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Community centres and their support: a study of British Columbia Torrance, Robert Joseph 1949

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Mm ft { COVER SHEET ONLY Thesis R . J . Torrance Iff*? ^ COMMUNITY CENTRES AND THEIR SUPPORT A Study of British Columbia by ROBERT JOSEPH TORRANCE Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the Department of Social Work 1949 The University of British Columbia ABSTRACT The accompanying thesis, written as part of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Social Work, and entitled "COMMUNITY CENTRES AND THEIR SUPPORT - A Study of British Columbia" is primarily concerned in showing how community centres can be supported, realiz-ing that support is more than financial. Based, for i t s practical aspects, on a survey of community centres in British Columbia, i t discusses the characteristics of community centres, defines their part-icular functions, and indicates possible support. The historic origins of community centres are considered, and the conditions which have contributed to the development of community centres are outlined. The concept i s accepted that a community centre i s a movement enabling a feeling of unity and democratic, expression for the community rather than the concept that a community centre i s restricted to a building or program. The particular functions of community centres are defined as providing facilities, offering,a variety of act-ivities, and arranging the co-operative organization of a l l or several groups. Governmental or tax-provided support is advocated in providing facilities while both governmental and voluntary support are proposed in providing activities and developing a co-operative organization. Other guides or principles are evolved which can be of assistance in the development of community'centres in British Columbia. TABLE OF CONTENTS Part I . The Place of the Community Centre Chapter 1. Origins of the Community Sentre Idea Signs of the times. The historic background of community centres. The principal developments in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. The concept of a movement. Chapter 2. Charteristics of Community Centres American, British and Canadian definitions. The choice of the terms: centre, sponsoring groups, committee. Their relationship to support. Part II. The British Columbia Scene Chapter 3. Aids to Recreation and Leisure-time Services Governmental agencies: Recreational and Physical Education Branch, Department of University Extension, National Film Board, Travelling Library, Private agencies offering provincial-wide services. The Community Centres Association. Chapter 4. Vancouver and Victoria General observations. Communities:.Collingwood, Eitsilano, Kerrisdale, Marpole, Grandview, West End, Fairview-Mount Pleasant, West Point Grey. Comment. Victoria. Chapter 5. Adjacent Vancouver Municipalities West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby. Comment. Chapter 6. Larger Towns or Small Cities Port Alberni and Alberni, Prince Rupert, Kamloops, Chilliwack, Cranbrook, Summerland, Nelson, Comment. Chapter 7. Small Communities Invermere, Sooke, Youbou, Fulford Harbour, Mi l l Bay, Ashbroft, McBride, Comment. • Part jIII, The Things Needing to be Done Chapter 8. Evaluation of the British Columbia Scene Summary of findings. The community centre process. Chapter 8 Continued -Sorting out of objectives: Centres, sponsoring groups, planning and co-relating committees. Possibilities in the future. Chapter 9 . The Available Basis of Support The need for encouragement and wise counsel. Proposals for government action. Requirements for community organization. Appendices; A. Map of Social Areas in Vancouver B. Questionnaire C. Bibliography ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge my great indebtedness to the following whose coarteous coj-operation greatly f a c i l i t a t e d the preparation of t h i s thesis: Mrs. Doreert J e f f e r i e n , West Vancouver Community Association; Mr. Ernest Lee, dire c t o r of the P r o v i n c i a l Recreational and Physical Education Branch; Mrs. K. E. McKenzie, d i r e c t o r , Junior Gordon House; Miss Donalda McRae, and Mr. Ivor Jackson, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver; Miss Marjorie V. Smith, Department of University Extension, and the many persons i n communities throughout B r i t i s h Columbia who completed questionnaires and otherwise corresponded with me during the past two years. I take p a r t i c u l a r pleasure i n acknowledging the continuous helpfulness of Dr. Leonard Marsh, of the Department of Soci a l Work, who gave most generously of his time.over an extended period beyond the regular schedule. R. J. TORRANCE A p r i l 1 4 , 1 9 4 9 . COMMUNITY CENTRES AND THEIR SUPPORT A S t u d y o f British C o l u m b i a PART I THE PLACE OF THE COMMUNITY CENTRE Chapter 1. Origins of the Community Centre Idea Chapter 2. Characteristics of Community Centres CHAPTER 1 1. ORIGINS OF THE COMMUNITY CENTRE IDEA "There's nothing to do i n our town. No place to go. Maybe a movie or two, but nothing much e l se" . "We have no auditorium or h a l l i n which i t i s poss ib le to hold a concert". " I wish I knew where to f i n d out what goes on i n t h i s d i s t r i c t " . "There jus t seems to be one th ing af ter another going on t h i s month, and l a s t month there wasn't a t h ing" . "Pride i n t h i s munic ipal i ty? Bah, there jus t i s n ' t any". "Nobody supports anything here. I t won't work, but go ahead and t r y anyway, i f you want". Where i s the community concerning which at l eas t one of the above remarks has not been passed? These remarks point up signs o f the t imes. Every community has some questions about the adequacy of i t s recrea-t i o n bu i ld ings , i t s program of a c t i v i t i e s and i t s co-operative e f fo r t s . I t i s t h i s in te res t i n community a f f a i r s c r y s t a l l i z e d i n t o the organiza-t ions now generally known as "community centres". The community centre idea i s not new. The basic idea , fo r example, o f a gathering place of neighbours i s an o ld one, and found expression i n the par ish h a l l , the v i l l a g e green, and the "pub". There are condi t ions , however, which contributed to the development of community centres, and these are very relevant to the present study. The advent and development of machine production drew large sections of the population from r u r a l to urban areas, decreased the working hours and increased the i n d i v i d u a l ' s needs for s a t i s fy ing and creat ive ways i n which to spend h i s l e i s u r e hours. The depression of the "middle t h i r t i e s " 2. brought to communities the challenge of compulsory leisure and in the World War periods, particularly, the latter, many communities were called on to create leisure-time activities for newcomers, service men and industrial workers. This World War II period provided people in areas a l l over Canada the opportunity to realize, i f they had not done so before, that they were in a community. Each individual "discovered" that he had a responsibility for others in the same locality. Drives and canvasses, air raid precautions, hospitalj ties to active servicemen, a l l of these widened people's awareness, and gave them a sense of accomplishment as each responsibility was discharged. In the armed services and in war industrial work, an emphasis on recreation in a variety of ways opened up to many people new avenues of expression and enjoyment which previously had been l i t t l e more than fond hopes because of the lack of opportunity. In the several war-time housing projects which were established, a system of community counsellors and community centres was included, and this contributed considerably to the opportunities for community activity. It i s interesting to consider the basis of support for these widespread efforts. Under the pressure of a national emergency i t was possible for the governments often to take the initiative in encourag-ing and aiding the developments. I f existing places or ways of doing things did not meet the need, they were changed or new ones developed. It was then, too, that juvenile delinquency became a major concern. Unsettled conditions, ready employment and income, the absence of fathers, moving from one location to another, a l l contri-buted. In the great wave of social awareness and action which followed, the birth of "teen canteens" took place. 3 . While a l l of this contributed to the growth of the community centre idea, i t would be wrong to regard i t as a war phenomenon. Community activities spring fundamentally from a sense of common need, and the recent war-time only emphasized many common needs. The "sense" was sufficiently apparent to produce results. To understand some of the other factors which affect the growth of the community centre idea, one must recognize that the average person, in his leisure, seeks certain satisfactions. It is not sufficient simply to f i l l a person's leisure hours with activity. The average person wishes to use his leisure to do something different; to make things; to meet with his neighbours; to make use of his physical and mental powers; to enjoy beauty; to render service, and to relax and enjoy himself. The average person's community i s made up of people similar to himself, who search for similar satisfactions. The community centre idea has emerged as a medium through which this may take place. In the United States, federal support for such developments was given through the Leisure Time Division of the Works Program Administration ( 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 9 ) and more recently in the Office of Community War Services. Individual states have participated through parks and playground services, and through recreational and educational projects sponsored by departments of education and agriculture. Many municipal projects have also been developed in fields varying from park, recreation and schools to libraries, museums and art galleries. Community centres were standard features in low rental and slum clearance projects carried out in the later ' 3 0 ' s by the National Housing Administration. Great Britain provided in the Physical Education Act of 1 9 4 4 that local school authorities must arrange physical education programs to supplement the school c u r r i c u l a , and i n a d d i t i o n , make ava i lab le f i n a n c i a l assistance for youth service programs and voluntary organizat ions. I n 1945, l e g i s l a t i o n was passed se t t ing up a system of grants to f a c i l i t a t e the development of community centres. The general pattern i s that the l o c a l community i s responsible for management of the centre, whi le the Board o f Education or the cent ra l housing authori ty (e .g . M i n i s t r y o f Health) administer avai lable grants. F i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the maintenance of the centre i s placed i n the hands of the l o c a l body of author i ty , on which the membership of the centre i s represented, while the management of the centre i s l e f t l a r g e l y to those who use i t . Recommendations were made as to the nature and qua l i f i c a t i ons o f the s t a f f , wi th an emphasis on the import-ance of professional help i f the work was to be continuous and sa t i s fac to ry . The importance of consultat ions and j o i n t planning with other organizations i n the community was stressed, as was the need fo r surveying the area to be served, the type of f a c i l i t i e s which were most p r a c t i c a l , the methods of f inancing the centre, and the contr ibutions of various groups i n the centre organizat ion. The Nat ional Council of S o c i a l Service , an organizat ion of B r i t i s h pr ivate agencies, took the i n i t i a t i v e i n developing such re l a t ionsh ips , s t a r t i ng as ear ly as 1919. Canada's federal contr ibut ion has been made through the Nat iona l Parks Serv ice , the Nat iona l F i l m Board, the Nat ional Museum and A r t G a l l e r y , a l l of which have provided assistance to the community centre movement. A Dominion-Provincial arrangement enables grants to be made to a s s i s t phys i ca l education, and i n the t r a i n i n g of r u r a l youth i n educational and recrea t iona l s k i l l s which can be used to advantage i n t h e i r l o c a l communities. In the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, the private recreational agencies have established a pattern of community recreation services and given impetus and leadership to the community centre movement. The Young Men's Christian Association and the Young Women's Christian Association have moved from centralized mid-city programs to decentralized operations, focussed on the needs of indigenous areas, and administered by boards and committees recruited from those areas. The Young Men's Hebrew Association, the Young Women1s Hebrew Association and the settlement houses have recognized the indigenous area as their field in which to carry on activities according to their special function. The Catholic church activities have always been conducted on a parish basis. Through Community Chests and Councils, Councils of Social Agencies, and smaller Community Councils, some attempt has been made to co-ordinate the services of these agencies with a view to providing higher standards of operation, adequate coverage of unmet needs, and the elimination of overlapping services. The degree to which these private agencies f u l f i l the function of a community centre can be ascertained by a study of their policy and program against the needs of the area in which they serve. Through these developments a "community centre" of some kind or another has come into the social scene. With an accent on recreation i t has come to be known as the key method of meeting many community needs. The community centre has also been described as a place within easy reach of home where i t i s possible to meet friends and neighbours - to talk, play, dance, engage in discussion,-listen to music, 1. Canadian Association for Adult Education, ''Proposals for Government  Action to Assist Community Centres and Leisure-Time Program in  Canada.'' May, 1946. 6. see a p lay , or make something—a sort o f community l i v i n g room, craf t shop, gym, workshop and concert h a l l r o l l e d i n to one. I t i s a place where you can enjoy the le i sure- t ime a c t i v i t i e s you have always wanted to take part i n . I t i s a club for the community, open to everyone i n the neighbourhood regardless o f economic p o s i -t i o n , creed, race or colour . Open i n t h i s manner to a l l members of the community, the centre provides a place from which people can work wi th a common purpose, submerging t h e i r differences and discovering that sense of un i ty without which there can be no true community s p i r i t . I f people are to enjoy the "way of l i f e " which neighbourliness encourages, then t h e i r communities must be places where work and play are complete and s a t i s f y i n g . This neighbourliness, referred 2 i n a recent b u l l e t i n as "the informal and f r i end ly mixing o f people of a l l age groups i s an end i n i t s e l f : promotes understanding and tolerance. .and provides the basis fo r community ac t ion of a l l k inds . Unless these q u a l i t i e s are pre-served and strengthened by the a c t i v i t i e s i n which a community engages, the true value of the a c t i v i t i e s i s l o s t . . . The analys is cautions against a c t i v i t i e s which are promoted s o l e l y fo r p r o f i t , or are exhibi t ions by a few and watched by many, or which emphasize the desi re to win at a l l costs . These a c t i v i t i e s do not "preserve and strengthen" the q u a l i t i e s which make a community one i n which people l i k e to l i v e . The need i s f o r a c t i v i t i e s which encourage the ac t ive p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l . To t h i s end, the community centre idea i s "conceived i n terms of a l l the le i sure- t ime a c t i v i t i e s of people i n a community". I t means that i n terms of support, the community centre r e f l ec t s the k ind of a community that people want. 2. Adult Education D i v i s i o n , Department of Education, Safckatchewan, "The Community Centre Idea", Community Centre Planning. November 1946, B u l l e t i n No. 1. Regina. p .2 . CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMDNITY CENTRES "Community centre" means many th ings , both i n prac t ice and to di f ferent people. The survey made as part of t h i s study f u l l y bears out the v a r i e t y of in te rp re ta t ions . I t can be used to describe a l a rge-s ized arena project i n one d i s t r i c t , a le i sure- t ime recreat ion program i n another, and an a l l - i n c l u s i v e planning and co-ordinat ing body i n yet another. In some, i t may mean a l l three o f these functions. L i t e r a l l y a maze of a c t i v i t i e s operate under community centre l a b e l s . I t may be w e l l , therefore, to s t a r t wi th a standard d e f i n i t i o n . Steiner^, an American authori ty i n t h i s f i e l d regards a community centre as "a place where people l i v i n g nearby can come together to pa r t i c ipa te i n s o c i a l , r ec rea t iona l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and b u i l d up a democratic organizat ion that w i l l min is te r to the needs of the community". B r i t i s h experience, which derives from a long h i s to ry of many types, a lso provides the same d i s t ingu i sh ing elements. The M i n i s t r y of Education^in recent years have adopted the conception evolved by the Nat ional Counci l of S o c i a l Se rv ice , which i t s e l f has helped organize several kinds of centres. Community Centres, i n t h e i r view, "ex is t so that neighbours can come together on an equal foot ing to enjoy s o c i a l , recreat ive and educational opportuni t ies , e i the r as members o f groups fo l lowing p a r t i c u l a r habits and pursu i t s , o r on the basis of t h e i r common needs and in te res t s as human beings i n the same l o c a l i t y " . 