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The Social Service Division of the Department of Veterans' Affairs : its origin, setting, and functions… Clayden, Florence Virginia 1950

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THE SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS* AFFAIRS It s o r i g i n , s e t t i n g , and functions: a study based on the D i v i s i o n i n the British. Columbia D i s t r i c t by FLORENCE VIRGINIA CLAYDEN Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the Department of Sooi a l Work 1 9 5 0 _The University of B r i t i s h Columbia g. V. Clayden: THE SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ABSTRACT This study Is primarily a descriptive account of the development and the work of the S o e i a l Service D i v i s i o n In i t s background s e t t i n g of the Department of Veterans 1 A f f a i r s . I t covers the h i s t o r i c a l development of the various Canadian departments of government concerned with the ex-serviceman's welfare from the beginning of World War I i n 1914 to the pre-sent time. Information was drawn from annual reports and publica-t i o n s , mimeographed material of the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s , ' I n c l u d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l reports of the B r i t i s h Columbia D i v i s i o n , supplemented by Interviews with s t a f f members of the B r i t i s h Columbia D i s t r i c t O f f i c e . The veterans' department was born of a m i l i t a r y program and of the r e s u l t i n g physical need of wounded discharged s o l -diers f o r medical treatment. From t h i s beginning developed the recognition of the value of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program f o r those p h y s i c a l l y handicapped because of war servioe. This need f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was extended gradually u n t i l i t covered a l l veterans of World War I I and preceding wars. The coverage has moved ste a d i l y from the medical to the t o t a l welfare needs of the veteran. The Department has emerged as one of Canada's large s t welfare agenoies, veterans being segregated from t h e i r fellow c i v i l i a n s by l e g i s l a t i o n granting s p e c i a l benefits be-cause of s p e c i a l r i s k s . The r o l e of the profession of s o c i a l work In t h i s s e t t i n g has been exploratory. In the early 1920's, the s o o i a l worker i s described as being a nurse with speoial t r a i n i n g ; the pro-f e s s i o n of s o o i a l work was not recognized. Today, only s o o i a l workers trained i n an accredited School of Sooial Work are accepted as employees of the D i v i s i o n . As f a r as d i r e c t case work i s concerned, the D i v i s i o n operates lar g e l y as a r e f e r r i n g agency although d i r e c t service i s given i n some Instances. The D i v i s i o n i s now experimenting with an in-service t r a i n i n g program i n s o c i a l work concepts f o r Veterans' Welfare O f f i c e r s and other Departmental personnel. This would make the s o o i a l worker available to'these persons on a consultative basis. In the present s e t t i n g , the professional s o c i a l worker has to prove the value of her work by performance. ACKNOWLED GMENT I wish to express appreciation to Dr. Leonard Marsh f o r h i s kindly encouragement, h e l p f u l suggestions and, es-p e c i a l l y , f o r h i s assistance with research material and the composition of t h i s study. Speolal thanks are also expressed to Miss Margaret Stanford, Mrs. Mary Nicholson, Mr. B l a i r Clerk, and other members of the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s i n Van-couver f o r t h e i r co-operation, i n giving of t h e i r time and attention f o r interviews, i n reading the study, and i n aiding with the c o l l e c t i o n of material. Appreciation and acknowledgment are due to Reverend Peter Henderson f o r re-reading t h i s t h e s i s , and for r e -viewing i t s general construction and composition. Gratitude i s also expressed to Miss Majorie Smith and other members of the S o c i a l Work Eaoulty who have aided i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page 1. The Re h a b i l i t a t i o n of the Veteran 1 The establishment of the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , 1944, and of the Soo-i a l Service D i v i s i o n , 1946. Who are**vet-erans n? R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and i t s meaning. A change i n emphasis. The veteran and the community 8,» The Development of Veterans* L e g i s l a t i o n : 1919-1946 . . 16 F i r s t steps: early methods and regulations during World War I. A nurse as a s o o i a l worker. Progress made i n the intervening years, 1922-1939. The Second World War and new s o o i a l l e g i s l a t i o n enacted on the veter-ans * behalf. 3. The Sooi a l Service D i v i s i o n i n the Depart-mental Organization 35 The administrative organization of the De-partment. The changing and developing place of the Sooi a l Service D i v i s i o n . The d i s -t r i b u t i o n of duties among the s o o i a l work s t a f f at Head O f f i c e , Ottawa, and i n the D i s t r i o t s . 4. The polioy of the Sooial Service D i s t r i c t Divisions . . . 48 The nature and scope of the D i v i s i o n . L i a i s o n with the community. Work with the veteran. S t a f f t r a i n i n g and teaching. Re-search. 5. The Vancouver S o o i a l Service D i v i s i o n . . . . 62 L i a i s o n with the community. Work with the veteran, including an analysis of recorded s t a t i s t i c s , and a few i l l u s t r a t i v e cases. S t a f f t r a i n i n g and teaching. TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Chapter Page ©. Sooial Work i n the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s . . 8 7 A complex i n s t i t u t i o n . The Division*s place i n the Department. Office Arrangements. A new profession. The sharing of cases. An authoritative a i r . The role of the community. Sooi a l work as an experiment. TABLES AND CHARTS I N THE TEST (a) Tables Page Table 1. Expenditures on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the Department of Soldiers* C i v i l Re-establishment . . . 21 Table 2. Servioes Rendered to veterans by the Department of Soldiers* C i v i l Re-establishment . . 21 Table 3. Sooial Service Investigations by T h i r t y -Four S o c i a l Servioe Nurses f o r the Year 1920 . . . . . . . . . . . 25 f a b l e 4. Cases Handled'by the Vanoouver Sooial Ser-vi c e D i v i s i o n , Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , June 1947 - December 1949 . 71 Table 5. Source of the Cases Received by the Van-oouver S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n , Depart-ment of Veterans»'Affairs, July 1947 -June 1949 73 Table 6. Family Status of the Cases Handled by the Vancouver Sooial Service D i v i s i o n , De-partment of Veterans* A f f a i r s , July 1947-June 1949 75 Table 7. War Service of Veterans Receiving A s s i s t -ance from the Vancouver S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n , Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , July 1947 - June 1949 . . . . . 76 Table 8. M i l i t a r y Branch of Service of Veterans Re-ceiving Assistance from the Vancouver Soo-i a l Service D i v i s i o n , Department of Veter-ans* A f f a i r s , July 1947 - June 1949 . 76 Table 9. Servioes Rendered to Veterans by the Van-oouver S o c i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n , Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , July 1947 - June 1949 77 Table 10. Nature of froblems of the Veterans A s s i s t - ' ed by the Vanoouver Sooial Service D i v i s i o n , Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , July 1947 -June 1949 79 TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (continued) ( a ) Tables Page Table 11. Indexed of the Work Done by the Sooial Workers, Yancouver Sooial Service D i v i -sion, Department of Veterans 1 A f f a i r s , July 1947 - June 1949 81 (b) Charts F i g . 1 Administrative Chart of the Department of Veterans* Affairs> S o o i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n 37 APPENDICES Appendix I Appendix I I Appendix I I I Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n Monthly S t a t i s t i c a l Report Form used by the Yancouver Soo i a l Service D i v i s i o n from June 1947 to August 1949, i n c l u s i v e , Sooial Service D i v i s i o n Monthly S t a t i s t i c a l Report Form used by the Yancouver S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n from September 1949 to the present time. L i s t of some of the persons and agencies outside of the Department other than ac-credited s o c i a l agencies to which references have been made by the Yancouver Sooial Ser-vice D i v i s i o n . THE SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS* AFFAIRS - 1 -Chapter 1 THE REHABILITAT IOM OF THE VETERAK The Department of "Veterans» A f f a i r s was estahlished i n Canada i n 1944. It was not an e n t i r e l y new undertaking; two former government departments had been concerned with the ex-serviceman* s care, treatment, and reinstatement i n c i v i l i a n l i f e . The development began following the F i r s t World War, 1914-1918; In 1918, a s p e c i a l government department to deal with the s i t u a t i o n , the Department of Soldiers* C i v i l Re-estab-lishment, was ereated. The work of t h i s department was espec-i a l l y heavy during the years immediately following the war. I n the late twenties, the volume of the work waned considerably and, i n 1988, the veterans* department became a part, of the De-partment of Pensions and nation a l Health (superseded l a t e r by the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s ) . With the involvement of the Canadian people i n the Second World War, the men and women discharged from the armed services again emerged as a group occupying a prominent place i n national a f f a i r s . Their w e l l -. . . . . . t ...... being was given p r i o r i t y , and the need f o r the " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the veterans* became an enduring consequence of f i v e years of war. The S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n of the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s was not established u n t i l 1946, and was not without precedent, since a S o c i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n had existed i n the o l d Department of Soldiers* C i v i l Re-establishment. Although the nature of the work done by these two d i v i s i o n s d i f f e r s - a -greatly, the ooncern of both i s to serve some speoial need of the former servioe personnel; that i s to say, s o o i a l work may be regarded as a speoialized rather than a generalized servioe to a l l those discharged persona coming to the Department f o r whatever reason. The present Dominion veterans* program has developed sinoe 1914. Because of c e r t a i n r i s k s due to m i l i t a r y servioe, the war veteran was granted c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s . These p r i v i l e g e s , as granted today,have grown out of a system of grants and ser-vioes based on l e g i s l a t i o n enacted on behalf of the ex-service men and women. The various veterans* Acts have been brought t o -gether to form what i s known as the "Veterans* Charter**. The services offered by the Department are continually changing to meet changing needs and, as new Acts are passed, subsequent ad-justments are made and a f l e x i b i l i t y i n departmental adminis-t r a t i o n i s evident. The Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n i s but one small part of the Department. I t cannot be considered by i t s e l f , but only as a part of the whole agenoy. For t h i s reason, i n order to understand f u l l y what the role of the D i v i s i o n i s and what i t s r o l e might be, i t i s necessary to have a knowledge of the whole administrative organisation and an acquaintance with the various aspeots of veterans* l e g i s l a t i o n . Many questions arise as to the nature of t h i s department i t s e l f : i s i t , s t r i c t l y speaking, a welfare agenoy and what i s i t s future; as war veterans decrease i n numbers, w i l l the department be con-verted to serve the ordinary c i v i l i a n ? Following the termination of h o s t i l i t i e s of World War I I , 3 -the phrase "r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , of the veteran* was loosely used. The discharged members of the three armed services emerged b r i e f l y i n the l i m e l i g h t and oooupied a prominent place i n the current a f f a i r s of the time. They received muoh p u b l i c i t y as to t h e i r deeds and - more important - aa to what t h e i r future might be. Through innumerable magazines, newspapers, public speakers, and s o c i e t i e s , as w e l l as through t h i s government de-partment, the need of planning f o r the former m i l i t a r y personnel was established. Despite the common use of the terminology, t o define the word "veteran* and the word " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n * , as used In t h i s instance, i s not easy. The popular understanding seems to be that a veteran i s an ex-member of the armed services. In the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , the d e f i n i t i o n of prime oonoern i s the l e g a l one. In i t s statutory provisions and In administration, the Department 4 i s f a i r l y f l e x i b l e ; i t was created i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l period, i n wartime; i t i s geared to change; what i s v a l i d today may not necessarily remain so i n the future. In the Acta and t h e i r sub-4 sequent benefits whioh the Department now administers, uniform-i t y i n the d e f i n i t i o n of a veteran Is non-existent. A new Act, or an amendment to an e x i s t i n g Act, might give a d i f f e r e n t meaning or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to the word "veteran". I t Is doubtful, however, that suoh a new Act or an amendment would contain a d e f i n i t i o n with an a l l - i n c l u s i v e coverage. The creation of a S o o i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n w i t h i n the de-partment d i d not require a s p e c i a l Act of parliament. The - 4 -Division, i s operative under the e x i s t i n g Department of Veter-ans* A f f a i r s Act, and i s an add i t i o n a l measure helping more e f f e c t i v e l y to administer that Act. For t h i s reason, any person who i s e l i g i b l e f o r benefits under any veterans* Act may seek the service of the D i v i s i o n * At the same time, a veteran who applies f o r benefits under a s p e o i f i c veterans* Act and i s i n -e l i g i b l e , e i t h e r because of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the p a r t i c u l a r 4 " . . . . . . . _ ^ Act, or beoause he has used up available benefits, may request assistance of the s o o i a l workers. I n other words, any person who comes to the Department f o r servioe, can be sent to the Sooial Service D i v i s i o n , i f not f o r help In more e f f e e t i v e l y making use of an available service, then to be referred to a community source without the Department. Speaking broadly, veterans* benefits and services apply to three groups of persons: men or women who can olaim some m i l i t a r y service; claimants to benefits who have not engaged i n m i l i t a r y service; and, a de-pendent or dependents of a veteran e n t i t l e d to speoi a l p r i v i -leges because of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the ex-servtce man or woman. Who are "Veterans**? By dictionary d e f i n i t i o n , a ^veteran** i s a person "long experienced or exercised™, or *one long experienced i n any ser-vice**. At one time, a veteran, i n the m i l i t a r y sense, was a person (and formerly a man, only) long experienced i n war ser-v i c e . In the post-war world of today, a veteran may be eit h e r a man or a woman who has had some m i l i t a r y experience, which — 5 *» may have been, of long or short duration. I t Is possible that . . . . . . . . t . t the m i l i t a r y servioe may have lasted f o r one day only, that i s , the man or woman may have been "taken on strength" and "struck 4 . . . . . . . . ^ . o f f strength", to use the m i l i t a r y phrases, on the same day. On the other hand, the period of servioe may have covered sever-a l years. However, to obtain the various benefits available, c e r t a i n time l i m i t s are sp e o i f i e d . For example, one had to he i n servioe f o r twenty-eight days i n order to be e l i g i b l e f o r a "V/iotory Medal", and so f o r t h . The largest number of the group of veterans are those men and women who have had m i l i t a r y ser-v i c e . M i l i t a r y service i s of two kinds: aetive servioe, and peacetime servioe. The former constitutes servioe i n the armed forces of a oountry i n time of war, the l a t t e r i n time of peace. The presumption of m i l i t a r y servioe meant i s that of active ser-4 ^ . . . . . . . . . f v i c e , that i s , of war servioe. The Canadian veteran, here con-cerned, i s a person who has been i n active service i n His Majesty's forces r a i s e d i n Canada, whether serving In a theatre * . . . . . . . . . . . . of actual war or not; or, a person who has been i n active service . . . . . t . . In non-Canadian forces of His Majesty, or i n His Majesty's A l l i e s ' Forces, and was domiciled i n Canada at the commencement of suoh servioe. "Active s e r v i c e " inoludes service i n the Northwest t • ~ - . . . . . . ^ . . . . F i e l d Force, 1885; i n the South A f r i c a n or Boer War, 1899-1902; In World War I, 1914-1918; and i n World War I I , 1939-1945. Entrance into m i l i t a r y service involves a so-oalled " a t t e s t a t i o n process". Included i n t h i s Is a medical examina-t i o n , and the swearing of an oath of allegianoe to king and country. I f tlie candidate q u a l i f i e s , he Is then taken into m i l i t a r y servioe, or "taken on strength 9, and h i s name w i l l appear on the next m i l i t a r y order. Servioe oomprises duty per-formed In the uniform of one of the armed forces, Naval, Army, or A i r . Once e n l i s t e d i n active servioe, whether v o l u n t a r i l y or by compulsion, a s o l d i e r , s a i l o r , or airman cannot withdraw at choice, but can only be released under authority. This r e -lease i s known as "discharge", or the serviceman i s said to be "struck o f f strength*. This also involves another medical ex-amination i n order to determine the physical condition of the person and to evaluate the extent of in j u r y , i f any, due to servi c e . T his i s neoessary as a protection to the Government as many claims without v a l i d i t y might otherwise be made upon the veterans' department f o r the physical in.1ury of discharged per-sonnel due to war serv i c e . Beeause of the oompulsory nature of aotive service, a d i s -t i n c t i o n i s neoessary between those f o r whom m i l i t a r y service i s a c i v i l i a n occupation, and those f o r whom It was but a pass-ing phase and has meant an inte r r u p t i o n or postponement of a c i v i l i a n occupation. The former persons constitute the perman-ent armed f o r c e s . In defining a veteran of the permanent armed forces, only the members who have been on active servioe are of concern. Those who have since r e t i r e d or been discharged from the permanent foroes need not be segregated from non-members of the permanent armv. Those who reverted from active to peacetime service at the cessation of h o s t i l i t i e s and have remained members of the permanent forces are In a diff e r e n t category. The care, treatment, and t r a i n i n g of these men rests rather with the De-partment of Hational Defenoe than with the Department of Veter-ans* A f f a i r s . However, they are c e r t a i n l y veterans heoause of t h e i r m i l i t a r y service, and many of the provisions of the rehab-i l i t a t i o n program apply just as much to them as to ex-members of the forces. Accordingly, although s t i l l i n m i l i t a r y service, they are e l i g i b l e f o r oertain veteran benefits. The main c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of veterans Is the group fo r whom m i l i t a r y l i f e was only temporary. These men and women were i n active servioe i n wartime but have been subsequently discharged. They made up what might be c a l l e d the c i v i l i a n armed foroes. reoruited f o r defenoe i n time of need. The whole r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program was born f o r these men and women because they undertook s p e c i a l r i s k s , and t h e i r normal careers, l i v e s , and education were interrupted. Through l e g i s l a t i o n granting oertain p r i v i -leges, the oategory of the veteran has emerged. Servioe over-seas, or i n an actual theatre of war, has been regarded as en-t i t l i n g a person to greater benefits than servioe only i n the Western Hemisphere. Overseas service inoluded any service i n -v o l v i n g duties performed outside of the Western Hemisphere. Service i n the Western Hemisphere included duties performed on the continents of north and South America, and t h e i r adjacent islands and t e r r i t o r i a l waters, including Bermuda and the West Indies, but excluding Creenland, Iceland, and the Aleutian I s -lands. M i l i t a r y personnel serving only In the Western Hemis-phere had no guarantee that they would not be sent overseas; t h e i r contribution was necessary to the o v e r a l l war program; they were subjected to the same rules and regulations and compulsory servioe as t h e i r fellows. Having thus served t h e i r country, they accordingly reap c e r t a i n advantages. The second c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , "claimants to benefits who have not engaged i n m i l i t a r y service", may seem somewhat misleading. These people were not members of His Majesty*s or a l l i e d armed forces; neither did they serve i n the uniform of the country. They were rather Canadian c i v i l i a n s engaged i n t h e i r peacetime occupations, which often involved the s u f f e r i n g of d i s a b i l i t y as a r e s u l t of enemy action, counter action, or extraordinary marine hazards due to the war. I t has usually been because of such d i s a b i l i t i e s suffered that they have become e n t i t l e d to c e r t a i n veteran benefits. This group i s small i n numbers and includes such people as s a l t water fishermen, members of the a u x i l i a r y services, merchant seamen, those engaged overseas In a i r - r a i d and c i v i l i a n defence, and members of the Corps of ( c i v i l i a n ) Canadian F i r e Fighters serving In the United Kingdom. The t h i r d group i s "a dependent or dependents e n t i t l e d t o benefits", and includes dependents of the above two c l a s s i f i -cations. Suoh a dependent may be a wife, a husband, a widow, a widower, a c h i l d , Including natural, step, adopted, and f o s -t e r ohildren, or dependent parents. I f a veteran i s l i v i n g , only he or someone on h i s behalf may apply f o r benefits, and i t i s only on h i s behalf that benefits or servioes w i l l be granted. I f a veteran i s dead, h i s dependents become e l i g i b l e f o r cer-t a i n Departmental benefits. For example, they might apply f o r - 9 -and receive a War Veterans* Allowance. In t h i s event, the dependents may apply f o r benefits and i t i s only to them or on t h e i r behalf that benefits w i l l be granted. Such a depend-ent becomes i n e f f e c t a veteran. R e h a b i l i t at ion S t r i c t l y speaking, to r e h a b i l i t a t e means to restore to a former condition or status, i n t h i s instance, the condition being that of c i v i l i a n . In e s t a b l i s h i n g the former members of the armed forces i n the post-war world, an endeavour has been made to consider many aspects of these persons* future welfare. Medical, vocational, occupational, and s o o i a l implications have eaoh played a part In e s t a b l i s h i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y readjustments t o everyday l i v i n g * During the Second World War, a more or l e s s general p a r t i -c i p a t i o n of Canada's c i t i z e n s i n aiding the war e f f o r t was ac-hieved. To many, the war was not only a battle f o r physical s u r v i v a l but also f o r i d e e l s emphasising the importance of human dig n i t y , of freedom, and of the worth of the i n d i v i d u a l i n a deomoracy. The incentives of p a t r i o t i s m and gratitude ware strong and a sturdy public opinion i n favour of doing something f o r the veteran was prevalent. In addition, economic obligations of the war and i t s cost had to he met. The end of the war pro-duced new problems f o r the country i n the t r a n s i t i o n from a wartime to a peacetime economy. Paramount i n the e a r l i e s t stages was the task of the demobilisation and the c i v i l re-estab-lishment of the armed forces without the creation of a too great disturbance i n Canadian l i v i n g . The t o t a l number of enlistments - 10 and enrolments i n the Canadian Armed Forces from September 10, ' 1 1939, to "VJ" day, August 14, 1945, was 1,104,285. On May 7, • • • - - 8 1945, there had been 240,000 discharges, or, over t h i s s i x -year period, approximately 3,000 discharges per month, i f evenly d i s t r i b u t e d . By the end of 1945, roughly 650,000 discharges had been granted, or i n the l a s t four-month period of t h i s year about 100,000 discharges per month, which s i t u a t i o n promised to continue f o r several months. The problem was to absorb these people into the l i f e of the community and of the nation without creating great ohaos i n the Canadian economy. By the end of the Second World War, the numbers of unem-ployed i n the country were comparatively few. There was, how-ever, the p o s s i b i l i t y that a sudden i n f l u x of persons seeking employment would create a new demand f o r positions which i n -dustry might not be able to meet. A prospective employee i s judged not as much by what he has done as by what he i s able to do. Many of the members of the armed forces were young and had proceeded from school d i r e c t l y into the services with l i t t l e or no t r a i n i n g f o r o i v i l i a n occupations; for others, m i l i t a r y service had meant an inter r u p t i o n i n t r a i n i n g f o r an occupation; of those who had previously been g a i n f u l l y employed, many did not wish to return to t h e i r o l d jobs, supposing these were avai l a b l e ; i n addition, the war-disabled comprised a group who were l i m i t e d i n t h e i r capacity for employment. There were two approaches i n t h i s planning f o r the future 1. Canada, Department of Trade and•Commerce, Dominion' Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Canada Year Book, 1946, "Chapter 88, Depart-ment of'Veterans* Affairs: Rehabilitation-of Ex-service Per-sonnel", '.Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1947, p. 1052. St. l o o . c i t . 3. l o c . c i t . - 11 -c i v i l i a n s : a p r a c t i c a l one, r e a l i s t i c but economically and s o c i a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e ; and an i d e a l i s t i c one, with p a t r i o t i s m and gratitude as i t s motive* I t has been s a i d that "the goal of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s to bring a man to a point of maximal use-fulness to himself and to society to enable him to sustain him-4 s e l f and to enjoy the f r u i t of h i s production". The r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n of the veteran was not to be merely a reward f o r servioes rendered but came to s i g n i f y an investment i n better l i v i n g , saving the country money, reducing poverty, disease, and crime. The opportunity was presented whereby through h i s own e f f o r t s and to h i s own betterment, the former m i l i t a r y man or woman might develop to the ultimate betterment of the country. The precedent f o r l e g i s l a t i o n creating t h i s opportunity was the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures which followed World War I, which were b u i l t upon and improved upon; new l e g i s l a t i o n was enacted, and, i n the process, the ideas and resources of the country were mobilized. "Suggestions oame from veteran groups, from c i t i z e n s i n a l l walks of l i f e , and from the representatives of the people serving i n the House of Commons and Parliamentary 5 Committees on the Veterans• A f f a i r s " . The l e g i s l a t i o n provided the framework f o r the r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n program. In the administration of the organization w i l l r e s t t o a great extent I t s success. This program was not to be only a p o l i t i c a l one gaining f o r i t s promoters power and pres-4. Pr a t t , Geo. K., Soldier to C i v i l i a n ; Problems of Readjust- ment ^  Hew York and London, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1944, p. 151. §. Canadai Department of veterans 4 A f f a i r s , The Veterans* Charter, Canada; 1946, "The History of Veterans* L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada", Ottawa, King*s P r i n t e r , 1947, p. 885. - 18 -t i g e . In i t s formation* some of the best minds of the country, and the s k i l l s of various trades and professions, were u t i l i s e d . A personnel as f u l l y t r ained as possible was selected; and, f o r those who lacked t r a i n i n g , in-service t r a i n i n g schemes were pro-moted so that the veterans* a s s i m i l a t i o n i n society might be more e f f e c t i v e l y aohieved. Recognition that the discharged per-sons* needs would be many and would vary with the i n d i v i d u a l was not overlooked; each haa had, of necessity, to adjust him-s e l f to m i l i t a r y l i f e ; correspondingly, eaoh would have an ad-.iustment to make on return to the old way of l i f e . For many, the needs would not be great; f o r others, s p e c i a l i s e d servioes would he necessary: medical treatment, occupational and physi-c a l therapy, occupational guidance, s o c i a l service, educational and vocational servioes, to name a few. Rel a t i o n to C i v i l i a n L i f e The purpose of the departmental program i s to remove hard-ship suffered by the veteran as s r e s u l t of war. I f af t e r r e -oeiving a l l the benefits to whioh he has beoome e n t i t l e d , the discharged person i s unable to f i n d employment, and becomes a charge upon the community, the program has not achieved i t s purpose. The f i r s t step was the l o c a t i o n of persons who would need help. A l l m i l i t a r y personnel were considered to be i n need of some assistance; every veteran was, therefore, located while s t i l l a serviceman i n the armed forces. Secondly, came a medical diagnosis and prognosis, and a vocational diagnosis i n order that a suitable plan might be determined. Tooational ooun-- 13 s e l l i n g , where i t was desired and advisable, followed, and aimed at the s e l e c t i o n of a suitable f i e l d of work for the i n -d i v i d u a l by r e l a t i n g occupational requirements and community opportunities to h i s occupational c a p a c i t i e s . Medical and sur-g i o a l treatment was available for physical d i s a b i l i t y , and i n such oases an attempt was made to le a r n the "work tolerance* of the i n d i v i d u a l so as to determine a suitable type of t r a i n i n g . S p e c i a l i s t services, such as, occupational and physical therapy, - • • / • • .... - . - . p s y c h i a t r i c treatment, and the servioes of psychologists and s o c i a l workers, were u t i l i s e d as the need was established. Vo-ca t i o n a l and educational t r a i n i n g were made available to f u r n i s h new s k i l l s . F i n a n c i a l assistance was provided i n the form of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n grants, and i n providing maintenance during t r a i n -ing or establishment i n an occupation. Placement i n employment aimed at the best use of s k i l l and a b i l i t y to carry out the ,job. Insofar as possible, the program has aimed at a follow-up on performance, but i t i s yet a l i t t l e early to measure t r u l y i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program at no time sought to duplicate e x i s t i n g community services. Through co-operation, the servioes of other government departments, volunteer c i t i z e n s * committees, and l o c a l community organizations have been u t i l i z e d ; when de-s i r e d services were not av a i l a b l e , new ones were created i n some instances. The organisation's objectives and program have aimed to he s u f f i c i e n t l y broad and f l e x i b l e to allow f o r constant ad-justment to changing need. During the peak of demobilization, - 14 servioes were i n the nature of a mass assistanoe counselling i n r e l a t i o n to suoh things as t r a i n i n g , Insurance, land s e t t l e -* ment, and various allowances. With the deorease i n demobili-zation, a lessening of the s t r a i n upon the department's per-sonnel i s evident; and, as more veterans become f i t t e d into c i v i -l i a n l i f e , a s h i f t has come from counselling f o r t r a i n i n g to ad-justment counselling, and from mass counselling to i n d i v i d u a l counselling. More and more veterans are seeking help with t h e i r personal problems, and simultaneously the trend has been to r e -place the word " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n * by the word "welfare". This thin k i n g may r e f l e o t the evolution i n the nature of the Depart-ment end i t s assumption of the role of a f e d e r a l agency concern-ed with the proper handling of welfare problems. The So o i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n i n the Department of Veterans* A f f a r i s should be seen as a s p e c i a l i s t service i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the whole r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program. Without some knowledge and understanding of the se t t i n g of whioh i t i s a part, i t i s impossible to see the D i v i s i o n i n i t s f u l l perspective. I t s servioes do not duplicate those available i n the community; i t s personnel only give a needed service where there i s no suoh servioe a v a i l a b l e . Otherwise, they direot the veteran to the proper community agency. The veteran does not generally wish to be segregated from the oommunity of whioh he i s a part. Un-consciously, t h i s has come about i n many ways. He has been recognized as a member of a s p e c i a l group by s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n ; he i s a member of a group whose needs arose out of m i l i t a r y ser-- 15 v i c e ; he has become the object of patriotism and gratitude; s p e c i a l services and i n s t i t u t i o n s , both public and private have been developed f o r him. Despite a l l t h i s , he i s b a s i c a l l y the same as the rest of the c i t i z e n s . I t was not intended that he should always be a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Dominion government. His s a t i s f a c t o r y readjustment i n s o c i a l l i f e has been pa r t l y a s o c i a l security investment, and p a r t l y a reward f o r work w e l l done. But to a great extent, the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the veteran l i e s with the veteran himself, i n h i s thinking, i n h i s f e e l i n g s , and i n h i s seeing himself as no d i f f e r e n t from others, not as a veteran hut as a c i v i l i a n . What the Canadian government has done f o r the ex-service men and women may be of help In planning servioes f o r the whole population. This group of discharged persons has presented t o the Dominion no const i t tit i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y i n planning and the passing of l e g i s l a t i o n . In a sense, the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the veteran i s a s o c i a l experiment with implications extending be-yond i t s Immediate b e n e f i c i a r i e s . - 16 -Chapter 2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF VETERANS* LEGISLATION: 1914-1946 E a r l y Methods and Regulations P r i o r to World War I, the war veteran was l e f t to h i s own resources i n f i n d i n g some opportunity, i n readjusting to c i v i l l i f e , and i n ekeing out a l i v e l i h o o d . The only r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of government was i n the f i e l d of pensions, and these recognized only d i s a b i l i t i e s d i r e c t l y attributable to active service. Pen-sions were administered under m i l i t a r y powers, and pensions of ex-servioe men of the Boer War were not paid by the Canadian government but by the B r i t i s h government. I t would not be f a i r to say that the veterans were overlooked i n Canada, but rather that there were no precedents to act upon i n t h i s matter of t h e i r care and treatment, and no great pressure as the number of discharged men and women of any one war had never been great. There were, i n f a c t , no precedents f o r world war, and t h i s phase of national a f f a i r s put new st r a i n s on the country's r e -sources. In evaluating these early developments i n veterans* l e g i s -l a t i o n and the measures that were undertaken, consideration should be given to the advances that have since taken place i n suoh f i e l d s as medical treatment, i n vocational guidance and t r a i n i n g , i n vocational t r a i n i n g i n hospitals because of i t s . . . t - 4 - • • - t . . . . f , therapeutic values, i n psychiatry, psychology, and s o c i a l work, « i n the accumulation and recording of s t a t i s t i c a l data, and i n - 17 -s o o i a l planning generally. Much of the work that the govern-4 ment did i n these early years was experimental i n nature and, i n framing the present l e g i s l a t i o n and i n inaugurating new ser-v i c e s , advantage has been taken of the experience of the F i r s t World War and of the experiences of the ensuing years. The Canadian people entered the F i r s t World War i n August, 1914. At that time, no government department other than a m i l i -t ary one existed to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r those discharged from active service. Many problems of the ex-service men were . . . . . . . . • • . 4 • - • • soon demanding attention; even by the spring of 1915, men were being returned invalided from overseas. In order to provide f o r the oare and treatment of these convalescents who s t i l l r e -" ' 4 " " . . . . quired h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , a committee was appointed by the e x i s t -ing Department of M i l i t i a and Defenoe, the resources of whioh were already taxed by the tasks of mobilisation of forces and of defence. The three members of t h i s committee were pr t n o l p a l o f f i o e r s of the Department and they were unable to give the necessary time and a t t e n t i o n In looking a f t e r the former service-men. A more adequate means of meeting the needs of these veter-ans was sought, and i n May, 1915, a proposal was made that a commission be appointed to handle t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Subsequently, the M i l i t a r y Hospitals Commission: was formed to provide h o s p i t a l accommodation and convalescent homes i n Canada f o r invalided o f f i o e r s and men of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, and to a s s i s t them i n securing employment. In carrying out Its mani-f o l d tasks, the Commission was granted several powers: to i n -- 18 our, c o n t r o l , and authorize expenditures connected with, the treatment and care of the invalided as w e l l as with the organi-z a t i o n a l administration and the administration of hospitals and homesj to select medical, nursing and other personnel need-ed f o r hospitals as w e l l as c l e r i c a l s t a f f ; and to o a l l i n the a i d of any department of the Canadian government* In the be-* 4 ginning, the provision of several small convalescent homes, and a treatment of rest and recreation were thought to be the main requirements i n meeting the s i t u a t i o n . However, the former was not administratively economic and e f f e c t i v e , and treatment involved more than rest and recreation. The value of orthopaedic and of active therapeutic treatment became evident; i n J u l y , 1916, the Commission opened a limb-making factory; the unprecedented polioy i n government of the re-education of d i s -abled men was experimented with; and more and more emerged the necessity f o r r e l a t i n g the assistance given the disabled veter-an to h i s a s s i m i l a t i o n i n c i v i l i a n l i f e . Even at t h i s early 4 date, much of the philosophy that characterizes the program i n operation today was evident, and i s expressed as follows i n a report of t h i s H o s p i t a l Commission: "Some men also have the f e e l i n g that having suffered f o r t h e i r country they should not be required to exert themselves f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d but that the country owes them a l i v e l i h o o d . T h i s i s only p a r t i a l l y true - what the country owes to these men i s an opportunity to 6 obtain a l i v e l i h o o d " . 6. Canada, Department of M i l i t i a - a n d Defenoe, Report of the  M i l i t a r y Hospitals Commission. May, 1917, "Vocational Training", Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1917, p. 48. - 19 The members of t h i s Commission oame into olose oontaot . 4 4 with the returned men, and, at the same time, maintained a olose co-operation with the Department of M i l i t i a and Defenoe, which r e a d i l y accepted many of the recommendations of the Commission, The Commission grew rapidl y and soon became as large as some departments of government. Along with the prob-• * . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . lems of the moment, i t s members v i s u a l i z e d future ones, i n c i -dental to demobilization i t s e l f . In the Report of the Work of the Commission i n May, 1917, c e r t a i n suggestions were made fo r future planning, including the development of programs r e -garding employment, public works, land settlement, the creation and subsidization of new ind u s t r i e s , the creation of a climate of understanding f o r the returned s o l d i e r , co-operation between p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments, and encouragement of the veteran i n forming organizations. In these early years, d i f f e r -ences arose rather i n the carrying out of the programs than i n t h e i r basic concepts. E a r l y i n the F i r s t World War, attention was given to the pensioning of disabled veterans. In June, 1916, the formation of a Board of Pension Commissioners was authorized by an Order-. . . . . . . . t . in-Council, At t h i s time, the so-called insurance p r i n c i p l e i n . . . . - . .. . t . the awarding of pensions was introduced i n Canada: inj u r y , or * . . . . . t d i s a b i l i t y , or death Incurred during service, even though no direot cause could be traced to service, was pensionable. A scale of pensions was set up, and recognition was given to the claims of dependents on the veteran. In 1919, the Canadian - so Pension Act was passed, and the Board of Pension Commissioners was given f u l l power to adjudicate on pension olaims, and i t r e -t a i n s t h i s power at the present time. In 1917, the Soldier Settlement Act was passed. Under t h i s Act and subsequent amendments, almost twenty-five thousand r e -turned men were s e t t l e d on the land with loans. This measure was intended to o f f e r incentive to veterans to s e t t l e on farms and to give them eventual ownership of the property. Another measure i n t h i s early r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program was the passage of the Returned Sold i e r s ' Insurance Aot i n 1920, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h i s insurance i n 1981. This haa two pur-poses: to encourage veterans to provide f o r t h e i r dependents i n the event of death; and, to o f f e r insuranoe to the veterans who were considered poor r i s k s by ordinary insuranoe companies. Approximately twenty-nine thousand i n d i v i d u a l s took advantage of t h i s scheme. The Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment Formed In February, 1918, the Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-es-tablishment was formed. I t administered the a f f a i r s of the In-t v a l i d e d S o l d i e r s ' Commission, formerly the M i l i t a r y Hospitals Commission, and those of the Board of Pension Commissioners. During the f i r s t years of i t s existenoe, t h i s Department was faced with manifold tasks regarding treatment, t r a i n i n g , coun-s e l l i n g , and assistance. The Department personnel worked i n oo-operation with other government departments and with private or-ganizations i n e f f e c t i n g the re-establishment and the r e i n s t a t e -ment of veterans i n c i v i l l i f e . As the need f o r h o s p i t a l accommo-21 dation waned, the s t a f f of the Invalided Soldiers* Commission was gradually absorbed i n the Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment. Some idea of the work done by the Department 4 can he gained by glancing at the expenditures on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , exclusive of pensions* expenditures, and by examining the ser-vioes rendered. a Table 1. Expenditures on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the Department of Soldiers* C i v i l Re-establishment R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Measure War Servioe G r a t u i t i e s C i v i l i a n Clothing Allowance "Vocational Training and Training Allowance Medical Care, Ho s p i t a l Care, Treatment, S u r g i c a l Appliances, Treatment Pay and Allowances Land Settlement (Soldier Settlement Act) Dependents' Transportation Information Servioe, Employment and Sheltered Employment , T O T A L " 1 $547,594.840. a. Source: Canada, Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , The  Veterans* Charter. Canada. 1946, "The History of Vet^-erans* L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada", Ottawa, King*s Printer, 1947, p. 287. ' a Table 2. Servioes Rendered to Veterans by the Depart-ment of Soldiers* C i v i l Re-establishment Expenditure $164;000;000. 20,000,000. 43,000,000. 84;000;000. 13;594;840. 3,000,000. 20;000;000. Mature of Services Number of* Servioes C l l n i o a l Treatments to Veterans 1,366; 000 H o s p i t a l Treatments to Veterans 147, 000 Veterans Reoeiving Vocational • T r a i n i n g 43, 000 Veterans (including Handicapped) • • Plaoed i n Employment 233, 000 Veterans Placed i n the C i v i l Ser-vioe of Canada under C i v i l Ser- -vice Preference 38, 000 Veterans who beoame Permanent C i v i l Servants 12, 000 Sol d i e r S e t t l e r s Established on 4 the Land 24; 998 Dependents Brought to Canada '49; 000 Enquiries Dealt With I 1,000, 000 a. Souroe: Canada, Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , The  Veterans* Charter. Canada.1946/The History of Veterans* L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada", Ottawa,King's Printer,1947,p.287, - 28 The War Servioe G r a t u i t i e s granted were based upon length and nature of servioe and were unrelated to any o b l i g a t i o n , the object being to help the veteran to avoid hardship i n the f i r s t few months of re-establishment. Although vocational t r a i n i n g was given to approximately forty-three thousand veterans, i t was re-s t r i c t e d to those who had e n l i s t e d below the age of eighteen years and to those who were pensioners. The report of the Vet-erans' Assistance Commission states that "the assumption was that these (two groups) were handicapped by physical d i s a b i l i t y or by laok of opportunity p r i o r to the war to t r a i n i n trades"* T r a i n i n g , high school, or college education was offered f o r a period of a year. It might be considered a shortcoming of the program that vocational t r a i n i n g was so r e s t r i c t e d to the young and to the disabled. The passage of the C i v i l Servioe Acfe es-tabl i s h e d C i v i l Service preference f o r the veteran seeking em-ployment and aimed not at h i s segregation from the c i v i l i a n , but rather at compensating him f o r disadvantages i n employment due to absence In m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . The services given to the veteran by t h i s Department f e l l roughly into f i v e groups:- medical services, personal services, orthopaedic and s u r g i c a l appliances services, vocational services, and information and r e l a t i v e services. Medical services, as the name implies, provided medical treatment to ex-members of the forces, either i n m i l i t a r y or designated h o s p i t a l s , or In the outpatients' c l i n i c s . Personal services included the keeping fc. Canada, Department of Pensions and National Health, Report  of the Veterans' Assistance Cbmmission, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1937, p. 88. 