UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Kerrisdale youth Hare, Allan Cecil 1954

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1954_A8 H3 K4.pdf [ 14.16MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106638.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106638-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106638-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106638-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106638-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106638-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106638-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106638-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106638.ris

Full Text

KERRISDALE YOUTH by ALLAN CECIL HARE  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Economics, P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e and S o c i o l o g y  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r the degree o f MASTER OF ARTS  Members o f the Department o f Economics, P o l i t i c a l Science and S o c i o l o g y  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1954  Abstract T h i s t h e s i s embodies a r e p o r t on a survey ducted couver.  con-  i n the K e r r i s d a l e community o f the C i t y of VanThe primary purpose of the survey was t o d e t e r -  mine the extent to which the young people  l i v i n g i n "Kerris-  d a l e " i d e n t i f i e d themselves with the i n s t i t u t i o n s  of t h i s  community. The present r e p o r t covers a sample of two hundred a d o l e s c e n t boys (ages 14-18) s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of members h i p i n church groups, boys' c l u b s and o t h e r community agencies and c o n s i d e r e d , i n view of the way i n which they were s e l e c t e d , t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of K e r r i s d a l e youth. The sample has been proven t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the community i t purports t o r e p r e s e n t .  I t , at the same time, i s  similar  to the samples obtained by o t h e r s t u d i e s done e l s e -  where.  The s i m i l a r i t y of the K e r r i s d a l e sample w i t h the  Maryland sample obtained by H. M. B e l l i s p a r t i c u l a r l y significant. In the f i r s t  p a r t of the study, a survey o f the  l i t e r a t u r e on a d o l e s c e n t s has been made t o determine the techniques  and procedures  which had been used s u c c e s s f u l l y  by other workers i n t h i s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h .  Material for  t h i s study has been obtained from the use o f three research techniques.  These were:  Written questionnaire,  P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s , and O b s e r v a t i o n a l  techniques.  The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study and  of e a r l i e r  American s t u d i e s appear i n many e s s e n t i a l r e s p e c t s to agree.  However, the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study and  those  of  the Canadian Youth Commission tend to d i s a g r e e . The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n reached  i s that the K e r r i s -  dale a d o l e s c e n t s are e m o t i o n a l l y w e l l " i n t e g r a t e d " with t h e i r homes.  They are p h y s i c a l l y w e l l " i n t e g r a t e d " with  the  main i n s t i t u t i o n s of the community, i n the sense that they use them c o n t i n u o u s l y , though there may  be emotional mal-  adjustment to these i n some c a s e s . Due  to l a c k of measurable i n d i c e s , i t i s not pos-  s i b l e t o g e n e r a l i z e a c c u r a t e l y about the s p i r i t u a l g r a t i o n " of K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s with s c h o o l s ,  "inte-  churches,  and the community g e n e r a l l y . On the b a s i s of i n f o r m a t i o n presented,  certain  g e n e r a l recommendations have been made which might l e a d to better s p i r i t u a l  " i n t e g r a t i o n " e x i s t i n g between the a d o l e s -  cents and the v a r i o u s components of t h e i r environment. These i n c l u d e improving  the teacher-student  relationships;  adding to the a d o l e s c e n t ' s d e s i r e to go to church; and i n g e t t i n g the members of the f a m i l y to spend more time t o gether to t r y t o make i t a b e t t e r a d j u s t e d and more emotiona l l y integrated unit. W i l l i t be done?  Can i t be done?  This i s the  chal-  lenge which f a c e s not o n l y the K e r r i s d a l e community but other communities as w e l l i n the second h a l f o f the t w e n t i e t h century.  I n t r o d u c t o r y Statement T h i s t h e s i s embodies a r e p o r t on a survey  conducted  i n the K e r r i s d a l e community o f the C i t y of Vancouver. primary purpose o f the survey was  t o determine  which the young people l i v i n g i n " K e r r i s d a l e " themselves  The  the extent t o identified  w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h i s community. The  present r e p o r t covers a sample of two  hundred  (200) adolescent boys (ages 14-18) s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f membership i n church groups, boys' c l u b s and other community agencies and c o n s i d e r e d , i n view of the way  i n which they  were s e l e c t e d , t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of K e r r i s d a l e Procedures  youth.  used s u c c e s s f u l l y by others working i n  t h i s area of r e s e a r c h have been r e l i e d upon t o o b j e c t i v i t y i n s e l e c t i o n and  in analysis.  are t e n t a t i v e and a r e , i t i s hoped, based  guarantee  Generalizations upon the data  presented i n the body of the r e p o r t . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems have been d e a l t w i t h i n P a r t One,  the d a t a has been assembled and s o r t e d i n P a r t  and the f i n d i n g s have been recorded i n P a r t Three. Appendix A w i l l be found a l i s t  In  o f t a b l e s , graphs and c h a r t s ;  i n Appendix B maps t o i l l u s t r a t e the composition of the community being s t u d i e d ; In Appendix C a b i b l i o g r a p h y of source m a t e r i a l s both primary and  Vancouver, B.C. April 1 3 t h , 1954  Two,  secondary.  A l l a n C. Hare  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE PART ONE - METHODOLOGY SECTION I INTRODUCTION 1.  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  1  2.  TESTED METHODS OF ATTACKING THE PROBLEM  2  (1)  G. S t a n l e y H a l l  3  (2)  R.J. Havighurst & H. Taba  (3)  H.S. Dimock  5  (if)  M. Mead  6  (5)  N.P. M c G i l l & E.V. Matthews  7  (6)  Canadian Youth Commission  9  (7)  H.M.Bell  10  (8)  A.B. H o l l i n g s h e a d  11  (9)  K.C. G a r r i s o n  If  l*f  SECTION I I THE METHODOLOGY OF THIS STUDY 1.  THE SELECTION OF THE COMMUNITY  2.  THE ORGANIZATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE AND ITS DISTRIBUTION  3.  INTERVIEWING SELECTED MEMBERS OF THE SAMPLE  If.  THE PARTICIPANT OBSERVER TECHNIQUE AS APPLIED IN THIS STUDY  5.  SUMMARY STATEMENT ON METHODOLOGY  16  20 . . . 26  27 28  TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTINUED PAGE  PART TWO - GROUP STUDIES 1.  2.  3.  4.  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT WITHIN THE HOME 32  (a)  Methods of Study . . .  (b)  Occupations o f the Respondents' p a r e n t s  (c)  F i n a n c i a l set-up o f the Respondents' f a m i l y  35  (d)  Parents' M a r i t a l S t a t u s  37  (e)  F a m i l y Adjustment or " I n t e g r a t i o n " ?  . .  . . . .  32  39  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT WITHIN THE SCHOOL 62  (a)  Methods o f Study .  (b)  The Respondents  (c)  The Teachers  65  (d)  Discipline  69  (e)  The S c h o l a s t i c Environment  62  i n School  72  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT WITHIN THE CHURCH (a)  Methods of Study  76  (b)  Church Attendance  76  (c)  Reasons  (d)  Church S o c i a l L i f e  f o r Church Attendance  . . . . . . .  79 83  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT WITHIN THE COMMUNITY  ..  (a)  Methods of Study  87  (b)  Community R e c r e a t i o n  87  (c)  Groups or "Gangs"  89  (d)  Leadership  (e)  K e r r i s d a l e A d o l e s c e n t s and the P o l i c e  94  • . . .  96  TABLE OF CONTENTS CONCLUDED PAGE 5.  THE INDIVIDUAL (a)  Methods o f Study  101  (b)  L e i s u r e Time A c t i v i t y  102  (c)  Sex and the Respondents  107  (d)  P e r s o n a l i t y Problems  110  (e)  Personal Habits  113  PART THREE - CONCLUSION CONCLUSION APPENDIX A - LIST OF TABLES AND CHARTS APPENDIX B - MAPS APPENDIX C - BIBLIOGRAPHY  115  PART ONE  METHODOLOGY  Section  I  INTRODUCTION  1.  Statement o f the Problem  2.  Tested Methods o f A t t a c k i n g the Problem (1)  G.Stanley H a l l  (2)  R.J. Havighurst  (3)  H.S. Dimock  (4)  M. Mead  (5)  N.P. M c G i l l and E.V. Mathews  (6)  Canadian Youth Commission  (7)  H.M. B e l l  (8)  A.B. H o l l i n g s h e a d  (9)  K.C. G a r r i s o n  and H. Taba.  1  Statement of the Problem The  f i r s t students of a d o l e s c e n t  behaviour  s t r e s s e d b i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , t o the c l u s i o n of environmental  ex-  f a c t o r s , i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f the  t o t a l s i t u a t i o n . The works o f B o i l i n g s h e a d , o f Taba and 2 **t Havighurst, and o f M c G i l l and Mathews g i v e a more balanced 1  e  p i c t u r e o f the adolescent and h i s w o r l d .  The authors  of  4 the Canadian Youth Commission Reports  attempted  Canada what r e s e a r c h s c h o l a r s had attempted  t o do i n  t o do i n the  United S t a t e s but the c o n c l u s i o n s of the authors of the Youth 5 Commission S t u d i e s ^ r e p r e s e n t e d , a l l too f r e q u e n t l y , documented o p i n i o n r a t h e r than r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g . It i s t o be hoped t h a t t h i s t h e s i s , s t r e s s i n g as i t does environmental  f a c t o r s , may  h e l p t o b r i n g work i n  Canada i n t o l i n e w i t h developments i n the United S t a t e s by 1. H o l l i n g s h e a d , A.B. "Elmtown s Youth," John Wiley Sons, Inc., New York, 1949. 1  &  2. Taba, H., and H a v i g h u r s t , R.J., "Adolescent C h a r a c t e r & P e r s o n a l i t y " , John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1949. 3. M c G i l l , N.P., and Mathews, E.N., C i t y " , The M c M i l l a n Co., New York, 1940.  "Youth of New  4. D a v i s , M., and C o l l a b o r a t o r s , Canadian Youth Commission Reports, Ryerson Press Co., Toronto, O n t a r i o , 1945-1948. 5.  I b i d . , Canadian Youth Commission.  York  2  s u p p l y i n g , at c e r t a i n p o i n t s , a r e s e a r c h f o u n d a t i o n f o r the  6  c o n c l u s i o n o f the authors o f t h e Youth Commission S t u d i e s . B r i e f l y , then, the r e s e a r c h problem i s : 1.  To b r i n g knowledge and understanding  Canadian adolescent i n t o l i n e w i t h that i n other particularly 2.  o f the  areas,  the United S t a t e s . To compare, as f a r as i s p o s s i b l e , a r e p r e s e n -  t a t i v e sample o f Canadian urban youth w i t h samples s e l e c t e d from other a r e a s . 3.  To study the problem o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n one  Canadian urban community w i t h a view t o f a c i l i t a t i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the youth o f any urban community w i t h the social institutions  o f that community.  Tested Methods o f A t t a c k i n g the Problem While the study was i n i t s p l a n n i n g s t a g e , a survey of the l i t e r a t u r e on a d o l e s c e n t s was made t o d i s c o v e r what techniques and procedures  had been used by o t h e r workers i n  the f i e l d .  I t was hoped t h a t some o f these techniques and  procedures  c o u l d be made use o f i n the study o f " K e r r i s d a l e  Youth".  6. D a v i s , M., and C o l l a b o r a t o r s . Canadian Youth Commission R e p o r t s . Ryerson Press Co., Toronto, O n t a r i o , 1945-1948.  3  G. S t a n l e y H a l l - "Adolescence  and I t s Psychology"  At the t u r n o f the t w e n t i e t h century, there appeared a voluminous study o f a d o l e s c e n t s w r i t t e n by G. S t a n l e y Hall.  T h i s study grew out o f a s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s g i v e n t o  graduate students i n psychology  at v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s .  H a l l ' s a n a l y s i s i s a survey o f pedagogic adolescent p e r i o d o f development.  matter  f o r the  I t i s a l s o a survey o f  the l i t e r a t u r e which deals w i t h the adolescent w r i t t e n from 460 B.C. t o the time h i s work was p u b l i s h e d i n 1904. In h i s two volumes, G. S t a n l e y H a l l a s s e r t s r e p e a t e d l y t h a t , i n h i s o p i n i o n , the best way t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about a d o l e s c e n t s i s t o c o l l e c t and study day t o day d i a r i e s .  their  The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t i n t h e i r  d i a r i e s , adolescents put down the a c t i v i t i e s o f the day as they a c t u a l l y happened.  Consequently,  d i a r i e s are the o n l y  r e l i a b l e source o f i n f o r m a t i o n on a d o l e s c e n t s i n the o p i n i o n of t h i s s c h o l a r . fill  H a l l i s convinced that when a d o l e s c e n t s  i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , they shade t h e i r answers, w h i l e i n  t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s they s t r e t c h t h e t r u t h . H a l l h i m s e l f used d i a r i e s v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y . s c h o l a r s have found i t d i f f i c u l t i n f o r m a t i o n c u l l e d from d i a r i e s .  t o analyze  Other  statistically  Information drawn from  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , on the other hand, can be e a s i l y made i n t o  7. H a l l , G.S., "Adolescence and i t s Psychology". Volume 1 and 2, Appleton & Co., New York, 1904  4  t a b l e s and graphs.  Hall i s c r i t i c a l  o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and  i n t e r v i e w s as techniques f o r o b t a i n i n g an understanding o f adolescents  1  behaviour.  H i s c r i t i c i s m s have been  justified  by the* many cases i n which these techniques have been used without proper  safeguards. 8 R. H. Havighurst and H. Taba  "Adolescent C h a r a c t e r and P e r s o n a l i t y  1 1  T h i s book i s a p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t growing out o f s t u d i e s made on s i x t e e n (16) year o l d youths i n a Midwestern American town. The problem posed i s "To what extent i s c h a r a c t e r development i n f l u e n c e d by the s o c i a l environment of  the i n d i v i d u a l and t o what extent by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s 9  make-up?"  The problem i s a t t a c k e d by examining  the i n t e r -  r e l a t i o n s between v a r i o u s aspects o f growth and development e.g. p h y s i o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l . Some o f the i n f o r m a t i o n on the a d o l e s c e n t s was obtained from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f i l l e d out by p a r e n t s , m i n i s t e r s , youth l e a d e r s , and by the a d o l e s c e n t s themselves. q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were administered i n the f i e l d  The  by workers who  were r e s i d e n t s o f " P r a i r i e C i t y " and who were w e l l acquainted w i t h the p l a c e .  Information was a l s o obtained from  "case  h i s t o r i e s " and by i n t e r v i e w i n g p a r e n t s , m i n i s t e r s , youth 8.  H a v i g h u r s t , R.J., and Taba, H., o p . c i t .  9.  I b i d . , p. 280  5 l e a d e r s and the a d o l e s c e n t s who The  sample was  escents who  made up the respondent  group.  composed o f one hundred and f o r t y - f o u r a d o l -  l i v e d i n and around " P r a i r i e C i t y " and who  were  e i t h e r a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l or employed. I t i s , thus, seen t h a t the r e s e a r c h methods and procedures, used i n the study, were l i m i t e d to three - the use of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n t e r v i e w s and case  histories.  P h y s i o l o g i c a l changes were s t u d i e d but the m e d i c a l examina t i o n s were s u p e r f i c i a l . representative.  The  sample appears  t o have been  The c h i e f c r i t i c i s m d e a l s mainly w i t h the  l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h methods and procedures  used. 10  H. S. Dlmock - " R e d i s c o v e r i n g the A d o l e s c e n t " A much more s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t was H.S.  Dimock.  one d i r e c t e d  by  Through a two year study of two hundred a d o l -  escent boys, (who,  a t the b e g i n n i n g of the study, were a l l  members o f organized groups), Dimock and h i s a s s o c i a t e s aimed t o determine,  "To what extent do the developments t h a t take  p l a c e d u r i n g adolescence  seem t o f o l l o w or accompany the  p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h I n f o r m a t i o n was  puberty?"  obtained through the e f f o r t s of a  s t a f f o f e l e v e n Y.M.C.A. s e c r e t a r i e s who selected area.  1 1  A combination  worked i n the  of r e s e a r c h methods was  used  10. Dimock, E.S., " R e d i s c o v e r i n g the A d o l e s c e n t " , A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s Co., New York, 19"+9. 11.  I b i d . , p. 5  6  i n c l u d i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , p h y s i c a l examinations, views, case h i s t o r i e s and t e s t s developed the  inter-  especially for  investigation. T h i s i n t e r e s t i n g study ean be c r i t i c i z e d  f o r many  minor l i m i t a t i o n s . The  c h i e f c r i t i c i s m centres around the  respondent group.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the community  is It?  Why  How  were only those a d o l e s c e n t s who  organized groups chosen as respondents? boys' groups represented  were members o f  Are a l l organized  In the sample?  I t s s t r o n g p o i n t s c e n t r e around i t s r e s e a r c h methods and procedures  s i n c e the v a r i e t y of r e s e a r c h methods  used meant t h a t a l l the I n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be cross-checked  by  obtained by one method  another.  T h i s study, w i t h i t s emphasis on puberty, up a new  opened  f i e l d of i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r s c h o l a r s i n t e r e s t e d i n  adolescents. 12 M. Mead - "Coming of Age  i n Samoa"  Margaret Mead claims t h a t a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n r e ported i n her book "Coming of Age  i n Samoa" i s the  result  o f a d e t a i l e d i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s i x t y - e i g h t respondents.  She r e l i e d upon three r e s e a r c h  (68)  techniques:  Case h i s t o r i e s , i n t e r v i e w s and d e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n .  She  f e e l s that a d e t a i l e d i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a s m a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample i s of more v a l u e than a more g e n e r a l 12. Mead. M.. "Coming of Age & Sons, New York, 193©".  i n Samoa". John Wiley  7  study based upon a l e s s thorough of  knowledge o f a l a r g e number  respondents. Mead, i n compiling the case h i s t o r i e s , made a  d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s , both d i a g n o s t i c and h i s t o r i c a l , adolescent's l i f e a prognosis.  o f the  up t o the time o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n and a l s o  The i n t e r v i e w s were person t o person  talks  aimed a t o b t a i n i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a t checking the i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y o b t a i n e d .  O b s e r v a t i o n as a method  used by Mead c o n s i s t e d i n watching  the respondents  recording i n d e t a i l  o f the a d o l e s c e n t ' s  the a c t i v i t i e s  and i n  day t o day l i f e . T h i s study gives the s e r i o u s student o f a d o l e s c e n t s a chanee t o l e a r n about teen-agers society. in  I t a l s o enables  raised i n a primitive  one t o compare a d o l e s c e n t s  raised  one c i v i l i z a t i o n w i t h those reared I n another.  N.P.  M c G i l l and E.N. Mathews - "The Youth o f New York C i t y "  1  3  These two s c h o l a r s headed a r e s e a r c h team which, in  1 9 3 5 » i n t e r v i e w e d more than nine thousand ( 9 , 0 0 0 ) New York  young  men and women.  twenty-four  were s i x t e e n ( 1 6 ) t o  (24) years o f age and the sample r e p r e s e n t e d one  (1)  per cent  The  respondents  13.  The respondents  (%) o f the New York p o p u l a t i o n o f this- age group. were s e l e c t e d from every s e c t i o n o f the c i t y  M c G i l l , N.P. and Mathews, E.M. Op,, c i t  c  8  and represented a l l s o c i a l and phasis was  economic groups.  on normal youth i n normal l i f e  r e s e a r c h team were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d  made of t h e i r socio-economic All  of New  the i n f o r m a t i o n l i s t e d  York C i t y " , was  the respondents  fill  em-  situations.  but some  backgrounds.  i n the book "The  obtained by i n t e r v i e w s and by  out schedules.  The  i n the e d u c a t i o n a l  and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of the respondents study was  The  To check the  Youth having  accuracy  and thoroughness of the f i e l d workers, s u p e r v i s o r s r e v i s i t e d and r e - i n t e r v i e w e d a s e l e c t e d number of the r e spondents of each f i e l d worker's group. The  schedules  that the respondents  s i s t e d of questions which enabled a p a r t i a l a n a l y s i s and  filled  out con-  the r e s e a r c h team to make  synopsis of the young men  and women  under study. The study i s unique i n that i t concerns  itself  w i t h adolescents reared i n a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . strength l i e s operated  i n the l a r g e number of respondents  i n the p r o j e c t .  narrow f i e l d  that was  One  i n s i g h t could be  co-  l i m i t a t i o n of the study i s the  investigated.  that the f i e l d workers used only two obtain information.  who  Its  Another l i m i t a t i o n i s r e s e a r c h methods to  As a r e s u l t , only a l i m i t e d amount of  obtained.  9 Canadian Youth Commission  14A  The Canadian Youth Commission "Reports" o f 1941 appear t o be the f i r s t notable Canadian c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the l i t e r a t u r e on the a d o l e s c e n t .  However, w h i l e these r e p o r t s  cover many aspects o f the problem, many important  questions  were not even r a i s e d . Information was obtained c h i e f l y through q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s e i t h e r on a person t o person or on a group b a s i s .  The i n f o r m a t i o n was organized and t a b u l a t e d  w i t h a view t o g i v i n g the reader i n s i g h t i n t o what the Canadian adolescents were l i k e . The  c h i e f c r i t i c i s m o f the v a r i o u s s t u d i e s i s  that the samples were not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Canadian a d o l escents.  The authors f e e l that " i n composition, the sample  corresponds  very c l o s e l y w i t h the p r o p o r t i o n s which were 14B  obtained i n the 1941 census."  They a l s o go on t o s t a t e  that the sample was not s e l e c t e d on a s t r i c t l y  scientific  14C basis.  The respondents  community youth groups.  were mostly members of l a r g e  The l a r g e non-member group i s not  p r o p o r t i o n a l l y represented i n most o f the r e p o r t s . method used  t o determine  the respondent  the s e l e c t i o n and composition o f  group has not been e x p l a i n e d w i t h c l a r i t y .  As there appears  t o be more than one sample used  "Reports" no r e a l breakdown o f the respondent 14A.  The  i n the  group i s g i v e n .  Canadian Youth Commission Reports, op. c i t .  14B. ' Canadian Youth Commission "Youth and R e c r e a t i o n " p. 2 14C.  Ibid.  While the commission was c a l l e d  "The Canadian Youth That i s t o s a y , Commission", i t d i d not study "Canadian Youth", / i n t h e i r v a r i o u s s t u d i e s the s c h o l a r s r e p o r t e d  on r e g i o n a l groups,  r a t h e r than on a sample which was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l the various provinces.  The c o n c l u s i o n of the authors  represented,  a l l too f r e q u e n t l y , documented o p i n i o n r a t h e r than r e s e a r c h findings. i  While many c r i t i c i s m s can be r a i s e d a g a i n s t  this  study, the important t h i n g which must be remembered i s t h a t it  i s the f i r s t  notable Canadian c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the L i t e r -  a t u r e on the a d o l e s c e n t .  I t must be a l s o pointed  out t h a t  t h i s study gave the s c h o l a r s a chance t o t r y out v a r i o u s r e search methods and procedures used elsewhere than i n Canada and  t o see i f r e s e a r c h methods used p r i m a r i l y i n the United  S t a t e s would y i e l d r e l i a b l e  i n f o r m a t i o n on Canadian  H.M. B e l l - "Youth T e l l T h e i r  adolescents.  Story" ^ 1  T h i s study was conducted by H.M. B e l l f o r the American Youth Commission.  I t i s a study o f the c o n d i t i o n s  and a t t i t u d e s of a group of young people between the ages of s i x t e e n and twenty four r e s i d i n g i n Maryland i n 1 9 3 8 . B e l l and the other members of the Commission viewed 1 3 , 5 2 8 young people.  inter-  They, then compared the c h a r a c t -  e r i s t i c s o f the Maryland sample w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the n a t i o n a l youth p o p u l a t i o n .  T h i s commission was a b l e ,  15. B e l l , H.M. "Youth T e l l T h e i r S t o r y " conducted f o r the American Youth Commission, American C o u n c i l of E d u c a t i o n Washington, D.C. 1 9 3 8 .  11  the n a t i o n a l youth p o p u l a t i o n . a f t e r exhaustive  The commission was a b l e ,  study, t o say "That i n many e s s e n t i a l r e -  spects the Maryland sample e x h i b i t s , w i t h i n reasonable  limits,  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the n a t i o n a l youth population.'' "^ 1  The whole body o f data gathered by a f i e l d of t h i r t y - f i v e was obtained the use o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  through lengthy  staff  i n t e r v i e w s and  The f i e l d s t a f f made an i n -  t e n s i v e study o f s i x g e n e r a l areas - youth and the home, the s c h o o l , the church, the youth a t work and a t p l a y , and the a t t i t u d e s o f the youths. As a r e s u l t of the p r o j e c t , s c h o l a r s , f o r the first  time, had some i n d i c a t i o n o f what the t y p i c a l American  youth was l i k e .  T h i s meant that they were a b l e t o compare  the f i n d i n g s o f r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s on the adolescent f i n d i n g s o f the American Youth Commission's study.  