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Preliminary classification and evaluation of Engelmann spruce Arlidge, Joseph Winston Churchill 1955

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A PRELMIMARY CLASSIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF aJGELMANN SPRUCK - ALPHE FIR FOREST AT BOLEAN LAKE, B. C.  by JOSEPH WHSTOI CHURCHILL ARLIDGE  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGERE OF  MASTER OF FORESTRY in the F a c u l t y of FORESTRY  We  accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e  standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r t h e degree o f  MASTER  THE WIVESSITY  OF FORESTRY  Of BRITISH COLUMBIA  May 1955  ii  Abstract This thesis i s divided i n t o two parts * In the f i r s t part - A Prelisdnary Classification of the Engeliaann Spruce - Ajjbpine F i r Forests at Belean Lake, B. C. - some ecological concept® are discussed. that  The forest association Is defined as an ecological unit  includes the characteristics of climate, s o i l , topography, flora and  fauna; and i s recognized by Its f l o r i s t i c structure. Th© area studied i s described. Data were collected from selected temporary plot®. Soil profile was described and samples collected. Forest raensurational data were collected on tenth-acre plots. Two forest associations can be considered established. They are: " £ U t t Engelmannii - Abies iaaiocarpa - VacciniUBf membranaceum lubus pedatus association. (Engelmann spruce - alpine f i r - black huckleberry - trailing Bubus association). Designated the VM association. 2.  Picea ^elMsxm^  -  Abies laeioearpa - Vaccinium evalifollum -  Dryopterls Linnaeana association, (aigelsaann spruce - alpine f i r t a l l blueberry - ©ak fern association).  Designated the ?0 association.  Four other forest associations were tentatively identified.  They are  described because they are of interest to foresters. In the second part - An Evaluation of Two Forest Associations in the ingelmann Spruce - Alpine F i r Forests at Bolean Lake, B.C. - forest xaensurational data from th© vegetational plots were compared and analysed with data from peraanent sample plots established Independently. Differences in average height of dominant and codoKinant trees, in height  of average dominant  tree,  and in volumes between the VO and VM  associations were found.  These results indicate that the VO forest  association has better ®lt© quality than th© fB forest association. Differences were also f ©mid to composition, number of trees per acre and i n the distribution of etav size®, these differences indicate that the fO and VM associations w i l l probably give different response® to silvicultural treatment.  PREFACE Field data on vegetation and mensuration was gathered by the author while employed by the British Columbia Forest Service as a graduate student assistant to Dr. V. Kra^lna in th© summer of 1951. Additional data were made available by Assist. Prof. J. H. G. Smith. Permission to use this material was granted by Mr, F. S.  MeXinnen, Assistant Chief Foresterj and by Mr. R. H. Spilsbury, Forester-in-charge Research Division, British Columbia Forest Service, under whose direction th® project was carried ©ut. The author wishes to express his indebtedness to Dr. V. Krajina, ©f the University of British Columbia, for the help and guidance so freely given, both in field work and to th© preparation of the first part of this thesis.  The author i s indebted also to Dean George S.  Allen, of the Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia for his encouragement and guidance! to Prof. J. W. Ker and Assist. Prof. J. H, 5, Smith, also of th© Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, for helpful suggestions?  and to Mr. A. E. Fraser, Technical  Adviser, Research Division, British Columbia Forest Service, for help with statistical problems, to addition, appreciation is due to Mr. John Walters, Ganada Department of Agriculture, Forest Biology laboratory, Vernon, B. C , and to Mr. Anthony Jarrett, Oxford, England, for  assistance in the field workj to Mr.A.E.Prochnau, Assistant Agrologist, Research Division, British Columbia Forest Service, for soils analysis! and to Dr. D. Campbell, Canada Department of Agriculture, Forest Biology Laboratory, fernon, B. C , for weather records. Credit i s due, too, to  my wife Illen, for her help with diagrams, t a b l e • and typing, and without whose encouragement this thesis might not have been completed. The opinions expressed and the interpretation of the data by the author cannot be considered or isjplied as reflecting the views or policies ©f the British Columbia Ferest Service.  ¥. 0. Arlidge.  Ti.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Title page Abstract Preface List of Figures List of Tables  i i i iv viii viii 1  HTEODUCTIOM PAST I - A PBELIIOTARI CLASSIFIGATIOI OF THE ENGELMANLf SPRUCE AIPXNB FIB FORESTS AT BOLEAI LAKE, B.C.  4  DEFINITION OF TERMS Plant Association Forest Association  4 4 5  BESffilPTIOM OF THE AREA STUDIED Location Geology Climate The Ferest  6 6 7 10  METHODS OF STUDY Field Work Analysis of Vegetation Analysis of Soil Stand Data  10 10 13 14 14  DESCEIJFTIOI OF THE ASSOCIATIOIS 1. Picea Engelnsnnii * Abies lasiocarpa - Vaeciniura  1»  (Engeljaann spruce - alpine f i r - black huckleberry trailing Rates ^association) (VM association) 2. Picea Ingeliaannii - Abies lasiocarpa - Vaeelnium ovalifolium - Bryepteris Linnaeana Association (isgelwtnn spruce - alpine f i r - t a l l blueberry oak fern - VO Association) 3.  Pimxs eontorta - Picea Engeliaannii - Dicranum scoparium. Association (Lodgepole pine - Engelmann spruce - moss association)  4. Picea Enjplaawili - Abies lasioearpa - Equisetum areense - Sphagnum recurvum Association (Engelaann spruce - alpine f i r - horsetail - peat moss .association 5.  Pinus contorta - Ledum glandulosum - Sphagnum eapillaewa Association (Lodgepole pine - Labrador Tea - peat moss association)  16  IS  22  23  25  vi  6. Abies laeioearpa - Pieea Engebnan^i - Heracleum lanatum Association (Alpine f i r - Bngelmann spruce - cow parsnip association) PART I I • EVALOATIQM OF TWO FOREST ASSOCIATIONS OP THE KNGELMANH SPRUCE * ALPINE FIR FORESTS AT BOLEAN LAKE, B. C. MAPPING  IMS 26  28  29 -  ANALYSES OF MIMSUBAfIOMAL DATA Average Height ©f Dca&nant and Codominant trees Height Attained by the Average Dominant and Codominant trees by "formula" Height Attained by the Average Dominant Tree by "formula11 Volumes Basal Area lumber of Trees* THE FOREST ASSOCIATION AS A MEASURE OF SITE QUALITY THE FOREST ASSOCIATION JM RELATION TO SILVICULTURE AMD MANAGEMENT  32 33 36 37 38 40 43 45  APPWPIC1S  APFM3IX I APPENDIX I I APPffiDLX III APPENDIX IV BIBLIOGRAPHY  L i s t of Plants Association Tables of VO & VM Association Sumary of Mensta-ational Data Summary of S t a t i s t i c a l tests  49 52 57 63 70  mil  Ma Pig, 1 Pig. a  Fig., 3 Fig, 4  Fig. 5 Fig.  6  Fig. 7 Fig. i  m i'wmm  fetal rang® ©f vorlation in pH and exchange capacity encountered in sawoles taken i n three representative stands of V© and Vif associations Itep of forest iwsoeation* m E.P. 371 Map of siaxtamtarttf**on psp on l.P. 371 Kslationship M M M diameter tareasi height awl total height offiags&aisanspras* and alpine f i r oo black lm^l©%®rry - trailing l a t a forest association (VM) at Bolean Lake, B.C. lelatts«ihlp bo*we«m diameter breast height end total height of aagelmann spruce and alpine f i r on tall blueberry - oak f«m association (VO) st Bolean Lake, B.C. Heights of ikwritaaritSjt and iostaawts and codotstnants of Bngolsmn sprue® and alpine f i r for VO and VM forest associations at Bolean Lake, B.C. Total voltage and masher of treoo by one-inch d.b.h, classes m avorage aero of huckleberry - trailing Rubus association (VM) at Bolean Itdes, B.C. Total volaae and Bwsber of trees by ©ae-iseli d.b.h. classes on average aero of tall blueberry - oak fern association (TO) at 8ois» Lake, B.C.  rag®  15  30  31  34 34 35 39 42  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1 Table 2 Tabls 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table -6 fable 7 fable 6 Table 9  Total Estimate Table for assession vegetation Weather Records, Bolean Lake, B.C. Average t o t a l height of dominant ant* codondnant trees Averagefeeiflrrtsof dominant and codosainaat tree® by .*formla,,. Average height of dominant trees by "forsraila** Average veXone per aer®. Buaber of trees per acre by 3-iRch d.;;.b. classes in VO and VM associations Stsstasr of Sagelsann spruce trees by groups in VO and VM associations Mtnber of alpine fir trees by groups in VO ami VM associations.  9 12 33 36 3? 3d 41 43 43  LIST OP PLATES  Plat®  I  Black Huckleberry - Trailing Rubus Association (VM) Snowbush Thicket  17  Plat® II  Black Huckleberry - trailing Rubus Association (VM) ©round Vegetation,  17  Plate m  Tall Blueberry - Oak Fern Association (VO) Tall Blueberry, False Hellebore and Oak- Fern  20  Plate IV  Tall Blueberry - Oak Fern Association (VO) Tall Blueberry and Snowbush  20  Plate  Horsetail - Peat Mess Association  24 ,  Plate VI  Horsetail » Peat Moss Association Ground Vegetation  24  Plate VII  Labrador Tea - Peat Moss Association  27  Plate VTII  Cow Parsnip Association Cow Parsnip  27  ?  Photographs by Dr. V. Krajina.  A PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION AMD EVALUATION OF ENGILMNN SPRUCE - ALPINE FIR FOREST AT BOLEAN LAKE, B. C.  INTRODUCTION leeogoiaing the need for research in the spruce - alpine f i r forest type, th© Research Division of the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service made plans for a long term study in 1951.  "fhe south end of the Fly Hills  Forest near Bolean Lake i n the Kamloops Forest D i s t r i c t was selected because i t i s accessible, typical of the overmature plateau forest type, and some preliminary investigations were already under way.  Th© project  was designated E. P. 371, a S i l v i c u l t u r a l Study of Gutting Methods. Because of the problems caused by lasect and decay involved in spruce alpine f i r silviculture, representatives of the Division of Forest Biology, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture,were invited to participate i n planning the study. It was considered that an ecological classifIcation of the spruce alpine f i r forest was needed to provide the proper basis for the interpretation of experimental results, and to facilitate the application of the results to other areas of spruce - alpine f i r forest. This project was part of I. P.373, Ecological Investigations in the Spruce * Alpine F i r Forests. Data from project E.P. 371 and project E.P. 373 provide the material for this thesis.  2.  This thesis i s divided into two parte.  The f i r s t part deals  vith the classification of the Bigelaann sprue© - alpine f i r forests at Bolean lake on the basis of forest associations. The second part considers the evaluation of two of these associations. In the f i r s t part some © cological concepts are discussed briefly and some terms are defined. used are outlinedj  Th® area studied i s described;  the method®  and the forest associations determined are described.  The determination of the forest associations i s th© work of Dr.f.Krajina with whoa the author worked as a graduate student assistant. In the second part the forest aensurational data from two of the forest associations are analyzed. The second part i s the author's own wrk. Heioburger (1934) reviewed the origta and development, and the application of the forest-type concept fully in his publication "Foresttype Studies in the Adirondack Region",  Sisam (1938) discussed the  application of forest site types in Eastern Canada. In 1947, Spilsbury  and Smith (1947) developed a classification of the coastal Douglas f i r forest.  