Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A psychologic and physiologic investigation of reading retardation in children Henderson, Ronolee Ione 1954

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1954_A8 H36 P7.pdf [ 3.63MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106635.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106635-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106635-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106635-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106635-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106635-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106635-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106635-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106635.ris

Full Text

A PSYCHOLOGIC AND PHYSIOLOGIC INVESTIGATION OF READING RETARDATION IN CHILDREN by RONOLEE IONE HENDERSON A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFIL-MENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY & PSYCHOLOGY We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the standard required from candi-dates f o r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS. Members of the Department of Philosophy & Psychology THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1954. A PSYCHOLOGIC AND PHYSIOLOGIC INVESTIGATION OF READING RETARDATION IN CHILDREN Abstract This study i s concerned with children who, when every-thing seems favorable, do not learn to read as well as expected. Numerous factors have been investigated i n r e l a t i o n to reading retardation. They are discussed and include defects i n v i s i o n , audition, speech, health, and neurological structure. Emotional, environmental, educational, and s o c i a l problems, as well as electroencephalographic patterns, have also been studied. In view of the s p a t i a l relationships, and d i r e c t i o n a l concepts, involved i n learning written language, i t was f e l t that s p a t i a l orientation and visuo-motor behavior might be related to reading d i f f i c u l t i e s i n children. The present study was set up to investigate general orientation i n space, and electroencephalographic patterns which might be related. Four hypotheses were formulated: 1. The l a t e r a l i t y of retarded readers w i l l not be as strongly established as that of the controls. 2. Retarded readers w i l l show more confusion of s p a t i a l orientation than w i l l controls. 3. The visuo-motor behavior of retarded readers w i l l be f a u l t y or unusual i n comparison to that of the control group. 4. There w i l l ba a greater number of abnormal EEGs among the retarded readers than among the controls. I t w i l l also be able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the groups on the basis of EEG c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Two groups of children, ten i n each, between the ages of eight to eleven i n c l u s i v e , were selected from the case f i l e s of the c h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , and Metropolitan Health Com-mittee. One group was chosen on the basis of a history of reading retardation, the other group, on the absence of any such history. A number of tests were given to each subject, for the various categories into which the study was divided. A. Oral, s i l e n t , and mirror reading tests were used to establish and compare the reading a b i l i t y of the groups. B. To determine l a t e r a l preference, twenty-four preference tests were given. C. To determine the status of s p a t i a l orientation U type stylus mazes were used. Subjects were blindfolded . while learning them. D. To determine the status of visuo-motor be-havior, the performance scale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, the Bender-Gestalt, the Draw-a-Person, mirror w r i t i n g , and mirror drawing tests were used. E. EEG tracings were recorded during a complete EEG examination using an Offner s i x channel apparatus. The re s u l t s of t h i s research were e s s e n t i a l l y negative. In mirror drawing the retarded readers made s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer errors per unit time than did the control group. How-ever, there were no other s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the perfomances of the two groups, and the hypotheses, upon which t h i s work was based, were not substantiated. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was carried out i n the Department of Neurological Research which i s directed by Dr. W.C. Gibson. I t was aided by a research studentship under the Federal Mental Health Grants from Ottawa. The author wishes to thank Dr. M.A. Kennard,and Dr. M.S. Rabinovitch, f o r t h e i r supervision and help through-out the course of t h i s project. Deepest appreciation i s f e l t towards Dr. U.P. Byrne, Director of the Child Guidance C l i n i c , and Dr. C.H. Gundry, Director, Mental Hygiene D i v i s i o n , Metropolitan Health Committee, f o r t h e i r assistance which made t h i s work possible. The author wishes also to thank the s t a f f s of those organizations f o r t h e i r aid and co-operation. Contents Chapter Page I Introduction 1 I I Theoretical Background and related research. 6 Some eteological factors related to reading relardation. 6 Lateral preference, cerebral domin-ance and reading, 10 Electroencephalograph studies related to reading and problems of behavior. 15 Discussion. 1 17 Hypotheses, upon which the present research i s based. 17 I I I Method 18 Subjects. 18 Tests, apparatus, and scoring. 19 Proceedure. 26 IV Results 33 V Summary and Conclusions 52 VI Suggestions for Further Research 55 References Additional References Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Page 57 62 65 66 67 68 Tables Table 1 Page A comparison of the reading retardation and control groups i n terms of socio-economic status and type of guardian-ship. 20 A comparison of the reading retardation and control groups i n terms of reading grades which have been reduced to months. 34 The preferences of subjects i n regard to hand, eye, ear, and foot usage i n the l a t e r a l i t y t e s t s . 36 Results of the application of the Mann-Whitney Technique to the maze performances Table Page of the reading retardation and control groups. 39 5 Comparing performance i n sub tests and the i n t e l l i g e n c e scale on the verbal section of the WISC 41 6 Comparison of re s u l t s from the performance sub tests and IQ scores, and the f u l l scale IQ scores. 1+2 7 Differences between the mean verbal and performance IQs f o r the reading retardation group and for the control group, 43 £ Comparison of the reading retardation and control groups i n terms of the IQ scores obtained from the Draw - A -Person performance, 44 9 Correlation between WISC IQ scores and Draw - A - Person IQ scores, using Spearman's rank-difference method. 45 10 Comparison of the reading retardation and central groups on the basis of Bender-Gestalt raw scores. 47 Table Page 11 Comparison of the reading retardation and central groups i n terms of errors, time, and the r a t i o of errors over time, for mirror reading and normal reading. 48 12 Comparison of the scores of the reading retardation and central groups i n terms of errors and of time i n the mirror drawing performance. 50 1 A PSYCHOLOGIC AND PHYSIOLOGIC INVESTIGATION OF READING RETARDATION IN CHILDREN Chapter I Introduction In our society reading has become very important, with the increased emphasis on higher education. This increases the d i s a b i l i t y which would otherwise, probably, be minimal, of the children who, when everything seems favorable, do not learn to read. I t has been estimated that ten to f i f t e e n percent of the school children i n Canada are retarded i n reading (43)« The amount of research which has been devoted to this,subject i s tremendous, and the conclusions and opinions are often varied and contradictory ( 1 5 ) . Most of the specialized f i e l d s , concerned with human behavior, have contributed work to the problem. Numerous factors have been investigated i n r e l a t i o n to reading problems. These factors include defects i n v i s i o n , audition, speech, health, and neurological structure. Emotional, environmental and s o c i a l problems, as well as electroencephalograph patterns have also been studied. Their importance i n a p a r t i c u l a r reading retardation case, seems to be an i n d i v i d u a l thing. A single factor may impede the read-ing progress of one c h i l d , while.numerous defects.in another 2 c h i l d do not appear to affect t h i s learning at a l l . Reading i s a form of symbolic language. I t involves association of meaning with a r b i t r a r y v i s u a l symbols which represent the sounds comprising a language. Both sounds and symbols can be b u i l t into larger units or words, which are meaningful and are used f o r communication. A p a r t i c u l a r order, i n time f o r the phonetic sounds, and i n space f o r t h e i r written correlates, must be learned and memorized by a l l who wish to use these media for communication (19). Normal children learn spoken language gradually, through the environment, when they have reached the necessary matur-a t i o n a l l e v e l . Reading and wri t i n g are generally taught formally when children are considered able to grasp these more complex concepts. Custom decrees, i n our culture, that the v i s u a l symbols (alphabet l e t t e r s ) should be put together i n a l e f t to r i g h t d i r e c t i o n for the formation of words. Reading and w r i t i n g proceeds the same way. The l e t t e r s themselves must be pre-sented i n a p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n , with respect to each other and, to t h e i r surrounding space. This constancy i s necessary to prevent confusion, just as the order of sounds comprising a spoken word must always be the same, i f the word i s to be recognized by others speaking the language. Some of the symbols used i n w r i t i n g are i d e n t i c a l i n form, such as p, b, d, but d i f f e r i n space relationships and sounds.' These l e t t e r s must be correctly perceived, i n regard both t o t h e i r orientation to the background, and to the p a r t i c u l a r sounds 3 they represent. Children learn, through experience and t r a i n -ing, the s p a t i a l orientation we refer to as near, f a r , up, down, l e f t , right (18). This learning can be applied to the understanding of written language and the f a c i l i t y to use i t . However, most children approach the subject with l i t t l e or no form of s p a t i a l reference. They perceive l e t t e r s and words i n t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l ways, and approach the subject matter from any d i r e c t i o n . I f the appropriate d i r e c t i o n f o r reading has been learned, f a u l t y perception of the orientation or form of i n d i v i d u a l symbols i f consistent would not i n t e r f e r e with understanding and would probably never be recognized i f w r i t i n g were not required. This additional use of l e t t e r s , however, cannot be comprehensible to others, unless i t i s performed i n the accepted manner i n regard to d i r e c t i o n and background orientation. Children are expected to learn the t r a d i t i o n a l manner of reading and w r i t i n g , as w e l l as correct and consistent per-ceptions regarding the forms and associated sounds which are involved. I f the concepts of up and down, right and l e f t , are understood and