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The construction and development of an objective carpenter's trade test Shirran, Alexander F. 1950

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I If* PiY THE CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN OBJECTIVE CARPENTER'S TRADE TEST by ALEXANDER F. SHIRRAN A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1950 THE FIRST RECORDED TEST-OBJECTIVE •"When these Ephramites which were escaped s a i d , l e t me go over;; t h a t the men of G i l e a d s a i d unto him, a r t thou an Ephramite? I f he s a i d , n ayj then they s a i d unto him, say no.?/ Shibboleth;; and he s a i d Sibboleth:; f o r he could not frame to pro-nounce i t r i g h t . Then they took him and slew him." Judges 12; 5,6. - 1 -THE CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN OBJECTIVE CARPENTERS TRADE TEST. ALEXANDER F. SHIRRAN ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was the c o n s t r u c t i o n and d e v e l -opment of an o b j e c t i v e w r i t t e n carpenter's trade t e s t which would represent an economy i n the screening of trade applicants.. A . b r i e f survey was made of the major developments and c u r r e n t trends i n the trade t e s t i n g movement and a v a i l a b l e p e r t i n e n t s t a t i s t i c s regarding other reported s t u d i e s was presented-A trade t e s t c o n s i s t i n g of two hundred and f o u r items was then constructed.. They were m u l t i p l e choice items rand an e f f o r t 'was made to make as many of the items p i c t o r i a l as was p o s s i b l e . The Canadian Army trade s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the trade of carpenter was s e l e c t e d as the subject area which was to be sampled by the t e s t - M a t e r i a l was chosen from e x i s t i n g carpentry t e s t s , t e c h n i c a l .journals and t e c h n i c a l books and Incorporated i n t o acceptable items. Each item was reviewed by at l e a s t three competent carpenters and evaluated i n accordance w i t h the c r i t e r i a of a good t e s t item before i n c l u s i o n i n the t e s t . The t e s t was then administerd to '2A0 subjects;; 96 n o v i c e s , 81 apprentices and 63 c a r p e n t e r s . The Wonderlic Personnel Test was administered at the same time i n order.to o b t a i n an i n d i c a t i o n of the subject's i n t e l l i g e n c e . The 204 item t e s t was then scored-The number of items c o r r e c t l y answered by each i n d i v i d u a l and the percentage of each group answering each item c o r r e c t l y iwere computed. For each i n d i v i d u a l item the standard e r r o r s of the percentage f o r each group, the standard e r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e between the adjacent groups and the " t : " r a t i o s were determined.. Items f o r thee f i n a l t e s t were then s e l e c t e d upon a twofold c r i t e r i a ; ; these were that a " t " r a t i o of at l e a s t three be obtained between two of the adjacent groups and that not l e s s than f i f t y percent of the carpenters c o r r e c t l y answered the item and that not more than f i f t y percent of the novices eorretfely answered i t - ' One hundred items were s e l e c t e d f o r the f i n a l t e s t - The average ! " t " r a t i o between carpenters and apprentices and between novices and apprentices was 3-61- These items were then rescored f o r each i n d i v i d u a l . The standard e r r o r s of the means f o r each group, the standard e r r o r s of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the means of the adjacent groups and " t " r a t i o s were computed- The r e s u l t a n t '-"tJJ r a t i o s were 13-61 between the carpenters and the apprentices groups,. 13.55 between apprentices and novices groups and 35-18 between novices and carpenters group-These would i n d i c a t e very s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the three groups -The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the t e s t f o r each group was determined by the s p l i t - h a l f method increased by the Spearman-Br own formula.' R e l i a b i l i t i e s of .79, .88, -73 and '-96 were obtained f o r the carpenters' apprentices' nnvices'and t o t a l groups respectively., The r e l a t i o n s h i p between trade t e s t scores and other v a r i a b l e s was determined. The t e s t showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l i a b l e , but low, c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by the Wonderlic Personnel Test but education,age and experience had a n e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p , to trade t e s t scores. A reasonable degree of v a l i d i t y was e x h i b i t e d -The c o n c l u s i o n was drawn-that the t e s t would serve a u s e f u l adjunct, i n the screening of t r a d e ' a p p l i c a n t s and that the method followed i n i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be extended to the development of s i m i l a r t e s t s f o r other oeupations TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. Introduction CHAPTER 2. Statement of the problem CHAPTER 3- Major developments i n trade testing (a) World War 1 (b) United States Employment Services (c) World War 11 i , U.S. Navy i i . . , U.S. Army (d) United States Bureau of Prisons (e) Private industry (f) In England (g) In Germany (h) Vocational Schools (i) Commercial tests (j) Summary CHAPTER 4- Previous studies pertaining to the r e l a t i o n -ship between trade tests scores and other v a r i a b l e s . (a) Reported r e l i a b i l i t i e s (b) Age, education and i n t e l l i g e n c e (e) V a l i d i t y (d) Summary CHAPTER 5. Construction of the carpenter's trade t e s t (a) Determination of area of knowledge to be tested (b) Form of the items (c) Considerations in the selection and construction of items (d) Sources of material for item construction (e) Arrangement of answers and distractors in the item CHAPTER 6. The Wonderlic Personnel Test CHAPTER 7. Description of the sample (a) definitions used ( b) 11 no vie e" sampl e (c) "apprentice" sample (d) "carpenters" sample CHAPTER 8. Administration of tests CHAPTER 9- Raw test; analysis CHAPTER 10. Item analysis of raw test CHAPTER 11. Analysis of test scores based upon the selected items CHAPTER 12. Relia b i l i t y of test (a) Meaning of r e l i a b i l i t y (b) Rel i a b i l i t y co-efficients (c) Standard error of measurement CHAPTER 13. Relationship between test scores and other variables (a) Intelligence (b) Experience (c) Age (d) Education CHAPTER 14. V a l i d i t y CHAPTER 15- Norms, i n t e r p r e t a t i v e data and c r i t i c a l scores CHAPTER j L 6 . Conclusions.. GHAPT.ER 17- Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r research. 1 INTRODUCTION With the outbreak of war i n 1939, Canada was faced with the tremojmdous task of creating and maintaining, from a c i v i l i a n population, an e f f i c i e n t war machine. To accomplish t h i s feat required the u t i l i z a t i o n of every possible resource. The importance of the physical resources were recognized early i n the struggle. As the war progressed the importance of u t i l i z i n g every available human capacity became more apparent. Intensive programs of psychological research .were inaugurated i n a l l three of the armed services and i n the rapidly expand-ing war industry. Tests of aptitude, i n t e r e s t , i n t e l l i g e n c e and of nearly every human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c were devised i n order to s e l e c t i n d i v i d u a l s who would best perform s p e c i f i c jobs-In the majority of cases these t e s t s were i n d i c a t i v e of the p o t e n t i a l worth of the i n d i v i d u a l rather than an accurate assessment of his present a b i l i t y to do a s p e c i f i c job. Under these circumstances, expediency motivated the d i r e c t i o n of the effort.-. The immediate demand had been f o r highly s k i l l e d operators-peculiar to the m i l i t a r y s i t u a t i o n and generally not available i n the c i v i l i a n population. The main trend of psychometric research was thus aimed at uncovering aptitudes needed for successful operation i n these f i e l d s . As aspect of the s e l e c t i o n program which remained vague and i l l - d e f i n e d was the s e l e c t i o n of trained tradesmen. The magnitude of the change-over of e f f o r t involved i n gearing the nation to maximum war time e f f i c i e n c y can best be r e a l i z e d by a survey of the s t a t i s t i c s for Canada (53, p.3). At one period during the war, 1,166,000 persons (13.3 percent of the t o t a l population) were employed either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y i n industries associated with war work. 1,031,000 persons (11 percent of the t o t a l populat-ion) were simultaneously i n the armed forces. Bloomfield (4, P .207) states that., approximately twenty-five percent of the e n l i s t e d men i n the F i r s t World War were employed by the army upon s k i l l e d trades. Burt (6, p.l63) estimates that over t h i r t y percent of the army applicants f o r s k i l l e d trades lacked even an elementary knowledge of the trade for which they claimed trade p r o f i c i e n c y . This would indicate that a tremend-ous task of al l o c a t i n g men to jobs i n which they would operate e f f e c t i v e l y was involved. Objective measures of trade pro-f i c i e n c y would be an invaluable asset i n these circumstances. The need for such measures i s not r e s t r i c t e d to the armed forces. Vocational trade schools and industry have a keen in t e r e s t i n the accurate measurement of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s trade s k i l l s . With the increased mobility of the present day population, industry i s finding i t increasingly d i f f i c u l t to evaluate a tradesman's proficiency upon the basis of r e f e r -ences and statements of t r a i n i n g . The main alt e r n a t i v e has usually consisted of the costly and time consuming procedure of placing the man on the job and then making a subjective evaluation based upon hi s performance. . - 3 -Trade schools s i m i l a r i l y must assess the i n d i v i d u a l ' s trade proficiency. Usually t h i s i s done upon the basis' of tests constructed within the. school and upon the i n s t r u c t o r ' s r a t i n g s . Such estimates give no i n d i c a t i o n of the degree of trade proficiency exhibited by either the i n d i v i d u a l i n r e l a t -ion to other i n d i v i d u a l s , or of the group i n r e l a t i o n to other groups. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that even i n trade unions, where the incentive to maintain adequate standards should be apparent, no objective measure of trade competency i s obtained. In discussing t h i s matter vath union o f f i c i a l s , the author was informed that admittance to the union was based upon the recommendations of two union members. The proof of whether the i n d i v i d u a l was competent or not was dependent upon whether he remained upon the job to which he was assigned. I f he was dismissed because of i n a b i l i t y to perform the required work, the union assumed that he was not a tradesman. This would appear to be a costly procedure f o r both the union and the industry involved. A s i m i l a r need has long been r e a l i z e d i n the academic educational f i e l d s . In contrast however, standard-ized objective achievement measures are available for nearly every academic subject and have been used even i n the determin-ation of an ind i v i d u a l ' s professional proficiency (5, p.110). Much of th i s need i s being met by nation-wide testing programs such as those conducted hy the Co-operative Test Service (14) In 1942, t h i s service reported testing 30,000 students through-out 170 i n s t i t u t i o n s i n that year's Sophomore Testing Programme alone. This and other test s r v i c e s have met a major need hy offering r e l i a b l e comparative standards to the educational f i e l d s . :i'he vocational world of s k i l l e d trades would benefit from a s i m i l a r s e r v i c e . .2. .STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The stimulus for t h i s study was given i n the F a l l of 194-7 when the Defence Research Board made a grant available for research i n the f i e l d of aptitude testing within the armed forces- i'he author was assigned as a research assistant to investigate the value of measures of achievement, as predictors of aptitude. In order to c l a r i f y the terms used i n t h i s study i t would be advisable to define the meaning of aptitude and achievement. Warren (4-4, P-281) defines aptitude as a con-d i t i o n or set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s regarded as symptomatic of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to acquire with t r a i n i n g some s p e c i f i e d knowledge, s k i l l or set of responses, i'he common assumption held by many i s that aptitudes represent inborn c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Achievement may be defined as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s attained s k i l l or knowledge i n a s p e c i f i e d f i e l d . In t h i s respect i t i s viewed as a resultant. In t e s t construction practice, _.the two have been dichotomized- However, as H u l l ( 1 8 , p.5.2) suggests, while the purpose of achievement and aptitude tests d i f f e r , what i s accomplished by them i s not so c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d -By t h i s he expresses the fact that two t e s t s of type do not ^ e n t i r e l y d i s t i n g u i s h between the r e s u l t s of training and the "^The grant was made to the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and was i n i t i a l l y under tie d i r e c t i o n of J . E„ Morsh. Upon Dr. Morsh's resignation i n September 1949 supervision was trans--' ferred to E.S.W- Belyea--6-r e s u l t s of natural aptitude. Thus i f two men of equal aptitude d i f f e r i n the amount of t r a i n i n g , then the i n d i v i d u a l with tr a i n i n g w i l l excel the one without training i n aptitude scores -I f , on the other hand, two i n d i v i d u a l s have the same amount of t r a i n i n g and d i f f e r i n natural aptitude, then wide differences w i l l exist upon achievement measures. In t h i s way i t seems possible that- a well devised-achievement test can also be a measure of aptitude. Traxler (4"2) draws attention to t h i s fact when he states that an i n d i v i d u a l ' s high school record, which represents achievement, i s the best i n d i c a t i o n of his college success. Thus he sees aptitude and achievement as simply representing d i f f e r e n t emphasis upon native a b i l i t y and t r a i n -i n g . The i n i t i a l requirement for the s a t i s f a c t o r y i n -ves t i g a t i o n of the suggested problem was to obtain an achieve-ment test pertaining to s k i l l s widely used i n the armed forces and for which s u i t a b l e personnel were obtainable as subjects. The v a l i d i t y of the study would depend to a large extent upon the v a l i d i t y of the achievement measure. The existing measures of trade achievement used by the Canadian Army were fo r the most part of a purely l o c a l nature, designed hy camp i n s t r u c t -ors within the i n d i v i d u a l u n i t . L i t t l e s t a t i s t i c a l data regarding t h e i r v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y and other pertinent i n -formation was a v a i l a b l e . The achievement measures developed-outside the armed forces did not appear applicable s i n c e the area of knowledge sampled could not be considered equivalent to that of the armed forces. Thus no adequate achievement test, suitable to the i n d i v i d u a l s obtainable or to the subject area desired, could be found. Owing to these considerations the above mentioned project did not seem to indicate the most productive approach. The inquiry did, however, tend to emphasize the shortcomings of the existing trade t e s t s used i n the Canadian Army. These consisted of tests f o r i n d i v i d u a l trades (5'2) and were i n two sections; a p r a c t i c a l and a t h e o r e t i c a l s e c t i o n . The p r a c t i c a l section involved the applicant performing a task which was representative of the trade s k i l l f o r which he claimed p r o f i c i e n c y . T'lie t h e o r e t i c a l s e c t i o n consisted of a s e r i e s of ^questions regarding trade information. The average time r e -quired to administer the complete t e s t was between s i x and eight hours. Trained tradesmen were required as examiners. •Scoring on the p r a c t i c a l section was i n a dichotomy. A l l the operations involved had to be successfully completed f o r the candidate to receive a passing mark. A.wider range was allow-ed on the t h e o r e t i c a l s e c t i o n . A passing mark was indicated hy c o r r e c t l y answering seventy percent of the -questions. No norms were available to indicate the degree of trade proficiency exhibited by a p a r t i c u l a r score. From the observation of the present trade t e s t s , i t ' .seemed possible that a measure of trade proficiency could be devised which would have a greater economy i n terms of time and trained personnel required to administer i t . Such a test would also be useful i n the previously mentioned i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Because of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of subjects the trade of carpenter was selected as the trade f o r which a test was to be developed. The intention was that i f a s a t i s f a c t o r y method of devising trade tests f o r the s e l e c t i o n of applicants professing trade proficiency of carpentry was developed, i n terms of function and economy of time and administration, then s i m i l a r t e s t s could be, constructed to cover the basic trades required by the armed forces, i'he development of t e s t s of t h i s nature would also f a c i l i t a t e the in v e s t i g a t i o n of the rela t i o n s h i p of measures of achievement as predictors of aptitude. A trade t e s t may be defined as a measure of an in d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to perform trade a b i l i t i e s . In t h i s respect i t i s an achievement test since i t measures present status or attainment.. Chapman (8, p. 12) defines trade a b i l i t y as consisting of a -us.e,t. of co-ordinations which are acquired i n a f a i r l y d e f i n i t e order and which characterize a l l men s k i l l e d i n a given traded" I t appears highly probable that i n the process of acquiring t h i s co-ordination that there would be an accompanying increase i n the amount of trade information acquired. Thus two. p r i n c i p l e s would be involved;: s k i l l and information, and i t Yirould seem possible that they increase uniformly. While the possession of the l a t t e r would not necess-a r i l y imply the former, i t seems highly unlikely that the s k i l l could be acquired without the a c q u i s i t i o n of information-Therefore, i t would seem possible that a trade information test - 9 -would give an i n d i c a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l of trade pr o f i c i e n c y . The immediate project was then the development of an objective, written carpenter's trade test which would measure the extent of the in d i v i d u a l ' s trade information. -10-MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN TRADE TESTING No attempt i s made to provide a complete h i s t o r i c a l background to the trade t e s t i n g movement. Ihe i n t e n t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y to acquaint the reader w i t h the most s i g n i f i c a n t developments and current t r e n d s . (a) World War 1 i'he main impetus to trade t e s t i n g was r e c e i v e d during the f i r s t World War. P r i o r to t h i s no o b j e c t i v e and stand a r d i z e d methods had been developed. The most common method of determining an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s k i l l i n a trade c o n s i s t -ed of s u b j e c t i v e evaulations by men who were themselves t r a i n e d tradesmen. These methods could be c l a s s i f i e d as; 1. a s e r i e s of questions r e l a t i v e to the trade but not having any d i a g n o s t i c value beyond the ex-aminers s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 2. the performance by the candidate of a task r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s k i l l f o r which he professed a b i l i t y . 3. a personal i n t e r v i e w . 4» a c t u a l l y p l a c i n g the candidate upon the jab and observing h i s t r a d e s k i l l s . A l l of these methods were based upon s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s of the observer and gave l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of the degree of f a m i l i a r i - t y that the workman had w i t h the s k i l l e d trade i n ques t i o n and the personal b i a s of the i n d i v i d u a l examiner was oft e n the determining f a c t o r . - 1 1 -With the outbreak of the war, the rapid mobilizat-ion of the armed forces and the ever increasing labour require-ments i n industry demanded the utmost u t i l i z a t i o n of the available s k i l l e d manpower. Methods of evaluating i n d i v i d u a l ' s acquired s k i l l and knowledge i n professed trades which were suita b l e to the army s i t u a t i o n were required. Owing to the large numbers involved, i t was necessary that any such method developed be rapid and not require the expenditure of too great a number of trained men. In endeavouring to meet t h i s need,, much of the methodology of the already developing and related f i e l d of educational achievement measurement was borrowed. The main development occured within the United 'States Army.(8) . The f i r s t attempt at a c o n t r o l l e d method was i n the form of '"Aids to Interviewers". These consisted of a s e r i e s of ^questions to which the examiner had a l i s t of poss-i b l e r e p l i e s . Scoring was done upon the basis of the number of -questions that men possessing various l e v e l s of trade a b i l -i t y should answer c o r r e c t l y . The heavy emphasis upon subject-ive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the need therefore, for trained trades-men f o r purposes of administration made t h i s method unsatis-factory. From t h i s form, however, the four fundamental types of trade tests usedrby the U. ;S. Army i n World War 1 were developed which more adequately met the required demands. These are the basic methods s t i l l predominant i n many trade test s i t u a t i o n s today. They were the s i n g l e answer o r a l question, the picture trade test, the performance test and the - 1 2 -written group t e s t . The o r a l trade test consisted of twenty trade •questions to which a s i n g l e answer response was required. Picture trade tests u t i l i z e d photographs or drawings of tools, parts or materials i n ?