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Genius as an alibi ; the production of the artistic subject and english landscape painting, 1795-1820 Kriz, Kay Dian 1991

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GENIUS AS AM A L I B I : THE PRODUCTION OF THE ARTISTIC SUBJECT AND ENGLISH LANDSCAPE PAINTING, 1795-1820 by KAY DIAN KR IZ B.S., I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , 1966 B.A. W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1981 M.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (D e p a r t m e n t o f F i n e A r t s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s con-forming t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE" U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA /une 1991 ©spyright Kay D i a n K r i s , 1991 PERMISSION T O USE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Permission is hereby granted to (Name of author of thesis) (Title of thesis) I H?K*^L» " 1 ' t i l l University of British Columbia (Degree) (Year) and to the National Library of Canada* to reproduce fEigure^page-mmtbers) C 'A. LQ- IC riff's TrT (Title of arttde/book) (Name,-~issug~ number, and~yew~-of-iourncd) -(Placey-^ubUshef^md—year-rf-b Return this form to: which will appear in this thesis. (Signatures) Date Name of c^pyright-4iolder Address C v I /T PG--<Z>. T—-c\ Library - Special Collections - Thesis Supervisor 1956 Main Mall University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Y3 ? *The National Library will lend or sell copies of the microfilm. All other publication rights are : reserved. PERMISSION TO USE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Permission is hereby granted to (Name of author of thesis) K a ^ ' T W r v Khi-L t ; , r _ (Title of thesis) University of British Columbia (Degree) iP h Q (Tear) W } and to the National Library of Canada* to reproduce (Figure/puge numbers) \n^(TTtie^=^nm^bsok) -year- of journal) ind year of book) which will appear in this thesis. (Signatures) Date Name of copyright holder lii\^< 4. -L ^ ffh: < > r /> ,-.) ^ < ^  Address -S^r/ W-ti ^^fridtS <2\ O n Uc. v_c Return this form to: Library - Special Collections - Thesis Supervisor 1956 Main Mall University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Y3 i'The National Library will lend or sell copies of the microfilm. A l l other publication rights are reserved. PERMISSION TO USE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Permission is hereby granted to (Name of author of thesis) W^-j P ) , 4 K (Title of thesis) fWn//.t^  an 0^ Al i hd • TL University of British Columbia (Degree) _ <Xear) J ^ S J and to the National Library of Canada* to r e p r o d u c e ' ^ ' ^ fe F ^ ^ (Figureyixtge^numbers) ffryjlfZaur^ ^  Q(?hr> Prfrc tml , O^p^ V ixr~^v=§pwm^book) btj \A) >h . C&ok^ C^f"^ 1 T H l V /UJVflJ^ (Namey—issue- number-^=mvl-^evr^=of-)ournal) U JL L_ (Place, publisher ana year of book) ~ which will appear in this thesis. (Signatures) Date Name of eepyrigh Address 'tO holder Return this form to: T W . Of P^ntW? \j — h Library - Special Collections - Thesis Supervisor 1956 Main Mall University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Y3 , *The National Library will lend or sell copies of the microfilm. A l l other publication rights are reserved. > PERMISSION TO USE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Permission is hereby granted to (Name of author of thesis) Title of thesis) CWJLU.J a A rf-v 4 / [ (li)'- i V i ^ t c i ( s Jk >• Jniversity of British Columbia (Degree) Oh 0 _ (Year) /*? c'\ j nd to the National Library of Canada* to reproduce c\ jlA-i^hz c) (Figure/page numbers) ~~7Ju>VQio Cusjli-nll ^ r k ^ j ^ - ^ AMt^ , <RQS I in (Tnte—of article/book) L)-fru~. C^ 66?^ V^ ,,-;, (N4me^ssue^umber~and~~)&ar-^f~^^ (Plaeej-publisher—and'year of book) which will appear in this thesis. (Signatures) Date Name of copyright holder A c -^Q\A < / t ^ J )t<-i-i r*\ Address '-4)-e pA • ./^A .-> f <rp-f; ; ,A ^  .leturn this form to: Library - Special Collections - Thesis Supervisor 1956 Main Mall University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. i Canada V6T 1Y3 ''The National Library will lend or sell copies of the microfilm. Al l other publication rights are 'eserved. t PERMISSION TO USE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Permission is hereby granted to (Name of author of thesis) (Title of thesis) CP TYA x • ^ a A ^ i ( - l i e ( i R ) ^ U A l i ./ University of British Columbia (Degree) (Tear; I lcj ( -and to the National Library of Canada* to reproduce | (Figu*e£pa%e^umbers) C\ /jj^J^^CT^^^ 'j ^ ^ ^ T ^ l . I in 0/ article/book) L/)iLu^ CKAJli (NameT^ssue^umb€f7-and-'year^f'^rnal) which will appear in this thesis. (Signatures) Date Name of copyright-holder H h w i l^^yy^ov, r , Address * - i y v > J o r ^ C o -> '/- d , Return this form to: Library - Special Collections - Thesis Supervisor 1956 Main Mall University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Canada ;' V6T 1Y3 ij,The National Library will lend or sell copies of the microfilm. Al l other publication rights are !• eserved. PERMISSION TO USE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL 'ermission is hereby granted to (Name of author of thesis) Title of thesis) WO n ^ i y i r.u.- n w Jniversity of British Columbia (Degree) ®h TP _ (year) ^ 7 / nd to the National Library of Canada* to reproduce 0igW&^sge=mumbers) "iKftrrciA v A ^ i i IA/3 ^1\u A ivjCvyrv t t^>¥-tl< m (£itte-^f-w?icte7b~ook) Oj^Ui ^M^g^^-U^ (NaT7ieT~issue~number, and year~of-journal) (Place, pub'll5h~er~and^ar~of^bqok) whierr-^wit}—appear—in thisLjhesis. (Signatures) Date Name of copfflght-- koide'/"'^'" n o \J i I r l f h r . i / (Tu.^if^v... Address Vf-A 9 \<Mt\ ^ L i v i . y eturn this form to: Library - Special Collections - Thesis Supervisor 1956 Main Mall ! University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. J Canada V6T 1Y3 »The National Library will lend or sell copies of the microfilm. A l l other publication rights are served. PERMISSION TO USE COPYRIGHTED M A T E R I A L Permission is hereby granted to (Name of author of thesis) . KA.^ Q)&^ KK-I^ ; ; (Title of thesis) . University of British Columbia (Degree) P/\ O (Year) I ^  ^ and to the National Library of Canada* to reproduce (Eigure/page-numbers) /] ^ R & ^ x ' ; ^ V r i A. \, \ mr^tk-of^tcleTbodk) ,~Tjjn^ ^ 7 ^ r r l i , ^ C t>qV) (Nnme^-issue-number;-and year of journal) (^ae^-pubiish^r~aml~~year~~of book) which will appear in this thesis. (Signatures) Date Name of copyright-holder Address / / f x U t . u ^ S ^ - v ^ - V - ^ - C D^ -^vt: ^ f>wit.l,l> l^flL Iv-N^. K Return this form to: Library - Special Collections -- Thesis Supervisor / ^ ^ u , , , . / 1956 Main Mall y University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. ] Canada V6T 1Y3 f'The National Library will lend or sell copies of the microfilm. Al l other publication rights are ? eserved. V - - 5 "t^  i t CC-Christie's CHRISTIE, MANSON & WOODS LTD. D I R E C T O R S T H E H O N . C H A R L E S A L L S O P P (Chairman) N O E L A N N E S L E Y (Deputy Chairman) D E R M O T C H I C H E S T E R (Managing Director) A N T H O N Y C O L E R I D G E . F.R.l.c.s M I C H A E L B R O A D B E N T . M.W ROBSON L O W E H U G O MOR L E Y - F L E T C H E R G R E G O R Y M A R T I N JOHN L U M L E Y PETER HAWKINS CHR ISTOPHER PONTER LL.n M I C H A E L C L A Y T O N SIMON DICKINSON A N T H O N Y B R O W N E FRANCIS RUSSEL L J O R G - M I C H A E L B E R T Z CHRISTOPHER B R U N K E R E L I Z A B E T H L A N E C O N A L L M A C F A R L A N E D U N C A N M c E U E N HARTS N Y S T A D J A M E S R O U N D E L L R A Y M O N D S A N CROFT- B A K E R C H A R L E S CATOR DAVID N. A L L I S O N Li. » L 1 L L E M O R M A L M S T R O M (SWEDISH) M A R I A R E I N S H A G E N (SWISS) C H A R L E S T R U M A N D A N K L E I N FORSTIN Z U H O H E N L O H E - L A N G E N B U R G JAMES A L A B A S T E R DR . A N D R E W BILLINCjTON DAVID L L E W E L L Y N T H E L O R D POLT IMORE COL IN S H E A F M A R K W R E Y H U M P H R E Y B U T L E R A N T O N G A B S Z E W I C Z J O N A T H A N H O R W 1 C H G U Y JENNINGS A N T H O N Y T H O M P S O N R O B E R T A T H O M S O N G E R A R D FAGGIONATO F R A N C E S G I L L H A M T I M O T H Y H1RSCH PATRICIA DITE (Secretary) 8, K I N G S T R E E T , ST. J A M E S ' S , L O N D O N , SW1Y 6QT R E G I S T E R E D O F F I C E Telephone: 071-839 9060 Facsimile: 071-839 1611 R E G I S T E R E D IN E N G L A N D NO. 1128160 VAT NO. 503 3060 06 Please quote in all correspondence A Member of the Christies International pic Group The Rt. Hon. The Lord Carrington, K.O. (Chairman) 5^ r c~&ixf He { 5 ^  &i ' M i u ^ / a_t CfrulTc H e ^ & | ^ o O £ v n a. r S u a / c o ,J-/n J for PERMISSION TO USE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL P mission is hereby granted to (Name of author of thesis) "C^i^ T) 1 COY\ T\/~ / r7y (tie of thesis) Liversity of British Columbia (Degree) _ (Year) lC\c] / ul to the National Library of Canada* to reproduce (Figure/page—numbers) A' ix^itir-of-aim^eybook) ^g.M? ^ / > A. ^ X l ^ ^ , A (Namer-issue-^umber^^nd—y^ar-^fjc^nal) (Flace^. publisher—and year^aji book) which will appear in this thesis. (Signatures) r Date Name of copyright holder U ^ t t i Qp^Au J^\AAA,IA, Address 9-^cj\i(A <h / ^ p M ? k i o i - ^ ^ aim this form to: Library - Special Collections - Thesis Supervisor 1956 Main Mall University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Y3 lie National Library will lend or sell copies of the microfilm. Al l other publication rights are erved. *9u Yale Center for British Art APPLICATION FOR PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE 1080 Chapel Street Box 2120 Yale Station New Haven Connecticut 06520 Telephone (203) 432-2834 Date M a y T i t l e of Publication Name of Publisher: : f o r -1.nc3.nMcm i n d o c t o r a l t h e s i s - Ka^ Man F r - z , Hemus a« an The Production of the A r t i s t i c S u M p c t and Emjlnh Lan7fseVr^~~P "Tjh« UAWA^/V,JVU g-f A . K . j < . . q . ( i)Xu,v..,4.y'm c,l?r>5 }.f'?' A Address of Publisher: / Q tTfan -Y /fW--t. , \/ri:/ftLAU).% ft ,L I 0 r><.. JUK. V k Permission i s hereby requested to reproduce the following objects i n the c o l l e c t i o n of the Yale Center f or B r i t i s h Art: one t±r~e use, Mae> and H \ i t e use, aon- e x c l u M English lao<*ua<*e„ t o h e n r t c r o f j ] m e d 1 " o r o H u c a t i o n s I - u s e scribed a b o v e : Edward- Dav^s f 1 7 6 3 - . h e l s o _ A M - e " . S o x h u r ^ s M r e , c . 17^2 Waterc o l o r * 1/7 Y S I / 9 1/2 tn. (16.5 x ?l.r cm.) C r e d i t l i n e - Tale C e n t e r f o r B r i t i s h A r t . "P-9'JI Mel Ion Collection The undersigned agrees that the c r e d i t l i n e for the object w i l l appear as indicated above and that permission granted herewith i s for the above pub l i c a t i o n only. A new application w i l l be submitted for further reproduction of th i s object. The picture w i l l not be cropped without written permission, and a copy of the publication containing the reproduction(s) w i l l be sent to the Center upon publication (when possible). It i s further agreed that the undersigned i s responsible for payment of a l l the costs of materials and applicable reproduction fees. S.11.21 i n c l u d i n g m a t e r i a l f e e , neetarrs and Vmdlinp* r e p r o d u c t i o n ? e e waived. Color transparencies are rented for a period of three months. A penalty of $15.00 per month i s changed'for transparencies held i n excess of three' months. Replacement fees are assessed for loss or damage. Si* gnaprre of Applicant P&rnu s sion granted 1 L}ate jar-^lyn H u n t / / A s s i s t a n t P e ^ i p t r a r Rights and Reproductions Yale Center for B r i t i s h Art. Address PLEASE SIGN AND RETURN BOTH COPIES TO THE BRITISH ART CENTER. YOU WILL BE MAILED A COUNTERSIGNED COPY. THANK YOU. /ICTORIA & ALBERT vlUSEUM •mriONAL M U S E U M OF ART A N D D E S I G N V & A P I C T U R E L I B R A R Y Date i o A A PLEASE QUOTE Order No.R/f ^°/4> INVOICE: Permission/Reproduction Fees VAT Reg No. 444 0850 63 Name and Address (CAPITAL LETTERS) The: UN)\/€^-£t-rY oF fg,Z-t~n£H C&L.UMtz,/\ ' v . — _ -'A ^ ~* Further to your request dated .'....:.* permission is given to reproduce the following: 'fi-fas: <T//C7^A/3T 2J U^H'^W^ ATNT> C&rrH£X>£-AL ' (p. 33 - \ ~) in the form of a — Book / Magazine / Bookjacket / Film / TV / Record / Cassette / Advertising / Marketing / Other "J}3.G$.i..~r..:.. Conditions 1. All Photographs must be acknowledged: By courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the Victoria & Albert Museum / Theatre Museum / Bethnal Green Museum of Childhood / Wellington Museum / Ham House / Osterley Park House 2- Fees listed below are prepaid: Book / Magazine / Bookjacket / Film / TV / Record / Cassette / Advertising / Marketing / Other Ih&lL: One Language Edition PLEASE RETURN THIS INVOICE World Rights WITH YOUR PAYMENT F O R E I G N PAYMENTS, TO INCLUDE BANK CHARGES, MUST BE MADE BY INTERNATIONAL MONEY ORDER IN STERLING PAYABLE TO: VICTORIA A N D ALBERT M U S E U M RETURN TO: V&A PICTURE LIBRARY VICTORIA A N D ALBERT M U S E U M S O U T H KENSINGTON L O N D O N SW7 2RL Per Print VAT @ THIS IS NOT A TAX INVOICE __Jax Invoice can be issued, if required, please tick box • % Total _ \ G>(Z.fh < X " / - S P b C l f t ^ . C O I - U 3 C . T I c ^ s P H O T O - SPILES S C I E N C E M U S E U M L I B R A R Y South Kens ington London SW7 5NH Telephone 071-938 8220 Fax 0-71-938 0 2 - \ 3 Telex 21200 VAT R e g i s t r a t i o n 394 6079 14 REPRODUCTION FEES Customer Reference Our Reference Date !Dear - i c r x x . , With reference to your letter of fe/"^ / ^ I permission Is granted for the reproduction of the Science Museum photographs/colour transparencies listed below: 1 Negative/colour transparency numbers MUST be quoted In your publication Permission relates only to and Is effective from the date of receipt of the reproduction fee which will be charged at the following rates: I £3"\^piea"9eJeMT^^ I Acknowledgement should read 'Trustees of the Science Museum" f Please quote our reference In any correspondence. \ Yours faithfully Photo ~s>c\\<s» PERMISSION TO USE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Permission is hereby granted to (Name of author of thesis) Dfflrx k V t V (Title of thesis) Clo^AAy) QJ^ University of British Columbia (Degree) _ (Tear) Y\ 7 / and to the National Library of Canada* to reproduce (FigWa^pSge^=numbers) "TkQrtxxA O w J i - v v O 4 V j ;\ i o a t y r v ( i in (£itle^fnzrticle7oT)ok) Cjp&Ui cMJjg^-l>tfu-. (Namer-is^ae~mtmber, and year-of-journal) -iPfocerpWttslter-xmd^ whieh—witi—appear—in this (Signatures) Date t t / i o /^j Name of c^p^A^TTh \ A c / W * . l $\bf,J. ( T i i , , ^ , , A d d r e s s P . r i i ^ , L / L \ y ) A , fc. - J £>--^ Ul>-t..(L< Return this form to: Library - Special Collections - Thesis Supervisor 1956 Main Mall University of British Columbia i Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Y3 *The National Library will lend or sell copies of the microfilm. A l l other publication rights are reserved. PERMISSION TO USE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Permission is hereby granted to (Name of author of thesis) k & * A IW-K km (Title of thesis) €K )it, th, • Jjy. (/AAJ\U)L^ University of British Columbia (Degree) _ (Year) / l ^ / / and to the National Library of Canada* to reproduce j(Eigure/fage-numbers) 6. m~ (Title of arttcle/book) JAA^ ^ r*y{jsL^i*i,< ^ (N-ame7^ssTZe~MMbW7~^^ (^ee-r-pubtisb^-ana^^a^ ) which will appear in this thesis. (Signatures) Date .V>~i [9<3l Name of eepy^ghtholder jJc'A^vd /Ld &feJh. Address '^Wwte^ 6( / Return this form to: Library - Special Collections - Thesis Supervisor 1956 Main Mall University of British Columbia I Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Y3 *The National Library will lend pr sell copies of the microfilm. All other publication rights are reserved/.!?^ -i}^ WJ^J^ AY\ C ^ X s o y c^dL A w f c u > ^ ( (fc^^Vr^ , , THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1Y3 LIBRARY Dear Sirs: As a graduate student at the University of British Columbia, I am preparing my thesis, which will be microfilmed by the National Library of Canada, and copies of the film will be lent or sold. May I have permission to use in my thesis, and for the National Library to microfilm, the excerpts from your publication(s) described on the back of this letter. I would be very grateful for your favourable consideration of this request Would you please complete the form on the back of this letter, and return it to the address given on the form. Thank you very much. Sincerely, DE-11 (4/88) T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, B.C. , Canada V6T 1Y3 L I B R A R Y Dear Sirs: As a graduate student at the University of British Columbia, I am preparing my thesis, which will be microfilmed by the National Library of Canada, and copies of the film will be lent or sold. May I have permission to use in my thesis, and for the National Library to microfilm, the—e#eer£ts_irom^ described on the back of this letter. ^ ^ i M H h » ^ c u^n.A ^ u » v *ji9-wr C M G I ^ K V . I would be very grateful for your favourable consideration of this request Would you please complete the form on the back of this letter, and return it to the address given on the form. Thank you very much. Sincerely, DE-11 (4/88) PERMISSION TO USE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Permission is hereby granted to {Name of author of thesis) \\C\ \| " " " ^ \C\ Y\ t ^ (Title of thesis) C\$lVJJJs) 0/3 Orrs A ( i L t J T^> Art ^ W ^ l i Y v c, ^ University of British Columbia (Degree) __£JA_ /Yenr) 1^ 1^ ' I and to the National Library of Canada* to reproduce "Tut,..-/-- * r . /i ^ ^ T T — — r — - ^ •• ' • \* ~ : - f ^ w ^ . n r N / I V U M U -71/ .-«< (KJ^ R ^ o <£KT,r 13>M^ w (Pfoce,~pxibl£sn^^ which will appear in this thesis. iSignucuiCi) Date Name of c ^ ^ t ^ o f d e f ^ Tb> ""TdtJe <^g?//-e^u Address . Ti , "fcj6 ^ ^ - ^ Return this form to: T ; h r a r v c „ 0 . , „ „ . O ' l ^ n ' f f d f C O l l - C t l 0 n S " 7 1 1 6 8 1 8 S u p e r v i S O T University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Y3 ^ N a t i o n a l Library will lend or sell copies of the microfilm. Al l other publication rights are T A T E G A L L E R Y PUBLICATIONS Rr?MOLARLY PUBLICATION Permission granted without charge subject to full acceptance oi the Regulations Signed. 3 < y ^ A / THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1Y3 LIBRARY Dear Sirs: As a graduate student at the University of British Columbia, I am preparing my thesis, which will be microfilmed by the National Library of Canada, and copies of the film will be lent or sold. May I have permission to use in my thesis, and for the National Library to microfilm, the exeefpts -£com you* publicatienfs) described on the back of this letter. ^ K o n x j r j t ^ ^ pcurv*"'rvy -fr? ;^ ^ U o \ c&XAt-oiAJv-I would be very grateful for your favourable consideration of this request Would you please complete the form on the back of this letter, and return it to the address given on the form. Thank you very much. Sincerely, K«l<fo«i>?rMMi.: f t-u lit,- »>.;fi4<- > ) 0 , . , . ^ ,» DE-11 (4/88) PERMISSION TO USE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL • Permission is hereby granted to (Name of author of thesis) \\C\\j |, J )0\ r\ i\ 11 ____________________________ | (Title of thesis) Q^/XVMA OJ-A. University of British Columbia (Degree) 9 V\ , T) . ( y e a ^ | ^  <y / and to the National Library of 'Canada* to reproduce (Figure-page-^numbers) A^m^=^^book) i^doJ \WJ ^m&.iaJb, (SCofi^ (H&^,~publisher~and--yeai-of book) ' L i l t , l ^ a ^ i ^ f l U u A Q ^ jpft lA'Hl/v/y, which will appear in this thesis. {tiigficuaresj Date Name of eepyHght-%older ' vv\. Address C 4 ^ i i . L^A/in/, v teturn this form to: Library - Special Collections - Thesis Supervisor 1956 Main Mall |i University of British Columbia ;! Vancouver, B.C. Canada \[ V6T 1Y3 s; I] The National Library will lend or sell copies of the microfilm. A l l other publication rights are !1 eserved. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1Y3 LIBRARY Dear Sirs: As a graduate student at the University of British Columbia, I am preparing my thesis, which will be microfilmed by the National Library of Canada, and copies of the film will be lent or sold. May I have permission to use in my thesis, and for the National Library to microfilm, the exeats fteaa your fubMea4©a(s) described on the back of this letter. ^ ^ j * * ^ erf §*,*~h<r\e^ I would be very grateful for your favourable consideration of this request Would you please complete the form on the back of this letter, and return it to the address given on the form. Thank you very much. Sincerely, In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. (Signature) Department of Fine Arts The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date ^ June 1991 DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT Nineteenth-century w r i t e r s and modern sc h o l a r s have agreed that there was a major s h i f t i n the p r a c t i c e of landscape p a i n t i n g i n England around the turn of the nineteenth century. P a i n t i n g s by up-and-coming a r t i s t s such as J . M. W. Turner, Thomas G i r t i n , and A. W. C a l l c o t t were seen to e x h i b i t a concern f o r atmospheric e f f e c t s and an " e x p r e s s i v i t y " l a c k i n g i n e a r l i e r works. This s h i f t has often been explained by invoking a r t i s t i c genius: the keen i n t e l l e c t and s e n s i b i l i t y of the a r t i s t i c producer has served as a s e l f - e v i d e n t explanation of the r i s e to prominence of t h i s form of landscape p a i n t i n g . This study endorses the c e n t r a l i t y of the a r t i s t i c subject to the e n t e r p r i s e of landscape p a i n t i n g , but disputes the n o t i o n that genius i s a n a t u r a l and s e l f - e v i d e n t phenomenon. It i s argued here that the n a t i v e landscape genius was a category of the c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l which was s o c i a l l y produced at t h i s h i s t o r i c a l moment i n conjunction with or i n o p p o s i t i o n to other contemporaneous formulations of the a r t i s t . This examination of a r t i s t i c s u b j e c t i v i t y as determined by gender, s o c i a l s t atus, education, wealth, and so f o r t h , i s organized around three i n t e r r e l a t e d subject p o s i t i o n s : the "man of l e t t e r s " d e r i ved from the notion of the academic h i s t o r y p a i n t e r , the "market s l a v e , " a negative c o n s t r u c t i o n of the a r t i s t who was seen to pander to the demands of the market and the "imaginative man of genius." The i n s c r i p t i o n of these p o s i t i o n a l i t i e s i n landscape imagery i s contingent upon a range of h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c s o c i a l phenomena. The d i s c u s s i o n focuses p a r t i c u l a r l y upon the d i s c o u r s e of n a t i o n a l i s m d u r i n g and immediately a f t e r the Napoleonic wars, e p i s t e m o i o g i c a l debates concerning the type of knowledge a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a commercial s o c i e t y , and the d i s c o u r s e on the market as i t r e l a t e s to the c i r c u l a t i o n of p a i n t i n g s as c u l t u r a l commodities. Determining the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the a r t i s t i c subject to these v a r i o u s s o c i a l phenomena i n v o l v e s an examination of the p h y s i c a l spaces i n which p a i n t i n g s were d i s p l a y e d and e x h i b i t e d , the d i s c u r s i v e spaces i n which they were d i s c u s s e d and e v a l u a t e d — i n c l u d i n g a r t c r i t i c i s m , a e s t h e t i c t r e a t i s e s , i l l u s t r a t e d county h i s t o r i e s and s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l commentary—and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s which shaped t h e i r production and r e c e p t i o n . The power and appeal of the landscape genius, I argue, lay i n i t s a b i l i t y to a serve broad range of s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n n e g o t i a t i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y the seemingly c o n t r a d i c t o r y demands of the market i n luxury commodities and of a s o c i a l i d e a l of Englishness marked by independence, i n t e l l e c t u a l power and s e n s i b i l i t y . The genius's imaginative*encounter with e x t e r n a l nature provided i t with an a l i b i which served to obscure i t s a c t i v i t i e s as an economic producer i n a h i g h l y competitive market s o c i e t y . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I . The R a t i o n a l i z e d Landscape and the Transparent Sub j ect 19 I I . The A e s t h e t i c s of the Market and I t s A r t i s t i c O f f s p r i n g ; The Opaque Subject and the D e f i l e d Object 67 I I I . The I m a g i n a t i v e Man of Genius, S p e c i a l i z e d Knowledge and A s s o c i a t e d P l e a s u r e s 117 IV. The P r o f e s s i o n and P o l i t i c s of N a t i v e Genius 177 V. The Genius and the Market 209 CONCLUSION 279 ILLUSTRATIONS . 288 BIBLIOGRAPHY 32 0 V LIST OF FIGURES 1. Benjamin West, C i c e r o D i s c o v e r i n g the Tomb of Archimedes , R. A. 1797 289 2. John Browne, engraving a f t e r George Beaumont, The Forest , R. A. 1800? 290 3. Thomas G i r t i n , Durham C a s t l e and Cat h e d r a l . c. 1798. 292 4. Edward Dayes, Kelso Abbey, Roxburghshire, c. 1792... 294 5. Engraving a f t e r C. Wild, Crimson Drawing Room at Carleton House, pub. 1816 296 6. J u l i u s Caesar Ibbetson, Alum Bay: Sand Quarry, c. 1792 298 7. Richard W e s t a l l , Storm i n Harvest, R. A. 1796 300 8. Paul Sandby, Carreg Cennan C a s t l e , Carmarthenshire, c. 1800 302 9. Aquatint a f t e r W i l l i m G i l p i n , Picturesque Scene i n the Lake D i s t r i c t , pub. 1816 304 10. Thomas G i r t i n , K i r k s t a l l Abbey. 1800 306 11. Augustus Wall C a l l c o t t , Market Day. R. A. 1807 308 • 12. Augustus Wall C a l l c o t t , Cowboys. R. A. 1807 309 13. W. B. Cooke, engraving a f t e r J . M. W. Turner, The Vale of H e a t h f i e l d . pub. 182 0 309 a 14. W. B. Cooke, engraving a f t e r J . M. W. Turner, The Vale of Ashburnham. pub. 1820 309 b 15. W. B. Cooke,,engraving a f t e r J . M. W. Turner, B r i g h t l i n g Observatory as Seen from R o s e h i l l Park, pub. 1820 : 309 c i 16. W. B. Cooke, engraving a f t e r J . M. W, Turner, View of B a t t l e Abbey—the Spot Where Harold ' F e l l . pub. 1820 309 d 17. P h i l i p p e Jacques de Loutherbourg, An Avalanche i n \ the Alps . R. A. 1804 311 v i 18. A u g u s t u s W a l l C a l l c o t t , O l d P i e r a t L i t t l e Hampton, R. A. 1812? 313 19. James Ward, B u l l s F i g h t i n g , w i t h a V i e w o f S t . D o n a t t ' s C a s t l e , G l a m o r g a n s h i r e , c. 1803 315 20. C o p l e y F i e l d i n g , S u n s e t o f f H a s t i n g s , 1819 317 21. Thomas C h r i s t o p h e r H o f l a n d , S t i r l i n g C a s t l e . c . 1815 319 » V I 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This p r o j e c t would not have been p o s s i b l e without the i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional support of a community of f r i e n d s , research a d v i s e r s and other s c h o l a r s . I wish to extend s p e c i a l thanks to Andrew Hemingway, Michael K i t s o n , L a u r i e Monahan, Tom Prasch, Ann P u l l a n , Barbara Rofkar, Rose Marie San Juan, Kim Sloan, Linda Smeins, and Toby Smith, who have generously shared with me t h e i r knowledge, time, and enthusiasm. I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the f i n a n c i a l support of the Paul Mellon Centre f o r Studies i n B r i t i s h A r t , the Rachel Royston Foundation, and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia through the I. W. K i l l a m Foundation and the Tina and Morris Wagner Foundat i on. The members of my d i s s e r t a t i o n committee have i n d i f f e r e n t ways enhanced my understanding of how a r t p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the production of s o c i a l meaning. My thanks go to Maureen Ryan and Ed Hundert f o r t h e i r u n f l a g g i n g support, h e l p f u l comments and j u d i c i o u s c r i t i c i s m . Serge Guilbaut has not only provided thoughtful c r i t i c i s m and suggestions with regard to t h i s p r o j e c t but has given me the b e n e f i t of h i s wisdom, wit, and encouragement throughout the e n t i r e p e r i o d of my graduate s t u d i e s . My l a r g e s t debt of g r a t i t u d e i s t o David S o l k i n . Not only does h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l enthusiasm and c u r i o s i t y continue to i n s p i r e my own study of B r i t i s h a r t , but h i s pr o v o c a t i v e c r i t i c i s m has stimulated my growth as a scholar f a r more than he w i l l ever know. 1 INTRODUCTION It might be f a i r l y argued that the notion of a r t i s t i c genius i s the very l a s t t h i n g needing s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n i n the f i e l d of e a r l y nineteenth-century E n g l i s h landscape p a i n t i n g . Indeed, with a few notable and important exceptions the a r t h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e devoted to t h i s p e r i o d takes as i t s b a s i c assumption and u l t i m a t e c o n c l u s i o n that n a t i v e genius was the determining f a c t o r i n the success and importance of the E n g l i s h landscape s c h o o l . 1 Thus, the patron s a i n t of E n g l i s h a r t i s t s , J . M. W. Turner, was d e s c r i b e d by John Walker (former d i r e c t o r of the National G a l l e r y i n Washington) as "a short, stocky man with rather s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s , who without advantage of education or b i r t h , became through genius, determination and boundless energy the greatest a r t i s t England has ever known," 2Such an acceptance of genius as a n a t u r a l , s e l f - e v i d e n t category, whether openly stated, as i n t h i s i nstance, or t a c i t l y assumed, forms the b a s i s f o r a wide range of t r a d i t i o n a l art h i s t o r i c a l studies of e a r l y 3 Among those scholars who have r e s i s t e d t r e a t i n g a r t i s t i c genius as a n a t u r a l and s e l f - e v i d e n t category and have i n s t e a d analyzed e a r l y nineteenth century landscape p a i n t i n g as a hegemonic p r a c t i c e are John B a r r e l l , Ann Bermingham, Michael Rosenthal, and Andrew Hemingway. See B i b l i o g r a p h y f o r s p e c i f i c references to t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s . • aJohn Walker. Joseph M a l l o r d W i l l i a m Turner (New York: Harry Abrams, 1984), p. 12. Turner's status as a ' s a i n t ' i s i m p l i c i t l y acknowledged i n the preface to the o f f i c i a l catalogue of C l o r e G a l l e r y which r e f e r s to the g a l l e r y ' s d i s p l a y of the a r t i s t ' s p a i n t boxes, model ships and other memorabilia as h i s "personal r e l i c s " [Tate G a l l e r y , The Turner C o l l e c t i o n i n the Clore G a l l e r y . An I l l u s t r a t e d Guide (London, 1987), p. 173. nineteenth century landscape p a i n t i n g . This o r i e n t a t i o n around the notion of genius has assured that most of s c h o l a r s h i p p u b l i s h e d i n t h i s area to date, whether devoted to the study of an i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t , or broader t o p i c s such as t o u r i n g i n Wales, natur a l i s m and the development of watercolour, i s organized almost e x c l u s i v e l y around issues of i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e and speculations about a r t i s t i c i n t e n t i o n . It i s not my i n t e n t i o n to expose the t a u t o l o g i c a l nature of these accounts. Rather, I accept and endorse the absolute c e n t r a l i t y of n a t i v e genius (the a d j e c t i v e i s as important as the noun, as w i l l become apparent i n what follows) to the e n t e r p r i s e of E n g l i s h landscape p a i n t i n g at the turn of the nineteenth century: Genius and i t s attendant terms, imagination and s e n s i b i l i t y , operated as a nexus of master signs which organized, l e g i s l a t e d , and v a l i d a t e d p a r t i c u l a r forms of landscape p r a c t i c e . The importance of genius as a means of c h a r a c t e r i z i n g a p a r t i c u l a r notion of the landscape p a i n t e r i n England at t h i s h i s t o r i c a l moment-is f o r c e f u l l y i n d i c a t e d i n A r c h i b a l d A l i s o n ' s a l l important Essays on the Nature and P r i n c i p l e s of Taste (1790). In the Essays A l i s o n d e c l a r e d that i t i s not f o r i m i t a t i o n we look, but f o r character. It i s not the a r t , but the genius of the P a i n t e r , which gives value to his compositions; and the language he employs i s found not only to speak to the eye, but to 3 a f f e c t the imagination and the heart. It i s not now a simple copy which we see, nor i s our Emotion l i m i t e d to the c o l d pleasure which a r i s e s from the p e r c e p t i o n of accurate I m i t a t i o n . It i s a c r e a t i o n of Fancy with which the A r t i s t presents us, i n which only the greater expressions of Nature are awakened, than those which we experience from the u s e f u l tameness of common scenery. 3 The d i f f i c u l t y with much of the secondary l i t e r a t u r e i s that i t i s content to acknowledge and accept u n c r i t i c a l l y t h i s contention that the character of the a r t i s t , manifested through f e e l i n g and the imagination, i s to be the primary c r i t e r i o n f o r judging landscape p a i n t i n g . For example, Andrew Wilton, who c i t e s the same passage from A l i s o n i n a catalogue of E n g l i s h drawings and p r i n t s , does not question i t s p r i v i l e g i n g of a r t i s t i c personality.'* Instead, here as elsewhere, A l i s o n ' s emphasis on a r t i s t i c character and genius i s pressed i n t o the s e r v i c e of a c a n o n i c a l h i s t o r y of E n g l i s h a r t which c e l e b r a t e s the i n d i v i d u a l achievements of a few s e l e c t men: "The great men, Constable, Turner, Palmer, and Cotman," Wilton declares "...pursued more obscure paths [than topographical a r t i s t s ] , reaching towards a more e l u s i v e yet more profound t r u t h i n nature, a t r u t h that could only be expressed i n the warmest human t e r m s — t h e terms of t h e i r own intense experience." 2 5 This statement i s p r e d i c a t e d upon 3 A r c h i b a l d A l i s o n , Essays on the Nature and P r i n c i p l e s of Taste. 3rd ed., (Edinburgh, 1812), 1:129. A l l f u r t h e r references are to t h i s e d i t i o n unless otherwise noted. 4Andrew Wilton, Preface, E n g l i s h Landscape 1630-1850 by Christopher White (Yale Center f o r B r i t i s h A r t exhib. c a t . , New Haven, 1977), p. xx. s W i l t o n , Preface to E n g l i s h Landscape, p. x x i . 4 an understanding of genius ("great men"), "nature" and " t r u t h " as essences which are s e l f - e v i d e n t and transcendent. Such e s s e n t i a l i s m guarantees that the h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s which made s p e c i f i c forms of landscape p a i n t i n g p o s s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e f o r a r t i s t s working at t h i s time w i l l remain as "obscure" and " e l u s i v e " as the t r u t h s those a r t i s t s were purported to represent. Contemporary w r i t e r s and modern sc h o l a r s have observed that the E n g l i s h landscape produced by Turner, G i r t i n , C a l l c o t t , and others d i f f e r i n appearance and f u n c t i o n from those of older a r t i s t s such as Loutherbourg, Ibbetson, and Sandby. It i s my contention that our understanding of these d i s t i n c t i o n s i s l a r g e l y dependent upon submitting to a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s the formulation of the a r t i s t as imaginative genius which A l i s o n ' s text so c l e a r l y r e g i s t e r s . This study seeks to provide j u s t such an a n a l y s i s by examining the a r t i s t i c genius as a category of the i n d i v i d u a l which was s o c i a l l y produced i n conjunction with or i n opposition to other contemporaneous notions of the a r t i s t . My i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s organized around three p r e v a i l i n g conceptions of the a r t i s t : "the man o f " l e t t e r s , ' d e r i v i n g from the academic notion of the h i s t o r y p a i n t e r ; the 'market sl a v e , ' a negative c o n s t r u c t i o n of the a r t i s t who was p e r c e i v e d to be lowering p r o f e s s i o n a l standards by pandering to the demands of the market and fashion; and the "imaginative man of genius.' For the purposes of a n a l y t i c c l a r i t y I w i l l be addressing i n turn each formulation of the a r t i s t as i f i t were a d i s c r e t e e n t i t y . In f a c t these subject p o s i t i o n s were i n t e r a c t i v e and hence not r i g i d l y f i x e d i n c h a r a c t e r . This f l u i d i t y i s to be expected since these formulations were contingent upon an ongoing and highly contentious c u l t u r a l debate about the nature of the c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l during a p e r i o d of profound s o c i a l and economic transformations. I s h a l l consider landscape p a i n t i n g and i t s attendant discourses as a c u l t u r a l p a r t i c i p a n t i n these wider h i s t o r i c a l processes o c c u r r i n g throughout the years 1795 to 1820, a p e r i o d which saw the r i s e to prominence of a s e l f - d e c l a r e d n a t i o n a l school of landscape p a i n t i n g . & My account w i l l focus on three aspects of these s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l transformations which were "^The g e n e r a l l y acknowledged strengths of the B r i t i s h School at t h i s time are t y p i f i e d by the f o l l o w i n g e v a l u a t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n the Monthly Magazine i n 1810: "To be retrograde i n grand h i s t o r i c a l and p o e t i c a l composition; to be i n c r e a s i n g i n c o r r e c t drawing and chaste c o l o r i n g ; eminent i n p o r t r a i t ; and beyond competition i n landscape" ("Monthly Retrospect of the Fine A r t s , " Monthly Magazine. J u l y 1810, p. 577). My focus i s upon the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n of landscape p a i n t i n g s e x h i b i t e d i n London and d i s c u s s e d i n the metropolitan press, and upon works which c i r c u l a t e d p u b l i c l y i n the form of p u b l i s h e d p r i n t s . Thus I w i l l not be concerned with p r i v a t e utterances about landscape, speculations about the a r t i s t i c i n t e n t i o n s concerning t h e i r production, or works produced at and f o r p r o v i n c i a l c e n t r es. Since Constable's p a i n t i n g s r e c e i v e d only l i m i t e d p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n i n London i n the 1800-20 p e r i o d they w i l l not be considered i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . However, I would hope that the a n a l y s i s presented here of the r e c o n s t i t u t i o n of the n a t u r a l v i a ephemeral e f f e c t s w i l l provoke a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Constable's work i n the context of e p i s t e m o i o g i c a l s h i f t s which are more i d e o l o g i c a l l y complex than have been heretofore suggested. p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to questions of a r t i s t i c i d e n t i t y and landscape p a i n t i n g : the phenomenon of n a t i o n a l i s m during and immediately a f t e r a p e r i o d marked by wars with France and c o n s e r v a t i v e r e a c t i o n to the French Revolution; e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l debates r e l a t i n g to the modes of knowledge appropr i a t e to the increased d i v i s i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of labour, both manual and i n t e l l e c t u a l ; and the discourses on the market and on f a s h i o n as they r e l a t e to the c i r c u l a t i o n of p a i n t i n g s as c u l t u r a l c ommodit i es, These i n t e r - r e l a t e d s o c i a l phenomena, whether d e s c r i b e d i n terms of n a t i o n a l i s m , i n t e l l e c t u a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , or p r i v a t i z a t i o n were manifested i n a l l forms of a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e . H i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , above a l l , was e s p e c i a l l y i m p l i c a t e d i n these transformations, s i n c e i t was the genre which t r a d i t i o n a l l y was understood to represent p u b l i c values and i d e a l s . Possessing t h i s important s o c i a l f u n c t i o n , i t was seen as c o n f e r r i n g the highest p r o f e s s i o n a l status upon the a r t i s t i c producer, and was t h e r e f o r e the p r i n c i p a l object of academic discourse and i n s t i t u t i o n a l concern. Given the p u b l i c importance of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , and a l s o i t s d i r e c t engagement with issues relevant to a study of s u b j e c t i v i t y — t h e status of the p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t and the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the human fi g u r e — w h y then, i t i s f a i r to ask, focus upon landscape? One goal of t h i s study w i l l be to demonstrate the c a p a c i t y of c e r t a i n forms of landscape p a i n t i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s o c i a l 7 transformation of s u b j e c t i v i t y i n ways which h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g could not, e i t h e r i n theory or i n p r a c t i c e . However, I do not intend to analyze the i n a b i l i t y of the E n g l i s h to produce a " s u c c e s s f u l ' school of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g ; John B a r r e l l has ably considered t h i s phenomenon from a t h e o r e t i c a l standpoint i n h i s examination of the w r i t i n g s of Reynolds, Barry, F u s e l i , Blake, Haydon and H a z l i t t , and h i s argument w i l l b r i e f l y be examined i n Chapter I . 