w i t h the As a  r e s u l t , i t became p o s s i b l e t o say whether the f i n d i n g s o f other s c h o l a r s were p e c u l i a r t o the r e g i o n s t u d i e d or whether the f i n d i n g s could be a p p l i e d t o the whole United  States.  17 A. B. H o l l i n g s h e a d  - "Elmtown's Youth"  T h i s i s an a n a l y s i s o f the way the s o c i a l system of a Middle Western Corn B e l t community organizes 16.  B e l l , H.M.,  17.  H o l l i n g s h e a d , A.B., oj>. c i t .  and c o n t r o l s  "Youth T e l l T h e i r S t o r y " p. 11  the s o c i a l behaviour  o f h i g h - s c h o o l age a d o l e s c e n t s .  It  a l s o d e s c r i b e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between t h e behavi o u r p a t t e r n s o f the seven hundred and t h i r t y - f i v e (735) adolescent boys and g i r l s i n the study and the p o s i t i o n s occupied by t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n the community's c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . H o l l i n g s h e a d ' s r e s e a r c h methods and f i e l d 18 as o u t l i n e d i n h i s book were as f o l l o w s :  procedure  1. Planning phase: D i s c u s s i o n s between A.B. H o l l i n g s h e a d and members o f the "Committee on Human Development o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago." 2.  I n i t i a l contact made w i t h t h e community i n v o l v e d .  3. Complete survey o f the l i t e r a t u r e on adolescents t o l e a r n what had been done i n the way o f r e s e a r c h and development o f theory. 4. D e f i n i n g the working h y p o t h e s i s : "The s o c i a l behaviour of a d o l e s c e n t s appears t o be r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n a l l y t o the p o s i t i o n s that t h e i r f a m i l i e s occupy i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the community." 5. The o b t a i n i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o t e s t the hypothesis by p e r s o n a l , documentary and o b s e r v a t i o n a l sources e i t h e r by A.B. H o l l i n g s h e a d or h i s w i f e or by both o f them over a n i n e t e e n month i n t e r v a l by the f o l l o w i n g methods: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j)  18.  Participant observation Schedules Interviews O f f i c i a l records Lists Autographies "The Elmtown Bugle" the l o c a l paper H i s t o r i c a l pamphlets V i s i t s w i t h the a d o l e s c e n t s , t h e i r parents and other l o c a l people. S t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f the a d o l e s c e n t s ' f a m i l i e s  H o l l i n g s h e a d , A.B., pp. 11-45  13  6.  A n a l y s i s of the data  7.  W r i t i n g the f i n a l r e p o r t s .  obtained  H o l l i n g s h e a d made a notable l i t e r a t u r e on the a d o l e s c e n t .  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the  The s t r e n g t h of h i s r e p o r t  l i e s i n the great v a r i e t y o f r e s e a r c h techniques  and pro-  cedures which he used t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n and to check i t s v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . study  i s the s c i e n t i f i c  problem. students popular study  Another s t r o n g p o i n t of h i s  manner i n which he a t t a c k e d the  He, as a r e s u l t , stands o f adolescent  behaviour.  high with  scientific  On the other hand, h i s  s t y l e o f w r i t i n g up h i s f i n d i n g s has made t h i s  o f i n t e r e s t t o the general p u b l i c . One  author's  unfortunate  r e s u l t o f t h i s r e p o r t i s the  s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m s o f the s c h o o l system of Elmtown.  T h i s harsh c r i t i c i s m of s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s has i n c r e a s e d the difficulties  o f l a t e r s c h o l a r s who wish t o o b t a i n the co-  o p e r a t i o n of s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s cents.  In a d d i t i o n , h i s study  v o l u n t e e r respondents.  i n the study o f a d o l e s -  s u f f e r s from the use of  Nor i s h i s sample genuinely  repres-  e n t a t i v e o f the community because of the high percentage o f adolescents  interviewed who refused f u l l  co-operation.  14  K, C. G a r r i s o n  19  As a r e s u l t o f h i s study, P r o f e s s o r G a r r i s o n has presented  s c h o l a r s w i t h f r e s h m a t e r i a l on the a t t i t u d e s , .  development and needs o f the a d o l e s c e n t s , on h e t e r o s e x u a l A and on the youth problems o f today, and tomorrow.  .  The study  contains an o u t l i n e o f r e l i a b l e r e s e a r c h , d e v i c e s and methods which have been used t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . covers  i n a s h o r t , c o n c i s e manner a l l the v a r i o u s  It  techniques,  methods and d e v i c e s which have been used by s c h o l a r s t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n by s c i e n t i f i c He suggests  study.  that the f o l l o w i n g methods have been 2G  found  both u s e f u l and r e l i a b l e by workers i n t h i s 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  10.  field:  Use of adolescent d i a r i e s . R e t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s from a d u l t s . Observations techniques. Written questionnaires. Personal interviews. T e s t s and r a t i n g d e v i c e s . P r o j e c t i v e techniques - use o f f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n procedures. Use o f adolescent anecdotes Genetic Case h i s t o r i e s . M e d i c a l or p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . G a r r i s o n ' s study i s noted  f o r the summary he has  made of the v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h methods and procedures.  In h i s  summary, he b r i n g s out the s t r o n g and the weak p o i n t s o f each method reported upon. r e l i a b l e methods.  Then he goes on and l i s t s  In each case, he does an e x c e l l e n t job o f  19. G a r r i s o n , K. C , "The Psychology P r e n t i c e H a l l , Inc., New York, 1934. 20.  the t e n most  I b i d . , p. 20  of  Adolescence."  15  proving his p o i n t . For t h i s reason a l o n e , h i s book i s o u t s t a n d i n g i n the f i e l d of l i t e r a t u r e on the a d o l e s c e n t .  PART ONE (CONTINUED) Section I I  THE METHODOLOGY OF THIS STUDY  The s e l e c t i o n o f the community. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  and I t s D i s t r i b u t i o n .  I n t e r v i e w i n g S e l e c t e d Members o f the sample. The p a r t i c i p a n t observer  technique as a p p l i e d i n t h i s  study. Summary Statement on Methodology.  16  1.  The  S e l e c t i o n o f the Community  Consideration  o f the most important s e l e c t i o n  f a c t o r s l e d t o the d e c i s i o n that the community should: 1.  Be compact and as s e l f - c o n t a i n e d as p o s s i b l e so t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the a d o l e s c e n t (boys) members of the community would spend most o f t h e i r time i n or near t h e i r home community.  2.  P r o v i d e access to a l a r g e number of a d o l e s c e n t boys who would be w i l l i n g t o a s s i s t i n a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t of t h i s k i n d .  3.  Contain adult, members w i l l i n g to a s s i s t a p r o j e c t of t h i s k i n d .  4.  Be an urban community, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , i f at a l l p o s s i b l e , of other Canadian urban communities.  5.  Be as c l o s e to the r e s e a r c h worker as p o s s i b l e i n order to permit him to have as much contact w i t h the community and the respondents as p o s s i b l e .  research  A f t e r a c a r e f u l survey of a l l the communities i n the c i t y of Greater Vancouver, i t was  decided that  the  community known as "Kerrisdale.'?, f i t t e d the s e l e c t i o n f a c t o r s best.  In a d d i t i o n , the s t u d e n t , because of h i s work i n the  community as a v o l u n t e e r  boys' l e a d e r ,  known by a l a r g e number of a d o l e s c e n t s . s h i p might, i t was co-operation  thought, win  was This  fairly  acquaintance-  t h e i r co-operation  of t h e i r parents and  well  the other a d u l t s  and  the  i n the  21. Scoutmaster, A s s i s t a n t Scoutmaster, Cubmaster, Sunday S c h o o l Teacher, C.G.I.T. P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n I n s t r u c t o r , and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n I n s t r u c t o r at a P r i v a t e S c h o o l f o r Boys.  17  community.  I t might a l s o encourage t r u t h f u l answers  respondents  because of the r e c o g n i z e d o p p o r t u n i t y of the  student to check the r e l i a b i l i t y  of responses.  from  Consequently  the f a c t that the student knew the community w e l l was s t r e s s e d at the time of f i r s t  c o n t a c t w i t h the a d o l e s c e n t s  or w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s . A f u r t h e r argument f o r s t u d y i n g t h i s area was tendency to  the  of the a d o l e s c e n t s as w e l l as t h e i r p a r e n t s , owing  the wide v a r i e t y of f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t h e r e , t o spend  much of t h e i r time i n the community.  In a d d i t i o n , the  business a r e a , the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , the r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t r e s , the schools and the churches were i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o another.  one  T h i s made " K e r r i s d a l e " one of the most compact  communities i n the c i t y of Vancouver. c e n t r e s around F o r t y - F i r s t Boulevards, and  extends  b l o c k s (see Map  #1).  The business  area  (41st) Avenue and East and West  along these s t r e e t s f o r s e v e r a l  There i s a l s o a s m a l l e r ( i n importance,  amount o f business and s i z e ) business c e n t r e s i t u a t e d around Forty-First  (41st) Avenue and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t .  more important  Most of the  r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s are s i t u a t e d  F o r t y - F i r s t Avenue and the Boulevards.  on  I t i s t r u e that the  g o l f courses and  the playgrounds  the area but Map  #3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t they are a l l , as a matter  of Map  are s c a t t e r e d throughout  f a c t , easy of access from F o r t y - F i r s t and the #1  Boulevards.  shows t h a t f i v e of the l a r g e r and more important  18  churches, as w e l l as two of the l a r g e r s c h o o l s of the d i s t r i c t , are a l s o c l o s e t o t h i s f o c a l p o i n t . While K e r r i s d a l e i s known as one of the b e t t e r 22 r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s i n the c i t y o f Vancouver,  i t should  be recognized t h a t w i t h i n i t s boundaries are found a great v a r i e t y of economic l e v e l s and income.  This i s d i f f i c u l t  f o r the non-resident to grasp, but a look at the 1951 23 24 Census m a t e r i a l f o r Census T r a c t #32 (the boundary l i n e s are 41st Avenue and Marine D r i v e , and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t  and  McDonald S t r e e t ) w i l l show t h a t both the r i c h and the poor l i v e i n this  district. Table  #1  The earnings of a l l males over 14 years o f age during the year 1951 who l i v e i n Census T r a c t #32 Earnings  Percentage  Under $1,000  8.3  $1,000-$1,999 $2,000-$2,999 $3,000-$3,999  $4,000, and over Total  10.3 30.1 20.7 30.6  100.  22. To see the l o c a t i o n o f the K e r r i s d a l e Community i n the c i t y of Vancouver, r e f e r t o Map #3. 23. Dominion Bureau of . S t a t i s t i c s , "The N i n e t h Census o f Canada - P o p u l a t i o n and Housing C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r Vancouver. " 1951, Ottawa, O n t a r i o 24. While the boundaries of Census T r a c t #32 do not correspond to the boundaries (as d e f i n e d elsewhere) of the a r e a under study, i t i s the c l o s e s t corresponding census a r e a .  19  The median earnings who  were working was  $3,088.00 f o r t h i s Census a r e a .  i l a r l y , the median earnings who  o f a l l males over f o u r t e e n Sim-  of a l l males over f o u r t e e n  were working i n Census area #5  (boundaries B u r r a r d  S t r e e t and Main S t r e e t , B u r r a r d I n l e t and the F a l s e Creek)  was $1,700.00. Table #1 i n Census T r a c t #32.  shows the earnings f o r a l l men  working  T h i s and the comparisons of the median  earnings f o r t h i s d i s t r i c t and f o r Census T r a c t #5  (which  i s the downtown area of the c i t y of Vancouver and sometimes r e f e r r e d to as p a r t of the slum area i n t h i s c i t y ) shows t h a t the community of K e r r i s d a l e , w h i l e having r i c h and poor l i v i n g i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y , i s a; h i g h e r area.  The  income r e s i d e n t i a l  c h a r t showing the o c c u p a t i o n of the parents of the  respondents w i l l a l s o bear t h i s f a c t  out.  A f t e r the community t o be s t u d i e d was s e l e c t e d , i t became important t o d e f i n e i t s boundaries.  I t was  found  that w h i l e the s o c i o l o g i c a l area known as " K e r r i s d a l e " had no c l e a r l y d e f i n e d boundaries, the outer l i m i t s o f the s c h o o l a r e a s , the p o s t a l areas and the telephone areas were e i t h e r too s m a l l or too l a r g e t o p r o v i d e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample.  I f the area enclosed became too l a r g e (as i t would  25.  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , op. c i t , p.  10  26.  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , op. c i t . p. 9  20  have been i f the s c h o o l area alone had been used), the respondents  then,  would have had t o be c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d ,  which was not p o s s i b l e s i n c e the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s were not prepared  to co-operate  i n the study.  I f the a r e a enclosed  became t o o s m a l l (as i t would have been, i f the p o s t a l or telephone d i s t r i c t s had been used), then the adolescents contacted would not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f ''Kerrisdale" . 1  Consequently  Thirty-third  (33rd) and F i f t y - s e v e n t h  (57th) Avenues were s e t down a r b i t r a r i l y as the n o r t h and south s i d e s o f the s e l e c t e d d i s t r i c t w i t h Hudson and Collingwood Map C ) . lines.  S t r e e t s forming the east and west s i d e s (see  A m a j o r i t y o f respondents  l i v e w i t h i n these boundary  No spot map by r e s i d e n c e was prepared  s i n c e the c h i e f  emphasis was on p r o t e c t i n g the anonymity o f the respondents r a t h e r than on making c e r t a i n that t h e i r homes were w i t h i n the designated a r e a .  But the f a c t t h a t they were members o f  church groups and p l a y groups o f " K e r r i s d a l e " i n d i c a t e d that they were, c u l t u r a l l y , o f the d i s t r i c t . 2. The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and I t s D i s t r i b u t i o n In order t o get i n f o r m a t i o n on the r e s e a r c h problem and t o get the r e a c t i o n o f the a d o l e s c e n t s i n the s e l e c t e d community t o the v a r i o u s components o f t h e i r environment, a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was drawn up i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: Many p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s were gone over t o f i n d out the type o f questions commonly asked and the manner i n  21  which these questions were presented.  Many v a l u a b l e  27 suggestions ' were obtained and some questions that seemed s u i t a b l e to the purpose i n hand, were taken s t r a i g h t  from  28 these t e s t s  .  The s e r i e s of questions s e l e c t e d were then  gone over w i t h people who  were l i v i n g i n the a r e a and  were w e l l acquainted w i t h i t - guidance workers, m i n i s t e r s and parents - who  who  t e a c h e r s , youth  had shown i n t e r e s t i n  and concern f o r the a d o l e s c e n t s of t h i s  particular  community. T h i s group were asked  t o make a w r i t t e n l i s t  of  s u i t a b l e questions and t o o f f e r any other suggestions which they cared t o make.  When a l l suggestions were r e t u r n e d ,  the v a r i o u s l i s t s were gone over and questions which to  be of l i t t l e  remainder  or no importance  were e l i m i n a t e d .  Copies of t h i s new  list  made and sent t o the above mentioned people to be  were  checked  c o n s t r u c t i o n and f o r c l a r i t y of meaning. The  of  The  were e i t h e r combined w i t h other questions or were  added t o the o r i g i n a l l i s t .  for  appeared  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  then t r i e d out on a group  f i f t e e n a d o l e s c e n t s (ages 15-16) who  the r e s e a r c h student and who w r i t t e n consent  were w e l l known t o  had v o l u n t e e r e d , w i t h the  of t h e i r p a r e n t s , t o answer a l l questions  27. Brown, F., P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory f o r C h i l d r e n . C h i l d Study Department, Minneapolis P u b l i c S c h o o l , M i n n e a p o l i s , Minn. 1940. 28. (1) Department of E d u c a t i o n , P e r s o n a l H i s t o r y Record Form G - l , P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia (2) Department of E d u c a t i o n , A c t i v i t y Report Form Form G-H, P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia.  22  truthfully. They t o o , were requested for  t o check the questions  c o n s t r u c t i o n and f o r c l a r i t y . 29 L e t t e r s were w r i t t e n t o Dr. S. C l a r k e  Dr. C.B. Conway^  0  and t o Rev. G. T u t t l e  3 1  and to  asking f o r t h e i r  c r i t i c i s m s of the proposed q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; but t h e i r  replies  came too l a t e t o be of s e r v i c e i n the i n i t i a l stages  of the  project. A f t e r making a few a l t e r a t i o n s ,  (because o f the  i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from the f i f t e e n a d o l e s c e n t s )  two  hundred copies o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were mimeographed  and  a s t a r t was made on the a c t u a l g a t h e r i n g of the i n f o r m a t i o n required f o r t h i s It was questionnaires  study. felt  that the s i m p l e s t way t o get the  out and back would be t o have them f i l l e d out  d u r i n g the guidance p e r i o d s i n the v a r i o u s J u n i o r and S e n i o r High Schools  s i t u a t e d w i t h i n the boundary l i n e s blocked out.  Such an arrangement would permit sample of the a d o l e s c e n t s  a t r u l y representative  of the area t o be obtained w i t h a  minimum of o r g a n i z a t i o n and o f e f f o r t .  Contact was,  there-  29. Dr. S. C l a r k e , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r of E d u c a t i o n , C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 30. Dr. C.B. Conway, D i r e c t o r D i v i s i o n o f Tests and Standard Department o f E d u c a t i o n , Parliament B u i l d i n g s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. 31. Rev. G. T u t t l e , A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r of Canadian Youth Commission, Youth O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada, 1946.  23  f o r e , made w i t h the guidance t e a c h e r s , the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s and  the p r i n c i p a l s of the d i f f e r e n t schools i n the s e l e c t e d  community.  While the m a j o r i t y were i n favor o f the i d e a and  were w i l l i n g t o co-operate,  i t was f e l t  that f i n a l  should be obtained from the Superintendent  permission  of Schools.  The  matter was taken up w i t h the A s s i s t a n t Superintendents and l a t e r w i t h t h e Superintendent school o f f i c i a l s fill  himself.  t h a t the students  I t was f e l t  by the  should not be f o r c e d t o  out a q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n  which would be used f o r p r i v a t e and not f o r s c h o o l purposes. P e r m i s s i o n t o contact the a d o l e s c e n t s  o f the area through  the schools was, t h e r e f o r e , denied and other procedures had to  be d e v i s e d . Observation  i n the community r e v e a l e d that almost  f i v e hundred (500) boys between t h e ages o f f o u r t e e n (14) and eighteen  (18) could be contacted  through t h e i r member-  s h i p i n e i t h e r the Churches or the v a r i o u s boys' groups attached t o or sponsored by the churches.  Arrangements were  made w i t h the a u t h o r i t i e s i n charge o f these groups t o have the adolescent boys i n them contacted student  or by the students-*  e i t h e r by the r e s e a r c h  o f the S o c i o l o g y 200 c l a s s ,  S e s s i o n 1951-52, who v o l u n t e e r e d  t o help i n the r e s e a r c h  32. The w r i t e r ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. C.W. Topping and those students who co-operated should be expressed a t t h i s p o i n t f o r , without t h e i r h e l p , t h e job o f o b t a i n i n g and compiling the i n f o r m a t i o n would have been i m p o s s i b l e .  24  project.  Shaughnessy United Church; S t . John's, S t . Mary's,  S t . F a i t h ' s A n g l i c a n Churches;  and the K e r r i s d a l e Presby-  t e r i a n Church generously permitted contact t o be made w i t h the adolescent boys e i t h e r i n t h e i r Church, Sunday School or a f f i l i a t e d boys' groups. organized boys'  The "Kolomas C l u b " (a p r i v a t e l y  c l u b i n the d i s t r i c t ) and a boys' c l u b  organized f o r the Jewish boys l i v i n g i n the a r e a o f K e r r i s d a l e a l s o permitted contact t o be made w i t h t h e i r members. The a u t h o r i t i e s i n charge o f a few o f the churches i n t h i s community r e f u s e d f o r v a r i o u s reasons t o a l l o w contact to be made w i t h the a d o l e s c e n t boys found e i t h e r i n the church or i n any o f the church sponsored  groups.^3  33. 1. K e r r i s d a l e B a p t i s t Church: The people i n charge of the Youth A c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s church were a f r a i d t h a t the a d u l t members o f the congregation might disapprove o f the i d e a . They f e l t that the number o f a d o l e s c e n t boys i n t h e i r v a r i o u s Church groups was too s m a l l t o j u s t i f y the p o s s i b i l i t y o f causing t r o u b l e i n the church over the i s s u e . 2. Plymouth B r e t h r e n Church: The people i n charge o f the youth program e v i d e n t l y contacted Mr. J . Edgar Hoover ( D i r e c t o r o f the F e d e r a l Bureau of I n v e s t i g a t i o n ) and Mr. M u l l i g a n ( C h i e f o f P o l i c e i n the C i t y o f Vancouver) r e garding the v a l u e o f doing a study o f t h i s k i n d as they quoted l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d from t h e above-mentioned people which s a i d t h a t the survey was the wrong way t o study delinquency. They suggested that the r e s e a r c h student contact the a u t h o r i t i e s o f the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l . When the purpose of the survey was r e - e x p l a i n e d , t h e a u t h o r i t i e s s t a t e d t h a t they could not spare time from t h e i r programs and t h a t they could not ask t h e i r l e a d e r s or t h e boys t o come out f o r a d d i t i o n a l meetings t o enable c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the study. They s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t was not due t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s . (continued on page 25)  25  In s p i t e of the f a c t that the r e s e a r c h was  denied  permission  to go i n t o the s o c i a l  student  institution  (the school) where he c o u l d o b t a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of the adolescent  boys (ages f o u r t e e n t o eighteen) found  i n the community known as K e r r i s d a l e , he attempted g e t t i n g i n touch w i t h one  hundred and  by  f i f t y boys through  t h e i r membership i n Churches or the v a r i o u s boys'  organiz-  a t i o n s sponsored by the Churches and by g e t t i n g i n touch w i t h some f i f t y boys who  d i d not belong  to any boys' c l u b s ,  groups or o r g a n i z a t i o n s to o b t a i n a " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample" of the male adolescents the sample was  of the community.  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  How  representative  i n a later section i n  more d e t a i l .  3. Ryerson United Church; The Church Board d i d not t h i n k i t wise to a u t h o r i z e c o - o p e r a t i o n l e s t the parents o f the boys i n v o l v e d should f e e l t h a t the Church was seeking the i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i t s own use. They a l s o f e l t t h a t as the student knew the boys and the f a m i l i e s of the Church so w e l l t h a t i t would be unwise f o r them to l e t him o b t a i n the c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d . However, the M i n i s t e r , the Kings' Men (a Sunday School c l a s s f o r young men between the ages of seventeen (17) and twenty-one (21)), one of the c l a s s e s i n the S e n i o r Department of the Sunday School and the parents of a l l the boys i n v o l v e d d i d o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e . 4. Knox United Church; The m i n i s t e r and the v a r i o u s men i n charge of the boys' groups of t h i s church, when f i r s t c o n t a c t e d , were w i l l i n g to co-operate. However, when attempts were made to t r y and contact the v a r i o u s boys i n the groups i n that church, the l e a d e r s i n v o l v e d s a i d that the boys d i d not seem t o be i n t e r e s t e d and t h a t they (the a u t h o r i t i e s ) did not w i s h to f o r c e the boys i n t o c o - o p e r a t i n g . 5. The C h r i s t i a n S c i e n t i s t Church: The Board o f D i r e c t o r s s a i d "We wish to a d v i s e that the Board of D i r e c t o r s (concluded on page 26)  26  Interviewing The  S e l e c t e d Members o f the Sample  nature of the r e s e a r c h problem r e q u i r e d  that  the data which formed the b a s i s f o r t h i s t h e s i s be c o l l e c t e d from" three d i f f e r e n t sets o f people i n the s e l e c t e d urban (1) the a d o l e s c e n t s ,  community:  (2) t h e i r parents and  those persons o u t s i d e the f a m i l y groups who were  "institut-  34 ional functionaries"  , and (3) other r e s i d e n t s i n the  community.  35 Consequently, formal and i n f o r m a l  conversations  were h e l d w i t h as many boys as p o s s i b l e t o determine whether the i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y obtained  could be checked and t o see  i f a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about " K e r r i s d a l e Youth" c o u l d be  obtained. 33 continued  from page 25  has not the a u t h o r i t y t o a l l o w a canvass o f the p u p i l s o f our Sunday S c h o o l f o r any purpose." 