83 -of reoords and documents, the administering of pay and allow-ances, providing f o r the oare, other than medical, of mental patients, providing f o r the funerals of deceased patients, oper-ating canteen servioes, and maintaining a chaplain servioe. The-orthopaedic and s u r g i c a l appliances services provided f o r the returned men a r t i f i c i a l limes and orthopaedic and s u r g i c a l applianoes, as w e l l as the r e p a i r and maintenance of these de-v i c e s . In addition, a factory making these appliances was op-erated. The vocational services provided advioe regarding vocational r e t r a i n i n g f o r discharged members of the forces. The Information and Service Branch endeavoured to place veter-ans i n touoh with employment opportunities, and maintained a s p e c i a l section f o r plaoing i n employment professional, t e c h n i -c a l , and t r a i n e d business men. This branch also provided In-formation regarding government benefits available to veterans. S o c i a l Work Under the S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment Program Sooial work played a small part In t h i s early r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program. Then, as today, i t was a servioe directed towards the s p e c i a l needs of c e r t a i n veterans, but there are some i n t e r e s t -ing differences. A 1919 report of the Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment states: " I t became apparent that the S o o i a l Servioe System has a d e f i n i t e plaoe i n the organization of the various units of t h i s Department, and i t has been decided that f o r t h i s form of work the servioes of trained nurses would 8 be u t i l i z e d " . This does not explain what the " S o c i a l Servioe System" i s , and an apparent unawareness Of s o c i a l workers, as such 8. Canada, Department of Soldiers* C i v i l Re-establishment,'Can- ada's Work f o r Disabled S o l d i e r s , "The Medical Services; •Social Service Workers**, Ottawa, King*s P r i n t e r , 1919, p. 87. ?A -i s evident. I t i s perhaps natural that the authorities at that time should have selected a nurse to do s o o i a l work; the whole program i t s e l f arose out of a need f o r medical treatment t o disabled veterans, and nurses were available and already members of the departmental s t a f f ; also, the number of s o o i a l workers i n the country was not great, and most of the Canadian Schools f o r t r a i n i n g s o o i a l workers were established at a l a t e r date. Suoh s o c i a l workers as were employed by t h i s Department, being nurses, came, nat u r a l l y , under the authority of the Medi-c a l Services. Among t h e i r tasks were the following up of out-patients of the veterans* h o s p i t a l s , of tuberculosis oases on leave from sanatoria, and of mental oases on probation, to see that the prescribed medical treatment was followed, and that the home and the environment were conducive to oure. Support, i n t e r -e s t , and co-operation i n treatment were sought from the veterans^ f a m i l i e s . Other duties of the " s o c i a l worker" included the i n -v e s t i g a t i o n of the circumstances of the dependents of veterans, to see that these dependents actually existed; acting as advisers to the veterans* f a m i l i e s who needed encouragement or assistance; securing c o n f i d e n t i a l information required by the Assistant D i r -ector of the Department, the Representative of the Information and Service Branch, the D i s t r i c t "Vocational O f f i c e r , or the Unit Medical Director;: and,carrying out nursing or other duties which the Unit Medical Director might advise. In the carrying out of t h i s work, precedence was given to oases of d i s t r e s s , f i n a n c i a l hardship, or medical emergency. In the annual report of the work of the Department i n Decern-25 -her, 1920, s o c i a l servioe i s described as a s p e c i a l i z e d nursing a c t i v i t y , and the s o c i a l servioe nurse as not merely an atten-dant upon the s i c k , "but rather as an educator and reformer"; In addition to her educational and t e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as a nurse, she was required to have s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n psychology, sociology, hygiene, s a n i t a t i o n , and n u t r i t i o n . I t i s also stated 10 that co-operative arrangements were made by these " s o c i a l service . . . . . . t . workers" with public health organizations and o f f i c i a l s , which would lead one to believe that t h i s category of workers was con-ceived of as a kind of public health nurse rather than as a soc-i a l worker as known today. The caseload of these workers com-prised f i v e groups: tuberculous cases, neurological and mental cases, out-patients, s p e c i a l cases, and cooperative v i s i t s , these l a s t being made on behalf of other branches or departments which had asked f o r reports. During the year 1920, t h i r t y - f o u r s o c i a l service nurses were employed by the Department, and the following table indioates b r i e f l y the extent of t h e i r work, a Table 3, S o o i a l Servioe Investigations by Thirty-Four S o o i a l Servioe Nurses f o r the Year 1920 Type of Investigation Number of - Inve st igat ions Tuberculous Cases Out-patients Problem Cases Neurological and Mental Cases Co-operative and U n c l a s s i f i e d 3;884 5; 884 2; 013 2;921 19;238 T O T A L 33,940 a. Source: Canada, Department'of Soldiers* C i v i l Bs-es tahlishment, Annual Report, 1920, Ottawa, King»s P r i n t e r , 1921, p. 15. These.workers were not d i s t r i b u t e d equally among the various 9, Canada, Department of Soldiers* C i v i l Re-establishment, An- nual-Report »•1920, Ottawa, King*s P r i n t e r , 1921, p. 13. 10. I b i d . , p. 14. - 26 d i s t r i c t s , f i f t e e n alone being In one unit of the department, and there i s no i n d i c a t i o n of the d i v i s i o n of the work i t s e l f among the s o o i a l service workers; but, assuming that the work was evenly divided, eaoh worker would be a l l o t t e d approximately eighty-three cases per month, Speoial mention was made of the value of "follow-up s o c i a l service™ i n the care of the discharged tuberculous ex-service personnel. In a report, of the Board of Tuberculous Sanitorium 11 Consultants i n 1920, a recommendation was made that the s o c i a l servioe nursing s t a f f should be amplified and organized i n olose co-operation with c l i n i c s , and that speoial t r a i n i n g should he given t o these nurses. Within the Vocational Branch of the Department, s o c i a l ser-v i c e i s ref e r r e d to under the heading of "Medical Advioe and Sooia l Service". No further statement i s made i n t h i s respect 12 within the reports of the department, but i n a hook written by Mr. W. Segsworth, a former director of the Vocational T r a i n i n g i n the Department, reference i s made to the s o c i a l worker. In oases where the veteran was not progressing favorably i n h i s r e t r a i n i n g , although there seemed to be no mental or physical d i s a b i l i t i e s responsible, a "trained s o c i a l worker" was often requested to make a v i s i t to ascertain i f there should be some ' * ' 4 other reason f o r lack of progress, suoh as f i n a n c i a l troubles, sickness, or family matters. F i n a n c i a l matters were referred to the Vocational Medical O f f i o e r s . Here again, the s o c i a l 11. Canada, Department of Soldiers* C i v i l Be-establishment, The  Care and Employment of the Tuberculous Ex-Servioe Man after  Discharge from Sanatorium, B.T.'S.C., Con f i d e n t i a l Report No. 6, 12.20, Ottawaj King's P r i n t e r , 1921. 12. Segsworth, Walter E., Retraining Canada's Disabled Soldiers, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1920. - 87 -worker i s described as a nurse, "This s o c i a l service i n v e s t i -gator should be a graduate nurse of experience who has made a s p e c i a l study of s o o i a l servioe conditions and she i s directed to ascertain the home surroundings of the man, o f f e r kindly ad-v i c e i f required, and so attempt to d i r e c t matters that a l l 13 worries w i l l be removed from the man's mind*1. Presumably, these s o c i a l workers who served the Vocational Branch were members of the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n of the Medical Branch, and these services rendered would probably be l i s t e d among "co-operative and u n c l a s s i f i e d * Investigations. There was also being given by t h i s Department " s p e c i a l attention.».to men who are i n c l i n e d to change t h e i r employment repeatedly with a view to ascertaining the reason of t h i s r e s t -lessness and to prevent men from becoming what i s commonly known 14 as 'Problem Cases'*. This term, "problem cases", Is not further defined, but the s i n g l i n g out of these men does indicate an i n -d i v i d u a l approach and a search f o r causative factors i n e f f e c t -ing a s o l u t i o n of t h e i r problems. I t i s not known whether or not these problem cases are those included i n the record of the investigations of the s o c i a l service nurses i n 1980, or i f there were several categories of problem oases. I n the work of the Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l He-estab-lishment, s o c i a l work i s also referred to under the Personal Ser-vioes D i v i s i o n i n the Chaplains' Services, organized i n 1919. I t i s stated that: "In addition, however, through t h e i r personal contact with-the men, both i n hospitals and homes, the v i s i t i n g 13* Ibid.,-p. 187. • « 14. Canada, Department of SffiEiers' C i v i l Ee-establishment, Canada's Work f o r Disabled Soldiers , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1919, p. 84. - 28 -chaplains are enabled to achieve a substantial amount of s o c i a l service.•.chaplains are found to co-operate with every s o o i a l '4 agenoy that w i l l bring oheer and assistance to the returned man, and thus many tr e a t s come the way of the men which might other-15 wise be missed". A f t e r the F i r s t World War, s o c i a l work achieved some recog-n i t i o n i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures. However, i n recognizing the value of "the S o o i a l Servioe System", and In endeavouring to put i t i nto p r a c t i c e , the government was experimenting. The idea of s o o i a l work at that time was an elementary one, and many of the miscellaneous duties assigned to the workers are not considered proper s o o i a l work today. There i s no explanation or d e a r de-f i n i t i o n of what the s o c i a l service system i s . Certain rudimen-tary needs seem to have been recognized, mainly that the veteran needed assistance. In that nurses emerged as the d e f i n i t e l y 4 appointed persons to perform s o c i a l work tasks, i t i s evident that the profession of s o c i a l work was not recognized. Some of the stated ideas of what a s o c i a l worker does are i n t e r e s t i n g . She has been referred to as f i r s t of a l l a nurse, but, i n a d d i t i o n to and aside from her profession, she was regarded as "an eduoator and a reformer", as " o f f e r i n g kindly advice", and as "removing worries from the minds" of the patients. The chap-l a i n as a s o o i a l worker comes to l i g h t also, and r e l i g i o u s coun-s e l l i n g i s again confused with s o c i a l work i n the bringing of "cheer and assistance" to the veteran. The m i n i s t e r i a l and the s o c i a l work professions eaoh have t h e i r own functions and at times there may be some s i m i l a r i t i e s ; but, a minister i s no more 15.. I b i d . , p. 89. - 89 -a professional s o o i a l worker than a s o o i a l worker i s a q u a l i -f i e d chaplain. I t perhaps was not intended that the chaplain was to be regarded as a s o c i a l worker; t h i s p r i v i l e g e was r e -served f o r the s p e c i a l l y trained nurse. The oonfusion may be In s o c i a l work i t s e l f . T h i s i s one more i l l u s t r a t i o n of Its evolution and i t s conception i n the public mind. In today's 4 - - - - - -program, the purposes of the profession are much more c l e a r l y defined, and the requirements of a s o c i a l worker are r e s t r i c t e d to those with accredited s o o i a l work t r a i n i n g . Much of the difference l i e s i n the growing recognition of s o o i a l work as a profession, and the consequent establishment of required stan-dards of p r a c t i c e . The Years Between. 1981-1939 As more and more veterans became established i n c i v i l i a n l i f e , the work of the Department waned considerably. Ex- servioe men had many complaints and there was demand f o r s p e c i a l veteran measures and f o r bonuses f o r m i l i t a r y servioe. In 1988, the Ralston Commission was appointed to review the whole f i e l d of the reinstatement of the veteran i n c i v i l i a n l i f e . I t d i d much to c l a r i f y matters regarding treatment and pensions. In 19S8, the Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment ceased to e x i s t , and the work of t h i s department was taken over by a newly created department of government, the Department of Pensions and  National Health, which employed many of the s t a f f of the o l d department. In 1930, the War Veterans' Allowance Aot was passed. This Aot provided f o r the payment of an allowance designed to provide a minimum of support f o r veterans who due to age or d i s a b i l i t y - 30 were incapable of supporting themselves. I t was based on the assumption that the veteran was pre-aged about ten years by m i l i t a r y service, and i t was, i n e f f e c t , an extension of the Old Age Pension, the veteran who had reached the age of s i x t y years becoming e l i g i b l e f o r assistance. By an amendment of 1936, t h i s age l i m i t was reduced to f i f t y - f i v e years i f the vet-eran had served i n an actual theatre of war and was without means of support because of d i s a b i l i t y , pre-aging, and general unfitness. This l e g i s l a t i o n has been further amended and today i s very broad i n i t s ap p l i c a t i o n , covering veterans of any age who, heoause of d i s a b i l i t i e s , are permanently unemployable. Veterans who are incapable or u n l i k e l y to become capable of maintaining themselves, because of ph y s i c a l or mental d i s a b i l i -t i e s combined with economic handicaps, are also e l i g i b l e . During the twenties, many veterans were uncertain as to t h e i r pension r i g h t s . In 1930, the Veterans* Bureau was established to advise the veteran i n t h i s respect. The members of t h i s Bur-eau are known as Pension advocates. Their duty i s to aid the veteran i n making app l i c a t i o n f o r a pension. This service i s free of charge, and i s open to any applicant f o r a pension. I f a veteran has had an unsuccessful hearing with the Pension Com-mission, he may e s t a b l i s h contact with the Pension Advocate and secure assistance to plead h i s oase. In applying f o r a pension, i f a f i r s t hearing i s unfavourable, a second hearing may be r e -4 • 4 quested, and i f a pension i s not then granted, recourse may be had to an Appeal Board. The Pension advocate may help prepare an applicant*s oase f o r hearing, ana may attend upon a hearing - 31 of the Appeal Board, and i f he considers the decision of the l a t t e r unsatisfactory, he, on reviewing the oase, may inquire whether the decision of the Appeal Board i s .lust i f l e d . T h i s 4 Veterans' Bureau i s independent of the Pensions' Commission, and i t s purpose i s to aid the q?plieant the better to present hi s claim f o r pension. The War Veterans* Allowance was Intended to r e l i e v e ex-service personnel unemployed and unable to work. In 1935, the Byndman Commission was appointed to investigate unemployment and r e l i e f conditions among veterans. This Commission recommended that r e l i e f payments i n part be made by the Dominion Government to a l l veterans of m i l i t a r y servioe. In addition to pensioners. This proposal, however, was not aooepted by the Government. The Commission also recommended the setting-up of another commission, 4 4 ' ' and, i n 1936, the Veterans' Assistance Commission was established to investigate the extent of unemployment among veterans able to work. This Commission reviewed the whole f i e l d of veterans' l e g i s l a t i o n and pointed out many of the shortcomings of the r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n measures i n the years following the F i r s t World War. Many recommendations were made, and many of the early pro-grams were feegun again. Workshops were established; employers were urged to h i r e veterans; probational t r a i n i n g was advocated; loans f o r t o o l s , equipment, and transportation to employment were made available; various oorps of commissionaires were set up; small holdings projects were reviewed and an examination was made as to t h e i r being economically self-supporting; c o l l e c -t i o n of radio licenses by veterans was suggested; and, i t was - 38 -recommended that the e i v i l service preference he extended to non-pensioners. In the spring of 1937, t h i s Commission rev e a l -ed that approximately t h i r t y - t h r e e thousand veterans were un-~ . . . . . . . _ employed, and that a l i t t l e over twelve thousand were rec e i v i n g • 4 . . . . . . the War Veterans* Allowance. In addition, a considerable number of pensioners were on r e l i e f . I t seemed that those veterans who had not become economically s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t were s t i l l i n need of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 1939; Second World War In 1939, when Canada entered the Second World War, the s i t u a t i o n was not the same as i n 1914. The government possessed some equipment to deal with the forthcoming problem of the d i s -charged serviceman, and of h i s reinstatement into o i v i l i a n l i f e . In 1939, there was a c i v i l i a n government department, the Depart-ment of Pensions and National Health, equipped with personnel ex-perienced i n the administration of veterans* a f f a i r s . To the Minister of t h i s Department had been given the administration of matters r e l a t i n g to the care, treatment, or reinstatement i n o i v i l l i f e of veterans. The Department had a trained medioal s t a f f and widespread treatment f a c i l i t i e s ; there was i n operation a Pension Act, and the JI&x Veterans* Allowance Act. In addition, the S o l d i e r Settlement Board, operative under the Department of Mines and Resources had a t r a i n e d f i e l d s t a f f making inv e s t i g a -t i o n s f o r the War Veterans* Allowance Board, the Department of Pensions and National Health, and the Department of Finance. I n 1937, t h e i r polioy had been stated as follows: "In administra-t i o n of state finanoed settlement projects, the two p r i n c i p a l 53 fact o r s to be considered are the human element and the r e -16 covery of the publio Investment*. Attention was being given t o such factors as advancing age among the s e t t l e r s and adverse crop conditions i n recovering the publio investment. In making preparation f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of these veterans-to-be, i t i s stated that "the problem was not one of creating something out of nothing, but of expanding and improving e x i s t i n g ser-• & vices and e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n " . The years 1939 to 1946, Inclusive, were marked by much ac-t i v i t y i n the f i e l d of veterans* l e g i s l a t i o n . Committees were appointed; b i d Acts were reviewed; amendments to e x i s t i n g Acts were passed; Orders-in-Council were enforced; and new Acts were introduced. Studies were made of problems of post-war economic reconstruction. An endeavour was made to plan f o r the veteran i n accordance with t h e i r findings; that i s to say, he was to be f i t t e d as f a r as possible into the post-war economic pattern. Among subjects of discussion and of action were the re-education and r e t r a i n i n g of casualties, discharge pay or g r a t u i t i e s , r e i n -statement i n employment, a g r i c u l t u r a l settlement, establishment of a form of vocational t r a i n i n g , the f a c i l i t a t i n g of the con-tinuance of secondary or professional education and t r a i n i n g , pensions, and professional and business loans. In 1946, the work done on veterans* a f f a i r s was reviewed; several of the ex-i s t i n g Acts were amended and various Orders-in Council were con-solidated into Acts of Parliament. This veterans* l e g i s l a t i o n of the years 1939-1946 was oompiled into what*is known as the 16. Canada; Department of Mines and Resources, Annual Report.. 1937, Ottawa* King's P r i n t e r , 1938, p. 317. - ' 17. Canada-, Department ef Veterans* A f f a i r s , The Veterans* Charter, Canada,1946. Ottawa, King*s P r i n t e r , 1947, p. S90. - 34 :•• Veterans* Charter. The present veterans* r e h a h i l i t a t i o n program i s the r e s u l t of an evolution of a system of grants and servioes on behalf of the veteran. The discharged servioeman has, In e f f e c t , been ' t 0 segregated from the c i v i l i a n by t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n , although, i n a sense, t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n may he regarded as the temporary f i l l -ing i n of a gap u n t i l more adequate s o o i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i s a v a i l -able to a l l Canadian c i t i z e n s . The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures have shown a breadth of v i s i o n . Training and services have not been confined only to the disabled or under-age veterans; a g r i c u l t u r a l settlement has been offered, not only where i t i s to represent a t o t a l income, but also only a p a r t i a l income, for the former serviceman; and provision was made for the payment of allowances i n the f i r s t few months of disoharge, i n order that the veteran might make^an easier a s s i m i l a t i o n to "civvy s t r e e t " . To aid the government i n the carrying out of these measures, i n 1940, a Re-h a h i l i t a t i o n Branoh to administer a l l c i v i l re-establishment services was created i n the Department of Pensions and National Health. In 1944, the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s was es-tabl i s h e d , i n which department, insofar as possible, a l l veter-ans* l e g i s l a t i o n was to be administered. No government has or-ganized a more oomplete welfare department f o r the c i v i l r e -establishment of war veterans. - 35 -Chapter 3 THE SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION IN THE DEPARTMENTAL ORGANIZATION Outline of Welfare Admlniatrat Ion. The Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s Act, and the Department of National Health and Welfare Act were brought into force i n October, 1944. At t h i s time, the Department of Pensions and National Health ceased to e x i s t ; I t s functions concerning nat-i o n a l health were assumed by the Department of National Health and Welfare, and i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s regarding war veterans were taken over by the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s . This veterans* Department consists of several d i f f e r e n t Branches, among them the Treatment Services Branch, and the Veterans* Welfare Services Branch. These Branohes inolude var-ious D i v i s i o n s , suoh as the Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n , In addition, the Canadian Pension Commission, and the War Veterans* Allowance Board are attached to the Department, whioh supplies them with s t a f f and administration expenses. The Pension Commission, however, i s an independent body, the members of which are vested with exclusive power and authority to adjudicate upon pension claims, and to award pensions to f o r -mer m i l i t a r y personnel. The Chairman of t h i s Commission reports on i t s work to the Minister of Veterans* A f f a i r s . Likewise, the War Veterans* Allowance Board i s a body of persons, who adjudi-cate and award the War Veterans* Allowanoe to needy applicants. Another re l a t e d body i s the Veterans* Land Act Administra-t i o n . Within the past year or two, t h i s has become more clos e l y - 36 -integrated within the Department, u t i l i z i n g suoh servioes as aooommodation, purchasing, stores, s t a t i s t i c s , l e g a l , and per-sonnel. Wherever possible, i t s o f f i c e s have been placed i n buildings occupied by Departmental o f f i o e s , although i t has many ad d i t i o n a l o f f i c e s throughout the country. This has been found to e f f e c t economy i n administration and i s an a d d i t i o n a l convenience f o r discharged men and women seeking services. I t has not been possible to obtain an o f f i c i a l organization-a l chart of the Department and the following diagram, emphasiz-ing the place of the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n i n the Department, shows only roughly the administrative organization. The authority f o r the operation of the Department i s vested i n an Aot of Parliament. At the head of the organization Is the Minister of Veterans* A f f a i r s . He i s the parliamentary repre-sentative of the organization and t h i s p o s i t i o n i s oooupied by d i f f e r e n t persons from time to time. The Deputy Minister i s a more or l e s s permanent employee and i s , i n e f f e c t , the exeoutive direotor of the whole administration. Responsible to him for the carrying out of the work are the Assistant Deputy Minister, the Seoretary, and the Heads of the various Branohes of the De-partment at the Head O f f i c e i n Ottawa, as w e l l as the Regional and D i s t r i c t Administrators. Because of the vastness of Canada and the wide differences within t h i s geographical area, f o r the purpose of more e f f e c t i v e administration, the oountry has been divided into two regions. Eastern and Western. Within these two regions are sixteen d i s -Figure i . Administrative Chart of the Department of Veterans* Affairs Sooial Servioe Division cc Dept. of veterans Affairs Act 5¥ settlement ana veterans* Land I Minister or Veterans Affairs I Deputy Minister" Sanaaian Pension Commission jiTar Veterans allowance Board Assistant Deuutv Minister War ' ' tervioe ecoras jre ctor Social Service Ivislon IF War Servioe Grranta Inves-tiga-tion Director Veter-ans' Aelfare rjar-BTeter-ans Al-lowance I Represent-.tative ^ Bureau of grans1stions I EegaTT Divis-ion pirq son-nel I • M i l •-•fc nil. — • d r e t e r -nsur-lanoe rrea-cer a. c ti) a .Administrator!  