (Thermograph changed) 1445 1 8.8 8.8 8.85 8.65 8.6 8.7 1430 1 5.5 5.5 5-5 5.8 5.6 6.1 1030 1 5«4 5.4 5.6 5.8 5.8 5*9 Water was turned on more and #1 became 5•55« 1400 1 4 '9 4*9 4.9 5.2 5-2 5-6 Water backed up by blockage below fry fence. Nov. 23/48 Surf. 5?0 1600 Blockage p a r t i a l l y removed, water dropped 1 foot, at 9< 6. Nov. 24/48 1540 1 4.9 Air 5-8, Surf. 4*9 #2 gauge 0.9 4.9 4.9 5-1 5.2 5.1 7. Dec. 3/48 1400 1 3.55 3-6 3.5 3*9 4*5 4 .6 Air 1 .7, Surf. 3.5 #2 gauge-0.7 8. Dec. 6/48 1330 1 3.8 3*7 3.8 4«0 4*5 4*3 Air 3.5, Surf. 3.8 #2' gauge 0.6 9). Dec. 7/48 1948 1 2.9 2-9 2.9 3.2 3.5 3 .6 Air 0-5, Surf. 3«1 #2 gauge 0,,55 10. Feb. 25/49 1525 1 3.3 3-2 3.2 2.9 2.9 Air 5.0, Surf. 3*3 #2 gauge 1.0 11. Mar. 3/49 14-1500 1 Air 7.0, Surf. 3*42 #2 gauge 0.8 3*5 5.8 5.7 5-8 5-8 5.2 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.2 5.1 4-2 4«2 4 . 1 4 .0 3.6 3.2 2.8 3.1 6.1 5.85 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.2 5.7 5.3 3.6 WATER CONDITIONS IN GRAVEL Standpipe number 1 2* A B 12. Mar. 8/49 1400 1 Air 7*3, Surf. 4«0 4.0 3.8 A.O 3.6 3.7 3.7 4.0 13. Mar. 14/49 1330 1 3.7 3.8 3.7 Air 2.3, Pool 3*8 #2 gauge 0.5 3.9 14. Mar. 23/49 1430 1 Air 8.9, Pool 5.0 #2 gauge 0.7 1-5. Mar. 30/49 1045 1 Air 6.3, Pool 4.3 #2 gauge 0.4 Stream 4«6 5.1 4*6 4*9 4*1 4*1 4*4 4*1 4..4 4*6 4*4 4*3 4*4 4*3 4*4 16. May 18-19/49 Pool 1" 2" 17. July a/49 3 3 .40 •31 13335' 1. 11*5 11.2 11.5 11*4 11.5 11«4 H-4 21 10*66 9.01 10.22 8.59 9.97 7.2 9.2 8.6 .24 .29 .26 .25 .22 5.5 6.2 .28 .18 3.8 3.7 3.7 3-9 3.8 4-1 4*-3 4*1 4*6 4-3 4-0 4.7 4.3 4*3 (1510 air 6.3°C, stream 5«°G. ( 4-7 4.7 .48 • 42 11.4 H.4 11.1 11.1 Air 17.0, Pool 11.7 #2 gauge 0.38, Pool I f " Dipped O2 sample 10.66 suction 0 2 " 11.18 18. July 25/49 1415-1530 1 11.3 11.3 11.2 11.3 10.8 11.2 11.3 Air 13.6, Pool 11.3 2 #2 gauge 0.45, Pool i f " 3 D.0. 10.3 19. July 26/49 0840 Air 12. Pool 10.7 #2: gauge 0.45, Pool I f 20. July 27/49 1430 Air 14.7. Pool 12.1 #2 gauge 0.45, Pool I f " 21. July 28/49 1000 Air 14.9, Pool 10.7° Pool gauge 2|i" 22. Aug. 2/49 1330 Air 20.4, Pool 13.3 #2 gauge 0.4, Pool 2" D.0. 