useable, i t might be expected that they could be applied to t h i s problem by an i n d i v i d u a l . The better understood, and more f i r m l y established these d i r e c t i o n a l con-cepts are, the more e a s i l y learned should be types of endeavor to which they must be applied (24). Most people exhibit a superiority i n the use of one hand over the other. This may be referred to as l a t e r a l preference and extends i n varying degrees to other symmetrically paired 4 organs. The consistent preference of one hand for s k i l l e d work, has the advantages of greater a b i l i t y due to practice, quicker learning, greater strength, speed, and accuracy. Equal dexterity with both hands i s extremely rare or unknown ( 3 ) . Electroencephalograph patterns of children without con-sistent l a t e r a l preferences have been found to show greater dys-synchrony between the wave forms of the two cerebral hemispheres than do those of children with consistent r i g h t sided preference (29). This raises the question of a possible relationship between the strength of l a t e r a l preference and the type of wave forms produced by an i n d i v i d u a l . In our culture r i g h t sidedness i s predominant and every-thing i s arranged for the convenience of the r i g h t handed person. The d i r e c t i o n of gaze i n reading and w r i t i n g i s l e f t to r i g h t . Many believe (1 !0, 3 6 ) , that because of the d i r e c t -ional and s p a t i a l orientations required, a strong r i g h t l a t e r -a l preference i s an advantage i n learning to read. I t gives a consistent frame of reference for the development of a s p a t i a l organization which f i t s into our society. This organ-i z a t i o n includes, among other things, the v i s u a l and manual movements required for reading and w r i t i n g , and the r e l a t i o n -ships between figure and ground. I f s p a t i a l orientation i s so important i n written l a n -guage, i t i s believed possible that f a u l t y or unusual types, might be related to reading d i f f i c u l t i e s i n children. A l -though a great deal of work has been done on other aspects of 5 leading, l i t t l e seems to be i n evidence d i r e c t l y investigating the s p a t i a l orientation of i n d i v i d u a l s . Habits of hand and eye usage have been thought of i n r e l a t i o n to the esta b l i s h -ment of s p a t i a l organization ( 2 3 ) , and Castner (&), found f a u l t s i n drawing and space perception i n pre-school children who l a t e r developed reading defects. , The present study was concerned with investigating certain selected factors i n r e l a t i o n to reading retardation. In general, orientation i n space and electroencephalographic relationships have been approached. The method includes comparison of l a t e r a l preferences, l e f t - r i g h t s p a t i a l 1 orient-ation without v i s u a l cues, visuo-motor behavior, and electro-encephalograph records between a group of retarded readers and a control group. This work must be considered as a preliminary i n v e s t i g -ation endeavoring to unearth general p r i n c i p l e s from which to plan future research. For t h i s reason a number and variety of tests have been employed. 6 Chapter I I Theoretical Background and Related Research Within the time available, i t was impossible to do a complete c r i t i c a l survey of the l i t e r a t u r e . However, D u r r i l l and Murphy (12), Jasper and Raney (26), and Traxler (44), are among those who have reviewed research i n the f i e l d of readings, while Gray (21), provides yearly summaries of investigations carried out i n the previous twelve months. It appears that most workers would agree with Robinson (41), that a c h i l d should have attained a mental age of above s i x years before i n s t r u c t i o n i n reading i s begun, and that progress i n reading w i l l be related to the i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient. Before a c h i l d can learn to read he must be at a maturational l e v e l where sensory-perceptual-motor a c t i v i t i e s can be applied constructively to the problem (22). Since eighty to ninety percent of the reading retardation cases are male, one of the explanations used i s that boys mature at a slower rate than g i r l s , and a higher proportion of them enter school before they have reached the necessary l e v e l of matur-ation (43). Some.etiological factors related to reading retardation; 1. Visual Factors: Monroe (36) could not d i f f e r e n t i a t e her reading defect group from her controls by t h e i r v i s u a l accuity. Robinson (41), summarizing related research, ob-served that there was no general agreement on the importance of these factors to reading d i f f i c u l t y . She noted though, that many of the studies have not been done by s p e c i a l l y trained persons, and that t h i s may account f o r some of the experimental r e s u l t s . Another group of workers (16), com-pared fourth grade students on various eye te s t s and read-ing. They found no tendency for the groups with various v i s u a l defects to be less e f f i c i e n t i n reading. Of course blindness or extreme defects preventing v i s u a l reception of the written material, would preclude learning. However, such disorders are generally remedied early and do not have much influence on the p a r t i c u l a r problem under in v e s t i g a t i o n . Eames (15) compared reading f a i l u r e s , ophthalmological eases, and unselected school children, on various v i s u a l f a c t o r s , but did not f i n d an appreciable median of defective-ness greater i n any one group than i n another. The reading c l i n i c at the University of Chicago (40), finds that two th i r d s of the people given remedial reading can make adequate progress without r e f e r r a l to a r e f r a c t i o n i s t f o r correction of v i s i o n . They also f i n d that d i f f i c u l t i e s of v i s i o n i n t e r -fere with reading progress i n i n d i v i d u a l cases, for t h i s reason examination by a competent r e f r a c t i o n i s t i s considered important. 2. Auditory and Speech Factors: In order to learn to read i n a public school, a c h i l d must be able to use and recognize the vocal 6 sounds which are associated with written symbols. Other things being favorable speech w i l l depend upon auditory accuity and discrimination. Monroe (36), found many more speech defects i n her reading cases than i n the controls, and also s i g n i f -i c a n t l y poorer auditory discrimination. Robinson (41), adds inadequate auditory memory span f o r sounds as a possible cause of both reading and speech d i f f i c u l t i e s i n some cases, and found d y s l a l e i a was the commonest cause of reading f a i l -ure among the t h i r t y cases i n her study. Eames' ( 14) , con-clusion on t h i s subject i s that both speech and reading troubles are l i k e l y to originate from the same basic defect, and that, e s s e n t i a l l y the problem i s neuro-physiological with psychological overtones. 3 . Emotional Problems. Education has a high prestige value i n our society. Serious d i f f i c u l t y with reading which impedes pro-gress i n school i s consequently very disturbing to the subject. There appears to be a close relationship between personality maladjustment and reading f a i l u r e ( 3 9 ) , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e cause and e f f e c t . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true when the' problem has been present f o r several years. Some children are helped i n reading by psychotherapy, others are not. Some emotionally disturbed children respond to a part-i c u l a r type of reading therapy with simultaneous r e l i e f of emotional maladjustments. Blau ( 5 ) , points out that though reading d i f f i c u l t y may st a r t from an emotional disturbance such as negativism, i f the c h i l d at a l a t e r date does become 9 more receptive to learning, he has missed the basic t r a i n i n g and w i l l be handicapped. 4 . Physical Factors. In t h i s category may be included such things as malnutrition, physiological disorders, chronic and acute diseases. Eames (13) compared a group of eight hundred and seventy-five reading f a i l u r e s to four hundred and eighty-s i x non f a i l u r e s . He found the f a i l u r e group had twenty-one percent more t o t a l disease and disorders and f i v e percent more speech defects. Robinson (41), f e e l s that the importance of these influences on reading i s not yet clear. 5. Environmental and Social Factors. Education of parents, socio-economic status, use of a foreign language i n the home and known attitudes apparently have l i t t l e r e l a t ionship to reading f a i l u r e (41)• Educational aspects should be considered, p a r t i c u l a r l y for the primary grades, because i t i s then that f a u l t y habits become established. 6. Neurological Factors. Damage to sensory or motor areas involved i n any of the language functions and t h e i r association paths, may i n t e r f e r e with reading. While t h i s i s often d e f i n i t e enough to be l o c a l i z e d through neurological examination, i t i s suspected by some workers that s u b - c l i n i c a l damage might also play a part. Statten ( 4 3 ) , found a group of reading cases who, although neurological'examinations were usually negative gave test performances suggestive of brain damage, and pro-10 duced electroencephalographic tracings with abnormal three per second waves i n the o c c i p i t a l region. Comparing reading achievers and f a i l u r e s on a group basis however, there appears to be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the number of disorders of the nervous system that are found (13). Lateral preference, cerebral dominance and reading. Asymmetry of the two cerebral hemispheres has been def-i n i t e l y established regarding the language functions. The entire control of speech, reading and w r i t i n g i s found to be centered i n the same side of the brain from which the pre-ferred hand i s controlled (£). This i s referred to as the dominance of one hemisphere over the other. Because of the crossing of nerve t r a c t s i n the brain to the opposite side of the body, the l e f t cerebral hemisphere i s dominant i n a right handed person, and the right i s dominant i n a l e f t hander. In adulthood there i s l i t t l e transfer of the language functions from one hemisphere to the other, following i n j u r y . However, such a transfer may occur i f the in j u r y takes place early i n l i f e (9). Handedness can be changed, often with no d i f f i c u l t y , but the language centers do not follow s u i t . Because of the normally close anatomical relationship of handedness and the language functions, deviations have been considered as pos-s i b l e causes of d i f f i c u l t y i n learning to read. By those who believe cerebral dominance to be a f i x e d hereditary e n t i t y , any i n j u r i e s or t r a i n i n g which i n t e r f e r e with the predeter-mined state are f e l t to cause cerebral confusion with r e s u l t -ing d i f f i c u l t i e s i n handling language symbols, and with 11 reduced f a c i l i t y f or cooperation between hand and language centers i n w r i t i n g . Those who believe that t r a i n i n g deter-mines the location of dominance, f e e l that f a i l u r e to est-a b l i s h strong l a t e r a l i t y on one side, may lead to d i f f i c u l t y i n acquiring language forms because, of