mlnlstratorsl 1 Regional Administrator 1 1 1 superintendent Veterans Wel-fare Branch Adminis-tration Branch rreac-ment Branch cetera 1 District Dffices BUD-ttisuricc Offices DepaJtimenC" Hospitals Department Institu-tions t-K X Supervisors Social Ser-vice Division 7eterand Welfare Officers I Envesti-ition Lvision flTar Veterans Allowance Division — — Direct Authority = = = Direot Communication gocial Vyorieersi - 38 -t r i c t s and three s u b - d i s t r i c t s . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , a De-partment of Veterans* A f f a i r s o f f i c e i n London, England, i s a separate u n i t . At the head of each region i s a Regional Administrator, responsible for general i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l and supervisory work i n the d i s t r i c t s . These two men meet at i n t e r v a l s with the Deputy Minister and the Assistant Deputy Minister and form what i s known as an Advisory Polioy Council making recommenda-tions to the M i n i s t e r . In eaoh d i s t r i c t , a D i s t r i c t Administrator i s responsible to the Deputy Minister f o r the work of the Department. Each d i s t r i c t o f f i c e i s v i r t u a l l y a r e p l i c a of the Head Of f i c e at Ottawa, the D i s t r i c t Administrator being the equivalent of the Deputy M i n i s t e r . The former has the authority to take execu-t i v e a ction with respect to applications f o r most of the rehab-i l i t a t i o n benefits, except i n unusual circumstances where the question of polioy i s involved. The program i s thus a decen-t r a l i z e d one and there w i l l be s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the country. The objective has been to concentrate the various offered services i n one building, a d i s t r i c t o f f i c e or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n oentre, whioh i s a point of contact for the discharged man or woman requesting advice or assistance. In addition, c e r t a i n services are housed i n the Veterans* Hospitals, Veterans* I n s t i t u t i o n s , and Sub-district o f f i c e s . Development of the S o c i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n There has been a c e r t a i n evolution i n the development and - 39 -the place of the Sooi a l Service D i v i s i o n within the Department. Although there was a Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n i n the Department of S o l d i e r s 1 C i v i l Re-establishment following the F i r s t World War, af t e r the year 19E0, no reference i s made to t h i s d i v i s i o n i n the annual reports of the Department or i n the reports of the subsequent Department of Pensions and nat i o n a l Health. There i s no record as to Whether "the s o c i a l service nurses* of 1919-19S0 were dispensed with; whether t h e i r service was no longer r e -quired; or whether t h e i r function as s o o i a l workers beoame synony-mous with t h e i r nursing duties. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to say that at the beginning of the Second World War i n 1939, there was no Soc-i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n as such i n the e x i s t i n g veterans' department. During 1940 and 1941, r e a l i z a t i o n developed within the De-partment of Pensions and nat i o n a l Health that s o o i a l problems would arise i n many Instances. Departmental o f f i c i a l s had many discussions and consultations with various people, among them Dr. Cherlotte Whitton, and, pa r t l y as a r e s u l t of t h i s , Veterans'  Welfare O f f i o e r s were appointed In the new Re h a b i l i t a t i o n Branch at Head O f f i c e and at the various D i s t r i o t O f f i c e s . The business of these o f f i c e r s was to acquaint themselves with the developing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures and to interview, advise, and a s s i s t f o r -mer members of the forces. Their duties included such matters as a knowledge of regulations r e l a t i n g to pensions, allowances, medioal treatment, employment, t r a i n i n g , s o c i a l welfare, housing sohemes, and land settlement. With the inorease i n the number of discharges, the duties of these persons increased; many of - 40 them were unaware of the community resources available to as-s i s t persons with s o o i a l problems. There were va r i a t i o n s from d i s t r i c t to d i s t r i c t and, i n one or two d i s t r i c t s , there was a l i a i s o n between the members of the Department and of oommunity s o c i a l agencies. General speaking, however, as f a r as s o o i a l work was concerned, the experiment f a i l e d . Another matter to be considered was that of the servioes available to cas u a l t i e s . A Casualty R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Section was formed to give service to the seriously disabled ex-service per-sonnel i n reoeipt of pensions. The functions of t h i s Section were a combination of medical s o c i a l work and vocational guid-ance counselling. The aim was to re - e s t a b l i s h the discharged man or woman i n g a i n f u l employment of such a nature that h i s cap-a c i t i e s would not be over-taxed and h i s disablement would not constitute a handicap. The needs of c e r t a i n veterans were not being met by the above two servioes, and Special Case Counsellors were appointed, and t r a i n e d to a s s i s t those having d i f f i c u l t y . The appointment of these counsellors was the f i n a l e f f o r t of the Training D i v i -sion, the Welfare D i v i s i o n , and the Casualty R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Seo-t i o n to a i d former m i l i t a r y personnel i n adjusting to c i v i l i a n l i v i n g . The f i n a l co-ordinating authority f o r a l l the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services working within or without the Department was a D i s t r i c t  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Review Board, the members of which sat as a case conference authority to act on i n d i v i d u a l cases prepared i n ad-vance by the Special Case Counsellors. - 41 Along with t h i s development i n the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branoh, there developed a need f o r s o c i a l workers. At the same time, a need f o r medical s o c i a l workers gradually beoame apparent wit h i n the Treatment Branch. Treatment services inolude depart-mental h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , medioal, s u r g i c a l , psyohiatrio, dental, and prosthetio treatments. In 1945, Departmental o f f i c i a l s requested the Direotor of So c i a l Science at National Defence Headquarters to make a sur-vey of the requirements of veterans f o r s o o i a l servioe, and as a r e s u l t of the recommendations of that report the present Soo-i a l Servioe Directorate was established. A trained professional s o c i a l worker was appointed as the Departmental Director and he assumed the task of organizing the D i v i s i o n . As personnel became availa b l e , the Divisions were established i n the various d i s t r i c t s . At f i r s t , there were s e t i p , within the D i v i s i o n , three Sec-t i o n s : R e f e r r a l , Medioal, and Investigation. In the d i s t r i c t s , the heads of these sections were responsible to the D i s t r i c t Supervisor of the Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n f o r t h e i r performance of work. The R e f e r r a l Section was what i s now known as the So o i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n , and provides a s o o i a l servioe program within the Veterans* Welfare Services Branch, formerly the Re-h a b i l i t a t i o n Branoh. The former D i s t r i c t Supervisor i s now the Supervisor of the Soo i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n . The Medioal Section dealt with medioal and psy c h i a t r i c soc-i a l work, and was almost e n t i r e l y the interest of the Treatment Services, and these s o o i a l workers were to he found mainly i n - 43 -the Departmental Hospitals or C l i n i c s . The Medical Section has now been incorporated i n the Treatment Branch. The medi-c a l s o c i a l workers are a separate u n i t and are responsible to the Hospital Superintendent of the I n s t i t u t i o n i n which they are employed. The D i s t r i c t Administrators are responsible f o r co-ordinating the work of the Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n and the Medioal S o c i a l Services, although, on request, the Supervisor of the D i v i s i o n may act as consultant to the medioal s o c i a l workers or to the Ho s p i t a l Superintendents on s o o i a l work mat-t e r s . In some d i s t r i c t s , the Investigation Section was never a part of the S o o i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n , for example, i n the B r i t i s h Columbia D i s t r i c t . The functions of the Investigation D i v i s i o n are generally to obtain and compile f a c t u a l information, by interviews or otherwise, as may be required f o r any purpose by the Department, the Pensions Commission, and the War Veter-ans* Allowance Board. The Investigation D i v i s i o n i s now separ-ate from the S o c i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n . In the administrative set-up, the Sooial Service D i v i s i o n has been s h i f t e d back and f o r t h between the Veterans* Welfare 4 Services Branch, and the General Administration Branch. In the l a t t e r instance, the Supervisor i s d i r e c t l y responsible to the D i s t r i c t Administrator f o r the performance of duties, and the Director of the D i v i s i o n at Head Office i s responsible to the Assistant Deputy Minister. The reason f o r the. D i v i s i o n being placed within the Administration Branch may have been to give the Supervisor of the D i v i s i o n more freedom while the medioal 43 s o c i a l workers s t i l l came under her authority. That i s to say, i n e f f e c t i n g the work of the D i v i s i o n concerning medioal s o o i a l work, i t would not he necessary f o r the l i n e of authority to pass f i r s t through the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branoh when the matter was so l e l y the concern of the Treatment Branoh. With the segregation of the medioal s o o i a l workers from the D i v i s i o n s o o i a l workers, 4 the D i v i s i o n has become a part of the Veterans' Welfare Branch* formerly the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branoh. This Branch has recently been reorganized to include a l l services excluding treatment ren-dered to the veteran. Sooial Servioe should be considered anot-4 her of the Veterans' Welfare Services, which inolude the follow-ing: 1. Train i n g and Counselling* , 2. Re-establishment Credit, available anytime within t e n years of discharge. 3. Casualty R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 4. Investigation. 5. War Veterans' Allowance. 6. The S o c i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n . These servioes except for those of the Sooial Service Div-i s i o n are carr i e d out by Veterans' Welfare O f f i c e r s . The duties of these o f f i o e r s include counselling and advisory servioes re-garding employment, business, s o c i a l , and personal problems, co-operation with the n a t i o n a l Employment Service, with veteran groups, labour organizations, and general i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work. Those i n the higher positions are responsible f o r the administra-t i v e phases of the welfare and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program within t h e i r geographical area, and t h e i r work also e n t a i l s l i a i s o n with other community and governmental agencies. The t r a i n i n g of these o f f i o e r s i s varied, but oertain standards have been set. The oandidate f o r a p o s i t i o n must have at le a s t two years of high, sohool (as there i s addi t i o n a l oredit for further t r a i n i n g , t h i s means that the oandidate of-ten has had more formal schooling than the minimum required}. In addition, experience i s required i n a related f i e l d of work -In business and professional work; knowledge of occupations and employment p o s s i b i l i t i e s , of veterans* organizations, -and of the Department i t s e l f . A knowledge of vocational guidance, t e s t i n g and counselling, and of the eoonomio and s o c i a l conditions of the community i s desirable. Personal s u i t a b i l i t y i s also a determining f a c t o r . Head O f f i c e S t a f f At the Head Of f i c e of the Department i n Ottawa, the s t a f f of the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n consists of a Direotor, a F i e l d Consultant, and additional s t a f f as may'he required from time to time. The Direotor i n h i s work i s responsible to the Direo-tor-General of the Veterans* Welfare Services Branoh. His duties are many. Inoluded among them are the formulation of p o l i c i e s and procedures f o r the D i v i s i o n as well as i t s development and supervision. Part of his work Is that of making recommendations and giving consultation and advice to the various d i s t r i c t o f f i o -,- 4 i a l s regarding s o o i a l work developments, standards of pr a c t i c e , and a l l matters concerning s o c i a l work, s o c i a l problems and t h e i r treatment. Also inoluded i n h i s duties are the undertaking of research as required, the provision and in t e r p r e t a t i o n of s t a t i s -t i c s , and the maintaining of l i a i s o n with Federal Departments of - 4 5 -government and with s o o i a l agenoies. The F i e l d Consultant i s responsible to the Direotor of the Sooial Service Department f o r work performed, and i n the l e t t e r ' s absence acts i n h i s stead. The F i e l d Consultant i s accountable f o r the development and supervision of the s o c i a l work program i n the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s . She gives advioe on matters pertaining to s o o i a l work t r a i n i n g as w e l l as i n the s e l e c t i o n and d i s t r i b u -t i o n of personnel. This i s done In co-operation with the C i v i l Service Commission, the Personnel D i v i s i o n , and with the Director of Medioal S o o i a l Services. An important part of the work i s the making of f i e l d v i s i t s to the D i s t r i c t Supervisors and i n a s s i s t -ing them i n maintaining l i a i s o n with d i s t r i c t health and welfare agencies, i n in t e r p r e t i n g departmental s o c i a l work p o l i c y , and i n giving professional supervision and help with lectures and i n -s t r u c t i o n a l m a terial. Assistance and advice on s o o i a l work mat-t e r s i s given to the D i s t r i c t Administrators. The F i e l d Con-sultant also provides reports on the general development of the s o c i a l work program i n the various d i s t r i c t s and makes recommenda-tio n s where necessary regarding l i a i s o n with the Department and community agenoies. I t i s her duty to maintain contact with the various Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s and Schools of S o c i a l Work, espec-i a l l y regarding prospective personnel and t h e i r t r a i n i n g . D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s S t a f f In the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s , the Supervisor of the Sooial Ser-vice D i v i s i o n acts as a consultant to the D i s t r i c t Administrator on a l l s o o i a l work matters, and i s responsible to the Superinten-dent of the Veterans* Welfare Services f o r the s o o i a l work pro-- 46 gram of the D i v i s i o n . Chief among her duties i s the mainten-ance of a consultative service to a l l branches, d i v i s i o n s , sec-t i o n s , and re l a t e d bodies of the Department. This i s accomplish-ed by such things as p a r t i c i p a t i o n on Departmental committees and boards concerning s o o i a l welfare matters; i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of program i n order to prevent duplication of e f f o r t on the part of o f f i c e personnel; and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of community s o o i a l agencies and t h e i r services to Departmental personnel, as w e l l as the pro-motion of a continuous teaching program, through i n d i v i d u a l and group discussions, or as the opportunity a r i s e s . The Supervisor's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s that of helping to develop an awareness on the part of community s o c i a l agencies of the departmental services available to veterans, and at the same time working out with these agencies p o l i c i e s of reference. In so doing, she may endeavour to help In strengthening community resouroes for veterans and i n forming good r e l a t i o n s with interested lay persons. The Sup-ervi s o r i s responsible f o r the work of the D i v i s i o n i n her Dis-t r i c t , and supervises the s o c i a l work s t a f f , a l l o t s the work among them, helps to maintain professional standards of practice, and sees that a l l the s t a f f adhere to the Departmental polioy. She must also see that a "Resources F i l e " and a "Master Index" are kept by the D i v i s i o n , and provide s t a t i s t i o a l and progress reports as required. The s o o i a l workers i n the Sooial Service D i v i s i o n are d i r -e c t l y responsible to the Supervisor of the D i v i s i o n , who, i n turn, i s d i r e c t l y responsible to the D i s t r i c t Superintendent of * the Veterans' Welfare Services Branch, and so on to the D i s t r i c t - 4:7 -Administrator, up to the Deputy M i n i s t e r , S i m i l a r l y , at Head O f f i c e , the l i n e of authority extends from the s o c i a l work s t a f f to the Director of the D i v i s i o n and thence to the Director-Gener-a l of Veterans* Welfare Services, and so f o r t h . However, In addition to t h i s , there i s a direot l i n e of commmiioation between the Supervisors of the D i s t r i c t S o c i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n s , and the Direotor of the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n at Ottawa on profess-i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l matters not involving d i s t r i c t administration, T h i s does not supersede the Supervisors* r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the D i s t r i c t Superintendents of Veterans* Welfare Services, but i s a le s s cumbersome channel through whioh advioe may be d i r e c t l y sought, or suggestions may be made on s o o i a l work pra c t i c e s . - 48 -Chapter 4 THE POLICY OF THE SOCIAL SERVICE DISTRICT DIVISIONS Nature and Soope of the Division. The Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n aooepts as i t s oentral area of work that of the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , whioh i s as-suming i t s place as a fe d e r a l agenoy concerned with the proper handling of s o c i a l problems. The veteran i s the f o c a l point of a l l services given, whether these are rela t e d to h i s care, treatment, t r a i n i n g , or re-establishment i n c i v i l l i f e . Follow-ing demobilization, the former members of the m i l i t a r y forces sought mostly benefits suoh as allowances, t r a i n i n g , or re-estab-lishment c r e d i t s , many of which were available only f o r a l i m i t e d period of time following discharge and have now expired. The r e -su l t i s that many former service men and women now coming to the Department are seeking a d i f f e r e n t kind of assistance lar g e l y concerned with t h e i r personal problems. One part of the organi-zation's program i s to avoid duplicating services provided f o r a l l c i t i z e n s In the community. A very r e a l necessity i s , there-fore, that Departmental employees with whom the veteran has con-t a c t should have s u f f i c i e n t knowledge and understanding of soc-i a l problems and of community s o c i a l agencies to be able to d i r -ect him to e x i s t i n g welfare resources, where hi s needs may he met. Although the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n i s functioning within the framework of a governmental agenoy, i t retains i t s own spec-i a l approach and methods within that area. For the f i r s t time, - 49 -o f f i c i a l s of a governmental department serving veterans have reoognized s o o i a l work as a profession, and d i f f e r i n g from the polioy i n the early twenties, the necessity of employing t r a i n -ed s o o i a l workers to perform the work of the D i v i s i o n has been 18 r e a l i z e d . In the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , the function of the D i v i s i o n within the Department and within the oommunity has been outlined. The plan has been to make as e f f i c i e n t and as economical a use of s o o i a l workers as possible, and, i n order to achieve t h i s purpose, the s o c i a l worker i s available as a consultant on s o o i a l problems to every member of the De-partmental s t a f f , e s p e c i a l l y to the Veterans* Welfare O f f i o e r s . The Division*s work, however, does not in f r i n g e on the area of servioe given by the medioal s o o i a l workers i n the Department. Generally, the l a t t e r * s work w i l l be within the Departmental Hospitals and I n s t i t u t i o n s , and the Division*s work within the D i s t r i c t and the Su b - d i s t r i c t O f f i c e s . L i a i s o n with the Community In order to mobilize the resources outside of the Department to the advantage of the ex-service men and women, the s o o i a l wor-kers within the D i s t r i c t Divisions must have a thorough knowledge of t h e i r communities. For t h i s reason, the polioy of the D i v i -s i o n i s to maintain "a l i a i s o n with community agencies'*, veter-ans being referred to these agenoies by the D i v i s i o n and vice versa. The D i v i s i o n w i l l accept problems re f e r r e d by outside agen-oies providing that the servioe to be given i s not contrary to the general polioy of the D i v i s i o n . 