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The chaetognaths of western Canadian coastal waters Lea, Helen Elizabeth 1954

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THE CHAETOGNATHS OP WESTERN CANADIAN COASTAL WATERS by HELEN ELIZABETH LEA A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OP THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of ZOOLOGY We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS Members of the Department of Zoology THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1954 ABSTRACT A study of the chaetognath population in the waters of western Canada was undertaken to discover what species were pre-sent and to determine their distribution. The plankton samples examined were collected by the Institute of Oceanography of the University of British Columbia i n the summers of 1953 and 1954 from eleven representative areas along the entire coastline of western Canada. It was hoped that the distribution study would correlate with fundamental oceanographic data, and that the pre-sence or absence of a given species of chaetognath might prove to be an indicator of oceanographic conditions. Four species of chaetognaths, representing two genera, were found to be pre-sent. One species, Sagitta elegans. was the most abundant and widely distributed species, occurring at least in small numbers in a l l the areas sampled. It was characteristic of the mixed coastal waters over the continental shelf and of the inland waters. Enkrohnla hamata. an oceanic form, occurred in most regions in small numbers as an immigrant, and was abundant to-ward the edge of the continental shelf. Sagitta lyra. s t r i c t l y a deep sea species, was found only i n the open waters along the outer coasts, and a few specimens of Sagitta decipiens. another oceanic form, were also taken in deep hauls from areas exposed to open ocean influence. It was found that the outer limit of Sagitta elegans corresponded with the inner limits of a l l three oceanic forms, though Eukrohnia hamata invaded the inland waters to some extent. TABLE OP CONTENTS Page 1. INTRODUCTION . 1 2. HISTORY . 2 3. ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION . . . 3 4. OCEAN0GRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING OCCURRENCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA . 4 5. AFFINITIES OF THE CHAETOGNATHS . . 7 6. ANATOMY OF CHAET OGNATHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Geheralappearance Development and maturity stages 7. MATERIAL . 13 8. TECHNIQUE OF EXAMINATION . 16 9. SPECIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 19 Descriptions of Species Eukrohnia hamata Sagitta~eiegahs Sagitta lyra Sagitta decipiens Keys to British Columbia Species 10. DISTRIBUTION AND FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE . . . . . 34 11. DISTRIBUTION IN EACH AREA 36 I Saanich Inlet II Indian Arm III Pehdrell Sound IV Channels north end Strait of Georgia V Bute Inlet VI Queen Charlotte Strait VII Queen Charlotte Sound VIII Hecate Strait IX Dixon Entrance X Masset Sound and Inlet XI West coast Queen Charlotte Islands 12. EVALUATION OF THE DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 13. SUMMARY . . . 80 14. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 82 15. LITERATURE CITED 84 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Plates Page I. Sagitta. diagrammatic drawing, ventral view . . . . 11 II. Eukrohnia hamata, large maturing and small mature, dorsal views . . . . . 21 III. Sagitta elegans, Sagitta decipiens^ and Sagitta lyra, dorsal views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Maps I. Coast of western Canada, regions investigated . . . 14 II. Saanich Inlet - stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 III. Indian Arm - stations . . . . . . . . . 45 IV. Pendrell Sound, Channels, and Bute Inlet - stations 48 V. Queen Charlotte Strait - stations 58 VI. Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait - stations 61 VII. Dixon Entrance - stations 67 VIII. Masset Sound and Inlet - stations . . . . , 73 IX. Queen Charlotte Islands - stations along west coast 77 Tables 1. Saanich Inlet, distribution of chaetognaths . . . . 41 2. Indian Arm, distribution of chaetognaths 46 3. Pendrell Sound, distribution of chaetognaths . . . 49 4. Channels north end Strait of Georgia, distribution of chaetognaths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 5. Bute Inlet, distribution of chaetognaths . . . . . 55 Page 6. Queen Charlotte Strait, distribution of chaetognaths. 59 7. Queen Charlotte Sound, distribution of chaetognaths . 62 8. Hecate Strait, distribution of chaetognaths 62 9. Dixon Entrance, distribution of chaetognaths . . . . 68 10. Masset Sound and Inlet, distribution of chaetognaths . . . . . 74 11. West coast Queen Charlotte Islands, distribution of chaetognaths . . . . . . . . . 78 # » * 1. INTRODUCTION Chaetognaths, or arrow worms, are conspicuous members of the plankton communities of the oceans of the world. More-over in some l o c a l i t i e s they have been found to be important indicator organisms, certain species being confined to waters with characteristic properties. When the requirements of var-ious species are known, i t may be possible to predict the char-acter and origin of a water mass on the basis of the presence therein of a particular species of chaetognath. In the English Channel, for example, where two species are predominant, the abundance of either one of the species gives information con-cerning the source of that particular water, and this knowledge is of value to the herring industry (Kemp,1938). While chaetognaths have been and are being studied ex-tensively in other parts of the world, including the east coast of Canada (Huntsman,1919), very l i t t l e i s known about the spe-cies present off the west coast of Canada or about their d i s t r i -bution. Except for the work of Michael (1909-1919) in the San Diego region of California, there are no other published studies of chaetognaths for any area in the eastern Pacific. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to acquire information about the chaetognath fauna of the coastal waters of Canada's western pro-vince of British Columbia, and with the hope, also, that the dis-tribution study would correlate with fundamental oceanographic data, and perhaps form a basis for more extensive plankton studies. 2 2. HISTORY Chaetognaths were f i r s t discovered in 1775 by Martin Slabber, who classified them as worms, and gave the species the generic name of Sagitta. The arrow worm was not mentioned again until 1827, when Quoy and Gaimard rediscovered It in the Mediterranean and published a description under the name of Sagitta bipunctata. They also called i t in French "Fleche deux points," or arrow with two dots, both names referring to the shape and to the two black spots which they thought might be the eyes. The description was very inadequate, since the animals are transparent and the microscope used was not as good as the modern instruments. Present day interest in the arrow worms dates from the publication of Quoy and Gaimard, but the confusion as to which species of arrow worm was Sagitta  blpunctata was not cleared up for many years. Leuchart (1854) created the Order Chaetognatha (Gr. chaite, bristle; gnathos, jaw). Two genera were recognized at that time, one Sagitta (Slabber) and the other Spadella (Langerhans). In 1883 Grass! produced a general work on the whole group, but probably the most important taxonomic contri-butions were made in 1911 by Ritter-Zahony, whose careful and complete descriptions and good drawings have been the basis for a l l work on identification since that time. Also important were the contemporary works of Michael (1909, 1911) for the San Diego region. Thomson (1947) in Australia has brought up to date a l l the Information on classification, technique, synonymy, and dis-3 tribution, and produced an excellent key for a l l valid species besides compiling an extensive bibliography. According to Thomson, there are now ten genera of chaetognaths, including one f o s s i l form. Seven of these genera are monospecific, in one genus there are two species, in another three, and the genus Sagitta contains twenty-six valid species. Several forms that have been described are s t i l l considered doubtful species, and further investigation w i l l be required, especially as to the environmental influence on the characteristics used for c l a s s i -fication. 3. ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION While chaetognaths occur in a l l oceans, the individual species are restricted to different regions, some being deep sea forms, others l i v i n g i n the epiplankton of the open sea, and some inhabiting only the mixed waters over the continental shelves near land. None of the species i s completely cosmo-politan, though many have a very wide distribution. Thomson (1947) states that eight of the Indo-Pacific forms do not reach the Atlantic, while five Atlantic species have not been reported from the Indo-Pacific. Species of deep oceanic waters have a wider distribution than those dwelling near the surface, since they are subject to very l i t t l e temperature change, though i n the warmer parts of the world they are found at greater depths than they are in the colder regions. Also the immature stages are often nearer the surface, while the mature ones are in 4 deeper water. Thomson says that the bulk of the chaetognath population, as with the plankton in general, i s concentrated in the upper one-hundred meters. Some of the species liv e at much greater depths, however, and according to Ritter-Zahony (1911b) they have been taken at depths of over 1200 meters. It Is possible that some species could be found in deeper hauls than are ordinarily made. Praser (1949) states that one speci-men of Krohnitta subtalis (Grassi) was taken where the depth exceeded 1800 meters. In a regional study, one must be aware of the fact that the chaetognath population may vary with the season, from one year to another, or with shifts in the currents. Some intensive regional studies have been undertaken, but much of the informa-tion available at present has been obtained through examination of material collected on occasional expeditions. As more regions are thoroughly studied, i t will be possible to form a much bet-ter picture of the global distribution of the chaetognaths. 4. 0CEAN0GRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING OCCURRENCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA In the north Pacific Ocean, the chaetognath fauna has been investigated in the Philippines (Michael,1919), in Japan (Tokioka,1940), and In southern California off San Diego (Michael,1909,1911). It might be expected that species found in any of these regions could also occur in the British Columbia waters. The North Equatorial Current flowing past the Philip-pines becomes the Euroshio Current along the south and east of Japan. Here i t i s joined by cold waters from the north and con-tinues eastward across the Pacific, approaching the coast of America in the vi c i n i t y of Vancouver Island. About four hundred miles offshore i t divides, part turning north and the remainder south (fully,1953). It closely approaches the shore in the region of the northern Queen Charlotte Islands and Dixon En-trance. Some of the waters of the Japanese Current pass along the coast of British Columbia as the southerly flowing Alaskan Current. This current follows a serpentine path to and from shore, according to Tully (1937). The coastal counter current carrying the fresh waters drained from the land, especially by the rivers large and small, tends to flow northward along the coast from San Diego to the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Off the west coast of Van-couver Island, this current flows northwestward regardless of the ebb and flow of the t i d a l currents, though part of i t i s dissipated in the gyros of the Alaskan current. The counter currents are strongest in May and June, when the spring freshets of the big rivers reach the sea. At this time the counter cur-rents are ten or more miles wide and carrying a layer of brack-ish waters at the surface, but later in the season they recede as the river flow decreases (Tully,1953'). A marginal turbulence between the coastal and the Alaskan currents i s present, and zones of sinking and rising waters occur throughout the area 6 (Tully,1937). The distribution of the f i s h in the waters of British Columbia i s known. Sub-arctic, sub-tropic, and temperate spe-cies are found in various areas at a l l times of the year, or are seasonal or occasional visitors (Clemens and Wilby,1946). The oceanic isotherm of the sub-tropical zone, which i s oppo-site San Francisco, curves northward and reaches the shores of the Queen Charlotte Islands and farther north. Sub-arctic tem-peratures occur north of that to the Aleutian Islands. Off shore at the surface of the ocean, where the water i s warmer, the southern forms of fish are found. The northern species occur in deep water, or may appear in the upwelled cold water near shore. In view of the facts just presented as to oceanic cur-rents, temperatures, and the known distribution of f i s h , i t was expected that there would be a varied chaetognath fauna along the western Canadian coast. Fifteen species have been identi-fied from the Philippines, eighteen from Japan, and thirteen from San Diego.. However, four species.only, representing two genera, were collected from the areas sampled in Canada. One additional species has been identified from the region (Sagitta  planetonls) by Dr. J.M. Thomson of Australia for Mr. R. Le Brasseur, student of the University of British Columbia. The specimen may have been an isolated immigrant, since i t was not found in the present survey, either in the region from which i t had been reported or from any other. Since no stations were located in the deep waters off the coast or beyond the contin-7 ental shelf, future work in the deep ocean could reveal the presence of many more species. The species found at any time in the British Columbia waters and their presence or absence in the other three regions of the north Pacific ocean, where the. chaetognath fauna has been investigated, are shown in 'the following table: In order of Abundance PHILIPPINES (Michael,1919) JAPAN (Tokioka,1940) CALIFORNIA (Michael,1911) Sagitta elegans - + -Eukrohnia hamata + - + Sagitta lyra - + + Sagitta decipiens + -i Sagitta planctoriis + - + The distribution i s of interest, though there i s insuf-ficient information about the l i f e histories of the different species and their occurrence i n intervening areas to draw signi-ficant conclusions. 