3. S te iner , Jesse, "Community Centres", Encyclopaedia o f S o c i a l  Sciences. Edi ted by E . R . A . Seligman, The MacMillan Co . , New York, 1931, V o l . k, PS105. 4. Community Centres. H.M. Stat ionery Of f i ce , London, (1945), p.6. -8. Recognition is given by a l l authorities that community centres may follow many different patterns; nevertheless, they have certain common characteristics and purposes. Their aim is "the fostering of a sense of community through the serving of the social and cultural needs of a neighbourhood". Both.Steiner and the British writers indicate in these definitions that a centre can be a place, and a program-operating group. Authorities recognize that some over-all c planning and "co-relating"^ is necessary i f varied needs are to be met, and duplication of effort avoided. The significance of such distinctions is that "community centre" really covers three functions or jobs. These are: (1) providing space or facilities; (2) offering a variety of activities; (3) arranging the co-operative organization of a l l or several groups. A Canadian authority, Murray Ross^, is careful to point these out in his definitions. He states "a l l of these three types of organiza-tions are significant and important. Those concerned with building and equipment, and those concerned with conducting a community program, are essentially grass-root movements of the people to provide better leisure-time activities in the community. The third .type is a movement to co-ordinate existing programs more effectively and to plan ways and means by which the whole welfare of the community may be raised". 5. This term "co-relating", recommended by Dr. E.C. Idndeman, is strictly not a dictionary word but expresses the intent better than "co-ordinating" which connotes some form of compulsion. 6. Ross, M.G. "The Community Centre Movement", Toronto Conference of  Social Work Proceedings of 19A5. 9. Viewed i n this l i g h t , a community centre involves a three-way consideration. Is the centre a place? What i s i t s program? And what i s the nature of i t s over-all co-ordinating organization? The support that i s forthcoming for a community centre, whether i n money or participation, w i l l be v i t a l l y affected by a l l these things. Consideration limited to place permits a large-sized arena to be called a community centre i n one d i s t r i c t . A leisure-time recreation program which may be operating i n t he school or i n a makeshift building can similarly be.regarded as a community centre i n another community. Further, a planning and co-ordinating organization made up of various groups i s occasionally called a community centre movement i n other communities. For the purpose of this study, i t i s proposed to use terms which most closely approximate the functions or jobs concerned. For greater c l a r i t y , the use of "community" i n a l l references to the things described as "centre", "sponsoring group" and "committee" i s dropped where i t i s not essential to the text. In any grouping of terms involving "community", such as "community centre", "Community association" or "community council", there i s a chance for confusion unless the "community" i s very clearly defined. What i s a Centre? Of the three functions, "centre" most easily identifies i t s e l f with the actual provision of space or f a c i l i t i e s . For present purposes, accordingly, centre w i l l be used to refer to place or f a c i l i t i e s . This means a centre can be one building or a grouping of buildings which provide a common place of meeting and a c t i v i t i e s . Certain general community f a c i l i t i e s and services such as an inform-ation bureau, hobby and game equipment and a reading room a l l f i t into such a classification. The centre building, no matter what i t i s , can become the actual centre'of the community, the hub about which a c t i v i t i e s take place, and the focal point for l o c a l gatherings. It i s not d i f f i c u l t to visualize what this term "centre" describes. Most communities have some place for general meetings: perhaps i t i s the Legion h a l l , or perhaps a public or parish h a l l . A l l communities have some sort of social centres or places where people naturally meet: i t may not be much better than the pool h a l l or the corner drugstore or a playground. Many communities, on the other hand, would l i k e to have some place where the desirable community functions could a l l be achieved i n one location. What this means i n practice i s that from the standpoint of economy and convenience, a conununity might recognize the merit of centralizing the lands and buildings and f a c i l i t i e s required for use by the various community groups. The resulting centre, to the extent that i t made services available to a l l residents, could properly be a responsibility of the local governing body. This governing body would provide the necessary funds for the provision and'upkeep of such f a c i l i t i e s . On this basis, one might find school class rooms, an auditorium, a gymnasium, craft shops and municipal service offices a l l located i n one building or a grouping of buildings with adjacent playfields, a stadium and a park. The suggestion that community recreation buildings be constructed and operated as l i v i n g memorials to commemorate the sacrifices of war and to serve the l i v i n g awakened a widespread 11. response following World War I. There i s ample evidence that this movement continued following World War II and many centres were (and are s t i l l being) provided as symbols of the l i v i n g democracy for which the war was fought. Funds for the construc-tion of memorial buildings are frequently raised by private sub-scription. Many communities have secured the necessary funds through local government taxes or bond issues. It would seem l o g i c a l that most centres, to the extent that they are intended for the general public and widely used, should be financed by tax-provided funds. The support for centres should be developed with this i n mind. Provision might well be made for the use of these tax-supported f a c i l i t i e s by organiza-tions which, while private, are approved by the centre's governing body as being i n the public interest. These organizations should be prepared to assume some share of the operating costs, such as additional expense for maintenance made necessary through their use. Sponsoring Groups A sponsoring group i s a suitable term which can be used to describe that group (or groups) which exist(s) i n a community for the purpose of providing certain a c t i v i t i e s . This includes the raising of funds for the a c t i v i t i e s , and the management of the a c t i v i t i e s . Several sponsoring groups might be possible, arising out of the particular interests of their members, which might range from educational work to "get togethers" socially i n many ways. The essential idea i s that of support, and not just "interest" i n an activity. 12. In every community there are those people who, because of their interest, do support specific activities. They are the ones who see that there is a baseball team, a Lions Club, or a boys' group. In terms of economy and convenience, i t can be shoxm that governmental support is needed as an expedient in co-relating the requirements of each. The baseball team needs a regular playing field. So do many other outdoor activities. It is desirable, then, in the common interest, to provide a playing field, making i t avail-able for the use of a l l . While this opens up the question of private versus tax-supported agency functions, which is discussed later, i t is suffic-ient at this stage to recognize that this definition of sponsoring group can apply to either the public or private agency, the distinction depending on the scope of the activity (or activities) being promoted. Each individual activity wi l l be supported by those who are particularly interested in i t . However, as the activity which is promoted by a particular sponsoring group develops to the point where i t is participated in by a much larger number, perhaps eventually the whole community in one form or another, can become an activity meriting governmental support. For example, a group in a community (such as perhaps the Lions Club) may be interested in providing leisure-time recreation "to combat juvenile delinquency". The club then becomes the sponsor-ing group for this activity: supports i t , promotes the idea, raises the necessary money, gets facilities established, hires some staff to provide leadership, and sees that a program is offered. Their service perhaps involves use of a vacant lot and a small building, 13. providing a headquarters for their experiment and i t s program. The program expands and soon affects a large number of youth i n the area: the f a c i l i t i e s become frequently used by them, and inadequate i n meeting the need; leaders find that -the direction of their a c t i v i t i e s has been extended beyond the original inten-tion; and there i s the feeling that the project has become "too big". At this point the effort could quite easily be regarded as one for a municipal recreation department, a tax-supported agency. This tax-supported'agency would become a sponsoring group, just as the club had been i n the previous case. A popular method of sponsoring ac t i v i t i e s i n many communities i s through Community Associations. In practice, these are apt to be several sponsoring groups i n one, based on an attempt to do almost everything requiring some group action i n the community. The fallacy of this attempt i s reflected i n the i n a b i l i t y of such assoc-iations to do just that. As originators of action i n their commun-i t i e s , however, they do perform a valuable function. They do demonstrate some of the jobs needing to be done. The West Vancouver Community Association serves as an example 7 i n this connection. This organization has an objective of enlisting "the residents of the municipality of West Vancouver i n a united fellowship for the purpose of bettering their intellectual, physical, s p i r i t u a l and social well-being". I t seeks to implement this by the provision of a number of leisure-time and recreational a c t i v i t i e s for a l l ages, with special emphasis on young people. To do th i s , the 7. See Chapter Five for other particulars. Association is affiliated with the Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A., and i t operates a "community centre" program in conjunction with government agencies concerned; i t also stands ready to co-operate with other community organizations in the planning and co-ordinating of programs. As the survey made as part of this study shows, the West Vancouver Community Association goes about as far in theory as any "community centre" can in trying to do everything at once for a l l people. In practice, however, the results are limited. The Assoc-iation handicapped the development of its program sponsorship by being confined immediately to the operation of a centre, and both have affected seriously i ts efforts at co-ordination of community effort. The West Vancouver Community Association is typical of the instances where associations continue in service to their communities by compromises which have been reached in carrying out their object-ives. Combined private-tax support helps make this possible. In West Vancouver, the Association is given a grant from municipal tax funds to cover the cost of running the centre, while other Assoc-iation costs are met by private funds. It is instructive to consider the forces which make for compromises in view of the West Vancouver experience. As long as the Association, a private agency, is interested in operating a centre, the governmental body concerned wi l l not accept the respon-sibil i ty. This obligation places a heavy burden on the Association, and restricts i ts program sponsorship. Operating the centre draws heavily on the time, finances and other aspects of support which i t is able to provide. On the other hand, being in the position of the 15. operator of available centre f a c i l i t i e s i n the community, while at the same time the large sponsor of a c t i v i t i e s , the Association has a real interest i n the co-ordination of community efforts. This dominant position represented by the Association i n the community gives i t the role of a leader i n efforts at over-all planning and co-ordination. Here again i t i s handicapped. The amount of attention which must be given to the centre and to program sponsor-ship limits performance of this function, and the community suffers by the restrictions thus placed on leadership i n the carrying out of this important and necessary function. While inadequately meeting the situations, the Association has shown the need for community support being organized to pro-vide and operate i n one case, a centre, and i n other cases, sponsorship for a variety of a c t i v i t i e s . The need for a co-operative organization of a l l groups to plan and co-ordinate a l l community effort has also been shown. In doing a l l of th i s , the Association has performed a valuable function. Committee The term "committee11 has been chosen to describe the co-operative planning organization of groups i n a particular community. I t i s substituted i n place of "community council" or "recreation council" or "planning body". The present practice of referring to these bodies as councils tends to lead to confusion with the governmental councils for the area. A committee should be regarded as a non-operating body, exist-ing solely for the purpose of planning i n order to meet the needs of that community. It also co-relates the a c t i v i t i e s of the sponsoring groups, to prevent misunderstanding and duplication of effort. On such a basis, support for a committee requires the assistance of a l l groups i n the community, both private and governmental. When one thinks of support, i t should be clearly kept i n mind that the support i s conditioned by the function or job expected of the community group. I f i t be a centre, providing a place for a c t i v i t i e s , the support should be directed towards governmental acceptance of responsibility for the centre. Pro-viding ac t i v i t i e s through sponsoring groups w i l l require support directed towards either private or governmental acceptance of responsibility, or both depending on the scope of the a c t i v i t i e s . Co-operative planning i s a responsibility of both private and governmental bodies, and support should be so directed. PART I I THE BRITISH COLUMBIA SCENE Chapter 3. Aids to Recreation and Leisure-t ime Services Chapter 4* Vancouver and V i c t o r i a Chapter 5* Adjacent Vancouver M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Chapter 6. Larger Towns or Small C i t i e s Chapter 7* Small Communities 17. CHAPTER 3 Aids to Recreation and Leisure-time Services Community centres u t i l i z e the services of several provincial-wide agencies in British Columbia. Both governmental and private organizations offer these a i d s i t o recreation and leisure-time programs. One thing i s certain, that i n most communities, this heip could be used to greater advantage i f the communities themselves were better.organized. Governmental Agencies The services of the Recreational and Physical Education 8 Branch of the Provincial Department of Education include leader-ship training courses, advice and direction on community recreation, and public recreation classes i n more than 200 centres throughout the provincej other programs are also sponsored inco-operation with other agencies. Many requests for assistance with the develop-ment of community centres have been made to this government branch. In meeting such requests, i t has been possible for the branch, within the limits of i t s budget, to make contributions to the salaries of the directors of 11 community centres. Advice and direction has also been extended on the organization of community recreational councils and on buildings, maintenance, and staff. Governmental support i s needed in developing permanent community centres which can serve as outlets through which public recreational 8. Director, Recreational and Physical Education Branch, Annual  Report. Department of Education., Victoria, B.C., 1946-7 IB. services can be extended. Popularly known as "pro rec" services, these have been available in British Columbia since 1934* The work of the Department of University Extension is of great importance to many communities throughout British Columbia. Its services have included evening classes; the supplying of material and directions for study groups; assistance with Citizen Forum and Farm Forum radio listening groups; drama groups; the operation of a library service; a phonograph record loan service and a visual instruction service. The work extends into 350 communities and is used- by more than 1200 organizations^. The Department's work in connection with a "community centres institute" (January 21-22, 1946) and a "community Centres confer-ence" (June 24-27, 1946) has been notable. These gatherings, attended by community leaders ("organizers") from various parts of the province, were set up to promote the learning of coimminity centre "theory", and to render assistance with practical aspects of community centre administration. A most outstanding demand continues for the published reports of these gatherings, and the Department has much correspondence with communities regarding their centres' affairs. Operated under the auspices of the Dominion government, the National Film Board services are available to a l l communities and are widely used. Interest in this type of recreation is shown 9. Department of University Extension, Annual Report University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C. 1945-6. 