18. Canada, Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , Regulations and In- structi o n s , "Chapter 3,-Section 13, Veterans' Welfare Ser-vi c e s , Sooial Services", mimeographed. 50 -Whenever possible, cases coming to the D i v i s i o n are r e -fe r r e d . A r e l a t i o n s h i p i s maintained with s o c i a l agencies which have an established p o l i c y , with voluntary organizations, and with interested o i t i z e n s . The polioy i s to u t i l i z e the s o o i a l agenoies as much as possible; they are not expected to give services to veterans whioh they are not organized to give to other o i t i z e n s ; and t h e i r right to refuse a oase because of lack of s t a f f , budgetary expenses or other reasons i s recognized. The D i v i s i o n does not pay any of these agencies or persons f o r services, since suoh services are presumably within the normal function of the agency or group. When s o c i a l agenoies with an established polioy f o r various reasons refuse a oase, or i n an area where there are no s o c i a l agenoies a v a i l a b l e , the polioy of the D i v i s i o n i s to make use of volunteer organizations, suoh as the Canadian Legion, or the Im-p e r i a l Order Daughters of the Empire, or to seek the help of i n -terested i n d i v i d u a l s . Emphasis i s plaoed on the development of ex i s t i n g resources rather than on duplication of e f f o r t . I f - . . . 4 there are no e x i s t i n g resources to serve the veteran i n need, the Supervisor of the D i v i s i o n , perhaps with the assistance of the l o c a l Council of S o c i a l Agencies, or of the Canadian Welfare Council, may endeavour to stimulate the community to assume r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the creation of a needed servioe. Voluntary organizations often lack c l e a r l y defined p o l i o i e s , and the work of the various organizations may overlap. It i s within the area of work of the D i v i s i o n to study these groups and to work out a re l a t i o n s h i p with them. The Supervisor, with the D i s t r i o t Administrator's approval may endeavour to int e r e s t — 51 — groups serving veterans to form t h e i r own organization, co-ordinating t h e i r p o l i c i e s to give a more e f f i c i e n t servioe. I t i s suggested that t h i s should be done i n co-operation with an e x i s t i n g Council of Sooial Agenoies, i f suoh there be, and that these various community organizations should aim at membership i n the Council. The Supervisor may also aot as a oonsultant to these groups i n the inte r e s t of ex-service personnel, and the D i v i s i o n i n oo-operation with the S o c i a l Service Index might o f f e r them a c l e a r i n g service f o r oases being handled i n the 4 area. Where no voluntary servioes e x i s t , Interested c i t i z e n s may be enoouraged to develop t h e i r own organizations. Supervisors are urged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the work and the a c t i v i t i e s of the Councils of Sooial Agencies, and when they are able to contribute, they are enoouraged to aot upon or "to chair committees on various projects. Another method of estab-l i s h i n g good relationships with the professional s t a f f of other agenoies and of keeping up-to-date on current developments i s by the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the s o c i a l work s t a f f of the D i v i s i o n i n the a o t i v i t i e s of the Canadian Association of Sooial Workers. This i s also a way of keeping other workers aware of the devel-opments within the Department. The D i v i s i o n Supervisor i s responsible l o c a l l y for working ' 4 out a program with the S o c i a l Service Index i n the d i s t r i c t , as i n r e g i s t e r i n g , r e - r e g i s t e r i n g , and enquiring for information re garding cases, the p o l i c y of the S o c i a l Servioe Index as w e l l as that of the Department i s involved. Although "Veterans' Welfare - 53 -O f f i o e r s , Investigators, and other Departmental o f f i c i a l s are enoouraged to use the Index, t h i s program i s also worked out at the l o c a l l e v e l . I f duplication of services already supplied to the veteran i s to he avoided, the service given by the S o o i a l Service Index i s e s s e n t i a l to carry out the polioy of the D i v i -sion, Regarding payment fo r t h i s service, eaoh D i s t r i c t Adminis-t r a t o r may negotiate d i r e c t l y with the Index. I f the oost of c l e a r i n g each oase with the Index i s 15# or l e s s , payment may he authorized l o c a l l y ; i f the oost exceeds 15£, the approval f o r t h i s expenditure must be given by Head Of f i c e personnel i n Ott-awa. In addition, the Department must be supplied with the In-dex's annual report showing the number of clearings for a l l agencies, a copy of the auditor's statement of accounts, and an assurance that t h i s Department receives service of a kind and at a rate comparable with other p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies. This i s a somewhat cumbersome procedure, and i s evidently prompted by an economy of Departmental administration. The method of keeping case records Is somewhat d i f f e r e n t within the S o c i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n from that within a private s o o i a l agency. The regulations of the Department specify that a l l correspondence i s to be placed on a Central Registry f i l e , and that no d i v i s i o n or section of the Department may maintain separate f i l e s . These Central Registry f i l e s and t h e i r oontents are accessible to the personnel of every branch of the Depart-ment. These f i l e s contain a post-discharge record of every ex-service member, and pertinent data are added to .them from time - 53 -to time. I f the discharged person moves from one D i s t r i c t to another, h i s f i l e i s transferred to the Central Registry of the Of f i c e i n the D i s t r i c t where he takes up residence. In dealing 4 . . . . with oomplex problems, a temporary work f i l e may he kept and i t i s destroyed when i t has served i t s purpose. This f i l e usually contains rough notes from the veteran's f i l e , copies of corres-pondence, and other information required i n carrying out the work In hand. Chronological or process recording may also be kept i n one of these temporary work f i l e s I f i t i s being used , 4 f o r s t a f f supervision, self-evaluation, or teaching. However, cases on which t h i s type of reoording i s done are r e s t r i c t e d t o a minimum. Any pertinent Information i s to be placed on a f i l e immediately, and i f any problem comes up whioh concerns another branoh of the Department, the proper person should be n o t i f i e d at once. In very s p e c i a l cases i n whioh absolutely c o n f i d e n t i a l information concerning the veteran i s advisable, such information may be put i n a sealed envelope, marked "Confidential", and placed on the f i l e . The D i s t r i o t Administrator and the Supervi-sor of the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n are the only persons author-i z e d to open a l e t t e r of t h i s type. 4 In addition to t h i s , the S o o i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n maintains a Resources F i l e , which i s a kind of reference source. Contain-ed therein are the names of the directors and the addresses of a l l agencies i n the D i s t r i c t , and the approved method of r e f e r r i n g a veteran to them, that i s , a telephone reference, a written re-ference, or a combination of both. S i m i l a r l y , information Is - 54 -kept regarding a l l service clubs, veterans* organizations, and other groups serving the veteran, as well as the names of speci-f i c i n d i v i d u a l s interested, with i n d i c a t i o n of what use might be made of t h e i r servioes. This f i l e i s available to Medioal Sooial Workers, t r a v e l l i n g teams of the Department, Veterans* Welfare O f f i c e r s , and other interested Departmental personnel. The Sooial Service D i v i s i o n also lsaeps a card index, known as a Master Index, of a l l oases known to the D i v i s i o n and to the medical s o c i a l workers. The two s o c i a l work bodies i n the De-partment have also developed a policy f o r the quick and accur-ate c l e a r i n g of a l l t h e i r cases. A l l the Departmental f i l e s are c o n f i d e n t i a l i n nature; that i s to say, they are not accessible to anyone outside of the De-partment, and i n divulging any information to outside s o o i a l agenoies, the utmost care i s taken to ensure that the material given i s not in j u r i o u s and embarrassing to the Department and to the veteran. Information given to s o c i a l agencies f a l l s i n -to two groups, and i n both oases, medical information Is given only with the permission of the D i s t r i c t Medioal O f f i c e r . When the D i v i s i o n i s r e f e r r i n g a case to an outside agency, i t i s necessary that a c e r t a i n knowledge of the s i t u a t i o n be divulged to t h i s agenoy i n order that the service needed by the veteran or h i s dependents may be provided. When an outside agency i s handling a problem concerning an ex-service man or woman, a re-quest i s often made to the D i v i s i o n to provide any information 4 ' 4 they might have. The Supervisor of the D i v i s i o n , or her s t a f f , - 55 -i s allowed to give some information, providing that the agency-i s working i n the inte r e s t s of the veteran, that the information requested o r available i s applicable to the present problem and enables the agenoy to a s s i s t the c l i e n t , and that the agency Is a recognized s o o i a l agency with q u a l i f i e d s t a f f . The approach i n providing information to outside sources i s at best a cautious one. Work with the Veterans The D i v i s i o n s t a f f give "a professional service to veterans and t h e i r dependents i n respeot of s o c i a l problems". A profess-i o n a l servioe embraces many things. I t includes, on the part of the D i v i s i o n ' s personnel, a respeot for the i n d i v i d u a l veteran seeking service, a recognition of his i n d i v i d u a l wortb and h i s capacity f o r greater achievement, an understanding of oneself i n dealing with the c l i e n t and i n helping him to develop h i s own p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , as w e l l as a safeguarding of h i s i d e n t i t y and the c o n f i d e n t i a l nature of h i s contaot with the D i v i s i o n The s o c i a l worker aots as a representative of the agency and of her profession, and gives services only which the D i v i s i o n i s organized to o f f e r . The Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n i s often alluded to as a " r e f e r r a l " agenoy. In a sense, i t gives a kind of "intake ser-v i c e " f o r veterans. Large numbers of former m i l i t a r y personnel have been made much more aware of the Department than of the community s o o i a l agenoies as a source of assistance. By giving an intake or exploratory interview, the s o c i a l worker ascertains - 56 -the nature of the s o o i a l problem, and, i f i t f a l l s w ithin the funotion of an e x i s t i n g agency, the c l i e n t or veteran i s r e f e r -red there. Every possible case i s referred, and i f t h i s i s im-possible to do, the work may he done d i r e c t l y by the Department, or the c l i e n t may be advised that no servioe i s available to him. As the nature of the contact between the c l i e n t and the worker i s often very b r i e f , sometimes being only one interview, the s o o i a l worker must be constantly developing s k i l l In the diagnosing and r e f e r r i n g of s o c i a l problems. When a veteran i s referred to another agenoy, he i s given an explanation of the function of the agency; the worker must make c e r t a i n that he i s able to use, and wishes to take advan-tage of, the servioe which the other agency provides; and a r e -c i p r o c a l arrangement must be made with the agency to receive t h i s new c l i e n t . As an understanding of s o o i a l problems i s developed among the Departmental personnel both through a teaching program and a consultation service with the s o c i a l workers, the work of the D i v i s i o n i s seen to he that of giving service to the most s e r i -ous problems, and of allowing the Veterans* Welfare O f f i c e r s and other Departmental s t a f f to deal with the less serious cases. A professional service Is given to veterans* dependents when the servioe aimed at Is the more adequate adjustment of the demobilized men and women to sooiety. Family relationships are often a part of s o o i a l problems, and i t i s often advisable to interview a dependent i n order to render a more e f f e c t i v e ser-vioe to the o l i e n t . When the servioe i s requested by the depend-- 5 7 -ent, such servioe i s given only i f i t i s i n the i n t e r e s t of the veteran and r e l a t e d to h i s problems. Dependents are also advised of e x i s t i n g community agencies which might help them. The p o l i c y regarding " d i r e c t casework on an experimental basis r e l a t e d to s o c i a l problems coming to the attention of the Department" i s at the present time under study. When the policy i n t h i s respeot has been c l a r i f i e d , the regulations and ins t r u c t i o n s of the Department w i l l be amended. In a l l proba-b i l i t y , the new p o l i c y w i l l be based upon an analysis of the case work now being done i n the various d i s t r i c t s . Work with the veterans includes a consultation servioe giv-en by the professional personnel of the D i v i s i o n to members of a l l branches, d i v i s i o n s , and sections of the Department, and, on request, to re l a t e d Departmental bodies, suoh as the Veter-ans* Land Act administration. The idea i s to equip these people with a knowledge of community resources, and of the p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l welfare. As w e l l as carrying out the measures of the Veterans* Charter, the Departmental s t a f f are more and more con-cerning themselves with s o c i a l problems a f f e c t i n g the adjustment of the former m i l i t a r y personnel to c i v i l i a n l i f e . Much of the consultation service given i s designed f o r the Veterans* Welfare O f f i c e r s who have direot contact with d i s -charged persons. In such oases, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for giving servioes w i l l remain with the Veterans* Welfare Offioers or other Departmental s t a f f seeking assistanoe of the s o o i a l worker, and the work of the l a t t e r w i l l be to elucidate and to emphasize the s o o i a l implications i n the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . The s o c i a l wor-- 58 -ker does not usually see the veteran unless he has been pre-v i o u s l y interviewed and referred by a Veterans* Welfare O f f i c e r , or another member of the agency s t a f f . Occasionally, consults-t i o n service includes an interview f o r diagnostic purposes, and, at times such a case may be transferred to the D i v i s i o n . The p o l i c y of providing a consultation service to the Vet-erans* Land Aot personnel Is intended to supply these persons with "expert independent information and opinion regarding soo-i a l service problems when the p o s s i b i l i t y of seeking cancella-t i o n of a veteran's agreement with the Director of Veterans* 19 Land Aot i s under consideration". A request to the Supervisor of the D i v i s i o n f o r a report and an appraisal of the s o o i a l pro-blems i n a s i t u a t i o n must be i n i t i a t e d by the D i s t r i c t Superin-tendent of the Veterans* Land Aot, and reports made are submitted to him as w e l l as to the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n , Ottawa, by the D i s t r i c t Supervisors. In providing t h i s service, the Supervisor examines the material on the veteran*s f i l e and discusses the s i t u a t i o n with representatives of the Land Administration In-cluding t h e i r F i e l d S t a f f . I f i n s u f f i c i e n t information i s a v a i l -able, the Supervisor may re f e r the request to a s o o i a l agenoy i n the d i s t r i c t . I f t h i s i s not possible, she may act as a con-sultant to one of the F i e l d S t a f f , or assign a member of the soc-i a l work s t a f f to conduct the necessary v i s i t s or interview. I t i s the duty of the Supervisor to maintain also a contact ao with the p r o v i n c i a l committees of the various benevolent funds 19. I b i d . , Clause 30. E C These inolude the Canadian Naval Servioes Benevolent Fund, the Army Benevolent Fund, and the Royal Canadian Air.Force Benevo-l e n t Fund. The purpose of these funds i s to protect those who have,served or who are s t i l l ^ s e r v i n g the,country, and t h e i r f a m i l i e s against unforeseen f i n a n c i a l c r i s e s whioh may ooour from time to time. - 59 and to provide suoh servioe as may be requested by the members of these aommittees, provided i t i s within the general polioy of the Department. S t a f f t r a i n i n g and teaohing "S t a f f t r a i n i n g and the teaohing of s o o i a l welfare p r i n -c i p l e s " i s another function assigned to the D i v i s i o n personnel. The aim of t h i s program i s to help Departmental personnel i n the recognition of s o c i a l problems and i n the more e f f e c t i v e solu-t i o n of the veteran ,s d i f f i c u l t i e s . The Supervisor i s responsi-ble f o r a portion of the in-service t r a i n i n g given to Veterans* Welfare O f f i c e r s and others i n s o c i a l welfare p r i n c i p l e s . T his t r a i n i n g i s planned i n oo-operation with the D i s t r i o t Administra^ t o r , the D i s t r i c t Superintendent of the Veterans* Welfare Services, the S t a f f T r a i n i n g O f f i c e r , and the Personnel O f f i c e r who s h a l l decide which members of the Departmental s t a f f s h a l l take the course. Discussion and lecture material include such things as the growth of s o o i a l service i n Canada, the l o c a l community wel-fare organization, and the meohanics of reference. The more t h e o r e t i o a l material involved i n a s s i s t i n g people i s thought to be best taught i n d i v i d u a l l y . The basis of t h i s teaohing i s through consultation on various oases, and by con-stant i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to interested personnel; the aim i s to help them to develop an understanding of human behaviour, of the part they themselves play, and a knowledge of the interplay of p e r s o n a l i t i e s and of other basic p r i n c i p l e s . Encouragement i s given to a l l s t a f f members interested i n - 60 taking professional t r a i n i n g at a Sohool of S o o i a l Work, and assistance may he sought from these schools f o r suggestions re-garding Departmental t r a i n i n g and teaching programs. Assistance i s always available to the D i s t r i c t Divisions from the Head Of-f i c e D i v i s i o n at Ottawa, and from there material and suggestions are sent to the various Supervisors, although i t i s not necessary that these be followed. Supervisors are also encouraged to send to the Head O f f i c e such lecture or discussion group material as has been u t i l i z e d i n the D i s t r i c t , i n order that other D i s t r i c t s may share i n the benefits of the experience. The s o o i a l worker employed within the Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n must meet standard professional s o o i a l work requirements. A l l applicants must have graduated from a recognized u n i v e r s i t y and must have successfully completed one year of professional i n -str u o t i o n at a recognized Sohool of Sooial Work, That i s to say, f i v e or s i x years of formal education are required, or q u a l i f i -cations that permit membership i n a recognized professional assoc-i a t i o n of s o c i a l workers. Experience i n a recognized s o o i a l agency i s also an asset. For the more responsible positions i n the D i v i s i o n , the completed s o c i a l work course of two years i s required and from two to s i x years* experience i n a s o c i a l agency, with preferably two or three years of t h i s experience i n an ex-eoutive or supervisory capacity. In specifying q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the p o s i t i o n of s o c i a l worker i n the Sooial Service D i v i s i o n , four c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , known as "grades", based upon the education and experience of the workers have been established, and the - 61 -salary f o r each grade i s set accordingly. At the present time, remuneration s t a r t s at $2100 per year f o r the beginning Grade I s o o i a l worker and extends to $4200 per year as a maximum salary f o r the Grade IV s o c i a l worker. These s a l a r i e s are on a par with most s o c i a l work s a l a r i e s i n di f f e r e n t agencies across the country. lesearoh i n s o o i a l welfare matters Inoluded among the funotions of the D i v i s i o n i s "co-opera-t i o n i n research on s o c i a l welfare matters". The Director of the D i v i s i o n at the request of the Director-General of Veterans' Welfare Services, or the D i s t r i c t Supervisors at the request of the D i s t r i c t Administrators, or the D i s t r i c t Superintendents of Veterans* Welfare Services, undertake research as required. The D i v i s i o n co-operates with the D i v i s i o n of Research and S t a t i s t i c s In s o c i a l work matters. Research undertaken by a D i s t r i c t Sup-ervisor i s l i m i t e d to her s p e c i f i c d i s t r i c t , and a l l requests f o r l o c a l research projects and reports made are submitted to the Direotor of the D i v i s i o n at Ottawa. This polioy, as has been outlined, forms the framework fo r the operation of the D i v i s i o n . There i s a wide v a r i a t i o n i n programs i n the di f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s , and the work done depends to a great extent upon the ex i s t i n g community resources, and the acceptance by the Department generally of the value of the program. This D i v i s i o n of the Department Is an avenue fo r f u r -ther development i n s o c i a l work i n t h i s broad f i e l d of veterans* welfare. - 62 -Chapter 5 THE VANCOUVER SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION There i s a difference i n the development of the s o c i a l work program i n the D i v i s i o n s of the several D i s t r i c t s . Because of the d i v e r s i t y i n the development of community resources and i n the understanding of s o o i a l problems i n the various parts of Canada, a decentralized program has been found to be most e f f e c -t i v e . That i s to say, the p o l i c y which forms an operative frame-work f o r the D i v i s i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e to allow f o r r e -gional d i v e r s i t y i n meeting the needs of the veteran peculiar to each d i s t r i c t . In Vancouver, the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n of the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s was established i n May, 1947, and i s a se-parate unit i n the D i s t r i c t Veterans* Building at 1231 Haro Street. This d i s t r i c t comprises the Yukon T e r r i t o r y as w e l l as most of B r i t i s h Columbia. As might be expected, the work of the D i v i s i o n thus covers a vast area i n square miles, and con-sequently the development of the Sooial Welfare Branch of the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Health and Welfare has influenced great-l y the nature of the work being done. The D i v i s i o n has c u l t i v a t -ed a l i a i s o n with a l l community agencies and the f a c i l i t i e s of the S o o i a l Welfare Branoh have been u t i l i z e d to t h e i r f u l l extent. E s p e c i a l l y i n the r u r a l areas, t h i s D i v i s i o n i s very fortunate i n being able to take advantage of a p r o v i n c i a l system of welfare. Saskatchewan i s probably the only other Canadian province with a comparable welfare program on a comprehensive regional basis. - 63 -L i a i s o n with, the Community The B r i t i s h