This classification was later modified and revised (Spilsbury  and Krajina, 1951). Mo further attempt w i l l be mad© to review the literature on forest classification on an ecological basis. fhe purpose of this study was to determine and describe the forest associations at Bolean Lakej  and to collect and compile forest  i&msur&tional data pertaining to these forest associations. Further, this aensurational data was to be presented i n a form that would? 1.  Show the value of forest association as indicators of  productive capacity.  2.  Shew stand conditions (species composition, diameter  distribution, etc.,) to provide a basis for silvicultural treatment and management of the forest.  4. A PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION OF THE EKGELMAKK SPRUCE -  ALPINE FIR FORESf AT BOLEAN LAKE, B.C.  DEFINITION OF TERMS The use of several sysfceas of phytosoeiolegical terms by different groups of ecologists saakes i t necessary to define the tenas and coacepts used i n the descriptions to follow. Plant Association An ecological study of an area should include th® study of the inter-relationships between environmental i'aetors and organisms i n the sans ecological w i t .  The basic ecological w i t Is the plant association  defined by the International Botanical Congress at Brussels i a 1910 as "a plant eomwilty of definite f l o r i a t i c composition". Uniformity of f l o r i s t i c composition i s generally regarded as the principal criterion of the plant association, th® basic unit of homogeneity i n the study of vegetation (Nichols, 1929). Some eeologlsts interpret the idea of uniformity very loosely In i t s application to f l o r i s t i c composition.  They maintain that the variations i n f l o r i s t i c  composition are ©f l i t t l e consequence except where these dissiailarities have to do with doalaaat species.  This lo&se interpretation of uniformity  #f f l o r i s t i c composition when used with certain sampling methods helped to lead to the concept that vegetation i s a continuum (Curtis and Mela tosh, 1951j  Whittaker, 1951). Indeed, there are some ecologists who claim  that  the.. plant association i s not an entity, that i t does not exist (Oleason,  1939).  5.  However, Sa the application of these Ideas to concrete oases there Is one aspect that cannot be overlooked, and that i s the very great deficiency of knowledge about the exact ecological significance ©f differences i n f l o r l s t l e composition.  Sorae fieristic variations  sisy be of slight ecological significance. On the other hand certain differences i n flori«tlc composition frequently Indicate ecological differences of great significance.  Forest Association In a forest association trees are th© dominant species,  frees  are not often as sensitive to ecological conditions as are many shrubs, herbs, mosses and lichens which occur in habitats of lesser ecological range than most of -to© tree species. Nevertheless, trees do react to ecological factors. These reactions are expressed mainly as tree growth, a matter of great concern to the forester. The habitat conditions which result in a certain tree growth are the same habitat conditions which detersdne the whole f l o r i s t i c structure. The forest association say be defined simultaneously as a particular complex of environmental factors or e cotope and a particular plant community or phrtocoenesi^ (and a particular animal community or zoocoenosis) (Erajina, 1933) which comprises the ecosystem (Tansley, 1935)|•and i s a complete entity,  A forest association therefore may be  expressed by the characteristics of habitat and by the f l o r i s t i c structure. This definltion may be expressed another way.  When a certain  oonplex of ecological faetors has operated on an area for a considerable time, a forest association with definite characteristics w i l l evolve.  6. This forest association i a influencedtoythose ecological factors rod has a constant f l o r i s t i c structure expressed by the abundance, dominance, periodicity, vigor, constancy and fidelity of the plants forming the association. Thus i t follows that forest communities with the same f l o r i s t i c structure  are formed, by eqxdvalent complexes of ecological factors. The  study of stands of mature virgin forest pro%dde a reliable basie for a classification of forest associations, because the vegetation of those  stands usually attains equilibrium with the ecological factors which are In operation in every separate exat^xLe of each association. The forest association i s , then, a basic unit of the classification of nature.  The name may give the tepression that i t i s a unit of vegetation  only, but i n i t s concept as presented here, i t i s a unit that includes the characteristics of climate, s o i l , topography, flora and fauna.  PKSCRIPTIGN OF THE AREA STUDIED Location The fly H i l l s Forest i s situated on a plateau about 18 miles  long that varies from 4 to 10 miles i n width. I t i s oriented in a more-or-less north and south direction between 50° 30' and 50° 45* north  latitude} and 119° 25* and 119° 35' west longitude. bounded on three sides by the Salmon Mver.  The plateau i s  From the vRlley bottom with  an elevation of about 1,700 feet above sea level the valley sides rise  sharply t© an elevation of approximately 4,000 feet above sea level. The plateau itself varies i n elevation from 4,700 feet to 5,500 feet above sea level.  The relief i s gently rolling.  7. The area studied i s at the extreme southern end of the Fly Hills Forest in the region known as the Spa Hills and centered around Bolean, Arthur and Spa Lakes. The experimental area of project E. P . 371 is Immediately west and north of Arthur Lake.  Geology The bedrock of the area studied is quartz mica-schist and gneiss (Rice and Jones, 1943).  The whole area was glaciated and is overlain  with glacial material of varying thickness and composition. The tops of some of the higher hills and ridges have thin soil cover and show occasional rock outcrops. The hollows and low places in many cases are occupied by bogs or swamps.  Climate Eo complete weather records are available, but temperature, humidity and precipitation for the field seasons of 1950, 1951 and 1952 are presented in Table 1 below. Snow eover lasts usually about seven and one-half months. This together with the cool nights results in a short growing season. The climate is classified by Chapman  (1935)  as Dfc (after Koppen).  Dfe i s called a cold snowy forest eliffiat© by Koppen and i t is described as follows: average temperature of coldest month is less than 26.6°F; average teraperature of the warmest sionth is more than 50°F; there is no distinct dry season - the driest month of summer has more than 1.2 inches of precipitation}  the Sumner i s short and cool with less than  four months with a mean monthly temperature more than 50°F.  3. Th© field records do not fully support Chapman's classification as Dfc, but i t i s included because i t f i t s the data to a limited extent and i s the only classification available.  The discrepancies are caused,  perhaps, by the Inadequacy of the records.  9. TABLE 1 WSASHER RECORDS, BOLEAN LAKE, B.C. Mean Monthly Temperatures Degree® Fahrenheit  May* June July August September* October*  1950  1951  1952  38.1 49.0 52.9 51.4 46.3  41.2 46.6 55.7 55.1 46.8  43.7 45.8 53.2 52.5 46.7 44.0  Mean Monthly Relative Humidity  May* June July August September* October*  67.9 63.0 58.3 63.0 60.6  54.0 56.0 60.7 67.8 70.6  $3.4 76.3 70.7 72.7 73.6 72.6  Rainfall i n Inches June July August September*  3.29 2.24  2.07 2.78 1.61 .73  6.08 .76 1.15 .44  Source - D. K. Campbell, Vernon Laboratory of Forest Biology, Annual Reports 1950, 1951* 1952  *  May 24-31, 1950 May 15-31, 1951 May 21-31, 1952  September 1 - 2 5 , 1951  October 1 - 1 3 , 1952  10  The Forest Almost the entire area is occupied by decadent, overmature Engelmann spruce (Picea Engeimannii Parry) alpine f i r (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook), Nut) forest.  In the bogs there are poorly developed lodgepole  pines (Plnus contorts Dougl.), Engelaann spruces and occasionally a depauperate alpine f i r .  On the driest ridges and excessively drained  moraines there i s lodgepole pine of fair size with poor spruce and alpine f i r . Only one small area of young growth was observed. It was densely stocked with spruce and alpine f i r and evidently originated from a spot fire possibly caused by a lightning strike. Two Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga taxifplia (Poir) Brit.) snags and several rotting trunks were observed, but only one living Douglas f i r was seen on the area studied.  METHODS OF STUDY  Field Work A rapid reconnaissance was made of the area to acquire some knowledge of the relief and other physiographic features, and of the range in variation of the vegetation. Vegetational data and forest measurements were taken on temporary plots not less than two chains square. For the study of an example of an association, a stand was selected that appeared to have a uniform floristic structure. An estimate was then made of the cover of the vegetation layers using the following classification:  11.  Layer  Vegetation Dominant and codominant trees  A2  Intermediate and t a l l suppressed trees  B]_  Tall shrubs and low trees (over 6 feet in height)  B2  Low shrubs  C  Herbs  D  Mosses, liverworts and lichens on the ground.  A list of species on the plot was recorded by layers. Each species was then evaluated by the total estimate method for abundancedominance, sociability (gregariousness) and vigor. Table 1 is an illustration of the scale used. Within the vegetational plot, a tenth-acre ares (one chain by one chain) was laid out by box compass and steel tape and the boundaries lined with string. All living trees were tallied by species and one-Inch d.b.h. classes. Diameters at breast height were measured by diameter tape and heights were measured by steel tape and Abney level. Sufficient heights were taken to obtain valid height/diameter curves for both spruce and alpine f i r . If there were not enough suitable trees within the mensurational area, heights were taken of trees outside its boundaries but within the vegetational plot. A soil pit was dug in each plot, the soil profile described and samples of each soil horizon collected. Additional notes describing the location, size, slops, position in relief, (I.e. top of slope, bottom of slope, etc.) aspect and exposure to wind were also t aken of each plot.  Table 2  Total Estimate Table for Assessing Vegetation Total Estimate.  Jrequeney (Abundance - Dominance) • 1  Sociability  Quite Solitary Dominance very small  • Singly  Seldom  Up to 4 x 4 cm. 3 sq. Ins.  Dominance very  2 Very scattered Dominance  25 x 25 em. 1 sq. f t .  3 Scattered  50 x 50 em. 1 - s.5 sq.ft.  3  4 Often  1/3 to 2/3 a 2 3.5 - 7.0 sq. f t  4  5 Often Dominance 1/5 of area  1 - 2m*  5  6 Dominance 1/4 to 1/3  5»  6  Dominance small Dominance 1/20 of area  7 Dominance 1/3 to 1/2 *  Dominance 1/2 to 3/4  9 Dominance over 3/4  10 sq. ft.-20 sq.ft. 2  50 sq, f t . 25 - 50 m  7  2  250 - 500 sq. f t . 100m? 1000 sq. f t .  8  200 » 2 5 0 a 2000 - 2500  9  2  sq.ft.  at least 500m2 5000 sq, f t .  10 Dominance 100^  Vigor* , 1, 2, 3,  10  13.  