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Community organization process in a recreation survey : a study in the city of Bellingham, Washington Bunn, John Arthur 1951

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3 8 C C C0IEIU1TITY ORGANIZATION PROCESS IK A H2CICA7T017 SURVEY A study conducted i n the c i t y of Bellingham, Washington JOHN" ARTHUR BUI® T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER Of SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work 1 9 5 1 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT As w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s expand i n d e v e l o p i n g communities, the p r o v i s i o n of a t t r a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s "becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t . Such, p r o v i s i o n of l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s i s h i g h l y dependent on a community's a b i l i t y , i n t e r e s t , and p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s i n the a r e a of r e c r e a t i o n . A s u r v e y i s a v a l u a b l e means whereby c o n d i t i o n s i n a community can "be s t u d i e d and e v a l u a t e d , t o the end t h a t s t e p s can "be t a k e n t o implement a p p r o p r i a t e recommendations. T h i s t h e s i s i s a r e v i e w of some of the s i g n i f i c a n t c o n d i t i o n s i n f l u e n c i n g the p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n B e l l i n g h a m , and of the approach t a k e n t o "bring about an e f f e c t i v e community programme of l e i s u r e - t i m e s e r v i c e s i n the c i t y . The s u r v e y "approach" c o n s i s t e d of e lements of f o u r m a in methods t h a t were suggested "by s u r vey committee members d u r i n g the s t u d y . As the survey p r o g r e s s e d , and the members' u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i t i n c r e a s e d , the s t u d y p a s s e d t h r o u g h f o u r phases of development. These phases, or s t a g e s were r e l a t e d to the p r o g r e s s of the s t u d y and the development of the C e n t r a l Survey Committee. Community o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l group work methods were u s e d to some advantage; t h e i r use a s s i s t e d w i t h the e v o l v i n g of "a good r e p o r t and c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n " t h a t were r e q u i r e d . Most of the m a t e r i a l f o r the t h e s i s was g a t h e r e d by the w r i t e r , d u r i n g a second y e a r f i e l d work placement f r o m the S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia. A l t h o u g h r e c r e a t i o n i s one type of s e r v i c e , i t needs t o be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o o t h e r k i n d s of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s e x i s t i n g i n communities. To see how r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f i t i n , t o v i e w the p a r t s t h a t l e i s u r e - t i m e a g e n c i e s p l a y i n the t o t a l p i c t u r e , or t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the community's programme of r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , present's a c h a l l e n g e t o any c i t y . T h i n k i n g on a community l e v e l r e q u i r e s i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l m a t u r i t y of a h i g h degree. How t h i s o c c u r r e d i n B e l l i n g h a m , i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s account of the B e l l i n g h a m R e c r e a t i o n a l Survey, can be u sed t o h e l p c l a r i f y the "community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s " t h a t o f t e n seems t o be r e f e r r e d t o v a g u e l y . As an example of a community s t u d y , i t can be of r e f e r e n c e v a l u e . The writer wishes to express sincere appreciation to those citizens in Bellingham who assisted with the survey, and who wi l l ing ly provided information and material for the thesis. " For the timely assistance and encouragement given, the writer also i s very grateful to Dr. Leonard C. Marsh, and Kiss Elizaheth Thomas, Associate Professors in the School of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages Chapter I. The Survey: A Community Organization 1-16 Challenge The need for a community recreation programme. Organiza/tion in recreation. Reasons for the Bellingham study. The survey defined; the scope of the study and the methods involved. Community organization and social group work methods. Chapter II. The Bellingham Setting 17-46 "Where the survey occurred; Bellingham's geographical features, and population. The effect of geography on recreation. The effect of population on recreation. Industry in the c i ty . •Bellingham's recreational services; age groups served, areas of service, juvenile problems, f inancial support for agencies, and agency functions. The recreation problems become intensif ied. Chapter I ' l l . The Origins of the Survey 47-62 The recognized need for a survey. Act iv i ty in the Bellingham Recreation Commission, and the Community Chest and Council. Preparation of a base for the study. Motivations and resistances for the forthcoming survey. The survey as a challenge to the community. Chapter IV. The Process of Accomplishment 63-81 Committee participation in the survey. Attendance at meetings, and individual contacts made by the social workers. The members' backgrounds and effects on the project. Survey Methods employed; Committees for (a) Objectives, (b) Techniques, and (c) Publ ic i ty . Functional committees reviewed; . (a) Background, . (b) Neighbourhood, (c) F a c i l i t i e s , (d) Programme, (e) Leadership, (f) Administration and Co-ordination and (g) Finance. Four methods considered by the Central Steering Committee; (1) University of B r i t i s h Columbia method, (2) Techniques Committee method, (3) Job Analysis Committee method, and (4}! Central,.Steering. Committee method. \ Pages Chapter V. The Stages of Development 82-94 Phases through which the Survey Central Steering Committee passed and the workers' roles; {1} Preliminary stage, (2) "Sink-or-Sv/im" stage, (3] Intellectual-acceptance stage, and (4J Intellectual-emotional stage. Survey methods and stages of development. Chapter VI . The Significance of the Survey 95-107 The survey summarized; reference to stages of development. Conclusions drawn; (l) Heed for meaningful c i t izen participation in a survey project, (2) Participation i s dependent on ci t izens ' ah i l i ty and opportunity to jo in in community affairs , (3) A survey as a means of part icipation, (4) Group work concepts in a survey, (5) Outside assistance i s "beneficial in a study, (6) A community survey evolves, and (7) Survey values. APPE1IDICSS: 108-123 A« Bellingham Recreation Survey - - Prospectus B. Report of the Committee on Techniques 1. Over-all Approaches 2. Specific Techniques C. Newspaper E d i t o r i a l Juvenile Pro*blem—'What i s i t? D. Newspaper Art ic le Bellingham Recreational Survey E . Over-all Organizational Plan for Conduct of the Study P. (a.) General Plan of the Survey ib\ Organization of the Survey (cj Operating Plan and Time Tahle G. (a) Committee Work and Roles of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Workers ("b) General Outline for Committees. B LBLIOGRAPHY" 124-125 TABLES AMD CHARTS III THE TEXT (a) Tables. Fags Table 