6. Vancouver C o l l e g e : Contact was made w i t h the P r i n c i p a l o f t h i s Roman C a t h o l i c P r i v a t e S c h o o l i n the hope that s i n c e the Roman C a t h o l i c Churches i n the d i s t r i c t had no Sunday School and as they had few boys i n t h e i r Church groups, permission would be granted to contact a l a r g e r number of Roman C a t h o l i c boys. The P r i n c i p a l r e f u s e d t o co-operate because he f e l t that the i n f o r m a t i o n obtained might be used t o r a i s e adverse p u b l i c o p i n i o n a g a i n s t the s c h o o l . He r e fused t o have h i s C a t h o l i c students compared w i t h the P r o t e s t ant students i n the d i s t r i c t . He a l s o s t a t e d t h a t few boys i n h i s C o l l e g e came from the community that was being s t u d i e d . 34.  Hollingshead,  op., c i t . p. 19.  35. I t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t t o check the a c t u a l hours spent i n i n t e r v i e w s . A c o n s e r v a t i v e estimate o f the time spent on t h i s r e s e a r c h would r u n over one hundred (100) hours.  27  The  r e s e a r c h worker a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d a d u l t s  only i n the " s e l e c t e d community" but a l s o i n other i e s i n the c i t y o f Vancouver, who, because of t h e i r w i t h the adolescents  not  communitcontact  o f the s e l e c t e d area, would be able t o  give the worker accurate and r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about them. The  P a r t i c i p a n t Observer Technique as A p p l i e d i n t h i s Study It was f e l t that through the o b s e r v a t i o n of the  adolescent  boys o f the s e l e c t e d community i n t h e i r  friend-  ship groups and s c h o o l c l a s s e s , Sunday School c l a s s e s , A t h l e t i c groups and a s s o c i a t i o n s , important could be obtained and i n f o r m a t i o n obtained  new i n f o r m a t i o n i n other ways  could be v e r i f i e d . The  r e s e a r c h student  spent much o f h i s f r e e time  i n the community t r y i n g t o get t o know as many of the boys as p o s s i b l e , v i s i t i n g i n and around t h e i r "hangouts", or meeting p l a c e s , d r i n k i n g "cokes" w i t h them, and t a k i n g  those  boys who were members of h i s groups on overnight and weekend  " h i k e s " , where c l o s e r o b s e r v a t i o n was p o s s i b l e .  same time, he t r i e d t o g i v e some o f the a d o l e s c e n t s  At the help  w h i l e they were doing t h e i r v a r i o u s chores, d u t i e s or jobs i n the community so that he could get t o know them much b e t t e r .  36. The names o f a d u l t s who co-operated w i t h t h i s study a r e not given unless p e r m i s s i o n t o d i s c l o s e t h e i r names was o b t a i n e d .  28  Thus every p o s s i b l e contact was made w i t h the a d o l e s c e n t members o f the s e l e c t e d community i n an attempt t o determine t h e i r r e a c t i o n s and the extent o f t h e i r adjustment i n t h e i r n a t u r a l and u n n a t u r a l groupings  and everyday  life  situations.  Some o f these techniques were borrowed from H o l l i n g s h e a d - ^ w h i l e other techniques r e s u l t e d from a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a l e a d e r i n Boys* Work as a member o f the community. Summary Statement on Methodology As was mentioned e a r l i e r , K.C. G a r r i s o n ^ f e l t  that  there were t e n r e l i a b l e methods o f o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . These were: 1. 2. 3. k» 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  Use o f a d o l e s c e n t d i a r i e s . R e t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s from a d u l t s . O b s e r v a t i o n a l techniques. Written questionnaires. Personal Interviews. T e s t s and r a t i n g d e v i c e s . P r o j e c t i v e techniques - use o f f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n procedures. Use o f a d o l e s c e n t anecdotes. Genetic Case h i s t o r i e s . M e d i c a l or p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s .  39 G. S t a n l e y H a l l  along w i t h other s c h o l a r s , f e l t  t h a t the best way t o o b t a i n r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a p p e r t a i n i n g 37.  Hollimgshead,  A.B. op. c i t . pp. 23  38.  G a r r i s o n , K.C. op. c i t . pp. 20  39.  H a l l , G. S t a n l e y , op. c i t . passim.  29  to  the adolescent was t o use t h e i r d a i l y d i a r i e s .  i n t h i s study,  However,  the d i a r i e s were not used t o o b t a i n  mation f o r the f o l l o w i n g  infor-  reasons:  1.  When a s m a l l group of respondents were asked i f they kept a d i a r y , they d e c l i n e d to answer. The r e s e a r c h student r e c e i v e d the impression t h a t very few o f the adolescent boys i n the s e l e c t e d area kept d i a r i e s .  2.  Moreover, i t was f e l t that the use of t h i s source o f i n f o r m a t i o n would tend t o make t h i s study too p e r s o n a l . I t c o u l d , because of the v e r y ' c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i t would r e v e a l , s t i r up more o p p o s i t i o n t o the study than i t was worth. Rating d e v i c e s , p r o j e c t i v e techniques,  adolescent  anecdotes, g e n e t i c and p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , and r e t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s from a d u l t s were not used due t o the r e search student's  l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h them.  T h i s meant t h a t the r e s e a r c h student only three techniques  to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n .  1. 2.  O b s e r v a t i o n a l techniques. Written questionnaire.  3.  Personal  The  author f e l t  could use These were:  interviews. that the method o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e gave i t a h i g h measure o f r e l i a b i l i t y . f a c t that some of the items i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were questions  found i n other p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s provides some  b a s i s f o r comparison. Moreover, a l l the Information respondents who f i l l e d  r e c e i v e d from the  out copies o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  i n f o r m a t i o n which was obtained  from i n t e r v i e w s h e l d w i t h  some of the respondents, w i t h other adolescents  i n the  The  30  d i s t r i c t , w i t h the parents  and w i t h other a d u l t s who l i v e d  i n or o u t s i d e the community was checked i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1.  By checking each i n d i v i d u a l group's responses a g a i n s t the i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y obtained from the a d u l t l e a d e r i n charge of the v a r i o u s groups. 40  2.  By checking the r e p l i e s o f those boys who were w e l l known w i t h the leader o f t h e i r group.41  3.  By c r o s s - c h e c k i n g the answers o f the boys who were i n the r e s e a r c h student's Sunday School c l a s s w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n that he had obtained from the boys thems e l v e s and from t h e i r parents d u r i n g the f o u r year p e r i o d that he had been i n charge o f them.  4.  By checking the t o t a l respondent group answers, where samples were comparable w i t h the r e s u l t s obtained i n s t u d i e s done i n other p a r t s of the c o n t i n e n t .  5.  Group i n t e r v i e w s were conducted t o b r i n g out a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and t o check the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y obtained from other sources.  6.  P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s were used t o check not only the i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s but a l s o the group r e s u l t s and to obtain a d d i t i o n a l information.  7.  The t o t a l respondent group's answers as t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s were checked by watching t h e i r attendance at the v a r i o u s community r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t r e s .  8.  Some of the parents ( o f those boys who were respondents) permitted the use o f t h e i r sons' h i s t o r i e s as case s t u d i e s t o i l l u s t r a t e s p e c i a l f a c t o r s under the assurance that anonymity would be assured.  40. T h i s was done w i t h the f i r s t three Boys' groups cont a c t e d , a Byerson United Church Sunday School c l a s s , a S t . F a i t h ' s A n g l i c a n Sunday School c l a s s , and the Kolomas Boys' club. 41. T h i s was done w i t h one group only ( a S e n i o r Boys' c l a s s i n Ryerson United Sunday S c h o o l , (Senior Department) t o be used as an example t o i l l u s t r a t e the very c l o s e r e l a t i o n ship which e x i s t e d between the youth l e a d e r and the members of the group i n some o f the Boys' Clubs found i n K e r r i s d a l e .  31  9.  I n f o r m a t i o n concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the boys bel o n g i n g t o a group or c l u b t o each other member and t o the l e a d e r o f the group was obtained i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: (a)  Each boy i n the s e l e c t e d group was p r i v a t e l y asked to prepare a s o c l o m e t r i c c h a r t showing, by means of a diagram or c i r c l e s , h i s f e e l i n g s concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t e d between h i m s e l f and the other members o f the c l a s s , and between hims e l f and the l e a d e r by v a r y i n g the d i s t a n c e or space between the c i r c l e s t o show the i n t e n s i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t o a l l o c a t e the order i n which they came.  (b) The w r i t e r , i n c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the t e a c h e r of the Sunday School c l a s s i n v o l v e d , watched a l l the members of the c l a s s i n c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n order t o see i f the answers o b t a i n e d by the above-mentioned method corresponded or n o t . (c) Methods 9 (a) and (b) were checked a year l a t e r t o determine i f and by how much the r e l a t i o n s h i p s had changed, i f any.  U-2. See f o o t n o t e #hl  PART TWO - GROUP STUDIES  S o c i a l Adjustment W i t h i n the Home (a)  Methods of Study  (b)  Occupations of the Respondents  (e)  F i n a n c i a l set-up of the respondents' f a m i l i e s  (d)  Parents' m a r i t a l  (e)  Family i n t e g r a t i o n .  status.  1  parents  32  Methods o f Study Co-operation  i n the study o f the a d o l e s c e n t  i n the  s e t t i n g o f h i s f a m i l y was more d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n than c o o p e r a t i o n f o r h i s study  i n t h e s e t t i n g o f the s c h o o l , the  Church and the community. ion  had been omitted  I t i s p o s s i b l e that i f t h i s s e c t -  no s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n t o the  project  would have been r a i s e d by the s c h o o l and church a u t h o r i t i e s or by the p a r e n t s . were permitted  Yet when a group o f t w e n t y - f i v e  t o see the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  parents  had i t s purpose  explained t o them, almost n i n e t y per cent o f them were w i l l i n g t o have t h e i r sons answer t h i s s e c t i o n . p a r e n t s , who a t f i r s t  Other,  r a i s e d o b j e c t i o n s , co-operated  the aims and methods o f the study were explained the l e a d e r s o f the groups c o - o p e r a t i n g  when  to* them by  i n the study.  f a c t that the use o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and s t a t i s t i c a l  The pro-  cedures i n s t e a d o f the i n t e r v i e w , guaranteed anonymity, appealed to a l l parents who had t h i s f a c t drawn t o t h e i r attention. Occupations o f the Respondents' The  occupations  Parents  o f the respondents' f a t h e r s were  e a s i l y determined by the s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d q u e s t i o n , "What i s the o c c u p a t i o n  o f your f a t h e r ? "  T h i s had the l a r g e s t  number o f answers r e c e i v e d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Indeed,  t h i s q u e s t i o n was so c a r e f u l l y answered by the respondents t h a t i t was found p o s s i b l e , w i t h a l i t t l e  checking  o f the  33  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t o i d e n t i f y the i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t , the r e s e a r c h student made a l i s t  respondent. of the  As  a  occupations  and then scored t h i s item o f f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e so that the other students  (e.g. the S o c i o l o g y 2 0 0 students who  were  h e l p i n g w i t h t h i s study) working w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e would not be a b l e to d i s c o v e r the i d e n t i t y  of the  respondents.  T a b l e #2 A comparison of the occupations of the Respondents' f a t h e r s and the occupations of a l l males over 14 years of age l i v i n g i n Census T r a c t # 3 2 4 3 Occupations  T h i s Study's  Census T r a c t # 3 2  Percentages  Percentages  I.  Labor  20.5  22.2  II.  Professional  20.0  16.9  I I I . Executives  19.5  30.0  IV.  Business  19.5  12.8  V.  Finance  14.5  14.3  VI.  Others  6.0 Total  ...  3.8  100.  100.  Number of Respondents 2 0 0 T a b l e # 2 shows, q u i t e c l e a r l y , the percentages the two  f o r the s i x groups of occupations obtained  surveys.  The d i f f e r e n c e i n percentages  too s l i g h t t o j u s t i f y or demand an exhaustive  43.  different by  i s generally  analysis.  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , op_. c i t , p.  11  34  The o n l y percentages  which would seem t o demand  explanations a r e the three which show s u b s t a n t i a l ences.  These are the percentages  " E x e c u t i v e s " , and "Business"  differ-  for "Professional",  men.  At times, i t i s o f t e n hard to determine i n t o what category of put.  o c c u p a t i o n s , a s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n should be  For example, a s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s i m i l a r to a  manager o f a s t o r e could be c l a s s i f i e d u t i v e " or as a " b u s i n e s s " .  e i t h e r as an "exec-  Regardless of how  i f i e d , an argument c o u l d be r a i s e d as to why put i n the other category.  i t was  class-  i t should be  I f the two c a t e g o r i e s were com-  bined and i t became " B u s i n e s s - E x e c u t i v e " , then no argument could be r a i s e d .  I f these two c a t e g o r i e s i n t a b l e #2  were combined, then t h i r t y - n i n e per cent o f the respondents' f a t h e r s and f o r t y - t w o p o i n t e i g h t per cent of a l l employed males r e s i d i n g i n Census T r a c t #32 would be employed as "Bus ines s-Execut i v e s " . By f o l l o w i n g a s i m i l a r l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g , arguments could be r a i s e d t o enlarge the category of "BusinessE x e c u t i v e " t o i n c l u d e the p r o f e s s i o n a l group, i . e . a mining engineer who  i s a manager of a mine c o u l d l e g i t i m a t e l y be  r e f e r r e d to as a " P r o f e s s i o n a l - B u s i n e s s - E x e c u t i v e " . I f t h i s was done i n T a b l e #32,  then f i f t y - n i n e per cent of  f a t h e r s and f i f t y - e i g h t per cent of employed males  respondents' residing  35  i n Census T r a c t # 3 2 would f a l l  i n t o t h i s new  category.  There would, then, e x i s t very s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the percentages  obtained by the two  surveys.  The  figures  obtained by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s are supposed to be accurate and  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the a r e a .  is  e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , t h a t the sample  felt,  i n one  As a r e s u l t , i t  obtained by t h i s study i s q u i t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the community.  total  I t i s doubted that the sample could have been  more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i f the s c h o o l s had  co-operated  i n the  study. F i n a n c i a l Set-up of the Respondents' F a m i l i e s . I t has been shown t h a t there were only s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the percentages c a t e g o r i e s found felt  i n the two  of the v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l  surveys.  As a r e s u l t , i t i s  t h a t Table. #1 w h i l e g i v i n g the y e a r l y incomes of a l l  employed males over f o u r t e e n years of age  l i v i n g i n Census  T r a c t # 3 2 w i l l a l s o give some i n s i g h t i n t o the set-up of the respondents'  financial  families.  E i g h t p o i n t three per cent of employed males of 44 Census T r a c t # 3 2  earned  l e s s than one thousand  d o l l a r s ; ten p o i n t three per cent earned  $1,999.00; 44.  ($1,000.00)  from $ 1 , 0 0 0 . 0 0  t h i r t y p o i n t one per cent earned  to  from $ 2 , 0 0 0 . 0 0  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , I b i d , page 8.  to  36  to $ 2 , 9 9 9 . 0 0 ;  twenty p o i n t seven per cent earned  t o $ 3 , 9 9 9 . 0 0 and  from  $3,000.  $4,000.00  t h i r t y p o i n t s i x per cent earned  or  more per year. Owing to the number of people whose y e a r l y earnings are over $ 3 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , the median earnings f o r the area i s higher than the median earnings found i n the poorest r e s i d e n t 45 ial district  i n Vancouver.  (Census T r a c t #5)  The median  earnings f o r K e r r i s d a l e were $ 3 , 0 8 8 . 0 0 as compared w i t h $1,700.00,  which i s the median earned  f o r Census T r a c t  T h i s reason a l o n e , j u s t i f i e s the statement  #5.  that K e r r i s d a l e  i s one of the b e t t e r r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s i n the c i t y of Vancouver. In an attempt spondents thought  to l e a r n what the two hundred r e -  about the f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of t h e i r  f a m i l i e s , the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n was  asked,  "Has  or w i l l  the f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s of your f a m i l y hinder you i n any way?" E l e v e n p o i n t f i v e per cent of the  respondents  f e l t t h a t the f i n a n c i a l set-up of t h e i r f a m i l y had or would h i n d e r them i n some way.  hindered  Three per cent of them  s a i d that i t would mean that they are or would be without s u f f i c i e n t spending money. respondents  p o i n t f i v e per cent of the  s a i d that they were or would be prevented  going to U n i v e r s i t y . 45.  Two  Two  from  p o i n t f i v e per cent s a i d that they  Ibminion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , I b i d , page 9  felt  embarrassed  every.time they took t h e i r f r i e n d s home  because of the f a m i l y f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s .  Three p o i n t  five  per cent of the respondents, w h i l e c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s has or w i l l h i n d e r them i n some way, to e l a b o r a t e on t h i s . the  community who  their or  environment  family refused  Thus, t h e r e are a few i n d i v i d u a l s i n  are aware o f the f i n a n c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n but who  cannot accept them f o r one  reason  another. Parents' M a r i t a l S t a t u s The respondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e the m a r i t a l  s t a t u s of t h e i r p a r e n t s .  T h e i r answers were then compared  w i t h the f i n d i n g s of the American Youth Commission r e p o r t 46 f o r urban r e g i o n s .  This forms  the b a s i s f o r T a b l e  #3.  Nineteen per cent of the respondents contacted by the K e r r i s d a l e study refused t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . could be obtained f o r t h i s .  In the Maryland sample,  respondents co-operated.  46.  H.M.  No reason  B e l l , op,, c i t . Page 21  a l l the  38  Table  #3  The Parents' M a r i t a l Status M a r i t a l Status  1. 2. 3. 4.  T h i s Study's Percentages  American Youth Commission Percentages f o r urban r e g i o n  59.5  64.6  or both parents dead . . .  15.0  28.1  Parents are separated or d i v o r c e d .  7.5  7.3  19.0  0.0  100.0  100.0  Parents l i v i n g t o gether One  No answer Total  ...  I t has been seen t h a t i n t h r e e of the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s , there are s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e p o r t e d on by the two s t u d i e s .  percentages  The reason f o r t h i s  differ-  ence, i t i s f e l t , l i e s i n the n i n e t e e n per cent of the K e r r i s d a l e respondents  who  r e f u s e d to answer t h i s  question.  I f f i v e per cent of t h i s group had answered t h a t t h e i r parents were l i v i n g together and  i f f o u r t e e n per c e n t - o f  t h i s group had answered t h a t one  or both of t h e i r  parents  were dead, then there would e x i s t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c a t e g o r i e s ranging from 0.1  to 0.2 per c e n t .  Then i t c o u l d have  been s a i d that the sample obtained by t h i s study, i n one r e s p e c t , was  s i m i l a r to the sample obtained by the American  Youth Commission r e p o r t f o r urban regions which i n t u r n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the American N a t i o n a l urban  parent's  was  marital status. However the n i n e t e e n per cent o f the respondents who d i d not answer t h i s q u e s t i o n may have come from broken homes caused by the parents being separated or d i v o r c e d . In t h i s case, t h e i r i n h i b i t i o n s vented  them from answering  about t h i s may have p r e -  this question.  Family Adjustment or " I n t e g r a t i o n " 47 M.P. Nimkoff  f e e l s that I f the f a m i l y (composed  of parents and a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n ) i s w e l l a d j u s t e d or " i n t e g r a t e d " , then a l l the members o f the f a m i l y would go out together and would spend a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f time together.  Consequently,  the respondents  were asked:  o f t e n does the whole f a m i l y go out t o g e t h e r ? " illustrates  "How  Table #4  the answers obtained from the respondents. T a b l e #4 How o f t e n the whole f a m i l y o f the respondent goes out together Percentages  Frequency Quite o f t e n  28.5  Occasionally  40.0  Seldom  18.5  Never  3.5  No answer  %1 Total  100.0  47. Nimkoff, M.F. "Marriage and the F a m i l y " HoughtonM i f f l e n Company, New York, 1947, p. 7l5  A s e l e c t e d sample of the respondents were asked, i n i n t e r v i e w s , how  they a r r i v e d a t the answer t h a t they gave i n  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  to t h i s question.  I t was  learned that  by  the term " q u i t e o f t e n " , they meant a t l e a s t twice a week; by " o c c a s i o n a l l y " , they meant a t l e a s t once a week; by once every two  weeks or l e s s ; and  "seldom",  by "never" they meant j u s t  that. Thus, from Table #f,  i t was  learned  that s i x t y - e i g h t  p o i n t f i v e per cent o f the respondents s a i d t h a t f a m i l i e s went out together Eighteen  their  a t l e a s t once a week or more.  p o i n t f i v e per cent of the respondents s a i d t h a t  t h e i r whole f a m i l y went out together every two weeks or l e s s .  as a f a m i l y group once  Three p o i n t f i v e per cent s a i d  that t h e i r f a m i l y never goes out t o g e t h e r .  Nine p o i n t  per cent of the respondents r e f u s e d t o answer t h i s L.H.  Stott  goes out together time together,  argues t h a t i f the f a m i l y  as a f a m i l y group and  has  an  then the home i s a s u c c e s s f u l one  question.  frequently enjoyable i n that  c h i l d r e n e s p e c i a l l y the boys w i l l be w e l l a d j u s t e d . Terman  five  the  L.  f e e l s t h a t t h i s mutual enjoyment of common i n t e r e s t s  kQ. S t o t t , L.H. " P e r s o n a l i t y Development i n Farm, S m a l l town, and C i t y C h i l d r e n " . A g r i c u l t u r e Experiment S t a t i o n Research B u l l e t i n No. l M f , U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska, 1 9 3 9 , p. 3 3 . If9. Terman, vLew.is, et a l . " P s y c h o l o g i c a l F a c t o r s M a r i t a l Happiness", P r e n t i c e - H a l l , New York, 1 9 3 9 , p.  in 301  Ifl  i s e s s e n t i a l f o r married couples.  E.W.Burgess and  L.  50 C o t t r e l l , J r . agree w i t h t h i s .  A l l three  scholars  t h a t t h i s makes f o r a w e l l i n t e g r a t e d f a m i l y . it  is felt  per cent  Consequently,  that t h i s i n d i c a t e s that s i x t y - s i x point  of the f a m i l i e s contacted  feel  five  by t h i s study are w e l l  integrated. Table  #5  Favorite Family A c t i v i t i e s Activity  Percentage  S i t t i n g around, t a l k i n g  27.0  L i s t e n i n g t o the r a d i o  19.0  Working together  8.0  Doing v a r i o u s  6.0  other t h i n g s together  *+0.0  Combination o f the f i r s t f o u r answers  100.0  Total Table #5 on the l i s t  i l l u s t r a t e s those t h i n g s which are  of f a v o r i t e f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s .  The  high  significant  t h i n g i s t h a t there are no d e f i n i t e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a l a r g e percentage of the f a m i l i e s enjoy.  Instead  the f a m i l i e s  seem t o p r e f e r t o have a v a r i e t y of common i n t e r e s t s . it  i s f e l t makes f o r b e t t e r f a m i l y I n the d i s c u s s i o n of "how  This  solidarity. o f t e n the whole f a m i l y  50. Burgess, E.W. and C o t t r e l l , L. J r . " P r e d i c t i n g Success or F a i l u r e i n M a r r i a g e " . McGraw-Hill Book Company New York, 1 9 3 8 , p. 211.  42  went out t o g e t h e r " , i t was  argued that the f a m i l i e s , i n  order t o go out together and t o have fun i n doing so, must have something i n common.  When twenty-seven per cent of the  respondents f e e l that t h e i r f a v o r i t e f a m i l y a c t i v i t y i s " s i t t i n g around and t a l k i n g " , then the f a m i l i e s must have something i n common, e s p e c i a l l y i f a l l the members o f the f a m i l y enjoy doing t h i s .  51 M.F.  Nimkoff  f e e l s that the modern, urban f a m i l y  has more l e i s u r e time than the r u r a l f a m i l y .  He, a l s o ,  f e e l s that t h i s l e i s u r e time i s spent by the whole f a m i l y i n the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The  P l a y i n g games t o g e t h e r L i s t e n i n g t o the r a d i o Working t o g e t h e r around the house Games Going to shows t o g e t h e r S i t t i n g around and t a l k i n g Individual interests. American Youth Commission l i s t s most of the  above-mentioned  a c t i v i t i e s i n the graph on " P r i n c i p a l  leisure  5J>. time a c t i v i t i e s of the male youth".  As a r e s u l t , the homes  contacted by t h i s study seem t o enjoy those f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s which are h i g h on the l i s t found i n the United  of f a v o r i t e f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s as  States.  51.  H. F. Nimkoff, Op., c i t . p.  52.  H.M.  B e l l , op., c i t . p. 1 6 0  144.  ^3  The authors o f Canadian Youth Commission,  however,  f e e l t h a t i n Canada the home i s l e s s l i k e l y today t o serve as a c e n t r e of r e c r e a t i o n .  