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The Social Service Division of the Department of Veterans' Affairs : its origin, setting, and functions… Clayden, Florence Virginia 1950

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THE SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS* AFFAIRS I t s o r i g i n , s e t t i n g , and f u n c t i o n s : a study based on the D i v i s i o n i n the B r i t i s h . Columbia D i s t r i c t  by FLORENCE VIRGINIA CLAYDEN  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the Department o f S o o i a l Work  1950  _The  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  g . V. Clayden: THE SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION OF DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS  THE  ABSTRACT T h i s study Is p r i m a r i l y a d e s c r i p t i v e account o f the development and the work of the S o e i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n I n i t s background s e t t i n g o f the Department o f V e t e r a n s Affairs. I t covers the h i s t o r i c a l development o f the v a r i o u s Canadian departments of government concerned w i t h the ex-serviceman's w e l f a r e from the beginning of World War I i n 1914 t o the p r e sent t i m e . 1  I n f o r m a t i o n was drawn from annual r e p o r t s and p u b l i c a t i o n s , mimeographed m a t e r i a l of the Department o f V e t e r a n s ' A f f a i r s , ' I n c l u d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s of the B r i t i s h Columbia D i v i s i o n , supplemented by Interviews w i t h s t a f f members of the B r i t i s h Columbia D i s t r i c t O f f i c e . The v e t e r a n s ' department was born o f a m i l i t a r y program and o f the r e s u l t i n g p h y s i c a l need o f wounded d i s c h a r g e d s o l d i e r s f o r m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t . From t h i s b e g i n n i n g developed the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the v a l u e o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program f o r those p h y s i c a l l y handicapped because o f war s e r v i o e . T h i s need f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was extended g r a d u a l l y u n t i l i t covered a l l v e t e r a n s o f W o r l d War I I and p r e c e d i n g wars. The coverage has moved s t e a d i l y from the m e d i c a l t o the t o t a l w e l f a r e needs of the v e t e r a n . The Department has emerged as one o f Canada's l a r g e s t w e l f a r e agenoies, v e t e r a n s b e i n g s e g r e g a t e d from t h e i r f e l l o w c i v i l i a n s by l e g i s l a t i o n g r a n t i n g s p e c i a l b e n e f i t s because o f s p e c i a l r i s k s . The r o l e of the p r o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l work I n t h i s s e t t i n g has been e x p l o r a t o r y . I n the e a r l y 1920's, the s o o i a l worker i s d e s c r i b e d as being a nurse w i t h s p e o i a l t r a i n i n g ; the p r o f e s s i o n o f s o o i a l work was not r e c o g n i z e d . Today, only s o o i a l workers t r a i n e d i n an a c c r e d i t e d S c h o o l o f S o o i a l Work are accepted as employees o f the D i v i s i o n . As f a r as d i r e c t case work i s concerned, the D i v i s i o n operates l a r g e l y as a r e f e r r i n g agency although d i r e c t s e r v i c e i s g i v e n i n some I n s t a n c e s . The D i v i s i o n i s now experimenting w i t h an i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program i n s o c i a l work concepts f o r V e t e r a n s ' Welfare O f f i c e r s and o t h e r Departmental p e r s o n n e l . T h i s would make the s o o i a l worker a v a i l a b l e t o ' t h e s e persons on a c o n s u l t a t i v e b a s i s . In the present s e t t i n g , the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker has t o prove the v a l u e o f her work by performance.  ACKNOWLED GMENT  I wish t o express a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . Leonard  Marsh  f o r h i s k i n d l y encouragement, h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s and, e s p e c i a l l y , f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e w i t h r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l and the c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s  study.  S p e o l a l thanks are a l s o expressed t o Miss Margaret S t a n f o r d , Mrs. Mary N i c h o l s o n , Mr. B l a i r C l e r k , and o t h e r members o f t h e Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s i n Vancouver  f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n , i n g i v i n g o f t h e i r time and  a t t e n t i o n f o r i n t e r v i e w s , i n r e a d i n g t h e study, and i n a i d i n g with the c o l l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l . A p p r e c i a t i o n and acknowledgment are due t o Reverend P e t e r Henderson f o r r e - r e a d i n g t h i s t h e s i s , and f o r r e v i e w i n g i t s g e n e r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and composition. G r a t i t u d e i s a l s o expressed t o M i s s M a j o r i e Smith and o t h e r members o f t h e S o c i a l Work E a o u l t y who have a i d e d i n the w r i t i n g o f t h i s  thesis.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter 1.  Page The R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e V e t e r a n  1  The establishment of the Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s , 1944, and o f t h e Sooi a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , 1946. Who are**vete r a n s ? R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and i t s meaning. A change i n emphasis. The v e t e r a n and the community n  8,»  The Development o f Veterans* 1919-1946  Legislation: .  .  16  F i r s t steps: e a r l y methods and r e g u l a t i o n s d u r i n g World War I . A nurse as a s o o i a l worker. P r o g r e s s made i n the i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s , 1922-1939. The Second World War and new s o o i a l l e g i s l a t i o n enacted on t h e v e t e r ans * b e h a l f . 3.  The S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n i n t h e Departmental O r g a n i z a t i o n  35  The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Department. The changing and developing p l a c e of the S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d u t i e s among t h e s o o i a l work s t a f f at Head O f f i c e , Ottawa, and i n t h e Distriots. 4.  The p o l i o y o f t h e S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i s t r i c t Divisions .  .  .  48  .  .  62  The nature and scope o f t h e D i v i s i o n . L i a i s o n w i t h the community. Work w i t h the veteran. S t a f f t r a i n i n g and t e a c h i n g . Research. 5.  The Vancouver S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n .  .  L i a i s o n w i t h t h e community. Work w i t h t h e v e t e r a n , i n c l u d i n g an a n a l y s i s o f r e c o r d e d s t a t i s t i c s , and a few i l l u s t r a t i v e c a s e s . S t a f f t r a i n i n g and t e a c h i n g .  TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)  Chapter ©.  Page S o o i a l Work i n the Department o f Veterans* Affairs . A complex i n s t i t u t i o n . The D i v i s i o n * s place i n the Department. O f f i c e Arrangements. A new p r o f e s s i o n . The s h a r i n g o f c a s e s . An a u t h o r i t a t i v e a i r . The r o l e o f the community. S o o i a l work as an experiment.  .87  TABLES AND CHARTS I N THE TEST (a) T a b l e s T a b l e 1.  T a b l e 2.  T a b l e 3.  f a b l e 4.  T a b l e 5.  T a b l e 6.  T a b l e 7.  T a b l e 8.  T a b l e 9.  Table 10.  Page  E x p e n d i t u r e s on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the Department o f S o l d i e r s * C i v i l Reestablishment . . .  21  S e r v i o e s Rendered t o v e t e r a n s by t h e Department o f S o l d i e r s * C i v i l Reestablishment . .  21  S o o i a l S e r v i c e I n v e s t i g a t i o n s by T h i r t y Four S o c i a l S e r v i o e Nurses f o r the Year 1920 . . . . . . . . . . .  25  Cases Handled'by the Vanoouver S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s , June 1947 - December 1949 .  71  Source o f the Cases Received by the Vanoouver S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Department o f Veterans»'Affairs, J u l y 1947 June 1949  73  Family S t a t u s o f the Cases Handled by the Vancouver S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s , J u l y 1947June 1949  75  War S e r v i c e o f V e t e r a n s R e c e i v i n g A s s i s t ance from the Vancouver S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , J u l y 1947 - June 1949 . . . . .  76  M i l i t a r y Branch o f S e r v i c e o f V e t e r a n s Rec e i v i n g A s s i s t a n c e from the Vancouver Sooi a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Department o f V e t e r ans* A f f a i r s , J u l y 1947 - June 1949 .  76  S e r v i o e s Rendered t o V e t e r a n s by the Vanoouver S o c i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n , Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , J u l y 1947 - June 1949  77  Nature o f f r o b l e m s o f the V e t e r a n s A s s i s t - ' ed by the Vanoouver S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s , J u l y 1947 June 1949  79  TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (continued) ( a ) Tables T a b l e 11.  Page  Indexed o f t h e Work Done by t h e S o o i a l Workers, Yancouver S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Department o f V e t e r a n s Affairs, J u l y 1947 - June 1949 1  81  (b) Charts Fig. 1  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Chart o f the Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s > S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n  37  APPENDICES  Appendix I  S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n Monthly S t a t i s t i c a l Report Form used by the Yancouver S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n from June 1947 t o August 1949, i n c l u s i v e ,  Appendix I I  S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n Monthly S t a t i s t i c a l Report Form used by the Yancouver S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n from September 1949 t o the present t i m e .  Appendix I I I  L i s t o f some o f the persons and agencies o u t s i d e o f the Department o t h e r t h a n a c c r e d i t e d s o c i a l agencies t o which r e f e r e n c e s have been made by the Yancouver S o o i a l S e r vice Division.  THE SOCIAL SERVICE D I V I S I O N OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS* A F F A I R S  - 1 Chapter  1  THE REHABILITAT IOM OF THE VETERAK  The Department o f "Veterans» A f f a i r s was Canada i n 1944.  I t was  not an e n t i r e l y new  former government departments  estahlished i n u n d e r t a k i n g ; two  had been concerned w i t h the ex-  serviceman* s c a r e , treatment, and r e i n s t a t e m e n t i n c i v i l i a n life.  The  development began f o l l o w i n g the F i r s t World  1914-1918; I n 1918,  a s p e c i a l government department  to deal  w i t h the s i t u a t i o n , the Department o f S o l d i e r s * C i v i l l i s h m e n t , was  ereated.  War,  The work of t h i s department  Re-estab-  was  i a l l y heavy d u r i n g the y e a r s immediately f o l l o w i n g t h e  especwar.  I n the l a t e t w e n t i e s , the volume o f the work waned c o n s i d e r a b l y and, i n 1988, partment  the v e t e r a n s * department  became a part, o f the  De-  o f Pensions and n a t i o n a l H e a l t h (superseded l a t e r by  the Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s ) .  With the involvement o f  the Canadian people i n the Second World War,  the men  and women  d i s c h a r g e d from the armed s e r v i c e s a g a i n emerged as a group occupying a prominent . . . . . .  b e i n g was  place i n national a f f a i r s . t  Their well-  ......  g i v e n p r i o r i t y , and the need f o r the  "rehabilitation  o f the v e t e r a n s * became an enduring consequence o f f i v e y e a r s of  war. The S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n o f the Department o f V e t e r a n s *  A f f a i r s was  not e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l 1946,  and was  not without  precedent, s i n c e a S o c i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n had e x i s t e d i n the o l d Department o f S o l d i e r s * C i v i l Re-establishment. t h e nature o f the work done by these two d i v i s i o n s  Although differs  -  a  -  g r e a t l y , the ooncern o f both i s t o serve some s p e o i a l need o f the former s e r v i o e p e r s o n n e l ; t h a t i s t o say, s o o i a l work may be r e g a r d e d as a s p e o i a l i z e d r a t h e r t h a n a g e n e r a l i z e d s e r v i o e t o a l l those d i s c h a r g e d persona coming t o the Department f o r whatever r e a s o n . The 1914.  p r e s e n t Dominion v e t e r a n s * program has developed  sinoe  Because o f c e r t a i n r i s k s due t o m i l i t a r y s e r v i o e , the  war v e t e r a n was granted c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s .  These p r i v i l e g e s ,  as g r a n t e d today,have grown out o f a system o f g r a n t s and s e r v i o e s based on l e g i s l a t i o n enacted on b e h a l f o f t h e e x - s e r v i c e men and women.  The v a r i o u s v e t e r a n s * A c t s have been brought t o -  g e t h e r t o form what i s known as the "Veterans* Charter**.  The  s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by t h e Department are c o n t i n u a l l y changing t o meet changing needs and, as new A c t s are passed, subsequent adjustments are made and a f l e x i b i l i t y t r a t i o n i s evident.  i n departmental  The S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n i s but one  s m a l l p a r t o f t h e Department.  I t cannot be c o n s i d e r e d by i t s e l f ,  but o n l y as a p a r t o f t h e whole agenoy. o r d e r t o understand  adminis-  F o r t h i s reason, i n  f u l l y what t h e r o l e o f t h e D i v i s i o n i s and  what i t s r o l e might be, i t i s necessary t o have a knowledge o f the whole a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i s a t i o n and an acquaintance the v a r i o u s aspeots o f v e t e r a n s * l e g i s l a t i o n .  with  Many q u e s t i o n s  a r i s e as t o t h e nature o f t h i s department i t s e l f :  is i t ,  s t r i c t l y speaking, a w e l f a r e agenoy and what i s i t s f u t u r e ; as war v e t e r a n s decrease  i n numbers, w i l l t h e department be con-  v e r t e d t o serve t h e o r d i n a r y c i v i l i a n ? F o l l o w i n g t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h o s t i l i t i e s o f World War I I ,  3 -  the phrase " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , o f the v e t e r a n * was The  discharged  members o f the t h r e e  b r i e f l y i n the l i m e l i g h t and current  might be.  They r e c e i v e d muoh p u b l i c i t y  - more important - aa t o what t h e i r  future  s o c i e t i e s , as w e l l as through t h i s government  partment, the need o f p l a n n i n g established.  Despite  I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , i s not  o f the t e r m i n o l o g y , t o  and the word " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n * , as used easy.  p o p u l a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g seems t o be t h a t a v e t e r a n  ex-member o f the armed s e r v i c e s . A f f a i r s , the  de-  f o r the former m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l  the common use  d e f i n e the word " v e t e r a n *  The  as  Through innumerable magazines, newspapers, p u b l i c  s p e a k e r s , and  was  armed s e r v i c e s emerged  oooupied a prominent p l a c e i n the  a f f a i r s o f the t i m e .  t o t h e i r deeds and  l o o s e l y used.  i s an  I n the Department o f Veterans*  d e f i n i t i o n o f prime oonoern i s the l e g a l one.  i t s s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s and  In  I n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the Department 4  i s f a i r l y f l e x i b l e ; i t was  created i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l period, i n  wartime; i t i s geared t o change; what i s v a l i d today may n e c e s s a r i l y remain so i n the f u t u r e .  I n the A c t a  not  and t h e i r  sub-  4  sequent b e n e f i t s whioh the Department now ity  i n the  d e f i n i t i o n of a veteran  administers,  Is non-existent.  uniform-  A new  Act,  o r an amendment t o an e x i s t i n g A c t , might g i v e a d i f f e r e n t meaning o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the word " v e t e r a n " . however, t h a t suoh a new  doubtful,  Act or an amendment would c o n t a i n a  d e f i n i t i o n w i t h an a l l - i n c l u s i v e The  I t Is  coverage.  c r e a t i o n o f a S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n w i t h i n the  partment d i d not r e q u i r e a s p e c i a l A c t o f p a r l i a m e n t .  The  de-  - 4 -  D i v i s i o n , i s o p e r a t i v e under t h e e x i s t i n g Department o f V e t e r ans* A f f a i r s A c t , and i s an a d d i t i o n a l measure h e l p i n g more e f f e c t i v e l y t o administer that Act.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , any person  who i s e l i g i b l e f o r b e n e f i t s under any v e t e r a n s * A c t may seek the s e r v i c e o f t h e D i v i s i o n *  A t t h e same time, a v e t e r a n who  a p p l i e s f o r b e n e f i t s under a s p e o i f i c v e t e r a n s * A c t and i s i n e l i g i b l e , e i t h e r because o f the l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r 4  Act,  "  . . . . . .  .  _ ^  o r beoause he has used up a v a i l a b l e b e n e f i t s , may r e q u e s t  assistance  o f the s o o i a l workers.  I n o t h e r words, any p e r s o n  who comes t o t h e Department f o r s e r v i o e ,  c a n be sent t o t h e  S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , i f n o t f o r h e l p I n more e f f e e t i v e l y making use o f a n a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e , t h e n t o be r e f e r r e d t o a community source without t h e Department. veterans* benefits  Speaking  broadly,  and s e r v i c e s apply t o t h r e e groups o f persons:  men o r women who c a n o l a i m some m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e ; c l a i m a n t s t o b e n e f i t s who have n o t engaged i n m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e ; and, a dependent o r dependents o f a v e t e r a n e n t i t l e d t o s p e o i a l  privi-  l e g e s because o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e e x - s e r v t c e man o r woman. Who a r e "Veterans**? By d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n , a ^veteran** i s a p e r s o n " l o n g e x p e r i e n c e d o r exercised™, o r *one l o n g e x p e r i e n c e d i n any s e r vice**.  A t one time, a v e t e r a n , i n t h e m i l i t a r y sense, was a  p e r s o n (and f o r m e r l y a man, o n l y ) l o n g e x p e r i e n c e d i n war s e r vice.  I n t h e post-war w o r l d o f today, a v e t e r a n may be e i t h e r  a man o r a woman who has h a d some m i l i t a r y e x p e r i e n c e , which  — 5 *»  may  have been, o f l o n g o r short d u r a t i o n . .  .  I t Is possible that .  .  .  .  .  .  .  t  t  the m i l i t a r y s e r v i o e may have l a s t e d f o r one day o n l y , t h a t i s , the man o r woman may have been "taken on s t r e n g t h " and " s t r u c k ...  4  .  .  .  .  . ^  .  o f f s t r e n g t h " , t o use the m i l i t a r y phrases, on the  same day.  On the o t h e r hand, t h e p e r i o d o f s e r v i o e may have covered a l years.  sever-  However, t o o b t a i n the v a r i o u s b e n e f i t s a v a i l a b l e ,  c e r t a i n time l i m i t s a r e s p e o i f i e d .  F o r example, one had t o he  i n s e r v i o e f o r twenty-eight days i n o r d e r t o be e l i g i b l e f o r a "V/iotory Medal", and so f o r t h .  The l a r g e s t number o f t h e group  of v e t e r a n s a r e those men and women who have h a d m i l i t a r y s e r vice.  M i l i t a r y s e r v i c e i s o f two k i n d s :  peacetime s e r v i o e .  The former c o n s t i t u t e s s e r v i o e i n the  f o r c e s o f a oountry i n time o f war, The  a e t i v e s e r v i o e , and armed  t h e l a t t e r i n time o f peace.  presumption o f m i l i t a r y s e r v i o e meant i s t h a t o f a c t i v e s e r 4  ^  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  v i c e , t h a t i s , o f war s e r v i o e .  f  The Canadian v e t e r a n ,  here con-  cerned, i s a p e r s o n who has been i n a c t i v e s e r v i c e i n H i s M a j e s t y ' s f o r c e s r a i s e d i n Canada, whether s e r v i n g I n a t h e a t r e *  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  ...  o f a c t u a l war o r not; o r , a p e r s o n who has been i n a c t i v e s e r v i c e .  .  .  .  .  . .  t  I n non-Canadian f o r c e s o f H i s M a j e s t y , o r i n H i s M a j e s t y ' s A l l i e s ' Forces, servioe.  and was d o m i c i l e d  i n Canada at t h e commencement o f suoh  "Active s e r v i c e " inoludes t  F i e l d Force,  s e r v i c e i n the Northwest -  • ~  .  .  .  .  .  .  ^  .  .  .  .  1885; i n the South A f r i c a n o r Boer War, 1899-1902;  In World War I , 1914-1918; and i n World War I I , 1939-1945. Entrance into m i l i t a r y service involves a so-oalled " a t t e s t a t i o n process".  Included  i n t h i s I s a m e d i c a l examina-  t i o n , and t h e swearing o f an oath o f a l l e g i a n o e t o k i n g and  country.  I f tlie candidate q u a l i f i e s , he I s t h e n t a k e n i n t o  m i l i t a r y s e r v i o e , o r "taken on s t r e n g t h , and h i s name w i l l 9  appear on t h e next m i l i t a r y o r d e r .  S e r v i o e oomprises  duty p e r -  formed I n the u n i f o r m o f one o f the armed f o r c e s , Naval, Army, or A i r .  Once e n l i s t e d i n a c t i v e s e r v i o e , whether v o l u n t a r i l y  or by compulsion, a s o l d i e r , s a i l o r , o r airman cannot withdraw at c h o i c e , but can o n l y be r e l e a s e d under a u t h o r i t y .  This re-  l e a s e i s known as " d i s c h a r g e " , o r the serviceman i s s a i d t o be " s t r u c k o f f s t r e n g t h * . T h i s a l s o i n v o l v e s another m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n i n o r d e r t o determine the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n and t o e v a l u a t e t h e extent o f i n j u r y , i f any, due t o service.  T h i s i s neoessary as a p r o t e c t i o n t o t h e Government  as many c l a i m s without v a l i d i t y might otherwise be made upon the v e t e r a n s ' department  f o r the p h y s i c a l in.1ury o f d i s c h a r g e d p e r -  s o n n e l due t o war s e r v i c e . Beeause o f the oompulsory  nature o f a o t i v e s e r v i c e , a d i s -  t i n c t i o n i s neoessary between those f o r whom m i l i t a r y  service  i s a c i v i l i a n o c c u p a t i o n , and those f o r whom I t was but a passi n g phase and has meant an i n t e r r u p t i o n o r postponement o f a c i v i l i a n occupation. ent armed f o r c e s .  The former persons c o n s t i t u t e t h e perman-  I n d e f i n i n g a v e t e r a n o f the permanent armed  f o r c e s , o n l y the members who have been o n a c t i v e s e r v i o e a r e o f concern.  Those who have s i n c e r e t i r e d o r been d i s c h a r g e d from  t h e permanent f o r o e s need not be segregated from non-members o f the permanent armv.  Those who r e v e r t e d from a c t i v e t o peacetime  s e r v i c e at t h e c e s s a t i o n o f h o s t i l i t i e s and have remained members  o f t h e permanent f o r c e s a r e I n a d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r y .  The c a r e ,  treatment, and t r a i n i n g o f these men r e s t s r a t h e r w i t h t h e Department o f H a t i o n a l Defenoe t h a n w i t h the Department o f V e t e r ans* A f f a i r s .  However, they are c e r t a i n l y v e t e r a n s heoause o f  t h e i r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , and many o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e rehabi l i t a t i o n program apply of the f o r c e s .  j u s t as much t o them as t o ex-members  Accordingly,  although s t i l l  they are e l i g i b l e f o r o e r t a i n v e t e r a n The  i nmilitary service,  benefits.  main c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v e t e r a n s I s t h e group f o r whom  m i l i t a r y l i f e was o n l y temporary.  These men and  women were i n  a c t i v e s e r v i o e i n wartime but have been subsequently  discharged.  They made up what might be c a l l e d t h e c i v i l i a n armed f o r o e s . r e o r u i t e d f o r defenoe i n time o f need.  The whole r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  program was born f o r these men and women because they undertook s p e c i a l r i s k s , and t h e i r normal c a r e e r s , l i v e s , and education were i n t e r r u p t e d .  Through l e g i s l a t i o n g r a n t i n g o e r t a i n p r i v i -  l e g e s , t h e oategory o f the v e t e r a n has emerged.  Servioe  over-  seas, o r i n an a c t u a l t h e a t r e o f war, has been regarded as ent i t l i n g a person t o g r e a t e r b e n e f i t s t h a n s e r v i o e o n l y i n t h e Western Hemisphere.  Overseas s e r v i c e i n o l u d e d  any s e r v i c e i n -  v o l v i n g d u t i e s performed o u t s i d e o f t h e Western Hemisphere. Service the  i n t h e Western Hemisphere i n c l u d e d d u t i e s performed on  continents  o f n o r t h and South America, and t h e i r  adjacent  i s l a n d s and t e r r i t o r i a l waters, i n c l u d i n g Bermuda and t h e West I n d i e s , but e x c l u d i n g lands.  Creenland, I c e l a n d , and t h e A l e u t i a n I s -  M i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l s e r v i n g only I n t h e Western Hemis-  phere had no guarantee t h a t they would not be sent  overseas;  t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n was necessary t o t h e o v e r a l l war program;  they were s u b j e c t e d t o the  same r u l e s and  compulsory s e r v i o e as t h e i r f e l l o w s . country, they a c c o r d i n g l y The  regulations  and  Having thus served  their  reap c e r t a i n advantages.  second c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , "claimants  not engaged i n m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e " , may  t o b e n e f i t s who  seem somewhat  have  misleading.  These people were not members o f H i s Majesty*s or a l l i e d armed f o r c e s ; n e i t h e r d i d they serve  i n the u n i f o r m of the  country.  They were r a t h e r Canadian c i v i l i a n s engaged i n t h e i r peacetime occupations,  which o f t e n i n v o l v e d the s u f f e r i n g of  as a r e s u l t o f enemy a c t i o n , counter a c t i o n , or marine h a z a r d s due  t o the war.  I t has  disability  extraordinary  u s u a l l y been because o f  such d i s a b i l i t i e s s u f f e r e d t h a t they have become e n t i t l e d t o c e r t a i n veteran benefits.  T h i s group i s s m a l l i n numbers  i n c l u d e s such people as s a l t water fishermen, members o f  and the  a u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s , merchant seamen, those engaged overseas In a i r - r a i d and  c i v i l i a n defence, and members o f the Corps o f  ( c i v i l i a n ) Canadian F i r e F i g h t e r s s e r v i n g In the U n i t e d Kingdom. The  t h i r d group i s "a dependent o r dependents e n t i t l e d  b e n e f i t s " , and cations.  i n c l u d e s dependents of the above two  Suoh a dependent may  be a w i f e ,  to  classifi-  a husband, a widow,  a widower, a c h i l d , I n c l u d i n g n a t u r a l , s t e p , adopted, and  fos-  t e r o h i l d r e n , or dependent p a r e n t s .  I f a veteran  is living,  o n l y he o r someone on h i s b e h a l f may  apply f o r b e n e f i t s , and i t  i s o n l y on h i s b e h a l f t h a t b e n e f i t s or s e r v i o e s w i l l be I f a veteran  granted.  i s dead, h i s dependents become e l i g i b l e f o r c e r -  t a i n Departmental b e n e f i t s .  F o r example, they might apply  for  - 9 -  and r e c e i v e a War dependents may  Veterans* Allowance.  apply f o r b e n e f i t s and  I n t h i s event, the i t i s o n l y t o them o r  on t h e i r b e h a l f t h a t b e n e f i t s w i l l be g r a n t e d . ent becomes i n e f f e c t a  Such a depend-  veteran.  R e h a b i l i t at i o n Strictly  speaking, t o r e h a b i l i t a t e means t o r e s t o r e t o  former c o n d i t i o n o r s t a t u s , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , the being that o f c i v i l i a n . the  a  condition  I n e s t a b l i s h i n g the former members o f  armed f o r c e s i n the post-war w o r l d , an endeavour has  made t o c o n s i d e r many aspects o f these persons* f u t u r e Medical, vocational, occupational,  been  welfare.  and s o o i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s have  eaoh p l a y e d  a p a r t In e s t a b l i s h i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y readjustments  t o everyday  living*  D u r i n g the Second World War,  a more o r l e s s g e n e r a l  c i p a t i o n of Canada's c i t i z e n s i n a i d i n g the war hieved.  To many, the war  s u r v i v a l but  was  parti-  e f f o r t was  ac-  not o n l y a b a t t l e f o r p h y s i c a l  a l s o f o r i d e e l s emphasising the importance of human  d i g n i t y , o f freedom, and o f the worth o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n a deomoracy.  The  i n c e n t i v e s o f p a t r i o t i s m and g r a t i t u d e ware  s t r o n g and a sturdy p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n favour f o r the v e t e r a n was o f the war duced new  prevalent.  