19. 10 by monthly statistics summarizing showings to about 200 rural communities and more than 250 urban communities. One other governmental agency which assists community centres is the "Travelling Library Division" of the Provincial Public Library Commission. The main purpose of the travelling libraries is to provide good reading in outlying communities and schools which would otherwise lack library facilities. A l l that is required of the local community is that a library committee be formed to take proper care of the collection of books. This collection is exchanged two or three times a year, and use of the library is free. The Public Library Commission also provides an "Open Shelf Division", from which books are loaned free to individual borrowers by mail. Private agencies offering provincial-wide services. Organizations such as the Boy Scouts, the Gir l Guides, the Y.W.C.A., and the youth work departments of the United Church of Canada, have established provincial offices so that assistance and leadership can be given to rural areas. The „ „ 11 Boy Scout Association covers 195 groups in 14 districts throughout British Columbia, while its companion association, 12 the Girl Guides aids 234 groups in generally the same areas. The United Church of Canada's.youth work extends to 144 groups for girls in 16 districts, while boys' work is supported for 13 95 groups in 14 districts . 10. National'Film Board, Statistical Bulletin. Statistics and Record Divisions, Ottawa, April, 1947. 11. Boy Scout Association, 19A6 Report. Provincial Council,B.C. 12. Girl Guide Association, B.C. 13. Christian Education Office, United Church of Canada,B.C.Office. 20. Since January 1 9 4 8 , the Y.W.C.A. has supported a British Columbia Provincial Committee which is extending its work with high school girls in 1 1 places'. A co-ordinating agency for these provincial organizations is lacking. In Vancouver and Victoria there are agencies which could serve for joint planning and co-operation: the Group Work Division of the Vancouver Community Chest and Council, and the Greater Victoria Recreation Council, an affiliate of the Victoria Community Chest and Council. No similar body operates on a provincial-wide basis. The result is an opportunity for overlapping and duplication by the agencies offering provincial-wide services while many communities lacking this body to which they can direct inquiries, miss out on many available services. The Communi t.y Centres Association The British Columbia Community Centres Association developed as a result of the community centres projects sponsored by the Department of University Extension in co-operation with the Depart-ment of Social Work of the University of British Columbia. The first of these (held in January 1 9 4 6 ) was the result of an in-creasing number of requests for information and advice on community centres being received by the University Extension Department, and also the Department of Social Work. More than one hundred persons from thirty communities attended and urged the formation of a community centres organization. This was realized in June 1 9 4 6 when representatives from various parts of the province met to set up the B. C. Community Centres Association with the objective of promoting "the establishment and development of community centres and other organizations whose aim is to provide leisure-time services in British Columbia; to co-operate at the local, provincial and Dominion levels with other organizations having similar objectives; to sponsor conferences, conventions or institutes and any other activities to attain these object-14 ives" . Little more has been done to implement the objectives of its constitution. It was an advantage to have this group represented on a special committee appointed by the Provincial Minister of Education to study the whole situation of community centres in Vancouver and the needs for further aid. While the findings of this committee have not been published, the committee meetings did provide an opportunity for the Association's repre-sentative to promote the community centre idea. Little tabulated information is available about community centres in British Columbia. In an effort to remedy this de-ficiency a questionnaire was submitted to more than 100 communities which had indicated their interest in the British Columbia Community Centres Association. The questionnaire^^ was designed to obtain information about the communities, the recreational pro-grams existing at the present time, the use of provincial services, facilities, leadership, and community organization. Replies were received from more than 30 areas. This information is utilized in the present study to permit an evaluation of the present situation and to point out the things needing to be done from the standpoint 14. Constitution, B. C. Community Centres Association. 15. Copy attached. See appendix 2 2 . Chapter 4 VANCOUVER AMD VICTORIA Of the four larger cities in British Columbia, information was obtained regarding only Vancouver and Victoria, and in the case of Victoria, this was sparse. No information was received regarding New Westminster or Nanaimo, and i f lack of information indicates lack of activity, then one can assume that the community centre movement is limited in its scope in both of these cities. Now Canada's third largest city, Vancouver's growth has been rapid since the beginning of World War II . The population of Greater Vancouver totals about 430,000 persons, just under half the population of British Columbia. This concentration of population affects greatly any provincial-wide planning. This was shown in the concern of the special provincial government-sponsored committee to investigate only the Vancouver community centres' situation, Few cities have better natural recreational resources than those which Vancouver has for its citizens, but restricted access to some of them, limits their use. There is a difference between scenery and social facilities. Two municipal agencies, the Parks and School Boards, have been concerned with the provision of leisure-time activities, but their efforts have proceeded independently of each other. The Parks Board has developed a system of parks and playgrounds, providing some supervision of activities, and sponsored musical and other concert-type programs, maintaining the B. C. Institute of Music and Drama in this connection. Through sharing in the special committee which investigated community centres, the Parks Board has taken a great interest^centre projects in several parts of the city. The School * Board while offering the largest night school program in Canada 23. has not determined a "lighted schoolhouse" policy, which would strengthen the city's community centre movement. 16 In a preliminary report on recreational services in Vancouver community centres are regarded as primarily facilities for indoor recreation and are of particular interest to the adults. Economy can be obtained i f the elementary schools are designed so that a portion of this building can be used as a community centre. A gymnasium, auditorium, and separate rooms for engaging in hobby or craft work are essential. These should be designed for use without interference with the remainder of the school building. Wherever such facilities cannot be provided in the school buildings, they should be made available in the neighborhood parks as a part of a field house or as a separate structure. Recent passage of by-laws towards the establishment and construction of centres in the Marpole and Sunset Park areas, and further assistance to the centre projects in Kitsilano and Kerrisdale districts, indicates, in part, a departure from the above proposal. The centres are being built apart from any school, and the Parks Board is the municipal agency which is giving support to these projects. In Vancouver i t appears that the Parks Board wil l be the agency which wi l l be most closely identified with the centres. The Greater Vancouver Community Centres Council exists as an organization made up of representatives from community centres in. Vancouver city. Its development has been amazing: 16. Bartholonew, H, and Associates, A Preliminary Report Upr.^  Parks and Recreation and Schools. Vancouver Town Planning Commission, Vancouver, 1%6. 24, i t only functioned twice prior to the postwar impetus given i t by community centre enthusiasts who saw the Council as a vehicle to effect co-ordination of their efforts at realization of their centre projects. In 1937 the Council, then inown as the "Greater. Vancouver Community Council", met to plan the participation of the various communities in the 50th anniversary celebration for Vancouver. The celebration in connection with the visit of the Royal Family in 1939 was the occasion of the other meeting. The concern of the Council about the general development of community centres led them to present a birief to the Provincial Government, and the Provincial Minister of Education appointed the special committee to investigate community centres largely as a result of this. Sometime ago a Community Arts Council was formed with a view to the co-ordination of the activities of the Art Gallery, the Public Library, the Symphony Society, the Little Theatre and similar groups. The Junior League played a prominent role in the establishment of 17 this following completion of a cultural survey of Vancouver which recommended the formation of a "cultural arts council". The Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, through its Group Work Division, provides a medium for planning and coordination between the recreational agencies which conduct leisure-time activities in Vancouver. The organizations which participate in Chest funds as well as governmental, church, service club, Parent-Teacher, and community groups. There is an awkwardness in fitting tax-supported agencies into this to the upkeep of the Chest, While any participation is necessarily limited to the authority granted their representatives, which is l * ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Vancouver, I946. 2 5 . further restricted as i t affects the policy of that agency. The Belfare Council of Greater Vancouver (now part of the Chest and 18 Council organization) completed a survey of Vancouver as to its group work and recreational needs and made recommendations regarding greater planning and coordination. Any study of community centres in Vancouver should mention the large numberoof small groups and organizations which are active in the various areas of the city, and which can and do lend their support to community centre projects in their particular area. These groups, drawing their membership from their area, are the ones who have a specific interest in their locality. By and large, i t is from these groups that community centres must draw their support i f the community centre projects are to be "community" centred. The need, however, is to develop a sense of responsibility beyond their own groups' immediate concerns. While Vancouver has many districts, the boundaries of many of these are dubious. The communities are not "exactly built". Recognizing this the Welfare Council, in 1940, undertook to divide 19 the city into areas which would have social significance. These areas are not regarded as ideal by those who developed them, due to the necessity to conform to electoral districts, but they do provide a basis for a study of the city's areas. Reference is made 18. Norrie, L. E. Survey Report of Group Work and Recreation in Greater  Vancouver, Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver, Vancouver, 1945. 19. See Appendix A, Map of Social Areas in Vancouver. 26. to these in the presentations which follow. It is recognized that a l l communities in Vancouver are not discussed and that certain community centre developments, notably the Jewish Community Centre . are not included. Limitations in information obtained from the questionnaires and in the distribution of the questionnaires, accounts for this. Collingwood Situated in the south-east section of the city, in social areas 19 and 16 (lower part), Collingwood is one of Vancouver's urban residential areas. Population density, transiency of residence, and juvenile delinquency are not high. Having one of the highest rates of home ownership in the city, although the incomes of its residents are low, perhaps accounts for the strong community feeling which exists in this area. The distance between Collingwood and .downtown Vancouver is too great to enable its residents to make adequate use of recreational and cultural resources of the city. The recreation facilities in Collingwood consist of one theatre, one pool hall, two parks with playgrounds and equipment arid facilities for outdoor games, and one undeveloped park area. Youth organizations are active. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. have no branch in the district but draw a considerable membership to their downtown headquarters' programs. A Community Centre Association was formed in January 1946, and is financed by membership fees. The objectives of the group include the erection of a local library, and the general promotion of community welfare, social, educational, cultural and athletic. The organization 27 assumes a broad function, and the problem, from a community centre standpoint, is to get the "community centre" objective set apart, so that a .concentrated effort might be made. Also the present Association is not formed by representatives from interested sponsoring groups in Collingwood. Care should now be exercised so that a l l community groups may participate in achieving the objectives of the 20 Association, certainly that of a centre. A recent survey points up specific recommendations in this connection. Kjtsilano Kitsilano, one of Vancouver's older urban residential districts, is located in social areas 7 and 8, south of English Bay. TheBe are some slum properties in the eastern corner near False Creek, and along the , B. C. Electric interurban tran line. The population, mostly in the middle income group,' has a high density, while transiency of residence is not marked. Two theatres, a bowling alley and a pool hall constitute the commercial recreation of the area. Four parks and playgrounds, with equipment and facilities for outdoor games, are operated. Alexandra Neighbourhood House, a unit of the Alexandra Community Activities, a privately-supported community service agency, is located in the northern section of the district. A Youth Centre, sponsored by the Burrard Lions club, also is so located as to serve somewhat the same locality. Other recreation includes that of "Pro-Ree", Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, and the various churches. The National Film Board and the Vancouver Public Library extend their services to this area. The 20. Collingwood & District Membuial Centre Association, 347 Collingwood Families Discuss Relation,(^ographed), February 1949. 28. Public Library established its first branch in this area, setting i t up in a separate building. This-plan of decentralization of library services has been extended to other areas, but the present plan is to establish these branches as separate units, and not as a unit of a centre building. The Kitsilano branch has been used as the example in the development of this policy by the Public Library. The Kitsilano Community Centre Association was formed in 1945, and incorporated in 1947. The objective of the group is to erect and operate a community centre for the physical, social and educational uses of citizens and children. A token start was made in raising funds for such an undertaking, while recent passage of a local improvement by-law provides further funds. In this arrangement, the Association is working closely with the -Parks Board.Mrecting the Association are members of the local Chamber of Commerce, Lions Club, Ratepayers, Parent Teachers' Association and Canadian Legion. While there are other active organizations in the community, they are not represented on this body. Sponsoring groups like the Alexandra Neighbourhood House organization and the Burrard Youth Centre, together with a variety of service, hobby and sport groups are operating in the community. There is a need for planning and co-relating of these activities, and this function need not be left unattended until the centre building is completed. Kerrisdale Kerrisdale, located in social areas 11 and 12, is an urban 29. residential area with few industrial or commercial buildings. Though density of population is comparatively high, there is not an accompanying high rate of juvenile delinquency. Persons in the upper middle income and some in the upper income group make up the population. Recreation facilities are limited, with only one play-ground ih the area equipped for outdoor games. Scouts, Guides, Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. draw large memberships from this area. The Community Centre Association was formed in 1942 to provide social and recreational activities, not only for members, but for the whole community. •• Little has ;been done about program for either the members or the community, generally, with practically a l l the attention being given to fund-raising. A promotion campaign by the Association resulted in the passage of local improvement tax by-law in 1947 enabling'the financing of construction of a community centre. Construction costs rose so high that a second local improvement tax by-law was necessary in order to produce more funds. Even the passage of this new by-law did not provide sufficient funds for the centre to be built, so that a plebiscite was put before the property owners of the area, asking endorsement of the policy of devoting the money already raised to construction ° f a n 2 ^ r e n a a s t h e f i r s t UN 1* ^ t n e community centre. At the arena "spectator games", directed physical instruction of school children and other programs are to take place. The arena wil l have an earning capacity of some magnitude and net gains from these 21. %igus, Marion "Fuller Life for Young and Old", The Vancouver Sun Magazine' Suppl^Pi^t- T December 4, 1948, p. 3. 