The r e p o r t  goes on t o say,  "Nor i s the f a m i l y l i k e l y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as a u n i t .  Rather the trend  i n (Canadian) urban  s o c i e t y f o r members o f the f a m i l y t o separate i n t o d i s t i n c t age groups f o r t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n i s c l e a r l y seen i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l h a b i t s o f the urban middle c l a s s . "  y  This sec-  tion:" suggests, i n so f a r as the K e r r i s d a l e homes a r e concerned, t h a t the above c i t e d paragraph i s a h a s t y g e n e r a l i z ation.  The K e r r i s d a l e f a m i l i e s do p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e c r e a t i o n -  al activities.  V a r i o u s community groups operate t h e i r  programs on t h i s b a s i s .  F o r a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n  on  t h i s , the reader i s r e f e r r e d t o the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " S o c i a l Adjustment w i t h i n the Community." The respondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e the amount o f time per week that they spent w i t h the o t h e r members o f the f a m i l y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes.  T a b l e #6 shows t h a t  63.5 per cent o f the respondent group spend t e n or more hours per week w i t h the other-members o f the f a m i l y i n l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . mentioned  T h i s a l s o tends t o d i s p r o v e the above-  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n made by the Canadian Youth Comm-  ission.  5*+. 0p_. c i t . Canadian Youth Commission, Marriage and the F a m i l y " p. 20 55.  I b i d , page  21.  "Youth,  44  Table # 6 The amount o f time per week t h a t the Respondents spend w i t h the other members o f the f a m i l y . Time Spent  Percentage  1 3 hours plus  . 54.0  1 0 - 1 2 hours  9.5  6 - 9 hours  j 18.5  3 - 5 hours  10.0  Less than 2 hours  .  8.0 100.  Total  M, F. Nimkoff-^ and the American Youth f e e l that the f a m i l y that spends a c o n s i d e r a b l e l e i s u r e time together  Commission^? amount o f  i s a w e l l i n t e g r a t e d one. • I f one  adheres t o t h i s p r i n c i p l e , and i f the i n f o r m a t i o n  already  presented i s r e l i a b l e , then i t would appear that a m a j o r i t y of the K e r r i s d a l e f a m i l i e s s t u d i e d must a l s o be w e l l  ftdr,  justed. A comparison of the 1 3 7 respondents who  go out  w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s " o c c a s i o n a l l y " and " q u i t e o f t e n " and the respondents who  spend from t e n t o t h i r t e e n p l u s hours a week  w i t h the other members of the f a m i l y gives an agreement e f f i c i e n t of . . 9 2 . T h i s s i g n i f i e s that the answers by t h i s study have a h i g h degree of r e l i a b i l i t y .  56.  N.F. Nimkoff, op_. M i ,  57.  H.M.  p. 144  B e l l , oj>. c i t . page 1 6 0  co-  obtained  45  The  q u e s t i o n , "What one  i f you were d e p r i v e d o f i t ? " was  t h i n g would you miss most designed  t o determine what  t h i n g s i n h i s environment the a d o l e s c e n t valued h i g h l y . From t h e i r answers, i t was  learned that adolescents value  those t h i n g s which are i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i r e c t i n g t h e i r development and growth.  Thus i t may  <  total  be s a i d t h a t the a d o l -  escent knows what i s best f o r him and a p p r e c i a t e s these t h i n g s to the extent that he r e a l i z e s that he c o u l d not happy or even l i v e without  Table #7  them.  t h i n g s which the respondents  illustrates  s a i d that they c o u l d not  be those  do  without. Table  #7  The t h i n g s that the two hundred respondents s a i d that they would miss most i f they were d e p r i v e d o f them Things  Percentage  Parents and the other members of the f a m i l y  59.G  Companionship  25.0  Sports  8.0  Clubs  5.0  Church  3.0 Total  : .  100.0  What p o r t i o n of the t w e n t y - f i v e per cent of the respondents  who  s a i d that "they would miss t h e i r companions  most", i n c l u d e d the companionship of the members of t h e i r  46  f a m i l y i s not known.  However an estimate o f at l e a s t t h r e e  per cent would seem to be r e a s o n a b l e . it  I f t h i s i s t r u e , then  could be s a i d that at l e a s t s i x t y per cent of the  respondents f e l t  that they would miss most o f a l l e i t h e r  t h e i r parents or the other members of t h e i r f a m i l y .  This,  i n d i r e c t l y shows that s i x t y - t w o per cent of the K e r r i s d a l e f a m i l i e s seem t o be w e l l a d j u s t e d . . T h i s q u e s t i o n , "What would you miss most i f you were d e p r i v e d of i t ? " , was respondents to answer.  the hardest q u e s t i o n f o r the  Almost a l l of the respondents  asked i f they had to answer i t .  When they were  encouraged  to do so, the respondents h e s i t a t e d but the enthusiasm which they brought to t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t made them comply, a l t h o u g h the answers r e q u i r e d l e n g t h y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . r e a c t i o n to t h i s q u e s t i o n p o s s i b l y i l l u s t r a t e s  Their  the amount  of thought that the respondents put i n t o answering  the  questions and the honesty w i t h which they d i d so. I t was  thought that i t would be wise t o t r y and  o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n to s u b s t a n t i a t e the responses obtained by the above mentioned  question.  As a r e s u l t , the  respondents were asked "Have you ever wished one or both o f your parents would d i e .  S i x t y - f i v e per cent  of the respondents denied ever, doing so. •- cent d i d not answer t h i s q u e s t i o n .  or dreamt that  Twenty-four  Of t h i s group,  per  five  per cent s a i d that they d i d not understand t h i s q u e s t i o n and the remainder  ( n i n e t e e n per, cent) refused t o answer the  47  q u e s t i o n on the grounds that i t was  too p e r s o n a l .  Only e l e v e n per cent of the respondents that they had wished parents would d i e .  admitted  or dreamt that one or b o t h of t h e i r Of t h i s group,  f i v e per cent wished  dreamt that t h e i r mother would d i e , three per cent  or  wished  or dreamt that they could l o s e t h e i r f a t h e r and t h r e e per cent wished  or dreamt that both t h e i r parents would d i e .  By means of a b r i e f i n t e r v i e w w i t h the l e a d e r s i n charge some of the groups that were c o n t a c t e d , i t was  l e a r n e d that  f o r twelve of the boys, t h e i r homes were e i t h e r broken up or were i n the process of breaking up. l e a d e r s thought  that these boys would admit  to l o s e one of t h e i r parents and wanted t o l o s e was  already The  that they wanted  that the parent the  the parent t h a t he was  of  boy  holding responsible  f o r the break-up of h i s f a m i l y . To determine  i n another way whether or not  the  respondents were happy w i t h the f a m i l y group, the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n was  asked:  "Have you ever dreamt or wished  that  some one o u t s i d e the f a m i l y group c o u l d j o i n the f a m i l y group and become a member?"  Sixty-two per cent r e p l i e d i n  the n e g a t i v e w h i l e twenty-eight p o i n t f i v e per cent that they had.  Ten per cent of the respondents  admitted  d i d not  answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . T h i r t e e n per cent of the respondents wanted an unnamed a d u l t or an own-age f r i e n d  either  to j o i n t h e i r f a m i l y  48  group; f i v e per cent wanted t h e i r g i r l f r i e n d ; one p o i n t f i v e per cent wanted v a r i o u s other r e l a t i v e s t o j o i n and n i n e per cent r e f u s e d t o say whom they wanted t o have i n t h e i r present f a m i l y but expressed, by t h e i r answer, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h some or a l l o f the present members o f it.  Interviews were h e l d w i t h t e n o f the respondents who  answered t h i s q u e s t i o n i n the above-mentioned manner. I t was  l e a r n e d that those they wanted t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o  t h e i r f a m i l y were more l i k e b r o t h e r s , s i s t e r s , f a t h e r or mother t o them than the ones t h a t they a l r e a d y had. they i n d i c a t e d that they have c l o s e r and more  Thus  meaningful  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h some people o u t s i d e the f a m i l y group. Thus, twenty-eight respondents  p o i n t f i v e per cent o f the  showed that t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r  parents and t h e other members o f t h e i r f a m i l y are not very harmonious.  The respondents  a l s o suggested  that i f c e r t a i n  people could become members o f t h e i r f a m i l y , i t might become more adjusted;'..  I t could be s a i d that the twenty-eight  p o i n t f i v e per cent o f the respondents  were l o o k i n g on  "the other s i d e o f the fence where the grass seems t o be greener" by b u i l d i n g up the good q u a l i t i e s o f those whom they wished c o u l d become members o f t h e i r f a m i l y and by f o r g e t t i n g the good q u a l i t i e s o f those whom they wished c o u l d l e a v e t h e i r f a m i l y groups.  However, i t i s more  p o s s i b l e that the f i f t y - s e v e n respondents  were a d m i t t i n g  i n a subconscious manner t h a t they found i t e a s i e r t o b u i l d  and m a i n t a i n c l o s e r e l a t i o n s w i t h people who o f t h e i r f a m i l y than w i t h those who  are.  were a l s o a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e i r f a m i l y was  are not members  Unknowingly they not as adjusted:::  as they would l i k e to see i t and by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t o t h e r people c o u l d j o i n i t , the  they were e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r s o l u t i o n t o  problem. I t i s r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g to note how  presented i n the above paragraphs i l l u s t r a t e d by Tables #6 and #7,  the answers  compare w i t h the answers i n s o f a r as t h e r e i s c l o s e  agreement on d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the home and i t s adjustment..  A t l e a s t s i x t y - t w o p o i n t . f i v e per cent o f the  respondents expressed by t h e i r answers to the v a r i o u s q u e s t i o n s found on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h a t t h e i r f a m i l y was adjusted.-. .  well  T h i s agreement suggests t h a t the answers ob-  t a i n e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e are r e l i a b l e . "In r a t i n g marriages a c c o r d i n g t o degree  of  58 adjustment,  a number of d i f f e r e n t methods have been used."  While a number of such t e s t s have been d e v i s e d , the most s u c c e s s f u l one t o date i s c o n s i d e r e d by many s c h o l a r s t o be t h a t developed by E.W.Burgess and L . S . C o t t r e l l , J r .  The  schedules worked out by Burgess and C o t t r e l l seek answers to f o u r types of s i t u a t i o n s i n d i c a t i v e of the degree of m a r i t a l a c c o r d : - ^ These a r e : 58.  Nimkoff, M.F.  59.  I b i d , p. U^lf  op_j. c i t . p.  k3k  50  1. 2. 3.  Degree o f adjustment i n c e r t a i n a r e a s . Number o f common i n t e r e s t s and j o i n t a c t i v i t i e s . Demonstrations o f a f f e c t i o n and exchange o f mutual c o n f i d e n c e s .  4.  D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the marriage.  It  is felt  that these two s c h o l a r s would agree  that these f o u r types o f s i t u a t i o n s would a l s o be i n d i c a t i v e of  the degree o f f a m i l y adjustment;!.  I t has a l r e a d y been  shown that the respondents and t h e i r parents have a number of  common I n t e r e s t s and j o i n t a c t i v i t i e s .  The respondents'  g e n e r a l l a c k o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n has been shown.  The respondents and t h e i r parents and the other  members o f the f a m i l y a l s o have a degree o f adjustment i n the  field  of r e c r e a t i o n . It  can be proved that the respondents and t h e i r  parents have a h i g h degree o f adjustment wards f r i e n d s .  i n attitudes t o -  Each respondent was asked i n the q u e s t i o n -  n a i r e t o i n d i c a t e i f he thought that h i s parents approved of six  a l l , most, some, few or none o f h i s f r i e n d s .  p o i n t f i v e per cent o f the respondents thought  t h e i r parents approved  of most or a l l o f t h e i r  F i v e point f i v e per cent f e l t of  Eighty-  some o f t h e i r f r i e n d s .  friends.  that t h e i r parents approved  Four per cent o f t h e respondents  s a i d that a few o f t h e i r f r i e n d s were approved parents.  that  o f by t h e i r  Four per cent s a i d that t h e i r parents approved o f  none o f t h e i r  friends.  60 Burgess and C o t t r e l l 60.  f e e l that exchange o f  Burgess, E.W. and C o t t r e l l , L. J r . I b i d , p. 434  51 mutual c o n f i d e n c e between the married couple i s a s i g n o f a h a p p i l y married couple. this  Consequently,  i t i s thought  i s a s i g n of a w e l l i n t e g r a t e d f a m i l y .  the respondents  were asked  As a  that  result,  t o i n d i c a t e w i t h whom they p r e -  f e r r e d to d i s c u s s t h e i r problems.  Table #8  shows the r e -  sponse t h a t was obtained by t h i s q u e s t i o n . Table #8 The p r e f e r e n c e of the respondents i n c o n f i d i n g i n the v a r i o u s people i n t h e i r environment f o r the year 1951-52 Person  Percentage  Mother Father Teen-age f r i e n d s Brother Both parents e q u a l l y . . . . Church o f f i c i a l s . . . . . . . S c h o o l teachers Sister Adult friends Whole f a m i l y No answer  40.5 23.0 12.0 9.0 3.5 1.5' 1.0 1.0 1.0 .5 7.0  T o t a l . . . 100.0 F o r t y p o i n t f i v e per cent of the respondents f e r r e d to c o n f i d e i n t h e i r of them p r e f e r r e d t h e i r  mother and twenty-three  pre-  per cent  f a t h e r ; nine per cent c o n f i d e d i n  t h e i r b r o t h e r s ; one per cent i n t h e i r s i s t e r s ; three p o i n t f i v e per cent p r e f e r r e d both parents e q u a l l y and 0.5 per cent of the respondents family.  p r e f e r r e d t o c o n f i d e i n the whole  Thus s i x t y - t h r e e p o i n t f i v e per cent o f the r e s p -  ondents p r e f e r r e d to c o n f i d e i n e i t h e r t h e i r f a t h e r or mother  52 or both.  T h i s , a c c o r d i n g to Burgess and C o t t r e l l  high family  indicates  adjustment.  K.C.  Garrison^  1  i n h i s t a b l e on "the degree i n  which c h i l d r e n c o n f i d e i n t h e i r mother" shows that 4 0 . 9 5 per cent of urban white boys of American parentage almost always c o n f i d e i n t h e i r mother.  T h i s i s almost i n agree-  ment w i t h the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i n that f o r t y p o i n t f i v e per cent of the respondents p r e f e r t o c o n f i d e i n t h e i r mother. the two  There i s a d i f f e r e n c e o f 0.45  per cent between  figures. 62 Garrison  goes on to say that 27.01 per cent o f  urban white boys of American parentage almost always in their fathers.  Twenty-three  confide  per cent of the K e r r i s d a l e  respondents claimed that they p r e f e r r e d t o c o n f i d e i n t h e i r father.  There i s a d i f f e r e n c e of 4.01  per cent between the  two percentages. Consequently G a r r i s o n f e e l s t h a t 6 7 . 9 7 per cent of urban white boys of American parentage almost always f i d e i n e i t h e r t h e i r mother or f a t h e r .  con-  From T a b l e #8, i t  has been seen that 6 7 . 5 per cent of the respondents p r e f e r to c o n f i d e i n e i t h e r t h e i r mother or f a t h e r or both.  This  i s one important index s u g g e s t i n g that more than 2 / 3 of the 61.  G a r r i s o n , K.C.  op_. c i t . p. 2 3 2  62.  G a r r i s o n , K.C.  op_. c i t . p. 3 2  53  respondents' f a m i l i e s were w e l l i n t e g r a t e d .  I t i s to be  noted that the percentage f o r K e r r i s d a l e d i f f e r s from t h a t found by G a r r i s o n by only . 4 6 . According  to the Canadian Youth Commission r e p o r t , 63  "Young Canada and R e l i g i o n " , the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g to and  some f o r t y - f o u r per cent  young people claimed  that they  of  turned  c o n f i d e d i n the Church or i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s that  they had to say,  contact w i t h .  However, the commission goes on  " I t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t , i n q u i t e a few  those who  were interviewed  confessed  f a m i l i e s i n times of d e c i s i o n . which r e l i e d The  to l e a n i n g upon t h e i r  There was  e n t i r e l y upon i t s own  a l s o a group . 64  judgment."  f i n d i n g s of t h i s study d i s a g r e e w i t h  f i n d i n g s of the Canadian Youth Commission. K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s , only one i n the Church. upon t h e i r own  instances,  There was  Of  these  the  point f i v e per cent  no respondents who  relied  confide entirely  judgment.  63. R.E.G.Davis, et a l , op. c i t . "Young Canada and R e l i g i o n " p. 1 0 3 . 64.  I b i d , page 1 0 6  9+ Attempts were made t o l e a r n i f o t h e r s t u d i e s d e a l t w i t h t h i s same problem.  I t was found t h a t i n the "Maryland  Youth Survey Schedule #1," w i t h t h i s problem.  q u e s t i o n #68  dealt  especially  However, f o r some reason, t h e r e i s no  mention o f the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from the q u e s t i o n anywhere i n the book - n e i t h e r a statement on i t o r a t a b l e , or  a p i c t o r i a l graph.  No other study which was covered by  t h i s student d e a l t w i t h t h i s It i s f e l t p a r e n t s show l i t t l e  figure  problem.  t h a t i f the respondents f e e l t h a t  their  i n t e r e s t i n them, then the p a r e n t - c h i l d  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s poor.  The answers r e c e i v e d from the  q u e s t i o n "Which o f the f o l l o w i n g people show l i t t l e  interest  i n you?" r e v e a l t h a t twenty-seven per cent o f the respondents f e e l t h a t some member o f the f a m i l y was not i n t e r e s t e d i n them.  F o u r t e e n p o i n t f i v e p e r cent o f the respondents  f e l t t h a t t h e i r s c h o o l t e a c h e r s seemed u n i n t e r e s t e d i n them; nine p e r cent o f the respondents named t h e i r Sunday S c h o o l t e a c h e r as showing l i t t l e  i n t e r e s t i n them; and seven p o i n t  f i v e per cent named t h e i r a d u l t f r i e n d s as showing i n t e r e s t i n them.  little  Forty-two per cent o f the respondents  f e l t t h a t everybody they knew showed i n t e r e s t i n them. However, as i n d i c a t e d by Table #9, of  o n l y twenty-seven per cent  the homes c o n t a c t e d appeared t o be p o o r l y a d j u s t e d . .:.  65.  B e l l , H.M.,  e t a l , op_j. c i t . p. 285  55.  #9  Table The  people that the respondents thought showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n him  The People  Percentages  Members of the f a m i l y . . School teachers Sunday School teacher Adult friends Nobody  .... . . . .  ."27.0 14.5 9.0 7.5 42.0  Total The  100.00  adolescent should o b t a i n the l o v e and a t t e n t i o n  that he needs from the other members of the f a m i l y .  I f he  does, then he w i l l f e e l f r e e t o go o u t s i d e the s e t t i n g of h i s f a m i l y to l e a r n how how  to get along w i t h o t h e r s , to l e a r n  to o b t a i n a t t e n t i o n from others i n s o c i a l l y  ways and  i n l a t e adolescence  to" l e a r n how  and a t t e n t i o n from women - one his wife.  develops  to obtain love  of whom to eventually.become  T h i s i s i n accordance w i t h H.A.  p r i n c i p l e of how  acceptable  Overstreet's  a c h i l d p o s s e s s i n g an immature mind *  i n t o a mature a d u l t . ^ O v e r s t r e e t f e e l s t h a t " i f  c h i l d , e s p e c i a l l y i n adolescence,  i s encouraged to go  the  out-  s i d e the home as much as p o s s i b l e w i t h the knowledge that he has the support  of h i s f a m i l y i n so f a r as l o v e and  a t t e n t i o n i s concerned,  then the home i s a w e l l a d j u s t e d ; j  66. O v e r s t r e e t , H.A. "The Mature Mind". W.W.Norton and Company, New York, 1949, PP 230-246 67.  I b i d , p.  235  Consequently,  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t n i n e  out o f the two hundred a d o l e s c e n t s contacted by t h i s s a i d t h a t they p r e f e r r e d t o spend most o f t h e i r  study  leisure  time a t home w i t h the other members o f the f a m i l y ; twentyf i v e p r e f e r r e d t o spend i t by themselves;  eighty-eight with  t h e i r own age f r i e n d s ; t h i r t y - s i x w i t h a d u l t f r i e n d s ; w h i l e twenty respondents two respondents  d i d n o t answer t h i s q u e s t i o n and twenty-  i n d i c a t e d v a r i o u s combinations  mentioned c a t e g o r i e s .  o f t h e above  H.A. O v e r s t r e e t would i n t e r p r e t  f i g u r e s t o mean t h a t one hundred and s i x t y - s i x or e i g h t y - t h r e e p e r cent o f the respondents  these  respondents  felt  secure  enough i n t h e i r home so t h a t they could go o u t s i d e the home to b e g i n t h e process o f growing up and maturing p r o p e r l y . He would, consequently, say t h a t o n l y t h i r t y - f o u r o f the homes contacted by t h i s study were f u n c t i o n i n g i m p r o p e r l y . What a r e the main i s s u e s which a r i s e between'the parents and t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n ?  Reading  from S.R.  Laycock's a r t i c l e on "the areas o f c o n f l i c t between a d o l e s cents and t h e i r parents r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e a r e e i g h t major areas o f c o n f l i c t . "  68  He f e e l s t h a t these a r i s e i n almost  every home i n which there a r e a d o l e s c e n t boys.  These  69  areas a r e :  68. Laycock, S.R. " C o n f l i c t s between Teenagers and t h e i r P a r e n t s " , Home and S c h o o l Q u a r t e r l y , (Nova S c o t i a ) , December, 19hh, V o l . X I I I , No. 1 , pp. 9 - 1 3 . 69.  I b i d , p. 1 0  57  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  The hour the teenager comes i n at n i g h t . The number of times the a d o l e s c e n t i s out on s c h o o l n i g h t s d u r i n g the week. The problem of spending money. The use of the f a m i l y c a r . The grades obtained at s c h o o l . The a d o l e s c e n t ' s choice of f r i e n d s . Church and Sunday School attendance. The way the teen-ager d r e s s e s . 70  K.C. most important  Garrison  agrees  that these a r e the e i g h t  areas of c o n f l i c t s and disagreements between  a d o l e s c e n t boys and t h e i r  parents.  From i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from i n t e r v i e w s h e l d w i t h t w e n t y - f i v e per cent of the respondents f i v e p a r e n t s , the author found  that the above-mentioned  areas of disagreement are the most important i n the K e r r i s d a l e homes.  and w i t h twenty-  I t was  ones which a r i s e  a l s o l e a r n e d that these  c o n f l i c t s were r e s o l v e d by the parents and  the a d o l e s c e n t  boys s i t t i n g down and t a l k i n g the s i t u a t i o n over u n t i l a compromise was  arrived at.  I f a s a t i s f a c t o r y compromise c o u l d not be worked out, then the a d o l e s c e n t would tend to f e e l h o s t i l e towards his parents.  T h i s h o s t i l i t y would i n c r e a s e up to the  p o i n t where the adolescent has as l i t t l e  to do w i t h h i s  f a m i l y ( e s p e c i a l l y the parents) as p o s s i b l e . i n t e g r a t i o n of the f a m i l y becomes  70.  G a r r i s o n , K.C.  apparent.  op. c i t . p. 2 3 7  Then d i s -  However, due t o the manner i n which these areas o f c o n f l i c t apparently  a r e s e t t l e d , the i n v e s t i g a t o r can only say t h a t  i n the m a j o r i t y  o f the respondents' homes, there e x i s t s an  i n t e g r a t e d , harmonious f a m i l y group. Adjustment or " i n t e g r a t i o n " i n the K e r r i s d a l e homes can not be proven s t a t i s t i c a l l y .  However, i t i s f e l t  that the number o f homes which appear t o be w e l l can be shown s t a t i s t i c a l l y .  integrated  Using E.W.Burgess and L.S.  C o t t r e l l , J r ' s i n d i c e s f o r happy marriages as a guide, a t a b l e can be made showing those f a c t o r s which are deemed e s s e n t i a l by some s c h o l a r s  i n order  t o have a w e l l  inte-  72  grated  family.  The  percentages'  f e e l that these f a c t o r s apply  o f the respondents who  to t h e i r own f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n  enables one t o f i n d the average number of respondents' f a m i l i e s which a r e w e l l i n t e g r a t e d .  This i s reported i n  Table #10.  71.  M.F. Nimkoff, op^. c i t , p. 434  72. These percentages and how they were obtained been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n .  has  59 Table  #10  F a m i l y Adjustment,: F a c t o r s and the percentages of the respondents who f e e l t h a t these f a c t o r s can be found i n t h e i r home Factors 1. 2. 3. ^f. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Percentages  Parents approving o f a d o l e s c e n t ' s f r i e n d s . . . C o n f i d i n g i n parents Whole f a m i l y going out t o g e t h e r e i t h e r "Quite Often" or " O c c a s i o n a l l y " Never w i s h i n g or dreaming t h a t one o r both parents would d i e F a m i l y spending c o n s i d e r a b l e time t o g e t h e r . . Never d e s i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l f a m i l y members or f a m i l y s u b s t i t u t e s Parents l i v i n g t o g e t h e r M i s s i n g o f parents i f d e p r i v e d o f them . . . . Percentage  average  Number o f respondents  86.5 67.5 66.5 65.0 63.5 62.0 59.5 59.0 66.2  contacted  200  A c c o r d i n g t o the i n f o r m a t i o n recorded I n Table f i f t y - n i n e p o i n t f i v e per cent o f the respondents' are l i v i n g t o g e t h e r . respondents  #10  parents  S i x t y - s i x p o i n t f i v e per cent o f the  claimed t h a t t h e i r whole f a m i l y went out t o g e t h e r  as a group e i t h e r " q u i t e o f t e n " or " o c c a s i o n a l l y " . three p o i n t f i v e per cent o f the respondents  Sixty-  f e l t that t h e i r  f a m i l y spent c o n s i d e r a b l e time together as a f a m i l y group. F i f t y - n i n e p e r cent o f the respondents  claimed they would miss  t h e i r parents most i f they were d e p r i v e d o f them. per cent o f the respondents  Sixty-five  s a i d t h a t they had never wished or  dreamt t h a t one or both o f t h e i r parents would d i e . two per cent o f the group denied ever d e s i r i n g  Sixty-  additional  60  members o f t h e i r f a m i l y or s u b s t i t u t e s f o r present members. E i g h t y - s i x p o i n t f i v e per cent o f the a d o l e s c e n t s contacted felt  that t h e i r parents approved  of t h e i r f r i e n d s .  