5. AFFINITIES OF THE CHAETOGNATHS The position of arrow worms in the Animal Kingdom i s uncertain. The Phylum Chaetognatha i s usually grouped with miscellaneous other small phyla and the issue avoided. In the 8 Zoological Record chaetognaths are found under "Vermes." Bur-f i e l d (1927) says that they have been classified variously as Coelenterata, Nemathelminthes, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Verte-brata, Enteropneusta, and Annelida, but suggests that the chaetognaths probably originated from a very ancient, free-swimming stock, having a coelora s t i l l communicating with the gut, and called Protocoelomata by some writers. According to this theory, a l l coelornate animals have descended from that hypothetical stock, and the Chaetognatha would be considered as a very ancient and not greatly modified offshoot. Walcott (1911) found adult chaetognaths in British Columbia Middle Cambrian shales which were very much like the young animals of the present day just emerged from the egg, since there was no t a i l septum and the intestine terminated a l i t t l e beyond the center of the t a i l . Meek, discussing the classification in 1928, mentions the same long l i s t of phyla to which the arrow worms had at some time been assigned, adding Echinodermata, Rotifera, and Brachio-poda. He says that i t has long been known that developmentally the Chaetognatha come closely into relationship with the Echino-dermata and the Enteropneusta. The structural features of the adult, however, have been a puzzle and have lead to the confus-ion in classification. Meek thinks that chaetognaths are almost vertebrate in their organization, and that the Echinodermata, Enteropneusta, and Pterobranchia present such an assemblage of similar characters, sharing besides such a peculiarity of develop-ment, that he proposes the combination of a l l four groups into a 9 new phylum, called Hydrocoela. 6. ANATOMY OP CHAETOGNATHS Arrow worms are slender, transparent animals, the l a r -gest of which may reach a length of over seven centimeters. The body i s divided by transverse septa into head, trunk, and t a i l regions. Delicate fins along the sides are used for bal-ance and buoyancy rather than for swimming, and there i s also a caudal f i n at the end of the t a i l . On the head are lateral hooks and two paired rows of teeth used for seizing prey and crambing:$?t into the ventral mouth. A hood, originating in the neck region, partly covers the hooks. The eyes usually appear as two dark spots on the dorsal surface of the head. On the trunk a prominent structure i s the swollen ventral ganglion located on the ventral surface toward the anterior end. Just anterior to the t a i l septum i s the anal opening, and the sur-rounding tissues may be quite enlarged and protruding. In the larger specimens, spots consisting of groups of sensory fibers may be seen scattered regularly over the surface of the body and the fins. Since the animals are transparent, the internal organs may also be seen. The intestine i s a straight tube leading from the mouth to the anus, the part in the head often being called the pharynx. Mature or maturing specimens have ovaries extending forward from the t a i l septum and seminal vesicles projecting l a t e r a l l y at the sides of the t a i l . Chaetognaths 10 usually have longitudinal muscles only, and they swim in short, vibrating spurts. In the i l l u s t r a t i o n , (Plate I), the most obvious ex-ternal and internal structures, which include those necessary for species identification, are drawn and labeled. Very small chaetognaths just emerged from the egg look like adults, though the proportions are different. The t a i l i s longer, and the ventral ganglion, which does not increase much in size as the animal grows in length, i s almost as long as the trunk. Meek (1928) presents an excellent diagram of the rela-tive rates of growth of the various parts of the body of Sagitta  elegans. The animals lengthen considerably before they start to mature, though the length at maturity i s greatly influenced by the temperature of the water. Individuals of a given species mature earlier in warmer water, and in cold water often grow to a comparatively large size before maturing. Chaetognaths are hermaphroditic and protandric. A des-cription of the maturity stages of Sagitta elegans, as observed during this study, w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e f a i r l y well the development of chaetognaths in general. The male reproductive organs are located in the t a i l , and eventually the entire t a i l becomes completely f i l l e d with sperms. Even before the slight-est trace of ovaries can be seen, the t a i l may be so f u l l of spermatocytes and sperms as to be opaque and yellow in color. The seminal vesicles then begin to push out at the sides of the t a i l . At this time, short, rod-like ovaries make their appear-ance. The seminal vesicles grow rapidly and the sperms are ex-A N T E R I O R T E E T H P O S T E R I O R T E E T H HOOD A N T E R I O R S E P T U M - T A C T I L E P A P I L L A - V E N T R A L G A N G L I O N - I N T E S T I N E - A N T E R I O R F I N - O V A RY -OV I D U C T - P O S T E R I O R F I N . F E M A L E A P E R T U R E - S E M I N A L R E C E P T A C L E . A N U S - T A I L SE P T U M -T E S T I S - V A S D E F E R E N S - S E M I N A L V E S I C L E C A U D A L F I N P L A T E I. S A G I T T A . D I A G R A M M A T I C D R A W I N G - V E N T R A L V.EW 12 traded by the time the ovaries are completely mature. The t a i l i s then l e f t empty and transparent, and the spent seminal ves-icles are empty and ragged-looking. The shape of the seminal vesicles and their location on the t a i l in relation to the l a t -eral and t a i l fins are of specific importance, and when present they are an excellent recognition characteristic. As the ovaries mature they elongate, the length to which they reach anteriorly varying with age and species. In the early stages they appear slender and rod-like, the eggs a l l being small and of the same size. As some of the eggs increase in size, the ovaries become broader and bunchy in appearance. In mature individuals the ovaries have reached their extreme length and a l l the eggs are large. Animals that are about spent have a few large eggs scattered along the length of the ovaries with empty spaces between. Extrusion of the eggs ap-pears to complete the l i f e cycle for almost a l l species of chaetognaths, though Sagitta enflata, according to Thomson (1947) i s thought to have two cycles of reproduction. Of Sagitta elegans. Meek (1928) says, "It i s evident that, after spawning as females, Sagitta disappears, or apparently disap-pears, and i t may be therefore that the end of maturity i s also the end event of l i f e . " In discussing this aspect of the chaetognath l i f e history, Meek stated that two generations of S.elegans seem to develop each year in the Northumbrian waters, one spawning in the Spring and the other i n the Autumn. On the other hand, Russell (1933) says that "Sagitta i s an animal which passes through several generations in the year, possibly five or 13 six according to the species. 1 1 In the cold polar waters of the Canadian eastern Arctic with temperatures of 1°C or below, Dunbar (1941) found that the arctic sub-species of Sagitta  elegans takes two years to reach maturity. Reading of Sagitta by Burfield (1927) i s indispensable for a complete study of the anatomy and development of chaeto-gnaths. The subject of the Memoir i s Sagitta bipnnctata. 7. MATERIAL The collections studied in this investigation were made by Dr. Robert F. Scagel, assistant professor of oceanography, during cruises of the C.G.M.V.Cancolim II in 1953 and of the C.N.A.V.Ehkoli in 1954. Almost a l l of the material was col-lected from June 12 to September 5 in 1953, but one region was visited and hauls made on May 21 and 22 in 1954. The stations were located in a variety of areas extending from the northern-most to the southernmost part of the Pacific coast of Canada, as indicated on the map, Map I, and a study of the hauls gives a f a i r l y accurate overall picture of the distribution of the chaetognath population at that time, with the exception that there were no stations along the west coast of Vancouver Island nor in the deep waters of the Pacific Ocean. Since the cruises were not planned for the purpose of this investigation, and plankton hauls were not made at every station occupied, i t i s fortunate that the stations at which hauls were made were so well placed for a population and distribution study of the 15 entire region. The material available for study included 139 hauls from 113 stations. Several hauls were made at some of the stations where the ship was anchored for extensive oceano-graphic surveys. The hauls were made with a #10 nylon net having a dia-meter of thirty inches, the net being drawn vertically from the bottom to the surface. At every station data were recorded for temperatures, s a l i n i t i e s , and oxygen content at various levels. Since these data are indispensable in a distribution study, as much use as possible was made of the information. However, when specimens are taken in vertical hauls, there i s no way of knowing at what depth the chaetognaths were taken and what oceanographic conditions actually prevailed at that particular level. The samples were preserved in A% formalin, which has been found to be the best preservative for chaetognaths, and most of the specimens were in very good condition. An unsuccessful attempt was made to keep specimens alive in the laboratory for a study of their development and activity, besides a more accurate examination of their anatomy. The chaetognaths were collected during two winter cruises made by the Institute of Oceanography of the University of British Columbia. The animals were put immediately into ten-liter jugs. The f i r s t specimens collected were not aerated, but a second collection was made in which aerators, taken on the cruise for the purpose, were put into use as soon as the specimens were taken. Upon arrival at the laboratory the jars were immersed 16 in previously prepared water baths at 7°C, an average winter water temperature in the lo c a l i t y in which the specimens were taken. However in both cases the arrow worms were dead the next day. Burfield (1927) also found that he was unable to keep specimens alive for more than twenty-four hours, though he was able to use running sea water. 8. TECHNIQUE OF EXAMINATION Chaetognaths do not require staining for examination. If the specimens have been well preserved, they can be examined most easily by floating them in a l i t t l e of the 4% formalin in which they have been preserved. Because of their size, preliminary examination with a binocular microscope i s satisfactory. Evenually, when the species have become easily recognizable, the use of the bino-cular microscope i s a l l that i s necessary. Any specimen that looks different can then be examined more closely under a com-pound microscope. For examination of the animals, some type of container i s required that w i l l hold enough f l u i d to cover the specimens, but keep them from floating around too much, and be f l a t enough to be used with a compound microscope. Rectangular ce l l s built up on two sizes of slides with waterproof plastic glue met the requirements. On a large two by three inch slide the c e l l was 1 3/4 w long by 1 l/4 t t wide. This was long enough for a l l speci-mens found and wide enough to hold a row of ten or more chaeto-gnaths at the same time for rapid examination with the binocular 17 microscope. On a standard-sized slide the c e l l was 1 l/2» by 5/8°. This size was useful for viewing one to a few specimens at a time with the compound microscope. The c e l l was enough smaller than the large one to prevent the animal*s floating out of view. These two cell- s l i d e s were indispensable during the entire course of the work. To remove the animals from the plankton sample, i t was found that the best method was to pour a relatively thin layer of the sample into a petri dish. Under the petri dish was a square of black paper. Most of the larger animals could be seen without l i f t i n g the dish, but some were seen more easily i f the dish was picked up and rocked slowly. The binocular microscope was often used for the f i n a l examination, though not always. Any chaetognaths that were caught in the net used could be seen with the naked eye, the very smallest being almost two m i l l i -meters long. As the animals were picked out of the sample, they were put into another petri dish containing the &% formalin. In this the copepods, other animals, and plants that had stuck to them were washed off. The chaetognaths were then transferred a few at a time from this dish to the slide with the large c e l l for examination under the binocular microscope. A l l handling was done with a pair of curved forceps. The animals were picked up just posterior of the neck region to avoid injury to the fins. Measuring was done with a thin, f l a t , transparent ruler. This was easily slipped under the slide. 