#hich the subject was asked to i d e n t i f y various parts. The performance trade test involved the can-didate combining the use of various e x p l i c i t s k i l l s required i n the trade. Scoring was done on the basis of process (how the i n d i v i d u a l did the task), and product (the excellence of the f i n i s h e d task) . The written trade test was never u t i l i z e d i n the m i l i t a r y s i t u a t i o n and only a s i n g l e experimental form was designed. This was a multiple choice type .questionnaire. The development of these t e s t s were f o r the f i r s t time accompanied by a s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the responses of the various groups. The preliminary test, based upon a survey of the requirements of the trade i n question, was administered to groups representing various l e v e l s of trade p r o f i c i e n c y . The percentage of c o r r e c t answers obtained from each group for each item was then computed and a graphic comparison was made. Items showing the greatest discrimination were selected for i n -c l u s i o n i n the f i n a l t e s t . C r i t i c a l scores were a r b i t r a r i l y -drawn at discriminating points. (b) United States Employment Service During the period of demobilization following the war, a speeial department of the United States Employment Services was created to handle s k i l l e d labour only. In order -13-to d i f f e r e n t i a t e men of v a r i o u s trade a b i l i t i e s some form of assessment was necessary, i'he s e l e c t i v e trade i n t e r v i e w was developed f o r t h i s purpose, This c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of ten que s t i o n s , c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d upon a s u b j e c t i v e b a s i s - S i x of these were chosen at random to be used during the i n t e r v i e w w i t h the candidate. No norms were a v a i l a b l e , but the i n t e r v i e w -er judged the subject's f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the trade by the ease or fluency w i t h which he r e p l i e d to the ques t i o n . L i t t l e development was made i n t r a d e t e s t i n g u n t i l the p u b l i c a t i o n of Thompson's trade q u e s t i o n s , ^hese were const r u c t e d a t the C i n c i n n a t i Employment S e r v i c e i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e p u b l i c placement. They c o n s i s t e d of trade questions f o r 131 trades and were published i n book form (AO). Each t e s t contained f i f t e e n to twenty questions which were asked o r a l l y during the i n t e r v i e w . T h e i r use was l i m i t e d owing to the l o c a l nature of the questions and the inadequate validation. ( 3 9 ,p.1 5 9 ) During the depression o f the 1930's, the Uni t e d S t a t e s Employment S e r v i c e s , faced w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g number o f unemployed a p p l i c a n t s c l a i m i n g trade s k i l l s , r e q u i r e d some ob-j e c t i v e measure to assess the i n d i v i d u a l tradesman. I n i t i a l l y they t r i e d to u t i l i z e the e x i s t i n g World War 1 trade t e s t s by r e v i s i n g and adapting them to the c i v i l i a n s i t u a t i o n . T h i s d i d not y i e l d adequate r e s u l t s and f r e s h t e s t s were developed. These were of the o r a l type and c o n s i s t e d of from twelve to twenty ques t i o n s , each of which c o u l d be answered hy a s i n g l e response. T n e t e s t s were not r e s t r i c t e d to the area of the . s k i l l e d trades but a l s o -included questions p e r t a i n i n g to -14-s e m i - s k i l l e d and manual occupations- The procedure employed by the United States Army trade test constructors was followed.. The questions were selected by an analysis of the d i f f e r e n t i a l r e p l i e s obtained from a sample group consisting of 100, f i f t y experts and tradesmen, twenty-five apprentices and twenty-five novices. In the 1940 volume of o r a l trade 'questions, publish-ed by the Federal Security Board (56), trade questions are given f o r seven hundred and ninety-three trades and occupations. In February, 1942, Supplement A was issued containing questions for seventy-seven additional trades and occupations ( 5 7 ). Later i n the same year, .Supplement B containing fifty-two sets of trade questions was published by the War Manpower Commission (58). In A p r i l , 1944* Supplement C with an additional f o r t y -four sets of questions was issued (59) - Picture trade t e s t s were devised for f i v e occupations and blueprint reading quest-ions were developed for three trades (34-) • The o r i g i n a l trade questions developed by the United States Employment Services were constructed upon the following basis. (33) . ^ Questions were developed i n connection with a thorough job a n a l y s i s . These questions were then review-ed i n compliance with the c r i t e r i o n of good test items and were given to a preliminary group of experts. Items upon which the experts agreed, were then selected and administered to a sample consisting of experts, apprentices and novices. T ne responses were then analyzed f o r items which discriminated the three groups. I t was found necessary to eliminate the i n i t i a l -15-a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to an expert group s i n c e d i f f i c u l t y was encount-ered i n o b t a i n i n g imamisity between them. I n 1943, only two steps were r e t a i n e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n . These were an occupation-a l survey to determine knowledge and s k i l l f a c t o r s r e q u i r e d t o do the t a s k and the f o r m u l a t i o n of trade q u e s t i o n s by co-oper a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n between trade experts and t e s t t e c h n i c i a n s . Simultaneously the t e s t s were c o n s t r u c t e d upon the b a s i s of l o c a l labour markets and needs and thus r e f l e c t e d a much more s p e c i f i c outlook (34)-The trade questions were c o n s t r u c t e d to be s u p p l e -mentary to the i n t e r v i e w and were considered an i n t e g r a l p a r t of i t . No formal t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n was created and the q u e s t -i o n s were introduced i n an i n f o r m a l manner during the course of the i n t e r v i e w . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n was on the b a s i s of a t r i c h -otomy; w e l l informed, some i n f o r m a t i o n , and l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n . These t e s t s were r e s t r i c t e d t o the United S t a t e s Employment O f f i c e s and were not g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e . A much wider concept of t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e was obtained. Stead and S h a r t l e (32,p.139) summarize t h e i r main use as f o l l o w s ; 1.,to b r i n g out i n f o r m a t i o n o f workers past ex-perience when used during an i n t e r v i e w . 2. to s u b s t a n t i a t e claimed work experience. 3- to c l a r i f y workers q u a l i f i c a t i o n s where these are d o u b t f u l . 4. to v e r i f y trade knowledge before t r a n s f e r r i n g . 5. to f a c i l i t a t e the handling of mass i n t e r v i e w i n g -16-of job applicants. 6. to measure the extent of improvement re s u l t i n g from supplementary training or work experience. 7. to f a c i l i t a t e the most e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of worker's a b i l i t y . 8. to allow i n d i v i d u a l indications regarding s u i t -able t r a i n i n g courses. (c) World War II As i n World War I, the second World War saw a fresh emphasis being placed upon the trade testing movement within the American Armed Forces. Navy. P r i o r to 1944, achievement testing i n the s k i l l e d trades, by the U.;S. Wavy, was conducted upon a purely l o c a l basis and r e f l e c t e d the c u r r i c u l a or bias of the i n d i v i d u a l schools or unit (6.2) . Ihe development of standardized trade tests was i n a large part due to the need to standardize i n -s t r u c t i o n i n the trade schools and to improve the basis f o r comparing personnel from d i f f e r e n t sehools- An accompanying impetus was derived from the rapidly expanding aptitude testing program. The e f f e c t i v e use of aptitude tests was e i t i r e l y de-pendent upon the adequacy of the c r i t e r i o n used i n t h e i r develop-ment. The use of in s t r u c t o r ' s ratings or .school marks was found to be unreliable, often being more influenced by the sub-ject's personal .qualifications than by h i s trade proficiency (38,p.377). -17-T'he main types of achievement tests developed were paper and p e n c i l t e s t s , performance tests, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n tests and product gage ra t i n g s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n tests consisted of multiple choice items and usually contained seventy-five to two hundred items- These were developed from a thorough analysis of the trade and the school ..curricula- In t h e i r construction, greater attention was paid to measuring the understanding of function rather than the a b i l i t y to memorize-In the development of the performance te s t s , many of the causes of the objections formerly directed at t h i s type of t e s t were overcome. By breaking down the task into i t s component elements, sub-assemblies and multiple equipment were set up. Objectivity of scoring was obtained by providing .the examiner with a check l i s t which was s p e c i f i c and merely r e -quired that he check the actions of the subject as he perform-ed them and record the times. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t e s t s comprised of the subject viewing a dissassembled part attached to which was a tag bearing four or f i v e possible names. The subject, selected the name which applied to that p a r t i c u l a r part, ^gain the time element was im-proved hy having a m u l t i p l i c i t y of parts. The number of sub-jects who could be tested simultaneously was then determined only by the number of parts i n the t e s t . Product rating gages involved the subject making a product representative of his trade. Certain s p e c i f i c a t i o n s were given and the subject's -18-product was then evaluated i n terms of i t s proximity to these. In a l l types of trade t e s t s , a thorough job or course analysis was conducted p r i o r to the construction of the t e s t , ^here applicable, a f u l l item analysis was conducted upon the i n i t i a l items- In the case of multiple choice items, consideration was given to the effectiveness of the i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r a c t o r s (38)-The main contribution of the United States Navy achievement testing program was to stress the importance of r e -l i a b l e and v a l i d achievement measures within the trade training schools- Not only -were they found to give more adequate ba s i s for comparing schools and allowing a better standard to be maintained throughout the schools, but also they were found to be highly motivating to both the students and i n s t r u c t o r s a l i k e -A constant score increase was observed with each successive class to which the tests were administered despite adequate pre-cautions to protect the secrecy of the t e s t material- '^ he i n -creases could only be attributed to the increased motivation and e f f o r t of a l l those p a r t i c i p a t i n g -United iStates Army-Considerable development was also done on trade tests within the United States Army during the recent war-These (48) followed the standard type of multiple choice ob-j e c t i v e information t e s t s . Considerable.emphasis was directed towards the p i c t o r i a l type of item i n order toxeduce the i n -fliBice of education and reading s k i l l - A feature of these tests was the addition of an experience check l i s t upon which -19-the subject checked, from a se r i e s of job operations and t o o l s , those items upon which he had experience. These were not qua n t i t a t i v e l y scored hut were used as subjective aids i n order to help the examiner int e r p r e t a t e s t performance. By compar-ing the indiv i d u a l ' s check l i s t with that of a t y p i c a l army school graduate's check l i s t i n the s p e c i f i c trade, an i n d i c a t -ion could be obtained of areas i n which the experience of the testee was inadequate. C r i t i c a l scores were used to evaluate the i n d i v i d u a l ' s score. Later tests (4-9) gave graphic d i s t r i -bution of test scores f o r various l e v e l s of trade p r o f i c i e n c y . In a few cases standardized performance tests were developed (50) . These were objectively scored upon the basis of the number of operations, precision and time. The main use of the t e s t s (51), as stated by the manual, i s to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between those men that need t r a i n -ing i n order to work at a s p e c i f i c occupation and those men who are capable of purusing the work without further t r a i n i n g . Subjects that achieve the c r i t i c a l score or a higher score are considered not to need additional t r a i n i n g . In the cases of those subjects whose scores are below the c r i t i c a l score, an evaluation,from the test scores and the experience check l i s t i s made of the training required. In many cases where a score below the c r i t i c a l score i s obtained, a high degree of s p e c i a l -i z a t i o n which could be d i r e c t l y u t i l i z e d without further t r a i n -ing may be indicated. This can often be determined by a c l o s e r inspection of the experience cheek l i s t and other personal data. - 2 0 -(d) United s t a t e s Bureau, of Prisons The United States Bureau of Prisons has developed performance trade tests covering t h i r t y - f i v e , s k i l l e d trades required i n the operation of the federal prison system. These are based upon the job descriptions as given i n the Dictionary of Occupational T i t l e s , and are thus applicable to a non-r e s t r i c t e d testing area. The tests "require the presence of a trained tradesman-.who rates the i n d i v i d u a l d e s c r i p t i v e l y upon s i x factors related to his performance. These include his s k i l l i n the application of techniques and procedures, the presentability of the work sample, his attention to pertinent d e t a i l , the accuracy of the f i n a l product, his rate of progress and his i n i t i a t i v e . A:S y e t they have not been widely u t i l i z e d but present indications (.29) would suggest that they have a functional value. (e) Private Industries. Trade t e s t s have also been u t i l i z e d i n private i n r dustries, but for the most part they have remained upon a pure-l y l o c a l basis and have been constructed to s a t i s f y the demands of the p a r t i c u l a r industry. Irwin (19) c i t e s an scampie of t h e i r use by the Lockheed A i r c r a f t Company. With the increased i n d u s t r i a l expansion owing to defence orders, the company was faced with a shortage of trained tradesmen. Twelve trade tests were developed. These were used s e l e c t i v e l y and d i agnostic a l l y the emphasis being upon the l a t t e r . The shortage of competent tradesmen made i t necessary to u t i l i z e s k i l l e d workers i n related types of work- The minimum necessary training requir-ed by a tradesman from a related trade could be determined by an analysis of his test performance i n r e l a t i o n to the s p e c i f i c job requirements-The extent of t h e i r use i n private industry, how-ever, would not seem to have been extensive. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that, i n a s p e c i a l issue of the Personnel Journal (37) designed to f a c i l i t a t e the hi r i n g of s k i l l e d workers during tie recent war emergency, none of the industries reporting i n d i c a t -ed the standardized objective trade test as a method of s e l e c t -ing or developing s k i l l e d tradesmen- I t would suggest that industry i s s t i l l r elying heavily upon such methods as the interviewer's judgments, past experience and on the job perform-ances. (f) In England. Objective written trade testing i n England during the reeent war did not appear t o reach the same degree of de-velopment within the armed forces that was apparent i n America. Vernon, referr i n g to the Personnel Selection O f f i c e r ' s tech-niques i n 1944 states '•" BSOs did not use any standardized trade tests or tests o f trade knowledge" (43,p»12l) . Oral trade questions were used f a i r l y extensively, but t h e i r administrat-ion was not standardized- T'hey were applied informally during the interview with the trade candidate and t h e i r use was d i r e c t -ed more at uncovering work attitudes or i n gaining rapport than they were to assess comparatively the i n d i v i d u a l ' s trade ^22-knowledge. In a l i s t of the main tests used throughout the war for purposes of personnel s e l e c t i o n , Vernon. (4-3,App A) mentions only one objective written t e s t that -was used to determine trade knowledge. This was an untimed, ten item test of e l e c t r i -c a l trade knowledge. Two general information t e s t s are l i s t e d ; a mechanical and an e l e c t r i c a l information t e s t . These were used more as aptitude t e s t s since they were administered to i n -coming r e c r u i t s i n order t> s e l e c t p o t e n t i a l tradesmen and thus cannot be viewed as trade t e s t s . (g) In Germany. Objective tests of trade knowledge and trade i n -formation sutable to group administration have also been used i n Germany. The f u l l extent of t h e i r use and development has not as yet been f u l l y determined. Ansbacher (2) reports that considerable use was made of them during the recent war i n the i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of foreign workers. No s t a t i s t i c a l or descriptive information i s available regarding these t e s t s , but Futts (15) indicates that a heavy emphasis was placed upon subjective evaluation rather than objective s t a t i s t i c a l analy-s i s - Written trade tests were also used by the Reich Manpoarer Engineers (1) i n an e f f o r t to obtain the most economical man-power u t i l i z a t i o n . These were further supplemented by job per-formance t e s t s . (ti) Vocational Schools. Considerable development has been made i n the f i e l d -23-of objective tests for i n d u s t r i a l a r t s subjects as applicable to vocational .schools, The main emphasis has been upon adequ-ate construction of tests within the i n d i v i d u a l school rather than the development of s p e c i f i c t e s t s . I n d u s t r i a l education magazines such as the '"Industrial Arts and Vocational Education'11 (55) p r i n t frequent a r t i c l e s upon the correct methodology f o r objective test construction and thus s t r i v e to increase the r e -l i a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l school's assessment of the student's vocational f i t n e s s , developed trade t e s t s for s p e c i f i c trade school courses are also published periWeially but OY/ing to the r e s t r i c t e d nature of the standardizing samples are not a p p l i c -able to general trade t e s t i n g (11,46)- They are based upon the objective t e s t item and include alternate response, multiple choice, matching, free response and completion items. (i) Tests available commercially. Few objective trade tests have been developed commercially. *'rom an exhaustive search of the l i t e r a t u r e and of t e s t catalogues only three sources .were a v a i l a b l e . Science Research Associates (60) publish the Purdue Vocational Tests developed by T i f f i n . These consist of two trade information tests, technical information i n e l e c t r i c i t y and machine shop and machine operation. These are a multiple choice type of test containing 149 and 133 items respectively. Link and Keeler publish a s e r i e s of trade tests f o r the machinist trade through C. H. S t o e t l i n g and Company ( 6 l ) . These include t e s t s of machinist's information, association test, designer's test, toolmakers vocabulary test and a context t e s t . Thompson's previously mentioned book of o r a l trade tests i s s t i l l a v a i l -able commercially although i t s usefulness has been r e s t r i c t e d because of occupational changes since i t s publication and be-cause of the somewhat l o c a l nature of the '.questions. Summary The general conclusion that could be drawn from the review i s that the majority of trade tests have been l o c a l l y constructed with the viev/ to f i l l i n g the needs of s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . Thus, t h e i r use i s r e s t r i c t e d and they are not generally applicable to a wider t e s t i n g range. For the most part these have not been reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e . 4. Previous Studies Pertaining to the Relationship  Between Tests Scores and Other V a r i a b l e s . The majority of the studies pertaining to job i n -formation tests have been conducted hy the armed forces during the recent war and, for the most part, quantitative date regard-ing them have not as yet been released, '^ he following i s a short summary of the available and pertinent studies to date. (a) R e l i a b i l i t y . R e l i a b i l i t y has been investigated by Feder and Lefever. Feder (13)' i n an analysis of s i x multiple choice type of trade information t e s t s found r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t s , computed by the Ku'der--Richardson formula, ranging from r=.84 to r=.S7 with a median c o - e f f i c i e n t of r=*.85. Lefever (.23) " from an investigation of ninety-seven s i m i l a r tests used at an air technical school reports r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t s , derived from the s p l i t - h a l f method and increased hy the Spearman-J3rown formula, fanging from r » . 6 2 to r=.95 with a median c o - e f f i c i e n t of r=.87. '•'•'he r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t s computed by the Kuder-Richardson formula, derived from the Navy's achievement testing program as reported by S t u i t (38) range from r=.84 to r=.87 with a mean c o - e f f i c i e n t of r » . 8 6 . The United .States &rmy tests are reported to y i e l d r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t s ranging from r=.73 to r=.90.(5l) - Stead and >Shartle (32) report r e l i a b i l i t y co-e f f i c i e n t s of between r=.79 to r=.93 for the l a t e r United States Employment Tests. The methods of computing the two l a t t e r co-e f f i c i e n t s are not reported. -26-(b) Age,, Education and I n t e l l i g e n c e . The c r i t i c i s m i s often made that written tests d i s -criminate against the older and l e s s educated-individuals. Lefever (:23) reports a c o r r e l a t i o n between test scores and age i n groups ranging from sixteen to six t y to be r=.06, 1'hen the over f i f t y age group were removed from the sample a c o r r e l a t i o n of rar.OS was obtained. On the same study a median c o r r e l a t i o n of r=,-29 was reported' between education and test scores on twenty-two t e s t s , •'"'hen a p a r t i a l c o - e f f i c i e n t between age and test scores, holding education constant, was computed a c o r r e l — ation of r-12.3 was obtained. In another more recent study (.24) a c o r r e l a t i o n of r=.:25 was obtained between education and t e s t scores. These studies would indicate that education was a more i n f l u e n t i a l factor than age. -^ ge and education, however, were negatively correlated y i e l d i n g a c o - e f f i c i e n t of r«-s35- This would suggest that the older tradesmen would have less educat-ion . In general he fould that education was not a determining factor except i n those cases i n which i t was l e s s than grade eight. He concludes that s p e c i a l consideration should be a l l -owed for those subjects with l e s s than a grade s i x education. I f the purpose of the trade test i s to measure trade p r o f i c i e n -cy, and the trade t e s t has v a l i d i t y , then any such consideration would seem unwarranted, u n t i l at l e a s t more evidence i s a v a i l -able regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p of education to job performance. Lefever (,24) found a c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i e i e n t of r=.41 between i n t e l l i g e n c e test scores and trade test scores-Trade training and trade experience yielded median correlations of r«-25 with test scores- Slocombe reports a c o r r e l a t i o n of r-.Q23 between experience and a p a r t i c u l a r t e s t of e l e c t r i c a l knowledge i n a group of e l e c t r i c i a n s (37). (c) V a l i d i t y . The e a r l i e r studies of Chapman, the United States Employment Services and others have c l e a r l y indicated the v a l i d i t y of trade information tests f o r the purpose of discrim-inating groups into coarse l e v e l s of trade s k i l l s by the use of c r i t i c a l scores. L i t t l e s t a t i s t i c a l data i s available regard-ing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between increased t#ade te s t scores and increased trade proficiency within these l e v e l s . xhe main d i f -f i c u l t y encountered has been the u n r e l i a b i l i t y of the c r i t e r i o n against which they have been evaluated. Ratings by supervisors or i n s t r u c t o r s have been widely u t i l i z e d . ;Stuit (38) rejects these upon the basis of u n r e l i a b i l i t y , lack of v a l i d i t y and lack of discrimination. Lefever (24) i n a follow up study of testees found that there was a tendency for more promotions to accompany higher scores, and for resignations and discharges to accompany lower seores. This was ascertained by the use of a chi-squared formula aft e r a s i x month period. A F value of .06 was obtained. A s i m i l a r study upon the same subjects a f t e r a nine month period yielded a F value of . 