seven p o i n t f i v e per cent of the respondents  Sixty-  s a i d that  they  preferred to confide i n their parents. S i m i l a r i l y , there a r e c e r t a i n f a c t o r s which a r e apparent  i n a :;maladjusted f a m i l y .  the respondents  Various percentages o f  f e e l that some o f these f a c t o r s a r e common  to t h e i r own f a m i l y .  I f these two a r e combined, a t a b l e can  be made t o show f a m i l y maladyustmehtn f a c t o r s and the percentages  o f the respondents  be found i n t h e i r home.  who f e e l that these f a c t o r s can  T h i s i s the b a s i s f o r Table  #11.  T a b l e #11 Family Haladjustmehtn F a c t o r s and the percentages of respondents who f e e l t h a t these f a c t o r s can be found In t h e i r home Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Percentage  Not c o n f i d i n g i n parents D e s i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l f a m i l y members or family substitutes . . . F e e l i n g t h a t parents a r e u n i n t e r e s t e d i n the c h i l d r e n Family not spending c o n s i d e r a b l e time together .. Parents dead, separated or d i v o r c e d . . . . Whole f a m i l y seldom or never going out together Parents disapprove of a d o l e s c e n t ' s friends Wishing or dreaming that one or both of the parents would d i e . . Percentage  average  Number o f respondents  contacted  32.5 28.5 27.0 26.5 22.5 22.0 13.5 11.0 22.9  . . . 200  I t has been shown In t a b l e #10 t h a t s i x t y - s i x p o i n t two per cent of the homes contacted are or appear t o be a d j u s t e d .  In t a b l e #11, i t has been shown that twenty-  two p o i n t n i n e per cent of the homes contacted a r e or appear to be maladjusted.  The " C o n c l u s i o n " s e c t i o n w i l l  evaluate  the work being done i n the community t o e i t h e r keep the f a m i l y a d j u s t e d or i n t r y i n g t o get some f a m i l i e s to become better adjusted.  PART TWO - GROUP STUDIES (CONTINUED) 2.  S o c i a l Adjustment w i t h i n  the S c h o o l  (a)  Methods o f Study  (b)  The respondents i n S c h o o l  (c)  The Teachers  (d)  Discipline  (e)  The S c h o l a s t i c  Environment  62  Methods o f Study A l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n found i n t h i s s e c t i o n has been o b t a i n e d from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e respondents,''other  a d o l e s c e n t s , p a r e n t s and a few t e a c h e r s ,  and by o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e d i s t r i c t .  I t i s thought t h a t , i n  t h i s more t h a n i n any o t h e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e b i a s e s o f t h e respondents could creep i n without t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d e n t ' s knowledge.  No i n f o r m a t i o n was used i n t h i s s e c t i o n  t h a t has n o t been v e r i f i e d by much c r o s s - c h e c k i n g o f i n f o r mation.  Information concerning  t h e K e r r i s d a l e s c h o o l s was,  i n a few i n s t a n c e s , compared w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d on t h e s c h o o l s by s i m i l a r s t u d i e s on t h e a d o l e s c e n t areas.  i n other  These comparisons made c l e a r t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  o b t a i n e d by t h i s s t u d y was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d by o t h e r s t u d i e s done e l s e w h e r e . The Respondents i n S c h o o l The m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s come from e i t h e r Magee H i g h S c h o o l o r P o i n t Grey J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l ; a few from Vancouver C o l l e g e , P r i n c e o f Wales H i g h S c h o o l , and an even s m a l l e r group from some o f t h e P r i v a t e S c h o o l s  i n the  area. W h i l e t h e age group o f t h e boys c o n t a c t e d by t h i s s t u d y was l i m i t e d t o those between t h e ages o f f o u r t e e n and e i g h t e e n y e a r s , t h e r e seems t o be a g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y i n t h e grades r e p r e s e n t e d  t h a n t h e i r ages would i n d i c a t e .  I n the  groups c o n t a c t e d , there were probably boys who were under the r e q u i r e d age o f f o u r t e e n and a few who were over e i g h t e e n . I t i s f e l t t h a t some o f these people f i l l e d  i n the q u e s t i o n -  n a i r e because they were c u r i o u s as t o what was i n i t and/or wanted f o r some other reason t o f i l l  i t out.  In this  case,  they probably changed t h e i r age but f o r g o t t o change t h e i r grade i n s c h o o l a c c o r d i n g l y .  T h i s i s the o n l y e x p l a n a t i o n  which seems t o e x p l a i n the d i v e r s i t y o b t a i n e d . i l l u s t r a t e s the grades t h a t the respondents  Table 12A  were i n .  Table  12B i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r age f o r the same y e a r . Table #12A The  grades t h a t the respondents were i n d u r i n g the s c h o o l s e s s i o n 1951-52  Grades  Percentage  7 and under  12.0  8 9 . 10 . . . 11 12 . 13  k.O  Normal School and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Did not go t o s c h o o l Total  18.0 23.5 20.0 13.5 1.0 . . .  1.0 7.0 100.0  Table  12B  The ages of the respondents d u r i n g the year 1951-52 Age  Percentage  Ik 15 16 17 18  16.0 30.0 28.5 17.5 8.0 Total . . . .  The  100.0  respondents were asked t o g i v e the average of  the s c h o o l marks t h a t they r e c e i v e d d u r i n g the s c h o o l year  (1950-5D.  This i s i l l u s t r a t e d  Table  previous  by Table  #13  The average s c h o o l mark obtained by the respondents d u r i n g the year 1950-51 Marks  Percentage 9.0  "A" Grades i«B" "C+" "C" "C-" "D"  20.0 . 21.0 30.0 10.0 3.0  No Answers  7.0 Total  . . .  100.0  #13.  65 Table #l*f The amount o f time spent (on the average) per day by the two hundred respondents on homework Time  Percentage  Less than 1 / 2 hour One Hour 1 - 1 A - 1-1/2 1 - 1 / 2 - 2 hours 2 - 1 A hours p l u s No answer  20,5 50.0 13.0 6.5 3.0 7.0 100.0  Total  The respondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e the average amount o f time per day t h a t they spent doing homework. #1*+  shows t h e i r answers.  Table  Twenty p o i n t f i v e p e r cent claimed  they spent l e s s than 1 / 2 hour on homework, f i f t y per cent s a i d t h a t they spend one hour per day on homework; t h i r t e e n per cent spent from 1 - l A t o 1 - 1 / 2 hours; s i x p o i n t f i v e p e r cent spent from 1 - 1 / 2 t o 2 hours, and three per cent o f the respondents  spent from 2 - l A hours p e r day doing homework.  While  the marks f o l l o w a normal frequency  b u t i o n curve, the hours o f study do n o t .  distri72  Five teachers,  who were i n t e r v i e w e d , expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t they  thought  t h a t the range o f marks and the percentages who o b t a i n e d them was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the marks obtained by a l l the K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s who were a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l . to  The t e a c h e r s went on  say t h a t most o f the t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  they knew, t r i e d t o o b t a i n a normal frequency  that  distribution  72. These teachers v o l u n t e e r e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n on the understanding t h a t t h e i r names would not be mentioned.  curve f o r marks.  They a l s o s t a t e d t h a t , i n so f a r as they  knew, the average  amount of time per day spent on doing home-  work by the students appeared  to be c o r r e c t - or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  o f the t o t a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n .  No evidence was  available  which would prove or d i s p r o v e the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the marks r e c e i v e d by the students v a r i e d w i t h the amount of time  spent  doing homework. Remembering the economic p o s i t i o n of most of the K e r r i s d a l e f a m i l i e s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o l e a r n t h a t e i g h t y - e i g h t per cent o f the respondents High School and  t o go t o U n i v e r s i t y .  hope t o graduate  T h i s mass movement from  High School t o the U n i v e r s i t y i s undoubtedly the p a r e n t s .  R e f e r r i n g t o Table #2,  from  encouraged by  i t i s seen t h a t a  m a j o r i t y of the f a t h e r s are i n occupations f o r which U n i v e r s i t y education i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e .  These parents encourage  t h e i r c h i l d r e n to go on t o U n i v e r s i t y . parents i n the community who  There are a l s o  have had no "higher e d u c a t i o n "  but can a f f o r d t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o those  institutions  where the c h i l d r e n can o b t a i n i t . I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from three guidance  teachers  i n d i c a t e d t h a t some students i n s i s t on going t o U n i v e r s i t y even though they are a d v i s e d not t o go.  I n s t e a d , they are  advised t o go i n t o occupations i n l i n e w i t h t h e i r n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s as determined  by the r e s u l t s of the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s which the students took e i t h e r i n J u n i o r or S e n i o r High S c h o o l .  67  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s between the s c h o o l  teachers and the p u p i l s , i t seems, depends upon the amount of d i s c i p l i n e administered by the t e a c h e r s , the f a i r n e s s of i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n , upon the i n s t r u c t i o n a l a b i l i t y  of the t e a c h e r s ,  and upon the amount of homework that the teacher assigns... However, i f the student f e e l s t h a t the teacher i s " f a i r " t o a l l of h i s students and shows no f a v o r i t i s m , then the other f a c t o r s w i l l have l i t t l e relationship.  K.C.  or no i n f l u e n c e i n weakening t h a t  G a r r i s o n agrees  i n p r i n c i p l e with  these  73  g e n e r a l comments.  J  Table #15 had  respondents  got along f a i r l y w e l l w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r s , i f a l l of the  statements of  i n d i c a t e s t h a t most of the 200  of the respondents  are r e l l a b l a Seven per cent  the sample d i d not go t o s c h o o l and consequently d i d not  answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . Table How  #15  the respondents get along with t h e i r teachers  Answer  Percentage  Excellent Very good Good Average Poor Very poor No answer  1.0 10.0 37.5 41.0 2.5 1.0 7.0L Total  73.  K.C.  G a r r i s o n , op_. c i t . p.  100.0  251  68  The  respondents  with t h e i r teachers.  seemed t o get a l o n g f a i r l y w e l l  However i n t h e i r answers t o t h i s  q u e s t i o n , i t was found  t h a t i n many cases, exceptions e x i s t e d .  F o r example, one student s a i d , " I get a l o n g very w e l l w i t h a l l my teachers w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f Mr respondents  Some o f the  when i n t e r v i e w e d s t a t e d that the reason they d i d  not l i k e a c e r t a i n teacher was because of h i s i n c o n s i s t e n t method o f disciplin£nghthe -.students F o r t y respondents was t h e i r c h i e f complaint, were concerned.  were asked, i n i n t e r v i e w s , what i n so f a r as t h e i r s c h o o l teachers  E i g h t y per cent o f the c r i t i c i s m s  c e n t r e d around the way t h a t c e r t a i n teachers tended c e r t a i n other f e l l o w s t u d e n t s . of  A few complaints  obtained to favor  t h a t some  t h e i r s c h o o l f r i e n d s were being m a l t r e a t e d by some o f the  teachers were a l s o r e c e i v e d .  S i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m s of teachers  were a l s o mentioned by A.B. H o l l i n g s h e a d  as b e i n g the  p r e v a l e n t c r i t i c i s m s o f the Elmtown's youth. A c c o r d i n g t o Table # 8 , o n l y one per cent o f the respondents  preferred to confide i n t h e i r school teachrs.  Table # 9 i n d i c a t e d t h a t 1 ^ . 5 p e r cent of the respondents felt  t h a t t h e i r s c h o o l teachers showed l i t t l e  them.  T h i s evidence  interest i n  tends t o support the argument t h a t the  r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the p u p i l s and the s c h o o l teachers i s only a s u p e r f i c i a l one.  7k.  The reason f o r t h i s  A.B. H o l l i n g s h e a d , p_p_j_ c i t . p. 1 9 ! and p. 3 ^ 0 .  seems to r e v o l v e around the d i s c i p l i n e t h a t the students  are  s u b j e c t e d to w h i l e a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l . K.C.Garrison complain  f e e l s t h a t when the  adolescents  about t h e i r t e a c h e r s , the complaints must be  justified.  He  says, "There i s evidence t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s  more honest  and f o r t h r i g h t  are  i n t h e i r a p p r a i s a l s of the s c h o o l 75  teachers than are the p a r e n t s . Discipline As a r e s u l t graduates  of c o n v e r s a t i o n s h e l d w i t h some of the  of the s c h o o l s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t and w i t h some of  the respondents,  together w i t h the answers obtained from the  item i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e concerning s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e , i t was  r e v e a l e d t h a t the o v e r a l l d i s c i p l i n e of the s c h o o l s i s  reasonably good but t h a t the degree of s t r i c t n e s s ness depends upon the i n d i v i d u a l #16  and  teachers i n v o l v e d .  i l l u s t r a t e s the o p i n i o n s of the two hundred  fairTable  respondents  which were g i v e n i n answer to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "Which of the f o l l o w i n g answers b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s the degree and amount of d i s c i p l i n e found i n your s c h o o l ? "  75.  G a r r i s o n , K.C.  Op^  c i t . p.  256  70 Table #16 The respondents' o p i n i o n concerning the amount and degree o f d i s c i p l i n e found i n the school t h a t they a t t e n d State of D i s c i p l i n e  Percentage 8.0 11.5 ^6.0 27.5 7.0  Exceedingly s t r i c t Wavering and u n c e r t a i n S t r i c t w i t h some p u p i l s , l a x w i t h others C o n s i s t e n t and based on j u s t i c e No answer  100.0  Total Regardless  o f how the respondents answered  q u e s t i o n , the m a j o r i t y o f them q u a l i f i e d  this  t h e i r statement by  s a y i n g e.g. " C o n s i s t e n t and based on j u s t i c e except f o r Mr  's c l a s s e s . ^  F i f t y - s i x p o i n t f i v e p e r cent o f the  respondents made e x c e p t i o n s ,  i n t h i s manner t o t h e i r answers.  From Table #16 i t i s c l e a r the respondents had complaints  t h a t 65.5 per cent o f  a g a i n s t the s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e .  F i f t y - s i x p o i n t f i v e p e r cent of the sample l a i d the blame f o r t h e i r a t t i t u d e on c e r t a i n  specified  teachers.  T h i s would  appear t o be one o f the reasons why there a r e some poor teacher-student  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the s c h o o l s o f t h i s  district.  Only 27.5 p e r cent o f the respondents thought t h a t the s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e was f a i r and based on j u s t i c e .  I f the  respondents' answers a r e r e l i a b l e (and i t must be assumed t h a t they a r e , owing t o the h i g h degree o f v a l i d i t y found i n the other s e c t i o n ) then i t can be s a i d t h a t something ought t o be  76.  Omitted t o p r o v i d e  anonymity  71 done to improve the  situation.  The p r i n c i p a l of the P o i n t Grey J u n i o r High  School  t o l d the r e s e a r c h student t h a t one per cent of the boys a t t e n d i n g h i s s c h o o l cause a l l or most o f the t r o u b l e i n h i s school.  He went on t o say t h a t another one per cent of h i s  students p l a y e d t r u a n t from the s c h o o l f o r p e r i o d s r a n g i n g 1951-  from o n e - h a l f day to a couple of weeks d u r i n g the year 52.  He f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t those students who  u s u a l l y played  t r u a n t from s c h o o l do not c r e a t e any s e r i o u s problem i n or around the s c h o o l . K.C.Garrison would d i s a g r e e w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n s i n d i c a t e d by the data concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between truancy and behaviour problems. and behaviour  He i s convinced t h a t t r u a n c y  77 problems i n s c h o o l go hand i n hand. '  Two  78 school p r i n c i p a l s  i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t  were i n t e r v i e w e d would agree w i t h K.C.  who  Garrison i n their  e v a l u a t i o n o f l o c a l trends r a t h e r than w i t h the p r i n c i p a l of P o i n t Grey. A.B.Hollingshead, Youth", f e l t  i n h i s study of "Elmtown's  t h a t the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s ' treatment  students depended upon the socio-economic h e l d by the s t u d e n t s ' f a m i l i e s . i n t o by the  class  of the  position  However, t h i s was  not gone  study.  77.  G a r r i s o n , K.C.  78.  These two men  Op.  c i t . p.  351  requested t h a t t h e i r names be  omitted  72  The S c h o l a s t i c Environment Ah: o b l i g a t i o n of the s c h o l a s t i c environment i s the development of c h a r a c t e r by encouraging p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c u r r i c u l a r and sponsored by the s c h o o l .  a l l students  extra-curricular  to  activities  I n the schools contacted by  study, there are many groups or c l u b s s i m i l a r t o the which are t r y i n g to develop  the students Into  this Hi-Y  well-rounded  individuals. I n order to get the s t u d e n t s ' v i e w p o i n t , respondents who  were a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l were s e l e c t e d f o r  i n t e r v i e w purposes. get students who  twenty  The  s e l e c t e d respondents were p i c k e d to  were popular w i t h t h e i r peers and y e t  who  were w e l l thought of by the teachers i n t h e i r s c h o o l , t h e i r neighbors who  had  and by the other a d u l t s i n the s e l e c t e d community  c o n t a c t w i t h the a d o l e s c e n t p o p u l a t i o n of the s e l e c t e d  district.  T h i s was  done so t h a t any i n f o r m a t i o n which  was  r e c e i v e d from t h i s group would probably be accepted  by  any  a d u l t l i v i n g i n the community as being r e l i a b l e due  to the  sources from which i t came. As a r e s u l t of c o l l e c t i v e and w i t h t h i s group, i t was  i n d i v i d u a l interviews  l e a r n e d t h a t some students  attending  schools i n the s e l e c t e d community engage i n a c t i v i t i e s s i m i l a r to "throwing  c o i n s a g a i n s t the w a l l " or " s h o o t i n g  d i c e " d u r i n g the noon-hour r e c e s s on s c h o o l p r o p e r t y . was  supported  79.  by f i v e a d u l t s ^ h o 7  W  These a d u l t s requested  This  l i v e c l o s e to V7th Avenue  to remain anonymous.  73  and East Boulevard who made the f o l l o w i n g j o i n t statement t o the research student: "At noon-hours, w i t h weather p e r m i t t i n g , a group of high school students (approximately twenty i n number) c o l l e c t i n f r o n t of a confectionary s t o r e at East Boulevard and 47th Avenue. This group of students e i t h e r "shoot d i c e " or "throw coins against the store w a l l " . This p r a c t i c e has been going on f o r over three years." 80  The research student and three other a d u l t s  have  observed t h i s noon-hour a c t i v i t y being enjoyed by t h i s group during almost every noon-hour recess during sunny or c l e a r weather f o r three weeks. The h i g h l y s e l e c t e d group that were interviewed a l s o reported that a l c o h o l i c beverages were consumed at school sponsored  s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s . F i f t e e n other  respondents  stated i n interviews that they had seen l i q u o r consumed by other adolescents at some of these f u n c t i o n s . According to information r e c e i v e d , lewd, immoral photographs showing various p o s i t i o n s used i n sexual i n t e r course and others i l l u s t r a t i n g i l l e g a l sex h a b i t s c i r c u l a t e around the s c h o o l .  A l l of the twenty s e l e c t e d respondents  who were interviewed s a i d that they had seen the p i c t u r e s during a noon-hour recess.  S i x high school students who were  neighbors of the research student s a i d that they were shown "some of these p i c t u r e s while they were i n a "mixed group". 80.  These a d u l t s d i d not wish t o be quoted.  During  the s c h o o l year o f 1951-52, the newspapers  i n Greater Vancouver area gave the K e r r i s d a l e students wide p u b l i c i t y f o r t h e i r behaviour  i n the b u s i n e s s area o f the  community d u r i n g the noon-hour r e c e s s .  According  t o some  o f the b u s i n e s s men, t h e r e was so much g e n e r a l d i s o r d e r i n t h e i r s t o r e s t h a t i t drove the a d u l t customers out; a t the same time some o f the s c h o o l students were accused "petty thieves".  of b e i n g  However, a c t i o n by the C i t y o f Vancouver's  P o l i c e F o r c e r e c t i f i e d the s i t u a t i o n b e f o r e much harm was done.  Y e t the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s r e f u s e d t o handle the  s i t u a t i o n , c l a i m i n g t h a t what the students d i d d u r i n g 81  their  noon hour " i s none o f our b u s i n e s s . " The School a u t h o r i t i e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s u p e r v i s i o n o f p u p i l s a t a l l times d u r i n g the s c h o o l day. The p u p i l s a r e subjected t o s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e i n going t o and r e t u r n i n g from s c h o o l . the P u b l i c School A r t i c l e #13,  S e c t i o n #150, s u b - s e c t i o n #1 o f  82 A r t i c l e Acts,  clause  #1,  c l a u s e #6  83 and  makes t h i s q u i t e d e f i n i t e .  This  a l s o means t h a t the s c h o o l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e v e r y t h i n g t h a t happens i n , near or on s c h o o l p r o p e r t y by the students  before,  d u r i n g a n d . a f t e r s c h o o l and e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the noon-hour recess. 81. The High School p r i n c i p a l who made t h i s remark d i d not wish t o be quoted. 82. P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia "Manual o f the School Law and School R e g u l a t i o n s . King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C. 1 W , p. 123': 83. I b i d , p. l¥f 8h. I b i d , p. Ih7  75 As a r e s u l t of the P u b l i c School A c t , the s c h o o l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the " p o l i c i n g " the noon hour e s p e c i a l l y so t h a t the students or p u p i l s are, a t a l l times, s u b j e c t e d to the School d i s c i p l i n e .  However, a c c o r d i n g to i n f o r m a t i o n  which has been presented e a r l i e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n , t h i s i s not b e i n g done. O b s e r v a t i o n i n and around the s c h o o l s r e v e a l e d t h a t the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s are t r y i n g t o g i v e the p u p i l s a well-rounded  education.  T h i s i s being accomplished  by  o f f e r i n g a wide v a r i e t y of courses to the students and encouraging  by  them to take p a r t i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  a c t i v i t i e s sponsored by the s c h o o l . Recommendations w i l l be made l a t e r on w h i c h might improve the t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p .  These w i l l ,  of  n e c e s s i t y , be the o p i n i o n of the r e s e a r c h student, based the l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n obtained by the r e s e a r c h methods o u t l i n e d a t the beginning of t h i s  section.  on  I  PART TWO  3.  - GROUP STUDIES ( CONTINUED)  S o c i a l Adjustment w i t h i n the Church (a)  Methods of Study  (b)  Church Attendance  (c)  Reasons f o r Church Attendance  Methods o f Study As was mentioned e a r l i e r , most of the respondents, 150 out o f 200 t o be exact, were contacted through t h e i r membership i n e i t h e r the v a r i o u s churches o r church-sponsored groups i n the d i s t r i c t .  While the remaining  fifty  respondents  were contacted o u t s i d e the church, a l l o f them were  affiliated  w i t h some church. The a d o l e s c e n t boys contacted i n t h i s study were g i v e n items i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which p e r t a i n e d t o the religious  s i d e of t h e i r l i f e .  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was s u p p l e -  mented and checked by i n f o r m a t i o n which was r e c e i v e d by the use o f other r e s e a r c h methods.  Interviews were had w i t h  m i n i s t e r s , Sunday School t e a c h e r s , l a y members ( a d u l t ) i n v a r i o u s churches and w i t h the respondents.  Further  infor-  mation was obtained from other q u e s t i o n n a i r e s g i v e n t o a d o l e s c e n t boys found w i t h i n v a r i o u s groups a f f i l i a t e d some Church,  J  and from books w r i t t e n on the v a r i o u s  with topics  covered by t h i s s e c t i o n o f the t h e s i s .  The  two hundred respondents were questioned  t h e i r Church a f f i l i a t i o n .  about  From Table #17 i t can be seen t h a t  a l l the respondents claimed a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h some  church.  85. S i m i l a r t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e g i v e n t o King's Men Group - a Sunday School c l a s s f o r young men (17-21) who a r e a f f i l i a t e d w i t h Ryerson U n i t e d Church. 86. Canadian Youth Commission, "Young Canada and R e l i g i o n " , Ryerson P r e s s , Toronto, O n t a r i o 19^7  77 Table #17 Church a f f i l i a t i o n o f the two hundred respondents Percentages  Church  33.5 31.0 16.5.  Church o f England U n i t e d Church o f Canada . . . Roman C a t h o l i c Churches . . . Jewish Churches . P r e s b y t e r i a n Churches . . . . B a p t i s t Churches ........ South G r a n v i l l e Gospel Centre (Plymouth B r e t h e r n )  7.0  2.0  100.0  Total  K.C.Garrison r e p o r t s t h a t 80 per cent o f a d o l escents who r e s i d e i n c i t i e s of  c o n s i d e r e d themselves as members  some Church.®? I n t h i s study, 100 per cent o f t h e r e  spondents were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h some Church.  J.M. B e l l  r e p o r t s t h a t 83.8 per cent o f h i s sample were  affiliated  DO  w i t h some C h u r c h .  0 0  I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e a r e sub-  s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n percentages o b t a i n e d by t h e t h r e e studies.  