Analysis of Vegetation Thirty-three temporary vsgetatlonal plots were taken in th© period August 1, to September 8, 1951.  3h the field the plots were  assigned to a tentative subjective classification of the associations. An examination of the vegetations! data indicated that there may be ten forest associations in the region investigated, but most of these forest associations support non-comercial stands of timber and were not adequately sampled. Two forest associations bear commercial stands of timber and cover extensive areas, Mine plots were taken in both these associations, which was considered sufficient to establish their characteristics. These forest association® ares 1. Pjoea gnsel«WftU - *ftles lasiocarpa - Vaccinium .^hrapa.csum Bubus pedatus association. (Ehgelmann spruce - alpine fir - black huckleberry - trailing Bubus association), designated as the VM association. 2.  Pi.eej* ^ g ^ f f l U - Abies 3#sioearpa - Vaccinium pya^folium Dryopteris Linnaeana association (Engelmann spruce - alpine fir tall blueberry - oak fern association), designated as the VO association. There are too few plots in the other associations to  establish their floristie composition with certainty. However, it was considered that four other associations are of sufficient interest to be described. For a complete study of the associations i t is necessary to prepare for each association a "synthesis" or association table after the manner of Braun Blanquet (1932). At the top of the synthesis is placed a table of the ecological characteristics of each sample which  Ik.  establishes the ecological similarity of the samples.  The f l o r i s t i c  composition follows with th© tabulation of the total estimate for each species by layers. Only In the VO and VM associations are there sufficient data to prepare association tables. These tables would be more valuable i f the data were augmented with data collected from a more extensive geographical area.  Association Tables for the VO and VM associations are contained in  Appendix  n.  Analysis of Soil A H the s o i l samples were tested for pH by the Canada Dept. of Agriculture Science Service Soils Laboratory at the University of British Columbia. Soil samples from the Moss, VO, VM, and Equisetura-Sphagnum associations were analysed by the laboratory of the Research Division, B. G. Forest Service, Victoria, for pH, base exchange capacity, organic matter, and readily available nutrients.  Graphic summaries of certain of  the data are presented i n Figure 1,  Stand Data As the f i e l d work proceeded the following data were compiled for each plots  a stand table, basal area, average d.b.h. weighted by basal  area, height of average tree from the plot height/diameter curve. These figures were compiled for spruce and alpine f i r . Manipulation of the stand data i s discussed fully later to this paper.  o -p  s4 o to  w o  pH  0>O O K )  O O  p 4 <  3.5  3.6  VO  3.7  )  i  1  3.9  3.8 I  4.0 I  i  i  i  i  i  45 I  5,0 6.0  i  y  i iI i I  Ao  -  A,  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  -  —  «  —  —  —  A* B  VM  Ao  —  —  Az  —  —  —  — —  — —  —  B  _  EXCHANGE CAPACITY milleq../l03g Exchangeable Hydrogen *f  ,  J—I  20  1  .  30 I  Exchangeable Bases  40 1  0 1 1 501 •  10  '  VO Ao A, Az  2,0  't- '•"  30  T• I  40  I  50  '  B  G  VM  A0 Az B,  *Z Ort ORGANIC MATTER fo "by weight 10  2(  0  30  40  0  IQ  20  30  VM  VO A2 'B  G  B.  Ort'  F i g . 1. Total range of variation i n pH and exohange oapaoity encountered in samples taken in three representative stands of VO and VM associations.  40  16  D1S0BIPTION OF THE ASSOCIATION  PICSA MGaaMMIBII - ABIES LA3I0CARPA - VAOOINIUM MEMBBAKACEEM mmm  P E D A T U S ASSOCIATION  (Engelmann sprue© - alpine f i r - black huckleberry - trailing Rubus association) lapping symbol fM» This association i s considered the climatic climax for this region because th© effects of climate are not modified by other factors. It occurs on the upper part of slopes and on knolls of the gently undulating terrain.  Moisture available for vegetation Is derived from  precipitation. The soil i s sub-alpine podzol with a very prominent leached layer (Ag),  and with indications of ortstein formation In the i l l u v i a l horizon  (B) of th© s o i l .  The texture i s loamy sand with single-grained structure  but with some cementation and concretions.  The range of pH values for  the s o i l horizons i s as followst Horiaon  pH  A® Compacted raw humus  3.6 - 4.2  A2 Leached layer  3.7 - 4.2  B  4.7 - 5.7  Illuvium  Exchangeable K, Ca and Mg occur mainly i n the humus layer.  In the  rest o f the profile bases occur only as traces except i n the deepest, more-or-less cemented part of the B horizon where small quantities of exchangeable Ca and Kg occur.  Plate  I  Plate  II  B l a c k H u c k l e b e r r y - T r a i l i n g Rubus (VM) Assoc. Snowbush t h i c k e t  Black H u c k l e b e r r y - T r a i l i n g Rubus (VM) Assoc. Ground vegetation  18  Th© stands of this association are commercially Important and spruce attains fair growth. There is a fairly dense underetory of alpine f i r . Spruce dominants average 102 feet; dominants and codominants average 96 feet. The average height of alpine f i r occurring in the dominant eodoaiaant layer i s 85 feet. The shrub layer In this association is well developed. Occasionally in openings of the overmature stand, snowbush (ilfaadpdendron albiflorum)* i n mixture with false aaalea (Menaiesia fsrrwdnea) forms dense thickets.  Where the crown closure is fairly complete the shrubs, although plentiful, are less prominent, and the moss cover with abundant trailing Rubus (Rubus pedatus) is conspicuous. Important shrubs are: yacclnium aefabranaceum,, iaiMo^endyon, ajbifloruit* Vafcinlun ovaUfolim, Menzi^sift. ferruglnea and occasionally Sorbus sltqhen.aig,, Bubus pedatus is an abundant and conspicuous herb as are Lycondium annotinum. Clintonla uniflora. Cornus canadensis. Pyro^a secunda, and  Streptopus roseus^ Less frequent in occurrences are Ltoiaea bores l i s , GooAyera decjpiena.,foayajfta,unjfoljat* and Valeriana sMchensAs.  The moss cover on the ground is fairly continuous but is not dense and thick. CalliergonelLa Sohreberl is constantly present and dominant. Dicranum fuseescens and larj^lpjho^a lyeopodjo^fs are also constantly present. Bhytidiopsls ro;Buata occurs frequently andPtilium crista castrensis only occasionally. PICJA EHCEUWKI - ABIES LASIOGARPA - VA£CIMIUM OVAlIFpLIiff DRY0PTER1S UHKAEAWA ASSOCIATION  * A complete l i s i of plants with their authors i s contained in Appendix I.  6-  X,  (Engelmann spruce - alpine f i r - t a l l blueberry - oak fern association).  Mappibg symbol ¥0.  This association occurs on gentle slopes. Moisture available for vegetation i s precipitation augmented by seepage water from higher up the slope.  A pH of 5.6 - 6,0 of th© laterally moving seopage water indicates  that i t contains exchangeable basis. Ta® s o i l i s a sandy loam podzollzed beta gl©y (Wilde, 1946). There i s a raw humus layer underlain by humus- which approaches duff mull. The mottled gley horizon occurs at a depth of 25 to 50 em. The range of pH values for th® s o i l horizons is as follows» Depth A  0  Eaw humus underlain by duff mull  Ax  pH  2 - 4 cm.  4.1 - 5.1  Black, high humus content (sometimes absent)  A2 Leached layer  4 - 6 cm.  3.7 - 5.3  6 - 15 em.  4.5 - 5.3 4.5 - 5.6  B  IllttTitnt  15 - 85 em.  G  Mottled gley  26 - 35 cm.  Base exchange capacity indicates a comparatively high f e r t i l i t y for a forest s o i l . The ¥0 association produces the best stands of spruce in this area. The average height of dominant spruce i s 117 feet, and the average height of spruce i n the dominant and eodominant layer i s 112 feet.  Alpine f i r  rarely occurs i n the dominant layer and the average height of alpine f i r to the dominant and eodominant layer Is 94 feet| occurs as low eodominant trees.  that i s , alpine f i r  20  Plate III T a l l Blueberry-Oak T?ew Association (VO) T a l l blueberry, false Le l i e bore and oak fern  Plate TV  T a l l Blueberry-Oak Pern (VO) Association Snowbush and t a l l blueberry  21 fhe shrub layer in t h i s association i s moderately well developed. Her®, too, snowbush and false azealea develop heavy cover in openings, but these patches of brush do not reacn the density they attain In. the VM association, nor are they as extensive and plentiful. is not well developed.  Oak f em  The moas cover  (Drvopteria Linnaeana) i s the distinguish-  ing feature of the vegetation. Important shrubs are Vacelnlum ovalifolium. Menzlesia ferruginea and  $2£m2.  f^tqhensi£. I f f l ^ i « b n m ^ u a and ^^^denclron a^biflorum  are present but occur mainly on small hillocks or mounds, JteR^As„  Mmmm  i s constant mid abundant. Strsptopua roseus  /flflilWfl u n l f o l i a t a , Valerian s^tchens^a, Vera,trum q s c h o l t z i l and Str§2l22M  mM^l£Mm  are always present. Bromus y u i s ^ g , TrJa?tuj|  S*nm> £3E22£ %ElSSSiA °^cn occur.  Wmm  borealis., Ii§|er§ qord^ta,, Cjintonia  mMMm>  2mm  canadensis and hvoopodlaa atyiotinw also occur, but these species while occasionally found growing on the s o i l , more often have rotten wood as their substratum. The moss cover i s usually not continuous but Is made up of small frequent patches making a mosaic between the higher plants. Braehyfeheciugt sp., and  ?m.um punetatum are constants; .p^ldiopfis, robus,ta, and RarMlo-  P t e M l y f e ^ Q i ^ s , o®@w frequently. The two preceding associations are based on sufficient data to establish their characteristics. Following are the descriptions of four associations considered to be of interest to foresters.  Insufficient  samples were taken of these associations to establish their characteristics.  These four "incomplete" associations cover small areas in the  region examined and bear timber of marginal or non-commercial value.  22  IMP. SSB3S8&*  - MCJA  mmimmmu  - PICRANUH SOOPARIUM  ASSOCIATION (Lodgenole pine * Sngelmarm spruce • moss association) Mapping symbol M This association occurs on rocky ridge® at the top of southfacing slopes or on moraines with very porous s o i l .  Water available for  growth i s derived entirely from precipitation. The s o i l i s comparatively dry podssol with a thin raw humus layer. The s o i l i s poor i n nutrients.  The range of pH values for the soil  horizons i s as followss Horison  pH  A©  Raw biffins  3.9 - 4.1  A2  beached layer  3.7-3.9  B  lllmvium  4.8 - 5.6  The trees are short and of poor form. The spruce and lodgepole pine dominants average 73 feet total height. This association i s characterised by an almost complete ground cover of mosses. There are some lichens on the ground. Shrubs are few, scattered and dwarfed. Small dwarfed Va^oi^ufs Bwpbranacem i s the most common shrub?  other shrubs are Lonj^c$ra favolucrata, P^c,fay.etlma aarrajnjtes.  EhodoJeMson • - %lbiflQ.rum, S k a t e 5&gi&S&» Yaee^ura ovaLifoliua, and teMl  scopariuy. Herbs are also s cattered and include Llatera coruata, Lupinus  The moss cover i s almost continuous and consists of Calllergoneila Schreberi. Dlcranja fuscescens, Ui,«refflB scoparlum in abundance, and  23  EflfrUft  sp., and Polytrlchum Jffil^erjaia in lesser amount. Lichens are  present here and there on' the ground and. in elude Cla,donl,a spp. and occasionally fr^orlna orocea and Ster^ooaujon, pasohaje.  pngi,  wmmwm*  - mm.  