10.99 . . • 0 O 0 . . . Stream hosed and dug over again and standpipes cleaned out. 11.2 11.8 11.1 10.7 11 9.6 0.50 2.6 0.2 .24 .22 .22 .12 4-8 11.4 11.4 2..0 .17 1 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.9 10.9 11.0 11.1 10.8 10.9 10.8 10.6' 11.1 1 11.8 11.7 11.8 11.4 11.1 11.2 11.1. Stream being hosed and dug over. 1 10.5 10.4 10.8 10.8 10.5 10.9 11.1 10.5 10.5 10.5 11.0 1 13.0 12.8 12.9 12..4 12.1 12.4 12.5 13.1 12.1 12.4 12.4 12.0 2 8.05 8.92 7.8 6.24 6.If 7.2 8.5 0.26 1.3 0 0 3 •33 .23 .22 .21 .14 .28 .12 .16 .36 .22 .23 4 7*4 7*4 6.8 7.0 6.4 7.0 (old NILE CREEK CONTROLLED SECTION - 194-9-50 Standpipe number B 2* 4 x B 8 A 9 23-24-. 25-Sept. 8/4-9 1 1 0 0 - 1 2 2 0 Air 1 5 . 4 - , Pool 1 1 . 3 #2 gauge 0 . 3 , Pool i f " D . 0 . 1 0 . 5 , pH 7 .4-Nov. 8/49 Pool 8.1 Pool gauge 3"> 11.0 1 4 3 0 Nov. 8 / 4 9 Pool 3 " 1600-1610 Nov. 9 / 4 9 0835 Pool 7.1, # 2 gauge 0.7 2 6 . Nov. 16/49 1 4 3 0 - 1 5 3 0 Air 9 . 2 , Pool 7.6 # 2 gauge 0.71, Pool gauge 2 § « , 1 1 . 4 5 27. Nov. 2 2 / 4 9 1 4 3 0 - 1 5 1 0 ' Air Pool 8 . 3 # 2 gauge 1 . 5 - 2 . 4 Pool gauge 5 | " , 1 1 - 3 8 28. Nov. 25/49 1 0 1 5 - 1 1 4 5 Pool 8 . .0 # 2 gauge 2 . 4 Pool gauge T£-T>n 29. Dec. 3 / 4 9 1 5 3 0 Air 3 . 4 , Pool 5 - 9 , 3 | " 3 0 . Dec. 7/49 0 9 5 0 Pool 4.7 # 2 gauge 0 . 7 Pool gauge 0.7, 12.52 1 11.2. 2 9.75 4 7.1 1 8.1 2 9.23 1 3 .23 1 7-3 1 7.6 2 10 .62 1 8 .3 2 10.11 . 8 5 1 5 . 7 1 4.7 2 11.46 11.6 11.1 11.4 6.91 6.75 6 . 8 . 1 1 5 6 . 8 8.05 8.0 -7.4 7.52 5.74 7.1 .109 7.5 7.6 7.6 7 . 5 7 . 4 7 . 6 9.6O 6 . 0 3 1 0 . 3 1 8.1 8.0 8.3 8.65 8.35 10.96 8.0 .83 1.05* 6.5 6.9 6.1 4 . 8 5 . 4 4 . 8 9 . 4 1 9 . 0 4 9 . 6 4 1 1 . 3 1 1 . 4 1 1 . 1 H . 2 9 . 2 4 8 . 4 9 . 1 5 5 - 4 1 7 . 2 7 . 4 7 . 3 6 . 7 8.05 8.0 8.0 8.1 10.29 9.0 8.89 1.29 . 1 6 . 1 3 . 2 1 . 2 2 7.2 7.4 7 .3 7.8 7 . 6 7 . 6 7 . 5 5 8.1 10.1 8.92 9 .03 0.8 8 . 0 8.1 8.2 8.2 9 . 8 3 8 . 9 5 8-16 1 . 3 7 1.67 1.0 .74 . 6 8 5.8 6.2 6.2 7.7 4 . 8 5 . 1 5 . 1 7 . 2 1 0 . 4 0 7 . 0 6 8 . 1 5 0 . 2 3 11.8 5.27 6.9 7 .3 1.97 .0006 7 . 6 7 . 6 2.08 8.0 0.27 .60 7.0 6 . 6 0.0 IA and IB, 4A and 4B, 8A and 8B, having wide standpipes, placed to take experimental eggs. NILE CREEK CONTROLLED SECTION, 1949-50. 8 A B 9 iced 1.1 2.2 iced up 7.9 6.4 2.8 2.7 2-5 Standpipe number l x A B' 2 X 3 Spring 4 X A B 5 6 7 31. Jan. 20/50 1 1.0 0.9 0.9 1«7 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.1 Air 0 . 