The s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i s caused mostly by t h e  K e r r i s d a l e study.  I t i s t o be remembered t h a t a h i g h p e r -  centage o f the respondents were c o n t a c t e d through t h e i r Church.  T h i s may give an u n n a t u r a l p i c t u r e o f the d i s t r i c t .  However, from i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from i n t e r v i e w i n g  twenty  respondents, i t was l e a r n e d t h a t none o f them had f r i e n d s who were not a f f i l i a t e d w i t h some church. 87.  G a r r i s o n , K.C. Op^ c i t . p. 187  88.  Bell,  H.M. Op., c i t . p. 19 * 1  These respondents  78  did  not know of any a d o l e s c e n t s i n the d i s t r i c t who  a f f i l i a t e d w i t h some Church.  were not  I f t h i s i s t r u e f o r the d i s t -  r i c t then i t has been a g a i n proven t h a t t h i s sample i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the  district.  . The respondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e how they attended church d u r i n g the p r e c e d i n g year Table #18  often  (1950-51).  w h i l e showing the response o b t a i n e d by t h i s  study,  compares the K e r r i s d a l e f i n d i n g s w i t h those r e p o r t e d on by K.C.Garrison and  H.M.Bell. Table  #18  The Church attendance of the respondents d u r i n g the year 1950-51, and comparing the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study w i t h those of K.C.Garrison and H.M. B e l l  .•• ' i  Percentages Frequency  Kerrisdale  f o r the t h r e e s t u d i e s  K.C.Garrison  89 90 -H.M.Bell  Weekly or more o f t e n . . . . +6.5 . • . . V 9 . 6 . . . *f3»5 Occasionally . **3«5 . . . . H-3.5 . . . *^0.3 Do not a t t e n d Church . . . . 10.0*; . . . . 6 . 9 . . • 16.2 1  Total  100.0  . . . .100.0 . .  100.0  I t I s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the c l o s e agreement i n percentages of the t h r e e s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d on.  T h i s agreement  p o i n t s out a g a i n t h a t , i n another e s s e n t i a l r e s p e c t , the K e r r i s d a l e sample i s q u i t e s i m i l a r t o the samples o b t a i n e d by  89.  G a r r i s o n , K.C.  90.  B e l l , H.M.  Op.  c i t . p.  Op_j_ c i t . p.  198  188  the other s t u d i e s .  The f i n d i n g s of t h e , K e r r i s d a l e study-  are s i m i l a r t o those of the American s t u d i e s . H.M. B e l l would f e e l that the number of respondents who asserted that they went to Church on an average of once a week or more frequently was high,  91.  92  but three m i n i s t e r s  whose Churches are i n the K e r r i s d a l e d i s t r i c t were asked about t h i s matter i n i n t e r v i e w s .  Each f e l t that the K e r r i s -  dale percentages were representative of h i s church. Reasons f o r Church Attendance The respondents were asked i n the questionnaire to give t h e i r reasons f o r going t o church. i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r answers.  Table #19  Only s i x per cent of the sample  said that they were not too sure as t o why they attended church and gave a v a r i e t y of reasons. Table #19 The reasons f o r the respondent's attendance at Church Reasons  Percentages  Own d e s i r e Parental influence Have t o , to take part i n mid-week program i n church Group pressure Leadership pressure V a r i e t y of answers Total 91.  B e l l , H.M. Op_;. c i t . p. 1 9 7  92.  P r e f e r r e d to remain anonymous.  43.0 29.0  ...  7.5 3.5 1.0 16.0 100.0  80  Seven p o i n t f i v e per cent of the respondents that they had  said  to go to Church to take part i n the mid-week  a c t i v i t y sponsored  by the church.  Thus they were l u r e d t o  go t o church by the mid-week program.  Consequently,  this  method of l u r i n g the a d o l e s c e n t s i n order t o get them to go to church i s not too e f f e c t i v e .  However, i t was  more e f f e c t -  i v e than by having t h e i r peers put p r e s s u r e on them to a t t e n d . Only t h r e e p o i n t f i v e per cent of the respondents church f o r t h i s reason. t h i s method was  However, a c c o r d i n g to Table  #19,  more e f f e c t i v e than by having t h e i r l e a d e r s  put p r e s s u r e on them to a t t e n d . seem t o be v e r y e f f e c t i v e attend  attended  N e i t h e r of these two methods  i n g e t t i n g the a d o l e s c e n t s to  church. I n f o r m a t i o n recorded i n e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s r e v e a l e d  that c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s do not e x i s t between the a d u l t l e a d e r s of the group and the a d o l e s c e n t s . per cent of the respondents  said  However, one  that they  owing to the i n f l u e n c e of t h e i r l e a d e r .  attended  church  Thus the l e a d e r s  are not very e f f e c t i v e i n g e t t i n g the a d o l e s c e n t s to a t t e n d church. T a b l e #19 respondents  showed t h a t almost one h a l f  of the  go t o church because they wanted t o and  almost  o n e - t h i r d a t t e n d church because t h e i r parents wanted them to go.  T h i s i n d i c a t e s that these a d o l e s c e n t s are w e l l " i n t e -  g r a t e d " w i t h t h e i r church and w i t h t h e i r  parents.  81  Twenty-nine per cent of the respondents  said  that  t h e i r parents e i t h e r f o r c e d or i n f l u e n c e d them so t h a t they went t o church.  From i n t e r v i e w s h e l d w i t h some o f these  respondents, i t was minded homes.  l e a r n e d t h a t they came from v e r y church-  The system i n some of these homes i s t h a t i f  the boys go to Church, he does not have t o go t o Sunday School and v i c e v e r s a .  However, r e g u l a r attendance a t some  r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n was a c t u a l c h o i c e was  r e q u i r e d by the p a r e n t s .  l e f t t o the a d o l e s c e n t .  The  Consequently,  a  l a r g e group of the respondents w i l l l i k e l y continue t o a t t e n d Church  i f the parents keep i n f l u e n c i n g them. Where should p r e s s u r e be a p p l i e d t o i n s u r e t h a t a  l a r g e number of a d o l e s c e n t s continue t h e i r church F o r t y - t h r e e per cent of the respondents to Church because they wanted t o go.  attendance?  s a i d t h a t they went  A p p a r e n t l y , these  respondents make up t h e i r own minds and stand on t h e i r f e e t i n so f a r as church attendance  i s concerned.  r e s u l t , t h e r e seems t o be o n l y one way  own  As a  of e n s u r i n g t h a t the  a d o l e s c e n t s w i l l continue t h e i r church a f f i l i a t i o n - t h a t i s t o i n c r e a s e or m a i n t a i n t h e i r d e s i r e t o a t t e n d church. What measures can be used t o i n c r e a s e or m a i n t a i n the a d o l e s c e n t s ' d e s i r e t o a t t e n d church?  H.M.  B e l l has  found  t h a t i f the m i n i s t e r ' s sermon d e a l s w i t h t o p i c s t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t s are i n t e r e s t e d i n , then they w i l l a t t e n d  93.  B e l l , H.M.  Op^  c i t . p.  202  church.^  82  On the other hand, the authors o f "Young Canada and R e l i g i o n " have found t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t s a r e impressed r i t u a l s and by quick-moving  by c o l o u r f u l  s e r v i c e s t h a t do n o t tend t o  drag o u t . The S e n i o r Department o f the Ryerson Sunday S c h o o l has found t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t s a r e i n t r i g u e d by r e l i g i o u s films.  T h i s has a l s o been proven a t t h e Young Offender's  U n i t (which i s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm, South Burnaby, B.C.).  In this correctional  institution,  almost n i n e t y p e r cent o f t h e inmate p o p u l a t i o n v o l u n t a r i l y attend Church when r e l i g i o u s f i l m s a r e shown. r e t u r n t o t h e i r u n i t groups,  When they  r e l i g i o u s discussions are  s t a r t e d and maintained by them.  On the other hand, o n l y  twenty p e r cent o f the p o p u l a t i o n a t t e n d church Upon t h e i r r e t u r n t o t h e i r groups,  service.  they a r e u n i n t e r e s t e d i n  religious discussions. Another method which ha s been used by some Churches i n the K e r r i s d a l e community t o encourage a d o l e s c e n t attendance  church  i s t o l e t the young people i n the Church be r e -  s p o n s i b l e f o r the e n t i r e church s e r v i c e on c e r t a i n o c c a s i o n s . When t h i s happens, almost n i n e t y per cent o f the c o n g r e g a t i o n i s composed of young people.  9^f. Canadian Youth Commission Reports and R e l i g i o n " p. 101  "Young Canada  Church S o c i a l  Life  Most of the churches have some a f f i l i a t e d and g i r l s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  boys  The most common groups i n the  d i s t r i c t of K e r r i s d a l e b e i n g the Boy Scout and Wolf program f o r the boys. boys who,  r  Cub  However, owing t o the l a r g e number of  because they are between e i g h t and twelve years of  age wish t o become "Cubs", the churches  t h a t sponsor  such  groups have been f o r c e d t o r e s t r i c t t h e i r Scout and Cub memb e r s h i p t o boys whose parents are members of the church. Such d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s c o n t r a r y t o the i d e a l of Scouts  and  Cubs as l a i d down by the Scout Founder - L o r d Baden Powell and i s l i k e l y t o have an adverse e f f e c t on the program as c a r r i e d out i n these  churches.  However i n some of the churches, i t i s b e i n g n o t i c e d t h a t as the boys move from e a r l y adolescence t o l a t e adolescence, the a c t u a l number of boys i n the group d e c l i n e s . Another  o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t most of the church  sponsored  programs appeal o n l y t o the boys of e a r l y a d o l e s c e n c e ,  and  t h a t as the boys i n the groups grow o l d e r , t h e r e i s no change i n the program to keep up w i t h t h e i r changing i n t e r e s t s needs.  and  However, the churches are g i v i n g the t h i r t e e n and  f o u r t e e n year o l d a d o l e s c e n t s v e r y good s u p e r v i s i o n and t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r programs. Most of the churches i n the d i s t r i c t encourage and sponsor a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s which cut a c r o s s r e l i g i o u s The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t w h i l e most of these  lines.  churches  sponsor a c t i v i t i e s which a r e l i m i t e d t o members o f the Church or Sunday S c h o o l , they a l s o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e a r e those ed ed boys who belong/to no church or belong/ t o a church which has no l a r g e gymnasium, or who d e s i r e t o p l a y s p o r t s w i t h t h e i r close friends. Knox and Ryerson U n i t e d Churches, S t . F a i t h ' s and S t . John's A n g l i c a n Churches used t o sponsor F r i d a y and Saturday n i g h t s o c i a l events f o r the a d o l e s c e n t s who l i v e ed i n K e r r i s d a l e , whether they belong/ to the Church o r n o t . However, i t was soon n o t i c e d t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t s who a t t e n ded came, n o t only from K e r r i s d a l e , but from other d i s t r i c t s i n the c i t y as w e l l . two groups  The c l a s h i n g which r e s u l t e d when the  (the K e r r i s d a l e and the n o n - K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s )  t r i e d t o mix and share the same f a c i l i t i e s e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o f i g h t s i n v o l v i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and "gangs".  Thus the a c t i v i t y  i n s t e a d o f promoting a f r i e n d l y , happy atmosphere induced b i t t e r n e s s , t e n s i o n and h o s t i l i t y , which combined w i t h p o l i c e a c t i o n , s t a r t e d t o g i v e the Churches a t t e n d i n g a bad r e p u t a t i o n .  and those a d o l e s c e n t s  As a r e s u l t , most o f the churches  stopped p u t t i n g on a d o l e s c e n t s o c i a l events and r e f u s e d t o make t h e i r church h a l l s a v a i l a b l e f o r such events. However, S t . F a i t h ' s A n g l i c a n Church s e t up a s o c i a l event on F r i d a y n i g h t s f o r the f a m i l y . hoped to a v o i d the p i t f a l l s ran i n t o .  By doing t h i s ,  they  that some o f the other churches  The a u t h o r i t i e s i n charge i n s i s t e d on f a m i l y  ,85 attendance.  They tended t o frown upon attendance by persons  who a r e n o t church members.  They have found t h a t o l d time  and modern dancing; v a r i o u s games - bingo, b r i d g e , w h i s t , checkers, chess, as w e l l as community sing-songs a r e the mainstays o f the entertainment.  These a c t i v i t i e s a r e something  t h a t every member of the f a m i l y i s i n t e r e s t e d i n , s i n c e a l l can have f u n i n doing them t o g e t h e r . . A l a r g e attendance a t the programs put on by t h i s church r e s u l t s .  Thus t h i s  church  keeps the young people c l o s e l y associated w i t h the church and with r e l i g i o n .  T h i s i s the f i r s t p r i n c i p l e behind the  program. Another p r i n c i p l e behind the "Family S o c i a l N i g h t " i s t o have the members o f the f a m i l y share common i n t e r e s t s together.  A t h i r d i s t h a t the v a r i o u s members o f the f a m i l y  can get t o know each other b e t t e r . While t h i s program does g i v e the v a r i o u s members of the f a m i l y entertainment, i t has a l s o brought t h e f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e d c l o s e r t o g e t h e r . Due t o the success o f t h i s p l a n and the i n t e r e s t shown i n i t by a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n , other churches i n the K e r r i s d a l e d i s t r i c t a r e p l a n n i n g s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s , i n order t o t r y and show the parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n t h a t they have common i n t e r e s t s .  Thus the church  a u t h o r i t i e s a r e promoting t h e i d e a not o n l y t h a t "the f a m i l y t h a t prays t o g e t h e r , s t a y s t o g e t h e r " but the i d e a that "the f a m i l y t h a t p l a y s t o g e t h e r , s t a y s t o g e t h e r and prays t o g e t h e r "  86  ox Some s c h o l a r s  ( e . g . K.C.Garrison)  f e e l t h a t i t i s very d i f f i c u l t  i n the f i e l d  t o determine what p a r t the  church i s p l a y i n g i n the l i v e s o f the young people.  This  d i f f i c u l t y i s i n c r e a s e d by the f a c t t h a t i t I s i m p o s s i b l e t o i s o l a t e the church as a s i n g l e f a c t o r i n t h e experience and background o f youth.  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , an  attempt has been made i n t h i s s e c t i o n t o show t h a t the church does p l a y a r o l e i n the l i v e s o f the K e r r i s d a l e a d o l escent.  The manner i n which i t i s shown i l l u s t r a t e s  the Church and the a d o l e s c e n t s  appear t o be w e l l  that  integrated.  A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the Church as i t i n v o l v e s the K e r r i s dale adolescents  w i l l be made i n t h e "Summary and C o n c l u s i o n "  section.  95.  G a r r i s o n , K.C. On. c i t . p. 186  f  PART TWO  k.  - GROUP STUDIES (CONTINUED)  S o c i a l Adjustment W i t h i n the Community (a)  Methods o f Study  (b)  Community R e c r e a t i o n  (c)  Group or Gangs?  (d)  Leadership  (e)  K e r r i s d a l e A d o l e s c e n t s and the P o l i c e  87  Methods o f Study Many d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h methods were used i n order to  t r y and o b t a i n the i n f o r m a t i o n used i n t h i s s e c t i o n .  Some  i n f o r m a t i o n came from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was f i l l e d out by the respondents.  Other i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained  i n t e r v i e w s h e l d w i t h some of the respondents,  from  w i t h some o f  t h e i r teen-age f r i e n d s , w i t h some o f t h e i r parents  and w i t h  other a d u l t s who r e s i d e d not o n l y i n t h i s d i s t r i c t but a l s o i n other s e c t i o n s i n the c i t y of Vancouver.  A l l information  obtained was checked by two main methods: f i r s t , the respondents and the r e s t o f the a d o l e s c e n t  by o b s e r v i n g  population  of K e r r i s d a l e w h i l e they were c a r r y i n g on t h e i r normal r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ; second, by c r o s s - c h e c k i n g c o n t i n u a l l y all  the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d , r e g a r d l e s s o f where i t came  from. Community  Recreation  In K e r r i s d a l e the t h e a t r e , s k a t i n g arena,  bowling  a l l e y and p o o l room a r e the c h i e f commercial r e c r e a t i o n a l facilities, parks  w h i l e the v a r i o u s Church and s c h o o l gymnasiums,  and playgrounds,  important  and the l i b r a r y , are the most  non-commercial r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The  respondents were asked i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o  88  list  i n order o f t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e the t e n c h i e f community  r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s which they used.  The seven r e -  c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s which r e c e i v e d the h i g h e s t number o f votes have been ranked by percentages i n T a b l e # 2 0 .  The  remainder of the community f a c i l i t i e s , w h i l e r e c e i v i n g a t o t a l o f 3 8 3 v o t e s , i n d i v i d u a l l y r e c e i v e d so few v o t e s , t h a t the i n c l u s i o n o f any one o f them d i d not appear to be warranted. Table # 2 0 The c h i e f community r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s which were used by the respondents d u r i n g the year 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 Facility  Percentage  K e r r i s d a l e Arena . K e r r i s d a l e Theatre Church Gymnasiums . Parks and Playgrounds Bowling A l l e y Library Pool-room Others not mentioned above . . . Total  Number o f Votes  13• 5 11.8 11.6 10.0 6.7 5.2 2.8 38.*+ 100.0  135 118 116 100 67 52 28 38*f . . . . .  *  1000  Table # 2 0 shows t h a t the K e r r i s d a l e S k a t i n g Arena and the K e r r i s d a l e Theatre a r e , a c c o r d i n g t o the respondents the  most p o p u l a r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s  T h i s c l a i m may or  e a s i l y be documented by n o t i n g on any F r i d a y  Saturday n i g h t or Saturday a f t e r n o o n d u r i n g the year the  l a r g e number of a d o l e s c e n t s who the  i n the community.  audience.  make up the major p a r t o f  89  The c h i e f e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the more r e s t r i c t e d use by the respondents of the v a r i o u s church gymnasiums and the parks and playgrounds i s t h a t these f a c i l i t i e s a r e used s e a s o n a l l y ; the gymnasiums i n the f a l l , w i n t e r and  early  s p r i n g ; the parks and playgrounds mainly i n the l a t e summer, and e a r l y autumn.  spring,  The o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d i n the  t a b l e a r e used g e n e r a l l y throughout the y e a r .  I t was  ob-  served t h a t the bowling a l l e y , the pool-room and the l i b r a r y , w h i l e used by only a r e l a t i v e l y small number o f the r e spondent group, were used more f r e q u e n t l y and more r e g u l a r l y than the o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s by the respondents who  d i d use them.  Groups or Gangs? H.S.Dimock, spends c o n s i d e r a b l e time i n h i s bookd i s c u s s i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l a d o l e s c e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l concept "the  gang i n s t i n c t . "  96  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , i t was f e l t  that  "gangs" were n a t u r a l and r e s u l t e d from the "gang i n s t i n c t " 97 t h a t emerged about the time o f pubescence."'  Dimock quotes  F. Thrasher i n the statement 'that "gangs a r e the p r o d u c t s o f  98 s o c i a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n i n communities." But Dimock, h i m s e l f , f e e l s t h a t the gang i s not a u n i v e r s a l e x p r e s s i o n of the s o c i a l l i f e 96.  Dimock, H.S.  97.  I b i d , p.  272  98.  I b i d , p.  273  of a d o l e s c e n t s . ^  Op-, c i t .  passim.  90  The i t y was  e x i s t e n c e of "gangs" i n K e r r i s d a l e common-  checked.  As a r e s u l t of impressions obtained  o b s e r v a t i o n i n the community, i t appeared exist.  The v a r i o u s gangs encountered  an average of was  from  t h a t gangs d i d  were not l a r g e but  o f f i v e t o e i g h t boys i n each of them.  the boys i n most of these "gangs" v a r i e d .  The  had  ages  Information  obtained t o show t h a t o n l y one t o two y e a r s i n age  d i f f e r e n c e s were allowed w i t h i n these gangs. As more i n f o r m a t i o n was  r e c e i v e d from both a d o l -  escents and youth l e a d e r s i n the community, i t soon  appeared  t h a t most of these "gangs" s t a r t e d out as " f a b r i c a t e d  groups""""  formed a t t h e i r b e g i n n i n g , by the Church c h i e f l y i n e i t h e r i t s Sunday School.or Boy Scout Program.  These a d o l e s c e n t s  were j o i n e d t o g e t h e r as a c l a s s or group around the age e i g h t or n i n e .  of  They continued t o belong t o the same group  u n t i l the r e s e a r c h study was  started.  Thus, some of these  groups have a l o n g h i s t o r y i n the community.  F o r example,  the Sunday School c l a s s t h a t prepared the S o c i o - m e t r i c diagrams f o r t h i s s e c t i o n had been t o g e t h e r as a Sunday School c l a s s f o r over n i n e y e a r s . I t was  f u r t h e r l e a r n e d from the a d o l e s c e n t s  i n the community and as a r e s u l t of f i e l d  living  observation, that  these groups are important when the members are i n e a r l y adolescence but as they became more " g i r l c o n s c i o u s " , the group s l o w l y d i s i n t e g r a t e s .  of  100. Those groups formed by some agency on the b a s i s s i m i l a r i t y i n some f a c t o r - a g e , s k i l l , i n t e r e s t e t c .  91  The q u e s t i o n arose as to whether or not these could he c a l l e d "gangs".  groups  I f they were "gangs" then they  would be "very cohesive g r o u p s " . T h r e e  of these "gangs"  were examined q u i t e c l o s e l y .  Dimock's " F a c t o r s d i f f e r e n t i a t -  i n g cohesive and non-cohesive  groups"  ion  were a p p l i e d t o the  103  "gangs" s t u d i e d .  His t h i r t e e n f a c t o r s  when a p p l i e d t o  them r e v e a l e d t h a t they were a c t u a l l y "non-cohesive Consequently, they c o u l d not be c a l l e d "gangs". leaders  bf the community who  groups".  Youth  were i n t e r v i e w e d f e l t  that  t h i s c o n c l u s i o n would f i t any group l o c a t e d w i t h i n the community. a  To check t h i s t h e o r y , i t was i f the two hundred or "hang-out". community was  decided to f i n d  out  respondents had any f a v o r i t e meeting p l a c e  I t was mentioned  thought that i f any p l a c e i n the by a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f the  respondents, then there was  a f a v o r i t e hangout and t h e r e must  be "gangs" e x i s t i n g i n the community, s i n c e K.C.Garrison f e e l s t h a t i f the a d o l e s c e n t s of a community have a common 105 "hangout" then gangs e x i s t i n t h a t community.  Table  #21  i l l u s t r a t e s the response of the respondents t o the q u e s t i o n coveri n g1 . t h eG iarr rfiasvoonr,i tK.C. e meeting-place 10 op. c i t . p. 2or 7 7 "hang-out". 102.  Dimock, N.S.  op^ c i t . , p. 1 7 5  103.  Loc c i t .  10*f.  These people requested t h a t t h e i r names be w i t h h e l d ,  105.  G a r r i s o n , K.C.  Op^. c i t . p. 2 7 7  92 Table  #21  The f a v o r i t e meeting p l a c e s f o r the respondents d u r i n g the year 1951-52 Place  Percentage  K e r r i s d a l e Arena K e r r i s d a l e Theatre K e r r y - d a l e Cafe K e r r i s d a l e Bowling A l l e y Magee Park V a r i o u s Homes Other meeting p l a c e s which r e c e i v e d l e s s than 5 per cent of votes . . . . . . . .  19.0 10.0 9.0 6.0 6.0 5.0  *+5.0  Total  100.0  As a r e s u l t o f the i n f o r m a t i o n recorded by #21,  Table  i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t t h e r e i s no p l a c e i n the community  which i s used by a l a r g e group of the respondents. there i s no common "hang-out".  Thus  Again, i n f o r m a t i o n was  re-  c e i v e d from the respondents which brought out the f a c t t h a t there are no "gangs" e x i s t i n g i n K e r r i s d a l e . Why  do some p l a c e s become meeting p o i n t s or hang-  outs f o r s m a l l groups of a d o l e s c e n t s w h i l e others do not? Twenty respondents were asked t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . a l l f e l t t h a t there were two  c h i e f reasons.  One was  They  t h a t the  K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s tended to meet c l o s e t o i f not i n the f a c i l i t y which they were going^ to use. over the telephone,  They would agree  to meet at' a c e r t a i n p l a c e b e f o r e  i n t o some other p l a c e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. reason i n v o l v e d the a d u l t s who recreational f a c i l i t y  The  going other  e i t h e r managed or owned the  or meeting p l a c e .  According  to the  93 twenty a d o l e s c e n t s , i f the a u t h o r i t i e s i n charge put a maximum amount of c o n t r o l or d i s c i p l i n e over the a d o l e s c e n t s , then, the tendency was  f o r the a d o l e s c e n t s to use some other  p l a c e where they c o u l d d i s c i p l i n e themselves.  To  illustrate  t h i s p o i n t f u r t h e r , one of the i n t e r v i e w e d a d o l e s c e n t s the case of the K e r r i s d a l e Pool-room. facility around".  tended  owner of t h i s  to d i s c o u r a g e the a d o l e s c e n t s from "hanging  Whenever the a d o l e s c e n t s gathered  place c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e  r e s t r i c t i o n s on them.  over a l o n g p e r i o d tended facility,  The  t h e r e , he would This action  to discourage them from u s i n g  this  (the p o o l room) as a "hangout". These a d o l e s c e n t s then gave reasons why  groups tended  small  t o use other l o c a t i o n s as meeting p l a c e s .  They f e l t t h a t the managers of the l o c a l howling K e r r y - d a l e Cafe and the S k a t i n g Arena allowed the almost  cited  complete freedom of a c t i o n .  interviewed f e l t  alley,  the  adolescents  The a d o l e s c e n t s who  were  t h a t the managers of these three p l a c e s  have i n c o n s i s t e n t i d e a s concerning the d i s c i p l i n i n g of a d o l e s c e n t s ; one day the d i s c i p l i n e would be v e r y s t r i c t  -  w h i l e the next day i t would be l a x . I n t h i s r e g a r d , one p r o p r i e t o r of a s m a l l g e n e r a l s t o r e or c o n f e c t i o n e r y i n K e r r i s d a l e permits  some e i g h t to  t e n a d o l e s c e n t s to "hang around" her s t o r e .  