'mmmm  ~ E^ISBWM mm-  -  SPHIGBUH KECUKVUM ASSOCIATION  ^  (itogelaann spruce - alpine f i r ~ horsetail «• neat moss association). Mapping symbol  ES,  This association occurs on level or very gentle slopes where water i s In excess In the whole s o i l profile, and aeration i s probably very poor. Water i s available for vegetation in excess during the entire growing  The s o i l i s an alpha or beta gley soil (Wilde, J946) with a dark brown to black auek (sapropel). It i s relatively high in nutrients.  The  range of pH values for the soil horizons i s as followss Horisoa  pH  Upper 12" Brown to dark brown mack  4.2  -  Below J2 Blaek Kick  4.6  - 5.2  G at 18" to 24*  £.0 - 5.3  8  Blue-grey mottled sand  4.8  This association'- i s of marginal commercial value and usually covers small areas. Occasionally, however, ther© are extensive areas of the Equisetum - Sphagnum association.  It often borders swamps and occurs  also on very gentle slopes where seepage water comes to the surface.but the grade i s so slight that the water moves very slowly. The growth of spruce and alpine f i r i s slow due perhaps to poor aeration and maybe, too, i n part, to the low temperature of the soil.  The average height  Plate VI  Horsetail - Peat Moss Association Ground vegetation  25  of dominant spruce i s 103 feet;  the average height of spruce i n the  dominant and codominant layer i s 94 feet.  Alpine f i r may reach the  Trees are often wide-spaced and narrow-crowned.  dominant layer.  Sahamum reeurvoa and Equisetum arvense characterize this association. The shrubs usually gs*w on small hummocks. The following shrubs are usually presents  Mengjesia ferrugjnea.  Rhododendron. a^blflqrum, Vaeclniua ova^folium, Yacelniuta meabranaceum. t  Alnus tenulfolia, Lonieera Involucrata Hydrophilous herbs grow here abundantly.  Equisetuin arvense i s  the most conspicuous herb and i s often accompanied by E. sylvaiiema and i * fluvlatile.  Carex leptopoda, Streptopus amplexlfolius. Veratrum  Eeehseholtzii, Athyrjum f^^-femjna, Dryopterls Ljfinasana and Valeriana siteaansls are present.  Habenaria sacoata and Senecio triangularis are usually  present, bat may occur scattered. Lyeopodinm annetlnum. Rubus nedatus, Streptoiw roseus, Tlarella unifollata, Cornus smMmSM.  *«* ^ s t e r a  cordata are also present, but usually occur on small hummocks of slight elevation. The moss cover i s dominated by an almost complete eover of Sphagnum recurvum and Sphagnum squarrosum. Aulacomnium paisutre, Brachvteeium sp., Ifaiua .punctatum, q a l ^ e r ^ e l l a euspldata and C^faalozja spp. are present as i s GalHergonella Schreberi,, but the latter i s very scattered  raws  cosTOfflA - LBTOM Qmrnamm  - SFHAQMTO  omMAgmm  ASSOCIATIOI (Lodgepole pin© - Labrador tea - peat moss association) Mapping symbol LS.  26  This non-commercial association grows on very acid low-jaoor soil with a high water table.  The water 1® stagnant or very nearly so. The  pH of the peaty brown muck' i s 3.1 to 4.0 lodgepole pine dominants 250 to 300 years old average 51 feet in height, gngelaam sprue© 26 feet and alpine f i r 18 feet. This i s a peat bog association dominated by Sphagnum mosses. Only one plot was investigated. Sfcrubat  The plants found on this plot are as f o l l o w s :  Ledumftiandulosum,£§M& poljfolla, ^ffiefym qfcgigB,  ano 2 § M * ^andulosa. Herbs?  Carex pam^fj,pra. Carex st.ygia.and some other Car ex spp.  and Prosera 3,ongifol^a. losses:  Sph%gnum eapiJ^eeum, Sphagnum, fuaeun. Sphagnum E^aatre,  Spiiagium rubellum. Sphagnum recurvum. AulaeomniuE palustre. There are, no doubt, several closely related peat bog associations and further study i s needed to show their relationships to each other and to the other associations. ABffSS LASIOCARPA - ffiKffi, MGBD^KNII - IfflBAfiUSOK UNATOM ASSOCIATION.  //  (Alpine f i r - Etogelmaim spruce - cow parsnip association) Mapping symbol: H. Only one plot of this association was examined. Other areas had been logged and were not studied. This association oeeurs on fertile -alluvial soils that occasionally show some indication that the podsolisatlca process i s taking place. The water table was found at 25 em. and the pH of this seepage water was 6.8,  27  2$  The range of pH values for the soil horizonsIB as follows: Horizon  pH  A0 & Al Duff mull humus up to 10 cm. B  Mineral s o u (sandy loam)  6.3 - 6.6 6.6-6.8  The larger part of the stand is composed of alpine f i r with only a few scattered spruce} which, however, show very good growth (e.g., 13.4 d.b.h., total height 77 feet, age - 74 years). This is a "herb-rich" association although the shrub layer shows moderate development. As only one plot was examined i t is not possible to prepare a list of characteristic soecies. The following species were found in this association. Shrubs: l ^ c e T a , . fovolucrafo, k®l£S£*  S3mS. tenuifolia,  QRlqpgia*. horridug.>ftubjig£§niflajn£§* Herbs: ^erapleum laj^tum, Thaljctrufi occjdentele, Aj£aea..MUta, Veratruft S,f,ch3,pho^j.4> Streptopus a ^ e y i f ol&ua, SmjLac.\na racoreosa, Dryopteris hinBaaana. Aconitum columbjanum, Viola glabella,, Trolllus  \*m?>  titi&fPM*  Wsm®>  2&EM±*>  fiarex Martensii,, TjAflfffrW  earuw and Pyrola unlflora. Mosses: IMffi punctata, Tftaqla, austriaca  EVALUATION OF TM) FOREST ASSOCIATIONS The classification of the Engelmann spruce - alpine f i r forests is based on ecological factors as expressed by the vegetation.  Two of  the forest associations are believed established. They are the Vacclnium evallfeliu% - Brvopterls Ljnnaeanfi association hereafter designated the  29 ¥0 association and the Vac^inAam rnembranaceum - Rubus pedatus association designated as th© VM association. Th© second part of this thesis sets forth analyses of mensurational data.  the  These analysis are an attempt to determine the  attributes possessed by forest stands o f the VO and V M associations.  MAPPHK5  The experimental area of project E. P. 371 covers approximately 500 aeres and Is subjected to nine silvieultural treatments. Over this area 110 fifth-acre (1 chain x 2 chain) permanent sample plots are distributed o n a systematic basis. The forest associations on this area were mapped. Strips were run at four-chain intervals by box compass ar.I pacing.  In addition to the  map, diagrams were made showing the location of the forest associations within the pea^aanent sample plots that contained more than one association. The boundaries between associations; as indicated by the vegetation were so sharply defined in almost a l l , cases that the forest associations could be separated within a fifth-acre plot. Figure 2 i s the map of the area delineating th© forest associations. The heights of the four highest-of the five sampl® trses taken on each permanent samjle plot were averaged. an average height of U0  In figure 3 those plots with  feet or more are coloured yellow;  those with  an average height of 100 feet or less are coloured blue, while those with heightB between 110 and 100  feet are not coloured.  The result Is a  division into site types based on average height of the tallest trees. There i s f a i r l y close agreement between th© two maps. In most cases discrepancies occur where plots contain more than one association.  Q  C.  /-©/-as/"  5*>-vice  ^«sea»-c/7 Division  £. P  37/  W<thit,  P/ots  /-lio  XS4Z7/  Step "c"  18  M)  B  A-  / \  Scrut  a  /  0  G  C/wcut **n4 burn  //  C/CAZ-CW" /AO'*  VO VM ES  no" +  mm/mum  c =. r  .''Mixed" type  Wama»<  r«X»<*  or<ni«K b««n^«>-y  m  y  J W 6 Swfl . /IwW  F i g u r e 2 . Map of the f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s on E.P. 371  31 P. P.  I" -"| to tk  37/  P/ots  Pra/ecf  Within  l.)  /-'io  6 i. X.34Z7/  V./ EE Strip  "C'  ME  s HHH  i / ' VjST^'TV \  5  0 0  s eg  G  0 Scrub  @ ins  a  H\  a 0  /AO* +  5>n*/c frmm  S*kcfi  G  C/*<vcu? » n i b u r o //,o" +  X  C7#**«"f ft //•©'  110' and over 100' and l e s s  /AO' + S«pt i / . s i  J HQ  Figure  I.  Map of the maximum heights on the permanent sample p l o t s on E . P . 371  S(B.fK .  32 ANALYSES OF MENSURATIONAL DATA  Data from contained only  permanent  the  VO association  the  association were copied from  of  sample p l o t s  the  p r o j e c t E.P.371 which  and those which contained o n l y VM field  of  sheets  are designated VOpsp and VMpsp respectively in Data from  the  mensurations! plots  presented  in  Appendix  III.  data f o r  follow.  vegetation study  a l l plots  are  S t a t i s t i c a l data are summarized i n Appendix I V .  Average Site quality is  analyses to  the  taken w i t h the  are designated VOveg and VMveg. Summarized  These  Mr.J.H.G.Smith.  Height  usually  of  Dominant and  measured in terms  Codorainant Trees the  of  height  attained  by the average of the dominant and eodominant trees at a certain age. The stands occurring on the VO and VM associations are of the same age, that is 250 - 350 years. Therefore, a comparison of dominant  and  eodominant trees  will  indicate  the h e i g h t s of  the r e l a t i v e s i t e  quality  of the two a ssociations. Figures k and 5 feet  show the  and diameter breast  respectively. Figure 4  relationship between  height i n inches is  of  the  Vm  based on 174 Engelmarm  f i r sample trees measured on 32  plots.  t o t a l height  and VO a s s o c i a t i o n s  spruce and  Figure 5 is  in  based  165 a l p i n e  on 153  Engelmann spruce and 131 alpine f i r sample trees measured on 28 plots. The height of the dominant and eodominant trees were averaged for VOpsp, VOveg, dominant  and  VMpsp  and  VMveg  eodominant trees are  as  plots.  The average t o t a l heights  follows:  for  33  TABLE 3 Average Height of Dominant and Codoainant Trees Engelmann ipruce V0psp*(l9)  106.7 feet  VMpsp(23)  96.5 feet  VOveg (9)  110.7 feet  VMveg(9)  94.5 feet  VO (28)  107.8 feet  VM(32)  06.1 feet-  Alpine f i r VMpsp (21)  VOpsp (19)  94.6 feet  85.0 feet  VOveg (9)  92.3 feet  VMveg (9)  80.3 feet  VO (28)  94.3 feet  VM (32)  84.9 feet  The alpine f i r heights cannot be considered as heights attained by average dominant and eodominant trees, but they do indicate the position of alpine f i r occurring i n the upper crown layer. Analyses of variance showed that the differences between VOpsp and VOveg plots and between VMpsp and VMveg plots are not significant at th© five  per cent level.  tions of  ivel.  On the other hand, differences between a l l combina-  VO plots versus VM plots are significant at the five per cent  Hence VOpsp and VOveg plots are grouped and called VO plots; and  VMpsp and VMveg plots are grouped and called VM plots.  Height Attained by the Average of the Dominant and Codominant Trees by " F o r a u l a " The eoHoaon tree classification o f dominant, eodominant, intermediate and suppressed trees was developed for use in even-aged stands. The stands on the area, while essentially even-aged as far as Engelmann •lumbers in parentheses are number of plots used to calculate average total heights.  Engelmann Spruoe  T5 £0 m 30 3b 40 D.B.H. - inohes (Based on 174 sample trees measured on 32 plots, TO  Alpine F i r  120  0)  .C  to  •«-t  O)  w o E-t  D.B.H. - inohes (Based on 165 sample trees measured on 32 plots) Figure 4. Relationship between diameter breast height and t o t a l height on huckleberry - t r a i l i n g Rubus forest association (VM) at Bolean Lake, B.C.  En £e 1 ir,a tin 3pru e e  I  x: •rH  a>  o  _  To"  13  20"  D.B.H. - inches iBased on 131 sample trees measured on £6 plots Figure 5. Relationship between diameter breast height and t o t a l height on t a l l 'blueberry - oak fern association (VO) at Bolean Lake, B.J.  36  spro.ce i s concerned, are overmature and beginning to break up with the result that there are frequent openings or "holes" i n the stand and application of the tree classification was d i f f i c u l t .  