0 1 - This would indicate that there i s only one chance i n a hundred that these r e s u l t s could occur by chance. -28-(d) Summary. The preceding summary would indicate that previous-l y developed objective trade tests have demonstrated a s a t i s -factory degree of r e l i a b i l i t y . Scores upon them have had a n e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p with age and education, except where less than grade eight, but i n t e l l i g e n c e would be an i n f l u e n t -i a l factor i n determining trade test scores. V a l i d i t y has been adequately demonstrated for d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g coarse l e v e l s of trade p r o f i c i e n c y . Few studies are available regarding t h e i r v a l i d i t y f or d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g degrees of s k i l l within the coarse l e v e l s , but these reported would he suggestive. -29-5. Construction of the Carpenter's Trade Te.st The ensuing chapter deals with the construction of the carpenter's trade t e s t , and attempts to outline some of the considerations and the general method followed. Determination of area of knowledge to be tested. The f i r s t requirement i n the construction of a v a l i d trade t e s t i s the d e f i n i t i o n of the occupational area which i s to he sampled and the determination of i t s pertinence to the proficiency of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s trade a b i l i t y . The l a t t e r could be determined by a s t a t i s t i c a l analysis, hut the v a l i d i t y of the test would depend to a large extent upon the adequate sampling of the pertinent area. Since t h i s test was being de-signed f o r use i n the army s i t u a t i o n , the job descriptions as defined by the Canadian Army for the trade of carpenter were u t i l i z e d and accepted as those areas of which a knowledge i s required f o r successful trade conduct. These included both re-cquired trade duties and expected t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l trade knowledge. Appendix A indicates the area of knowledge with which the test i s attempting to measure familiarity.. Form of Items. Owing to'the use to which the test was to he put, c e r t a i n conditions had to he met i n the form of the items. Among these were o b j e c t i v i t y of scoring- I t was f e l t that tie test would be administered hy personnel d i f f e r i n g widely i n t h e i r degrees of trade knowledge. Many of the existing trade t e s t s c o n s i s t of a s i n g l e f r e e response item. T h i s r e q u i r e s that t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r be a h i g h l y t r a i n e d tradesman i n the area which" i s being t e s t e d s i n c e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e p l i e s would be necessary. Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the form o f the" questions was i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y to the s u b j e c t s f o r which the t e s t was t o be designed. I t seemed f e a s i b l e that the s u b j e c t s would be i n the mid to lower part o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n i n t e l l -igence, education and t e s t s o p h i s t i c a t i o n (3,p.50) . '^ 'he aim of the t e s t was to measure trade knowledge and t o reduce the i n f l u e n c e of other v a r i a b l e s , i'hus the form of t h e t e s t item must be such t h a t i t minimize these f a c t o r s . Cronbach (10) has i n d i c a t e d t h a t the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the manner i n which he answers v a r i o u s forms of t e s t s . He found t h a t v a r i a t i o n s due to these were l e a s t i n the m u l t i p l e choice type of item. Beacuse of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the most d i r e c t method of phrasing the q u e s t i o n was sought, '^he m u l t i p l e choice form seemed to minimize the v e r b a l element and r e l y s t r o n g l y upon a s s o c i a t i o n s which c o u l d be so presented t h a t they represented problems met upon the job s i t u a t i o n . They als o have the advantage of speed of s c o r i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( 3 6 ) . Considerable l i t e r a t u r e upon the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of v a r i o u s forms of achievement t e s t s e x i s t s . E u r i e h (12) found that t h e essay, m u l t i p l e choice, completion and t r u e - f a l s e forms of t e s t s have equal v a l i d i t y . Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s ( 3 0 , 9 , 2 5 ) have compared the v a r i o u s forms and the general con-c l u s i o n s would be t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the r e l i a b i l i t i e s and v a l i d i t i e s of them. Copeland and G i l l i l a n d (9) i n a w e l l c o n t r o l l e d experiment, found t h a t w M l e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d , they were not l a r g e enough to be considered i n the p r a c t i c a l t e s t s i t u a t i o n , provided t h a t the t e s t s had been c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d . Other advantages of the m u l t i p l e choice type of item i s the g r e a t e r opportunity a l l o w s ed to sample the area of knowledge being t e s t e d . T'horndyke (4-1) s t a t e s t h a t they a l s o a l l o w f i n e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of response than does the t r u e - f a l s e or r e c a l l type of item. With these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n mind, i t seemed t h a t the m u l t i p l e choice type of q u e s t i o n best s u i t e d the present requirements. C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the s e l e c t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n of items. The i n d i v i d u a l items were constructed i n accordance w i t h the recognized c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a good t e s t i t e m . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were adapted from d i s c u s s i o n s by authors ( 5 4 * 4, 8,) who have had c o n s i d e r a b l e experience i n the f i e l d of trade t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n , ^very item was examined i n order to determine whether an a f f i r m a t i v e ansv/er c o u l d be given to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s r -1. Does the item c a l l f o r a knowled-ge that the candidate must use or present a problem t h a t he may have to face on the job? Furthermore, i s i t a q u e s t i o n that the more h i g h l y t r a i n -ed man would be expected to be f a m i l i a r with? This c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c was determined w i t h reference to the Canadian Army trade s p e c i f i c a t i o n ' s as i n d i c a t e d i n App. A. 2. Dees the item have "face v a l i d i t y 1 " ? This' p a r t i c u l a r requirement has been h e a v i l y emphasized by the United S t a t e s War Department t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a f f - I t l a y s an emphasis upon the n e c e s s i t y of the .question appearing p r a c t i c a l to the t e s t e e i n view to the job f o r which he claims q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 3. I s the q u e s t i o n phrased i n the language of the trade? This was i n c l u d e d to ensure that the t e s t e e ' s vocabulary, r a t h e r than h i s trade knowledge-, would not l i m i t h i s understand-ing of the q u e s t i o n . 4- I s the item such that i t c o u l d not be answered upon the b a s i s of general i n t e l l i g e n c e and general knowledge, but would r e q u i r e s p e c i f i c t r a d e knowledge? 5 . I s each item independent; i . e . not dependent upon or r e v e l i n g the answer to another item? 6. Ape the ' " d i s t r a c t o r s " p l a u s i b l e and l i k e l y t o be taken f o r the r i g h t answer by persons without a d e t a i l e d knowledge of the Trade? T ney should be important, p l a u s i b l e answers and present common misconceptions r a t h e r than t r i v i a l and implaus-i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . I d e a l l y , the most s a t i s f a c t o r y method would have been to administer the t e s t as afffee response t e s t to v a r i o u s l e v e l s of a b i l i t y and then to s e l e c t the most commonly occuring i n c o r r e c t answers a$ the d i s t r a c t o r s . Owing to the l a c k of s u b j e c t s , t h i s was not f e a s i b l e i n t h i s study-7. I s the q u e s t i o n f r e e from any " s p e c i f i c determiners" that would suggest the answer sought? -33-8. Does the q u e s t i o n e l i c i t a response that i s common throughout the trade r a t h e r than a response that is" purely l o c a l or r e g i o n a l i n nature? 9- I s the problem s t a t e d c l e a r l y and p r e c i s e l y so t h a t only one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c ould he placed upon i t by a s u b j e c t that had been t r a i n e d i n carpentry? 10. Does the answer to the q u e s t i o n r e f l e c t a good "trade p r a c t i c e ? Every item was constructed w i t h respect t o , and l a t e r examined i n regard to these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and any item which d i d not y i e l d an a f f i r m a t i v e answer to these r e q u i r e -ments was r e j e c t e d . iSdurces of m a t e r i a l f o r item c o n s t r u c t i o n . Two hundred and four items were c o n s t r u c t e d o f a four m u l t i p l e choice nature. The author was i n i t i a l l y handi-capped by a l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the car p e n t e r i n g f i e l d . C onsiderable reading was done regarding t e c h n i c a l carpentry s u b j e c t s i n order to p a r t i a l l y overcome t h i s d e f e c t . A l l items c o n s t r u c t e d were devised i n r e l a t i o n to the Canadian Army trade d e s c r i p t i o n f o r Carpenters and i n d i r e c t l y provided a source of p o s s i b l e t e s t items. Sy breaking down the job des-c r i p t i o n i n t o f i n e r u n i t s and d e s c r i p t i o n s v a r i o u s items were suggested, '^his was supplemented by d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h Major Xoung, o f f i c e r i n charge of trades t r a i n i n g , Royal Canadian Engineers. One of the most u s e f u l sources of i n f o r m a t i o n upon - 3 4 -whieh to devise questions was found to be t e c h n i c a l t r a d e j o u r n a l s and t e c h n i c a l carpentry books. A l i s t of these sources i s given i n Appendix B. A n o t h e r source of m a t e r i a l from which to develop qu e s t i o n s were the already e x i s t i n g trade t e s t s . These i n c l u d e d t e s t s developed by the U n i t e d S t a t e s Army, the United S t a t e s Employment S e r v i c e s and the Canadian Army Trade t e s t s . Many of these questions were i n o r a l form and r e q u i r e d a s i n g l e f r e e response answer, but were r e a d i l y adapted to the m u l t i p l e choice form. I n many cases s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l s were suggested i n conferences w i t h s k i l l e d tradesmen, and these were i n c o r p o r a t -ed i n t o q u e s t i o n form. I t was found t h a t b e t t e r r e s u l t s c o u l d be obtained by d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g of carpenters r a t h e r than asking them to c o n s t r u c t a complete q u e s t i o n . The carpenters seldom grasped the general form i n which the q u e s t i o n was t o be phrased, but they were i n v a l u a b l e i n suggesting common er r o r s found i n the l e s s s k i l l e d and upon which s u b j e c t mater-i a l they were most apt to have the l e a s t knowledge. An attempt was made t o make as many of the items as d e s c r i p t i v e as p o s s i b l e . S i n c e the t e s t was to be a measure of trade knowledge, the t e s t should be a sampling of the i n d i -v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y or i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d o n l y . I n order to do t h i s , the v e r b a l element was kept at a minimum s i n c e a wide range of v e r b a l f a c i l i t y would l i k e l y be encountered i n the groups f o r which the t e s t was being designed. Of the two hundred and four items o r i g i n a l l y compiled, e i g h t y - f o u r items were p i c t o r i a l . - 3 5 -When these had been constructed, each item was r e -viewed hy the Foremen of uarpenters at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and two other s k i l l e d carpenters of twenty-f i v e years experience. In many cases questions were modified or Eplaced by fresh items at t h e i r suggestion. -Before the printing of the i n i t i a l copy of the test, agreement was obtain-ed amongst these s k i l l e d carpenters as to the correctness of the selected answer and the s u i t a b i l i t y of the d i s t r a c t o r s . The i n i t i a l copy of the tes t , consisting of 2 0 4 items, i s given i n App. Q . Arrangement of answers and d i s t r a c t o r s i n the item. In the majority of four multiple choice type examin-ations, the assumption i s held that completely naive subjects w i l l score twenty-five percent and that the correct choices need only be scattered i n such a way that the subject w i l l not discern any p a r t i c u l a r pattern. However, Weitzman and McNamara (45) , i n a well controlled experiment found that a position, factor existed. The d i f f i c u l t y of the item ?/as s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t according to the placement of the correct answer. When the order of the choices i s l e f t to the whim of the t e s t constructor, a personal p o s i t i o n preference i s l i k e l y to r e -s u l t i n a preponderance of the correct answers f a l l i n g i n one po s i t i o n . Moreover, the d i s t r a c t o r s , tending to be written i n order of p l a u s i b i l i t y , w i l l assume a p a r t i c u l a r pattern. A p p r e c i a t i o n i s expressed to Mr. G. Rogers and members of his s t a f f f o r t h e i r time and many he l p f u l suggestions offered i n the construction of many of the items. -36-Mosier and Rice (.26) suggest a method of randomizing not only the correct choice but also the d i s t r a c t o r s i n a f i v e choice question, T'he present method used i s a s l i g h t modification to make i t applicable to four multiple choice questions -While constructing the question, the correct choice was always placed f i r s t with the d i s t r a c t o r s following. The permutations for one, two, three and four, which have twenty-four possible arrangements, were written i n a systematic and c y c l i c order. Each permutation was then assigned a seq-uence number of from one to twenty-four. Each permutation was then assigned as i t s f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n the table the order i n which i t s sequence number occured among the l a s t two figures of a s i x place logarithm table (7) . ;Sinee two hundred and four questions were i n i t i a l l y used, nine sets of permutations were made, T 0 avoid duplication of sequence, the following set was begun where the preceding one was l e f t o f f . This method show-ed various advantages. There were no r e p i t i t i o n s or omissions of choice numbers fo r any item and every possible p o s i t i o n of both choice and d i s t r a c t o r s were used before a duplication occured. Furthermore, considerable time i s saved by the order of a l l four choices being given simultaneously, ^'able 1 gives the order of the correct answer and the d i s t r a c t o r s . In each case ; " I n represents the correct answer and '"-2", ;"31' and m 4 " the d i s t r a c t o r s . (Table l) This method therefore ensured adequate randomization of answers and d i s t r a c t o r s . -37-TABLE 1 rrangement of C o r r e c t Answers and D i s t r a c t o r s 1. 4132 52. 4231 103. 1234 154- 3421 2. 4321 5 3 . 1 3 2 4 104. 1324 1 5 5 . 1324 3. 4231 54- 3241 1 0 5 . 2134 1 5 6 . 4132 4- 4123 55. 1234 1 0 6 . 2431 1 5 7 . 2413 5 . 2134 5 6 . 4123 107. 4312 158. 4 2 1 3 6. 3421 5 7 . 3124 108. 2314 1 5 9 . 3124 7. 1243 58. 2134 1 0 9 . 3421 1 6 0 . 3214 8. 1432 59. 1423 1 1 0 . 4132 1 6 1 . 2143 9. 3241 6 0 . 4132 111. 3214 162. 4312 1 0 . 2143 6 1 . 1432 1 1 2 . 1 4 3 2 1 6 3 - 4213 11. 4213 6 2 . - 4312 113. 2341 I64. 1342 1 2 . 1324 63. 3421 114. 4 2 1 3 1 6 5 . 2431 1 3 . 3214 64. 2341 115. 3124 166. 2134 14. 1234 6 5 . 3412 1 1 6 . 3241 167. 1243 1 5 . £312 66. 1243 117. 4123 168. 3142 16. 2413 6 7 . 1342 118. 2143 I 6 9 . 4123 17. 1423 68. 2431 1 1 9 . 4321 170. 3142 18. 3142 6 9 . 2314 1 2 0 . 1342 171. 2413 1 9 . 3124 70. 4321 1 2 1 . 1423 172. 1234 2 0 . 2431 71. 3412 1 2 2 . 3412 173. 1243 2 1 . 3412 72. 2413 1 2 3 . 1243 174. 4213 22. 1342 7 3 . 4321 12 A. *• 2413 175. 2431 2 3 . 2341 74. 3412 1 2 5 . 3412 176. 3124 24. 2314 7 5 . 4132 1 2 6 . - 3214 177. 1 3 4 2 25. 2A13 7 6 . 4213 127. 4321 178. 1 3 2 4 2 6 . 4312 77. 132.4 128. 4132 179. 3 1 4 2 27. I423 78. 1243 1 2 9 . 3421 180. I 4 2 3 28. 2431 7 9 . 1423 1 3 0 . 2 1 4 3 181. 2 3 1 4 29. 3241 80. 2431 1 3 1 . 4312 182. 43E2 30. 4312 81. 2314 1 3 2 . 2431 183- 3 2 4 1 31. I432 82. 4231 133. 3241 I 8 4 . 2 1 3 4 32. 2431 83. 3412 134- 4213 185. 4 1 3 2 33. 3 2 1 A 84 - 4123 135. 4231 186. 4321 34- 3124 8 5 . 3124 136. 3124 187. 1 4 3 2 3 5 . 4132 86. 3421 137. 4123 188. 3 2 1 4 3 6 . 2341 87. 21-34 1 3 8 . 2314 1 8 9 . 3 4 2 1 37. 4321 8 8 . 2341 139. 1324 1 9 0 . 2341 38. 2 1 4 3 8 9 . 1432 140. 2134 1 9 1 . 2 1 4 3 3 9 . 1234 90. 1234 141. 1342 1 9 2 . 4 2 3 1 40. 1234 9 1 - 3124 142. 1432 193. 2 4 1 3 A l . 1 4 3 2 92. 2 1 4 3 143. 1 2 3 4 1 9 4 - 2 1 4 3 42. 2 3 1 4 9 3 . 3241 144 * 2341 195- 2 3 4 1 43. 4123 94- 4312 145. 2341 196- 1 2 4 3 44- 3421 9 5 . 2413 1 4 6 . 4 3 2 1 197. 4312 45- 3 1 4 2 9 6 . 1342 147. 1432 1 9 8 . 3412 46. 4213 9 7 . I423 148. 1234 199- 3L24 47. 4231 9 8 . 3142 149- 2314 2 0 0 . 1 3 2 4 - 3 8 -TABLE 1 (cont'd) 48. 1324 99. 1243 150. 3241 201. 4213 4 9 . -2143 100. 4231 151. 1423 202. 4123 50 . 3214 101. 2413 152 . 4123 203 . 4231 51. 4213 102. 3412 153- 3421 204. 1342. -39-6. The Wonderlic Personnel Test, One of the major considerations i n standardizing the trade test was to determine to what extent i n t e l l i g e n c e , independent of experience, would effect an i n d i v i d u a l ' s score. Without t h i s knowledge, the trade test c6uld heeome an i n t e l l i g e n c e test disguised i n carpentering terminology. The Wonderlic Personnel Test (A pp. D.) was used to ascertain the i n t e l l i g e n c e of the subjects used i n the standardization sample. I t was selected because, besides being economical i n the time required to administer, i t has been standardized upon a large number of adults i n business and industry. The majority of i n t e l l i g e n c e tests are developed i n educational s i t u a t i o n s and may lack a p p l i c a b i l i t y to adult i n d u s t r i a l c i r c urns t anc es. The Wonderlic Personnel Test (64) i s an abridgement • of the Otis S e l f Administering Test of Mental A b i l i t y , Higher Form. By an analysis of eight thousand Otis Tests, the authors reduced the number of items and the administration time. The items were selected from the existing Otis examinations on a three f o l d c r i t e r i o n . These were those items which 1. d i f f -erentiated successful and unsuccessful i n d u s t r i a l employees, 2. d i f f e r e n t i a t e good and poor school records as indicated by s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the upper and loY/er twenty-five percent with respect to academic achievement and 3. yielded s a t i s f a c t o r y h i - s e r i a l c o - e f f i c i e n t s between f i n a l t o t a l scores and pass or f a i l on the i n d i v i d u a l item. -40-The authors report (47) r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t s of between r= .82 and r= .94 by the t e s t r e t e s t method and of . r= .88 to r= .94 oy "the s p l i t h a l f method. The c o r r e l a t i o n between the Wonderlic Personnel Test and the O t i s S.A. Higher Form i s reported to be between r= .81 and v= .87. While these c o r r e l a t i o n s are s p u r i o u s l y high, s i n c e the items contained i n -the Wonderlic Pesonnel Test are p a r t of the v a l i d a t i n g c r i t e r i o n , the remaining two c r i t e r i o n would seem to represent adequate safeguards. The t e s t - r e q u i r e s twelve minutes to administer and contains f i f t y questions'. Scores are i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of the t o t a l number of questions c o r r e c t l y answered. A c o r r e c t i o n i s allowed on the s c o r i n g f o r the o l d e r age groups. An e x t r a three p o i n t s are aokd, beginning at twenty-nine and i n c r e a s i n g by r e g u l a r increments to the age of s i x t y - n i n e . The Wonderlic Personnel Test was administered to the s u b j e c t s used as the sample and the scores obtained were viewed as a measure of the i n t e l l i g e n c e of the s u b j e c t s . - 4 1 -7. , Description of the Sample. The test was standardized upon a c r i t e r i o n of three groups. These were selected i n order to represent varying degrees of trade proficiency i n carpentering. They were desig-nated as :"novice", " apparent i c e " and "carpenter" groups. The following d e f i n i t i o n s were used;; '"novice'! a novice was defined as an i n d i v i d u a l who had no s p e c i f i c carpentry t r a i n i n g although he may have worked as...a helper or an u n s k i l l e d labourer i n carpentry. :" ap-pr entice" an apprentice was considered to he someone .who had received training courses i n carpentry or who had worked at the trade i n .a learner's capacity fo r a period of not more than three ye alb. The B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Labour considers four years on-the-job-training as the required training period for q u a l i f i c a t i o n as a journey-man