30. games and other events are to be held in trust for building other centre units. As a community centre, the proposed building at Kerrisdale wi l l be a useful facility for "spectator" and mass-type recreation, including ice hockey and skating, roller skating and lacrosse. It wi l l compare favorably in this regard with the "Forum" at Hastings Park, which serves the eastern portion of the city. The Kerrisdale centre wi l l serve similarly the western portion of the city. One real disadvantage in the present Kerrisdale centre arrange-ment is that the by-law covered so large an area that i t makes i t difficult for other sponsoring groups who are interested in a centre to serve their smaller areas within the larger Kerrisdale district. These groups wi l l not be able to appeal for tax-provided funds until the present by-law arrangement is completed, some years hence. In the meantime, the Kerrisdale centre or arena, w i l l not provide the facilities that these sponsoring groups need. This situation points out the value of co-relating the activities of the various sponsor-ing groups in an area, as well as the advantage of co-operative ' planning. Marpole. the city, Located along the Fraser River in the southern portion of/Marpole is in social areas 17 and Id,residential districts, with considerable industrial development. Population density is low, and is of the middle income group. As with Collingwood, downtown Vancouver is too far distant for ordinary recreational patronage by the residents of this area. 31. Marpole1s recreational facilities include a theatre, dance hall, pool hall, and a park with outdoor game facilities. Agencies like the Scouts, Guides, "Pro Rec" and Churches provide consider-able recreational opportunities. Perhaps because of its relative isolation, there is an active sense of organization. One of the largest Community Centre Associations is located in Marpole. Formed and incorporated in 1944, the Association has an executive made up of representatives from community groups. Its objective is to promote the educational, social, cultural and athletic endeavours of the community. Finances, coming from fees, subscriptions and' activities, have gone largely to a building fund. The present activities are carried on in "Marpole House", which provides an assembly hall, stage and kitchen. Varied program in-cludes whist drives, parties, teen club dances, meetings and a kindergarten. This organization has also sponsored community gala days, sport events, and band concerts. The Community Centre Association with its program is a good sponsoring group in Marpole, while "Marpole House" is a good start towards a centre. Grandview. Bounded on the north by Burrard Inlet and on the west by False Creek , with their port facilities and industry, Grandview is located in social areas 3 and 10. It is a lower income group residential district, with an average population density and juvenile delinquency rate which is high in comparison with other similar areas. Grandview has a high proportion of commercial recreation facilities: four theatres, two bowling alleys, four dance halls and one pool hall. The Parks Board operates three parks in the area with facilities for outdoor games. 32. Other recreational needs are met by a lawn bowling club, "Pro Rec", Scouts, Guides, churches, and a community Y.M.C.A.-Y.W.C.A. branch, which serves as a community centre for the area. Membership fees and a Community Chest allocation provide the finances for this centre. As a branch of the Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A., its objectives are those of these two organizations and close liaison is main-tained with'tiown town" headquarters of both organizations. Centre facilities provided by this "Community T" include an assembly hall, committee and club rooms, kitchen, stage, and lounge. Only recently opened, the building provides a fine example of a centre designed to complement existing school and church facilities. Equipment for a variety of hobbies and recreations is also provided, and professional staff of the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. is available. Sponsoring groups for sports, and other activities make up the organization of this "Y". Each group determines its own policy, subject to the final approval of the Board of Directors, which is chosen by the members. A planning and co-relating committee exists in the community. Originally, i t was responsible for the development of the community 11Y" in Grandview, but with the development of this "Y", the effective functioning of this committee has been lessened. Recently, when the Vancouver East Lions club proposed construction of a community centre, the club approached the "Y" about operating the centre once i t was built. The "Y", in an opportunistic move, accepted the plan when,in terms of better community planning and co-relating, the Lions proposal should have been discussed by the committee. It is apparent that 33. the place and function of the committee is not understood, and active sponsoring groups like the "Y" disregard i t . The West End Between Vancouver1s commercial centre and its two most publicized recreational areas, English Bay and Stanley Park, is the district known as the West End, located in social areas 1 and 2 . Once the high income group residential area, i t has declined to a congested, low income group residential area. Population density is among the highest of a l l Vancouver's residential areas. The closeness of the downtown section of the city and of English Bay and Stanley Park give individual residents easy access to many recreation facilities. Two parks with outdoor game equipment are also available. The Art Gallery, located in this area, provides classes and other cultural programs. The downtown headquarters of the Y.M.C.A* and Y.W.C.A. are also in the area, and attract large numbers of young people. Scouts, Guides and churches also provide services. A neighbourhood house, Gordon House, serves as the community centre for certain groups in the area. As an Alexandra Community Activities agency, i t is financed partly by the Community Chest, by a municipal grant, interest on an endowment fund, and fees from participants. Boasting a membership of 1400 persons, Gordon House has a wide variety of facilities and being publicized by i ts supporters in many ways sets an example for other Vancouver community centres. The Centre facilities of the House include a gymnasium which 3 4 . is also used as an assembly hall, and two buildings which provide about 4 0 club, meeting and lounge rooms. There is much hobby and game equipment available, and groups make full use of other community facilities. Sponsoring groups play a large part in the organization of Gordon House, fitting into sections for planning and co-ordination of activities. The absence of a clear-cut policy by the House makes i t difficult for some of these groups to determine their position. The very nature of the A.C.A. places limitations upon the position of Gordon House in the West End. Holding policy-making as its prerogative, the A.C.A. has removed itself from the community by its self-perpetuating practice of not permitting Gordon House to elect i ts own Board of Directors. The A.C.A. has made a study of this problem and is desirous of making the necessary changes. In terms of democratic participation by the community, i t is imperative that the House be given some autonomy i f i t is to serve effectively as a community centre for the West End. In other ways, Gordon House f i l l s community centre functions adequately. The variety of program offered touches a l l ages, and the use made of the House by community groups certainly earns i t the designation as the centre of the West End. The West End Community Services Committee was developed largely as a medium by which the organizations active in the West End might discuss common problems. There is representation on the Committee from the schools, churches, and social agencies. Its objectives are to provide a means by which the work of the various organizations serving the West End may be co-ordinated and also to 35. assure greater vigilance and effective action on neighbourhood problems. Its work has included the establishment of a branch library, co-operative action by group and case work agencies in problem cases, and the prevention of the overlapping of the programs of the group work agencies. Fairview-Mount Pleasant Fairview-Mount Pleasant, located in social areas 9 and 10, is a low income residential area of marked social need. Serving the area is the Fairview-Mount Pleasant branch of the Y.M.C.A. with a program that includes sport leagues, teen age dances and clubs. This organization has been active in developing a Community Centre Association which has commenced campaigning for funds to construct a building. The campaign was decided upon only after a 22 survey of existing facilities and needs of the area. At present, one park with outdoor game facilities exists. Scouts., Guides, "Pro Sec", and churches provide program, too, in the area. The Vancouver Boys' Club Association, a financially participating agency in the Community Chest, provides program for boys at three centres in the area. No centre, as such, exists in the area. Several sponsoring groups exist, and beginnings of planning and co-ordinating committees are evident in the community centres associations which are. developing in various sections of the area. There are such organizations in Cambie South, Little Mountain, Hillcrest, and in the Mount Pleasant area, centred around Broadway 22. Community Chest and Council, Survey of Recreational Facilities  in Mt. Pleasant-Fairview. (mimeographed), Vancouver, 1948. 36. and Main Streets. This growth demonstrates the need for careful planning of centre facilities i f the facilities are to serve the area. It wi l l be interesting to watch this trend towards separate centres, as outgrowths of these co-ordinating organizations, and to compare i t with the "over-all" centre approach taken by Kerrisdale, for example. West Point Grey Located in the western portion of the city, south-west of English Bay, and in social areas 6 and 11, West Point Grey is a residential area, populated by persons in the upper middle income group. Interested people in the area have supported for some time the West Point Grey Community Centre Association, and are develop-ing policies slowly. Recently a West Point Grey Youth Council was organized to sponsor program for boys and girls under 18 years of age, and a director was employed to supervise this development. There are several sponsoring groups in the area, but there is no great amount of co-ordination. Main objective of the Centre Association is the building of a centre, and considerable funds have been obtained towards this. In the meantime, the Association makes available an abandoned school for use by its affiliated organizations. The West Point Grey area, with its upper middle income group, typifies the kind of community which varies in degree and kind of participation in comparison with a low income area like the West End, for example. In the West End, Gordon House flourishes because of the apparent need, while in West Point Grey the need 37. is not so obvious, and many of the services of a centre like Gordon House are not required because of the greater opportun-ities in meeting leisure-time needs on an individual basis in this wealthier area. Comment Certain general observations regarding the Vancouver 23 community centres' situation seem appropriate. It is reported that the special committee which investigated Vancouver's community centres recommended that the municipal responsibility for the centres should be handled by a central operating committee formed by the Park and School Boards. An advisory council would be related to i t , made up from representatives of individual community centre groups, governmental bodies like the City Council, Park and School Board, and Town Planning Commission, and from the P.T.A., Ministerial Association, Community Arts Council, community-wide sports associations and others. Centres would be planned in each social area, and provision made so that additional centres might develop in these areas i f they were needed. This provision would solve the problem of the Kerrisdale arena limiting the development of other centres in that area. The individual community centre groups would have similar advisory councils related to them, representing local organizations. This whole proposal could be sharpened by the application of the pattern discussed in this study: centre, sponsoring group, and committee. The central operating committee would be the governing body for the centre, while the 23. Recreation Committee. • Report. S.W.511 Community Organization, University of British Columbia, 1948 38. advisory council would be the planning and co-relating committee. The groups which would be represented on the advisory council would be the sponsoring groups in that area. Victoria Victoria, though the capital of the province, "does not have much to report on community centres". So says Dr. Henrietta Anderson, organizing director of the Greater Victoria Recreation Council. She states that a l l centres are in a state of flux, with the exception of the one at James Bay. "They have been trying to carry on under voluntary effort and finding i t practically impossible". James Bay Community Centre, with a paid supervisory staff, is the only thriving one. Started as a Wartime Housing enterprise, the centre has adequate facilities and finances, both arranged as a contribution to employee welfare by the Victoria Machinery Depot. With the termination of wartime contracts, subsidies have been arranged through the Community Chest. An impasse has been reached by the Saanich Suburban Centre because they were unable to come to satisfactory terms with the School Board regarding the use of schools. This Centre, designed as a family affair, with program for children and adults, was located ih a school when i t started. The activities, not school-sponsored, were "tolerated"-by the School Board. Another Community Chest subsidized effort, that of the Equimalt Community Centre, "fell to pieces due to local squabbles, despite the fact that they had given to them a very large and commodious hall". Dr. Anderson concludes that this "points to the 39. need for some over-all paid supervision to rise above these local jealousies". In the Oak Bay area, while there is no hall, there has been for four years "a quite active and successful community club which calls itself the Oak Bay Community Centre. They have carried on varied activities in a number of buildings; painting, dressmaking, etc., in small groups are among their activities, and a very large cribbage club, also a successful badminton club. A small gardening club was started and has flourished. "Altogether, the situation in Oak Bay is excellent despite the fact that there is no paid supervisor". Victoria's cormnunity centre problem hinges on the need for sponsoring groups in the various communities. The Recreation Council provides the basis for an over-all planning and co-ordinating committee, while centres are available in some districts. This last comment suggests that the excellency of the Oak Bay situation is attributable to the nature of the community. Oak Bay is a "well-off" residential suburb of Victoria; its residents have more leisure, and more income, and the Community Centre provides a medium through which they can participate in activities. Esquimalt, the old, closely built section of Victoria, which is identified with naval work, has the problems of trans-iency. Saanich, covering a large area, with many working class homes, has a need for recreational services. The attitude of the School Board in this situation is typical of the contributing cause for the feeling that community centre work should be apart from schools. This tendency is unhealthy as i t leads to duplication of facilities, and possible overlapping of activities. The wisdom of having paid supervisory staff for a centre is shown in the success which the James Bay organization is enjoying. CHAPTER 5 ADJACENT VANCOUVER MUNICIPALITIES 41 Situated to the west, the north and the east of the city of Vancouver are the municipalities of West Vancouver, North Van-couver, and Burnaby, respectively. Each has developments which • provide a basis for the study of suburban community centres. West Vancouver West Vancouver, a relatively new residential area, almost devoid of industry, is populated by people mostly in the upper middle income group. Spread out over a mountainside by the sea, the population density is low. Recreation facilities include two golf clubs, one bowling alley, and two theatres. The Parks Board operates three areas which are fitted for outdoor games. The headquarters for organized recreation and leisure-time activities is the West Vancouver Community Centre. • This Centre, now owned by the Municipality and administered through the Parks 'Board, is operated by the West Vancouver Community Association, which in turn is affiliated with the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. This arrangement provides for maintenance expenses to be paid by municipal funds, and program operating costs to be paid by the Association, with its grant from the Community Chest and receipts from membership fees and rentals. The Centre is indeed the centre of the community. Though only a renovated dance hall, i ts facil-ities are widely used by the many sponsoring groups which exist in this area. Accommodation includes an assembly hall, stage, kitchen, and meeting rooms. Equipment for a variety of hobMes and games is available. 