1. Survey Committee Attendance, up.to 64 May 20th, 1950. Table 2. Committee Personnel and Participation 65 A. Members d irect ly concerned with Recreation Services. B. Members not direct ly concerned with Recreation Services. (b) Charts. Figure 1. Method proposed by the Social Workers 70 from the University of Br i t i sh Columbia. Figure 2. Method proposed by the Survey 75 Techniques Committee. Figure 3. Method proposed by the Survey 78 Job Analysis Committee. Figure 4. Method proposed by the Survey 80 Central Steering Committee. Figure 5. Duration of Survey Methods and 93 Stages of Learning. Chapter I THE SURVEY; A COMMOHITY ORGANIZATION C1L4LLENGE Since social welf are problems rarely come singly, today's use of a combined or generic approach i s required by social workers. Issues faced by workers usually have many involved and related causes. L i k e w i s e » the prevention or treatment of the causes of social work problems depends on the timely application of various s k i l l s by trained persons. This i s especially so in urban communities. Bringing the best possible services to a c l ient , often involves the working together of specialists from several agencies and organizations. In supplying a number of appropriate sk i l led services, agency teamwork of a high order i s necessary. "Inter-agency co-operation in providing employment, health, housing, educational and recreational services, in order to strengthen family and individual l i f e , i s one of the most noticeable trends in social welfare today". 1 A broad approach by one or several agencies i s possible when some degree of organization of welfare services implying the "effective working together of social agencies" at the community level has been reached. Social welfare agencies participate in co-ordinating councils and groups, not only so that the most appropriate services might be made available to those needing them, 1 Seider, V .M.» "Overall Planning", Current Trends in Community  Organization, Publication No. 1 3 1 , Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, Canada, 1946, p. 1 3 . 2. "but also so that there w i l l he multi-agency service or more of a community effort to supplement self-help "by the family or individual . Such co-ordination i s needed at the local 2 community l eve l . It i s at this level that disorganization 3 of services often occurs. A survey which employs a method that permits cit izens and agencies in a community to come together to study the recreational needs of cit izens and services available to them, can be a means of furthering the organization of appropriate services at a community l eve l . One of the main purposes of the Bellingham Recreation Survey was to hring further organization of recreational services within the community. It concerned i t s e l f with one important part of dai ly l i f e ; leisure-time, play, pleasure, or recreation (a l l these terms being used synonomously during the survey). Its scope'covered a l l act iv i ty carried on by the cit izens that was not normally considered part of work or home-life. (Some aspects of home-life were considered in the survey, however, since many persons engaged i n act iv i t ie s at home primarily for reasons of joy or entertainment.) Both the psychological effect while recreating 2 Steiner, J .P .S . , Community Organization; A study of i t s  theory and current practice, The Century Co., H.Y. , 1925, p. 26, Educating Youth for Social Besponsibility, Community Chest and Council Inc., N .Y. , mimeographed, Jan. 1948, p. 5. , and Cutler, R., A Community Surveys Itself , reprint from the Harvard Alumni Bu l le t in , Hay 14, .1949, p. 4., "Laski has prophesied that America w i l l f i r s t go to pieces in the loca l community, not at the state or national l e v e l " . 3 B r i g h t h i l l , C .K. , "The Government and Recreation", national  Conference Social Work., 1946, The Columbia Press, II.Y . , p. 209. (e.g. , the pleasure gained while planning and making a project) , and the "end results" (e.g. , the satisfaction gained when a project has "been completed), were taken into account. That "recreation' 1 covered many miscellaneous items of act iv i ty , or act iv i ty which could not be accounted for otherwise, was revealed by answers to the questionnaires that were given to some of the cit izens in Bellingham. These questionnaires were used to discover the recreational needs and services that existed in the c i t y . Many persons interpreted recreation as any act ivi ty that they considered unnecessary or non-essential. There seemed to be a general real izat ion, however, that recreation was a need, or Ma part of l i f e , l ike love or food," . . . . " w h i c h people engaged i n for i t s own sake'*.4 After much consideration by survey committee members, a broad def init ion for working purposes, was agreed upon; I t was one which had been formulated in a recent State report: "Those ac t iv i t ie s which are diversionary in character and which promote the entertainment, pleasure, relaxation, and physical , cultural and ar t i s t i c talents of a leisure-time nature" . 5 This interpretation places emphasis on creativeness and informal education, and embodies the essentials of the dictionary def init ion (Webster*s) "to revive, refresh, and renew". 4 Recreation: A Major Community Problem, National Recreation Association, N.Y. , 1936, pp. 5, 8. 5 Reeves, B . , and James, B.W., Report of the Recreational and  Cultural Resources Survey of the State of Washington, Office of the Secretary of State, Olympia, Washington, 1946, p. 126. 4 . It i s clear from this , that recreation i s both a means and an end. Several committee members questioned the scope of their work, and, as a rule , l imi t s had to be set a rb i t rar i ly . I t was generally accepted that recreation was a personal matter and could take place in many settings. The meaning of recreation in the survey purposely was l e f t broad and inclusive, rather than restr ict ive or l imited. Many members of the survey v/ere of the opinion that recreation implied freedom to do as one wants. This view was seen as working against the systematic organization of leisure-time services. Pendell and many others have developed the point that recreation can be used either constructively or destructively, both for the individual and for society. In Bellingham, members of the survey committees f e l t that what i s often called "spectatoritis"—lack of physical or mental participation—is uncreative, and that i t could constitute a menace, especially to the individual . Provision of what v/as termed "wholesome recreation" was linked with "organized recreational ac t iv i t ie s " i n Bellingham. These ac t iv i t ie s v/ere accepted by members of the survey as being beneficial to the cit izens attending them, in that creative opportunities v/ere provided for the cit izens to express themselves (e.g. , making individual projects, athletic ac t iv i t i e s ) , to make new friends (e.g., social ac t iv i t ie s such as parties and dances), and to "practice democracy" (e.g., 6 Pendell, E . » and others, Society Under Analysis, The Jaques Cat te l l Press, Lancaster, Penn., 1942, pp. 465-6. 