18 For more thorough examination of the f i n s , or in order to see and count the teeth and hooks, the animals were usually transferred to the small c e l l - s l i d e . It takes a great deal of patience to become adjusted to seeing the teeth. It was found that special lighting and adjustment of the microscope was required before they could be seen well enough to count. The technique employed involved the use of hollow-cone illumination. Various light f i l t e r s were tried, but green proved to be the most effective. Polarized light was a distinct aid in some cases, and a phase retardation plate helped to differentiate structures. The special lighting technique was developed by Dr. Kenneth Graham, professor of forest entomology, of the University of British Columbia, to whom the writer i s greatly indebted. The details in regard to increasing image contrast by the use of hollow-cone illumination are described by Mathews (1953). To determine the number of specimens present in each sample, the entire sample was examined and a l l specimens were removed. These were counted and the numbers of mature, matur-ing, and immature individuals were recorded as shown in the tables. The sizes of the largest and smallest specimens of each were also recorded. Individuals of Sagitta elegans were classified as mature i f they had well developed ovaries and seminal vesicles; maturing i f they had rod-like ovaries and also had seminal vesicles; and immature i f there were no semin-al vesicles, even though in some cases very small ovaries could be seen. Individuals of the other three species were designated as maturing i f they had ovaries but no seminal vesicles, and im-mature i f they had no ovaries. 9. SPECIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Four species only, representing two genera, were found to occur in the areas studied. These species are: Sagitta elegans V e r r i l l (1873) Sagitta lyra Krohn (1853) Sagitta decipiens Fowler (1905) Eukrohnia hamata (Mtfbius, 1875) Two of these species, Sagitta elegans and Eukrohnia hamata, were common, while the other two were found in small numbers only in the open ocean waters of the Queen Charlotte Islands and in Queen Charlotte Sound. It i s not d i f f i c u l t to differentiate the species, but S.elegans presents some problems since i t varies from region to region sufficiently i n trans-parency, proportions, and in numbers of hooks and teeth to jus-t i f y the recognition of three sub-species. In the descriptions of the species which follow, to f a c i l i t a t e the identification of the local species whether young or mature, observed pecularities and characteristics are included that are helpful, but would not be encountered in the keys or in more formal descriptions. Eukrohnia hamata (Plate II) This species, not as abundant as S.elegans. but apt to be present i n small numbers in most regions of British Columbia 20 can not be confused with any other. Even in a dish f u l l of chaetognaths, i t appears different to the naked eye. Speci-mens bent almost at right angles in the region of the ventral ganglion frequently prove to be this species. The bending may possibly be due to localized muscular disintegration following the animal's entrance into water of low salinity, as the spe-cies i s an oceanic form. Ritter-Zahony (1911a) remarked that some individuals of E.hamata he observed were uncommonly trans-parent and appeared to be undergoing a slow muscular atrophy. Besides the bending, there i s often marked curvature of the entire body. Also, the animals are ragged-looking along the sides, and debris in the form of copepods, other animals, or algae i s frequently entangled in the lateral or t a i l fins or in the hooks. Under the binocular microscope, E.hamata i s con-spicuous because of the large o i l droplets in the intestines. In addition the hooks are usually spread, and there i s a dis-tinct neck, making the head appear broad. The fi n s , wide, delicate, and sparsely rayed, one pair to each side, extend from in front of the ventral ganglion to half way down the t a i l . The t a i l has an angular appearance, while other species have smoothly tapering t a i l s . If the animal appears to have no eyes, one can be almost sure that the specimen i s E.hamata. since individuals l i v i n g i n cold water have no pigment i n their eyes (Thomson,1947), and none of those found in British Colum-bia waters did have pigment. Examination under the compound microscope reveals conspicuously serrated hooks in young in d i -viduals. Also while most chaetognaths, including a l l the others PLATE II. E U K R O H N I A H A M A T A . LARGE MATURING AND SMALL MATURE - DORSAL VIEWS 22. found in British Columbia, have two paired rows of teeth, Eukrohnia has only one paired row. Out of the 1018 individuals of E.hamata taken in the entire survey, 1002 were immature, 15 had rod-like or short ovaries, and only one was f u l l y mature. The completely matured specimen had a peculiar appearance, with the trunk almost en-t i r e l y f i l l e d with large eggs, and the t a i l swollen to about twice the size of the trunk. The drawing, Plate II, shows a large maturing specimen with three conspicuous o i l droplets and the much smaller mature individual mentioned above. Though, as previously stated, E.hamata i s an oceanic form, unlike the other deep sea species, i t had found i t s way into the shallow waters of many of the inland passages and inlets of British Columbia. According to Ritter-Zahony (1911b), in the tropics this species occurs at depths of from 400-1000 meters, but in the north i t may be found near the surface as well as in the deep waters. Sagitta elegans (Plate III) This i s the most abundant and widely distributed spe-cies in the region. S.elegans, unlike E. hamata, has two pairs of fins along the sides. The posterior ones are relatively long, broad, firm, and oval-shaped, with a greater proportion on the trunk than on the t a i l . The anterior fins are some dis-tance back from the ventral ganglion and are shorter and nar-rower than the posterior ones. Both pairs are completely rayed. Sometimes on preservation the sides of the trunk fold 23 in , and the anterior fins are folded out of sight. If the fins can not be seen, they w i l l be exposed by flattening the body gently in the f i n region. The neck of S.elegans i s broad, and the head usually does not look any wider than the body. However, should the animal be k i l l e d in the act of eating, the head w i l l appear very wide, and the hooks may even be inserted into the mouth. Very relaxed specimens may have the hooks spread. S.elegans i s usually quite s t i f f and sometimes opaque, but most specimens taken in British Columbia were transparent and many were flabby. The species usually has ten hooks, but though the number varies from eight to thirteen, there are never less than eight. The only other species in the region with which i t could be confused, S.decipiens. never has more than seven. The teeth are d i f f i c u l t to see and count, espe-c i a l l y in the more opaque specimens, but there are two paired rows of them, and they increase in number as the animals grow longer. Mature individuals have prominent, conical, seminal vesicles on each side of the t a i l , either touching the t a i l f i n or very close to i t , and distant from the posterior fins. The eggs are large and the ovaries extend well forward into the body cavity. The younger but maturing specimens have f l a t t e r seminal vesicles and slender rod-like ovaries, very short and inconspicuous in the youngest animals, but elongated and plainly visible in those approaching maturity. Sagitta elegans varies sufficiently from one region to 24 another to have made i t necessary to divide the species into three sub-species. The sub-species, as designated by Ritter-Zahony, (1911c), are S.elegans elegans. S.elegans arctica. and S.elegans baltica. Both Ritter-Zahony and more recently Hunts-man (1919), who investigated the sub-specific differences thor-oughly for the species in eastern Canadian waters, agree as to the general characteristics separating them. The figures used for length of body and t a i l proportions in the following des-criptions are Dr. Huntsman's. S.elegans baltica i s the smallest of the three forms, the largest caught in eastern Canada measuring 26 millimeters. The t a i l i s shortest in proportion, ranging from 14-19$ of the entire body, 16$ being the usual proportion. This sub-species has slightly fewer hooks; eight in the smaller specimens, i n -creasing to ten in longer ones, and decreasing to eight again in the longest. The maximum number of teeth attained i s also lower than in the other sub-species. The Baltic form i s more flabby, limp, and transparent than the others; the anterior fins are somewhat smaller; and the ovaries are shorter, reach-ing no farther than the anterior end of the posterior fins. S.elegans arctica grows to the largest size, the long-est specimen obtained by Dr. Huntsman measuring 52 millimeters. The t a i l i s long in proportion, ranging from 19-22$, with 20$ being most frequent. A greater number of hooks develop, the number increasing from eight to twelve as the animals lengthen, and there i s no decrease in the longest specimens as in the Baltic form. The number of teeth also increases as the animals 25 grow longer, more being present eventually than in the two other sub-species. The arctic form i s more opaque and s t i f f than the others, and the ovaries extend farther forward in the trunk. S.elegans elegans i s the intermediate form, the maxi-mum length being 36 millimeters in eastern Canada. The t a i l varies from 16-20#, usually being 11% of the body. The hooks increase from eight to eleven and, as in the arctic form, there i s no decrease as the animals grow longer. The number of teeth and variations in the fins, length of ovaries, and transparency is also intermediate. Dr. Huntsman says that the differences between the three sub-species are caused by differences in temperature during development. He found that the t a i l percentages did not vary much in the young individuals of the three kinds and concluded that this was due to the fact that the young of a l l occurred near the surface, where the water was relatively warm and the temperature did not vary much from one region to another. How-ever, the older individuals occupy the deep water, which does vary in temperature from place to place, and in these older animals differences in t a i l percentages appear. RLtter-Zahony (1911b) attributes the differences between the sub-species to the variation in the sal i n i t y of the water. In the early stages of the work in. identification of the species in the western Canadian waters, there was some de-lay caused by the fact that Michael had confused S.elegans with some other species in his identification in 1911 (Plate 2, 26 p. 173) and in his key in 1919, in which he located the seminal vesicles adjacent to the posterior fins rather than adjacent to the t a i l f i n . Later, after this d i f f i c u l t y was cleared up, the sub-specific differences seemed great enough at times to cause some doubt as to the species observed. Consequently Dr. J.M. Thomson, senior research officer of the Commonwealth Scienti-f i c and Industrial Research Organization, Division of Fisheries, in Australia was requested to identify specimens from Canadian waters. This he kindly consented to do, and sixteen unlabeled specimens, including thirteen S.elegans of a l l sizes, propor-tions, stages of maturity, and differences in transparency were sent to him. Specimens of S.lyra and S.decipiens were included. His identifications confirmed the conclusions reached by this investigator, and cleared up a l l doubt as to the identification of S.elegans in a l l i t s forms. In the distribution survey of the species in the wes-tern Canadian waters, no attempt was made to differentiate bet-ween the sub-species. Neither did Dr. Huntsman find i t worth while to consider them separately in his work in eastern Can-ada, since he found the sub-species were not distinct but were connected by intermediates. Fraser (1937) also observed that there i s very l i t t l e clear-cut difference between the varie-ties of S.elegans, and that a complete sequence of types can be found. In the entire survey, 9564 specimens of S.elegans were taken. Of this 654 were mature, 473 maturing, and 8437 were immature. There were almost ten times as many S.elegans as 2 7 s. ELEGANS S. LYRA PLATE III. S A G I T T A E L E G A N S , S .DECIP1ENS. AND S . L Y R A - DORSAL V.EWS 28 there were E.hamata, which was second in abundance. In ad-dition, 12% of the specimens of S.elegans were mature or matur-ing, compared with 2% for E.hamata. S.elegans has now been definitely established as the dominant species of chaetognath on both sides of the northern Atlantic and Pacific oceans, l i v i n g i n the cold, less saline waters of the continental shelves. In eastern Canada, Dr. Hunts-mans call s i t "the characteristic Sagitta of our Atlantic waters, w because of i t s general occurrence in the shallow water a l l along the coast. Very few specimens were collected by him in the deep waters beyond the continental shelf,. Tokioka (1940) states that S.elegans i s common in the cold waters of north-east Tyosen in Japan. Ritter-Zahony (1911b) found that i t inhabited the north-ern European coasts, and Meek (1928) found that i t was most often the dominant species in the Northumbrian plankton, while Fraser (1937) stated that i t was dominant where Atlantic water mixes with the coastal waters of western and northern Scotland. The species does not occur in the southern hemisphere. Sagitta lyra (Plate III) This species i s strikingly different from either E.hamata or S.elegans. The body i s flabby and exceedingly trans-parent. The entire trunk appears wide, constricting abruptly at the neck and also at the