The  i n v o l v e d have come to t h i n k o f i t as " t h e i r they f e l t a t home.  adolescents  store".  The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t they  Here, can  9h behave almost as they p l e a s e .  However t h e r e were some 106  r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d upon them.  Some " j o i n t s " c a t e r t o  h i g h s c h o o l youngsters, some t o e i g h t e e n year o l d s , and some to a d u l t s . The non-commercial f a c i l i t i e s , parks, playgrounds  f o r example, the  and the church gymnasiums, a r e w e l l r u n  because they a r e u s u a l l y used f o r o r g a n i z e d programs o r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h a t l e a s t one a d u l t present and r e s p o n s i b l e for  the a c t i v i t y .  conduct  I n these r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s  i s not t o l e r a t e d .  mis-  F i r m d i s c i p l i n e i s p o s s i b l e be-  cause o n l y those a d o l e s c e n t s a r e t h e r e who want t o use the facilities  o f f e r e d , and who consequently do n o t dare to d i s -  obey the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r f e a r t h a t they might n o t be allowed to take p a r t i n f u r t h e r a c t i v i t i e s .  As a r e s u l t  they a r e o n l y used as meeting p l a c e s , when s u p e r v i s e d a c t i v i t y i s underway.  v  Leadership Evidence which has been presented e a r l i e r has shown t h a t t h e r e a r e poor r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between the group l e a d e r s and the a d o l e s c e n t members o f the group.  This  would i n d i c a t e t h a t the l e a d e r s h i p o f youth group a c t i v i t i e s found i n the community seems not a l l t o be o f the h i g h e s t calibre.  Most o f the l e a d e r s a r e a d u l t s who, owing t o e i t h e r  106. T h i s was the f e e l i n g o f f o u r o f these a d o l e s c e n t s as expressed to the r e s e a r c h student d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w .  95  t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n young people or t h e i r d e s i r e to do somet h i n g worthwhile k i n d of work.  i n the community, v o l u n t e e r e d t o do  this  Because of the shortage of t r a i n e d l e a d e r s  and because v o l u n t e e r s must be c a l l e d upon, l i t t l e  or no  attempt i s made to i n v e s t i g a t e the l e a d e r s i n order t o e l i m i n ate those who  because  of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y or morals would  i n f l u e n c e the a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e i r groups i n an unwholesome manner. escents  F r e q u e n t l y the a u t h o r i t i e s i n charge o f the a d o l 1  groups t r y t o get U n i v e r s i t y students as l e a d e r s .  When t h i s i s the p r a c t i c e , the sponsors g i v e the l e a d e r s c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n , u n t i l they have proved themselves o f h a n d l i n g the  capable  group.  The a d o l e s c e n t s i n the groups, e s p e c i a l l y i n e a r l y adolescence, tend t o "hero-worship"  those  the l e a d e r .  While t h i s i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p which n o r m a l l y develops f o r a c e r t a i n l e n g t h of time, i t ha s become i n K e r r i s d a l e , u n n a t u r a l phenomenon.  an  The sponsors o f the groups o f t e n f e e l  t h a t some of the l e a d e r s of the groups are immature thems e l v e s and cannot handle t h i s s i t u a t i o n when i t a r i s e s . Consequently  they become e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d  themselves.  To b r i n g the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p which can e x i s t i n t o  clearer  focus f o r the r e a d e r , a Sunday School c l a s s and i t s t e a c h e r were asked to prepare s o c i o - m e t r i c diagrams  to i l l u s t r a t e 107  t h e i r f e e l i n g s towards each member of the group.  They d i d  107. Names i n the o r i g i n a l diagrams have been changed t o numbers so as t o g i v e p r o t e c t i o n of anonymity t o a l l members of t h i s c l a s s who co-operated w i t h t h i s study.  Socio-metric M a g ram # l:The r e l a t i o n s h i p which the members of a Sunday School c l a s s f e l t existed between them and t h e i r teacher i n 19$1 and the degree of i n t e n s i t y .  The numbers 1 - 1 2 represent the members of the c l a s s . The L e t t e r "L" represents the teacher or leader of the c l a s s . To f o l l o w page #  Socio-metric Diagram # 2:The relationship which the members of a Sunday School class f e l t existed between them and their teacher i n 195JLand the degree of intensity e  The numbers 1 - 1 2 represent the members of the class. The letter "L" represents the teacher or leader of the class.  To follow page  Socio-metric Diagram # 3iThe r e l a t i o n s h i p which the leader of a Sunday School class f e l t existed between him and the members of h i s class i n 1 9 5 1 and the degree of i n t e n s i t y .  The numbers 1 - 1 2 represent the members of the c l a s s . The l e t t e r "L" represents the teacher or leader of the class To follow page #  ff.  Socio-metric Diagram # U:The r e l a t i o n s h i p which the leader of a Sunday School c l a s s f e l t e x i s t e d between the members of h i s c l a s s and him i n 1952 and the degree of i n t e n s i t y .  The numbers 1 - 1 2 represent the members of the c l a s s . The L e t t e r "L" represents the teacher of t h e c l a s s . To f o l l o w page  96  t h i s by l i s t i n g each member of the group i n order of the emotional f e e l i n g f o r that person and by v a r y i n g the d i s t a n c e between the members of the group to show the I n t e n s i t y of that f e e l i n g . asked  A year l a t e r , the same c l a s s and  to repeat the process  any change had little  i n order to determine whether  taken p l a c e .  change had  teacher were  The diagrams i l l u s t r a t e t h a t  taken p l a c e .  Both s e t s of diagrams i l l u s t r a t e one  fact quite  c l e a r l y : the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the teacher and members i s q u i t e c l o s e . district than  found  class  Observation and survey i n the  t h i s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o be u s u a l r a t h e r  unusual. Why  and  the  do c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t between the l e a d e r  the a d o l e s c e n t members of the group?  K.C.Garrison  t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s only when the l e a d e r handles group i n a democratic manner.  108A  feels the  108B S. Freud would argue t h a t  hero-worship i s a common phenomenon w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s .  He  f e e l s that the degree of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the l e a d e r depends upon the amount of emotional  s a t i s f a c t i o n that the  adolescent o b t a i n s from h i s f a m i l y .  No attempt was  t h i s study to i n v e s t i g a t e why  this relationship  K e r r i s d a l e Adolescents  and  made by  exists.  the P o l i c e  D e s p i t e the f a c t that there are many groups T  c l u b s f o r the a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t , and  and  d e s p i t e the  1084 K.C. G a r r i s o n . Op. c i t . p. 285 ' 108B Freud, His Dream and Sex T h e o r i e s . The World P u b l i s h i n g Company C l e v e l a n d , 1946, p. 97  97  f a c i l i t i e s found i n the d i s t r i c t f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l ( r e f e r t o Map #1) a c t i v i t i e s , there a r e s t i l l a d o l e s c e n t s coming i n c o n t a c t w i t h the P o l i c e a u t h o r i t i e s .  Table #22 i l l u s t r a t e s  the number o f cases o f a d o l e s c e n t boys (ages l * f - l 8 ) who l i v e d w i t h i n the boundary l i n e s o f t h i s study t h a t were heard by Vancouver's March  J u v e n i l e Court from January 1st,1951 t o  27th,1952.  109  T a b l e #22 The Number o f K e r r i s d a l e cases handled from January 1st,1951 t o March 27th, 1952 by the Vancouver J u v e n i l e Court Offences  Number o f Cases  Bicycle Violations Traffic Violations . T h e f t under $25.00 Sex Immorality Firearms 1.1.P.P. 110 B and E . I l l Possession of Liquor . . . . F a l s e F i r e Alarms Obstruction of Police Auto T h e f t Dangerous D r i v i n g Retaining S t o l e n Property Truancy Incorrigible Total  *+5 11 6 *f 3 3  3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1  .  9°  I t was l e a r n e d t h a t n i n e t y cases were handled by the J u v e n i l e Court i n s l i g h t l y over one y e a r .  I t was i m p o s s i b l e  109. The s t a t i s t i c s used i n t h i s t a b l e were p r o v i d e d by the a u t h o r i t i e s a t the Vancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t . 110.  I.I.P.P.  111.  B and E . means "Breaking and E n t r y "  means " I n t o x i c a t i o n i n a P u b l i c P l a c e "  98  to determine  how many cases were i n v e s t i g a t e d by the p o l i c e  and how many cases were dropped  after police  b e f o r e they were heard by t h e J u v e n i l e Court  investigation authorities.  F i f t y - s i x cases out o f the n i n e t y handled by the J u v e n i l e Court or 62.2 per cent o f the d e l i n q u e n c i e s committed i n the K e r r i s d a l e community were concerned w i t h B i c y c l e o r Thus o n l y 37.8  Traffic violations.  per cent o f the d e l i n -  quencies o f t h i s d i s t r i c t were o f a s e r i o u s n a t u r e . The K e r r i s d a l e community, as d e f i n e d by the boundary l i n e s mentioned e a r l i e r , had approximately  7.56  per cent o f the j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s i n the C i t y o f Vancouver, w h i l e Census T r a c t #5  had, f o r the same p e r i o d ,  approximately 38.h  I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t  per cent.  these percentages a r e i n keeping w i t h C R . Shaw*s theory o f 112 "Gradient Tendency".  Shaw f e e l s t h a t t h e r e i s a tendency  f o r t h e r a t e o f delinquency and crime t o decrease from the c e n t r e o f the c i t y outwards.  Census t r a c t #5  to the c e n t r e o f the c i t y o f Vancouver.  i s quite close  The community o f  K e r r i s d a l e , on the other hand, has a more p e r i p h e r a l location.  112. C. R.Shaw and H.D.McKay " J u v e n i l e Delinquency and Urban Areas: A Study o f the r a t e s o f D e l i n q u e n t s i n R e l a t i o n to D i f f e r e n t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f L o c a l Communities i n American C i t i e s " U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, I l l i n o i s , 19M-2, pp. **3 5-^37  99 I n f o r m a t i o n recorded  e a r l i e r revealed  K e r r i s d a l e homes are f a i r l y w e l l i n t e g r a t e d .  that  the  According  to  some s c h o l a r s , t h i s would account f o r the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of d e l i n q u e n c i e s  found i n the d i s t r i c t .  Other  s c h o l a r s would c l a i m that the work of the community r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and leaders  of organized  of d e l i n q u e n c i e s other  p a r t i c u l a r l y the work of  the  groups would account f o r the s m a l l number  committed i n the area.  Adults  living  r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n the c i t y of Vancouver/<feel that  K e r r i s d a l e has  so few  t h i n g : Money.  They argue t h a t because of the  delinquents  l a r g e l y because of  one  financial  s i t u a t i o n of most of the K e r r i s d a l e homes, the parents afford  in  to b u i l d and  m a i n t a i n more f a c i l i t i e s  d i s t r i c t s , t o keep t h e i r c h i l d r e n so occupied n e i t h e r the time nor  the energy to get  than  other  that they have  into trouble.  However, t h i s i s a good and d e s i r a b l e t h i n g a c c o r d i n g f e e l i n g s of present  day  society.  can  They a l s o argue that  to  the  the  parents i n K e r r i s d a l e , as a r e s u l t of t h e i r s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and  economic i n f l u e n c e can persuade the p o l i c e or the com-  p l a i n a n t to drop charges.  I f t h i s i s t r u e , the use  i n t h i s manner i s a wrong t h i n g . d e s i r a b l e use or  of money  To suggest that t h i s  of money i s t r u e , may  un-  be evidence of m a l i c e  jealousy. However, the r e s e a r c h  tutional  student f e e l s  that the  environment of the community i s so w e l l  that i t s wholesome i n f l u e n c e upon the  adolescent  insti-  adjusted  100  i s the main reason why of  there are a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number  d e l i n q u e n c i e s committed by K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s . Evidence has been presented  support  i n this s e c t i o n to  the p r i n c i p l e that the respondents make f u l l use o f  the community's  recreational f a c i l i t i e s .  T h i s , along w i t h  the few d e l i n q u e n c i e s committed i n the d i s t r i c t  supports  the b e l i e f t h a t the K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s a r e w e l l a d j u s t e d to  their  community.  PART TWO - GROUP STUDIES (CONTINUED) The I n d i v i d u a l (a)  Methods of Study  (b)  L e i s u r e time a c t i v i t y  (c)  Sex and the Respondents  (d)  P e r s o n a l i t y Problems  (e)  Personal Habits  101  Method o f Study The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e t up i n order t o l e a r n as much as p o s s i b l e about each i n d i v i d u a l respondent.  I t was  a l s o hoped t o determine whether or not t h e r e a r e any d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n s p e c u l i a r t o the d i s t r i c t  of K e r r i s d a l e , s i m i l a r to  those found i n the communities w i t h which the K e r r i s d a l e community i s b e i n g compared.  I f any such p a t t e r n s were d i s -  covered, then an attempt would be made t o e x p l a i n why they existed. In  order to determine  p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r , i t was  necessary t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n not o n l y from the respondents b u t a l s o from t h e i r p a r e n t s , from other members o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s , from t h e i r f r i e n d s and from those a d u l t s who came i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h them.  Much time was spent  i n t e r v i e w i n g such persons, both i n d i v i d u a l s and i n groups. I n f o r m a t i o n obtained i n t h i s manner was checked  by f i e l d  observation. I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t some o f the l e a d e r s of boys' c l u b s i n t h i s community v o l u n t e e r e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f c o n f i d e n t i a l m a t e r i a l which f i l l e d  i n some o f the  d e t a i l s which the other r e s e a r c h methods missed. Included i n t h i s s e c t i o n oh the " I n d i v i d u a l "  will  be found i n f o r m a t i o n which might a c t u a l l y f i t i n t o other sections of t h i s thesis.  But i t has been organized  here  w i t h a view t o g i v i n g the reader the c l e a r e s t p o s s i b l e  . understanding  of the makeup of the  respondents.  L e i s u r e Time A c t i v i t y The i n d i v i d u a l develops very q u i c k l y d u r i n g the p e r i o d of adolescence.  T h i s r a p i d development c o n f r o n t s the  i n d i v i d u a l w i t h problems which are caused by pubescence and which e n t a i l p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes which the a d o l e s c e n t does not understand i t d i f f i c u l t t o cope.  and w i t h which he  finds  The p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes w h i l e  important and v e r y t r y i n g t o the i n d i v i d u a l do not cause the a d o l e s c e n t the same amount of t r o u b l e as does pubescence and the r e s u l t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l changes.  H.S.Dimock i n h i s  book, " R e d i s c o v e r i n g the A d o l e s c e n t " goes i n t o pubescence, i t s e f f e c t s and i t s r e s u l t s upon a d o l e s c e n t i n some d e t a i l . Consequently, discuss  no attempt w i l l be made i n t h i s t h e s i s t o  this. The young boy has many q u e s t i o n s which must be  answered.  He  seeks these answers from those t h i n g s i n h i s  environment which w i l l p r o v i d e them.  One  can understand  the  p o p u l a r i t y among a d o l e s c e n t s o f the r a d i o , the movies and v a r i o u s k i n d s of r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l which are r e a l i z e d t o be most important media of propaganda and e d u c a t i o n of today. The r a d i o , movies and the p r i n t e d page supply a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h v a r i o u s elements m i s s i n g i n t h e i r own r e a l i t y - such as adventure,  environment o f  excitement, mystery.  d e s i r e t o o b t a i n from the world of f i c t i o n the  This  excitement  the  103  they l a c k i n t h e i r everyday l i v e s may  e x p l a i n why  the r e -  spondents p r e f e r r e d r e a d i n g mystery, adventure, d e t e c t i v e and s p o r t s t o r i e s r a t h e r than the l i t e r a t u r e s e t down i n the High School manuals. Table  #23  The f a v o r i t e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l of the 200 respondents d u r i n g the year 1951-52 Material  Number o f v o t e s 159 121 107 96 72 60 59 ^0 25  Adventure Sport S t o r i e s Detective Comics Science Travel History Inventions The B i b l e Total Other m a t e r i a l not mentioned Grand T o t a l  739 261 1000  From Table # 2 3 i t can be observed t h a t over  one-  h a l f of the respondents enjoyed r e a d i n g adventure, s p o r t and detective stories.  The remaining r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l which r e -  c e i v e d l e s s than o n e - h a l f of the respondents' votes i n d i c a t e s the wide v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l that i s read i n the d i s t r i c t .  113. Each respondent was asked to g i v e h i s f i r s t , second t h i r d e t c . , down t o t e n c h o i c e s . The t a b l e p r e s e n t s those choices which r e c e i v e d the most number o f v o t e s .  lOlf I.  T a b l e #2*+ d e a l s w i t h t h e respondents' type o f movies.  favorite  I t compares the K e r r i s d a l e f a v o r i t e s w i t h  the.favorites of adolescents studied  elsewhere.  Table #2*+ The f a v o r i t e type o f movies of t h e 200 respondents d u r i n g the year 1951-52 i n comparison w i t h the p r e f e r e n c e o f a d o l e s c e n t s s t u d i e d elsewhere Order o f P r e f e r e n c e Type o f Movie  Number o f lli+ Kerrisdale votes received  Adventure . . ., Comical Shows ,, Sports . . . . Mystery . . . . Detective . . . Musical . . . . Cowboy . . . .. H i s t o r y . . . .. Swimming .. . Love .  . . . . . . .  130 122 98 93 78 69 58  . .  23 15  .  5\  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1 2 3  h  5 6 7 8 9 10  115  H.M.Bell G a r r i  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7 1 8 5 6 9 3 2 10  h  . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . .  . .  1 2  .  1+  116  . 5 . 8 . 9 . 6 . 10 . 3 . . . 7  The amount o f agreement between T a b l e #23 and Table #2h i s remarkable.  I t points t o the f a c t that i n f o r -  mation r e c e i v e d , from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( r e g a r d i n g r e c r e a t i o n ) i s f a i r l y r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . I t should be a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t the t e n t o p f a v o r i t e types o f movies among the K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s are a l s o the top t e n f a v o r i t e types o f movies among the  ll *. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained i n the same manner as t h a t recorded i n Table #23 1  115.  B e l l , H.M. Opj. c i t . p. 172  116.  G a r r i s o n , K.C. Opj. c i t . p. lMf  105  a d o l e s c e n t s s t u d i e d by H.M. B e l l and K.C. G a r r i s o n . f a c t i s a d d i t i o n a l evidence t h a t the two samples  This  a r e compar-  able. In order to determine how f r e q u e n t l y the K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t boys attended movies, the respondents were asked i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o check the number o f times per week (on  the average) t h a t they went t o shows. Table #25 A comparison o f the number of shows t h a t the 2 0 0 respondents saw per week d u r i n g 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 and the f i n d i n g s o f two o t h e r s i m i l a r s t u d i e s . Percentages o b t a i n e d  Number  Kerrisdale  Less than once a week Once a week More than once a week Total  . . . .  A.B.Hollingsheao^Canadian Youth Commission 1  21.5 . . . . 65.5 . . . .  31*3 M-1.0  . . . . . . . .  56.0 27.0  13.0 . . . .  27.7  . . . .  17.0  100.0 . . . .  100.0  1  . . . . 100.0  From the i n f o r m a t i o n recorded i n Table # 2 5 , i t can be seen t h a t on the whole, the respondents saw more shows a week than d i d the respondents from the two o t h e r s t u d i e s .  117.  H o l l i n g s h e a d , A.B. Op^ c i t . p. V 7 0  118. Canadian Youth Commission Reports "Youth and R e c r e a t i o n " Op. c i t . p. 217 119.  Compiled  i n the same manner as Table #23  106  Ten respondents who saw l e s s than one show a week s t a t e d t h a t t h i s was due t o l a c k of money r a t h e r than to l a c k of i n t e r e s t .  On t h i s b a s i s , i t might be concluded t h a t one  of the reasons f o r a respondent going or not going t o a show was the f i n a n c i a l s t a n d i n g o f h i s p a r e n t s .  The Canadian  Youth Commission f i n d i n g s may be out o f l i n e because o f t h i s factor. At the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s r e s e a r c h study i t was thought t h a t i t would be f a i r l y easy t o determine whether o r not the K e r r i s d a l e respondents had s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s w i t h r e g a r d t o s p o r t s , t h e r e f o r e , the respondents were asked t o indicate their favorite sports.  Table #26 i s the r e s u l t .  Table #26 The f a v o r i t e s p o r t s o f the 200 ^.19 respondents f o r the year 1951-52 Sport  Percentage o f v o t e s  Basketball . . • Swimming Fishing Skating Soccer Softball Hardball Football Badminton Hockey  119.  Compiled i n the same manner as T a b l e  89 88 59 59 56 1+7 1+6 . 1+1+ 1+3 1+0  #23  107  B a s k e t b a l l , which was the K e r r i s d a l e respondents was of  the a d o l e s c e n t s  the most popular  s p o r t among  the second most common s p o r t  as s t u d i e d by H.S.Dimock i n h i s book, 120  " R e d i s c o v e r i n g the A d o l e s c e n t . "  Swimming, the second  f a v o r i t e s p o r t i n K e r r i s d a l e , was of  Dimock s a d o l e s c e n t s . 1  i n K e r r i s d a l e , was  s p o r t as found  there was  no one  the l a r g e s t number of v o t e s , was  s p o r t which was  Swimming, which was  50 per cent of the t o t a l Sex and  the second  With the e x c e p t i o n of  that enough i n f o r m a t i o n  However, because the  the community to be v e r y i n a c c u r a t e .  found  upon  120.  Instead  i t was  Dimock, H.S.  questions  decided  to concentrate  Op., c i t . p.  36  checking  Consequently the  deemed i t wise to ignore the s e x u a l l i f e  escents.  of  i n i n t e r v i e w s were so p o o r l y  answered, the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d was  author  sports received less  the Respondents  asked i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  in  favorite  to warrent a d i s c u s s i o n of the sex l i f e  the K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s .  of  votes.  o r i g i n a l hope was  could be obtained  the  B a s k e t b a l l which r e c e i v e d  f i s h i n g , s k a t i n g , s o c c e r , the remaining  The  by Dimock.  mentioned by 89 per cent  r e c e i v e d 88 per cent of the v o t e s .  than  eight  i l l u s t r a t e s the f a c t that among the K e r r -  f a v o r i t e s p o r t of the respondents.  the respondents.  sport  S i m i l a r l y , f o o t b a l l which was  the most popular  Table #26 i s d a l e adolescents  the f o u r t h popular  of the a d o l on one  aspect  108  of t h e a d o l e s c e n t s ' sex l i f e ,  i . e . where t h e a d o l e s c e n t s  obtained the fundamentals o f sex education. At  the present  time,  there i s a c o n t r o v e r s y as t o  where s e x e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be t a u g h t . as are advocating  t h a t / i t i s n o t b e i n g done i n t h e home a n d  4>ba*s i t s h o u l d be t a u g h t feel  E d u c a t i o n a l groups  i n the school; r e l i g i o u s  t h a t i t s h o u l d be t a u g h t b y t h e c h u r c h ;  some a d u l t g r o u p s f e e l Earlier will  i n this  t h a t i t s h o u l d be l e f t  s e c t i o n i t was a r g u e d  t u r n t o those  things  ( o r people)  which w i l l  p r o v i d e him w i t h  Therefore,  i t i s contended  to those least  p a r e n t s and i n t h e home.  that the adolescent i n h i s environment  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t he d e s i r e s . that the adolescent w i l l  a d u l t s w i t h whom he f e e l s most f r e e  embarrassed  groups  turn  and t h u s  I n asking questions concerning sex.  I n o r d e r t o l e a r n where t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  obtained  t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f s e x e d u c a t i o n , t h e 200 r e s p o n d e n t s asked, sex also  "From what s o u r c e  education?"  d i d you r e c e i v e the fundamentals o f  T a b l e #27 i l l u s t r a t e s  compares t h e f i n d i n g s  findings  o f H.M.  Bell's  were  t h e i r answers.  of the Kerrisdale  study.  It  study w i t h t h e  109  Table  #27  A comparison of the sources from which the respondents of two s t u d i e s obtained the fundamentals of sex e d u c a t i o n Source  Percentages H.M.Bell  Kerrisdale  121  30.0 50.0  Parents . .. . . , Teen-age f r i e n d s Books . . . . . . . Adult Friends . , S c h o o l Teachers , Church O f f i c i a l s Others . . . . ,  k.O  8.0 J+.O  3.0 1.0  Total . . . .  .100.0  100.0  F o r t y per cent of the K e r r i s d a l e respondents  said  that t h e i r parents gave them the fundamentals of sex-education.  T h i r t y per cent of B e l l ' s sample named t h i s  source.  T h i r t y p o i n t f i v e per cent of the K e r r i s d a l e sample s a i d t h a t t h e i r contemporaries  gave them t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n .  f i f t y per cent of B e l l ' s respondents  named t h i s  However source.  F o u r t e e n p o i n t f i v e per cent of the K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s contacted s a i d t h a t they obtained t h e i r sex e d u c a t i o n from books.  Four per cent of the Maryland  source to l e a r n about sex.  a d o l e s c e n t s used  S i x per cent of the  this  respondents  s a i d t h a t t h e i r a d u l t f r i e n d s gave them the fundamentals o f sex e d u c a t i o n .  