carpenter. Some modification i s allowed, however, i n the required apprenticeship time for formal training courses taken. Students who have completed grade twelve i n woodworking and carp-entry at a technical school or who have completed a s i x months woodworking course at the Dominion sponsored Vocational'Training I n s t i t u t e are - 4 2 -allowed up to one and one hal f years c r e d i t on t h e i r apprenticeship) time (63) '"carpenters" a carpenter .was-- defined as a man having three years or more carpentry experience and at present engaged upon the -work of "a carpentering nature- S a t i s f a c t i o n of the second -.qualification was taken to indicate that the man had i n fact achieved the status of a s k i l l e d carpenter. (b) '"novice" sample The novice sample consisted of one hundred navy en l i s t e d personnel stationed at H.M.C.S-Naden- When tested they were waiting to receive training courses of assorted natures- They represented a heterogeneous group i n so f a r as i n t e r e s t s and work experience were concerned. Twenty-two had' no previous work experience;, sixteen had worked as trainees or helpers i n s k i l l e d mechanical trades;; seven had been employed i n a c l e r i c a l or sales capacity and f i f t y - f i v e had been engaged i n se m i - s k i l l e d or u n s k i l l e d work. Ages, at l a s t birthday, ranged from seventeen to twenty-eight with a mean age of twenty and a median of nineteen(ages at l a s t bifchday were rounded to the nearest whole number of years)-(c) " appr ent i c e" s amp-1 e D i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n obtaining the apprentice group and i t .was necessary to draw subjects from various sources- Eighty-one subjects were used i n t h i s category--43-Eighteen were enrolled i n grade twelve at the Vancouver Technical School. They had a l l s p e c i a l i z e d i n woodworking and carpentry besides taking an active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the construction of housing. Twenty-nine were enrolled at Trapp> Technical School, New Westminster, and had a l l likewise s p e c i a l i z e d i n woodworking and carpentry. F i f t e e n were recent graduates from the Royal Canadian (Army) Engineers course i n carpentry at Chilliwack. The remaining nineteen were engaged upon, and held trade groupings as carpenters with the Canadian Armed Forces but had l e s s than three years experience at the trade. The ages of the t o t a l apprentice group ranged from f i f t e e n to forty-seven with a mean of twenty and a median of eighteen, (d) '"carpenter" sample The carpenter's group consisted of sixty-one e n l i s t e d personnel i n the armed forces holding trade groupings as carpenters, having more than three years experience at the trade and currently engaged at the trade. The ages of the carpenter's group ranged from twenty to f o r t y - f i v e with a mean and median age of thirty-one. Their experience at the. trade ranged from three years to twenty-five years with a mean of nine years and a standard deviation of 4 - 9 7 years. -44-8. Administration of the Tests. The tests were administered i n a s i m i l a r manner to the various groups. The novice group,obtained through the co-; operation of the Royal Canadian Navy, were tested on May 16th, 1949- Adequate physical surroundings were obtained by the use of a class room at H.M.C-S.Naden. Testing took place i n two sessions;, f i f t y subjects being tested i n the morning commencing at nine o'clock and f i f t y subjects being tested i n the a f t e r -noon commencing at two o'clock- Since many of the subjects had been tested on a previous occasion by the examiners, i t was f e l t that a . f a i r l y high degree of rapport and motivation had been established. I t i s possible that t h i s was f u r t h e r . f a c i l -i t a t e d by the fact that the testing represented an excuse from more arduous training duties. The purpose of the test was explained to them and the part that they would take was indicated. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was then administered on a twelve minute time l i m i t , and according to the instructions upon the t i t l e page. The directions on the trade test were then read to the group and they were asked to complete the personal data sheet (App- EO prepared f o r novices and c i v i l i a n apprentices- A s p e c i a l emphasis was placed upon answering a l l the .questions since an item analysis was intended- The subjects then proceeded to answer the trade test - The e a r l i e s t recorded time required to complete the test was one hour and ten minutes and the longest time was two hours and f i f t y minutes- This procedure was repeated for the afternoon group. The same procedure was followed f o r the apprentice group tested hy the author. Testing with the technical school subjects was conducted i n the c l a s s rooms of the respective school and with the co-operation of the school woodworking and carpentry i n s t r u c t o r . Owing to the i n a b i l i t y to obtain carpenters l o c a l l y , arrangements were made for the Defence Research Board to receive the test forms and to d i s t r i b u t e them to the various units i n which carpenters were engaged- Appendix E indicates the personal data sheet attached to tests which were to be completed by carpenter subjects. Because of the d i v e r s i t y of testing s i t u a t i o n s and the variety of examiners who would he administering the tests' an '-"instruction to the examiners" sheet was mailed with each group of tests (App.G" ) f o r the guidance of examining o f f i c e r s i n each u n i t . While i t i s l i k e l y that the uniformity of testing procedures may have suffered by t h i s method of '"farming5" out the .tests, i t seemed to have the advantage of avoiding answers that would be purely l o c a l i n nature and thus r e f l e c t a regional bias. - 4 . 6 -9- Raw Test A n a l y s i s . The personal data sheets attached to the front of each test was surveyed to ensure that each subject was adequately placed regarding carpentering experience.F.QUT cases i n the novice group were removed because they had at one time been either carpenter's apprentices or received training i n the occupation. This resulted i n the novice group consisting of ninety-six subjects. The sixty-three carpenters and eighty-one apprentices were s a t i s f a c t o r y from a d e f i n i t i o n standpoint. The t o t a l sample consisted of two hundred and forty subjects. The tests were then scored upon the basis of the t o t a l number of correct responses. The t o t a l number of correct responses for each subject for the complete test was then computed along with the percentage of each group c o r r e c t l y answering each item. Items upon which the percentage of c a r -penters successfully answering did not exceed the number of novices c o r r e c t l y answering were more clos e l y analyzed for errors i n scoring- Upon these items the i n d i v i d u a l responses were determined i n order to ascertain whether the groups d i f f -ered s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r choices of alternate responses-D i s t r i b u t i o n s based upon theetotal scores of i n d i v i d u a l s were then compared- F i g - 1 gives a graphical representation and Table 11 indicates the pertinent information regarding them. (Table 11.) In order to determine the r e l i a b i l i t y of the means for the three groups, the standard errors of the means were - 4 7 -TABLE 11.. Di.'stribution'S and pertinent data derived from administration of 204 item test to novices, apprentices and carpenters -Score i n t . Carpenters Apprentices Novices- Comb. 159-155 154-150 149-145 144-140 139-135 134-130 129-125 124-120 119-115 114-110 109-105 104-100 99-95 94-90 89-85 8A-80 79-75 74-70 69-65 64-60 59-5 5 54-50 49-45 44-40 39-35 34-30 . 29-25 24-20 19-15 14-10 N -Mean 1 1 o 9 6 4 4 6 11 12 5 1 1 2 63 123 -1 1 0 1 3 4 9 7 8 6 7 10 12 5 5 2 1 Standard Deviation=14-2 Standard error of mean = 1-81 81 90.5 15.7 1-75 1 2 1 6 7 6 .22 18 16 9 L .6 3 0 1 96 59-3 11-7 1-20 1 1 0 9 6 5 4 7 14 16 14 8 9 9 9 11 18 12 11 24 19 16 9 3 0 1 240 F i d u c i a l l i m i t s -05= 119-5-126.7 87 .0-94-0 56.9-61-7 F i d u c i a l l i m i t s .01 118.3-127-9 85-9-95-1 56.1-62.5 - 4 8 -computed using the formula ^ (I6,p . l89) The.standard error of the differences., between the means for the three groups were also computed using the formula suggested hy Garrett for use when dealing with d i f f e r e n t groups D \| ^ Ml + M2 . C r i t i c a l r a t i o s were determined hy d i v i d i n g the differences between the respective means of the groups by the standard error of the differences between the means, ."""he r e s u l t s are tabulated i n Table i i i . Table 111 These " t " values indicate the p r o b a b i l i t y that obtained mean values for the three groups could occur on the basis of chance variations i n the s e l e c t i o n of the samples. In a l l cases, by reference to probability table, they indicated that a s i g n i f i c a n t a/ifference did exist well beyond the point at which finance factors would account for the obtained d i s t r i -butions. F r 0 m these data the t e s t seemed to indicate enough discriminatory power t> warrant further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 10. Item analysis of raw t e s t . The main purpose of the item analysis was to reject - 4 9 -Table H I  Determination of ;"t'" values < r l ^ T D M Diff. :" t n(Di£f) carpenters 1.81 carpenters-apprentice 2.52 32 .6 1 2 . 9 ^ % apprentices 1.75 apprentices-novice 2 . 1 2 30.7 1 4 . 4 8 novices 1 . 2 0 carpenters-novices 2.17 6 3 . 8 2 9 . 4 0 - 5 0 -those items th a t f a i l e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between v a r i o u s l e v e l s of trade p r o f i c i e n c y and i n t h i s way i n c r e a s e the d i s c r i m i n a t -ory power of the t e s t . A p r a c t i c a l advantage i s the r e d u c t i o n i n l e n g t h of the exam without l o s s of e f f i c a c y . The most common methods of item a n a l y s i s express a r e l a t i o n s h i p between- a dichotomous item v a r i a b l e (eg p a s s - f a i l ) and m u l t i p l e c a t e g o r i e s or a continuous c r i t e r i o n - T h i s usua-l l y takes the form of a c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t , '^he c r i t e r i o n may be e i t h e r i n t e r n a l , that i s the t e s t s c o r e s themselves, or an e x t e r n a l l y determined c r i t e r i o n . The former method can s e l -dom be defended i f some e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n i s obtainable^ i t ' s use tends to s e l e c t items which measure what the t e s t measures as a whole and w h i l e i t may i n c r e a s e the i n t e r n a l consistency of the t e s t , i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y increase the t e s t v a l i d i t y . . I t may, on the c o n t r a r y , decrease the t e s t v a l i d i t y . The most common forms of item a n a l y s i s against an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n are b i s e r i a l r , p o i n t b i s e r i a l r and t e t r a c h o r i c r . I n a l l of these measures the assumption i s made that e i t h e r the c r i t e r i o n or the t e s t v a r i a b l e , although i t may be a r b i t r a r i l y c a t e g o r i z -ed, i s fundamentally a continuum normally d i s t r i b u t e d - I n the case of the present data such an assumption appears untenable. Item a n a l y s i s i s p r i m a r i l y dependent upon two factors;; item d i f f i c u l t y and item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n - The method of item a n a l y s i s employed i n t h i s study, w h i l e not demonstrat-ing the s t a t i s t i c a l refinements of more elaborate devices, r e -cognizes both these elements- I t a l s o has the advantage of -51-eeonomy of time; a necessary p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n any proposed wide-range t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . Using the data a v a i l a b l e from Table TV~ , which gives the percentage o f c o r r e c t responses f o r each item by groups, the standard e r r o r s of the percentages, the standard e r r o r s of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the percentages f o r each group <XD£ = .1 I 1 \ c r % +*r%^ ( , p . 2 1 9 ) G a r r e t t and the d i f f e r e n c e s i n percentages between the groups were de-termined. rrom these date " t " r a t i o s were determined f o r each item.. These values are shown i n Table IV f o r a d j a c -ent groups. An item i n order t o be s e l e c t e d had t o meet two requirements. The f i r s t o f these was that a c r i t i c a l r a t i o i n d i c a t i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at the one percent l e v e l of confidence or b e t t e r be obtained between e i t h e r the carpenters and apprentices or the apprentices andnovices. The second r e -quirement was t h a t the percentage of novices answering the q u e s t i o n c o r r e c t l y d i d not exceed f i f t y percent, and- t h a t t h e percentage of carpenters answering an item c o r r e c t l y should not be l e s s than f i f t y p e r c e n t . One hundred items were then s e l e c t e d , t h i s number being decided upon a r b i t r a r i l y i n order to f a c i l i t a t e computat-Table IV Percentage of group passing item and the ; n t " r a t i o s between adjacent groups for each of 204 items. Item Mo. Percentage, of ; " t " r a t i o s ( D J - F F |) . items passed bet?;een ^ '° Novice Apprentice C a r p e n t e r nov.-app. app.-carp. 1 27 59 92 4.50 5.08 2 42 66 75 3.29 1.18 3 26 27 60 A.15-••' 4.18 4 49 74 94 3.51 3.51 5 72 90 95 3 .18 1.16 6 53 42 41 -1*20 _T .12 7 36 48 86 1.62 5.38^ 8 48 22 61 86 1.76 3.59 9 31 66 ' 1.35 4.43 10 28 44 64 2.26 2 . 4 4 -11 12 14 30 .39 2.32 12 2 4 28 68 .60 7.79 13 • 23 23 49 .00 3.33 14 44 44 64 .00 2 .44 15 35 23 29 -1.79 .81 16 5 - 0 2 T2 .2 7 1.00 17 42 56 54 I.60 - .24 18 2 27 77 4.90 6.9A 19 29 46 86 2 .36 5.71 20 13 28 65 2.50 4-74 2 1 21 56 76 5.07 2.60 22 25 26 73 .15 6-35 23 18 42 70 3.58 3-50 2 4 44 94 90 8.77 - .87 25 2 4 21 19 - .47 - .40 26 33 62 95 4.03 5.50 27 76 90 97 2.55 1.79 28 16 32 73 2.50 5.39 29 16 7 24 -1.91 2-79 20 20 23 33 1.48 1.48 31 8 10 30 .46 2-98 32 69 85 98 2.58 3.02 33 31 56 83 3.33 3.60 34 35 84 90 7.78 .1.09 35 21 25 22 .63 - -42 36 38 94 98 10 . 0 0 1.25 37 20 22 27 .33 -69 38 6 25 68 3.52 5-66 39 6 26 51 3.70 3.12 40 2 27 52 5.21 3-12 41 7 12 10 1.14 - .37 42 36 49 75 1.76 3.33 43 39 43 62 .54 2 .43 (Table iv continued) 44 6(1) 61 45 76 92 46 42 54 47 12 12 48 59 79 49 81 90 50 15 19 51 40 37 52 24 54 53 20 70 54 30 26 55 47 57 56 38 43 57: 55 73 58 63 70 59 38 63 60 48 87 61 27 74 62 48 43 63 32 46 64 17 30 65 9 22 66 43 54 67 27 49 68 30 32 69 18 51 70 14 41 71 37 54 72 21 91 73 15 40 74 26 14 75 40 87 76 17 27 77 10 14 78 4 21 79 2 4 22 80 27 68 81 23 49 82 17 •7 83 27 48 84 15 43 85 31 62 86 41 54 87 21 27 88 55 74 89 9 17 90 31 43 2 91 9 92 51 74 93 26 25 94 36 41 95 32 33 94 .13 5-41 92 3-02 -00 65 1-60 1.34 10 .00 - -49 76 4-00 .43 97 2-19 1.94 27 .70 1-13 22 - .41 -2-00 87 4-25 4-73 94 7.66 3.20 43 - -60 2.15 95 1-33 6-02 66 .67 2.83 95 2 - 5 4 3-90 97 -99 4 . 8 9 68 3-46 -63 90 6.17 ...56 72 7.08 - .27 76 - .74 •4.16 81 1.91 4 . 72 44 2 . 0 4 1.74 56 2-39 4-38 92 1-47 5-84 65 3-07 1.95 17 .29 —2 -14 75 4-86 3-08 62 4-14 2.68 68 2 . 2 9 1-73 92 13-38 -23 54 3-82 I . 6 9 44 -2.03 4-09 95 7-54 1.73 57 1.60 3.77 21 .62 .93 36 3-43 1.98 41 - .31 2 -46 57 5-96 -1.11 44 3-71 - -60 2 -2-10 -1.67 35 2 . 9 3 -1-59 54 4 . 2 4 1.32 90 4-32 4-25 56 1.72 .24 52 .93 3-13 57 2.70 -2-14 36 1.57 2 - 5 9 90 1.65 7.03 2 -2-12 - .18 75 3-26 - .14 17 - -15 -1.19 65 :.68 2.95 19 .14 -1.95 (Table IV continued) -54-96 .20 20 97 58 73 98 22 21 99 35 89 100 28 80 101 41 23 81 102 25 103 17 23 104 36 43 105 36 81 106 47 62 107 30 57 108 29 74 43 109 27 110 29 68 111 3 0 112 38 54 113 20 32 114 33 63 115 15 22 116 45 30 117 30 24 118 16 A6 119 42 51 120 3 30 121 46 81 122 7 14 123 32 36 124 30 28 125 18 42 126 30 47 127 4 24 128 129 8 AO 5 66 130 63 90 131 19 57 132 27 47 133 22 42 134 31 70 135 30 64 136 21 27 137 40 41 138 21 . 44 139 36 54 140 24 .21 141 8 20 142 32 53 143 46 57 144 60 68 145 35 75 146 29 43 147 60 56 70 .00 6.87 75 2.02 .26 40 - .14 2.40 97 9.82 1.97 87 8.14 1-14 92 5.95 1.99 59 .31 4-34 30 .83 .94 83 .95 5.51 95 6.87 2-72 81 2.02 2.60 75 3.74 2-32 94 6.70 3-49 90 2.24 7.03 86 5.61 2.65 6 -1.73 2.00 54 2.15 .00 24 1.82 -1.07 95 4.17 5-31 70 1.19 6-50 30 .00 -2.09 36 .90 1-56 86 4.48 5-67 78 1.20 3-54 60 5.03 3.37 95 5 -22 2-72 43 1.50 3.96 57 1.96 2-56 54 - .29 3.24 78 3.56 5-09 73 2-34 3.30 44 3.88 2.55 11 -86 1.30 100 3.60 6.46 95 4.54 1.16 81 5.59 3-25 60 .2.80 1.57 43 86 2.89 -L2 5.62 2.39 92 4.79 4-4-2 49 .93 2.75 62 .13 2.68 62 3.34 3.99 38 2-43 -2.03 25 .48 .56 60 2-29 5 -26 90 2-88 5.51 65 1-47 .98 95 1.11 4-61 94 ,5,-85 3.36 62 1.94 2.44 78 - .54 2-90 (Table IV continued) -55-148 18 38 149 41 44 150 37- 2 4 151 11 58 152 26 16 153 32 32 154 41 33 155 55 74 156 60 72 157 37 51 158 54 77 159 23 15 160 29 37 161 37 69 162 35 33 163 57 57 164 16 11 165 28 37 166 28 36 167 15 25 168 23 2 4 169 28 32 170 37 40 171 31 31 172 15 16 173 26 50 174 34 41 175 14 42 176 25 63 177 9 15 178 32 54 179 not scored 180 8 18 181 8 5 182 18 20 183 48 65 I84 37 83 185 29 85 186 38 32 187 39 44 188 42 44 189 32 49 190 14 46 191 13 15 192 23 36 193 14 41 194 35 58 195 17 11 196 9 25 197 27 29 198 23 25 199 10 8 54 3-00 1.92 84 -40 5.56 27 - 1.74 .27 68 7-40 I.24 38 -1-65 2.92 27 -00 - .70 70 -1.10 4.75 97 2-70 .56 94 1.70 3.79 72 1-88 2-65 92 3-33 2.59 11 -1-37 -1.07 32 1-12 - .63 65 4.49 - .51 56 - -28 2.82 78 .00 2.77 3 - .98 1-96 14 1-27 -3-32 54 1-14 2.19 10 I.64 -2-45 48 -16 3.05 27 .58 .61 24 .41 -2-09 72 -00 5.37 29 .14 1-85 60 3.37 1.21 25 .96 -2.08 44 4.29 .24 84 5.48 2.97 22 1-22 1.07 58 3-01 .48 .00 -00 27 1.96 1.29 5 - .82 .00 57 .34 4.84 54 2-31 -1-34 94 7.12 2.15 92 9.19 1.34 60 - -84 3.35 65 .67 2.58 62 - .31 3.00 49 2.33 .00 60 4.88 1.69 30 .38 2.14 56 1.90 2 .44 32 4.15 1.12 95 3.14 6.05 48 -1.16 5.15 52 2-50 3-41 68 -29 3.75 35 -31 .63 16 -59 1.55 (Table lV continued) -56-200 27 34 89 1.01 8.37 201 31 32 26 .14 .79 202 14 11 10 - .61 .20 203 12 31 69 3.11 4-89 204 18 34 59 2.44 3.08 -57-io'n. F o r ' c l a r i t y the percentage of each group passing the item and the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s between adjacent groups are summarized i n Table V. (Table V); Ten of the s e l e c t e d items d i d not meet the squall f i c a t i o n s ; , f i v e were not passed by the req u i r e d number and f i v e d i d not y i e l d s a t i s f a c t o r y c r i t i c a l r a t i o s . Question '"179" was not marked because of poor p r e s e n t a t i o n due to mimeographing e r r o r s . , '^he lowest " t " r a t i o used, however was .2.44 f o r question ;tl 194"-The average " t " r a t i o f o r the items s e l e c t e d between carpenters and gp.p.rentices was 3 . 6 l and between apprentices and novices i t was a l s o 3 . 6 1 -The t e s t s were then r e s c o r e d upon the b a s i s of the one hundred s e l e c t e d items. The t o t a l s c o r e s were considered to be the a r i t h m e t i c a l sum of the number of items c p r r e e t l y answered. Many methods e x i s t f o r c o r r e c t i n g scores t o allow' f o r chance or of weighting the i n d i v i d u a l i n regard to t h e i r d i a g n o s t i c v a l u e . One of the most common procedures employed to c o r r e c t f o r chance i n m u l t i p l e choice items i s the a p p l i -c a t i o n of the formula w F c r R- n-1 ( 4 1 , p.234 ) R-4¥-0 Two c o n d i t i o n s a r e . i m p l i e d hy the use of t h i s formula. These are t h a t (a) the subjects choice of an i n c o r r e c t item i s based upon an absence of i n f o r m a t i o n , and secondly ( h ) , that a l l the choices are equal l y a t t r a c t i v e and have the same " p u l l i n g Power". I t seems u n l i k e l y that these c o n d i t i o n s can be -58-adequately met -with the present d a t a . I n many cases d i f f e r e n t weights or score values are given to items depending upon t h e i r d i a g n o s t i c worth. IS house (.35) , i n a comparative study of d i f f -erent methods of s c o r i n g , concluded t h a t counting the t o t a l number of c o r r e c t items was as e f f e c t i v e as any. O d e l l (.27) i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t o f weighting items concluded t h a t •"there i s so l i t t l e to be gained by unequally weighting the elements that i t i s not worth the labour i n v o l v e d . " Goodenough (17) i n a more recent p u b l i c a t i o n on t e s t i n g , concurs t h a t l i t t l e i s t o be gained from d i f f e r e n t i a l weighting and t h a t i t seldom j u s t i f i e d the labour i n v o l v e d , ^he p o i n t s out, however, t-hat s u b j e c t i v e weighting i s present i n any t e s t by the s e l e c t -i o n of the area to be t e s t e d and the importance to be attached to these areas. For these reasons, and because of the i n c r e a s e d complexity of marking i n v o l v e d , w i t h the accompanying l o s s of r e l i a b i l i t y , the s c o r i n g was r e s t r i c t e d t o the t o t a l number o f items c o r r e c t l y answered. An added c o n s i d e r a t i o n was the f a c t t h a t , while i n i t s present experimental form, the t e s t scores would appear to be more meaningful i n raw form. - 5 9 -Table V Percentage of group passing item and " t " ra t i o s between adjacent groups for 100 selected items. '"t" r a t i o s ( D l f f % ) Percentage Item Number passing JLtgm on raw t e s t carp. app. novice app-novice app-carpenter 1 92 59 27 4-5 5.08 2 75 66 42 3-29 1.18 3 60 27 26 .15 4-18 4 94 74 49 3-57 3.51 7 86 48 36 1.62 5.38 8 86 61 48 1.76 3-59 9 66 31 22 1-35 4-43 12 68 28 .24 .60 7 .79 13 49 23 23 .00 3.33 18 77 27 2 4-90 6.94 19 86 46 .29 .2.36 5.71 20 65 .28 13 .2.50 4-74 21 76 56 21 5-07 .2.60 22 73 26 25 -15 6.35 23 70 42 18 3-58 ,3.50 2JL 90 94 44 8-77 -r .87 2b 95 62 33 4-03 5.50 .28 73 32 16 2-50 5.39 32 98 85 69 2-58 3-02 33 83 56 31 3-33 3.60 34 90 84 35 7.78 1.09 36 98 94 38 10.00 1.25 38 68 25 6 3-52 5.66 39 51 .26 6 3-70 3.12 40 52 27 .2 5.21 3.12 75 49 36 1-76 3.33 44 94 61 60 -13 5.41 52 87 54 •24 4-25 /U73 53 94 70 .20 7.66 3.20 55 95 57 47 1-33 6.02 57 95 73 55 2 . 