42. The Association which operates the Centre provides a group work and recreation program for boys, girls, youth and young adults. Limitations of finance have restricted its former work with child-ren and adults. While using the Centre as a headquarters for its program, the- Association makes wide use of other facilities in the community. In this regard, i t has utilized to a large extent the recreation rooms and basements in homes as meeting places for neighbourhood clubs. Started originally as a "youth centre" pro-ject by the West Vancouver Lions Club, the Association was first incorporated in 1943 around this object, changing in 1946 to its present form, with the objective of enlisting the residents of West Vancouver in a united fellowship for the purpose of bettering their intellectual, spiritual and social well-being. A staff has b3en employed to assist in this work. Care has been taken in the organization of the Association to assure democratic participation by members. Each program section, boys, girls, youth and young adult, has its own self-governing committee. The Board of Directors, chosen by the members, and intended to be representative of the sex,. age and interests of the membership and the community, has responsibility for broad policy matters. Many sponsoring groups unite for community efforts in West Vancouver. They range from Scouts, Guides, and church groups, to Chrysanthemum Clubs and a so-called Union of Middleclass Interests. An attempt was made to start a planning and co-relating committee, under the t i t le of "West Vancduver Community Council", largely with the backing of the Community Association, but after a short l i fe , the Council drifted into inactivity. In its place, again with the 43. backing of the Community Association, has arisen a Recreation Planning Committee, which is representative of the main community interests, and this Committee gives promise of developing into an effective planning and co-relating committee. North Vancouver Adjoining West Vancouver, and across Burrard Inlet from Vancouver, is North Vancouver, a residential area which has had great industrial growth since the beginning of World War II. Population is of the lower income group, with some upper and middle income groups in the newer subdivisions. Recreation facilities in North Vancouver include two theatres, a bowling alley, roller skating rink, and two pool halls. Six parks are equipped for outdoor games. Numerous halls are located in the area which are used frequently for recreational activities. One of the largest users of such facilities is the North Vancouver Memorial Community Centre Society, an organization which serves as both a sponsoring group for a great variety of activities, and a planning and co-relating committee on which most community groups have representation. In time, too, i f the present aim of the Society is realized, i t w i l l operate a community centre, of i ts own. The most popular activity of the Society is its "Community College" plan of night school classes, which is operated in conjunction with the North Vancouver Board of School Trustees. North Vancouver has areas within its borders which have strong community sentiments. The genius of the Centre Society to date has been its ability to work with these communities, 44. giving them program services to meet their needs, while at the same time identifying each community in terms of the whole North Vancouver effort. A large staff has been employed to assure the meeting of such obligations, with a large share of the cost being paid by the Vancouver Community Chest. Founded in 1944, the Society has the very comprehensive objective "to promote and develop varied educational, athletic, dramatic, social, civic and neighbourhood programs in order to develop community neighbourliness and good citizenship; to promote the advancement of the general interests of municipal affairs; to promote any or a l l objects of a national, patriotic, philanthropic, charitable, scientific, artistic, social, provincial or sporting character". Successful promotion of fund-raising at the close of World War II secured for the Society a sum of $100,000 to apply against a gymnasium-auditorium unit of a centre. Using this money, the Society has been able to get the Provincial Department of Education to match this amount in the building of a combined centre.and school building. This plan of combined centre-school facilities is a positive approach to the problem typified by the Saanich Centre in Victoria and provides a convenient way for tax-provided funds, particularly from the Provincial government, to be secured for the construction of needed community facilities. Other recreational services are offered to North Vancouver residents aside from those presented by the Centre Society. Scouts, Guides, Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. sponsored program for high school youth, church groups, and "Pro Rec" are among these others. 45. The North Vancouver Welfare Council presumes to be the community co-ordinating committee but, though representative of the social agencies and churches, i ts effectiveness is over-shadowed by the Centre Society, with its Board which is more representative. Each of the communities within North Vancouver have developed organizations which in effect are planning and co-relating committees. It has been with these that the Centre Society has worked out its agreements on program services. Out-standing in this connection has been the Centre Society1s services. to North Shore Neighbourhood House, located in the central part of North Vancouver; Heywood Community Centre, which is an off-growth of a wartime housing project; and Capilano Community Centre. Using committee support from these areas, the Centre Society has provided leisure-time recreational services which meet the needs in those areas. Burnaby Similar to North Vancouver in that i t is spread over a large area and contains several different and largely independent districts, Burnaby has only recently, in these districts, with the development of better roads and transportation services, attained a degree of unity sufficient to permit community effort. Bumaby's recreation facilities include two theatres, one pool hall,, one park with outdoor game equipment, and two other parks in process of development. The organizations active in the area include the churches, "Pro Rec", community youth groups, and five Community Centre Associations. These five Community Centre Associations are located in the north and south portions of Burnaby, in the Capitol H i l l area which is east of social 46. area 4, south-east of Capitol H i l l , and in the Willington Heights housing project. The North Burnaby Community Centre Association was formed in 1945, with the objective of building a community centre and fostering recreational activities. Under the leadership of a very earnest and carefully-moving committee, this Association has become the co-ordinating recreational agency for that area, employing a director to supervise this work, using the high school as the centre. Twenty-three affiliated groups have representation on the Association's governing body, and these groups are the sponsoring groups for most of the leisure-time services in North Burnaby. Under the stimulus of a Lions Club, another Centre Association was developed, to serve the south portion of Burnaby. Started in 1947 i t , too, has its membership from representatives of sponsoring the area. Objectives are "to co-ordinate the activities of public-spirited organizations in the erection, equipping, mainten-ance and administration of a community centre to be built on the Grandview Highway, and to provide opportunities in such a building and elsewhere in the community for the wholesome recreation, education, civic and other leisure-time activities of the community". This centre has been started, and is knoxnn as the "Valley View Community Centre". Its limited accommodation and equipment restricts much program develop-ment, and i t suffers from the lack of a paid director. Recently, Centre Associations have sprung up in the Capitol H i l l area, and south-east of Capitol H i l l in what is known as the Lozell district. Here, a Women's Institute is the organization which is giving leadership. The Willington Heights Community Centre Association 47. is an expression on the part of the veterans living in that housing project to meet their leisure-time recreational needs. They are choosing to do this independently. No municipality-wide organization exists to sponsor programs or plan and co-relate. As a result, efforts of the five existing Centre Associations wi l l , at best, meet the needs of their own particular areas, leaving other sections of the municipality untouched. Comment The suburban pattern of community centres around Vancouver shows a desire on the part of the people in the areas concerned to meet their own needs, but in some cases, to avail themselves of resources provided by Vancouver1s agencies interested in community centre work. North Vancouver and West Vancouver, through their financial participation in the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, have achieved a degree of stability in their community centre work which is not found in Burnaby. The contrasts in kinds of communities and their needs are reflected in the development of the respective community centres. These factors affect the support which the communities provide. CHAPTER 6 LARGER TOWNS OR SMALL CITIES 48. There are a considerable number of urban communities in British Columbia which are not in the large Vancouver area. Some of these larger towns or small cities are Port Alberni and Alberni, Prince Rupert, Kamloops, Chilliwack, Cranbrook, Summerland, and Nelson. These localities, spread throughout the province, differ in many ways according to their needs. A review of the developments in each of these places is given here, acknowledging at the same time the lack of available information from each community. Notwithstanding this short-coming, the pattern of centre, sponsoring groups, and committees is discussed. Port Alberni and Alberni % These twin communities, located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, are rapidly growing industrial towns. Facil-ities for recreation include three theatres, a bowling alley, one roller skating rink, two pool halls, and two parks, both well'equipped for outdoor games. The Community Centre Association co-ordinates and sponsors organized recreation in the area. Joining in this project are most community groups, and these have representation on the Centre Association directorate. Finances come from these groups, muni-cipal and provincial grants, and contributions from large employers. The objective of the Association is "to sponsor and develop whole-some recreation and to provide facilities and leadership for this program". 49. In carrying out this objective, the Association has promoted the development of a large-scale community recreation program, and has endeavored to stimulate interest in the con-struction of needed facilities. Democratic participation has been encouraged in a l l program activities, and these have been set up on a self-governing basis. Other groups conducting recreational programs in the area include Scouts, Guides, "Pro Rec", and some special school groups. An old army d r i l l hall was used as the original centre. This accommodation provided an assembly hall, cafeteria, kitchen, stage, and meeting rooms. Adjacent military and school buildings have been utilized for specific activities. A small paid staff has been employed at various times to help carry out the plans of the Association, but the failure of the Association to clarify its position in terms of the functions of providing a centre, sponsoring activities, and attempting to plan for the entire community has made the permanent employment of a qualified staff impractical. A real need is indicated for much co-relation of the Association-sponsored activities with those of other groups. Prince Rupert The most northerly seaport in British Columbia, Prince Rupert is dependent for the livelihood of its citizens on its fishing and logging industries. Isolation from the rest of the province is an influential factor in setting the pattern of its activities, and methods of meeting needs. Existing recreational 5 0 . f a c i l i t i e s include a theatre, a bowling a l l e y , a r o l l e r skat ing r i n k , two pool h a l l s , and three parks equipped for outdoor games. The pride of Prince Rupert i s i t s C i v i c Centre, which houses most o f the community's groups. Scouts, Guides, and church groups are the only other program oper-a tors . Formed i n 1941, the C i v i c Centre Assoc ia t ion , had as i t s main purpose the purchase of a wartime rec rea t iona l b u i l d i n g which could be used to f a c i l i t a t e a va r i e ty of groups from drama to bands, to baske tba l l . This was accomplished by 1946 even to the extent o f employing the s t a f f of the former m i l i t a r y u n i t . As a centre, t h i s bu i ld ing offers enviable accommodation: assembly h a l l , sta'ge, lounges, game room, meeting rooms, l i b r a r y , solarium, showers, gymnasium and a ca fe te r i a . In add i t ion , the Associa t ion owns another gymnasium close by, which i s used r egu la r ly . As a sponsor o f a c t i v i t i e s , the Associa t ion has l i m i t e d i t s e l f mainly to sports and phys i ca l education. However, no ' arrangement has been developed for such groups to pa r t i c ipa te i n o v e r - a l l centre management. The organization of the Associa t ion amounts to that of a co-operative committee, wi th a l l i n f l u e n t i a l community groups being represented on the Board of Directors of the Assoc i a t i on . The present concern of the d i rec tors i s sounder financing and operation of the centre, and expansion of f a c i l i t i e s . They have as t h e i r o v e r - a l l objective the development of a t o t a l 51. program of community recreation. Finances for the Association come from municipal and provincial grants, revenue-producing services, membership fees, and contributions, as well as receipts from special fund-raising events held each year. Kamloops Kamloops is an interior city, a railroad divisional point and the commercial centre for a large ranching and farming area. Recreation facilities include one theatre, a bowling alley, two pool halls, a roller skating rink, and an ice skating rink. One park has facilities for outdoor games. Both the Kamloops Athletic Association and the Elks have halls which receive general use by the community. It is around this park that much of the organized recreation during the summer season takes place. A paid staff directs a large sports program which involves about one fi f t h of the population. The Kamloops and District Memorial Society, organized and incorporated in 1944, seeks "to promote sport and community l i f e " and to this end has concentrated on the building of a centre. Efforts in this regard have been successful and construction has commenced. Sponsoring groups for recreational programs include the Athletic Association, which has employed a sports director; Box Lacrosse Association; Softball Association; Hockey Association; and a Little Theatre. While officers of the Memorial Society have affiliations with other community organizations, they do not -serve in represent-5 2 . ative capacities. The result is that the Society, which seems intended as the planning and co-relating committee for Kamloops, does not have official connections with the various sponsoring groups in that city. Chilliwack Largest city in the Fraser river valley, Chilliwack is the centre of a rich farming area. Facilities for recreation include a theatre, two bowling alleys, five pool halls, a roller skating rink, the agricultural grounds which serve as an area for playgrounds and outdoor games, and numerous small halls. Organized recreation is carried out largely by the Chilliwack Amateur Athletic Association, which sponsors several sport clubs. Recently, this Association joined other groups in discussions about the building of a centre, and the Recreation Centre Assoc-iation was formed. This organization is seeking to build a centre which wi l l be adequate to the needs of Chilliwack. A strong community spirit is shown at points adjacent to Chilliwack. Community halls with assembly hall, stage and kitchen are located at Sardis, Cheam, Fairfield, Achelitz and Ryder Lake. Activities are promoted by the residents themselves as there is need. Cranbrook Located in the south-east section of British Columbia, Cranbrook is a railroad divisional point, and the headquarters for an important lumbering industry. Recreation facilities 5 3 . consist of one theatre, a bowling alley, an ice rink, two pool halls, two parks and a swimming pool available for outdoor use during the summer season, an auditorium, and four othefc halls. Organized recreation includes Scouts, Guides, bands, Fine Arts Association, an Athletic Associa-tion, a discussion group, a dramatic club, church groups, and three sport clubs. No community centre or community centre association exists in Cranbrook. While there are many active community groups, no planning or co-relating committee has been set up. The ability of sponsoring groups to meet needs, and the