5. through club a c t i v i t i e s such as meetings, to share and to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) . E a r l y i n the survey, c i v i c o f f i c i a l s stated.that serious consideration should be given to the question of whether or not attempts should be made to have increased organization i n recreation i n Bellingham. They argued that i n order to provide pleasure and other s a t i s f a c t i o n s that come from the use of personal and group i n i t i a t i v e i n diverse leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s , the f i e l d of recreation had , to be "highly unorganized". In t h e i r reasoning, they referred to the early days of the Bellingham area, when l i t t l e organized recreation e x i s t e d — t h e c i v i c o f f i c i a l s themselves had belonged to natural groups or had the i r own close friends i n t h e i r l o c a l neighbourhoods, and they had enjoyed much freedom to do as they wanted. Seme i l l u s t r a t i o n s also were mentioned, which purported to prove the i l l e f f e c t s of . present-day club organization—some boys 1 groups had engaged i n a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour, and these a c t i v i t i e s had been ca r r i e d out on a basis of organization similar to that which existed i n the i r clubs ( i . e . , elected leaders influenced other boys i n a l l t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , and i t was claimed that i t would have been better i f the boys had never been attracted to the club i n the f i r s t place). I t was generally accepted by committee members, however, that only one type of a c t i v i t y of the boys* groups had been referred to, and that "gang" and i n d i v i d u a l a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour might have been of much higher incidence, without the existence of 6 . the hoys' clubs. I t was agreed that the amount of organization i n , and the direction given to hoys' groups, for example,, was dependent on such conditions as the members' personalities and the particular setting in which the groups functioned. Representative groups in the community claimed that, in order to provide opportunities for a l l persons to take part in recreation, and to provide funds to enable recreational agencies to carry out their objectives, increased organization of l e i sure-time act iv i t ies v/as needed. Recreation leaders in Bellingham v/ere of the opinion that increased organization was necessary; in expressing their views, most of them l a i d stress again on distr ibution of available finances. The purposes of the survey became clear; (a) to allow cit izens to express their widely different, and controversial views regarding recreation in Bellingham, (b) to assist co-ordinating groups to plan for total recreation needs in the community, and (c) to help the public and private agencies organize their programmes more nearly in l ine with what the cit izens indicated they wanted, needed, and what they could afford. During the early planning stages, members of the survey were helped to recognize certain recreation and social work principles , which seem to be having increased 7 recognition. Recreation i s a basic human need. As such i t 7 See, for example, Wilson, G . , and Ry land, G . , Social Group  Work Practice, The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1949, TD . 207. i s not to "be considered "dishonourable". It supplements and balances family, work, and religious interests. Recreation becomes of more importance as the average time spent at home and at work decreases, and the complexity of modern society increases. It i s needed by a l l persons regardless of age, of the d i s t r i c t in which they l i v e , of social and economic status, or other differences. The "ordinary" ci t izens, as well as those who exhibit exceptional behaviour, need avenues of expression for their interests and desires. Such opportunities are needed for both prevention and treatment of maladjustments. Recreational act iv i t ies of 'a satisfying nature help to maintain physical and mental health. In providing opportunities for recreation, recreational leaders need to consider the " tota l " person ( i . e . , the individual ' s physical , inte l lectual , and emotional development). The needs and desires of an individual often vary according to the particular level of emotional development or stage of maturity. Each person has his or her own way of recreating. General as well as specific recreational services should be available in a community. Leadership -often i s the key to the effectiveness of a recreation programme. Organized recreation i s s t i l l in the experimental stage. These principles were constantly referred to, during survey committee meetings and during discussions with individuals. As a result of requests by representatives of groups in Bellingham who were concerned with some of the above 8. pr inciples , the city-wide survey of recreational needs and services evolved. During 1949, three community leaders were formally requested, "by two co-ordinating groups to follow up negotiations with the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and to arrange a meeting of lay and professional persons. Three months later , a "Central Steering Committee" of thirty representatives i n the community, was formed. These representatives were selected on the basis of " ab i l i ty , interest, and connections". They met in October, 1949, to plan the pos s ib i l i t i e s of having a survey. Following the f i r s t Central Steering Committee meeting, a def init ion of the Bellingham Recreation Survey was formulated. It summarized the thinking and feelings expressed by the survey members. The.survey was defined and described as "A co-operative self-study through which lay and professional persons w i l l be encouraged to investigate and report leisure-time needs, resources, gaps, and duplications that exist i n Bellingham. Such study w i l l be aimed at planning and taking action, and w i l l involve the collecting and examining of facts and opinions so that appropriate general and specific recommendations may be made and followed up. This, in turn, w i l l further opportunities for a l l persons in any area or of any group or status, to obtain satisfying leisure-time experiences through integrated recreation services". While the definit ion referred to scope and method, the focus was on the goals of the survey. The same meaning of the study-was spelled out and mimeographed in the forms of a Survey 8 9 Prospectus, and an Objectives and Techniques Committee Report. 8 Ref. Appendix " A " . 9 Ref. Appendix "B" . 9. • These reports were distributed to survey committee members with the idea in mind that they would use them i n interpreting the survey to the agency or organization which they represented. The reports were issued for the purpose of helping to increase understanding of the survey by the c i t izens . Throughout the planning stages of ;the survey, concern was displayed by the committee members, regarding what the study should include, and how the subjects that were chosen should be studied. Understanding of the Bellingham Survey's content, and the method employed in i t , can be heightened by reviewing other types of surveys. One reference names four popular types of survey according to scope; 1. Programme Analysis type, with emphasis on evaluations of agency programmes, 2. Needs and Resources type, involving case finding and studies, 3. General Community Survey, with community organization and social planning talcing place, 4. Study of Inter-agency Relationships, involving both public and private social agencies. The same authority specifies five general kinds of surveys according to method employed: 1. Inventory or. Library method, wherein data i s taken from already collected sources, 2. Survey by Experts, who col lect , evaluate, and report data, 3. Process Survey, which ca l l s for wide c i t izen participation and community understanding, 4 . Self-study, without the use of outside assistance, 5. Continuous self-study, or regular self-appraisal, taking place periodical ly . 