I n a d d i t i o n , economic o b l i g a t i o n s  and i t s c o s t had t o he met.  The  end o f the war  pro-  problems f o r the country i n the t r a n s i t i o n from a  wartime t o a peacetime economy. stages was lishment  o f doing something  the t a s k o f the  o f the  disturbance  Paramount i n the  earliest  d e m o b i l i s a t i o n and the c i v i l  armed f o r c e s without the  i n Canadian l i v i n g .  The  re-estab-  c r e a t i o n o f a too  t o t a l number o f  great  enlistments  -  10  and enrolments 1939,  i n the Canadian Armed F o r c e s from September 10, ' 1 t o " V J " day, August 14, 1945, was 1,104,285. On May 7, ••  1945,  • -  -  8  t h e r e had been 240,000 d i s c h a r g e s , o r , over t h i s s i x -  y e a r p e r i o d , approximately 3,000 d i s c h a r g e s per month, i f evenly distributed.  By the end of 1945,  roughly 650,000 d i s c h a r g e s  had been g r a n t e d , or i n the l a s t four-month p e r i o d o f t h i s y e a r about 100,000 d i s c h a r g e s per month, which s i t u a t i o n to  continue f o r s e v e r a l months.  people i n t o the l i f e  The problem was  promised  t o absorb these  o f the community and o f the n a t i o n without  c r e a t i n g g r e a t ohaos i n the Canadian economy. By the end o f the Second World War,  the numbers o f unem-  p l o y e d i n the country were comparatively few.  There was,  e v e r , the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a sudden i n f l u x of persons employment would c r e a t e a new  how-  seeking  demand f o r p o s i t i o n s which i n -  d u s t r y might not be able t o meet.  A p r o s p e c t i v e employee i s  judged not as much by what he has done as by what he i s able t o do.  Many o f the members of the armed f o r c e s were young and  proceeded or  from s c h o o l d i r e c t l y i n t o the s e r v i c e s w i t h  had  little  no t r a i n i n g f o r o i v i l i a n o c c u p a t i o n s ; f o r o t h e r s , m i l i t a r y  s e r v i c e had meant an i n t e r r u p t i o n i n t r a i n i n g f o r an o c c u p a t i o n ; of  those who  had p r e v i o u s l y been g a i n f u l l y employed, many d i d  not w i s h t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r o l d jobs, supposing these were a v a i l a b l e ; i n a d d i t i o n , t h e w a r - d i s a b l e d comprised  a group  who  were l i m i t e d i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r employment. There were two 1.  St. 3.  approaches i n t h i s p l a n n i n g f o r the f u t u r e  Canada, Department o f Trade and•Commerce, Dominion' Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Canada Y e a r Book, 1946, "Chapter 88, Department o f ' V e t e r a n s * A f f a i r s : R e h a b i l i t a t i o n - o f E x - s e r v i c e P e r s o n n e l " , '.Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1947, p. 1052. loo. c i t . loc. c i t .  - 11 -  civilians: socially  a p r a c t i c a l one, r e a l i s t i c but e c o n o m i c a l l y and  j u s t i f i a b l e ; and an i d e a l i s t i c one, w i t h p a t r i o t i s m  and g r a t i t u d e as i t s motive*  I t has been s a i d t h a t "the g o a l  of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s t o b r i n g a man t o a p o i n t o f maximal usef u l n e s s t o h i m s e l f and t o s o c i e t y t o enable him t o s u s t a i n him4 s e l f and t o enjoy t h e f r u i t o f h i s p r o d u c t i o n " .  The r e h a b i l i -  t a t i o n o f t h e v e t e r a n was not t o be merely a reward f o r s e r v i o e s r e n d e r e d but came t o s i g n i f y an investment  i n better l i v i n g ,  s a v i n g t h e country money, r e d u c i n g p o v e r t y , d i s e a s e , and crime. The  o p p o r t u n i t y was presented whereby through h i s own e f f o r t s  and t o h i s own betterment,  the former m i l i t a r y man or woman  might develop t o t h e u l t i m a t e betterment The precedent  o f the country.  for legislation creating this  opportunity  was t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures which f o l l o w e d World War I , which were b u i l t upon and improved upon; new l e g i s l a t i o n was enacted,  and, i n t h e p r o c e s s , the i d e a s and r e s o u r c e s o f t h e  country were m o b i l i z e d .  "Suggestions  from c i t i z e n s i n a l l walks o f l i f e , of t h e people  oame from v e t e r a n groups,  and from t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  s e r v i n g i n the House o f Commons and P a r l i a m e n t a r y  5 Committees on t h e V e t e r a n s • The  Affairs".  l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e d t h e framework f o r the r e h a b i l i t a -  t i o n program.  I n the administration of the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l  r e s t t o a great e x t e n t I t s s u c c e s s .  T h i s program was n o t t o be  o n l y a p o l i t i c a l one g a i n i n g f o r i t s promoters power and p r e s 4. P r a t t , Geo. K., S o l d i e r t o C i v i l i a n ; Problems o f R e a d j u s t ment ^ Hew Y o r k and London, McGraw-Hill Book Co., I n c . , 1944, p. 151. §. Canadai Department o f v e t e r a n s A f f a i r s , The Veterans* C h a r t e r , Canada; 1946, "The H i s t o r y o f Veterans* L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada", Ottawa, King*s P r i n t e r , 1947, p. 885. 4  - 18 -  tige.  I n i t s formation*  some o f t h e b e s t minds o f the country,  and t h e s k i l l s o f v a r i o u s t r a d e s and p r o f e s s i o n s , were u t i l i s e d . A p e r s o n n e l as f u l l y t r a i n e d as p o s s i b l e was s e l e c t e d ; and, f o r those who l a c k e d t r a i n i n g , i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g schemes were p r o moted so t h a t t h e v e t e r a n s *  a s s i m i l a t i o n i n s o c i e t y might be  more e f f e c t i v e l y aohieved.  Recognition that the discharged  per-  sons* needs would be many and would vary w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l was not o v e r l o o k e d ; each haa had, o f n e c e s s i t y , t o a d j u s t himself to military l i f e ;  c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , eaoh would have an ad-  .iustment t o make on r e t u r n t o the o l d way o f l i f e .  F o r many,  the needs would not be g r e a t ; f o r o t h e r s , s p e c i a l i s e d s e r v i o e s would he necessary: cal  m e d i c a l treatment,  o c c u p a t i o n a l and p h y s i -  t h e r a p y , o c c u p a t i o n a l guidance, s o c i a l s e r v i c e , e d u c a t i o n a l  and v o c a t i o n a l s e r v i o e s , t o name a few. Relation to Civilian Life The  purpose o f t h e departmental  program i s t o remove h a r d -  s h i p s u f f e r e d by t h e v e t e r a n as s r e s u l t o f war.  I f after r e -  o e i v i n g a l l t h e b e n e f i t s t o whioh he has beoome e n t i t l e d , t h e d i s c h a r g e d p e r s o n i s unable t o f i n d employment, and becomes a charge upon t h e community, t h e program has not achieved i t s purpose. need h e l p . of  The f i r s t s t e p was the l o c a t i o n o f persons who would A l l m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l were c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n need  some a s s i s t a n c e ; every v e t e r a n was, t h e r e f o r e , l o c a t e d w h i l e  s t i l l a serviceman i n t h e armed f o r c e s .  Secondly,  came a  m e d i c a l d i a g n o s i s and p r o g n o s i s , and a v o c a t i o n a l d i a g n o s i s i n o r d e r t h a t a s u i t a b l e p l a n might be determined.  T o o a t i o n a l ooun-  - 13  s e l l i n g , where i t was d e s i r e d and a d v i s a b l e , f o l l o w e d , and aimed a t t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a s u i t a b l e f i e l d o f work f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l by r e l a t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l requirements and community o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s . M e d i c a l and s u r g i o a l treatment was a v a i l a b l e f o r p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y , and i n such oases an attempt was made t o l e a r n t h e "work t o l e r a n c e * o f the i n d i v i d u a l so as t o determine a s u i t a b l e type o f t r a i n i n g . S p e c i a l i s t s e r v i c e s , such as, o c c u p a t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l t h e r a p y , -  •  •  /  •  •  ....  -  .  - .  p s y c h i a t r i c treatment, and t h e s e r v i o e s o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s and s o c i a l workers, were u t i l i s e d as t h e need was e s t a b l i s h e d . Voc a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g were made a v a i l a b l e t o f u r n i s h new s k i l l s .  F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was p r o v i d e d i n t h e form o f  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n g r a n t s , and i n p r o v i d i n g maintenance d u r i n g t r a i n ing  o r establishment  i n an o c c u p a t i o n .  aimed at t h e best use o f s k i l l  Placement i n employment  and a b i l i t y t o c a r r y out t h e ,job.  I n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e , t h e program has aimed at a follow-up on performance, but i t i s y e t a l i t t l e  e a r l y t o measure t r u l y i t s  effectiveness. The  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program  e x i s t i n g community s e r v i c e s .  at no time sought t o d u p l i c a t e  Through c o - o p e r a t i o n , t h e s e r v i o e s  o f o t h e r government departments, v o l u n t e e r c i t i z e n s *  committees,  and l o c a l community o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been u t i l i z e d ; when des i r e d s e r v i c e s were n o t a v a i l a b l e , new ones were c r e a t e d i n some instances. to  The o r g a n i s a t i o n ' s o b j e c t i v e s and program have aimed  he s u f f i c i e n t l y broad and f l e x i b l e t o a l l o w f o r constant ad-  justment t o changing need.  During t h e peak o f d e m o b i l i z a t i o n ,  -  14  s e r v i o e s were i n the nature o f a mass a s s i s t a n o e c o u n s e l l i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o suoh t h i n g s as t r a i n i n g , Insurance, l a n d s e t t l e *  ment, and v a r i o u s allowances.  W i t h the deorease  i n demobili-  z a t i o n , a l e s s e n i n g o f the s t r a i n upon the department's p e r s o n n e l i s e v i d e n t ; and, as more v e t e r a n s become f i t t e d i n t o lian life,  civi-  a s h i f t has come from c o u n s e l l i n g f o r t r a i n i n g t o ad-  justment c o u n s e l l i n g , and from mass c o u n s e l l i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l counselling.  More and more v e t e r a n s are seeking h e l p w i t h t h e i r  p e r s o n a l problems,  and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the t r e n d has been t o r e -  p l a c e the word " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n * by the word " w e l f a r e " .  This  t h i n k i n g may  Depart-  r e f l e o t the e v o l u t i o n i n the nature o f the  ment end i t s assumption  of the r o l e of a f e d e r a l agency concern-  ed w i t h the proper h a n d l i n g o f w e l f a r e  problems.  The S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n i n the Department of Veterans* A f f a r i s s h o u l d be seen as a s p e c i a l i s t s e r v i c e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to  the whole r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program.  Without  some knowledge  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s e t t i n g o f whioh i t i s a p a r t , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o see the D i v i s i o n i n i t s f u l l p e r s p e c t i v e . I t s s e r v i o e s do not d u p l i c a t e those a v a i l a b l e i n the community; i t s p e r s o n n e l only g i v e a needed s e r v i c e where t h e r e i s no suoh servioe a v a i l a b l e .  Otherwise, they d i r e o t the v e t e r a n t o the  p r o p e r community agency. to  The v e t e r a n does not g e n e r a l l y wish  be segregated from the oommunity o f whioh he i s a p a r t .  c o n s c i o u s l y , t h i s has come about i n many ways.  Un-  He has been  r e c o g n i z e d as a member o f a s p e c i a l group by s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n ; he i s a member o f a group whose needs arose out o f m i l i t a r y s e r -  -  15  v i c e ; he has become the o b j e c t o f p a t r i o t i s m and g r a t i t u d e ; s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e have been developed  f o r him.  D e s p i t e a l l t h i s , he i s b a s i c a l l y t h e  same as the r e s t of the c i t i z e n s .  I t was  not intended t h a t he  should always be a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the Dominion government. His satisfactory social security done.  readjustment investment,  i n s o c i a l l i f e has been p a r t l y  a  and p a r t l y a reward f o r work w e l l  But t o a great e x t e n t , the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the  veteran  l i e s w i t h the v e t e r a n h i m s e l f , i n h i s t h i n k i n g , i n h i s f e e l i n g s , and i n h i s s e e i n g h i m s e l f as no d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s , not as a v e t e r a n hut as a  civilian.  What the Canadian government has done f o r the e x - s e r v i c e men  and women may  population.  be o f h e l p I n p l a n n i n g s e r v i o e s f o r the whole  T h i s group o f discharged persons has presented  to  the Dominion no const i t tit i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y i n p l a n n i n g and t h e passing of l e g i s l a t i o n .  I n a sense, the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e  v e t e r a n i s a s o c i a l experiment w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s extending yond i t s Immediate  beneficiaries.  be-  - 16  -  Chapter  THE  2  DEVELOPMENT OF VETERANS* LEGISLATION:  E a r l y Methods and  1914-1946  Regulations  P r i o r t o World War  I , the war v e t e r a n was  left to his  r e s o u r c e s i n f i n d i n g some o p p o r t u n i t y , i n r e a d j u s t i n g t o life, of  and i n e k e i n g out a l i v e l i h o o d .  government was  own  civil  The o n l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n the f i e l d o f pensions, and these r e c o g n i z e d  only d i s a b i l i t i e s d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o active s e r v i c e .  Pen-  s i o n s were a d m i n i s t e r e d under m i l i t a r y powers, and pensions  of  e x - s e r v i o e men  of the Boer War  were not p a i d by the Canadian  government but by the B r i t i s h government. to  I t would not be  fair  say t h a t the v e t e r a n s were overlooked i n Canada, but r a t h e r  t h a t t h e r e were no precedents t o a c t upon i n t h i s matter  of  t h e i r care and treatment, and no g r e a t p r e s s u r e as the number o f d i s c h a r g e d men  and women o f any one war had never been g r e a t .  There were, i n f a c t , no precedents f o r w o r l d war, phase o f n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s put new  and  this  s t r a i n s on the country's r e -  sources. In  e v a l u a t i n g these e a r l y developments i n v e t e r a n s *  legis-  l a t i o n and the measures t h a t were undertaken, c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o the advances t h a t have s i n c e t a k e n p l a c e i n suoh f i e l d s as m e d i c a l treatment,  i n v o c a t i o n a l guidance  and  t r a i n i n g , i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n h o s p i t a l s because o f i t s .  .  .  t  -  4  - • •  -  t  t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e s , i n p s y c h i a t r y , psychology,  .  .  .  .  f  ,  and s o c i a l work, «  i n the accumulation and r e c o r d i n g o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a , and i n  - 17  -  s o o i a l p l a n n i n g g e n e r a l l y . Much o f the work t h a t the  govern4  ment d i d i n these e a r l y years was  e x p e r i m e n t a l i n nature  and,  i n framing the present l e g i s l a t i o n and i n i n a u g u r a t i n g new v i c e s , advantage has been taken o f the experience o f the World War  First  and o f the e x p e r i e n c e s of the ensuing y e a r s .  The Canadian people e n t e r e d the F i r s t World War 1914.  ser-  i n August,  At t h a t time, no government department o t h e r t h a n a m i l i -  t a r y one e x i s t e d t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r those d i s c h a r g e d from a c t i v e s e r v i c e .  Many problems o f the e x - s e r v i c e men  . . . . . .  .  .  • •  .  4  •  - •  soon demanding a t t e n t i o n ; even by the s p r i n g o f 1915, men b e i n g r e t u r n e d i n v a l i d e d from o v e r s e a s . f o r the oare and treatment "  ' 4  "  .  .  .  •  were  I n order to provide  of these c o n v a l e s c e n t s who "  were  s t i l l re-  .  q u i r e d h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , a committee was  appointed by the  exist-  i n g Department o f M i l i t i a and Defenoe, the r e s o u r c e s of whioh were a l r e a d y t a x e d by the t a s k s of m o b i l i s a t i o n o f f o r c e s and o f defence.  The t h r e e members o f t h i s committee were p r t n o l p a l  o f f i o e r s of the Department and they were unable t o give the necessary time and a t t e n t i o n I n l o o k i n g a f t e r the former men.  service-  A more adequate means o f meeting the needs of these v e t e r -  ans was  sought,  and i n May,  1915,  a p r o p o s a l was  commission be appointed t o handle t h i s s i t u a t i o n . the M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l s Commission: was  made t h a t a Subsequently,  formed t o p r o v i d e h o s p i t a l  accommodation and convalescent homes i n Canada f o r i n v a l i d e d o f f i o e r s and men  o f the Canadian E x p e d i t i o n a r y F o r c e , and t o  a s s i s t them i n s e c u r i n g employment. f o l d t a s k s , the Commission was  I n c a r r y i n g out I t s mani-  g r a n t e d s e v e r a l powers:  to i n -  -  our, c o n t r o l , and treatment and  authorize  care o f the  18  e x p e n d i t u r e s connected with, the  i n v a l i d e d as w e l l as w i t h the  organi-  z a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of h o s p i t a l s and homesj t o s e l e c t m e d i c a l ,  nursing  and other p e r s o n n e l need-  ed f o r h o s p i t a l s as w e l l as c l e r i c a l s t a f f ; and t o o a l l i n the a i d o f any  department o f the Canadian government*  I n the  be-  *  4  g i n n i n g , the p r o v i s i o n o f s e v e r a l and  s m a l l convalescent  homes,  a treatment o f r e s t and r e c r e a t i o n were thought t o be  the  main requirements i n meeting the s i t u a t i o n . However, the former was  not a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y economic and e f f e c t i v e , and  treatment i n v o l v e d more t h a n r e s t and r e c r e a t i o n . orthopaedic  The  and o f a c t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c treatment became  i n J u l y , 1916,  was  of  evident;  the Commission opened a limb-making f a c t o r y ; t h e  unprecedented p o l i o y i n government o f the r e - e d u c a t i o n a b l e d men  value  experimented w i t h ;  of  dis-  and more and more emerged the  n e c e s s i t y f o r r e l a t i n g the a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n the an t o h i s a s s i m i l a t i o n i n c i v i l i a n l i f e .  disabled veter-  Even at t h i s e a r l y  4  d a t e , much o f the p h i l o s o p h y  t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the program i n  o p e r a t i o n today was  and  evident,  i s expressed as f o l l o w s i n a  r e p o r t o f t h i s H o s p i t a l Commission:  "Some men  a l s o have the  f e e l i n g t h a t h a v i n g s u f f e r e d f o r t h e i r country they should be r e q u i r e d t o e x e r t themselves f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d but the  country owes them a l i v e l i h o o d .  T h i s i s only  not  that  partially  t r u e - what the country owes t o these men i s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o 6 obtain a livelihood". 6. Canada, Department of M i l i t i a - a n d Defenoe, Report o f the M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l s Commission. May, 1917, "Vocational T r a i n i n g " , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1917, p. 48.  - 19  The members o f t h i s Commission oame i n t o o l o s e .  4  oontaot  4  w i t h t h e r e t u r n e d men, and, at t h e same time, maintained  a  olose c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Department o f M i l i t i a and Defenoe, which r e a d i l y accepted many o f the recommendations o f t h e Commission,  The Commission grew r a p i d l y and soon became as  l a r g e as some departments o f government. • *  . . .  Along w i t h the prob-  ....  .  . . ^  . . . .  lems o f the moment, i t s members v i s u a l i z e d f u t u r e ones, i n c i dental t o demobilization i t s e l f .  I n t h e Report  o f the Work  of the Commission i n May, 1917, c e r t a i n suggestions were made for  f u t u r e p l a n n i n g , i n c l u d i n g the development o f programs r e -  g a r d i n g employment, p u b l i c works, l a n d s e t t l e m e n t , t h e c r e a t i o n and s u b s i d i z a t i o n o f new i n d u s t r i e s , the c r e a t i o n o f a c l i m a t e of understanding  f o r the r e t u r n e d s o l d i e r , c o - o p e r a t i o n between  p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments, and encouragement o f t h e v e t e r a n i n forming o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  I n these e a r l y y e a r s ,  differ-  ences arose r a t h e r i n the c a r r y i n g out o f the programs t h a n i n t h e i r b a s i c concepts. E a r l y i n the F i r s t World War, a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o the pensioning of d i s a b l e d veterans. of  I n June, 1916, the f o r m a t i o n  a Board o f P e n s i o n Commissioners was a u t h o r i z e d by an Order. . . . . . .  in-Council,  .  t  .  A t t h i s time, the s o - c a l l e d i n s u r a n c e p r i n c i p l e i n - . .. .  . . . .  the awarding o f pensions was i n t r o d u c e d i n Canada: *  disability,  .  .  .  .  .  t  .  i n j u r y , or  t  o r death I n c u r r e d d u r i n g s e r v i c e , even though no  d i r e o t cause c o u l d be t r a c e d t o s e r v i c e , was p e n s i o n a b l e .  A  s c a l e o f pensions was s e t up, and r e c o g n i t i o n was g i v e n t o the c l a i m s o f dependents on t h e v e t e r a n .  I n 1919, the Canadian  -  P e n s i o n A c t was was  so  passed, and the Board o f P e n s i o n Commissioners  g i v e n f u l l power t o a d j u d i c a t e on p e n s i o n o l a i m s , and i t r e -  t a i n s t h i s power at the p r e s e n t time. I n 1917, Act  and subsequent  t u r n e d men was  the S o l d i e r  Settlement A c t was  Under t h i s  amendments, almost t w e n t y - f i v e thousand  were s e t t l e d on the l a n d w i t h l o a n s .  intended to o f f e r incentive  Another measure i n t h i s e a r l y the passage o f the Returned  re-  T h i s measure  t o v e t e r a n s t o s e t t l e on farms  and t o g i v e them e v e n t u a l ownership  o f the p r o p e r t y . r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program  Soldiers'  was  Insurance Aot i n 1920,  the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h i s insurance i n 1981. poses:  passed.  T h i s haa two  and  pur-  t o encourage v e t e r a n s t o provide f o r t h e i r dependents  i n the event o f death; and, t o o f f e r insuranoe t o the v e t e r a n s who  were c o n s i d e r e d poor r i s k s by o r d i n a r y insuranoe companies.  Approximately twenty-nine  thousand  individuals  took advantage  o f t h i s scheme. The Department of S o l d i e r s ' I n F e b r u a r y , 1918, t a b l i s h m e n t was  formed.  Civil  Re-establishment  the Department of S o l d i e r s '  Formed Civil  Re-es-  I t a d m i n i s t e r e d the a f f a i r s of the I n t  valided  Soldiers'  Commission, f o r m e r l y the M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l s  Commission, and those of the Board o f P e n s i o n Commissioners. D u r i n g the f i r s t  y e a r s o f i t s e x i s t e n o e , t h i s Department  f a c e d w i t h m a n i f o l d t a s k s r e g a r d i n g treatment, t r a i n i n g ,  was coun-  s e l l i n g , and a s s i s t a n c e . The Department p e r s o n n e l worked i n ooo p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r government departments and w i t h p r i v a t e g a n i z a t i o n s i n e f f e c t i n g the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t and the ment o f v e t e r a n s i n c i v i l l i f e .  or-  reinstate-  As the need f o r h o s p i t a l  accommo-  21  d a t i o n waned, the s t a f f o f the I n v a l i d e d S o l d i e r s * was  Commission  g r a d u a l l y absorbed i n the Department o f S o l d i e r s '  Re-establishment.  Civil  Some i d e a o f the work done by the Department 4  can he gained by g l a n c i n g at the e x p e n d i t u r e s on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , e x c l u s i v e o f pensions* e x p e n d i t u r e s , and by examining  the  ser-  v i o e s rendered. a T a b l e 1. E x p e n d i t u r e s on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the Department of S o l d i e r s * C i v i l Re-establishment R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Measure Expenditure War S e r v i o e G r a t u i t i e s $164;000;000. C i v i l i a n C l o t h i n g Allowance 20,000,000. "Vocational T r a i n i n g and T r a i n i n g Allowance 43,000,000. M e d i c a l Care, H o s p i t a l Care, Treatment, S u r g i c a l A p p l i a n c e s , Treatment Pay and Allowances 84;000;000. Land Settlement ( S o l d i e r Settlement A c t ) 13;594;840. Dependents' T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 3,000,000. I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i o e , Employment and S h e l t e r e d Employment , 20;000;000. T O T A L " 1 $547,594.840. a. Source: Canada, Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , The V e t e r a n s * C h a r t e r . Canada. 1946, "The H i s t o r y of Vet^erans* L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada", Ottawa, King*s P r i n t e r , 1947, p. 287. 'a T a b l e 2. S e r v i o e s Rendered t o Veterans by the Department o f S o l d i e r s * C i v i l Re-establishment Mature o f S e r v i c e s Number of* S e r v i o e s C l l n i o a l Treatments t o V e t e r a n s 1,366; 000 H o s p i t a l Treatments t o Veterans 147, 000 • Veterans Reoeiving V o c a t i o n a l Training 43, 000 • • V e t e r a n s ( i n c l u d i n g Handicapped) P l a o e d i n Employment 233, 000 V e t e r a n s P l a c e d i n the C i v i l S e r v i o e o f Canada under C i v i l S e r v i c e Preference 38, 000 V e t e r a n s who beoame Permanent 12, 000 C i v i l Servants S o l d i e r S e t t l e r s E s t a b l i s h e d on 24; 998 the Land ' 4 9 ; 000 Dependents Brought t o Canada E n q u i r i e s Dealt With I 1,000,000 a. Souroe: Canada, Department of V e t e r a n s * A f f a i r s , The Veterans* C h a r t e r . Canada.1946/The H i s t o r y o f Veterans* L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada", Ottawa,King's Printer,1947,p.287, 4  -  The War  28  S e r v i o e G r a t u i t i e s granted were based upon l e n g t h  and nature o f s e r v i o e and were u n r e l a t e d t o any o b l i g a t i o n , the o b j e c t b e i n g t o h e l p the v e t e r a n t o a v o i d h a r d s h i p i n the few months o f r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t . g i v e n t o approximately s t r i c t e d t o those who y e a r s and t o those who  Although v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g  f o r t y - t h r e e thousand v e t e r a n s , i t was  was re-  had e n l i s t e d below the age o f e i g h t e e n were p e n s i o n e r s .  The  r e p o r t o f the V e t -  e r a n s ' A s s i s t a n c e Commission s t a t e s t h a t "the assumption t h a t these  first  was  (two groups) were handicapped by p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y  o r by l a o k of o p p o r t u n i t y p r i o r t o the war  to t r a i n i n trades"*  T r a i n i n g , h i g h s c h o o l , or c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n was period of a year.  offered for a  I t might be c o n s i d e r e d a shortcoming  program t h a t v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was and to the d i s a b l e d .  The  o f the  so r e s t r i c t e d t o the young  passage o f the C i v i l S e r v i o e Acfe e s -  t a b l i s h e d C i v i l S e r v i c e p r e f e r e n c e f o r the v e t e r a n s e e k i n g  em-  ployment and aimed not at h i s s e g r e g a t i o n from the c i v i l i a n , r a t h e r at compensating him f o r disadvantages to  absence I n m i l i t a r y The  i n employment  but  due  service.  s e r v i c e s g i v e n t o the v e t e r a n by t h i s Department  roughly i n t o f i v e groups:-  fell  medical s e r v i c e s , personal s e r v i c e s ,  o r t h o p a e d i c and s u r g i c a l a p p l i a n c e s s e r v i c e s , v o c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , and i n f o r m a t i o n and r e l a t i v e s e r v i c e s . name i m p l i e s , p r o v i d e d m e d i c a l treatment  M e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , as the t o ex-members of the  f o r c e s , e i t h e r i n m i l i t a r y or d e s i g n a t e d h o s p i t a l s , or I n the outpatients' c l i n i c s .  