Columbia S o o i a l Welfare Branoh has established throughout the province a network of s o o i a l services operative under s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , and, at the l o o a l l e v e l , brought to Individuals and f a m i l i e s s u f f e r i n g from s o c i a l needs by a F i e l d Servioe s t a f f of q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers. For purposes of ad-mini s t r a t i o n , the province has been divided into f i v e regions, i n which twenty-four d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s have been established; these d i s t r i c t s , i n turn, are divided into t e r r i t o r i e s . Eaoh t e r r i t o r y i s served by a q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l worker t r a v e l l i n g e i t -her by oar or by other means of transportation, and a generalized case work service i s given to needy c i t i z e n s . A supervisor over-sees these workers as w e l l as the s o c i a l workers employed by 4 . m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and gives to both detailed supervision regarding standards of service and to the former supervision as w e l l con-cerning the administrative d e t a i l s of the organization. Many of these p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l workers have had u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , and f o r those who have not had t h i s opportunity, an i n -service t r a i n i n g course i s provided. The duties of these workers are numerous and deal with such services as: S o o i a l Assistance Allowances; Mother's Allowances; Old Age and Blind Pensions; Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n Licensing; Family Servioes; Servioes to C h i l -dren, including protection, custody, fo s t e r home oare, adoption, and delinquency; work with unmarried parents and t h e i r children; work with tubercular and venereal disease patients; and a f f i l i a t i o n with the p r o v i n c i a l mental hospitals and p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c s . S p e c i f i o a l l y mentioned are "Federal Servioes 1*, which include i n -- 64 vestigations f o r Family Allowances, and co-operative services with the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s . This co-operative service includes servioe to the veteran because of h i s status as a resident c i v i l i a n of B r i t i s h Columbia. It may consist of d i r e c t i n g the veteran to the proper resource. In cases i n which reference i s not indicated and personnel of the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s lack s u f f i c i e n t information with respect to a veteran*s problems, a request might be made to these p r o v i n c i a l workers to v i s i t the discharged persorfs home and make a report of the family s i t u a t i o n , or perhaps a r e -commendation as to whether the servioe requested of the Depart-ment would be to the advantage of the veteran. Being able to u t i l i z e the p r o v i n c i a l welfare services means a f i n a n c i a l saving to the Department; also, i t usually means a better service to the veteran as he i s being served by a q u a l i f i e d s o o i a l worker who i n some d i s t r i c t s would be replaced by an un-trai n e d community worker. For the s o o i a l workers of the Depart-ment to cover t h i s area adequately would be In many cases Imposs-i b l e , would create a heavy expenditure i n the Departmental budget, and would be contrary to the policy of making as e f f i c i e n t and as economical a use of s o c i a l workers as possible . As the D i v i s i o n takes advantage so extensively of the ser-vic e s of the p r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Branoh, and as t h i s i s a resource not available to the Divisions of many of the other D i s t r i c t s , i t i s relevant to mention i t f i r s t as a source of community l i a i s o n . However, advantage of other oommunity ser-vices i s also taken, and, espeoially i n the Ci t y of Vancouver, co-- 65 -operation lias been achieved with the various s o c i a l agencies. These inolude various group work agencies, suoh as the neighbour-hood houses, and the Young Men's and Young Women's C h r i s t i a n Associations; family and children's agencies, such as the Fam-i l y Welfare Bureau, the Children*s Aid S o c i e t i e s , the Foster Day Care Association, and the City S o c i a l Service Department; preventive services, such as work with probation o f f i o e r s and the Family Court; and miscellaneous groups, including the Cana-dian Red Cross, and the V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses, to name a few. In addition, servioes i n the interest of the veteran have been sought from and requested by many other persons and i n s t i -21 t u t i o n s . Included among these are various private lawyers, doc-tors and p s y c h i a t r i s t s , parish p r i e s t s and ministers, the F i r s t United Church, the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire, a private r e n t a l agency, the Canadian Legion, the C i t i z e n s ' Rehab-i l i t a t i o n Council, the Christmas Cheer Fund, R e t a i l Credit Grantors, the p r o v i n c i a l committees of the various benevolent funds, and from others as the need a r i s e s . These Individuals and groups represent a wide d i v e r s i t y In occupations and i n t e r -e s t s . The D i v i s i o n personnel i n seeking t h e i r help act as com-munity organizers, both i n stimulating t h e i r i n t e r e s t and i n seeking to u t i l i z e the range of servioes which they provide, thus avoiding duplication of e f f o r t . In working oo-operatively with the S o c i a l Welfare Branch and with other community resources, the members of the D i v i s i o n endeavour to supply the p a r t i c u l a r agency i n question with information s u f f i c i e n t enough to deter-mine whether the service requested f a l l s within the policy of !21. See Appendix I I I . - 66 -the s p e c i f i c agency. Whether or not the information requested i s i n the inte r e s t of the veteran must be determined before d i s -closure to an outsider. In many ways a public f e d e r a l agenoy i s more open to c r i t i c i s m and to attack than.is a private i n s t i -t u t i o n , and t h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y necessitates an added precaution on the part of the Departmental personnel as a whole. For t h i s reason, the s o c i a l worker i n the Department may often be con-sidered over-protective by those outside the agenoy. In the polioy of the D i v i s i o n , the s o o i a l workers are urged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the Councils of Sooial Agen-cies and of the Canadian Association of Sooial Workers, i n order to.promote good relationships with other professional workers and to keep up-to-date with current developments. The three members of the D i v i s i o n Vanoouver s t a f f are each members of the l a t t e r organization. Personnel of the D i v i s i o n p a r t i c i p a t e to some extent i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vanoouver. The D i v i s i o n , being a part of a govern-ment department and being financed out of the f e d e r a l treasury, does not, of course, come under the f i n a n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Community Chest. However, the various D i v i s i o n personnel, as requested, have p a r t i c i p a t e d on d i f f e r e n t research or other oommittees of the Community Chest and Counoil and have shown a willingness to oo-operate i n community e f f o r t s . The S o o i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n has worked out l o c a l l y an ar-rangement with the S o c i a l Service Index of the Community Chest and Council. I t has not been the practice of Departmental s t a f f 67 -to r e g i s t e r s o o i a l cases with the Index, although t h i s may he done i f desired. The assumption i s that i t i s common knowledge that a f i l e i s kept on the post-discharge reoord of eaoh veter-an and that an outside agenoy may contact the D i v i s i o n to ascer-t a i n i f any information on a p a r t i c u l a r case i s av a i l a b l e . The s o o i a l workers do enquire of the Index f o r a l l r e g i s t r a t i o n s available on each oase opened or re-opened i n order to avoid dup l i c a t i o n of work done by community agencies. However, be-cause they do not r e g i s t e r t h e i r cases, they are not n o t i f i e d of post-registrations by other agencies or of r e g i s t r a t i o n s g i v -ing a d d i t i o n a l information, such as, ohange of address. The question might, therefore, be raised of whether i t might not be to the advantage of the D i v i s i o n to r e g i s t e r a l l s o o i a l Cases with the Index i n order to aohieve more adequate coverage. In the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , authorization to enquire of the Vancouver Index i s r e s t r i c t e d to the s o c i a l work person-n e l only. Use of the Index necessitates payment of a fee by the Department on a usage basis. This amount varies from year to year, and the oost per case of r e g i s t e r i n g or enquiring i s set by the Index and i s based upon costs of operation and the amount of service granted to a l l non-partioipating agenoies of the Community Chest. A l l of these agenoies are charged a l i k e fee f o r si m i l a r servioes rendered. In some of the d i s t r i c t s , very short s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s and oontaots with the c l i e n t s have been reoorded on the f i l e s , the f e e l i n g being that t h i s information should not be available t o 68 a l l o f f i c e personnel. Some of the f i l e s are very bulky and there are as many as two or three f i l e s on some veterans. These f i l e s may cover a variety of contacts: application f o r pension or war veterans* allowances; assistance from t r u s t funds; medi-c a l data, et cetera. In order to simplify perusal of a f i l e , the practioe of using a d i f f e r e n t coloured sheet f o r recording on d i f f e r e n t matters has evolved. For example, s o o i a l work re-cording u t i l i z e s '*a buff sheet"; medioal recording, " a pink sheet". The members of the Vanoouver D i v i s i o n do not use "a temporary work f i l e * f or ourrent cases, but keep a l l recording on the main f i l e . Recording i s kept to a minimum and, although the narrative may not be as detailed as that found i n many p r i -vate agency f i l e s , a l l pertinent information i s recorded and may he consulted at a glance by turning to the "huff sheet". In giv-ing f o r t h information regarding a veteran, personnel are quite protective of the veteran. This i s necessary because of the pol i c y of the Department as a whole and i n same cases, the Dis-t r i c t Administrator's permission i s necessary before authori-zation to disclose information i s granted. I f any information seems p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant i n a s o o i a l s i t u a t i o n , permission i s usually granted to disclose t h i s to a s o c i a l agency. Outside s o o i a l workers should appreciate these r e s t r i c t i o n s i n request-ing information from the Department. The Work of the D i v i s i o n In evaluating the work done by the D i v i s i o n , the actual r e-cordings on the veterans* f i l e s have not been perused. The sur-vey i s not a detailed study of the various problems a r i s i n g , sev-- 69 -e r a l of whioh oould constitute a thesis topio i n themselves, hut aims at a more general coverage: the number of c l i e n t s seeking service, t h e i r family status, the war and branch of service i n which they served, what t h e i r s p e c i f i o problems seem to be, the source of reference to the D i v i s i o n and the kind of services rendered. The faots established and conclusions drawn are based on the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n monthly s t a t i s t i c a l reports compiled from June, 1947 to December, 1949, i n c l u s i v e . The month of June, 1947, was the f i r s t month f o r whioh s t a t i s t i c s were recorded. I t should be noted that these monthly report forms are prepared by the D i v i s i o n s t a f f f o r submission to the Head Of f i c e i n Ott-awa and contain a minimum of required information. More d e t a i l -ed information i s obtainable l o c a l l y . A master card index shows a l l cases known to the D i v i s i o n as w e l l as to the medical s o c i a l workers; and, i n addition, aotive work-cards showing the nature of the problem and what work i s being done are av a i l a b l e . Any further information required may be obtained by reading the In-d i v i d u a l f i l e s . a s In the month of September, 1949, a new type of monthly r e -_ . ••: S3 port form replaced the former one and several changes i n the i n -formation recorded were made. For example, suoh information as the family status of the o l i e n t s , the war and m i l i t a r y branch i n whioh the veterans served, was deleted, and other changes were made i n the various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , s i x i n a l l . (a) The Case Count The case oount i s meant to r e f l e c t a l l the a c t i v i t i e s of the a s . See Appendix I I . S3. See Appendix I . - 70 -D i v i s i o n . This includes oases on whioh dire c t casework servioe i s given. With more and more oonoentration being stressed on a consultation servioe and the teaching of s o o i a l work oonoepts to Departmental s t a f f , the number of cases i n whioh a direot case-work service w i l l be given w i l l supposedly decrease considerably and i n proportion to the new consultation servioe developed. A consultation servioe i s considered to have been given when a person inside or outside of the Department asks advice or help of the D i v i s i o n personnel, who themselves give no direct service to the c l i e n t . I t must be remembered that, i n every instance, the veteran i s the fooal point of a l l services given. A c l i e n t of the D i v i s i o n may be any one of the three categories e l i g i b l e f o r benefits: those with m i l i t a r y service; those without m i l i -tary servioe but with a olaim beoause of subjection to r i s k s engendered by war conditions; and dependents of both groups. In addition, interviews and consultations are granted to persons who seek servioe on behalf of any of the above persons. The work of the D i v i s i o n i s performed by a Supervisor, her-s e l f a s o o i a l worker, and two s o o i a l workers. The Supervisor r a r e l y interviews o l l e n t s coming to the D i v i s i o n but i s more oonoerned with administrative duties. She also handles a con-siderable number of the out-of-town enquiries. To a great ex-tent, the d i r e c t casework servioe i s given by the two s o o i a l workers although t h i s i s not a f i x e d p r a c t i c e . There i s no d e f i n i t e d i v i s i o n of the work, that i s to say, eaoh worker has a generalized oaseload. I f the work were assumed to be equally - 71 -divided between the s t a f f of three, each worker would be r e -sponsible f o r t h i r t y - f i v e to eighty oases per month. In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , however, t h i s figure may often be exceeded by the i n d i v i d u a l worker. Table 4. Cases handled by the Vancouver-Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n , Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , June 1947-Deoember 1949 Period of Time Numl !>er of Cases T o t a l Case Load Case Load Opened Reopen-ed Brought Forward Monthly Average Monthly Maximum Monthly Minimum June;1947 130 0 0 130 130 130 130 July,1947-Decembenl947 481 64 277 742 124 163 97 January,1948 June;1948 July,1948-414 63 197 650 108 130 100 Deoember, 1948 J anuary.1949-555 81 173 913 152 196 117 June;I949 July,1949-586 152 253 991 165 185 138 DeoemberJ-949 668 J 213 230 1105 184 234 137 T O T A L 8888 573 1130 4531 146 834 97 I t w i l l be seen that from June, 1947 to Deoember, 1949, a t o t a l of twothousand, eight hundred and twenty-eight veterans were helped by the D i v i s i o n personnel, and that f i v e hundred and seventy-three of these persons, or about one i n f i v e , oame back at a l a t e r date for further service. In terms of the t o t a l case-load (the number of cases opened, reopened, and brought forward each month), only one i n s i x are such repeater o l i e n t s , ranging from a number of one i n eleven i n the f i r s t six-month period to one i n f i v e persons i n the l a s t six-month period. This would seem to indicate that an increasing proportion of the servioe given i s of a repeater nature. Whether or not these veterans w i l l become chronic repeaters, reappearing at in t e r v a l s through-out the years, I t i s yet too early i n the program to assess. - 72 -The average number of ex-service personnel being assisted eaoh month i s one hundred and f o r t y - s i x and has gradually In-creased during t h i s thirty-one month period. A minimum of ninety-seven were helped i n November, 1947, and a maximum of two hundred and t h i r t y - f o u r i n October, 1949; that i s , i n these two months, the v a r i a t i o n was one hundred and thirty-seven. The average period of time for whioh the veteran seeks ser-vice i s not indicated. However, the s t a t i s t i c s showing the number of "cases brought forward" from the previous month re -v e a l that about four out of every f i v e persons are helped and the case closed w i t h i n the month. I n suoh cases, either r e f e r -ence has been made, inside or outside the agency; no further servioe i s requested; no service i n the community i s a v a i l a b l e ; or, d i r e c t casework service has been given. (b) Source of the Cases Received The source of the cases received indioates the method of referenoe by whioh the veteran came to the D i v i s i o n . That i s to say, some came d i r e c t l y contacting the s o o i a l workers either by l e t t e r or i n person; others were referred to the D i v i s i o n by private s o c i a l agenoies, by publio s o o i a l agenoies (municipal, p r o v i n c i a l , and f e d e r a l ) , and by other Divisions and Branches of the Department. The following table does not include the period, July,1949-Deoember, 1949, as s t a t i s t i c s f or that period were not recorded i n the same manner as i n previous months. June, 1947, was the f i r s t month during which records were kept by the D i v i s i o n , and the figures f o r t h i s month have not been u t i l i z e d as i t was 73 -thought that more s t a b i l i t y would be achieved by s t a r t i n g with the second month of operation, July, 1947. The remaining two-year period, July 1947 - June 1949, has been divided into four periods of s i x months eaoh. These amounts shown inolude the number of new oases coming to the D i v i s i o n plus the number of re-opened ones. Figures for the number of cases brought forward each month have not been inoluded as these would be re p e t i t i o u s and would not indicate a true t o t a l . Table 5. Source of the Gases Received by the Vancouver Soo i a l Service D i v i s i o n , Department of Veterans• A f f a i r s , J u l y 1947 - June 1949 Period T o t a l Direct con- Cases Referred By of Number ta c t by vet- Private Publio Department Time of Cases eran or h i s family Agencies Sources July 1947 -December 1947 545 225 77 45 198 January 1948-June 1948 477 138 • 49 • 50 240 July 1948 -December 1948 636 314 42 55 225 January 1949-June 1949 738 340 43 70 285 T O T A L 2396 1017 1 211 220 948 It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that eighty-two per cent of the oases of the D i v i s i o n originated within the Department; that i s to say, the veteran, or someone on h i s behalf, has either oome d i r e c t l y to the s o c i a l worker or, having gone elsewhere i n the Department, he has been eventually referred to the D i v i s i o n . This would i n -dicate that most of these discharged persons are eith e r very well acquainted with the resources of the Department, or that they choose these resources rather than those of the community, that i s , they have segregated themselves as a veteran group. 74 Nearly one-half of t h i s group of veterans have been sent to the D i v i s i o n from other parts of the Department. Of these, the majority were referred by the Veterans* Welfare O f f i o e r s . Others came from the various members of the Treatment Branoh, the Ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n Branch, War Veterans* Allowance representatives, the Canadian Pension Commission, the D i s t r i c t Legal Servioes, and the D i s t r i c t Padre; a few have been referred from other Dis-t r i c t s ; and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n the l a s t year a few references have been received from the Veterans* Land Act Administration which r e f l e c t s the recent endeavour to a t t a i n a closer co-operation between these two administrations. The remaining low percentage of discharged persons sent to the D i v i s i o n during t h i s period by outside public and private s o o i a l agenoies - a t o t a l of only four hundred and thirty-one persons i n two years - would suggest that many of the former ser-vioe men and women seek assistance f i r s t from the veterans* de-partment, or i t may be that s o o i a l workers outside of the De-partment are not s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of i t s offered servioes to be able to r e f e r applicants to i t f o r help. (o) The family status, war and branch of service i n whioh the veteran served  The table below indicates that f o u r - f i f t h s of the former servioe personnel aoming to the D i v i s i o n are married or have been married. Of t h i s group, three-quarters of the number are l i v i n g with t h e i r husbands or wives, and the remainder are either widowed, separated, or divorced. There i s a small group shown as "deceased**. In these oases, i t i s probable that the servioe 75 -rendered i s on behalf of a dependent. Because a dependent may be a wife, husband, c h i l d , or parent, these veterans could have had ei t h e r married or single status. Table 6. Family Status of the Cases Handled by the Vanoouver Soc-i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n , Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , i July 1947 - June 1949 , Period "Total Ktaber Cases MA R R I E D J MA1RIED of T o t a l L i v i n g L i v i n g Apart SENGLF Time Number Together S3 unrated J u l y 1947-Decamber1947 545 434 324 19 65 28 94 17 Januarvl948 June 1948 477 378 281 26 54 17 84 15 July 1948-DeoemberI948 636 478 346 12 93 27 140 18 Januaryl949-June 1949 • 738 549 420 28 87 14 115 74 T O T A L 8396 1839 1371 85 299 84 433 124 The sex and age of the discharged men and women are not shown. As the majority of the persons on active service were men and only a small percentage women, the prime assumption seems to be that the person f o r whom service i s requested i s usually a male. Although the ages of these veterans are not shown, Table 7 reveals that seventy-one per oent of the d i s -charged m i l i t a r y personnel have served i n World War I I only which would suggest that these men and women are probably i n the younger age group. Twenty-nine per cent have served i n World War I; there are three Boer War veterans, one of the North-west F i e l d Force of 1885, and ten f o r whom the war has not been designated. Two age groups seem to stand out: the older vet-erans of World War I who because of old age or other factors have not made a successful adjustment to c i v i l i a n l i v i n g ; and the larger group of younger veterans of World War I I who have not yet become successfully established on "civvy s t r e e t " . A - 76 -t h i r d group f a l l s In between these two, Table 7. War Service of Veterans Reoeiving Assistance from the Vancouver S o o i a l Service D i v i s i o n , Department of Vet-erans* A f f a i r s , July 1947 - June 1949 Period T o t a l War Served In Service T o t a l T o t a l of Time Number of Gases World War I World War II Other Wars in,*Wars lanavufc World War I World W a r l l July 1947 -December 1947 545 76 437 3 29 105 466 January 1948-June 1948 477 87 370 1 19 106 38& Jul y 1948-Deoember 1948 636 155 451 1 29 184 480 January 1949-June 1949 738 255 434 10 39 294 473 T O T A L 2396 573 1698 15* 1 116 689 ' 1808 a. This figure Includes three veterans of the Boer War; one of the Northwest F i e l d Force, one