7 Nonetheless, the subject p o s i t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t as h i s t o r y p a i n t e r produced i n academic disco u r s e w i l l be an important f e a t u r e of t h i s study f o r i t represented the i d e a l , however outmoded or problematic, against which other notions of the a r t i s t were d e f i n e d and evaluated. Considered on i t s own terms (apart from h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g ) i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e to i n d i c a t e why landscape p a i n t i n g was such a c r u c i a l s i t e f o r the production of the s u b j e c t i v i t y . For i n England the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i d e n t i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l subjects were i n s c r i b e d not only i n images of people, but a l s o i n images of the land, as the above-cited passage from A l i s o n ' s Essays so s t r i k i n g l y suggests. C e n t r a l to t h i s understanding the r o l e of landscape imagery i n the c u l t u r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of i d e n t i t i e s during the e a r l y nineteenth century i s an awareness of the i h i s t o r i c r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t e d throughout the seventeenth i> and eighteenth c e n t u r i e s between landed ownership and the idea of i 7John B a r r e l l , The P o l i t i c a l Theory of P a i n t i n g from Reynolds to H a z l i t t . The Body of the P u b l i c (New Haven and London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1986). 8 personal autonomy. This r e l a t i o n s h i p was f i x e d i n laws which r e q u i r e d ownership of r e a l property not only as the q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y , and thus p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s of governance, but a l s o as the c r i t e r i o n f o r the most p r i v i l e g e d forms of s o c i a l i d e n t i t y as d e f i n e d i n and through l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s such as hunting. 6 3 As J . G. A. Pocock has demonstrated, o p p o s i t i o n a l as w e l l as dominant di s c o u r s e s were p r e d i c a t e d upon c o n f l a t i n g the ownership of land with the notion of independence.' 9 For example, i n the e a r l y 1700s Neo-Harringtonians such as the T h i r d E a r l of Shaftesbury and Tory r a d i c a l s deployed a d i s c o u r s e d e r i v e d from the c i v i c humanist t r a d i t i o n of f i f t e e n t h century Florence as a means of c o u n t e r i n g what they saw as a dominant Court party comprised of corrupt m i n i s t e r s and a p a r a s i t i c breed of placemen, s p e c u l a t o r s , and stockjobbers. Within the parameters of t h i s r e p u b l i c a n d iscourse, ownership of land was seen to produce an economic • " d i s i n t e r e s t e d n e s s ' or independence which was the p r e c o n d i t i o n for p u b l i c v i r t u e and a c t i v e c i t i z e n s h i p . Although developed as a country ideology i n the l a t e seventeenth century, t h i s • s W i l l i a m Blackstone, The Sovereignty of the Law. S e l e c t i o n s from Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, ed. Gareth Jones (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1973; Commentaries o r i g . pub., 1765-9), pp. 73-4 (Book 1, Ch. 2). For a d i s c u s s i o n 1 on the l e g a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r hunting see P. B. Munsche, Gentlemen and Poachers: the E n g l i s h Games Laws 1671-1831 ? (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981). ''J. G. A. Pocock, The M a c h i a v e l l i a n Moment. F l o r e n t i n e P o l i t i c a l Thought and the A t l a n t i c Republican T r a d i t i o n '} (Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975); see e s p e c i a l l y pp. 462-505. 9 o p p o s i t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e was s t i l l employed i n the Napoleonic p e r i o d by p r o v i n c i a l anti-war l i b e r a l s such as Walter Fawkes, the prominent Yorkshire landowner who was renowned f o r h i s c o l l e c t i o n of B r i t i s h watercolours, and bourgeois r e f o r m i s t s such as Robert Hunt, whose attacks on m i n i s t e r i a l c o r r u p t i o n could be found i n h i s reviews of Royal Academy e x h i b i t i o n s . 1 0 The r e s i l i e n c e of t h i s country ideology, i t s a b i l i t y to s i g n i f y one hundred years a f t e r i t s i n c e p t i o n t e s t i f i e s to the immense symbolic, p o l i t i c a l and economic power which was attached to land f o r t y to f i f t y years a f t e r " t a k e - o f f " — t h a t moment i n the 1760s which marked the r a p i d a c c e l e r a t i o n of c a p i t a l i s t e n t e r p r i s e i n commerce and t r a d e . 3 1 This s a i d , i t should not be assumed that the subject p o s i t i o n of the v i r t u o u s landowning c i t i z e n , c o n s t r u c t e d i n both dominant and o p p o s i t i o n a l discourse, was unchallenged (even i n the eighteenth century) or unmodified by the turn of the nineteenth century. The chapters which f o l l o w w i l l l a r g e l y be concerned with t r a c k i n g the changes i n s u b j e c t i v i t y which accompanied these cumulative transformations i n the economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l spheres. Such an a n a l y s i s w i l l examine how the discourses and p r a c t i c e s of 1 0 W a l t e r Fawkes, Speech of Walter Fawkes. esq.. Late Representative i n Parliament f o r the County of York: on the Subject of Parliamentary Reform (London, 1813). See "Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n , " Examiner. 29 A p r i l 1810, p. 268, f o r one of Robert Hunt's attacks on Regency c o r r u p t i o n i n the context of an art review. 1 1 N e i l McKendrick, John Brewer, and J . H. Plumb, The B i r t h of a Consumer Society (London: Hutchinson, 1983), p. 9. 10 landscape p a i n t i n g were able to c a p i t a l i z e on the symbolic a t t r i b u t e s attached to land i n order to represent those forms of knowledge, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with commercial s o c i e t y . As noted e a r l i e r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s organized around three such notions of the a r t i s t , the 'man of l e t t e r s , ' the "market s l a v e , ' and the "imaginative man of genius,' each of which engaged these s o c i a l phenomena i n d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t ways. However, while the d i s c u s s i o n w i l l center on the production of various notions of the a r t i s t , there w i l l a l s o be a strong emphasis on the c o n s t i t u t i o n of viewers and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a r t i s t and the viewing subject. For u l t i m a t e l y our concern i s to understand how the landscape genius as an i d e a l of the c r e a t i v e , i n t e r i o r i z e d i n d i v i d u a l was i m p l i c a t e d i n the production of viewing subjects whose own imagination and s i n g u l a r i t y were acknowledged at the same time as they were p o l i c e d and r e g u l a t e d . Since the parameters of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n are set out i n terms of the notion of the subject, i t i s necessary to d e l i n e a t e how t h i s concept i s being defined. S u b j e c t i v i t y i s here taken to be the production of the i n d i v i d u a l as a category d e f i n e d by gender, n a t i o n a l i t y , s o c i a l s t a t u s , wealth, education, moral 11 codes and so f o r t h . 1 - 3 I have found i t most ap p r o p r i a t e f o r the t o p i c under c o n s i d e r a t i o n to conceive of s u b j e c t i v i t y i n terms which acknowledge both the subject's p r o d u c t i o n i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ( v i s u a l as w e l l as t e x t u a l ) and i t s i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n i n g i n the l a r g e r s o c i a l sphere. That i s , the a r t i s t i c subject i s produced i n and through r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and i s deployed by a range of i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t s i n the process of i n t e r p e l l a t i o n . In adopting the term "subject p o s i t i o n ' throughout t h i s study I wish to emphasize the contingent nature of a p a r t i c u l a r notion of the a r t i s t i c s u b j e c t : such a subject i s d e f i n e d by i t s p o s i t i o n i n d i s c o u r s e and s o c i a l formations r e l a t i v e to other conceptions of the i n d i v i d u a l . This formulation of the subject d e r i v e s from two major sources: the semiotic subject, c o n s t r u c t e d through the s h i f t i n g p o s i t i o n a l i t i e s i n language represented by " I , ' "you' and the other pronouns, as set out by Emile Benveniste; and secondly, Louis A l t h u s s e r ' s notion of the i n t e r p e l l a t e d subject which comes to "recognize' i t s p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l v i a the i d e o l o g i c a l i a E a c e i s obviously a major f a c t o r i n determining the nature of the i n d i v i d u a l as a subject. Landscape p a i n t i n g was an important v e h i c l e f o r the production of r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n question. However, t h i s production was most c l e a r l y evident i n landscape p a i n t i n g s and p r i n t s of f o r e i g n s i t e s and i n landscapes based upon l i t e r a r y themes—subgenres which are excluded from c o n s i d e r a t i o n here. A most compelling a n a l y s i s of landscape p a i n t i n g and r a c i a l as w e l l as gender d i f f e r e n c e i s H a r r i e t Guest's "The Great D i s t i n c t i o n : Figures of the E x o t i c i n the Work of W i l l i a m Hodges," Oxford Art Journal 12:2 (1989), pp. 36-58. 12 apparatuses of education, r e l i g i o n , the family, and so f o r t h . 1 3 By combining and modifying these two formulations, I seek to avoid the hermeticism of a l i n g u i s t i c system i n which the subject i s forever banished to the realm of t e x t s where i t c i r c u l a t e s e n d l e s s l y among a s h i f t i n g chain of s i g n i f i e r s . At the same time I f i n d problematic the t o t a l i z i n g tendencies i m p l i c i t i n an A l t h u s s e r i a n s o c i a l schema which reduce subjects to p a s s i v e v i c t i m s locked i n t o p r e s c r i b e d r o l e s . Goran Therborn u s e f u l l y suggests a more a c t i v e notion of the subject when he introduces the term ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n ' to complement that of (passive) s u b j e c t i o n . Emphasizing the ambiguity of the word " q u a l i f y ' he notes that "although q u a l i f i e d by i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p e l l a t i o n s , subjects a l s o become q u a l i f i e d to ' q u a l i f y ' these i n r e t u r n , i n the sense of s p e c i f y i n g them and modifying t h e i r range of a p p l i c a t i o n . 1 , 1 "-The manner i n which subject p o s i t i o n s are modified, negotiated, and contested i n the realm of 1 3 S e e Emile Benveniste, Problems i n General L i n g u i s t i c s (Miami: U n i v e r s i t y of Miami Press, 1971; o r i g . pub. i n French, 1966), pp. 223-30. Benveniste w r i t e s , " I t i s i n and through language that man c o n s t i t u t e s himself as a subj ect. because language alone e s t a b l i s h e s the concept of "ego' i n r e a l i t y , i n i t s r e a l i t y which i s that of the being... Consciousness of s e l f i s only p o s s i b l e i f i t i s experienced by c o n t r a s t . I use I_ only when I am speaking to someone who w i l l be a you i n my address (p. 24). For the A l t h u s s e r i a n notion of i n t e r p e l l a t i o n see Louis A l t h u s s e r , "Ideology and I d e o l o g i c a l State Apparatuses," i n Lenin and Philosophy (New York and London: Monthly Review Press, 1971; o r i g . pub. i n French, 1969), pp. 127-86. Goran Therborn, The Ideology of Power and the Power of Ideology (London: Verso, 1980), p. 17. I am g r a t e f u l to Andrew Hemingway f o r t h i s r eference. 13 landscape r e p r e s e n t a t i o n must be understood w i t h i n the context of such a process of q u a l i f i c a t i o n . In t a k i n g up an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v i t y , i t i s c r u c i a l to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the not i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s and subject p o s i t i o n s . As Therborn and many others have p o i n t e d out, i n d i v i d u a l s take up a number of subject p o s i t i o n s i n the course of t h e i r l i v e s , p o s i t i o n s which can mutually r e i n f o r c e or even e x i s t i n t e n s i o n with each other. And thus a p a i n t i n g or a text can be taken as an i n t e r p e l l a t i o n , that i s , an i n v i t a t i o n f o r the viewer/reader to take up a p a r t i c u l a r subject p o s i t i o n i n terms of s o c i a l s t a t u s , gender, sexual o r i e n t a t i o n , n a t i o n a l i t y and so f o r t h . However, there i s no guarantee that the " o f f e r ' w i l l be accepted or be understood i n the same terms by everyone. This f i n a l p o i n t i s important, fo r as we s h a l l see, there i s no simple one-to-one correspondence between a p a r t i c u l a r subject p o s i t i o n d e l i n e a t e d by a given r e p r e s e n t a t i o n or set of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and a p a r t i c u l a r i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n . Rather, M i k h a i l Bakhtin's i n s i s t e n c e on the s o c i a l " m u l t i - a c c e n t u a l i t y of s i g n s " w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l formation i s true of v i s u a l as w e l l as l i n g u i s t i c s i g n s . 1 0 That i s , a p a r t i c u l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n becomes an arena of c o n t e s t a t i o n , as d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t groups, c l a s s e s , and c l a s s fragments adopt the same signs and adapt them to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs and i n t e r e s t s . This contentiousness i n the 1 = iV. N. Voloshinov (Mikhail Bakhtin) , Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (New York: Academic Press, 1973), pp. 21-14 marking out of subject positions in landscape representation w i l l be a major focus of this project. Within the domain of eighteenth- and early-nineteenth century c u l t u r a l studies, the work of John B a r r e l l and Peter de Bolla has been extremely important in promoting an understanding of the way in which the private, i n t e r i o r i z e d subject has been rejected or denied in representations which seek to produce various formulations of a public or social s u b j e c t . % & De Bolla introduces the notion of "transparency" to indicate this social subject whose private character i s repressed, so that the creative self becomes a screen upon which only universal or communal values and interests can be read. 3' 7 I have extended the use of this visual trope to include that of the "opaque' subject, whose private character i s seen to debase or obliterate the representation of communal ideals, and that of the "translucent' subject, whose private character f a c i l i t a t e s the representation of a national community which increasingly is recast in terms of a heterogeneity of private interests. It should be clear by now what is being omitted as well as 1 ASee for example Barrell's discussion of the Third Earl of Shaftesbury's commentary on Paolo de Matthaeis' The Judgment of Hercules and Joshua Reynolds' concept of the central form (The P o l i t i c a l Theory of Painting, pp. 27-33 and 90-9. 1 7 P e t e r de Bolla, The Discourse of the Sublime. History. Aesthetics and the Subject (London: Basil Blackwell, 1989), P. 155. 15 included i n my working d e f i n i t i o n of s u b j e c t i v i t y : namely, the psy c h o a n a l y t i c notion of the subject, s p l i t by i t s unresolved and unconscious Oedipal fears and Imaginary d e s i r e s . Such an omission i s prompted, not by a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n how the unconscious p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of s p e c i f i c subject p o s i t i o n s , but by a l a c k of c o n v i c t i o n that current theory, p r e d i c a t e d as i t i s upon a dynamic s p e c i f i c to the bourgeois nuclear f a m i l y , i s a p p l i c a b l e to the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d under examination. I have f u r t h e r r e s e r v a t i o n s about the p o t e n t i a l f o r the mis a p p r o p r i a t i o n of a theory designed to e x p l a i n how i n f a n t s come to take up t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as gendered subjects i n re p r e s e n t a t i o n , language, the s o c i a l order. As Stuart H a l l has p e r c e p t i v e l y observed, "there i s a l l the d i f f e r e n c e i n the world between the ca p a c i t y to use Language as such and the ap p r o p r i a t i o n and imaginary i d e n t i t y with p a r t i c u l a r languages and t h e i r s p e c i f i c i d e o l o g i c a l and d i s c u r s i v e u n i v e r s e s . " R e f e r r i n g to h i s s p e c i f i c concern with a n a l y z i n g Thatcherism h i s t o r i c a l l y H a l l continues: What Thatcherism poses i s the problem of understanding how already p o s i t i o n e d subjects can be e f f e c t i v e l y detached from t h e i r p o i n t s of a p p l i c a t i o n and e f f e c t i v e l y r e p o s i t i o n e d by a new set of di s c o u r s e s . This i s p r e c i s e l y a h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c l e v e l of a p p l i c a t i o n of the i n t e r p e l l a t i v e aspects of ideology that i s not adequately resumed or explained by the 16 t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l g e n e r a l i t i e s of L a c a n i a n i s m , i e While our context i s qui t e d i f f e r e n t from H a l l ' s , the t h e o r e t i c a l problems i n d e a l i n g with the r e p o s i t i o n i n g of subjects who are already placed i n t o the symbolic order are s i m i l a r . Although I w i l l not address s p e c i f i c a l l y a s p l i t subject, t h i s does not imply an unwillingness to engage with issues of gender, d e s i r e , and fantasy as s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d phenomena. I concur with Joan W. Scott that gender i s most u s e f u l l y t h e o r i z e d as "a primary way of s i g n i f y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s of power," 1 9 Conceived i n t h i s way, as an o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e rather than as a set of s o c i a l r o l e s men and women assume, then, i n J u d i t h Newton's words, "there i s no gender-free z o n e . " 2 0 Throughout t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , when I use the pronoun 'he,' i t should be understood to r e f e r only to males or a masculine subject p o s i t i o n . Anonymous a r t c r i t i c s are a l s o r e f e r r e d to as "he' since there i s no evidence to suggest that women were i n v o l v e d i n w r i t i n g p u b l i s h e d a r t c r i t i c i s m at t h i s l e S t u a r t H a l l , "The Toad i n the Garden: Thatcherism among the T h e o r i s t s , " in-Marxism and the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Cul t u r e , eds. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg^ (Urbana and Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1988), p. 50. Please note that a l l emphases i n d i c a t e d i n quotes are i n the o r i g i n a l . t 9 J o a n . W. Scott, "Gender: A Useful Category of H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s , " American H i s t o r i c a l Review. 91:5 (December 1986), P. 1069. 2 0 J u d i t h Newton, "Family Fortunes: "New Hi s t o r y ' and "New H i s t o r i c i s m , ' " Radical H i s t o r y Review 43 (1989), p. 12. 17 t irae . It i s not the psycho-sexual coherency, then, but the very v i a b i l i t y of c e r t a i n subject p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n a s h i f t i n g s o c i a l f i e l d that w i l l form the p r i n c i p a l focus of t h i s study. A t t e n t i o n w i l l i n i t i a l l y be focussed upon the a r t i s t i c subject and the l i b e r a l l y educated viewer as produced through those a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s and p a i n t i n g p r a c t i c e s promoted by the academy. This c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of a r t i s t / v i e w e r as l i b e r a l man of l e t t e r s was i n c r e a s i n g l y incapable of accommodating the complex and i n t e r r e l a t e d demands of the market (as represented both i n c r i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e and the d i s c o u r s e of p o l i t i c a l economy) and the demands f o r a q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y E n g l i s h school of p a i n t i n g , over a f i f t e e n year p e r i o d marked by counter-r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e a c t i o n , war and domestic p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l unrest. An e a r l y sign of the f a i l u r e of t h i s notion of the a r t i s t i c subject to meet these v a r i e d contemporary demands was the concern, v o i c e d by c r i t i c s and commentators i n the 1790s, that E n g l i s h a r t i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y landscape p a i n t e r s , had surrendered t h e i r independence and e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n order to accommodate a h i g h l y competitive market f o r c u l t u r a l commodities and the d e s i r e s of a fashionable p u b l i c which lacked t a s t e i n matters of a r t . C o nsideration of a negative subject p o s i t i o n of the a r t i s t as "slave of the market,' which was produced i n t h i s a r t i s t i c and 18 s o c i a l commentary, w i l l be followed by an extended examination of a formulation of the a r t i s t i c subject which offered one form of r e s o l u t i o n to t h i s c r i s i s i n s u b j e c t i v i t y : the landscape a r t i s t as "native genius.' T h e o r e t i c a l l y secured by an emerging discourse on the imagination, t h i s p o s i t i o n was defined by p r o f e s s i o n a l and s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge and a native s e n s i b i l i t y which taken together guaranteed i t s s o c i a l u t i l i t y . This subject p o s i t i o n w i l l be discussed i n terms of i t s capacity to accommodate a range of i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t s as i t entertained a vexed and i n t r i c a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p with the demands of the market. The success of the "native genius,' i t w i l l be argued, lay i n his a b i l i t y to negotiate the economic demands of the market under the cover of a moralized and s o c i a l i z e d a r t i s t i c subject. Hence genius's a b i l i t y to act as an a l i b i : Under the guise of genius the a r t i s t claimed to be someplace other than where he w a s — i n the marketplace rather than i n the disembodied realm of a r t i s t i c imagination, experiencing h i s connection to the s o c i a l through a personal encounter with Nature. 19 CHAPTER I The R a t i o n a l i z e d L a n d s c a p e and t h e T r a n s p a r e n t S u b j e c t The a r t i s t i s a t r u e l o g i c i a n : n o t c o n t e n t w i t h p r o d u c i n g e f f e c t s , he i s e v e r i n q u i r i n g a f t e r c a u s e s f o u n d e d on v i s i b l e d e m o n s t r a t i o n , t o e x h i b i t them i n h i s w o r k .1 We a r e a l m o s t l e d t o d e s c r i b e i t [ T u r n e r ' s Snowstorm: H a n n i b a l C r o s s i n g t h e A l p s ] as t h e e f f e c t o f m a g i c , w h i c h t h i s P r o s p e r o o f t h e g r a p h i c a r t c a n c a l l i n t o a c t i o n , and g i v e t o a i r y n o t h i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l f o r m . . . A l l t h a t i s t e r r i b l e a nd g r a n d i s p e r s o n i f i e d i n t h e m y s t e r i o u s e f f e c t o f t h e p i c t u r e ; and we c a n n o t b u t a d m i r e t h e g e n i u s d i s p l a y e d i n t h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y work The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e a r t i s t i c s u b j e c t was a c a t e g o r y u n d e r g o i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f c o n t e s t a t i o n i n t h e y e a r s a r o u n d 1800 i s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e above q u o t e s , t h e f i r s t by t h e t o p o g r a p h e r Edward Dayes i n 1802, t h e s e c o n d f r o m t h e R e p o s i t o r y o f A r t s i n 1 8 1 2 . L a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g became a s i t e on w h i c h v a r i o u s c l a i m s were s t a k e d f o r a c e r t a i n t y p e o f a r t i s t i c p r o d u c e r and f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e v i e w e r as w e l 1 . 1 Edward D a y e s . The Works o f t h e L a t e Edward Dayes ( L o n d o n , 1 8 0 5 ) , p . 2 5 8 . ^ " N o t i c e s o f t h e P i c t u r e s i n t h e F o r t y - S e c o n d E x h i b i t i o n o f t h e R o y a l Academy, S o m e r s e t - H o u s e , " R e p o s i t o r y o f A r t s 7 (June 1 8 1 2 ) , p . 3 4 1 . 20 This c o n t e s t a t i o n of a r t i s t i c s u b j e c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n landscape was profoundly a f f e c t e d by the moribund status of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g . Contemporary a r t c r i t i c i s m and commentary devoted to p a i n t i n g i n England at the t u r n of the nineteenth century r e g i s t e r s a broad census that the country had f a i l e d to produce a s u c c e s s f u l school of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , t r a d i t i o n a l l y regarded as the most p r e s t i g i o u s form of p u b l i c a r t throughout Europe. The most common reason given f o r t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s was that both the E n g l i s h church and government (and i n some accounts p r i v a t e patrons) had f a i l e d to p rovide commissions and other forms of support f o r the most elevated forms of p u b l i c p a i n t i n g , i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to p u b l i c bodies i n ancient Greece and Renaissance I t a l y . 3 P o r t r a i t p a i n t i n g , on the other hand, was acknowledged to be a f l o u r i s h i n g p r a c t i c e i n England, but i t was i d e n t i f i e d with a form of self-promotion and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t which was i n v a r i a b l y t i e d to the p u r s u i t of commerce and trade."1' On the l e v e l of p r a c t i c e there were a number of attempts to produce a form of p a i n t i n g that would r e s o l v e t h i s c r i s i s i n c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n — a c r i s i s a r i s i n g out of the problem of how 3We w i l l explore the debates f o r and against p u b l i c support of the a r t s i n Chapter V. In a d d i t i o n see W i l l i a m Carey, Observations on the Probable Decline or E x t i n c t i o n of B r i t i s h H i s t o r i c a l P a i n t i n g . . . (London, 1825), f o r a contemporary account of the f a i l u r e of a domestic school of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g . ^For a t y p i c a l attack on E n g l i s h p o r t r a i t p a i n t i n g as feeding the need of nobles and merchants for s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n a commercial centre l i k e London, see the review of Thomas Lawrence's p o r t r a i t s at the Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n of 1803 i n the St. James C h r o n i c l e . 28-30 A p r i l 1803. 21 to represent a communal i d e n t i t y i n a s o c i e t y i n c r e a s i n g l y organized as an aggregate of competing, s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . In the l a t t e r h a l f of the eighteenth century these e f f o r t s at r e s o l u t i o n i n c l u d e d attempts by Reynolds to elevate p o r t r a i t p a i n t i n g to the l e v e l of h i s t o r y , by Edward Penny and Joseph Wright to incorporate the d i d a c t i c i s m of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g with the more intimate format of the c o n v e r s a t i o n p i e c e , and by h i s t o r y p a i n t e r James Barry to represent the d i v i s i o n of labour which marks commercial s o c i e t y i n terms of c l a s s i c a l forms and a l l e g o r i c a l figures."* 3 Although some of the i n d i v i d u a l works of a r t produced i n these va r i o u s attempts enjoyed considerable success, the l a r g e r c r i s i s i n p u b l i c a r t production l i n g e r e d , fed not only by ^David S o l k i n has produced s e v e r a l v a l u a b l e studies of a r t i s t s ' attempts to produce a p u b l i c form of a r t v i a genres ge n e r a l l y considered s u i t a b l e only f o r p r i v a t e forms of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . For Reynolds and p o r t r a i t u r e see h i s "Great P i c t u r e s or Great Men? Reynolds, Male P o r t r a i t u r e and the Power of A r t , " Oxford Art Journal 9:2 (1986), pp. 42-9; f o r a study of Edward Penny and the c o n v e r s a t i o n p i e c e see " P o r t r a i t u r e i n Motion: Edward Penny's Marguis of Granby and the Creation of a P u b l i c f o r E n g l i s h A r t , " Huntington L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y 49:1 (Winter 1986), pp. 1-23. Solkin's study of Joseph Wright's A i r Pump. "ReWrighting Shaftesbury: The A i r Pump and the L i m i t s of Commercial Humanism," w i l l be p u b l i s h e d i n John B a r r e l l , ed., P a i n t i n g and the P o l i t i c s of Culture (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1991). James Barry's Commerce or the Triumph of the Thames. f i r s t e x h i b i t e d i n 1783, was one of s i x murals produced for the Great Room of the Society f o r the Encouragement of A r t s . I t combined a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s of the Thames and the continents, with p o r t r a i t s of B r i t i s h e xplorers, along with t r i t o n s and nereids bearing B r i t i s h manufactured goods. Depicted i n the r i v e r along with these f i g u r e s and objects was the musician Dr. Charles Burney, p l a y i n g the keyboard. For a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s work, see W i l l i a m L. P r e s s l y , The L i f e and Art of James Barry (New Haven and London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981), pp. 101-2. 22 repeated demands i n the metropolitan press f o r t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g as a p u b l i c artform, but a l s o i n the Royal Academy i t s e l f . For the p u b l i c v o i c e of that i n s t i t u t i o n , embodied i n the utterances of i t s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t , Joshua Reynolds, and i t s Professors of P a i n t i n g i n the l a t e eighteenth and ea r l y nineteenth c e n t u r i e s , James Barry, Henry F u s e l i and John Opie, i n s i s t e d that only works which promoted the academic i d e a l s of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g could elevate the status of a r t i s t s beyond that of a r t i s a n s by r e p r e s e n t i n g the ' p u b l i c good,' however problematic that term had become. Throughout the course of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n we w i l l examine the i n c a p a c i t y of t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n to accommodate the needs e i t h e r of a r t i s t s or viewers operating i n a i n c r e a s i n g l y p r i v a t i z e d , c a p i t a l i z e d s o c i e t y and the attempt to redress that f a i l u r e through a new form of landscape p a i n t i n g , secured by a s e l f - d e c l a r e d l y ' s c i e n t i f i c ' theory of the imagination. While "academicism' came i n c r e a s i n g l y to be questioned, i t s t i l l r e t a i n e d a measure of i n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y throughout the e a r l y decades of the nineteenth century and thus was able to shape p u b l i c notions of the a r t i s t i c subject and viewer i n terms of v i s u a l production, a r t i s t i c d iscourse and i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s . It i s a testimony both to the r e s i d u a l power of academic discourse to a f f e c t contemporary a r t production and i t s i n a b i l i t y to guarantee a v i a b l e form of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g that h i s t o r y p a i n t e r and President of the Royal Academy Benjamin West 2 3 turned h i s a t t e n t i o n to the production of h i s t o r i c a l landscape p a i n t i n g s i n the c l o s i n g years of the eighteenth century,*' An examination of one of these works w i l l give us some sense of the way i n which academic theory as a p p l i e d to the genre of landscape p a i n t i n g attempted to l e g i t i m i z e the s o c i a l power of a p a r t i c u l a r type of viewer, and i n the process elevate the status of the a r t i s t i c producer. In 1797 West e x h i b i t e d at the Royal Academy Ci c e r o Disco v e r i n g the Tomb of Archimedes (Figure 1), a work which i n s t a n t i a t e s p r e c i s e l y those q u a l i t i e s which the Academy most esteemed: high moral seriousness, e r u d i t i o n and reverence f o r the grand t r a d i t i o n . In both i t s composition and theme the work evokes Richard Wilson's C i c e r o and h i s Two F r i e n d s . A t t i c u s and Quintus. at h i s V i l l a at Arpinum (R. A. 1 7 7 0 ) D a v i d S o l k i n ^For a d i s c u s s i o n of West's landscapes, produced mainly between 1794 and 1812, see Helmut von E r f f a and A l l e n S taley, The Pa i n t i n g s of Benjamin West (New Haven and London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1986), pp. 114-25. •^Wilson's Cic er o ( p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n ) i s reproduced as P l a t e 130 i n David S o l k i n , Richard Wilson. The Landscape of Reaction (Tate G a l l e r y exhib. c a t . , London, 1982). Helmut von E r f f a and A l l e n Staley have s t a t e d that the subject seems c l e a r l y to have been i n s p i r e d by Wilson's Cicero [von E r f f a and Staley, p. 120]. An i n s p e c t i o n of the two p i c t u r e s r e v e a l s the extent to which West has based h i s composition on the Wilson as w e l l : the massing of c l i f f s ..on the l e f t and trees on the r i g h t i n the West follows the b a s i c forms of Wilson's framing t r e e s ; both compositions c l o s e the backgrounds with mountains topped by f l u f f y clouds; the r e c e s s i o n of a l t e r n a t i n g dark and l i g h t planes i s found i n both works; and the d i s p o s i t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e s i s s i m i l a r as w e l l . This b a s i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n derives u l t i m a t e l y from Claude, as David S o l k i n notes i n h i s account of the Wilson, "The B a t t l e of the C i c e r o s : Richard Wilson and the P o l i t i c s of Landscape i n the Age of John Wilkes," Art H i s t o r y , 24 argues that t h i s l a t t e r work i s a v i s u a l a s s e r t i o n of p a t r i c i a n power, v i r t u e and knowledge at a time when they were being contested i n the p o l i t i c a l arena.® West's p i c t u r e a l s o n a t u r a l i z e s the e p i s t e m o i o g i c a l , c u l t u r a l and economic a u t h o r i t y of a landed p a t r i c i a t e , d e s p i t e the f a c t that n e a r l y three tumultuous decades separate i t from Wilson's C i c e r o . b r i n g i n g marked changes i n the p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e and c l a s s alignments. The subject of West's work i s taken from Book V of C i c e r o ' s Tusculans. At t h i s p o i n t i n the n a r r a t i v e , C i c e r o , who i t should be r e c a l l e d was a wealthy landowner from Arpinura and quaestor i n S i c i l y , i s r e l a t i n g h i s discovery i n Syracuse of the grave of Archimedes. The mathematician i s o f f e r e d here as a model of the v i r t u o u s , p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d scholar i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to the S i c i l i a n t y r a n t , Dionysius. But the n a r r a t i v e a l s o presents i t s author himself as an exemplar. C i c e r o emphasizes that he was not simply engaged i n a p r i v a t e a n t i q u a r i a n p u r s u i t , but r a t h e r an act of p u b l i c v i r t u e , by c l a i m i n g that "one of the most famous c i t i e s i n the Greek world...would have remained i n t o t a l ignorance of the tomb of the most b r i l l i a n t c i t i z e n i t had ever 6:4 (December 1983), p. 407. °Specifically, t h i s challenge was mounted by middle c l a s s urbanites p r e s s i n g t h e i r own claims to power through the vigorous p r o t e s t s which followed Parliament's r e f u s a l to seat the e l e c t e d member from Middlesex, John Wilkes ( S o l k i n , "The B a t t l e of the C i c e r o s , " p. 412). 