P e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d the  keeping  fc. Canada, Department of Pensions and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h , Report of the V e t e r a n s ' A s s i s t a n c e Cbmmission, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1937, p. 88.  83  o f reoords and  documents, the  ances, p r o v i d i n g  f o r the  patients, providing  T h e - o r t h o p a e d i c and the r e t u r n e d men  administering  of pay  and  allow-  oare, other t h a n m e d i c a l , o f mental  f o r the  a t i n g canteen s e r v i o e s ,  -  f u n e r a l s o f deceased p a t i e n t s ,  and m a i n t a i n i n g a c h a p l a i n  oper-  servioe.  s u r g i c a l appliances services provided f o r  a r t i f i c i a l l i m e s and  orthopaedic and  surgical  a p p l i a n o e s , as w e l l as the r e p a i r and maintenance o f these  de-  vices.  op-  I n a d d i t i o n , a f a c t o r y making these a p p l i a n c e s was  erated.  The  v o c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d advioe  regarding  v o c a t i o n a l r e t r a i n i n g f o r d i s c h a r g e d members o f the The  I n f o r m a t i o n and  Service  ans  i n touoh w i t h employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  special section for plaoing cal,  Branch endeavoured t o p l a c e  veter-  and maintained a  i n employment p r o f e s s i o n a l ,  and t r a i n e d b u s i n e s s men.  formation regarding  forces.  techni-  T h i s branch a l s o p r o v i d e d  In-  government b e n e f i t s a v a i l a b l e t o v e t e r a n s .  S o c i a l Work Under the S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment Program S o o i a l work p l a y e d a s m a l l p a r t I n t h i s e a r l y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program.  Then, as today, i t was  a servioe  d i r e c t e d towards the  s p e c i a l needs o f c e r t a i n v e t e r a n s , but t h e r e are ing differences.  A 1919  report  C i v i l Re-establishment s t a t e s : S o o i a l S e r v i o e System has o f the v a r i o u s  some i n t e r e s t -  of the Department o f S o l d i e r s ' " I t became apparent t h a t  a d e f i n i t e plaoe i n the  u n i t s o f t h i s Department, and  i t has  the  organization been decided  t h a t f o r t h i s form o f work the s e r v i o e s of t r a i n e d nurses would 8 be u t i l i z e d " . T h i s does not e x p l a i n what the " S o c i a l S e r v i o e System" i s , and 8.  an apparent unawareness Of s o c i a l workers, as  such  Canada, Department o f S o l d i e r s * C i v i l Re-establishment,'Canada's Work f o r D i s a b l e d S o l d i e r s , "The M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s ; • S o c i a l S e r v i c e Workers**, Ottawa, King*s P r i n t e r , 1919, p. 87.  ?A  i s evident.  -  I t i s perhaps n a t u r a l t h a t the a u t h o r i t i e s at t h a t  time should have s e l e c t e d a nurse t o do s o o i a l work; the whole program i t s e l f arose out o f a need f o r m e d i c a l treatment t o disabled veterans,  and nurses were a v a i l a b l e and  a l r e a d y members  o f the departmental s t a f f ; a l s o , the number o f s o o i a l workers i n the country was  not g r e a t , and most of the Canadian S c h o o l s f o r  t r a i n i n g s o o i a l workers were e s t a b l i s h e d at a l a t e r date. Suoh s o c i a l workers as were employed by t h i s Department, b e i n g n u r s e s , came, n a t u r a l l y , under the a u t h o r i t y o f the M e d i c a l Services.  Among t h e i r t a s k s were the f o l l o w i n g up o f o u t -  p a t i e n t s o f the veterans*  h o s p i t a l s , o f t u b e r c u l o s i s oases on  leave  o f mental oases on p r o b a t i o n ,  from s a n a t o r i a , and  t h a t the p r e s c r i b e d m e d i c a l treatment was  followed,  home and the environment were conducive t o oure. e s t , and c o - o p e r a t i o n families.  to  see  and t h a t  the  Support, i n t e r -  i n treatment were sought from the  veterans^  Other d u t i e s o f the " s o c i a l worker" i n c l u d e d the i n -  v e s t i g a t i o n o f the  circumstances o f the dependents o f  veterans,  t o see t h a t these dependents a c t u a l l y e x i s t e d ; a c t i n g as t o the v e t e r a n s *  f a m i l i e s who  needed encouragement o r  advisers  assistance;  s e c u r i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d by the A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f the Department, the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  o f the  Information  and S e r v i c e Branch, the D i s t r i c t "Vocational O f f i c e r , o r the Medical Director;: and,carrying  out n u r s i n g or other  the U n i t M e d i c a l D i r e c t o r might a d v i s e . t h i s work, precedence was hardship,  Unit  d u t i e s which  I n the c a r r y i n g out  of  g i v e n t o oases of d i s t r e s s , f i n a n c i a l  o r m e d i c a l emergency.  I n the  annual r e p o r t o f the work o f the Department i n Decern-  25 -  h e r , 1920,  s o c i a l s e r v i o e i s d e s c r i b e d as a s p e c i a l i z e d n u r s i n g  a c t i v i t y , and the s o c i a l s e r v i o e nurse as not merely an dant upon the  s i c k , "but  r a t h e r as an educator and reformer"; In  a d d i t i o n t o her e d u c a t i o n a l nurse, she was  atten-  and t e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as a  r e q u i r e d t o have s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n psychology,  s o c i o l o g y , h y g i e n e , s a n i t a t i o n , and n u t r i t i o n . I t i s a l s o s t a t e d 10 t h a t c o - o p e r a t i v e arrangements were made by these " s o c i a l s e r v i c e .  workers" with p u b l i c h e a l t h organizations  .  .  .  .  .  .  t  and o f f i c i a l s ,  which  would l e a d one t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s category of workers was  con-  c e i v e d o f as a k i n d o f p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse r a t h e r t h a n as a  soc-  i a l worker as known t o d a y . p r i s e d f i v e groups:  The  tuberculous  c a s e l o a d o f these workers comcases, n e u r o l o g i c a l and  cases, o u t - p a t i e n t s , s p e c i a l cases, and  cooperative  mental  v i s i t s , these  l a s t b e i n g made on b e h a l f of other branches o r departments which had  asked f o r r e p o r t s . D u r i n g the y e a r 1920,  t h i r t y - f o u r s o c i a l s e r v i c e nurses  were employed by the Department, and the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e  indioates  b r i e f l y the extent o f t h e i r work, a T a b l e 3, S o o i a l S e r v i o e I n v e s t i g a t i o n s by T h i r t y - F o u r S o o i a l S e r v i o e Nurses f o r the Year 1920 Number of - Inve s t i g a t i o n s Type of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 3;884 T u b e r c u l o u s Cases 5; 884 Out-patients 2; 013 Problem Cases 2;921 N e u r o l o g i c a l and M e n t a l Cases 19;238 C o - o p e r a t i v e and U n c l a s s i f i e d 33,940 T O T A L a. Source: Canada, Department'of S o l d i e r s * C i v i l Bs-es t a h l i s h m e n t , Annual Report, 1920, Ottawa, King»s P r i n t e r , 1921, p. 15. 9, 10.  These.workers were not d i s t r i b u t e d e q u a l l y among the v a r i o u s Canada, Department of S o l d i e r s * C i v i l Re-establishment, Annual-Report »•1920, Ottawa, King*s P r i n t e r , 1921, p. 13. I b i d . , p.  14.  - 26  d i s t r i c t s , f i f t e e n alone b e i n g I n one u n i t o f t h e department, and t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f the work i t s e l f among t h e s o o i a l s e r v i c e workers; b u t , assuming t h a t t h e work was  evenly d i v i d e d , eaoh worker would be a l l o t t e d  approximately  e i g h t y - t h r e e cases p e r month, S p e o i a l mention was made o f t h e value o f "follow-up  social  service™ i n the care o f t h e d i s c h a r g e d t u b e r c u l o u s e x - s e r v i c e personnel.  I n a report, o f t h e Board o f Tuberculous 11  C o n s u l t a n t s i n 1920,  Sanitorium  a recommendation was made t h a t t h e s o c i a l  s e r v i o e n u r s i n g s t a f f should be a m p l i f i e d and o r g a n i z e d i n o l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h c l i n i c s , and t h a t s p e o i a l t r a i n i n g should he g i v e n t o these  nurses.  W i t h i n the V o c a t i o n a l Branch o f t h e Department, s o c i a l s e r v i c e i s r e f e r r e d t o under t h e heading Sooial Service".  No f u r t h e r statement  o f " M e d i c a l Advioe and i s made i n t h i s r e s p e c t  12 w i t h i n t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e department, but i n a hook  w r i t t e n by  Mr. W. Segsworth, a former d i r e c t o r o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n the Department, r e f e r e n c e i s made t o the s o c i a l worker.  In  oases where t h e v e t e r a n was not p r o g r e s s i n g f a v o r a b l y i n h i s r e t r a i n i n g , although t h e r e seemed t o be no mental o r p h y s i c a l disabilities  r e s p o n s i b l e , a " t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker" was o f t e n  r e q u e s t e d t o make a v i s i t t o a s c e r t a i n i f t h e r e should be some '  *  '  4  o t h e r r e a s o n f o r l a c k o f p r o g r e s s , suoh as f i n a n c i a l t r o u b l e s , sickness, or family matters.  F i n a n c i a l matters were r e f e r r e d  t o t h e V o c a t i o n a l M e d i c a l O f f i o e r s . Here again, t h e s o c i a l 11. Canada, Department o f S o l d i e r s * C i v i l Be-establishment, The Care and Employment o f t h e Tuberculous Ex-Servioe Man a f t e r Discharge from Sanatorium, B.T.'S.C., C o n f i d e n t i a l Report No. 6, 12.20, Ottawaj King's P r i n t e r , 1921. 12. Segsworth, W a l t e r E., R e t r a i n i n g Canada's D i s a b l e d S o l d i e r s , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1920.  - 87 -  worker i s d e s c r i b e d as a nurse,  "This s o c i a l service  g a t o r s h o u l d be a graduate nurse o f experience who  investi-  has made a  s p e c i a l study o f s o o i a l s e r v i o e c o n d i t i o n s and she i s d i r e c t e d t o a s c e r t a i n the home surroundings o f the man,  offer kindly  ad-  v i c e i f r e q u i r e d , and so attempt t o d i r e c t matters t h a t a l l 13 w o r r i e s w i l l be removed from the man's mind* . 1  s o c i a l workers who  Presumably, these  s e r v e d the V o c a t i o n a l Branch were members o f  the S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n o f the M e d i c a l Branch,  and these  s e r v i c e s rendered would probably be l i s t e d among " c o - o p e r a t i v e and u n c l a s s i f i e d * I n v e s t i g a t i o n s . There was  a l s o b e i n g g i v e n by t h i s Department  attention.».to men who  "special  are i n c l i n e d t o change t h e i r employment  r e p e a t e d l y w i t h a view t o a s c e r t a i n i n g the r e a s o n o f t h i s l e s s n e s s and t o prevent men  rest-  from becoming what i s commonly known  14 as 'Problem Cases'*.  T h i s term, "problem  c a s e s " , I s not  d e f i n e d , but the s i n g l i n g out o f these men  further  does i n d i c a t e an i n -  d i v i d u a l approach and a s e a r c h f o r c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r s i n e f f e c t i n g a s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r problems.  I t i s not known whether o r  not these problem cases are those i n c l u d e d i n the r e c o r d o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the s o c i a l s e r v i c e nurses i n 1980, t h e r e were s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s o f problem  or i f  oases.  I n the work o f the Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l  He-estab-  l i s h m e n t , s o c i a l work i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o under the P e r s o n a l S e r v i o e s D i v i s i o n i n the C h a p l a i n s ' S e r v i c e s , o r g a n i z e d i n 1919. I t i s stated that:  " I n a d d i t i o n , however, through t h e i r p e r s o n a l  c o n t a c t w i t h - t h e men, both i n h o s p i t a l s and homes, the v i s i t i n g 13* I b i d . , - p . 187. • « 14. Canada, Department of SffiEiers' C i v i l E e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t , Canada's Work f o r D i s a b l e d S o l d i e r s , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1919, p . 84.  - 28  chaplains  -  are enabled to achieve a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f  social  s e r v i c e . • . c h a p l a i n s are found t o co-operate w i t h every s o o i a l '4  agenoy t h a t w i l l b r i n g oheer and  a s s i s t a n c e t o the r e t u r n e d  and thus many t r e a t s come the way 15  o f the men  which might  man,  other-  wise be missed". A f t e r the F i r s t World War,  s o c i a l work achieved  n i t i o n i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures. value it  o f "the S o o i a l S e r v i o e  s o o i a l work at t h a t time was m i s c e l l a n e o u s d u t i e s assigned proper s o o i a l work t o d a y .  However, i n r e c o g n i z i n g  System", and  i n t o p r a c t i c e , the government was  experimenting.  an elementary one,  The  There i s no e x p l a n a t i o n  put  idea of  and many of  t o the workers are not  t a r y needs seem t o have been r e c o g n i z e d ,  the  In endeavouring t o  f i n i t i o n o f what the s o c i a l s e r v i c e system i s .  needed a s s i s t a n c e .  some r e c o g -  the  considered  or d e a r  de-  C e r t a i n rudimen-  mainly t h a t the  I n t h a t nurses emerged as the  veteran  definitely  4  appointed  persons t o perform s o c i a l work t a s k s , i t i s evident  t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n o f s o c i a l work was  not r e c o g n i z e d .  Some o f  the s t a t e d ideas o f what a s o c i a l worker does are i n t e r e s t i n g . She  has  been r e f e r r e d t o as f i r s t o f a l l a nurse, but,  a d d i t i o n t o and  aside from her p r o f e s s i o n , she was  "an eduoator and  in  regarded  a reformer", as " o f f e r i n g k i n d l y a d v i c e " ,  as "removing w o r r i e s  from the minds" o f the p a t i e n t s .  l a i n as a s o o i a l worker comes t o l i g h t a l s o , and  and  The  chap-  r e l i g i o u s coun-  s e l l i n g i s again confused w i t h s o c i a l work i n the b r i n g i n g "cheer and  a s s i s t a n c e " t o the v e t e r a n .  The  s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n s eaoh have t h e i r own t i m e s t h e r e may 15..  I b i d . , p.  be some s i m i l a r i t i e s ; but, 89.  as  of  m i n i s t e r i a l and f u n c t i o n s and  the  at  a m i n i s t e r i s no more  - 89 -  a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o o i a l worker t h a n a s o o i a l worker i s a q u a l i f i e d chaplain.  I t perhaps was not intended t h a t the c h a p l a i n  was t o be regarded as a s o c i a l worker; t h i s p r i v i l e g e was r e served f o r the s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d nurse. In  s o c i a l work i t s e l f .  The o o n f u s i o n may be  T h i s i s one more i l l u s t r a t i o n o f I t s  e v o l u t i o n and i t s c o n c e p t i o n i n the p u b l i c mind. 4  -  -  -  -  -  I n today's -  program, t h e purposes o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n are much more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , and the requirements o f a s o c i a l worker are r e s t r i c t e d to  those w i t h a c c r e d i t e d s o o i a l work t r a i n i n g .  Much o f t h e  d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n the growing r e c o g n i t i o n o f s o o i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n , and t h e consequent  establishment o f r e q u i r e d s t a n -  dards o f p r a c t i c e . The Y e a r s Between. 1981-1939 As more and more v e t e r a n s became e s t a b l i s h e d i n c i v i l i a n l i f e , the work o f the Department waned c o n s i d e r a b l y .  Ex- servioe  men had many complaints and t h e r e was demand f o r s p e c i a l v e t e r a n measures and f o r bonuses f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i o e .  I n 1988, t h e  R a l s t o n Commission was appointed t o review t h e whole f i e l d o f the reinstatement of the veteran i n c i v i l i a n l i f e . to  c l a r i f y matters r e g a r d i n g treatment and p e n s i o n s .  I t d i d much I n 19S8,  the Department o f S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment ceased t o e x i s t , and the work o f t h i s department c r e a t e d department  was t a k e n over by a newly  o f government, the Department o f P e n s i o n s and  N a t i o n a l H e a l t h , which employed many o f t h e s t a f f o f the o l d department. In  1930, the War V e t e r a n s ' Allowance Aot was passed. T h i s  Aot p r o v i d e d f o r the payment of an allowance designed t o p r o v i d e a minimum o f support f o r v e t e r a n s who due t o age o r d i s a b i l i t y  -  30  were i n c a p a b l e o f s u p p o r t i n g themselves. assumption t h a t the v e t e r a n was m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , and i t was,  pre-aged  I t was  based on the  about t e n y e a r s by  i n e f f e c t , an e x t e n s i o n of the  Old Age P e n s i o n , the v e t e r a n who  had reached the age o f s i x t y  y e a r s becoming e l i g i b l e f o r a s s i s t a n c e . By an amendment o f 1936,  t h i s age l i m i t was  reduced t o f i f t y - f i v e y e a r s i f the v e t -  e r a n had s e r v e d i n an a c t u a l t h e a t r e o f war  and was  without  means o f support because o f d i s a b i l i t y , p r e - a g i n g , and g e n e r a l unfitness.  T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n has been f u r t h e r amended and today  i s very broad i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , c o v e r i n g v e t e r a n s o f any who,  heoause o f d i s a b i l i t i e s , are permanently  V e t e r a n s who  age  unemployable.  are i n c a p a b l e o r u n l i k e l y t o become capable o f  m a i n t a i n i n g themselves, because o f p h y s i c a l or mental t i e s combined w i t h economic handicaps, are a l s o  disabili-  eligible.  During the t w e n t i e s , many v e t e r a n s were u n c e r t a i n as t o t h e i r pension r i g h t s .  I n 1930,  the V e t e r a n s * Bureau was  t o advise the v e t e r a n i n t h i s r e s p e c t . eau are known as P e n s i o n advocates.  established  The members of t h i s Bur-  T h e i r duty i s t o a i d the  v e t e r a n i n making a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a p e n s i o n .  This service i s  f r e e o f charge, and i s open t o any a p p l i c a n t f o r a p e n s i o n .  If  a v e t e r a n has had an u n s u c c e s s f u l h e a r i n g w i t h the P e n s i o n Comm i s s i o n , he may  e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i t h the P e n s i o n Advocate  secure a s s i s t a n c e t o p l e a d h i s oase. if  I n a p p l y i n g f o r a pension,  a f i r s t h e a r i n g i s u n f a v o u r a b l e , a second h e a r i n g may 4  •  be r e -  4  quested, and i f a pension i s not t h e n granted, r e c o u r s e may had t o an Appeal Board.  and  The P e n s i o n advocate may  an a p p l i c a n t * s oase f o r h e a r i n g , ana may  be  h e l p prepare  a t t e n d upon a h e a r i n g  -  31  o f the Appeal Board, and i f he c o n s i d e r s the d e c i s i o n o f the l a t t e r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , he, on r e v i e w i n g the oase, may  inquire  whether the d e c i s i o n o f the Appeal Board i s .lust i f l e d .  This 4  V e t e r a n s ' Bureau i s independent o f the P e n s i o n s '  Commission,  and i t s purpose i s t o a i d the q?plieant the b e t t e r t o present h i s claim f o r pension. The War  Veterans* Allowance was  Intended  to relieve  s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l unemployed and unable t o work. Byndman Commission was  ex-  I n 1935,  the  appointed t o i n v e s t i g a t e unemployment  r e l i e f c o n d i t i o n s among v e t e r a n s .  and  T h i s Commission recommended  t h a t r e l i e f payments i n p a r t be made by the Dominion Government t o a l l veterans of m i l i t a r y s e r v i o e . In a d d i t i o n to T h i s p r o p o s a l , however, was  pensioners.  not aooepted by the Government.  Commission a l s o recommended the s e t t i n g - u p o f another 4  4  and, i n 1936,  commission,  ' '  the V e t e r a n s ' A s s i s t a n c e Commission was e s t a b l i s h e d  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the extent o f unemployment among v e t e r a n s t o work.  The  able  T h i s Commission reviewed the whole f i e l d o f v e t e r a n s '  l e g i s l a t i o n and p o i n t e d out many o f the shortcomings  o f the r e -  h a b i l i t a t i o n measures i n the years f o l l o w i n g the F i r s t World War.  Many recommendations were made, and many o f the e a r l y  grams were feegun a g a i n .  pro-  Workshops were e s t a b l i s h e d ; employers  were urged t o h i r e v e t e r a n s ; p r o b a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was  advocated;  l o a n s f o r t o o l s , equipment, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o employment were made a v a i l a b l e ; v a r i o u s oorps o f commissionaires up; s m a l l h o l d i n g s p r o j e c t s were reviewed was  and an  were s e t  examination  made as t o t h e i r b e i n g economically s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g ; c o l l e c -  t i o n o f r a d i o l i c e n s e s by v e t e r a n s was  suggested;  and, i t was  - 38  -  recommended t h a t the e i v i l s e r v i c e p r e f e r e n c e he extended non-pensioners.  I n the s p r i n g o f 1937,  to  t h i s Commission r e v e a l -  ed t h a t approximately t h i r t y - t h r e e thousand v e t e r a n s were un~  .  employed, and t h a t a l i t t l e  .  .  .  .  .  .  over twelve thousand were r e c e i v i n g • 4  the War V e t e r a n s * Allowance. o f p e n s i o n e r s were on r e l i e f . who  _  .  .  .  .  .  .  I n a d d i t i o n , a c o n s i d e r a b l e number I t seemed t h a t those v e t e r a n s  had not become e c o n o m i c a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t were s t i l l i n  need o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 1939;  Second World  War  I n 1939, when Canada e n t e r e d the Second World War, s i t u a t i o n was some  not the same as i n 1914.  The  the  government possessed  equipment t o d e a l w i t h t h e forthcoming problem o f the  charged serviceman, I n 1939,  t h e r e was  and o f h i s r e i n s t a t e m e n t i n t o o i v i l i a n a c i v i l i a n government department, the  dislife.  Depart-  ment o f Pensions and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h , equipped w i t h p e r s o n n e l exp e r i e n c e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of v e t e r a n s * a f f a i r s .  To the  M i n i s t e r o f t h i s Department had been g i v e n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f matters r e l a t i n g t o the c a r e , treatment, o r r e i n s t a t e m e n t i n o i v i l l i f e of veterans.  The Department had a t r a i n e d  medioal  s t a f f and widespread treatment f a c i l i t i e s ; t h e r e was  i n operation  a P e n s i o n A c t , and the JI&x Veterans* Allowance  In addition,  Act.  the S o l d i e r Settlement Board, o p e r a t i v e under the Department o f Mines and Resources had a t r a i n e d f i e l d s t a f f making i n v e s t i g a t i o n s f o r the War Veterans* Allowance  Board, the Department o f  Pensions and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h , and the Department of F i n a n c e . 1937,  t h e i r p o l i o y had been s t a t e d as f o l l o w s :  In  "In administra-  t i o n o f s t a t e f i n a n o e d settlement p r o j e c t s , the two  principal  53  f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d are the human element and the r e -  16 covery o f the p u b l i o Investment*. t o such f a c t o r s as advancing  A t t e n t i o n was  being g i v e n  age among the s e t t l e r s and  crop c o n d i t i o n s i n r e c o v e r i n g the p u b l i o investment.  adverse  I n making  p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f these v e t e r a n s - t o - b e , i t i s s t a t e d t h a t "the problem was  not one of c r e a t i n g something  out o f n o t h i n g , but o f expanding  and improving e x i s t i n g s e r -  • v i c e s and e x i s t i n g The y e a r s 1939 tivity  &  legislation". t o 1946,  I n c l u s i v e , were marked by much ac-  i n the f i e l d o f v e t e r a n s * l e g i s l a t i o n .  appointed; b i d A c t s were reviewed;  Committees were  amendments t o e x i s t i n g A c t s  were passed; O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l were e n f o r c e d ; and new introduced.  S t u d i e s were made of problems o f post-war economic  reconstruction. i n accordance  A c t s were  An endeavour was made t o p l a n f o r the v e t e r a n  w i t h t h e i r f i n d i n g s ; t h a t i s t o say, he was  t o be  f i t t e d as f a r as p o s s i b l e i n t o the post-war economic p a t t e r n . Among s u b j e c t s o f d i s c u s s i o n and o f a c t i o n were the r e - e d u c a t i o n and r e t r a i n i n g o f c a s u a l t i e s , d i s c h a r g e pay o r g r a t u i t i e s , statement  rein-  i n employment, a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t , establishment  o f a form o f v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , the f a c i l i t a t i n g of the t i n u a n c e o f secondary  con-  or p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g ,  p e n s i o n s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l and b u s i n e s s l o a n s . work done on v e t e r a n s * a f f a i r s was  reviewed;  I n 1946,  the  s e v e r a l o f the  ex-  i s t i n g A c t s were amended and v a r i o u s O r d e r s - i n C o u n c i l were consolidated into Acts of Parliament.  T h i s veterans*  legislation  o f the y e a r s 1939-1946 was oompiled i n t o what*is known as the 16. Canada; Department o f Mines and Resources, Annual Report.. 1937, Ottawa* King's P r i n t e r , 1938, p. 317. ' 17. Canada,1946. Canada-, Department e fKing*s Veterans* s , Thep. Veterans* Charter, Ottawa, P r i n tA ef rf ,a i r1947, S90.  - 34 :••  Veterans* The of  Charter. present v e t e r a n s * r e h a h i l i t a t i o n program i s the r e s u l t  an e v o l u t i o n o f a system of g r a n t s and s e r v i o e s on b e h a l f o f  the v e t e r a n .  The  d i s c h a r g e d servioeman has, I n e f f e c t , been 0  ' t  segregated  from the c i v i l i a n by t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n , although, i n  a sense, t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n may ing  he regarded as the temporary  fill-  i n o f a gap u n t i l more adequate s o o i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i s a v a i l -  able t o a l l Canadian c i t i z e n s . shown a b r e a d t h o f v i s i o n .  The  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures have  T r a i n i n g and s e r v i c e s have not been  c o n f i n e d o n l y t o the d i s a b l e d or under-age v e t e r a n s ;  agricultural  settlement has been o f f e r e d , not only where i t i s t o r e p r e s e n t a t o t a l income, but a l s o only a p a r t i a l income, f o r the former serviceman;  and p r o v i s i o n was  i n the f i r s t  made f o r the payment o f  allowances  few months o f d i s o h a r g e , i n o r d e r t h a t the v e t e r a n  might make^an e a s i e r a s s i m i l a t i o n t o " c i v v y s t r e e t " .  To a i d t h e  government i n the c a r r y i n g out o f these measures, i n 1940, h a h i l i t a t i o n Branoh t o a d m i n i s t e r a l l c i v i l s e r v i c e s was Health.  Re-  re-establishment  c r e a t e d i n the Department o f Pensions  I n 1944,  a  and N a t i o n a l  the Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s was  es-  t a b l i s h e d , i n which department, i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e , a l l v e t e r ans* l e g i s l a t i o n was  t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d .  No government has  g a n i z e d a more oomplete w e l f a r e department f o r the c i v i l r e establishment  o f war  veterans.  or-  - 35  -  Chapter 3  THE SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION IN THE DEPARTMENTAL ORGANIZATION  O u t l i n e of W e l f a r e A d m l n i a t r a t Ion. The Department of V e t e r a n s * A f f a i r s A c t , and t h e Department o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Welfare A c t were brought October, 1944.  into force i n  A t t h i s time, the Department of Pensions  and  N a t i o n a l H e a l t h ceased t o e x i s t ; I t s f u n c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g n a t i o n a l h e a l t h were assumed by the Department of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , and i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e g a r d i n g war v e t e r a n s were t a k e n over by the Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s . T h i s v e t e r a n s * Department c o n s i s t s o f s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t Branches,  among them the Treatment  V e t e r a n s * Welfare S e r v i c e s Branch.  S e r v i c e s Branch, and the These Branohes i n o l u d e v a r -  i o u s D i v i s i o n s , suoh as the S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n , I n a d d i t i o n , the Canadian P e n s i o n Commission, and the  War  V e t e r a n s * Allowance Board are attached t o the Department, whioh s u p p l i e s them w i t h s t a f f and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  expenses.  The P e n s i o n Commission, however, i s an independent body, the members o f which are v e s t e d w i t h e x c l u s i v e power and  authority  t o a d j u d i c a t e upon p e n s i o n c l a i m s , and t o award pensions t o f o r mer m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l .  