t a i l septum. The head i s broad and, in contrast to the transparency of the body, i s opaque, while the t a i l i s noticeably slender and very transparent. The two pairs of lateral fins are delicate and sparsely rayed, the 29 anterior ones being longer than the posterior. Because the fins are joined together, they appear almost like the single lateral fins of E.hamata,however they do not extend as far for-ward, reaching just short of the ventral ganglion, rather than extending anterior of i t . The caudal fins appear both d e l i -cate and unusually large. The rich-brown-colored hooks are con-spicuous in comparison with the tan ones of the other species. The location of the anal opening i s distinctive in S.lyra. In most species, including the others found in British Columbia, the opening i s adjacent to the t a i l septum, but in S.lyra i t i s very definitely anterior of the t a i l septum. The teeth of S.lyra are also characteristic. They are often very few in number, and the anterior ones are long and projecting upwards. The western Canadian specimens had only two to four anterior teeth and two to seven posterior ones in each row, but the num-ber i s variable, and large specimens may have as many as eight anterior teeth on each side and up to twelve in the posterior rows. Of the six specimens taken, only two were maturing and had very slender rod-like ovaries. The longest one, twenty-eight millimeters, had seminal vesicles just starting to develop. Mature specimens have small, conical ones lying half way between the posterior and t a i l fins (Ritter-Zahony, 1911a, I l l u s . ) . In the transparent t a i l , unlike S.elegans with i t s opaque t a i l , the male reproductive organs are plainly visible. This species grows to a very large size, and while animals over forty to f i f t y millimeters are seldom captured, Ritter-Zahony (1911a) 30 gives seventy-one millimeters as the maximum size for S.gazellae, which i s now considered the cold water form of S.lyra. S.lyra i s an almost cosmopolitan oceanic form usually found at a depth of 300-1000 meters, according to Ritter-Zahony (1911b). He found the young ones in the epiplankton and the mature ones deeper in the mesoplankton. The specimens obtained in the British Columbia region were taken along the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, none occurring in any of the inland waters. Sagitta decipiens (Plate III) This species resembles S.elegans somewhat. The body i s s t i f f and transparent and the fins delicate. The lateral fins are separated as in S.elegans. but the anterior ones are longer than the posterior and reach almost to the ventral ganglion. The caudal f i n i s small, and the t a i l i s proportionately longer than i t i s in the other two species of Sagitta in the region. In those taken the t a i l was 25$ of the total body length, but the possible range generally given i s 20-31$. Fowler (1905), in his original description, gives 25-40$. Compared with the usual 16-20$ for S.elegans and 16$ for S.lyra, 25$ i s notice-able. The head i s usually definitely wider than the body, rather rectangular in shape, and also quite transparent. The hooks are slender, scarcely pigmented, and few in number, vary-ing from five to seven. Specimens with five, six, and seven were observed. S.elegans does not have less than eight. The eyes of S.decipiens are characteristic and different from those 31 of other chaetognaths (Ritter-Zahony, 1911a, I l l u s . ) . They are longer than wide, looking like two joined slender beads. The species i s a small one, seldom reaching fifteen m i l l i -meters. Though Ritter-Zahony (1911c) stated that i t attained a size of twenty millimeters, Thomson (1947) gives twelve to thirteen millimeters for mature specimens in Australia. The largest taken in British Columbia was fourteen millimeters long and not f u l l y mature. Pour excellent specimens of S.decipiens were taken, as well as three others damaged beyond certain identification. The four that were definitely S.decipiens had well developed ovaries, the longest reaching to the posterior end of the ant-erior fin s , but none had seminal vesicles. The t a i l s were clear, and though one contained quite a number of transparent sperms, the t a i l was not opaque, as i n S.elegans at the same stage of maturity. Neither were the t a i l s as transparent as those of S.lyra. since the internal male reproductive organs were not visible. Ritter-Zahony (1911a) and Michael (1919) have pictured the seminal vesicles of S.decipiens as comma shaped, widest at the anterior end, and adjacent to the t a i l f i n . S.decipiens. like E.hamata and S.lyra, i s an oceanic form, which according to Ritter-Zahony (1911b) is found bet-ween 200 and 1200 meters. As with S.lyra, the mature forms are also found at the greater depths. The British Columbia specimens were taken in two deep hauls of 249 and 366 meters in open ocean areas. 32 It is not suggested that a l l species of chaetognaths which occur in British Columbia waters have been obtained. In the present investigation, S.decipiens i s reported for the f i r s t time, and S.planetonis was not taken. Other species undoubtedly occur in the deep oceanic waters and could be col-lected in offshore hauls. Also some of these might be carried into coastal waters from time to time. The following keys were constructed for the identifica-tion of specimens collected during this investigation. It i s intended that the use of the keys, with the aid of the descrip-tions, w i l l enable one to identify the species most commonly found in the area. Any specimen that could not be identified would possibly represent a new record. Because so few species are involved, d i f f i c u l t structural characteristics, such as the numbers of teeth, and structure and articulation of parts of the hooks, can be avoided in the keys. The f i r s t key i s for use with well preserved individuals with a l l fins present, the characteristics being obvious enough for identification under a binocular microscope only. In the other key, no use of the fins i s made, but examination with a compound microscope, and perhaps some manipulation, i s necessary for counting the hooks. 33 KEYS TO THE SPECIES OP BRITISH COLUMBIA CHAETOGNATHS FOR WELL-PRESERVED SPECIMENS 1. One pair of lateral fins or two connected pairs 2. No pigment in the eyes; anal opening at t a i l septum; o i l droplets in the intestine . . .E. hamata 2. Eyes pigmented; anal opening anterior of t a i l septum; no o i l droplets in the intestine. . S. lyra 1. Two pairs of lateral fins widely separated 2. Anterior fins longer than posterior and almost reaching ventral ganglion; hooks 5-7, usually 6 . . . . S. decipiens 2. Anterior fins shorter than posterior and some distance behind ventral ganglion; hooks 8-13, usually 10 . . . . . . . . S. elegans FOR SPECIMENS WITH DAMAGED PINS 1. Anal opening anterior of t a i l septum S. lyra 2. Anal opening at t a i l septum 2. No pigment in eyes E. hamata 2. Eyes pigmented 3. Hooks 5-7 S. decipiens 3. Hooks 8-13 S. elegans * * « 10. DISTRIBUTION AND FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE 34 The stations studied in the British Columbia survey were located ih eleven representative areas, as indicated on the map (Map I), extending along the entire coast of Canada, from Saan-ich Inlet in the south to Dixon Entrance in the north. The coast-line i s characterized by i t s ruggedness, steep shores, scarcity of beaches, and many deep and long inlets and channels. Numerous rivers of glacial origin discharge large enough volumes of fresh water into the sea to have a marked effect upon the fauna and flora of the region. The distribution of the chaetognaths re-flects both the geographic and oceanographic character of the area. Following i s the distribution of chaetognaths by areas. Area No. Sta. No. Hauls S.elegans E. hamata S.lyra S.decipiens Saanich Inlet 19 19 1456 23 Indian Arm 7(4) 12 837 Pendrell Sound 3 3 55 Chan. North Str.of Georgia 3 3 204 1 Bute Inlet 8 26 594 17 Queen Charlotte Strait 19 19 498 8 Queen Charlotte Sound 2 2 342 58 3 Hecate Strait 9 10 9 1 Dixon Entrance 19 19 2656 836 1+3? 4 Masset Sd.& In. 4 4 1847 W. Queen Charl. Islands 20 22 1066 74 6 35 The areas covered in the survey are li s t e d in order from south to north, and the number of stations occupied and number of hauls made are indicated, besides the total numbers of each species of chaetognath taken in the region. It i s obvious that S.elegans, the characteristic spe-cies of mixed coastal waters, occurred in abundance in most areas, and was present at least in small numbers in every reg-ion sampled. The oceanic E.hamata was most abundant in lo c a l i t i e s connected with the open ocean, though a few individuals had invaded most of the inland passages and inlets. No specimens were taken in the three inlets, Indian Arm, Pendrell Sound, and Hasset Sound and Inlet. The mouths of Indian Arm and Masset Sound are blocked by shallow, warm, water, and the warm tem-perature and lack of circulation in Pendrell Sound are a bar-r i e r to other plankton animals as well as to chaetognaths. As mentioned previously, few specimens of E.hamata were maturing. Also, no very young ones were taken from the inland waters, and i t appears that, on the whole in most l o c a l i t i e s , those present may have been migrants carried there by the currents. Redfield and Beale (1940) found the same situation in the Gulf of Maine, where E.hamata also ranked second in abundance to S.elegans. They concluded that because E.hamata lives near the surface of the ocean, i t comes into the Gulf with the currents, where as a terminal migrant from other regions in which i t breeds endemi-cally, i t lives as long as circumstances permit and dies with-out leaving progeny. 36 S.lyra. another species of the deep sea, i s rarely taken near shore. The six specimens obtained were a l l found off the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands very near the edge of the continental shelf. In eastern Canada, Dr. Huntsman found i t s inner limit was sixty miles off the continental shelf in May and June, but that i t was near the edge of the shelf in July and August. The British Columbia specimens were taken in August within a mile or two of the continental shelf. However, there are no data as yet in western Canada for the occurrence of this species during other parts of the year. A less common oceanic form i s S.decipiens. The two reg-ions where i t was taken are open coast areas, and both of the hauls were deep, being 249 meters in Queen Charlotte Sound and 366 meters at the outer end of Dixon Entrance. At least four specimens were taken, and in addition three damaged portions of chaetognaths appeared to be S.decipiens also. E.hamata was unusually abundant at the stations where S.decipiens was found, and i t appears that the inner limits of S.decipiens overlap somewhat with the outer limits of S.elegans and the region of increasing abundance of E.hamata. 11. DISTRIBUTION IN EACH AREA The eleven areas sampled are discussed separately, starting with the southernmost and working northward to the region most approaching oceanic conditions off the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Maps showing the locations of 37 the stations in each area, besides tables giving detailed data for the hauls are included. Evident peculiarities in the dis-tribution of the animals are pointed out, and oceanographic factors possibly influencing the distribution are suggested. Fortunately each area i s quite different i n geography and water conditions, a fact which adds to the value of the survey. I SAANICH INLET Map II; Table 1 Saanich Inlet, near the southeastern t i p of Vancouver Island, i s an inlet with a wide mouth, bounded by low h i l l s along i t s lower portion, but the upper part, extending into a canyon, i s similar to a Norwegian fjord. The inlet i s approxi-mately fifteen miles in length, and varies in width from five miles at the widest part to about one mile along Squally Reach in the canyon. The greatest depth of 231 meters i s just with-in the entrance of Squally Reach. Because there i s a rela-tively shallow s i l l at a depth of 62-73 meters at the mouth, the bottom water i s stagnant, being practically devoid of oxygen and reeking with hydrogen sulfide. Carter (1932) gives 90 meters as the depth at which the water becomes stagnant both physically and chemically. In 1954 there was practically no oxygen below 75 meters. The water in the inlet i s comparatively warm at the sur-face, the summer surface temperature ranging between 13.4-15°C, with a sharp drop of two to three degrees three meters below the surface. The bottom temperature drops another 2-5°C. The 38 sali n i t y i s lower than for the Pacific Ocean in this latitude (Sverdrup, et a l , 1952, give 33.64 °/oo for the Pacific Ocean at 40°N), and in August i t varies from 29.20 °/oo at the sur-face to 31.43 °/oo at the bottom. A small river enters the Inlet at the head and several streams add some fresh water, i f only during the spring freshet, but most of the fresh water probably enters by way of the mouth from Stuart Channel, down which an almost continuously flowing ebb t i d a l current brings fresh water from the huge Eraser River, from various smaller rivers, and the run-off of the abundant r a i n f a l l of the region. The material from Saanich Inlet was collected on May 21 and 22, 1954. Twenty stations were occupied, and most of the samples collected were examined. Unfortunately only eleven sta-tions could be located on the map (MapH), the data not having been assembled for the remaining ones. Most of the eleven sta-tions are toward the entrance of the Inlet, one being in the middle, but none at the head. The Saanich plankton samples look different from those taken from any other region. A l l of them are a bright, clear-green color and almost gelatinous in consistency, due to the presence