10 Social Surveys: A Guide for use in Local Planning, Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Punds, N.Y. , A p r i l , 1949, p. 1. 10. As the definit ion of the Bellingham Recreation Survey indicates, as l i s t e d above, the third type of _study according to scope, and the third kind of study according to method employed, would apply. The elements of community organization, social planning, c i t izen participation and community understanding that were involved, made the Bellingham Survey a "General Community" study, using the "Process" method. Although emphasis in the survey- placed i t in these categories, i t also seemed to he a combination of a l l the class i f icat ions. Agency programmes, for example, were analyzed by the members' of one sub-committee, and the information was presented at the Central Steering Committee meeting where a broad or multi-agency view of recreational services was studied. With the use of questionnaires and schedules, another committee focused on finding the recreational needs of the ci t izens . This involved studying individual needs through contacting what v/ere considered " typica l " cit izens in particular neighbourhoods. It was not an intensive case study; however, a picture of recreation needs and resources was aimed at, and this was to be obtained through viewing "the community's provision of recreation". This approach presented the advantage of bringing in the studying of relationships between needs and services. Objective appraisal of relationships also entered in , when i t came to determining the effectiveness of tax-supported and private recreation agencies working together in the community. Throughout the survey, two aspects were repeatedly stressed; 1 1 . the gathering of factual data, and the integrating of i t during the Central Survey Committee meetings, where a comprehensive interrelated view could "be observed. The Techniques Committee Report 1 1 l i s t s eleven specific ways that were used to gather information during the survey. This report reveals the combination of methods that were employed for the study. Generally speaking, wide c i t izen participation was encouraged constantly, for two main reasons; to ensure learning about the community by as many persons as possible, and to encourage action in following up the findings of the study. The suggested techniques were of the type to assist in the development of community understanding of recreation, which was one of the primary objectives of the survey. Citizen participation on a broad basis meant that the survey came close to being a self-study. Self-interpretation of recreation conditions in the c i ty , brought increased meaningful understanding to the survey committee members. Added objectivity and support was provided the survey committees through the participation of faculty and student members from the School of Social Work, of the . University of B r i t i s h Columbia. These members functioned interdependently according to their different specializations, but represented a "team" in the eyes of the survey personnel. They became known by several terms, including "technicians", "experts", "workers", "students" and "resource-persons". Various roles were played by the U.B.C. members; the nature 11 Ref. Appendix "B" 12. of these roles depended onthe particular situation at hand. Included in the resources provided by the members, was technical information regarding the method that might be employed. The above review of scope and method of the survey, showed that i t closely resembled one definit ion of a social survey; "a co-operative undertaking which applies scienti f ic methods to the study of current related social problems and conditions having definite geographical l imits and bearings v/ith a view to arousing public opinion to take a hand in the solution of the existing problems".-^ Co-operation in the survey was most noticeable during the meetings of the Central Steering Committee when committee chairmen freely exchanged information and ideas. In studying the conditions surrounding recreation, the survey provided a means for "people to f ind ways to give expression t o . . . . inherent desires to improve the environment in which they and their fellows must carry on their l i ve s " , ° as McMillan describes the community organization process. Participants in the survey realized that their contributions to the community study, were to help bring better organization of recreation in Bellingham. This v/as to be done by "discovering needs, services, gaps, and duplications" in recreation. As the survey progressed, 12 Young, P . V . , Scienti f ic Social Surveys and Research, Prentice-Hall Inc., 2ST.Y., 1946, p. 55. 13 McMillan, ¥ . , Community Organization for Social We If are,-University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 111., 1945,_ pp. 26-7. 1 3 . however, another phrase was substituted, and the expressed purpose became "to provide a well-balanced recreational programme" for the cit izens of Bellingham. Although the lat ter expression was considered more positive, i t seemed to be another means of avoiding responsibil ity for some of the recreation problems existing in the community. These problems centered around disorganization of services, lack of leadership, and inadequate finances. They were openly discussed towards the middle of the survey at which time the committee members had gained increased security and were emotionally freed to enter contentious areas. In the sense that these current social problems were studied with a view to improving recreational conditions i n Bellingham, the survey came within the above definitions of community organization and social surveys. In conjunction with the community organization process, the social group work method was applied in the . survey. The survey objectives, as set forth in Appendix "B", permitted the use of i t at the community l e v e l . The various methods portrayed by the organizational charts that were developed during the planning stages of the survey, showed how the group work process was brought into use. Application of i t depended on the conditions in the community that became evident, as the survey progressed. For example, some agency representatives, who were members of the Central Steering Committee, rejected having some subjects studied (e.g., agency administration, agency finances). 