The Chairman o f t h i s Commission r e p o r t s  on i t s work t o the M i n i s t e r o f Veterans* A f f a i r s .  L i k e w i s e , the  War V e t e r a n s * Allowance Board i s a body o f persons, who cate and award the War V e t e r a n s * Allowanoe  adjudi-  t o needy a p p l i c a n t s .  Another r e l a t e d body i s the V e t e r a n s * Land Act A d m i n i s t r a tion.  W i t h i n the past y e a r o r two, t h i s has become more c l o s e l y  - 36 -  i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n the Department, u t i l i z i n g suoh s e r v i o e s as aooommodation, p u r c h a s i n g , s t o r e s , s t a t i s t i c s , l e g a l , and p e r sonnel.  Wherever p o s s i b l e , i t s o f f i c e s have been p l a c e d i n  b u i l d i n g s occupied  by Departmental o f f i o e s , although i t has  many a d d i t i o n a l o f f i c e s throughout the c o u n t r y .  T h i s has been  found t o e f f e c t economy i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i s an a d d i t i o n a l convenience f o r d i s c h a r g e d  men and women seeking  services.  I t has not been p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n an o f f i c i a l  organization-  a l c h a r t o f t h e Department and the f o l l o w i n g diagram, emphasizi n g t h e p l a c e o f the S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n i n the Department, shows only roughly  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  organization.  The a u t h o r i t y f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f the Department i s v e s t e d i n an Aot o f P a r l i a m e n t .  At the head o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n I s the  M i n i s t e r o f Veterans* A f f a i r s .  He i s t h e parliamentary  repre-  s e n t a t i v e o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h i s p o s i t i o n i s oooupied by d i f f e r e n t persons from time t o t i m e .  The Deputy M i n i s t e r i s a  more o r l e s s permanent employee and i s , i n e f f e c t , the exeoutive d i r e o t o r o f t h e whole a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . the  Responsible t o him f o r  c a r r y i n g out o f the work are the A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r ,  the S e o r e t a r y ,  and t h e Heads o f the v a r i o u s Branohes o f the De-  partment at t h e Head O f f i c e i n Ottawa, as w e l l as the R e g i o n a l and D i s t r i c t  Administrators.  Because o f the v a s t n e s s o f Canada and the wide d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h i s geographical  area, f o r the purpose o f more e f f e c t i v e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the oountry has been d i v i d e d i n t o two Eastern  and Western.  W i t h i n these two r e g i o n s  regions.  are s i x t e e n d i s -  Figure i . Administrative Chart of the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n cc  Dept. of veterans A f f a i r s Act  5¥ settlement  Sanaaian Pension Commission jiTar Veterans allowance Board  I Minister  or Veterans A f f a i r s  ana veterans* Land  I Deputy M i n i s t e r "  Assistant Deuutv Minister  War ' ' ervioe ecoras  t Director Inves- VeterWar Servioe t i g a - ans' Aelfare Grranta t i o n  jre ctor Social Service Ivislon  IF  c  ti) a  tK  superintendent Veterans Welfare Branch  1 Administration Branch  rreacment Branch  1  1 cetera  I X Supervisors 7eterand Envesti- flTar Veterans S o c i a l Ser- Welfare ition Allowance vice Division O f f i c e r s Lvision D i v i s i o n gocial Vyorieersi  — •  Regional Administrator  mlnlstratorsl  1  I  • M i l •-•fc nil.  rjarBTeterans Allowance  .Administrator!  a.  I  I  EegaTT pirq d r e t e r - rreaRepresentD i v i s - son.tative ^ ion nsurBureau of nel grans1stions lanoe cer  1 D i s t r i c t BUD-ttisuricc DepaJtimenC" Department Hospitals I n s t i t u Dffices Offices tions — — Direct Authority = = = Direot Communication  - 38  t r i c t s and t h r e e s u b - d i s t r i c t s .  -  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , a  De-  partment of V e t e r a n s * A f f a i r s o f f i c e i n London, England, i s a separate  unit.  At the head o f each r e g i o n i s a R e g i o n a l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e n e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l and i n the d i s t r i c t s .  These two  men  Administrator,  s u p e r v i s o r y work  meet at i n t e r v a l s w i t h  Deputy M i n i s t e r and the A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r and  the  form  what i s known as an A d v i s o r y P o l i o y C o u n c i l making recommendat i o n s t o the M i n i s t e r . I n eaoh d i s t r i c t , a D i s t r i c t A d m i n i s t r a t o r  i s responsible  t o the Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r the work of the Department. district  Each  o f f i c e i s v i r t u a l l y a r e p l i c a o f the Head O f f i c e at  Ottawa, the D i s t r i c t A d m i n i s t r a t o r Deputy M i n i s t e r .  The  b e i n g the e q u i v a l e n t of the  former has the a u t h o r i t y t o take execu-  t i v e a c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r most o f the  rehab-  i l i t a t i o n b e n e f i t s , except i n unusual circumstances where the question of p o l i o y i s involved. t r a l i z e d one  The  program i s thus a decen-  and t h e r e w i l l be s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t  p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y .  The  o b j e c t i v e has  the v a r i o u s o f f e r e d s e r v i c e s i n one  been t o  concentrate  building, a district  office  o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n oentre, whioh i s a p o i n t o f contact f o r the d i s c h a r g e d man  or woman r e q u e s t i n g advice or a s s i s t a n c e .  In  a d d i t i o n , c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s are housed i n the Veterans* H o s p i t a l s , V e t e r a n s * I n s t i t u t i o n s , and S u b - d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s . Development o f the S o c i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n There has been a c e r t a i n e v o l u t i o n i n the development  and  - 39 -  the p l a c e o f t h e S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n w i t h i n t h e Department. Although t h e r e was a S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n i n t h e Department of S o l d i e r s  1  C i v i l Re-establishment  f o l l o w i n g t h e F i r s t World  War, a f t e r t h e year 19E0, no r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h i s  division  i n t h e annual r e p o r t s o f the Department o r i n t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e subsequent  Department o f Pensions and n a t i o n a l H e a l t h .  There i s  no r e c o r d as t o Whether "the s o c i a l s e r v i c e n u r s e s * o f 1919-19S0 were dispensed w i t h ; whether t h e i r s e r v i c e was no l o n g e r r e q u i r e d ; o r whether t h e i r f u n c t i o n as s o o i a l workers beoame synonymous w i t h t h e i r n u r s i n g d u t i e s .  I t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o say t h a t a t  the b e g i n n i n g o f the Second World War i n 1939, t h e r e was no Soci a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n as such i n the e x i s t i n g v e t e r a n s ' department. D u r i n g 1940 and 1941, r e a l i z a t i o n developed w i t h i n t h e Department o f Pensions and n a t i o n a l H e a l t h t h a t s o o i a l problems would a r i s e i n many I n s t a n c e s .  Departmental  o f f i c i a l s had many  d i s c u s s i o n s and c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h v a r i o u s people, among them D r . Cherlotte Whitton,  and, p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h i s , V e t e r a n s '  Welfare O f f i o e r s were appointed I n t h e new R e h a b i l i t a t i o n at Head O f f i c e and at the v a r i o u s D i s t r i o t O f f i c e s .  Branch  The b u s i n e s s  o f these o f f i c e r s was t o acquaint themselves w i t h t h e d e v e l o p i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures and t o i n t e r v i e w , a d v i s e , and a s s i s t mer members o f t h e f o r c e s .  for-  T h e i r d u t i e s i n c l u d e d such matters  as a knowledge o f r e g u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o pensions,  allowances,  m e d i o a l treatment, employment, t r a i n i n g , s o c i a l w e l f a r e , housing sohemes, and land s e t t l e m e n t .  With t h e i n o r e a s e i n the number  of d i s c h a r g e s , the d u t i e s o f these persons i n c r e a s e d ; many o f  - 40  them were unaware o f t h e community r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t persons w i t h s o o i a l problems. district to district  There were v a r i a t i o n s  from  and, i n one or two d i s t r i c t s , t h e r e was a  l i a i s o n between t h e members o f t h e Department and o f oommunity s o c i a l agencies.  G e n e r a l speaking, however, as f a r as s o o i a l  work was concerned, the experiment  failed.  Another matter t o be c o n s i d e r e d was t h a t o f the s e r v i o e s available t o casualties.  A C a s u a l t y R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e c t i o n was  formed t o g i v e s e r v i c e t o the s e r i o u s l y d i s a b l e d e x - s e r v i c e p e r sonnel i n reoeipt of pensions.  The f u n c t i o n s o f t h i s S e c t i o n  were a combination o f m e d i c a l s o c i a l work and v o c a t i o n a l g u i d ance c o u n s e l l i n g .  The aim was t o r e - e s t a b l i s h the d i s c h a r g e d  man o r woman i n g a i n f u l employment o f such a nature t h a t h i s capa c i t i e s would not be over-taxed and h i s disablement would not c o n s t i t u t e a handicap. The needs o f c e r t a i n v e t e r a n s were not being met by the above two s e r v i o e s , and S p e c i a l Case C o u n s e l l o r s were appointed, and t r a i n e d t o a s s i s t those h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y .  The appointment  o f these c o u n s e l l o r s was t h e f i n a l e f f o r t o f the T r a i n i n g D i v i s i o n , the W e l f a r e D i v i s i o n , and t h e C a s u a l t y R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Seot i o n t o a i d former m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l i n a d j u s t i n g t o c i v i l i a n living. The  f i n a l c o - o r d i n a t i n g a u t h o r i t y f o r a l l the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  s e r v i c e s working w i t h i n o r without the Department was a D i s t r i c t Rehabilitation  Review Board, the members o f which s a t as a case  conference a u t h o r i t y t o a c t on i n d i v i d u a l cases prepared i n advance by the S p e c i a l Case C o u n s e l l o r s .  - 41  A l o n g w i t h t h i s development i n t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branoh, t h e r e developed a need f o r s o c i a l workers.  A t the same time,  a need f o r m e d i c a l s o c i a l workers g r a d u a l l y beoame apparent w i t h i n t h e Treatment Branch.  Treatment s e r v i c e s i n o l u d e  depart-  mental h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , medioal, s u r g i c a l , p s y o h i a t r i o , d e n t a l , and p r o s t h e t i o t r e a t m e n t s . I n 1945, Departmental o f f i c i a l s requested S o c i a l Science  the D i r e o t o r o f  at N a t i o n a l Defence Headquarters t o make a s u r -  vey o f the requirements o f v e t e r a n s  f o r s o o i a l s e r v i o e , and as  a r e s u l t o f the recommendations o f t h a t r e p o r t the present Sooi a l S e r v i o e D i r e c t o r a t e was e s t a b l i s h e d . s o c i a l worker was appointed  A trained professional  as the Departmental D i r e c t o r and he  assumed t h e t a s k o f o r g a n i z i n g the D i v i s i o n .  As p e r s o n n e l  a v a i l a b l e , the D i v i s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the v a r i o u s  became  districts.  At f i r s t , t h e r e were s e t i p , w i t h i n the D i v i s i o n , t h r e e Sections:  R e f e r r a l , Medioal,  and I n v e s t i g a t i o n .  I n the d i s t r i c t s ,  the heads o f these s e c t i o n s were r e s p o n s i b l e t o the D i s t r i c t Supervisor o f work.  o f t h e S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n f o r t h e i r performance The R e f e r r a l S e c t i o n was what i s now known as t h e  S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n , and p r o v i d e s  a s o o i a l s e r v i o e program  w i t h i n t h e Veterans* W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s Branch, f o r m e r l y the Reh a b i l i t a t i o n Branoh. Supervisor  The former D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r  i s now t h e  o f the S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n .  The M e d i o a l S e c t i o n d e a l t w i t h medioal and p s y c h i a t r i c soci a l work, and was almost e n t i r e l y the i n t e r e s t o f t h e Treatment S e r v i c e s , and these s o o i a l workers were t o he found mainly i n  - 43 -  the Departmental H o s p i t a l s o r C l i n i c s .  The M e d i c a l  has now been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the Treatment Branch. c a l s o c i a l workers are a separate  Section The medi-  u n i t and are r e s p o n s i b l e t o  the H o s p i t a l Superintendent o f the I n s t i t u t i o n i n which they are employed.  The D i s t r i c t A d m i n i s t r a t o r s  are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  c o - o r d i n a t i n g the work o f t h e S o o i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n and the M e d i o a l S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , although,  on r e q u e s t , the S u p e r v i s o r  o f the D i v i s i o n may a c t as c o n s u l t a n t t o the m e d i o a l s o c i a l workers o r t o the H o s p i t a l Superintendents on s o o i a l work matters.  I n some d i s t r i c t s , the I n v e s t i g a t i o n S e c t i o n was never  a p a r t o f the S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n , f o r example, i n the B r i t i s h Columbia D i s t r i c t .  The f u n c t i o n s o f t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n  D i v i s i o n are g e n e r a l l y t o o b t a i n and compile f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , by i n t e r v i e w s o r otherwise,  as may be r e q u i r e d f o r any purpose  by t h e Department, t h e Pensions Commission, and the War V e t e r ans* Allowance Board.  The I n v e s t i g a t i o n D i v i s i o n i s now  separ-  ate from the S o c i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n . I n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e set-up, the S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n has  been s h i f t e d back and f o r t h between the Veterans* W e l f a r e 4  S e r v i c e s Branch, and the General A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Branch. l a t t e r i n s t a n c e , the S u p e r v i s o r D i s t r i c t Administrator  I n the  i s d i r e c t l y responsible to the  f o r the performance o f d u t i e s , and the  D i r e c t o r o f t h e D i v i s i o n at Head O f f i c e i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r .  The reason f o r the. D i v i s i o n being  p l a c e d w i t h i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Branch may have been t o g i v e the S u p e r v i s o r o f the D i v i s i o n more freedom while the medioal  43  s o c i a l workers s t i l l came under h e r a u t h o r i t y .  That i s t o say,  i n e f f e c t i n g t h e work o f t h e D i v i s i o n concerning medioal s o o i a l work, i t would not he necessary  f o r the l i n e of a u t h o r i t y t o  pass f i r s t through t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branoh when t h e matter was s o l e l y the concern o f the Treatment Branoh.  W i t h the s e g r e g a t i o n  o f the medioal s o o i a l workers from t h e D i v i s i o n s o o i a l workers, 4  the D i v i s i o n has become a p a r t o f the V e t e r a n s ' Welfare f o r m e r l y the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branoh.  Branch*  T h i s Branch has r e c e n t l y  been r e o r g a n i z e d t o i n c l u d e a l l s e r v i c e s e x c l u d i n g treatment dered t o the v e t e r a n .  ren-  S o o i a l S e r v i o e should be c o n s i d e r e d anot4  h e r o f t h e V e t e r a n s ' Welfare  S e r v i c e s , which i n o l u d e the f o l l o w -  ing: 1. , 2. 3. 4. 5.  T r a i n i n g and C o u n s e l l i n g * Re-establishment C r e d i t , a v a i l a b l e anytime w i t h i n t e n years o f discharge. Casualty R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Investigation. War V e t e r a n s ' Allowance.  6.  The S o c i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n .  These s e r v i o e s except  f o r those  of the S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v -  i s i o n are c a r r i e d out by V e t e r a n s ' Welfare  Officers.  The d u t i e s  o f these o f f i o e r s i n c l u d e c o u n s e l l i n g and a d v i s o r y s e r v i o e s r e g a r d i n g employment, b u s i n e s s , s o c i a l , and p e r s o n a l problems, c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , w i t h  veteran  groups, l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and g e n e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work. Those i n t h e h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e phases of the w e l f a r e and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program w i t h i n t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l area, and t h e i r work a l s o e n t a i l s l i a i s o n w i t h o t h e r community and governmental  agencies.  The t r a i n i n g o f t h e s e o f f i o e r s i s v a r i e d , but o e r t a i n standards have been s e t .  The oandidate f o r a p o s i t i o n must  have a t l e a s t two y e a r s o f high, s o h o o l  (as t h e r e i s a d d i t i o n a l  o r e d i t f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g , t h i s means t h a t t h e oandidate o f t e n has had more f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g t h a n the minimum I n a d d i t i o n , experience In business employment  required}.  i s r e q u i r e d i n a r e l a t e d f i e l d o f work -  and p r o f e s s i o n a l work; knowledge o f o c c u p a t i o n s p o s s i b i l i t i e s , o f veterans*  Department i t s e l f .  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , -and o f the  A knowledge o f v o c a t i o n a l guidance, t e s t i n g  and  c o u n s e l l i n g , and of the eoonomio and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f  the  community  determining  i s desirable.  Personal s u i t a b i l i t y i s also a  factor.  Head O f f i c e S t a f f A t the Head O f f i c e o f the Department i n Ottawa, the s t a f f of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n c o n s i s t s o f a D i r e o t o r , a F i e l d Consultant, to time.  and a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f as may'he r e q u i r e d from time  The D i r e o t o r i n h i s work i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the D i r e o -  t o r - G e n e r a l of the Veterans* W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s Branoh. are many.  His duties  Inoluded among them are the f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s  and procedures f o r the D i v i s i o n as w e l l as i t s development and supervision.  P a r t o f h i s work I s t h a t o f making recommendations  and g i v i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n and advice t o the v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t  offio-  ,-  i a l s regarding and  s o o i a l work developments, standards of p r a c t i c e ,  a l l matters concerning  treatment.  4  s o c i a l work, s o c i a l problems and t h e i r  A l s o i n o l u d e d i n h i s d u t i e s are the undertaking  of  r e s e a r c h as r e q u i r e d , the p r o v i s i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s t a t i s tics,  and the m a i n t a i n i n g  o f l i a i s o n w i t h F e d e r a l Departments o f  -  government and w i t h s o o i a l The  F i e l d Consultant  45  -  agenoies. i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e D i r e o t o r o f the  S o o i a l S e r v i c e Department f o r work performed, and i n the l e t t e r ' s absence a c t s i n h i s s t e a d .  The F i e l d C o n s u l t a n t i s accountable  f o r t h e development and s u p e r v i s i o n o f the s o c i a l work program i n the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s .  She g i v e s advioe  on matters p e r t a i n i n g  t o s o o i a l work t r a i n i n g as w e l l as i n t h e s e l e c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of personnel.  T h i s i s done I n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e C i v i l  S e r v i c e Commission, the P e r s o n n e l D i v i s i o n , and w i t h the D i r e c t o r of Medioal S o o i a l S e r v i c e s .  An important  p a r t o f t h e work i s the  making o f f i e l d v i s i t s t o the D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r s and i n a s s i s t i n g them i n m a i n t a i n i n g l i a i s o n w i t h d i s t r i c t h e a l t h and w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s , i n i n t e r p r e t i n g departmental  s o c i a l work p o l i c y , and  i n g i v i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n and h e l p w i t h l e c t u r e s and i n structional material.  A s s i s t a n c e and advice on s o o i a l work mat-  t e r s i s given t o the D i s t r i c t Administrators.  The F i e l d Con-  s u l t a n t a l s o p r o v i d e s r e p o r t s on the g e n e r a l development o f the s o c i a l work program i n t h e v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s and makes recommendat i o n s where necessary community agenoies.  r e g a r d i n g l i a i s o n w i t h the Department and I t i s h e r duty t o m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e  v a r i o u s Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s and Schools o f S o c i a l Work, especi a l l y r e g a r d i n g p r o s p e c t i v e p e r s o n n e l and t h e i r t r a i n i n g . District Offices Staff I n the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s , the S u p e r v i s o r o f the S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n a c t s as a c o n s u l t a n t t o the D i s t r i c t on a l l s o o i a l work matters,  Administrator  and i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the S u p e r i n t e n -  dent o f the Veterans* Welfare  S e r v i c e s f o r t h e s o o i a l work p r o -  -  gram o f the D i v i s i o n .  46  C h i e f among  her d u t i e s i s the  mainten-  ance o f a c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e t o a l l branches, d i v i s i o n s , s e c t i o n s , and r e l a t e d bodies o f the Department.  T h i s i s accomplish-  ed by such t h i n g s as p a r t i c i p a t i o n on Departmental  committees  and boards c o n c e r n i n g s o o i a l w e l f a r e matters; i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f program i n o r d e r t o prevent d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t on the p a r t o f o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l ; and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f community s o o i a l agencies and t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o Departmental  p e r s o n n e l , as w e l l as the p r o -  motion of a continuous t e a c h i n g program, through i n d i v i d u a l and group d i s c u s s i o n s , o r as the o p p o r t u n i t y a r i s e s .  The S u p e r v i s o r ' s  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t h a t o f h e l p i n g t o develop an awareness on t h e p a r t o f community s o c i a l agencies o f the departmental a v a i l a b l e t o v e t e r a n s , and at the same time working agencies p o l i c i e s of r e f e r e n c e .  services  out w i t h these  I n so doing, she may  endeavour  t o h e l p In s t r e n g t h e n i n g community resouroes f o r v e t e r a n s i n forming good r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t e r e s t e d l a y persons.  and  The  Sup-  e r v i s o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the work o f the D i v i s i o n i n her D i s trict,  and s u p e r v i s e s the s o c i a l work s t a f f , a l l o t s  the work  among them, h e l p s t o m a i n t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l standards of p r a c t i c e , and sees t h a t a l l the s t a f f adhere t o the Departmental  polioy.  She must a l s o see t h a t a "Resources F i l e " and a "Master  Index"  are kept by the D i v i s i o n , and p r o v i d e s t a t i s t i o a l and p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s as r e q u i r e d . The  s o o i a l workers i n the S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n are  e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o the S u p e r v i s o r of the D i v i s i o n , who,  dirin  t u r n , i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the D i s t r i c t Superintendent  of  *  the V e t e r a n s ' Welfare S e r v i c e s Branch, and so on t o the  District  - 4:7  -  A d m i n i s t r a t o r , up t o the Deputy M i n i s t e r ,  S i m i l a r l y , at Head  O f f i c e , the l i n e o f a u t h o r i t y extends from the s o c i a l work s t a f f t o the D i r e c t o r o f the D i v i s i o n and thence t o the D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f Veterans* W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , and so f o r t h .  However, I n  a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , t h e r e i s a d i r e o t l i n e of commmiioation between the S u p e r v i s o r s o f the D i s t r i c t S o c i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n s ,  and  the D i r e o t o r of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n at Ottawa on p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l matters not i n v o l v i n g d i s t r i c t  administration,  T h i s does not supersede the S u p e r v i s o r s * r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the D i s t r i c t Superintendents o f Veterans* W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , but i s a l e s s cumbersome c h a n n e l through whioh advioe may sought, o r s u g g e s t i o n s may  be  directly  be made on s o o i a l work p r a c t i c e s .  - 48 Chapter 4  THE POLICY OF THE SOCIAL SERVICE DISTRICT DIVISIONS  Nature and Soope o f t h e D i v i s i o n . The  S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n aooepts as i t s o e n t r a l a r e a o f  work t h a t o f t h e Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , whioh i s a s suming i t s p l a c e as a f e d e r a l agenoy concerned h a n d l i n g o f s o c i a l problems.  w i t h t h e proper  The v e t e r a n i s the f o c a l p o i n t o f  a l l s e r v i c e s g i v e n , whether these are r e l a t e d t o h i s c a r e , treatment, ing  t r a i n i n g , o r re-establishment i n c i v i l l i f e .  Follow-  d e m o b i l i z a t i o n , t h e former members o f the m i l i t a r y f o r c e s  sought mostly b e n e f i t s suoh as allowances, t r a i n i n g , o r r e - e s t a b lishment c r e d i t s , many o f which were a v a i l a b l e only f o r a l i m i t e d p e r i o d o f time f o l l o w i n g d i s c h a r g e and have now e x p i r e d .  The r e -  s u l t i s t h a t many former s e r v i c e men and women now coming t o the Department are seeking a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f a s s i s t a n c e l a r g e l y concerned w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l problems.  One p a r t o f the o r g a n i -  z a t i o n ' s program i s t o a v o i d d u p l i c a t i n g s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d f o r a l l c i t i z e n s I n t h e community.  A very r e a l necessity i s , there-  f o r e , t h a t Departmental employees w i t h whom the v e t e r a n has cont a c t should have s u f f i c i e n t knowledge and understanding  o f soc-  i a l problems and o f community s o c i a l agencies t o be able t o d i r ect  him t o e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e r e s o u r c e s , where h i s needs may he  met. Although t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n i s f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n the framework o f a governmental agenoy, i t r e t a i n s i t s own speci a l approach and methods w i t h i n t h a t a r e a .  For the f i r s t  time,  - 49 -  o f f i c i a l s o f a governmental department s e r v i n g v e t e r a n s have r e o o g n i z e d s o o i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n ,  and d i f f e r i n g from t h e  polioy i n the early twenties, the necessity  o f employing t r a i n -  ed s o o i a l workers t o perform the work o f t h e D i v i s i o n has been 18 realized.  I n t h e Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s , the f u n c t i o n  o f the D i v i s i o n w i t h i n the Department and w i t h i n the oommunity has  been o u t l i n e d .  The p l a n has been t o make as e f f i c i e n t and  as economical a use o f s o o i a l workers as p o s s i b l e , and, i n o r d e r t o achieve t h i s purpose, t h e s o c i a l worker i s a v a i l a b l e as a c o n s u l t a n t  on s o o i a l problems t o every member o f t h e De-  p a r t m e n t a l s t a f f , e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e Veterans* W e l f a r e O f f i o e r s . The  D i v i s i o n * s work, however, does n o t i n f r i n g e on the  area of  s e r v i o e g i v e n by t h e m e d i o a l s o o i a l workers i n t h e Department. Generally, Hospitals  t h e l a t t e r * s work w i l l be w i t h i n t h e Departmental and I n s t i t u t i o n s , and the D i v i s i o n * s work w i t h i n t h e  D i s t r i c t and t h e S u b - d i s t r i c t O f f i c e s . L i a i s o n w i t h t h e Community In order t o mobilize  the resources outside  t o t h e advantage o f t h e e x - s e r v i c e  o f the Department  men and women, t h e s o o i a l wor-  k e r s w i t h i n the D i s t r i c t D i v i s i o n s must have a thorough knowledge o f t h e i r communities.