who fought i n three wars, and ofie without m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . Indicated below i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n among the d i f f e r e n t m i l -i t a r y services of these veterans seeking help of the D i v i s i o n . Table 8. M i l i t a r y Branoh of Service of Veterans Receiving'Assis-tance- from the Vancouver Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n , De-partment of Veterans* A f f a i r s , July 1947 - June 1949 Period T o t a l M i l i t a r y Branch oi . Service of Veteran a of Number Navy Army A i r Force A l l i e d or Time of Cases Other Force July 1947-Deoember 1947 545 30 465 50 0 January 1948-June 1948 477 23 422 31 1 July 1948 -December 1948 636 27 503 100 6 January 1949-June 1949 738 61 629 45 3 T O T A L 23d& i 4 i acid1 226 10 a. Bight veterans have served i n two milJ Ltary branches. About eight or nine out of every ten of these discharged men and women coming to the D i v i s i o n have been i n the Army Ser-v i o e . There seem to be two reasons f o r t h i s . (1) By f a r the greatest enrolment i n the Armed Servioes was i n the Army, and i n considering the t o t a l number of former m i l i t a r y personnel un-77 -s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d , the figure would be proportion-ately higher for the Army than f o r the Navy or A i r Force. (2) Generally speaking, the members of the A i r Force and of the Navy were a more highly s k i l l e d group In t e c h n i c a l trades, and many received suoh t r a i n i n g on the job. Many would, therefore, have c i v i l i a n occupations to which to return. (d) Servioes rendered to the veterans The servioes rendered oover assistance given by the s o o i a l workers to a l l veterans coming to the D i v i s i o n , and Table 9, be-low, shows i n more d e t a i l the nature of these services. Table 9. Servioes Rendered to Veterans by the Vanoouver Sooial Service D i v i s i o n , Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , July 1947 - June 1949 Period of Time T o t a l Ssrvices Rendered O f f i c e Inter-view Only Cases Referred Elsewhere 1 A s s i s -tance from Trust Funds Cooper-ative Service Given with another Agency Fotal dumber Dept. Vets. Affairs Private See i a l and Public Others July 1947-Decemberl947 January1948-June 1948 July 1948-Deoemberl948 January 1949-June 1949 583 528 725 819 97 106 206 1 145 326 326 383 578 95 101 145 181 188 199 171 257 43 26 67 35 37 56 43 125 59 80 59 T O T A L 2655 I 554 BL607 522 815 270 171 383 a l See Appendix I I I I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the D i v i s i o n s o o i a l workers r e f e r sixty-one per oent of the veterans to other persons and agenoies f o r help with t h e i r s o c i a l problems: about one-third being r e f e r r e d elsewhere i n the Department and the remainder to private and public s o o i a l agenoies and other ooimmxnity resources available to a s s i s t them. In addition to t h i s , twelve per cent - 78 -of these discharged men and women are given servioe In oo-operation with another agenoy, that i s , a direot servioe i s given to the o l i e n t by the D i v i s i o n s o o i a l workers. As f a r as giv i n g casework servioe to these former members of the armed servioes i s concerned, i n seventy-three per cent of the oases, the servioes of other persons and agenoies are u t i l i z e d . The D i v i s i o n i s to a marked degree a " r e f e r r i n g centre* f o r veter-ans, and the s o c i a l worker larg e l y helps these c l i e n t s to be able to accept help from other sources. A small number (6$) of the ex-soldiers, s a i l o r s , and a i r -men are helped i n obtaining assistance from t r u s t funds, suoh as one of the benevolent funds. In these oases, the s o o i a l wor-ker often helps her c l i e n t to f i l l i n the neoessary application forms, or she may a s s i s t him by preparing a s o c i a l h i s t o r y or summary to aooompany these forms. In carrying out the Division*s function as a s o o i a l work agency, the remainder of the veterans have been granted an o f f i c e interview only. In these oases, many of the veterans do not require r e f e r r i n g ; they may refuse to aooept available help, or there may be no e x i s t i n g resources to serve t h e i r need. It i s also possible that the worker may have granted one Interview only, but w i l l continue to work with the discharged serviceman, perhaps to help him to accept reference to another source of assistance, or to a s s i s t him i n some other way. (e) The nature of the veterans* problems The following table shows that f o r t h i s two-year period, 4 ' July 1947 - June 1949, the t o t a l number of problems, three - 79 -thousand, seven hundred and one, exceeds the t o t a l number of veterans, two thousand and t h i r t y - s i x , ooming to the Department. That i s to say, i f each of these persons had only one problem there would be one thousand, s i x hundred and s i x t y - f i v e more pro-blems than veterans. The faot i s , of course, that any veteran may have just one or several problems. In addition, there ap-pears to be a c e r t a i n overlapping i n the various c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n s . For example, under employment i s shown a heading "un-employment of the head of the family a f f e c t i n g family r e l a t i o n -ships". Could t h i s also be considered as a "Family Relation-ship"problem? Under " s o c i a l environment" i s "alcoholism*. Could t h i s come under *health", or could i t aff e c t family r e -lationships? Table 10. Nature of problems of the veterans assisted by the Vancouver S o o i a l Service D i v i s i o n , Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , July 1947 - June 1949 Period T o t a l Nature of Problems of Time Number of Problems Economic and Employment Family Relation-ships Health S o c i a l Environment July 1947-Deoember 1947 808 349 317 99 43 January 1948-June 1948 627 321 190 93 23 July 1948-Deoember 1948 1058 624 205 162 61 January 1949-June 1949 1214 715 225 222 52 T O T A L 3701 2009 937 576 179 According to the s t a t i s t i c s recorded, economic and employment d i f f i c u l t i e s constitute an average of f i f t y - f o u r per cent ( i n -creasing from forty-three to f i f t y - n i n e per cent) of the problems of the veterans ooming to the attention of the D i v i s i o n . Emer-gency f i n a n c i a l assistanoe, hardship because of marginal income, - 80 -and debts make up the majority of the economic problems, A few are attributable to personality factors a f f e c t i n g employa-b i l i t y . Some are persons unemployed and needing vocational counselling or t r a i n i n g . In some cases, unemployment of the head of the family a f f e c t s family r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Problems of family r e l a t i o n s h i p rank second i n importance. In proportion to the increase i n the number of former service-men coming to the D i v i s i o n and i n proportion to t h e i r problems, those of family relationships are becoming fewer. The average of these i s about one-quarter of the t o t a l number of problems, dropping from t h i r t y - n i n e to nineteen per cent. Part of the decrease has been the fewer number of war brides coming f o r help. Another faotor may be that the ex-service personnel are becoming better established i n Canadian l i f e , or that they have found t h e i r way to other e x i s t i n g community resources. Inolud-ed i n family relationships are m a r i t a l problems (the largest group), problems a f f e c t i n g the welfare of children, desertion, non-support, and i l l e g i t i m a c y , to name a few. The remainder of the veterans* d i f f i c u l t i e s are those due to health and to s o o i a l environment. This inoludes both mental and physical health. What bearing war service may have had on health i s not indicated. Such factors as alcoholism and housing have been considered to constitute s o c i a l environment d i f f i c u l t i e s . ( f ) Summary of the d a l l y report forms These forms are meant to summarize s t a t i s t i c a l l y the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s of the worker. An interview i s a contact only wherein there has been a s i g n i f i c a n t exchange of information between the s o c i a l worker and another person, that i s , with a o l i e n t or some-- 81 one on h i s behalf. The same d e f i n i t i o n would apply to t e l e -phone c a l l s , substituting f o r the word "interview" the word "telephone". This includes both outgoing and inooming o a l l s . A v i s i t i s also considered a oontaot when there has been a s i g -n i f i c a n t interchange of information. When a number of persons are contacted on one v i s i t outside of the o f f i c e , t h i s i s r e -corded as one v i s i t and several interviews depending upon the number of people involved. A oase conference i s a meeting on behalf of a veteran, or several veterans, to review t h e i r pro-blems. I t must involve at least three d i f f e r e n t sources of help, otherwise i t would be i n the oategory of a meeting. The term " l e t t e r s " includes those written as w e l l as those received by the D i v i s i o n personnel. The figures i n the table below i n -dicate the actual work performed. Table 11. Indexes of the work done by the s o o i a l workers, Yan-couver S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n , Department of Veter-ans * A f f a i r s , July 1947 - June 1949 Period of Time Inter-views V i s i t s Telephone C a l l s Letters Meet-ings Case Confer-ences Others July 1947 Deoemberl947 733 849 605 404 23 7 0 Januaryl948-June 1948 740 307 468 260 18 13 1 July 1948-Decomber1948 1056 355 635 284 43 11 42 Januaryl949-June 1949 1454 393 845 386 67 5 0 T 0 T A L 3963 1304 2547 1334 151 36 | 43 Closer examination reveals that In these two years, the s o c i a l work s t a f f conducted three thousand nine hundred and s i x t y -three interviews: two thousand, three hundred and fift y - t w o with c l i e n t s , eight hundred and t h i r t y - e i g h t with Departmental person-ne l , and the remainder with other persons. A t o t a l of one thou-- 8 a -sand three hundred and four v i s i t s were made, eight hundred of these being to other Departmental persons, and the rest to vet-erans and other people. The low number of only ninety-eight v i s i t s to the c l i e n t s points up the fact that most of the D i v i s -i o n ^ work i s done w i t h i n the oonfines of the o f f i o e b u i l d i n g . This i s made possible to a great extent by the large number of resouroes available In the community to the veterans. On the new s t a t i s t i c a l forms issued i n September, 1949, i s included a heading " f i l e s reviewed". This applies to D i v i s i o n s o c i a l workers reviewing f i l e s on whioh the Veterans* Welfare O f f i c e r s are active, the aim being to a s s i s t them In the hand-l i n g of welfare problems with which they f i n d themselves involv-ed. In the l a s t four months of 1949, eight hundred and ninety-two of these f i l e s were reviewed, that i s , an average of two hundred and twenty-three per month by the s o o i a l servioe s t a f f of three workers. This indicates the increasing importance and recognition of the value to other Departmental s t a f f of a con-s u l t a t i o n servioe on s o c i a l work problems. I l l u s t r a t i v e Gases A few examples of cases handled by the D i v i s i o n w i l l help to give a clearer picture of what work i s actually being done. This information nas been obtained from the b r i e f summaries on the s o c i a l workers* active work cards and not from the recording on the veterans* f i l e s . The cards were chosen at random and i n the order given below. These cases are, therefore, routine random samples. Arthur A. The widow of t h i s veteran requested help i n meeting - 85 -the medical expenses of her son, a mental defective of twenty-s i x years, s t i l l on ch i l d * s pension, and suff e r i n g from a stom-ach u l c e r . The s o c i a l worker contacted the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l , Outpatients* Department, and was able to re f e r the mother and son there f o r assistance. John B. An enquiry was received from the Community Chest and Council regarding Mr. B.*s e l i g i b i l i t y f o r medical care. This veteran i s an e p i l e p t i c ; as he had servioe i n Canada only, he was not e l i g i b l e for medical care i n the Department, and no other assistanoe was available f o r him. He was, therefore, r e-ferre d f o r help to the City S o o i a l Service Department. William C. Mr. C. who i s a periodic drinker, and was out of work, came to the D i v i s i o n , having just been discharged from Oakalla Prison Farm. He wished to return home to V i c t o r i a that night, but had no money. The John Howard Society was phoned, and an arrangement made with them fo r t h i s veteran to obtain a charity rate t i c k e t . This was paid f o r through a Departmental fund, the Minor Disbursement Fund, maximum amount to any veteran - fS.OO. Frank D» Over a period of years, t h i s veteran has turned up at various s o o i a l agencies i n Vanoouver and v i c i n i t y . He i s usually destitute, and has proved to be incapable of getting along by himself. Mr. D. has been recommended fo r War Veterans* Allowance. Derek E. This veteran was referred to the D i v i s i o n from the Veterans* Land Aot Administration. He was out of work, and supporting a family of f i v e on Unemployment Insurance of #15.00 per week as w e l l as being behind on the mortgage on b i s pro-perty. Mr. E. had no job prospect, seemed a poor prospeot f o r - 84 -the Army Benevolent Fund, and was ref e r r e d for assistance to the Family Welfare Bureau the A r t i l l e r y Fund. Gerald F. The daughter of a veteran*s widow, Mrs. F., oame i n to endeavour to obtain assistance f o r her mother, having been referred to the D i v i s i o n by Shaughnessy H o s p i t a l . Application forms f o r War Veterans* Allowance were given to her and an in t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s kind of assistance. Boland G. This veteran was sentenced to twenty days i n ,1ail on a charge of assault. Mr. G. had not been supporting h i s family, whose income was supplied from four boarders i n the home. Mrs. G., h i s wife, had been to Family Court and wished to obtain a divoroe from her husband. Her object i n coming to the D i v i s i o n was to obtain information from her husband*s f i l e to obtain a divoroe. The record showed that the husband was a psychopath. However, as givi n g f o r t h t h i s information to the wife was not f e l t to be " i n the interest of the veteran", t h i s material was withheld from her. S t a f f T r a i n i n g , and Teaching The object of a s t a f f t r a i n i n g and teaching program i s to create an awareness of s o c i a l problems among the other Depart-mental personnel working with veterans. This i s accomplished l a r g e l y through the medium of a consultation service. The Vancouver S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n i s espe c i a l l y fortunate i n having a trained s o c i a l worker as the Assistant Superintendent of Veterans* Welfare Services. The Superintendent of Veterans* Welfare Services, though not a trained s o c i a l worker himself, has nevertheless been active i n welfare a c t i v i t i e s i n the commun-- 85 i t y f o r several years and has participated, as requested, i n the work of the Community Chest and Counoil of Greater Van-4 oouver. This means that the s o c i a l workers of the Divisions being responsible to the Superintendent of Veterans 1 Welfare Services f o r the performance of t h e i r duties, have an advantage over s o o i a l workers i n other D i s t r i c t s i n having persons as t h e i r administrative superiors who are, to some extent, f a m i l i a r with s o c i a l work praotioes. In May, 1949, a War Veterans' Allowance Fund was e s t a b l i s h -ed. This fund gives supplementary monetary assistance designed to help r e c i p i e n t s of the War Veterans' Allowance who f o r some reason are i n d i s t r e s s and are having d i f f i c u l t y i n managing f i n a n c i a l l y . In the summer and f a l l of 1948, many veteran groups agitated f o r an increase i n the War Veterans' Allowance. Research surveys i n whioh the s o c i a l workers pa r t i c i p a t e d were conducted i n December 1948 and In February 1949. Many of the re c i p i e n t s of the War Veterans' Allowance were interviewed and were helped In f i l l i n g i n required questionnaires. As a r e s u l t of the Division's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s research, many of these veterans were given a "follow up" service, and many references • 4 were made to community resources. The proposed increase, however, was not granted but, as a r e s u l t of the survey conducted, the above-mentioned assistance fund was created. Applicants for t h i s fund must submit reasons why they need help and t h i s i n -formation i s summarized on a Departmental form provided f o r the purpose. The Veterans' Welfare Offioers usually do these i n -» 4 » v e s t i g a t i o n s , although, i n some instances, the s o c i a l workers 4 * may. I t i s Interesting to note that, f o r the f i r s t time, space - 86 -i s d e f i n i t e l y reserved on a Departmental form f o r the comments of the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n , Ho a p p l i c a t i o n i s passed with-out t h e i r remarks, whioh are actually i n the nature of a recom-mendation f o r or against additional assistance to the veteran. T h i s provides an opportunity f o r interpretative work with the Veterans• Welfare O f f i c e r s . Another excellent medium f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s o c i a l aspects of various problems has presented i t s e l f to the s o c i a l workers i n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the various boards . and oommittees of the Department. This includes various r e -view boards and committees, suoh as, the Army Interim Benevo-lent Fund Committee, whioh was active before the permanent es-tablishment of the Army Benevolent Fund Board. This teaohing opportunity works both ways, that i s , one also learns as one teaohes. The s o o i a l workers are i n a se t t i n g where the primary focus i s not s o c i a l work as they know i t ; on the other hand, they are able to widen t h e i r own and others knowledge by t h e i r own active p a r t i c i p a t i o n on Departmental boards, committees, and i n conversations with i n d i v i d u a l s . The s o o i a l worker i n educating others on s o c i a l work concepts must also, i n t h i s s e t t i n g , be able to show he r s e l f as a good professional person* f i r s t , i n aocepting her agency policy and i t s rules and regula-t i o n s ; second, i n accepting her fellow workers, and i n s t r i v i n g to be aooepted h e r s e l f . As she i s able to prove the value of s o c i a l work by performance, she i s laying the groundwork fo r a more comprehensive t r a i n i n g and teaohing program^ Chapter 6 SOCIAL WORK IK THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS' AFFAIRS S o o i a l Work i n a Complex Department Sooi a l work i n a Dominion government department finds i t -s e l f i n somewhat unfamiliar surroundings. The Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s i s a complex i n s t i t u t i o n ; the s o o i a l worker i s i n close association with people i n other professions and with persons muoh longer established i n veterans* administration than h e r s e l f ; to a l l personnel, however, the oentral figure i s the veteran, and the service offered i s that of helping him. The s o c i a l worker must not only know the concepts and practices of her own profession, but must have a knowledge and understanding of the area i n whioh she i s working. In order to be able to bring the veteran Into e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Department and the community, i t i s necessary f i r s t of a l l that the s o c i a l worker be able to f i t into the agency set t i n g and to work with i t s personnel. She must acquaint he r s e l f with the rule s and regulations governing the whole Department as well as her own D i v i s i o n . There are many l e g a l problems connected with the Department with whioh she must have some f a m i l i a r i t y . I f s o c i a l work i s to be able to help the veteran to u t i l i z e more advantageously the benefits which are available to himwith-i n the agenoy, the s o c i a l worker must have at l e a s t a nodding ac-quaintance with e x i s t i n g servioes. The work of the Department i s geared to changing needs, and has to change with these. This means that as w e l l as being aware of new procedures i n the Soc-i a l Service D i v i s i o n , the worker must constantly keep abreast of - 88 current procedures and developments i n other branches and div-i s i o n s . For example, i f a change i s made i n the amount of allowance given under the War Veterans* Allowanoe Aot, i t i s important that the s o c i a l worker should know t h i s so that, when the need a r i s e s , she has the correct information. P o s i t i o n of the D i v i s i o n i n the Department Whioh i s the proper Departmental Branch i n which the D i v i -s i on should be established? This has been a recurrent problem. It s gradual development has been characterized by the emergence of two separate s o c i a l work groups: medioal s o c i a l workers wit h i n the veteran hospitals and serving the Treatment Branch; s o c i a l workers i n the Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n and doing work i n the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branch; and the separation of the Investiga-t o r s from both groups. The D i v i s i o n personnel encourage outside agencies to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the ex-service man's problems as early as possible; on the other hand, the medical s o o i a l workers give a servioe which cannot be supplied by a oommunity agency. The D i v i s i o n has been s h i f t e d baok and f o r t h between the Veter-ans* Welfare Services or R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branch, and the General Administration Branch. The reason f o r the D i v i s i o n being placed within the Administration Branch may have been to give the Sup-er v i s o r of the D i v i s i o n more freedom while the medical s o c i a l workers s t i l l oame under her authority. In e f f e c t i n g the work of the D i v i s i o n concerning medioal s o c i a l work, i t would not, therefore, be neoessary for the l i n e of authority to pass f i r s t through the Veterans' Welfare Servioes Branch when the matter - 89 was s o l e l y the concern of the Treatment Branch. With the se-gregation of the D i v i s i o n s o o i a l workers from the medioal ones, the D i v i s i o n has become established within the Veterans* Wel-fare Services Branch, and s o o i a l work i s now considered as another veterans* welfare service. O f f i c e Arrangements In the. o f f i c e arrangements of the D i v i s i o n , there are v a r i -ous problems, such as, obtaining adequate c l e r i c a l help, t e l e -phone communications, transportation f a c i l i t i e s , and s u f f i c i e n t and permanent o f f i c e quarters. The s o c i a l worker i s often shar-ing c l e r i c a l help or telephones with other personnel. When car transportation i s required, i t i s usually necessary to make out a r e q u i s i t i o n form requesting a oar f o r a c e r t a i n time and date. As these oars are serviced by a Department ohauffeur and used by various Department s t a f f , i n the event of an emergency t h i s may mean that no car i s available, or that outside transportation must be u t i l i z e d , thus creating additional expenditure. Quite frequently the D i v i s i o n has been moved from one set of o f f i c e s to another, creating i n the minds of the veterans and o f f i c e s t a f f a c e r t a i n confusion. This i s detrimental to the prestige of the D i v i s i o n as w e l l as being wasteful of time. H i r i n g Personnel In h i r i n g s o c i a l workers, the Department has been quite r i g i d i n specifying professional q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The C i v i l Servioe preference given to veterans seeking employment within the agenoy has made t h i s neoessary, the