14. This agency "pressure" was strong enough to "control" the survey progress or l i m i t the participation of the cit izens in considering important problems. Cit izen part icipation was an essential part of the group work method that was proposed for the survey. It i s recognized that a l l social work methods involve certain principles and techniques. Among these are allowing individuals and groups to make their own plans, assisting them with their plans and act iv i t ie s , accepting their ab i l i t i e s or real iz ing their "strengths" and "l imitations" , encouraging the assumption of responsibi l i t ies with a view to eventual self-help, observing relationships which often affect attitudes and act iv i t ies , and f ac i l i t a t ing participation in act iv i t ies so that personal growth can occur. Basical ly, social work i s a helping process. How this help i s given, differentiates the three main methods. The difference often i s a matter of emphasis. With group work, assistance i s given to groups and individuals while adhering to the above pr inciples . The main function of a group worker has been described as "working with the group in helping i t s members achieve experiences that w i l l be beneficial to themselves and to society as a whole" .^ Some of the controls that operated during the survey act iv i ty , worked against maximum use of the group work method, 14 P h i l l i p s , H . U . , "Social Group Work—Afunctional Approach" The Group, V o l . 10, No. 3, American Association of Group Workers, 1T.Y., March, 1948, p. 1. 15. however. Some further examples of such resistances w i l l make this clear: Some important decisions were made outside meetings and did not have majority approval. Most of the committees that functioned were unrepresentative of the recreational agencies in Bellingham. Generally, survey committee participants gave- their personal opinions, which were frequently opposite to those of the agency or organization which they represented. The relationships between committee members were on more of a personal rather than a professional basis. Miss Maxwell states that the group work aspects of a social survey include the following: 1. Effectiveness (of the survey) i s dependent on meaningful participation in fact-finding, study, and implementation, 2. Analysis of problems and discovery of solutions i s dependent on an intensif ication of existing associations and development of new relationships, 3 . Implementation of findings i s dependent on understanding and acceptance by a l l participants, 4. Role of surveyor Includes counsel and leadership. This l i s t points up the need for meaningful c i t izen participation, or act iv i ty , feel ing, and thinking, on jthe part of members of the community involved.in the survey, normally, few projects afford opportunity for cit izens to participate on a community l eve l , and to develop understanding of social problems. 15 Maxwell, J .M. , "Group Work and Community Surveys", The Group,- V o l . .11, Ho. 4, American Association of. Group Workers, N.Y.» Summer Issue, 1949, pp. 9-17. 16o When such opportunity i s provided, a social survey of recreation, which in many respects i s highly unorganized, can have therapeutic or beneficial effects. More organization of recreation would seem desirable, especially i f i t i s to supplement other welfare services and be a part of the generic services available to meet the basic needs of cit izens in a community* A qualitative study involves c i t izen participation in i t s truest sense, and affords democratic experience in bringing better organization and co-ordination of recreation services at the community levels Chapter 11 THE BELLINGHAM SETTING Early i n the Bellingham recreation survey, i t was generally agreed that for the purpose of the study, that area lega l ly incorporated within the c i ty l imit s would be the main area of concern. As far as survey committee members were concerned, where the citizens enjoyed recreation was of secondary importance. More attention was given to the "what" and the "why" of recreation act iv i t ies in the whole c i ty and nearby areas. Yet the c i ty area was the primary focus, or main bearing for the survey. Geographical Features The c i ty of Bellingham today i s comprised of approximately twenty square miles, pract ica l ly a l l of which skirt within l £ miles of Bellingham Bay and extend over to Lake Whatcom on the east. Immediately around Bellingham i s the famous Nooksack Valley, which i s one of the largest dairy d i s t r i c t s in the West. Between 1852 and 1903, four "settlements " developed side by side in the Bay area. Today, the d i s t r i c t s surrounding the waterfront are deteriorating. The streets^radiating from the Bay, pass through mingled business and residential sections. The c i ty has grown "around the h i l l " , and generally the higher ground has been the more valuable. Population The estimated population of Greater Bellingham stands at 35,000. Population density was used in determining 18. c i t y l i m i t s and boundaries of wards and p r e e i n t s i n Bellingham. Although Bellingham shared i n the development of the northwestern S t a t e s , the increase i n the number of people l i v i n g i n the Bay d i s t r i c t was slower than i n neighbouring a r e a s — i n f a c t , between the years 1905 and 1950, there was an increase of only 13,000 persons i n Bellingham. The slow increase i n d i c a t e d l i m i t e d m o b i l i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r i l y during the f i r s t quarter of the century. Even then a l a r g e p a r t of the increase t h a t d i d occur, was a t t r i b u t e d to extension of c i t y boundaries and increa s e d i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y during war years that a t t r a c t e d working people to the area. Considering the s c a t t e r e d area that was s e t t l e d , p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n the whole r e g i o n was low. I t i s o f t e n thought the very gradual growth i n p o p u l a t i o n was one important reason f o r the h i g h degree of conservatism e x i s t i n g i n Bellingham. S t a b i l i t y of f a m i l y -l i f e i n the whole community, i s ofte n a t t r i b u t e d to t h i s gradual growth. The e f f e c t of geography on r e c r e a t i o n Considering the n a t u r a l beauty of the whole area i n which Bellingham i s l o c a t e d , i t can be s a i d t h a t the c i t y i s f a v o u r a b l y s i t u a t e d f o r the development of r e c r e a t i o n . I t i s i n an area of beauty, which i s r i c h l y endowed w i t h n a t u r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l resources. Down through the years, the c i t i z e n s made much use of these n a t u r a l 19. recreational opportunities that v/ere at hand. It i s well accepted that during a l l seasons of year, people l i v i n g in Bellingham found pleasure in such out-of-town act iv i t ie s as skiing, hiking, "boating, golfing, picnicking, swimming, berry-picking, driving, and travell ing to points outside the c i ty l imi t s . The increased mobility, communication, and suburban l iv ing in recent years made these forms of recreation even more feasible. Within Bellingham i t s e l f , many leisure-time act iv i t ies have evolved, and this can be realized by viewing the diverse recreational act iv i t ies that occur under public auspices (ref. parks and schools), and in private agencies, such as in commercial establishments, trade union f a c i l i t i e s , churches, and fraternal , veteran and service clubs. Bellingham cit izens always seemed to have made good use of, and taken pride in the beauty of their c i t y ' s natural setting; for example, "the tulip c i t y " , part of "the evergreen playground", and, more recently, "the c i ty with the ta l les t Christmas tree" have been publ ic i ty slogans describing features of the natural beauty. The effect of population on recreation Indications are that Bellingham