of great numbers of fine green algae. Because each sample from Saanich was preserved in two or three bottles, a method of counting was used for most of these stations different from that used in a l l the other areas. For only two of the eleven stations was the entire sample ex-amined. For the others, one of the bottles was selected at random and the number of specimens present determined. This 39 number was then multiplied by two or three, as the case might be, to approximate the probable number of chaetognaths present in the complete sample. Counts were made for the entire sample for the hauls that could not be located geographically. Some interesting observations can be made from the data obtained for the stations shown on the map. Along the deeper mid-channel at stations 1, 3, 5, 8, and 13, S.elegans occurred f a i r l y abundantly, and many specimens were maturing or mature. Out of the 341 estimated specimens caught at these five sta-tions, 171 or 50% were immature, 29 or 9% were maturing and had seminal vesicles and rod-like ovaries, and 141 or 41$ were f u l l y mature. At the other stations, immature individuals were abun-dant, with the exception of the shallow hauls made at stations 6 and 10 in bays at opposite sides of the inlet. At station 9, near shore but in deeper water, a l l stages were f a i r l y abundant. At some of the stations that could not be located, and which were possibly in the upper part of the Inlet, the population was quite dense, and a large number of mature specimens was pre-sent. Since a l l the maturity stages occurred in significant numbers in Saanich Inlet, one can conclude that the Inlet pro-vides a suitable habitat for the species, and that S.elegans i s probably endemic. E.hamata was also present in the Inlet, though in small numbers. Only twenty-three specimens, a l l immature and rather large (13-17 mm.) were taken in the deeper hauls. One must assume, since there were neither mature specimens nor very small ones, that the ones taken probably found their way into the i n -let by way of Stuart Channel and were not indigenous to the inlet. 49° 35' I 2 3 ° 30' M A P II. S A A N I C H I N L E T - STATIONS Position Station Hauls per Sta. f Depth in Meters Sagitta elegans Numbers & Maturity [Size in mm. Eukrohnia hi Numbers & Maturity imata Size in mm. Channel N S West N S East N S 1 1 66 Mature 1x3= 3 Immature 10x3= 30 22.5 4.5 - 13 -3 1 99 Mature 35 Maturing 15 Immature 41 21.5 - 29 14 - 20 5.5 - 14.5 -5 1 155 Mature 41x2= 82 Maturing 1x2= 2 Immature 20x2= 40 17 - 26 16.5 5.5 - 14 -8 1 192 Mature 5x3= 15 Maturing 3x3= 9 Immature 14x3= 42 21.5 - 24 17 - 20.5 7 - 1 4 Immature 1x3= 3 14 13 1 123 Mature 2x3= 6 Maturing 1x3= 3 Immature 6x3= 18 20 - 20.5 17.5 7.5 - 13.5 Immature 2x3= 6 13 - 15 2 1 80 Maturing 2x2= 4 Immature 43x2= 86 13 - 14 4.5 - 16.5 -6 1 18 Immature 9x2= 18 4.5 - 7.5 mm 7 1 40 Immature 49x2= 98 4.5 - 12 *m 4 1 42 Immature 75 4-14 •m 10 I 22 Immature 7x2= 14 4.5 - 8.5 mm 9 1 84 Mature 5x2= 10 Maturing 13x2= 26 Immature 37x2= 74 21.5 - 27 14 - 20.5 6.5 - 15.5 - i i i i Table 1 - SAANICH INLET Distribution of Chaetognaths (Con. next page) P Position Station Hauls per St a. Depth In Meters Sagitta elep ;ans Eukrohnia hamata Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Not located 12 1 Immature 4 6 - 1 0 — Not located 14 1 229 Mature 12 Maturing 24 Immature 65 20.5 - 26 14-19 7 - 14.5 Immature 2 16 Not located 15 1 Immature 133 7 - 1 4 Not located 16 1 - Mature 28 Maturing 28 Immature 185 14 - 28.5 12 - 20 6-16 Immature 4 13 - 15 Not located 17 1 - Mature 11 Maturing 11 Immature 49 20 - 25 16 - 19 7 - 1 4 Immature 4 14 - 16 Not located 18 1 192 Mature 41 Maturing 6 Immature 5 18 - 25.5 18 - 21.5 9.5 - 13.5 Immature 4 15 - 17 Not located 19 1 139 Mature 96 Maturing 6 Immature 2 20 - 26 17 - 21 16-23 mm Not located 20 1 1.5 Immature 3 5.5 - 8 • Mature 339 ) Totals Maturing 134 ) 1456 Immature 23 Immature 983 ) Table 1 - SAANICH INLET Distribution of Chaetognaths Cruise 54/l j May 21-22, 1954 ; C.N.A.V. Ehkoli j Nineteen stations, nineteen hauls. 42 II INDIAM ARM Map III; Table 2 Indian Arm i s a long, narrow branch of Burrard Inlet, near the city of Vancouver, extending about fourteen miles inland. At i t s widest point, not far from the mouth, i t i s a mile and a half across, but most of the arm i s only about half a mile wide. The entrance i s narrow, and l i k e Saanich Inlet, i t has a s i l l that i s considerably shallower than the average depth. Consequently the bottom waters are stagnant. The s i l l i s only 35 meters deep, and the average depth of the arm, ac-cording to Carter (1932), i s from 146 to 183 meters, with depths up to 220 meters in parts where the mountain walls are the most precipitous. The September surface temperature i s very high compared with Saanich in August, the highest temperature being I9°C at the head. The surface water gradually cools as i t progresses toward the mouth, where the temperature was only 15°C. The-water i s colder at the bottom, dropping to about 8°C in the deepest part in the middle of the Arm. At three meters below the surface there i s both a distinct thermocline and halocline. The temperature drops suddenly four to five degrees, and the salinity increases 4-6 °/oo. The sa l i n i t y varies from 18.06 °/oo at the surface at the head to 28 °/oo in the deepest water. At the bottom the water i s even less saline than the surface water of Saanich. The low salinity results from the large volume of water poured in at the head by the Indian River. 43 The material from Indian Arm was collected on September 4 and 5 in 1953. There were seven stations in four areas, twelve hauls being made. Duplicate stations occupied on two successive days were located near the entrance, in the middle, and near the head. A single station was at the very upper end. S.elegans constitutes the entire chaetognath population of Indian Arm, this inlet being one of three among a l l the areas sampled where no E.hamata were taken. The distribution of S.elegans was especially interesting. In one haul near the entrance there were no chaetognaths and in a haul in the same location the next day there were only three large, immature ones, while halfway up the Arm, S.elegans was both large and abundant and in a l l maturity stages. Near the head there were fewer indi -viduals, but more of them were mature. The immature ones were mostly small. At the station near the extreme tip of the Arm, where the water was only forty-nine meters deep, chaetognaths were completely absent. At the location approaching the head, seven hauls in a l l were made. The proportions for the different maturity stages were about the same in every haul made. The average for the six hauls at station 174 was 9 mature, 4 maturing, and 43 immature, as compared with the one haul in the same location at station 172 earlier in the day, in which there were 7 mature, 7 maturing, and 44 immature individuals. When collecting material with vertical hauls i t i s im-possible to know at what depth the specimens were l i v i n g , but in the middle of the Arm where the hauls were deepest, as pre-44 viously stated, S.elegans was both largest and most abundant. It is known that the larger specimens go into the deeper water. However, great depths may not be a factor, especially when the bottom waters are stagnant. Perhaps the length of the l i f e cycle in combination with the rate of flow of the currents in the Arm determine at what point the different sizes and stages w i l l be at any given time. The surface water flows toward the mouth, and Carter (1932) states that the progress from the head toward the sea i s slow. The deep current flowing in the opposite direction would then likewise be slow. Since there were more mature spe-cimens at the head than anywhere else, i t may be that as the deep current moves slowly toward the head, the large immature specimens are carried that way, and are ready for spawning by the time they reach the head. The younger forms l i v e near the surface (Huntsman,1919) and would travel in the direction of the surface current. These young individuals may attain the age when they seek greater depths by the time they reach the middle of the Arm. And so the cycle continues, few individuals ever reaching the mouth of the in l e t . The circulation then would account for the distribution of the indigenous population. The location in the Inlet of the various maturity stages could also be explained by Meek's (1928) observation that at spawning time S.elegans seeks the more shallow (less saline?) inshore waters, and that the maturing individuals migrate out-ward into deeper water. The high temperatures from top to bottom in the shallow MAP III. I N D I A N A R M - STATIONS Position Station Hauls per Sta. Depth in Meters Sagitta ele Numbers & Maturity eahs Size in mm. Mouth 176 1 70 Immature 3 23 - 25 Middle* Head ' f r 171 1 209 Mature 6 Maturing 4 Immature 242 19 - 21 16 - 22 13.5 - 25 175 1 217 Mature » 6 + Maturing * 3+ Immature * 182+ 13 - 22 22 - 24 11-26 172 1 78 Mature 7 Maturing 7 Immature 44 16 - 22 14 - 18 9-22 174 1 86 Mature 52 Maturing 21 Immature 260 18 - 23 13-18 8 - 2 5 Some had been removed. Mature 71 ) Totals Maturing 35 ) 837 Immature 731 ) Table 2 - INDIAN ARM Distribution of Chaetognaths Cruise 53/7 j September 4-5, 1953ij C.G.M.V.Cancolim II ; Seven(four) stations, twelve hauls. 47 water toward the mouth, could be a barrier to the chaetognaths in the Arm, as well as one preventing the entrance of migrants from the outside, including occasional visitors like the oceanic B.hamata. Polution of the waters near the entrance by sewage from the c i t y of Vancouver could be another factor. I l l PENDRELL SOUND Map IV; Table 3 Pendrell Sound, seven miles long and one-half to one and a quarter miles wide, almost bisects the westernmost of the two Redonda Islands at the head of the Strait of Georgia. The depths to which the vertical hauls in the present survey were made indi-cate that the bottom slopes gradually from the head to a depth of 347 meters at the mouth. The surface temperatures were high, though lower than the maximum in Indian Arm a month later. At the head of Pendrell, the temperature at the surface was 16.7°C, and i t dropped almost exactly one degree toward the mouth. Un-like Indian Arm, there was no thermocline, the temperature decreasing gradually to just over 8°C at the bottom. The water was less saline at the surface, but was least saline at the mouth, rather than at the head. Vertically the sa l i n i t y also varied gradually from 18.24 °/oo a t the surface to 30.80 °/oo at the bottom. There i s no river discharge into the Sound, the fresh water supposedly entering by way of Waddington Channel from nearby Toba or Bute Inlets. An exploratory survey made by the Institute of Oceanography of the University of British Columbia 48 —s— I 25° MAP IV. P E N D R E L L S O U N D , C H A N N E L S , AND B U T E I N L E T - STATIONS Position Station Hauls per Sta Depth ,in Meters Sagitta elet Numbers & Maturity <;ans Size in mm. Mouth Middle 151 1 347 Immature 49 11 - 20.5 . 154 1 240 Immature 6 12-16 Total Immature 55 Table 3 - PENDRELL SOUND Distribution of Chaetognaths Cruise 53/7 j August 24-25, 1953 ; C.G.M.V.Cancolim II j Three stations, three hauls. Position Station Hauls per Sta. Depth In Meters Sagitta elei Numbers & Maturity jans sTze in mm. Eukrohnia he Numbers & Maturity imata Size in mm. SE SW North 150 1 439 Immature 65 12 - 19.5 mm 149 1 183 Immature 58 10.5 - 23 mm 147 1 366 Mature 3 Maturing 2 Immature 76 22-27 19 - 21 9 - 22.5 Immature 1 17 Mature 3 ) Immature 1 Totals Maturing 2 ) 204 Immature 199 ) Table 4 - CHANNELS NORTH END STRAIT OF GEORGIA Distribution of Chaetognaths Cruise 53/7 ; August 23, 1953 j C.G.M.V. Cancolim ; Three stations, three hauls. \ 50 in the summer of 1951 also established the fact that there was very l i t t l e circulation in the Sound. Pendrell Sound was one of the three areas where S.elegans was the only chaetognath present. However, the dis-tribution of this species was unique in that the population was a l l concentrated toward the entrance, and a l l specimens taken were small and immature, ranging in size from 11-20.5 millimeters. The chaetognaths in the Sound must have entered at the mouth through random swimming. Lack of food supply to-ward the head may have been a factor in preventing deeper pene-tration into the Inlet. Examination of the specimens during this survey showed copepods to be an important source of food for chaetognaths, and in Pendrell Sound, the copepods are also concentrated toward the entrance. (Le Brasseur,1954, unpub;). IV CHANNELS NORTH END STRAIT OF GEORGIA Map IV; Table 4 Three hauls were made on August 23, 1953 in the channels at the north end of the Strait of Georgia off the Redonda Islands and leading to Bute Inlet. The stations were located at inter-vals covering a distance of fourteen miles. One was in Desola-tion Sound, off the southern shores of the Redonda Islands, another at the entrance of the narrow Lewis Channel, on the west side of the same islands, and the third in Calm Channel, off the mouth of Bute Inlet. The depths of the hauls indicate that the channels are f a i r l y deep, the deepest haul being made in Desola-51 tion Sound at a depth of 439 meters. The surface temperatures were a l l higher than those just within Bute Inlet and reach 16.4°C at the entrance of Lewis Channel. At this station the tempera-ture decreased gradually from the surface to 8.4°C at the bottom, the salinity also increasing gradually, but at the station far-ther north in Calm Channel, the surface water was four degrees warmer than i t was at a depth of three meters. In Desolation Sound, the warmest water was ten meters below the surface. The waters from top to bottom for a l l stations were less saline than the open Pacific, increasing from 16.66 °/oo at the surface to 30.90 °/oo at the bottom. The t i d a l currents in a l l three loca-tions are weak (Great Britain. Hydrographic Office, 1951), and the temperature and salinity data do not give evidence of much mixing. At the two southern stations, as in Pendrell Sound, S.elegans only was found, and though i t was present in some num-bers, a l l individuals were immature. In Calm Channel, a l l mat-urity stages of this species occurred, and in addition one rather large immature E.hamata was taken. Since both species occur in Bute Inlet in a l l maturity stages, and the water conditions in Calm Channel are similar to those in Bute, i t i s not surprising to find a similar population just outside the mouth of the Inlet. 