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , the p o l i o y o f the D i v i -  s i o n i s t o m a i n t a i n "a l i a i s o n w i t h community agencies'*, v e t e r ans  being r e f e r r e d t o these agenoies by t h e D i v i s i o n and v i c e  versa. The  D i v i s i o n w i l l accept problems r e f e r r e d by o u t s i d e  agen-  o i e s p r o v i d i n g t h a t t h e s e r v i o e t o be g i v e n i s not c o n t r a r y t o the g e n e r a l p o l i o y o f the D i v i s i o n . 18. Canada, Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s , R e g u l a t i o n s and I n s t r u c t i o n s , "Chapter 3 , - S e c t i o n 13, V e t e r a n s ' W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , S o o i a l S e r v i c e s " , mimeographed.  50 -  Whenever p o s s i b l e , cases coming t o the D i v i s i o n are r e ferred.  A r e l a t i o n s h i p i s maintained w i t h s o c i a l agencies which  have an e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y , w i t h v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and with interested o i t i z e n s . agenoies  The p o l i o y i s t o u t i l i z e t h e s o o i a l  as much as p o s s i b l e ; they are not expected t o g i v e  s e r v i c e s t o v e t e r a n s whioh they are not organized t o g i v e t o o t h e r o i t i z e n s ; and t h e i r r i g h t t o r e f u s e a oase because o f l a c k o f s t a f f , budgetary  expenses o r other reasons  i s recognized.  The D i v i s i o n does not pay any o f these agencies o r persons f o r s e r v i c e s , s i n c e suoh s e r v i c e s are presumably w i t h i n the normal f u n c t i o n o f t h e agency o r group. When s o c i a l agenoies w i t h an e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i o y f o r v a r i o u s reasons r e f u s e a oase, o r i n an area where t h e r e are no s o c i a l agenoies  a v a i l a b l e , the p o l i o y o f the D i v i s i o n i s t o make use o f  v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , suoh as t h e Canadian L e g i o n , o r the Imp e r i a l Order Daughters o f the Empire, o r t o seek t h e h e l p o f i n terested individuals.  Emphasis i s p l a o e d on the development o f  e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s r a t h e r t h a n on d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t . - ...  If 4  t h e r e are no e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s t o serve t h e v e t e r a n i n need, the S u p e r v i s o r o f the D i v i s i o n , perhaps w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f the l o c a l C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l Agencies,  or o f t h e Canadian Welfare  C o u n c i l , may endeavour t o s t i m u l a t e t h e community t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a needed s e r v i o e . Voluntary organizations often lack c l e a r l y defined p o l i o i e s , and t h e work o f t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s may o v e r l a p .  It i s  w i t h i n t h e a r e a o f work o f t h e D i v i s i o n t o study these groups and t o work out a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h them.  The S u p e r v i s o r , w i t h  the D i s t r i o t A d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s a p p r o v a l may endeavour t o i n t e r e s t  — 51 —  groups s e r v i n g v e t e r a n s t o form t h e i r own  o r g a n i z a t i o n , co-  o r d i n a t i n g t h e i r p o l i c i e s t o g i v e a more e f f i c i e n t s e r v i o e . i s suggested t h a t t h i s should be done i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g C o u n c i l o f S o o i a l Agenoies, i f suoh t h e r e be,  It an  and t h a t  these v a r i o u s community o r g a n i z a t i o n s should aim at membership i n the C o u n c i l . these  The  S u p e r v i s o r may  a l s o aot as a oonsultant  groups i n the i n t e r e s t o f e x - s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l ,  and  to  the  D i v i s i o n i n o o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Index might o f f e r them a c l e a r i n g s e r v i c e f o r oases being handled i n the 4  area. may  Where no v o l u n t a r y s e r v i o e s e x i s t , I n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s  be enoouraged t o develop t h e i r own Supervisors  organizations.  are urged t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the work and  a c t i v i t i e s o f the C o u n c i l s of S o o i a l Agencies,  the  and when they  are able t o c o n t r i b u t e , they are enoouraged t o aot upon o r "to c h a i r committees on v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s .  Another method of  estab-  l i s h i n g good r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f of  other  agenoies and o f keeping up-to-date on c u r r e n t developments i s by the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the s o c i a l work s t a f f o f the D i v i s i o n i n the a o t i v i t i e s o f the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of S o o i a l Workers. T h i s i s a l s o a way  o f keeping other workers aware o f the  devel-  opments w i t h i n the Department. The  D i v i s i o n S u p e r v i s o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e l o c a l l y f o r working ' 4  out a program w i t h the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Index i n the d i s t r i c t ,  as  i n r e g i s t e r i n g , r e - r e g i s t e r i n g , and e n q u i r i n g f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g cases, the p o l i c y of the S o c i a l S e r v i o e Index as w e l l as t h a t of the Department i s i n v o l v e d .  Although "Veterans'  Welfare  - 53  -  O f f i o e r s , I n v e s t i g a t o r s , and other Departmental o f f i c i a l s  are  enoouraged t o use  the Index, t h i s program i s a l s o worked out  the l o c a l l e v e l .  I f d u p l i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s already  t o the v e t e r a n  i s t o he  avoided, the  supplied  s e r v i c e g i v e n by the  Sooial  S e r v i c e Index i s e s s e n t i a l t o c a r r y out the p o l i o y of the sion,  at  Divi-  Regarding payment f o r t h i s s e r v i c e , eaoh D i s t r i c t Adminis-  t r a t o r may  negotiate  d i r e c t l y w i t h the Index.  c l e a r i n g each oase w i t h the Index i s 15# a u t h o r i z e d l o c a l l y ; i f the  I f the  oost  of  o r l e s s , payment may  oost exceeds 15£, the approval  he  for  t h i s expenditure must be g i v e n by Head O f f i c e p e r s o n n e l i n O t t awa.  I n a d d i t i o n , the Department must be s u p p l i e d w i t h the  In-  dex's annual r e p o r t showing the number o f c l e a r i n g s f o r a l l agencies,  a copy o f the a u d i t o r ' s statement o f accounts, and  assurance t h a t t h i s Department r e c e i v e s s e r v i c e o f a k i n d at  a r a t e comparable w i t h other p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s .  i s a somewhat cumbersome procedure, and an economy o f Departmental The  an  and This  i s e v i d e n t l y prompted by  administration.  method o f keeping case r e c o r d s  I s somewhat d i f f e r e n t  w i t h i n the S o c i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n from t h a t w i t h i n a p r i v a t e s o o i a l agency.  The  r e g u l a t i o n s of the Department s p e c i f y t h a t  a l l correspondence i s t o be p l a c e d on a C e n t r a l R e g i s t r y and t h a t no  d i v i s i o n or s e c t i o n o f the Department may  separate f i l e s .  file,  maintain  These C e n t r a l R e g i s t r y f i l e s and t h e i r  oontents  are a c c e s s i b l e t o the p e r s o n n e l of every branch o f the Department.  These f i l e s c o n t a i n a p o s t - d i s c h a r g e  r e c o r d of every  ex-  s e r v i c e member, and p e r t i n e n t data are added t o .them from time  - 53 -  to  time.  I f the d i s c h a r g e d person moves from one  another, h i s f i l e  District  i s t r a n s f e r r e d to the C e n t r a l R e g i s t r y o f the  O f f i c e i n the D i s t r i c t where he takes up r e s i d e n c e . 4  .  .  .  In dealing  .  w i t h oomplex problems, a temporary work f i l e may i s destroyed when i t has s e r v e d i t s purpose. c o n t a i n s rough notes from the veteran's  he kept and i t  This f i l e usually  f i l e , copies of c o r r e s -  pondence, and other i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n c a r r y i n g out work In hand. kept i n one  to  C h r o n o l o g i c a l or process  r e c o r d i n g may  the  a l s o be  o f these temporary work f i l e s I f i t i s being used ,  for  4  s t a f f supervision, s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n , or teaching.  However,  cases on which t h i s type o f r e o o r d i n g i s done are r e s t r i c t e d t o a minimum.  Any  p e r t i n e n t Information  i s t o be p l a c e d on a  file  immediately, and i f any problem comes up whioh concerns another branoh o f the Department, the proper at  once.  person should be  notified  I n v e r y s p e c i a l cases i n whioh a b s o l u t e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l  i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the v e t e r a n i s a d v i s a b l e , such i n f o r m a t i o n may  be put i n a s e a l e d envelope, marked " C o n f i d e n t i a l " , and  p l a c e d on the f i l e .  The  D i s t r i o t Administrator  and the  s o r o f the S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n are the o n l y persons i z e d t o open a l e t t e r o f t h i s  Superviauthor-  type.  4  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , the S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n maintains a Resources F i l e , which i s a k i n d o f r e f e r e n c e s o u r c e .  Contain-  ed t h e r e i n are the names o f the d i r e c t o r s and the addresses o f a l l agencies  i n the D i s t r i c t , and the approved method o f r e f e r r i n g  a v e t e r a n t o them, t h a t i s , a telephone f e r e n c e , or a combination o f b o t h .  reference, a written re-  S i m i l a r l y , information Is  - 54 -  kept r e g a r d i n g a l l s e r v i c e c l u b s , veterans* o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and o t h e r groups s e r v i n g t h e v e t e r a n , as w e l l as t h e names of s p e c i fic  i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d , w i t h i n d i c a t i o n o f what use might  be made o f t h e i r s e r v i o e s . T h i s f i l e  i s available to Medioal  S o o i a l Workers, t r a v e l l i n g teams o f t h e Department, Veterans* W e l f a r e O f f i c e r s , and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d Departmental  personnel.  The S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n a l s o lsaeps a c a r d index, known as a Master Index, o f a l l oases known t o the D i v i s i o n and t o t h e m e d i c a l s o c i a l workers.  The two s o c i a l work bodies i n the De-  partment have a l s o developed ate c l e a r i n g o f a l l t h e i r A l l the Departmental  a p o l i c y f o r t h e q u i c k and a c c u r -  cases. files  are c o n f i d e n t i a l i n nature; t h a t  i s t o say, they a r e not a c c e s s i b l e t o anyone o u t s i d e o f t h e Department, and i n d i v u l g i n g any i n f o r m a t i o n t o o u t s i d e s o o i a l agenoies, t h e utmost care i s t a k e n t o ensure t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l g i v e n i s n o t i n j u r i o u s and embarrassing to  the veteran.  to  two groups,  t o the Department and  I n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o s o c i a l agencies f a l l s i n and i n both oases, m e d i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n I s g i v e n  o n l y w i t h t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f the D i s t r i c t M e d i o a l O f f i c e r .  When  t h e D i v i s i o n i s r e f e r r i n g a case t o an o u t s i d e agency, i t i s necessary t h a t a c e r t a i n knowledge o f t h e s i t u a t i o n be d i v u l g e d to  t h i s agenoy i n o r d e r t h a t t h e s e r v i c e needed by the v e t e r a n  or  h i s dependents may be p r o v i d e d .  When an o u t s i d e agency i s  h a n d l i n g a problem concerning an e x - s e r v i c e man o r woman, a r e quest i s o f t e n made t o the D i v i s i o n t o provide any i n f o r m a t i o n 4  they might have.  ' 4  The S u p e r v i s o r o f t h e D i v i s i o n , o r h e r s t a f f ,  - 55 -  i s allowed t o g i v e some i n f o r m a t i o n ,  p r o v i d i n g t h a t t h e agency-  i s working i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the v e t e r a n , t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d o r a v a i l a b l e i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the present  problem and  enables t h e agenoy t o a s s i s t the c l i e n t , and t h a t t h e agency I s a recognized  s o o i a l agency w i t h q u a l i f i e d s t a f f .  providing information t o outside  The approach i n  sources i s a t best a c a u t i o u s  one. Work w i t h the V e t e r a n s The  D i v i s i o n s t a f f g i v e "a p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e t o v e t e r a n s  and t h e i r dependents i n r e s p e o t  o f s o c i a l problems".  i o n a l s e r v i o e embraces many t h i n g s . the D i v i s i o n ' s p e r s o n n e l , seeking  a respeot  A profess-  I t i n c l u d e s , on the p a r t o f for the i n d i v i d u a l veteran  s e r v i c e , a r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s i n d i v i d u a l wortb and h i s  c a p a c i t y f o r g r e a t e r achievement, an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o n e s e l f i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c l i e n t and i n h e l p i n g him t o develop h i s own p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , as w e l l as a safeguarding the  c o n f i d e n t i a l nature o f h i s contaot  s o c i a l worker aots as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  o f h i s i d e n t i t y and  w i t h t h e D i v i s i o n The of t h e agency and o f  her p r o f e s s i o n , and g i v e s s e r v i c e s only which the D i v i s i o n i s organized The  to offer. S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n i s o f t e n a l l u d e d t o as a  " r e f e r r a l " agenoy. v i c e " f o r veterans.  I n a sense, i t g i v e s a k i n d o f " i n t a k e  ser-  Large numbers of former m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l  have been made much more aware o f the Department than o f the community s o o i a l agenoies as a source o f a s s i s t a n c e . an intake o r e x p l o r a t o r y  By g i v i n g  i n t e r v i e w , t h e s o c i a l worker a s c e r t a i n s  - 56 -  the nature o f t h e s o o i a l problem, and, i f i t f a l l s w i t h i n the f u n o t i o n o f an e x i s t i n g agency, t h e c l i e n t o r v e t e r a n i s r e f e r red there.  Every p o s s i b l e case i s r e f e r r e d , and i f t h i s i s im-  p o s s i b l e t o do, t h e work may he done d i r e c t l y by t h e Department, or t h e c l i e n t may be a d v i s e d t h a t no s e r v i o e i s a v a i l a b l e t o him. As t h e nature o f the c o n t a c t between the c l i e n t and the worker i s o f t e n v e r y b r i e f , sometimes being o n l y one i n t e r v i e w , the s o o i a l worker must be c o n s t a n t l y d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l I n the d i a g n o s i n g and r e f e r r i n g o f s o c i a l problems. When a v e t e r a n i s r e f e r r e d t o another agenoy, he i s g i v e n an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e agency; t h e worker must make c e r t a i n t h a t he i s a b l e t o use, and wishes t o take advantage o f , the s e r v i o e which the o t h e r agency p r o v i d e s ; and a r e c i p r o c a l arrangement must be made w i t h the agency t o r e c e i v e t h i s new c l i e n t . As an understanding o f s o o i a l problems i s developed among the Departmental  p e r s o n n e l both through a t e a c h i n g program and  a c o n s u l t a t i o n s e r v i c e w i t h the s o c i a l workers, the work o f t h e D i v i s i o n i s seen t o he t h a t o f g i v i n g s e r v i c e t o t h e most  seri-  ous problems, and o f a l l o w i n g t h e Veterans* W e l f a r e O f f i c e r s and other Departmental  s t a f f t o d e a l w i t h the l e s s s e r i o u s c a s e s .  A p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e I s g i v e n t o v e t e r a n s * dependents when the s e r v i o e aimed a t I s t h e more adequate adjustment o f the d e m o b i l i z e d men and women t o s o o i e t y .  Family  relationships  are o f t e n a p a r t o f s o o i a l problems, and i t i s o f t e n a d v i s a b l e t o i n t e r v i e w a dependent i n order t o render a more e f f e c t i v e s e r vioe t o the o l i e n t .  When the s e r v i o e i s r e q u e s t e d by t h e depend-  -  57  -  e n t , such s e r v i o e i s g i v e n only i f i t i s i n the i n t e r e s t of the v e t e r a n and r e l a t e d t o h i s problems.  Dependents are a l s o  a d v i s e d o f e x i s t i n g community agencies which might h e l p them. The  p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g " d i r e c t casework on an  experimental  b a s i s r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l problems coming t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the Department" i s at the present time under study.  When the  p o l i c y i n t h i s r e s p e o t has been c l a r i f i e d , the r e g u l a t i o n s and i n s t r u c t i o n s o f the Department w i l l be amended. b i l i t y , the new case work now  I n a l l proba-  p o l i c y w i l l be based upon an a n a l y s i s of the  b e i n g done i n the v a r i o u s  districts.  Work w i t h the v e t e r a n s i n c l u d e s a c o n s u l t a t i o n s e r v i o e g i v en by the p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l o f the D i v i s i o n t o members o f a l l branches,  d i v i s i o n s , and s e c t i o n s of the Department,  on r e q u e s t , t o r e l a t e d Departmental ans* Land Act a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The  and,  b o d i e s , suoh as the V e t e r i d e a i s t o equip these  people  w i t h a knowledge of community r e s o u r c e s , and o f the p r i n c i p l e s of  s o c i a l welfare.  As w e l l as c a r r y i n g out the measures of the  V e t e r a n s * C h a r t e r , the Departmental c e r n i n g themselves  s t a f f are more and more con-  w i t h s o c i a l problems a f f e c t i n g the  o f the former m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l t o c i v i l i a n  adjustment  life.  Much o f the c o n s u l t a t i o n s e r v i c e g i v e n i s designed f o r the Veterans* Welfare O f f i c e r s who charged persons.  have d i r e o t c o n t a c t w i t h d i s -  I n such oases, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g i v i n g  s e r v i o e s w i l l remain w i t h the Veterans* Welfare O f f i o e r s or other Departmental  s t a f f s e e k i n g a s s i s t a n o e o f the s o o i a l worker, and  the work o f the l a t t e r w i l l be t o e l u c i d a t e and t o emphasize the s o o i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n .  The  social  wor-  - 58 -  ker does not u s u a l l y see t h e v e t e r a n u n l e s s he has been p r e v i o u s l y i n t e r v i e w e d and r e f e r r e d by a Veterans* Welfare or another member o f t h e agency s t a f f .  Officer,  Occasionally, consults-  t i o n s e r v i c e i n c l u d e s an i n t e r v i e w f o r d i a g n o s t i c purposes, and, at times such a case may be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the D i v i s i o n . The p o l i c y o f p r o v i d i n g a c o n s u l t a t i o n s e r v i c e t o t h e V e t erans* Land Aot p e r s o n n e l I s intended t o supply these w i t h "expert independent  persons  i n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g soo-  i a l s e r v i c e problems when t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e e k i n g  cancella-  t i o n o f a v e t e r a n ' s agreement w i t h t h e D i r e c t o r o f Veterans* 19 Land Aot i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n " . A request t o the S u p e r v i s o r o f the D i v i s i o n f o r a r e p o r t and an a p p r a i s a l o f the s o o i a l p r o blems i n a s i t u a t i o n must be i n i t i a t e d by the D i s t r i c t tendent o f t h e Veterans* Land  Superin-  A o t , and r e p o r t s made are submitted  t o him as w e l l as t o t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Ottawa, by t h e D i s t r i c t Supervisors.  I n p r o v i d i n g t h i s s e r v i c e , the Supervisor  examines t h e m a t e r i a l on t h e v e t e r a n * s f i l e  and d i s c u s s e s the  s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Land A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I n cluding their F i e l d Staff.  I f i n s u f f i c i e n t information i s a v a i l -  a b l e , t h e S u p e r v i s o r may r e f e r the request t o a s o o i a l agenoy i n the d i s t r i c t .  I f t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e , she may a c t as a con-  s u l t a n t t o one o f t h e F i e l d S t a f f , o r a s s i g n a member o f t h e s o c i a l work s t a f f t o conduct t h e necessary v i s i t s o r i n t e r v i e w . I t i s t h e duty o f the S u p e r v i s o r t o m a i n t a i n a l s o a contact ao  w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l committees o f t h e v a r i o u s benevolent funds 19. I b i d . , Clause 30. E C These i n o l u d e t h e Canadian Naval S e r v i o e s Benevolent Fund, t h e Army Benevolent Fund, and t h e R o y a l Canadian A i r . F o r c e Benevol e n t Fund. The purpose o f these funds i s t o p r o t e c t those who have,served o r who are s t i l l ^ s e r v i n g t h e , c o u n t r y , and t h e i r f a m i l i e s a g a i n s t u n f o r e s e e n f i n a n c i a l c r i s e s whioh may ooour from time t o t i m e .  -  59  and t o provide suoh s e r v i o e as may  be requested by the members  o f these aommittees, p r o v i d e d i t i s w i t h i n the g e n e r a l p o l i o y of the Department. S t a f f t r a i n i n g and  teaohing  " S t a f f t r a i n i n g and the t e a o h i n g o f s o o i a l w e l f a r e  prin-  c i p l e s " i s another f u n c t i o n a s s i g n e d t o the D i v i s i o n p e r s o n n e l . The  aim o f t h i s program i s t o h e l p Departmental p e r s o n n e l i n the  r e c o g n i t i o n o f s o c i a l problems and i n the more e f f e c t i v e t i o n o f the v e t e r a n s ,  difficulties.  The  solu-  Supervisor i s responsi-  b l e f o r a p o r t i o n o f the i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g g i v e n t o Veterans* Welfare  O f f i c e r s and o t h e r s i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e p r i n c i p l e s .  t r a i n i n g i s planned i n o o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the D i s t r i o t t o r , the D i s t r i c t Superintendent  This  Administra^  of the Veterans* Welfare S e r v i c e s ,  the S t a f f T r a i n i n g O f f i c e r , and the P e r s o n n e l O f f i c e r who  shall  decide which members of the Departmental s t a f f s h a l l take  the  course.  D i s c u s s i o n and l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e such t h i n g s as  the growth of s o o i a l s e r v i c e i n Canada, the l o c a l community w e l f a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the meohanics o f r e f e r e n c e . The more t h e o r e t i o a l m a t e r i a l i n v o l v e d i n a s s i s t i n g i s thought  t o be best taught  t e a o h i n g i s through  individually.  The  people  b a s i s of t h i s  c o n s u l t a t i o n on v a r i o u s oases, and by con-  s t a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n n e l ; the aim i s t o h e l p them t o develop  an understanding  o f human behaviour,  the p a r t they themselves p l a y , and a knowledge of the  of  interplay  of p e r s o n a l i t i e s and o f o t h e r b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s . Encouragement i s g i v e n t o a l l s t a f f members i n t e r e s t e d i n  - 60  t a k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g at a Sohool o f S o o i a l Work, and a s s i s t a n c e may  he sought  g a r d i n g Departmental  from these s c h o o l s f o r suggestions r e -  t r a i n i n g and t e a c h i n g programs.  Assistance  i s always a v a i l a b l e t o the D i s t r i c t D i v i s i o n s from the Head Off i c e D i v i s i o n at Ottawa, and from t h e r e m a t e r i a l and  suggestions  are sent t o the v a r i o u s S u p e r v i s o r s , although i t i s not t h a t these be f o l l o w e d .  necessary  S u p e r v i s o r s are a l s o encouraged t o send  t o the Head O f f i c e such l e c t u r e or d i s c u s s i o n group m a t e r i a l as has been u t i l i z e d i n the D i s t r i c t , i n o r d e r t h a t o t h e r D i s t r i c t s may  share i n the b e n e f i t s o f the e x p e r i e n c e . The  s o o i a l worker employed w i t h i n the S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n  must meet standard p r o f e s s i o n a l s o o i a l work requirements.  All  a p p l i c a n t s must have graduated from a r e c o g n i z e d u n i v e r s i t y must have s u c c e s s f u l l y completed  and  one y e a r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i n -  s t r u o t i o n at a r e c o g n i z e d Sohool o f S o o i a l Work,  That i s t o say,  f i v e or s i x y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n are r e q u i r e d , or  qualifi-  c a t i o n s t h a t permit membership i n a r e c o g n i z e d p r o f e s s i o n a l associ a t i o n o f s o c i a l workers. agency i s a l s o an a s s e t .  Experience i n a r e c o g n i z e d s o o i a l F o r the more r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n s i n  the D i v i s i o n , the completed r e q u i r e d and from two w i t h p r e f e r a b l y two  s o c i a l work course of two y e a r s i s  t o s i x y e a r s * experience i n a s o c i a l agency,  o r t h r e e y e a r s o f t h i s experience i n an  eoutive or supervisory capacity.  In specifying  ex-  qualifications  f o r the p o s i t i o n of s o c i a l worker i n the S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , f o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , known as "grades", based upon the e d u c a t i o n and experience of the workers have been e s t a b l i s h e d , and the  - 61 -  s a l a r y f o r each grade i s s e t a c c o r d i n g l y . remuneration  At t h e present  time,  s t a r t s at $2100 p e r y e a r f o r the b e g i n n i n g Grade I  s o o i a l worker and extends t o $4200 p e r y e a r as a maximum s a l a r y f o r the Grade IV s o c i a l worker.  These s a l a r i e s are on a par  w i t h most s o c i a l work s a l a r i e s i n d i f f e r e n t agencies a c r o s s t h e country. lesearoh i n s o o i a l welfare  matters  Inoluded among t h e f u n o t i o n s o f the D i v i s i o n i s "co-operat i o n i n r e s e a r c h on s o c i a l w e l f a r e m a t t e r s " .  The D i r e c t o r o f  the D i v i s i o n at t h e request o f t h e D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f V e t e r a n s ' W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , o r t h e D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r s at t h e request o f the D i s t r i c t A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , o r t h e D i s t r i c t Superintendents o f Veterans* Welfare S e r v i c e s , undertake  r e s e a r c h as r e q u i r e d . The  D i v i s i o n co-operates w i t h t h e D i v i s i o n o f Research I n s o c i a l work m a t t e r s .  Research undertaken  and S t a t i s t i c s  by a D i s t r i c t Sup-  e r v i s o r i s l i m i t e d t o h e r s p e c i f i c d i s t r i c t , and a l l requests f o r l o c a l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s and r e p o r t s made are submitted t o the D i r e o t o r o f t h e D i v i s i o n at Ottawa. T h i s p o l i o y , as has been o u t l i n e d , the o p e r a t i o n o f the D i v i s i o n .  forms t h e framework f o r  There i s a wide v a r i a t i o n i n  programs i n t h e d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s , and t h e work done depends t o a great extent upon t h e e x i s t i n g community r e s o u r c e s , and the acceptance program.  by the Department g e n e r a l l y o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e  T h i s D i v i s i o n o f the Department I s an avenue f o r f u r -  t h e r development i n s o c i a l work i n t h i s broad f i e l d o f veterans* welfare.  - 62 Chapter  5  THE VANCOUVER SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION  There i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n the development o f the s o c i a l work program i n the D i v i s i o n s of the s e v e r a l D i s t r i c t s .  Because o f  the d i v e r s i t y i n the development o f community r e s o u r c e s and i n the understanding  o f s o o i a l problems i n t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s of  Canada, a d e c e n t r a l i z e d program has been found t o be most e f f e c tive.  That  i s t o say, the p o l i c y which forms an o p e r a t i v e frame-  work f o r the D i v i s i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e t o a l l o w f o r r e g i o n a l d i v e r s i t y i n meeting the needs o f the v e t e r a n p e c u l i a r t o each  district.  