5 , Pool 1.0 2 12.3(^11.5) 9.1 5.8 8.7 11.75 12.3 10.5-#2 gauge 0.35 Pool gauge 2", 12.45 32. Jan. 21/50 0935 1 Pool 0 .7 , 2\" 33. Feb. 13/50 1510 1 3.0 #2 gauge 0.8,235°C. 2 10.6 D .0 . 13.4 34* Feb. 18/50 0845 1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.8 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 4*6 2 . 5 H 4*6 Pool 2 .5 , 4" , 2 11.73 11-74 11.35 13.41 11-97 11.75 13.5* 4.26 #2 gauge 1.2 Kcovered by surface water 35. Feb. 21/50 0900-1030 1 2.5 2.1 2.3 . - ' 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 4.5 4»5 Pool 3 " , 2.8°, D.0.13.35 2 12.02 10.08 7.76 10.48 12.39 12.02 11.40 4*5 0.18 #2 gauge 0 .9 . 10.30- 3 1.0 1.2 0.3 1.8 1.0 1.6 0.3 0.4 1 .6 2-2 1.6 2 O.4 0.6 1.8 1100=1530-1600 Vol./hr. Pool 2.8 1530/21 pool set at 2" 36. Feb. 22/50 0900-1030 Pool 2" ,3-0°, D .0 . 13.5 #2 gauge 1.0, 1030-1515 1545 3.5 1600 pool set at 4" which caused bed to be covered with s i l t during night. 37. Feb. 23/50 0900-1030 Pool 2 . 8 , 4",#2 gauge • 0 . 9 . 1030-1100 to 1530-1600, 13.10. 1530-1600 3.0 38. Apr. 18/50 1455-1550 Air 9-5, Pool 3|-" Pool 6 .2 , 12.50 1 2.8 2.8 2-9 2.8 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2-9 5-0 3:.l 4-5 4-5 1 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.1 2-9 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 4-5 4-5 4.8 5.9 2 11.61 12.47 14.95 9.96 9.94 9.14 9-56 12.40 11.9 12-34 11.88 11.95 5.04 5-79 4.66 0.19 3 0.8 1.2 1.2 1 .0 0.3 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.4 0.4 0.3 1.2* 0.2 1.4 0.6 1 3-5 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.0 3.1 3-5 3.3 3.5 3-6 3-6 5.6 4.0 5.0 5.0 1 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 4*2 3.6 4-5 4*9 2: 11.81 12.71 12.84 10.04 10.02 11.49 9.72 12.12 12.83 12.88 12.15 11.78 4-67 7.7 4-38 0.166 3 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.4 1.0 0.5 1.6 0.2 0.5 0.3 1.1 0.2 0.6 0.8 1 3.0 3.0 3-0 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.0 3-0 3.0 4«2 3.9 4.7" 5-0 Bed covered with s i l t . . . . . . 1 5.8 5.1 5.7 4.8 5.1 5.3 2 11.70 10.32 10,85 9*55 3-58 3.97 ...oOo. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106670/manifest

Comment

Related Items