52 V BUTE INLET Map TV; Table 5 Bute Inlet, not far beyond the northern end of the Strait of Georgia, i s one of the long, narrow, deep inlets characteristic of the British Columbia coastline. Only one to two miles wide, Bute Inlet extends forty-six miles inland bet-ween mountains that rise abruptly 5000-8000 feet to snow-covered peaks. It i s one of the deeper inlets along the coast, the deepest haul reaching to 636 meters. There i s no pronounced s i l l at the entrance, though the bottom of Calm Channel off the mouth, i s over 200 meters above that of Bute just inside the mouth. There i s at most 41$ less oxygen at 600 meters than there i s at the surface, and the bottom i s definitely not stag-nant. At the head of the Inlet there are two valleys, and a large river of glacial origin flows out of each, making the head waters of Bute s i l t y . A layer of this cold, "milky," water of low salinity ten meters deep flows seaward over a warmer, more saline layer below. The surface temperatures in August were from 71-8.5°C in the upper reaches, while ten meters below the surface, the temperature was around 10°C. Below the thermocline, the tem-perature decreased gradually to 8°C at the bottom. Toward the middle of the Inlet the thermocline was only three meters below the surface, and the surface had warmed to 10°C with the layer below only just over one degree warmer. Pickard (1932) states that seasonal cooling and warming penetrate to about 300 feet 53 (91.4 meters), but that below this depth changes appear to take place slowly and probably irregularly. The water at the head of Bute Inlet i s almost fresh. At station 140 in August, the surface salinity was 0.61 °/oo. Though the surface salinity increases as the water flows toward the entrance, i t was only 7.14 °/oo at the mouth. At the ten-meter level below the surface at station 140, the salt content increased sharply to 27.36 °/oo. During the progress of the water toward the mouth, the difference in sal i n i t y of the sur-face and under layer becomes less pronounced, until near the mouth there i s a difference of only five parts per thousand. At a l l stations the deep water was between 30 and 31 °/oo. As the surface water flows out of Bute Inlet the re-placement from Calm Channel enters at greater depths. The cur-rent in the deep water then flows toward the head, the direc-tion of flow being opposite to that of the surface current. Twenty-six hauls were made at eight stations in Bute Inlet from August 20 to 23 in 1953. These stations were approxi-mately equidistant along the entire length of the i n l e t . Both S.elegans and E.hamata occurred in a l l maturity stages. S.elegans was abundant only toward the mouth, though almost a l l of the specimens taken were rather small and immature. In the center of the Inlet the population was not large, but a few individuals were mature or maturing. Toward the head, though even fewer specimens were taken, 30% of them were maturing. Neither was E.hamata present in great numbers, but conditions in the Inlet appear to be favorable to the extent that most of the few indi -54 viduals taken were maturing. Also, the only f u l l y mature speci-men obtained throughout the entire survey (Plate II) came from the middle of Bute Inlet. A l l of the specimens of B.hamata taken were in the lower half of the Inlet, and most of these were toward the mouth. The explanation of the distribution of S.elegans in Bute Inlet might be similar to that for the species in Indian Arm, though the mouth i s not blocked by a shallow s i l l , and the haul in Calm Channel below the mouth shows that the distribution i s continuous with the outside waters. Considering the Inlet only, toward the mouth the animals were immature but not very small and may have reached the stage where they had sought deeper waters. These specimens then would be at a depth at which the current would be flowing toward the head. As they progressed in that direction, they would be maturing, eventually coming near the surface to spawn farther up the inl e t . The young then would be in the upper waters moving seaward, where they would later migrate into the deeper water near the mouth. The distribution of E.hamata appears to be quite random. Perhaps migrants entering at the mouth, because conditions are suitable in the Inlet, are able to mature as they progress up the Inlet with the current in the deep water. Since the inlet i s a long one, the time for spawning may arrive before they pene-trate the waters near the head. Then when spawning takes place, the young near the surface are swept out the mouth in the seaward flowing surface current. Position Station Hauls per Sta. Depth in Meters Sagitta ele gans Eukrohnia hamata Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Mouth Head 146 1 594 Immature 181 20 - 23 Maturing 4 17 - 19 144 5 600 Maturing 1 Immature 175 23 12 - 23.5 Maturing 2 Immature 6 23 - 27 14 - 17 145 1 636 Immature 13 14 - 20 143 8 600 Mature 2 Maturing 4 Immature 115 20 - 24 15 18 10 - 21 Mature 1 Maturing 2 Immature 1 14 1 3 - 1 5 11 142 1 500 Maturing 4 Immature 10 18 - 23 12.5 - 18 Immature 1 13 141 1 411 Maturing 2 Immature 6 18.5 - 21 13 - 19 -139 8 300 Maturing 27 Immature 45 16 - 25 10.5 - 18 -140 - 1 200 Maturing 1 Immature 8 21 12.5 - 17 -Mature 2 ) Mature 1 ) Totals Maturing 39 ) 594 Maturing 8 ) 17 Immature 553 ) Immature 8 ) Table 5 - BUTE INLET Distribution of Chaetognaths Cruise 53/7 j August 20-23, 1953 ; C.G.M.V.Cancollm II j Eight stations, twenty-six hauls. 56 Had the object been only to discover the distribution of S.elegans and E.hamata in the Inlet, i t would not have been necessary to examine a l l the hauls made at three of the sta-tions where the ship was anchored for a long period of time, hauls being made at regular intervals over a period of twenty-four hours. However, S.planetonis had been reported from the area, a specimen sent by Mr. Le Brasseur to Dr. Thomson in Australia having been identified as that species. A very thor-ough examination of a l l twenty-six hauls failed to locate an-other specimen. It would be rather unusual for this deep sea species to survive a journey into the less saline inland waters, though in the future, perhaps another specimen could again be taken unexpectedly somewhere in the British Columbia coastal waters. VI QUEEN CHARLOTTE STRAIT Hap V; Table 6 Queen Charlotte Strait, between the northern portion of Vancouver Island and the British Columbia mainland, opens on the oceanic Queen Charlotte Sound. At the other end i s the narrow, two and one-half mile wide Johnstone Strait leading to Seymour Narrows, Discovery Pass, and the Strait of Georgia. Queen Charlotte Strait i s sixty-two miles long and twelve to twenty miles wide. It is not very deep in most parts, averag-ing less than one hundred meters, though at one point near the east end of Nigei Island.not far from the entrance there i s a 57 deep of 406 meters. Another deep of 470 meters i s just within the entrance of Johnstone Strait. The surface temperature of 8.5-9.7°C i n Queen Charlotte Strait in June i s about the same as the surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean in the same latitude, and the bottom i s only one to two degrees colder. The Strait i s slightly less saline than the Ocean, varying from a maximum of 31.63 °/oo at the surface near the entrance to 33.47 °/oo at the bottom. The waters are thoroughly mixed by the tid a l currents, the flood entering from Queen Charlotte Sound and flowing along the south-ern shores, and the ebb passing out along the northern side. There were nineteen hauls made at nineteen stations in Queen Charlotte Strait between June 12 and 16 in 1953. S.ele- gans occurred in every haul, and there was at least one immature E.hamata in most hauls made in the channel, though there were none near the coastlines. At the ocean end of the Strait, the specimens of S.elegans taken were small and immature. A greater number were taken in the central part of the Strait and quite a few of these were mature. The mature ones were both at mid channel and along the north shore. Along the south shore the specimens were imma-ture. It would appear that the animals were maturing in the mixed waters of the ebb tidal current, while the immature forms are more widely distributed. As previously stated, other inves-tigators have found that S.elegans moves shoreward into the more mixed coastal waters to spawn, and the distribution picture in Queen Charlotte Strait seems to be in accord with those findings. Position Station Hauls per Sta. Depth in Meters Sagitta elegans Eukrohnia hamata Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Mid-chan. W E Johnstone Str. 16 91 Immature 8 5.5 - 9 Immature 1 9 13 91 Immature 4 4 - 8.5 8 1 91 Mature 17 Maturing 20 Immature 28 18.5 - 23 15.5 - 19 7 - 1 6 Immature 1 7.5 9 71 Maturing 15 Immature 55 15 - 20.5 1 - 1 5 Immature 1 9.5 5 1 91 Mature 4 Maturing 6 Immature 23 18.5 - 25 18 - 19 6.5 - 18 Immature 1 16 4 1 91 Mature 7 Maturing 12 Immature 25 19 - 23.5 14 - 19 1.5 - 14.5 Immature 3 9-12 3 65 Maturing 4 Immature 40 15 - 19 3-14 mm 1 91 Mature 1 Immature 8 22 8.5 - 12.5 -2 1 66 Maturing 9 Immature 35 16 - 19 2 - 16.5 Table 6 - QUEEN CHARLOTTE STRAIT Distribution of Chaetognaths ( Con. on next page ) Position Station Hauls per Sta. De pt-h in Meters Sagitta elej gns Eukrohnia hamata Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. N Shore W E S Shore W •J' . E North Malcolm 15 1 91 Immature 16 2.5 - 12 — 14 1 91 Mature 10 Maturing 12 Immature 27 19 - 22.5 17 - 20 9 - 18.5 -7 1 91 Mature 2 Maturing 1 Immature 8 23 17 7.5 - 11 -6 1 91 Maturing 1 Immature 16 16 5 - 15.5 -17 1 20 Immature 1 11.5 18 1 71 Immature 4 1 - 13 12 1 91 Mature 1 Immature 13 20 6 - 10.5 m 10 1 91 Immature 18 3 - 1 1 Immature 1 7.5 11 1 46 Immature 43 1.5 - 13 — 19 1 10 Immature 4 1.5 - 4 Mature 42 ) Totals Maturing 80 ) 498 Immature 8 Immature 376 ) Table 6 - QUEEN CHARLOTTE STRAIT Distribution of Chaetognaths Cruise 53/2 j June 12-14,16, 1953 ; C.G.M.V.Cancolim II ; Nineteen stations, nineteen hauls. Since the eight specimens of E.hamata taken were small, immature and scattered near mid-channel, i t would seem that they were migrants brought in by the flood tide. VII QUEEN CHARLOTTE SOUND Map VI; Table 7 Queen Charlotte Sound i s the open ocean area between Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands. At the north i s Hecate Strait. The Sound i s about seventy-five miles long and up to one hundred and fifteen miles wide. Since i t i s over the continental shelf i t i s not extremely deep, the greatest depth recorded in the 1953 cruise being 400 meters on the ocean side. The average depth i s probably 150-200 meters less. The surface temperature i s rather high compared with Queen Char-lotte Strait, varying from just over 12°C near the Queen Char-lotte Islands to a high of 15°C in the middle, and a lower 11°C near the entrance of the Strait. There i s a gradual decrease toward the bottom, and out from shore the bottom temperatureLis about 5.5°C, which i s one to two degrees colder than the bottom waters of the Strait. The water i s also more saline, approach-ing the sal i n i t y of the open Pacific. The coastal current pre-vails and sets northwestward. Only two hauls made in the region on August 10, 1953 were available for examination. In one shallow haul of 42 meters, just outside the entrance of Queen Charlotte Strait, a swarm of very small immature S.elegans was found. Few animals 61 131° I28< MAP VI. Q U E E N C H A R L O T T E S O U N D AND H E C A T E STRA IT - STATION Position Station Hauls Depth Saf jitta elegans Eukrohnia hamata Sagitta decli pi ens per Sta. in Meters Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Middle 135 1 249 Maturing Immature 2 139 15 - 22 5.5 - 21 Immature 58 5 - 1 6 Maturing 3 12 - 12.5 Coastal 137 1 42 Immature 201 2 - 1 3 Tota Is ••I Maturing Immature 2 340 ) ) 342 Immature 58 Maturing 3 Table 7 - QUEEN CHARLOTTE SOUND Distribution of Chaetognaths Cruise 53/6 ; August 10, 1953 ; C.G.M.V.Cancolim II ; Two stations, two hauls. Position Station Hauls per Sta. Depth T In Meters Sagitta elegans Eukrohnia hamata Numbers & Maturity_ Size In mm. Numbers & Maturity_ Size in mm. East 103 1 36 Immature 2 6.5 - 7 -104 1 75 Immature 7 6-25 Immature 1 17 Totals Immature 9 Immature 1 Table 8 - HECATE STRAIT Distribution of Chaetognaths Cruise 53/6 ; July 16-30, 1953 ; C.G.M.V.Cancolim II ; Nine stations, ten hauls 63 that small were taken in the Strait. Another swarm of these very small individuals was encountered at the other station farther off shore, and in addition, with them were great num-bers of equally small E.hamata. In the inshore hauls only larger specimens had been taken, and the population had been scattered and sparse. S t i l l more interesting was the discovery of three very fine, twelve-millimeter specimens of S.decipiens with.well-developed ovaries, but no seminal vesicles. The haul at 249 meters was not an especially deep one, and i t would hardly be expected that a species of the deep ocean at that stage of development would be found there. Ritter-Zahony (1911b) gave the range of S.decipiens as 200-1200 meters, the young i n -habiting the epiplankton and the mature ones the mesoplankton. With the young of the coastal S.elegans and the oceanic E.hamata both in abundance, plus the deep sea S.decipiens. the station appears to be approaching the border-line between the oceanic and coastal fauna. VIII HECATE STRAIT Map VI; Table 8 Hecate Strait, between the Queen Charlotte Islands and mainland British Columbia, i s thirty to eighty miles wide and about one hundred and f i f t y miles long. It i s not very deep, especially toward the north, where the depth i s at most only 18-36 meters. It deepens toward the south to a maximum of around 183 meters, but the depths are very irregular. The sur-face temperature in July was about 12-13°c, which i s similar to 64 the average in Queen Charlotte Sound, but the bottom temperature of the shallow water usually was only about two degrees colder at most. The surface salinity also was similar to that of the Sound, but there was very l i t t l e increase toward the bottom. Tidal currents flow into and out of the Strait around both ends of the Queen Charlotte Islands. The flood currents meeting in the middle cause great turbulence and rips in some areas. Toward the northern end of the Strait the tida l streams are strong, but the southern end i s so wide that the t i d a l streams are quite weak, except close to the coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Ten hauls were made at nine stations in various parts of Hecate Strait from July 16 to 30 in 1953, but in only two hauls were chaetognaths present. At two stations on the east side near the northern entrance, ten specimens, a l l immature, were taken. Nine of these were S.elegans and one was E.hamata. It i s not surprising to find the chaetognath population sparse and almost wanting in such a shallow, warm area. At sta-tions 103 and 104, where the only specimens were found, the bot-tom temperatures of 9.5 and 8.4°C were lower than at most of the other stations. E.hamata was at the station where the bottom was both deepest and coldest. 