I n Vancouver, the S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n o f the Department of Veterans*  A f f a i r s was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n May,  parate u n i t i n the D i s t r i c t Veterans* Street.  This d i s t r i c t  comprises  most o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  1947,  and i s a se-  B u i l d i n g at 1231  Haro  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y as w e l l as  As might be expected, the work of  the D i v i s i o n thus covers a v a s t area i n square m i l e s , and sequently the development o f the S o o i a l Welfare P r o v i n c i a l Department of H e a l t h and Welfare l y the nature o f the work b e i n g done.  con-  Branch o f the  has i n f l u e n c e d g r e a t -  The D i v i s i o n has  cultivat-  ed a l i a i s o n w i t h a l l community agencies and the f a c i l i t i e s o f the S o o i a l W e l f a r e  Branoh have been u t i l i z e d t o t h e i r f u l l e x t e n t .  E s p e c i a l l y i n the r u r a l areas, t h i s D i v i s i o n i s v e r y f o r t u n a t e i n b e i n g able t o take advantage o f a p r o v i n c i a l system o f w e l f a r e . Saskatchewan i s probably the only o t h e r Canadian p r o v i n c e w i t h a comparable w e l f a r e program on a comprehensive r e g i o n a l b a s i s .  - 63 -  L i a i s o n with, the The  Community  B r i t i s h Columbia S o o i a l Welfare Branoh has  throughout the p r o v i n c e  a network o f s o o i a l s e r v i c e s  under s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , and, I n d i v i d u a l s and Servioe  established operative  at the l o o a l l e v e l , brought t o  f a m i l i e s s u f f e r i n g from s o c i a l needs by a F i e l d  s t a f f o f q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers.  m i n i s t r a t i o n , the province  has  F o r purposes o f  been d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e  ad-  regions,  i n which twenty-four d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d ; these d i s t r i c t s , i n t u r n , are d i v i d e d i n t o t e r r i t o r i e s . t e r r i t o r y i s served her by  Eaoh  by a q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l worker t r a v e l l i n g  oar or by other means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and a  case work s e r v i c e i s g i v e n t o needy c i t i z e n s .  eit-  generalized  A supervisor  over-  sees these workers as w e l l as the s o c i a l workers employed by 4  .  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and  g i v e s t o both d e t a i l e d s u p e r v i s i o n  regarding  standards o f s e r v i c e and t o the former s u p e r v i s i o n as w e l l conc e r n i n g the  administrative  d e t a i l s o f the  organization.  Many o f these p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l workers have had u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , and  f o r those who  have not had t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y ,  s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g course i s p r o v i d e d . are numerous and  The  d u t i e s o f these workers  d e a l w i t h such s e r v i c e s as:  Allowances; Mother's Allowances; Old Age  Sooial  Assistance  and B l i n d P e n s i o n s ;  W e l f a r e I n s t i t u t i o n L i c e n s i n g ; Family S e r v i o e s ;  Servioes to  dren, i n c l u d i n g p r o t e c t i o n , custody, f o s t e r home oare, and  an i n -  Chil-  adoption,  delinquency; work w i t h unmarried parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ;  work w i t h t u b e r c u l a r and venereal disease  p a t i e n t s ; and  affiliation  w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l mental h o s p i t a l s and p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c s . S p e c i f i o a l l y mentioned are " F e d e r a l Servioes *, which i n c l u d e i n 1  - 64  v e s t i g a t i o n s f o r F a m i l y Allowances, w i t h t h e Department o f Veterans*  and c o - o p e r a t i v e s e r v i c e s  Affairs.  T h i s c o - o p e r a t i v e s e r v i c e i n c l u d e s s e r v i o e t o the v e t e r a n because o f h i s s t a t u s as a r e s i d e n t c i v i l i a n o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I t may c o n s i s t o f d i r e c t i n g t h e v e t e r a n t o t h e proper  resource.  I n cases i n which r e f e r e n c e i s not i n d i c a t e d and p e r s o n n e l o f the Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s l a c k s u f f i c i e n t  information  w i t h r e s p e c t t o a v e t e r a n * s problems, a request might be made t o these p r o v i n c i a l workers t o v i s i t  the d i s c h a r g e d persorfs  home and make a r e p o r t o f t h e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , o r perhaps a r e commendation as t o whether t h e s e r v i o e requested o f the Department would be t o the advantage o f t h e v e t e r a n . Being able t o u t i l i z e t h e p r o v i n c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s means a f i n a n c i a l s a v i n g t o the Department; a l s o , i t u s u a l l y means a b e t t e r s e r v i c e t o t h e v e t e r a n as he i s b e i n g served by a q u a l i f i e d s o o i a l worker who i n some d i s t r i c t s would be r e p l a c e d by an unt r a i n e d community worker.  F o r t h e s o o i a l workers o f the Depart-  ment t o cover t h i s area adequately would be I n many cases Impossi b l e , would c r e a t e a heavy expenditure  i n t h e Departmental budget,  and would be c o n t r a r y t o t h e p o l i c y o f making as e f f i c i e n t and as economical  a use o f s o c i a l workers as p o s s i b l e .  As the D i v i s i o n t a k e s advantage so e x t e n s i v e l y o f t h e s e r v i c e s o f the p r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare  Branoh, and as t h i s i s a  r e s o u r c e not a v a i l a b l e t o t h e D i v i s i o n s o f many o f t h e o t h e r D i s t r i c t s , i t i s r e l e v a n t t o mention i t f i r s t community l i a i s o n .  as a source o f  However, advantage o f o t h e r oommunity s e r -  v i c e s i s a l s o t a k e n , and, e s p e o i a l l y i n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver, c o -  - 65 -  o p e r a t i o n lias been achieved w i t h the v a r i o u s s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . These i n o l u d e v a r i o u s group work a g e n c i e s , suoh as the  neighbour-  hood houses, and the Young Men's and Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n s ; f a m i l y and c h i l d r e n ' s agencies, such as the Fami l y W e l f a r e Bureau, the C h i l d r e n * s A i d S o c i e t i e s , the F o s t e r Day  Care A s s o c i a t i o n , and the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department;  p r e v e n t i v e s e r v i c e s , such as work w i t h p r o b a t i o n o f f i o e r s the F a m i l y C o u r t ; and m i s c e l l a n e o u s groups,  and  i n c l u d i n g the Cana-  d i a n Red C r o s s , and the V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses, t o name a few.  I n a d d i t i o n , s e r v i o e s i n the i n t e r e s t of the v e t e r a n have  been sought  21  tutions.  from and requested by many other persons  and  insti-  I n c l u d e d among these are v a r i o u s p r i v a t e lawyers, doc-  t o r s and p s y c h i a t r i s t s , p a r i s h p r i e s t s and m i n i s t e r s , the F i r s t U n i t e d Church, the I m p e r i a l Order Daughters o f the Empire, a p r i v a t e r e n t a l agency, the Canadian L e g i o n , the C i t i z e n s ' Rehabi l i t a t i o n C o u n c i l , the Christmas Cheer Fund, R e t a i l C r e d i t G r a n t o r s , the p r o v i n c i a l committees of the v a r i o u s benevolent funds, and from others as the need a r i s e s .  These I n d i v i d u a l s  and groups r e p r e s e n t a wide d i v e r s i t y I n occupations and ests.  inter-  The D i v i s i o n p e r s o n n e l i n seeking t h e i r h e l p act as com-  munity o r g a n i z e r s , both i n s t i m u l a t i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t and i n seeking t o u t i l i z e the range o f s e r v i o e s which they p r o v i d e , thus avoiding duplication of e f f o r t . the S o c i a l Welfare  I n working o o - o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h  Branch and w i t h other community r e s o u r c e s ,  the members o f the D i v i s i o n endeavour t o supply the p a r t i c u l a r agency i n q u e s t i o n w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n s u f f i c i e n t enough t o d e t e r mine whether the s e r v i c e requested f a l l s w i t h i n the p o l i c y o f !21.  See Appendix I I I .  - 66 -  the s p e c i f i c agency.  Whether or not the i n f o r m a t i o n  requested  i s i n the i n t e r e s t o f the v e t e r a n must be determined before c l o s u r e t o an o u t s i d e r .  dis-  In many ways a p u b l i c f e d e r a l agenoy  i s more open t o c r i t i c i s m and t o a t t a c k t h a n . i s a p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n , and t h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y n e c e s s i t a t e s an added p r e c a u t i o n on the p a r t o f the Departmental p e r s o n n e l  as a whole.  reason, the s o c i a l worker i n the Department may s i d e r e d o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e by those  o u t s i d e the  For  o f t e n be  this  con-  agenoy.  I n the p o l i o y of the D i v i s i o n , the s o o i a l workers are urged t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s o f the C o u n c i l s o f S o o i a l Agenc i e s and of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o o i a l Workers, i n order to.promote good r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other p r o f e s s i o n a l workers and t o keep up-to-date w i t h c u r r e n t developments.  The  three  members of the D i v i s i o n Vanoouver s t a f f are each members o f the l a t t e r organization. some extent  Personnel  o f the D i v i s i o n p a r t i c i p a t e t o  i n the a c t i v i t i e s o f the Community Chest and  o f Greater Vanoouver.  The  Council  D i v i s i o n , being a p a r t o f a govern-  ment department and being f i n a n c e d out o f the f e d e r a l t r e a s u r y , does not, o f course, the Community Chest. as requested,  come under the f i n a n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o f However, the v a r i o u s D i v i s i o n p e r s o n n e l ,  have p a r t i c i p a t e d on d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h or  other  oommittees o f the Community Chest and C o u n o i l and have shown a w i l l i n g n e s s t o oo-operate i n community The  efforts.  S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n has worked out l o c a l l y an a r -  rangement w i t h the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Index of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l .  I t has not been the p r a c t i c e of Departmental s t a f f  67 -  t o r e g i s t e r s o o i a l cases w i t h the Index, although t h i s may done i f d e s i r e d . that a f i l e  The  assumption  i s t h a t i t i s common knowledge  i s kept on the p o s t - d i s c h a r g e r e o o r d o f eaoh v e t e r -  an and t h a t an o u t s i d e agenoy may t a i n i f any  he  c o n t a c t the D i v i s i o n t o a s c e r -  i n f o r m a t i o n on a p a r t i c u l a r case i s a v a i l a b l e .  The  s o o i a l workers do enquire of the Index f o r a l l r e g i s t r a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e on each oase opened or re-opened i n order t o a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n o f work done by community a g e n c i e s .  However, be-  cause they do not r e g i s t e r t h e i r cases, they are not  notified  o f p o s t - r e g i s t r a t i o n s by other agencies or o f r e g i s t r a t i o n s g i v i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , such as, ohange of address.  The  q u e s t i o n might, t h e r e f o r e , be r a i s e d o f whether i t might not  be  t o the advantage o f the D i v i s i o n t o r e g i s t e r a l l s o o i a l Cases w i t h the Index i n order t o aohieve more adequate coverage.  In  the Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s , a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o enquire of t h e Vancouver Index i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the s o c i a l work personn e l only.  Use  o f the Index n e c e s s i t a t e s payment o f a fee by  the Department on a usage b a s i s .  T h i s amount v a r i e s from y e a r  t o y e a r , and the oost per case o f r e g i s t e r i n g or e n q u i r i n g i s s e t by the Index and i s based upon c o s t s o f o p e r a t i o n  and the  amount of s e r v i c e granted t o a l l n o n - p a r t i o i p a t i n g agenoies o f the Community Chest.  A l l o f these agenoies are charged a l i k e  f e e f o r s i m i l a r s e r v i o e s rendered. I n some o f the d i s t r i c t s , v e r y s h o r t s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s  and  oontaots w i t h the c l i e n t s have been reoorded on the f i l e s ,  the  f e e l i n g b e i n g t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n should not be a v a i l a b l e t o  68  a l l o f f i c e personnel.  Some o f t h e f i l e s are v e r y bulky and  t h e r e are as many as two o r t h r e e f i l e s on some v e t e r a n s . f i l e s may cover a v a r i e t y o f c o n t a c t s : o r war v e t e r a n s * allowances; cal  data, et cetera.  These  a p p l i c a t i o n f o r pension  a s s i s t a n c e from t r u s t funds; medi-  I n order t o s i m p l i f y p e r u s a l o f a f i l e ,  the p r a c t i o e o f u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r e d sheet f o r r e c o r d i n g on d i f f e r e n t matters has e v o l v e d .  F o r example, s o o i a l work r e -  c o r d i n g u t i l i z e s '*a b u f f sheet"; m e d i o a l r e c o r d i n g , " a p i n k sheet".  The members o f t h e Vanoouver D i v i s i o n do not use "a  temporary work f i l e * f o r ourrent cases, b u t keep a l l r e c o r d i n g on the main f i l e .  Recording  i s kept t o a minimum and, although  the n a r r a t i v e may not be as d e t a i l e d as t h a t found i n many  pri-  vate agency f i l e s , a l l p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e c o r d e d and may he c o n s u l t e d a t a glance by t u r n i n g t o the " h u f f sheet". ing  In giv-  f o r t h i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g a v e t e r a n , p e r s o n n e l are q u i t e  p r o t e c t i v e o f the v e t e r a n .  T h i s i s necessary because o f the  p o l i c y o f the Department as a whole and i n same cases, t h e D i s t r i c t A d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s p e r m i s s i o n i s necessary before a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o d i s c l o s e i n f o r m a t i o n i s granted.  I f any i n f o r m a t i o n  seems p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t i n a s o o i a l s i t u a t i o n , p e r m i s s i o n i s u s u a l l y g r a n t e d t o d i s c l o s e t h i s t o a s o c i a l agency.  Outside  s o o i a l workers should a p p r e c i a t e these r e s t r i c t i o n s i n r e q u e s t ing  i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e Department.  The Work o f t h e D i v i s i o n I n e v a l u a t i n g the work done by t h e D i v i s i o n , t h e a c t u a l r e c o r d i n g s on t h e v e t e r a n s * vey  f i l e s have not been perused.  The s u r -  i s not a d e t a i l e d study o f the v a r i o u s problems a r i s i n g , sev-  - 69 -  e r a l o f whioh oould c o n s t i t u t e a t h e s i s t o p i o i n themselves, hut aims at a more g e n e r a l coverage:  the number o f c l i e n t s  seeking  s e r v i c e , t h e i r f a m i l y s t a t u s , the war and branch o f s e r v i c e i n which they source  served, what t h e i r s p e c i f i o problems seem t o be, t h e  o f r e f e r e n c e t o the D i v i s i o n and the k i n d o f s e r v i c e s  rendered. The  f a o t s e s t a b l i s h e d and c o n c l u s i o n s drawn are based on  the S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n monthly s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s from June, 1947 t o December, 1949, i n c l u s i v e . 1947, It  compiled  The month o f June,  was t h e f i r s t month f o r whioh s t a t i s t i c s were  recorded.  should be noted t h a t these monthly r e p o r t forms are prepared  by the D i v i s i o n s t a f f f o r submission  t o the Head O f f i c e i n O t t -  awa and c o n t a i n a minimum o f r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . ed i n f o r m a t i o n i s o b t a i n a b l e l o c a l l y .  More d e t a i l -  A master card index shows  a l l cases known t o the D i v i s i o n as w e l l as t o the m e d i c a l  social  workers; and, i n a d d i t i o n , a o t i v e work-cards showing the nature o f t h e problem and what work i s b e i n g done are a v a i l a b l e .  Any  f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d may be o b t a i n e d by r e a d i n g the I n dividual  files. as  I n the month o f September, 1949, a new type o f monthly r e _ . ••: S3 p o r t form r e p l a c e d the former one and s e v e r a l changes i n the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d were made.  F o r example, suoh i n f o r m a t i o n as  the f a m i l y s t a t u s o f the o l i e n t s , the war and m i l i t a r y branch i n whioh the v e t e r a n s  s e r v e d , was d e l e t e d , and other changes were  made i n the v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , s i x i n a l l . (a) as. S3.  The Case Count  The case oount i s meant t o r e f l e c t a l l the a c t i v i t i e s o f the See Appendix I I . See Appendix I .  - 70  -  Division.  T h i s i n c l u d e s oases on whioh d i r e c t casework s e r v i o e  i s given.  W i t h more and more o o n o e n t r a t i o n  being s t r e s s e d on  a  c o n s u l t a t i o n s e r v i o e and the t e a c h i n g of s o o i a l work oonoepts t o Departmental s t a f f , the number o f cases i n whioh a d i r e o t work s e r v i c e w i l l be g i v e n w i l l supposedly decrease and  i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the new  case-  considerably  c o n s u l t a t i o n s e r v i o e developed.  A  c o n s u l t a t i o n s e r v i o e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o have been g i v e n when a person i n s i d e or o u t s i d e o f the Department asks advice o f the D i v i s i o n p e r s o n n e l , t o the c l i e n t . the v e t e r a n  who  or h e l p  themselves give no d i r e c t s e r v i c e  I t must be remembered that, i n every  instance,  i s the f o o a l p o i n t o f a l l s e r v i c e s g i v e n .  o f the D i v i s i o n may for benefits:  be  any one  A  o f the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s  client  eligible  those w i t h m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e ; those without  mili-  t a r y s e r v i o e but w i t h a o l a i m beoause of s u b j e c t i o n t o r i s k s engendered by war  c o n d i t i o n s ; and  a d d i t i o n , i n t e r v i e w s and who  c o n s u l t a t i o n s are granted  seek s e r v i o e on b e h a l f of any The  dependents o f both groups. t o persons  o f the above p e r s o n s .  work o f the D i v i s i o n i s performed by a S u p e r v i s o r ,  s e l f a s o o i a l worker, and two  In  s o o i a l workers.  The  Supervisor  r a r e l y i n t e r v i e w s o l l e n t s coming t o the D i v i s i o n but oonoerned w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s .  She  her-  i s more  a l s o handles a con-  s i d e r a b l e number o f the out-of-town e n q u i r i e s .  To  a great  t e n t , the d i r e c t casework s e r v i o e i s g i v e n by the two workers although t h i s i s not a f i x e d p r a c t i c e .  ex-  sooial  There i s no  d e f i n i t e d i v i s i o n of the work, t h a t i s t o say, eaoh worker has a g e n e r a l i z e d oaseload.  I f the work were assumed t o be  equally  - 71 -  d i v i d e d between t h e s t a f f o f t h r e e , each worker would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i r t y - f i v e t o e i g h t y oases per month.  In a l l  p r o b a b i l i t y , however, t h i s f i g u r e may o f t e n be exceeded by the i n d i v i d u a l worker. Table 4.  Cases handled by the V a n c o u v e r - S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n , Department o f V e t e r a n s * A f f a i r s , June 1947-Deoember 1949  Total Numl!>er o f Cases Period Opened Reopen- Brought Case of Forward Load Time ed 0 130 130 0 June;1947 July,1947742 Decembenl947 481 277 64 January,1948 63 650 197 June;1948 414 July,1948913 81 Deoember, 1948 555 173 J anuary.1949991 June;I949 586 152 253 July,1949DeoemberJ-949 668 J 213 230 1105 8888 1130 4531 T O T A L 573  Case Load Monthly Monthly Monthly Average Maximum Minimum 130 130 130 124  163  97  108  130  100  152  196  117  165  185  138  184 146  234 834  137 97  I t w i l l be seen t h a t from June, 1947 t o Deoember, 1949, a t o t a l o f twothousand, e i g h t hundred and twenty-eight v e t e r a n s were h e l p e d by the D i v i s i o n p e r s o n n e l , and t h a t f i v e hundred and seventy-three o f these persons, o r about one i n f i v e , oame back at a l a t e r date f o r f u r t h e r s e r v i c e .  I n terms o f the t o t a l c a s e -  l o a d (the number o f cases opened, reopened, and brought forward each month), only one i n s i x are such r e p e a t e r o l i e n t s , r a n g i n g from a number o f one i n e l e v e n i n the f i r s t  six-month p e r i o d t o  one i n f i v e persons i n the l a s t six-month p e r i o d .  T h i s would  seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f the s e r v i o e given i s of a repeater nature.  Whether or not these v e t e r a n s  w i l l become c h r o n i c r e p e a t e r s , r e a p p e a r i n g at i n t e r v a l s throughout the y e a r s , I t i s y e t t o o e a r l y i n the program t o a s s e s s .  - 72  The  -  average number of ex-service personnel being a s s i s t e d  eaoh month i s one hundred and f o r t y - s i x and has g r a d u a l l y I n creased during t h i s t h i r t y - o n e month period. ninety-seven were helped i n November, 1947,  A minimum of and a maximum of  two hundred and t h i r t y - f o u r i n October, 1949; t h a t i s , i n these two months, the v a r i a t i o n was one hundred and t h i r t y - s e v e n . The  average period of time f o r whioh the veteran seeks ser-  v i c e i s not i n d i c a t e d .  However, the s t a t i s t i c s showing the  number of "cases brought forward" from the previous month r e v e a l that about four out of every f i v e persons are helped and the case c l o s e d w i t h i n the month.  I n suoh cases, e i t h e r r e f e r -  ence has been made, i n s i d e or outside the agency; no f u r t h e r servioe i s requested; no s e r v i c e i n the community i s a v a i l a b l e ; o r , d i r e c t casework s e r v i c e has been given. (b) The  Source of the Cases Received source of the cases r e c e i v e d i n d i o a t e s the method of  referenoe by whioh the veteran came t o the D i v i s i o n . That i s t o say, some came d i r e c t l y contacting the s o o i a l workers e i t h e r by l e t t e r or i n person; others were r e f e r r e d t o the D i v i s i o n by p r i v a t e s o c i a l agenoies, by p u b l i o s o o i a l agenoies (municipal, p r o v i n c i a l , and f e d e r a l ) , and by other D i v i s i o n s and Branches of the Department. The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e does not include the p e r i o d , July,1949-  Deoember, 1949,  as s t a t i s t i c s f o r that p e r i o d were not recorded  i n the same manner as i n previous months.  June, 1947, was  the  f i r s t month during which records were kept by the D i v i s i o n , and the f i g u r e s f o r t h i s month have not been u t i l i z e d as i t was  73 -  thought t h a t more s t a b i l i t y would be achieved by s t a r t i n g w i t h the second month o f o p e r a t i o n , J u l y , 1947. y e a r p e r i o d , J u l y 1947  The remaining  two-  - June 1949, has been d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r  p e r i o d s o f s i x months eaoh. These amounts shown i n o l u d e the number o f new t o the D i v i s i o n p l u s the number o f re-opened the number o f cases brought  oases coming  ones.  Figures for  forward each month have not been  i n o l u d e d as these would be r e p e t i t i o u s and would not i n d i c a t e a true  total.  T a b l e 5.  Source o f the Gases Received by the Vancouver S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Department o f V e t e r a n s • A f f a i r s , J u l y 1947 - June 1949  Period of Time J u l y 1947 December 1947 January 1948June 1948 J u l y 1948 December 1948 January 1949June 1949 T O T A L  Total Number of Cases 545  D i r e c t conCases R e f e r r e d By t a c t by v e t - P r i v a t e P u b l i o Department e r a n or h i s Agencies Sources family 225  77 •  45  198  •  477  138  49  50  240  636  314  42  55  225  738 2396  340 1017  43 211  70 220  285 948  1  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t eighty-two per cent o f the oases o f the D i v i s i o n o r i g i n a t e d w i t h i n the Department; t h a t i s t o say, the v e t e r a n , o r someone on h i s b e h a l f , has e i t h e r oome d i r e c t l y t o the s o c i a l worker o r , h a v i n g gone elsewhere  i n the Department,  he has been e v e n t u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o the D i v i s i o n .  T h i s would i n -  d i c a t e t h a t most o f these d i s c h a r g e d persons are e i t h e r v e r y w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the r e s o u r c e s o f the Department, o r t h a t they choose these r e s o u r c e s r a t h e r t h a n those of the community, t h a t i s , they have segregated themselves  as a v e t e r a n  group.  74  N e a r l y o n e - h a l f o f t h i s group o f v e t e r a n s have been sent t o the D i v i s i o n from o t h e r p a r t s of the Department.  Of t h e s e , the  m a j o r i t y were r e f e r r e d by the V e t e r a n s * Welfare O f f i o e r s .  Others  came from the v a r i o u s members of the Treatment Branoh, the Adm i n i s t r a t i o n Branch, War V e t e r a n s * Allowance the Canadian P e n s i o n Commission,  representatives,  the D i s t r i c t L e g a l S e r v i o e s ,  and the D i s t r i c t Padre; a few have been r e f e r r e d from o t h e r D i s t r i c t s ; and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n the l a s t y e a r a few r e f e r e n c e s have been r e c e i v e d from the V e t e r a n s * Land Act A d m i n i s t r a t i o n which r e f l e c t s the r e c e n t endeavour t o a t t a i n a c l o s e r c o - o p e r a t i o n between these two  administrations.  The r e m a i n i n g low percentage o f d i s c h a r g e d persons sent t o the D i v i s i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d by o u t s i d e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s o o i a l agenoies - a t o t a l o f only f o u r hundred and t h i r t y - o n e persons i n two y e a r s - would suggest t h a t many o f the former s e r v i o e men  and women seek a s s i s t a n c e f i r s t from the v e t e r a n s * de-  partment, o r i t may  be t h a t s o o i a l workers o u t s i d e o f the  De-  partment are not s u f f i c i e n t l y aware o f i t s o f f e r e d s e r v i o e s t o be able t o r e f e r a p p l i c a n t s t o i t f o r h e l p . (o)  The f a m i l y s t a t u s , war and branch o f s e r v i c e i n whioh the v e t e r a n s e r v e d  The t a b l e below i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o u r - f i f t h s o f the former s e r v i o e p e r s o n n e l aoming t o the D i v i s i o n are m a r r i e d or have been m a r r i e d .  Of t h i s group, t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the number are  l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r husbands or wives, and the remainder are e i t h e r widowed, s e p a r a t e d , o r d i v o r c e d . There i s a s m a l l group shown as "deceased**.  I n these oases, i t i s probable t h a t the s e r v i o e  75 -  rendered i s on b e h a l f o f a dependent.  Because a dependent  may be a w i f e , husband, c h i l d , o r p a r e n t , these v e t e r a n s c o u l d have had e i t h e r m a r r i e d o r s i n g l e T a b l e 6.  status.  F a m i l y S t a t u s o f t h e Cases Handled by t h e Vanoouver Soci a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n , Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s , i J u l y 1947 - June 1949 ,  "Total MA R R I E D Period Ktaber T o t a l L i v i n g Living Apart of S3 unrated Time Cases Number Together J u l y 1947Decamber1947 545 434 324 65 28 19 Januarvl948 June 1948 378 281 477 26 54 17 J u l y 1948478 346 DeoemberI948 636 27 12 93 Januaryl949549 June 1949 420 738 28 87 14 8396 1839 1371 85 299 T O T A L 84  J  MA1RIED  SENGLF 94  17  84  15  140  18  115 433  74 124  •  The shown.  sex and age o f t h e d i s c h a r g e d men and women are not As t h e m a j o r i t y o f the persons on a c t i v e s e r v i c e were  men and o n l y a s m a l l percentage women, the prime  assumption  seems t o be t h a t t h e person f o r whom s e r v i c e i s requested i s u s u a l l y a male.  Although the ages o f these v e t e r a n s are not  shown, T a b l e 7 r e v e a l s t h a t seventy-one  p e r oent o f t h e d i s -  charged m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l have s e r v e d i n World War I I o n l y which would suggest t h a t these men and women are p r o b a b l y i n the younger age group.  