provided recreational services for the cit izens at least up to i t s ab i l i ty to do so. With reference to public and private recreational services, i t i s claimed that Bellingham real ly served not 33,000 persons, but more l ike 60,000, since the c i ty catered to many persons l i v ing in adjacent areas to 20. Bellingham. By and l a r g e , i t was the c i t i z e n s * taxes and volunteer donations that were used to support p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s . Many out-of-town i n d i v i d u a l s and groups made use of the f a c i l i t i e s (e.g., parks and swimming pools) that are l o c a t e d i n Bellingham proper. In such i n s t a n c e s , Bellingham was s e t t i n g an example f o r other d i s t r i c t s to f o l l o w i n p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . I t i s o f t e n claimed t h a t depressed areas or neighbourhoods i n a c i t y , should be given p r i o r i t y i n a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . An outside v i s i t o r to the c i t y would be impressed by the f a c t t h a t Bellingham does not seem to have any s e r i o u s slum area at present, although the p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s . 1 A few areas are ''depressed" and a d d i t i o n a l s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s are rendered i n such l o c a l i t i e s . There are d i f f e r e n c e s i n economic standards w i t h i n the ten neighbourhoods i n Bellingham. These d i f f e r e n c e s , however, at present do not appear extreme. 3?or i n s t a n c e , new and o l d houses are to be found across the s t r e e t from one another i n a l l the neighbourhoods, "while some e f f o r t s have been made to improve r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n the areas f e l t to be i n g r e a t e s t need, recent 1 "/:• Business l e a d e r s i n Bellingham claimed that down through the years, p r o t e c t i v e measures to prevent slums developing, purposely were taken i n the c i t y . This was accomplished by v a r i o u s means, such as by keeping r e a l estate values h i g h and discouraging persons of low economic s t a t u s and f o r e i g n l i n e a g e , from t a k i n g up residence i n Bellingham. 23. attempts seem to be i n the d i r e c t i o n of p r o v i d i n g extensive f a c i l i t i e s near the center of the c i t y * which would he w i t h i n the reach of the m a j o r i t y of c i t i z e n s . The h i g h degree of m o b i l i t y of c i t i z e n s , w i t h the exception of the c h i l d ^ n , c ould be one reason f o r the more c e n t r a l i z e d programme. This type of programme might b e s t be considered as supplemental, however, since much i n the way of r e c r e a t i o n goes on near, or at home. Being more homogeneous than most c i t i e s of i t s s i z e , Bellingham has not developed any s e r i o u s r a c i a l tensions or concentrations of m i n o r i t y c o l o n i e s of r a c i a l and c u l t u r a l groups. While i t i s true that there are some groups w i t h i n the c i t y , such as those of Scandinavian ancestry, c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r many c o n t r i b u t i o n s , i t can be s a i d that they have been an asset to the c i t y . Industry Bellingham c i t i z e n s have been f o r t u n a t e i n having a comparatively h i g h r a t e of employment down through the y e a r s , and t h i s has i n c r e a s e d the a b i l i t y to provide such s e r v i c e s as r e c r e a t i o n . Again, because of geographical advantages, the c i t y ' s main i n d u s t r i e s have provided a marked degree of s t a b l e employment. Mining, lumbering, and pulp* 1 i n d u s t r i e s have been h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the h i s t o r y 2 The Puget Sound Pulp and Timber Company's m i l l i s the l a r g e s t s u l p h i t e pulp p l a n t i n America.. I t i s famous because of i t s complete u t i l i z a t i o n of waste products. I t has a paper cardboard p l a n t , an a l c o h o l u n i t and a p l a n t f o r the making of p l a s t i c products from waste m a t e r i a l s . 2 2 . of Bellingham's economy. The f i r s t two i n d u s t r i e s , hxwever, have d e c l i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y — B e l l i n g h a m , r e l a t i v e l y speaking, does not have a h i g h c o a l p r o d u c t i o n to-day, and s i m i l a r l y , the number of lumber m i l l s have d e c l i n e d from 33 w i t h i n the v i c i n i t y of the c i t y , to 1 at present. In comparison w i t h the manufacturing i n the eastern S t a t e s , t h e r e - i s l i t t l e manufacturing goes on i n Bellingham. F i s h i n g , d a i r y i n g , and the t o u r i s t trade, however, have "been of growing importance. Important f a c t o r s c o n s t a n t l y a f f e c t the i n d u s t r i a l development of the whole area i n which Bellingham i s s i t u a t e d . Despite the geographical advantages, there i s a shortage of e l e c t r i c a l power. F u r t h e r , there i s a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem; Bellingham has no n a t u r a l p o r t o u t l e t and a d i f f e r e n t i a l f r e i g h t r a t e a p p l i e s on the r a i l w a y s s erving the c i t y . Bellingham i s i n the p o s i t i o n of being i n a "bedroom" d i s t r i c t to the p a r e n t a l c i t y of S e a t t l e . A l l these phenomena,figure i n the economic development of the c i t y , and t h i s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s the support of b a s i c welfare s e r v i c e s such as r e c r e a t i o n . The geographical s e t t i n g i n which Bellingham was l o c a t e d , presented many advantages and some disadvantages to the development of r e c r e a t i o n . The t e r r a i n of the l a n d and the moderate climate made i t p o s s i b l e f o r a l l persons, who would, to enjoy t h e i r l e i s u r e - h o u r s . With the merging of the f o u r settlements and the gradual growth of the c i t y , 23. however, some d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s of suburban-life appeared, such as crowded housing, which made necessary the development of t e c h n i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the c i t y . This was p o s s i b l e when l o y a l t y and support of the c i t i z e n s became more concentrated and there was heightened a b i l i t y f o r the c i t y to support welfare s e r v i c e s . R e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and age groups served^ Apart from the p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ( s chools, parks, playgrounds, and beaches), trade union r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s (one l a r g e b u i l d i n g ) , commercial establishments (dance h a l l s , bowling a l l e y s , s k a t i n g r i n k s , taverns, and pool h a l l s ) and many p r i v a t e s e r v i c e and s o c i a l c lubs and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r i v a t e s o c i a l agencies became 4 e s t a b l i s h e d i n Bellingham. 3 Much i n f o r m a t i o n about Bellingham's important r e c r e a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s and problems, was gained through viewing the l e i s u r e - t i m e s e r v i c e s t h a t e x i s t e d i n the c i t y . Such i n f o r m a t i o n was gathered from (1) process records kept by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, (2) minutes of Survey Committee meetings, (3) Survey Documents ( r e f . Appendices "A", "B", "E", "FN and »©"), and (4) Bellingham News Herald and Bellingham~Labour News A r t i c l e s and E d i t o r i a l s (e.g. Appendices "C", and '•D"). 