Thus trees which  were below the general level of the crown canopy of the whole forest were i a many eases classified as dominant because they received light from above and the sides.  In an endeavour to find a more reliable measure of  the height of the average of the dominant and ©©dominant trees a modification of the method used by McArdle, Meyer and Bruce (1949) was tried, fhe procedure was as follows! 1,  The upper 55 per cent of the entire range of diameter classes (Brigelmann spruce plus alpine f i r ) was determined.  2,  The average d.b.h. weighted by basal area of Engehaam spruce occurring In this upper 55 per cent of the range was calculated.  3, The height read from the height/diameter curve for this d.b.h. was taken as the height of the average of the dominant and eodominant trees by "formula'*. For Engelmann spruce the average heights of dominant and eodominant trees by «foraala are as follows? ,  ,,  TABLE 4 Average Heights of Dominant and Codomlnant frees by "Formula" Engelmam epruce VOpep (19  110.4 feet  V%sp (23)  96.0 feet  VOveg (9)  115.2 feet  VMveg (9)  94.4 feet  VO (28)  111.6 feet  VM (32)  95.6 feet  Height of the Average Dominant Tree by "FormuLa"  37 Height of the Average Dominant Tree by "Formula" ler (1952) has shown that height of the average dominant tree gives a more accurate estimate of site quality than the average height of dominant and eodominant trees when based on the same number of measurements. An increase In accuracy Is particularly desirable when it is considered that only five trees wore measured on each of the permanent sample plots. When calculating the average height of dominant and eodominant trees b y th© formula method, it was noticed that in most of the plot stand tables a gap in the spruce diameter classes occurred at the 55 per gent point of the entire range of diameter classes. Further examination of the plot stand tables showed that a gap in the spruce diameter classes also occurred in many of the stand tables at about the upper 20 per cent of the entire diameter range. Using the same method as shown (i.e. calculating the average d.b.h. of Engelmann spruce of the upper 20 per cent of the entire range in d.b.h. classes and reading the height of this d.b.h, from the height/diameter curve), the height thus derived was called the height of the average dominant tree by ttformula". The average height of Engelmann spruce dominant trees by "formula" is as follows: IABLE 5 B  Average Height of Dominant Trees by "Formula Engelmann spruce VOpsp (19)  115.4 feet  VMpsp (23)  101.9 feet  VOveg (9)  120.i feet  VMveg (9)  101.6 feet  VO (28)  117.1 feet  VM (32)  101.8 feet  Analyses of variance indicate that the differences between VOpsp and VOveg, and between VMpsp and VMveg, are not significant at the five  38  per cent level.  But a l l combinations of fO versus VM plots indicate  significant differences at the five per csnt level. Figure 6 summarises the height data and illustrates some of th© porttoent statistics. Data for the VM association are based on 32 plots and for the VO association are based on 23 plots.  Volumes Volume tables for the VO and VM associations were prepared from the height/diameter eurves for each association and B.G.Forest Service volume tables for total volume and for merchantable volume i n cubic feet* for Engelmann spruce and alpine f i r .  From the plot stand tables total  volume, merchantable volume d.b.h. 7 i n . plus and merchantable voluiab d.b.h. 12 in, plus was calculated for each plot. These plot volumes were then averaged by associations with the following results? TABLE 6 Average Volume per acre Total volume Engelmann spruce  alpine f i r  spruce * alpine f i r  VO 5326 cf  2250 cf  7576 cf  VM 3881 ef  2334 of  6215 cf  Merchantable Volume d.b.h.7"  X  VO 4292 cf  1981 of .  6910 of  VM 3496 of  1959 of  5355 of  For Engelmann spruce - White spruce volume Table SW1 White spruce volume table SW2 For alpine f i r - Balsam f i r volume table B3 Balsam f i r volume Table So.20  Figure 6 . Heights of dominants and dominants and oodominants of Engelmann spruce and Alpine f i r for VO and VM forest associations at Bolean Lake, B. C. 1. See text pages; 36 & 3-7.  40  Engelmann spruce  alpine f i r  spruce • alpine f i r  Merehantable volume d.b.h. 12» • VO 4827 of  1303 of  6130 of  VM 3322 of  701 of  4023 cf  Analyses of variance indicate differences between VO and VM plots are significant at the five per cent level i n a l l cases except the differences for alpine f i r total volume and alpine f i r merehantable volume d.b.h. 7 i n . and over.  Statistical tests showed that th© difference between spruce basal area i a the fO and VM plots was not significant at the five percent level. It was noticed that on plots with a low basal area for spruce, the basal area for alpine f i r appeared to be higher than on plots with average or better than average basal area for spruce.  Analysis of covariance showed  the difference between spruce basal area on VO and VM plots was not significant when corrected for the regression of spruce basal area on the total (spruce plus alpine f i r ) basal area.  The same result was obtained  for alpine f i r . Muraber of trees The number of trees was summed separately by one-inch d.b.h. classes for VO and VM plots. These totals were then divided by the acreage of the VO and VM plots respectively to arrive at the number of trees per acre i n each d.b.h, class. for these "average" acres.  Stand and stock tables were then made  Figures 7 and 8 are graphic representations of  41  these tables, to the right of the center line are the number of trees per acre by one-inch d.b.h. classes. To the l e f t of the center-line are the total volumes per acre In each one-inch d.b.h. class. These graphs show clearly the differences between the VO and VM forest associations i n ooEpoBitian, and distribution of the number of trees and volume by d.b.h. classes,. Th© data for number of trees were regrouped into three-inch diameter classes as shown in Table 7. A Chi-square test with the null hypothesis that the VO and VM associations did not differ significantly in number of irees was applied.  Th© test showed that there was a  highly significant difference i n the number of spruce trees In the largest diameter class and i n th© total number of trees. The difference i n the other diameter classes was not significant. The same results were obtained for alpine f i r , TABLE 7 Number of trees by 3-in d.b.h. classes in VO and VM associations DBH Glass.  Engelmann spruce VO VM  fir  VM  lumber of Trees per acre.  in.  1-3  Alpine  VO  10.2  7.4  113.4  212.0  115.2  4-6  4.2  3.*  58.8  7-9  5.4  5.8  34.0  65.S  10-12  5.0  12.2  27.2  32.8  13-15  9.0  20.3 (13" & oirer)24.2  12.5  16-18  12.6  22.8  19 & over  28.8  ll.Q  43.  The diameters f o r spruce were then regrouped into three classesj  small (1-6 in.), medium (7.18 In.) and large (19 I n . And over) as-shown in Table 8. In this grouping tho number of spruce trees In the medium and large classes and the totals differed significantly between VO and VM associations.  v  TABLE 8 Number of Engelmann spruce trees by groups In VO and VM associations Small (1-6 in.)  Medium (7-18 in.)  No, of Trees.  Large (19 i n . and over)  VO  14.4  32.0 .  28.8  VM  8.0  61.1  11.0  Alpine f i r diameters were also regrouped into small (1-6 in.)  ,  medium (7.12 in.) and large (13 i n . and over) as shown in Table 9. TABLE 9 Number of alpine f i r trees by groups i n VO and VM associations Small (1-6 in.)  Medium (7-12 in.)  Large (13. i n . and over)  VO  172.2  61.2  24.2  VM  336.2  98.6  12.5  In t h i s grouping the number of trees of alpine f i r in the large class and th© totals were highly significant between VO and VM associations *  FOREST ASSOCIATIONS AS A MEASURE OF SITE QUALITY A review of the menaurational data i n order to ascertain the effectiveness of forest associations i n the determination of site quality may now be made.  fe  u.  A comparison of th® map Fig.2 page 30 and the map based on heights, Flg.3 page 31 shows that they are fairly close in agreement. Plots containing more than one association, in most cases, are the reason for discrepancies. The email scale of the maps does not adequately show the relative amounts in plots with a mixture of associations. In selecting sample trees the trend is to measure th© largest, tallest trees and even a small area of better site will result in greater heights. The average heights of dominant and eodominant trees Indicate that the VO and VM associations separate the forest into two site quality classes with known boundaries. The "formula" method of determining height of the average of the dominant and eodominant trees, while Increasing the observed range in heights, at the same time results In a slightly greater separation in the means and a small decrease In the standard deviation as shown in Fig. 6, page 3 9. The volume averages substantiate the results fro® the height data. BecauseAdifference in basal area between VO and VM associations Is not significant the larger volumes of the VO associations are due to greater heights, ' In forestry t ext books It is stated that on poor sites there are more trees per acre at the same age than on good sites? that on poor sites the range In diameter classes is often less than on good sitesj that on poor sites there are fewer trees in th© large sizes than on good sites. These statements are the vague generalities that must always be qualified in application. However, examination of the data shows that the number of trees per acre in total and in distribution by diameter elasses conforms to these statements.  45.  For th© area examined i t can be concluded that the ?0 and VM forest associations demarcate two distinct site quality classes and are valid for this area.  Do the taluos represented by the average height of  dominant trees have a wider application?  Considerably more work over a  wide geographical range i s needed to ascertain th® limits of r e l i a b i l i t y of forest associations i n determining site quality.  FOREST ASSOCIATIONS ZM RELATION TO SILVICuXWRE AMD MANAGEMENT Many ocologists and foresters advocate the use of an ecological basis in the application of silviculture to forest stands. "Foundations of silviculture", "biological dendrology", and other terms have been used to express the concept of an ecological basis for silviculture.  But the  practice of silviculture on an ecological basis i s fraught with difficulties that originate i n greater part from a lack of knowledge of the effect of the intereaetlng factors that determine the reproduction, growth, maturity and decline of forest stands. Forest associations provide a means of classifying forest stands on an ecological basis. The classification Is easily applied, for once their characteristics are determined, forest associations are easily identified on the ground, and, i f necessary mapped. It has been shown that the stands on VO and VM associations differ in composition, height, volume and stem-size distribution.  