Twenty-nine p e r cent have s e r v e d i n  World War I ; t h e r e are t h r e e Boer War v e t e r a n s , one o f t h e Northwest F i e l d Force o f 1885, and t e n f o r whom t h e war has not been designated.  Two age groups seem t o stand out:  the older v e t -  erans o f World War I who because o f o l d age o r o t h e r f a c t o r s have not made a s u c c e s s f u l adjustment  t o c i v i l i a n l i v i n g ; and  the l a r g e r group o f younger v e t e r a n s o f World War I I who have not y e t become s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d on " c i v v y s t r e e t " .  A  - 76 -  t h i r d group f a l l s I n between these two, T a b l e 7.  War S e r v i c e o f V e t e r a n s R e o e i v i n g A s s i s t a n c e from the Vancouver S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Department o f V e t erans* A f f a i r s , J u l y 1947 - June 1949  Service T o t a l Total War Served I n Period of Number World World Other in,*Wars World of Gases War I War I I Wars lanavufc War I Time J u l y 1947 29 545 76 437 3 105 December 1947 January 194819 477 87 370 106 June 1948 1 J u l y 194829 155 451 184 636 Deoember 1948 1 January 194910 39 294 255 434 June 1949 738 689 ' 116 2396 1698 573 T O T A L 15* 1 a . T h i s f i g u r e I n c l u d e s t h r e e v e t e r a n s o f t h e Boer War; the Northwest F i e l d F o r c e , one who fought i n t h r e e wars, ofie without m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e .  Total World Warll 466 38& 480 473 1808 one o f and  I n d i c a t e d below i s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n among the d i f f e r e n t  mil-  i t a r y s e r v i c e s o f these v e t e r a n s s e e k i n g h e l p o f the D i v i s i o n . T a b l e 8.  M i l i t a r y Branoh o f S e r v i c e o f V e t e r a n s R e c e i v i n g ' A s s i s tance- from the Vancouver S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n , Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s , J u l y 1947 - June 1949  M i l i t a r y Branch oi. S e r v i c e o f V e t e r a n Period Total A i r Force A l l i e d o r of Navy Army Number Time o f Cases Other Force July 1947545 30 50 Deoember 1947 465 0 January 1948June 1948 31 477 422 23 1 J u l y 1948 503 100 December 1948 636 27 6 January 1949629 738 45 June 1949 61 3 1 i 4 i TO T A L 23d& acid 226 10 a. B i g h t v e t e r a n s have served i n two milJLtary branches. a  About e i g h t o r nine out o f every t e n o f these d i s c h a r g e d men and women coming t o the D i v i s i o n have been i n the Army S e r vioe.  There  seem t o be two reasons f o r t h i s .  g r e a t e s t enrolment  (1) By f a r t h e  i n the Armed S e r v i o e s was i n the Army, and  i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t o t a l number o f former m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l un-  77 -  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d , the f i g u r e would be p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r f o r the Army t h a n f o r the Navy or A i r F o r c e . (2) G e n e r a l l y speaking, the members o f the A i r Force and of the Navy were a more h i g h l y s k i l l e d group I n t e c h n i c a l t r a d e s , and many r e c e i v e d suoh t r a i n i n g on the j o b .  Many would, t h e r e f o r e ,  have c i v i l i a n occupations t o which t o r e t u r n . (d) The  S e r v i o e s rendered t o the v e t e r a n s s e r v i o e s rendered oover a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by the  sooial  workers t o a l l v e t e r a n s coming t o the D i v i s i o n , and T a b l e 9, low, shows i n more d e t a i l the nature o f these T a b l e 9.  services.  S e r v i o e s Rendered t o V e t e r a n s by the Vanoouver S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , J u l y 1947 - June 1949 T o t a l O f f i c e Cases R e f e r r e d Elsewhere A s s i s Ssrvices I n t e r - F o t a l Dept. Private Others tance Rendered view from dumber V e t s . See i a l Only Affairs and Trust Funds Public 1  Period of  be-  Time J u l y 1947Decemberl947 583 97 January1948528 106 June 1948 J u l y 1948725 206 Deoemberl948 January 1949819 1 145 June 1949 2655 I 554 TO T A L al See Appendix I I I  Cooperative Service Given with another Agency  326  95  188  43  35  125  326  101  199  26  37  59  383  145  171  67  56  80  578 BL607  181 522  257 815  270  43 171  59 383  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the D i v i s i o n s o o i a l workers r e f e r s i x t y - o n e per oent of the v e t e r a n s t o o t h e r persons agenoies f o r h e l p w i t h t h e i r s o c i a l problems: b e i n g r e f e r r e d elsewhere  and  about o n e - t h i r d  i n the Department and the remainder  to  p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s o o i a l agenoies and other ooimmxnity r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t them.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , twelve per cent  - 78 -  o f these d i s c h a r g e d men  and women are g i v e n s e r v i o e I n oo-  o p e r a t i o n w i t h another agenoy, t h a t i s , a d i r e o t s e r v i o e i s g i v e n t o the o l i e n t by the D i v i s i o n s o o i a l workers.  As f a r as  g i v i n g casework s e r v i o e t o these former members o f the armed s e r v i o e s i s concerned,  i n seventy-three per cent o f the  the s e r v i o e s o f o t h e r persons  oases,  and agenoies are u t i l i z e d .  The  D i v i s i o n i s t o a marked degree a " r e f e r r i n g c e n t r e * f o r v e t e r ans, and the s o c i a l worker l a r g e l y h e l p s these c l i e n t s t o be a b l e t o accept h e l p from other s o u r c e s . A s m a l l number (6$) o f the e x - s o l d i e r s , s a i l o r s , and men  air-  are h e l p e d i n o b t a i n i n g a s s i s t a n c e from t r u s t funds, suoh  as one o f the benevolent  funds.  I n these oases, the s o o i a l wor-  ker o f t e n helps her c l i e n t t o f i l l forms, o r she may  i n the neoessary  application  a s s i s t him by p r e p a r i n g a s o c i a l h i s t o r y or  summary t o aooompany these  forms.  I n c a r r y i n g out the D i v i s i o n * s f u n c t i o n as a s o o i a l work agency, the remainder  o f the v e t e r a n s have been granted  o f f i c e interview only.  I n these oases, many o f the v e t e r a n s  not r e q u i r e r e f e r r i n g ; they may or t h e r e may  an do  r e f u s e t o aooept a v a i l a b l e h e l p ,  be no e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s t o serve t h e i r need.  i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the worker may  have granted one  o n l y , but w i l l continue t o work w i t h the d i s c h a r g e d  It  Interview serviceman,  perhaps t o h e l p him t o accept r e f e r e n c e t o another source o f a s s i s t a n c e , or t o a s s i s t him i n some o t h e r (e) The  The nature o f the v e t e r a n s * problems f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h a t f o r t h i s two-year p e r i o d , 4  J u l y 1947  way.  - June 1949,  '  the t o t a l number o f problems, t h r e e  - 79 -  thousand, seven hundred and one, exceeds the t o t a l number o f v e t e r a n s , two thousand and t h i r t y - s i x , ooming t o the Department. That i s t o say, i f each o f these persons had only one problem t h e r e would be one thousand, s i x hundred and s i x t y - f i v e more p r o blems t h a n v e t e r a n s .  The f a o t i s , o f course, t h a t any v e t e r a n  may have j u s t one o r s e v e r a l problems.  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e ap-  pears t o be a c e r t a i n o v e r l a p p i n g i n the v a r i o u s tions.  classifica-  F o r example, under employment i s shown a heading "un-  employment o f the head o f the f a m i l y a f f e c t i n g f a m i l y ships".  relation-  C o u l d t h i s a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as a "Family R e l a t i o n -  ship"problem?  Under " s o c i a l environment" i s " a l c o h o l i s m * .  Could t h i s come under * h e a l t h " , o r c o u l d i t a f f e c t f a m i l y r e lationships? T a b l e 10.  Nature o f problems o f the v e t e r a n s a s s i s t e d by the Vancouver S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Department o f V e t e r a n s * A f f a i r s , J u l y 1947 - June 1949  Period of Time J u l y 1947Deoember 1947 January 1948June 1948 J u l y 1948Deoember 1948 January 1949June 1949 TOT A L  Total Nature o f Problems Family Economic Health S o c i a l Number RelationEnvironment and of Problems Employment s h i p s 808  349  317  99  43  627  321  190  93  23  1058  624  205  162  61  1214 3701  715 2009  225 937  222 576  52 179  A c c o r d i n g t o the s t a t i s t i c s r e c o r d e d , economic and employment d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n s t i t u t e an average o f f i f t y - f o u r per cent ( i n c r e a s i n g from f o r t y - t h r e e t o f i f t y - n i n e per c e n t ) o f the problems o f the v e t e r a n s ooming t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the D i v i s i o n .  Emer-  gency f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n o e , h a r d s h i p because o f m a r g i n a l income,  - 80 -  and debts make up the m a j o r i t y of the economic problems, few are a t t r i b u t a b l e t o p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g bility.  A  employa-  Some are persons unemployed and needing v o c a t i o n a l  c o u n s e l l i n g or t r a i n i n g .  I n some c a s e s , unemployment o f the  head o f t h e f a m i l y a f f e c t s f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Problems o f f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p rank second i n importance. In men  p r o p o r t i o n t o the i n c r e a s e i n the number o f former s e r v i c e coming t o the D i v i s i o n and i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r  those o f f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s are becoming  fewer.  The  problems, average  of t h e s e i s about one-quarter o f the t o t a l number of problems, dropping from t h i r t y - n i n e t o n i n e t e e n per c e n t .  P a r t o f the  decrease has been the fewer number o f war b r i d e s coming f o r help.  Another f a o t o r may  be t h a t the e x - s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l are  becoming b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d i n Canadian l i f e , o r t h a t they have found t h e i r way ed  t o o t h e r e x i s t i n g community r e s o u r c e s .  Inolud-  i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s are m a r i t a l problems (the l a r g e s t  group), problems a f f e c t i n g the w e l f a r e o f c h i l d r e n ,  desertion,  non-support, and i l l e g i t i m a c y , t o name a few. The remainder o f the v e t e r a n s * d i f f i c u l t i e s to  h e a l t h and t o s o o i a l environment.  and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h .  are those due  T h i s i n o l u d e s both mental  What b e a r i n g war s e r v i c e may  h e a l t h i s not i n d i c a t e d .  have had on  Such f a c t o r s as a l c o h o l i s m and housing  have been c o n s i d e r e d t o c o n s t i t u t e s o c i a l environment (f)  Summary o f the d a l l y r e p o r t  forms  These forms are meant t o summarize s t a t i s t i c a l l y a c t i v i t i e s o f the worker.  difficulties.  the d a i l y  An i n t e r v i e w i s a contact only wherein  t h e r e has been a s i g n i f i c a n t exchange  o f i n f o r m a t i o n between the  s o c i a l worker and another person, t h a t i s , w i t h a o l i e n t o r some-  -  one on h i s b e h a l f . phone c a l l s , "telephone". A visit  The  81  same d e f i n i t i o n would apply t o t e l e -  s u b s t i t u t i n g f o r the word " i n t e r v i e w " the word T h i s i n c l u d e s both outgoing and inooming  oalls.  i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a oontaot when t h e r e has been a s i g -  n i f i c a n t interchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n . are c o n t a c t e d on one v i s i t corded as one v i s i t  When a number o f persons  o u t s i d e o f the o f f i c e , t h i s i s r e -  and s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s depending  number o f people i n v o l v e d .  upon the  A oase conference i s a meeting  on  b e h a l f o f a v e t e r a n , o r s e v e r a l v e t e r a n s , t o review t h e i r p r o blems.  I t must i n v o l v e at l e a s t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t sources o f  h e l p , otherwise i t would be i n the oategory of a meeting.  The  term " l e t t e r s " i n c l u d e s those w r i t t e n as w e l l as those r e c e i v e d by the D i v i s i o n p e r s o n n e l . d i c a t e the a c t u a l work T a b l e 11.  The  f i g u r e s i n the t a b l e below i n -  performed.  Indexes o f the work done by the s o o i a l workers, Yancouver S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , Department o f V e t e r ans * A f f a i r s , J u l y 1947 - June 1949  I n t e r - V i s i t s Telephone Period views Calls of Time J u l y 1947 849 Deoemberl947 733 605 Januaryl948740 307 468 June 1948 J u l y 1948Decomber1948 1056 355 635 Januaryl949393 845 1454 June 1949 2547 3963 1304 T 0 T A L  L e t t e r s Meet- Case Others ings Conferences 404  23  7  0  260  18  13  1  284  43  11  42  386 1334  67 151  5 36  0 43  |  C l o s e r examination r e v e a l s t h a t I n these two y e a r s , t h e s o c i a l work s t a f f conducted t h r e e thousand three interviews:  nine hundred and  two thousand, t h r e e hundred and f i f t y - t w o w i t h  c l i e n t s , e i g h t hundred and t h i r t y - e i g h t w i t h Departmental nel,  sixty-  and the remainder w i t h o t h e r persons.  A t o t a l o f one  personthou-  - 8  a -  sand t h r e e hundred and f o u r v i s i t s were made, e i g h t hundred o f these being t o o t h e r Departmental persons, and the r e s t t o v e t erans and o t h e r p e o p l e .  The  low number o f only n i n e t y - e i g h t  v i s i t s t o the c l i e n t s p o i n t s up the f a c t t h a t most of the i o n ^ work i s done w i t h i n the o o n f i n e s of the o f f i o e  Divis-  building.  T h i s i s made p o s s i b l e t o a great e x t e n t by the l a r g e number o f resouroes a v a i l a b l e I n the community t o the v e t e r a n s . On the new  s t a t i s t i c a l forms i s s u e d i n September, 1949,  i n c l u d e d a heading  " f i l e s reviewed".  is  This applies to Division  s o c i a l workers r e v i e w i n g f i l e s on whioh the Veterans*  Welfare  O f f i c e r s are a c t i v e , the aim b e i n g t o a s s i s t them I n the handl i n g o f w e l f a r e problems w i t h which they f i n d themselves i n v o l v ed. two  I n the l a s t f o u r months o f 1949, o f these f i l e s were reviewed,  hundred and twenty-three of three workers.  e i g h t hundred and n i n e t y -  t h a t i s , an average o f  two  per month by the s o o i a l s e r v i o e s t a f f  T h i s i n d i c a t e s the i n c r e a s i n g importance  and  r e c o g n i t i o n o f the v a l u e t o o t h e r Departmental s t a f f o f a cons u l t a t i o n s e r v i o e on s o c i a l work problems. I l l u s t r a t i v e Gases A few examples o f cases handled by the D i v i s i o n w i l l h e l p t o g i v e a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f what work i s a c t u a l l y b e i n g done. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n nas been o b t a i n e d from the b r i e f summaries on the s o c i a l workers* a c t i v e work cards and not from the r e c o r d i n g on the v e t e r a n s * f i l e s .  The  i n the order g i v e n below.  cards were chosen at random and  These cases are, t h e r e f o r e , r o u t i n e  random samples. A r t h u r A.  The widow o f t h i s v e t e r a n requested h e l p i n meeting  - 85 -  the m e d i c a l expenses o f h e r son, a mental d e f e c t i v e o f twentys i x y e a r s , s t i l l on c h i l d * s pension, and s u f f e r i n g f r o m a stomach u l c e r .  The s o c i a l worker contacted the Vancouver G e n e r a l  H o s p i t a l , O u t p a t i e n t s * Department, and was able t o r e f e r t h e mother and son t h e r e f o r a s s i s t a n c e . John B.  An enquiry was r e c e i v e d from t h e Community Chest and  C o u n c i l r e g a r d i n g Mr. B.*s e l i g i b i l i t y  f o r medical care.  This  v e t e r a n i s an e p i l e p t i c ; as he had s e r v i o e i n Canada o n l y , he was n o t e l i g i b l e f o r m e d i c a l care i n the Department, and no other a s s i s t a n o e was a v a i l a b l e f o r him. He was, t h e r e f o r e , r e f e r r e d f o r h e l p t o t h e C i t y S o o i a l S e r v i c e Department. W i l l i a m C.  Mr. C. who i s a p e r i o d i c d r i n k e r , and was out o f work,  came t o t h e D i v i s i o n , h a v i n g P r i s o n Farm.  j u s t been d i s c h a r g e d from O a k a l l a  He wished t o r e t u r n home t o V i c t o r i a t h a t n i g h t ,  but had no money.  The John Howard S o c i e t y was phoned, and an  arrangement made w i t h them f o r t h i s v e t e r a n t o o b t a i n a c h a r i t y rate t i c k e t .  T h i s was p a i d f o r through  a Departmental fund, t h e  Minor Disbursement Fund, maximum amount t o any v e t e r a n - fS.OO. Frank D»  Over a p e r i o d o f y e a r s , t h i s v e t e r a n has t u r n e d up a t  v a r i o u s s o o i a l agencies i n Vanoouver and v i c i n i t y .  He i s  u s u a l l y d e s t i t u t e , and has proved t o be i n c a p a b l e o f g e t t i n g along by h i m s e l f .  Mr. D. has been recommended f o r War Veterans*  Allowance. Derek E .  T h i s v e t e r a n was r e f e r r e d t o the D i v i s i o n from t h e  Veterans*  Land Aot A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  He was out o f work, and  s u p p o r t i n g a f a m i l y o f f i v e on Unemployment Insurance  o f #15.00  per week as w e l l as b e i n g behind on t h e mortgage on b i s p r o perty.  Mr. E . had no job p r o s p e c t , seemed a poor prospeot f o r  - 84 -  the Army Benevolent Fund, and was r e f e r r e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e t o the Family Welfare Bureau the A r t i l l e r y Fund. Gerald F.  The daughter o f a v e t e r a n * s  widow, Mrs. F., oame i n  t o endeavour t o o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e f o r h e r mother, h a v i n g r e f e r r e d t o t h e D i v i s i o n by Shaughnessy H o s p i t a l .  been  Application  forms f o r War V e t e r a n s * Allowance were g i v e n t o h e r and an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s kind o f assistance. B o l a n d G.  T h i s v e t e r a n was sentenced t o twenty days i n ,1ail o n  a charge o f a s s a u l t .  Mr. G. had not been s u p p o r t i n g h i s f a m i l y ,  whose income was s u p p l i e d from f o u r boarders i n t h e home. M r s . G., h i s w i f e , had been t o Family divoroe  from h e r husband.  Court and wished t o o b t a i n a  Her o b j e c t i n coming t o t h e D i v i s i o n  was t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from h e r husband*s f i l e t o o b t a i n a divoroe.  The r e c o r d showed t h a t t h e husband was a psychopath.  However, as g i v i n g f o r t h t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e wife was not f e l t t o be " i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f the v e t e r a n " , withheld  t h i s m a t e r i a l was  from h e r .  S t a f f T r a i n i n g , and Teaching The  o b j e c t o f a s t a f f t r a i n i n g and t e a c h i n g program i s t o  c r e a t e an awareness o f s o c i a l problems among the other Departmental p e r s o n n e l working w i t h v e t e r a n s .  T h i s i s accomplished  l a r g e l y through t h e medium o f a c o n s u l t a t i o n s e r v i c e .  The  Vancouver S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y f o r t u n a t e i n having  a t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker as the A s s i s t a n t Superintendent  of Veterans* Welfare Services.  The Superintendent of Veterans*  W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , though not a t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker h i m s e l f , has  nevertheless  been a c t i v e i n w e l f a r e  a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e commun-  - 85  ity  f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s and has p a r t i c i p a t e d , as requested, i n  the work o f the Community Chest and C o u n o i l o f G r e a t e r Van4  oouver.  T h i s means t h a t the s o c i a l workers o f the D i v i s i o n s  being r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Superintendent o f V e t e r a n s S e r v i c e s f o r the performance  1  Welfare  o f t h e i r d u t i e s , have an advantage  over s o o i a l workers i n o t h e r D i s t r i c t s i n having persons as t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p e r i o r s who a r e , t o some e x t e n t , f a m i l i a r w i t h s o c i a l work p r a o t i o e s . In May, 1949, a War V e t e r a n s ' Allowance Fund was e s t a b l i s h ed. to  T h i s fund g i v e s supplementary  monetary a s s i s t a n c e designed  h e l p r e c i p i e n t s o f the War V e t e r a n s ' Allowance who f o r some  r e a s o n are i n d i s t r e s s and are h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n managing financially.  I n t h e summer and f a l l o f 1948, many v e t e r a n  groups a g i t a t e d f o r an i n c r e a s e i n t h e War V e t e r a n s '  Allowance.  Research surveys i n whioh the s o c i a l workers p a r t i c i p a t e d were conducted  i n December 1948 and I n February 1949. Many o f t h e  r e c i p i e n t s o f the War V e t e r a n s ' Allowance were i n t e r v i e w e d and were h e l p e d I n f i l l i n g of  i n r e q u i r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . As a r e s u l t  the D i v i s i o n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , many o f these  v e t e r a n s were g i v e n a " f o l l o w up" s e r v i c e , and many r e f e r e n c e s •  were made t o community r e s o u r c e s .  4  The proposed i n c r e a s e , however,  was not g r a n t e d but, as a r e s u l t o f the survey conducted, t h e above-mentioned a s s i s t a n c e fund was c r e a t e d .  Applicants f o r  t h i s f u n d must submit reasons why they need h e l p and t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s summarized on a Departmental purpose.  form p r o v i d e d f o r t h e  The V e t e r a n s ' Welfare O f f i o e r s u s u a l l y do these i n »  4  »  v e s t i g a t i o n s , although, i n some i n s t a n c e s , t h e s o c i a l workers 4  may.  I t i s I n t e r e s t i n g t o note that, f o r the f i r s t  *  time,  space  - 86 -  i s d e f i n i t e l y r e s e r v e d on a Departmental form f o r t h e comments o f the S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n ,  Ho  a p p l i c a t i o n i s passed  with-  out t h e i r remarks, whioh are a c t u a l l y i n the nature o f a recommendation f o r or a g a i n s t a d d i t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e t o the v e t e r a n . T h i s p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i v e work w i t h the Veterans• Welfare  Officers.  Another e x c e l l e n t medium f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s o c i a l aspects of v a r i o u s problems has presented i t s e l f to the s o c i a l workers i n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the v a r i o u s boards . and oommittees o f the Department.  This includes various r e -  view boards and committees, suoh as, the Army I n t e r i m Benevol e n t Fund Committee, whioh was  a c t i v e before the permanent e s -  t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Army Benevolent  Fund Board.  o p p o r t u n i t y works both ways, t h a t i s , one teaohes.  The  a l s o l e a r n s as  s o o i a l workers are i n a s e t t i n g where the  f o c u s i s not s o c i a l work as they know i t ; they a r e able t o widen t h e i r own own  T h i s teaohing  primary  on the o t h e r hand,  and o t h e r s knowledge by  a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n on Departmental boards,  and i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s .  one  The  their  committees,  s o o i a l worker i n  e d u c a t i n g o t h e r s on s o c i a l work concepts must a l s o , i n t h i s s e t t i n g , be able t o show h e r s e l f as a good p r o f e s s i o n a l person* first,  i n a o c e p t i n g her agency p o l i c y and i t s r u l e s and r e g u l a -  t i o n s ; second, i n a c c e p t i n g her f e l l o w workers, and i n s t r i v i n g t o be aooepted h e r s e l f .  As she i s able t o prove the v a l u e o f  s o c i a l work by performance, she i s l a y i n g the groundwork f o r a more comprehensive t r a i n i n g and t e a o h i n g program^  Chapter  6  SOCIAL WORK IK THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS' AFFAIRS  S o o i a l Work i n a Complex Department S o o i a l work i n a Dominion government department f i n d s i t s e l f i n somewhat u n f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s .  The Department o f  Veterans* A f f a i r s i s a complex i n s t i t u t i o n ; the s o o i a l worker i s i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h people i n o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s and w i t h persons muoh l o n g e r e s t a b l i s h e d i n v e t e r a n s * a d m i n i s t r a t i o n than h e r s e l f ; t o a l l p e r s o n n e l , however, the o e n t r a l f i g u r e i s the v e t e r a n , and the s e r v i c e o f f e r e d i s t h a t o f h e l p i n g him. The s o c i a l worker must not o n l y know the concepts and p r a c t i c e s o f her own p r o f e s s i o n , but must have a knowledge and understanding o f the area i n whioh she i s working.  I n order t o  be able t o b r i n g the v e t e r a n Into e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Department and the community, i t i s necessary f i r s t o f a l l t h a t the s o c i a l worker be able t o f i t i n t o the agency s e t t i n g and t o work w i t h i t s p e r s o n n e l .  She must acquaint h e r s e l f w i t h  the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s governing the whole Department as w e l l as her own D i v i s i o n .  There are many l e g a l problems connected  w i t h the Department w i t h whioh she must have some f a m i l i a r i t y . I f s o c i a l work i s t o be able t o h e l p the v e t e r a n t o u t i l i z e more advantageously  the b e n e f i t s which are a v a i l a b l e t o h i m w i t h -  i n the agenoy, the s o c i a l worker must have a t l e a s t a nodding a c quaintance w i t h e x i s t i n g s e r v i o e s .  The work o f the Department  i s geared t o changing needs, and has t o change w i t h t h e s e . means t h a t as w e l l as being aware o f new procedures  This  i n the Soc-  i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , the worker must c o n s t a n t l y keep abreast o f  - 88  c u r r e n t procedures and developments i n o t h e r branches and d i v isions.  F o r example, i f a change i s made i n the amount of  allowance g i v e n under the War V e t e r a n s * Allowanoe Aot, i t i s important t h a t the s o c i a l worker should know t h i s so t h a t , when the need a r i s e s , she has the c o r r e c t  information.  P o s i t i o n o f the D i v i s i o n i n the Department Whioh i s the proper Departmental Branch i n which the D i v i s i o n should be e s t a b l i s h e d ?  T h i s has been a r e c u r r e n t problem.  I t s g r a d u a l development has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the o f two separate s o c i a l work groups:  emergence  m e d i o a l s o c i a l workers  w i t h i n the v e t e r a n h o s p i t a l s and s e r v i n g the Treatment Branch; s o c i a l workers i n the S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n and doing work i n the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branch; and the s e p a r a t i o n o f the I n v e s t i g a t o r s from both groups.  The D i v i s i o n p e r s o n n e l encourage o u t s i d e  agencies t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e x - s e r v i c e man's problems as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e ; on the o t h e r hand, the m e d i c a l s o o i a l workers g i v e a s e r v i o e which cannot be s u p p l i e d by a oommunity agency. The D i v i s i o n has been s h i f t e d baok and f o r t h between the V e t e r ans* W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s or R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branch, and the G e n e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Branch.  The r e a s o n f o r the D i v i s i o n being p l a c e d  w i t h i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Branch may have been t o g i v e the Supe r v i s o r o f the D i v i s i o n more freedom w h i l e the m e d i c a l s o c i a l workers s t i l l oame under h e r a u t h o r i t y .  I n e f f e c t i n g the work  o f t h e D i v i s i o n concerning m e d i o a l s o c i a l work, i t would not, t h e r e f o r e , be neoessary f o r the l i n e of a u t h o r i t y t o pass f i r s t through the V e t e r a n s ' W e l f a r e S e r v i o e s Branch when the matter  - 89  was  s o l e l y the concern o f the Treatment Branch.  W i t h the  se-  g r e g a t i o n o f t h e D i v i s i o n s o o i a l workers from the medioal  ones,  the D i v i s i o n has become e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the Veterans* Welf a r e S e r v i c e s Branch,  and s o o i a l work i s now  another v e t e r a n s * w e l f a r e  c o n s i d e r e d as  service.  O f f i c e Arrangements I n the. o f f i c e arrangements o f the D i v i s i o n , t h e r e are v a r i ous problems, such as, o b t a i n i n g adequate c l e r i c a l h e l p , t e l e phone communications, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and and permanent o f f i c e q u a r t e r s .  