the lack of a con-sistent s p a t i a l frame of reference, and cerebral confusion. Writing involves the focus and alignment of eye, p e n c i l , and paper. Due to the spacing of the two eyes t h i s i s not possible i f the eyes are focused simultaneously, because a double image w i l l r e s u l t . For t h i s reason one eye i s used f o r w r i t i n g ( 5 ) . . . In monocular sighting, most people are consistent regarding the eye they use. This i s generally taken as an i n d i c a t i o n of preferred l a t e r a l i t y , but because the optic nerves from one eye go to both cerebral hemi-spheres there i s doubt i f i t i s related to dominance (34)• The l a t e r a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of retarded readers have been extensively investigated. Preference i s said to be ~ strong when the same hand i s used f o r s k i l l e d unimanual a c t i v i t i e s and f o r the more d i f f i c u l t aspects of bimanual ones. The non preferred hand has a more supportive role'. The strength of l a t e r a l preference exhibited by an i n d i v i d u a l appears to be related to the number and kinds of tests used to measure i t ( 3 3 ) . Most people, for example, can write with only one hand, but the hand used i n picking up objects may depend upon convenience. Estimates of l e f t handedness i n the population, have varied from two to t h i r t y percent. Two to s i x percent i s generally accepted as a f a i r estimate. Mixed 12 hand and eye preference i s found i n twenty to f o r t y percent of the population, while l e f t eyedness appears i n twenty-f i v e to thir t y - t h r e e percent ( 2 3 ) . There i s also a small group of people who are inconsistent i n eye or hand use. The remainder of the people are right handed and use the r i g h t eye f o r sighting. Certain groups of people show higher than average l e f t handedness. Males, mental defectives, delinquents and crim-i n a l s , neurotics, psychoties, stutterers and reading d i s a b i l -i t i e s . Blau (5), Jasper and Raney ( 2 6 ) , f e e l that t h i s may mean that c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y poor b i o l o g i c a l material tends to lack the maturational determinants of l a t e r a l dominance, or that handedness i s a learned behavior and unstable or de-f i c i e n t i n dividuals are lacking i n learning a b i l i t y . Blau ( 5 ) , thinks that l e f t handedness i s most often the symptom of an i n f a n t i l e psychoneurosis involving emotional negativism. Other causes he mentions are mental and physical deficiency and f a u l t y education. Monroe (36), found no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n handed-ness between her groups of normal and retarded readers but she did f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater incidence of l e f t eye preference, and l e f t eye with right hand preference among the reading cases. Castner ( 7 ) , examining children referred to a guidance c l i n i c found l e f t handed, impa r t i a l eyed types showed a higher than usual amount of reading retardation. Smith ( 4 2 ) , on the other hand discovered no differences i n l a t e r a l i t y between his retarded readers and reading achievers. 13 Reading reversals have been associated with lack- of cerebral dominance through Orton's (37) , theory which sets f o r t h the idea that v i s u a l perception r e s u l t s i n memory traces being l e f t i n the brain. Those traces i n the dom-inant hemisphere are r e c a l l e d c o r r e c t l y , those from the other side are mirror images. I f there i s no dominance either image may appear, and confusion i n reading and writing occurs. Gates and Bennett (17) , following t h i s l i n e of approach com-pared a group of students showing highest reversal tendency, with a group showing the lowest. They could not d i f f e r e n t -i a t e the groups either on hand preference or lack of i t . Both groups read equally w e l l . C l i n i c a l Studies i n Reading I I (40), reports an invest-i g a t i o n done on eye-hand preferences, reversals and the reading progress of a group of children s t a r t i n g Grade one through Grade two. At the beginning of Grade one, the r i g h t -handed, l e f t eyed children tended to arrange a picture story series i n a r i g h t to l e f t order. At the end of Grade one there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences nor did any develop by Grade three. With reference to Orton's theory, Mintz (35) , studying reading and l a t e r a l i t y i n subnormal boys, found the expected l e f t right reversals i n l e t t e r s and words as w e l l as v e r t i c a l reversals. Barger ( 3 ) , working with children severely re-tarded i n reading, but whose d i s a b i l i t y was not considered to be of psychogenic o r i g i n , observed that they frequently reversed l e t t e r s i n p r i n t i n g and made pencil strokes from 14 below up. This was a double rotation involving both .vert-i c a l and horizontal axis. Also noted i n each c h i l d was a condition of latent or active mixed l a t e r a l i t y of cerebral dominance. Barger believed that there was a f a i l u r e on the chil d ' s part to adjust to the accepted b i a x i a l conventions i n specialized cerebral areas. He f e l t that a mirror could help the c h i l d see the words at his own physiological l e v e l . Printed material was placed so that the horizontal axis of some l e t t e r s , and the v e r t i c a l axis of a l l the l e t t e r s were reversed and inverted. Direction of reading was l e f t to r i g h t . This method proved remarkably e f f e c t i v e i n teaching the children to read, and i n two to eight weeks they were able to proceed without i t , having worked out some kind of an adjustment. This author f e e l s that the important thing i s not the mixed l a t e r a l i t y , or v e r t i c a l i t y but whether or not the c h i l d has adjusted to the confusion. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s generally made i n the l i t e r a t u r e be-tween extremely retarded readers, and less e r types. The former are called reading d i s a b i l i t i e s by some and aphasics by others. The l a t t e r are referred to as reading retardations. Some writers f e e l that reading d i s a b i l i t y i s part of a gen-e r a l neurologic hereditary syndrome which i s extremely d i f f i c u l t or impossible to cure. These children are believed to have confused cerebral dominance with resultant innate confusion i n the s p a t i a l orientation of v i s u a l symbols. Cole (10}, discussing t h i s subject, states that reversal tend-encies or mirror w r i t i n g are found i n a l l these cases. Blau 15 (£), disagrees with the hereditary aspect of reading d i f f i c -u l t i e s , but agrees that orienation i s involved. Hildreth ( 3 5 ) , thinks that e f f o r t s should be made to esta b l i s h strong l a t e r a l i t y i n children i n , order to help them learn orient-ation i n space. Electroencephalographic studies related' to reading and  Problems of behavior. The "normal" population of children shows only f i v e to ten percent abnormal electroencephalograms. Children with psychological disorders have s i x t y to eighty percent abnormal EEGs. The character of,the EEG abnormality found i n these children, has resulted i n the suggestion that unequal and abnormal c o r t i c a l development may be involved, and that be-havior d i f f i c u l t i e s may be related to t h i s . There i s also a high percentage of reading d i f f i c u l t y among such children (27). Hughs, Leander, and Ketchum ( 2 5 ) , studied the e l e c t r o -encephalographs of one hundred and twenty-five children with reading retardation, but without severe behavior disorders. They found abnormal records i n seventy-five percent. There were no traces of f o c a l abnormalities, and nothing which could be related to cerebral dominance or lack of i t . Statten (43), describes a group of children with reading retardation who show a corre l a t i o n between several.different things, as follows. Neurological examinations were negative. Psychologists using the Wechsler Intelligence scale f o r children, the Goodenough Draw-a-Man t e s t , the Bender-Gestalt v i s u a l motor test and any other tests deemed necessary report 16 visuo-motor d i f f i c u l t y . The object assembly, coding and block design sub-tests i n the Wechsler Intelligence Scale f o r Children showed drops i n score or performance. Performance IQs were frequently lower than verbal IQs. This discrepancy however, tended to even i t s e l f out i n older children because the scores of children who can't read generally f a l l o f f on information, vocabulary and general comprehension. Drawings i n nearly a l l cases pointed to a visuo-motor problem with Goodenough IQ scores ranging ten to t h i r t y - e i g h t points below the Wechsler Intelligence Scale f o r Children. Reproductions of the Bender-Gestalt figures were usually poor. Electro-encephalograph reports showed abnormal two to three per second waves i n the o c i p i t a l region. Psychiatric examination re-vealed severely emotionally disturbed children who had been a problem to the family since early l i f e . Statten suggests that t h i s might be a group of children who had minimal brain damage i n early l i f e . An alternative i s that the emotional problems have been severe enough to in t e r f e r e with maturation at a l l l e v e l s of psychophysical integration. Another group of workers, Kennard (27), investigating, children with problems of behavior divided them with regard to reading retardation. Electroencephalograph and cerebral dominance of the groups were compared. There was more mixed and uncertain dominance among the retarded readers, and the percentage of abnormal electroencephalographs was twice as high, Taking a l l the children together seventy-two percent showed electroencephalograph abnormality. These figures are 17 consistent with those usually found. Discussion. I t appears that reading retardation i n general cannot be attributed to any one cause. The same factors may be present i n several cases, but have an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l value i n r e l a t i o n to the reading problem. I t may at times, be possible to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the v i t a l e t i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , but, as the thorough study by Robinson (41) shows, even the combined s k i l l of numerous s p e c i a l i s t s , cannot give a con-s i s t e n t l y correct estimate of the r e l a t i v e importance of the diverse conditions which are present i n a reading case. Monroe f e l t that "the reading d i f f i c u l t y may r e s u l t i n those cases i n which the number or strength of the impeding factors i s greater than the number or strength of the f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s " (36, p 110) . Hypotheses upon which the present research i s based• 1. The l a t e r a l i t y of the retarded readers w i l l not be as strongly established as that of the controls. 2. The retarded readers w i l l show more confusion of s p a t i a l orientation than the controls do. 3 . The visuo-motor behavior of retarded readers w i l l be f a u l t y or unusual i n comparison to that of the control group. 