That these  associations w i l l respond differently to ailvicultural treatment i s probable. The stratification of experimental silviculture! treatments by forest associations presents the possibility of building up a fund of  46  knowledge of the response of various forest associations to various silvicultural treatments. From the research point of view this i s one of the important applications of forest associations to silviculture. As the knowledge of the response of different forest associations to various silvicultural treatment accumulates, i t w i l l become available to the forest manager. When the forest stands are classified by forest associations the forest manager may then select the correct silvicultural treatment for each association to achieve the desired results. Bufef knowledge based on experiment and experience of the response of forest associations to different treatments does not exist. By Inference and surmise the following predictions have been reaehed of what may be, In part at least, the result of cultural t reatment to th© ¥0 and VM forest associations. As a practicable measure i t i s unlikely that the VO and VM associations w i l l receive separate treatments. Examination of the diagram of volume and number of trees by d.b.h. classes (Figures B and 9, page 42 makes i t clear that whatever the method of cutting, different results ean be expected from the VO and VM associations.  The VO association w i l l  give larger yields than the VM association, fhe residual stands on VO and VM associations w i l l differ greatly in species composition, and i n ,number and d.b.h. distribution of trees.  Clear cutting as practised In  this region leaves a residual stand because a l l trees less than  10-12  inches d.b.h. and a l l defective trees, especially alpine f i r , are not cut. The group selection method w i l l create openings i n the forest stands.  In stands of the VM association these openings w i l l b*  occupied  by a dense growth of snowbush If the development follows that i n the natural stands of the VM association.  In stands of the VO  associations  47  some openings may be invaded by snowbueh and form cover sufficiently dense to binder regeneration.  If a suitable seed bed can be prepared and the  ground vegetation reduced for a sufficient period by scarification or other treatment then prompt restocking by carriers may occur, provided there is adequate seed f a l l . At Bolean Lake a l l alpine firs ever 10 inches d.b.h. have been felled with the purpose of reducing the quantity of alpine f i r in the residual stand. Most of the alpine f i r cut is left to rot where i t falls because many of the large trees are defective and no market exists for the small trees. In stands of th® VM association such a treatment nay degrade the site because of the effect of rotting wood upon the soil. The ortstein layer may rise closer to the surface decreasing the voltsse of soil available for rooting - especially for spruce. In addition, for part of the year at least, this shallow soil will contain water in excess and the trees will then become prone to windbhrow. This prediction is not based entirely upon conjecture for those plots in the VM association which had the greatest quantity of rotting wood on them also had sell Kith a thick leached layer (A2) and well developed ort stein at a shallow depth. On level or gently sloping terrain ortstein at a shallow depth could provide the conditions favorable for the establishment of sphagnum moss and a further lowering of site quality. It i s possible that the "scrub" areas on the map (Figure 2, page 30) originated in this way . This hypothesis Is based on' conjecture, for while the scrub areas do have an ortstein layer at a shallow depth there lsNevidenca that better stands of timber grew there SSrmerly, nor is there evidence of large amounts of rotten wood formerly on the ground. While such predictions of the future state of forest associations  48 following treatment may be useful they cannot substitute for knowledge based on planned experiment.  APPEMDH 1  PLANT LIST  49  LIST OF PLAIT SPECIES (with names of their authors) TREES:  Abie® laeioearpa (Hook.) Nutt. Plot*. Engelmannli Parry Pinua contorta Dougl. Pseudotsuga t a x i f o l l a (Poir.) B r l t t . Thuja plioata Donn  SHRUBS? Alaus tenulfolia Matt. Betula glandulosa Miehx. Empetrum nigrum L. KalBda p o l i f o l l a Wang. Ledum glandulosum Mutt. Lonicera involucrata Banks Lonicera utahensis Wats. Menaleala ferruginea  Hook.  Oplopanax horrldus (Sm.) Mig, Paebysiljsa myrslnites (Pureh.) Raf. Rhododendron a l b i f l o r u i Hook. Ribes lacustre P o i r . Rubaa parviflorus Butt. Sambucus malanocarpa Gray Sorbus sitchensis Roan. Vaccinium membranaeeum Dougl. Vaeeinlum ovalifolium Smith faeelnium seoparium Leiberg. HERBS: Aeonitum oolumblanum Nutt. Actaea arguta 'Nutt. Arnica cordifolia Hook. Athyrium fUix-femina (L.) Roth. Bromus vulgaris (Hook.) Shear Galtha leptosepala DC. Carex leptopoda Mackenzie Carex Hertensii Preeaott Carex pauciflora Llghtf. Carex stygia Pries Clintonla unlflora (Menasies) Kunth Cornus canadensis L. Drosera leaagifolia L. Dryopterls austriaca (Sarg.) Woyn. Dryopterls Llnnaeana C» Car. Epilobium adenocaulon Haussk. Epilobium angustifoliua L. Equlsetum arvenee L, Equisetum f l u v i a t i l e L. Equisetum sylvaticum L. Galium t r i f l o r u a Miehx. Goodyera deeipiens (Hook.) S t . John & Gonst. Habenaria saccata Greene  Heracleum lanatum Michx. Llnnaea borealis L. Listers oordata (L.) R. Br. lycopodiura annotinum L. Lycopodium clavatum L, Mitella nuda L. Monotropa lati squama Rydb, Osmorhiza nuda Torr. Pedicularis bracteosa Benth. Pyrola braeteata Hook. Pyrola minor L, Pyrola secunda L. Pyrola unifiers L. Rubms pedatus Smith Seneei© triangularis Hook. Smilaeina racemosa (L.) Desf. Streptopus araplexifolius (L.) DC. Streptopus roseus Mich. Thalietrum occidental© Gray Tiarella unifollata Hook. Trisetuta cernuum Trin» Trollius laxus Salisb. Valeriana sitehensis Bong. Veratrum Ischscholtmii A. Gray Viola glabella Mutt. Viola orbiculata Geyer Brjjophytes: Aulacoimium androgyaua Schw. Aulocemnium palustre (W. & M.) Schw. Barbilophoaia lyeopodioides (Wallr.) Loeske Blapharostoma trichophylla (L.) Bum.  Calliergonella cuspidata (Brid.) Loeske Calliergonella Schreberi (Bry. Eur.) Grout. Calypogeia trichmonamis (L.) Corda  Cephaloaia media Lindb. Dicranum fuscescens Turn. Dicranum scoparium Hedw.  Marchantia polymorpha L. Mnlum puactatum Hedw.  Mnium spinulosum Hedw* Pellia neesian (Gottiehe) Ltmpr. Pogonatum alpinua (Hedw.) Roehl. Pogonatum urnigerum (Hedw.) Beauv. Polytrichum commune Hedw. Polytrichua juniperinua Hedw.  Ptilium crista-casteensis (Hedw.) De Mot. Rhytldiadelptaus triquetrus Warnst. Ehytidiopsis robusta (Hook.) Broth.  Biecardia slnuata (Dicks.) Trev. Spha,^aim fuscum (Schimp.) H. Klinger Sphagnum palustre L , Sphagnum recurvum Beauv. Sphagnum rubelluaa Wilson Sphagnum squarrosum Crome Tiirsaia austrica Hedw. Lichens: Peltigera aphthosa W i l l d . Peltigera canina Willd. Solorina croeea Ach. Stereocaulon paschale (L.) H o f f n .  - APPENDIX II -  ASSOCIATION TABLES  52 ASSOCIATION TAB IE PICKA ©IGEXMAKJII - ABIKS LASIOCAEPA - VACCEIIUM HEMBRJfflACEtTM - RUBUS PEDATUS ASSOCIATION (Engelmann spruce - alpine f i r - black huckleberry - t r a i l i n g Butas association VM Association)  P l o t number Elevation (feet above sea level) Aspect (exposure) Slope (degrees) Wind Cover by layers (percent) A - Trees Bi- T a l l shrubs (over 6 feet) Bg- Low shrubs C - Herbs D - Mosses, lichens and Liverworts  A]_ &2 , B]_  B2  202  5100 W 5  * •  209 5200  15-20  12  208  wsw  •(•)  1  +  7.-6  1.* 6.*  !.•  6-7.6 1-2. •  5.* 1.*  Abies lasiocarpa Menziesia ferruginea Picea Engelmannii Rhododendron albiflorum Sorbus sitchensis  2.*  4.*  Abies lasiocarpa Eonieera involucrata Lonicera utahensis Menziesia ferruginea Picea Engelmannii Rhododendron albiflorum Ribes lacustre Saabueus aelanocarpa Sorbus sitchensis Vaecinium meabranaceum Vaccinium ovalifolium  1.*  Abies lasiocarpa Picea Engelmannii  5.-7  -. -  * •  •  2.*  WW 0-10  **  40 20 95 45 40  5.-7 5.-6  210 5200  w  70 10 85-90 40 70  Species Abies lasiocarpa Picea Engelmannii  50 10 70 75 50  5040  4.3  3.-4  k.* *  •8.-7 •  2.7 1.* 3.*  i/ • • L68-9.8  i.» 8r4-9  4.-3  .  3.* 8.5  2.*  •+  50  10  85 50 75  226 5100  227 5200  7-12 45 10 60 65 50  SH  **-  Total Estimates 1.* 4.-7 3.-7  3.-6 1.4  2-3.4  ME  10-20  45 30 90-95 30 25  „  2,+  224 4810  5200  233 5100  0-5 !  0-5  10-17  50 10 90 30 50  45 35 85  6.6  ESE  228 ME 1  80  45  •  4-5.*  *  6.-7  6-7.6  7.-7  8.-7  7.-7 2.-5  6.-7 3.-5  4.-6  4.-6  4-5.5  5.5  *  5.5  •  •  2.2  4.-3  •  6.-6 •.3 l.t 2.6 2.* 3.*  *  • 1.*  2.* *  #  • 3.-5  45 25 70 65 45  -i <D C CQ  U  6.7  V  4-5.6 6.-7  V V  6.6 1.-5 #  • 3.4  «  •  •.5 4.-4 + Zi.i/ 9.9 8-9.8 1-2.* * 1.* * 8.5 1.* 1.* •  7.6 1.-5  wsw  1.3  3.2-4 ,  5-6.6  5.5  6,6  5-6.6  5-6*6 4.5  1.3 8,7 3.-4  7.6 3.3  2.4 7.6 2.-4  6.6  .  V II III III II  f I I V II V II I IV V V  53 ASSOCIATION TABLE (cont'd.) VM ASSOCIATION  Plot number Species C Abies lasiocarpa Arnica c o r d i f o l i a Clintonia u n i f l o r a Cornus canadensis Epilobium angustifolium Goodyera decipiens tinnaea borealis L i s t e r a cordata Lyeopodiura annotinum Lyeopodium clavatum M i t e l l a nuda Picea Engelmannii Pyrola jptoor Pyrola secunda Pyrola u n i f l o r a Rubus pedatus Streptopus amplexifolius Streptopus roseus Thalictrum oecidentale Tiarella unifoliata Valeriana sitchensis Veratrum Eschseholtzii, Viola orbiculatos D  202  4.-3 2.-2  208  2-3.4 •  5.-2 4.*,  2.-2  7.-5  4.-5 1.1 »  209  210  224  Li/  ...  •  2.2 4.2-4 4.-4 3.4 3.-3 4.2 2.-3 2.-2  • .2 3.2  i.»  2.*  •  Mosses, Liverworts and Lichens on the g r c und Brachythecium sp. 3.-2 Calliergonella Schreberi Dicranum fuscescens +.1-2 Dicranum scoparium Mnium punotatuis Plagiothecium sp. Pohlia sp. • Polytrichum commune Polytrichum juniperinura • Ptilium crista-castrensis •* Khytldiopsis robusta Barbilophozia lycopodioides Cladonia spp. • Peltigera aphthoea •  2.-3 3.2  233 2-3.2 >4.2 3-4.2 * 1.2  2.-2 2,2 2.-2 *  3.-2 2.2 3.1 7.-4 7.-5 4.-4 1.2 2-1.1 *  •  •  •  2.-2 2.2 4.-4 3.-3 3.-3 4.-2 2.-2 2.-1 . 1.. • .2 •.-3 +-.3 3.3 4.-2 2.-2 1.*  •  3.1  7.5 6.2 4.2 5-6.3 *  »  •  •  •  2.-3 3.-2 1.1 2.-3  •  6.2  1.1 •  •  •  2.2 2.2 5.3 3.2 2.2,. »  5.-4 1.-2 3.-3 4.3* •  3.3 2.2  1.-2  a  1.2  2.2  1.-3  4 „.3  7.-4 3.-3  1.1 *  3.-2  •  •  V II V V I IV IV III V I  I  III  I  *  •  *  228  2.* 3.1 2.2 , „ . 3.2 * 2-3.4 4.* 3-4.* 3.-2 3.2 3.2 3.-2 3.* 3.* 2.2 3.1 • • 1.* 1.3-4 1-2,2 4.-4 4.-3 1.* •*• 1.* 3.1-5 1.2 2.* 4.3 2.-4 4.3  * 3.-2 1.-2 3.* 7.-4 5-6.3 5.-3 6.-3 5.-3 * ' • * • 2-3.1 2.1 1.*•  •  227  2.*  2.-2 *  3,1 *  226  3.1 •  V I V I V I  II If II I V V V III II II III II IV I IV V II II  54 ASSOCIATIOB TABLE PICEA ENGELMANNII - ABIES LASIOCARPA - VACCBJIUM OVALIFOLItM - DRYOFTERIS LBfflABAKA ASSOCIATION (Engelmann spruce - alpine f i r - t a l l blueberry - oak fern association VO ASSOCIATIOB  Plot number Elevation, (feet above sea level) Aspect (exposure) Slope (degrees) Wind Cover by layers (percent) A - Trees B i - t a l l shrubs (over 6 fest) B2- low shrubs C - Herbs D - Bosses, Liverworts and Lichens  229 230 232 204 205 207 211 212 215 4900 4850 4950 5180 5090 5000 5100 5100 4990 WW H SW N S SWS SSW SW 10-15 10-20 5-10 15 10-15 - 10-15 10-15 7-15 *• * •* * •t «• -*  •(f)  60 60 20 15 25-90 25-75 45 40 75 25  55  30 70 90 55  65 20 75 70 55  75 30 60 80 , 50 ~  6c  80  10 40 75 55  10 45 80 45  40 15  70 70 50  40 15  70 70 50  >  0 c 0 <v  Total E stimate . SPECIES Ax  A2  Abies lasiocarpa Picea Engelmannii Abies lasiocarpa Picea Enge.lroaraaii Abies Lasiocarpa Menziesia ferruginea Picea Engelmannii Rhododendron albiflorum Sorbus sitchensis Thuja p l i c a t a  Bg  Abies lasiocarpa Alnus t e n n i f o l i a Lonicera involuerata Linocera utahensis Menziesia ferruginea Picea Engelmannii Rhododendron albiflorum Ribes lacustre Bubus parviflorus Satabucus melanocarpa Sorbus sitchensis Thuja p l i c a t a Vaceinium membranaceum Vac ciniumi .0 v a l i f olium  4.