I n Maryland,  e i g h t per cent of the a d o l e s c e n t s  obtained t h e i r sex i n s t r u c t i o n from t h i s group of people.  121.  B e l l , H.M.  Op_j. c i t . p. 6 8  110  The  s c h o o l s i n K e r r i s d a l e were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i v e per cent  of the respondents  r e c e i v i n g sex education.  I n the American  study, f o u r per cent o f the a d o l e s c e n t s r e c e i v e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from t h i s source.  The church was r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r t e a c h i n g two p o i n t f i v e per cent o f the respondents i n K e r r i s d a l e about sex as compared w i t h three per cent o f the Maryland respondents  adolescents.  One p o i n t f i v e p e r cent o f the  named other sources i n the K e r r i s d a l e study.  percent o f the Maryland  One  a d o l e s c e n t s named o t h e r sources where  they obtained the fundamentals o f sex e d u c a t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t most o f ^ t h e r e spondents o f the two s t u d i e s r e c e i v e d t h e i r sex e d u c a t i o n from two sources - parents and teen age f r i e n d s . shows t h a t the respondents  This table  obtained t h e i r sex e d u c a t i o n from  those people, parents or otherwise w i t h whom they have v e r y close  relationships. P e r s o n a l i t y Problems The respondents  were asked,  "What caused you t o  worry and t o be anxious d u r i n g the year 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 ? "  Table  # 2 8 i l l u s t r a t e s the v a r i e t y o f answers r e c e i v e d .  I t also  compares the f i n d i n g s o f the K e r r i s d a l e study w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f K.C. G a r r i s o n and H.M.Bell.  Ill  Table  #28  A comparison of those f a c t o r s which caused the respondents of the three surveys t o worry and to be anxious Rank f o r the three s t u d i e s Factor  Kerrisdale percentage  School problems . . . P e r s o n a l i t y adjustment Boy and g i r l relationship . . . R e l i g i o u s Problems . Friends Economic S e c u r i t y . . Home Problems . . . . Recreational problems Health . . . . . . . No Answer Total  . . . .  K.C. Garrison  Kerris dale  26.5  . . .  1  18.5  . . .  2  .  16.5 10.0 *+.5 *+.5 k.O  . . .  3  . . . 5 . . • 6 . . . 7  • . . . .  3*5 3*0 9.0  • * • 8 . • » 9 . . .10  H.M. Bell.  1 2 2  • 1  • . . . .  • • 3 . . 7 . . 5 . . 6 . . 2 .  . ...  •  •  • . . .  • . . .  •  •  • • . . . . . . . . .  h ....  123  2  ?  ? 5 1 3  6 . . 7  100.0  I t i s noteworthy t h a t some f a c t o r s which  caused  the K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s t o worry and to be anxious had the same e f f e c t on a d o l e s c e n t s l i v i n g i n other School problems were ranked  f i r s t by the K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s -  cents and^?hose s t u d i e d by K.C. G a r r i s o n . r e l a t i o n s h i p s : were ranked  communities.  Boy and g i r l  t h i r d by these two groups of  adolescents. The K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s had n i n e f a c t o r s which  122.  G a r r i s o n , K.C. Op. c i t . p. 99  123.  B e l l , H.M.  Op_j. c i t . p. 250  112 caused them to worry and to be anxious.  The a d o l e s c e n t s  s t u d i e d by K.C.Garrison and H.M.Bell had seven o f the n i n e f a c t o r s which caused them to worry and t o be anxious.  This  supports the b e l i e f that there a r e seven f a c t o r s which w i l l cause a l l a d o l e s c e n t s to worry and to be anxious. Table #28 other.  supports t h i s b e l i e f as w e l l as  The f a c t o r , which w i l l worry  adolescents who  live  of  the other  the l a r g e s t number of  i n a community, might  community to community.  one  change from  I f i t does change, i t w i l l be  factors l i s t e d  one  i n this Table.  A study of the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l demanded an examination of t h e i r day-dreams. respondents were asked  When the  i f they day-dreamed f r e q u e n t l y ,  r e p l i e d that they d i d not.  By t h i s answer, they might  118 be  i n d i c a t i n g that they were u n w i l l i n g to r e p l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n due to i t s v e r y p e r s o n a l n a t u r e . did  day-dream.  a manner s i m i l a r caused  Seventy-two s a i d that  they  The day-dreams of t h i s group broke down i n to the break-down of those f a c t o r s which  the respondents  to worry  and to be anxious.  reason a break-down by percentages  For  of the respondents'  this day-  dreams w i l l not be g i v e n . Instead of day-dreaming about  s t e a l i n g c a r s , or  robbing drug s t o r e s , or "making" g i r l s , they s t a t e d they day-dreamed about  that  success i n s c h o o l , economic s e c u r i t y ,  winning more r e c o g n i t i o n from t h e i r f r i e n d s , f u t u r e events, or r e c r e a t i o n a l problems.  social  Thus, i n s t e a d of day-  113  dreaming about s o c i a l l y - u n a c c e p t a b l e  t h i n g s , they s t a t e d  that they day-dreamed about t h i n g s which are a c c e p t a b l e  to  society. In view of the answers r e c e i v e d , o n l y a s u p e r f i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the contents of the day-dreams has  been made by t h i s study.  The  respondents'  answers  on might be those answers which the adolescents would be accepted by the general  relatively  reported  thought  public.  I t seems r a t h e r unusual that a l a r g e number of adolescents  d i d not  say that they o c c a s i o n a l l y had  dreamed about s o c i a l l y - u n a c c e p t a b l e  things.  t h i s k i n d would have been more normal. stances,  there might be c o n s i d e r a b l e  the  day-  A response of  Under these circum-  doubt as  to the  validity  of the f i n d i n g s on day-dreams. Personal  Habits  It i s rather s i g n i f i c a n t spondents contacted  by t h i s r e s e a r c h  that they d i d not d r i n k l i q u o r . respondents d i d not  t h i s was  liquor.  Thus 71.5  restated  per cent  of  the  Twenty-  of the respondents s a i d that  However, the s k e p t i c might say  they  that  only n a t u r a l as a l l of the respondents were e i t h e r  members of a church or were, i n some w i t h a church. not  p r o j e c t , 143  d r i n k a l c o h o l i c beverages.  eight p o i n t f i v e per cent d i d consume  that of the 200  drink.  other method, a f f i l i a t e d  Consequently they would say t h a t they d i d  114  The from H.M.  findings  of t h i s study i n t h i s matter  Bell's findings.  He  reports  of the Maryland a d o l e s c e n t s d r i n k  that 52.9 124A  liquor.  study v a r i a n c e s between the f i n d i n g s  differs  per  cent  Throughout t h i s  of these two  studies  have been noted. One  explanation  for this difference  d r i n k i n g l i q u o r i s concerned) might be due  ( i n so f a r as  to the  difference  i n the number of l e g a l o u t l e t s f o r l i q u o r i n the countries.  In Canada, a l c o h o l i c beverages can  s o l d to the  consumer by the P r o v i n c i a l Government  S t o r e s or by the  h o t e l s which are  Liquor  l i c e n s e d to  In the United S t a t e s ,  the aforementioned p l a c e s ,  l e g a l l y be  l i c e n s e d to have "Beer  P a r l o r s " or by p r i v a t e clubs which are l i q u o r to i t s members.  two  sell  i n addition  a l c o h o l i c beverages can  to  be s o l d  to  124B the consumer  by any  s t o r e or p l a c e  a l i c e n s e to s e l l a l c o h o l i c beverages.  of business which Consequently  American a d o l e s c e n t s have more o u t l e t s or places a l c o h o l i c beverages than do a d d i t i o n a l information for  this difference  was  the  to  buy  the K e r r i s d a l e a d o l e s c e n t s .  No  obtained by t h i s study to account  i n numbers.  S i x t y - f i v e per  cent of the respondents  stated  that  they d i d not  that  they smoked from f i v e c i g a r e t t e s a year to two  a  has  smoke w h i l e t h i r t y - f i v e per cent  stated packages  day.'  124A. B e l l , H.M. Op_j_ c i t . p. 236 124B. W i t h c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c r e s t r i c t i o n s on who a consumer.  may  be  PART THREE - CONCLUSION Conclusion Appendix A - L i s t o f Tables and Charts Appendix B - Maps Appendix C - B i b l i o g r a p h y  115  Conclusion It i s recognized a p i l o t study. weakness.  that t h i s research p r o j e c t i s  Because o f t h i s , i t has i t s areas o f major  At the same time, i t s areas  o f s t r e n g t h must  not be f o r g o t t e n . The  sample which was obtained  f o r t h i s study has  been proven t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the community i t purports to represent.  I t , at the same time, i s s i m i l a r to  the samples obtained by other s t u d i e s done elsewhere.  The  s i m i l a r i t y o f the K e r r i s d a l e sample w i t h the Maryland sample obtained by H.M.Bell i s p a r t i c u l a r l y The  significant.  f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study and o f e a r l i e r American  s t u d i e s appear i n many e s s e n t i a l r e s p e c t s t o agree. However, the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study and those Canadian Youth Commission tend  of the  to disagree.  The v a r i e t y of r e s e a r c h methods used t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , the c o - o p e r a t i o n that the r e s e a r c h  student  r e c e i v e d from many people and h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the a r e a being s t u d i e d brought f o r t h much i n f o r m a t i o n which" was supported  i n many d i f f e r e n t The  ways.  g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n reached  i s t h a t the K e r r i s d a l e  116 adolescents homes.  a r e emotionally  w e l l "integrated" with t h e i r  They are p h y s i c a l l y w e l l " i n t e g r a t e d " w i t h the main  i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the community, i n the sense t h a t they use them c o n t i n u o u s l y ,  though there may be emotional mal-  adjustment t o these i n some cases. Due  to l a c k of measurable i n d i c e s , i t i s not poss-  i b l e t o g e n e r a l i z e a c c u r a t e l y about the s p i r i t u a l " i n t e g r a t i o n " of K e r r i s d a l e adolescents  with schools,  churches, and the  community g e n e r a l l y . On  the b a s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n  presented  earlier,  c e r t a i n recommendations can be made which might l e a d t o better s p i r i t u a l and  the v a r i o u s  i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t i n g between the a d o l e s c e n t s components o f t h e i r environment.  t h i s about i n so f a r as the schools  To b r i n g  are concerned, i t i s  suggested that attempts be made t o t r y and improve the teacher-student  relationships.  of the teachers  by the pupils^themselves  The  p u p i l s c r i t i c i z e t h e i r teachers  manner by which the teachers due  In t h i s r e g a r d ,  could be  considered.  due t o the i n c o n s i s t e n t  t r y t o d i s c i p l i n e the p u p i l s and  t o the tendency o f c e r t a i n teachers  pupils.  the c r i t i c i s m  to favor c e r t a i n  Another-weak point i n the s c h o o l setup i s that the  s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s are not f u l f i l l i n g by the Manual o f School Law and s c h o o l as the " p o l i c i n g of the S c h o o l "  t h e i r d u t i e s as o u t l i n e d regulations  i n so f a r  i s concerned.  To b r i n g about b e t t e r Church-Adolescent support i t i s suggested that the Church use the s u b t l e  suggestion  117  given  t o i t by  c h u r c h and to  go  get  s o m e t h i n g out  to Church.  suggestions creased. was  the adolescents  how  The  looked  of  t h e i r d e s i r e t o go  Church could  i n t o more  social  unit.  more c o u l d  be  in-  benefits i f this  r e c e i v e d , any  this  within  measures s u c c e s s f u l  f a m i l y t o s p e n d more  i s being  the  and  more  done by  time emotionally  some o f  community, i t i s f e l t  the that  done.  Will which faces  not  communities  as  century.  be  fully.  While  institutions  attend  t h e m s e l v e s want  to church could  w o u l d make i t a b e t t e r a d j u s t e d  integrated  They w i l l  s t u d i e s , have made  possibly derive  g e t t i n g t h e members o f t h e  together  i t i f they  They, i n v a r i o u s  From i n f o r m a t i o n in  themselves.  i t be.? only  Can  i t be?  This  i s the  t h e K e r r i s d a l e community  w e l l i n the s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e  challenge but  other  twentieth  APPENDIX A  L I S T OF TABLES AND  CHARTS  118  LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1.  PAGE The e a r n i n g s o f a l l males over V+ y e a r s of age d u r i n g the year 1951 and who l i v e i n Census T r a c t #32  18  A comparison of the o c c u p a t i o n of the Respondents f a t h e r and the o c c u p a t i o n of a l l males over Ik y e a r s o f age l i v i n g i n Census T r a c t #32  33  3.  The P a r e n t s ' M a r i t a l S t a t u s  38  h.  How  2.  1  o f t e n the whole f a m i l y o f the 39  Respondent goes out t o g e t h e r 5.  Favorite family a c t i v i t i e s  6.  The amount o f time per week t h a t the Respondents spend w i t h other members of the f a m i l y The t h i n g s t h a t the two hundred respondents s a i d t h a t they would miss most i f they were d e p r i v e d of them  h5  The p r e f e r e n c e o f the respondents i n c o n f i d i n g i n the v a r i o u s people i n t h e i r environment f o r year 1 9 5 1 - 5 2  51  7.  8.  9.  The people t h a t the respondents  *+l  thought  showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n him 10.  Family i n t e g r a t i o n f a c t o r s  11.  Family d i s i n t e g r a t i o n f a c t o r s  12A  The grades that the respondents were i n d u r i n g the s c h o o l s e s s i o n 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 The ages of the respondents d u r i n g the year 1951-52  12B 13. Ih.  hh  The average s c h o o l marks obtained by the respondents d u r i n g the year 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 The amount o f time (on the average) per day by the 200 respondents on homework  55 59 ,60 63 6h 6*f 65  119 LIST OF TABLES - CONTINUED TABLE 15. 16.  PAGE  How the respondents get a l o n g w i t h t h e i r teachers  67  The respondent's o p i n i o n concerning the amount and degree o f d i s c i p l i n e found i n the s c h o o l t h a t they a t t e n d  70  17.  Church a f f i l i a t i o n o f the 200 respondents  18.  The church attendance o f the respondents d u r i n g the year 1950-51 and compares t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study w i t h those o f K.C. G a r r i s o n and H.M.Bell  78  The reasons f o r the respondent's at church . .  79  19. 20.  21. 22.  23. 2k.  25.  26.  attendance  The c h i e f community r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s which were used by the respondents d u r i n g the year 1951-52  .  88  The f a v o r i t e meeting p l a c e s f o r the respondents d u r i n g the year 1951-52  92  The number o f K e r r i s d a l e cases handled from January 1st,1951 t o March 27, 1952 by the Vancouver J u v e n i l e Court  97  The f a v o r i t e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l o f t h e 200 respondents d u r i n g the year 1951-52  103  The f a v o r i t e type o f movies o f the 200 respondents d u r i n g the year" 1951-52 i n comparison w i t h the p r e f e r e n c e o f a d o l e s c e n t s s t u d i e d elsewhere  10^  A comparison o f the number o f shows that the 200 respondents saw per week d u r i n g 1951-52 and the f i n d i n g s o f two other s i m i l a r s t u d i e s  . 105  The f a v o r i t e s p o r t s o f the 200 respondents for  27.  . . . . 77  the year 1951-52  A comparison o f the sources from which the respondents o f two s t u d i e s obtained t h e fundamentals o f sex e d u c a t i o n  106  109  120  LIST OF TABLES - CONCLUDED TABLE 28.  PAGE A comparison of those f a c t o r s which caused the respondents o f t h r e e surveys t o worry and t o be anxious . . •  I l l  LIST OF CHARTS  S o c i o - m e t r i c Diagram # 1 :  The r e l a t i o n s h i p which the members o f a Sunday School C l a s s f e l t e x i s t e d between them and t h e i r teacher i n 1951.  S o c i o - m e t r i c Diagram # 2 :  The r e l a t i o n s h i p which the members o f a Sunday School C l a s s f e l t e x i s t e d between them and t h e i r teacher i n 1952.  S o c i o - m e t r i c Diagram #3:  The r e l a t i o n s h i p which the l e a d e r o f a Sunday School C l a s s f e l t e x i s t e d between him and the members o f h i s class i n 1 9 5 1  #f:  The r e l a t i o n s h i p which the l e a d e r o f a Sunday School c l a s s f e l t e x i s t e d between him and the members o f h i s class i n 1 9 5 2 .  S o c i o - m e t r i c Diagram  A l l S o c i o - m e t r i c Diagrams t o f o l l o w page *IS  MAPS  MAP § 1.KERRISDALE BUSINESS AND RECREATIONAL AREA. AND LEGEND  LEGEND for "MP # liKorrisdalo Business  Beereatiosal Area* Kunbsrs  Letters A-Softbstl field near Kerrisdele Arena B*Kerrisdalo Arepa ©•torisd&le Be&ling Alley ®** Kerrisdale Dance H a l l  I^KsrMsdale Theatre F*Eerrisdale library arid Haygroand G*Syepso?a Gjureh Gyatnastua i^Kerrisdale Pool^rooro (A J I*Baa?risdale Pool**oo® {B) ^•Tenuis Gou rts K*$t,Eary»s Church Gjaaaasftsa L*Shau#iaessy Church GpmesittB Church Gymnasium tt*Mage© Tennis Courts ©*St*Faith*s Church Gpmaeiuia P*Grcfton*s Scfeool for Girls ^hAthloae School for Boys ~ JHftt I&ple Orsv© Park and I^yground S*Kerrisdale Park XvPolice Station •StoBee^Brftg Stoics$©nsi?al Businesses 8  l.Shaugnossy United Church 2.St,John's Anglican (Siurch 3 South Granville Chapel (Plymouth Br ©then) 4, Kerrisdale Baptist Ghureh 5 Syerson Ifeiited Church 6«Byerson United Sunday School Building #  #  7«South - G r a n v i l l e B i b l e Church I n s t i t u t e  8#e&rl«taln Scientist (Kerrisdale Society) 9«St»ISary'e ilngUcan Church lb#£errisdale Presbyterian Church H.St. Peter end St*Paul (Somen Catholic)Church 12*St.Augustine (Soman Catholic )C&urch 13*$t.Faith's Anglican Church mi%nm ^Salted Church and Sunday School Building  rwENTY  THTR  NINTH  rlETH  : P  4  0[ I  " 4 N J A LAC LAVA p  Ni_J  4>  r Wt  N 1Y-  N I N T H  MAP #2:THE VARIOUS KERRISDALE HOUSING SUB-DIVISIONS AND THEIR ESTIMATED-' COST  LEGEM)  These lines form the boundaries for the First class residential area.The estimated cost of the houses i n this area ranges from $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 to #60,000.00.  --These lines form the boundaries for the Second class residential area.The estimated cost of the houses i n this area ranges from #15,000.00 to $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 -These lines form the boundaries for the Third class residential area.The estimated cost of the houses i n this area ranges from $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 to $15,000.00  —These lines form the boundaries for the Fourth class residential area.The estimated cost of the houses i n this area ranges from $7,000.00 to #10,000.00  These lines form the boundaries for the Fifth class residential area.The estimated cost of the houses i n this area ranges from $0.00 to $7,000.00  Some place of business occupies this area.  Represents apartments or multi-family dwellings.  Represents a house whose estimated cost i s $100,000.00 or over. Represents the Police Station located i n this area,  MAP # 3:DIAL MAP.OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER INCLUDING ADJACENT .MUNICIPALITIES AND THESIS AREA  STREET CARS  -  BUSES - STAGES  The DOMINION MAP & COMPANY maintain a stock of maps to meet every demand. The following is a partial list:  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  D I A L  M A P  Vancouver and Suburbs (with index)... Vancouver C i t y — ( w i t h index) Burnaby—(with index) N o r t h V a n c o u v e r — C i t y and District (with index) N o r t h V a n c o u v e r — C i t y and District (with index) W e s t V a n c o u v e r — ( w i t h index) C i t y of Vancouver—downtown section Vancouver C i t y — ( 8 0 0 ' 1"> World World World Canada Onocia Canada N o r t h Western Canada Yukon Alaska British C o l u m b i a — (mounted on cloth) British Columbia and portions thereof... Fraser Valley Richmond Coquitlam New Westminster  VANCOUVER of the City of  70" x 30"  3.30  28" x 15" 24"xl4" 32"x28" 72" x 55" 64" x 44" 50" x39" 36"x23" 59" x 42" 54"x41" 34"x25" 30" x22" 30"x22" 45"x35" 5' x 6' Various 3 2 " x 14" 21"x33" 20" x 32" 39" x 15"  .50 .75 1.65 10.00 3.50 1.00 .50 1.25 2.25 .50 .50 .50 2.50 15.75 .75 .35 1.65 3.00 1.65'  Also fully equipped for all forms of DUPLICATING MAP MOUNTING  •  ADJACENT MUNICIPALITIES  A full stock of Drawing Materials carried Map Mounting a Specialty  The Dominion Map & Blueprint Co. Agents for Sectional Map and Street Directory Co.  DISTRIBUTED BY  576  VANCOUVER MAGAZINE SERVICE LTD. 849 Homer Street  $12.50 6.00 2.70  •  I N C L U D I N G  Published by: SECTIONAL M A P & S T R E E T DIRECTORY C O M P A N Y 576 Seymour Street Phone: MArine 9738  53" x39" 4 9 " x 34" 28" x24"  Tel.: PAcific 7345  Seymour Street  Vancouver, B . C. MArine 9738  Copper t Cliff cove  1SOO COPYRIGHT  1-4-B 1  Blake Blanca Blenheim Blenheim nk Bonn Bluebonnet Blueridfe Bobolink lacord Dr Bond NV Bond B Bond (Glen) Bonita Dr Bonnyvalc Bonsor Booth Borden Borden I Borthwick Boulevard E Boulevard W Boulevard NV Boundary V Boundary B Boundary NV Boundary (Acadia) Bowaer Boyd Div. eburn  P 52 S.15 RD1 X H2 P 22 Z30* 092 Brand .(Woodland) K 42 H 62 S.17 Creclman antford T86 Creery WV (3500) ntwood Bray (Spice G 8 Crescent Crescentview Brentwood (Beech•rood) P24 Crestline Rd. Bridge ( N V ) G 10 Croft Bridgeway C 9 Crompton Bridge-man R 84 Cromwell Brief St. P 4 0 Cross Way (5100) iradoon Q S I Cross Cr. NV lide (WV1  hi, hr  i s  fix / c  T  SEE REVERSE SIDE OF MAP MAP OF CITY OF NEW WESTMINSTER MAP OF FRASER VALLEY DETAILS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION  APPENDIX C  BIBLIOGRAPHY  122  BIBLIOGRAPHY A i c h h o r n , A., Wayward Youth, V i k i n g Press Co., New York, I938 Babcock, M.E. A Comparison of D e l i n q u e n t s and Non-delinquent Boys by O b j e c t i v e Measures o f P e r s o n a l i t y , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1932. B e l l , H.M., Youth T e l l T h e i r S t o r y , American Youth Commission American C o u n c i l o f E d u c a t i o n , Washington D.C. 1938 Brooks, F.F., The Psychology o f Adolescence, HoughtonM i f f l i n Co., New York, 1929. Burgess, E.W. and C o t t r e l l , L. J r . , " P r e d i c t i n g Success o r F a i l u r e i n M a r r i a g e " , McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1938. Davis^ M., and C o l l a b o r a t o r s , Canadian Youth Commission. (a Youth C h a l l e n g e s the E d u c a t o r s (b Youth Speaks i t s Mind (c Youth Speaks out on C i t i z e n s h i p Youth, M a r r i a g e and the F a m i l y (d Youth and R e c r e a t i o n (e Young Canada and R e l i g i o n (f Youth and H e a l t h (g Youth and Jobs i n Canada (h Youth O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canada (I Ryerson Press Co., Toronto, O n t a r i o n , 19 +5-19+8 1  l  Dimock, H.S., R e d i s c o v e r i n g the A d o l e s c e n t , A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New York, 19M-9. Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , "The N i n e t h Census o f Canada P o p u l a t i o n & Housing C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r Vancouver", 1951. Queen's P r i n t e r . Ottawa. Ont. Elmer, M. C , S o c i o l o g y o f the F a m i l y . Ginn and Co. New York,  19^5.  Forman, H.J., Our Movie-made C h i l d r e n . M c M i l l a n Co. New York, 1933. Garland, J . , The Road t o Adolescence, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 193'+.  123  BIBLIOGRAPHY - CONTINUED Garrison, K.C,  The Psychology of Adolescence, P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c . , New York, 1934-.  H a l l , G.S. Adolescence and i t s Psychology, Volume 1 and A p p l e t o n and Co., New York, 1904-  2,  Havighurst \ . R. J . and Taba, H. A d o l e s c e n t C h a r a c t e r and P e r s o n a l i t y , John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . , New York, 194-9. H o l l i n g s h e a d , A.B. Elmtown s Youth, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 194-9. f  L a n d i s , P.H. Mead, M.,  Adolescence and Youth, McGraw H i l l Book Co. New York, 194-7.  "Coming of Age I n Samoa", John W i l e y & Sons, York, 1 9 3 6 -  New  M c G i l l , N. P. and Matthews, E.N. Youth o f New York C i t y , The M c M i l l a n Company, New York, 194-0. M i l l e r , N., and D o l l a r d , J . , S o c i a l L e a r n i n g and I m i t a t i o n , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Haven, 194-1. Nimkoff, M.F.  "Marriage and the F a m i l y " H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n Company, New York, 1 9 4 7 .  O v e r s t r e e t , H.A.  "The Mature Mind" New York, T 9 + 9 .  W.W.Norton & Co.,  1  P o l l a k , 0., and C o l l a b o r a t o r s , S o c i a l S c i e n c e and Psychotherapy f o r C h i l d r e n , R u s s e l Sage Foundation, New York, 1 9 5 2 . Richmond, W., Reynolds, M.M. Shaw, C.R.,  The A d o l e s c e n t Boy, F a r r a r and R i n e h a r t , New York, 1 9 3 5 . C h i l d r e n from Seed t o S a p l i n g s , McGraw H i l l Book Co. New York, 194-9.  and McKay, H.D. " J u v e n i l e Delinquency and Urban Areas, A Study o f the Rates o f D e l i n q u e n t s i n R e l a t i o n to D i f f e r e n t i a l Characteristic's of L o c a l Communities i n American C i t i e s " U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 1 1 1 . 194-2.  1  124-  BIBLIOGRAPRY - CONCLUDED Tappan, P. W.,  J u v e n i l e Delinquency, McGraw H i l l Book Co., New York, 194-9.  Terman, L., e t a l . , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l F a c t o r s i n M a r i t a l Happiness", P r e n t i c e - H a l l , New York, 1939. T u l c h i n , S.H., I n t e l l i g e n c e and Crime, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press Co., Chicago, 111, 1939. Warner, W.L., and Lunt, P.S. "Yankee C i t y S e r i e s " (a) The S o c i a l L i f e o f a Modern Community (b) The S t a t u s System o f a Modern Community Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Haven, 194-1-4-2. Warner, W.L., Meeker, M.L., F e l l s , K., The Measurement o f S o c i a l S t a t u s , S c i e n c e Research A s s o c i a t e s , Chicago, 111, 194S.  PERIODICALS A l i n s k y , S.W.,  Heads I Win and T a i l s you L o s e , N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n Yearbook, 1 9 4 - 6 , pp. 4 - 0 - 5 0 .  D a v i s , A., S o c i a l i z a t i o n and A d o l e s c e n t P e r s o n a l i t y , 4 - 3 r d Yearbook, P a r t 1 , Adolescence; N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study o f E d u c a t i o n , 194^. J e r k i n s , R.L., A . P s y c h i a t r i c View o f P e r s o n a l i t y i n C h i l d r e n N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n Yearbook, 1 9 ^ 3 , pp. 1 9 9 - 2 1 8 . Laycock, S.R., C o n f l i c t s Between Teen-Agers and T h e i r P a r e n t s , Home  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106638/manifest

Comment

Related Items