4 . There w i l l be a greater number of abnormal EEGs among the retarded readers than among the controls, and i t w i l l be possible to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the groups on the basis of p a r t i c u l a r EEG patterns. Chapter I I I Method Subjects For the present investigation two groups of children, ten i n each, between the ages of eight and eleven i n c l u s i v e were selected from the case f i l e s of the Child Guidance C l i n i c , and the Metropolitan Health Committee. The size of the experimental group i s small but i t represents a l l the cases which were available at the time. One group was chosen on the basis of a history of reading retardation, and the other group on the basis of an absence of any such his t o r y . The subjects were paired with regard to age, in t e l l i g e n c e and sex. The basal age of eight' years was selected because many children who have had d i f f i c u l t y learning to read catch up by t h i s age (39). Children i n higher•grades w i l l be severely retarded i n a l l subjects so that reading does not stand out. An e f f o r t was made to keep the ages of the subjects i n the eight to ten range f o r greater consistency, but t h i s was not p r a c t i c a l l y possible. A l l subjects were i n average good health. B i r t h and developmental h i s t o r i e s were not available for some of the children, but no case with known neurological disorders, chronic i l l n e s s e s or severe physical d i s a b i l i t i e s was used. Children are referred to the above agencies because of 19 behavior and school problems of a l l types,- or for evaluation of i n t e l l i g e n c e and adjustment. The twenty subjects i n t h i s study a l l showed deviations i n behavior or emotional d i f f i c -u l t i e s , on psychological and psychiatric examination, at the time of t h e i r r e f e r r a l . Two of the children had been seen f i r s t i n 1952, sixteen i n 1953 and two i n 1954. Three of the reading cases came from the Metropolitan Health Committee, a l l others were from the Child Guidance C l i n i c . Altogether twenty-four subjects were tested. Two were l a t e r discarded because of age and i n t e l l i g e n c e , one case was not s u f f i c i e n t l y re-tarded i n reading to be included, and one c h i l d showed possible epilepsy on the electroencephalograph. The cases could not be paired i n regard to socio-economic background or home s t a b i l i t y , but the over a l l group pictures are s i m i l a r (Table.il). Tests, apparatus and scoring. A. To determine reading a b i l i t y . Although the children had been selected on the basis of c l i n i c a l reading, they were re-tested i n order to confirm i t . The use of s i m i l a r reading te s t s f o r each sub-ject also permitted a better comparison of the present read-ing status. 1. Oral Reading. Gray's Oral Reading Para-graphs were used. This test i s given and scored according to the d i r e c t i o n sheet, with the exception that a l l children, i r r e s p e c t i v e of grade, started on the f i r s t paragraph. Raw scores are converted into B scores which are comparable to 20 Table I A Comparison of the Reading Retardation and Control Groups i n Terms of Socio-economic Status and Type of Guardianship Class of Home Reading Cases Controls Poor 3 2 Middle 7 7 Receiving Home 0 1 Type of Guardianship Reading Cases Controls Home Broken and Ward of the Government 1 2 I l l e g i t i m a t e and Ward of the Government 1 2 L i v i n g at Home with One Parent 3 2 L i v i n g at Home with Both Parents 5 k 21 grade scores. 2. S i l e n t Reading. The Dominion tes t s given are achievment tests i n s i l e n t reading. They were standardized on Canadian children, f o r each separate grade. There are four tests f o r Grade one: word recognition, diag-nostic paragraph reading, phrase and sentence reading, and a diagnostic test i n paragraph reading. For Grade two there i s a diagnostic test i n paragraph reading, and a vocabulary t e s t . Grades three and four are combined, as are f i v e and s i x , but they have the same type of tests as Grade two. The vocabulary tests were not used. The other tests were scored according to the directions i n the manuals. The score i s i n grades, years and months. 3 . Mirror Reading. The mirror apparatus and the f i r s t paragraph from Gray's Oral Reading test were used here. Scoring i s i n terms of time and errors, with the errors defined by the i n s t r u c t i o n sheet for Gray's t e s t . B. To determine l a t e r a l preference. Twenty-four preference t e s t s , three t r i a l s f o r each, were given (Appendix A). The tests were taken from a table shown i n the Monograph, C l i n i c a l Studies i n Reading I (3$). To save time some of the tests were not used. These are crossed out i n the sample. Those used include seven f o r hand, seven for eye, seven f o r foot, and three f o r ear. Two of the eyedness tests are taken from Crider (11), The hand used f o r w r i t i n g was also noted. Considering the seventy-two choices, eighty percent or 22 more i n favor of one side was taken as i n d i c a t i n g strong l a t e r a l i t y , l e f t or r i g h t as the case might be. Less than eighty percent was considered i n d i c a t i v e of mixed preference. This i s an a r b i t r a r y delineation, and was chosen to allow f o r expected normal va r i a t i o n s . C. To determine status of s p a t i a l orientation . Spatial mazes have been extensively used f o r the study of motor learning. Since they are. concerned with the learning of the position of certain objects i n space (1, 28-29), i t was f e l t that maze learning, without v i s u a l cues, should be r e l a t e d to the s p a t i a l orientation a b i l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l . Persons without a well established s p a t i a l frame of reference might be expected to have d i f f i c u l t y acquiring the d i r e c t i o n a l orientation needed to f i n d the goal. Five stylus mazes of the U type (1, 27-28) were designed and made up (Appendix B)., The mazes were constructed so that d i r e c t i o n a l choices towards the correct a l l e y were either to the l e f t or to the r i g h t . The maze paths were cut i n a piece of plexiglass nine and one quarter inches square and one quarter of an inch deept This was glued to another square the same s i z e , which acted as a f l o o r f or the a l l e y s . The beginning of the maze was a c i r c l e three quarters of an inch i n diameter. I t opened into the f i r s t a l l e y on the r i g h t hand side. The end of the maze was also c i r c u l a r and three quarters of an inch i n diameter, but i t was cut through both sheets of ple x i g l a s s . In t h i s way the completion of a run 23 was marked by the stylus dropping down. The whole was mounted upon rubber legs to prevent skidding. The mazes were design-ed i n sections three and three quarters inches by one inch. One end of each section led into a blind a l l e y and the other end led into a new section or goal. The a l l e y s were three eighths of an inch wide, and a rounded stylus which f i t t e d loosely was used to run the course. One ma^e was used as a sample (Appendix B). I t had only one section. Each success-ive maze had one more section so that the f i f t h one had s i x . Among the four mazes there were eighteen b l i n d a l l e y s . Nine on the l e f t aide and nine on the r i g h t . For scoring purposes the maze sections are considered as being composed of four units. One unit from center to the l e f t side, one unit up to the end of the bl i n d a l l e y or the next section. The other hal f of the section i s s i m i l a r l y divided. Each unit i s numbered and by w r i t i n g down the number whenever a unit was traversed half way or more, the c h i l d ' s route could be recorded. Performance was not timed. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the groups on t h e i r maze performances. The following excerpt from the a r t i c l e by the authors (32), gives a short description of the t e s t . The s t a t i s t i c U i s defined as the number of times a y precedes and x i n an ordered (ranked) sequence of x's and y'svecThus, under the n u l l hypothesis i t would be expected that the number of times a y precedes an x w i l l equal the number of times an x precedes a y. I f the obtained U departs from the mean U expected under the n u l l hypothesis, the hypothesis w i l l be rejected at the confidence l e v e l given by the r e l a t i v e frequency of departure from U of values as small or smaller than the value of U obtained. . 24 P r o b a b i l i t y values associated with obtained U's of various sizes are given i n Mann-Whitney Table I f o r the case where n<m<8 and n and m are the numbers of cases i n the two samples. When n>m>8, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of U about U i s approximately normal with a standard error given by: (1) /nm(n+ m* l j " y " V T O 12 Thus p r o b a b i l i t i e s associated with values of U obtained when n>m?8 may be obtained by ca l c u l a t i n g a normal deviate and reading the pr o b a b i l i t y from a table of the normal p r o b a b i l i t y i n t e g r a l . Note: The Mann-Whitney test i s a single t a i l t e st since the only alternative to the n u l l hypothesis admitted i s that x i s smaller than y. For a two-tailed test the obtained p r o b a b i l i t i e s should be doubled. (32, p 5 0 ) . The table f or the pro b a b i l i t y values samples of the size used i n t h i s research are shown i n Appendix C. D. To determine visuo-motor behavior. 1. The performance section of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale f o r Children. The f u l l scale WISC was given and scored as prescribed i n the manual. The standard test materials, record blanks, and a stop watch were used. 2. ' The Bender-Gestalt Visuo-Motor Test. ( 4 ) . The administration and scoring method set f o r t h by Pascal and S u t t e l l (3$), was used. The scorer r e l i a b i l i t y i s high, and v a l i d i t y studies on patient and non-patient children and adult groups indicates that the scoring d i f f e r e n t i a t e s them. There are no norms available f o r children, so raw scores were used to compare the group. 3 . Draw-a-Person Test. Due to misunder-standing, the instructions f o r the Machovers Draw-a-Person (31) test were used instead of those f o r Goodenough's Draw-a-25 Man Test of the same type. The drawings of the male figure were scored according to Goodenough's instru c t i o n s ( 2 0 ) , and her norms were used to f i n d IQ scores. 4 . Mirror Writing (36, 198). This t e s t involves f i v e three l e t t e r words, which must be written mirror style by the subject. The examiner demonstrates each of"the words, s t a r t i n g at the r i g h t hand side of the paper, and going to the l e f t . The c h i l d i s asked to read each word aft e r i t has been written. The example i s then removed and the examiner dictates the words f o r the c h i l d to write. Paper, p e n c i l , and eraser are used. Scoring which i s subjective i s the percentage of l e t t e r s correctly reversed. 