5 4 3.90 58 97 70 63 -99 4-89 59 68 63 38 3-46 .63 60 90 87 48 6.17 -56 61 72 74 27 7.08 - .27 63 81 46 32 1.91 4.72 65 56 22 9 2.39 4-38 66 92 54 4-3 1 .47 5-84 67 65 49 27 3.07 1-95 69 75 51 18 4.86 3.08 70 62 51 14 4-14 2-68 7.2 92 91 .21 13-38 .23 73 54 40 15 3-82 1.69 75 95 87 40 7 .54 1-73 76 57 .27 17 1.60 3.77 -60-84 54 43 15 4.24 1.32 85 90 62 31 4.32 4-25 87 52 27 21 .93 3.13 90 90 43 31 1.65 2.95 94 65 41 36 .68 2.95 96 70 20 20 .00 6.87 99 97 89 35 9.82 1.97 100 87 80 28 8.14 I.14 101 92 81 41 5.95 1.99 102 59 25 23 .31 4-34 104 83 43 36 .95 3-31 105 95 81 36 6.87 2.72 106 81 62 47 2.02 2-60 107 75 57 30 3.74 2.32 108 94 74 29 6.70 3-49 109 SO 43 27 .2 .24 7.03 110 86 68 29 5.61 2.65 114 95 63 33 4.17 5.31 115 70 22 15 1.19 6.50 118 86 46 16 4.48 5.67 119 78 51 42 1.20 3.54 120 60 30 3 5.03 3.37 121 91 85 46 5 .22 2.72 124 54 28 30 - .29 3-24 125 78 42 18 3.56 5-09 126 73 47 30 2.34 3-30 129 100 66 40 3.60 6.46 1.31 80 57 19 5.59 3-25 1.32 60 47 27 2.80 1.57 1.34 86 70 31 5 -6.2 2.39 1.35 92 64 30 4-79 4-42 1.38 75 44 21 3.34 3.99 141 60 20 8 2.29 5-26 142 90 53 32 2.88 5-51 144 95 68 60 1.11 4-61 145 95 75 35 5.85 3-36 148 54 38 18 3.00 1-92 149 84 44 41 .40 5-56 151 68 58 11 7-40 I.24 157 72 51 37 1.88 2.65 158 92 77 54 3.33 2.59 171 72 31 31 .00 : 5.37 173 60 50 26 3.37 1.21 176 84 63 25 5-48 2.97 182 57 20 18. -34 4-84 184 94 83 37 7-12 2.15 185 92 85 29 9.19 1.34 190 60 46 14 4-88 1.69 192 56 36 .23 1.90 2.44 194 95 58 38 3-14 6.05 196 52 25 9 2.50 3.41 197 68 29 27 .29 3-75 200 89 34 :27 1.01 8.37 203 69 31 12 3.11 4-89 204 59 34 18 2.44 3-08 - 6 1 -I I . Analysis of Test Scores Based Upon 1 0 0 Selected Items. The f i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s obtained f o r the three groups when the tests were marked upon the basis of the s e l e c t -ed items were determined. These d i s t r i b u t i o n s along with t h e i r means or, i n this case, the average percentage correct, and the standard deviations are tabulated i n Table V I . -A graphical d i s t r i b u t i o n i s given f o r comparison with the o r i g i n a l d i s t r i -bution, (fig u r e 1 1 ) (Table VI) The standard errors of the means, the standard errors of the differences between the means and the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s were determined as upon the o r i g i n a l scoring and are presented i n Table V l l . (Table V l l ) The , u t , n r a t i o s indicated i n Table V l l are well beyond that which may be accepted as indicating a difference i n per-formance beyond that which could be attributed to chance. They would indicate pronounced differences between each of the three groups. Shortening the test by more than one h a l f did not r e -duce i t s discriminatory value. T'he standard deviations of the two forms and of the groups were compared by the means of the c o - e f f i c i e n t of v a r i -a t i o n . This permits comparison of the standard deviations of the groups allowing f o r differences i n c e n t r a l tendency- I t i s expressed by the formula V - 1 0 0 X <r p. 65) M The use of t h i s formula implies an absolute zero point but - - 1 . — — I ! 1 / t -. 1 \ \ • ; 1 N 1 • * -t 9 • ; 1 J f 1 1 1 - 1 \ — • > j I • I / I / I I i l 1 1 * L. I f \ 1 J V 1 | 1 L 11 1 • % - r A ft f s • 1 i f / r. i / \ / - r \ 1 1 1 \ * 1 • - ; •• \ / * i : / i \ • . \ 9 • i i 1 \ 1 . 1 _ L • r • • 1 \ f / * . I \ \ • / • \ t r \ /I \ \ i - » \ 0* % \ f s it ff ff" ff • M n 4* If it * re a h It M t i l t M ** r- r *- j i - _ — - _ _ _ _ _L. :.. _1_ . 1 _ _ L I i •1 1 .......... novices — — — — apprentices — — carpenters Pig* X Percentage distributions for carpenters, apprentices and novices for lod item trade test -62-Table VI d i s t r i b u t i o n s and d e r i v e d data obtained from a n a l y s i s of 100 s e l e c t e d items. Cumulative •Scores Carpenters Apprentices Itey-ices Frequency 94-92 2 2 91-89 6 6 88-86 7 7 85-83 7 1 8 82-80 9 0 9 79-77 6 1 7 76-74 4 2 6 73-71 8 4 12 70-68 8 3 11 67-65 2 7 9 64-62 1 5 6 61-59 2 4 6 58-56 1 7 8 55-53 2 1 3 52-50 5 0 5 49-47 7 1 8 46-44 7 4 11 43-41 7 0 7 40^38 9 5 14 37&35 2 10 12 34-32 5 9 12 31-29 3 16 21 28-26 20 20 25-23 14 14 22-20 11 11 19-17 4 4 16-14 0 0 13-11 0 0 10- e — — 1 1 T o t a l s 63 81 96 240 means 78.58 52.72 29.68 standard dev 8.88 13.68 7.35 <r M 1.13 1.53 .75 F i d u c i a l l i m i t s .05 76.32-80.84 49.66-55.78 28.18-31.18 F i d u c i a l l i m i t s .01 75.76-81.40 48.90-56.54 27*81-^31.55 - 6 3 -Table V l l Determination of " t " r a t i o s between adjacent groups f o r 100 item t e s t . ^rM <q-Dm " D i f f : " t ! I r a t i o s (= D i f f \ Carpenters 1.13 1.90 earp-app- 25.86 13 -61 <rD ' Apprentices 1-53 1.70 app--nov. 23.04 13.55 Novices .75 1.39 nov--carp„ 48.90 35-18 - 6 A -i t ' s use here i s jer miss able s i n c e comparisons are being made of v a r i a b i l i t i e s upon the same s c a l e . x a b l e V l l l presents the comparable v a r i a b i l i t y of the groups. (Table V l l l ) From Table V l l l the c o n c l u s i o n c o u l d be drawn th a t the item a n a l y s i s increased the r e l a t i v e v a r i a b i l i t y i n both the apprentice and novice range, but that a s l i g h t decrease r e s u l t -ed i n the carpenter's range. The v a r i a b i l i t y was l a r g e s t i n the apprentice group!, ^ h i s c o u l d be accounted f o r by the wide d i v e r s i t y o f range comprising t h i s group and i s as would be expected. T n e carpenter's group y i e l d e d the s m a l l e s t v a r i a -b i l i t y and r e f l e c t s the s e l e c t i v e process which no doubt e f f e c t -ed the sample previous to t e s t i n g . The 100 item t e s t i s i n -cluded i n Appendix H. Table V l l l Comparison of v a r i a b i l i t y of the groups on .204 and 100 item t e s t s -204 item test 100 item t e s t mean S-D. V. mean S.D. V. Carpenters 123.1 1A.25 11.57 78.58 8-88 11-3 Apprentices 9-0-5 1 5 . 7 17-3 5 52 . 72 13-6 8 2 5-95 Novices 59-3 11.7 19.73 29.68 7.35 24.76 . -66-12. R e l i a b i l i t y of Test.  Meaning of - r e l i a b i l i t y . An important a t t r i b u t e of any test i s i t s r e l i a b i l i t y . Considerable confusion exists regarding the precise meaning of r e l i a b i l i t y . O t is (28) defines the r e l i a b i l i t y of a test as meaning the amount of agreement between the re s u l t s secured from two or more applications of a t e s t , ^andiford (.31) ex-presses r e l i a b i l i t y as meaning the accuracy witiiwhich a t e s t measures whatever i t does measure. Jackson and Ferguson (20) suggest that r e l i a b i l i t y r e a l l y expresses two meanings which are not adequately indicated by the blanket term of r e l i a b i l -i t y . They express the opinion that two separate measures should be employed; a« absolute and a r e l a t i v e value. In t h i s way they suggest the use of the r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t as a Y measure of the r e l a t i v e accuracy of measurement and the standard error of measurement as the absolute value. Both of these would seem to have value i n the description of a psychological measuring instrument. R e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t of a t e s t i s the co-r r e l a t i o n between succesive scores upon the same t e s t , '-^he r e -l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t s reported i n t h i s study were derived by the s p l i t - h a l f method increased by the Spearman-Brown formu-l a to allow for a test twice the length. xhe c o - e f f i c i e n t i s derived from c o r r e l a t i n g , f o r each subject, the t o t a l number of odd items with the t o t a l number of even items c o r r e c t l y -67-answered on a s i n g l e administration of the test.. This i s actually s p l i t t i n g the t e s t into two component parts and treating the parts as being equivalent- ^he c o r r e l a t i o n co-e f f i c i e n t i s then increased to allow for the re s u l t that would have been obtained i f the test had been twice as long. The assumption of equivalence of parts involves the consideration that they have equality of d i f f i c u l t y and standard deviations. R e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t s derived by t h i s method tend to be higher than those obtained by other methods (21) but there i s the advantage of eliminating subject v a r i a b i l i t y since chance factors are more l i k e l y to influence both parts equally i n a s i n g l e administration than they are when two separate forms are administered. T'he basic premise i n c o r r e l a t i n g the two sections i s then, that each part i s equivalent. This means that they must not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n standard deviations and d i f f i c u l t y from that which could be expected on a chance basis (.20) . In order to determine t h i s , the standard deviat-ions and the d i f f i c u l t y of each section f o r each group and for the t o t a l group were computed. xhe standard error of each standard deviation were determined. ^ and the standard error of the difference between the standard deviations obtained allowing a c o r r e c t i o n f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n between the two parts. <Jlo r V <rJt + - * ^ , t ^ <v (KSp.215) -68-1 11" r a t i o s were then determined by the use of formula : U T " R A T I O = - S L . cm,p.203) ^TD^ Garrett.. By the use of s t a t i s t i c a l tables (1-6, p. 190) i t was then possible to determine the l i k e l i h o o d that the two parts were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n these two respects, The same procedure was employed to determine the equivalence i n terms of d i f f i c u l t y ; , a correction again being applied to take into consideration the c o r r e l a t i o n between the parts. Table IX and Table X present data regarding equivalency of d i f f i c u l t y and standard deviation respectively. (Table IX) (Table X) This would indicate that the two sections would not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n d i f f i c u l t y i n any of the groups. The standard deviations do d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y at the f i v e per-cent l e v e l for the t o t a l range and at the one percent l e v e l for the novice range. Noting the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the novice range, i t seems quite possible that the lepto-kurtic d i s t r i -bution of scores would invali d a t e t h i s procedure within t h i s range. For both the apprentice and the carpenter ranges the test could be considered equivalent, and the use of the s p l i t -h a l f method of determining r e l i a b i l i t y would seem j u s t i f i e d . Kelley (22) points out that the r e l i a b i l i t y of a t e s t w i l l depend upon the v a r i a b i l i t y of the group. Thus the inter-pretation of the r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t w i l l depend upon the group from which i t i s derived. Table LX Comparison of - d i f f i c u l t y of odd v.s even :section-s of test.. Odd a v en r crp D oe odd even Carpenters .3853 .3943 .65 .0613 .0616 •, .0090 .0659 Apprentices .2497 .2602 .79 .048 .049 .0105 .0435 ^ovices .1335 .1531 .57 .034 .037 .0196 .041 T o t a l group ..2390 .2518 .93 .029 .030 .0128 .0104 : " t " r a t i o D i f f % chances i n 100 56 24 60 478 68 23 89 o^ l Table X Carpenters Odd ^ven Aoe odd 4.78 4.74 .65 .43 Apprentices 6.94 7.22 .79 .545 Novices 3.72 4.58 .57 .268 T o t a l range 11.05 11.52 .93 .505 '"b11 r a t i o even .42 D .04 fTds-.46 ( D i f f %\ .087 chances i n 100 .53 .567 .28 .48 .59 72 -329 .86 .35 2 »4 99 .526 .47 .253 1.86 96 -3 o \ Table X I gives the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the two halves of the ( T a b l e XI) t e s t f o r each group and f o r the t o t a l group on both the raw t e s t and the t e s t Composed of the s e l e c t e d items- These c o r r e l -a t i o n s have been c o r r e c t e d by the Spearman-Brown formula to a l l o w f o r a t e s t of twice the_.length. 2 X r±J_ r l l = __ ±J1 (vl^p. 390) ' l X ^ ^ S a r r e t t The. apprentice group y i e l d e d the highest r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t i n the group ranges. The f a c t s t h a t the d i f f i -c u l t y i s most nearly at the f i f t y percent l e v e l i n t h i s group and t h a t the group c o n s i s t s of a wider range, would be con-t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r s . I n both the carpenter and p a r t i c u l a r l y the novice group, the peaked d i s t r i b u t i o n s would reduce the co-e f f i c i e n t s . The r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the t o t a l range would compare favourably with other t e s t s of t h i s nature- This i n f o r m a t i o n would also prove of v a l u e were l a t e r users of the test to con-template breaking the t e s t i n t o two s e c t i o n s . Standard e r r o r of measurement. I n determining the r e l i a b i l i t y of the scores i n absolute terms, the s t a n d a r d e r r o r of measurement was used- T'his i s an estimate of the amount by which an obtained score d e v i a t e s from the i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r u e s c o r e . I t i s expressed by the formula <Te ~ ^ l 1 ~ r l l (^,p-392) As i s i n d i c a t e d i n the above formula, the standard e r r o r of -72-T a b e l H C o r r e l a t i o n between number of odd and even items c o r r e c t l y answered f o r 204 and 100 item t e s t s . 204 item t est 100 item t e s t r xy ;S.E. •p xy r l l • r x y r x y r H Carpenters .70 x.06 .82 * 6 5 &.07 .79 A pgr ent i e es . 82 x.03 .90 -79 x.04 .88 Novices .40 5.09 .68 -57 £ .07 .73 T o t a l .93 x.009 .96 . .93 X .009 .96 -73-mea'surement i s dependent upon the standard error and the r e -l i a b i l i t y of the group- to which i t i s applied and the same caution must be exercised i n i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as i n the r e -l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t . Table X l l indicates the standard error of measurement within the various ranges. (Table X l l ) -74-Table X l l Standard error of measurement f o r 3 groups-^Te C arpent ers Apprentic es 4-73 / Novices 3-81 / / - 7 5 -13. Relationship- Between Test Scores and Other V a r i a b l e s , I n t e l l i g e n c e . . Int e l l i g e n c e test scores, as measured by the Wonderlic f er.sonnel Test, were analyzed to determine the influence of. i n t e l l i g e n c e upon the trade test s cores. I f conditions had permitted, i t would have been preferable to control the i n t e l l i -gence variable by equating the groups i n t h i s regard. Owing to the r e s t r i c t e d sample available, i t was necessary to use a l l . t h e available subjects and l a t e r s t a t i s t i c a l l y estimate the i n f l u -ence of i n t e l l i g e n c e upon the t e s t scores. Table X l l l gives the d i s t r i b u t i o n s obtained f o r the three groups and pertinent information pertaining to them. (Table X l l l ) Product moment correlations were computed between i n t e l l i g e n c e and trade t e s t scores on the 100 item t e s t f o r each of the groups and f o r the t o t a l group. This information i s given i n Table XIV-(Table XIV) As would be expected, i n the t o t a l range the c o r r e l a t -ion was n e g l i g i b l e . In the i n d i v i d u a l groups where other v a r i -ables would be more equivalent, larger correlations were obtain-ed and would indicate that i n t e l l i g e n c e test scores were s i g -n i f i c a n t l y p o s i t i v e l y correlated with trade test scores. The greater v a r i a b i l i t y i n the carpenter group would be instrument-a l i n allowing higher c o r r e l a t i o n s . That higher i n t e l l i g e n c e test scores would accompany higher trade t e s t scores i s shown by Table XV. -76-Table X l l l D i s t r i b u t i o n of scores on Wonderlic f o r three groups and p e r t i n e n t data. Scores F c a r p s . F app. F novices F t o t a l 4 1 - 40 1 1 39- 38 1 1 37- 36 1 0 1 35- 34 1 0 0 1 33- 32 2 3 1 6 31 -30 2 3 3 8 29- .'28 3 4 ' 6 13 27- 26 1 2 8 11 25- 2 4 6 13 12 31 23- 22 4 8 6 18 2 1 - 20 3 13 10 26 19- 18 4 7 10 21 17- 16 7 6 9 22 15- 14 4 4 14 22 13- 12 5 3 7 15 11- 10 1 3 8 12 54- 8 3 3 0 6 7- 6 ? 1 0 4 2 5- 4 1 1 0 N 50 75 96 221 Mean 19 . 4 20.82 2 4 . l l 20.38 S-D. 7 .54 6.54 6.16 6.78 V 39 . 4 31.4 25.5 33.3 Table XIV C o r r e l a t i o n s between Wonderlic and Trade Test Scores-S.E-r xy r xy Carpenters - 4 2 X .12 Apprentices .23 5.05 Novices -35 5 -09 T o t a l -07 5-07 N t value (y£,p-299) 50 beyond 1 % l e v e l 75 beyond 5 % l e v e l 96 beyond 1 % l e v e l 221 not s i g n i f i c a n t -78-. Tatole XV Average trade t e s t scores obtained by various l e v e l s on Wonderlic Personnel Test. Wonderlic Scores Trade Test Scores N Less than 10 71 7 10-15 76 .4 10 16^21 76 14 .22-2 7 79-4 11 more than :27 81.5 8 -79-i n which the average trade test .scores were determined f o r various l e v e l s of attainment on the Wonderlic Personnel Test within the carpenter group. (Table XV) While the above table makes no allowance for the v a r i a b i l i t y within the group and small numbers of subjects are represented,it would indicate suggestive di f f e r e n c e s ^ p a r t i c u -l a r l y at the two extremes. F i g . 3 indicates the d i s t r i b u t i o n s . Experience. The product moment c o r r e l a t i o n between experience and trade t e s t scores was r = -13 with a standard error of & .13. This would indicate a n e g l i g i b l e repationship. Average trade test scores f o r various amounts of experience are given i n Table X g l . (Table XVl) While table XVI again s u f f e r s the disadvantage of i n -adequate sampling and information on v a r i a b i l i t y , i t would suggest thfc a n e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p exists up to the l a s t category. A produet moment c o r r e l a t i o n o f i r 0 9 was obtained btween experience and Wonderlic scores. In order to obtain some i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p existing between t e s t scores and experience with the variable of i n t e l l i g e n c e held constant, a p a r t i a l c o - e f f i c i e n t was corn-luted hy the use of the formula -80-'•t'able XVT Average trade test scores on 100 item t e s t f o r various amounts of experience. i e a r s of experience les s than 5 6-10 11.15 more than 20 Trade test average scores N 78 20 77.7 19 76.3 16 84.6 5 if rr -h-1 S B i ! i O Z T J I L I _ U - - ! - U _L " H -i-H-1-hr .1. i i i i i TT " i f r r h --H-r-r-t-I I i ! I , I I 14-1- -H-f U4-4- r r r; TXTT 1_L_ i i i l i .L4_i_U--1-!-—h T'T 4-4-- f - r — + "TTr T f "f F F -H-f-r i n - m - h r t -t-r -t--4-1 : i | j i I i -- ; ! 1 ! i 1 i I 1 i 1 ! T i : 1 ! ! I ! ! apprentices - j -r — — 1 j i i : ! ! -I | 1 i J. I. 1 I -* 1 \ i j ( . o W a n + » » » T-r ; f r - j - i 1 T~ k i ; ~i . i i i j i i \ \ 1 *i I > I • | V i i l I I I '— I | I - i ! 1 1 • i r 1 1 I \. i - i i ! I 1 I | 1 I f 1 1 l' : i i i ! 1 1 l - j ; » ti t ! 1 ... -H-H 1 p_ 1 , 1 1 "'J i 1 ! ; - • 1 — f • \ 1. ! I I - i ! ! I -• 1 \ 1 n i i " 1 ! i — V r W — i — | 1 i 1 ! 1 1 I ! ! i 1 i 1 i t * A | \ i \ i . 1 _ i_j i | 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 y t- 1 i ! 1 | ! • — j 1 1 I 1 \ i T i • X ! — i — _ ! ] 1 1 / • \! i | i - I 1 1 I H f t 1 | v. ! ! - 1 i ; i I • 1 I \ • i I i . . . 1 1 ! r f 1 \ 1 1 ... . j - - | | i ']— 1 \ i ! 1 V • 1 i | 1 i • ' V f j 1 \ 1 i i 1 ! • | / • —T \ : | i ; 1 i i i ! i ! • • I ; 1 1 ! i ! 1 ; l — L « ( \ — i l ; \ ""V -H 1 1 j - r 1 r - • 1 I ~T [ r 1 | i — i — 1 1 1 1 t 1 ( • A *— ; i | i 1 i 1 j 1 1 ! 1 1 1 I { 1 1 \ , \ | j l 1 i 1 I — L i 1 I i 1 —r— 1 1 || N 1 ; 1 1 •) 1 1 , 1 / i i 1 1 ! " f 1 1 i i f 1 / L 1 i 1 I | | —t--> 1 1 1 1 \r -1 V 1 i 1 i 1 i r / f i l ! | j L J J t 1 1 \v \\ i \ ~1 ! ' f f • 1 '• \> i i 1 i > I i ; 1 > f T _ • N ! I / r i iM / i i 1 i A * j | N \ . 1 I n r i 1 i V ! 1 i i i 1 i 1 1 1 1 . • ! I t / • y 11 t f & f 1 t > 1 1 2 i* A t j I * i i .y I S -M 1 i H T i ! 1 ' ! i i" I ! t 1 1 : : : i i ; 1 I 1 i 1 ! ! j I i | j i j [ 1 I 1 i ! i -1 • M i - IV 1 1 1 i ! I ! ! j | M M I Fig. 3 Distributions of carpenters, apprentices and novices on the Wonderlic Personnel Test The resultant c o - e f f i c i e n t was r = -18 with a standard error of x .12.. This would suggest a n e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween trade t e s t scores and experience. The c o r r e l a t i o n technique i s not ent i r e l y adequate for the data, however, owing to the fact that the majority of the carpenters f e l l within a range of not more than eight years experience. This r e s e t t e d i n an inadequate sampling of the area and a high degree of skewing i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n . The re l a t i o n s h i p between trade test scores and Wonderlic scores, and between age and trade test are given graphically i n Figure A. ""verage scores i n both the trade test and Wonderlic t e s t were computed fo r each age category. These were then cexpr ess ed i n standard deviation u n i t s . Figure k. ^ o u l d suggest that the lack of re l a t i o n s h i p between increased years of experience and increased trade t e s t scores could be accounted f o r by decreasing i n t e l l i g e n c e . Thus experience could act as a compensatory f a c t o r . Age. The groups d i f f e r e d widely i n t h e i r ages. Modal ages for carpenters, apprentices and novices were 32, 17 and 18 tespectively. A product moment c o r r e l a t i o n between age and trade test scores within the notice range was r = -16 5 . 1 0 . the age range was 17 to 28.. This would not indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and trade test scores w i t h i n t h i s range. Education. The influence of education upon trade t e s t scores was investigated, -^'ithin, the carpenter's range a product moment co r r e l a t i o n of r - .12 with a standard error of 2L ^ 3 was 44-i±t • U I i _ L _ L 4_j_ -|-r Mean trade test scores i n standard deviation units Mean Wonderlic scores in standard deviation units I ) 1 i 1 1 ! i i ! | 1 I T I i 1 ; 1 i i | 1 1 | i 1 i 1 1 i 1 1 ! 1 1 i 1 ! ! 1 i i - 1 . . . 1 ! 1 ! i 1 i : —!— 1 I ! 1 i ; i i i ; 1 i 1 1 k 1 i i i I I f i 1 l _ i i 1 n n i i ! 1 1 1 i ! i 1 1 t ! M • ' > i ! 1' 1 i i 1 1 1 i 1 ' T i ! i i ! 1 i i ! 1 i ! ! 1 i i 1 i 1 L L I „ 1 i j 1 ...j | 1 i i i 1 i M r t T 1 V 1 1 1 < ; i ! 1 1 i • > 1 . i 1 ! j * 1 j 1 i ; 1 f ! f ! i 1 1 >' * 1 1 i i i M M — T : — 1 i i f >, 1 i 1 1 1 1 j 1 _ i J L t r t * • i ; »i — : 1 i •sr- 1 T' ----1 ] —Mj- i_ - .-j.-i._j_! i — ( — i • i i !_T ! _ 1 f 1 | 1 ! M , | l •_rar*Tl ' 1 G i i < * : V i i j i m —r- T •1 i ; 1 1 i t L i i i ! i ! .j. - | i — 1 1 Y i 4 . . i j i . . 1 . . . , j -M I y L t ! — 1 — i ' r i i / T" ' i 1 f 1 I ! ! | 1 i i 1 h i 1 i ! i L 1 i 1 i i 1 i r i I ! ' I i r 1 1 ! ... — t — 1 | 1 1 i i I i i !\ r A - V r * 1 ] i ! 1 if 1 1 I i i i 1 i ! 1 1 i 1 ~ 1 1 1 1 ! i i —4.— j | i i ; _ A i i j -r ! 1 1 I 1 1 i i \ i i 1 i i 1 ••i i 1 I . U 1 — ) _ i 1 1 _ i \ J _ J _ i _L i r -, | i [ 1 I ! i i I i L j _ l _ ; j \ 1 1 j 1 — 1 j i _!_L 1 i i 1 A! i J J-M i 1 I i i i \ - - . . . i ! I 1 M ~f- 1 — 1 i \ I M ! ^ ! | AAJV 1 . .4— i i 1 1 1 1 1 ! .1. ! 1 ! i l ~ K f [ [ i i i i I 1 1 —!— 1 1 1 i | \ ._L._L I • ^ 1 1 1 i i i j I i 1 j__ 1 K V — i A J 1 ! i 1 i — 7 —,— ; i i • | 1 ! I i 1 1 i ~i _.i _i. M M —t— /a 1 I i 1 M l | ! ! I 1 ! 1 M i l 1 i 1 1 j j 1 ! i I L ! | 1 i j 1 1 ! i i i i I ! 1 i i IJU i I 1 1 ' 1 1 I P - 1 1 • •/A- i i i j j L_L_| i ! i I i l 1 i 1 - i I | 4__ i 1 I i 1 ; 1 I i ! j ! • 1 ' 1 M T ! i i 1 1 1 ' I 1 f 1 1 i •4- -17. 2-• i i 1 i 1 1 J i i j 1 1 ! 1 1 \ 1 M ! i A 1 i r 9 f M St. y 1 1 i ! -¥*• \ M 1 ' ' -| i I 1 1 1 i i 1 i ! t i ! 1 i ! i • i i | _!._L '.. i ! I 1 i l (-1 -1 J _ l ! (_LJ 1 „ - i ; ! 1 \ ! M i l i ! i 1 1 ! i ! I i 1 -1 1 1 \ r n i n^\. ! 