apparent adequacy of facilities, has removed the usual basis for a community centre as such. In the interests of better relationships, however, there seems justification for a planning and co-relating committee. Summerland In the heart of British Columbia's fruit growing area, Summerland is another typical interior community with its theatre, bowling alley, pool hall, ice skating rinks, three halls, and memorial park and playing field. Organized recreation is provided by a large number of sport clubss badminton, tennis, basketball, baseball, golf, bowling and skiing; churches; and services of provincial-wide agencies like the travelling library, and the National Film Board. Again, there appears to have been no need for a community centre organization, and no planning or co-relating committee 54. has, as yet, been found necessary. Nelson The commercial centre of an important mining district, Nelson is noted for its Civic Centre. Other facilities for recreation in Nelson include two theatres, two bowling alleys, three pool halls, an ice rink, three parks, stadium, tennis courts, and a swimming pool. Nelson's Civic Centre is owned by the Corporation of the City of Nelson and operated by a "Civic Commission" of five persons. It is regarded by the citizens of Nelson as "one of Canada's outstanding recreational and amusement centres for men and women, young and old, and especially the children. It cost $285,000 and is one of the best of many investments from a community standpoint that the progressive city of Nelson ever made". Accommodation is pro-vided for activities ranging from ice skating to "pro-rec" classes, from conventions to arts and crafts. A variety of facilities includes an auditorium, skating arena, curling rink, badminton hall, gymnasium, library, and ballroom. A city-sponsored recreation program, directed by a paid staff, provides most of.the community's activities. Two out of every three people in Nelson are said to be involved in this program. Other groups operating in Nelson include "Pro Rec", Scouts, Guides, study group, dramatic group, and the churches. Municipal interest in the Centre has taken away the need for a community centre association of the type developed else-where. However, because of the apparent need for co-ordination of effort with so many sponsoring groups using Centre facil-ities, much thought is being given to the formation of a Nelson Recreation Association, which wil l include a l l clubs using Centre facilities. This, in effect, could become the planning and co-relating committee for Nelson. Comment Perhaps the most noticeable factor affecting the type of community centre development in the larger towns and small cities of British Columbia is the geographical one. The degree of isolation is reflected most noticeably in the growth of the centre movement in cities like Prince Rupert. Nelson, affected also by the economic activity of that area, has developed its community centre with these factors largely determining its growth. The variety of sponsoring groups in a l l of the places reviewed have been developed with the support of people who have realized some of the particular needs of their community. CHAPTER 7 SMALL COMMUNITIES 56 . It has been indicated already that the geography of British Columbia isolates many of its communities. In many cases, these places are small hamlets built around a lumbering or fishing industry. Some of them have developed interesting recreational services. In this category are Invermere, Sooke, Youbou, Fulford Harbour, Mil l Bay, Ashcroft and McBride. Invermere Located in the Windermere Valley, between mountain ranges, Invermere depends on a tourist trade in the summer to supplement its lumbering and farming industries. The only reereation facilities are an ice skating rink, a playing field, and a centre. This centre was the result of efforts by the Invermere Memorial Committee which was formed in 1940. Funds came by public donation, movies and dances. Present accommodation of the centre includes an assembly hall, stage, banquet room, kitchen, and committee rooms. Theatre and library are planned as later additions. Opening of the centre enabled the Committee to turn ite management over to a newly-formed Community Centre Association. Objective of this group is "to foster and develop such communal activities in the district as they may from time to time consider would be of advantage to the community". One difficulty in the realization of this objective has been the concern of the Association, over management of the centre to the exclusion of program development. The management of the centre involves the scheduling of its use, arranging for its maintenance and upkeep and securing the necessary 57 funds to pay the expenses in connection with this maintenance and upkeep. These details detract from the attention which the Association should give, as a sponsoring group, to the develop-ment of needed activities. While Scouts, Guides and other sponsoring groups do exist in the Invermere area, there is room for a varied recreational program for a l l ages. The Memorial Committee was evidently the result of a co-ordinated effort on the part of a l l groups. Such continued planning and co-relating is desirable. Spoke With fishing and logging as its chief industries, Sooke, located on the southwest corner of Vancouver Island, is one of those communities whose recreational facilities are limited to a pool hall and a ball park. Into this setting came a community centre: organization. Founded and incorporated in 1935 with the objective of community betterment i t set as its first task the erection of a community hall, which was completed in 1936. Accommodation of this hall includes an assembly room, a stage, banquet room and kitchen. Sports equipment is also provided by the centre organization. It is now the horjie of such organized recreation as there is in the area: Scouts, badminton and rifle clubs, and National Film Board showings. The centre organization is mainly concerned with the management of the centre, realizing its revenue from fees, rentals and special events. Youbou Youbou is largely a logging company, town, located in central 58. Vancouver Island. Recreation facilities include one theatre, a park with outdoor game equipment, and a community hall. This hall is managed by the Community Centre Association, which is self-governing and finances by payroll deductions and rentals from the hall . The Association hires a recreation director, who guides a recreation program that draws in one in every two people in the community, while this program largely includes sports and physical education activities, hobby and drama groups are being encouraged. The hall accommodates a l l indoor activities being promoted. So strong is the Association that there are virtually no other recreational organizations in the community. Planning and co-relating is thus practically an exclusive concern of the Association itself among its own groups. Fulford Harbour Situated on Salt Spring Island, between Vancouver Island and the mainland, Fulford Harbour boasts a Community Association with a history extending back to 1925 when i t built Fulford Harbour's Community Hall. This facility provides a large assembly hall, a dining room, and kitchen, and serves as a storehouse for game equipment which is used at the one park in the area. The funds to maintain the hall are raised by subscriptions and dances. Fulford Harbour, isolated as i t i s , is typical of the communities which make good use of a travelling library and National Film Board showings. Apparently the Association is the driving force for a l l community effort at Fulford Harbour, assuming a l l three functions of centre, sponsoring group, and planning and co-relating committee. 59. Mil l Bav ' " Built around a cement works, Mi l l Bay, at the southern end of Vancouver Island, is a small community well-stocked in sponsoring groups for a variety of activities. Only the Masonic Hall is available for recreational purposes, and this on a rental basis. A Community Centre Association" was started in 1945 *ith the purpose of "advancement of a l l matters of community interest for the welfare of a l l " , taking as its first objective the erection of a building. To this end concerts, card parties and bazaars have been sponsored. The questionnaire completed for this study does not indicate that other sponsoring groups have joined in the Centre Association for planning and co-relating. Ashcroft Ashcroft is an agricultural town, west of Kamloops, in the interior of the province. Recreation facilities include a theatre, two pool halls, a community hall, and vacant property which is used a s playing fields. Five sport clubs, junior and senior badminton, basketball, baseball and tennis, provide most of the organized recreation. National Film Board and travelling library services are also utilized. The School Board manages the community hall, and also make game equipment available. To promote the build-ing of a swimming pool, a community centre association has been proposed, expecting support from the Board of Trade, Canadian Legion, Elks, Business and Professional Women's Club and the I.O.O.F., typical community groups. McBride McBride, with its small population, is located close to the 60. Alberta border, near Jasper National Park and depends on logging and agriculture for its livelihood. Recreation facilities include a theatre, pool hall, ice skating rink, ball park, church hall and Elks' hall. Organized recreation is provided by-church groups, the Junior Athletic Club, and a girls ' club. The Elks sponsor special community events, and share with the municipality in the management of the park. Presumably, not only is the Elks' Hall the centre for McBride, but in this community, the Elks appear to be the planning and co-relating committee, offering such assistance as they can to the groups sponsoring organized recreation. Comment Fulford Harbour and Ashcroft are two examples of the smaller communities throughout British Columbia which utilize the aids to recreation and leisure-time services provided by agencies offering provincial-wide services. It is to such communities that the services of the National Film Board and Travelling Library are particularly helpful. Any proposals regarding community centre development in these smaller localities musttake into account the real need for this kind of support. PART III THE THINGS NEEDING TO BE DONE Chapter 8. Evaluation of the British Columbia Scene Chapter 9. The Available Basis of Support 61. CHAPTER 8 EVALUATION OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA SCENE A review of community centre developments in British Columbia, shows the comparatively recent growth of the movement, as one of its chief features. Others are the lack of outside stimulus to i t , and the varied combinations of functions which community centres (whether they are recognized as* such or not) at the various points have evolved. It is apparent that the most commonly expressed need is for more recreation. Citizens have organized to raise funds for the erection of community centre buildings, feeling that the buildings wi l l provide a home for a great variety of^activities. In some areas they are apt to assume too much in building the home without first assuring that there wi l l be a family to occupy i t . The fact that such organizations have been created on a voluntary basis indicates that people, realizing their needs, can s t i l l do something to meet them by their own effort without waiting on "the government" of "someone else1,' to initiate action. It is evident that these very efforts foster a sense of unity on a continuing basis . While a l l of this is true, i t can s t i l l be questioned whether there are sufficient assurances that such com-munity centres are providing additional opportunities for more people to participate. A tendency to "rest on the oars" appears, with the full realization of objectives being postponed indefinitely. This is another way of saying that in most cases the functions of community centres are not clearly understood. It has been shown 62. that these functions fa l l into three categories: providing a place in which activities might take placej sponsoring activitiesj and over-all planning and co-ordination of activities. The study i of specific community centre developments in British Columbia has shown that these functions have been accepted in varying degrees, with corresponding degrees of support from the respective communities. Only a total community centre job merits total community support. The Community Centre Process It is now profitable, given this consideration of the functions of a community centre, to examine closely the process of community centre development. In any community, a group wi l l first develop around a specific need, whether i t be particular sport, hobby or other activity. If the community has no baseball for the boys, and the need for baseball is sufficiently great, some group wi l l organize to provide baseball. In so sponsoring baseball, the group may realize that playing facilities are not what they might be, or perhaps that once the baseball season is over there is no indoor place for other activities. Their concern in this regard may be shared by other sponsoring groups. Together they might meet to plan action to meet this further need. To relate their planning to that of the churches, public bodies, service clubs and other community groups they might form a committee. One of the first aims of this committee might be the obtaining of needed recreational accommodation. This accommodation could well become the start of the community's centre. 63 In short, the planning for a community centre should be shared by the organizations and agencies which operate in the community. In this way, assurance can be given that plans wi l l be formulated on knowledge of the total needs and resources. This requires the creation of an organization representative of the whole community. The community centre project being thus related to i t . The erection of new facilities and the use of existing ones should be the result of this kind of planning and co-ordination. Program and activities of the centre should be based on similar study. This development requires skilled leadership, both professional and voluntary, and organizational arrangements which permit the participants in program to share in the planning and formulation of policy. In terms of support, no community centre acknowledging the functions of facilities, program and planning and co-relation, can achieve its objectives without first having the support of a l l community groups - service clubs, fraternal societies, public departments or recreational agencies. At the beginning of a community centre promotion campaign in any locality, there must be a sponsoring group so convinced of the need for a community centre that i t is willing to forego giving complete attention to its own interest in order that i t may encourage this support from a l l other groups. In this original sponsoring group, there must be a few key people who can provide the driving force to see the idea completely through. These people must have a conviction as to the role of a community centre in terms of making their • locality a better place in which to live, and not merely a recreational building. Bricks and mortar may make a fine centre but they wi l l never by themselves make a better community. Finances for community centres are as varied as the functions performed by the centres themselves. In .terms of the public services which the centre facilities afford, there is a valid argument for having these provided and maintained out of tax-supported funds. Program activities which involve a majority of the people as participants could properly be financed from tax-supported funds, too. Other specific activities which appeal to small groups should be supported by those participating. Direction to the over-all planning and co-relating function, should, because of i ts signal importance in the whole community centre development, be assisted sufficiently from tax-supported funds to assure permanent continuance. Sorting-Out of Objectives (l) Centres. This study has revealed that the majority of the community centre associations have been concerned only with the erection of buildings, and the facilities which these afford. Communities particularly affected in this regard are Collingwood, Kitsilano, Kerrisdale, Kamloops, Chilliwack, Invermere and Mi l l Bay. The danger in this procedure has already been pointed out: once the building is erected the association may feel that its task is done and lose its vitality. This possibility caused Invermere to place the use of the centre in the hands of an organization which was set up to further program activities. 65. Other places like West and North Vancouver, Vancouver's West End, and Port Alberni and Alberni are using existing facilities until new ones can be provided. These communities have realized that... a building is not necessary as a start in community centre development. It is essential that those communities which are considering centres should study carefully the need for such facilities, and to plan any buildings to supplement and not duplicate existing resources, including those offered by the schools in. the area. It is also important that these centres be located so that they wi l l be of the greatest service in their area. Operating finances for centres also need special thought: they cannot be made self-supporting except in very rare cases. There i s no evidence in this study that any centre, properly equipped, in British Columbia can charge fees which are sufficient to meet expenses and yet low enough to enable the people in the community to take advantage of the facilities offered. It is at this point that joint use of 25 centre facilities toy schools, for example, i s practical • The plan of management for the centre should provide for democratic control and operation, with those sponsoring groups which use the centre sharing in this plan. (2) Sponsoring Groups. It is apparent that there are a great number of small groups and organizations which are active in the various communities of the province. As mentioned in regards 26 Vancouver these groups "can and do lend their support to 25. See page 23 for a proposal regarding this method. 