5. Mirror Drawing (9, 3 0 ) . Two patterns were designed, suitable f o r children (Appendix D"). One pattern i s the mirror image of the other. The f i r s t angle i s t h i r t y degrees, the following two angles are ninety degrees. A standard mirror apparatus with an adjustable metal shi e l d was used. Crossing either l i n e i s considered an error, but no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made as to the siz e of the deviation ( 2 ) . The purpose of t h i s test was to investigate a b i l i t y to make sharp changes i n d i r e c t i o n while guided by a mirror image which makes i t necessary to reverse habitual visuo-motor habits. The performance was timed. E. To determine electroencephalograph patterns. An Offner s i x channel apparatus was used. Eight leads were symmetrically placed on f r o n t a l , motor, 26 temporal, and o c c i p i t a l regions of the two sides of the head. Recordings were bipolar. An analysis based on the entire record was made by a q u a l i f i e d examiner. This analysis was directed p a r t i c u l a r l y to normality, amount of theta a c t i v i t y , regular and i r r e g u l a r alpha patterns, amplitude asymmetry, reaction to hyperventilation, and presence or absence of dysrhythmia. Preparation of examiner f o r t e s t i n g . Administration of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale f o r children was practiced on f i f t e e n children before s t a r t i n g with the research subjects. Training and supervision were provided by an experienced c l i n i c a l psychologist, and scoring was also checked by him. After learning the scoring system fo r the Bender-Gestalt t e s t , scorer r e l i a b i l i t y was determined for f i f t e e n records scored independently by t h i s .examiner and the supervisor. The correla t i o n was high, being about the same as that reported by Pascal and S u t t e l l (3^8). Administration of a l l the other tests used, was practiced on varying numbers of children, depending on the complexity of the procedure, or the necessity of establishing one. Procedure. An outline of the research project was given to the parents or s o c i a l worker concerned, along with a b r i e f description of the tests used and the purpose of the work. The children were generally t o l d , either that they were going to take part i n research which might help others, or that the examiner was interested i n seeing how children did 27 Various things. The main idea was to t r y and present the examination i n a way which would be sensible and acceptable to the c h i l d . A l l subjects were driven from t h e i r homes to the Univer-s i t y and back again by the examiner. Some were accompanied by an adult or c h i l d from t h e i r immediate family, f o r one or both of the sessions. Testing was carried out i n the Depart-ment of Neurological Research, two periods for each c h i l d , either morning or afternoon. The time between tests varied from one to sixteen days depending upon whatever arrangements could be made with parents. The time needed to complete a session d i f f e r e d from c h i l d to c h i l d , but averaged about three hours, with a break half way through for a walk and refreshments. Order of presentation of the tests was the same f o r each subject, with a few exceptions due to refusal s , or lack of time i n the f i r s t session. One reading case was given the WISC, Oral Reading and Draw-a-Person tests by a psychologist at the Child Guidance C l i n i c , and had the remaining tests the following day at the University. The electroencephalograph examination took place at -Che end of the f i r s t or. second test i n g period, with one exception when i t was necessary to give i t f i r s t . Session one was given i n the following manner. 1. Draw-a-Person following the method given by Machover (31)• 2. Bender-Gestalt. This test was given i n the manner suggested by Pascal and S u t t e l l . Instructions are as 28 follows: " I Have here nine simple designs (or figures) which you are to copy, free hand, without sketching, on t h i s paper. Each design i s on one of these cards which I w i l l show you one at a time. There i s no time l i m i t to t h i s t e s t " ( 3 8 , p , l l ) . Several sheets of paper, p e n c i l , and eraser were placed on the table at the beginning of the t e s t . The examiner cleared up any points of confusion as much as i s possible without being d i r e c t i v e . 3 . The WISC was given as instructed i n the manual. Sometimes i t was necessary to a l t e r the order of presentation of sub-tests to hold the child's i n t e r e s t . Occasionally the break for refreshments was taken before the WISC was f i n i s h e d , i f the c h i l d was p a r t i c u l a r l y slow or r e s t l e s s . 4. Mirror reading, The mirror apparatus was set up and shown to the c h i l d . The paragraph to be read was placed so that the top edge of the paper ran along the bottom edge of the upright mirror. This i s the method described by Barger ( 3 ) , and the d i r e c t i o n of reading i s the normal l e f t to r i g h t . The mirror i s adjusted so that the image i s clear and the instructions given by Monroe (36, p. 197) are used. The performance i s timed. 5. Mirror Drawing. The test was taped to the baseboard, i n front of the mirror, so that i t was i n the same position for each c h i l d . The children were not allowed to look at the drawing, except through the mirror. The arrows which indicate the s t a r t i n g points are closest to the c h i l d , and as the sheet was being arranged instructions 29 were given as follows. "You see the two paths i n the mirror? Well, I want you to start at the arrow and draw a l i n e up the path to the end, t r y i n g not to go over the l i n e s , and not to l i f t your pencil off the paper. You are to do i t by looking i n the mirror, and you must not look underneath. I w i l l put your pencil at the s t a r t i n g place and t e l l you when to go. Do you understand?" The shield was adjusted so that the c h i l d had a clear view alnd freedom of movement. Ihen a sub-ject deviated from the path and was unable to return, the examiner assisted him back to the point of departure. The deviations sometimes occurred when the c h i l d took his pencil of f the paper. The order of f i r s t t r i a l was alternated between the l e f t and right drawing for each successive subject. The second t r i a l was given immediately, or af t e r a short r e s t , depending on the subject. Some children gripped the pencil so t i g h t l y , or took so long a time on the f i r s t t r i a l , that t h e i r fingers were t i r e d . Other children succeeded more quickly or with less tension, and were impatient to go on. Both draw-' ings were timed. Session Two. 1. The preference tests were given, as l i t t l e games, i n whatever order i t was f e l t would hold the c h i l d ' s attention. I f a subject inquired about the purpose of these t e s t s , he was t o l d that the examiner was interested i n the various ways people do such things. Only one c h i l d appeared to r e a l i z e the purpose of t h i s examination. She was a read-ing case whose handedness had been a subject of family 30 controversy. 2. Mirror Writing. The method described by Monroe (36, p. 198) was used, with the examiner.- i l l u s t r a t i n g the procedure, and the c h i l d attempting to imitate i t . The words are written from r i g h t to l e f t . 3 . Reading Tests. (a) Silent reading tests were given which corresponded to the school grade of the subjects i n the con-t r o l group. The reading group was more d i f f i c u l t , however, because some of them were advanced i n school f a r ahead of t h e i r reading a b i l i t y . There i s also the problem of an emotional block, i n r e l a t i o n to reading. Some of the children were completely unable to attempt the test f o r a p a r t i c u l a r grade, but could handle the one for a lower grade. Since the instructions and examples are the same f o r grades two to s i x , i f a test was rejected, or answered without being read a lower one was substitued. Children known to be severely retarded were given the grade one t e s t s . One c h i l d i n the control group marked his paper without reading the stor i e s on which the questions are based. Since the tests are timed i t was thought better to give him the test f o r a lower grade, than to s t a r t him over on the same one. These are group t e s t s , and the instructions given i n the manual were altered to make them suitable f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . The examiner stayed i n the room with the c h i l d while he wrote but t r i e d to avoid making him f e e l closely watched. I t was found necessary to encourage and reassure some of the 31 children so that they would not just give up or refuse to t r y . (b) Oral Reading. This test was given as. directed on the accompanying score sheet but s t a r t i n g always with paragraph one. Time f o r each paragraph i s recorded. 4. Stylus Mazes. The c h i l d was shown the sample, and the following explanation was given. "This i s a kind of a maze, I t has a beginning here (demonstration), and an ending here. To get from the beginning to the end, you follow t h i s path, into which the end of t h i s pencil f i t s . I f you turn t h i s way, you end up here and can't go any farther. This i s c a l l e d a blind a l l e y . The idea i s to get from the beginning to the end of the maze, blindfolded, and without going into any b l i n d a l l e y s . I w i l l l e t you t r y t h i s one that you have seen f i r s t . Then I w i l l give you some di f f e r e n t mazes which are made something the same, but are longer. You w i l l f i n d the way from the beginning to the end, and remember i t , so that you can f i n a l l y go through to the maze without entering a blind a l l e y . " The subject was allowed to take the stylus and go through the d i f f e r e n t parts of the maze, f i r s t with his eyes open, then with them shut. Following t h i s the sample was removed and the subject blindfolded. Celluwipes were folded and placed over the eyes and a folded cloth t i e d around the head held them i n place. Each maze was placed squarely i n front of the c h i l d , and the examiner placed the stylus at the s t a r t i n g point f o r each t r i a l . Thirty t r i a l s were allowed f o r each maze, or three errorless runs taken to indicate that the cor-rect path was learned. In f i n a l tabulating of r e s u l t s , however, twenty-seven t r i a l s , or two errorless runs were used. The children appeared to f e e l that one or two successful runs should be enough, and performances often deteriorated when they had to continue. In view of t h i s the f i n a l tabulating was based on the l i m i t of twenty-seven t r i a l s , or two error-less runs f o r each maze. Discussion. These subjects were generally able to cooperate w e l l , i n spite of the length of the t e s t i n g periods. Reactions to the various parts of the program varied between tests and i n d i v i d -uals. I t was necessary to use numerous methods of approach i n order to hold the children's i n t e r e s t , but the tes t s were a l l reasonably short or varied so that boredom was generally avoidable. As l i t t l e r e s t r i c t i o n as possible was used. The children were apparently able to accept the rules governing t e s t i n g . They seemed to understand that although the examiner might l i k e to help them, i t was not permitted. The drive from home to the University appeared to help a great deal i n establishing a working relationship with these children. 33 Chapter IV Results A. Reading Tests. 