1 1 1 ! i \ 1 i i I 1 1 1 1 1 i Fig. A Mean trade test and Wonderlic Personnel test scores in relation to age. -82-obtained. '^able XVII presents the average trade t e s t scores fo r various l e v e l s of education. This table would indicate that carpenters with more education tended to obtain higher trade t e s t scores. (fable XV11) -83-TableXVll Average trade t e s t scores on 100 item t e s t f o r various l e v e l s of education-Last Grade Completed Average Trade Test Score Less than grade 8 76.37 grade 8 76.95 J r . High School (9-10) 79-32 S r . High School 80.80 - 8 4 -14. V a l i d i t y The v a l i d i t y of a test may be defined as the e f f i c i e n c y with which i t measures what i t attempts to measure. I t i s thus a r e l a t i v e measure.. The v a l i d i t y of the majority of tests i s reported as a c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t between test scores and an external c r i t e r i o n of what the test purports to measure. The data presented i n Table VI ( page 62) and Table V l l ( page 63) would appear to be more meaningful i n the present study than a single v a l i d i t y co-efficient.. In Table VI , the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of carpenters, apprentices and novices over-lap but as indicated i n Table V l l the means of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s , yielding " t " r a t i o s of 13-61 between apprentices and carpenters, 13.55 between apprentices and novices and 35-18 between novices and carpenters, would indicate a.very high degree of s t a t i s t i c a l p robability that the obtained means are progressively s i g n i f -i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Table XX .Cpage 89) i s also presented as a measure of the tests v a l i d i t y f o r the purpose of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between carpenters and apprentices- Considering the fact that the apprentice group represented a wide range of talent and many of the subjects c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s group'may well have achieved a high degree of carpentry s k i l l i t would appear that the test had a r e l a t i v e l y high degree of v a l i d i t y for the purpose of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g subjects into carpenter, apprentice and novice groups. -85-15. Norms, Interpretative Data and C r i t i c a l Scores. The p r i n c i p a l purpose for administering the t e s t i s to provide descriptive data regarding the i n d i v i d u a l . In t h i s respect i t was deemed advisable to present i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of test scores i n terms of comparability and function. T a D l e ' XV111 presents the d e c i l e norms f o r the three groups. (Table XV111) The overlapping of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s present d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n the setting of the c r i t i c a l s cores. A useful method presented by T'horndike (41,P-328) which involves the concept of cost and u t i l i t y . Thus the c r i t i c a l score for the s e l e c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r group w i l l he dependent upon the supply and demand, and can be adjusted to meet, the s i t u a t i o n . Table XIX and figure 5. demonstrate the effectiveness of various c r i t i c a l scores i n terms of cost"and u t i l i t y . Thus, selecting carpenters by means of a c r i t i c a l score of 68 on the trade t e s t would res u l t i n a cost or r e j e c t -ion of 9-5% of capable carpenters but a u t i l i t y or r e j e c t i o n of 8 6 . 4 % of semi-trained carpenters. I f the demand exceeds the supply and i t i s necessary to reduce costs completely, a c r i t i c a l score of 56 would re j e c t no carpenters but would s t i l l reject 58% of the apprentice group. Attitude of Testees. An important fa c t o r i n a test of t h i s nature i s the attitude with which i t i s approached by the t e s t e e . No r e -l i a b l e data i s available regarding the carpenter's attitude toward t h i s t e s t . In a few cases however, the examiner had asked Table X V 1 1 1 d e c i l e scores on 100 item trade t e s t for carpenters apprentices and novices-Decile Carpenters Apprentices Novices D e e i l 1 89 70 38 1 2 87 65 35 2 3 84 60 32 3 4 81 56 30 4 5 79 50 28 5 6 76 46 27 6 7 72 42 25 7 8 70 39 23 8 9 68 35 21 9 — i - L— — j - r 4— 1 u i i -f+4- i i i i i i 1 i ! • l i — i — -1 1 i i 1 i ; I j 1 I ! 1 r i ! I i 1 1 1 1 i 1. •1 1 •• i 1 i 1 1 i 1 I 1 j 1 1 1 i ! ! 1 1 ! 1 ! j i | i } 1 ! j 1 i | 1 I i i 1 1 ! I i — j — ~ r j 1 ! i I i ! : 1 I i ! ! 1 ! H - H -1 I- i 1 ! i !' i i . i i 1 i ! 1 1 i ! I . l j I 1 1 i ! J—1— ! i 1 i 1 I i j —r | ! \ | 1 i > j i 1 1 I r i i 1 j l 1 i i _ 1 ! I 1 i ! i i i i i 1 i i i 9 o 1 1 j 1 | — • i 1 i j 1 1 ! * ' i i 4 f I r i i —1—1 1 l i 1 1 I / j (1 T 1 7 "> 1 • | i j i i [.' ; : [ ft o 1 \ 1 ! i ;\ 1 i 4 i f i 1 i utility i 1 i s A A f l 4 > A • 1 i I 1 i ; 1 * ! ' ! i I ! I I I 1 f 1 i / l ! 1 : i 1 -i / 4 Q • i ! 1 i j 1 i f 1 i it r i i far f / 1 S f i • i 1 g e 1 i i | i ; i i 9 | i | i I 1 i ' T f ! 1 1 t~ - i i »• i l * s f L r 1 7i r t J T > t b f t E t r r 1 I V A t C * .1 _ 1 l 1 Fig. 5 Percentage cost and utility of differentiating between carpenters and apprentices by means of rarious trade test scores the subjects to place comments upon the t e s t . In a l l report-ed cases, these were p o s i t i v e and would indicate that the subjects f e l t that the t e s t was p r a c t i c a l . Most of the comments suggested that the subject was not acquainted with t h i s or that p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n of the te s t and that they 'would l i k e ot have an opportunity to obtain more t r a i n i n g . In no case was an antagonistic remark placed on the te s t folder and the general opinion expressed was that i t represented a thorough t e s t . ... -39-Table Effectiveness of s e l e c t i o n by trade t e s t . Cost of s e l e c t i n g carpenters, i n terms of carpenters rejected, compared with a b i l i t y , i n terms of apprentices rejected. Cost U t i l i t y Minimum test score Percent carpenters Percentage apprentices to qualify rejected rejected 95 100.00 100.00 92 96.8 100.00 89 87.3 100.00 86 76.2 100.00 83 65.1 98.8 80 50.8 98.8 77 41.3 97-4 74 34.9 95-1 71 22.2 90-1 68 9.5 86.4 65 6.3 77-7 6 2 4.8 71.6 59 1.6 66-7 56 0.0 58.0 - 9 0 -16 ....C onelusions -Many improvements could have been made to t h i s study, hut the a v a i l a b i l i t y of time and subjects .were r e s t r i c t -ive f a c t o r s . The lack of a re-administration of the selected items and an evaluation of the v a l i d i t y of the presented no? ms i n terms of t h e i r performance would represent an inadequacy thst would merit correction before the t e s t was used, ^he present date .would seem to indicate certaion conclusions, how-ever. These are; 1.. ^ hat "the scores based upon selected items discriminate with reasonable v a l i d i t y between notices, apprentices and carpenters. 2. On the assumption that the progressive d i f f -erences from novice to apprentice to carpenter represent increasing degrees of trade competence.. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of -the test to s i g n i g i e e n t l y discriminate between these groups i s evidence of v a l i d i t y . S-^hat the r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t s of the test ~. as determined hy the s p l i t h a l f method and i n -creased by the Spearman Brown formula are compar-able to s i m i l a r t e s t s of thi s type. 4- "'"'hat scores on the test show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t but r e l a t i v e l y low c o r r e l a t i o n with i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by the Wonderlic Personnel Test hut that education, age. and experience had -91-n e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i o n - s h i p to t e s t scores -5- that the method of t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n used i n t h i s study y«felds s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s and could be ex-tended to the development of s i m i l a r t e s t s f o r other t r a i . t s . I n view of these conclusionsoand recognizing the aforementioned c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the t e s t would appear to meet the r e q u i r e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and represent a u s e f u l adjunct i n the p r e l i m -i n a r y screening of trade candidates-- 9 2 -17- Suggestion's f o r F u r t h e r Research-During the progess of the t e s t development and from the r e s u l t a n t data f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were suggested-These would includes 1. the investigation of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e s t scorejs and l e v e l s of trade p r o f i c i e n c y w i t h i n the novice, apprentice and carpenter groups-2 - Owing to the tendency f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the s k i l l e d t r a d e s , i t would appear that a t e s t com-posed of s u b - t e s t s p e r t a i n i n g to the l a r g e r branches of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .would have a d i a g n o s t i c value which would be most u s e f u l i n assessing i n d i v i d u a l s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to a s p e c i f i c task-3- i f p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s were obtained i n the f i s t suggested i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t .would seem to i n -crease the p o s s i b i l i t e s i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of achievement t e s t s as p r e d i c t o r s of a p t i t u d e -A- the determination of the i n f l u e n c e of-the time f a t o r i n the t e s t performance BIBLIOGRAPHY. > I 1- ANSBACHER, H.L. 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Army Trade Screening Tests. U.S. War Dept., Wash. D.C., The Adjutant General's O f f i c e . 49- AAF Radio Mechanics Test. MOS 754, Army Trade Sceening t e s t . U .S . War Dept., Wash. D.C., Adjutnt General's Office, 50. Machinists Performance Test. Army Trade Screening Tests. TC48 X, U.S. War Dept., Wash. D.Q., Adjutant General's O f f i c e . 51. Army Trade Screening Manual'.. TCM T2.. U.S.. War Dept., Wash. D.C., Ad jus-tat General's O f f i c e . 5-2. Canadian Army Trade Tests. Canadain--Army Headquarters, Ottawa, 1948. 53. Canada at War. #45 Wartime Information Board, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1945. 5A- Construction and Analysis of Achievement t e s t s . U.S. C i v i l Service Commission, Wash. D.C., U.S. Pri n t i n g O f f i c e . 55. I n d u s t r i a l Arts and Vocational Education (Journal) Milwaukee:: Bruce Pub. co. 56. Oral Trade Questions, V o l . 1. Federal Security Agency, Wash. D.C., 1940. 57. Oral Trade Questions, Vol.. 1, Sup p.. A. Bureau of Employ-ment Security, Wash- D.C, Occupational Analysis Section, 1942. 58. Oral Trade Questions, V o l . 1, Supp. B., War Manpower Commission, ¥/as. D.C, Occupational Analysis Section, 1942. 59. Oral Trade Questions, V o l . 1, Supp. C. War.Manpower Commission, Wash.. D.C. , Occupational Analysis Section, 1944-7 ,60. Science Research Associates Catoloque. Chicago:: Science Research Ass., 194-9-6 1 . S t o e l t i n g C H . & co.Catoloque. Chicago:: Stoelting & co., 1 9 4 9 -62. Summary report on research and development of the Navy's aptitude testing program. OSRD report # 6 1 1 0 , Applied Psychol. Panel, Princeton, O f f i c e of S c i e n t i f i c Research and Development, Research and s t a t i s t i a l Lab-, 1 9 4 5 . 6 3 . Vancouver Vocational School Training Syllabus.. Vancouver, B.C.:: Mimeographed pamphlet, 1 9 4 9 -" 6 4 . Wonderlic Personnel Test Manual. Chicago:; Science Research Ass., 1 9 4 9 . . APPENDIX A Canadian Army trade d e s c r i p t i o n of r e q u i r e d d u t i e s and ex- pected t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l Imparl edge f o r the trade of  carpenter. Carpenter. Trade name. Groups 1 and 2 . Duties of the t r a d e . (a) C o n s t r u c t , r e p a i r and a l t e r a l l types of .wood s t r u c t u r e s and equipment. (b) I n s t a l l , maintain and a l t e r the i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r wood work of concrete, s t e e l and masonry b u i l d i n g s -(c) Construct formwork f o r concrete. (d) F i t b u i l d e r s hardware. (e) Erect s c a f f o l d i n g and s t g i n g . '(f) Make c r a t e s f o r s t o r e s and equipment. (g) Opperate and maintain simple wood.wo__.ing machin-ery such as s m a l l t a b l e saws, j o i n t e r s , p l a n e r s , hand saws, jigsaws and l a t h e s . (h) Do'bench work i n v o l v i n g making.and r e p a i r i n g boxes, s h e l v i n g b i n s , p l a i n f u r n i t u r e and other work normally done i n a s m a l l woodwprkingshpp. ( i ) Lay put wprk frpm sketches and b l u e p r i n t s . ( j ) Estimate m a t e r i a l s f o r ckpentry work from b l u e -p r i n t s or sketches. Group 1. T h e o r e t i c a l trade knowledge. (a) Be thoroughly fad l i a r w i t h the names of the t o o l s i n a standard carpenters' chest, and be able to describe t h e i r uses. . (b) Have a woring knowledge of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Apu. A (cont'd) and uses of commercial woods.. (c) Have a good knowledge of the names, s i z e s , grades and uses of the rough and f i n i s h e d lumber. (d) Flake dimensioned sketches of simple s t r u c t u r e s and equipments. P r a c t i c a l trade knowledge. (a) Demonstrate i n a workmanlike manner the use and care of the t o o l s c a r r i e d i n a standard carpen-t e r ' s k i t . (b) Do simple bench work i n v o l v i n g mortise and tenon, dovet_.il ( plough and tonque and other simple j o i n t s and s p l i c e s ; g l u i n g , bending. (c) P r a c t i c a l and c o r r e c t use of hardware i n c l u d i n g n a i l s , screws, hasps, hinges, l o c k s , b r a c k e t s , handles e t c . (d) Make packing cases and c r a t e s . (e) Erect s a f f o l d i n g and s t a g i n g f o r the v a r i o u s b u i l d i n g t r a d e s . (f) Scrape and sand wood f l o o r s . (g) Lay f e l t r o o f i n g , wooden and composition s h i n g l e s . (h) Carry out simple frame c o n s t r u c t i o n , a l t e r a t i o n s and r e p a i r s from sketches and dimensions. Group 11. T h e o r e t i c a l trade knowledge. (a) R~ave a good knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n the framing of w a l l s , -rafted, s t a i r s , p a r t i t i o n s , doors and window openings, roof t r u s s e s and concrete formwork. (b) Make d e t a i l e d working sketches from plans or given measurements. (e) Make up b i l l s of m a t e r i a l s f o r carpentry work from b l u e p r i n t s or measurements. App. A (cont'd) P r a c t i c a l trade knowledge. (a) Use and maintain w i t h s k i l l a l l carpenters' t o o l s . (t>) Opperate and maintain simple woodworking machines, band saws, bench saws, j o i n t e r s and lathes.. (c) Lay out w i t h a s t e e l square the following;; s t a i r s t r i n g e r s , r a f t e r s of common and unpitched r o o f s , studs and openings. (d) Hang a l l types of sashes and doors. (e) F i t and plee i n s i d e and outside t r i m i n a s k i l l e d manner• (f) Repair wood v e h i c l e bodies and other army equip-ment of wooden c o n s t r u c t i o n . (g) To ha able to apply a l l types of w a l l boards, pl y wood and i n s u l a t i o n . (h) From b l u e p r i n t s and sketches l a y out carpentry work f o r wooden b u i l d i n g s and concrete form work. APPENDIX B-Capentry books consulted f o r trade t e s t item's. 1. BURBANK, N.L. Carpentry and j o i n e r y work. New York:: Simmons and Boardman, 1942-2. DURHAM, W.E. Fundamentals of c a r p e n t r y . Chicago^ Amer.TechjSoe., 1948-3. GRAF, D. D a t a s h e e t s . New York:: Reinhold P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1944* 4. GRAHAM, F.D. Audel's car pen teas and b u i l d e r s guide. New ¥ork_ Audel and co., 1939. 5. GREEMHALGH, R.. J o i n e r y and c a r p e n t r y , V o l . 1-6. Londonr S i r l s a a c Pitman • andSon, 194&-6. GRIFFITHS, I . J . Carpentry. Peoria:: The-Manualfcfrts p r e s s , 1935. 7 . HAINES, R.E. Carpentrynandowoodworking ha&i-handhoSktoff 1, t o o l s , m a t e r i a l s , methods and d i r e c t i o n s . Chicago:; Home Mechanics L i b r a r y , 1948. 8. HANSEN, H.J. Modern timber d e s i g n . New York-. Wiley and Son, 1948. 9. HJORTH, H- P r i n c i p l e s of woodworking. New York: MeGraw H i l l , 1946. 10. HODGSON, F.T. Modern c a r p e n t r y . Chicago:: Drake and Co., 1948-11. H00L, F.C., & JOHNSON, K.L. Handbook of b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n . New York:: McG raw H i l l , 19-29. 12. KOEHLER, B «S. P r o p e r t i e s and uses of wood. New York:; McGra H i l l , 1924-/ IT V -App. B. (cont'd) 13- SNOW, C.;S-, & WOOD, J-K. et a l - Organic s t r u c t u r a l materials. New York:: McGraw H i l l , 1917. 14. TOMS END, G. Carpentry, a p r a c t i c a l t r e a t i s e on simple " building construction. Chicago* Amer.Teeh.Soc .,• 1941-15- AMERICAN TECMICALiASOCIEti B u i l d i n g , estimating and con-tacting . Chicago: Amer.TechSoe.,, 1945-16. FEDERAL BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION Light frame house construction. Wash. D.C. U -S.. Govt.. Pr i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1931. 17. U.S. WAR DEPARTMENT Carpentry:: Technical manual no. 5 -Wash. D.C., U.S. Govt. Pr i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1943. APPENDIX C CARPENTER rS CLASSIFICATION TEST This i s a t o s t of your knowledge of carp e n t r y terms, t o o l s and p r a c t i c e s . In the f o l l o w i n g pages you w i l l f i n d . a number of questions to be answrered. A f t e r each question there are f o u r answers. You are to s e l e c t the answer-that you t h i n k best answers the question -asked. Put the number of your answer on the. l i n e i n - t h e r i g h t hand column. When you s r e not sure which answer i s r i g h t make the best choice you can. Here are a few sample ques t i o n s . Do them to be sure you understand what i s wanted. N a i l s are d r i v e n with 1. a hammer 2. a screw d r i v e r 3. a c h i s e l 4. ft s aw The answer of course i s number one so a I i s pl a c e d on the l i n e p.t the r i g h t . Here i s another. 3 Number one i s the answer so a I i s p l a c e d on the l i n e on the r i g h t . Now do the r e s t of the questions i n the b o o k l e t . Take your time and see.how many you can get r i g h t . 2 2. Which would be the beet c h i s e l to use i n c u t t i n g out mortises?. 3. Which saw has the l e a s t set? 4. Which .saw would.you use f o r coping a moulding j o i n t ? 5 . Which saw would you use to rough out a hole i n sheathing? Turn to next page i i i ! I Which of the f i l e s on the l p f t would he used w i t h the t o o l on the r i g h t ? ffl 33) t 0 1 7. " h i c h one of the above handles would be be s t s u i t e d f o r a mor t i se c h i s e l ? 8 . Which of the above t o o l s would be used to smooth a r a i l r o a d t i e ? 1 0 . 9. To t u r n the "burr on n s c r a p e r you would use r. 1. f i l e 2 . r a sp 3 . b u r n i s h e r 4. skew c h i s e l The t o o l on the l e f t i s f o r 1. d r i l l i n g holes 2 . s e t t i n g screws 3. s e t t i n g n a i l s 4. f i n i s h i n g wire i n l e t s t u r n to next page. 11. A F o r s t n e r b i t would be used when wishing to 1. bore holes i n hardwood 2. bore to a set depth 3. i n c r e a s e the s i z e , o f : a Stole; 4. bore almost through t h i n stock 12. To.allow screws to enter wood more e a s i l y you would use I. s O Rp 2„ l i g h t o i l , 3. beeswax 4. g r a p h i t e 13. This i s used f o r I r e a m i n g 2,1 s e t t i n g heads of screws S, removing broken screws 4, d r i l l i n g at angles T4. 15. Which b i t i s ground c o r r e c t l y f o r working with '.''ood? The gimlet b i t has what type of spur? 1. a f i n e s i n g l e spur / 2. a coarse double thread 3. a coarse s i n g l e thread 4. none of these 16. The best g e n e r a l purpose plane i s the 1. jack plane 2. j o i n t e r plane 3. f o r e plane 4. ' smoothing plane 17. hi c h would be the best hammer to p u l l f i r m l y set n a i l s ? 18. The f i r s t atep i n sharpening a saw i s 1. s e t t i n g 2. j o i n t i n g 3. f i l i n g 4. shaping Turn to next page A c h i s e l w i t h t h i s type of handle i s knownaas I . a stake c h i s e l "2, a socket c h i s e l 3 0 a tang c h i s e l • 4. a framing c h i s e l 20. Inside and outside gouges are whetted on 1. an eiaeivy board 2 . a whetstone 3. a s l i p s tone 4 „ a c o n i c a l grindstone 21. The t o o l which can he adjusted to bore various s i z e hole i s c a l l e d . 1. a,, cost ..r-s inn a i t 2, a t w i s t d r i l l 3. an expansive h i t 4, an adjustable b i t 22. Twist d r i l l s are sharpened on I , a g r i n d e r a, s p e c i a l f i l e 3. a t:.r.?G s q u a r e f i l e 4. a r a s p 23. 24. It] 1 Op' i I V 3 la d r i V L i n g holes i n scrap lunfber where n a i l s are l i k e l y to he Trxet which h i t would you use? A n H i !';••!:• 1. Which would you uc_. cc q u i c k l y t r a n s f e r an angle? X. v>V>-2 6 o Which plane.would .you use i t % ftanging a door? I i 27 „ Which plane, would you use to cut a rabbet? ", if/f 28. Which plane would you use to smooth the end of a board? -*f— 29 i which would be the best to use f o r s h i n g l i n g ? turn to next page This would "be To est used as a I. corner chisel '2„ firmer chisel 3. framing chisel 4. paring chisel 31 This is used for ^ _ = H T E E ~ = ^ ~ — I ' « turning screws .-isss^  pulling spikes 3. ripping off forms 4. prying flooring' 32. this is used for 2 . cutting wire 3o cutting sheet metal 4-. none of tlMr;-33, To plane surface the end of this •"b^ ard ycu would use I. a jointer plane £. a block plane 3. a smoothing plane 4 a .lack t/lane 6 V-hich would you use in laying out mortises t urn 35 Which of the above \ oulcl be used on veneer? 36. 37. F i g u r e .A i s used with which number on the r i g h t ? 38 A help i n d r i v i n g long screws i s to aptoly I o i l * • 2. s oap 4. g r a p h i t e turn to next page 39 40, R H B r e f e r s to I o screws S« brads 3. d r i l l s • 4. screws When working with 5/8" c e i l i n g m a t e r i a l you would use I.. 2'' common n a i l s • 2. I I/2'; f i n i s h i n g n a i l : 3 C 2 1/2" f l o o r i n g n a i l s 4. I 1/4Si brads . 41. \ \ L CO_J Which of the above would you use a t A? 12 43. Which i s a stove b o l t ? m 3 4 4« Wh i c h one w o u l d you use . to f a s t e n framing members to a concrete post? turn to next page "1 \ J- y A \ / T77 \ 1/ i -a • 6 4 '.Thich of the above w i l l "be the meet f i r m l y secured? 0 ^ 47 3 4 ".:hich n r d l would "be used when n a i l i n g cedf.r s i d i n g ? i IS .'nich of the f a s t e n i n g s would be used to f a s t e n he-^vy framing me rubers? 0= PL 0 = I 2 13* 3 Which would be used to apply Duroid r o o f i n g ? I f you needed some 2" f i n i s h i n g n * i l s f o r a p r o j e c t you would nek f o r . 1. 2d 2. 4 d . 3. 6d • . 4 . 8d turn to next page f the connectors would you use at A ? 1 "I This i s used when 1. g l u i n g j o i n t s 2. a p p l y i n g w a i l b o a r d 3. drawing' plans 4. s e t t i n g sawa 53. This is sash balance measuring instruraent a l a y i n g out l e v e l a crimping too1 o 'J e roc :i\c t h i s s l i d i n g use '.'* a machine " b i t ° l a r g e spike' a c a r r i a g e b o l t a toothed r i n g tL. a •7 4 . •'nrn """o next page 55. The best wood f o r making t o o l handles i s 1. Hickory 2. In p i e 3. O k . 4 . > l n u t 56. I f a. board i s m i l l e d i t 1. hr,s' been so.wed i n a sawmill 2. i s s u r f a c e d to" s i z e on a pinner 3. contains no m i l l ' marks 4. contains no rough places 57. The most widely used wood p e r s e r v a t i v e i s I, petroleum 2-. creosote 3. benzol 4, sodium f l u o r i d e 58. Plywood i s s o l d by 1. the board foot 2. the square f o o t 3. the pound 4. the l i n e a r f o o t 59. The wood most s u i t a b l e f o r studs i s 1. Douglas F i r 2, Red Cedar 3.. P o p l a r 4. White Pine 60. The wood that i s e a s i e s t to work is 15 Spruce 2„ Pine 3, F i r 4. Hemlock 61. The s t r o n g e s t g e n e r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n lumber i s 1. F i r 2. Hemlock 3. Cedar 4 „ F i n e 62. Lumber dressed and tonqued i s c a l l e d 1. beaded 2. j o i n t e d 3. p a t t e r n e d 4. matched 63. I f you wanted a f l o o r , that would be sure not to warp you'would use f l o o r i n g that was 1. p l a i n sawed 2. r o t a r y cut 3. b a s t a r d sawed 4 0 q u a r t e r sawed turn to next page 64. " r i g h t reVerse b e v e l " i n d i c a t e s . s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r a 1. -window/ 2. plane 3. ' c his e l 4 0 door 65. Which one of the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s i s NOT found on the framing square? 1, "brace measure 2, octagon measure 3. square measure 4 . "board measure 66. Lag screws are turned i n t o wood by 1. a wrench 2. a screw d r i v e r 3. p l i e r s 4. a hammer 67. A f l i g h t of s t a i r s having 23 r i s e r s w i l l have "how many treads 1. 