-6 6. * 6.-7 7.-7 7. -7 7.-7 6.-7 !.• 2.* 1.+ 5.-6 4.-6 6.-7 T  *  2.7 • .-6 3.* •.5  *.l  4.*  . 3.-3  6.I5  • .4 +  1.*  7.3-5 7.3-5  4.-7 4.-6 5.-7 6.-6 8.-8 6.-7 6.-7 7.-7 • • 2.* 5.-6 5.-6 45.* 2.-6 • 1.* 1.6*  •  •  4.-6 3.*  9  4.-4 4.-5 1.* 4.-5 • 1.* •  •  7.6 5.-6 4-5.6 5.-5 4-5.6 4-5.6 4-5.5 4.-5 •  • .6 3.* *  2.3  1.3  t  1.-4  •  5-6.6 6.6. . 5.-6  •  •  • .-2 3.2  3.3  4.5 4.4 *  1.4  3.3 1.-7 3.3  • •  3*+  4.-5 3.4 3.4 4.-4 1-2. • 4-5.5 2.3 . 2.4 5.0, 5-6.6 6.-6 2.-4 2.-3 . • • 1.* *  1.-2 *\ + • .6 5.04 5.-6 4.-3 3.-4 3.-3 5.-4 5.-6 8.-7 7.-7 5.-3  •  1.3  5.-5 5.-5  5.-5 5.5  *  1.3  1.-7 5.-6  5.-5  II T V V V II III II II III V  I II II ¥ III f III II II IV III V V  55. ASSOCIATION TABLE (cont'd) VO ASSOCIATION  204  Plot Ho C  Species Abies l»siocarpa Aetaea arguta Arnica e o r d i f o l i a Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a Brooms vulgaris Caltha leptosepala Clintonia u n i f l o r a Cornus canadensis Dryopteris LinmaeaEta Dryopteris austriaca Epilobium adenocaulon Epilobium augustlfolium Equisetum sylvaticum' Galium triflorum Goodyera decipiens Habenaria saccata Mnnaea boreal i 3 L i s t e r a cordata Lyeopodium annotinum M i t e l l a nuda Osmorhiza nuda Pedieularis bracteosa Picea Engelaiarrnii Pyrola.braeteata minor Pyrola secunda Pyrola, unif'lora Rubus pedatus Senecio triangularis Smilacina racemosa Streptopus amplexifolius Streptopus roseus Thalietrum occidentals Thuja p l i c a t a . Tlarelia unifoliata T r o l l i u s laxus Valeriana sitchensis Veratrum Eschscholtzii Viola glabella V i o l a orbieulata  2.*  207  211  2.** 3.* 1-2.* 5.-6 1-2.* 5.-6  3.+• 1.4 1.4•  205  +  %*  3.-2 5.-4  .  3.-2 Z±/ 7.-6 5.-3 • • • •  *  •  •  • •  • +  215  •  • * •  1-2•.*  •  •  • • •  •  •  * L*-2J  . . 3.-6 3-4.5 1-3.2 1.* 1.* /1-2.*/ 1.*. 12 .2/ 2.* 3.2-3 3.-3 /2.-2 •.a/ 1.* . 2-3.* • * 1T2.* 1,* , * • h/ 1.* Z2.*/ zw 4. • .2 1-2.* *.2 * 3.-2 4.-3 *  4.+ 3.-2 *+ -  •  •  *  *  • *  •  • •  •  . •  232 3.3• • •  .  12.3/  7.-7 • •  • •  •  •  •  •  •  •  .  •  2.1 1.1 2.1 Z2-2/ Zl.2/ Z2-2/ 1.1• 1.1• • D-'.y •  -•  1.1 1.1 3.2/ 2-2/ Z4-2/ Z3.2/_ • 1.-3 +.1 1.+ 1.* 1.-3 2.* 1.* 4.4 4.-2 4.-2 3-*• 3.-3 3.3• i. • 4.-2 4.-2 4.1 3-4.2 1-2.* • 1.* . 4.-3 4.-3. 1-2.3 2.* 4.-3 2.-2 3.-4 1.-3 1.3 2.-3 • . 3.1 3.1 • 2-3.* • *  230  229  3.4 3.+ 2.2• 1.1• * . • 5.-5 1.*. • 5.-5 1.3• • • 1-2.4 . 1+) /2.2/ / l . * l / (2*2/ Z3.2/ 7.-5 8.-6 7.-6 7.-6 7.6• • • • + •  • +  212  •  4.2 •  •  • • •  /3.2 • •  Z2. 27 • • •  k-2 •  •  • •  3.2•  2.2•  3.1•  4.2 3.3 4.-4  3.2• 2.3 3.-3 •  3.1-2 •  •  • •  *  •  *  •  *  4.-4 •  V I I III II I III IV V I I II I I I I III V V III III I V I II III II IV T X  I V V 1 T  X  If *IF  ¥ V II  56. ASSOCIATION TABLE (COM'd.) W  Plot Ho. Species P  Aulacomnium androgynum Brachythecium sp. Bryum sp. Calliergonella Schreberl Dioranum fusceacens Dicranum scoparium. Drepanocladus uncinatus Milium purietatum Mniura spinulosum Philonotis sp. Plagiothecium sp Pogonatum alpinum Pogonatum urnigerum Pohlia sp. Pblytricum commune Polytrichum juniperinum Ptilium crista-castrensis Bhytidiadelphus triquetrue Ehytidiopsis rotmsta Sphagmm squarrosttm BarbilophCzla lycopodioides Bazzania sp. Blepharostoma triohophylla C&lypogela trichomanis Cephalosia sp. Marchantia polymorpha P a l l i a neesiana Riceardia sinuata Riccardia sp. Scapania sp. Cladonia sp. Peltigera aphthosa  ASSOCIATION  205  207  211  212  215  229  230  233  4.1-2  * • ,2  3.-3  5.4,  4.2  •2.2 .-3  3.2-2 4.2•  3.2  4.-3  2.1 2,1-2  5.2  5-5.4  204  e  . .  2-3*2,'  1.* 1.1  2.2 ,  2.2-2 2.1-2  2,3  4.1-3 3.2  * *  •  *  2.-3 „  1-2.3  3.-2  * *  •  6.-5  „  *  2.-2 *  4.-3 4.-4  6.-5 2.1 «  2.1 *  • .2 • .4 1-2.3  1.2  *  1.2-3  2.3-5  1.-3 •  5.-4  »  + .2 *.2 •.3* *.-3 *.2 • .2  •  +.2-3  *  1-2.3 5.1-6  •T2  +  1.1  •-  1-2.3 •  •  1.-4 •  2.1  2.2  2.1 , . 2.2 3.1  •  •  2.2-4 *  »  2.1  • • .2  •  •  •  •  •  I YI II III III II II V II I II I II III I III I I III I Y I I I II II III II I II I I  -  APPENDIX  III  SUMMART OF MEMSHHAf I01AL DATA STAID AID STOCK TABLES  57  SUMMARY  OF MEKSURATICNAL DATA  Engelmann sprue© - alpine f i r - t a l l blueberry - oak fern Association (TO Association) SPRUCE - per acre basis  Plot No  5 9  21  22 23 24 43 46 66  78  80 82  m  91 92 93 96 106  Mo.x A verage Height of by formula Trees M 0 D D&C ft ft ft  m  150 85 80 65  95  75  40  65 45 50 45 115 45 80 70  45  95  115  10g  lid 112 115 122 116 116 116 122 121 122 114  %  106 115 117 111  97  114  119  117 113 106  103 111  104 101  108  35 45  97 93  204  90  112 100  205  207 211 212 215  229 230  232  120 290  60  80  no  86 45 35  *  97  104 104 108 123 118  124  93  130  120 105 116 108  111  125 122 122 121  127 120 120 121 109  106 85 H2 102 112 110 112 112 110 IIS 114 120  108  Ave. DBS  Volume per acre March. Total  in  ef  ©f  lot 114 162  16.4  6803 4113  147 225 160 60 125 122 145 110  20.4  6304 3734 6251 4435 5760  B.A, f t  2  118  199  Itt 118 105 113 104  101  120  188 142 265 138 106 246 193 151 12  111 109  112 114 122 116 116  119  109  . 6 " d.b.h. and over.  66 12 49 75  28  11.8  18.7 16.4  19.9  7629 4727  6202  8621 6706 2476 16.5 5232 18.8 5216 22.3 23.1 ' 6228 21.1 4752 8194 17.8 4445 20.3 2757 12.3 5.6 423 14.2 2029 3156 19.8 1094 10.6 19.7  19.6 14.7 12.9 20.5  7916  5589  10018  5834  15.5 20.3  4348 10379  24.8  6534 468  20.4  7.8  8127  n  8025 6246 2297  4866 4857 5795 4404 7610  4084 2567 367 1869 2944  looa 7294 51U 9172  5424 3879 9640. 7545 6086 431  ef  6208 2763 6251 4318 5760 7981 6194  2297  4866 4857 5772 4404 7191 4084 2543 344 1816  2944 1008 7294 4619  8931 5424  3879 9339  7545 6086 431  58  SUMMARY OF MMSUMf IOHAL DATA Engelmann spruce - alpine f i r - trail Blueberry - oak fern association VO Association ALPH1 FIR - per acre basis  Ho. of Trees  Plot No.  5  9 21 22 23 24 43 46 66 78 80 82  if 91 92 93 96 7 J  106 108  204 205 tm  2TJL  m 229 fl %  •  195 220 200 205 240 230 140 250 220 305 155 190 335 335 185 245 295 225 345 515 320 190 840 300 36© 240 135 HI %l  Basal area sq.ft.  Average DBH in.  Total cf  Bolume/acre Uerch. 7" • 12" • cf of'.'  77& 1096 1228 2136 23.06 1262 1437 2818 1850 2470 2942 3759 1965 2918 4464 4026 1678 1819 3148  604 732 1008 1900 1846 1058 1292 2549 1605 2170 2772 3471 1671 2553 4152 3743 1433 1573 2744  IA*  3.2  im 767 1061  6.6 6.9 7.0 8.6 7.6  2778 2040 1037 2850 2894  29 39 55 66 67 54 44 88 59 78 83 108 66 82 128 116 55 63 102  5.2 5.7 7.1 7.7 7.1 6.6 7.6 7.9 7.0 6.* 9.9 10.2 6.0 9.0 9.8 8.5 6.7  69  6.3 5.5  31 46  122  87 68 36 86 89  5.8  6.0  8.6  3962  513  733  3657 2274 1775 364 2584 2595  294 -0294 1216 1158 484 918 1875 1006 1293 2698 2758 778 2103 3390 3022 931 454 1355  £ - 0 -  3312 1916 W 683 1649 2084  59 SEMMAKT OF MSURAIIO'RAL DATA Engelmann spruce - alpine f i r - t a l l blueberry - oak fern association ¥0 Association. SPRUCE AMD ALPINE FIR - per acre basis.  Plot No.  Ro. of Trees  Basal area sq.ft  Average DBH In.  Total cf.  Volume/acre Merca. 7" * 12™ * of  of  5 9 21 22 23 24 43 46 66 78 80 82 87 91 92 93 96 106 108  310 370 285 285 305 325 215 290 285 350 205 235 450 230 325 365 270 380 560  195 153 217 184 21/;. 279 204 146 184 200 228 21© 265 183 194 128 104 138 130  10.7 8.7 11.8 10.9 11.3 12.5 13.2 9.6 10.9 10.2 14.3 13.0 10.4 18.1 10.5 8.0 8.4 8.2 6.5  7581 5209 7957 6863 *30A 9883 8143 5294 7082 7686 9170 8511 10159 7363 7221 4449 3707 4975 4242  6908 4466 7259 6335 76C6 9083 7538 4846 6471 702? 8567 7875 9282 663? 6719 4110 3302 4517 3752  6502 27$$ 6545 5534 6918 8465: 7H£ 4172 5872 6150 £470 7162 7969 6187 5933 3366 2747 3398 2363  204 205 207 211 212 215 289 230 232  410 310 1130 360 440 370 220 26O 290  257 173 1311 260 193 314 229 237 101  10.7 10.1 7.1 11.5 9.0 12.5 13.8 12.9 8.0  9874 6356 . 11079 9796 7126 12419 9164 9384 3362  8902 5627 9905 9081 6153 11415 8409 8670 3026  7294 4619 8931 8736 5795 11169 8228 7735 2515  A-  60  SUMMARY OF MEMSURATIORAL DATA Engelaanti spruce * alpine f i r - black huckleberry - trailing Rubus  association ¥M Association SPRUCE per acre basis Plot So, 2 3 11 13 15 16 25 26 2? 33  Io, Average height of by fonaula Basal Trees B&C Dom D&C Area , f t . f t . f t . sq.ft 92 105 99 83  100  92  106  60 67 68 69 72 100 103 109 110  75 85 80 65 45 60 125 40 90 85 100 60 85 10f 60 80 35 80 50 15 . 35 95 100  208209 210 224 226 227 228 233  110 80 20 70 360 45 115 55 195  110 98 102  47  52 53 55  35 108 89 107 103  98  100  98 86 86 110  95 99 103 95 89  93 105  97  54 95 82  100 101  104 106  95 98 100 101  101 97 102  105 97 94 103  10f 101 105 109 106 102 97 107  105 97 104  106 92 104  107 96 103  ?olume/acre Merch Ave, Total ?* Dili . tn.  99  155  15.5 15.7 15.8 13.9 16.6 16.5 15.1 14.7 16.7 16.1 14.1 16.4 16.1 11.8 14.1 18.5 16.3 17.4 16.7 16.8 15.2 13.2 16.7  100  191  18.0  25 33 41 52  15.5  94 95 97 92 101 96  95 m  97  94 95 97 95  •83 100 104 96 100 103 104 95 89  89  94 106 33 97 95 94 92  98 114 109 69 67 90 156  47 138 120  109 88 180 80 65 149  51 132  97 23 44 90  90  H I  62 191  14.3 9.4 4.6 14.5 13.3  14.4 13.4  3813 4374 4298 2605  7485 3457 2049 2681 1123 1984 4198 2842  2590  3561 6009  1741 5435 4719 4171 3457 4732  2898 2478  5851 2000 5206  5435 4719 1777 3407 5885  7212  12"  3545 4137 2972 2372 2335 3307 5536 1592 5041 4376 3852 3199 4390 2632 2266 5421 1853 4825 5041 4376 1599 3108 5443  3545 4137  6935 3181 1894 1021 753 1825 3840 2618 6603  5726 2972 1894 967 445  2SG8  2241 2045 3307 5350 1197 5041 4376 3852 3139 4390 1701 1980 5371 1853 4744 5041 4376 1599 2459 5393  1688  3444 2537 5686  61  SOMMAKi OF BBRSOIiATIOSAL DATA Engelmann spruce - alpina f i r - black huckleberry - trailing Rubus association VM association, ALPINE FIR per acre basis No. Voljae/aore of Basal Average Merch. Plot Trees Area DBH Total 7" 12" J&j _ , -, ,, A"» . cf , „gl -Pf,, 2  3 11  13 15 16 25 26  27 33  520 425  330 700 505 335 475 485  52  250 400 590 355  53  510  47  55 60 68 69 72 100 1B3 109  510 450 330 385 330 380 645 440 360  110  350  202 208 209 210  210 440 460 620  67  224 226 227 228  233  880 585 495  300  385  102  6.0  3002  57 123 77 96 50  5*6 5.7 5.3 7.2 4.4  1613 3459 2222 3076 1215  5.4  2030 1121  81  77 41  89 50 . 86 66  76 63  72  85 79 66 105 69  5.9  5.5 6.4 3.9 2,1 4.9 4.7 5.1 6.3 6.4 6.6  5.6  58  5.4 5.4 6.9 5.5  90 96 89 159  8.8 6.3 6.0 6.9  92  120 205 60 82 28  5.0 5.2 4.7  7.1  3.0  2270  2699  1195  2484 1V>3 1950  1660  2156 2605 2269 1121 2701 1929 2918 1525  2922 2686 5128 5037  3051 2534 2668  1414  . 570  2339  966  2828 1761 2685  1348 508 1699 -0-  874 2262 752 2079 1192 1341 1224  -0-  1777 1226  687 1598  1816  2170 1866 874  2262  1555  2571  1100  886 580  139  1173  225  •»?  