65 IX DIXON ENTRANCE Map VII; Table 9 Dixon Entrance l i e s between Graham Island of the Queen Charlottes on the south and the Alaskan islands of Dall and Prince of Wales on the north. At the eastern end i s Chatham Sound. The Entrance i s about eighty-six miles long and thirty-five to forty-six miles wide. Along the Canadian shore i t i s not very deep, but in the channel there are depths of over 183 meters. The surface temperature between the channel and Graham Island varies from 11.8-13°C, and the bottom temperature of 5.5°C in the channel i s five to six degrees colder than i t i s near the coast. The water i s slightly more saline than i t i s in Queen Charlotte Strait, but not as saline as the open Pacific. The t i d a l streams in Dixon Entrance are somewhat irregular, and the passage i s considered dangerous to navigation (Canada. Hydro-graphic and Map Service, 1945). Nineteen hauls were made at nineteen stations in Dixon Entrance between July 19 and 29 in 1953. Five stations were about equidistant along the southern edge of the channel, and others were in various locations between the channel and the shores of Graham Island. The two westernmost of the channel hauls were deep ones made in the channel i t s e l f , and the other three were not far from the edge of i t . Both S.elegans and E.hamata were found in large numbers in these channel hauls. Examination of Table 9 shows clearly that at the seaward end of the Entrance, both species were very abundant, and that there 66 were quite a number of mature individuals. However, with pro-gression eastward toward the mainland, both the population den-sity and the number of mature animals decreases. At station 82 more specimens of S.elegans were taken than in any other l o c a l i t y in British Columbia. E.hamata was also present in unusually large numbers. Then at station 83, the number of S.elegans dim-inished, and there were s t i l l more E.hamata. In fact there were more E.hamata than S.elegans. reversing the proportion of the two species found in most hauls. Also some of the specimens of E.hamata were maturing. Another unusual thing about this haul was the presence of an excellent fourteen-millimeter specimen of the deep sea S.decipiens. besides three doubtful portions of this species. The undamaged specimen had well-developed ovaries, but no seminal vesicles. The continental shelf i s very close to the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, and the evidence of these hauls in Dixon Entrance points to the conclusion that the region of the continental shelf may form the outer limit for S.elegans and mark the inner boundary of the region most favorable to the oceanic forms. At station 86, in a haul made in the open waters just outside Dixon Entrance, E.hamata only was found. This sta-tion could be beyond the limits of S.elegans. The other hauls in Dixon Entrance were of interest, also, in the study of the distribution of the chaetognaths in the st r a i t . The number of specimens decreased with distance from the channel and approach toward shore, and those that occurred were a l l immature. Along the coast, no chaetognaths were taken S4« 54" ^ — O P R I N C E O F W A L E S 1 S L A N D A L L I S L A N D °86 ^ 940 V 0 •> 00,3 o 8 2 ^ oB I J "96 ° 9 7 O B O ^ ^ * 7 -88 08 ^-v 090 \ o 9 2 \ G R A H A M I S L A N D / ^ S ^ - ^ - — y ^ i i C _ 0 l O O o 7 l 10 MAP VII. D I X O N E N T R A N C E - STATIONS Position Station Hauls per Sta. Depths in Meters Sagitta elegans Eukrohnia hamata Sagitta deci pi ens Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Channel ¥ .4' E ( Near ; Channel] Shore-J ward j Coastal Ent. 83 1 366 Mature 5 Maturing 3 Immature 270 12 - 25 22 - 25 4.5 - 35 Maturing 7 Immature 390 14 - 17 5 - 2 4 Maturing 1 Doubtful por. 3 14 82 1 209 Mature 10 Maturing 4 Immature 1344 22 - 26 16 - 27 6-26 Immature 293 5 - 2 0 -81 1 135 Mature 4 Maturing : 3 _ Immature 481 23 - 25.5 17 - 23 2.5-27 Immature 88 4 - 18.5 . -71 1 128 Mature 3 Immature 322 23 - 26.5 4.5 - 26 Immature 31 5 - 17 - . 100 1 91 Mature 2 Immature 47 21 - 25 3.5 - 27 Immature 6 7 - 14 -97 1 65 Immature 43 7 - 2 3 Immature 12 6 - 14.5 mm 80 1 110 Immature 113 4 - 1 4 Immature 7 6-12 96 1 46 Immature 1 16 mm 72 1 54 Immature 1 8 mm 86 1 91 Immature 2 13 - 14 VP Mature 24 ) Maturing 7 ) Maturing 1 ) Maturing 10 ) 2656 Immature 829 ) 836 Doubtful por. 3 ) 4 Immature 2622 ) Table 9 - DIXON ENTRANCE Distribution of Chaetognaths (Stations with chaetognaths present). Cruise 53/6 ; July 19-30, 1953 ; C.G.M.V.Cancolim II ; Nineteen stations, nineteen hauls. 0 0 69 in the nine hauls made. These hauls were in shallow water, but in other parts of British Columbia, equally shallow hauls dis-closed large populations of chaetognaths. An examination of the data for the temperatures of a l l the stations in Dixon entrance, leads to the conclusion that in this part of the world chaeto-gnaths do not occur where temperatures are relatively high. None occurred where the bottom temperature was much over 9°C. They were most abundant where the bottom temperature was 5.5&C, and as the temperature increased, the numbers of chaetognaths decreased. In Hecate Strait, where many hauls were made without finding chaetognaths, the bottom temperatures were also high. A few were taken where the bottom temperature dropped to 8.4-9.5°C. X MASSET SOUND AND INLET Map VIII; Table 10 Graham Island, the northernmost and largest of the Queen Charlotte Islands, i s divided almost in two by Masset Sound and Inlet extending forty-three miles inland from Dixon Entrance. Both the Sound and Inlet are shallow and bordered by f l a t country and low h i l l s . The entrance to Masset Harbor from Dixon Entrance is blocked by two sand bars which are covered by only five and one-half and four and one-half meters of water. The Sound i s twenty-two miles long and only one-half to one mile wide. The average depth of the channel i s from eighteen to thirty-seven meters, though in some places i t i s only thirteen meters deep. 70 There are a few deeper places, one near the entrance of Masset Inlet being 238 meters. Because only one station was located in the Sound, there i s l i t t l e information as to the temperature and salinity. At this one station near the entrance, the temperature was about 12.5°C and the salinity low at 27.5-28 °/oo. The tida l streams are strong in this long, narrow body of water. Masset Inlet, running more or less east and west, i s twenty-one miles long by three to seven miles wide. The eastern end i s almost completely occupied by shoals with depths of only one to five and one-half meters. However the western end i s deeper, and a depth of 101 meters i s reached near station 89. The water is warm in most of the Inlet, the surface temperature in July being around 14.5°C. The bottom temperature varies with depth, but in the deepest parts i s approximately 8.5°C. There is a colder layer of water below the surface in some places, and under that, at between ten to twenty meters, a layer as warm or warmer than the surface. Below that level the temperature decreases gradually and regularly. Fresh water flows into the Inlet from several small rivers, besides the Ain, which drains three lakes, and the salinity i s low. The surface s a l i n i t y i s not as low as in Indian Arm, Bute Inlet, or Pendrell Sound, but the bottom salinity of 22.4-23.25 °/oo i s the lowest encountered in any region studied in the survey. As in Masset Sound the tidal currents are strong. The water i s very well oxygenated, as there i s not less than 11% oxygen in the deepest places and up to 96$ at the bottom in the shallower ones. The material from four stations collected between July 20 and 25, 1953 was available for examination. One station was in 71 Masset Sound, and three were in widely separated regions in Masset Inlet. No chaetognaths were taken at the single station near the entrance of Masset Sound where the depth was only fifteen meters. This does not mean that none was present anywhere in the Sound, but since chaetognaths were also absent along the coastal waters of Dixon Entrance, one may conclude that in July, there probably were no chaetognaths in the shallow, warm parts of the Sound. In Masset Inlet S.elegans only was present, but i t occurred in great abundance and in a l l sizes and maturity stages. Off the shoals at the eastern side a swarm of extremely small individuals was encountered, in the one haul there were 1201 specimens, mostly much under five millimeters in length. On the northern side of the Inlet, slightly larger specimens were f a i r l y abundant, while at station 89, near the deepest part, there were hundreds of very large, opaque individuals. F i f t y -seven percent of these animals measured over 20 millimeters, and more were close to 30 millimeters than to 20. Fi f t y - f i v e of the 490 specimens taken in the one haul were mature and four others were maturing. For average size these were the largest specimens of S.elegans taken anywhere, though there were a few almost as large in Saanich Inlet, and one extra large i n d i v i -dual i n Dixon Entrance measured thirty-five millimeters. Nine hauls were made at this same Masset station at three-hour inter-vals over a period of twenty-four hours. In only one were the specimens counted, but the other samples were inspected 72 and found to contain approximately the same number of very large, opaque specimens as the sample counted, indicating that the large S.elegans were residents in the area and not a passing swarm. The abundance of S.elegans in Masset Sound poses sev-eral problems. Evidently the very young of the species are not repelled by high temperatures, since they were present in un-usually large numbers where the temperature ranged from 14.6°C at the surface to 12.3°C at the bottom. Neither i s cold water a barrier to the very small ones, since a large number of them were also found in Queen Charlotte Sound where the temperature ranged between 11°C to 8°C from top to bottom. The high oxygen content of the water in Masset may offset seemingly unfavorable high temperatures. However, Davis (1950) found that in Florida waters immature specimens of Sagitta were sometimes obtained in places where one would never find adults. He thought that i t was probable that the eggs had been carried by currents to less favorable regions, where the young are either k i l l e d in time or are retarded in their development. The opaqueness and size of the large individuals at station 89 would suggest that they were a colder water form of S.elegans, but the temperature at the bottom i n July was around 8.5°C, corresponding to the highest bottom temperature in places where only a few stragglers occurred in Dixon Entrance. Perhaps S.elegans i s tolerant of the warm temperatures during part of the year, in cases where i t i s impossible to move to colder regions. E.hamata i s completely absent from the warmer regions. 73 132* 3 0 ' M A P VIII. M A S S E T S O U N D AND I N L E T - STATIONS Position Station Hauls per Sta. Depth in Meters Sagitta elej Numbers & Maturity 'ans Size in mm. Inlet E w 78 1 34 Immature 1201 1.5 - 18 75 1 30 Immature 156 3-17 89 1 75 Mature 55 Maturing 4 Immature 431 21 - 30 23 - 30 2 - 2 9 Mature 55 ) Totals Maturing 4 ) 1847 Immature 1788 ) Table 10 - MASSET SOUND AND INLET Distribution of Chaetognaths (No chaetognaths taken in Masset Sound). Cruise 53/6 ; July 20-24, 1953 ; C.G.M.V.Cancolim II ; Pour stations, four hauls. 