25 produced, had a man from Arpinum not come and poin t e d i t outi The seemingly d i s i n t e r e s t e d nature of t h i s a c t i o n i s underscored here since C i c e r o ' s d i s c o v e r y c o n f e r r e d honour on a c i t y that was not h i s own. For h i s p a i n t i n g West has adopted a c l a s s i c a l t e x t which c e l e b r a t e s the v i r t u o u s a c t i o n s of the c i t i z e n - s c h o l a r . This subject p o s i t i o n i n l a t e eighteenth-century England was a v a i l a b l e only to those few i n d i v i d u a l s whose wealth, l e i s u r e , s o c i a l status and gender permitted them to study c l a s s i c a l languages, h i s t o r y , and l i t e r a t u r e . These p r e c o n d i t i o n s r e s t r i c t e d c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g to men seeking entry i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n s which s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u i r e d i t (law, medicine, and the c l e r g y ) , and to c u l t i v a t e d gentlemen whose source of income was l a r g e l y unearned, 1 0 Such s c h o l a r l y p u r s u i t s were f i r s t and foremost the province of landowners, whose a f f a i r s were l a r g e l y delegated to managers. Men a c t i v e l y employed i n ind u s t r y and trade might have had the money, but not the l e i s u r e to devote to serious study of the c l a s s i c s . For women, time and money were not the only obstacles to c l a s s i c a l t r a i n i n g . Although a small number of middle- and upper-class women d i d r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g at home i n the c l a s s i c s from t h e i r f a t h e r s or brothers, they were forbidden ' C i c e r o , Tusculans. i n C i c e r o . On the Good L i f e , t r a n s . Michael Grant (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971), p. 86. 1 0 L e o n o r e Davidoff and Catherine H a l l , Family Fortunes. Men and Women of the E n g l i s h Middle C l a s s . 1780-1850 (London: Hutchinson, 1987), pp. 234-5. 26 access to u n i v e r s i t i e s . What p r i v a t e or i n s t i t u t i o n a l education women d i d r e c e i v e was focussed most commonly on r e f i n i n g t h e i r manners through the teaching of music, French, drawing and dancing, or on developing t h e i r domestic v i r t u e through t r a i n i n g i n needlework and B i b l e s t u d y . 1 1 The educational c o n s t r a i n t s placed upon women and the vast m a j o r i t y of lower- and middle-c l a s s men were j u s t i f i e d on the b a s i s of s o c i a l u t i l i t y : h i g h l y developed mental powers and a vast range of knowledge were deemed unnecessary f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who occupied the lower ranks of the "nat u r a l ' h i erarchy which ordered s o c i e t y . The powerful s o c i a l connotations of the c l a s s i c a l subject for the contemporary viewer of West's C i c e r o d i d not go unremarked by John T a y l o r , a r t c r i t i c f o r the u l t r a - c o n s e r v a t i v e True B r i t o n . In his review of West's p a i n t i n g upon i t s e x h i b i t i o n at the Royal Academy, he claimed that the connoisseur and amateur landscape a r t i s t S i r George Beaumont had suggested the theme, adding that i t was " s u i t a b l e to the t a s t e and i n t e l l i g e n c e of that Gentleman." 1 3 Whether or not Beaumont a c t u a l l y was res p o n s i b l e f o r the subject, he e v i d e n t l y was pleased with the f i n a l production. The landscape a r t i s t and d i a r i s t Joseph Farington recorded that Beaumont dec l a r e d West's landscape to be be t t e r than a Poussin, n o t i n g that " f o r grandeur and v a r i e t y , and 1 1 Bridget H i l l , Eighteenth Century Women: An Anthology (London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1987), p. 45; Davidoff and H a l l , pp. 289-93. 1 2 [ J o h n T a y l o r ] , "Royal Academy," True B r i t o n . 6 May 1797. 27 entertainment i t i s r e m a r k a b l e . " 1 3 Such a response i s not s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e the formal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the composition were geared to the t a s t e of a p a t r i c i a n of Beaumont's rank and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . Only such a c u l t i v a t e d i n d i v i d u a l would have been able to i d e n t i f y and thus a p p r e c i a t e West's compositional a l l u s i o n s to Wilson, and beyond him to Claude and Poussin, the seventeenth-century masters so revered i n academic t r a d i t i o n and so h i g h l y p r i z e d i n the sales room. 1 4 John B a r r e l l c o n v i n c i n g l y argues that beyond the c u l t u r a l p r e s t i g e a c c r u i n g to a work such as West's C i c e r o . with i t s c l a s s i c a l theme and r e l i a n c e on o l d master models, the very use of a g e n e r a l i z e d compositional syntax s i g n i f i e d mental c a p a c i t i e s reserved f o r male members of the educated e l i t e . 1 = 5 1 3 J o s e p h Farington, The Diary of Joseph Farington. eds. Kenneth G a r l i c k , Angus Nacintyre, and Kathryn Cave (New Haven and London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1978-1984), 9 A p r i l 1797. Note: i n t h i s and subsequent references to the Farington Diary. the date of the entry, r a t h e r than the page and volume number w i l l be c i t e d . ^ C l a u d e ' s landscapes were f e t c h i n g p r i c e s as high or higher than h i s t o r i c a l or r e l i g i o u s pieces by the I t a l i a n masters during the Napoleonic p e r i o d ; Poussin's p a i n t i n g s , although not as h i g h l y valued, were commanding respectable sums of w e l l over one thousand guineas. See Gerald R e i t l i n g e r , The Economics of Taste: The Rise and F a l l of P i c t u r e P r i c e s 1760-1960 (London: B a r r i e and R o c k l e t t , 1961), pp. 275 and 414-5. 1 = John B a r r e l l , "The P u b l i c Prospect and the P r i v a t e View: The P o l i t i c s of Taste i n Eighteenth-Century B r i t a i n , " i n Reading Landscape: C o u n t r y - C i t y - C a p i t a l , ed. Simon Pugh (Manchester: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1990), pp. 19-20. This argument i s even more f u l l y elaborated with respect to the academic discourse of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g i n B a r r e l l , The P o l i t i c a l Theory of P a i n t i n g from Reynolds to H a z l i t t . 28 Only such gentlemen were presumed to have the knowledge and i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y to recognize that the C i c e r o was the p i c t o r i a l end-product of a process of a b s t r a c t i o n and s y n t h e s i s . Within such a s i g n i f y i n g system, a p i c t o r i a l element such as a t r e e or c l a s s i c a l temple was taken to represent the e s s e n t i a l and u n i v e r s a l q u a l i t i e s inherent i n a l l trees and t e m p l e s — q u a l i t i e s which the a r t i s t has learned to recognize and to d e p i c t from the study of past a r t and nature. These d i v e r s e elements were then harmoniously i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a u n i f i e d and i d e a l i z e d w h o l e . 1 & In comprehending such a landscape then, the knowing viewer demonstrated h i s c a p a c i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h the general from the d i v e r s i t y of the p a r t i c u l a r . B a r r e l l argues that t h i s a b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e s i g n i f i e d not only a e s t h e t i c acumen, but p o l i t i c a l c a p a city as w e l l . B a r r e l l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s " p o l i t i c a l theory of p a i n t i n g , " as he c a l l s i t , derives from the h i g h l y p r o v o c a t i v e t h e s i s developed by the a n t i - M a r x i s t p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r i a n J . G. A. Pocock, who a s s e r t s that a c i v i c humanist or r e p u b l i c a n d i s c o u r s e was a major i n t e l l e c t u a l and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e i n eighteenth-century England. 1' 7 This was a discourse which, according to 1 A T h i s i s a condensed summary of the theory of c e n t r a l forms which was the centrepiece of Joshua Reynolds' program of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g . See h i s Discourses on A r t , ed. Robert Wark (New Haven and London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959), e s p e c i a l l y Discourse I I I . A l l f u r t h e r references are to t h i s e d i t i o n . Later i n t h i s chapter Reynolds' theory of academic p r a c t i c e w i l l be f u r t h e r discussed i n r e l a t i o n to the w r i t i n g s of landscape a r t i s t , Edward Dayes. '•''Pocock, The M a c h i a v e l l i a n Moment, esp. pp. 462-505. 29 Pocock, i d e n t i f i e d landed ownership as a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r p u b l i c v i r t u e and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n : an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v i r t u e and independence were understood to be most f i r m l y secured by ownership of landed property, since t h i s allowed him to have as few contingent r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other men as p o s s i b l e . Such an economically independent subject was best s u i t e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p u b l i c ( i . e., p o l i t i c a l ) domain, s i n c e h i s freedom from the c o r r u p t i n g power of p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t permitted him to "take the la r g e view' and act on be h a l f of the general i n t e r e s t s of the whole s o c i e t y . 1 6 3 In drawing a connection between t h i s p o l i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e and c e r t a i n a r t i s t i c discourses and p r a c t i c e s , such as the production of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g s and i d e a l i z e d panoramic landscapes, B a r r e l l i d e n t i f i e s a common l i n k i n the a b i l i t y to a b s t r a c t the general from the p a r t i c u l a r . That i s , the p o l i t i c a l c a p a c i t y to d i s c e r n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t from a nexus of p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s was demonstrated on the a e s t h e t i c l e v e l by a t a s t e f o r representations l i k e the C i c e r o . which were produced by observing and comparing a wide range of human characters and n a t u r a l phenomena i n order to a r r i v e at a general synthesis . 1 < = ? Although he does consider the enhancement of status that accrues to the a r t i s t i c subject i n producing a l i b e r a l a r t which re q u i r e s elevated i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s , B a r r e l l ' s a n a l y s i s focusses i ePocock, The M a c h i a v e l l i a n Moment, p. 463. 1 " ' B a r r e l l , "The P u b l i c Prospect," p. 15ff. 30 l a r g e l y on the c o n s t r u c t i o n through v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the viewer, s i n g l y and as a community of viewers, that i s , a p u b l i c . Through t h e i r a b i l i t y to m o b i l i z e t h e i r s o c i a l knowledge (the a b i l i t y to a b s t r a c t the general from the p a r t i c u l a r ) i n viewing and enjoying the most ele v a t e d forms of p a i n t i n g , viewers are able to recognize t h e i r common character, and t h e r e f o r e the common good i s made v i s i b l e to them. f f i o 3°Barrell, The P o l i t i c a l Theory of P a i n t i n g , p. 63. C r i t i c s such as Cesare V a s o l i charge Pocock with transforming c i v i c humanism i n t o a m e t a h i s t o r i c a l category inadequate to d e s c r i b e the h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c ways i n which i n d i v i d u a l s p o s i t i o n s themselves with respect to commercial s o c i e t y [Cesare V a s o l i , "The M a c h i a v e l l i a n Moment: A Grand I d e o l o g i c a l Synthesis," Journal of Modern H i s t o r y 49:4 (December 1977), pp. 661-2]. B a r r e l l has f a i l e d to acknowledge t h i s and other c r i t i q u e s of Pocock's work, and t h e r e f o r e h i s own a n a l y s i s i s open to the same charge of a h i s t o r i c i t y as Pocock's. At issue i n both Pocock's and B a r r e l l ' s account i s how p e r v a s i v e c i v i c humanist d i s c o u r s e was. E s p e c i a l l y i n h i s l a t e r w r i t i n g s Pocock i s c a r e f u l to i d e n t i f y c i v i c humanism as an o p p o s i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e , which combined notions of v i r t u e , autonomy and landed ownership with a h i s t o r i c a l appeal to the r i g h t s guaranteed under the Ancient C o n s t i t u t i o n (whose o r i g i n s were l o c a t e d i n "time immemorial," or v a r i o u s l y , consigned to the vagaries of a g o t h i c , u s u a l l y Saxon, past)[Pocock, V i r t u e . Commerce and H i s t o r y (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1985), pp. 95-7], These arguments and appeals were then deployed as a means of c r i t i q u i n g a corrupt Court pa r t y composed of men ( i n c l u d i n g landowners) whose incomes were derived i n part from government pensions, sinecures, loans, and f i n a n c i a l s p e c u l a t i o n s . By the e a r l y 1800s a n t i - m i n i s t e r i a l advocates f o r Parliamentary reform would, upon occasion, invoke notions of r e p u b l i c a n v i r t u e and the Ancient C o n s t i t u t i o n i n t h e i r campaign against governmental c o r r u p t i o n . But i t i s necessary to d i s t i n g u i s h between c i v i c humanism as an o p p o s i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n , and a much broader endorsement of landed ownership. As i n d i c a t e d i n the Introduction, a s s e r t i n g that landed p r o p r i e t o r s were the n a t u r a l claimants to p u b l i c v i r t u e and p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y was not the e x c l u s i v e property of Tory r a d i c a l s , Old Whigs, and other p o l i t i c a l d i s s i d e n t s . This c l a i m was a l s o ensconced i n law and upheld wi t h i n the bastions of the dominant court party, however "corrupted' by abstract forms of c a p i t a l . To connect an academic theory of p a i n t i n g based upon i d e a l or general forms to an o p p o s i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l d iscourse, deployed only by c e r t a i n 31 While the immediate viewing community f o r p u b l i c a r t might be considered as that c o n s t i t u t e d w i t h i n the confines of the n a t i o n a l , t h e o r i e s of academic p r a c t i c e encouraged a r t i s t s to paint f o r a supra-national community of knowing viewers who could i d e n t i f y u n i v e r s a l i d e a l s i n the g e n e r a l i z e d forms which are represented on c a n v a s , 2 1 Hence Joshua Reynolds recommended that h i s t o r y p a i n t e r s s e l e c t subjects from the s c r i p t u r e s and c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and h i s t o r y s i n c e they were " f a m i l i a r and i n t e r e s t i n g to a l l Europe, without being degraded by the vulgarism of ordinary l i f e i n any c o u n t r y . " 2 2 This formulation of a u n i v e r s a l i s t a e s t h e t i c i d e a l accords w e l l with the eighteenth-century phenomenon of cosmopolitanism which d i s t i n g u i s h e d B r i t i s h and c o n t i n e n t a l e l i t e s from the lower orders of s o c i e t y . 3 5 3 While the lower ranks lacked the wealth, education and l e i s u r e to broaden t h e i r focus beyond l o c a l concerns, the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s i n B r i t a i n had access to landowning i n t e r e s t s against other landowners who were a l l i e d with finance c a p i t a l , i s to take too narrow a view of the fu n c t i o n and appeal of academic d i s c o u r s e . Rather, the power and appeal of that a r t i s t i c d iscourse lay i n i t s c o m p a t i b i l i t y with t h i s much more widely r e c e i v e d notion of p u b l i c governance based upon landowners' c a p a c i t y to d i s c e r n the general i n t e r e s t s of s o c i e t y . K 1 B a r r e l l b r i e f l y discusses t h i s p o i n t with reference to Shaftesbury ( B a r r e l l , P o l i t i c a l Theory of P a i n t i n g , p. 6). ^ R e y n o l d s , Discourse IV, p. 58. = ; 3 G e r a l d Newman has considered the is s u e of cosmopolitanism at some length i n The Rise of E n g l i s h Nationalism. A C u l t u r a l History 1740-1830 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987), see e s p e c i a l l y pp. 1-47. 32 c o n t i n e n t a l c u l t u r e and shared common i n t e r e s t s ( p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as s o c i a l ) with the r u l i n g e l i t e s of other European s t a t e s . The notion of cosmopolitanism, then, was an important f e a t u r e of an e l i t e i d e n t i t y secured by c u l t i v a t i o n and refinement as w e l l as v i r t u e and independence. That such an i d e n t i t y c ould represent the a n t i t h e s i s of a n a t i o n a l subject i s suggested i n t h i s breezy c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the B r i t i s h gentleman which appeared i n the s h o r t - l i v e d f a s h i o n a b l e weekly, the Lounger. i n 1786: A well-educated B r i t i s h gentleman i s of no country whatever, he unites i n himself the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l f o r e i g n nations; he t a l k s and dresses i n French, and sings i n I t a l i a n ; he r i v a l s the Spanish i n indolence, and the Germans i n d r i n k i n g ; h i s house i s Grecian and his o f f i c e s Gothic; and h i s f u r n i t u r e Chinese Such an o v e r t l y a n t i - n a t i o n a l i s t i c formulation of the B r i t i s h gentleman became i n c r e a s i n g l y r a r e a f t e r the French Revolution and the entry of B r i t a i n i n t o war with France i n 1793. A f t e r t h i s time the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s and t h e i r advocates i n c r e a s i n g l y emphasized t h e i r t i e s with the lower orders of t h e i r own n a t i o n and proclaimed the b e n e f i t s which t h e i r broad knowledge and experience could b r i n g to the n a t i o n a l community. 2 1 3 a 4 T h e Lounger. 1786, quoted i n R. J . White, The Age of George II I (New York; Walker, 1968), p. 179. 2 = S e e Chapter IV f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s issue i n connection with the events of the immediate post-war p e r i o d , 1815-1820. 33 The Lounger' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the cosmopolitan r e s t r i c t s i t s focus to males only. As such i t accords with the type of viewing subject produced by a p a i n t i n g such as Vest's Cicero and by academic theory g e n e r a l l y . By the 1790s the existence of c l a s s and gender s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s was accepted as a matter of "common sense' throughout the e n t i r e spectrum of the commercial, f i n a n c i a l and landed e l i t e . Thus, the bourgeois l i b e r a l j o u r n a l i s t Leigh Hunt, w r i t i n g i n 1815, regarded "men as possessing the more a c t i v e and powerful i n t e l l e c t s , and women the more general t a s t e and amiableness...We think, however, that t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s confin e d to the su p e r i o r c l a s s e s ; and that the common stock of men and women are p r e t t y nearly the same," 2* Hunt's views on the mental c a p a c i t i e s of women were shared by the e v a n g e l i c a l and p o l i t i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e w r i t e r Hannah More who d e c l a r e d i n 1799 that Both i n composition and a c t i o n they [women] excel i n d e t a i l s ; but they do not so much g e n e r a l i z e t h e i r ideas as men, nor do t h e i r minds se i z e a great subject with so l a r g e a grasp...A woman sees the world, as i t were, from a l i t t l e e l e v a t i o n i n her own garden, where she makes an exact survey of home scenes, but takes not i n that wider range of d i s t a n t prospects which he who stands on a l o f t i e r eminence commands, 2 7 [Leigh Hunt], "The Round Table, #8," Examiner. 19 February 1815, p. 123. Hunt continued by d e c l a r i n g that great numbers of men i n trade and business have no ideas whatsoever unconnected to money-making. Hunt's a r t i c l e was w r i t t e n i n defense (!) of women's i n t e l l e c t u a l powers as a response to a previous "Round Table" essay by William H a z l i t t i n which that w r i t e r claimed women had no a b i l i t y to t h i n k at a l l . 2 7Hannah More, S t r i c t u r e s on the Modern System of Female Education (1799), quoted i n H i l l , p. 51. 34 Within the e p i s t e m o i o g i c a l paradigms of both the l i b e r a l Hunt and the c o n s e r v a t i v e Nore, West's prospect of ancient S i c i l y , populated with i d e a l i z e d human f i g u r e s and c l a s s i c a l r u i n s , would have been considered f a r beyond the reach of the uneducated multitudes and women, confin e d as they were to the narrow spheres of t h e i r p r i v a t e and domestic i n t e r e s t s . It must be remembered, however, that these contemporary notions of what c o n s t i t u t e d p r i v a t e and l o c a l i n t e r e s t versus u n i v e r s a l and p u b l i c " d i s i n t e r e s t e d n e s s " were profoundly i d e o l o g i c a l . The f a c t that a gentleman possessed l a r g e amounts of property, landed or otherwise, years of c l a s s i c a l education, and cosmopolitan t a s t e s was no guarantee of h i s p l a c i n g p u b l i c before p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s . Beaumont, to whom West gave an o i l sketch of the C i c e r o . had, i t i s t r u e , been u n i n t e r e s t e d i n overseeing the management of h i s own estate; but t h i s neglect was turned to the temporary advantage of h i s estate manager, who was l a t e r found g u i l t y of "scandalous impos i t i on . 1 1 : 2 3 Beaumont regained h i s i n t e r e s t i n such a f f a i r s i n 1795 when h i s c o l l i e r s r i o t e d and he helped finance t h e i r p r o s e c u t i o n . This a s s e r t i o n of c o n t r o l over h i s domestic labour f o r c e was c o n s i s t e n t with h i s supposedly p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d a c t i o n s as Tory M. P. from 1790-6. During t h i s p e r i o d he c o n s i s t e n t l y supported r e p r e s s i v e 2 e F o r Beaumont's a c q u i s i t i o n of West's o i l sketch (unlocated) see Farington, Diary. 25 June 1796. On the management of h i s estate see F e l i c i t y Owen and David Blayney Brown, C o l l e c t o r of Genius. A L i f e of S i r George Beaumont. (New Haven and London: Paul Mellon Centre, 1988), p. 93. 35 l e g i s l a t i o n such as the S e d i t i o u s Meetings B i l l , designed to quash any democratic sentiments among the middle and lower c l a s s e s .=2<5' The f u n c t i o n of a h i g h l y e r u d i t e c l a s s i c i z e d p i c t u r e such as the Cic ero. then, can be s a i d to render i n v i s i b l e such p r i v a t e d e s i r e s and i n t e r e s t s of the knowing subject of the p a i n t i n g ( i . e . , a viewer such as Beaumont). 3° In a d d i t i o n to being the most i n f l u e n t i a l connoisseur of h i s day, Beaumont was a l s o a well-known amateur who e x h i b i t e d at the Royal Academy i n the mid-1790s and e a r l y 1800s. Amateurs, a term which at t h i s time was a p p l i e d to those members of the e l i t e who devoted part of t h e i r l e i s u r e to a serious study of the a r t s or sciences, f r e q u e n t l y e x h i b i t e d at the Academy. Rarely, however, d i d an amateur a t t a i n the prominence of Beaumont, who was regarded by many a r t c r i t i c s , members of the n o b i l i t y and academicians as among the two or three l e a d i n g landscape p a i n t e r s 2 9Owen and Brown, pp. 93 and 84-87. 3°Works such as West's C i c e r o . which confirmed the supe r i o r status of those forms of knowledge, c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s and p o l i t i c a l values a s s o c i a t e d with p a t r i c i a n s o c i e t y , could serve i n t e r e s t s other than those of c u l t i v a t e d landowners such as Beaumont. The purchaser of West's p a i n t i n g , Henry Hope, was not of Beaumont's c l a s s or n a t i o n a l i t y , but*a wealthy Dutch merchant who f l e d Holland when the French invaded that country i n 1794. He emigrated to England where he r e t i r e d from business and devoted p a r t of h i s time to c o l l e c t i n g p a i n t i n g s (he owned at l e a s t f i v e of West's) and c l a s s i c a l a r t i f a c t s (von E r f f a and Staley, p. 520). Neither a l i b e r a l education nor an appointment to p u b l i c o f f i c e was r e q u i r e d i n order f o r wealthy merchants such as Hope to appreciate the s o c i a l p r e s t i g e a s s o c i a t e d with the ownership of antique a r t , o l d master p a i n t i n g s , and contemporary h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g s . 36 of the 1795-1800 p e r i o d . 3 1 Few of the works which Beaumont e x h i b i t e d at t h i s time have been l o c a t e d ; but from what has been i d e n t i f i e d , i t would seem that he, l i k e many of h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l counterparts, produced works which were patterned, more or l e s s f r e e l y , a f t e r o l d master compositions. A case i n po i n t i s The Forest. (R. A. 1800?, Figure 2). F e l i c i t y Owen and David Brown have de s c r i b e d The Forest as a "competent essay i n the fashionable Dutch picturesque manner," but the d i s p o s i t i o n of the t r e e s , both on the l e f t and i n the centre, the massing of forms i n the foreground and the placement of the v i s t a through the trees i n the l e f t centre suggests a c l o s e and c a r e f u l modelling a f t e r the composition of a Claude which Beaumont had purchased i n 1787, the Landscape with Goatherd and Goats . 3 S That such an a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e , which conformed so completely to t r a d i t i o n a l models, a f f i r m e d Beaumont's possession of p u b l i c v i r t u e i s suggested i n reviews of h i s e x h i b i t e d work from the 1790s. John Ta y l o r , the conservative a r t c r i t i c who i n 1797 had p r a i s e d Beaumont's t a s t e i n suggesting to West the subject f o r the Cic ero. a l s o had warm words that same year f o r one of the amateur's own landscapes (R, A., #163, unlocated): 3 1 Owen and Brown, pp. 80-81 and 95. Among those most frequently c i t e d i n press reviews as the lead i n g landscape p a i n t e r s were Fr a n c i s Bourgeois, and P h i l i p p e de Loutherbourg, with Turner and G i r t i n mentioned frequently as the most promising among the younger a r t i s t s . 3 : 2Owen and Brown, p. 148. Claude's landscape i s now i n the National G a l l e r y , London; i t i s reproduced i n Owen and Brown as Figure 27. 37 There i s higher f e e l i n g than mere g r a t i f i c a t i o n of the eye, i n l o o k i n g at the productions of t h i s Gentleman...for we see GENIUS i n possession of rank and a f f l u e n c e , yet f o l l o w i n g the bent of t a s t e and s e n s i b i l i t y ... There i s nothing g l a r i n g and gaudy, but on the contrary a l l i s t r u t h , s i m p l i c i t y and n a t u r e . 3 3 In a formulation which we w i l l encounter more than once i n the course of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the possession of c r e a t i v e power (genius) and s o c i a l power (rank and a f f l u e n c e ) are presented as c o n d i t i o n s to be admired, but a l s o to be monitored and c o n t r o l l e d . Beaumont's w i l l i n g n e s s to model h i s own production a f t e r the themes, composition, and subdued c o l o u r i n g of the o l d masters i s seen by Taylor as a sign of the amateur's w i l l i n g n e s s to submit to the l e g i s l a t i v e f o r c e of t r a d i t i o n and s o c i a l f e e l i n g . Genius at t h i s h i s t o r i c a l moment connoted a d i v i n e or n a t u r a l l y endowed c r e a t i v e f o r c e which operated outside of e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e s and convention. 3"* T a y l o r ' s remarks suggest that when such genius was combined with the possession of wealth and elevated rank, the p o t e n t i a l to defy or ignore e s t a b l i s h e d 3 3 [ J o h n T a y l o r ] , "Royal Academy," True B r i t o n . 4 May 1797. 3 4 T h e c o n t r o l and management of t h i s naturally-endowed c r e a t i v i t y that c h a r a c t e r i z e s genius i s a c e n t r a l concern of Joshua Reynolds' Discourses. Reynolds sought to b r i n g t h i s unruly power "to law" through the program of study promoted at the Royal Academy (see e s p e c i a l l y Discourses VI and XI). Although, as Robert Uphaus argues, Reynolds attempted to r e d e f i n e and p a c i f y the concept of genius, most of h i s account of academic theory i s d i r e c t e d to the task of c o n t r o l and management. For Uphaus' d i s c u s s i o n of the Discourses. see "The Ideology of Reynolds' Discourses on A r t . " Eighteenth Century Studies 21:1 ( F a l l 1978), pp. 59-73. 38 r u l e s ( s o c i a l or a r t i s t i c ) was increased. Hence he commends Beaumont f o r r e s i s t i n g the temptation to deploy the power which wealth and c r e a t i v i t y can b r i n g f o r the purposes of personal aggrandizement through " g l a r i n g and gaudy" s e l f - d i s p l a y . Within t h i s context the terms " t r u t h , s i m p l i c i t y and nature," serve to do more than n a t u r a l i z e a complex and h i g h l y a l l u s i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e x t e r n a l world; what i s a l s o being s i g n i f i e d i s a v i r t u o u s and p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d s o c i a l subject, whose i d e n t i t y i s confirmed by h i s r e s p o n s i b l e , c o n t r o l l e d ex e r c i s e of power. The need f o r s e l f - c o n t r o l i n the e x e r c i s e of power and p r i v i l e g e was a recurrent theme i n c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y B r i t a i n . Despite t h e i r economic and p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , the b o u r g e o i s i e , landed gentry and the f i n a n c i a l e l i t e d i s c o v e r e d a common purpose i n securing t h e i r property and a u t h o r i t y against any attempt by the multitude to f o l l o w the lead of what were perce i v e d as t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n a r y counterparts i n France. In such a climate p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n r a r e l y found expression through a r a d i c a l c r i t i q u e of the unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of property and p o l i t i c a l power. 3' 3 Rather, the attack took the much more 3 = 5Those r a d i c a l s who d i d continue to advocate such o v e r t l y democratic opinions found themselves subject to prosecution and imprisonment. For example, between 1795 and 1812 Daniel Eaton was prosecuted seven times, imprisoned f i f t e e n months, and outlawed f o r three years (for the p e r i o d when he f l e d to the United States) because of h i s a c t i v i t i e s as a p u b l i s h e r of Paine's Age of Reason and other r a d i c a l t r a c t s [Edward P. Thompson, The Making of the E n g l i s h Working Class, rev. ed. (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1980), p. 105]. 39 moderate form of appeals or demands that the dominant e l i t e govern wisely and set a good moral example as the " n a t u r a l ' leaders of the s o c i e t y . Within the parameters of such a c r i t i q u e , condemning the excesses of the wealthy and powerful was not a c a l l f o r a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e , but f o r a recommitment to the i d e a l s which were seen to u n d e r l i e the e x i s t i n g arrangements. As a r e s u l t there was a broad consensus among d i v e r s e c l a s s e s and i n t e r e s t s ( f i n a n c i a l , commercial, landed, and i n d u s t r i a l ) that the n a t i o n a l welfare r e q u i r e d a moral, p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d r u l i n g e l i t e . The major p o i n t of contention was whether the e x i s t i n g e l i t e was the embodiment of t h i s i d e a l or l i v i n g proof of i t s c o r r u p t i o n . In e i t h e r case, during the 1790s men such as the Tory landowner Beaumont could be held up as a model of the modest, c i t i z e n - s c h o l a r by conservatives such as Taylor as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l l i b e r a l s such as the acerbic a r t c r i t i c Anthony Pasquin . 3 < & In a review of the landscapes Beaumont e x h i b i t e d at 3 < s >The l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l sympathies of Anthony Pasquin (the pseudonym for John Williams) were apparent i n the art reviews which he p u b l i s h e d i n pamphlet form and i n newspapers such as the Morning- Post i n the 1790s. See Shelley Bennett, "Anthony Pasquin and the Function of Art Journalism i n Late Eighteenth-Century England," B r i t i s h Journal f o r Eighteenth Century Studies 8:2 (1985), pp. 197-207. His reviews f r e q u e n t l y contained vehement attacks on a r t i s t s whom he d i s l i k e d f o r personal or p o l i t i c a l reasons. Thus both West's person and h i s a r t were strongly c r i t i c i z e d by Pasquin i n 1794, l a r g e l y because of h i s c l o s e t i e s with the court of George I I I . Pasquin became the object of a Tory counter-attack i n the pages of the r e a c t i o n a r y and xenophobic A n t i - J a c o b i n . In 1797 Pasquin l o s t a l i b e l s u i t which he brought against the paper's e d i t o r , William G i f f o r d ; i t was l a t e r revealed that the Tory government had p a i d part of 40 the R. A. i n 1794 Pasquin i n t e r j e c t e d a paean to the amateur which served as an attack on the c o r r u p t i o n of the l e i s u r e d c l a s s e s : I congratulate s o c i e t y upon these testimonies of laudable endeavour [ i . e., Beaumont's p a i n t i n g s ] , which prove, that amidst the ocean of contamination, which s u l l i e s and wrecks so many of our f l i m s y s p r i g s of d i s t i n c t i o n , a few of both sexes are d i s c o v e r a b l e , who have the hardihood to p r e f e r the c o n s o l a t i o n s a r i s i n g from i n v i g o r a t i n g study, to the succeeding abominations of what i s termed a l i f e of f a s h i o n . 3 7 This t e x t , which invokes images of n a t u r a l growth and decay i n i t s choice of language, demonstrates how the amateur p u r s u i t of landscape p a i n t i n g could be deployed i n a c r i t i q u e of the c o r r u p t i o n of the p r o p e r t i e d e l i t e . Within the terms of such a discourse, a p r a c t i c e such as Beaumont's was construed not as a fashionable l e i s u r e pastime, but as a r i g o r o u s a c t i v i t y , morally and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y superior to the easy, 'contaminating' pleasures of fashionable l i f e . In Chapter II I w i l l examine more c l o s e l y the fear surrounding the debasement of the i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t e d w i t h i n a s o c i a l sphere which was i n c r e a s i n g l y i d e n t i f i e d with the p r i v a t e p u r s u i t of sensuous pleasures and the possession of c u l t u r a l commodities which were seen to feed those sensuous d e s i r e s . Pasquin's paean to Beaumont i s an attack on G i f f o r d ' s l e g a l expenses (Bennett, p. 204). 3 7Anthony Pasquin (John W i l l i a m s ) , Memoirs of the Royal Academicians and A L i b e r a l C r i t i q u e of the E x h i b i t i o n f o r 1794) (London: H. D, Symonds, 1796), p. 23. 41 that c o n s t r u c t i o n of a debased p u b l i c sphere, analogous to that of Pocock's c i v i c humanist who attacks the c o r r u p t i o n of commercial s o c i e t y by an appeal to an e t h i c a l and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l a u t h o r i t y grounded i n the ownership of land. The a r t i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y ' S i r George Beaumont' which was p u b l i c l y constructed i n such w r i t i n g s occupied at one and the same time two subject p o s i t i o n s which were c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d : that of knowing viewer (connoisseur) and amateur p r o d u c e r — p o s i t i o n s s o c i a l l y s u p e r i o r to the a r t i s a n status t r a d i t i o n a l l y held by p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s i n the eighteenth century. A primary f u n c t i o n of the Royal Academy i n i t s promotion of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g as a l i b e r a l p r a c t i c e was to elevate the p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t beyond t h i s a r t i s a n a l p o s i t i o n . 3 3 Such a p r o j e c t i s evident i n the advice which Reynolds gave to students i n h i s Seventh Discourse where he encouraged them to seek out the company of "learned and ingenious men:" • 3 8 T h i s p r o j e c t of e l e v a t i n g a r t i s t s to the status of learned gentlemen was not unique to the E n g l i s h Academy, but was taken up by I t a l i a n w r i t e r s i n the l a t e s i x t e e n t h century. See Rensselaer Lee's c l a s s i c study, Ut P i c t u r a Poesis. The Humanistic Theory of P a i n t i n g (New York: Norton, 1967), pp. 41ff. 42 There are many such men i n t h i s age; and they w i l l be pleased with communicating t h e i r ideas to a r t i s t s , when they see them curious and d o c i l e , i f they are t r e a t e d with that respect and deference which i s so j u s t l y t h e i r due. Into such s o c i e t y , young a r t i s t s , i f they make i t the point of t h e i r ambition, w i l l by degrees be admitted. . . "3<*> The academic h i s t o r y p a i n t e r , then, was an a r t i s t who through h i s p r a c t i c e and d o c i l e submission to the a u t h o r i t y of h i s s o c i a l s u p e r i o r s , a s p i r e d to the status of the l i b e r a l l y educated gent 1eman. It i s important to note, however, that the converse of t h i s statement was not true--the gentleman d i d not, i n h i s study and p r a c t i c e of p a i n t i n g , a s p i r e to produce h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g s . The e x h i b i t i n g h i s t o r y of p a i n t e r - t u r n e d - a r i s t o c r a t Nathaniel Dance i s extremely r e v e a l i n g i n t h i s regard. The a r t i s t e x h i b i t e d h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g s at the Society of A r t i s t s i n the 1760s and at the Royal Academy the year of i t s f i r s t e x h i b i t i o n , 1769. During the next two decades he e x h i b i t e d p r i m a r i l y p o r t r a i t s and the occasional h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g . In 1790 Dance resigned h i s membership i n the Royal Academy upon h i s marriage to the wealthy widow, H a r r i e t Dummer. He took the name of Holland, became a parliamentary r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r East Grinstead, and assumed a baronetcy i n 1 8 0 0 . B e t w e e n 1790 and 1800 he continued 3 < 3 >Reynolds, Discourse VII, p. 118. ^ " D i c t i o n a r y of National Biography, eds. L e s l i e Stephen and Sidney Lee, s. v. Holland-Dance, Nathaniel. 