The  sufficient  s o c i a l worker i s o f t e n s h a r -  i n g c l e r i c a l h e l p or telephones w i t h o t h e r p e r s o n n e l .  When c a r  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , i t i s u s u a l l y necessary t o make out a r e q u i s i t i o n form r e q u e s t i n g a oar f o r a c e r t a i n time and  date.  As these oars are s e r v i c e d by a Department ohauffeur and used v a r i o u s Department s t a f f , i n the event o f an emergency t h i s  by  may  mean t h a t no c a r i s a v a i l a b l e , o r t h a t o u t s i d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n must be u t i l i z e d , thus c r e a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e . f r e q u e n t l y the D i v i s i o n has been moved from one  set of o f f i c e s  t o another, c r e a t i n g i n the minds o f the v e t e r a n s and s t a f f a c e r t a i n confusion.  Quite  office  T h i s i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o the p r e s t i g e  o f the D i v i s i o n as w e l l as b e i n g w a s t e f u l o f t i m e . H i r i n g Personnel I n h i r i n g s o c i a l workers, the Department has been q u i t e r i g i d i n specifying professional qualifications.  The  Civil  S e r v i o e p r e f e r e n c e g i v e n t o v e t e r a n s s e e k i n g employment w i t h i n the agenoy has made t h i s neoessary, the aim b e i n g t o m a i n t a i n high p r o f e s s i o n a l standards.  Because o f the s c a r c i t y of s o o i a l  workers, r e s i d e n c e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f p r o s p e c t i v e workers have f r e -  - 90 -  q u e n t l y been waived.  One d i f f i c u l t y  i n h i r i n g workers has been  t h a t , f o l l o w i n g the Dominion competitions f o r s o o i a l workers, on o c c a s i o n the r e s u l t i n g appointments have not been forthcoming from Ottawa u n t i l a p e r i o d o f t h r e e months o r more has e l a p s e d . The p o s i t i o n s not b e i n g assured, s o c i a l workers have sought employment elsewhere w h i l e a w a i t i n g r e s u l t s o f these examinations and, i n the f i n a l outcome, have not been a v a i l a b l e f o r a p p o i n t ment.  Measures t o overoome t h i s d e p l o r a b l e s i t u a t i o n have been  undertaken, and a more s a t i s f a c t o r y method o f h i r i n g workers at t h e l o c a l l e v e l has been sought. To some e x t e n t , the d i f f i c u l t y has been overoome by the c r e a t i o n o f temporary a p p o i n t ments pending permanent ones. S o c i a l Work - A Mew  Profession  I n t h i s Department, t h e s o o i a l worker has c l o s e  contact  w i t h persons from o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s , f o r example, p h y s i c i a n s , surgeons, lawyers, and d e n t i s t s .  She must have some knowledge  o f the concepts o f these p r o f e s s i o n s . i a l work i s a newcomer.  Compared w i t h t h e s e , s o c -  The w r i t t e n r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s have  acknowledged i t as a p r o f e s s i o n but, t o a o e r t a i n e x t e n t , s o o i a l work has t o prove i t s e l f i n a c h i e v i n g acceptance w i t h i n t h i s setting.  I t i s a q u e s t i o n o f demonstration by performance as  much as a n y t h i n g e l s e .  T h i s i s not a measurable t h i n g t h a t  can be quoted i n s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s , but i s r a t h e r a slow matter of interpretation.  I t depends g r e a t l y on community  understand-  i n g o f s o o i a l problems and human behaviour and the consequent u n d e r s t a n d i n g the s t a f f o f the Department has o f the work b e i n g done •  - 91 -  Because o f the D i v i s i o n ' s newness i n t h i s s e t t i n g , culties occasionally arise.  diffi-  Many o f t h e persons t o whom t h e  s o o i a l worker may a c t as a c o n s u l t a n t have been i n the Department muoh l o n g e r than she has; a few have been t r a i n e d i n v e t e r a n s * a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i n c e t h e beginning o f t h e v e t e r a n s * program i n t h e F i r s t World War.  Some o f t h e personnelmay  still  r e g a r d s o o i a l work as an i n t r u s i o n Upon t h e i r own a r e a o f work and be unable t o see a v a l u e i n such a program.  I t i s muoh  e a s i e r t o understand t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e l e g a l o r m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n s , as t h e i r content i s - seemingly - more d e f i n i t e  than  t h a t o f s o c i a l work, and t h e g o a l s o f these p r o f e s s i o n s are e a s i e r at  f i r s t t o understand.  S h a r i n g Gases w i t h Other Departmental In  Staff  t h e Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s , t h e s o c i a l worker  i s v e r y o f t e n s h a r i n g h e r c l i e n t w i t h someone e l s e .  Roughly  f o r t y t o f i f t y p e r oent o f the cases handled by the S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n have been r e f e r r e d t o t h e D i v i s i o n from o t h e r branches  and d i v i s i o n s o f the Department.  The nature o f the  p r e v i o u s c o n t a c t t h e c l i e n t has had w i t h Departmental  personnel  may have an i n f l u e n c e on the r e l a t i o n s h i p which the worker i s able t o e s t a b l i s h w i t h t h e c l i e n t . of  I n some i n s t a n c e s , a member  another d i v i s i o n c o n t i n u e s t o handle  a c e r t a i n oase and t h e  s o o i a l worker may h o l d an i n t e r v i e w simply f o r d i a g n o s t i c poses.  pur-  She has t o be able t o oope w i t h the problems o f i n t e r -  r e l a t i o n s h i p which may a r i s e .  Most o f t h e p e r s o n n e l o f t h e  Department are men, whereas t h e s o o i a l workers are u s u a l l y women.  98-  The v e t e r a n may have seen s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t people been t o s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t branches.  and have  The s o c i a l worker may  h e l p t o u n i f y t h e v a r i o u s steps and t o make them seem more constructive.  Some c l i e n t s may f e e l t h a t they are b e i n g  "pushed around" as they were i n the army o r o t h e r s e r v i o e s . The  s o o i a l worker may h e l p t h e v e t e r a n by showing him t h a t she  i s able t o understand  his difficulties  and at t h e same time  h e l p him t o see t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c e r t a i n r e g u l a t i o n s and r u l e s o f t h e Department. Is t h e Department t o o A u t h o r i t a r i a n ? One  b a s i c p r i n o i p l e o f s o c i a l work i s t h a t people  should  be allowed t o make and t o aot upon t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s , t h e s o c i a l worker o f t e n h e l p i n g them t o be e m o t i o n a l l y able t o do this.  I s t h i s p r i n o i p l e o o n t r a d i c t e d by t h e Department?  somewhat a u t h o r i t a t i v e a i r pervades the v e t e r a n s * agency.  A In  p a r t , t h i s may be a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a t t r i b u t e d t o the agenoy by t h e e x - s e r v i o e p e r s o n n e l . of Veterans*  However, t h e Department  A f f a i r s has a r i s e n out o f a m i l i t a r y program o r  s e t t i n g ; a l a r g e percentage  o f i t s p e r s o n n e l are e x - s e r v i c e mem-  bers o f t h e t h r e e armed f o r c e s ; and t h e r e has been t o a o e r t a i n extent an i n f i l t r a t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r i t a t i v e a t t i t u d e o f g i v i n g and t a k i n g o r d e r s which c h a r a c t e r i z e s m i l i t a r y l i f e .  Neverthe-  l e s s one o f t h e g o a l s o f the Department i s t h a t t h e v e t e r a n should see h i m s e l f as a c i v i l i a n and not as a v e t e r a n .  Since many o f  the s t a f f are e x - s e r v i o e p e r s o n n e l , I s t h e r e a tendency f o r them, t o form themselves u n c o n s c i o u s l y i n t o a s p e o i a l  category,  -  93  a veteran group; do they see themselves as c i v i l i a n s ; do they make a d i s t i n c t i o n between the former commissioned and noncommissioned servioemen, that i s , between o f f i o e r s and those i n the ranks?  The s o o i a l worker must endeavour to understand  what i s the discharged man or woman's reaction to the Department, and how t h i s a f f e c t s her r e l a t i o n and that of the Departmental personnel to the persons seeking servioe. tary servioe meant to the individual?  What has m i l i -  Does he come to the  agency expecting to be t o l d what to do? Does he come submissivel y or defiantly? living?  Does he f e e l that the country owes him a  Many of the veterans f e e l d i f f e r e n t l y about coming t o  the Department f o r help as compared with going to a oommunity s o o i a l agenoy.  They tend to regard the services given by the  Dominion government as a kind of s o o i a l insurance; because the veteran has endured s p e c i a l r i s k s , he i s e n t i t l e d to s p e c i a l privileges.  This i s especially notioeable i n the case of veter-  ans who have received the War Veterans* Allowance f o r a period of f i v e , s i x , or perhaps nine or t e n years, and having reached the age of seventy years are then e l i g i b l e f o r the Old Age Pension.  Even though they reoeive less i n many instances while  they remain on the War Veterans' Allowance than they would i f they reoeived the Old Age Pension, they prefer to accept the War Veterans* Allowance.  Most of them f e e l that they have a  claim to t h i s , that they have earned i t . gard the Old Age Pension as c h a r i t y .  By contrast, they r e -  To many, i t i s a matter  of pride, of self-respeot, avoiding the admittance of f a i l u r e .  94 -  T h i s i s not an i s o l a t e d example.  Many v e t e r a n s come t o  the Department not seeking s o c i a l s e r v i c e but & r o t h e r  reasons.  The s e r v i c e which they request may not be a v a i l a b l e t o them, o r i t may be made more e f f e c t i v e i f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e oase. be able t o understand  The ex-serviceman may not  the v a l u e o f s o c i a l work i n h i s present  s i t u a t i o n , nor may he be able t o see how i t can h e l p him t o a c hieve h i s ultimate goal.  I f a r e f e r e n c e t o another  d e s i r a b l e , i t may be v e r y d i f f i c u l t  agenoy seems  f o r h i m t o accept t h i s , and  o f t e n a great d e a l o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the agency t o which a r e f e r e n o e i s t o be made i s r e q u i r e d on the p a r t o f the s o o i a l worker b e f o r e t h e v e t e r a n understands t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n which s o o i a l work oan make t o him. I n many eases, the person  seeking  s e r v i o e o f the Department does not f e e l t h a t he i s a s k i n g a s s i s t ance o f a s o c i a l agenoy, and the s o c i a l worker must be able t o h e l p him t o accept t h e i d e a o f going t o a s o o i a l agenoy before an e f f e c t i v e r e f e r e n c e can be made. three viewpoints:  T h i s i s important  from  t h a t o f t h e v e t e r a n , t h a t o f the Department,  and t h a t o f the agency from which t h e v e t e r a n w i l l be seeking service.  The s o c i a l worker must h e l p h e r c l i e n t t o make use o f  the e x i s t i n g s e r v i o e s which w i l l be o f h e l p t o him w i t h h i s own p a r t i c u l a r problems. Understanding  Community Resources  The s o o i a l worker must have a thorough knowledge s t a n d i n g o f community resouroes  resources.  i n eaoh d i s t r i o t  and under-  The development o f o u t s i d e  i s an important  f a o t o r and w i l l i n -  -  95  -  f l u e n o e g r e a t l y t h e nature o f the work done by eaoh D i v i s i o n . The  stage o f development o f the community Inoludes many t h i n g s .  Have t h e people an awareness o f s o o i a l problems and an a b i l i t y t o h e l p the v e t e r a n and h i s f a m i l y ?  I s the community a r i c h  one o r a poor one w i t h a g r e a t economic need?  What concept o f  f u n c t i o n do t h e e x i s t i n g agencies have; i s t h e i r v i s i o n broad or narrow?  Are they w i l l i n g t o accept r e f e r e n c e s from  mental s t a f f ?  Depart-  The s o c i a l worker s e r v i n g the v e t e r a n i s a mem-  ber o f a team not o n l y i n h e r own agency but i n the whole d i s t r i c t which h e r agency s e r v e s .  She- must work w i t h others not  o n l y i n d a i l y oontaot, but i n p l a n n i n g f o r the f u t u r e . To some degree, the Department may d i v e r t o r i s o l a t e the s o o i a l worker from h e r own p r o f e s s i o n ^ She spends much e f f o r t and g i v e s much time i n keeping up w i t h the t e c h n i c a l and developments w i t h i n the Department. an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e  she i s doing  job w i t h o t h e r p e r s o n n e l , t h e y , i n t u r n , are  c o n s t a n t l y h e l p i n g h e r t o understand point.  Although  aspeots  t h e i r work and t h e i r view-  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be w i t h d o c t o r s , w i t h  agricul-  t u r a l e x p e r t s , w i t h those d e a l i n g w i t h p r o p e r t y c o m p l i c a t i o n s , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n g r a n t s and b e n e f i t s , w i t h d e n t i s t s , w i t h the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i o e u s u a l l y s t a t i o n e d i n the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s , and a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r s . There are many mechanioal  t a s k s whioh she must do, o r which the  v e t e r a n must do, suoh as, the f i l l i n g forms,  i n o f numerous a p p l i c a t i o n  and other governmental " r e d t a p e " .  f a l l i n g into routine habits.  She must guard a g a i n s t  96  To s o o i a l workers o u t s i d e the Department, she may  often  seem t o o p r o t e c t i v e o f h e r agency*s r e g u l a t i o n s i n not g i v i n g the s o o i a l h i s t o r y o f a p a r t i c u l a r v e t e r a n .  The  oonfidence  a t t a c h i n g t o Departmental f i l e s a p p l i e s t o h e r D i v i s i o n as w e l l as t o o t h e r s .  Case r e c o r d i n g i n these f i l e s i s kept t o an ab-  s o l u t e adnimum.  When the s o c i a l worker may  holding information, very o f t e n l i t t l e  seem t o he w i t h -  i n f o r m a t i o n whioh would 4  be o f any h e l p I n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i s a c t u a l l y  available,  and i n g i v i n g out m e d i c a l d a t a , she must, i n any oase, t e c h n i c a l l y f i r s t o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n from the D i s t r i o t M e d i o a l I n a community  where t h e s o c i a l work resouroes  Officer.  are v e r y  few  o r n o n - e x i s t e n t , and t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l l a o k o f s e r v i c e s t o any o f the members o f a community,  the s o c i a l worker may become d i -  v e r t e d from h e r c e n t r a l concern, the v e t e r a n , i n endeavouring to  serve him by s t i m u l a t i n g the development o f s e r v i o e s f o r the  oommunity as a whole, and i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the s o o i a l work p r o gram t o i n t e r e s t e d  citizens.  The q u e s t i o n a l s o a r i s e s o f whether the Department  should  not make more p u b l i o the work t h a t the D i v i s i o n i s doing.  Many  of the workers i n o u t s i d e agencies have a v e r y vague i d e a o f the work done by the D i v i s i o n , and t h i s Work c o u l d perhaps be more e f f e c t i v e i f t h e r e were more awareness o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s . r e a s o n f o r t h i s may  The  p a r t l y be t h a t casework i t s e l f i s on an  e x p e r i m e n t a l b a s i s w i t h i n the w a l l s o f the Department, and p e r t ly  a h e s i t a n c y on the p a r t o f a governmental agenoy t o open i t -  self to criticism.  97 -  S o o i a l Work S t i l l The  Experimental  s o o i a l work program i n the Department i s under con-  s t a n t study t h a t i t may  best serve i t s p l a c e and purpose i n  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Much o f the work done has been experimental, is  and w i l l continue t o be even when the D i v i s i o n ' s p o s i t i o n  finally  olarified.  As new  l e g i s l a t i o n f o r v e t e r a n s i s en-  a c t e d , and as present s e r v i o e s are r e v i s e d , or new  ones i n t r o -  duced, the p o l i o y o f the D i v i s i o n and o f the Department i s one  o f s u f f i c i e n t f l e x i b i l i t y t o oope w i t h new  situations  and,  i f d e s i r a b l e , t o a l t e r t h e i r f u n c t i o n s t o serve b e t t e r -the v e t e r a n group. Since s o c i a l work at the Dominion l e v e l i s s t i l l or  i n more  l e s s e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a g e s , what happens i n the v e t e r a n s ' p r o -  gram may  w e l l be t a k e n as a guide f o r f u t u r e developments i n  governmental departments.  I n p l a n n i n g f o r the Canadian people  as a whole, many p i t f a l l s , suoh as p l a c i n g the s e r v i o e i n o 6 r r e c t l y i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u o t u r e , may lessons learned.  be avoided and many  Others concern the r e a c t i o n o f p r i v a t e  and  p r o v i n c i a l w e l f a r e agencies t o the program and the c o - o p e r a t i o n achieved w i t h them; the f e e l i n g o f the p u b l i c towards government w e l f a r e s e r v i c e ; whether a government s e r v i c e best f i l l s need; and many o t h e r s . 4  w i l l always,  the  On the o t h e r hand, s e r v i o e s f o r v e t e r a n s  4  i t seems, be o f a more s p e c i a l i z e d and e l a b o r a t e  c h a r a c t e r t h a n those planned  f o r the p u b l i c at l a r g e .  Both f o r 4  its  s p e o i a l reasons and i t s more g e n e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , however,  the work o f the S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n i s an important  source  98 -  o f precedent  and experience f o r any f u t u r e w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g  on a Dominion-wide b a s i s .  APPENDICES  APPENDICES  Appendix I  S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n Monthly S t a t i s t i c a l Report Form used by the Vanoouver S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n from June 1947 t o August 1949, I n c l u s i v e .  Appendix I I  S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n Monthly S t a t i s t i c a l Report Form used by the Vancouver S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n from September 1949 t o the present t i m e .  Appendix I I I  L i s t o f some o f the persons and agenoies o u t s i d e of the Department o t h e r t h a n a c c r e d i t e d s o c i a l agencies t o which r e f e r e n c e s have been made by the Vanoouver S o o i a l S e r vice Division.  APPENDIX I SOCIAL WORKERS MONTHLY REPORT DISTRICT MONTH SOCIAL WORKER, •. 1.  3.  3.  Case Count A,  C a r r i e d Over Transferred In Less T r a n s f e r r e d Out  B.  New Transferred In Less T r a n s f e r r e d Out  C.  Re-opened Transferred In Less T r a n s f e r r e d Out  D.  T o t a l Case Load f o r Month  E.  Cases C l o s e d  F.  Balanoe C a r r i e d Forward  ;  Family Status  Branch o f S e r v i o e  World War  Single Married Widowed Separated Divorced Deceased  Navy Army A i r Force.; Allied Forces  I II Others  Summary o f D a i l y Report Forms A,  Interviews Clients D.V.A. Others  B. V / i s i t s Clients D.V.A. Others  ,  C.  Telephone  F.  Case C o n f e r e n c e s .  D.  Letters  G.  Others  E.  Meetings  (ii)  SOCIAL WORKERS MONTHLY REPORT (oontinued)  4.  Problems A. Boonomic a. Emergency A s s i s t a n c e Required b. M a r g i n a l Income o. Problems o f Budgeti n g and Home Management d. Debt e. Other B.  5.  Employment a. Persons needing V o c a t i o n a l Couns e l l i n g or Training b. P e r s o n a l i t y Faotors affecting Employability c. Unemployment o f Head of Family a f f e o t l n g Family R e l a t i o n s h i p s d. Other  C.  Family R e l a t i o n s h i p s a. M a r i t a l b. A f f e o t i n g w e l fare of children o. D e s e r t i o n d. Non-support e. Illegitimacy f . War-Brides g. Other  \  ] D.  Health a. Mental b. Physioal  B.  S o o i a l & Environmental a. Housing b. A l c o h o l i s m o. I n a b i l i t y t o f i n d o r use Educational or R e c r e a t i o n al Facilities d. Other  S e r v i o e s Rendered A.  Cases r e q u i r i n g : a. Reference t o other Section of Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n b. R e f e r r a l t o o t h e r Branoh ot D i v i s i o n and/or s e c t i o n o f Department o. R e f e r r a l t o P r i v a t e S o o i a l Agenoy d. R e f e r r a l t o P u b l i c Departments 1. M u n i c i p a l 3. P r o v i n c i a l 3. Federal e* R e f e r r a l t o Others (specify)  B. O f f i c e I n t e r v i e w Only C. A s s i s t a n c e Funds  from T r u s t  D. Cases where a s e r v i o e other t h a n R e f e r r a l i s g i v e n i n Planned Cooperation with Another Agenoy  (Iii)  SOCIAL WORKERS MONTHLY REPORT  6.  Source o f Cases Received  (continued)  d u r i n g Month  A;  Personal applications (interview, l e t t e r )  B.  Member o f v e t e r a n ' s  C.  P r i v a t e S o o i a l Agencies (a) (b) (o)  D.  P u b l i o Departments. a. M u n i c i p a l b. P r o v i n c i a l o. F e d e r a l  E.  Department o f Veterans*  immediate f a m i l y . . . . . •  Affairs...  _  a.  Other S e a t i o n s o f S o c i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n 1. I n v e s t i g a t i o n S e c t i o n 2. M e d i o a l and P s y c h i a t r i c S e c t i o n  b.  Treatment Branch.. 1.  3. o.  zzzz  Administration 1.  2. d.  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branch 1. 2.  3.  4.  —  —  e.  D i s t r i c t Legal Services  f.  D i s t r i c t Padre  g.  Canadian P e n s i o n  h.  War Veterans Allowances....  i.  Head O f f i c e and Other D i s t r i c t s  Commission  APPENDIX I I SOCIAL WORKERS MONTHLY REPORT DISTRICT, MONTH..., Case Count  3.  A. B. C. D.  Brought Forward. New Re-opened T o t a l Case Load f o r Month...... E . Cases Closed.... F. C a r r i e d Over.*.,  Tvues o f S e r v i c e s Rendered A. C o n s u l t a t i o n . . . . . . . B. I n t e r v i e w s . . C. R e f e r r a l s t o : a. Other div.D.V.A.. b. P r i v a t e S o o i a l Agencies......... c. P u b l i o S e r v i c e s . . d. V e t e r a n s S e r v i c e s •• e .Others • Total D. Correspondence only E. V i s i t s F. Planned Co-operation _ G. Case Conference.... H. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  4„  Problems A. Economic...... _ B. F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s . C. P e r s o n a l i t y . . . . . . . . . . D. Employment........... E. Health...... F . Housing........ G. T r a n s i e n o y . . H. A l c o h o l i s m I. Legal J . Imprisonment K. Other..... smiTGe o f Cases — — New Re-ouened A. Other D i v isions of D .V .A • • •_ B. P r i v a t e Sooial Agenoies.. •_ • • •__ C. P u b l i c S e r v i c e s •.... • * • _.„ D. V e t e r a n s Services • • • ••• E .V e t e r a n s and/or Dependents • .• F. Other ••• Total....... • • • •_ Grand T o t a l  (ii)  SOCIAL WORKERS MONTHLY REPORT (continued)  5.  Summary o f D a i l y Forms A.  Interviews Office Clients...........  Telephone  Others.  &.  Total _____  B.  Visits  C.  Outgoing L e t t e r ? , Memos, and Case R e p o r t s . . . .  D.  Attendance  E.  L e o t u r e s and D i s c u s s i o n s Conducted  F.  F i l e s Reviewed  G.  Case  H.  S u p e r v i s i o n Conferences  I.  Mileage  a t Meetings  Conferences  Any form o f survey, s p e o i a l study, r e s e a r o h . o r e x p e r i m e n t a l casework undertaken by the S.S.D. under Departmental authori t y s h o u l d be d e s o r i b e d I n the Progress Report o r s p e o i a l r e p o r t a t t a c h e d . See Clause 38 and 53 o f Chapter I I I , S e c t i o n 13. R e g u l a t i o n s and I n s t r u c t i o n s .  Date......  S u p e r v i s o r , S.S.D  APPENDIX I I I Persons and Agencies o u t s i d e the Department o t h e r t h a n A c c r e d i t e d S o o i a l Agencies t o which R e f e r r a l s made by the Vancouver S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n Agencies Army Benevolent Fund Banks B r i t i s h Columbia Canteen ' Fund Canadian L e g i o n Canadian Red C r o s s C e n t r a l Mortgage & Housins Corporation Christmas Cheer Fund Citizens* Rehabilitation Council Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Employment Agency F i r s t U n i t e d Church Welfare H e a r i n g A i d Company Housing Agenoy H o s p i t a l Insurance A s s o c iation I m p e r i a l Order Daughters o f Empire Persons  John Howard S o c i e t y Loggers' A s s o c i a t i o n N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e Poppy Day Fund R e g i s t e r e d Nurses A s s o c i a tion R e n t a l Agenoies R e t a i l Credit,Grantors Returned S o l d i e r s ' C l u b R o y a l Canadian A i r Force Benevolent Fund R o y a l Canadian Mounted Police R o y a l Canadian N a v a l Benevol e n t Fund S t . John's Ambulance A s s o c i a tion S t . V i n c e n t de P a u l Salvage St. Vincent's Shelter S a l v a t i o n Army V i o t o r i a n Order Nurses V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s Department  dentists dootors employers lawyers.  ministers optometrists parish priests psychiatrists.  B I B L I O S R A P H Y  S p e o i f i o References (Government Documents - Canada) Department o f Immigration and C o l o n i z a t i o n , Annual Report, 1952-1956 Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1933-1937. f  Department of M i l i t i a and Defence, Report o f the M i l i t a r y Hosp i t a l s Commission, May 1917. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1917. Department o f Mines and Resources, Annual Report. 1937-1944, Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1938-1945. Department o f Pensions and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h , Annual 1944, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1929-1944.  Report,1928-  Department o f Pensions and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h , Report o f the V e t e r a n s * A s s i s t a n c e Commission, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1937. Department o f S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment, Annual Report, 1919-1927, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1920-1928. Department o f S o l d i e r s * C i v i l Re-establishment, Canada's Work f o r D i s a b l e d S o l d i e r s , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1919. Department o f S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment, The Care and Employment o f the T u b e r c u l o u s Ex-Serviceman a f t e r Discharge from the Sanatorium. B.T.S.C., C o n f i d e n t i a l Report No. 6, 1.18.20, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1921. Department o f Veterans* A f f a i r s , Annual Report. 1945-1949, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1946-1949, Department of V e t e r a n s * A f f a i r s , The V e t e r a n s ' Charter.Canada, 1946, A Reference Manual on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Ottawa. King's P r i n t e r , 1947. S o l d i e r Settlement Board, Annual Report. 1921-1951. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1921-1932. (Books, Pamphlets,  and Other  Sources)  Canada, Department of N a t i o n a l Defence, R o y a l Canadian A i r F o r c e Benevolent Fund, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , ho date, pamphlet. Canada, Department o f V e t e r a n s ' A f f a i r s , R e g u l a t i o n s and I n s t r u c t i o n s , Ottawa, mimeographed.  B I B L I O G R A P H Y (continued)  S p e o i f i o References  (continued)  Canada, Department o f V e t e r a n s ' A f f a i r s , The V e t e r a n s ' Land Aot 1942, A Summary o f i t s Aims, Scope, and Main D e t a i l s . Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1944, Handbook No. 1. Canada, Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s : circular letters, S o c i a l S e r v i c e Memos, mimeographed; s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s , manuscript. Canada, prepared by an I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l Committee, Handbook on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1945. Canada, Wartime I n f o r m a t i o n Board, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n Committee, V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g on Civvy S t r e e t . Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , no date, pamphlet. Segsworth, W a l t e r E., R e t r a i n i n g Canada's D i s a b l e d S o l d i e r s . Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1920.  General References England, Robert, D i s c h a r g e d : A Commentary on C i v i l Re-establishment o f V e t e r a n s i n Canada. Toronto, Maomillan Company of Canada L i m i t e d , 1943. England, Robert, Canadian Re-establishment B e n e f i t s f o r V e t e r ans, T o r o n t o , Maomillan Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , 1944. Menninger, K a r l , "The V e t e r a n ' - and Don't F o r g e t " , Survey G r a p h i c . v o l . 37 ( J u l y , 1948), pp. 333-337. P r a t t , George K., S o l d i e r t o C i v i l i a n : Problems o f Readjustment. New Y o r k and London, W h i t t l e s e y House, McGraw-Hill Book Company, I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1944. Rogers, C a r l R. and W a l i e n , John L., C o u n s e l i n g w i t h Returned Servicemen, New York and London, MoGraw-Hill Bood Company, Inoorp o r a t e d , 1946. S t a n f o r d , Margaret, " S o o i a l S e r v i o e D i v i s i o n - , Department o f V e t erans* A f f a i r s " , B r i t i s h Columbia's W e l f a r e , v o l . 5 (February 1949 J, pp. 7-8.  

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