1. Mirror Reading. Table 2 sets f o r t h the s t a t i s t i c a l data r e l a t i n g to t h i s t e s t . The reading retardation group and controls were compared as to time required f o r reading the paragraph, and errors made. There are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f -erences. A r a t i o of errors over time, was worked out for each c h i l d , and used as a basis for group comparisons. This, r a t i o gives an idea of the relationship between time and errors. I t reveals that the children retarded i n reading make fewer errors, per unit time, than do the controls. S t a t i s t i c a l l y t h i s i s a very s i g n i f i c a n t difference. One explanation for t h i s f i n d i n g l i e s i n Barger's theory, r e l a t i n g reading d i s -a b i l i t y to a cerebral f a i l u r e to adjust to the b i a x i a l con-ventions i n reading. He found his cases were able to read p r i n t , through a mirror which a l t e r s the axis of the l e t t e r s . He f e e l s that t h i s method enables the children to make an adjustment to horizontal and v e r t i c a l a x i s, which they could not do otherwise (3). Practice may explain t h i s difference also. Children who are accomplished readers probably do more of i t than those who are f a i l i n g . In t h i s way the good readers would have more strongly established habits of orientation and percept-Table 2 A Comparison of the Reading Retardation and Control Groups i n Terms of Reading Grades which have been Reduced to Months S t a t i s t i c N Range M (Months) (f Oral Reading Reading Group Controls 10 10 0-11 11-49 5.1 27.4 3.94 10.53 1.31 3.51 Silent Reading Reading Group Controls 10 10 1-20 20-48 11.2 36.4 5.21 10.96 1.74 3.65 Average Reading Reading Group Controls 10 10 0-18 15-40 8.8 31.7 4.97 10.23 1.66 3 .41 M t 3.75 22.3 5.95 4 .04 25.2 6.2376 3.79 22.9 6.0422 Note: With 18 degrees of freedom a to of 2.101 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . t of 2.878 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . The beginning of Grade one i s taken as the zero point, and one school grade equals 10 months. 35 ion, and could not adjust as well to a change i n the s p a t i a l orientation of mirrored p r i n t . The retarded readers, not being so r i g i d i n t h e i r reading habits would make a more f a c i l e adjustment. Table 2 shows the groups differences i n r e l a t i o n to time and errors i n reading the above mentioned paragraph normally. The control group reads faster than the reading cases, which i s to be expected because of the selection of the two groups. The poor readers also make a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of mistakes, which i s also to be expected. 2. Reading t e s t s . In terms of the number of years of school-ing the reading group t o t a l l e d thirty-seven and the control group t h i r t y eight. The range of actual grade placement among the retarded readers was grades two and nine months to four and ten months. The s i m i l a r range for the control group was grades two and nine months to f i v e and ten months. Looking at Table 2 i t i s seen that the reading retard-ation group gverages much lower on reading test scores, than do controls. The values obtained indicate very s i g -n i f i c a n t differences between these two groups. This was expected because of the basis of selection of the groups. B. Preference t e s t s . Table 3 shows the responses of the children to the l a t e r a l i t y t e s t s . I t i s seen that both reading cases, and controls are s i m i l a r i n hand preference. One of the reading cases, writes with his l e f t hand, but scored one hundred percent preference for the right hand on the t e s t s . This 36 Table 3 The Preferences of Subjects i n Regard to Hand, Eye, Ear, and Foot Usage i n the L a t e r a l i t y Tests The Number of Subjects Showing Right, l e f t , or Mixed L a t e r a l i t y Preference Hand Eye Foot Ear R L M R L M R L M R L M-Reading Retardations 9 1 0 5 3 2 6 0 4 3 1 6 Controls 9 0 1 8 2 0 10 0 0 3 1 6 The Number of Subjects Showing Various Types of Combined L a t e r a l i t y Preferences Hand & Eye Hand, Eye, Hand, Eye, Foot Foot & Ear R L M R . L M R L M Reading Reatrdations : 5 0 5 5 0 5 1 0 9 Controls 7 0 3 7 0 3 3 0 7 The Number of Subjects Showing Verious Types of L a t e r a l i t y When the Percentages of Choices are Combined Together and Averaged Hand & Eye Hand, • Foot Eye, Hand, Eye, Foot & Ear R L M R L M R L M Reading Retardations 5 0 5 4 0 6 4 0 6 Controls 8 0 2 7 0 3 7 0 3 Note: R; L; & M stand f or r i g h t , l e f t , and mixed. Lateral preferences. 37 would be c l a s s i f i e d as mixed preference by some authors, but i t does not lower the test percentage below 80, so there i s no basis f o r such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n here. Eye preference shows that f i v e r e a d i n g cases and two controls are not right eyed. These proportions are comparable to those Monroe (54), found among her subjects. The t o t a l percentage of l e f t eyedness i n the groups i s twenty-five, which i s si m i l a r to the general population. The control group had d e f i n i t e foot preference which i s not usual (23), but both groups are the same regarding ear t e s t s . Combining the use of l a t e r a l organs (Table 3) we see that f i v e reading cases have strong preference f o r the right hand and right eye. In the other" f i v e , preferences are mixed and include right and l e f t combinations as well as mixed eye and mixed hand types. Among the controls seven are strongly right sided and three are mixed. Adding foot preference to the previous two does not change the picture, but when ear preference i s considered nine of the reading cases and seven of the controls' show mixed preference. Taking averages of the r i g h t and l e f t choices made by indiv i d u a l s i t appears that f i v e reading d i s a b i l i t i e s and eight controls used the right nana and eye more than eighty percent of the time. Generally speaking hand preference i s the strongest. With eye, foot and ear following i n that order. Strength of l a t e r a l preference decreases when one or more parts of 38 the body are considered together. Reading retardations show more l e f t sided and. mixed preference than normal.readers. But the differences are not s i g n i f i c a n t . These findings are i n keeping with other reports (23). C. The Maze Test. The t o t a l number of bl i n d a l l e y s i n the four mazes i s eighteen, mine on the ri g h t and nine on the l e f t . With each section of the maze composed of four u n i t s , moving the stylus more than half way, i n a l e f t or right d i r e c t i o n , along the f i r s t section of a wrong a l l e y , constitutes a one unit error. Entering more than half way into' the f i n a l sec-t i o n of the blind a l l e y was considered a two unit error. In order to compare group performances i n r e l a t i o n to both groups of a l l e y s , the performances on a l l four mazes were combined for each subject. The Marih-Whitney test was used to compare the two groups and Us were obtained as i n Table 4. An attempt had been made to do test s f o r each maze, The v a r i a t i o n of scores within each group and the small average scores obtained f o r some types of errors, made t h i s impossible. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were uncovered i n the maze learning a b i l i t y of these two groups. There i s no evidence of s p a t i a l confusion or d i r e c t i o n a l preference, which i s outstanding for either group. Their performances are simi l a r i n a l l respects. D. Tests to determine visuo-motor behavior. 1. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children. 39 Table .4 Results of the Application of the Mann-Whitney Technique to the Maze Performances of the Reading Retardation and Control Groups. U i s Based on the Sum of the T r i a l s and Errors f o r A l l Four Mazes U Two Unit Errors Left 55 Right 45 Total 48 .5 One Unit Errors Left 44 Right 55 Total 52.5 Total of Both Types Left 55 of Errors Right 47-5 Total 52.5 Total Units Covered 49 Number of T r i a l s 45 40 Scaled scores are used for calcu l a t i o n s . Each member of the control group scored on a l l sub-tests. There are some omissions i n the reading group: one arithmetic, one d i g i t span and three maze, sub-tests were spoiled or omitted. Based on Statten's (43), reference to the performance of his cases on the WISC, an analysis of the test performances of each group has been done. The standard error of the difference between the means was calculated f o r each sub-test and the three i n t e l l i g e n c e scales. The significance of the difference was obtained i n the usual manner. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences (Tables 5 and 6). Since there i s reason to believe (43) that children retarded i n reading might achieve higher scores on per-formance test than verbal ones t h i s aspect was investigated. The standard error of the difference between the means of the verbal and performance IQ scores, within each group, were determined (Table 7). The formula for correlated data was used. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences here. 2. Draw-a-Person. (a) The two groups were compared f o r differences i n IQ scores on t h i s test (Table 8). There are no s i g n i f i c a n t differences. Applying the Mann-Whitney technique a U value of 43 was obtained i n d i c a t i n g no s i g n i f -icant difference i n the performance of these groups on t h i s t e s t . Table 5 Comparing Performance i n Sub Tests and the Intelligence Scale on the Verbal Section of the WISC Tests Reading Group Control Group N M ^M N M cr ' DM t Information 10 8 .9 1.14 .38 10 9.5 2.20 .73 .7 .82 .73 Comprehension 10 10.2 1.94 .65 10 8 .9 2.07 .69 1.3 .95 1.37 Arithmetic 9 9.4 1.64 .58 10 9.7 1.6a .56 .3 .81 .3703 S i m i l a r i t i e s 10 9.4 1.91 .64 10 10.6 1.36 .45 1.2 .78 1.538 Vocabulary- 10 10.5 2.20 •73 10 10.1 1.37 .46 .4 .$9 .449 Digit Span 9 8.1 1.85 .65 9 9 .0 2.0 .67 .9 .93 .9677 Verbal IQ 10 96.6 7.16 2.38 10 97.6 7.27 2.42 1.0 3.39 .295 Note: With 18 degrees of freedom a t of 2.101 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l . t of 2.878 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l . With 17 degrees of freedom a t of 2.110 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l . t of 2.898 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l . With 16 degrees of freedom a t of 2.120 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l . t of 2.947 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l . Table 6 Comparison of Results from the Performance Sub Tests and IQ Scores, and the F u l l Scale IQ Scores Tests Reading Group Control Group N M <r (fM N M <f % (fDM t P i c . Completion iLCD 11.3 2.24 .76 10 10.3 1.73 .58 1.0 .96 1.041 P i c . Arrangement 10 10 1.34 .61 10 9.2 2.05 .68 .8 .91 .8791 Block Design 10 10.5 1.5 .50 10 8.8 2.52 .84 1.7 .98 1.734 Object Assembly- 10 10.2 2.52 .84 10 8.7 2.57 .86 1.5 1.2 1.25 Coding 10 9.5 2.11 .70 10 10.5 1.86 .62 1.0 .93 1.075 Mazes 7 8 .7 2.43 .99 10 9.0 1.84 .61 .3 .367 .8174 Performance IQ 10 100-.8 7.63 2.54 10 95.9 8.58 2.86 4-9 3.82 1.28 F u l l Scale IQ 10 93.6 7.58 2.53 10 96.5 7.87 2.62 2.1 3.64 .58 Note: With 18 degrees of freedom a t of 2.101 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . t of 2.878 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . With 15 degrees of freedom a t of 2.131 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . t of 2.947 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . Table 7 Differences Between the Mean Verbal and Performance IQs for the Reading Retardation Group, and f o r the Control Group Reading Group Control Group S t a t i s t i c Verbal IQ Performance IQ Verbal IQ Performance IQ N 10 10 10 10 M . 96.6 100.8 97.6 95.9 ,C 7.16 7.63 7.27 8.58 2.38 2.54 2.42 2.86 (f DM DM t r 2.1039 4 . 2 2.00 .64 2.234 1.3 . 