43 o c c a s i o n a l l y to e x h i b i t at the R. A. as an honorary e x h i b i t o r , but from t h i s time f o r t h he e x h i b i t e d only landscapes. The c u l t i v a t e d man of property might choose to advise h i s t o r y p a i n t e r s on a choice of theme, as Beaumont e v i d e n t l y d i d i n the case of Vest's Cic er o but he d i d not execute h i s t o r y paintings."* 1 Instead, landscape p a i n t i n g (and even more so landscape drawing) was the genre i d e n t i f i e d with the learned and l e i s u r e d man of property While landscape p a i n t i n g as an amateur a c t i v i t y may have confirmed the superior s o c i a l status of the p r o p e r t i e d gentleman i n the waning years of the eighteenth century, landscape p a i n t i n g d i d not s i m i l a r l y enhance the status of the p r o f e s s i o n a l p a i n t e r . During these years the production of topographical landscapes remained one of the most common and al s o one of the l o w l i e s t forms of a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e . One such topographical a r t i s t was Edward Dayes, whose w r i t i n g s and ar t s i g n a l an acute, even p a i n f u l awareness of the d i s j u n c t i o n which e x i s t e d between his own p r o f e s s i o n a l status and the academic i d e a l of the h i s t o r y "*1Beaumont produced and e x h i b i t e d landscape p a i n t i n g s with sublime or p o e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , such as the Peel Caste i n a Storm (ex. R. A. 1806, reproduced as f i g . 64 i n Owen and Brown), but he attempted ne i t h e r h i s t o r y nor h i s t o r i c a l landscape p a i n t i n g s of the type West and Turner were p a i n t i n g . ^ F u r t h e r study i s needed of amateur landscape p a i n t i n g and drawing as p r a c t i c e s which s i g n i f i e s g e n t i l i t y and e r u d i t i o n . 44 p a i n t e r . Remembered c h i e f l y f o r some derogatory comments p u b l i s h e d i n 1805 about h i s l a t e p u p i l , Thomas G i r t i n , and l e s s so f o r the topographical watercolours and h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g s he produced from the 1790s u n t i l h i s death i n 1804, Dayes a l s o wrote ten essays on the a r t of p a i n t i n g and drawing. The essays have been v i r t u a l l y neglected i n a r t h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p , probably because of t h e i r s i n g u l a r l a c k of o r i g i n a l i t y . 4 4 It i s t h i s very f a c t , however, that commends them to our a t t e n t i o n . For these essays r e s t a t e and a f f i r m , with a few important m o d i f i c a t i o n s , the p r i n c i p l e s of academic p r a c t i c e set down i n t h e i r most a u t h o r i t a t i v e form by Joshua Reynolds a quarter of a century e a r l i e r . 4 5 3 I would argue that i n h i s restatement of the r u l e s of 4 3 T h e a c t u a l p r a c t i c e of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g i n the e a r l y 1800s was as problematic as that of topography. The l a t t e r was much i n demand but provided l i t t l e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s , while the former produced few commissions, but conferred p r o f e s s i o n a l esteem on the few men who a c t u a l l y made a l i v i n g at i t . Even Benjamin West, President of the Royal Academy and H i s t o r y P a i n t e r to the King, turned to the production of landscapes and "fancy" subjects ( i n c l u d i n g c l o y i n g r epresentations of bacchantes and cupids) i n order to d i v e r s i f y a once s u c c e s s f u l , but, a f t e r 1800, d e c l i n i n g career. For examples of West's p a i n t i n g s of bacchantes and cupids see catalogue nos. 125-136 i n von E r f f a and Staley. 4 4 N i n e of h i s essays were pu b l i s h e d i n the P h i l o s o p h i c a l Magazine from January 1801 to March 1803; they were then c o l l e c t e d a f t e r Dayes' death i n May 1804 and p u b l i s h e d i n 1805 along with the tenth essay on c o l o u r i n g landscapes, a s e r i e s of b r i e f biographies of B r i t i s h a r t i s t s , and a tour of Derbyshire and Yorkshire. 4 S R e y n o l d s ' Discourses are the p r i n c i p a l eighteenth-century texts d e a l i n g with academic p r a c t i c e to be c i t e d here because Dayes, l i k e many of h i s contemporaries, considered them the most a u t h o r i t a t i v e . This i s not to suggest, however, that Reynolds' 45 academic p r a c t i c e , Dayes, l i k e Reynolds, was c h i e f l y concerned with advancing h i s own status as a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t — a status j e o p a r d i z e d by contemporary p r a c t i c e s i n landscape p a i n t i n g as w e l l as by the c o n t i n u i n g l a c k of patronage f o r h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g . Like so many of h i s f e l l o w a r t i s t s , Dayes' advancement was hampered by a f a m i l i a r c i r c u m s t a n c e — a n i n a b i l i t y to a t t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l success as a h i s t o r y p a i n t e r . The a r t i s t e x h i b i t e d over a dozen h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g s , p r i m a r i l y s c r i p t u r a l s u b j e c t s , at the Royal Academy i n the years between 1798 and 1801.-*^ My survey of p e r i o d i c a l reviews i n d i c a t e s that these works r e c e i v e d almost no c r i t i c a l n o t i c e . 4 7 His essays might arguably be seen as an attempt to r e a s s e r t the p r i n c i p l e s of an academic p r a c t i c e which he was unable to enact s u c c e s s f u l l y i n h i s own production of grand s t y l e p a i n t i n g s . Dayes' p r i n c i p a l p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y was centred upon the production of a r c h i t e c t u r a l and landscape drawings for a burgeoning trade i n topographical engravings i s s u e d i n sets or used in i l l u s t r a t e d tours, county h i s t o r i e s and the l i k e . Not notions were o r i g i n a l . As Robert Wark po i n t s out, they were l a r g e l y a synthesis and m o d i f i c a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s of seventeenth and eighteenth century B r i t i s h and French w r i t e r s (Wark, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " Discourses. p. x x i i i ) . "^Algernon Graves, The Royal Academy of Art s (London: S. R. P u b l i s h e r s , 1970; o r i g . pub. 1905), s. v. Dayes, Edward. 4 7 T h e only reference I have discovered to Dayes' h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g s was a favourable review of h i s F a l l of the Angels. R. A. 1798, i n the Whitehall Evening Post. 12-14 June 1798. 46 only was Dayes f r u s t r a t e d i n h i s attempts at h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , but he was a l s o e v i d e n t l y dismayed at the growing success of young landscape a r t i s t s such as h i s student Thomas G i r t i n , who had achieved before the age of twenty-five what Dayes had f a i l e d to gain at f o r t y — c r i t i c a l a c c l a i m and numerous commissions from the l e a d i n g members of the landed a r i s t o c r a c y and g e n t r y . 4 3 Dayes' b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch of the r e c e n t l y deceased G i r t i n i n s i n u a t e s that the a r t i s t ' s e a r l y death was caused by h i s moral d i s s i p a t i o n , p o s i t e d i n terms of the passions overpowering reason. Following these aspersions on the l a t e a r t i s t ' s morals, Dayes, u n w i l l i n g to disavow t o t a l l y the work of h i s own student, c h a r a c t e r i z e s G i r t i n ' s watercolours as " s l i g h t , " but a l s o admirable as the " o f f s p r i n g of a strong imaginat i on. " 4 < ? Thus, G i r t i n ' s strong imagination i s not-so-subtly l i n k e d to h i s passionate nature, which, u n c o n t r o l l e d , i s presented as having been incapable of producing a serious or s u b s t a n t i a l body of work. These remarks were very l i k e l y i n s p i r e d by the resentment 4 8 >Dayes' jealousy of G i r t i n i s a s s e r t e d by Richard and Samuel Redgrave i n t h e i r b i o g r a p h i c a l account of B r i t i s h p a i n t e r s , A Century of B r i t i s h P a i n t i n g (Ithaca: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981; o r i g . pub. 1866), p. 155. Despite the h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e nature of the Redgraves' biographies, t h i s account i s compatible with Dayes' publ i s h e d attack on G i r t i n ' s character. In a d d i t i o n , G i r t i n was apprenticed to Dayes, but d i d not serve out the f u l l term of h i s c o n t r a c t . Martin Hardie f i n d s no documentary evidence to support s t o r i e s c i r c u l a t i n g decades a f t e r the deaths of both a r t i s t s that Dayes had G i r t i n j a i l e d f o r breach of contract [Hardie, Water-colour P a i n t i n g i n B r i t a i n (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1967), 2:2]. Nonetheless, some s t r a i n between student and teacher may have p r e c i p i t a t e d the e a r l y termination of G i r t i n ' s a p prenticeship. ^Edward Dayes, " P r o f e s s i o n a l Sketches of Modern A r t i s t s , " i n Works. p. 329. 47 of an older a r t i s t whose student had surpassed him. What i s of i n t e r e s t here i s the manner i n which Dayes' essays on a r t a l s o served as a c r i t i q u e of the techniques and the t h e o r e t i c a l precepts informing the work of landscape a r t i s t s l i k e G i r t i n . 5 3 0 This c r i t i q u e took the form of a defense not only of academic theory, but of the product of that d i s c o u r s e — t h e v i r t u o u s , and i n Dayes' account, supremely r a t i o n a l , a r t i s t i c subject that was being challenged by a new subject, the imaginative man of genius. Although most of these essays deal with the general p r a c t i c e of p a i n t i n g , the topographer Dayes begins and ends h i s s e r i e s with d i s c u s s i o n s of landscape p a i n t i n g . Many of the same i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral, and a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s which underwrite h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g are a p p l i e d to t h i s "lower' genre. The f i r s t essay, "On the P r i n c i p l e s of Composition as Connected with Landscape P a i n t i n g " (1801) concludes by exhorting a r t i s t s to "endeavor to create a nature of our own, i f p o s s i b l e , more d i g n i f i e d and noble than the one that s t r i k e s our senses: we should f e e l an enthusiasm i n our p u r s u i t s not to be s a t i s f i e d with a p e r f e c t i o n short of divine."™'1 This i s a goal s c a r c e l y l e s s ambitious than that marked out by the most zealous advocate = 0 I am not implying that Dayes' essays were a conscious attack on G i r t i n ' s p r a c t i c e , although they may have been. At issue here i s the e l u c i d a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Dayes' formulation of the a r t i s t i c subject and that constructed i n and around newer forms of landscape p a i n t i n g . "''Dayes, "Essays on P a i n t i n g , " i n Works . p. 202. A l l future references to the "Essays" are to the v e r s i o n published i n h i s Works. 48 of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g . A c c o r d i n g l y the emphasis i s upon r e p r e s e n t i n g an i d e a l of nature that exerts a morally e l e v a t i n g i n f l u e n c e upon both the producers and viewers of l a n d s c a p e s , = 2 Dayes repeatedly cautions h i s readers that t h i s i d e a l of nature i s not to be d i s c o v e r e d and represented i n i t i a l l y by a d i r e c t encounter of the i n d i v i d u a l imagination with external nature, but by a mind, d i s c i p l i n e d by reason, conducting a long and c a r e f u l study of past a r t ."S3 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between nature as ordered by a r t and v i r t u o u s behaviour i s c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n a l a t e r essay on drawing: To have a j u s t r e l i s h f o r what i s elegant and proper i n p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , and a r c h i t e c t u r e , must be a f i n e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r true notions r e l a t i v e to character and behaviour. Should such a one be overpowered by passion, or swerve from h i s duty, we need not fear but he w i l l r e t u r n on the f i r s t r e f l e c t i o n , and with a redoubled r e s o l u t i o n not to err a second time: f o r he cannot but observe, that the well being of nature, as w e l l as of the i n d i v i d u a l , depends on r e g u l a r i t y and order; and that a d i s r e g a r d of the s o c i a l v i r t u e s w i l l ever be accompanied with shame and remorse."'3'4 In t h i s passage Dayes f o r c e f u l l y represents the underlying order -"The idea that the f u n c t i o n of p a i n t i n g was to represent p u b l i c v i r t u e v i a u n i v e r s a l and i d e a l forms, rather than the external appearances of nature, was promoted by E n g l i s h a e s t h e t i c i a n s beginning with the T h i r d E a r l of Shaftesbury e a r l y i n the eighteenth century. Reynolds r e a s s e r t e d t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n between p u b l i c v i r t u e and i d e a l beauty i n h i s Discourses. For a d i s c u s s i o n of these issues i n Shaftesbury's and Reynolds' w r i t i n g s see John B a r r e l l , The P o l i t i c a l Theory of Painting-, pp. 27-33 and 76-99. = 3Dayes, "Essays," pp. 191-2. Dayes, "Essays," pp. 258-9. 49 of nature as an a c t i v e moral power capable of b r i n g i n g the passionate i n d i v i d u a l back to h i s 'true' i d e n t i t y as a s o c i a l subject. But t h i s n a t u r a l order can only be comprehended, Dayes impl i e s , by those whose t a s t e f o r nature has been tempered and r e f i n e d through a thorough study of a r t . Although he b r i e f l y notes the u t i l i t a r i a n b e n e f i t s of drawing, both f o r amateurs and p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s , Dayes i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with demonstrating that the process of study in v o l v e d i n a c q u i r i n g mastery of drawing "improves the reasoning f a c u l t y , " "harmonizes the temper," and "regulates moral conduct , 1 1 3 3 The c u l t i v a t i o n of such moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l q u a l i t i e s i s not presented as a matter s o l e l y of p r i v a t e enrichment, but on the contrary i s seen to impinge upon the w e l l -being of the n a t i o n . For example, the gentlemen who t r a v e l s i s advised to educate himself about the a r t s so that he may e n r i c h the " n a t i o n a l stock of knowledge," upon h i s r e t u r n . Such "informed" tourism, f a r from being a p r i v a t e l e i s u r e indulgence, i s i n f a c t presented as a p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d a c t i v i t y . This essay r e a f f i r m s , then, the subject p o s i t i o n of the l i b e r a l man of l e t t e r s as embodied i n the knowing amateur. Dayes a l s o acknowledges i n p a s s i n g the p o s i t i o n of the female amateur wit h i n such a s o c i a l paradigm. In a footnote i n which he p r a i s e s the amateur p r a c t i c e of S i r George Beaumont and = D D a y e s , "Essays," p. 258. 50 S i r Richard C o l t Hoare (a W i l t s h i r e landowner and c o l l e c t o r ) , he addresses women readers f o r the f i r s t and only time i n h i s w r i t i n g s : While we are recommending to gentlemen to l e a r n to draw, i t must not be understood, that we wish to deprive the l a d i e s of the pleasure and advantage that must r e s u l t from t h e i r p r a c t i s i n g an ar t that stands, perhaps, before a l l others f o r improving our t a s t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n such things as are connected with decoration , s < f a Relegated to a place on the margins of h i s t e x t , and to a marginal and a r t i s a n a l p r a c t i c e , that of decoration, women are thus e f f e c t i v e l y excluded from Dayes' operative subject p o s i t i o n s — t h a t of knowing viewer and l i b e r a l a r t i s t . L ike Reynolds before him, Dayes b e l i e v e d that f o r t h i s l i b e r a l notion of the a r t i s t i c subject to p r e v a i l , the power of i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t i c imagination and genius had to be devalued and regulated. Academic r u l e s and the study of past a rt could make no cl a i m upon the development of an a r t i s t i f genius and imagination—commonly understood as i n h e r e n t l y and a r b i t r a r i l y endowed upon p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s — were accepted as the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l mastery of p a i n t i n g . Reynolds' strategy was to submit imagination and genius to the r u l e of law by invoking t r a d i t i o n Dayes, "Essays," p. 259n. 51 and nature We have seen how Dayes a l s o invokes nature (in i t s i d e a l form) and t r a d i t i o n , through reference to the canon of the o l d masters, as a means of r e g u l a t i n g the encounter between the i n d i v i d u a l and external nature. He a l s o seeks to diminish the power of the a r t i s t i c imagination by de-emphasizing i t s c r e a t i v e r o l e and emphasizing i t s f u n c t i o n as a storehouse of images which serve as raw m a t e r i a l f o r the reasoning a r t i s t i c mind to process. The imagination i s i n v o l v e d i n s e l e c t i n g these images, but he cautions that t h i s s e l e c t i o n i s only p a r t , and a l e s s e r part at that, of the process of a r t i s t i c production. Combining these images to form a u n i f i e d composition i s the key operation: "Imagination i s shown i n the production of m a t e r i a l s , but to arrange them r e q u i r e s the soundest judgment." = s That the power of the imagination must be circumscribed even i n the rather mundane f u n c t i o n Dayes assigns to i t i s evident i n S 7 S e e i n f r a , p. 37 n. 34, f o r b r i e f remarks concerning Reynolds' attempts to r e g u l a t e the power of i n d i v i d u a l genius. In seeking to explain how such d i s c r e t e discourses f u n c t i o n w i t h i n a l a r g e r d i s c u r s i v e nexus l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n and t h e o r i s t Peter de B o l l a has determined that adjabent discourses are frequently deployed as a means of l e g i s l a t i n g ( i . e., r e g u l a t i n g ) a given discourse which threatens to become excessive, such as the discourse on the imagination or the sublime. The success of such a regulatory move i s dependant upon the a u t h o r i t y of the neighbouring discourse being unquestioned. Key l e g i s l a t i v e terms (such as nature and reason) remain undefined and unexamined, since they remain outside of the d i s c u r s i v e a n a l y t i c (de B o l l a , PP. 11-13 and 54-5) . Dayes, "Essays," p. 197. 52 a l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n of s t y l e and i t s necessary components and c o n s t r a i n t s : "But unless a l l t h i s [compiling of imagery by a " l i v e l y fancy'] be accompanied by a good judgment, the imagination w i l l r i o t at the expense of reason, and we s h a l l never possess a sound and accurate s t y l e . Hence i t i s that we often confound genius with an a c t i v e imagination, not r e c o l l e c t i n g that excess i s not i t s character ,ss'9 It i s f a i r , I think, to read t h i s i n j u n c t i o n against excessive imagination as a response to a r t i s t s such as G i r t i n (and a l s o Turner). These a r t i s t s were h a i l e d p u b l i c l y and p r i v a t e l y as geniuses who had powerfully transformed Dayes' chosen genre of topographical watercolour drawing from an i m i t a t i v e a r t to one which was b o l d l y expressive of the i n d i v i d u a l i m a g i n a t i o n , A O Dayes was unusual among contemporary w r i t e r s on a r t i n advocating the importance of reason i n the c o n t r o l of the imagination. During t h i s p e r i o d of conservative r e a c t i o n to the French Revolution and i t s aftermath, reason r e t a i n e d the a n t i -r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l l y r a d i c a l resonance i t had e a r l i e r assumed i n the w r i t i n g s of the French philosophes, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of Thomas Paine's The Age of Reason i n 1795 s ,*Dayes, "Essays," p. 270. A O A s we s h a l l see i n Chapter V, there was c r i t i c i s m as w e l l as p r a i s e of G i r t i n ' s and Turner's work. For contemporary references to the genius and o r i g i n a l i t y of both a r t i s t s see, f o r example, the reviews of the Royal Academy e x h i b i t i o n s i n the Monthly M i r r o r . J u l y 1798, p. 29 and the Sun. 13 May 1799. 53 and 1796.*'1 At such a moment, i n f a c t , both reason and imagination could connote the f a l s e systems and v i s i o n a r y p r a c t i c e s which were regarded as synonymous with r a d i c a l republicanism.*"- 3- Dayes' i n v o c a t i o n of such a p o l i t i c a l l y loaded term as 'reason' does suggest a past or present (but d i s c r e e t l y v e i l e d ) sympathy with a r a d i c a l p o l i t i c s , although h i s w r i t i n g s can be even more c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d with what was at t h i s moment a more commonly-held (and safer) r e f o r m i s t p o s i t i o n , c r i t i c a l of the abuses of power, but not the system which authorizes i t , < f a 3 In any event, Dayes' appeal to reason was secured not by an < f a l I t i s noteworthy i n t h i s regard that Dayes promotes the regula t o r y f u n c t i o n of reason much more s t r o n g l y than Reynolds, who r e l i e s more h e a v i l y on the f o r c e of t r a d i t i o n . The o l d e r a r t i s t ' s suspiciousness of reason d i s c e r n i b l y increases throughout the Discourses, which were d e l i v e r e d over the years 1769 to 1790. For example i n Discourse XIII (1786) he warns that " a l l t h e o r i e s which attempt to d i r e c t or to c o n t r o l the A r t , upon any p r i n c i p l e s f a l s e l y c a l l e d r a t i o n a l . . . independent of the known f i r s t e f f e c t produced by objects on the imagination, must be f a l s e and d e l u s i v e . For though i t may appear b o l d to say i t , the imagination i s here the residence of t r u t h " (p. 230). Both Robert Uphaus and John B a r r e l l connect Reynolds' concern that what passes f o r reason may i n f a c t be only a theory based upon f a l s e p r i n c i p l e s , with the r a d i c a l i z a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l discourse on reason. This discourse was countered i n the l a t e eighteenth century by conservatives such as Burke and Johnson (both f r i e n d s and mentor-figures f o r Reynolds) with an appeal to custom and t r a d i t i o n . See Uphaus, pp. 59-73; and B a r r e l l , The P o l i t i c a l Theory of P a i n t i n g , pp. 141-158. & a I n Chapter V I w i l l d i s cuss John"Foster's w r i t i n g s which connection the romantic imagination with utopian p o l i t i c a l systems. •^Dayes' support f o r the B r i t i s h p o l i t i c a l system i s i n d i c a t e d i n h i s essay on drawing. In remarks concerning f o r e i g n t r a v e l he touts the B r i t a i n ' s p o l i t i c a l and economic s u p e r i o r i t y . Every B r i t o n , he says should t r a v e l i n order to add to the stock of n a t i o n a l knowledge, f o r " i t cannot be s a i d that he t r a v e l s t o enjoy the advantage of a b e t t e r government, or because other nations have a greater commerce" ("Essays," p. 259). 54 appeal to i n d i v i d u a l deduction or s p e c u l a t i o n , but through i t s connection to t a s t e as a form of judgment based on prolonged study. Whereas other w r i t e r s , such as Prince Hoare, were to as s o c i a t e t a s t e with d e s i r e , Dayes emphasizes i t s j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n , and thus i t s c l o s e connection with r e a s o n , 6 4 In a passage worth quoting at length Dayes explains that t a s t e i s not an imaginary something, depending on the accident of b i r t h , but a r i s e s from, and i s immediately connected with, a sound judgment. Were there not i n a r t , as i n every t h i n g e l s e , a standard of r i g h t and wrong, a l l opinion must be c a p r i c i o u s ; but to acquire j u s t notions, we must habituate ourselves to compare and d i g e s t our thoughts, be w e l l read i n human nature, as connected with the characters, manners, passions, and a f f e c t i o n s of man; t h i s , with some knowledge of the human mind, w i l l , i n time, enable us to d i s t i n g u i s h r i g h t from wrong, which c o n s t i t u t e s the true p r i n c i p l e s of t a s t e . . .Real t r u t h does not depend on opinion; i t i s immutable, f i x e d , and permanent, and i n i t must be sought whatever i s grand and b e a u t i f u l . Apparent t r u t h depends on fashion, and l i k e t h at, i s f l u c t u a t i n g and uncertain; i t may be considered as a sort of impostor, f o r though i t c a r r i e s the appearance of science, i t i s far from having any true connection with i t . * " 5 3 In t h i s text Dayes, again f o l l o w i n g Reynolds, sets out a contrast between "apparent" and the " r e a l " truth* upon which sound judgment 6 4 I n h i s s h o r t - l i v e d p u b l i c a t i o n , The A r t i s t . Prince Hoare describes t a s t e as an arduous d e s i r e which "pants to leave the shackles of laborious s c r u t i n y , and indulge i t s own p r o p e n s i t i e s " (Hoare, "On the Premature E x e r c i s e of Taste and Its E f f e c t s on Works of Genius," The A r t i s t . 4 A p r i l 1807, p. 2). sDayes, "Essays," p. 205. 55 and t a s t e are bas ed. rf><!° It i s r e v e a l i n g to note those words which take on a p e j o r a t i v e cast as Dayes draws out the c h i m e r i c a l q u a l i t i e s of "apparent t r u t h : " imaginary, acc i d e n t , opinion, f a s h i o n . These terms a l l connote that which i s f l e e t i n g , i n s u b s t a n t i a l , outside the bounds of reason and thus beyond c o n t r o l . Their frame of reference l i e s not s o l e l y i n the domain of a r t and a e s t h e t i c s , but i n the realm of the s o c i a l and the economic as w e l l . There, accidents of b i r t h can confer power, i f not t a s t e , and opinion and f a s h i o n d r i v e a commercial market which feeds on the f l u c t u a t i o n s of i n s a t i a b l e popular demands. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Dayes employs the term "opinion,' used i n the e a r l y and mid-eighteenth century, rather than " p u b l i c opinion,' which had gained i n c r e a s i n g favour i n the 1790s. Jurgen Habermas has t r a c e d the transformation of opinion i n t o p u b l i c opinion during the eighteenth century. He observes that the e a r l i e r term, "'opinion' i n the sense of a judgment that lacks c e r t a i n t y , whose t r u t h would s t i l l have to be proven, i s a s s o c i a t e d with 'opinion' i n the sense of a b a s i c a l l y s u s p i c i o u s 6 6 D a y e s ' argument here c l o s e l y follows Reynolds' d i s c u s s i o n of t a s t e and opinion i n Discourse VII, e s p e c i a l l y pp. 120-22. However, u n l i k e Dayes, Reynolds adopts a pragmatic p o s i t i o n i n recommending that a r t i s t s should to some extent accommodate opinion, f o r "whilst these opinions and p r e j u d i c e s ...continue, they operate as t r u t h ; and the a r t , whose o f f i c e i s to please the mind, as w e l l as i n s t r u c t i t , must d i r e c t i t s e l f according to opinion. or i t w i l l not a t t a i n i t s end" (p. 122). For a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of opinion and p r e j u d i c e i n Discourse VII see B a r r e l l , The P o l i t i c a l Theory of Painting-, pp. 141-5. 56 repute among the m u l t i t u d e . T h i s i s c l e a r l y the sense that Dayes wishes to invoke i n opposing the c a p r i c i o u s d e s i r e s and ideas of the multitude to a standard of t a s t e which i s permanent, immutable, and only d i s c e r n a b l e a f t e r " h a b i t u a t i n g " oneself through a slow process of study. Habermas notes that i t was i n the p u b l i c debates around the American and French Revolutions that the n o t i o n of " p u b l i c opinion' was formed (appearing f i r s t i n the w r i t i n g s of Burke). In these debates 'opinion' was transformed i n t o "judgment' though reasoned p u b l i c arguments by p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s (a b o u r g e o i s i e d e f i n e d by t h e i r ownership of commodities r a t h e r than land) about a f f a i r s of s t a t e . ^ T h i s notion that p u b l i c opinion was the outcome of contemporary c o n f l i c t s between i n t e r e s t e d p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s was w e l l - s u i t e d to the exigencies of a p u b l i c sphere i n c r e a s i n g l y d e f i n e d i n terms of p r i v a t e economic i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r than d i s i n t e r e s t e d p o l i t i c a l v i r t u e . But i n the context of h i s essays, Dayes i s u n w i l l i n g to ^^Jurgen Habermas, The S t r u c t u r a l Transformation of the Public Sphere. (London: P o l i t y Press, 1989; o r i g . pub. i n German, 1962), p. 89. & aHaberraas, p. 94. As Habermas point s out, the sphere c o n s t i t u t e d by p u b l i c opinion, which he c a l l s the bourgeois p u b l i c sphere, i s an i d e o l o g i c a l construct formed by the c o n f l a t i o n of two incongruent spaces. The p u b l i c space i n which p r i v a t i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s ( i n c l u d i n g women and men unpossessed of property) i n t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s as human beings engage i n c r i t i c a l l i t e r a r y debates about t h e i r p r i v a t e experiences i s rendered i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the p u b l i c space i n which the male owners of goods and persons (the bourgeois, but a l s o h i s economic and s o c i a l superiors) conducted c r i t i c a l p o l i t i c a l debates concerning the state r e g u l a t i o n of t h e i r p r i v a t e l i v e s (pp. 55-6) . 57 accept that reasoned a e s t h e t i c judgments c o u l d a r i s e from debates among s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . For him, an aggregation of p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s speaking i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s produces c o l l e c t i v e f a n t a s i e s , not c r i t i c a l judgments. This c o n c l u s i o n i s born out i n h i s essay on beauty i n which the p o t e n t i a l excesses of the p r i v a t e imagination and the c o l l e c t i v e f a n t a s i e s forming opinion are reduced to equivalence: "Fancy, or opinion, w i l l go but a l i t t l e way towards i l l u s t r a t i n g a subject that seems to i n f l u e n c e on some u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e , and to a f f e c t a l l persons, and at a l l times. ^^Dayes, "Essays," p. 214. The above-cited passages are only two of s ev e r a l i n Dayes' w r i t i n g s i n which hi s a n t i -commercialism and a e s t h e t i c t r a d i t i o n a l i s m are a r t i c u l a t e d i n a language which derives from the discourse of c i v i c humanism. It should be r e c a l l e d that c i v i c humanism i s an o p p o s i t i o n a l discourse which advocates c e r t a i n notions of property ownership, c i t i z e n s h i p and v i r t u e together with a r e t u r n to the o r i g i n a l precepts of the Ancient C o n s t i t u t i o n . Although Dayes does not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r to the Ancient C o n s t i t u t i o n , h i s condemnation of W i l l i a m the Conqueror and g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the Saxon King A l f r e d and General F a i r f a x (a leader i n Cromwell's army) i n the tours s e c t i o n of h i s w r i t i n g s are strong i n d i c a t i o n s of h i s sympathy with a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s t reading of e a r l y E n g l i s h h i s t o r y (Dayes, "An Excursion through the P r i n c i p a l Parts of Derbyshire and Y o r k s h i r e , " i n Works. pp. 158, 161, and 168). As Christopher H i l l has argued, t h i s reading understood the Norman Conquest as the imposition of a f o r e i g n system of oppressive and a b s o l u t i s t r u l e on a s o c i e t y which, although r u l e d by monarchs, had been e g a l i t a r i a n and j u s t . Although the notion of a "Norman yoke" had o r i g i n a t e d i n r a d i c a l c i r c l e s i n the l a t e seventeenth century, i t witnessed a resurgence a century l a t e r , being promoted by E n g l i s h Jacobins and parliamentary r e f o r m i s t s as l a t e as the mid-1790s. Dayes' endorsement of such a reading of h i s t o r y , combined with h i s appeal to reason, c r i t i q u e of luxury and fashionable l i f e and exhortations to personal and p u b l i c v i r t u e s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e a r e f o r m i s t p o l i t i c s which was expressed i n c i v i c humanist language. The most a u t h o r i t a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n of the "Norman yoke" c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of E n g l i s h h i s t o r y remains Christopher H i l l ' s . See h i s Puritanism and Revolution (London: Seeker and Warburg, 1958), pp. 50-122. For the a s s o c i a t i o n of the "Norman yoke" with E n g l i s h r a d i c a l i s m at 58 Such an i n s i s t e n c e on d e f i n i n g an a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e which addresses a supra-national p u b l i c v i a u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s and i d e a l forms severely circumscribes the degree to which the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r i v a t e character can be i n s c r i b e d i n p u b l i c works of a r t . In h i s essays on manner and watercolour technique Dayes addresses, perhaps more d i r e c t l y than anywhere else i n h i s essays, the problem of r e g u l a t i n g the a r t i s t ' s own character as i t i s made v i s i b l e i n his p a i n t i n g s . Following Reynolds he defines manner as "expressive of c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r marks that, i n v a r i a b l y c h a r a c t e r i z e the works of each i n d i v i d u a l . . . S o f a r i s a new manner from being a mark of genius, as some as s e r t , t h a t , could p e r f e c t i o n i n p a i n t i n g ever be a t t a i n e d , i t would be unaccompanied by any p e c u l i a r i t y whatever,"7°Dayes i s concerned here p r i m a r i l y to discourage contemporary a r t i s t s from s l a v i s h l y i m i t a t i n g the manner of any p a r t i c u l a r m aster—a danger d e r i v i n g not only from the emphasis academic discourse i t s e l f places upon copying the o l d masters, but also from the d e s i r e of some English a r t i s t s to cash i n on the p o p u l a r i t y of seventeenth century continental paintings (old masters and t h e i r i m i t a t o r s ) which the end of the eighteenth century see E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class, pp. 94-5. 7°Dayes, "Essays," p. 26. These remarks derive from Reynolds' discussion of manner; see e s p e c i a l l y Discourse Six, PP. 102-3. 59 were f l o o d i n g the London markets during the Napoleonic Wars. 7 1 Thus Dayes cautions students, when copying, to s e l e c t works which e x h i b i t a manner which i s "purest" and the l e a s t " v i c i o u s " — t h a t i s , which e x h i b i t s the l e a s t s i n g u l a r i t y . To ignore t h i s advice i s to give up one's independence, and thus one's c l a i m to be a l i b e r a l a r t i s t , " f o r the a r t s cannot be l i b e r a l i n the hands of those who want s p i r i t to t h i n k f o r t h e m s e l v e s . " 7 3 The independent-mindedness of a l i b e r a l a r t i s t , however, i s not d i s p l a y e d through the c u l t i v a t i o n of one's own p a r t i c u l a r manner, f o r as Dayes notes i n the passage j u s t c i t e d , the i d e a l a r t i s t , would have no d i s c e r n a b l e manner at a l l . Such a procedure not only produces an object, Nature, which i s p e r f e c t , but an a r t i s t i c subject which i s transparent. That i s , the p r i v a t e p e r s o n a l i t y of the subject i s r e p r e s s e d — r e n d e r e d t r a n s p a r e n t — i n order that i t not act as a medium which d i s t o r t s the " t r u t h f u l " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of N a t u r e . 7 3 Dayes acknowledges 7 1 B r i t a i n had been a market f o r c o n t i n e n t a l p a i n t i n g throughout the eighteenth century, to the chagrin of domestic a r t i s t s l i k e Hogarth. In the 1790s and e a r l y 1800s however, t h i s s i t u a t i o n was exacerbated by large number of p r i n c e l y and a r i s t o c r a t i c c o l l e c t o r s on the Continent who were s e l l i n g o f f t h e i r p a i n t i n g s to avoid f i n e s or c o n f i s c a t i o n at the hands of the invading forces of Napoleon ( R e i t l i r i g e r , pp. 39-40). As a r e s u l t the t r i c k l e of o l d masters and o l d master i m i t a t i o n s which made t h e i r way across the Channel i n c r e a s e d to what seemed l i k e a d i s a s t r o u s f l o o d when viewed from the p e r s p e c t i v e of alarmed B r i t i s h a r t i s t s . 7 S D a y e s , "Essays," p. 262. 7 3My use of the concept of "transparency" derives from de B o l l a ' s a n a l y s i s of eighteenth-century E n g l i s h t r e a t i s e s on oratory. The p u b l i c orator i n these accounts i s forbidden to 60 that such p e r f e c t i o n i s not a t t a i n a b l e , and thus, "every a r t i s t , of n e c e s s i t y , w i l l have a manner; but i n p r o p o r t i o n as he succeeds i n approaching p e r f e c t i o n w i l l h i s manner become more pure, " ^ A l t h o u g h he does not e x p l i c i t l y set out what a "pure" manner i s , i t can be i n f e r r e d from hi s d e c l a r a t i o n that "the word manner may be a p p l i e d to c o l o r , l i g h t and shade, and p e n c i l i n g [ i . e., brushwork] . "'7E3 Reynolds, i t should be noted, o f f e r e d a broader d e f i n i t i o n of manner which a l s o i n c l u d e d a l a c k of s e l e c t i o n of the objects of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and a f a i l u r e to use j u s t proportions i n drawing f i g u r e s . 