75 As i s clearly shown in considering the problem of presence and distribution of the chaetognaths in Masset Inlet, i t i s very d i f f i c u l t , when specimens have been collected at one season only and by vertical hauls, even to try to suggest pos-sible reasons for the apparent distribution. XI WEST COAST QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS Map IX; Table 11 The Queen Charlotte Islands are a compact one hundred and f i f t y - f i v e mile long archipelago of islands approximately f i f t y miles off the coast of British Columbia. The three prin-cipal islands are Graham, the largest and northernmost, Moresby in the center, and much smaller Eunghit at the south. Two nar-row channels separate these islands, Skidegate between Graham and Moresby, and Houston Stewart between Moresby and Eunghit. On the east i s Hecate Strait, and thirty-five to forty-six miles across Dixon Entrance on the north are the southern i s -lands of Alaska. The edge of the continental shelf is only one to two miles off the west coast of the group. The twenty-two hauls made along the west coast between August 5 and 9 in 1953 were mostly located in the numerous bays and inlets of that deeply serrated coastline, none having been made beyond the con-tinental shelf. In most of the bays and inlets there were no chaeto-gnaths, but Van and Tasu Inlets were exceptions. In the one haul in Van Inlet, S.elegans was not only exceptionally abundant, 76 though a l l specimens were unusually small, but the proportion of mature and maturing individuals to immatures was much higher than in any other haul made anywhere in any of the areas studied. Of the 805 animals obtained, 15$ were^mature, 19$ maturing, and 66$ were immature. At this station there was a wide range of temperature from a high of 15°C at the surface to 7°C at the bottom. The water was somewhat less saline than the surface waters of the open Pacific. Similar oceanographic conditions prevailed in Tasu Inlet, where five stations were occupied. S.elegans was again abun-dant , though fewer specimens were taken i n each haul and none was mature. One small immature E.hamata was also found in the inlet. Two off-shore hauls of unusual interest were made at station 114 off Skidegate Narrows and at station 132 off Cape St. James. At both of these stations, and also at station 130 in Houston Stewart Channel, the oceanic S.lyra was found. The specimens at 114 and 130 were rather small and immature, but the three taken off Cape St. James were larger and two were maturing. These had rod-like ovaries and some spermatocytes could be seen in the t a i l s . Since this species, like S.decipiens, is a deep sea form, i t was not surprising to find S.lyra near the continental shelf. Though Dr. Huntsman found i t in association with S.elegans in one haul only in eastern Canadian waters, in a l l three hauls in which S.lyra was taken in western waters, S.elegans was also present, as was E.hamata except in the shal-low haul in Houston Stewart Channel. Position Station Hauls per Sta. Depth in Meters Sagitta ele ^ ans: Eukrohnia hamata Sagitta lyra Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Numbers & Maturity Size i n mm. Numbers & Maturity Size in mm. Port Loals Van Inlet Offshore Skidegatc / Tasu / Sound V Gowgala Bay Flaialngo Inlet Adam Rock Houston Stewart Off Cape St.James 106 26 Immature 1 3.5 111 1 119 Mature 118 Maturing 152 Immature 535 17 - 23 15 - 19.5 2.-18 mm — 114 164 Immature 12 5 - 19.5 Immature 5 6 - 14.5 Immature 2 9.5 - 7 121 36 Immature 3 5 - 6.5 119 175 Maturing . 11 Immature 130 15 - 20 5 - 1 8 Immature 1 9.5 -120 ! 54 Immature 12 5 - 1 2 *m 122 104 Maturing 2 Immature 25 18 - 19 5 - 1 8 - -123 1 30 Immature 6 5 - 8 mm — 125 36 Immature 1 19 — 127 ! 50 Immature 2 13 - 14.5 — — ! 120 Immature 3 8.5 - 13.5 130 ! 41 Immature 3 6.5 - 7 — Immature 1 6.5 132 v 205 Maturing 2 Immature 49 18 7.5 - 18 Immature 67 5 - 1 7 Maturing 2 Immature 1 25 - 28 20 Totals 118 + 167 + 781 • 1066 Immature ; 74 Maturing 2 + Immat. 4 = 6 Table 11 - WEST COAST QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS Distribution of Chaetognaths Cruise 53/6 j August 5-9, 1953 ; C.G.M.V.Cancolim II ; Twenty stations, twenty-two hauls. At station 132 off Cape St. James, where three of the six specimens of S.lyra were obtained, E.hamata surpassed S.elegans in numbers, as i t did also at the outer channel sta-tion in Dixon Entrance. This fact, along with the absence of S.elegans from so many of the coastal hauls on the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, and the presence of S.decipiens in two equally exposed regions, seems to be conclusive evidence that the region of the continental shelf i s the outer limit for S.elegans in western Canada, as i t i s elsewhere, and the inner boundary for exclusively oceanic forms, as well as the begin-ning of the region most favorable to E.hamata. which was found only in small numbers in the inland areas. 12. EVALUATION OP THE DATA The present investigation serves as a basic over-all survey of the species of chaetognaths found in the area and of their general distribution. The missing parts of the picture suggest many interesting problems for future research. Ques-tions about the l i f e histories, breeding seasons, and abundance at different seasons or from year to year arise. One also i s curious as to what facts would appear i f some of the other areas were sampled, including waters beyond the continental shelf. Considering the subject of chaetognaths as indicators of currents, a l l that can be said at this time i s that a rela-tive abundance of S.elegans along with a few E.hamata indicates 80 mixed coastal waters. E.hamata in abundance together with S.elegans in diminishing numbers suggests the approach of the outer limits of the mixed waters. Should S.lyra or S.decipiens be obtained, the presence of oceanic water i s indicated. 13. SUMMARY 1. A study of the chaetognaths of the coastal waters of western Canada was made to discover what species were present and to determine their distribution. Samples collected during the summers of 1953 and 1954 by the Institute of Oceanography of the University of British Columbia were available from eleven representative regions along the entire coastline. Four species, representing two genera, were found to occur. These species are: Sagitta elegans, Sagitta lyra. Sagitta decipiens. and Eukrohnia hamata. 2. Sagitta elegans proved to be the most abundant and widely distributed species, occurring at least in small numbers in every area sampled. Its presence indicated mixed coastal waters, i t s numbers diminishing toward the edge of the contin-ental shelf and i n open areas where oceanic and coastal waters were less mixed. Oceanographic conditions varied sufficiently from area to area to make sub-specific differences apparent in some populations. 3. Eukrohnia hamata. an oceanic form, also occurring near the surface in northern regions, had penetrated most areas in small numbers, principally as a migrant carried by the cur-81 rents. Warm, shallow water of low salinity prevented i t s en-trance into two inlets, and i t was missing from another where there was l i t t l e circulation. E.hamata was found in abundance toward the edge of the continental shelf and in regions where oceanic influence was predominant. 4 . Sagitta lyra, a species of the deep sea, was taken in very small numbers from the waters approaching the edge of the continental shelf off the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands. It was restricted to oceanic waters, and did not occur in any of the inland channels and inlets. 5, Sagitta decipiens, a deep ocean form, was taken in two regions where oceanic conditions prevailed. A few speci-mens were obtained in deep hauls made in Queen Charlotte Sound and at the ocean end of Dixon Entrance. Both S.elegans and E.hamata were present in large numbers in the hauls, but the stations were not far from the outer limits of S.elegans. and E.hamata was replacing S.elegans as the dominant species. 8 2 1.4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer wishes to express grateful appreciation to: Dr. W.A. Clemens, director of the Institutes of Oceanography and Fisheries, and former head of the Department of Zoo-logy* of the University of British Columbia, for sug-gesting the problem, and for constant help and encour-agement throughout the entire progress of the work and in the preparation of the manuscript. Dr. I.McT. Cowan, professor, and head of the Department of Zoo-logy, for his active interest in the work, and espe-c i a l l y for his assistance in the planning of the manu-script and help with the illustrations. Dr. K. Graham, professor of forest entomology, for assistance with the microscopy, development of hollow-cone illum-ination, and use of special lenses, without which the head armature could not have been seen. Dr. W.S. Hoar, professor of zoology and fisheries, for advice and help in the attempt to keep chaetognaths alive in the laboratory. Dr. P. Ford, assistant professor of zoology, for assistance in staining specimens. Dr. M.D.F. Udvardy, assistant professor of zoology, and Miss Aline Redlick, for translating essential German publica-tions. 83 Dr. J.M. Thomson, senior research officer, Commonwealth Scien-t i f i c and Industrial Research Organization of Australia, Division of Fisheries, for helpful correspondence, and for examination and corroborative identification of specimens. Dr. R.F. Scagel^ assistant professor of oceanography, for his generosity in providing the plankton samples and oceano-graphic data. * * * 84 LITERATURE CITED Burfield, S.T. 1927 Sagitta. Liverpool Mar. Biol. Comm., Mem. 28: 103 pages, 12 plates. Canada. Hydrographic and Map Service 1945 British Columbia Pilot (Canadian Edition). Vol. II, Northern portion of the coast of British Columbia. 2d ed. Ottawa, Hydrographic and Map Service, Surveys and Engineering Branch, Dept. of Mines and Resources: 241 pages. Carter, N.M. 1932 The oceanography of the fiords of southern British Columbia. Prog. Rpts. Pac. Biol. Sta. and Fish. Exp. Sta. Biol. Bd. Canada. (12): 7-11. Clemens, W.A., and Wilby, G.V. 1946 Fishes of the Pacific coast of Canada. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada. Bull. 48: 368 pages. Davis, C.C. 1950 Observations of plankton taken in marine waters of Florida in 1947 and 1948. Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 12 (2): 67-103. Dunbar, M.J. 1941 The breeding cycle of Sagitta elegans arctica A u r i v i l l i u s . Canad; Jour. Res., Sec. D. 19 (9): 258-266. ~~" Fowler, G.H. 1905 Biscayan plankton collected during a cruise of H.M.S. "Research," 1900. Part 3. The Chaetognatha. Trans. Linn. Soc. London. Ser. 2. 10: 55-87, 4 plates. Fraser, J.H. 1937 The distribution of Chaetognatha in Scottish waters during 1936, with notes on the Scottish indicator species. Jour. Conseil. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. 12 (3): 311-320. 1949 The occurrence of unusual species of Chaetognatha in Scottish plankton collections. Jour. Mar;.Biol. Assoc. United Kingdom. 28 (2): 489-574. Great Britain. Hydrographic Office 1951 British Columbia Pilot. Vol.I, Southern portion of the coast of British Columbia. 7th ed. London, Hydro-graphic Dept., Admiralty: 598 pages. 85 Huntsman, A.G. 1919 Some quantitative and qualitative plankton studies of the eastern Canadian plankton. 3. A special study of the Canadian chaetognaths, their distribution, etc., in the waters of the eastern coast. Canad. Fish. Exped., 1914-1915. Dept. Naval Ser., Ottawa: 421-485. Kemp, S. 1938 Oceanography and the fluctuations in the abundance of marine animals. Rpt. Br. Assn. Adv. Sci., Cambridge, Sect. D-Zool.: 85-101. Le Brasseur, R.J. 1954 The physical oceanographic factors governing the plankton distribution in the British Columbia inlets. Master's Thesis, Univ. Br. Columbia (unpub.). Mathews, W.W. 1953 The use of hollow-cone illumination for increasing image contrast in microscopy. Trans. Am. Micr. Soc. 67 (2): 190-195. Meek, A. 1928 On sagitta elegans and Sagitta setosa from the North-umbrian plankton, with a note on a trematode para-sit e . Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 745:776. Michael, E.L. 1909 Notes on the identification of the Chaetognatha. Biol. Bull. 15 (2): 67-84, 1 plate. 1911 Classification and vertical distribution of the Chaetognatha of the San Diego region. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool. 8: 21-170, 8 plates. 1919 Report on the Chaetognatha collected by the U.S. fisheries steamer "Albatross" during the Philippine expedition, 1907-1910. Smithson. Inst., U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 100. 1 (4): 235-277, 5 plates. Pickard, G.L. 1953 Oceanography of British Columbia mainland inlets. 1. Water characteristics. Prog. Rpts. Pac. Coast. Sta. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada. (96): 3-6. Quoy, J.R.T., and Gaimard, P. 1827 Observations zoologiques faites a bord de ttl'Astro-labe" en Mai 1826, dans le detroit de Gibralter. Annales Sci. Nat. 10: 225-239. Redfield, A.C, and Beale, A. 1940 Factors determining the distribution of populations of chaetognaths in the Gulf of Maine. Biol. Bull. 79: 459-489. 86 Ritter-Zahony, R.C. 1911a Revision der Chatognathen. Deutsche Sudpolar Exped. 13 (5): 1-71. 51 figs in text. 1911b Die Chaetognathen der Plankton-Expedition. Plankton Expedition. 2: 1-33. 1911c Chaetognathi. Tierreich. 29: 1-35. Russell, F.S. 1933 On the biology of Sagitta. IV. Observations on the natural history of"Sagitta elegans V e r r i l l and Sagitta setosa J. Miiller in the Plymouth area. Jour. Mar. Biol. Assoc. United Kingdom. 18 (2): 559-574. Sverdrup, H.U., Johnson, M.W., and Plemming, R.H. 1942 The oceans, their physics, chemistry, and general biology. Prentice-Hall Inc. New York. 1087 pages. Thomson, J.M. 1947 The Chaetognatha of south-eastern Australia. Council Scient. and Indust. Res., Australia, Bull. 222. Div. of Fish. (14). Melbourne. 43 pages. Tokioka, T. 1940 The chaetognath fauna of the waters of western Japan. Rec. Oceanog. Works Japan. 12 (1): 1-22. Tully, J.P. 1937 Report on dynamic studies off the Canadian Pacific coast, 1936. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, Eighteenth An. Meet, 1937: 228-231. 1953 Oceanography - science of the sea. Canad. Geog. Jour. Dept. of Fish. Canada, Ottawa. Reprint 19 pages. Walcott, C.D. 1911 Cambrian geology and paleontology, II, Middle Cam-brian annelids. Smithson. Msc. Col l . , Bull. 2014, 57 (5): 109-144, 6 plates. -* # * 


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