26. See page 25 for further comments regarding the importance of these groups. 66. community centre projects in their particular area". A large and varied program in any community wi l l be possible only i f sufficient individual groups develop on their own to meet the needs which . exist, or a "combination-type" sponsoring group develops to meet several needs. The present experience in British Columbia appears to follow the first method, that of individual groups meeting specific needs. This is shown in the way which community centres throughout the province have concerned themselves with the provision of facilities, and have left the sponsorship and support of activities to individual groups. Vancouver's West End and Grrandview, North and West Vancouver and Youbou provide examples of the "combination-type" of sponsoring group which has been developed by their community centre organization, to meet certain of the needs of their areas. This "combination-type" takes the place of several individual sponsoring groups, shifting the support from several groups to one sponsoring groups. The relationship of paid leadership to this group, is important and in the places mentioned above, the programs developed reflect this relationship, in the content and scope of their activities. In the other communities, without this leadership, the tendency has been to concentrate on the more obvious forms of recreation like sports. The community centre project; in Saanich, "designed as a family 27 affair", points up the opportunity for the community centres 27. See page 38 for other particulars regarding this community centre. 67. to encourage their sponsoring groups to develop their programs to cater to the needs of the whole family - physically, socially, culturally. A l l of this is related very much to support, as the type of activity offered by the sponsoring group wi l l determine who participates in i t , who promotes i t , and who finally pays for i t . Those community centres which envisage sponsorship of activities as one of their functions should note this important basis of support. (3) Planning and co-relating committees. Of a l l community centre functions which have been side-stepped in most places, the jobs of over-all planning and co-relating a range of activities in balanced fashion has suffered most. In community after community, the error of only partial effort has been committed. The enthusiasm on the part of one or a few sponsoring groups has carried them away from the path of support of the other groups in the locality. The worthwhile objectives of these enthusiasts get' "watered down" and lost in the drive for a building. This drive uses up community energy and support which is not too easily regained when sponsoring groups attempt the promotion of further community enterprises. To be effective in an over-all way these planning and co-relating committees require the cooperation of a l l 28 groups in the area. "local groups, whether they be urban or rural, must accept the responsibility for developing and running recreation programs in the areas in 28. Physical Fitness Division, "When A l l theJfepple Play", Information  Bulletin. Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, 1949. 68 which they live. While planning must concern itself with program and facilities, i t must also see that . . . even the humblest contributor shares in the planning process. Thus a l l the people, as partners in the planning are able to pool their resources and contribute to the project more effectively. Possibilities in the Future A review of community centre developments in British Columbia indicates that much has been accomplished even though i t has been by t r ia l and error. In many areas, developments had their beginnings in the World War II period, and many of them have been supported as memorials to the youth who fe l l in was. These community centres as symbols of a democratic society, have a particular charge placed upon them. There is great need to devise ways and techniques of support which wi l l assure full growth to a l l community centres, enabling them to fulfil.their functions. Provision of leadership in this regard at the provincial government level is imperative. The spirit is willing but the guidance which is necessary is absent. Even the co-ordinating group for existing community centres, the B. C. Community Centres Association, lacks direction and resources. With leadership i t could serve as the medium to stimulate the voluntary promotion for which the citizens in areas throughout the province are prepared, in order to achieve community centres for their localities. The key to a l l support for community centres r.ests in leadership, and in co-operation. Leadership begins with the person who discovers an unmet need, and co-operation starts when others 69. join in meeting that need. The particular significance of leadership in the development of community centres has been 29 discussed in another thesis. The place of professionally-trained leadership, as set forth in that thesis, can be seen in relation to the development of program through certain activity-sponsoring groups, and in relation to the development of effective planning' and co-relating committees, with such leadership serving in the role of technical advisor. It is said that "the Community Centre movement is not only 30 here, i t is here to stay". Only leadership and co-operation can develop the basis of support to assure this. 29. McKenzie, K. E. Community Centres and Their Leadership (thesis) 1947 30. McDougall, W. R.,"The Age of Leisure", Enterprise. December 1946., Vol. 4 No. 4., B. C. Federation of Trade and Industry, Vancouver. 70. CHAPTER 9 THE AVAILABLE BASIS OF SUPPORT Many British Columbia communities have hesitated over initiating community centre schemes because they seemed so big a task, or too expensive, or perhaps because only a building was visualized - new, spacious and well equipped - as the necessary beginning. These centres need encouragement: but they also need wise counsel. A community centre depends more on people, On convictions and on co-operation, than i t does on a budget. "Needless to say, when interest grows, and the community's facilities are no longer adequate, a budget is necessary. But once interest is aroused in a plan, the community wi l l be prepared to finance i t just as i t does other 31 . public services." While the experiences of some communities have been summarized in this study there is insufficient to provide a blue-print on community centre planning. It is possible, however, to give some directions, echo a warning here and there, and in general, demonstrate that a community centre plan follows the interests of those who participate in i t . There is considerable agreement on the principles and purposes, but the actual implementation wi l l always vary between communities. 31. Information Service, "When A l l the People Play", Let's  Discuss It (A Film Discussion Guide), National Film Board, Ottawa, 1948. 71. Proposals for Government Action Proposals"for government action to assist community 32 centres and leisure-time programs in Canada" have emphasized that recreation lies within the jurisdiction of the provinces. It is their primary responsibility to plan province-wide schemes, to give financial assistance to local governments, and to provide other measures of leadership and coordination. The actual administration can best be undertaken by local governments, which should work out special measures to ensure broad citizen participation in policy formation and management. But in this field, as in many other branches of public affairs, there is also a great need for a contribution from the Dominion government. This could well take the form of a non-financial over-all stimulus to the recreation movement and be a service of national co-ordination , rather than a source of financial grants. Federal technical and financial assistance towards the erection of buildings and the development of programs could be rendered also without infringing upon the autonomy of the provinces or the municipalities. In recommendations to the provinces i t is urged that legislation should be passed, where necessary, to provide for comprehensive recreation programs throughout the provinces, involving a qualified technical' and field staff which would be responsible for assisting local communities. Adequate funds should be made available to local authorities as annual 32. Canadian Association for Adult Education, loc.cit. 72. grants-in-aid toward operating budgets, while financial assistance should also be given toward the construction of centres. Responsibility for adminstering community recreation programs under this plan is left to the municipalities. This involves setting up a department of recreation or else allocating recreation responsibilities to some other existing department. It is recommended that a citizens' advisory committee be set up to iirork with this department. Other proposals stress that the planning of a community centre development should be done on the basis of needs of the particular community. To achieve this, local citizens should have every opportunity to participate in planning local programs, while those participating in the program should be represented in the governing body of any centres. A government statement of .policy prepared by the 33 National Council of Physical Fitness has as one of its basic assumptions, that the responsibility for initiating, organizing, and operating a recreation program should rest with the local community. The role of both Provincial and Federal Governments should be to strengthen and assist local programs, not to impose a program from the top down. (In this connection i t might be worth noting that the original Federal-Provincial agreements accepted this sound principle and give support with a minimum of restrictive controls), 33. National Council on Physical Fitness, "The Functions of the Local Community,. Provincial Government and the Federal Government in the Fitness and Recreation Program", Information Bulletin. Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, May 1948. 73. Specific suggestions are given in this statement respecting the responsibilities of each level of government, and, there is a close similarity in these suggestions to the proposals already outlined. In the view of the Council local communities should provide a total recreation program("to a l l the people a l l the time") financing i t on "a solid continuing base of taxation... rather than relying upon donations, money raising projects, etc., which might provide no continuous support". The provincial program is regarded as being developed in relation to local community programs "and should aim at strengthening these"; and should work with and through other province-wide agencies rather than in competition with them. The provinces would be given responsibility to provide financial aid to local programs approved by the provinces, on a formula to be worked out by the province concerned. The main responsibility of the federal government, by this distribution of responsibilities, would be to provide financial support to provinces conducting a program which would ©eet approved standards, and the Dominion might well play a role in methods of promoting cooperation between the provinces with respect to both program and methods of operation. In terms of support for community centres this can mean a great deal. In effect, the local community wi l l provide the centre, supporting i t out of tax funds, and from grants made available through the provincial-federal agreement. Sponsoring groups would 74. be encouraged, and a new stimulus given to Local planning committees. 34 The federal government has also been advised of its responsibilities in providing community facilities in rehousing projects and in rural districts. These facilities are regarded as "almost indispensable" in any rehousing project, providing "an opportunity to raise the level of such facilities•in the community". Costs for these facilities may be included" in the capital financing of the total project, or through an amortization charge liquidated over a period and added to rentals". The provision of community facilities in rural areas "in-one sense is a counterpart to the provision of community facilities in the case of slum clearance and rehousing projects in the cities, but for the agricultural district i t has a special appeal. The kind of community centre building which is required in a forward-looking view of the rural society is a multiple-purpose unit, which could be utilized for public meetings, certain kinds, of recreational facilities, libraries and films (possibly on a travelling basis), exhibitions of many varieties (e.g. paintings, agricultural developments, town planning, rural housing design, etc.) The possibilities of enhancement of community participation and attractiveness of rural l ife generally, i f such a local facility is available, are so great that a national chain of such buildings should be given a priority...." Special provision to make this possible, "including long-term 34 . Advisory Committee on Reconstruction, IV, Housing and  Community Planning. Dominion Government, Ottawa, March 24 , 1944. 75. amortization and low-cost financing", would have to be created under the Municipal Improvements Assistance Act or the revised National Housing Act, and the provisions should apply to co-operative as well as local government sponsorship. 35 Further study has been given this matter of support for centres and sponsoring groups. This study provides that tax-supported services should assure the physical facilities and custodial care for a centre, and the leadership and equipment for broadly organized activities opentto large groups of people through a variety of sponsoring groups. The services which should be supported by private funds include those sponsoring groups requiring leadership and program for small self-determining groups in which the activity in which they engage is incidental to the needs of the participants for group association, and for groups requiring an emphasis on work with individuals. It is clearly, then, the responsibility of the local govern-ing authority to provide a centre, and in the broad activities like sports, music, crafts, adult education and social events, support for the necessary sponsoring groups. Sponsoring groups for special interest and friendship groups wi l l continue to require private support, while the planning and co-relating committee for any community wi l l require joint tax-private support. The onus of responsibility being so squarely placed on the local 35. Community Chest and Council, Memorandum of the Fields of Public  and Private Responsibility in the Recreational and G-roup  Activities. Vancouver, 1948-49. 76 . governing body, the lack of performance of related responsibilities by the provincial and federal governments can be explained. It is a case of "your move first". The city of Nelson set a precedent when i t arranged a money by-law, for an amount to be retired over a 20-year period through taxation, to enable the construction of an adequate centre. It then had a special provincial statute passed authorizing the centre to be operated by a commission appointed by the city council. This commission has arranged the operation of the centre in such a way that revenue-producing features pay ad-ministration and maintenance costs. West Vancouver took a step forward when the municipality took over ownership of the present • centre and has since arranged an annual subsidy to partially meet administration and maintenance costs. 