7 < b For Dayes, then, manner i s more s p e c i f i c and r e l a t e s p r e c i s e l y to what he terms i n h i s watercolour essay execution or " t o u c h " — t h o s e manipulations of colour, l i g h t and brushwork which produce a b r i l l i a n t , eye-c a t c h i n g surface. Such e f f e c t s were what d i s t i n g u i s h e d the productions of the young "geniuses' G i r t i n and Turner, as w e l l as older a r t i s t s such as Loutherbourg and Richard W e s t a l l , from impose h i s p r i v a t e p e r s o n a l i t y on the t e x t s he speaks. Rather, he must become "transparent," so that the meaning and expression of the t e x t s may pass through h i s body unaffected by h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y (de B o l l a , p. 151). Reynolds' d i s c u s s i o n of manner, i n t e r e s t i n g l y , comes i n Discourse VI where he defends the p r a c t i c e of i m i t a t i o n against that of d i s r e g a r d i n g academic r u l e s and models and f o l l o w i n g the bent of one's n a t i v e genius. To think f o r oneself, Reynolds argues, i s to engage i n a process of c r i t i c a l assessment, i m i t a t i o n , and synthesis of the work of past masters, not to f a l l prey to "that f a l s e opinion, but too prevalent among a r t i s t s , of the imaginary power of na t i v e genius" (Discourse VI, pp. 112-3) . ^Dayes, "Essays," p. 264. "•^'Dayes , "Essays," p. 262. 7 < f eReynolds, Discourse VI, p. 103. 61 those of a r t i s t s l i k e Dayes and Paul Sandby who r e l i e d upon l i n e and comparatively muted c o l o u r . Dayes' a s s o c i a t i o n of e f f e c t s with s i n g u l a r i t y was a commonplace at the t u r n of the century. What was disputed was whether that s i n g u l a r i t y was to be viewed as a form of commercial self-promotion or an innate q u a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l which allowed him to express the "true' c h a r a c t e r of nature. Before c o n s i d e r i n g f u r t h e r Dayes' views on t h i s issue, i t i s worth examining b r i e f l y h i s general conceptions of landscape, and e s p e c i a l l y landscape watercolours, as set down i n his f i n a l essay and i n a drawing which follows the precepts of that essay. Within the parameters of an academic p r a c t i c e such as Dayes has o u t l i n e d , i t i s not only the a r t i s t i c subject which i s rendered transparent, but the a l s o the genre of landscape and the medium of watercolour. Nowhere i n his essay on landscape p a i n t i n g and h i s f i n a l essay on the c o l o u r i n g of landscapes (where he s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r s to watercolours rather than o i l s ) does Dayes o f f e r an endorsement of that genre and medium comparable to h i s s p i r i t e d defense of art i n general. One can discover modest claims f o r what he terms " p a s t o r a l " landscape i promoting a domestic i d e a l i n h i s f i r s t essay on landscape. 7" 7 And i n h i s essay on 'grace' he a l s o includes a passing reference to h i s own p r a c t i c e of topography: "Equally i n t e r e s t i n g [as the \ p a s t o r a l ] , though i n a l e s s degree m e r i t o r i o u s , stands the simple '^Dayes, "Essays," p. 199. 62 representer of nature; he acquires a new char a c t e r as a topographer, provided he attach f i d e l i t y to h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , " 7 e C l e a r l y these statements do not amount to a defense of landscape on i t s own terms. Rather they support the absolute e x c l u s i o n of a r t i s t s who ( l i k e himself) work i n genres such as landscape, from the elevated ranks of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n , since such f a i t h f u l i m i t a t i o n s of exte r n a l nature represent the a n t i t h e s i s of a u n i v e r s a l a r t based upon g e n e r a l i z e d , i d e a l i z e d forms. Throughout the essays there i s a p e r s i s t e n t t e n s i o n between Dayes' acknowledgement of the lowly status of landscape p a i n t i n g and h i s continued i n s i s t e n c e that i t attempt to conform to the very academic standards which i t i s u n q u a l i f i e d to meet. This t e n s i o n i s r e g i s t e r e d i n the essay on watercolour where t e c h n i c a l advice regarding the mixing and a p p l i c a t i o n of watercolour pigments i s accompanied by recommendations that students copy monochrome p r i n t s of works by past masters such as Claude, Wilson, Gainsborough, T i t i a n , Cuyp, and Rembrandt, known p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e i r oils." 7' 3' The techniques he recommends are "•"Dayes, "Essays," p. 226. 7 9 D a y e s , "Essays," p. 282. Followirig the t r a d i t i o n a l mode of i n s t r u c t i o n i n drawing, Dayes advises beginners to copy the human f i g u r e (Dayes, "Essays," p. 281). Kim Sloan has observed that the p r a c t i c e of teaching beginning students to copy the human f i g u r e , even i f they were seeking t r a i n i n g i n another genre such as landscape, was common procedure among p r i v a t e drawing masters, i n academies where drawing was taught, and i n eighteenth century drawing books [Sloan, "Drawing—A ' P o l i t e Recreation' i n Eighteenth-Century England," Studies i n Eighteenth Century Culture 2 (1982), pp. 219 and 236]. 63 r e s t r i c t e d to f i r m underdrawing i n b l a c k - l e a d p e n c i l , and then e i t h e r "dead c o l o u r i n g " the surface or l a y i n g i n the shadows with Prussian blue, and working up the p i c t u r e from dark to l i g h t through a s e r i e s of washes. 3 0 No mention i s made to new techniques s p e c i f i c to the medium, used s i n c e the l a t e 1790s by Turner and G i r t i n , which had generated widespread i n t e r e s t , i f not u n i v e r s a l a p p r o v a l . S 1 The v i s u a l impact of such techniques becomes evident when we compare a work by G i r t i n , h i s Durham C a s t l e and Cathedral (Figure 3, c. 1799) with a view by Dayes such as h i s Kelso Abbey (Figure 4, c. 1792) . e > 1 2 Dayes' drawing was produced by the techniques the a r t i s t h imself recommends i n h i s essay on watercolour. F i r s t the o u t l i n e s are c a r e f u l l y drawn, followed by a c o n t r o l l e d l a y i n g i n of shadow "with a s o f t or tender c o l o u r . " The manner of arranging the l i g h t and shade i s both "broad and simple" i n order to avoid a d i s t r a c t i n g and confusing surface 3°Dayes, "Essays," pp. 301-2. 3 1 For the development of "stopping out," scraping, and other techniques i n t h i s p e r i o d see Hardie, 1:33-40. Hardie records that as e a r l y as 1800 James Roberts, the author of a p r a c t i c a l guide to p a i n t i n g , recommended that students consult the watercolours of Turner and G i r t i n (Hardie, 2:1). See a l s o i James Roberts, Introductory Lessons with F a m i l i a r Examples i n Landscapes f o r ... P a i n t i n g i n Water-Colours (London: Bulmer, 1800) , p. 9. ^ C h r i s t o p h e r White notes that Dayes view of Kelso was one of several drawings based upon rough sketches by the a n t i q u a r i a n , James Moore. It has not been p o s s i b l e to determine whether Dayes worked d i r e c t l y over Moore's o r i g i n a l sketch or began with a new sheet of paper (English Landscape 1630-1850. p. 54). 64 " f l u t t e r . " Thus the p r i n c i p a l l i g h t i n the work i s c o n f i n e d to the s e c t i o n of sky above the abbey i n accordance with Dayes' s t r i c t u r e s that there be one major l i g h t i n a composition (with no more than two others subordinate to the f i r s t ) , 6 > 3 Throughout t h i s essay Dayes emphasizes the need to produce a harmonious e f f e c t by a v o i d i n g strong c o n t r a s t s , which indeed he does achieve i n h i s abbey scene, with i t s gently darkened foreground, and c a r e f u l l y modulated sky and a r c h i t e c t u r e . G i r t i n ' s view, by c o n t r a s t , c a p i t a l i z e s upon j u s t those a c t i v e surface e f f e c t s which Dayes endeavours so as s i d u o u s l y to avoid. Interspersed throughout the composition are three dark masses of t r e e s and bushes and another dark mass i n the c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g s by the bridge. It i s d i f f i c u l t to speak of a ' c e n t r a l ' l i g h t — i s i t to be found i n the b o l d sweep of the clouds or the complex of a r c h i t e c t u r e atop the h i l l ? Instead, the e n t i r e composition f l i c k e r s with areas of l i g h t , broken both by the dark masses and l e s s e r shadows as w e l l as the many d o t - l i k e touches i n t e r s p e r s e d throughout the roofs and w a l l s of the b u i l d i n g s . Contemporary w r i t e r s such as W. H. Pyne explained the d i f f e r e n c e s i n such works not only i n terms of G i r t i n ' s s u p e r i o r i t y i n technique but a l s o of h i s "superior mental power and c a p a c i t y . '""'"•'As suggested from his p r e v i o u s l y considered remarks on manner, Dayes took quite a d i f f e r e n t view of such matters. < 3 3Dayes, "Essays," pp. 289-90. 8 4[W. H. Pyne], "Observations on the Rise and Progress of P a i n t i n g i n Water Colours," Repository of A r t s . February 1813, p. 93. 65 Far from endorsing these e f f e c t s , Dayes warns against undue concern with i n d i v i d u a l "touch" or execution: "though execution i s an e x c e l l e n c e , i t i s an excellence of an i n f e r i o r k i n d ; i t s f a s c i n a t i n g power ought to be guarded a g a i n s t , and the a r t i s t concealed as much as p o s s i b l e , otherwise he w i l l lose more than he w i l l g a i n . " 3 3 The p h y s i c a l transparency of watercolours i s not to be subverted and manipulated i n t o b o l d e f f e c t s , f o r i t i s p r e c i s e l y that transparency which permits the a r t i s t to remain hidden and p r o t e c t e d from a f a s c i n a t i n g power. Dayes elsewhere defines t h i s f a s c i n a t i o n as the l u r e of m a t e r i a l rewards and popular acclaim: To p a i n t f o r what i s termed e f f e c t , may answer the purpose of the i d l e , the ignorant, and those who make a trade of the a r t , but w i l l not s a t i s f y the d i s c e r n i n g . The only apology the a r t i s t can o f f e r i s , that he must f i s h with such b a i t s as w i l l take: u n f o r t u n a t e l y , he does not l i v e to p a i n t , but p a i n t s to l i v e . 6 3 ^ This was the c e n t r a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n f a c i n g a r t i s t s who attempted to fashion t h e i r p r a c t i c e on the b a s i s of the academic r u l e s and precepts. Such p r i n c i p l e s ignored or dismissed the p r i v a t e 6 9 = 5 Dayes, p. 285. Cf. Reynolds, Discourse VI: "Art i n i t s p e r f e c t i o n i s not o s t e n t a t i o u s ; i t l i e s *hid, and works i t s e f f e c t unseen" (p. 101) . Dayes, p. 206. Becoming despondent over h i s s t r a i t e n e d finances, Dayes ne i t h e r l i v e d to p a i n t nor p a i n t e d to l i v e , but committed s u i c i d e i n 1804. R. W. Lightbrown i s perhaps not being overly dramatic when he suggests i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n (unpaged) to the a r t i s t ' s Works that "Dayes' l i f e , i n i t s a s p i r a t i o n s and i n i t s f a i l u r e , i s a v e r s i o n i n miniature of the tragedies of Barry and Haydon.'' 66 functions of works which adorned the walls and occupied the p o r t f o l i o s of p r i v a t e homes, and a g g r e s s i v e l y denied the p r i v a t e needs of a r t i s t s who had to compete i n a commercial market i n luxury goods i n order to s u r v i v e . For w i t h i n the academic paradigm, the subject p o s i t i o n of the a r t i s t as l i b e r a l man of l e t t e r s and that of the a r t i s t as economic p a r t i c i p a n t i n the market were mutually e x c l u s i v e . It was t h i s unwillingness to recognize how untenable a theory of a r t had become which f a i l e d to engage with the i n e x t r i c a b l e l i n k s between c u l t u r a l production and a c a p i t a l i z e d economy, that doomed at the outset both Dayes' attempts at h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g and h i s attempts to r e g u l a t e landscape p a i n t i n g v i a a theory of academic p r a c t i c e . Before t u r n i n g to the t e x t s and images which presented both a c r i t i q u e and an a l t e r n a t i v e to such a t r a d i t i o n - b o u n d academicism, i t w i l l be u s e f u l to explore more f u l l y the subject p o s i t i o n of the a r t i s t and viewer as creatures of the market and of f a s h i o n . For t h i s i s the p o s i t i o n that t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s and t h e i r c r i t i c s would deplore, attempt to negate, or accommodate, but which i n c r e a s i n g l y they found impossible to ignore. 67 CHAPTER I I The A e s t h e t i c s o f t h e M a r k e t and I t s A r t i s t i c O f f s p r i n g : The Opaque S u b j e c t and D e f i l e d O b j e c t We have seen how B e n j a m i n West, A n t h o n y P a s q u i n , and Edward Dayes each c o n s t r u c t e d h i s v e r s i o n o f t h e a r t i s t i c s u b j e c t by e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s d i f f e r e n c e f r o m and s u p e r i o r i t y t o t h e a r t i s t as s l a v e o f t h e m a r k e t , p o p u l a r o p i n i o n , and f a s h i o n . T h i s n e g a t i v e s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n i n E n g l i s h s o c i a l a nd c u l t u r a l d i s c o u r s e was f r e q u e n t l y ( i f n o t i n v a r i a b l y ) c o n c e i v e d o f i n t e r m s o f c o r r u p t i n g f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A r t i s t s and v i e w e r s who were deemed t o be s l a v e s t o t h e m a r k e t were o f t e n p o r t r a y e d as i n f e c t e d w i t h a f a s c i n a t i o n f o r F r e n c h f a s h i o n s and o r n a m e n t s . A t t h e same t i m e p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s u p p o r t e r s o f o l d m a s t e r p a i n t i n g were i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t a c k e d f o r b e i n g m e r c e n a r y and a l s o u n p a t r i o t i c i n t h e i r l a c k o f s u p p o r t f o r d o m e s t i c a r t i s t s . A n a l y s i n g s u c h c u l t u r a l phenomena w i l l a l l o w us t o examine t h e t e n s i o n s and i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s w h i c h were p e r c e i v e d t o e x i s t b etween t h e a n t i t h e t i c a l s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n s s e t out t h u s f a r . J u s t as t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c o n c e p t o f t h e a r t i s t i c s u b j e c t as l i b e r a l man o f l e t t e r s was c o n s t r u c t e d i n and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h s p e c i f i c d i s c u r s i v e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s p a c e s — t h e a e s t h e t i c t r e a t i s e , t h e s c h o l a r l y l i b r a r y , t h e s c h o o l s and 68 l e c t u r e h a l l s of the Royal Academy—so i t s market-bound a n t i t h e s i s was a s s o c i a t e d with p a r t i c u l a r s i t e s , The a r t i s t i c producer and consumer of high a r t as a fas h i o n a b l e commodity were i d e n t i f i e d most c l o s e l y with those s i t e s w i t h i n the metropolis i n which luxury goods were s o l d , promoted, and d i s p l a y e d . 1 These included auction houses, emporiums, p r i v a t e commercial g a l l e r i e s , the p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n spaces of the Royal Academy and B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n , and the not so p r i v a t e mansions and townhouses of 'Society,' whose rou t s , dinners, and assemblies were reported i n the "fashionable l i f e ' columns of the press. These were s i t e s of consumption, an a c t i v i t y which extended from the upper c l a s s e s through an i n c r e a s i n g l y prosperous middle c l a s s and which, as N e i l McKendrick, J . H. Plumb, C o l i n Campbell and others have emphasized, reached unprecedented dimensions by 1800.^ McKendrick has noted that the luxury of the E n g l i s h r a i s e d a "deafening chorus of comment" from Russians, Germans, and other 1 See a l s o Andrew Hemingway, "Discourses of Art and S o c i a l I n t e r e s t : The Representation of Landscape i n B r i t a i n c. 1800-1830" (Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1988), Chapter X, for an astute a n a l y s i s of the commodity status of p a i n t i n g as described i n the w r i t i n g s of Reynolds, Humphrey Repton, and Martin Archer Shee. I would l i k e to thank Andrew Hemingway f o r k i n d l y a l l o w i n g me to read the penultimate d r a f t of his d i s s e r t a t i o n . I have been unable to secure a copy of the f i n a l d r a f t at t h i s time, t h e r e f o r e c i t a t i o n s to t h i s work w i l l i nclude chapter references only. 2The i s a c e n t r a l theme of McKendrick, Brewer, and Plumb, The B i r t h of a Consumer Society, and C o l i n Campbell, The Romantic Et h i c and the S p i r i t of Modern Consumerism (Oxford: B a s i l Blackwell, 1987). 69 f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s . 3 But i t i s domestic comment on the spaces of consumption that concerns us here—how the spectacle of luxury consumption was made to s i g n i f y i n p u b l i c d i s c o u r s e . The contemporary p e r i o d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e f u r n i s h e s one point of access to t h i s d i s c o u r s e . Before embarking on an a n a l y s i s of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s important to note the danger i n quoting from various p e r i o d i c a l reviews and essays on a r t and fashionable l i f e without s i t u a t i n g those texts i n t h e i r appropriate i n s t i t u t i o n a l and d i s c u r s i v e contexts. P e r i o d i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n expanded r a p i d l y i n the e a r l y nineteenth century, i t s ranks swollen i n part by a growing number of magazines s p e c i a l i z i n g i n the commodities and a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with fashionable l i f e and leisure."* A perusal of newspapers and p e r i o d i c a l s r e v e a l s that a r t c r i t i c i s m and news of fashionable l i f e served a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t purposes, c o n s i s t e n t with the l a r g e r i n t e r e s t s and e d i t o r i a l aims of the p a r t i c u l a r organ. We f i n d , f o r instance, that the fashionable Repository of Arts c a r r i e d among the most extensive and frequently the most p o s i t i v e reviews of watercolour e x h i b i t i o n s to be found i n the press. This i s not s u r p r i s i n g when one considers that the p u b l i s h e r , Rudolph Ackermann, owned a business which s o l d watercolour paper and watercolour drawings, 3 N e i l McKendrick, "The Consumer Revolution of Eighteenth-Century England," i n McKendrick et a l . , p. 10. * N e i l McKendrick, "The Commercialization of Fashion," i n McKendrick et. a l . , pp. 34-99. 70 p u b l i s h e d drawing books, and manufactured and s o l d watercolour pigments. 1 3 Less c u l t u r a l l y - o r i e n t e d p u b l i c a t i o n s , such as d a i l y newspapers, v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the q u a n t i t y and type of a t t e n t i o n they gave to a r t e x h i b i t i o n s and other s o c i a l events. In the e a r l y decades of the century, f o r example, the Morning Post c a r r i e d frequent and extensive accounts of b a l l s , dinners, routs and n a t i o n a l c e l e b r a t i o n s such as that h e l d i n honour of the Peace of Amiens. Although i t had been a l i b e r a l j o u r n a l i n the 1790s, by the time i t was s o l d i n 1803 i t had become staunchly c o n s e r v a t i v e . I t s new e d i t o r s defended the power and p r i v i l e g e s of the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s and repudiated claims that B r i t i s h p o l i t i c a l and economic i n s t i t u t i o n s were i n any need of reform.^ The Post's s o c i e t y r e p o r t i n g i n the e a r l y 1800s served as a c e l e b r a t i o n of e l i t e p r i v i l e g e and was designed to appeal to the v a n i t y and c u r i o s i t y of i t s p o l i t e readership. But s o c i e t y news a l s o t a r g e t e d readers from the lower echelons of s o c i e t y , f u n c t i o n i n g as an agent of c u l t u r a l hegemony i n maintaining "popular m e n t a l i t i e s of subordination," as E. P. Thompson puts i t , among the dominated. That i s , such d e s c r i p t i o n s of the " t h e a t r i c a l i t y " of the e l i t e ' s r i t u a l l e i s u r e served to mark t h e i r s o c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y and to n a t u r a l i z e t h e i r r i g h t to rule.' 7 1 1 3John Ford, Ackermann 1783-1983. The Business of Art (London: Ackermann, 1983), p. 9. This i s an informative, but » n o n - c r i t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of Ackermann's career. Arthur A s p i n a l l , P o l i t i c s and the Press, c. 1780-1850 (London: Home and Van Thai, 1949), p. 280. ' 7E. P. Thompson, " P a t r i c i a n Society, Plebeian C u l t u r e , " Journal of S o c i a l H i s t o r y 7:4 (1974), pp. 387-9. 71 Because the l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s of Society had such potent s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l connotations, c r i t i c s of the r u l i n g e l i t e attended to such a c t i v i t i e s and commented upon them i n p r i n t . In the decades a f t e r 1800 o p p o s i t i o n a l j o u r n a l s , such as Leigh Hunt's l i b e r a l Examiner. frequently used a r t reviews and reports of routs and assemblies as occasions to attack the c o r r u p t i o n and f r i v o l i t y of the Prince Regent, h i s Whig and Tory m i n i s t e r s , and the fashionable c i r c l e which surrounded them. B What needs to be emphasized, then, i s that s o c i e t y and c u l t u r a l news was not i r r e l e v a n t to the l a r g e r e d i t o r i a l p r o j e c t of a given p e r i o d i c a l ; as a consequence, reports of such l e i s u r e events i n v a r i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s could take on q u i t e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l connotations. Although i t i s beyond the scope of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n to examine i n d e t a i l the j o u r n a l s which w i l l be c i t e d here, where appropriate, I s h a l l provide relevant contextual m a t e r i a l concerning sources that are used."9 As luxury commodities, p a i n t i n g s entered i n t o a arena of competition that took on an e x p l i c i t l y p h y s i c a l dimension with eSee f o r example, [Leigh Hunt], "Court and F a s h i o n a b l e s — Routs," Examiner. 29 A p r i l 1810, p. 267, i n which Hunt compares the behaviour and r a t i o n a l i t y of the hundreds of guests at a rout to the "mob" i n the s t r e e t s . ^For a thoughtful a n a l y s i s of the major p e r i o d i c a l s which published reviews of a r t e x h i b i t i o n s i n the f i r s t three decades of the nineteenth century, see Hemingway, "Discourses of Art and S o c i a l I n t e r e s t , " Chapter VII. 72 the establishment of p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n s i n the 1760s, By 1806 the Royal Academy, the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n , and the Society f o r Painters i n Water Colour a l l provided spaces i n which a r t i s t s could e x h i b i t t h e i r wares annually. P i c t u r e s were hung c l o s e together, b l a n k e t i n g e x h i b i t i o n w alls from f l o o r to c e i l i n g . In such an e x h i b i t i o n s i t u a t i o n , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that some a r t i s t s would choose to heighten the v i s i b i l i t y of t h e i r canvases through the use of b o l d e f f e c t s and b r i l l i a n t c o l o u r i n g in order to a t t r a c t viewer a t t e n t i o n . 1 0 In one of h i s l e c t u r e s to the Royal Academy, John Opie, Professor of P a i n t i n g at the Academy from 1805-9, made such a connection between p a i n t i n g f o r e f f e c t and the circumstances of an e x h i b i t i o n : "In a crowd, he that t a l k s loudest, not he that t a l k s best, i s surest of commanding a t t e n t i o n ; and i n an e x h i b i t i o n , he that does not a t t r a c t the eye, does nothing." Opie went on to deplore such p r a c t i c e s , urging a r t i s t s to paint " f o r e t e r n i t y , " not f o r fashion and the contemporary acclaim of "corrupt and incompetent j u d g e s . " 1 1 Such p r a c t i c e s may have prompted changes i n the e x h i b i t i o n s i t e s themselves. In 1807 a commentator on the s t a t e I °rlartin Hardie notes that i n 1808 the Microcosm of London published an i l l u s t r a t i o n by Rowlandson and Pugin of the annual e x h i b i t i o n of the Society of Painters i n Water Colour. The p r i n t showed rows of c l o s e l y hung watercolour drawings set i n heavy g i l d e d frames. Considering the large s i z e of the drawings, t h e i r b r i g h t colours and the heavy gold frames, Hardie speculates that the works were designed to compete not only with the p i c t u r e s hung beside t h e i r s , but with o i l p a i n t i n g s on e x h i b i t across the c i t y at the Royal Academy (Hardie, 1:41) . I I John Opie, The Lectures of John Opie ( o r i g . pub. 1809) , i n Lectures on P a i n t i n g by the Royal Academicians, ed. Ralph Wornum (London, 1848), p. 257. 73 of the a r t s , w r i t i n g i n the s h o r t - l i v e d Beau Monde, speculated that the (much-hated) red walls of the new B r i t i s h G a l l e r y might serve "perhaps as a p r e c a u t i o n against too v i v i d c o l o u r s , which a d e s i r e of a t t r a c t i n g n o t i c e has introduced i n t o the school of p a i n t i n g . " However the same w r i t e r v i g o r o u s l y promoted the notion of a f r e e and open competition i n the s a l e of p a i n t i n g s , r a t h e r than a system of p u b l i c or p r i v a t e commissions, 1 2 This propensity to support p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n s and a " f r e e " market competition i n a r t while disavowing t h e i r a r t i s t i c consequences (an e x h i b i t i o n s t y l e based upon eye-catching colour and e f f e c t s ) placed a r t i s t s i n the same untenable p o s i t i o n as Edward Dayes had done, i n h i s essays on p a i n t i n g , by denying the need f o r a r t i s t s to f u n c t i o n i n a market system and promoting i n s t e a d an a e s t h e t i c p r e d i c a t e d upon economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . Such c o n f l i c t i n g economic and a e s t h e t i c pressures rendered a r t i s t s v u l n e r a b l e to pedlars of secret schemes and potions which promised to improve the v i s u a l e f f e c t of t h e i r p i c t u r e s . In 1796, for example, Benjamin West and George Beaumont, along with a number of t h e i r f e l l o w a r t i s t s , f e l l prey to the l u r e of the "Venetian Secret," a process promoted by Thomas Povis and h i s daughter Mary Ann, which was reputed to produce colours of the depth and b r i l l i a n c e of T i t i a n and other Venetian masters. Joseph Farington, Thomas D a n i e l l , Beaumont, and Richard Westall each p a i d Povis ten guineas to be i n s t r u c t e d i n the "Venetian' 1 ; 2 " F i n e A r t s , " Le Beau Monde, 7 January 1807, pp. 163-4. 74 method i n 1796-97, but the r e s u l t i n g landscape p a i n t i n g s thereby produced proved d i s a p p o i n t i n g . 1 3 Perhaps the primary a r t i s t i c b e n e f i c i a r y of the scheme was James G i l l r a y , whose engraving T i t i a n u s R e d i v i v u s — o r — T h e Seven Wise Men C o n s u l t i n g the New Venetian Oracle s a t i r i z e d the Academicians duped by the Povises f o r t h e i r c u p i d i t y and s l a v i s h reverence f o r the o l d master t r a d i t i o n . 1 4 Like G i l l r a y , modern commentators have r i g h t f u l l y d i scussed the Povis a f f a i r i n terms of the Academicians' d e s i r e to c a p i t a l i z e on the market f o r o l d masters and o l d master i m i t a t i o n s . 1 ! S What must not be overlooked, however, i s the s p e c i f i c type of e f f e c t s such a process was designed to p r o d u c e — r i c h and heightened colour capable of a t t r a c t i n g viewer a t t e n t i o n away from works which were more subdued i n tone. And thus West employed the Povis process i n p a i n t i n g h i s Cic ero D i s c o v e r i n g the Tomb of Archimedes without b e t r a y i n g any sense of the 'Venetian' colour scheme working at cross purposes with a Poussinesque composition. As we saw i n Chapter I, West's h i s t o r i c a l landscape spoke through i t s subject matter and formal vocabulary of the intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p between p u b l i c v i r t u e , p a t r i c i a n c u l t u r e , and a transparent a r t i s t i c subject whose 1 3 W i l l i a m Whitley. A r t i s t s and Their Friends i n England 1700-1799 (New York and London: Benjamin Blom, 1968; o r i g . pub. 1 1928), 2:209-12. K 1 " " G i l l r a y ' s engraving was publi s h e d 2 November 1797. For a colour reproduction see the f r o n t i s p i e c e , Draper H i l l , Fashionable Contrasts: C a r i c a t u r e s of James G i l l r a y (Oxford: Phaidon, 1966.) > 1 K !See f o r example the d i s c u s s i o n i n Owen and Brown, C o l l e c t o r of Genius, pp. 94-5. 75 personal i d e n t i t y was subsumed i n t o the s o c i a l . However, the a r t i s t ' s t r u c k with the Povis scheme i s an acknowledgment that even for the most elevated category of landscape p a i n t i n g , such a work had to compete as a commodity i n a competitive market s i t u a t i on. An economically s u c c e s s f u l a r t i s t had to be able to produce works which he l d t h e i r own i n the spaces of d i s p l a y w i t h i n p r i v a t e homes as w e l l as i n p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n s i t e s , 1 * * Some idea of the general trend i n the contemporary t a s t e which governed the decoration of r e c e n t l y b u i l t and r e f u r b i s h e d London townhouses can be a s c e r t a i n e d from those i n t e r i o r s , f u r n i s h i n g s , and d e c o r a t i v e ornaments which have survived, as w e l l as from v i s u a l and w r i t t e n accounts of i n t e r i o r s . T y p i c a l of such accounts are the d e s c r i p t i o n s of Montague House, redecorated i n the 1780s by the s o c i e t y hostess, E l i z a b e t h Montague. The house in c l u d e d a room decorated e n t i r e l y i n b r i g h t l y coloured feathers and a "great room" with a b a r r e l - v a u l t e d c e i l i n g , elaborate stucco ornaments, g i l d e d C o r i n t h i a n c a p i t a l s , and l a v i s h f u r n i s h i n g s . 1 & I n the 1770s there was a immense surge i n b u i l d i n g i n urban centers; townhouse c o n s t r u c t i o n i n London a c c e l e r a t e d a f t e r 1774 with the passage of the London B u i l d i n g Act [David Cannadine, Lords and Landlords: the A r i s t o c r a c y and the Towns, 1774-1967 ( L e i c e s t e r : L e i c e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1980), p. 31]. A c o n s t e l l a t i o n of f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d to the f i n a n c i a l boom of the Napoleonic War years among the upper and upper middle c l a s s e s : huge p r o f i t s made i n a g r i c u l t u r e , sharp increases i n domestic consumption and f o r e i g n trade, and vast fortunes made from a National Debt that nearly t r i p l e d between 1780 and 1800 [Peter K r i e d t e , Peasants, Landlords and Merchant C a p i t a l i s t s . Europe and the World Economy. 1500-1800 (Leamington Spa: Berg, 1980), p. 1 3 0 f f ] . 76 The St, James C h r o n i c l e i n 1791 enthused: "the c u r t a i n s are of white s a t i n f r i n g e d with gold; the c h a n d e l i e r s and l a r g e l o o k i n g -glasses are superb; and the whole i s an assemblage of a r t and magnificence which we have never witnessed i n a p r i v a t e room," 1 7 Such an emphasis on b r i l l i a n t r e f l e c t i v e surfaces, c o l o u r and l i g h t was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y endorsed by the Prince Regent whose admiration f o r the l a v i s h decorations which marked the Bourbon court at V e r s a i l l e s was evident i n the plans f o r remodelling of Carleton House, conducted under the auspices of Walsh P o r t e r . 1 6 3 A colour engraving from 1816 of the crimson drawing-room (Figure 5) suggests the o v e r a l l e f f e c t achieved from the r i c h glowing colour of the w a l l s , the h e a v i l y g i l d e d c e i l i n g , and the immense c r y s t a l c h a n d e l i e r s which, when l i t f o r evening entertainments, would be r e f l e c t e d i n huge mirr o r s which occupied the w a l l spaces between the windows. Such splendour was reproduced to v a r y i n g degrees i n other remodellings, such as those completed at Grosvenor House i n 1808 and at Devonshire House a decade later. 1 ' 5 ' Since these metropolitan "palaces' were designed f o r 1 - 7 St. James C h r o n i c l e . 11-14 June 1791, quoted i n Christopher Sykes, P r i v a t e Palaces. L i f e i n the Great London Houses (New York: V i k i n g , 1986), p. 223. 1 ( 3Sykes, p. 234. l 9 S e e Sykes, pp. 234-7 and h i s Colour P l a t e 15, f o r d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g to these two p r o j e c t s . 77 spectacular entertainments on a large s c a l e (attendance at b a l l s and assemblies f r e q u e n t l y was measured i n the hundreds), e s p e c i a l l y r e v e a l i n g are press accounts of those events, which fre q u e n t l y were hosted by prominent a r t c o l l e c t o r s such as Thomas Hope, the Marquis of S t a f f o r d , F r a n c i s Baring, Lord Egremont, and the Prince Regent. Favourable r e p o r t s of such events appeared i n conservative newspapers such as the Morning Post and the E n g l i s h C h r o n i c l e which were eager to impress upon t h e i r readers that such spectacles were v i s i b l e signs of B r i t a i n ' s i m p e r i a l wealth and power. This p h y s i c a l d i s p l a y would have taken on a heightened s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the years between 1806 and 1819 when the government suspended the gold standard i n order to f a c i l i t a t e increased f i n a n c i n g of the war with F r a n c e , 2 0 During a p e r i o d i n which bank notes were no longer c o n v e r t i b l e i n t o gold upon demand, v i s i b l e demonstrations of the wealth of p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s and the r o y a l family was p r o f f e r e d as evidence of continued n a t i o n a l p r o s p e r i t y . Here, f o r example, i s a report from 1806 i n the u l t r a - n a t i o n a l i s t i c and conservative True B r i t o n of the gala hosted by the daughters of S i r F r a n c i s Baring, whose family was involved i n commerce and f i n a n c i n g government l o a n s : 2 1 3 0 S i d n e y Checkland, B r i t i s h P u b l i c P o l i c y 1776-1939 (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1983), p. 22. 3 : 1 A report i n the Sun from 7 June 1814 states that Mess. Baring, Angerstein, and Co. was one of two firms c o n t r a c t i n g f o r government loans of £25 m i l l i o n f o r England and £5 m i l l i o n f o r Ireland. 78 The unbounded wealth of S i r Frances Baring, acquired by the most honourable and extensive m e r c a n t i l e concerns, i s a theme not confin e d to t h i s country but discussed throughout Europe. I t cannot, t h e r e f o r e , occasion s u r p r i s e , that the Cornu-copiae was l i b e r a l l y discharged. Every apartment i n the house e x h i b i t e d a pr o f u s i o n of the most c o s t l y and well-chosen Ornaments... In the A n t i [ s i c] Drawing Room, the Connoisseur was d e l i g h t e d with a c o l l e c t i o n of Paint i n g s by the most approved Masters, t r u l y v a l u a b l e and unique. and hi g h l y c r e d i t a b l e to the discernment of SIR FRANCIS i n the beauties of the Fine A r t s . . . [ I n attendance were] the most d i s t i n g u i s h e d ornaments of the Haute Ton, who were not more dazzled by the r i c h e s , than they were d e l i g h t e d by the a t t e n t i o n , and g r a t i f i e d by the h o s p i t a l i t y of the BRITISH MERCHANT Dazzling ornaments, human and otherwise, are presented here as signs of both personal and n a t i o n a l wealth, v i r t u e , and p r i d e . Baring's c o l l e c t i o n of "the most approved Masters" q u a l i f i e s him not only as a man of t a s t e , but at the same time, an exemplar of the s u c c e s s f u l B r i t i s h m erchant—subject p o s i t i o n s which would have been deemed a n t i t h e t i c a l i n both academic and r e p u b l i c a n discourse. This attempt to c o n f l a t e the man of commerce with the man of ta s t e as def i n e d through the a c t i v i t y of c o l l e c t i n g and promoting of o l d master p a i n t i n g s was contested with i n c r e a s i n g vigour i n the opening years of the nineteenth century. In 1810 a s t i n g i n g attack on o l d master c o l l e c t i n g was made i n the fashionable Whig 2 2 The Baring Fete," True B r i t o n . 8 May 1806. Due to a merger i n 1804 the name of t h i s j o u r n a l changed from the True B r i t o n to the D a i l y A d v e r t i s e r . Oracle and True B r i t o n . For the sake of s i m p l i c i t y , the former name w i l l be used throughout the pe r i o d of i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , from 1801 to 1809. 7 9 magazine, La B e l l e Assemblee. A s s e r t i n g that o l d master p a i n t i n g s are l i t t l e understood by t h e i r wealthy owners, the author remarks: "Their f o r t u n a t e possessors are always c a l c u l a t i n g t h e i r worth, and having them surveyed and appraised as f r e q u e n t l y as the timber on t h e i r e s t a t e s . " 3 3 The r e f e r e n c e to the surveying of timber serves to underscore the f a c t that p r o fit-making and commercial c a l c u l a t i o n , f a r from being r e s t r i c t e d to a commercial b o u r g e o i s i e , were of fundamental concern to landed p r o p r i e t o r s . This m e r c a n t i l e consciousness, rather than a l i b e r a l t a s t e , the argument ran, i s what f u e l l e d the contemporary market f o r o l d masters. Such an indictment of old master c o l l e c t i n g , then, serves to undermine the subject p o s i t i o n of the l i b e r a l viewer/patron whose a p p r e c i a t i o n of the master works of the grand t r a d i t i o n was based upon a prolonged and d i s i n t e r e s t e d study of past a r t . Concurrent with such c r i t i q u e s of p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s was a growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the r o l e of the newly formed B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n (founded i n 1805). Unlike the Royal Academy which was governed by a r t i s t s , the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n was d i r e c t e d by a committee composed of connoisseurs and patrons whose wealth derived from banking, commerce and land. In announcing the establishment of the new i n s t i t u t i o n i t s governors declared i t to be dedicated to the p a t r i o t i c e n t e r p r i s e of promoting B r i t i s h a r t S 3 " R e t r o s p e c t of the Fine A r t s , " La B e l l e Assemblee. December 1810, p. 340. 