334  343 165  637  1264 494 -G~  1173  780 H98 303  2695 1906 4087 4439  935 -0» 935 2961 2015 277  2028 2398  883  20©  696 1277  165  62 SMART OF MMSOKATIONAL DATA EngeJjaann sprue® - alpine f i r - black huckleberry - trailing Rubus association VM Association SPRUCE AND ALPINE FIR per acre b a s i s  3Plot No. 2 3 11 13 15 16 25 26  27  No, of Trees 5<?5 510 410 765 550 395 600  525 340  33 47 52 53 55 60 67 68 69 72 100 103 109 110  485 690 415 595 615 510 410 420 410 430 660 475 455 450  202 20* 209 210 224 226 227 228 233  320 520 480 690 1240 630 610 355 580  Basal area sq.ft  Average DHH Total in. cf  200 195 166 192 144 186 206 124  7.8 8.4 8.6 6.8 6,9 9.3 7.9  209 159 174 186 156 128 221 135 211 163 128 113 182 213  8.9 6.5 8.8 7.6 6.8 6.8 6.6 7.7 9.7 ' 8.3 6.0 6.6 8.6 9.3  179  281 186 114 192 161 257 171 144 219  6.6 9.8  12.7 7.9 6.6 7.1 4.9 8.6  7.2  8.6 8.3  Velume/aere March, 7 12* cf cf. M  6315 6644 5911 6064 4812 6637 7224 3771  5884 4511 5914 5023 4198 3388 5200 3589 4096 2625 5992 5006 6223 5350 3190 1336  7413 5366 5941 6195 4848 4150 8007 4605 7475 6556 7482 3706 6325 7410  6638 5549 4604 4077 5278 4026 5582, 4724 3965 2064 3490 2145 7237 6008 4023 3117 6691 5233 5915 5 0 U 6638 5549 3154 2379 5679 3657 6543 5696  10407 6143 7177 7718 4374 4518 5510 5612 7782  9630 7661 5087 2972 5981 2829 5460 3928 2768 722 3853 2384 5016 3814 4723 3609 6809 5686  6556  5915  5041  -APPMDIX IV-  'SUlftiiEt  OF  STATISTICAL TA B I E S  AfALTS1S OF JMXmm  AVERAGE BEI08T OF DOMHAfT AND OQDOMXIAW TREES ALPINE'FIR  EKGELMANK SPRUCE fl.F.  Source of variation  M.S.  F.  Source of variation  D.F.  F.  M.S.  Between VOpsp, VOveg. Within fOpep* VOfeg  1 25  97*97 83.59  I.U  Between VOpsp, VOveg Within fOpep, VOveg  1 18  5.44 99.26  18.25  Between VOpsp, VMpsp Mthia Wsimps VMpep  1 40  1070.59 66.88  16.01  Between VOpsp, fftreg I t M a VOpsp, VMpsp  1  628.52 63.69  9.87  33  Between VOpsp, VKveg WltMft Wp»pg VKveg.  i 24  750.99 65.31  11.50  Between VOpsp, VMveg Within VOpsp,. Wmg  1 17  755.65 84.05  6.99  Between Hfpep, ¥*reg Within V%sp, 13%eg  1 28  20.89 ' 59.30  2.04  4.00  1 13  1198.02 75.66  15.83  Between VOveg, VMveg. . 1 13 Within fOvegj VKveg  977.40  11.59  1 55  2095.14  Between W&psp, VOveg. Within Wpsp, VOveg..  Between ¥0, WitMa VO, VOpsp x VOveg £ VMpsp y.S VMveg x  = = = *  W VM 106.7 110.7 94.5 94.5  feet feet feet feet  84.31  ##  M  # ##  30.47  68.77 fOx  * 107.8 f@et  VM .£ « 96.1 feet  ##  m  Between VMpsp, VMveg Within VMpsp, VMveg  24  129.90 32.45  Between Wtpsp, VOveg. Within VMpsp, VOveg*  1 25  263.34 45.46  5.79 #  1 9  474.00  9.20  1 44  998.69 15.93  62.69  Between VOveg, VMveg Within VOveg, VMveg Between VO Within VO VOpsp VOveg VMpsp VMveg  # significant, P - .05 ## highly significant, P = .01  % ~ £ = x » x =  VM VM 94.6 92.3 85,0 80.3  feet feet feet feet  1  M  51.51  f0 X  =  94.3 feet  VM x  = 84.9 feet  AIAtXSES  OF VABJAHGE DQHBUBtf Al© OOWMiMAM AWD BOMIMAOT HEIGHTS OF S P R U C Effl"FOKMULA"  TOMMAHT AND OOIXMMAMT HEIGHTS Source ©f Variation Between VOpsp, VOveg Within VOpsp, VOveg  B.F  M.S.  F.  SOURCE of Variation  D.F.  K.S.  F.  1 26  142.77 56.12  2.53  Between VOpsp, VOveg Within VOpsp, VOveg  26  1  178.70 50.08  3.57  Between VOpsp, VMpsp Within VOpsp, VMpsp  1  46.66 ##  Between VOpsp, VMpsp Within VOpsp, V^ssp  1 40  1883.75 37.46  50.02  40  2153.77  Between VOpsp, VMveg. Within VOpsp, VMveg  1 26  1561.86 62.61  24.95  Between VOpsp, VMveg Within VOpsp, VMtreg.  1 26  1165.22 89.26  13.54  2.21  Between VMpsp, VMveg. Within VMpsp, VMveg.  1 30  .82 59.80  72.95  Between V%sp, VOveg. Within VOveg, VMveg  1 16  2302.08 115.97 119.85 m  46.16  ##  m M  Between VMpsp, VMveg. Within VIpsp, VMveg  1 30  Between VMpsp, VOveg Within VMpsp, VOveg.  1 30  2819.26 291.26 9.68 M  Between VOveg, VMveg Within VOveg, VKveg.  1 16  1942.72  60.75 ##  Between VOveg, VMveg Within VOveg, VMveg,  1 16  1162.72 119.86  9.70  Between VO, Within VO,  I 58  4002.05 43.43  92.15 M  Bet-ween VO, VII Within VO, VM  1 58  3493.30 53.37  65.45  VM VM  VOpsp 1 = U0.4 feet VOveg x •=» 115.2 feot VMpsp^ - 96.0 feet VMvet £ = 94.4 feat  16.54 36.51  31.98  VO x -111.6 feet VM x = 95.6 feet  # significant, P - .05 ## highly significant, P * .01  VOpsp x VOveg X VMpsp £ VMveg X  = 115.4 feot - 120.8 feet = 101.9 feet = 101.6 feet  VO X  == 117.1 feet  VM x  •=- 101.8 feet  VOLUMES  ASALIBES OF YARXAHCEE  MBgOHAIT ABLE VOLUME^ f^4e feet  2  TOTAL  Source of variation Bngelaajm Sprue© VO,  VM  Within VO, VM  D.F.  1 58  M.S.  F,  M.B.  F.  M.S.  F.  31162680  6.60  30648624 4167654  7.35 m  33813137  8.19  4702436  #  Within • VO, VI  1 5§  104062 1043685  ©agelstan Spruce k Alpine F i r Between VO, VM 1 27645137 Within  VO,  VM  58  .3584679  VM x -3322  222919  5418323 712878  VM x -  7.72  0  1859  36099222 3210112  m  7.60  v o i - 1303 tm x - 1701  VO x - 1981  TO x = 7576 c f . f l x = 6215 «.f. / I . - T o t a l Voluaae i n c l u d i n g  VM x - 3496  916489  f 0 £ - 2250 VM x - 2334  4127832  TO i - 4*27  VO x. - 4929  V© | - 5326 VM x - 3681 Alpia© f i r Between VO, VM  DBH lg»  11.25  VO x = 6910 c f . f i x ^ 5355 c f .  66302514 3464160  ve  19.14 .m  i = 6130 c f .  VM x - 4023 c f .  stump and t o p  22. - Merchantable Volraae to 5-inch t o p for Eng©lmann spruces t o 3-inch top for Alpine r i r . B.C.Forest Service Volume Tables? Spruce -SW 1 and SW 2. Alpine F i r B 3 and Mo.20  AMAiasiS OF GOVARIANCE Engeitaann Spruce plus Alpine Fir Basal Area, X, end Dngelmann Sprue® Basal Area I n^a^  S^eeafelue .Alclne F i r b M 4 J , J t f J l l ^ ^ SX  SIT  Association*  !  sx  SI  SX  fO VM  !  ma  49116  llLk  711 592  32213 22482  22767 13556  i s  2242  1303  89762  54605  36323  —  •  »  V.A  t  Total  2  2  ,  ft**reselan nnd Ooi-rwlayLonPatlJa..VO arid VM A » M S & S & ° M Assoc.; ¥0  1  Sim Average within Assoc.  B.F. j  Sags of squares and Product* 3xy Sy  27 31  3673.71 l§o4.«8  ; !  3569.86 1873.00  4712.68 2604.00  %  ! *  Corr £2 Ooeff  J  ,3679 .8449  8  Begress/3 Coeff ,9717 1.0044  *  \  58 /2  s  5538,59  .Say  5442,86 £3 Sxy  7316,68  Ik  Source of Variation  D.F  Total Average within Associations Between Adjusted Means  58 57 1  Errors of Estimate SsZ*  DF  1243.89 722,84  26 30  1967.90  57  s  1  l_ y) Sy -(Sx  , ,  2  .9829  .8551  40.3 eq.ft 2 34,8 sq.ft y  vos x VMj x  •  1999.50 1967.90 31.60  25.4 sq.ft 18.5 sq.ft  K5.  34.52 31.60 F. 1.09 N.S  CHI SQUARE TEST  NUMBER OF TRESS BY 3-in. D. B. H. CLASSES Engeliaann Sprue® VO Association  D. B. H. Classes Observed No. Expected No. (MB  n  11  (O-E)J  1-3 10.2 7.6 3.2 1Q.24.1.463  4-6  4.2 4.8 .3 .09 .023  7-9 5.4 5.4 0 0 0  10-12 5.0 8.3.... -3.3 10.89 1.312  13-15  9.0 -5.2 27.04 1.904  Total  16-18  19+  12.6 17,1 -4.5 20.25 1.184  28.8 19.3 9.6 90.25 4.676  75.2  80.1  10.563  VM Association Observed No. Expected No. O-E  1  i  „ .  Totals  4.2 7.4 -3.2 10.24 1.384  3.8 4.1 -.3  14.4  8.0  .09  .022  5.8 5.8 0  0  0  11.2  12.2 8.? 3.3 10.89 1.224  20.3 15,1 . 5.2 27.04 1.791  22.8 18.3 4.5 20.25 1.107  11.0 20.5 -9.5 90.25 4.402  17.2  29.3  35.4  39.8  ~\*= 20.492  9.930 155.3  (P. = .001 >~X - 22.457) Z  o^ ^•3  s CHI SQUARE TKST MOMBM OF TffiSES PSl ACM BT 3 - I » . D. B. H. CLASSES Shgelmann spruce and Alpine f i r TO Association. D.B.H.Classes  1-3  4-6  7-9  Observed l e .  123.6 13A.9  63.0  39.4  -3.5 12.25  Expected l o .  1-0  -11.3  -7.4  (JcQ,)2  127.69 .94?  54.76  .778  .286  10-12  13-15  16-18  19 plus  Totals  32.2  23.6 21.2 . 2.4  19.0  32.0  332.8  29.?  2.3 5.29 .177  5.76 .272  16.6 2.2  4.84 am  16.6  15.4 237.16 14.278  17.033  ¥M Association Observed No. Expected No. S - 0„  (1-0)" (E-0)2 E  Totals  225.2  mi  11.3 127.69 £597  348.8  119.0 7.4 54.76 .491 182.0  71.6 68 l t  3.5 12.20  .180  111.0  45.0 A L i  33.5 .  2.3 5.29 .112  77.2  ~ \ - 27.749 Z  31.1 2.4 5.76 .172  54.7  24.5 26,7  2.2 4.84  .181  43.5  11.0 .26.4 15.4 237.16 8.983  527.4  43.0  860.2  (P = .001,~\^ 22.457)  10.716  CHI SQUARE TEST BUMBSB OF TREES FEB ACRE BT >ln. D.B.H. CLASSES Alpine Fir TO Associatie D. B. H. Glasses Observed No. Expected No, 0 - E (O-E; (0-E  1-3 113.4 122.2 -8.8 77.44 .634  4-6  7-9  10-12  27.2  34.0 36.5 -2.5 6.25 .171  58.8 63.6 -4.8 23.04 .362  21.9 5.3  28.09  1.283  13 p l u s  Total  24.2  257.6  10.8 116.64 8.704  11.154  ¥M Association Observed No. Expected No.  221.0 212.2  0 - 1.  8.8  (0-E)2  77.44 . 365  (O-E)J  115.6 110 4 4.8 23.04  65.8 6?.?  T  2.5  .209  6.25 . 099  32.8 38.1 -5.3 28.09 . 737  1 Totals  334.4  174.0  \  99.8  z  -  17.570  60.0  12.5 2 3 ^  -10.8 116.64 5.006 36.7  (P = .01,"\*"= 16.268)  447.3  6.416 704.9  70  CHI SqtHKSED TEST U W l t OF TREES PER. ACHE BY GROUPS Engelraann Spruce VO Association Medium 7 -18»  Siaall  M  dbb Observed Expected 0 - E (O-E) 1  2  Observed Expected O-E  SSL  dbh  14.4 10.9 3.5 12.25 • 1.234  32.0  Totals  ^-  76.0  29.6  WW!... -13.3 176.89  3.905  96.04 4.851  9.990  VM Association 61.1  8.0 11.5, -3.5 12.2 1.  n.o  47,8  .3 176.89 3.701  E  fetal®  barge 19* plus dbfa  93.1 ^(^19.373 (P  22.4  80.1  2Qt8,  -9.8 96.04 4.617  9.383  40.6 156.1 . 001, V = 13.815)  . Alpine F i r VO Association  Observed Expected 0 -1 (O-E)  (0^  l*-©«  7 -12  13" plms  172.2 185.8... -13.6 184.96 .995  61.2  24.2  n  fl  ^ -  7.84 .134  116.64 8.704  257.6  9.833  VI Association Expected O-I „  i  Totals  336.2  98.6  13.6 184.96 .573  -2.1  508.4  7.84 .077  159.8 ^ = 1 5 . 4 9 © (P  12.5 23.3. ... -10.8 116.65 5.006  447.3  36.7 ,001,^-13.815  704.9  5.656  72  Spilsbury, R.H. & D.S.Smith. 1947. Forest site typescf the Pacific Northwest: A preliminary report. B r i t . Columbia Dept. o f Lands & Forests, Tech. Publ. T.30 le V Krajina, 1951. Forest associations of the southeastern part of Vancouver Island. B.G.Forest Service, Bnpublish© report.  Tansley, A.G. 1935. The use end abuse of vegetational concepts and terras. Ecology lot 284-307 Whittaker, R.F. 1951. A criticism of th© plant association and cliaax concepto. ^ortlwest Sei. 25s 17-31, Wilde, S.A. 1946. Forest s o i l s and forest growth. Waltbaa, Mass.: Chronica Botanica Co.  71  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Braun Blanquet, J. 1932. Plant sociology, the study of plant ccwwnities. Authorized E n g l i s h translation of "Bflanzenaoziologie" by G . D . F u l l e r and H,3.Conrad. New York, McGraw-Hill 71-72. Chapman, J.D., 1952 . fhe Climate of British Columbia. B.C.Resources C o n f . , Victoria, B.C.i 8-54.  Transact. 5th  Curtis, J.T. & R.P. Mcintosh. 1951. An upland forest contirmim in the prairie - f o r e s t border region of Wisconsin. Ecology 32: 476-496. G l e a s o n , H.A. 1929. Plant a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : A r e p l y to Dr.Mlchols, I n t e r n a t . Congr., Plant S c i . , Ithaca P r o c . 1926, Is 643-646. Heiaburger, C O . 1934. Forest-type studies in N . I . ( C o r n e l l ) A g r . E x p t . Sta. Mem.  the Adirondack region. 165: 1-122.  l e r , J.W. 1952. An evaluation o f several methods of estimating site index ©f isaature stands. Research Paper Wo.l, F a c u l t y o f Forestry, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. (Forestry Chronicle, Vol.28, No.3). Irajina, V. 1933.  Die Pflanzengesellschaften des Hyniea-Tales in den (Hone T a t r a ) . l i t besonderer Beractkisohtigung akologischen Verhaltnisss. Bot. Genthl. Beih, Abt. 2, 50: 774-957, 51t 1-224.  Vyaoke T a t r y  der  W.H.Meyer & D. B r u c e . 1949 (revised), Yield of Douglas the P a c i f i c Northwest, U.S.D.A. T e c h . B u l l e t i n No.201, revised 1949.  Fir  M c A r d l e , R.E., in  Nichols, G.E. 1929. P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Congr. Plant S c i . , Ithaca, Proc. 1926, 1: 629-641.  Intemat.  & A.G.Jones. 1948. Salmon Arm Map-Area, B r i t i s h Columbia (Report and Map). Dept. of Mines and Resources. Geolo/sical Survey of Canada Paper 48-4.  R i c e , H.M.A.  Sisam, J.W.B.. 1938A. The correlation of tree species and growth with site-types. Gen. Sept. of Mines & Resources, Silvicultural Research Not© Fo.53. . 1938B. Site as a factor In s i l v i c u l t u r e - its determination with speeial reference to the use of plant indicators. Can. Dept. of Mines & Resources, Silvicultural Research Iote.Io.54.  

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