4 Young Men's C h r i s t i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n, (Y.M.C.A.), Young Women's C h r i s t i a n O rganization, fY.W.C.A.), Fairhaven Boy's and G i r l ' s Club, (Fairhaven C l u b ) , Boy Scouts of America, (Boy Scouts), Camp F i r e G i r l ' s A s s o c i a t i o n , (Camp F i r e G i r l s ) , Tomahawk Boy's and G i r l ' s Club, (Tomahawk), Boysport Club of Bellingham, ( B o y s p o r t ) — i n a c t i v e at present. The above are l i s t e d i n order of s i z e according to p a i d up membership, 1949. (Subsequent references to the above o r g a n i z a t i o n s , are i n d i c a t e d by the l e t t e r s or words i n the bra c k e t s f o l l o w i n g t h e i r t i t l e s . ) 24. A l l seven o r g a n i z a t i o n s had s t a t e d purposes which i m p l i e d that r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s were provided i n order to a s s i s t i n the general development of the i n d i v i d u a l . The c i t i z e n s v o l u n t a r i l y supported these agencies c h i e f l y through the l o c a l Community Chest and C o u n c i l . The two "Y* s % and the Boy Scout's and Camp F i r e G i r l ' s A s s o c i a t i o n s were w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n Bellingham, having been i n the community f o r over 25 years. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. served a l l age groups. Their f a c i l i t i e s were c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n the c i t y . Group o r g a n i z a t i o n emphasis was p l a c e d on both i n t e r e s t (e.g. sport teams) and f r i e n d s h i p (e.g. small clubs) type of groups* 5 The Boy Scout's and Camp F i r e G i r l ' s A s s o c i a t i o n s had d e c e n t r a l i z e d programmes, i n the sense that p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s i n the v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s v/ere used. Their a c t i v i t i e s were set up f o r c h i l d r e n and 'teen-agers of each sex. These o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e l i e d h e a v i l y on volunteer l e a d e r s h i p . The Tomahawk Club had only one p a i d leader and much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , by n e c e s s i t y , was d i s t r i b u t e d amongst i t s membership. The f a c i l i t i e s were s i t u a t e d i n the h e a r t 5 Indoor sports and the Y.M.C.A. were c o n s t a n t l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h each other i n Bellingham. Except f o r the schools' recent e f f o r t s i n the area of sport s , down through the years the Y.M.C.A. had organized and supported most a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s i n the c i t y . Due to i t s acquired s t a t u s and i n f l u e n c e , i t could be reasoned t h a t the Y.M.C.A. played a p a t e r n a l r o l e i n the community i n regards to the development of sport a c t i v i t i e s . Very o f t e n i t gave l e a d e r s h i p and set a p a t t e r n f o r other agencies t o f o l l o w . 25. of the c i t y and a f t e r school and during the evenings the c l u b provided a meeting p l a c e f o r the 'teen-agers of both sexes. S i m i l a r to the Y.M..C.A. and Y.W.C.A., the Fairhaven club served a wide range of ages, however, i t was acknowledged t h a t most of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were beamed towards se r v i n g those of school ages who l i v e d i n the western p a r t of the town. The Boysport clu b was organized by the Bellingham C i t y Policemen and a few other community-minded v o l u n t e e r s — t h i s club a t t r a c t e d youths to i t s a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s 1 , and i t was claimed many of i t s members e i t h e r could not a f f o r d t o belong t o , or were not accepted by, l e a d e r s and members of the e s t a b l i s h e d r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies i n Bellingham. A l l t ax money intended f o r p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n Bellingham was used by the school and park departments i n the c i v i c government s t r u c t u r e . I t seems f a i r , t h e r e f o r e , to say that most of the p u b l i c agency r e c r e a t i o n e f f o r t was d i r e c t e d towards p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n and 'teen-agers of school-ages. 6 In l i n e w i t h g e n e r a l l y accepted p r i n c i p l e s , there were i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the p u b l i c agencies were p r o v i d i n g a base of r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , and that the p r i v a t e agencies were attempting a re aching-out, experimental, and l e a d e r s h i p job i n the community. The magnitude of the t o t a l p u b l i c programme can be i n d i c a t e d by way of comparison w i t h the t o t a l p r i v a t e agency e f f o r t . The p u b l i c programme had 48, or f o u r times the number of l e a d e r s i n r e c r e a t i o n , as d i d the p r i v a t e programme which i n c l u d e d 12 l e a d e r s . The former, however, were employed on a part-time b a s i s f o r the most p a r t , (e.g. summer employment), whereas the l e a d e r s 2 6 . From a community p o i n t of view then, there appeared to he a v a r i e t y , i f not a d u p l i c a t i o n , of r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r c i t i z e n s of school age. This c o n c l u s i o n was born out i n one of the d i s t r i c t surveys of r e c r e a t i o n , done i n Bellingham i n 1948.''' Boys of p u b l i c school age were found to be e s p e c i a l l y f o r t u n a t e i n having-o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n , and t h i s may have been, as i n the p r i v a t e agencies were h i r e d on a f u l l - t i m e year-round b a s i s . A l l the main schools i n Bellingham had playgrounds attached to them and these were o c c a s i o n a l l y used by the c h i l d r e n i n a f t e r - s c h o o l hours. I n a d d i t i o n , there were 19 parks w i t h i n the c i t y - l i m i t s t h a t were operated by the c i t y parks department, and the m a j o r i t y of them had supervised l e a d e r s h i p during two summer months. With reference to indoor f a c i l i t i e s used p r i m a r i l y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes, there were one l a r g e and seven smaller b u i l d i n g s supported by tax funds, while three l a r g e and one smaller b u i l d i n g s v/ere operated (with p r o f e s s i o n a l and volun t e e r leaders) by the p r i v a t e agencies. I n recent" years, the amounts of money devoted to improving f a c i l i t i e s i n tax-supported agencies, have been cl o s e to twice as much as those amounts spent f o r the same purposes i n non-tax supported r e c r e a t i o n agencies. Moreover, more than three times as much t o t a l f i n a n c i a l support f o r such t h i n g s as agency f a c i l i t i e s , l e a d e r s h i p and programmes, was used by the p u b l i c agencies, as t h a t used by the p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; i n 1949, f o r example, cost of operating the p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n programme amounted to j u s t over #161,000, whereas the cos t of the p r i v a t e programme f i g u r e d at approximately |51,000. The former f i g u r e was approximately e i g h t times the amount spent f o r operating p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n programmes i n 1945, however, the s i m i l a r p r i v a t e programme f i g u r e , represented a very gradual increase to |51,000, during the l a s t 5 years. 