80 and a r t i s t s — a claim which was repeated i n the press and the I n s t i t u t i o n ' s l i t e r a t u r e throughout the f o l l o w i n g d e c a d e s , 2 4 From the beginning i t was c l e a r that the I n s t i t u t i o n ' s c r i t e r i a f o r a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e among modern B r i t i s h p a i n t e r s were set by the works of Dutch and I t a l i a n m a s t e r s — b y those same works, i n f a c t , which formed the a greater p a r t of the c o l l e c t i o n s of i t s wealthy D i r e c t o r s and Governors. As a means of r e i n f o r c i n g these c r i t e r i a , the I n s t i t u t i o n promoted the d i r e c t copying of o l d master p a i n t i n g s by young B r i t i s h a r t i s t s . In 1806 the D i r e c t o r s and Governors of the I n s t i t u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d the " B r i t i s h School," where c o n t i n e n t a l master works were made a v a i l a b l e f o r a r t i s t s to copy; these copies were then p l a c e d on e x h i b i t i o n at the B r i t i s h Gallery.'" 5 3 A review of one such e x h i b i t i o n i n 1813 appeared i n the Morning Post, which at t h i s point was a Tory organ, vigorous i n i t s support of the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n and the Prince Regent, who was the I n s t i t u t i o n ' s t i t u l a r p r e s i d e n t . The review discusses two landscapes, a Death of Regulus. copied by Wi l l i a m Marshall C r a i g from the o r i g i n a l by Salvador Rosa, and Wi l l i a m Westall's copy of Cuyp's A Fete on the Wat er at Port. What i s s t r i k i n g about the reviewer's comments i s that they are r e s t r i c t e d s o l e l y to p r a i s e f o r the o r i g i n a l ^ M i n u t e s of the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n , 11 June 1805, c i t e d i n Peter F u l l e r t o n , "Patronage and Pedagogy: The B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n i n the E a r l y Nineteenth Century," Art His t o r y 5:1 (March 1982), p . 61. 2 S 5 F u l l e r ton, pp. 64-5. 81 masterworks and t h e i r B r i t i s h owners. Thus, a f t e r duly n o t i n g Rosa's f e l i c i t o u s union of h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s with the grandeur of h i s landscape, the reviewer concludes that "Lord Darnley may f e e l proud to be the possessor of such a performance." S i m i l a r l y the remarks on the second copy are conf i n e d to p r a i s e f o r the r i c h colour and sunny calm of Cuyp's harbour s c e n e , 2 6 For the reviewer, then, the a r t i s t i c producer has become not transparent (in the sense of r e p r e s s i n g h i s p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s and de s i r e s ) but t o t a l l y absent. The copy functions as a sign of judgement, s e n s i b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t only f o r the subject p o s i t i o n s of o l d master or modern c o l l e c t o r . Objections to the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n ' s promotion of past f o r e i g n a r t grew over the next decade. In 1815 the I n s t i t u t i o n mounted an o l d master e x h i b i t i o n at the same time as the Royal Academy e x h i b i t i o n . The Royal Academicians so resented the I n s t i t u t i o n ' s support of ' f o r e i g n competition' that they refused, almost unanimously, a s p e c i a l i n v i t a t i o n by the B. I. D i r e c t o r s to a p r i v a t e evening v i e w i n g , 3 7 This gesture of disapproval was accompanied by an a c e r b i c attack on the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n which was p u b l i s h e d s e r i a l l y i n the Morning Chronic 1e and as a pamphlet e n t i t l e d A Catalogue Raisonnee [sic] 3 < s > " B r i t i s h G a l l e r y of P i c t u r e s , " Morning Post . 18 June 1813. 2 7 F a r i n g t o n , Diary. 21 May 1815. In a d d i t i o n to Farington's Diary, accounts of the Academicians' resentment of the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n ' s promotion of o l d masters are provided i n Owen and Brown, pp. 176-83, and F u l l e r t o n , pp. 59-72. 82 of the P i c t u r e s Now E x h i b i t i n g at the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n (1815) The attack was d i r e c t e d mainly at the D i r e c t o r s of the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n , who, i t was a l l e g e d , had only a s u p e r f i c i a l understanding of ancient p i c t u r e s , yet set themselves up as a r b i t e r s of a r t . Such a r o l e was u n s u i t a b l e f o r such men since they came "to the judgement seat unprepared with any information at a l l drawn from the contemplation or study of nature...Their ONLY standards are o l d p i c t u r e s . . . 1 1 2 , 7 At the heart, then, of the c r i t i q u e s of i n d i v i d u a l c o l l e c t o r s of old masters and of the i n s t i t u t i o n that most strongly promoted these works, was the c l a i m that contemporary regard f o r these masterworks of the Grand T r a d i t i o n of European p a i n t i n g was motivated by a s e l f — i n t e r e s t borne of the d e s i r e f o r f i n a n c i a l p r o f i t , fashionable d i s p l a y , and p u b l i c acclaim. Within the terms of such an attack, the subject p o s i t i o n of the l i b e r a l man of l e t t e r s threatened to c o l l a p s e i n t o i t s a n t i t h e s i s — t h a t of the man of the market, spurred not by v i r t u o u s d i s i n t e r e s t , but by p r i v a t e d e s i r e , ' 3 5 e S p e c u l a t i o n about the authorship of t h i s notorious pamphlet raged at the time of p u b l i c a t i o n and continues i n t o the present. Although the a t t r i b u t i o n i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y Catalogue i s given to the p a i n t e r Robert Smirke, there i s no hard evidence to support i t . David Blayney Brown has noted the s i m i l a r i t y between c e r t a i n passages of t h i s work and a l e t t e r » which the landscape p a i n t e r A. W. C a l l c o t t wrote i n 1808, but as Brown also c o r r e c t l y observed, a number of a r t i s t s at the time made s i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m s of the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n (Owen and Brown, pp. 183-4). ji s C i >A Catalogue Raisonnee of the P i c t u r e s Now E x h i b i t i n g at the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n . London, 1815, quoted i n F u l l e r t o n , p. 68. 83 This c r i t i q u e of the o l d master t r a d i t i o n was lodged p r i m a r i l y by a r t i s t s f o r c e d i n t o competition with f o r e i g n imports and by w r i t e r s whose j o u r n a l i s t i c a f f i l i a t i o n s were a n t i -m i n i s t e r i a l and l i b e r a l . 3 0 The f a c t that the most v i t r i o l i c attacks on the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n were p u b l i s h e d i n the q u a s i -o f f i c i a l Whig organ, the Morning C h r o n i c l e , was very l i k e l y r e l a t e d to the f a c t that the Prince Regent was the t i t u l a r head of the I n s t i t u t i o n . The Whigs f e l t intense f r u s t r a t i o n and disappointment when the Prince Regent withdrew h i s support of that party i n favour of the T o r i e s i n 1810-11. C r i t i c i z i n g the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n provided a way of b e r a t i n g the Prince Regent i n d i r e c t l y . 3 1 To complicate matters, some a n t i - m i n i s t e r i a l l i b e r a l s and r a d i c a l s staunchly defended the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n against the charges l a i d against i t i n the Catalogue Raisonnee, and attacked the Royal Academy instead. The r a d i c a l c r i t i c and e s s a y i s t W i l l i a m H a z l i t t , f o r example, portrayed the l a t t e r i n s t i t u t i o n as a corrupt mercantile body engaged i n the manufacture of p o r t r a i t s , governed by a cabal from w i t h i n and Royal a u t h o r i t y from without (George III was the R. A.'s r o y a l 3 0 T h e Morning C h r o n i c l e . B e l i e Assemblee. Morning Post ( i n the 1790s), and London Packet. a l l c i t e d i n the above d i s c u s s i o n of the o l d masters and the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n , were Whiggish i n o r i entat i on. 3 1 D i r e c t v e r b a l attacks on the r o y a l person of the Prince were dealt with harshly: John and Leigh Hunt, owner and e d i t o r of the Examiner r e s p e c t i v e l y , served two years i n p r i s o n f o r l i b e l l i n g the Prince i n t h e i r newspaper i n 1813. For an account of t h i s a f f a i r see Edmund Blunden, Leigh Hunt's "Examiner" Examined (London: Cobden-Sanderson, 1928), p. 22. 84 patron) , 3 3 And thus, since both i n s t i t u t i o n s had r o y a l patrons who were fr e q u e n t l y i n o p p o s i t i o n p o l i t i c a l l y and supported by r i v a l p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s , both were subject to p a r t i s a n attacks and support. It i s c l e a r , however, that more was at stake i n t h i s a r t i s t i c debate than s e c t a r i a n squabbling. The r e j e c t i o n of o l d master models e n t a i l e d an e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l challenge as w e l l . Such a challenge i s evident i n the sequel to the Catalogue Raisonnee. p u b l i s h e d i n 1816 i n response to the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n ' s s p r i n g e x h i b i t i o n of I t a l i a n and Spanish masters. Like i t s predecessor the new Cataloque continued to b e l i t t l e the e x p e r t i s e of connoisseurs such as Richard Payne Knight and George Beaumont, who were d i r e c t o r s of the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n as well as c o n t r i b u t o r s of o l d masters to the e x h i b i t i o n s . Such " e x p e r t i s e , " the w r i t e r claimed, was i n f a c t based upon "prej u d i c e , high-sounding names, and the s e l f - l o v e , s e l f -importance, and s e l f - i n t e r e s t of the owners of the s e v e r a l works [on e x h i b i t ] . 1 1 3 3 Seeking to d i s c r e d i t the u l t i m a t e ground of c o n n o i s s e u r i a l a u t h o r i t y , the w r i t e r i m p l i e d that t h e i r formal education should be accorded no more status than that of a fashionable accomplishment: "The i n t e r e s t exerted to keep up the absurd p r e j u d i c e that p r o f e s s i o n a l men cannot be proper c r i t i c s 3 2 W i l l i a m H a z l i t t , "The Catalogue Raisonne of the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n , " Examiner. 3 November 1816. 3 3 A Catalogue Raisonne of the P i c t u r e s Now E x h i b i t i n g i n P a l l Mall (London, 1816), p. 29. 85 i n a r t , because they have not an u n i v e r s i t y education i s d a i l y l o s i n g ground. The progress of science has shown, that men who busy themselves about thing's w i l l always say more to the purpose, than those who busy themselves about words,." He continued by c l a i m i n g that " u n i v e r s i t y c r i t i c s no doubt t a l k very p r e t t i l y at a dinner t a b l e , " but could not s u s t a i n a c o n v i n c i n g e x p o s i t i o n of t h e i r t h e o r i e s i n book f o r m . 3 4 As we s h a l l see i n Chapter I I I , t h i s q u e s t i o n i n g of the a b i l i t y of t r a d i t i o n a l forms of knowledge to meet the demands of contemporary E n g l i s h c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y was to be repeated throughout the ea r l y decades of the nineteenth century and was to have important consequences f o r landscape p a i n t i n g . In t h e i r attempt to compete i n a market f u e l e d by a f a s c i n a t i o n f o r f o r e i g n luxury goods and fashions domestic a r t i s t s were a l s o accused of promoting t h e i r own f i n a n c i a l s e l f -i n t e r e s t over the a r t i s t i c needs of the n a t i o n . A common complaint lodged against both p o r t r a i t and landscape p a i n t i n g s was that t h e i r colours were too gaudy, t h e i r h i g h l i g h t s too b r i l l i a n t , and t h e i r l i g h t s too s c a t t e r e d ( i . e., not grouped into the academic formula of one p r i n c i p a l and no more than two j subordinate l i g h t s ) . Although p o r t r a i t p a i n t e r s such as Thomas » 3 4 " C a t a l o g u e Raisonne of the P i c t u r e s i n the Late E x h i b i t i o n of the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n , " Morning C h r o n i c l e . 7 June 1816. The claim that connoisseurs were incapable of p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r t heories c o n v i n c i n g l y i n book form i s a t h i n l y v e i l e d attack on * Richard Payne Knight, whose A n a l y t i c a l Inguiry i n t o the P r i n c i p l e s of Taste was published i n 1805. Despite the s a r c a s t i c a l l u s i o n s to u n i v e r s i t y education, Knight never attended u n i v e r s i t y . 86 Lawrence were c o n s i s t e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d on t h i s b a s i s , t h i s c r i t i q u e was subsumed i n t o the broader a l l e g a t i o n that p o r t r a i t u r e as a genre pandered to the personal v a n i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s rather than r e p r e s e n t i n g those commonly hel d i d e a l s which d i s t i n g u i s h e d and elevated the n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . 3 2 5 The most f u l l y elaborated attacks on such eye-catching e f f e c t s were d i r e c t e d to landscape p a i n t i n g i n language which t e s t i f i e s to the i n c r e a s i n g importance of that genre as a s i t e f o r the production of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . One of these attacks on landscape p a i n t i n g occurred i n the rather curious context of a popular poem, Walks i n a Forest (1794) by the Anglican clergyman and S t a f f o r d s h i r e landowner, Thomas Gisborne . 3 < £ > Like h i s f r i e n d s and f e l l o w e v a n g e l i c a l s William W i l b e r f o r c e and Hannah More, Gisborne advocated a moral reform of a l l l e v e l s of B r i t i s h s o c i e t y i n order to maintain and defend the e x i s t i n g hierarchy of c l a s s and gender r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 3 7' The poem i s s t r u c t u r e d around the t h e o l o g i c a l 3 3 A l t h o u g h a d i s c u s s i o n of p o r t r a i t u r e i s outside the scope of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f u r t h e r examination i s needed of the debates around t h i s genre around 1800. While p o r t r a i t u r e continued to be attacked by those c r i t i c a l of the e f f e c t s of commerce on both the a r t s and the moral .character of i n d i v i d u a l s , there were a l s o , i n c r e a s i n g l y , defenses of the genre as representing E n g l i s h s o c i a b i l i t y . For such a defense, see [John B r i t t o n ] , "Royal Academy," B r i t i s h Press. 5 May 1803. ^The work went through at l e a s t nine e d i t i o n s i n the f i r s t f i f t e e n years a f t e r i t s p u b l i c a t i o n . 3 7Gisborne's program f o r the moral reform of s o c i e t y i s f u l l y elaborated in his widely read An Enquiry into the Duties of Men. 2 v o l s . (London, 1794) and An Enquiry i n t o the Duties of 87 notion of concordia d i s c o r s , a harmonious d i s p o s i t i o n of discordant elements. This concept was f r e q u e n t l y invoked i n the eighteenth century as a means of r e p r e s e n t i n g s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y as d i v i n e l y ordered s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y . 3 3 Gisborne repeatedly draws an analogy between the harmony of external nature, exemplified by the f o r e s t , and a d i v i n e l y ordered human s o c i e t y i n which "harmonious though d i s s i m i l a r , a l l conspire to swell the sum of general b l i s s . " 3 V Following a passage i n which the f o r e s t i s described as "one congenial mass, b r i l l i a n t but chaste, with every dye that s t a i n s the w i t h e r i n g leaf/Glowing yet not d i s c o r d a n t , " Gisborne i n t e r j e c t s t h i s s t e r n advice to landscape p a i n t e r s : Hither come, Ye sons of i m i t a t i v e a r t , who hang The f i c t i o n s of your p e n c i l s on our w a l l s , And c a l l them landscapes; Where incongruous hues Seem t h e i r c o n s t r a i n ' d v i c i n i t y to mourn; Where gaudy green with gaudy yellow v i e s , And blues and reds with adverse aspect g l a r e . Here deign to l e a r n from nature: here though l a t e , the Female Sex (London, 1797). Both works went through m u l t i p l e ; e d i t i o n s i n the decades a f t e r they were published. 3 < 3See S o l k i n , Richard Wilson, pp. 68-70, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of f. Wilson's landscapes and the p h i l o s o p h i c a l concept of concordia d i s c o r s . a harmonious d i s p o s i t i o n of discordant elements i n nature. 3<!?Thomas Gisborne, Walks i n a Forest. 4th ed. (London, 1799; o r i g . pub. 1794), p. 10. 88 L e a r n t h e p e c u l i a r m a j e s t y w h i c h c rowns The f o r e s t , when t h e s l o w l y p a s s i n g c l o u d s T r i p l e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f shadow s p r e a d , And s e p a r a t e t h e b r o a d c o l l e c t e d l i g h t s W i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g g l o o m /1 0 G i s b o r n e d e f e n d s t h e r u l e s o f a c a d e m i c p r a c t i c e ( w h i c h d i c t a t e a " t r i p l e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f shadow" compared t o l i g h t i n a c o m p o s i t i o n ) as b e i n g an o b s e r v a b l e f e a t u r e o f t h e " f o r e s t , " w h i c h h e r e r e p r e s e n t s b o t h e x t e r n a l n a t u r e a n d , m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , t h e s o c i a l o r d e r .4 1 G i s b o r n e ' s u s e o f " m a j e s t y " and "crown" i n t h e p a s s a g e s e r v e t o d i s p l a c e o n t o t h e f o r e s t t h e r o y a l c h a r a c t e r o f i t s o w n e r— f o r much o f B r i t a i n ' s f o r e s t s were p r o p e r t y o f t h e k i n g , i n c l u d i n g t h e f o r e s t i n w h i c h G i s b o r n e ' s own e s t a t e was l o c a t e d .4 3 A g a i n s t t h i s ( l i t e r a l l y ) n o b l e harmony o f n a t u r e G i s b o r n e opposes t h e " f i c t i o n s " c a l l e d l a n d s c a p e s w h i c h a r e u n n a t u r a l p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e y make d i s c o r d v i s i b l e . The v o c a b u l a r y o f s o c i a l c o n f l i c t i s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n i n g o f " i n c o n g r u o u s " and " a d v e r s e " c o l o u r s w h i c h " v i e " w i t h each o t h e r , " m o u r n i n g " t h e i r c o n s t r a i n e d p r o x i m i t y . 4° G i s b o r n e , p p . 6 4 - 5 . " " R e g a r d i n g t h i s p a s s a g e , G i s b o r n e s t a t e s t h a t he i s f o l l o w i n g R e y n o l d s ' n o t e s on C h a r l e s du F r e s n o y ' s De A r t e G r a p h i c a on t h e p r o p e r d i s p o s i t i o n o f l i g h t and shade t h r o u g h o u t '• a c o m p o s i t i o n ( G i s b o r n e , p . 65) . " ' ^ G i s b o r n e ' s own r e s i d e n c e , Y o x a l l , was l o c a t e d i n Needwood j F o r e s t . A f r i e n d o f h i s , B i s h o p P o r t e u s , w r i t i n g t o Hannah More i n 1797, n o t e d t h a t G i s b o r n e "has a v e r y handsome and d e l i g h t f u l h a b i t a t i o n i n t h e v e r y h e a r t o f Needwood F o r e s t , a l a r g e t r a c t o f g r o u n d b e l o n g i n g t o t h e c r o w n , and a b o u n d i n g w i t h a l l t h o s e r u d e ' and p i c t u r e s q u e s c e n e s w h i c h p r o d u c e d h i s "Walks i n a F o r e s t ' " [ q u o t e d i n B e n e d i c t N i c o l s o n , "Thomas G i s b o r n e and W r i g h t o f Derby," B u r l i n g t o n M a g a z i n e . 107 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 6 1 ] . 89 This passage functions n e i t h e r as a purely a e s t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m couched i n p o l i t i c a l language, nor a p u r e l y p o l i t i c a l a t t a ck on r e v o l u t i o n a r y d i s o r d e r v i a an a r t i s t i c metaphor. Rather landscape p a i n t i n g i s presented here as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the production of s o c i a l d i s o r d e r at a moment of c r i s i s — t h i s was the year a f t e r the French k i n g and queen had been executed, and counterrevolutionary r e a c t i o n i n B r i t a i n was at i t s h e i g h t . 4 3 The i n c l u s i o n of a c r i t i q u e of landscape p a i n t i n g i n such a text t e s t i f i e s to the growing importance of the landscape a r t i s t as a producer of such potent symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of n a t i o n a l order i n a p e r i o d of s o c i a l upheaval throughout Europe. Whereas the i d e a l of the h i s t o r y p a i n t e r had been i d e n t i f i e d i n academic discourse as a supra-national subject who represents u n i v e r s a l truths through forms d i v e s t e d of n a t i o n a l p r e j u d i c e , the i d e n t i t y of the landscape a r t i s t i n the 1790s and the decades t h e r e a f t e r i s f i g u r e d as a q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y n a t i o n a l subject, both i n h i s p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c h a r a c t e r . The importance of the landscape p a i n t e r as a n a t i o n a l subject was r e a f f i r m e d the f o l l o w i n g year, 1795, i n a vehement ; 4 3 T h i s same year, 1794, a l s o saw the p u b l i c a t i o n of Richard Payne Knight's d i d a c t i c poem, The Landscape, which images so c i e t y as a d i v e r s i f i e d landscape. Unlike Gisborne, Knight used > the image of the f o r e s t as a metaphor f o r w i l d "native l i b e r t y , " which drew a charges of Jacobinism from more conservative Whigs l i k e Horace Walpole, who thought Knight was advocating r e v o l u t i o n [Nicolas Penny, "Richard Payne Knight: A B r i e f L i f e , " * i n The Arrogant Connoisseur, eds. Michael Clarke and Nicholas Penny (Whitworth Art G a l l e r y exhib. cat., Manchester: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1982), p. 10]. 90 attack on contemporary landscape p a i n t i n g by the reviewer f o r the Morning Post when that j o u r n a l was profoundly a n t i - c o u r t and a n t i - m i n i s t e r i a l . These remarks occurred i n the context of a review of Paul Sandby's topographical watercolours. Favourably disposed to the works, the c r i t i c had even more p r a i s e f o r Sandby himself, h a i l i n g the a r t i s t as a p i l l a r of the academy and expressing the regret that he had so few p i c t u r e s i n the e x h i b i t i o n . 4 ' 4 In a passage worth quoting at length, he explains that Sandby's presence i s necessary because landscape p a i n t i n g i s i n need of reform: There i s a t a s t e spreading abroad f o r gaudy hues, g l i t t e r i n g e f f e c t s and mechanical fopperies d a z z l i n g to weak-sighted connoisseurs and unfledged s t u d e n t s — w i t h the m e r e t r i c i o u s ornaments of a courtezan, they l u r e the i d l e and inexperienced, while unobtrusive modesty has no a t t r a c t i o n . I f t h i s extravagant p e r v e r s i o n of a l l t a s t e i s not checked and e x p o s e d — i f we are not brought back from the d e l u s i v e mazes of e c c e n t r i c a r t , i n t o the p l a i n , but unfrequented road of nature, the worst consequences may be prophesied to the A r t s . We s h a l l q u i c k l y be p r e c i p i t a t e d from the eminence to which we have a t t a i n e d , and degenerate i n t o a l l the v i c e s of French f r i p p e r y and a f f e c t a t i o n , to the u t t e r exclusion of Nature, S i m p l i c i t y and T r u t h . 4 = 5 This t e x t employs a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of tropes to connect a 4 4 T h e works Sandby e x h i b i t e d that year are untraced. They included a view of Tunbridge, a view of the Eagle Tower of Caernarvon C a s t l e , and two other works t i t l e d Morning and Evening (Graves, s. v, Sandby, Pau l ) . 4 E 3 " R o y a l Academy," Morning Post . 4 June 1795. Given the s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s review and those w r i t t e n by Pasquin at t h i s same time, i t i s h i g h l y p o s s i b l e that Pasquin himself was the author of t h i s anonymous review. 91 p a i n t e r l y play of surface e f f e c t s , l i g h t and colour with i l l i c i t sexual d e s i r e , fantasy, d i s p l a y , a r t i f i c i a l i t y and French t a s t e , 4 & D a z z l i n g l y d e l u s i v e , such e f f e c t s are capable not only of seducing the " i d l e and inexperienced," but threaten to pervert the general t a s t e , p r e c i p i t a t i n g moral and c u l t u r a l d e c l i n e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s d e c l i n e i s represented as a f a l l i n g out of n a t i o n a l eminence and a f a l l i n g i n t o the character of another nation. To embrace the gaudy and a r t i f i c i a l i n a r t i s to abandon one's s o c i a l and n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y by t a k i n g on the v i c e s and a f f e c t a t i o n s of a debased O t h e r — a n Other which at t h i s moment was i n v a r i a b l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as F r e n c h . 4 7 As Gerald Newman has argued, i n eighteenth- and nineteenth-century England n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y was l a r g e l y constructed i n "^Amidst the p l e t h o r a of attacks by a r t c r i t i c s and other w r i t e r s on the g l i t t e r and v u l g a r i t y of French p a i n t i n g there are few references to s p e c i f i c French a r t i s t s . However, i t seems l i k e l y that Watteau and Boucher, a r t i s t s whose works were known i n England, were among the p r i n c i p a l t a r g e t s of t h i s attack. Later, i n 1815, Watteau's work i s s i n g l e d out by the bourgeois l i b e r a l e d i t o r and author, John Scott, as a t y p i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of pre-Revolutionary French a r t , marked by l e v i t y and a l a c k of i n t e l l e c t u a l f o r c e ([John S c o t t ] , "Lucien Buonaparte's C o l l e c t i o n , Champion. 22 January 1815, p. 32). 4 7 I n a d d i t i o n to contemporary France, Venice, Holland, and Carthage were o f f e r e d by a r t i s t s and c u l t u r a l c r i t i c s as h i s t o r i c a l examples of the negative impact of commerce on the a r t s . Thus Henry F u s e l i , Professor of P a i n t i n g at the Royal Academy from 1801 to 1805, argued i n a l e c t u r e before the Academy i n 1801, that the commercial a c t i v i t y of Venice's p a t r i c i a n s as well as i t s p r i n c e l y merchants and a r t i s a n s , ensured that Venetian p a i n t i n g s could be l i t t l e more than fashionable luxury goods [Henry F u s e l i , Lectures on P a i n t i n g , i n Wornum, pp. 392-3] . 92 opposition to a French stereotype."'1'2' This a n t i - G a l l i c stereotype functioned not only to elevate England's image among other nations, but even more importantly, i t was marshalled by s p e c i f i c f a c t i o n s of E n g l i s h s o c i e t y as a means of d i s c r e d i t i n g r i v a l p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s or socio-economic g r o u p s , 4 9 In the f i r s t h a l f of the eighteenth century a n t i - G a l l i c imagery featured prominently i n the bourgeois c r i t i q u e of a cosmopolitan e l i t e whose f a s c i n a t i o n with c o n t i n e n t a l fashion, a r t , and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s was taken to be the s i g n of the t h e i r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a l l e g i a n c e to e l i t e s on the continent, rather than to E n g l i s h s o c i e t y and culture."' 0 "* eGerald Newman, The Rise of E n g l i s h Nationalism. In the p e r i o d of the Napoleonic wars, n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y was v a r i o u s l y s t r u c t u r e d around notions of Englishness or B r i t i s h n e s s , terms which obviously c a l l up two very d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and h i s t o r i c a l notions of what comprises "the n a t i o n . " Unless a text or image i s s p e c i f i c a l l y addressing the idea of B r i t i s h n e s s , I w i l l use the term "Englishness;' t h i s was the d e s i g n a t i o n most commonly used by contemporaries i n the metropolis, and one which i t s e l f was constructed v i s u a l l y and t e x t u a l l y i n terms of d i f f e r e n c e from "Welshness,' v S c o t t i s h n e s s , ' and ' I r i s h n e s s . ' •"'^Linda C o l l e y c o n v i n c i n g l y argues that n a t i o n a l i s m was not promoted by the B r i t i s h s t a t e , but served s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . She notes that n a t i o n a l i s t i c e n t e r p r i s e s (such as e s t a b l i s h i n g p a t r i o t i c war funds) were e s p e c i a l l y popular among the wealthy bourgeoisie, a "commercial a r i s t o c r a c y , " whose s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l status d i d not match t h e i r economic power [Linda C o l l e y , "Whose Nation? Class and National Consciousness i n B r i t a i n 1750-1830," Past and Present. #L13 (November 1986), p. 110] . =°Newraan, pp. 10-12 and 63-7. Pre-eminent among the a r t i s t s i n v o l v i n g i n f a s h i o n i n g t h i s c r i t i q u e was W i l l i a m Hogarth, whose promotion of a s p e c i f i c a l l y E n g l i s h n a t i o n a l school of p a i n t i n g took the form of s a t i r i c a l attacks upon a G a l l i c i z e d a r i s t o c r a t i c c u l t u r e . A s e r i e s such as Marriage A-la-mode (painted 1742-3 and engraved 1744-5) i s i n part a v i s u a l c h r o n i c l e of the E n g l i s h e l i t e ' s f a s c i n a t i o n with French fashions and h a i r s t y l e s , c o n t i n e n t a l l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s (operas, b a l l s and masquerades), 93 In the wake of the French Revolution, the "Terror,' and the r i s e to power of Napoleon a n t i - G a l l i c i s m i n c r e a s i n g l y focussed upon the s i n i s t e r machinations of the French s t a t e , which was presented as having f a l l e n simultaneously i n t o tyranny and a n a r c h y . 3 1 E n g l i s h c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y w r i t e r s and a r t i s t s during the "90s and the f o l l o w i n g decades f r e q u e n t l y deployed a n t i - G a l l i c imagery i n order to d i s c r e d i t E n g l i s h r a d i c a l s , a n t i -war l i b e r a l s , and F o x i t e Whigs by showing them as b e s t i a l , a t h e i s t i c French Jacobins, bent upon d e s t r o y i n g the very f a b r i c of E n g l i s h s o c i e t y . 1 5 : 3 At the same time, however, e v a n g e l i c a l s and anti-war l i b e r a l s and r e f o r m i s t s l i k e the e d i t o r s and w r i t e r s f o r the Morning Post redeployed the e a r l i e r eighteenth century c r i t i q u e of f o r e i g n l e i s u r e and fashion against those monied elements i n p o l i t e s o c i e t y (whether middle or upper c l a s s ) whose sensuous d e s i r e s and need f o r s o c i a l emulation were i d e n t i f i e d as a primary th r e a t to the h e a l t h and s t a b i l i t y of the s o c i a l order . E 5 3 and Old Master p a i n t i n g s . The most thorough i c o n o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Marriage A-la-mode i s to be found i n Robert Cowley, Hogarth's Marriage A-la-mode (Ithaca: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1983). This book contains colour p l a t e s of the e n t i r e s e r i e s . The p a i n t i n g s are now i n the National G a l l e r y . = 1 F o r an example of a c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y polemic against French tyranny and anarchy see "The Dreadful P i c t u r e of France," Repository of A r t s . June 1809, pp. 345-51. = 2 S e e David Bindman, The Shadow of the G u i l l o t i n e . B r i t a i n and the French Revolution ( B r i t i s h Museum exhib. cat., London, 1989) f o r c a r i c a t u r e s of E n g l i s h r a d i c a l s which used anti-French imagery and devices. S 3 S e e Newman, pp. 233-40, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of evangelism and ant i - G a l 1 i c i sm. 94 It i s noteworthy that as e a r l y as 1781 an a r t c r i t i c i n the Morning- C h r o n i c l e had a l s o warned against E n g l i s h i m i t a t i o n of "French f r i p p e r i e s " and explained the p r o f u s i o n of b r i g h t l y -coloured p a i n t i n g s set i n l a r g e gold frames as an a r t i s t i c attempt to capture a s p e c i f i c a l l y m iddle-class market w i t h i n an e x h i b i t i o n setting.™'4 By the 1790s, j o u r n a l i s t i c commentary avoided any mention of c l a s s — a s h i f t which i s i n d i c a t i v e of the nature of c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a l l i a n c e s , which were made on the basis of property ownership (whether landed or moveable) against those without property, r a t h e r than on the b a s i s of landed ownership as opposed to moveable and a b s t r a c t property. T y p i c a l of t h i s l a t e r type of commentary was the above-cited passage from the Post. Although d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y toward "unfledged students and weak-sighted connoisseurs," i t s references to i d l e n e s s , extravagance, and ornament, conjure up a wider p u b l i c of fashionable pleasure-seekers, whose property-holdings were u n s p e c i f i e d and whose elevated c l a s s status was no longer a guarantee of t h e i r t a s t e . The post-Revolutionary reference to "French f r i p p e r y " i n t h i s t e x t could be taken to imply that the French Revolution was not s o l e l y , or even p r i m a r i l y the r e s u l t of mob h y s t e r i a , as counterrevolutionary r h e t o r i c maintained, but was rather the consequence of the moral d i s s o l u t i o n , a f f e c t a t i o n , and f r i v o l i t y of the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s . This stance was c o n s i s t e n t with the Post's i n c r e a s i n g l y ^ " R o y a l Academy," Morning C h r o n i c l e . 2 May 1781, p. 2. 95 v e i l e d , but s t i l l d i s c e r n i b l e r e p u b l i c a n sympathies What i s suppressed i n the Post's indictment of fashionable landscape p a i n t i n g i s the f a c t that the d e s i r e f o r o s t e n t a t i o u s d i s p l a y was i n large part an E n g l i s h phenomenon, the consequence of a h i g h l y competitive s o c i a l environment, be i t the marketplace or the ballroom, where p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s v i e with each other f o r power and acclaim. Such an unwillingness to i d e n t i f y as E n g l i s h productions which are regarded as gaudy and commercialized i s a s t r a t e g y commonly deployed i n r e p u b l i c a n discourse, which lo c a t e s the i d e a l of Englishness i n a p r e -commercial s o c i a l order (namely, a r e p u b l i c of landowning c i t i z e n s ) . S £ > Ostentatious s e l f - d i s p l a y i n s t e a d i s read as an abandonment of one's ' n a t u r a l ' (modest, moral, English) s o c i a l i d e n t i t y and the t a k i n g up of another which i s not only f o r e i g n but p r i v a t e i n i t s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n f o r the sensual. The Post c r i t i c ' s use of s e x u a l i z e d and feminized metaphors = i SSuch sentiments can be read i n the s c a t h i n g review which Zoffany's o v e r t l y a n t i - r e p u b l i c a n p a i n t i n g , Plundering the King's C e l l a r at P a r i s . August 10. 1893. r e c e i v e d i n the Post on 7 May 1795. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , on 6 May t h i s same p i c t u r e r e c e i v e d a glowing review by the a n t i - J a c o b i n True B r i t o n . 1 s < 6 >Within the parameters of t h i s anti-commercial and p o l i t i c a l l y r e f o r m i s t discourse, such a r e t r o s p e c t i v e v i s i o n of , Englishness i s r e i n f o r c e d by the i n v o c a t i o n of the system of parliamentary r e p r e s e n t a t i o n authorized under the Ancient C o n s t i t u t i o n . This mythical document (held to be i n force i n a vaguely s p e c i f i e d pre-Norman past) was presented by reformers as > the " t r u e " source of England's p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s (for a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of the Ancient C o n s t i t u t i o n see i n f r a , Chapter I, p. 157, n. 69). 96 i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t with a c i v i c humanist c o n s t r u c t i o n of the subject as a c i t i z e n who suppresses h i s sensuous needs and de s i r e s (as we saw i n the p u b l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Beaumont). This a r i s e s from the f a c t that " d i s i n t e r e s t ' s i g n i f i e s not only economic independence, but as John B a r r e l l argues, a form of ma s c u l i n i t y which i s d e s i r e l e s s , s 7 Within the parameters of such a discourse, then, i t i s only i n t h e i r character as p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s that male viewers could be seen as s u s c e p t i b l e to seduction by p i c t u r e s possessing the "meretricious ornaments of a courtesan." I f such p a i n t i n g s are f i g u r e d as female, then gaudy colour and p a i n t e r l y e f f e c t s assume the status of ornaments or make-up a p p l i e d by the a r t i s t , who becomes i d e n t i f i e d as a p i m p — the lowest form of "merchant" wit h i n the commercial s p h e r e . 