22 2. 23 3, 24 4, none of these . 68. A d r i f t b o l t s hould be d r i v e n i n t o a hole having a diameter 1. the same s i z e as the b o l t 2. 1/4".smaller than the b o l t 3. I/I6" l a r g e r than the bolt-4. s u f f i c e n t to s t a r t the b o l t only 69. The template used f o r l a y i n g out s t a i r c a r r i a g e s i s c a l l e d the 1, t r e a d 2. s i l l 3. p i t c h - board 4, f u r r i n g 70. What device i s used to f a s t e n c o r r u g a t e d i r o n r o o f i n g to an open r a f t e r ? 1. j a c k r a f t e r s 2. b r i d g i n g 3. c r i p p l e s . 4. p u r l i n s 71. In e r e c t i n g a s c a f f o l d f o r a b r i c k l a y e r you. - would, use 1. 2" x 4 " ledgers 2. I" x 4" ledgers 3 0 2"x 6" le d g e r s \ 4. 12 x 8" ledgers «. turn _o next pag; \ \ Which number i n d i c a t e s the hip r a f t e r ? 73. 74. 75. 76, 77. The reason f o r using s e p a r a t o r s on the bridg e beam on the l e f t i s to 1. al l o w f o r shear 2. a l l o w g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i 3. prevent s l i d i n g 4. prevent decay' ^ 5 y// • / I 2 3 4 Which of the above softwoods w i l l have the LOWEST s t r e n g t h value? In house d w e l l i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n the studs are g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d 1. 14;! centres 2. 1651 centres 3. 22" centres 4. 361' centres What depth of j o i s t s are u s u a l l y used f o r a f l o o r with a 12 f o o t span?. 1. 6" 2. 8" 3. 10" 4. 12" When tr u s s e s are secured to to columns to give l a t e r a l r i g i d i t y they are c a l l e d I„ t r a n s v e r s e bents 2. v i e r e n d e e l t r u s s e s 3. knee brac'es 4. P r a t t t i e s t u r n to next page 78„ In the diagram, i f the r i s e i s three f e e t and the run i s nine f e e t the p i t c h w-fll be I. 1/3 2 „ 3 3. 6 4. 1/6 . 79. What i s the l e n g t h of a common r a f t e r having a run of 6 f e e t and a r i s e of 4 inches per foo t ? I. 6'4" 2'. 6'8" 3. 7'2" 4, 3<0r 80. The end of the r a f t e r that r e s t s on the p l a t e i s c a l l e d 1. the heel cut 2 . the s i l l cut 3. the plumb cut 4. the seat cut 81. The most common method of stopping a i r leakage through the wa l l s i s by the proper use of 1. I n s u l a t i o n 2. sheathing 3. t a r paper 4. s i d i n g 82. The brea k i n g l o a d of a timber i s p o r p o r t i o n a l to i t s 1, weight 2, l e n g t h 3, depth 4„ breadth 83. Which one of the f o l l o w i n g types of hardwood f i n i s h e d f l o o r i n g i s most economical? 1. matched 2 . end matched 3. uniform width 4„ random width 84. The a c t u a l s i z e of 2 " x 4" S4S upon d e l i v e r y i s 1. I 3/4" x 3 3/4" 2 . I 5/8" x 3 5/8" 3. I 3/16 x 3 5/8,; 4. 2" x 4" 85. How many board f e e t are there i n a p i e c e of lumber that measures 10" x 12" x 8' ? . • •I. 120 2. 80 3. 72 4. 96 t i . i r E t o next page 86. • 3 . 4 In the above diagrams, i f the same m a t e r i a l s were used i n each, which would have the most' s t i f f n e s s and strength? 87. The support f o r the second f l o o r j o i s t s i n a b a l l o o n frame i s c a l l e d a 1. g i r d e r 2. ribbon 3.ledger board 4. s i l l 88. turn to next pa 90. The f i n e s t grade of sandpr per l i s t e d 1. 3/0 2. 1/2 3. I 4. 3 here i s 91. To get the best f i n i s h when sanding I, sand w i t h a c i r c u l a r motion 2„'.snad i n one d i r e c t i o n only 3. sand only cross g r a i n 4. sand i n both d i r e c t i o n s 92. Dry s h i n g l e s hould be a p p l i e d 1. t i g h t j o i n t e d 2. 1/8" open S. 1/2" open 4. 3/4" open 93. The best s h i n g l e f o r w i t h s t a n d i n g weather i s I. sawn shake 2 C 4X'sawn cedar 3. sawn shake 4. 2X sawn cedar 94. In l a y i n g a 16" wooden s h i n g l e the gauge should be 1. 7" 2. 3 1/2" 3. 5" •4. I 1/2" 95. The only d i f r e r e n c e between l a y i n g t i l e and l a y i n g s h i n g l e s i s that i n l a y i n g s h i n g l e s you 1. reduce the l a p and i n c r e a s e the gauge 2. reduce both the l a p and the gauge 3. reduce the gauge and i n c r e a s e the l a p 4. i n c r e a s e both the l a p and the gauge 96. The p r i n c i p l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n when choosing the type of r o o f i n g to be used i s 1. the r i s e of the r o o f 2. the a.ppea.rance of "the s t r u c t u r e 3. the r a f t e r placement i n the r o o f 4„ the type of weather 97. The most d e s i r a b l e type of s h i n g l e n a i l i s 1. a copper n a i l 2. a wire n a i l 3. a g a l v a n i z e d n a i l 4 0 an i r o n n a i l 98. The minimum slope i n which wood s h i n g l e s may be used i s I. 6" r i s e i n 24" run-2„ 6" r i s e i n 12" run 3. 8" r i s e i n 24" run 4. 4" r i s e i n I2 , : run turn to next page 99. This j o i n t i s l9a tenon j o i n t 2. a. s t r a d d l e j o i n t 3. a dowelled j o i n t 4. a miter j o i n t 100. In making a mortise and tenon j o i n t .which of the f o l l o w i n g t o o l s would be of the l e a s t use? I,. hacksaw 2. m a l l e t 3. c h i s e l 4. j o i n t e r This j o i n t i s I', t r e e n a i l e d 2. t o g g l e d 3 C dowelled 4. f i l l i s t e r e d 102. The best p r a c t i c a l method' of j o i n i n g s i l l s a t corners i s by 1. a mitre j o i n t 2. a l a p j o i n t 3. an open mortise j o i n t 4. a butt j o i n t . 103. A j o i n t used when the m a t e r i a l i s to be curved i s the 1. coopered j o i n t 2. dowelled j o i n t 3. b r i d l e j o i n t 4. m i t r e d j o i n t 104. In a p p l y i n g glue to members that would f r e q u e n t l y be wet you would use I„ c a e i n glue 2. s t a r c h glue 3. a n i mal g l u e 4. vegetable p r o t e i n glue 105. The best j o i n t to be used i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a door i s the. • ' • 1. d o v e t a i l j o i n t 2, mortise and tenon j o i n t 3, dowel j o i n t 4. lap j o i n t Io6. The st r o n g e s t method of b u i l d i n g s h e l v i n g i s to 1. screw on the s h e l f 2. use a n a i l e d butt j o i n t 3. n a i l on a c l e a t 4. groove i n the s h e l f turn to next page 101. Io7. Which number i n d i c a t e s 3 the muntin? 108. The j o i n t E en i n s i d e doors should be I. b u t t j o i n t s 2.. s c a r f j o i n t s 5, mortise and tenon 4. dowelled 109. 110. The gauge that i s used f o r l o c a t i n g l i n e s -for door hinges i s the 1. mortise gauge 2. marking gauge 3. p e n c i l gauge 4. butt gauge This machine i s used f o r 1. sawing boards 2. sanding boards 3. c u t t i n g grooves 4. p l a n i n g rough s u r f a c e s I I I . cr:') U < ) 9 h V t) \) ID / Nj Which of these l o c k s i s a s l i d i n g door l o c k ? . 112. When a l o c k i s operated by a key only i t i s c a l l e d 1. a dead l o c k 2. a s l i d i n g door l o c k 3. a r i m l o c k 4. a l a t c h l o c k turn to next page Which number i n d i c a t e s the p i n t l e ? "Which one of the f o l l o w i n g mouldings i s NOT used i n i n t e r i o r trim? I.window apron 2„ backhand 3. d r i p c a p 4. shoe moulding To prextent the baseboard from warping you can 1. use cover moulds 2. plough out the back 3. t o e - n a i l baseboard to f l o o r 4. glue to f l o o r and w a l l In i n t e r i o r t r i m the coped .joint i s used f o r 1. p i c t u r e moulding 2. window c a s i n g 3. baseboard •' 4. a l l of these Which one of these i s a rebated j o i n t ? 1- V----V "TP 7" • W ; .\ - : : ' p W W " , i" 4-i s dri.p cap 'moulding? t u r n to next page. 119. The s t r i p indicated, by the l e t t e r A i s used f o r 1. a t t a c h i n g window f i t t i n g s 2. a guide s t r i p 3. a n a i l i n g s t r i p 4. s u p p o r t i n g the j o i s t s A 120 The window frame opening on the l e f t i s p a r t of 1. a b a l l o o n frame 2. a western frame 3. a braced frame 4. every frame c o n s t r u c t i o n 121. ' In double hung windows the upper sash i s set outside the lower sash i n order to 1. ' prevent leakage 2. minimumize shrinkage e f f e c t 3. a l l o w f o r e x t r a support 4. prevent decay 122. What do ycu n a i l to doors and windows to be used f o r guides i n p l a s t e r i n g ? . I . f u r r i n g 2. l a t h e s 3. grounds 4. battens -123. When s e t t i n g g l a s s i n a new sash,, the muntins and s t i l e s should be f i r s t brushed with I. l e a d £:>aint 2 . o i l 3. glue 4. s h e l l a c 124.' In c a r p e n t r y the term "shore" m cans a type of 1. wedge 2. abuttment 3. brace 4 . founda t i o n turra to next page 4 126. What do you c a l l the s t r i p s of wood that have, to be taken out be f o r e the top SP. sh can be removed? 1. pocket cover 2. stop sash 3. p a r t i n g s t r i p 4. top s t i l e 127. I f i n s t a l l i n g a* 24" x 24" gl a s s double hung with sash weight windows what i s the s i z e of the rough opening? 1. 38" x 38" 2. 28" x 34" 3. 30" x 62" 4. 34" x 53" 128. B has the advantage over A because i n B 1. l e s s shear w i l l occur 2. the e f f e c t of shrinkage i s l e s s 3. the l o a d i s more evenly d i s t r i b u t e d 4. i t gives g r e a t e r r i g i d i t y s ha.d.ed p o r t i o n i s c a l l e d 1. the t i l i n g 2. the b l o c k i n g 3. the s h o u l d e r i n g 4. the f l a s h i n g Its main purpose i s 1. to stop a i r passage 2. to turn water 3. to stop the r o o f c u r l i n g 4. to prevent decay _ 131 This type of roof i s known 1. a mansard r o o f 2. a gambrel r o o f 3. a hip roof 4. a gable r o o f I32 0 133. Which number i n d i c a t e s the f r i e z e ? The "A" I 2 3 4 dis tance i s ' , the , the .' the , the marked water t a b l e watershed p l a n e i a lookout .134. In l a y i n g s h i p l a p s u b f l o o r i n g i t should be l a i d 1. cross g r a i n to the f i n a l f l o o r i n g 2. at r i g h t angles to the j o i s t s 3. d i a g a n o l l y to the j o i s t s 4. p a r a l l e l to the j o i s t s turn to next page Which l e t t e r i n d i c a t e s the dormer r i d g e ? Which number i n d i c a t e s a sole? The diagram i s a d e t a i l of I. a hip r o o f 2'. a gable r o o f 3. a- gambrel r o o f 4. a mansard r o o f You would a p p l y w a l i b o a r d w i t h 1. 2'1/218 f i n i s h i n g n a i l s 2. I 1/4" f i n e n a i l s 3. I 1/2" common n a i l s 4. 2" f l o o r i n g n a i l s Masonite f o r f i n i s h e d t a b l e tops i s a p p l i e d 1. l i q u i d cement 2. brads 3. c a s e i n glue 4. f i n e n a i l s 18" s h i n g l e s should never be l a i d with a la' l a r g e r than •I. 7 1/2" 2. 6 1/2" 3. 5 1/2" 4. 4 1/2" t u r n to next p 141 " A " i n d i c a t e s what i s known as 1, wale s 2. "battens 3, ribbons 4. shores 142. "B" i s c a l l e d 1. a spreader 2. a form j o i s t 3. a cross t i e 4. a separator 143. -Which one of the f o l l o w i n g would be used f o r extreme bending with the l e a s t amount of s t r e n g t h l o s t ? " . ' 1. Ash 2. Douglas i ('ir 3. Yellow Pine 4. Oak 144. What k i n d of b o l t s are most commonly used to a t t a c h a wooden truck, body to the c h a s s i s ? 1. Expansion b o l t s 2. d r i f t b o l t s 3. stove b o l t s 4. c a r r i a g e b o l t s 145. Which - f the f o l l o w i n g t o o l s i s used to make dowel j o i n t s ? I. brace and b i t • 2. dado head 3. panel saw 4. mortis er' euro to nc'Xw page 14 6, outer w a l l i n n e r w a l l —i-J • Tvl ! nr. iii"'T In which diagram w i l l the r e f l e c t i v e i n s u l a t i o n g ive b e t t e r r e s u l t s ? 147. k f i l l type of i n s u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s of 1. g r a n u l a t e d wool 2. blankets 3. bats 4 , qu i11 s 148. Moisture w i t h i n w a l l s and c e i l i n g s can be prevented by the proper use of 1. vapour b a r r i e r s 2. sheathing 3. t a r paper •4, c a u l k i n g 149. The best type' of i n s u l a t i o n to place i n a remodelled house, i s 1. r e f l e c t i v e i n s u l a t i o n 2. b l a n k e t i n s u l a t i o n 3. f i l l i n s u l a t i o n 4..bat i n s u l a t i o n 150. I f i n s t a l l i n g a vapour b a r r i e r i t i s best 1. on the outside face of the studs 2. on the outer sheathing 3. so that the warm s i d e i s below the dew p o i n t 4. on the i n E i d e face of the s t u d T5I. The depth of cut i n a j o i n t e r i s r e g u l a t e d by 1. a d j u s t i n g the f r o n t t a b l e 2, a d j u s t i n g the k n i f e clamping screw 3„ v e r t i c a l movement of the c u t t e r head 4, moving the a d j u s t a b l e fence 152. To cut a stop chamfer i n the middle of a p i e c e of stock on a j o i n t e r you would have to 1. i n s t a l l a chamfering bracket 2. lower the r e a r t a b l e ' 3. use' a s p e c i a l c u t t e r head 4. i n s e r t s p e c i a l l y shaped knives t u r n to, next page To cut c y l i n d r i c a l stock on a l a t h e you would use 1. a p a r t i n g t o o l 2. a spear c h i s e l 3. a gouge 4. a skew c h i s e l L e a t h e r b e l t i n g i s kept s o f t a n d . p l i a b l e by o c c a s i o n a l l y c l e a n i n g and t r e a t i n g i t wi t h 1. r o s i n 2. l u b r i c a t i n g o i l 3. n e a t s f o o t o i l 4. g r a p h i t e The best machine-for doing i n s i d e c u t t i n g and s m a l l sharp curves i s a 1. jigsaw 2. bands a?/ 3 . . c i r c u l a r saw 4. benehsaw Broken bandsaws are j o i n e d by a process known as 1. l a c i n g 2. b r a z i n g 3. gumming 4. j o i n t i n g The purpose of a r i v i n g k n i f e on a c i r c u l a r saw i s 1. to a c t as a, g^ard 2. to al l o w l a r g e r stock to be cut 3. to prevent b i n d i n g 4. to remove shavings The speed of r o t a t i o n i n an overhead l a t h e i s c o n t r o l l e d by 1. changing the diameter of the face p l a t e 2. changing the power i n l e t 3. by moving the b e l t on the cone p u l l e y 4. v a r y i n g the pressure on the s p i n d l e The c u t t i n g speed of a bandsaw having a diameter of 3' and making 700 r.p.m. i s 1. 233 1/3 f t . p.m. 2. 6600 f t . p.m. 3. 2100 ft.p.m. • 4. 703 f t . p.m. What diameter should the p u l l e y be i f the counter-s h a f t runs at 300 r.p.m., the diameters of the t i g h t and loose p u l l e y s are 10" and the s h a f t makes 500 r.p.m.? I. -28" 2. 22" 3. 16" 4. 12" t u r n to next page 161. A\\ V> I ~) 2 :l\~f' : : 3 162, 163. Which t o o l would you use to make a s h e a r i n g cut when using a l a t h e ? To use a metal working l a t h e f o r t u r n i n g wood i t would be necessary to 1. p l a c e a l a t h e chuck on the head s p i n d l e 2. p l a c e i n valve guide bushings 3. s u b s t i t u t e spur and cup centres 1 4. use s p e c i a l p u l l e y s on the s h a f t s This i s used f o r 1. f i l i n g c i r c u l a r saws 2. gumming c i c u l a r saws 3. j o i n t i n g c i r c u l a r saws 4. s e t t i n g c i r c u l a r saws 164. A bfindsaw can be t r a c k e d on the wheel by 1. t i l t i n g the t a b l e 2. t i l t i n g the top wheel 3. removing the. guard 4. using the guide post I65„ The plane i r o n cap can be removed by f i r s t loosening 1. the i r o n cap 2. the cam l e v e r 3. the l a t e r a l adjustment 4. the a d j u s t i n g nut 166. Good plumb bobs are 1. s o l i d . s t e e l 2. f i l l e d w ith mercury 3. hollow s h a f t e d 4. weighted with sand 167. How l o n g should i t take one man to l a y 1000 f t B.M. f l o o r i n g , y e l l o w pine,3 1/4" face,smoothed and sanded? . . 1. 45 hours 2. 34 hours 3. 20 hours 4. 10 hours t u r n to next page 163. 18" s h i n g l e s should never be l a i d with a l a p l a r g e r t hr n 1. 4 1/2" 2. 5 1/2" 3. 7" 4. - 8 1/2" 169. Tho rough opening f o r a door 7' x 3 ! f i n i s h e d should be I. 7*2" X 3'6" 2. 7*5" X 3'9" 3. 7'10" X 4'2" 4. 8*2" X 4'6,; 170. I f you were r e q u i r e d tb l a y 1000 s h i n g l e s , u s i n g .I l / 4 " n a i l s , how many pounds of n a i l s would you need 1. 8 l b s 2. 5 l b s . 3. 3 1/2 lbs 4. I 1/2 l b s 171. How many squares of r o o f i n g m a t e r i a l w i l l be r e q u i r e d to r o o f an area 20' X 33', a l l o w i n g b% wastage? 1. l e s s than 2 2. 4 3. 7 4. 9 . -r . 172. When e s t i m a t i n g I x 3" f l o o r i n g how much should be allowed f o r waste? 1. 33 1/3?. 2. Zb% 3. 20% 4. Ib% 173. A formula f o r f i n d i n g board measure i s 1. t " x w" x 1" . 12 2. t " x w" x 1'. 12 3. t" x w" x l " 4. t " x w" x 1' 144 ; 174. How many pounds of 2 1/2" n a i l s ivould be r e q u i r e d to sheath a frame 40' x 40' x 15*, us i n g 10" s h i p l a p nnd 3 n a i l s to a stud? 1. 48 2. 37 3. 25 4. 13 175. What k i n d of a drawing does a ' b u i l d e r use to l o c a t e a l l the doors,windows,walls and f i x t u r e s ? 1. an e l e v a t i o n 2. a s e c t i o n a l view 3. a d e t a i l view 4. a f l o o r p l a n turn to next page 176 I. \ •5 3 . Which of t h e . p l a n views i s t h a t of e l e v a t e d view "A" 177. The window i n the diagram i s a 1. casement window 2 . Dutch Window 3 . double hung window . k. French Window 178 The t h i c k n e s s of the boards used on the s i d e s of the above miter box are 1. 7/8" 2 . I 3 A ' 3 . -I I A 1 ' 3 A ' 179 3 r> 5 ^ 7 I f the s c a l e used above was 1/2" equals 6' then the l e n g t h of "A" i s 1. 18 1 2. 20' 3 . 21' 2 3 ' , — - — ^ .I80. Which of these saws has the <fs"' 2 l e a s t set? ^ • ' • " ' • ^ - J 3 181. Which saw would be the best \ ^ ^ . - -A f o r f l n e work? turn to next page 182. wood shi n g l e p l a s t e r 'The a c t u a l distance between r a f t e r faces w i l l be 1. not known 2. 16" 3. H 3/8" . 4- x3 5/8'' 1 8 3 . ^1 ~\ ^ 2 4 183. Which number i n d i c a t e s the l e n g t h of the bed? 184. Which number i n d i c a t e s the swing of the lat h e 184 4-2 Which i s a s h i p l a p j o i n t ? 185 What you c a l l the pieces between the j o i s t s on long spans that that are used to brace the j o i s t s ? 1. battens 2. b r i d g i n g 3. b r i d l e j o i s t s 4. p u r l i n s t u r n to next page t»ioor plan,t*-?o elevationc,pnd diagram of p v/indov; cash for p. temporary general purpoco building. • iii . i i f i 2x4 n i i n u u i i i K i m i i • !: j TT S 1 j L 1 1 n j ill t 1 i 1 8»'j" ^ 3»0'' 3*0" 20 «0" 3«5 3/4" 136. -/hat is the largest nail that will be needed? 1. 4 1/2" 2. 3" 3. 4" 4. 3 1/2" 137. Thj-it ie the emplloet nail that w i l l be needed? 1. I 1/2" 2. 2" 3. 2 1/2" 4. 3" 183. Hov; long r i l l i t take t'.?o carpenters and four helperG to erect this building in daylight? 1. 16 hours 2. 3 hours 3. 48 hoiire 4. 24 hours 139. The eize of the largest piece of . lur/ber needc to conplete thio luildinp U 1. 2 x 4" x 12' 2. 2" x 6" x IO1 Rafters that run- between the hip and valley rafters are called 1 . hip;-jacks 2. v a l l e y jacks • :• 3. r i d g e r a f t e r 4. c r i p p l e jacks H I . W h i c h number i n d i c a t e s ... the water t a b l e ? 192-..-If the t o t a l area to be covered by 6" s i d i n g , l a i d 4.1/2" 1 the weather, i s 400 i f t . how much s i d i n g would.you order? I. 200 ft.B.M. "*••' . 2. 5 00 ft.B.M. 3. 400 ft.B.M. ... 4. 250 ft.B.M, Which of the f o l l o w i n g planes i s u s u a l l y ground s l i g h t l y curved? 1. smooth plane 2. t r y i n g plane 3. jack plane 4. f o r e plane This i s used f o r 1. p a t t e r n i n g hardwood 2. d r e s s i n g emery wheel d i s c ? 3. s e t t i n g saws ~ 4. t h r e a d i n g screws 195. To j o i n a broken o i l stone you would apply 1. heated c a s e i n glue 2. heated l i q u i d cement 3. acetone and .then heat 4 . powdered s h e l l a c ' and then heat 196. Which s i z e board would be best used as 1. I" x 6" 2. I" x 2" -3. 2" v 4" a ribbon? 4 , x x on 197. The term "ogee" a p p l i e s to. 1. drawings 2. j o i n t s '• 3. mouldings 4 . a type o f c h i s e l 198 To stop the concrete from s t i c k i n g , t h e form should be 1. sprayed w i t h a white l e a d p a i n t 2. made of k i l n d r i e d lumber 3. wetted with a mixture of l i n s e e d and kerosene 4. wetted with a mixture of f u e l o i l and p a r a f f i n 199. The purpose, of a header i s to 1. support a trimmer 2. support t a i l j o i s t s 3. secure end j o i s t s 4. support an overhead opening 200. The term"T and G" r e f e r s to 1. j o i n t s 2. n a i l s 3. screws 4. hinges .201 ~ y 6" • I The diagram on t h e . l e f t i s an example of 1. s h i p l a p s i d i n g 2. novelty, s i d i n g 3 . drop s i d i n g 4. b e v e l s i d i n g 2 02 Which one of the above diagrams shows a oueen post t r u s s ? 203. Which of the f p l l o w i n g statements i s generally-accepted? I . Tread p l u s twice the r i s e r equals 42 .2. Tread p l u s twice the r i s e r , equals 68 3. Tread m u l t i p l i e d hy the r i s e r equals 36 4. Tread m u l t i p l i e d by the r i s e r equals 72 204. What do you c a l l the o p e r a t i o n of chopping or p l a n i n g joists so t h a t a l l w i l l have the same crown r. cambering 2. spreading 3. f u r r i n g 4. chamfering APPENDIX D WONDERLIC PERSONNEL TEST F O R M A N A M E Date (Please Print) R E A D T H I S P A G E C A R E F U L L Y . D O E X A C T L Y A S Y O U A R E T O L D . D O N O T T U R N O V E R T H I S P A G E U N T I L Y O U A R E I N S T R U C T E D T O D O S O . T h i s is a test of problem solving ability. It contains various types of questions. Below is a sample question correctly filled i n : R E A P is the opposite of 1 obtain, 2 cheer, 3 continue, 4 exist, 5 sow f 5 ] T h e correct answer is "sow." (It is helpful to underline the correct word.) The correct word is numbered 5. T h e n write the figure 5 in the brackets at the end of the line. Answer the next sample question yourself. Gasoline sells for 23 cents per gallon. W h a t w i l l 4 gallons cost? f ] T h e correct answer is 92<. There is nothing to underline so just place "92£" in the brackets. Here is.another example: M I N E R M I N O R — D o these words have 1 similar meaning, 2 contradictory, 3 mean neither same nor opposite? [ ] T h e correct answer is "mean neither same nor opposite" which is number 3 so all you have to do is place a figure "3" in the brackets at the end of the line. W h e n the answer to a question is a letter or a number, put the letter or number in the brackets. A l l letters should be printed. T h i s test contains 50 questions. It is unlikely that you wil l finish all of them, but do your best. After the examiner tells you to begin, you wil l be given exactly 12 minutes to work as many as you can. D o not go so fast that you make mistakes since you must try to get as many right as possible. T h e questions become increasingly difficult, so do not skip about. Do not spend too much time on any one problem. T h e examiner w i l l not answer any questions after the test begins. Now, lay down your pencil and wait for the examiner to tell you to begin! This page is not to be turned until you are told to do so. Copyright 1942 by E. F. Wonderlic Published hy E. F. Wonderlic, Glencoe, Illinois. All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this test or any part thereof in any form by mimeograph, hectograph, or in any other way, whether the reproductions are sold or are furnished free for use. P r i n t e d i n U . S . A . 1. The last month of the year is 1 January. 2 March, 3 July. 4 December. 5 October [ 2. CAPTURE is the opposite of 1 place,' 2 release, 3 risk, 4 venture, 5 degrade [ 3. Most of the items below resemble each other. Which one is least like the others? 1 January. 2 August. 3 Wednesday. 4 October, 5 December [ 4. Answer by printing YES or No—Does R.S.V.P. mean "reply not necessary"? [ 5. In the following set of words, which word is different from the others? 1 troop. 2 league, 3 participate, 4 pack, 5 gang [ 6. USUAL is the opposite of 1 rare. 2 habitual, 3 regular. 4 stanch. 