8181 .65 Note: With 18 degrees of freedom a t of 2.101 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . a t of 2.878 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . 44 Table 8 Comparison of the Reading Retardation and Control Groups i n Terms of the IQ Scores Obtained from the Draw-a-Person Performance S t a t i s t i c Reading Cases Controls N 10 . 1 0 M 89.6 88.5 $ 12.75 16 .7 (fu 4 .25 5.59 ^ DM 7 .02 % 1.1 t .1566 Note: With 18 degrees of freedom a t of 2.101 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l , t of 2.878 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . 45 Table 9 Correlation Between WISC IQ Scores and Draw-a-Person IQ Scores Using Spearman's Rank-Difference Method WISC Reading Cases Controls Verbal Scale - . 19 .06 Performance Scale - .09 .03 F u l l Scale - . 0 2 - . 0 7 46 (b) Applying Spearman's Rank-difference c o r r e l a t i o n method the three WISC IQ scores f o r each group, were compared to the Draw-a-Person IQ scores. (Table 9 ) . No corre l a t i o n i s found between these various IQ scores f o r either group. 3. Bender-Gestalt. The groups are compared on the basis of the raw scores f o r each c h i l d (Table 10). No difference i s apparent between the groups. A U of 57.5 also indicates no difference. Comparison of the records shows that read-ing cases did not have any more rotations i n drawing, than the controls d i d , and the figures were generally well done with regard to the o r i g i n a l Gestalt. A meaningful analysis of age differences i n such a small group i s not possible, * but the scores do not appear to change i n any consistent way between the children of various ages. 4. Mirror w r i t i n g . The average percentage score f o r the reading group i s seventy-one percent and f o r the controls i s sixty-three percent. A U of thirty-two was obtained, which indicates no s i g n i f i c a n t difference e x i s t s between the groups on t h i s type of performance. 5. Mirror Drawing. The group performances were compared with reference to t o t a l errors, t o t a l time (Table 11), and the r a t i o of time to errors. Errors and time were also considered separately for t r i a l one, t r i a l two, the right path, and the 47 Table 10 Comparison of the Reading Retardation and Control Groups on the Basis of Bender-Gestalt Raw Scores S t a t i s t i c Reading Cases Controls N 10 10 M 4 8 . 8 52.9 10.36 15.05 M 3-45 5.02 (fw. 6 .1 DM 4 . 1 t .6721 Note: With 18 degrees of freedom a t of 2.101 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l , a t of 2.878 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . Table 11 Comparison of the Reading Retardation and Control Groups i n Terms of Errors, Time, and the Ratio of Errors Over Time, for Mirror Reading and Normal Reading Mirror Reading Reading Group Controls N i s 10 N i s 10 M (f Cf M M CT (f M M t Time 127.6 49.71 18.75 149 78.4 26.1 21.4 32.18 .6650 Errors 9.1 2.93 1.19 12.9 10.01 3.34' 3.8 3.55 1.0929 Errors :0738 .0127 .0048 .0871 .056 .0186 .0133 .006 3.883 Time Normal Reading Reading Group Controls N i s 10 N i s 10 Time M M M M DM DM t 50.3 29.5 11.12 18.8 6.37 2.12 31.5 11.32 2.7S53 Errors 5.75 5.04 1.91 1.3 1.68 .56 3.45 1.97 2.2588 Errors .0991 .0636 .0225 .0645 .0381 .0127 .0346 .258 1.3023 Time Note: With 18 degrees of freedom a t of 2.101 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . t of 2.878 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . 49 l e f t path. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between the two groups (Table 1 2 ) . Ratios of errors to time, f o r t r i a l s one and two, and a si m i l a r r a t i o of t o t a l errors over t o t a l time were worked out for both reading cases and controls. The U test indicates no differences between the groups. The mean times for the reading group on t r i a l one and t r i a l two, are seen to be 225.8 and 1.23 seconds respectively. Corresp-onding times for the control group are 138.4 seconds, and 137.7 seconds. Application of the Chi squared method to determine i f these differences i n group performances are si g n i f i c a n t resulted i n a Chi squared of 1.2857 which i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . Drawing performance was next analyzed by comparing the reading cases and controls with reference to the number of errors made during the f i r s t inch a f t e r each turn. Then they were compared as to the number of errors made during the distance of one inch before, and one inch a f t e r each turn. U. tests here indicate no s i g n i f i c a n t differences. Considering the p o s s i b i l i t y of a correlat i o n e x i s t i n g between the drawing performances of each i n d i v i d u a l , correlations of .26 and .01 were obtained f or reading cases and controls respectively. These indicate no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n . D. Electroencephalograph Data. The reading d i s a b i l i t y group has seven abnormal records as against the controls who have three. Chi squared for these differences i s 1.8 which i s not significant.. In Table 12 Comparison of the Scores of the Reading Retardation and Control Groups i n Terms of Errors and of Time i n the Mirror Drawing Performance Errors Reading Cases Controls N i s 10 N i s 10 M cr <f M M (f <f M DM t T r i a l 1 13.9 11.5 3.S3 11.3 5.91 2.09 2.6 4.36 .5963 T r i a l 2 11 9.52 3.17 13.1 1.12 3.97 2.1 5.08 .4133 Right Path 11.4 10.45 3.48 11.2 6.97 2.47 0.2 2.47 .0816 Left Path 13.5 10.74 3.58 12.4 10.65 3.78 1.1 5.21 .2130 Time Reading Cases Controls N i s 10 N i s 10 M M M . M DM % t T r i a l 1 225.8 129.44 45.74 138.4 40.65 14.36 S7.4 47.94 1.83 T r i a l 2 123 88.9 31.5 137.7 24.O 24.0 14.7 39.6 .3712 Right Path 152.7 127.52 45.2 118.6 17.3 17.4 34.1 4 8 . 4 .7045 Left Path 196.3 112.67 39.8 • 157.5 19.9 19.9 33.8 45.5 .3769 Note: With 18 degrees of freedom a t of 2.101 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . t of 2.878 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . 51 regard to theta a c t i v i t y f i v e .reading cases show i t i n marked degree, and only one control does.i However, the Chi squared value f or t h i s difference i s 2.02, again not s i g n i f i c a n t . The remaining aspects of the records; quality of alpha, amplitude asymmetry, reaction to hyperventilation and dysrhythmia do not d i f f e r e n t i a t e the two groups. 52 Chapter V Summary and Conclusions A study was undertaken to investigate certain factors, which i t was thought might d i f f e r e n t i a t e reading f a i l u r e s and reading achievers. Spatial orientation, visuo-motor behavior, l a t e r a l i t y preferences and electroencephalograph patterns, were compared between a group of retarded readers, and a group of average readers. Standard of children's t e s t s , and tests adapted from adult forms were given to twenty subjects, children with problems of behavior, half of whom were retarded i n reading. When-ever possible t e s t i n g procedure either followed standardized i n s t r u c t i o n and scoring technique, or was based on methods used by other workers. In the remaining cases procedures were worked out on the basis of preliminary practice with ordinary children, and the methods followed by other investigators using s i m i l a r t e s t s . Generally speaking, the two groups of children do not appear to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , i n respect to the tests given. Intelligence l e v e l s are nearly the same, since t h i s was one of the considerations i n selection. There was, though some d i f f i c u l t y here, i n view of the fact that some of the children had not been tested for over a year. There was no way of estimating- i n advance at what l e v e l these disturbed children might be functioning. Reading tests 53 d i f f e r e n t i a t e the two groups markedly. I t was observed also that the o r a l reading achievement f o r both groups was generally lower than s i l e n t reading scores. This difference went as high as a grade and s i x months f o r one retarded reader, and two grades f o r one of the controls. Preference tests indicate that the groups are about the same i n habits of preference. The only two children who wrote with t h e i r l e f t hands were among the reading retard-ations. This l a t t e r group also had f i v e members who were l e f t or i n d e f i n i t e i n eye preference, as against two l e f t eyed subjects among the controls. These differences are not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Comparison of the groups with reference to performance on the mazes, shows them to be si m i l a r f o r t h i s type of behavior. I t was f e l t that t h i s was the most d i f f i c u l t t est i n regard t,o maintaining the subjects motivation. Some of the children became very frustrated and d i s -couraged, others showed anger and tended to attack the problem. These factors probably had a negative e f f e c t on the performance of some of the children. Whether t h i s would even i t s e l f out i n considering group performances i s not known. Results of an analysis of the Wiechsler Intelligence Scale for Children has already been discussed. The reading group tended to do better on performance t e s t s , then verbal ones, but otherwise the groups were a l i k e . . Monroe (36), found that her.reading-defect groups were 54 better mirror readers than were her controls. This was i n terms of time and errors, while the present worker did not f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n those categories, a r a t i o of errors over time revealed that the retarded readers made fewer errors per unit time, as compared to the controls. Possible reasons for t h i s f i n d i n g have been discussed i n r e l a t i o n to r e s u l t s . I t may be concluded, with the exception of the above mentioned tests that, performances of these small groups on the tests used were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . 55 Chapter VI Suggest ions for Further Research Although the results of t h i s investigation were es s e n t i a l l y negative, i t i s possible that a si m i l a r study with younger children might y i e l d more s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . Confusion i n s p a t i a l orientation, : i s more common i n young children (35), and the visuo-motor performance on the Bender-Gestalt test i s d i f f e r e n t with pre-school children than with grade two subjects (22). These second grade children who were successfully learning to read, gave performances more closely resembling those of adults than of pre-school children. Several writers have observed that the development of preferred l a t e r a l i t y continues through childhood. The stage of development that the c h i l d i s i n when he starts school, might be important for learning to read, as well as the adjustment he i s able to make to conventional habits of d i r e c t i o n . Since the c h i l d cannot usually go back and pick.up, t r a i n i n g that he has missed, normal s p a t i a l orientation or visuo-motor behavior which i s acquired at a l a t t e r age, w i l l not help him. Since there are numerous things which might cause retardation i n reading, and since i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f u l l y evaluate them i n r e l a t i o n to a group study, i t might be more pro f i t a b l e to analyze the test performances of large numbers of subjects, t r y i n g to f i n d out i f smaller groups would show constellations of behavior which would d i f f e r e n t i a t e them i n any way. 57 References 1. Andrews, T. G. Methods of Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York: Chapman and H a l l , Ltd. London. 