3 8 Eighteenth- and e a r l y nineteenth-century exponents of mercantilism had repeatedly defended the consumption of luxury goods by the l e i s u r e d c l a s s e s as the "engine" which drove the ^ J o h n B a r r e l l , ""The Dangerous Goddess': M a s c u l i n i t y , P r e s t i g e , and the A e s t h e t i c i n E a r l y Eighteenth-Century B r i t a i n , " C u l t u r a l C r i t i g u e . #12 (Spring 1989), p. 103. s e L i k e the Post c r i t i c , F u s e l i d escribed the " a l l u r e " of colour i n hig h l y s e x u a l i z e d terms, as d i d John Opie i n h i s Royal Academy l e c t u r e s of 1807, where colour i s described as "the 1 Cleopatra of the a r t " [Henry F u s e l i , Lectures on P a i n t i n g i n Wornum, pp. 392-3; John Opie, The Lectures of John Opie, i n » Wornum, p. 314.] For a d i s c u s s i o n of the manner i n which seventeenth-century French a e s t h e t i c discourse constructed analogies between painted canvases and painted women see Jacqueline L i c h t e n s t e i n , "Making Up Representation: The Risks of Femininity," Representations #20 ( F a l l 1987), pp. 77-87. I would l i k e to thank J i l l C a s s id f o r c a l l i n g my a t t e n t i o n to t h i s a r t i c l e . 97 n a t i o n a l economy, 5 9 In 1810, f o r example, a w r i t e r , i n o f f e r i n g evidence f o r the s u p e r i o r i t y of England over France as a commercial power, r e a s s e r t e d t h i s contention that luxury consumption by the e l i t e stimulated domestic manufacturing and hence brought p r o s p e r i t y t o a l l . He concluded with the observation that "a p e c u l i a r l y masculine character, and the utmost energy of f e e l i n g , are communicated to a l l orders of men— by the abundance which p r e v a i l so u n i v e r s a l l y . " * ' 0 This m a s c u l i n i z a t i o n of luxury production and consumption could be seen as a general counter to attacks on such economic a c t i v i t y . There was, however, l i t t l e i n the way of a f u l l y elaborated a r t i s t i c defense of p a i n t i n g f o r e f f e c t analogous to t h i s general defense of luxury consumption.** 1 Although n e i t h e r Gisborne nor the Post c r i t i c named s p e c i f i c a r t i s t s and works i n t h e i r censure of landscape p a i n t i n g , we can gain some sense of the works i n = < 5 ,Luxury consumption by the p r o p e r t i e d e l i t e was sanctioned by the French p h y s i o c r a t s , and confirmed by the w r i t e r s i n the l a t e eighteenth and e a r l y nineteenth century such as Thomas Malthus (in h i s Essay on Population. 1798) and William Spence (in B r i t a i n Independent of Commerce. 1806). See i n f r a , Chapter IV, for a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e of landowners as consumers rather than producers. ^ T h e Two P i c t u r e s : or A View of the M i s e r i e s of France Contrasted with the Blessings of England (London, 1810), p. 41. & 1 T n a c t u a l f a c t , i n 1790 perhaps the major defense of landscape p a i n t i n g " f o r e f f e c t , " based upon a p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory of a s s o c i a t i o n , was made by A r c h i b a l d A l i s o n i n h i s Es says on the Nature and P r i n c i p l e s of Taste. However a s s o c i a t i o n i s m d i d not play a major r o l e i n p u b l i c debates about p a i n t i n g u n t i l the turn of the century. A l i s o n ' s Essays w i l l be considered at length i n Chapter I I I . 98 question, f o r a r t c r i t i c s repeatedly i d e n t i f i e d "spotty" e f f e c t s , gaudy c o l o u r s , and surface g l i t t e r with a few i n d i v i d u a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y J u l i u s Caesar Ibbetson, F r a n c i s Bourgeois, P h i l i p p e de Loutherbourg and Richard W e s t a l l . < S 3 Ibbetson's Alum Bay: Sand Quarry (Figure 6, c. 1792) i s i n d i c a t i v e of t h i s type of work.*'3 Even i n a b l a c k and white photograph the broken, a c t i v e q u a l i t y of the p i c t u r e ' s surface i s apparent. The c l i f f s i d e on the r i g h t i s represented as an i n t r i c a t e array of f r o t h y p r o j e c t i o n s . Following the general form of the c l i f f s below, the clouds appear as a s e r i e s of separate daubs, picked out with h i g h l i g h t s . The fragmentation of forms i s c a r r i e d i n t o the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the water. I t s surface i s broken by the h i g h l i g h t s of the whitecaps, l a i d on i n a t h i n , nervous l i n e , which thickens and i n t e n s i f i e s at the water's edge. There the b r i l l i a n t white of the foam co n t r a s t s ^ L outherbourg's work w i l l be examined i n Chapter V. Francis Bourgeois was a student of Loutherbourg who e x h i b i t e d r u s t i c landscapes ("landscape with c a t t l e " being a f a v o u r i t e theme) at the Academy throughout the 1790s and ear l y 1800s. Dayes harshly c r i t i c i z e d h i s colour as "chalky" and h i s handling of l i g h t and shade as "often v i o l e n t and spotty" (Dayes, " P r o f e s s i o n a l Sketches," p. 322). Other c r i t i c s complained simply that h i s work was mannered and r e p e t i t i v e (see R. A. reviews i n the Morning- C h r o n i c l e . 4 May 1792 and B r i t i s h Press , 14 May 1803) . •"Ibbetson made a tour of the I s l e of Wight, where t h i s scene i s located, i n 1791. In 1792 he e x h i b i t e d seven views of the i s l a n d at the Royal Academy. The a r t i s t ' s biographer, Mary Rotha Clay, suggests that Alum Bay: A Sand Quarry may have been the work e x h i b i t e d that year under the t i t l e View of the Beach, I s l e of Wight (#449) [Clay, J u l i u s Caesar Ibbetson 1759-1817 (London: Country L i f e , 1948), p. 30]. 99 sharply with the dark rocks of the foreground. Water, land, and sky, then, v i b r a t e with the a c t i v i t y of the a r t i s t ' s b r u s h — a n d a c t i v i t y which lead some c r i t i c s to c h a r a c t e r i z e h i s manner as "spotty,"*" 4 One of the a r t i s t ' s harshest c r i t i c s , the reviewer for the London Packet. a t t r i b u t e d t h i s mode of execution d i r e c t l y t o the pressures of the market. W r i t i n g of the a r t i s t ' s Miners Setting: out to Encounter the French e x h i b i t e d at the R. A. i n 1798, he declared, " I t appears to be a work of haste, p a i n t e d for s a l e , " 4 , = Broken surface e f f e c t s , then, could connote a s l a p -dash manner, provoked by the need to produce quantity, not q u a l i t y , while a l s o s e r v i n g to draw viewer a t t e n t i o n away from le s s eye-catching v i s u a l d i s p l a y s . Unlike Ibbetson, Richard Westall produced few domestic landscapes i n which f i g u r e s are subordinated to n a t u r a l scenery. However, landscape s e t t i n g s feature prominently i n the l a t t e r ' s s e ntimentalized r u s t i c genre pieces and t i t i l l a t i n g mythological scenes produced from the 1780s through the e a r l y 1800s. These i 4 I n 1796, Anthony Pasquin accused Ibbetson of "running to extremes" i n p a i n t i n g landscapes with a "brazen hue" (Pasquin, quoted i n Clay, p. 8). The c r i t i c f o r the Star p r a i s e d Ibbetson's landscapes e x h i b i t e d at the R. A. i n 1804 f o r t h e i r " s p i r i t e d s t y l e , " but went on to d e c l a r e that "he has f a l l e n i n t o a spotty manner, p e c u l i a r l y h i s own, which robs h i s productions of much of the merit which they would otherwise possess" (Star, 19 May 1804). & 3 " R o y a l Academy E x h i b i t i o n , 1798," London Packet. 9-11 May 1798; the same c r i t i c , commenting on Ibbetson's Bowder Stone i n Borrowdale. e x h i b i t e d the f o l l o w i n g year, declared i t s "spottiness of manner" to predominate to the point of "slovenly excess" ("Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n , 1799," London Packet, 29 A p r i l - 1 May 1799). 100 works are worth c o n s i d e r i n g since they e x h i b i t the same a t t e n t i o n to surface d i s p l a y as the works of Ibbetson, Bourgeois and Loutherbourg. T y p i c a l of the r u s t i c landscapes which Westall was producing i n the mid-to-late n i n e t i e s i s Storm i n Harvest (Figure 7, R. A. 1796), purchased by one of the most pre-eminent connoisseurs of the day, Richard Payne Knight.*"5' The scene d e p i c t s a group of agrarian labourers, under a bower of t r e e s , anxiously w a i t i n g out a passing rainstorm. The c e n t r a l f i g u r e s are i l l u m i n a t e d by a strong l i g h t from the l e f t which bathes the woodland s e t t i n g i n a luminous ochre glow. The s u b s i d i a r y l i g h t s , p i c k i n g out the branch i n the upper l e f t and the d i s t a n t v i s t a v i s i b l e through the trees below i t , combine with a feathery handling of the f o l i a g e and an o v e r a l l emphasis on a c o i l i n g and t w i s t i n g l i n e to produce an a c t i v e , f l i c k e r i n g p i c t o r i a l s urface. Although i t seems c l e a r that V e s t a l l was drawing upon the r u s t i c genre scenes "^This work was one of a number of scenes Westall produced i n the l a t e '90s which depicted shepherds, harvesters, and other members of the a g r a r i a n working c l a s s caught i n the midst of a storm, f a i t h f u l l y p e r s e v e r i n g i n t h e i r labour, or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , w a i ting p a t i e n t l y f o r the disturbance to pass. Such a theme was no doubt a r e a s s u r i n g one to the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s who bought artworks and p a t r o n i z e d e x h i b i t i o n s at a time when workers i n France had i n s t i g a t e d a r e v o l u t i o n metaphorically cast as a n a t u r a l cataclysm by Burke and other B r i t i s h commentators. As Alex Potts has noted, Knight, who not only purchased Storm i n Harvest but was Westall's p r i n c i p a l patron, was a strong supporter of t r a d i t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i e s and by 1796, a savage c r i t i c of the French. In that year Knight voiced concern that the r e p r e s s i v e measures imposed by the B r i t i s h s t a t e i n the wake of the Revolution were not strong enough to c o n t r o l the growing power of the mob [Alex Potts, "A Man of Taste's Picturesque," Oxford Art Journal 5:1 (1982), p. 72]. 101 of Gainsborough (such as h i s Cottage Door with C h i l d r e n Playing-, ca. 1778) t h i s connection was only r a r e l y made i n the press.*" 7 Most c r i t i c s avoided any a s s o c i a t i o n between Westall's work and that of other E n g l i s h a r t i s t s , choosing r a t h e r to i n s i s t on the f o r e i g n q u a l i t y of h i s manner. Although popular with George I I I and connoisseurs such as Horace Walpole and Payne Knight, i n the decades around 1800 Westall provoked c o n s i s t e n t c r i t i c i s m from a r t i s t s and c r i t i c s , ranging from Beaumont, Constable, and Paul Sandby to c r i t i c s w r i t i n g f o r p e r i o d i c a l s with d i v e r s e p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l views.*" 3 Published accounts p r a i s i n g Westall's a r t were r a r e and b r i e f . While the c r i t i c f o r the True B r i t o n , w r i t i n g i n 1798, p r a i s e d h i s watercolours f o r t h e i r "powerful impulse and elegant c o n t r o u l , " most favourable accounts of h i s o i l s tended to ignore hi s use of colour and l i g h t e f f e c t s . For example, Payne Knight p r a i s e d the Westall's s e l e c t i o n of a theme from "common l i f e " as : ^"The Cottage Door with C h i l d r e n P l a y i n g i s now i n the C i n c i n n a t i Art Museum. Only two such references to Gainsborough have come to my a t t e n t i o n . One occurred i n the London Packet. 27-30 A p r i l , 1798, i n which the c r i t i c noted that Westall's ' Sunset was reminiscent of the best of Gainsborough. The other appeared i n the r a d i c a l Monthly Magazine, which i n i t s "Retrospect of the Fine A r t s , A p r i l 1801, p r a i s e d Westall f o r eschewing arcadian f a n t a s i e s , and c o n t i n u i n g the t r a d i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by Gainsborough, of showing E n g l i s h f i g u r e s set i n E n g l i s h scenery. The openness of works of art to contrary f readings i s w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d by such a response, f o r most published c r i t i c i s m of Westall's work i n s i s t e d on the unEnglish q u a l i t y of h i s f i g u r e s and h i s surfaces e f f e c t s , > 6 e F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of Westall's patrons, supporters and c r i t i c s see Richard W e s t a l l , "The Westall Brothers," Turner Studies 4:1 (Summer 1984), p. 24. 102 the subject of Storm i n Harvest, d e s c r i b i n g i t as a f f e c t i n g and f u l l of pathos.*"'* More f r e q u e n t l y , however, Westall's work was accused of being a f f e c t e d r a t h e r than a f f e c t i n g — o f appealing to the v a n i t y and base a p p e t i t e s of viewers r a t h e r than t h e i r higher sen s i b i 1 i t i e s . In a review from 1796 Anthony Pasquin connected Westall's a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e d i r e c t l y to the demands of competition w i t h i n an e x h i b i t i o n space: Mr. Westall's drawings appear to more advantage i n the E x h i b i t i o n , than they do out, which i s d e r i v e d from t h e i r gaudiness of t i n t i n g . . . T h e r e i s nothing more c e r t a i n , than that a p i c t u r e c h a s t e l y coloured, may be rui n e d i n character by being p l a c e d next to a g l a r i n g composition, i n such an assemblage."' 7 0 To c h a r a c t e r i z e c o l o u r i n g as chaste was to invoke the discourse of s e x u a l i t y as a means of r e g u l a t i n g a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e , which, along with the gendering of colour and p a i n t e r l y e f f e c t s , was an extremely common t a c t i c i n a e s t h e t i c and c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g . By means of t h i s regulatory move, excessive c o l o u r i n g i s doubly condemned as both a e s t h e t i c a l l y o f f e n s i v e and immoral. Such a r h e t o r i c of sexual and moral contamination i s f u r t h e r m o b i l i z e d here to suggest that the good character of a p i c t u r e can be "ruined" when placed next to one which i s "unchaste.' This ^ R i c h a r d Payne Knight, A n a l y t i c a l Inquiry i n t o the Nature and P r i n c i p l e s of Taste (London, 1805), p. 304. 7°Pasquin, c i t e d i n Bennett, p. 201. 103 language of contamination r e c a l l s the remarks of the c r i t i c f o r the Post a year e a r l i e r , i n warning of the spread of a perverse t a s t e f o r "gaudy hues, g l i t t e r i n g e f f e c t s and mechanical f o p p e r i e s , " which i f unchecked could topple E n g l i s h p a i n t i n g from i t s p o s i t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l pre-eminence. The a r t c r i t i c f o r the conservative St. James C h r o n i c l e seems to have concurred i n t h i s negative assessment of Westall's r u s t i c landscapes for he accused the a r t i s t of being a " d i s g u s t i n g mannerist" i n reviewing h i s Peasant's Return of 1800. 7 1 An excessive manner was the v i s u a l evidence not only of the s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d a r t i s t who "shows himself,' but a l s o of a debased viewer, who i s d e f i n e d by a love of sensuous d i s p l a y , rather than by s o c i a l s e n s i b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t . Such a concern about the character of the viewers of Westall's p a i n t i n g s was v o i c e d p r i v a t e l y by the w r i t e r C. R. L e s l i e , who i n a l e t t e r from 1812, supposed that h i s showy, s t y l e appealed to those "who are not i n the habit of t h i n k i n g when they look at a p i c t u r e . "'7"~K: This same c r i t i c i s m was also made p u b l i c l y , by Anthony Pasquin, who, i n reviewing Westall's Hesiod I n s t r u c t i n g the Greeks. R. A. 1796, declared that " t h i s i s such an e f f o r t , as no person, possessing t a s t e and knowledge, can regard with s a t i s f a c t i o n ; yet i t involves that t r i c k e r y and f i n e r y which i s so c a p t i v a t i n g to ^ x " E x h i b i t i o n of P a i n t i n g s ... at the Royal Academy," St. James Ch r o n i c l e . 6-8 May 1800. 7 : 2C. R. L e s l i e , l e t t e r , 14 September 1812, quoted i n Westall, p. 25. 104 vulgar minds." 7 3 Other c r i t i c s w r i t i n g about Westall's work i n the p e r i o d between 1795 and 1815 s i m i l a r l y implied, or openly asserted, that the a r t i s t ' s work was p r e d i c a t e d upon an i n s e n s i t i v e , unknowing v i e w e r . 7 4 One of the few c r i t i c s who attempted to defend Westall's p a i n t i n g from t h i s general censure was the c r i t i c f o r the True B r i t o n . W r i t i n g i n 1800, i n regard to Westall's Bower of Pan, which depicted the god accompanied by t r i o of nude, n u b i l e women tak i n g t h e i r ease i n a l u r i d l y - c o l o u r e d , 'bower' of flowers and f o l i a g e , the c r i t i c p r a i s e d i t s " r i c h , voluptuous, and s p l e n d i d scenery," and went on to a s s e r t that i f some viewers f i n d the c o l o u r i n g too gaudy, then they should observe that i t i s not "mere Nature" being represented. 7"' The l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s defense can be i n f e r r e d by what i t f a i l s to say. For while p a i n t i n g s of c l a s s i c a l subjects were t r a d i t i o n a l l y regarded as improving upon "mere" nature by r e p r e s e n t i n g i t s i d e a l or e s s e n t i a l character, the c r i t i c does not go so f a r as to a s s e r t openly that Westall's landscape, described i n t h i s h i g h l y s e x u a l i z e d manner, represented a u n i v e r s a l i d e a l . Indeed t h i s remark leaves open the p o s s i b i l i t y that something other than the 7 3 P a s q u i n , quoted i n W e s t a l l , p. 24. 7 4 S e e , f o r example, the True B r i t o n . 22 May 1807, and G i l l r a y ' s attack on Westall as one of those Academicians duped by the Povises i n h i s p r i n t , T i t i a n u s Redivivus. p r e v i o u s l y discussed. 7 S 3 " R o y a l Academy," True B r i t o n . 3 May 1800. The p a i n t i n g i s in the Manchester C i t y Art G a l l e r y . 105 n a t u r a l i s being represented by such a "gaudy" and "voluptuous," d i s p l a y , which somehow pleases without debasing the a r t i s t and the viewer. Such a t e n t a t i v e defense was abandoned a few years l a t e r , i n 1807, when c r i t i c John Taylor, w r i t i n g f o r the same newspaper, harshly attacked a s i m i l a r p a i n t i n g of r i c h l y "embowered" nude females by W e s t a l l , h i s F l o r a Unveiled by the Zephyrs 7^ He complained that " i t has a l l the spangle and c a t c h i n g l i g h t of Watteau's work," and then warned young a r t i s t s , who are too r e a d i l y smitten by d a z z l i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l witchery. that, of a l l the s t y l e of p a i n t i n g , the French i s the lowest and most contemptible. It has nothing of nature to please the eye, nothing of sentiment to g r a t i f y the mind: i t s f r i p p e r y and t i n s e l please Frenchmen alone.' 7' 7 Again, the move to i d e n t i f y b r i l l i a n t e f f e c t s with a debased French t a s t e i s here p o s i t e d against a notion of Englishness u l t i m a t e l y based upon s e n s i b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t . Young a r t i s t s who adopt such f o r e i g n techniques j e o p a r d i z e t h e i r a b i l i t y to address an E n g l i s h p u b l i c (these e f f e c t s "please Frenchmen a l o n e " ) — a n d t h e r e f o r e r i s k a l i e n a t i n g themselves from t h e i r true 7 4The work i s reproduced as P l a t e 203 i n Clarke and Penny, The Arrogant Connoisseur: i t was purchased by Richard Payne Knight and remains at Downton C a s t l e i n the c o l l e c t i o n of h i s h e i r , Denis Lennox. Michael Clarke's catalogue entry f o r the work notes that Knight's enthusiasm f o r Westall's F l o r a was considered " a d d i t i o n a l proof of h i s bad t a s t e , " by banker and poet, Samuel Rogers, and a l s o " r e g r e t t e d " by Knight's f r i e n d , George Beaumont (Clarke, The Arrogant Connoisseur, p. 186). "7"7"The Arts—Remarks on the Present E x h i b i t i o n , " True B r i t o n . 22 May 1807. 106 character as n a t i o n a l s u b j e c t s . 7 0 The wide array of c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s devoted to the c r i t i q u e of a r t i s t s such as Richard Westall demonstrates that the subject p o s i t i o n of the moral, knowing viewer could be marshalled i n support of divergent i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s . For an o p p o s i t i o n a l j o u r n a l l i k e the Post i n the 1790s, such a c r i t i q u e of fashionable t a s t e and vulgar knowledge was d i r e c t e d at a decadent monied e l i t e and served as a s t a r k contrast to the v i r t u e s of study and labour that were i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with the educated sector of the middle c l a s s and p a t r i c i a t e . When presented i n the context of more conservative p u b l i c a t i o n s such as the True B r i t o n and St. James C h r o n i c l e , however, t h i s type of c r i t i q u e could serve as a way of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the s u p e r f i c i a l knowledge and p h i l i s t i n e pleasures of a i n c r e a s i n g l y wealthy, but as yet c u l t u r a l l y u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d commercial middle c l a s s from the e r u d i t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e d e l i t e s . A t t a c k i n g the debasement of t a s t e which r e s u l t e d from the 7 S I t i s p o s s i b l e that the c r i t i c defending the Bower of Pan i n 1800 may have regarded such a r i c h , voluptuous image, reminiscent of French rococo p a i n t i n g , as c o n s t i t u t i n g a cosmopolitan rather than a l i b e r a l v i e w e r — t h a t i s , a subject whose p r e s t i g e d e r i v e d from h i s f a m i l i a r i t y with pre-Revolutionary French p a i n t i n g and other forms of c o n t i n e n t a l c u l t u r e and fashion, rather than with c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g . Although these two subject p o s i t i o n s were c o n s t i t u t e d by many of the same q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , the harsh attack on the decadence of the French a r i s t o c r a c y by bourgeois r e f o r m i s t s i n the l a t e 1790s and beyond r e s u l t e d i n the abandonment of cosmopolitanism as a s o c i a l i d e a l i n the l a t e 1790s and e a r l y 1800s by many defenders of the p r o p e r t i e d e l i t e , i n c l u d i n g John Taylor, the c r i t i c who attacked F l o r a Unveiled by Zephyrs in 1807. See Chapter IV f o r a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the r e j e c t i o n of cosmopolitanism i n favour of a i d e a l based upon n a t i o n a l character. 107 c o r r u p t i n g power of monied i n t e r e s t s , then, could serve the i n t e r e s t s of d i v e r s e , even opposed, s o c i a l and i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t s . Such p o s i t i o n a l moves r e c a l l s i m i l a r s t r a t e g i e s employed by Burke and Paine i n t h e i r polemics on the French Revolution. J . G. A. Pocock argues that the c e n t r a l crime of the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n Burke's R e f l e c t i o n s on the Revolution i n France (1790) i s not the a s s a u l t on the bedchamber of the Queen, but the c o n f i s c a t i o n of church property. This act, Burke a l l e g e s , was conducted i n order to provide the s e c u r i t y f o r a system of p u b l i c c r e d i t which would b e n e f i t only monied men who were "ne i t h e r noble nor newly noble."'7"5' Paine, on the other hand, i n s i s t e d that Burke's anger was m i s d i r e c t e d ; i n f a c t i t was the c o u r t i e r ("whether he be i n the Court of V e r s a i l l e s , or the Court of St. James") and the B r i t i s h placeman and pensioner who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o r r u p t i o n of the former French court and the present B r i t i s h government. 3 0 Despite t h e i r fundamental disagreement, both w r i t e r s attacked the c o r r u p t i n g power of monied i n t e r e s t s . We have examined how a v a r i e t y of a r t i s t i c texts engage i n ' 7 < 5 >Pocock, V i r t u e . Commerce, and H i s t o r y , p. 197f. Edmund Burke, R e f l e c t i o n s on the Revolution i n France, ed. Thomas Mahoney (Ind i a n a p o l i s : B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1955; o r i g . pub. 1790) p. 125~ B OThomas Paine, The Rights of Man. ed. M. Conway [New York and London: G. P. Putnam, 1894 ( o r i g . pub. 1791)], p. 381. 108 t h i s same form of s o c i a l c r i t i q u e when they evaluate fashionable modes of a r t production, consumption and viewing. The l i n k i n g of g l i t t e r i n g s t y l e and high key colour with the f o r e i g n , the fashionable, and debased modes of knowledge fe a t u r e d d i r e c t l y i n p o l i t i c a l d iscourse as w e l l . An anonymous volume, Pol i t i c a l Essays on Popular Subjects. Containing D i s s e r t a t i o n s on F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s ; L i b e r t y ; Democracy and the Party Denominations of Whig and Tory (1801), o f f e r s a Burkean defense of the E n g l i s h s t a t e against attempts to reform the c o n s t i t u t i o n . I t s author uses the language of contemporary a r t i s t i c d iscourse to condemn the "novel c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " of the present age: A general d i f f u s i o n of the lowest species of knowledge, a dashing s t y l e of composition, a t i n s e l sort of eloquence, together with a d e f i c i e n c y of s o l i d thought, a want of l o g i c a l p r e c i s i o n , and an ignorance of o r i g i n a l p r i n c i p l e s , mark the features of the times with colours too g l a r i n g to be mistaken, with f o r e i g n t i n t s which shame the modest s i m p l i c i t y of nature, which d i s g u i s e the genuine d i g n i t y of truth.'" 3' 1 Lest readers have any doubts about the o r i g i n of the unnatural " f o r e i g n t i n t s " which d i s g u i s e l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g and t r u t h , the author goes on to assert that the French Revolution sprung from f a l s e p r i n c i p l e s , unleashing abroad a "daring s p i r i t of m 1 P o l i t i c a l Essays on Popular Subjects. Containing D i s s e r t a t i o n s on F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s ; L i b e r t y ; Democracy and the Party Denominations of Whig and Tory. 3rd ed. (London, 1801), p. 15. 109 innovation." 6'"' What i s s t r i k i n g about t h i s passage i n our context, i s the ease with which i t appropriates the language of a e s t h e t i c s and a r t c r i t i c i s m i n order to at t a c k the p o l i t i c a l precepts of Revolutionary and Napoleonic France. So strong were the a s s o c i a t i o n s of t i n s e l , g l a r i n g colours and "dashing" composition with a debased, vulgar, and f o r e i g n form of p a i n t i n g that these p e j o r a t i v e s c o u l d be c o n f i d e n t l y expected to c a l l up unnatural and ephemeral modes of p o l i t i c a l knowledge— s p e c i f i c a l l y those * l e v e l l i n g ' p r i n c i p l e s which toppled the French monarchy. The "modest s i m p l i c i t y of nature," d e f i l e d by these innovative p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , i s a phrase that has a strong resonance with the debasement of nature i n c u r r e d by fashionable p a i n t i n g so disparaged by the Post. Pasquin, the True B r i t o n . and Edward Dayes. In these p o l i t i c a l and a r t i s t i c discourses "nature" s i g n i f i e s the customary order of c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y as i t has been i n past, and would be i n the present i f not contaminated by new and a r t i f i c i a l p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s . ^ P o l i t i c a l Essays, pp. 22-3. The term "innovation" took on an almost u n i v e r s a l l y p e j o r a t i v e meaning i n the l a t e "90s and ear l y 1800s, being synonymous with r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l change. Thus, i n arguing f o r a moderate reform of Parliament i n a speech before the Commons i n 1800 Charles Grey was extremely c a r e f u l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between reform and innovation: " I t i s s a i d . . . t h a t the example of France should deter us from innovation. C e r t a i n l y ; I should be one of the l a s t men i n t h i s House to propose or to encourage any innovations. Hating innovations, however, I consider i t my duty to promote Reform. It i s by timely reform alone that the danger of great c r i s e s and of v i o l e n t innovations i s prevented" ( " B r i t i s h Parliament—House of Commons," Star, 25 A p r i l 1800). 110 "Customary' i n t h i s context r e f e r s to those a c c i d e n t a l , p a r t i c u l a r and l o c a l features which a s o c i e t y has acquired over i t s h i s t o r y and which render i t d i s t i n c t from others. This a s s o c i a t i o n of custom with nature and the n a t u r a l i s a s i g n a l feature of Burke's R e f l e c t i o n s which turns on a comparison between the monstrous a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the ab s t r a c t systems that produced the idea of democratic r u l e and the naturalness of submitting to the t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y of kings, p r i e s t s , nobles, and the e n t a i l e d i n h e r i t a n c e of a c o n s t i t u t i o n which has stood the t e s t of time.* 3 3 L i t e r a l l y c onservative i n i t s emphasis on the a u t h o r i t y of past, the appeal to custom was employed i n the l a s t h a l f of the eighteenth century by Burke, Johnson and other defenders of the English o l i g a r c h y as a means of countering the u n i v e r s a l i s t claims of middle c l a s s r a d i c a l s . Radicals l i k e Paine, drawing on the w r i t i n g s of Locke and Rousseau, appealed to the general nature of men and to the t h e o r e t i c a l o r i g i n and fu n c t i o n of a l l governments i n order to c r i t i c i z e the abuses of monarchical power i S 3 B u r k e J pp. 37-9. The d i s c u s s i o n that follows i s h e a v i l y indebted to John B a r r e l l ' s a n a l y s i s of the i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n of the discourse on custom i n the p o l i t i c a l w r i t i n g s of Johnson, Burke, and Coleridge ( B a r r e l l , The P o l i t i c a l Theory of P a i n t i n g . pp. 136-41. B a r r e l l claims that i t was the r a d i c a l s ' a p p r o p r i a t i o n of the u n i v e r s a l i s t discourse of c i v i c humanism } that spurred Joshua Reynolds to endorse, a l b e i t h e s i t a n t l y , the i n c l u s i o n of some aspects of the customary (such as s p e c i f i c types of ornament) i n p a i n t i n g . Although B a r r e l l takes pains to emphasize the tenuousness of Reynolds' turn to custom, he does not i n d i c a t e that the o p p o s i t i o n a l dyad "custom/universality" operated q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y i n p o l i t i c a l and i n a r t i s t i c discourse nor explore the connections between "custom" and "nature." I l l i n France and England. ! :' 3 4 Thus the u n i v e r s a l nature of "'man' propounded by Paine was set i n opposition to the customary nature of E n g l i s h c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . Johnson and Burke maintained, to the contrary, that the cumulative wisdom d i s t i l l e d i n the laws and t r a d i t i o n s of the E n g l i s h p o l i t y were su p e r i o r to a b s t r a c t and u n i v e r s a l systems of government because the customary had been t e s t e d over time by a process of t r i a l and e r r o r . 3 1 3 Such a p r i v i l e g i n g of E n g l i s h nature and custom came i n c r e a s i n g l y to f i g u r e i n v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e . However the opposition between u n i v e r s a l Nature and E n g l i s h nature e s t a b l i s h e d i n a h i g h l y s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l debate cannot be mapped s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y onto a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e and a e s t h e t i c d i s c o u r s e . While u n i v e r s a l i s t notions of nat u r a l r i g h t s may have been appropriated by r a d i c a l s f o r c e r t a i n s t r a t e g i c reasons, 'universalism' i n a r t i s t i c discourse, that i s , the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and i d e a l i z a t i o n of forms, s t i l l connoted an erudite l i b e r a l i s m that was i n the 1790s f a r from r a d i c a l i n i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l base and i t s t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n g . Nonetheless, the turn to E n g l i s h nature does engage with t h i s wider debate on what c o n s t i t u t e s the n a t u r a l . The genre which was understood to represent E n g l i s h nature most d i r e c t l y S 4 P a i n e , The Rights of Man, pp. 304-5. 8 B S e e f o r example, Samuel Johnson, P o l i t i c a l Writing's, pp. 328, 391, 428, c i t e d i n B a r r e l l , P o l i t i c a l Theory of P a i n t i n g , pp. 137-8. 112 and u n a f f e c t e d l y i n landscape p a i n t i n g was topographical p a i n t i n g . In the 1790s and e a r l y 1800s Paul Sandby's topographical watercolours were sometimes invoked as a p o s i t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e to the G a l l i c g l i t t e r of fashionable landscape p a i n t i n g . R e c a l l that the Post c r i t i c i n 1795 p r a i s e d Sandby as a founding member of the Royal Academy, who t h e r e f o r e represented the t r a d i t i o n , a l b e i t a recent one at t h i s p o i n t , of E n g l i s h academic p a i n t i n g . T y p i c a l of Sandby's work at the turn of the century i s h i s Carreq—Cennen C a s t l e (Figure 8, c. 1800). The muted c o l o u r i n g , simply d e l i n e a t e d forms and even l i g h t i n g s t a r k l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h i s composition from the flamboyant colours of Westall's works and the s c a t t e r e d l i g h t s and f r o t h y forms of Ibbetson's. Although drawing on the general p i c t o r i a l conventions of the seventeenth century c l a s s i c a l landscape p a i n t e r s (in t h i s case Claude and Dughet), such a work by Sandby was not commonly i d e n t i f i e d with a p a r t i c u l a r o l d master source. In the 1790s t h i s l a c k of obvious f o r e i g n " i n f l u e n c e " came to be seen as one of Sandby's major strengths as an E n g l i s h p a i n t e r . Here, f o r example, i s what the a r t c r i t i c f o r the Morning C h r o n i c l e had to say about the a r t i s t ' s productions i n 1792 : Mr. Paul Sandby was one of the f i r s t E n g l i s h A r t i s t s that thought f o r himself. Instead of r e s o r t i n g to the d e l i n e a t i o n s of RUYSDALE, VAN GOWEN and WATERLOO, for ideas of b e a u t i f u l scenery and picturesque nature, he considered the prospects that are presented i n our p r o v i n c e s — t o o k them i n the most happy points of view; 113 and has, by h i s long p r a c t i c e and t a s t e , formed a s t y l e p e r f e c t l y o r i g i n a l and English.* 3*' R e j e c t i o n of f o r e i g n (in t h i s case Dutch) s t y l e and subject matter i s seen to connote an independent-mindedness and o r i g i n a l i t y that t h i s w r i t e r c l e a r l y wishes to i d e n t i f y with a general notion of Englishness, not simply the achievement of a s i n g l e domestic a r t i s t . These c r i t i c a l remarks are c o n s i s t e n t with another short piece on p a i n t i n g , probably by the same author, which appeared i n the C h r o n i c l e a week e a r l i e r . E n g l i s h a r t i s t s , i t was claimed, were i l l - s e r v e d by t a k i n g as models the works of o l d masters, which were dark and dingy i n c o l o u r i n g . But an even worse option was to emulate "French g l i t t e r , which glares upon the eye l i k e a bed of Dutch t u l i p s . " E n g l i s h a r t i s t s were advised to avoid both of these a l t e r n a t i v e s , and "look to nature." 6 3 7 Sandby's work, then, had the v i r t u e of avoiding two types of negative f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e , "French g l i t t e r " and the blackened colour of the o l d masters. While an avoidance of extremes i n colour could win Sandby p r a i s e from some of the c r i t i c s who were promoting a n a t i o n a l school of landscape p a i n t i n g , i t could not guarantee him success i n the marketplace. The a r t i s t ' s i n c a p a c i t y to compete with other a r t i s t s was manifested i n his turn to o i l p a i n t i n g a f t e r ^ " E x h i b i t i o n of the Royal Academy," Morning Chronicle, 17 May 1792. ra7"Painting," Morning C h r o n i c l e . 11 May 1792. 114 1806 because he c o u l d no longer a f f o r d the g l a s s needed f o r framing wat ere o l our s . e , e Although the c r i t i c f o r the London Packet i n 1799 p r a i s e d Sandby's View of Denton Lodge for not ; possessing "any of that g l a r e and g l i t t e r which d i s t i n g u i s h e s a I number of drawings around i t , " and then a s s e r t e d that " t h i s I venerable a r t i s t w i l l hardly l i v e to see h i s own works outdone by any d i s c i p l e s of the new s c h o o l , " h i s works were already being surpassed i n popular and c r i t i c a l i n t e r e s t by those very works which " g l i t t e r e d " on the walls near Denton Lodge.3'5' By 1808, Robert Hunt, a r t c r i t i c f o r h i s brothers' new weekly, the Examiner, was recommending that Sandby r e t i r e , since h i s landscapes looked as i t they were " f l o u r e d over with a dredging box," a phrase which c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to the opacity and d u l l n e s s of Sandby's colour i n comparison to that of other landscape a r t i s t s .c'>0 Such an opinion was not f u e l l e d by a high regard f o r e s t a b l i s h e d a r t i s t s l i k e Westall (who, although r e c e i v i n g mixed p r a i s e , was scolded by Hunt f o r s a c r i f i c i n g "the p u r i t y of h i s tast e to the v i c i o u s r e l i s h of others") or F r a n c i s Bourgeois (whose works the c r i t i c v a r i o u s l y dismissed as a poor i m i t a t i o n of Rosa or i r o n i c a l l y deprecated for t h e i r lack of grandeur, G a L u k e Hermann, Paul and Thomas Sandby ( V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum exhib. cat., London; Batsford, 1986), p. 61. • B t i >"Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n , 1799," London Packet. 27-29 May 1799. *r"° [Robert Hunt], "Royal Academy," Examiner. 29 May 1808, p. 347. 