5 always [ 7. Which figure can be made from these two parts? / A A ^ X X X X X X X / \ - [ 8. Look at the row of numbers below. What number should come next? 8 4 2 1 % % ? .' [ 9. CLIENT CUSTOMER—Do these words have 1 similar meanings, 2 contradictory, 3 mean neither same nor opposite? [ 10. Which word below is related to smell as chew is to teeth? 1 sweet, 2 stink, 3 odor, 4 nose, 5 clean [ 11. AUTUMN is the opposite of 1 vacation, 2 summer, 3 spring, 4 winter, 5 fall [ 12. A train travels 300 feet in l/2 second. At this same speed, how many feet will it travel in 10 seconds? [ 13. Assume the first 2 statements are true. Is the final one: 1 true, 2 false, 3 not certain? These boys are normal children. All normal children are active. These boys are active [ 14. REMOTE is the opposite of 1 secluded, 2 near, 3 far, 4 hasty, 5 exact [ 15. Lemons sell at 3 for 10 cents. How much will V/2 dozens cost? [ 16. How many of the five items listed below are exact duplicates of each other? [ 84721 84721 9210651 9210561 14201201 14210210 96101101 96101161 88884444 88884444 17. Suppose you arranged the following words so that they made a true statement. Then print the last letter of the last word as the answer to this problem. always A verb sentence a has v 18. A boy is 5 years old and his sister is twice as old. When the boy is 8 years old, what will be the age of his sister? 19. IT'S ITS—Do these words have 1 similar meanings, 2 contradictory, 3 mean neither same nor opposite? 20. Assume that the first 2 statements are true. Is tfoe final statement: 1 true, 2 false. 3 not certain? John is the same age as Sally. Sally is younger than Bill. John is younger than Bill. 21. A dealer bought some cars for $4000. He sold them for $5000, making $50 on each car. How many cars were involved? 22. Suppose you arrange the following words so that they make a complete sentence. If it is a true statement, put a (T) in the brackets; if false, put an (F) there. eggs lay All chickens 23. Two of the following proverbs have the same meaning. Which ones are they? 1. Many a good cow hath a bad calf. 2. Like father, like son. 3. A miss is as good as a mile. 4. A man is known by the company he keeps. 5. They are seeds out of the same bowl. 24. A watch lost 1 minute 18 seconds in 39 days.. How many seconds did it lose per day?.... 25. CANVASS CANVAS—Do these words have 1 similar meaning. 2 contradictory, 3 mean neither same nor opposite? 26. Assume the first 2 statements are true. Is the final one: 1 true, 2 false, 3 not certain? All Quakers are pacifists. Some of the people in this room are Quakers. Some of the people in this room are pacifists 27. In 30 days a boy saved $1.00. What was his average daily saving? 28. INGENIOUS INGENUOUS—Do these words have. 1 similar meanings, 2 contradictory. 3 mean neither same nor opposite? 29. Two men caught 36 fish; X caught 5 times as many as Y. How many fish did Y catch?.... F o r m 30. A rectangular bin, completely filled, holds 800 cubic feet of grain. If the bin is 8 feet wide and 10 feet long, how deep is it? , 1 31. One number in the following series does not fit in with the pattern set by the others. What should that number be? yz y4 MJ y% Vj Y\2 I 32. Answer this question by printing YES or NO. Does A.D. mean "In the year of our Lord"? [ 33. C R E D I T A B L E CREDULOUS—Do these words have 1 similar meaning, 2 contradictory, 3 mean neither same nor opposite? f 34. A skirt requires 2% yards of material. How many can be cut from 45 yards? | 35. A clock was exactly on time at noon on Monday. At 2 P.M. on Wednesday, it was 25 sec-onds slow. At that same rate, how much did it lose in y2 hour? [ 36. Our baseball team lost 9 games this season. This was % of all they played. How many, games did they play this season? f 37. What is the next number in this series? 1 .5 .25 .125 ? | 38. This geometric figure can be divided by a straight line into two parts which will fit . together in a certain way to make a perfect square. Draw such a line by joining two of the numbers. Then write the numbers as the answer. i J ? [ 39. Are the meanings of the following sentences 1 similar, 2 contradictory, 3 neither similar nor contradictory? A new broom sweeps clean. Old shoes are easiest 40. How many of the five items listed below are exact duplicates of each other? R e x f o r d , J . D . R o c k f o r d , J . D . S i n g l e t o n , M . O . S i m b l e t e n , M . O . R i c h a r d s , W . E . R i c h a r d , W . E . S i e g e l , A . B . S e i g e l , A . B . W o o d , A . O . W o o d , A . O . 41. Two of the following proverbs have similar meanings. Which ones are they? 1. Y o u c a n n o t m a k e a s i l k p u r s e o u t o f a s o w ' s e a r . 2. H e t h a t s t e a l s a n e g g w i l l , s t e a l a n o x . 3. A r o l l i n g s t o n e g a t h e r s n o m o s s . 4. Y o u c a n n o t d a m a g e a w r e c k e d s h i p . 5. I t i s t h e i m p o s s i b l e t h a t h a p p e n s . 42. This geometric figure can be divided by a straight line into two parts which will fit together in a certain way to make a perfect square. Draw such a line by joining two of the numbers. Then write these numbers as the answer. 43. 44 Which number in the following group of numbers represents the smallest amount? 10 1 .999 .33 11 Are the meanings of the following sentences: 1 similar, 2 contradictory, 3 neither similar nor contradictory? No honest man ever repented.for his honesty. Honesty is praised and starves. ...... 45. For $1.80 a grocer buys a case of oranges which contains 12 dozen. He knows that two dozen will spoil before he sells them. At what price per dozen must he sell the good ones to gain l/i of the whole cost? '. 46. In the following set of words, which word is different from the others? 1 colony, 2 companion, 3 covey, 4 crew, 5 constellation 47. Assume that the first 2 statements are true. Is the final one: 1 true, 2 false, 3 not certain: Great men are ridiculed. I am ridiculed. I am a great man 48. Three men form a partnership and agree to divide the profits equally. X invests $4500, Y invests $3500 and Z invests $2000. If the profits are $1500, how much less does X receive than if the profits were divided in proportion to the amount invested? 49. Four of the following 5 parts can be fitted together in such a way as to make a triangle. Which 4 are they? • 50. In printing ?n article of 30,000 words, a printer decides to use two sizes of type. Using the larger type, a printed page contains 1200 words. Using the smaller type, a page con-tains 1500 words. The article is allotted 22 pages in a magazine. How-many pages must be in *he smaller type? APPENDIX E P e r s o n a l data sheet completed by novices and c i v i l i a n  a pprentices-NAME. .. . (Last) AGE Place of b i r t h . . . . (Tom) (Country) Have you ever .worked as a carpenter or carpenter's helper...... I f so, f o r how long? ................. ....,...................... ........... What p a r t i c u l a r jobs d i d you do? .............................. Other jobs you held before enlistment........ (Given) APPENDIX F. P e r s o n a l data sheet completed by e n l i s t e d apprentices and  ca r p e n t e r s . NAME .. .,... . r . .- ........... -.,........ (Last) (Given) NUMBER .RANK. ............. ................ PLACE OF BIRTH ....., .......... (Town) (Country) AGE........ .PRESENT TRADE AND GROUPING.................. LAST SCHOOL GRADE COMPLETED. .................... WHAT Y EAR WAS THIS? ........ . HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN IN YOUR PESENT TRADE?... ......... HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN IN THE FORCES AT YOUR PRESENT TRADE?.,.. APPENDIX G 0 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n sheet d i s t r i b u t e d to examiners. I n s t r u c t i o n f o r examiners. 1.. You may e x p l a i n the purpose of the test;; to f i n d out, by g i v i n g the t e s t to carpenters and s h i p w r i g h t s i n the three s e r v i c e s , how many of the questions . q u a l i f i e d carpenters can answer. When t h i s i s known i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to use the t e s t at a l a t e r date on men who c l a i m to be carpenters i n order to see whether, i n f a c t , i t i s l i k e l y that they are c a r p e n t e r s . This p a r t i c u l a r stage r i g h t now i s , t h e r e -f o r e , e x p e r i m e n t a l . Those who take the t e s t now are helping us to c a r r y out a s c i e n t i f i c experiment j,: they need f e e l no concern about t a k i n g i t heckse i t i s not they who are being tested;; r a t h e r , i t i s the t e s t which i s being-t e s t e d . I t w i l l be a f a i r t e s t of the t e s t , however, only i f those t a k i n g i t do t h e i r best to answer a l l the items. 2 . The procedure w i l l be:; (a) F i r s t , g ive the PERSONNEL TEST. The f i r s t ( f r o n t ) page i s f o r p r a c t i c e . I t should be woked through and any questions asked d e a l t w i t h . A f t e r t h i s the tradesmen w i l l be given twelve (12) minutes ( c a r e f u l l y timed) to answer the f i f t y .questions. (b) Then, give the CARPENTER'S CLASSIFICATION TEST. The cover page should be f i l l e d i n firsjb;, then the f o l l o w i n g pages of i n s t r u c t i o n s and sample questions should be followed, through to be sure the man understands what i s wanted. .After t h a t , the t e s t i t s e l f i s to be worked through at the man's own time, 3 . I t w i l l be most .useful i f , f o r each man t e s t e d the examiner can ob t a i n and append to h i s t e s t a statement or d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s formal trade . q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , or st a n d i n g , trade t e s t s c o r e s , l e v e l s of s k i l l or competence,and any other f a c t s i n d i c a t i v e of j u s t how good a carpenter he i s . Such w i l l provide a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a by which to assess the e f f i c a c y of the t e s t i t s e l f . A P P E N D I X H . CARPENTERS CLASSIFICATION TEST rf._ . - • " This is a test of your knowledge of carpentry terms, tools and practices.In the following pages you w i l l find a number of questions to be\answered. After each question there are four alternative—answersT~'rou are to select the answer that you think best f i t s the question asked. Cross out the number in the box in the right hand column which indicates the answer you have selected. When you are not sure which answer is correci make the best choice you can. Here are a few sample questions. Do them to be sure you .understand what i s wanted. Nails are driven with 1. a hammer, 2. a screw driver, 3. a chisel, 4. a saw?.... The answer, of course, i s number one so a cross has b< put in bo- number I., '"•'ere i s snot her. Which wouTn you uvf. he chev wonr ... . Tumber two i s right so a c-oss ha?, b-.^ en put in box number 2. ow do the rest of the questions in the booklet. Take 'our time and see how many you can get correct This i s used for 1. setting heavy screws 2. cutting wire 3. cutting sheet metal h. none of these ' 2. Plywood i s sold by the 1.board foot 2.square foot 3.pound.U.linear foot* 1 2 3 1 a 1 2 .3 k ft n - f l m BIM1I11IIIIIIIII MlMmiiiiiii 3 . Which i s a carriage bolt ? U, Which one would you use to fasten framing members to a concrete post?, 1 2 3 i 2 3 It 5. 6. 7. What kind of bolts "?re most commonly used to attach a wooden truck body to the chassis, 1.expansion bolts 2.drift bolts 3.stove bolts h. carriage bolts v.-. The most commonly used wood perservative i s 1.petroleum 2.creosote •3. benzol U.sodium fluoride .... 9 IX 1 3 Which of the'bits would be used to bore the 1/2" hole ? 2J2 3 U ft I 2 M 14 0 '"'M-cV would be the best cM'sel to use ir. cutting out mortise 9. mMch saw has the least set? .....rani , rhich saw v;ould you use for r~| I I coping a Moulding l o i n t ? . . . . I I1 2 I 3 U rxD j. • Thich of tbe above tool s could be used to sr.ootb a Niilroad tie?«- rTTTTT To turn the burr on a scraper you would use u 1. fi? , I I I 1 I rasp, 3. burnisher, 4. sker chisel II 1 gig I 41 To allov; screws to- enter rood nore e -.sily you would >e 1. so^p, 2. light o i l , 3. beesv:c»x, 4. gr-jMte.. • I 1 I 2 U M .4. The f i r s t step in sh^r^enine c saw is 1. settinc, i — i — i — r — \ 2. jointing, 3. f i l i n g , 4. shaping •' II I g h U l This is used for 1. reaming 2. setting heads of ecrewe 3. removing broken ecrewe 4. d r i l l i n g at angles ELH3 A chisel with thie type of handle i known ae a 1. stake chisel 2. eocket chisel 3. tang chisel r — i — i — • — i 4. framing c h i e e l J l 1 9\3\i\ Ineide and outside gouges are whetted on 1. an emery board, I I I I I 2. a whet6tone, 3. a elipstone, 4. a conical grindstone.... II I 2| 3 |4 } The tool which can be adjusted to bore various size holes ie called 1. an extension b i t , 2. a twist d r i l l , 3. a elipi—«—i • * etone,4. an adjustable bit 11 I 2 13 U | TVist d r i l l s are sharpened on 1. a grinder, 2. a special I I | I I f i l e , 7>, ? three square f i l e , 4. a rasp J l I 215 14-1 21. 22. 23. To plane surface the end of this board you would use 1. a jointer plane, 2. a block plane, 3. a smoothing plane, 4. a jack plane, 3. a smoothing plane, 4. a I I I I I plane I l l H ? U l " R H T refers to screwe , 2. brads, 3. dr.: Is 4. n i l s . [0333 The best wood to:-- naking tool handles ie 1. ''ick?vy, 1 1 1 1 1 2. ?feple, 3. Oak, 4. walnut Il I 21 31 4| lag screws are turned into wood by 1. a wrench, 2. a r i i i i screw driver, 3. pliers, 4 , a hammer,.....,,.. Il I 2l3 I 41 1 2 o 4 Which one of the above handles would b«s best s u i t e d f o r a n o r t i s e c h i s e l ? 1 2 In d r i l l i n g holes in scrap lumber wbcre n u i l s tire l i k e l y to be wet which b i t would *rou use? • 26. •ii i i ti 3 1-t-« J...I...J........ Which o f the above would you use to q u i c k l y t r a n s f e r an angle*' • " 2i± 27. 7hich would you use i n l a y i n g out mortises? , 4 flzsflfl • - f - ™ 1 30. I f the above plane i , : c u t t i n g too (unevenly) which number i n d i c a t e s deeply on one s i d e the p a r t to a d j u s t ? r • ••••• L 31. K7 This i s used when 1. g l u i n g j o i n t s , £. a p p l y i n g w a l l -4 . rawing pxons ~—i—1 —r~~i 1 |2 This i s a 1 . Fash "balance 2. measuring instrument 3. l a y i n g out t o o l 4. crimping t o o l ? i 33. Vhen 'vorking with 5 / S " c e i l i n g m a t e r i a l you would use 1. £"commoti nail's, 2. 1 1/2" f i n i s h i n g n a i l s , 3. 2 1/2" f i n i s h i n g n a i l s , 4. 1 1/4" brads? • L L 34. The "/ood most s u i t a b l e for-etude i s 1. Douglas 7 i r , 2. Red i—•—i—i— i Cedar, 3. P o p l a r , 4. White P i n e 1112 13 14- 1 35. ^he wood that i s e a s i e s t to work i s 1. Spruce, 2. F i n e , 3. F i r , 4. Hemlock? , 36. '''he str o n g e s t g e n e r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n lumber ie 1. F i r , 2. Hemlock, 3. Cedar, 4. F i n e ? •rTTTTTTn 37. I f you wanted a f l o o r that would be sure not to warp you would use f l o o r i n g t h a t was 1. p l a i n sawed, 2. r o t a r y c u t , 3. bas t a r d sawed, 4. qu a r t e r sawed? 213 3'3. Vhich one of the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s i s NOT found on the framing square 1. brace measure, 2. octagon measure, 3. square measure, 4. board measure? EE 3 " . 4C. 41. ;> f l i g h t of s t a i r s having 23 r i s e r s " / i l l have how many i i i —r—\ treads 1. 22, 2. 23, 3. 24, 4. none of these?, I l l 2 13 U 1 "he template used f o r l a y i n g out s t a i r c a r r i a g e s i s c a l l e d i i i i the 1. t r e a d , 2. s i l l , 3. p i t c h board, 4. f u r r i n g ? h 17 I 3 IA hat device i s used to f a s t e n c o r r u g a t e d i r o n r o o f i n g to an jen r a f t e r 1. jack r a f t e r s , 2. b r i d g i n g , 3. c r i p p l e s , 1 1 4 . p u r l i n s ? I H * \4 hlc.h : .-umber indicates the hip rafter? i t ™ The reason for using separators on the bridge bean on the le f t ie to 1. allow for shear, 2. allow greater f l e x i b i l i t y , 3. prevent sliding, 4. prevent decay? Tn bouse dwelling construction the studs are usually placed 1. 14H centres, 2. 16" centres, 3. 22" centres 4. 36" centres? 112(3 What depth joists are usually used for a floor with a 12 foot span 1. 6", 2. 3",3. 10", 4. 12"?... l l 2 l 3 U l The actual size of 2" X 4" S4S upon delivery is 1. 1 3/4" X 3 3/4", 2. 1 5/3" X 3 5/3", 3. 1 3/16" X I I I—|—I 3 5/8", 4. 2" X 4"? U 12 13 14 I How many board feet are there in a piece of lumber that T — 1 — p — T measures 10" X 12" X 3« 1. 120, 2. 30, 3. 72, 4. 96? 11 12 J3 1 The support for the second floor joists in a balloon frame is called a 1. girder, 2. ribbon, 3. ledger board, 4. s i l l ? 03 The finest grade of sandpaper liste d here ie 1. 3/0, 2. 1/2, 3. 1, 4. 3 ?.... In laying a 16" wooden shingle the gauge should be 1. 7", 2. 3 1/2", 3. 5", 4. 1 1/2"?.... 1 2 The principle consideration when choosing the type of roofing to be used is 1. the riBe of the roof, 2. the appearance of the roof, 3. the rafter placement in the roof, 4. the type of weather?. "his joint is a 1.'" tenon joint, £. straddle joint, 3. dowelled joint, 4. miter joint? In making a mortise and tenon joint which of the following tools would be of the least use 1. backsaw, 2. mallet, 3 . chisel 4. jointer? , r.rs This joint is 1. tree nailed, 2. toggle! 3. dowelled, 4. f i l l i s t e r e d ? The best practical method of joining s i l l s at corners is by.l.,a mitre joint, 2. a lap joint, 3. an open mortise joint, 4. a butt joint? In applying glue to members that frequently would be wet you would use 1. casein glue, 2. starch glue, 3. animal glue, 4. vegetable protein glue? , The best joint to be used in the construction of a door is the 1. dovetail joint, 2. mortise and tenon joint, 3. dowel joint, 4. lap joint? , The strongest method of building shelving is to 1. sere' on the shelf, 2. use a nailed butt joint, 3. nail on a cleat, 4. groove in the shelf? 7/hich number on the l e f t indicates the muntin?..., (SO. The joints on inside doors should be 1. but' joints, 2, scarf joints 3. mortise and tenon, 4. dowelled?... The gauge that ie used f o r l o c a t i n g l i n e s f o r door hinges i s c a l l e d the 1. mortise gauge, 2. marking gauge, 3 . p e n c i l gauge, 4 . b u t t gauge? 1 I 2 l 5|4| 63. 64. 65. This machine i s usea for 1. sawing boards, 2. sanding boards, 3. cutting grooves, 4. planing rough surfaces"... Which one of the following mouldings i s NOT used in interior trim 1. widow apron, 2. backhand, 3. aripcap, 4. shoe moulding? To prevent the baseboard from warping you can 1. use cover moulds, 2. plough out the back, 3. toe-nail base board,to floor, 4. glue to floor and wall? H E 1 2 13 4 D ^  /? 9 1 P 1 / * 4 Which of the above mouldings i s a dripcap moulding^ H 1 2 3 4 The s t r i p i n d i c a t e d by the l e t t e r A i s used f o r 1 . a t t a c h i n g window f i t t i n g s , 2. a guide s t r i p , 3 . a n a i l i n g s t r i p , 4. s u p p o r t i n g the __ j o i s t s ? . j l ^ The window frame opening on the l e f t . is p art of 1. a b a l l o o n frame, 2. a western frame, 3 . a braced frame, I I I , I. j 4. every frame s t r u c t u r e ? I 1 1^1* I'M Tn double hung windows the upper sash i s set outside the lower .sash i n order to 1. prevent leakage, 2. minimumize shrinkage e f f e c t , ' .3.- alio*;--' f o r e x t r a support, 4. orevent deca v? i \? 1 %U 1 Tn c a r p e n t r y the term "rhore" means a type of 1. wedge, 2. M b u t t m e n t , 3. brace, 4. foundation? 7C. ' • Which number i n d i c a t e s the s t o o l ? , H U E 71 .Vhut do-you c a l l " the s t r i p s of wood that have to be removed be f o r e the top sash can be removed 1. pocket cover, 2. stop sash, 3. p a r t i n g s t r i p , 4. top s t i l e ? JL The shaded p o r t i o n i s c a l l e d the 1. t i l i n g , 2. b l o c k i n g , r 3. s h o u l d e r i n g , 4. f l a s h i n g ? i 73. This type of^gjjfrf ie known ae a 1. mansard r o o f , £. gambrel roof*—•—j— 3 . hip r o o f , 4. gable r o o f ? |2 13 4 74 7f Thich number i n d i c a t e s the f r i e z e ? , In l a y i n g s h i p l a p e u b f l o o r i n g i t should be l a i d 1. crose g r a i n to the f i n a l f l o o r i n g , 2 . a t r i g h t angles to the j o i s t s , 3 . d i a g o n a l l y to the j o i s t s , 4. p a r a l l e l to the j o i s t s ? EH 111 Tthloh r.WBb«r indicates the dormer ridge? 111 g 13 77. In the above diagram "A" indicates what i s known as • I I I I 1 . waies, 2 . battens, 3 . ribbons, 4. shores?. . j l 1-2 13 14-1 78. * l a the above diagram **B" i s called a 1 . spreader, 2 . form • — i — i — r — i j o i s t , 3 . cross t i e , 4. separator? ... -P |2 I 3 I A l 79. TThioh of the following tools i s used to make dowel Joints • I I I I 1 . brace and b i t , 2 . dado head, 3 . panel saw 4. m n r t l a e r ? J l I 2 |j? |4 I 3 0 . Moisture within walls and ceilings can be prevented by the proper use of 1 . vapour barriers, 2 . sheathing, i i if i 3 . tar paper, 4. caulking? .11 I 213 14 3 1 . The best type of insulation to place in a remodelled house is 1 . reflective insulation, 2. 3 . f i l l insulation, 4 . . bat insulation? 2. blanket insulation, I "I _ I . I . 1 . . . . y J l l L l i J 8?. T^s depth of cut in a jointer i s regulated by 1 . adjusting the front table, 2. adjusting the knife clamping screw, 3 . vertical movenent of the cutter head, 4. moving the ad-justable fence?, 3D 83. . The purpose of a riving knife on a circular saw i s 1. to act as a guard, 2 . to allow larger stock to be cut, 3 . to i I I | I prevent binding, 4 . to remove shavings? . .1 11 21 314 I 84. The speed of rotation in an overhead lathe i s controlled by 1 . changing the diameter of the face plate, 2 . changir.,c the power inlet, 3.- by moving the belt on the cone nuiip>v 4 . varying the pressure on the spindle ? • I 1 lg I 3 1 A | How many squares of r o o f i n g m a t e r i a l w i l l be required to roof an area 20' X 33' a l l o w i n g 5<S wastage 1. l e s s than L ) I, 1 / 2, 2. 4, 3. 7, 4. 9? ^ \  c ' P I A formula f o r f i n d i n g board measure- i s 1.. t" X w." X 1" , 12 2'i t» X w" X 1.' , 3. t» X w" X 1", 4. t" X w" X 1 t o 12 144 IE A Which of the pj.an views i s that of elevated view "A" ?...Jl EI The a c t u a l distance between r a f t e r faces, w i l l be 1. not known 2. 16" 3. 14 3/8" 4. 13 5/8" 1. 2* 3. Which of the above i s a shiplap joint?. 4. What do you c a l l the pieces between the joists on long , battens, 1 1 «?.,,. 1 2 3 | 4 Rafters that run between the hip and valley rafters are called 1. hip jacks, 2. valley jacks, 3. ridge rafters, 4.. cripple jacks?. , f  If the t o t a l area to be covered by 6" siding, l a i d 4 1/ to the weather, i s 400 square feet, hov much siding would you order 1. 200 f t . B.Li., 2. 500 f t . 3.L. , •3. 400 f t . 2 .LI., 4. 250 f t . 3.H.? 93. Which size board would be best used a s a ribbon? 1. 1" x 6", 2. 1" x 2", 3. 2,,:.x 4", 4. 2" x 2" . . 1 I? 1314 94. The term "ogee'* applies to 1. drawings, 2..joints, 3. mouldings, 4. a type of chisel? 112 1 3M4. •95. The term "T and G" refers to 1. j o i n t s , 2. n a i l s , 3. screws, 4. hinges? S6i Which of the following statements i s generally accepted 1. tread plus twice the r i s e r equals 42 •2. tread plus twice the r i s e r equals 53 3. tread multiplied by the r i s e r equals 36 4. tread multiplied by the r i s e r equals 72? 97. r V . What do you c a l l the operation of chopping or planing j o i s t s so that a l l w i l l have the same crown 1. camberir 2. spreading, 3. fur r i n g , 4. chamfering? •I S3. This s used for 1. patterning hard wood 2. dressing emery wheel discs 3. setting saws 4. threading screw J J 4 _ no You would apply wallboard with 1. 2 1/2" finishing nails, 2. 1 1/4" fine nails, 3. 1 1/2" common nails, 4. 2" common -nails? • 100. What do you nail to the doors and windows to be used for guides in plastering.1. furring, 2. lathes, 3. grounds, 4. battens? 2 0 

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