2. Ammons, R. B., Ammons, C. H., Mirror drawing. Methods Med. Res.. 1950, 2, 178-179. 3. Barger, W. C. An experimental approach to aphasic and to non-reading children. Amer. J . of Orthopsy-chiatry. 1953, Vol. XXIII, No 1., pp 150-170. 4. Bender, L. A Visuo-Motor Gestalt Test and i t s C l i n i c a l Use. Research Monographs No 3, Am. Orthopsych-i a t r y Association, New York, 1938. 5. Blau, A. The Master Hand. Research monogrphs No. 5, Am., Orthopsychiatric Assoc. Inc., New York, 1946. 6. Brain, W. R. Speech and handedness. Lancet. 2, 837» 1945. 7. Castner, B. M. Handedness and eyedness of children refered to a guidance c l i n i c . The Psychological  Record. 1939, 111, 99-112 (June). 8. Castner, B. M. Prediction of reading d i s a b i l i t y p r i o r to f i r s t grade entrance. Amer. J . Orthopsychiatry 1936, £, 375-87. 9. Clinton, R. G. Nature of mirror-drawing a b i l i t y . Norms i n mirror-drawing f o r white children by age and sex. J . Educ. Psychol.. 1930, 21, 221-228. 5 8 r 10. Cole, E. M. Specific reading d i s a b i l i t y . Amer. J . Ophthal., 1951, 2k> 226-232. 11. Crider, B. A battery of tests for the dominant eye. J . General Psychol.. 1944, H , 179-190 12. D u r r i l l , D. D., Murphy, H. A., Research i n reading, 1946-1948. Rev. Educ. Res.. 1949, 1£> 95-106. '.  13. Eames, T. H. Incidence of deseases among reading f a i l u r e s and non-failures. J . Pediat. 1948, 33. 614-617. 14. Eames, T. H. The relationship of reading and speech d i f f i c u l t i e s . J . Educ. Psychol.. 1950, £1, 51-55. 15. Eames, T. H. V i s u a l and related factors i n reading. Rev. Educ. Res. 1949, 12, 107-117. 16. Edson, W. H., Bond G. L., Cook, W. W., Relationships between v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s p e c i f i c s i l e n t reading a b i l i t i e s - J . Educ. Res. 1953, it6, 451-457. 17. Gates, A. T., Bennett, C. C. Reversal Tendencies i n Reading. Bur. of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, 1933• 18. Gooddy, W., Reinhold, M. Some aspects of human orient-ation i n space. I . Brain. 21» 1952. pp 472-509. 19. Gooddy, ¥., Reinhold, M. Some aspects of human orient-ation i n space. I I . Brain. 76. Part 111, 1953. 337-363. 20. Goodenough, F. L. The measurement of Intelligence by Drawing. Yonkers, New York, World Book Company, 1926. 59 21. Gray, W. S. Summary of reading investigations. July 1, 1951 to June 30, 1952. J . Educ. Res.. 1953. l±6, 401-437-22. Harriman, M., Harriman, P. The Bender visual-motor gestalt test as a measure of school readiness. J . C l i n . Psychol.. 1950, 6 . , 175-177. 23 . Hildreth, G. The development and t r a i n i n g of hand dominance: 1. Characteristics of handedness., 11, Developmental tendencies i n handedness. 111. Origins of handedness and l a t e r a l dominance. J . Genet. Psychol.. 1949, 2£, 197-220; 221-254; 255-275. 24- Hildreth, G. The development and t r a i n i n g of hand dominance: IV Developmental problems associated with handedness. V. Training of handedness. ' J . Genet. Psychol. 1950, 2£, 39-100, 101, 144. 25. Hughes, S., Leander, R., Ketchum, G. Electroencephalo-graph study of s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . (Abst.) E.E.G. C l i n . Neurophysiol. 1949, 1, 377, 26. Jasper, H. H., Raney, E. T., The physiology of l a t e r a l cerebral dominance. Review of l i t e r a t u r e and evaluation of the test of simultaneous b i l a t e r a l movement. Psychol. B u l l . 1937, 2J±> 151-165. 27. Kennard, Rabinovitch, R., Wexler, D. The abnormal electroencephalogram as related to reading d i s -a b i l i t y i n children with disorder of behavior. Can. Med. Assoc. J . , 1952., 62, 330-333. 60 28. Krise, E. M. Reversals i n reading: A problem i n space perception. Elem. Scho J . , 1949, 4 9 . 278-284. 2 9 . Lindsley, D. B. B i l a t e r a l differences i n brain potent-i a l s from the two cerebral hemispheres i n r e l a t i o n to l a t e r a l i t y and s t u t t e r i n g . J . Exp. Psychol., 1940, 2 6 , 211. 3 0 . L o u t t i t , C. M., The Mirror tracing test as a diag-nostic aid for emotional i n s t a b i l i t y . Psychol.Rec. 1943, i , 279-286. 3 1 . Machover, K. Personality Projection - In the human fi g u r e . 3 2 . Mann, H. B., Whitney, D. R., On a test of whether one of two random variables i s s t o c h a s t i c a l l y larger than the other. Ann. Math. S t a t i s t . . 1947, 1ft, 5 0 - 6 0 . 3 3 . Martin, K. L. Handedness: A review of the l i t e r a t u r e on the history, development and research of l a t e r a l i t y preference. J . Educ. Res.. 1952, 4 5 . 527-533. 3 4 . McFie, J . Cerebral dominance i n cases of reading d i s a b i l i t y . J . Neurol, Neurosurg, Psychiat.. 1952, 1 £ , 194-199. 35. Mintz, A. Reading reversals and l a t e r a l preferences of a group of i n t e l l e c t u a l l y subnormal boys. J . of  Educ. Psychol.. 1946, 22, 487-501. (Nov.) 3 6 . Monroe, M. Children Who Cannot Read. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1932. 61 37. Orton, S. T. Reading, w r i t i n g and speech problems i n children. Norton, New York, 1937. 38. Pascal, G. R., S u t t e l l , B. J . The Bender-Gestalt Test. Grune & Stratton, New York, 1951. 39« Reading C l i n i c s of the University of Chicago. C l i n i c a l studies i n reading I, Suppl. Educ. Monogr., 1949. University of Chicago Press. 40. Reading C l i n i c s of the University of Chicago. C l i n i c a l studies i n reading I I , Suppl. Educ. Monogr.. 1953, University of Chicago Press. 41 . Robinson, H. M. Why Pupils F a i l i n Reading. The University of Chicago 111., 1947. 42. Smith, L. C. A study of l a t e r a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of retarded readers and reading achievers. J . Exp. Educ. 1950, 1S> 321-329. 43. Statten, T. Behavior patterns reading d i s a b i l i t i e s - , and Electroencephalograph findings. Am. J . Psychiat. (Res. Abst.) 1953, 110, 205-206. 44. Traxler, E. Research i n reading i n the United States. J . Educat. Research. 1949, XLII, 481-499. 62 Additional References Ames, L.B. B i l a t e r a l i t y . J , Genet, Psychol..1949. 75, 45-50 Balinsky, B., Stone, L. R., High school norms for the mirrordrawing test of the s i x pointed s t a r . J . Genet  Psychol.. 1940, £6, 2 0 7 , - 2 1 0 . Betts, E. A. Factors i n reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . E d u c a t i o n . May 52, £2, 6 2 4 , - 3 7 . C a t t e l l , J . P., Pace l l a , B. L. An electoencephalog-raphic a n d . c l i n i c a l study of children with primary behavior disorders. Amer. J . Psychiatry, 1950, 107 ( J u l y ) . Cohen, J . Eye-dominance. Amer. J . Psychol.. 1952, 6 5 . 634-636. Eames, T. H. Eye and other handicaps: Their r e l a t i o n to performance on Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Amer. J . Opthal.. 1953. 16, 112-114 Ephron, B. Emotional D i f f i c u l t i e s i n Reading. A psychological approach to study problems.. New York The J u l i a n Press. 1953. Ewert, P. H. B i l a t e r a l transfer i n mirror drawing. J . Gent. Psychol. 1926,'22> 235-249. Gates, A. I . Frontiers of research i n reading. J . of Educ. Res. ^ 0 , 381-388. Jan. 1947. H i l d r e t h , G., Speech defects and reading d i s a b i l i t y . Elementary Sch. J . 1946, ^ 6 , 326-32, (Feb) 63 Jastak, J . , The Ambigraph L a t e r a l i t y Test. J . Appl. Psychol. 1939, 22, 473-87. Jensen, M. B. Reading deficiency as related to cerebral injury and to neurotic behavior. J . Appl. Psychol. 1943, 22, 535-545. Kennard, M. A. The electroencephalogram i n psychol-ogical disorders. A Review. Psychosomatic  Medicine. 1953, XV, 95-115-Lindsley, D. B., Cutts, R. K. Electroencephalograms of Constitutionally i n f e r i o r and behavior problem children. Arch. Neurol. Psvchiat.. 1940, 2^, 1199-1212. ( D e c ) . Mays, L. L. Continuity of movement and error elimination i n the stylus maze. J . Compar. Psychol. 1931, 12, 279-87-Michaels, J . J . , Secunda,, M. C. The relationship of neurotic t r a i t s to the electroencephalogram i n children with behavior disorders. The Amer. J . Psychiat.. 1944, 101, 407-409- (Nov.). Miles, W. R. Ocular dominance demonstrated by unconscious sighting. J . Exper. Psychol.. 1929, XII, 113-26. Pascal, G. R. The Bender-Gestalt, Mosaic and World Test. Prog. C l i n . Psychol. 1952, 1^ Sec. 1., Quinan, C. The handedness and eyedaess of reckless d r i v e r s . Arch. Neur. & Psychiat., 1931, 2£, 829© 837. 64 Quinan, C. The p r i n c i p a l s i n s t r a l types: An experi-mental study p a r t i c u l a r l y as regards t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the so-called c o n s t i t u t i o n a l psychopathic states. Orch.-Neur. & Psvchiat. 1930, 24, 35-47. Ross, S. Handedness and mirror drawing. American J-. Psychol.. 1951, 6/fc, 103-105. Simon, G. W.- Proactive i n h i b i t i o n as an effect of handedness i n mirror drawing. J . Exper. Psychol. 1948, l£, 697-708. Stauffer, R. G. Certain psychological manifestations of retarded readers. J . Educ. Res., 1^1, 1+36-51, Feb. 1948. Thomas, G. I. A study of reading achievment i n terms of mental a b i l i t y . Elem. Sch. J . , 1946, ^ 2, 28-33. Waters, R. H., Sheppard, R. The mirror-drawing experiment A A b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l note. J . Gen. Psychol., 1952, it6, 63, 72. Weber, C. 0. Strephosymbolia and reading d i f f i c u l t y . , J . Abnorm. and Soc. Psychol., 1944, 12> 356-61. Wolfe, L. S. D i f f e r e n t i a l factors i n s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t y : I L a t e r a l i t y of function. J . Genet. Psychol.. 1941, £S, 45-56. TEST OF PREFERENCE NAME : EXAMINER : DATE OF TEST x Activities with Hand Right Left) Activities with Foot Right Left Shooting a marble along a line» Pushing a ball carefully keep-ing i t on a line 0 Tapping with marble, keeping to demonstrated rhythm. Tapping toe imitating demon-strated rhythmo i i i Replacing blocks in form board0 Pushing blocks so that they do not upset. -Stopping an object spun by-t oxaminor »— Stopping - an^bj^frt-sfflm-by-Snapping finger and thumb together. Moving top block without dis-turbing blocks below. Bouncing a ball three times using one hand. Draw or write something on floor with toe of shoe for examiner to guess. Moving a block by shooting a marble at i t . Pushing a ball hard enough to disturb tower of two blocks. Balancing a ruler resting on two blockso Lifting ruler resting on two blocks o TOTAL NO, TOTAL NO, Activities with Eye Right Left Activities with Ear Right Left Manoptoscope Ob j e c t—a-l-ways-he-l-d—by-ex-affl-Ring Test (Crider) jtllLiX X T t ±-irfc>ri-b—fc*A t y i i d b d b f c i — & — n T O t t o Lxstening—to-watehy— "l ten f irf""! T-Irr vV?"*"*"!"V»-rr. **>-f* *^ * **\*-Spot Test (Crider) x i l u r w cru x I ig x-p w-i-jf-tf i t K J X .— O x U A - o Sighting tube Looking steadily through hole in cardboard to picture middle of three on wall. Listening to shall Li3tening~n&ar-4^eHbn—card- to -detect contents in box. Sighting over pencil Counting number of taps under table o Touching pointer fingers held horizontally one foot from eyes so as to line up with examiner's nose. Vary dis-tance . Listening to question whisper-ed through mailing tube. iii&tening-atr-wall or- sere«fi-te^  TOTAL NOo TOTAL NO. 66. APPENDIX B Sample Maze TABLE II Critical Probabilities of Obtaining a U as Small or Smaller than that TabuXatod in Comparing Samples of n and m (Tabulated P lavels are based on a two-tail test of significanceo) 92 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106635/manifest

Comment

Related Items