115 harmony and "depth of e f f e c t " ) . < 5 > 1 It was i n f a c t Turner, G i r t i n , and C a l l c o t t , young a r t i s t s comprising the "new school" r e f e r r e d to by the London Packet c r i t i c , who drew the a t t e n t i o n of w r i t e r s l i k e Hunt, patrons, and the e x h i b i t i o n p u b l i c away from the works of Sandby as w e l l as those of W e s t a l l , Ibbetson, and Dayes. Although the landscapes of these young a r t i s t s were often discussed i n terms of v i s u a l e f f e c t s which worked w e l l i n the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c spaces of d i s p l a y which we have considered i n t h i s chapter, t h e i r appeal was not purely sensory. Like Sandby's works, these landscapes a l s o were the s i t e f o r the production of the a r t i s t as a s p e c i f i c a l l y E n g l i s h subject whose i d e n t i t y was secured v i a the discourse on nature and custom. However, the notion of n a t u r a l which confirmed these new works was no longer configured predominantly by academic discourse or the a e s t h e t i c s of picturesque viewing (to be discussed i n the next chapter)—modes of knowledge which t r a d i t i o n a l l y were the province of the l i b e r a l l y educated man of property. Rather, the natural was i n c r e a s i n g l y d efined through an a e s t h e t i c a r i s i n g from a s p e c i a l i z e d study of the human mind which prominently featured the i n d i v i d u a l imagination over reason, and d i r e c t observation of external nature over the study of past a r t . In examining t h i s new form of landscape p a i n t i n g , i t w i l l be important to determine whether i t i s p o s s i b l e to i n s c r i b e the ,5>:1- [Robert Hunt], "Royal Academy," Examiner. 8 May 1808, p. 300; 29 May 1808, p. 347; and 12 June 1808, p. 380. 116 a r t i s t as a s o c i a l s u b j e c t w i t h i n a form of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n whic p r i v i l e g e s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n . And i f such a s o c i a l s u b j e c t i s i n d e e d p r o d u c e d , t h e n we must c o n s i d e r how t h p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e s o c i a l were d e f i n e d and s e c u r e d . 117 CHAPTER III The Imaginative Man of Genius, S p e c i a l i z e d Knowledge, and A s s o c i a t e d Pleasures In h i s essay "A B r i e f H i s t o r y of the Subject," John F o r r e s t e r observes that "the modern subject i s introduced w i t h i n a climate of u n c e r t a i n t y as to e t h i c s and knowledge, yet at the same time the modern subject i s an answer to these p e r s i s t e n t doubts." 1 We have t r a c e d j u s t such a "climate of u n c e r t a i n t y ' i n examining the c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v e d as a v a r i e t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s , images and t e x t s sought to r e c o n s t i t u t e both the a r t i s t i c and the viewing subject of p a i n t i n g i n the p o l i t i c a l l y and economically v o l a t i l e p e r i o d of the Napoleonic Wars. The f i r s t two chapters have focussed on the e t h i c a l problems i n such a p r o j e c t — h o w p a i n t i n g can represent v i r t u e as a d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the i n d i v i d u a l when a r t i s t s and consumers compete i n a c a p i t a l i z e d market f o r c u l t u r a l goods. But as suggested i n the l a s t chapter, the a u t h o r i t y of t r a d i t i o n a l epistemoiogical systems was a l s o being challenged w i t h i n and without the a r t i s t i c domain. In t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g chapter we w i l l examine the consequences of t h i s epistemoiogical challenge f o r both landscape and h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , and a l s o analyze the formal s t r a t e g i e s and t h e o r e t i c a l premises of a form of landscape p a i n t i n g which c a p i t a l i z e s upon 1 John F o r r e s t e r , "A B r i e f History of the Subject," I d e n t i t y . ICA Documents no. 6 (London: I n s t i t u t e of Contemporary Ar t s , 1987), p. 14. 118 a c c i d e n t a l , but h i g h l y u n i f i e d and v i s u a l l y s t r i k i n g e f f e c t s to i n s t a n t i a t e a new type of a r t i s t i c subject. Although the ep i s t e m o l o g i c a l a u t h o r i t y of t h i s subject p o s i t i o n remains grounded i n many of the precepts d e r i v e d from the academic theory of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g (notions of character, imagination, s e n s i b i l i t y and u n i t y of expression) these p r i n c i p l e s are reformulated according to an emergent s p e c i a l i z e d discourse of a s s o c i a t i o n i s t psychology. What i s noteworthy about t h i s newly formulated a s s o c i a t i o n i s t a e s t h e t i c s i s that the a r t i s t i c subject p o s i t i o n most c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d with i t was the not the h i s t o r y p a i n t e r , but the landscape a r t i s t , whose productions were seen to i n s c r i b e an i d e a l of E n g l i s h genius marked by s o c i a l sympathy, imagination, and o r i g i n a l i t y . In the previous chapter we saw that two commentators w r i t i n g i n the 1790s suggested that topographical w a t e r c o l o u r i s t Paul Sandby represented the i d e a l of an independent E n g l i s h a r t i s t who had r e j e c t e d both the mannered i m i t a t i o n of the c o n t i n e n t a l masters and the a l l u r e of G a l l i c g l i t t e r . Independent native character was, i n t h i s instance, p r e d i c a t e d upon a r e j e c t i o n of f o r e i g n models, an attachment to B r i t i s h scenery, and, not l e a s t , a founding membership i n the n a t i o n a l academy. 3 By the turn of ^Although the two commentators i n question d i d not mention the f a c t , Sandby's chosen medium, watercolour, was commonly i d e n t i f i e d by contemporaries as a s p e c i f i c a l l y E n g l i s h medium, thus f u r t h e r enhancing the a r t i s t ' s independence from f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e . Thus, for example, Martin Archer Shee, i n his Rhymes on Art (1805), which was a v e r s i f i e d appeal fo r p u b l i c support of a r t , claimed that " B r i t a i n has d i s p l a y e d a power, a vigour, a 119 the century the p o s s i b i l i t y that a topographical a r t i s t , whose productions depended upon some degree of s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y , could serve as an i d e a l of the p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t had become a contentious enough matter to warrant p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n by Professor of P a i n t i n g Henry F u s e l i i n one of h i s l e c t u r e s d e l i v e r e d at the Royal Academy i n 1805, The well-known h i s t o r y p a i n t e r a s s o c i a t e d the l o c a l i z e d nature of topographical subject matter with a p u b l i c c o n s t i t u t e d s t r i c t l y by confined and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s ; such a connection d i s q u a l i f i e d topographical p a i n t i n g from serving as a p u b l i c artform, and hence, w i t h i n the academic paradigm, d i s q u a l i f i e d i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s from a s p i r i n g to the status of l i b e r a l a r t i s t s . F u s e l i ' s remarks on topography follow a d i s c u s s i o n which dismisses the p u b l i c value of p o r t r a i t u r e through the (by then) common expedient of l i n k i n g i t to the spread of commerce and the concomitant ' l e v e l i n g ' of t a s t e : To p o r t r a i t - p a i n t i n g , thus circumstanced, we subjoin, as the l a s t branch of u n i n t e r e s t i n g subjects, that k i n d of landscape which i s e n t i r e l y occupied with the tame d e l i n e a t i o n of a given spot: an enumeration of h i l l and dale, clumps of t r e e s , shrubs, water, meadows, cottages, and houses; what i s commonly c a l l e d views. These, i f not a s s i s t e d by nature, d i c t a t e d by t a s t e , or chosen f o r character, may d e l i g h t the owner of the acres they enclose, the inhabitants of the spot, perhaps the antiquary or the t r a v e l l e r , but to every s p i r i t , a richness of e f f e c t i n water-colour drawings, which r i v a l the productions of the easel, and surpass the e f f o r t s of every other age, and nation" [Rhymes on Art i n Elements of Art and Rhymes on Art (London, 1809), pp. 43-4 n.]. 120 other eye they are l i t t l e more than topography, 3 Such a form of p a i n t i n g i s p r e s e n t e d here as p r o b l e m a t i c because i t i n v o l v e s the i m i t a t i o n of common n a t u r e , and t h e r e f o r e accords the a r t i s t a mechanical r o l e — t h e p r o d u c t i o n of "map-work" as F u s e l i terms i t i n the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s passage. T h i s i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e l e v a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s which the a uthor, as an academic h i s t o r y p a i n t e r , i s committed t o promot i n g . Note t h a t not a l l forms of landscape p a i n t i n g are r e j e c t e d ; the concern i s w i t h "tame" d e l i n e a t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r s p o t — t h a t i s , t o p o g r a p h i c a l landscapes which are v i s u a l l y unremarkable (presumably landscapes d e p i c t i n g sublime scenery are exempt from h i s c h a r g e s ) . Even unremarkable scenes, he suggests, can be redeemed by t a s t e — a term s u b j e c t to v a r i o u s i n f l e c t i o n s , but almost i n v a r i a b l y c o n n o t i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r past a r t . For a landscape t o be " d i c t a t e d by t a s t e " would thus imply i t s s u b j e c t i o n t o the models of Claude, Dughet, P o u s s i n , and perhaps the Dutch and Flemish masters. F u s e l i f u r t h e r q u a l i f i e d h i s statement by i n v o k i n g n a t u r e and c h a r a c t e r as other means of e l e v a t i n g the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of tame scenery beyond the s t a t u s of mechanical i m i t a t i o n s . In a l a t e r l e c t u r e F u s e l i f o l l o w e d the t r a d i t i o n of Reynolds and e a r l i e r w r i t e r s i n d e f i n i n g nature as "the g e n e r a l and permanent p r i n c i p l e s of v i s i b l e o b j e c t s , not 3 F u s e l i , L e c t u r e s i n Wornum, p. 4 4 9 . 121 d i s f i g u r e d by accident or distempered by disease, not modified by fashion or l o c a l h a b i t s . Nature i s a c o l l e c t i v e idea, and though i t s essence e x i s t s i n each i n d i v i d u a l of the species, can never in i t s p e r f e c t i o n i n h a b i t a s i n g l e o b j e c t . " Character, he went on to i n d i c a t e , represents that "essence" which i n h a b i t s t h i s c o l l e c t i v e idea of n a t u r e . 4 These s u b s t a n t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s have the e f f e c t of s u b j e c t i n g topographical landscapes to the same a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s which informed h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , although without "s e r i o u s ' subject matter, such repres e n t a t i o n s could not a s p i r e to the elevated status of epic p a i n t i n g i n the grand s t y l e , = From his i t e m i z a t i o n of features such as h i l l s , t r e e s , water and cottages, i t i s a l s o apparent that F u s e l i i s here a t t a c k i n g not only topographical "map-makers' but the conventions of the picturesque, which Sandby helped to define and p o p u l a r i z e , i n i t i a l l y through hi s aquatint s e r i e s of Views i n Vales p u b l i s h e d in the 1770s. Well i n t o the nineteenth century such views of B r i t i s h scenery were produced by scores of a r t i s t s ( i n c l u d i n g Dayes) and p r o l i f e r a t e d i n the form of p a i n t i n g s , drawings, and c o l l e c t i o n s of p r i n t s issued as sets or incorporated i n t o 4 F u s e l i , "Lectures," p. 495. "'Fuseli's c r i t i c i s m c a r r i e d much more c r i t i c a l weight than that of Edward Dayes, coming as i t d i d from the Professor of P a i n t i n g i n the form of l e c t u r e s at the Royal Academy. Thus, while Dayes' a r t i c l e s e l i c i t e d l i t t l e , i f any, p u b l i c response, Turner was d i s t u r b e d enough about F u s e l i ' s remarks to urge h i s p u b l i s h e r , John B r i t t o n , to r e p l y to them in p r i n t . B r i t t o n ' s response i s discussed below (see i n f r a , p. 173-5). 122 i l l u s t r a t e d t o u r s , a n t i q u a r i a n studies and county h i s t o r i e s , F u s e l i ' s d isparaging remarks could a l s o be taken as a reproof to the best known contemporary w r i t e r on picturesque, the Whig landowner Uvedale P r i c e . In an essay p u b l i s h e d i n 1801, P r i c e i n s i s t e d that beauty was u n i v e r s a l l y recognizable, consequently a c u l t i v a t e d t a s t e f o r p i c t u r e s or n a t u r a l scenery i s not demonstrated by an a p p r e c i a t i o n of b e a u t i f u l v i s t a s or the rep r e s e n t a t i o n of i d e a l forms. On the contrary, i t i s the a b i l i t y to derive a e s t h e t i c pleasure from the de f o r m i t i e s of nature which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the man of t a s t e , 6 Hence an untrained viewer would undoubtedly react to a scene of hovels, d u n g h i l l s , and ragged o l d women with d i s g u s t , whereas a connoisseur of the picturesque would be able to appreciate and enjoy such f i g u r e s ^Uvedale P r i c e , Essays on the P i c t u r escrue, 2nd ed. (London, 1810; f i r s t ed. 1794)), 3:275f. This s e c t i o n of the Essays was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1801 as A Dialogue on the D i s t i n c t Characters of the Picturesque and the B e a u t i f u l , which was a response to Payne Knight's charge that P r i c e had erred i n making a d i s t i n c t i o n between the b e a u t i f u l and the picturesque. In t h i s context the term a e s t h e t i c pleasure connoted a range of f e e l i n g s (such as pleasure, empathy, awe, melancholy, and even, i n some formulations, t e r r o r ) stimulated by viewing works of a r t . Determining what s o c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , or other q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were r e q u i r e d i n order to experience a e s t h e t i c pleasure was a high l y contentious issue throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth c e n t u r i e s . However, E n g l i s h commentators throughout the t h i s p e r i o d frequently agreed on the moral b e n e f i t s of developing a tas t e f o r a r t ; the pleasures i n v o l v e d were regarded as milder and less morally objectionable than the venal pleasures a s s o c i a t e d with the p h y s i c a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n of the a p p e t i t e s . For an earl y account of the moral b e n e f i t s of viewing a rt see Joseph Addison, Essays on the Pleasures of the Imagination (London, 1813; o r i g . pub. i n the Spectator. 1712), p. 6. 123 and objects f o r the v i s u a l v a r i e t y and c o n t r a s t they afforded.' 7 While the connoisseur and landowner Richard Payne Knight disagreed with P r i c e about the existence of the picturesque as a d i s t i n c t i v e a e s t h e t i c category, he, too, regarded a learned awareness of c o n t i n e n t a l a r t as a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r a f u l l a p p r e c i a t i o n of a landscape composed of such elements. 3 Such an educated awareness was, of course, p r e d i c a t e d upon much the same s o c i a l and economic c r i t e r i a that d e f i n e d the man of l e t t e r s — t h e l e i s u r e and s o c i a l access to education, t r a v e l , and the p a i n t i n g s themselves which only a s u b s t a n t i a l degree of wealth could provide ."? '7As Ann Bermingham has demonstrated, t h i s a e s t h e t i c i z a t i o n of the r u r a l poor was part of a l a r g e r attempt by the p r o p e r t i e d e l i t e to c o n t a i n or negate the s o c i a l l y d e s t a b l i z i n g e f f e c t s of enclosure, r u r a l depopulation, and urban i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n on the labouring p o p u l a t i o n of the countryside. The a b i l i t y to convert r u r a l decay and poverty i n t o a c u l t u r a l ' a s s e t ' — a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g view or p i c t u r e — w a s a s c r i b e d to the same c l a s s of property owners whose c a p i t a l investments i n a g r i c u l t u r a l land and c o n t r o l of systems of poor r e l i e f l a r g e l y produced the extremes of wealth and poverty which were the sources of r u r a l d i s l o c a t i o n and discontent [Bermingham, Landscape and Ideology. The E n g l i s h Rustic t r a d i t i o n 1740-1860 (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1986), pp. 73-83]. e R i c h a r d Payne Knight, An A n a l y t i c a l Inguiry i n t o the P r i n c i p l e s of Taste (London, 1805), pp. 148-9. 'This i n s i s t e n c e on the elevated character of the picturesque was c o n s i s t e n t with the shared opinion of Knight and P r i c e that current t a s t e i n landscape gardening was i n d i r e need of r e f o r m — a n issue which a f f e c t e d most d i r e c t l y the landed gentry and those gentlemen of the commercial and f i n a n c i a l c l a s s e s who could a f f o r d to purchase enough property to landscape. For a cogent i d e o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of P r i c e ' s attack on the mode of landscape gardening p o p u l a r i z e d by C a p a b i l i t y Brown, see Stephen Daniels, "The P o l i t i c a l Iconography of Woodland i n Later Georgian England," i n The Iconography of Landscape. eds. Denis Cosgrove and Stephen Daniels (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1988), pp. 43-81. 124 It was, however, the w r i t i n g s of W i l l i a m G i l p i n , not P r i c e or Knight, which had the greatest impact i n p o p u l a r i z i n g the picturesque. Since the 1770s G i l p i n had been promoting the picturesque s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the b e n e f i t of t r a v e l l e r s viewing the a c t u a l countryside. His goal was to t r a i n t o u r i s t s to see domestic scenery through the mediating s t r u c t u r e s of landscape p a i n t i n g , and then to t r a n s l a t e t h i s composed v i s i o n of nature i n t o t h e i r own drawings. Far from being e x c l u s i v e l y designed f o r the l i b e r a l l y - e d u c a t e d connoisseur, such a p r a c t i c e , G i l p i n wrote i n Three Essay on Picturesque Beauty (1792), was i d e a l l y s u i t e d to the man of business. Whereas h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g and p o r t r a i t u r e were too d i f f i c u l t to execute, "the a r t of sketching landscapes i s a t t a i n a b l e by a man of business; and i t i s c e r t a i n l y more u s e f u l ; and I should imagine, more amusing, to a t t a i n some degree of e xcellence i n an i n f e r i o r branch, than to be a mere bungler i n a s u p e r i o r . " 1 0 Sketching landscapes, then, provided an a c c e s s i b l e c u l t u r a l accomplishment f o r the man of business, who perhaps had the time to take a summer tour of the Lake D i s t r i c t , Wales, or Scotland, but d i d not have the time or the motivation of the p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t to take up the serious study of paint i n g . The type of drawing advocated by G i l p i n can be found i n graphic form not only i n his tour guides and essays, published 1 '-'William G i l p i n , Three Essays on Picturesgue Beauty (London, 1792), p. 87. 125 in the l a s t t h i r d of the eighteenth century, but al s o i n p r i n t s a f t e r h i s drawings which continued to be i s s u e d i n the nineteenth century. For example, i n 1810 Edward Orme issued an aquatint of one of G i l p i n ' s many picturesque compositions i n the Lake D i s t r i c t (Figure 9) which d i s p l a y s the formal arrangement and many of the p a r t i c u l a r landscape features which had come to s i g n i f y the picturesque. The two mounted t o u r i s t s moving i n t o the view on the road i n the foreground provide a point of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n for the picturesque viewer, whose gaze tr a v e r s e s t h i s landscape i n order to possess i t v i s u a l l y , r a t her than i n h a b i t i t c o r p o r e a l l y e i t h e r as a p r o p r i e t o r or labourer. The composition i s organized i n t o a c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d foreground, middleground and background, bracketed by side-screens of s k e t c h i l y denoted trees . Although G i l p i n p r e f e r r e d t h i s type format, d e r i v e d from the compositions of Claude, other p r a c t i t i o n e r s of the picturesque based t h e i r compositions on those of the Dutch masters, such as Ruysdael and Hobbema. Whether or not an i d e n t i f i a b l y Dutch or I t a l i a n model was followed, the format of a picturesque composition u s u a l l y can be seen to conform to such a s t r u c t u r e of well-marked planes receding i n t o distance, framed at l e a s t on one side by t r e e s , a road, or rock formations. For G i l p i n , as f o r P r i c e , the hallmark of the picturesque was v a r i e t y and co n t r a s t , d i s c e r n a b l e i n t h i s work i n the trees with t h e i r sinuous limbs and v a r i e d clumps of f o l i a g e s i l h o u e t t e d 126 against the l i g h t of the sky. A l s o enhancing the picturesque e f f e c t are the i r r e g u l a r o u t l i n e s of the rocks i n the foreground, the promontory j u t t i n g i n t o the lake, and the d i s t a n t mountains. As with a l l of G i l p i n ' s productions, colour and l i g h t e f f e c t s are subdued; c o n t r a s t and v a r i e t y are provided almost s o l e l y v i a o u t l i n e and gently modelled masses. 1 1 Although such a picturesque landscape f r e q u e n t l y was purported to represent scenery a s s o c i a t e d with an a c t u a l s i t e , t opographical accuracy was abjured; n a t u r a l features often were s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d i n p o s i t i o n , s c a l e , and form i n order to produce v i s u a l v a r i e t y and pleasure. In t h i s sense, the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of the picturesque were c o n s i s t e n t with academic theory, i n which the "character' (or u n d e r l y i n g "essence') of a scene was represented i n forms which deviate s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those v i s i b l e i n external nature. But u n l i k e academic theory, the picturesque was not designed to elevate the status of p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s , but to empower a e s t h e t i c a l l y a broad range of viewers among the t o u r i n g and sketching p u b l i c . 1 1 Such an emphasis on form and l i n e - o v e r colour and l i g h t conforms to b a s i c tenets of academicism which p r i v i l e g e d l i n e over colour as a means of r e p r e s e n t i n g forms i n a manner which was both permanent and i n t e l l i g i b l e — t h a t i s , i n such a way that meaning could be f i x e d and not misconstrued. See f o r example F u s e l i ' s statement that "languages p e r i s h ; words succeed each other, become obsolete and d i e ; even co l o u r s , the dressers and ornaments of bodies, fade; l i n e s alone can n e i t h e r be o b l i t e r a t e d nor misconstrued; by a p p l i c a t i o n to t h e i r standard alone, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n takes p l a c e and d e s c r i p t i o n becomes i n t e l l i g i b l e " ( F u s e l i , Lectures. i n Wornum, p. 491). 127 The a c c e s s i b i l i t y of compositions such as G i l p i n ' s to reproduction by non-professionals had the p o t e n t i a l of reducing the subject p o s i t i o n of the a r t i s t producer to that of the casual t o u r i s t or the amateur dabbler. This s i t u a t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y acute i n the case of p r o f e s s i o n a l watercolour a r t i s t s , since t h e i r chosen medium had been the s p e c i a l province of amateurs on the one hand, and t o p o g r a p h i c a l draughtsmen on the other. In the years around 1800 watercolour remained a s s o c i a t e d with those p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s which F u s e l i d e t a i l e d i n h i s attack on landscape i n general — landowners, mapmakers, t o u r i s t s and a n t i q u a r i a n s . However, p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n of watercolour as a p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e grew i n the e a r l y 1800s as a r t i s t s began to produce l a r g e r - s c a l e d works to meet the demands of p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n s at the Royal Academy, the Society of Painters i n Water-Colours ( f i r s t e x h i b i t i o n , 1805), and the A s s o c i a t e d A r t i s t s i n Water-Colours ( f i r s t e x h i b i t i o n , 1808). Although the landscapes seen i n these e x h i b i t i o n s were not p u b l i c works of a r t i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense, they entered i n t o the p u b l i c discourse on p a i n t i n g i n ways that other p r i v a t e artworks on p u b l i c d i s p l a y (such as miniatures and s t i l l - l i f e s ) d i d not. Commentaries on watercolour and press reviews of landscape watercolours on e x h i b i t used the same c r i t i c a l c r i t e r i a and language that was a p p l i e d to o i l p a i n t i n g , f r e q u e n t l y employing n a t i o n a l i s t r h e t o r i c i n c e l e b r a t i n g E n g l i s h preeminence i n the medium, 1 2 1 2 S e e i n f r a , p. 118, n, 2. 128 Although amateur engagement with watercolour provided much support f o r the p u b l i c promotion of the medium, p r o f e s s i o n a l w a t e r c o l o u r i s t s could not hope to surmount t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as a r t i s a n s i f t h e i r works were deemed i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from topography or novice productions. A reviewer f o r the Repository of A r t s s a i d as much i n a review of the watercolour e x h i b i t i o n s of 1810. Me d i o c r i t y , he wrote was a s i g n a l feature of landscape p a i n t i n g , "because, to a c e r t a i n degree, i t s r e q u i s i t e s are wit h i n the reach of almost every c a p a c i t y . A mechanical expertness i n d e l i n e a t i o n , and a t o l e r a b l e p r o f i c i e n c y i n co l o u r i n g , may be a t t a i n e d by a course of lessons from a drawing-master." The c r i t i c went on to encourage a r t i s t s to persevere i n t h e i r study and exert t h e i r mental powers. 1 3 I n t e l l e c t and industry f u n c t i o n as a means of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e from mechanical i m i t a t i o n and the dabblings of the novice. What threatens p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s here are not the a r t i s t i c i n c u r s i o n s of a s e l e c t e l i t e of learned amateurs l i k e Beaumont, but those of a much broader segment of s o c i e t y , encompassing men and women from the middling c l a s s e s who engaged i n landscape drawing as a fashionable accomplishment. 1 4 The t r i v i a l i z a t i o n of the p r a c t i c e of landscape p a i n t i n g and 1 3"Water-colour E x h i b i t i o n s , " Repository of A r t s . June 1810, supplement, p. 429. This statement appears more than a l i t t l e h y p o c r i t i c a l given the context i n which i t appeared—a p e r i o d i c a l published by a fir m which v i g o r o u s l y promoted the sale of landscape drawings and p r i n t s as well as drawing manuals designed to increase the amateur production of landscapes. 1 4 S l o a n , pp. 234-6. 129 drawing was a l s o a prominent theme i n the parodies of the picturesque which appeared around the turn of the century. The most famous of these was W i l l i a m Combe's t a l e s of the hapless Dr. Syntax (a parody of the Rev. G i l p i n ) , whose misadventures were f i r s t i s sued s e r i a l l y i n Ackermann's Poetic Magazine i n 1809, accompanied by i l l u s t r a t i o n s by Thomas Rowlandson, and l a t e r r e i s s u e d i n book form. Dr. Syntax, a preacher cum schoolmaster, set out t o u r i n g i n order to reverse h i s f i n a n c i a l misfortunes by p u b l i s h i n g an account of h i s t r a v e l s ; " I ' l l r i d e and w r i t e and sketch and p r i n t . And thus create a r e a l mint; I ' l l prose i t here, I ' l l ver s e i t there, And picturesque i t ev'ry where." 1 1 3 Aside from suggesting that f o r some, an i n t e r e s t i n the picturesque might be motivated p r i m a r i l y by thoughts of f i n a n c i a l gain, the n a r r a t i v e a l s o s a t i r i z e s the a r t i s t i c l i b e r t i e s taken i n one of the Doctor's drawings of a view of n a t u r a l scenery, which, nonetheless, readers are assured "preserves i t s c h a r a c t e r . " 1 & Another way i n which picturesque viewing and sketching were s a t i r i z e d and t r i v i a l i z e d was by p r e s e n t i n g them as p a r t i c u l a r l y feminine occupations. For example, i n Chapter Eighteen of Sense and S e n s i b i l i t y (1811) Marianne, Jane Austen's exemplar of s e n s i b i l i t y , f e e l i n g l y describes a view of the surrounding 1 = 3 [Combe, W i l l i a m ] , The Tour of Doctor Syntax i n Search of the Picturesgue. 3rd ed. (London: R. Ackermann, 1813), p. 5. 1 A[Combe], pp. 10-1. 130 countryside i n picturesque terms. Her expressions of d e l i g h t are countered by the " s e n s i b l e " Edward's r e j o i n d e r ; h i s pleasures, he i n s i s t s , d e r i v e from wholly u t i l i t a r i a n judgments about the p r o d u c t i v i t y of the timber and farms that f a l l w i t h i n his gaze. Within the parameters of Austen's commentary on contemporary manners and morals, picturesqueness and u t i l i t y are gendered s i g n i f i e r s of the undesirable extremes of s e n s i b i l i t y — the former r e p r e s e n t i n g i t s excess, and the l a t t e r i t s absence. The picturesque could not only represent excessive s e n s i b i l i t y , but a l s o s i g n i f y that equally feminized q u a l i t y , c a p r i c i o u s n e s s . In h i s unperformed opera The Lakers (published i n 1797), the Rev. James Plumptre, an experienced and a v i d t o u r i s t , gently s a t i r i z e d Gilpinesque drawing p r a c t i c e s through the medium of a female character. Miss Beccabunga Veronica, a wealthy amateur b o t a n i s t i n search of a t i t l e d husband, takes recourse i n the picturesque to defend c e r t a i n 'renovations' she has wrought in a landscape she has drawn: "I have only made i t picturesque. I have only given the h i l l s an A l p i n e form, and put some wood where i t i s wanted, and omitted i t where i t i s not wanted and who would put that sham church and that house i n t o a p i c t u r e ? It quite a n t i p a t h i z e s , u x y i Feminine c a p r i c i o u s n e s s ' i s here c o n f l a t e d with and defended by a picturesque vocabulary and v i s u a l p r a c t i c e which have become the hallmarks of the t o u r i s t . 1 TJames Plumptre, The Lakers (1797), quoted i n Esther Moir, The Discovery of B r i t a i n (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964), p. 149. 131 Such parodies and c r i t i q u e s should not be taken as sign of the d e c l i n e or demise of the picturesque, as has been a s s e r t e d by w r i t e r s l i k e Christopher Hussey. 1 8 The continued v i t a l i t y of the picturesque i s evidenced by the sheer number of picturesque landscape p a i n t i n g s , and drawings produced i n the Napoleonic War p e r i o d (and beyond), which were m u l t i p l i e d by t h e i r r eproduction i n i n d i v i d u a l p r i n t s , s e r i e s of picturesque views, and i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n tour guides and l o c a l h i s t o r i e s (such as the h e a v i l y - i l l u s t r a t e d The Beauties of England and Wales, which ran to eighteen volumes between 1801 and 1815). The problem, then, f o r a r t i s t s who wished to p a i n t landscapes, e i t h e r i n o i l or watercolour, that elevated t h e i r status beyond that of hack producers f o r the t o u r i s t and a n t i q u a r i a n market, was determining a v i s u a l language which would i n s c r i b e a l e s s a c c e s s i b l e mode of a r t i s t i c knowledge than the picturesque e n t a i l e d , and at the same time produce works which could compete v i s u a l l y with the eye-catching productions so r e v i l e d by c r i t i c s and so popular with consumers, 1 9 i e C h r i s t o p h e r Hussey, The Picturesque (London: Cass, 1967; o r i g . pub. 1927), p. 126. : L^Although o i l p a i n t e r s may not have been as deeply a f f e c t e d by the " l e v e l l i n g ' e f f e c t s of novices encroaching upon t h e i r p r a c t i c e , the market for o i l p a i n t i n g s of popular t o u r i s t s i t e s i n the Lake D i s t r i c t , the Peaks, Wales, and Scotland, was strongly a f f e c t e d by the p o p u l a r i t y of the picturesque. In 1800 when Turner e x h i b i t e d as his Academy diploma piece his sublime view of Dolbadern C a s t l e , i n which picturesque v a r i e t y of o u t l i n e and form i s sharply l i m i t e d i n favour of v a r i e d arrays of i n d i s t i n c t masses of shadow and l i g h t , one of the few c r i t i c a l comments i t e l i c i t e d i n the press i n d i c a t e d the p u b l i c to whom 132 In order to i d e n t i f y with some s p e c i f i c i t y the type of formal s t r a t e g i e s and p a i n t e r l y techniques employed by some landscape p a i n t e r s to a s s e r t a p r o f e s s i o n a l status above that of topographical " i m i t a t o r s ' and amateur "dabblers' i n the picturesque, i t w i l l be u s e f u l to consider a watercolour by Thomas G i r t i n , K i r k s t a l l Abbey (Figure 10, 1800). As Lindsay Stainton has observed, the a r t i s t has chosen a type of scene commonly i d e n t i f i e d with the picturesque: an abbey, r e p l e t e with meandering r i v e r , v a r i e g a t e d clumps of trees and brush, r u r a l labourers and r u s t i c cottages. But, as she goes on to p o i n t out, the a r t i s t has represented t h i s assemblage i n a manner which would have been regarded as wholly u n p i c t u r e s q u e , 2 0 Rather than emphasize the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of the surrounding h i l l s and the i n t r i c a c i e s of the r u i n e d abbey and r u r a l dwellings, these and other features are s i m p l i f i e d and subordinated to the emphatic breadth of the panorama, dominated by a sky swept with darkening clouds. Although the range of colours i n the work i s severely l i m i t e d , part of the drama and v i s u a l i n t e r e s t of the composition l i e s i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of broad washes of c o l o u r — b l u e , set against the greys and white of the clouds above, and the nearly the w r i t e r p e r c e i v e d the work to be d i r e c t e d . The c r i t i c declared that i t was "a P i c t u r e of the f i r s t merit, which the Gentlemen who draw for tours i n Wales might very p r o f i t a b l y study" ("Exhibition of P a i n t i n g s , ect. at the Royal Academy," St. James Chronicle, 29 A p r i l - 1 May 1800). 2°Lindsay Stainton, B r i t i s h Landscape Watercolours 1600-1800 ( B r i t i s h Museum exhib. cat., Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1985), pp. 42-3. 133 monotone brown of the landscape below—punctuated by the b r i l l i a n t white of the abbey, the sheen of the r i v e r , and the l i g h t s dappling the h i l l s . Whereas i n the p r e v i o u s l y - d i s c u s s e d view of Kelso Abbey by Edward Dayes the 'picturesque' eye i s encouraged to dwell on the l i n e a r e l a b o r a t i o n s of the a r c h i t e c t u r e and f o l i a g e , G i r t i n ' s scene c a l l s f o r t h an a p p r e c i a t i o n of his handling of s u n l i g h t as i t penetrates the clouds, p i c k i n g out n a t u r a l and a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms which are only c u r s o r i l y i n d i c a t e d by o u t l i n e . The anti—picturesqueness of G i r t i n ' s abbey view serves to distance i t from the amateur productions i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with genteel "dabblers . " : s 1 A glimpse at contemporary manuals designed to teach landscape watercolour techniques a t t e s t s to the f a c t that the e f f e c t s which dominate the abbey view are those which novices are encouraged to avoid. For example, James Roberts' Introductory Lesson...in Landscape (1800) advises the student (who i s always r e f e r r e d to as he, although these books served an i n c r e a s i n g l y female audience) to l e a r n how to sketch before "he bewilders himself with the seducing witchery of c o l o u r s , " 2 2 We recognize t h i s warning from d i s c u s s i o n s i n Chapter 2 1 James Roberts' i n s t r u c t i o n manual f o r p a i n t i n g landscapes i n watercolour alludes to t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of amateur landscape p a i n t i n g as a t r i v i a l p u r s u i t . Roberts begins by s t a t i n g that p a i n t i n g has long been p r a c t i c e d by both the " d i g n i f i e d and opulent," who pursue i t as a " g r a c e f u l accomplishment," and the "middling ranks" who f i n d i t a "useful acquirement;" he goes onto c i t e the " s p i r i t e d performances" of several t i t l e d amateurs as a r e f u t a t i o n of the accusation that they are merely dabblers (J. Roberts, pp. 1-2). 2 2 J , Roberts, p. 2. 134 II as part of the l a r g e r d i s c o u r s e on the c o r r u p t i o n of p a i n t i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y of landscape. A s s o c i a t e d i n academic discourse with the passions, colour i s regarded as t h r e a t e n i n g the unambiguous production of meaning secured through o u t l i n e . 3 3 Since colour i s regarded as seductive and t e c h n i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l , i t i s seen as p a r t i c u l a r l y dangerous i n the hands of the young and inexperienced. This guide follows i t s eighteenth-century predecessors i n a d v i s i n g students to copy the works of e s t a b l i s h e d masters before venturing to sketch from nature d i r e c t l y . 3 4 The reason f o r t h i s p r a c t i c e , according to Roberts was that i t was d i f f i c u l t "to s e i z e upon the t r a n s i e n t and ever-varying beauties produced by f l y i n g clouds, and the various evanescent e f f e c t s , which often elude the grasp, and mock the s k i l l of the able p r o f e s s o r . " 3 5 3 Taken i n t h i s context, G i r t i n ' s K i r k s t a l l Abbey could almost be s a i d to form a compendium of e f f e c t s and techniques to be s t u d i o u s l y avoided by a l l but the most s k i l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l . 3 3 I n a d d i t i o n to the d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter I I , see Chapter I I I , p. 126, n. 11. 3 4 S l o a n , p. 2 36. 2 5 J , Roberts, pp. 6-7. Although Roberts most frequently c i t e s as models older a r t i s t s , such as Sandby, whose work r e l i e s upon form and o u t l i n e more than colour, at one point he a l s o recommends that students study and copy the drawings of Turner and G i r t i n (p. 9). Such copying would presumably f a c i l i t a t e a c o n t r o l of colour and e f f e c t