36 An examination of existing legislation shows that other municipalities could do much more than they are doing in support of the community centre movement without waiting for the implementation of recommendations as outlined. Municipal councils may, by resolution, grant aid for the following community centre items: libraries within or without the municipal limits; institutes of various sorts; charitable institutions; promotion material .which wi l l benefit the community; exhibitions or competitions of sk i l l with firearms; prizes for the encouragement of horticulture or agriculture; and support of any body or association organized 36. Province of British Columbia, "Chapter 199", Revised Statutes  1936. Victoria 77. for the advancement of the general interests of municipal affairs. Notably, however, councils can provide for the con struction of a municipal hall, which could involve community centre facilities; or other buildings for municipal purposes which could also include centres. Money can further be granted for the purpose of main-taining within or without the municipality any memorial dedicated to those who lost their lives or served the country in the World Wars. Those municipalities with a memorial community centre as an objective can therefore seek help under this stipulation. The statement "without the municipality" might help to solve the problem of smaller communities which are able to support a satisfactory centre of their own, but desire to join with neighbouring localities. If a l l else failed, municipal councils can be asked to grant charitable organizations, under which category community centres should not have difficulty to qualify, the privilege of using the streets of the municipality on certain specified dates for the purpose of soliciting aid. The municipality can similarly prohibit any person from so doing. Getting the privilege, therefore, is at least one concession from the municipality. By-laws are required, but s t i l l possible, for municipalities to acquire lands for the purposes of public parks, public recreation buildings, and public recreation grounds. The assent of the electors is necessary for these purposes. Property acquired through tax-sale proceedings can be set aside for park purposes, recreation-grounds, or similar 78 purposes by a municipal council by-law finally passed by a majority of the council and without obtaining the electors' assent. Municipalities can enter "into agreements with neighbouring municipalities for the joint regulation, maintenance, management, improvement, and control for any public park, beach, pleasure-ground or recreation ground and for granting or expending money for the upkeep and management" of such even i f i t be located outside the municipal borders. This is another opportunity for smaller communities to get together on the possibility of joint centre facilities. In this same connection authority is given the municipalities to construct and manage buildings for recreation purposes. If the municipality does not choose to enter into community centre management or for other reasons this does not seem advisable, the organization so owning the centre can apply for exemption from taxation, providing such property is exclusively used for recreation purposes. Further assistance to community centres can come through the local school board in the matter of night school programs. North Vancouver has been notable in utilizing this source of help. There is provision made for the payment of costs of instruction for such courses. While the chances of federal aid appear to await the out-come of further Dominion-Provincial conferences, some tiling could be done to effect better arrangements as between the province 79. and the municipalities.. The special committee appointed by the Provincial Minister of Education, which investigated the Vancouver community centres considered suggestions about joint sponsorship of community centres by the parks and school boards in a municipality, rather than creating a new department. The provincial government is in a position to aid such sponsorship by directing the head of the Recreation and Physical Education Branch to exercise the same supervisory powers over centres as he does nver schools. "Pro-RecW supervisors and instructors could therefore supply some additional leadership in the physical recreation field. Looking to an expansion of services through the centres, the Provincial Department of Health could supply personnel for child welfare clinics and other health matters which might be conducted in connection with centres. Financing the construction of new centres was to be accomplished on a basis of 25 per cent from the municipality, 25 per cent from the community involved, and 50 per cent from the provincial government. A similar financing scheme was advocated for operating costs. Requirements for Community Organization The organization of community centres must be pursued beyond the subject of finances only, however. Good community 37 organization requires widespread understanding and appreciation of the objectives for which the centre is being established. 37. Canadian Welfare Council, Organizing For Recreation. . (mimeographed), Ottawa, 1948. 80* It is apparent too often that a partial point of view is taken. Perhaps this is due to the specialized form that recreation usually takes in any community, for example, Physical fitness, adult education, music or drama. Then, too, technical services of established agencies which could help the centres are not always recognized. The incomplete organization of technical and planning services at the provincial and federal levels often limits their availability. It must be recognized that recreational opportunities are as important as health, education and welfare services.• Any planning in the leisure-time field should offer enough variety of opportunities to attract the interest of citizens. The initiating group, while recognizing that certain basic facilities are needed in every community should make an inventory and an appraisal of existing facilities and services. In planning, representatives of a l l existing recreational programs and services, both tax-supported and voluntary, should be included. These people should restrict their efforts to planning and not operating, as obligations in program and services handicap the making of unbiased considerations. Genuine cooperation should be the keynote, with no by-passing of groups or the imposing of plans. More than money, facilities and organization are 38 ' necessary to provide a community centre. It takes imagination which can develop a plan that is flexible rather than formal, 38. Physical Fitness Division, loc.cit. 81. that is actively democratic rather than passively docile. The "Let George Do It" attitude wil l not result in success. It is only when the people generally want a community centre badly enough to co-operate in contributing time, effort, and free services, that real progress can be made. It is against this background that the need for government assistance is necessary to assure that full support for' community centres is available. APPENDICES Map of Social Areas in Vancouver Questionnaire Bibliography APPENDIX A Map of Social Areas in Vancouver APPENDIX B Questionnaire Col laborat ing wi th Mrs. K. E . McKenzie, the author prepared, c i r c u l a t e d and compiled the resu l t s o f the questionnaire here presented. The questionnaire was designed to obtain as much information as poss ible about the h i s t o r y , organizat ion and development of community centre associat ions , the communities i n which they seek to serve, the recreat ion programs operating, and ce r ta in aspects o f support. The objectives and contents o f the questionnaire were discussed wi th members o f the B . C. Community Centres Associa t ion at t h e i r meeting i n A p r i l , 1947. The names of persons rece iv ing the questionnaire were selected from mai l ing l i s t s of the B . C. Community Centres Assoc ia t ion , the Un ive r s i ty Extension Department and the P r o v i n c i a l Recreation and P h y s i c a l Education Branch. These persons were chosen because of t h e i r in te res t i n the development of community centres and t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n wi th a spec i f i c assoc ia t ion . Replies were received from l e s s than t h i r t y per cent of those rece iv ing the questionnaire. Add i t i ona l e f for t s were made to get information but the response was n e g l i g i b l e . May.10,1947 TO: FROM: B. C. Community Centres Association RE: Information about your community As one interested in the development of Community Centres in British Columbia you w i l l be well aware of the real need for factual information having to do with such Centres in this province. At the 1947 annual meeting of the British Columbia Community Centres Assoc-iation, further recognition was given this need. A Committee on Leadership was set up to help provide this information, and Miss Kay Farquhar was named chairman of this committee. You w i l l know that the standing committee on Administration and Organization was re-appointed, with Bob Torrance as chairman. These two committees have combined for the purpose of making a survey which would provide information helpful i n comparing and evaluating the various Centre developments in British Columbia. The writing up of the questionnaire material w i l l be undertaken by Miss Farquhar and Mr. Torrance, who are doing theses on the subject of Community Centres, in the Department of Social Work at the University of British Columbia. A copy of the questionnaire to be used in this survey i s enclosed. I am asking you to give this questionnaire your iTmtiftd-iate attention. You w i l l note that i t i s set-up to be a guide only, so that you may provide such additional material as you can. You do not need to reply to any item which i s not relevant in your community, but please give us any necessary explanation as far as you can. Also enclosed i s a stamped self-addressed envelope which I would like to see returned with your completed questionn-aire no later than June 1. Look for the combined results in a release from our British Columbia Community Centres Association this summer. With a l l good wishes, Yours truly, W. R. McDOUGALL President B. C. Community Centres Association SURVEY OF COMMUNITY' CENTRES AND RECREATIONAL FACILITIES Name of Community _____________________________ ' Major Industry Population Elementary School Population High School Population 1. Is there a Community Centres Association or similar organization in your community? _________________ 2. Does i t own or manage a building? If owns, what value now? Date when established If not, does i t propose to establish one? For how much? When to build? 3. List buildings used or available in your community for recreational purposes. (Give details on next sheet.) Community Hall Others 4* List other recreational organizations i f any. Organization Principal Activities (1) (2) (3) (4) etc. 5. Principal Commercial Recreation (indicate number) Theatre Bowling Alley Skating Rink (roller) Pool Hall ( ice) Others BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES AVAILABLE FOR RECREATIONAL PURPOSES Name of Building _______ Value now? Date when established Managed by List facil i t i e s as follows: Assembly Hall • TyPe o f seating accommodation (estim-Capacity of Hall .ated) Stage For what games or sports i s equip-ment available _________________ Specify other rooms Refreshment f a c i l i t i e s Kitchen Cokebar Other Other facilities used: Office equipment, e.g. typewriter. Duplicator_ Handicrafts Other I f more than one building i s available, use separate sheets to describe. LOCAL PARKS OR PLAYGROUNDS Name of park or playground, Managed by L i s t f a c i l i t i e s as fo l lows : Sports which can be played, i . e . tennis , basebal l Chi ld ren ' s Play Equipment Value now? Date when established. . . . . Type of Supervision . Groundsmen Employed recrea t ional Workers Volunteers _________ Playground s u p e r v i s i o n . . . . Other Equipment Other personnel N . B . I f more than one park or playground i s ava i l ab l e , use separate sheets to describe. C O M M U N I T Y P R O G R A M Describe the recrea t ional programs i n your area under the fo l lowing headings. (Note: Sponsors would include -Community Centre Assoc ia t ion ; Pr iva te Agencies such as Boy Scouts, G i r l Guides, e t c . ; P r o v i n c i a l Recreation Servicesj Schools; Service Clubs; Sports Clubs; C u l t u r a l Soc ie t i e s , e tc . ) Program Sponsor Where i s No. o f Age No. of Paid No. of V o l - No. of Total i t held? P a r t i c i - Range Leaders or unteer Leaders Classes Expense pants Instructors or Instructors or Meet- (Cost) ings per week Other A c t i v i t i e s : - Does your community use the services o f : Nat ional F i l m Board How often i s there a f i l m showing Where i s i t held Extension Department, Univers i ty o f B.C. e .g . I s there a radio l i s t e n i n g group Discussion group Dramatic group etc., T rave l l i ng L ib ra ry COMMUNITY CENTRES ASSOCIATION or similar organization Number of members in the Association Kinds Is i t incorporated under the "Societies Act" Date. Date the Association was formed Does i t have a constitution What are i t s stated objectives _____________________________ What officers does i t have How are they elected ; To what other organizations do they belong How i s the Association financed or from where does i t get i t s funds?. What funds are "earmarked" for special purposes? Is the membership of the Centre self-governing What are the fees, and for what purposes If so, l i s t the responsible groups or their responsibilities or duties Responsible Group Responsibilities or Duties i.e. Membership Council Teen Council If possible, and convenient, attach copy of 1944, 1945* 1946 financial statements. Does the Community Centre Association work with other agencies sponsoring recreation programs in the community What clubs or organizations are active in your community: Organization Purpose  e.g. Women's Institute Board of Trade others What Social Welfare Agencies operate in your community Is there a community planning or coordinating group or council in your area If so, l i s t organization represented on i t What are its objectives List problems or projects with which i t has been or is concerned C O M M U N I T Y C E N T R E S T A F F or Staff of Similar Organization Describe staff employed under the following headings!-Position Responsibilities Experience Training Skills Salary Sex Responsible Paid by to whom whom Are volunteer workers used? List jobs in which they are used If so, specify the number APPENDIX C Bibliography (a) General References Adeney, M. etc., Community Centres in Canada. The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1945. Butler, G. R., Introduction to Community Recreation. McGraw Hi l l Book Co., New York and London, 1940. Colcord, J. C-Your Community. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, N.Y., 1939. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Canada Year Book. Ottawa, 1945 Lasserre, Fred and Lunan, Gordon, Community Centres. Canadian Affairs, Vol.11, No. 17, Canadian Information Service, Ottawa. McMillan, Ardee Wayne, Community Organization for Social Welfare. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1944. Meyer, H. D., and Brightbill, C.K., Community Recreation. D.C. Heath & Co., Boston, 1948. National Council Y.M.C.A., The Years Ahead. 21 Dundas Square, Toronto, 1945. National Recreation Association. The Conduct of Community  Centres. 316 Fourth Avenue, New York, N.Y., 1935 National Recreation Association, Schedule for the Appraisal  of Community Recreation. (b) Specific References Adult Education Division, Department of Education, Saskatchewan, "The Community Centre Idea", Community Centre Planning. November 1946, Bulletin. .Mo.l, Regina. Advisory Committee on Reconstruction, IV, Housing and Community Planning. Dominion Government, Ottawa, March 24, 1944. Bartholomew, H. and Associates, A Preliminary Report Upon  Parks and Recreation and Schools. Vancouver Town Planning Commission, Vancouver, 1946. Boy Scouts Association, Annual Report (mimeographed), British Columbia Provincial Council, 1946. (b) Specific References. Continued -Canadian Association for Adult Education,. "Proposals for Government  Action to Assist Community Centres and Leisure- time Program in Canada; , May, 1946 Canadian Youth Commission, Youth and Recreation . The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1946. Canadian Welfare Council. Organizing For Recreation, (mimeographed), Ottawa, 1948. Collingwood & District Memorial Centre Association, 347 Collingwood Families Discuss Recreation, (mimeographed), February, 1949. Community Chest and Council, Memorandum of the Fields of Public  and Private Responsibility in the Recreational and  Group Activities. Vancouver, 1946-49 Community Chest and Council, Survey of Recreational Facilities  in Mt. Pleasant-Fairview. (mimeographed). Vancouver. 1948. Department of University Extension, Annual Report, (mimeographed) University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1945-46. Department of University Extension, Report of Community Centres Conference. June, 1946, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1946. Director, Department of Recreation and Physical Education, Annual Report, (mimeographed), Department of Education, Victoria, B. C. Information Service, "When A l l the People Play", Let's Discuss i t (A Film Discussion Guide), National Film • Board, Ottawa, 1948. Jackson, Henry E. Cnn-ninj,ty Centre. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1918. Kidd, John R., Community Centres. Canadian Council of Education for Citizenship, 166 Marlborough Ave., Ottawa, 1945. Ministry of Education, Community Centres. H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1945. McDougall, W. R., "The Age of Leisure", Enterprise. December, 1946, Vol. 4., B . C. Federation of Trade and Industry, Vancouver, McKenzie, K. E. Community Centres and Their Leadership (thesis) 1947. (b) Specific References. Continued -National Film Board, Statistical Bulletin. Statistics and Record Divisions, Ottawa, April, 1947. Norrie, L. E. etc.. Survey Report of Group Work and Recreation in Greater Vancouver. Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver, Vancouver, 1945* Norrie, L. E., The Arts and Our Town. Junior League of Vancouver, Vancouver, 1946. Physical Fitness Division, "When Al l the People Play", Information  Bulletin. Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, 1949. Post War Reconstruction Committee of the Government of Manitoba, Community Centres. Winnipeg, 1946 Province of British Columbia, "Chapter 199", Revised Statutes  1936. Victoria Recreation Committee, Report. S.W.511 Community Organization, University of British Columbia, 1948. Ross, Murray G.. Community Councilsf Canadian Council of Education for Citizenship, 166 Marlborough Ave., Ottawa, 1945 Ross, Murray G. "The Community Center Movement", Toronto Conference  of Social Work Proceedings of 1945. Toronto. Steiner, Jesse, "Community Centres", Encyclopaedia of Social  Sciences. Volume 4, 1931, Edited by E.R.A. Seligman, The MacMillan Co., New York. NOTE: Statistical information was obtained from the Girl Guide Association (B.C.), and the Christian Education Office, United Church of Canada (B.C. Office); the constitution of the B.C. Community Centres Association was also used. 


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