aim being to maintain high professional standards. Because of the s c a r c i t y of s o o i a l workers, residence r e s t r i c t i o n s of prospective workers have f r e -- 9 0 -quently been waived. One d i f f i c u l t y i n h i r i n g workers has been that, following the Dominion competitions for s o o i a l workers, on occasion the r e s u l t i n g appointments have not been forthcoming from Ottawa u n t i l a period of three months or more has elapsed. The positions not being assured, s o c i a l workers have sought em-ployment elsewhere while awaiting r e s u l t s of these examinations and, i n the f i n a l outcome, have not been available f o r appoint-ment. Measures to overoome t h i s deplorable s i t u a t i o n have been undertaken, and a more s a t i s f a c t o r y method of h i r i n g workers at the l o c a l l e v e l has been sought. To some extent, the d i f f i -c u l t y has been overoome by the creation of temporary appoint-ments pending permanent ones. S o c i a l Work - A Mew Profession In t h i s Department, the s o o i a l worker has close contact with persons from other professions, f o r example, physicians, surgeons, lawyers, and den t i s t s . She must have some knowledge of the concepts of these professions. Compared with these, soc-i a l work i s a newcomer. The written rules and regulations have acknowledged i t as a profession but, to a oertain extent, s o o i a l work has to prove i t s e l f i n achieving acceptance within t h i s s e t t i n g . I t i s a question of demonstration by performance as much as anything e l s e . T his i s not a measurable thing that can be quoted i n s t a t i s t i c a l t a b les, but i s rather a slow matter of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I t depends greatly on community understand-ing of s o o i a l problems and human behaviour and the consequent understanding the s t a f f of the Department has of the work being done • - 91 -Because of the Division's newness i n t h i s s e t t i n g , d i f f i -c u l t i e s occasionally a r i s e . Many of the persons to whom the s o o i a l worker may act as a consultant have been i n the Depart-ment muoh longer than she has; a few have been trained i n veterans* administration since the beginning of the veterans* program i n the F i r s t World War. Some of the personnelmay s t i l l regard s o o i a l work as an i n t r u s i o n Upon t h e i r own area of work and be unable to see a value i n such a program. I t i s muoh easier to understand the functions of the l e g a l or medical pro-fessions, as t h e i r content i s - seemingly - more d e f i n i t e than that of s o c i a l work, and the goals of these professions are easier at f i r s t to understand. Sharing Gases with Other Departmental S t a f f In the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , the s o c i a l worker i s very often sharing her c l i e n t with someone e l s e . Roughly f o r t y to f i f t y per oent of the cases handled by the So o i a l Ser-vice D i v i s i o n have been referred to the D i v i s i o n from other branches and di v i s i o n s of the Department. The nature of the previous contact the c l i e n t has had with Departmental personnel may have an influence on the r e l a t i o n s h i p which the worker i s able to es t a b l i s h with the c l i e n t . In some instances, a member of another d i v i s i o n continues to handle a ce r t a i n oase and the s o o i a l worker may hold an interview simply f o r diagnostic pur-poses. She has to be able to oope with the problems of i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p which may a r i s e . Most of the personnel of the Department are men, whereas the s o o i a l workers are usually women. 98-The veteran may have seen several d i f f e r e n t people and have been to several d i f f e r e n t branches. The s o c i a l worker may help to unify the various steps and to make them seem more constructive. Some c l i e n t s may f e e l that they are being "pushed around" as they were i n the army or other servioes. The s o o i a l worker may help the veteran by showing him that she i s able to understand h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s and at the same time help him to see the necessity f o r c e r t a i n regulations and rules of the Department. Is the Department too Authoritarian? One basic p r i n o i p l e of s o c i a l work i s that people should be allowed to make and to aot upon t h e i r own decisions, the s o c i a l worker often helping them to be emotionally able to do t h i s . Is t h i s p r i n o i p l e oontradicted by the Department? A somewhat authoritative a i r pervades the veterans* agency. In part, t h i s may be a psychological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a t t r i b u t e d to the agenoy by the ex-servioe personnel. However, the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s has arisen out of a m i l i t a r y program or se t t i n g ; a large percentage of i t s personnel are ex-service mem-bers of the three armed forces; and there has been to a oertain extent an i n f i l t r a t i o n of the authoritative attitude of giving and taking orders which characterizes m i l i t a r y l i f e . Neverthe-les s one of the goals of the Department i s that the veteran should see himself as a c i v i l i a n and not as a veteran. Since many of the s t a f f are ex-servioe personnel, Is there a tendency f o r them, to form themselves unconsciously into a speoial category, - 9 3 a veteran group; do they see themselves as c i v i l i a n s ; do they make a distinction between the former commissioned and non-commissioned servioemen, that i s , between offioers and those i n the ranks? The sooial worker must endeavour to understand what i s the discharged man or woman's reaction to the Depart-ment, and how this affects her relation and that of the Depart-mental personnel to the persons seeking servioe. What has m i l i -tary servioe meant to the individual? Does he come to the agency expecting to be told what to do? Does he come submissive-ly or defiantly? Does he feel that the country owes him a living? Many of the veterans f e e l differently about coming to the Department for help as compared with going to a oommunity sooial agenoy. They tend to regard the services given by the Dominion government as a kind of sooial insurance; because the veteran has endured special risks, he i s entitled to special privileges. This i s especially notioeable i n the case of veter-ans who have received the War Veterans* Allowance for a period of five , six, or perhaps nine or ten years, and having reached the age of seventy years are then eligible for the Old Age Pen-sion. Even though they reoeive less i n many instances while they remain on the War Veterans' Allowance than they would i f they reoeived the Old Age Pension, they prefer to accept the War Veterans* Allowance. Most of them feel that they have a claim to this, that they have earned i t . By contrast, they re-gard the Old Age Pension as charity. To many, i t i s a matter of pride, of self-respeot, avoiding the admittance of failure. 94 -This i s not an i s o l a t e d example. Many veterans come to the Department not seeking s o c i a l service but & r other reasons. The service which they request may not be available to them, or i t may be made more e f f e c t i v e i f consideration i s given to the s o c i a l implications i n the oase. The ex-serviceman may not be able to understand the value of s o c i a l work i n h i s present s i t u a t i o n , nor may he be able to see how i t can help him to ac-hieve h i s ultimate goal. I f a reference to another agenoy seems desirable, i t may be very d i f f i c u l t f o r him to accept t h i s , and often a great deal of in t e r p r e t a t i o n of the agency to which a referenoe i s to be made i s required on the part of the s o o i a l worker before the veteran understands the contribution which s o o i a l work oan make to him. In many eases, the person seeking servioe of the Department does not f e e l that he i s asking a s s i s t -ance of a s o c i a l agenoy, and the s o c i a l worker must be able to help him to accept the idea of going to a s o o i a l agenoy before an e f f e c t i v e reference can be made. This i s important from three viewpoints: that of the veteran, that of the Department, and that of the agency from which the veteran w i l l be seeking s e r v i c e . The s o c i a l worker must help her c l i e n t to make use of the e x i s t i n g servioes which w i l l be of help to him with h i s own p a r t i c u l a r problems. Understanding Community Resources The s o o i a l worker must have a thorough knowledge and under-standing of community resources. The development of outside resouroes i n eaoh d i s t r i o t i s an important faotor and w i l l i n -- 9 5 -fluenoe greatly the nature of the work done by eaoh D i v i s i o n . The stage of development of the community Inoludes many things. Have the people an awareness of s o o i a l problems and an a b i l i t y to help the veteran and hi s family? Is the community a r i c h one or a poor one with a great economic need? What concept of function do the e x i s t i n g agencies have; i s t h e i r v i s i o n broad or narrow? Are they w i l l i n g to accept references from Depart-mental s t a f f ? The s o c i a l worker serving the veteran i s a mem-ber of a team not only i n her own agency but i n the whole dis-t r i c t which her agency serves. She- must work with others not only i n d a i l y oontaot, but i n planning f o r the future. To some degree, the Department may divert or i s o l a t e the s o o i a l worker from her own profession^ She spends much e f f o r t and gives much time i n keeping up with the te c h n i c a l aspeots and developments within the Department. Although she i s doing an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e job with other personnel, they, i n turn, are constantly helping her to understand t h e i r work and t h e i r view-point. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be with doctors, with a g r i c u l -t u r a l experts, with those dealing with property complications, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n grants and benefits, with dentists, with the representatives of the National Employment Servioe usually stationed i n the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s , and a vari e t y of others. There are many mechanioal tasks whioh she must do, or which the veteran must do, suoh as, the f i l l i n g i n of numerous application forms, and other governmental "red tape". She must guard against f a l l i n g into routine habits. 96 To s o o i a l workers outside the Department, she may often seem too protective of her agency*s regulations i n not giving the s o o i a l h i s t o r y of a p a r t i c u l a r veteran. The oonfidence attaching to Departmental f i l e s applies to her D i v i s i o n as w e l l as to others. Case recording i n these f i l e s i s kept to an ab-solute adnimum. When the s o c i a l worker may seem to he with-holding information, very often l i t t l e information whioh would 4 be of any help In a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i s actually a v a i l a b l e , and i n giv i n g out medical data, she must, i n any oase, techni-c a l l y f i r s t obtain permission from the D i s t r i o t Medioal O f f i c e r . In a community where the s o c i a l work resouroes are very few or non-existent, and there i s a general laok of services to any of the members of a community, the s o c i a l worker may become d i -verted from her c e n t r a l concern, the veteran, i n endeavouring to serve him by stimulating the development of servioes for the oommunity as a whole, and i n in t e r p r e t i n g the s o o i a l work pro-gram to interested c i t i z e n s . The question also arises of whether the Department should not make more publio the work that the D i v i s i o n i s doing. Many of the workers i n outside agencies have a very vague idea of the work done by the D i v i s i o n , and t h i s Work could perhaps be more e f f e c t i v e i f there were more awareness of i t s objectives. The reason f o r t h i s may pa r t l y be that casework i t s e l f i s on an experimental basis within the walls of the Department, and pert-l y a hesitancy on the part of a governmental agenoy to open i t -s e l f to c r i t i c i s m . 97 -S o o i a l Work S t i l l Experimental The s o o i a l work program i n the Department i s under con-stant study that i t may best serve i t s place and purpose i n the administration. Much of the work done has been experimen-t a l , and w i l l continue to be even when the Division's p o s i t i o n i s f i n a l l y o l a r i f i e d . As new l e g i s l a t i o n f o r veterans i s en-acted, and as present servioes are revised, or new ones i n t r o -duced, the polioy of the D i v i s i o n and of the Department i s one of s u f f i c i e n t f l e x i b i l i t y to oope with new situations and, i f desirable, to a l t e r t h e i r functions to serve better -the vet-eran group. Since s o c i a l work at the Dominion l e v e l i s s t i l l i n more or l e s s experimental stages, what happens i n the veterans' pro-gram may w e l l be taken as a guide f o r future developments i n governmental departments. In planning f o r the Canadian people as a whole, many p i t f a l l s , suoh as placing the servioe ino6rrect-l y i n the organizational struoture, may be avoided and many lessons learned. Others concern the reaction of private and p r o v i n c i a l welfare agencies to the program and the co-operation achieved with them; the f e e l i n g of the public towards government welfare service; whether a government service best f i l l s the need; and many others. On the other hand, servioes f o r veterans 4 4 w i l l always, i t seems, be of a more s p e c i a l i z e d and elaborate character than those planned f o r the public at large. Both f o r 4 i t s s p e o i a l reasons and i t s more general implications, however, the work of the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n i s an important source 98 -of precedent and experience f o r any future welfare planning on a Dominion-wide b a s i s . APPENDICES APPENDICES Appendix I Appendix I I Appendix I I I Sooial Service D i v i s i o n Monthly S t a t i s t i c a l Report Form used by the Vanoouver Soo i a l Service D i v i s i o n from June 1947 to August 1949, Inclusive. S o o i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n Monthly S t a t i s t i c a l Report Form used by the Vancouver Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n from September 1949 to the present time. L i s t of some of the persons and agenoies outside of the Department other than ac-credited s o c i a l agencies to which references have been made by the Vanoouver Sooial Ser-vice D i v i s i o n . APPENDIX I SOCIAL WORKERS MONTHLY REPORT DISTRICT MONTH SOCIAL WORKER, •. 1. Case Count A, Carried Over Transferred In ; Less Transferred Out B. New Transferred In Less Transferred Out C. Re-opened Transferred In Less Transferred Out D. T o t a l Case Load f o r Month E. Cases Closed F. Balanoe Carried Forward 3. Family Status Branch of Servioe World War Single Navy I Married Army I I Widowed A i r Force.; Others Separated A l l i e d Divorced Forces Deceased 3. Summary of Daily Report Forms A, Interviews B. V/isits , Clien t s C l i e n t s D.V.A. D.V.A. Others Others C. Telephone F. Case Conferences. D. Letters G. Others E. Meetings ( i i ) SOCIAL WORKERS MONTHLY REPORT (oontinued) 4. Problems A. Boonomic a. Emergency Assistance Required b. Marginal Income o. Problems of Budget-ing and Home Man-agement d. Debt e. Other B. Employment a. Persons needing Vocational Coun-s e l l i n g or Training b. Personality Fao-tors a f f e c t i n g Employability c. Unemployment of Head of Family affeotlng Family Relationships d. Other C. Family Relationships a. M a r i t a l b. Affeoting wel-fare of children \ o. Desertion d. Non-support e. Il l e g i t i m a c y f . War-Brides ] g. Other D. Health a. Mental b. Physioal B . S o o i a l & Environmental a. Housing b. Alcoholism o. I n a b i l i t y to f i n d or use Educational or Recreation-a l F a c i l i t i e s d. Other 5 . Servioes Rendered A. Cases requiring: a. Reference to other Section of So o i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n b. R e f e r r a l to other Branoh ot D i v i s i o n and/or section of Department o. R e f e r r a l to Private Sooial Agenoy d. R e f e r r a l to Public Departments 1. Municipal 3. P r o v i n c i a l 3 . Federal e* R e f e r r a l to Others (specify) B. Office Interview Only C. Assistance from Trust Funds D. Cases where a servioe other than R e f e r r a l i s given i n Planned Cooperation with Another Agenoy ( I i i ) SOCIAL WORKERS MONTHLY REPORT (continued) 6. Source of Cases Received during Month A; Personal applications (interview, l e t t e r ) B. Member of veteran's immediate family..... C. Private Sooial Agencies • (a) (b) (o) D. Publio Departments. a. Municipal b. P r o v i n c i a l o. Federal E. Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s . . . _ a. Other Seations of S o c i a l Servioe D i v i s i o n 1. Investigation Section 2. Medioal and Ps y c h i a t r i c Section b. Treatment Branch.. 1. zzzz 3. o. Administration 1. 2. d. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branch 1. 2. 3. 4. — — e. D i s t r i c t Legal Services f . D i s t r i c t Padre g. Canadian Pension Commission h. War Veterans Allowances.... i . Head Of f i c e and Other D i s t r i c t s APPENDIX I I SOCIAL WORKERS MONTHLY REPORT DISTRICT, MONTH..., Case Count A. Brought Forward. B. New C. Re-opened D. T o t a l Case Load for Month...... E. Cases Closed.... F. Carried Over.*., 3. Problems A. Economic...... _ B. Family Relationships. C. Personality.......... D. Employment........... E. Health...... F. Housing........ G. Transienoy.. H. Alcoholism I . Legal J . Imprisonment K. Other..... Tvues of Services Rendered A. Consultation....... B. Interviews.. C. Refer r a l s to: a. Other div.D.V.A.. b. Private Sooial Agencies......... c. Publio Services.. d. Veterans Services •• e .Others • T o t a l D. Correspondence only E. V i s i t s F. Planned Co-opera-t i o n _ G. Case Conference.... H. Administration 4„ smiTGe of Cases — — New Re-ouened A. Other Div-i s i o n s of D .V .A • • •_ B. Private S o o i a l Agenoies.. •_ • • •__ C. Pu b l i c Ser-vices •.... • * • _.„ D. Veterans Services • • • • • • E. Veterans and/or Dependents • . • F. Other • • • T o t a l . . . . . . . • • • •_ Grand T o t a l ( i i ) SOCIAL WORKERS MONTHLY REPORT (continued) 5. Summary of Daily Forms A. Interviews Of f i c e Telephone T o t a l C l i e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . Others. _____ B. V i s i t s C. Outgoing Letter?, Memos, and Case Reports.... D. Attendance at Meetings E. Leotures and Discussions Conducted F. F i l e s Reviewed G. Case Conferences H. Supervision Conferences I . Mileage &. Any form of survey, speoial study, researoh.or experimental casework undertaken by the S.S.D. under Departmental author-i t y should be desoribed In the Progress Report or speoial report attached. See Clause 38 and 53 of Chapter I I I , Section 13. Regulations and Instructions. Date...... Supervisor, S.S.D APPENDIX I I I Persons and Agencies outside the Department other than Accredited Sooial Agencies to which Referrals made by the Vancouver Soo i a l Service D i v i s i o n Agencies Army Benevolent Fund Banks B r i t i s h Columbia Canteen ' Fund Canadian Legion Canadian Red Cross Central Mortgage & Housins Corporation Christmas Cheer Fund C i t i z e n s * R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Council Dominion-Provincial Youth Traini n g Employment Agency F i r s t United Church Wel-fare Hearing Aid Company Housing Agenoy Hos p i t a l Insurance Assoc-i a t i o n Imperial Order Daughters of Empire Persons John Howard Society Loggers' Association National Employment Service Poppy Day Fund Registered Nurses Associa-t i o n Rental Agenoies R e t a i l Credit,Grantors Returned Sold i e r s ' Club Royal Canadian A i r Force Benevolent Fund Royal Canadian Mounted Police Royal Canadian Naval Benevo-lent Fund St. John's Ambulance Associa-t i o n St. Vincent de Paul Salvage St. Vincent's Shelter Salvation Army Vi o t o r i a n Order Nurses V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s Department dentists ministers dootors optometrists employers parish p r i e s t s lawyers. p s y c h i a t r i s t s . B I B L I O S R A P H Y Speoifio References (Government Documents - Canada) Department of Immigration and Colonization, Annual Report,  1952-1956f Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1933-1937. Department of M i l i t i a and Defence, Report of the M i l i t a r y Hos- p i t a l s Commission, May 1917. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1917. Department of Mines and Resources, Annual Report. 1937-1944, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1938-1945. Department of Pensions and National Health, Annual Report,1928- 1944, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1929-1944. Department of Pensions and National Health, Report of the  Veterans* Assistance Commission, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1937. Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment, Annual Report,  1919-1927, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1920-1928. Department of Soldiers* C i v i l Re-establishment, Canada's Work  for Disabled So l d i e r s , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1919. Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment, The Care and  Employment of the Tuberculous Ex-Serviceman a f t e r Discharge  from the Sanatorium. B.T.S.C., Co n f i d e n t i a l Report No. 6,  1.18.20, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1921. Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , Annual Report. 1945-1949, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1946-1949, Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , The Veterans' Charter.Canada,  1946, A Reference Manual on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Ottawa. King's P r i n t e r , 1947. Sol d i e r Settlement Board, Annual Report. 1921-1951. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1921-1932. (Books, Pamphlets, and Other Sources) Canada, Department of National Defence, Royal Canadian A i r Force Benevolent Fund, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , ho date, pamphlet. Canada, Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s , Regulations and In- str u c t i o n s , Ottawa, mimeographed. B I B L I O G R A P H Y (continued) Speoifio References (continued) Canada, Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s , The Veterans' Land  Aot 1942, A Summary of i t s Aims, Scope, and Main D e t a i l s . Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1944, Handbook No. 1. Canada, Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s : c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s ,  S o c i a l Service Memos, mimeographed; s t a t i s t i c a l reports, manuscript. Canada, prepared by an Interdepartmental Committee, Handbook  on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1945. Canada, Wartime Information Board, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Information Committee, Vocational Training on Civvy Street. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , no date, pamphlet. Segsworth, Walter E., Retraining Canada's Disabled So l d i e r s . Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1920. General References England, Robert, Discharged: A Commentary on C i v i l Re-estab- lishment of Veterans i n Canada. Toronto, Maomillan Company of Canada Limited, 1943. England, Robert, Canadian Re-establishment Benefits for Veter-ans, Toronto, Maomillan Company of Canada Limited, 1944. Menninger, K a r l , "The Veteran'- and Don't Forget", Survey  Graphic. v o l . 37 (July, 1948), pp. 333-337. Pra t t , George K., Soldier to C i v i l i a n : Problems of Readjustment. New York and London, Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Incorporated, 1944. Rogers, C a r l R. and Walien, John L., Counseling with Returned  Servicemen, New York and London, MoGraw-Hill Bood Company, Inoor-porated, 1946. Stanford, Margaret, "Sooial Servioe D i v i s i o n - , Department of Vet-erans* A f f a i r s " , B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare, v o l . 5 (February 1949 J, pp. 7-8. 

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