7 Report on Roosevelt D i s t r i c t Survey, Bellingham Community Chest and C o u n c i l , Bellingham, Wash., 1948. 27. one agency leader claimed, l a r g e l y "because of the ease i n p r o v i d i n g sport a c t i v i t i e s f o r the male sex. A number of g e n e r a l l y accepted reasons f o r i n c r e a s e d s e r v i c e s f o r both sexes of school age, however, would seem to apply. Among these would be the i n t e n s i f i e d emotional needs of c h i l d r e n , 8 and the general p u b l i c ' s i n c r e a s e d concern f o r j u v e n i l e problems and i n t e r e s t i n treatment and p r e v e n t i o n of these problems, during the formative and f o l l o w i n g years. Gaps i n r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n Bellingham, a l s o were noted f o r the a f t e r - h i g h - s c h o o l age (18 to 25 years) and the e l d e r l y - a g e (55 years and onward) groups. Regarding the e l d e r l y - a g e , or senior c i t i z e n group, the main reasons given f o r gaps i n r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s , r e f e r r e d to increased dependency and l e s s a b i l i t y to provide f o r s e r v i c e s t h a t were f i n a n c i a l l y c o s t l y . With reference to the a f t e r - h i g h -school or Young A d u l t group, the c h i e f reason f o r l a c k of existence of l e i s u r e - t i m e s e r v i c e s , was noted as being the spreading of r e c r e a t i o n i n t e r e s t s by young persons a f t e r they l e f t h i g h school. Lessened dependency on a d u l t persons or i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y to provide f o r t h e i r own needs, was s t a t e d as another such reason. I t was found d i f f i c u l t to reach c i t i z e n s of t h i s age group or to provide a t t r a c t i v e s e r v i c e s , t h a t would, i n t u r n g a i n t h e i r support. 8 Wilson, G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e , The R i v e r s i d e P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass., 1949, pp. 104-9. 28. There was constant concern during the survey f o r the af t e r - h i g h - s c h o o l age g r o u p — a t one p o i n t i n a meeting, one member st a t e d that i t was a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the schools and p r i v a t e agencies to provide a t r a i n i n g f o r these persons so t h a t they would be able to fend f o r themselves i n meeting needs f o r r e c r e a t i o n during l a t e r l i f e . A r e p l y was g i v e n which r e f e r r e d t o the t r a i n i n g of c i t i z e n s as being a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and was th e r e f o r e , a s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t was g e n e r a l l y accepted that c i t i z e n s of middle-age were l a r g e l y s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t i n s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l needs, since they found entertainment of pe r s o n a l choice, i n such p l a c e s as commercial establishments, churches, union a c t i v i t i e s , and s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c l u b s . Nevertheless, one important question c o n s t a n t l y before the survey group, was whether or not i t was f a i r to provide e x t r a r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r one age-group while gaps i n s e r v i c e s f o r other age-groups e x i s t e d . I n recent years, there had been many requests from s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r more Community Chest support f o r c h i l d r e n * r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , and few requests had been r e c e i v e d f o r s i m i l a r support f o r the e l d e r l y f o l k i n Bellingham. Support f o r r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r c i t i z e n s of a l l ages was g i v e n mainly according to request and demand, thus there was i n e q u a l i t y i n what s e r v i c e s v/ere a v a i l a b l e f o r each age group. 29. Areas of s e r v i c e F o r working purposes, the C e n t r a l Survey Committee used the -recognized d i v i s i o n of ten neighbourhoods that 9 e x i s t e d i n Bellingham. Of these neighbourhoods or areas, f o u r were reported, by r e s p o n s i b l e persons i n the community, as being "depressed", i n the sense t h a t there e x i s t e d i n them a higher degree of s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n such as unemployment, broken homes, and delinquency, than i n the other s i x areas i n the c i t y . Due to the l o c a t i o n s of the schools and playgrounds, the survey committee members concluded t h a t the p u b l i c agencies served a l l areas f a i r l y equally.. I n a d d i t i o n , a f t e r studying membership r o l e s of the p r i v a t e agencies, the f a c t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t while the p r i v a t e agencies served persons l i v i n g i n a l l the ten neighbourhoods, c i t i z e n s l i v i n g i n areas i n which one of the p r i v a t e agencies were l o c a t e d r e c e i v e d more r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s than those who l i v e d i n other areas. Only one of the f i v e main p r i v a t e agencies was l o c a t e d i n a depressed area, where need f o r l e i s u r e - t i m e s e r v i c e s was considered to be gr e a t . Most c i t i z e n s , i n t e r v i e w e d during the survey, favoured d e c e n t r a l i z e d r e c r e a t i o n , or p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n 9 Jones, George V., Leadership i n Recreation: A study of the impact of l e a d e r s h i p on the r e c r e a t i o n a l program i n the c i t y off Bellingham, Wash., Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, Department of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949, p. 30. 30. s e r v i c e s w i t h i n l o c a l neighbourhoods. I n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s , i t was f e l t d e s i r a b l e to give p r i o r i t y to the depressed neighbourhoods where the l o c a l c i t i z e n s ' a b i l i t y to t r a v e l to more elaborate and expensive c e n t r a l f a c i l i t i e s , was l i m i t e d . I t was r e a l i z e d t h a t most people, and c h i l d r e n e s p e c i a l l y , tended to use the r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s t h a t v/ere i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to t h e i r home. Moreover, i n t h e i r neighbourhood they would have some clo s e f r i e n d s , which meant in c r e a s e d s e c u r i t y while they were at p l a y . Neighbourhood r e c r e a t i o n was more d e s i r a b l e as f a r as agency personnel having opportunity to know and understand parents, and to support the home. Most of the parents i n t e r v i e w e d , favoured emphasis being g i v e n to neighbourhood r e c r e a t i o n on the grounds t h a t t h i s would encourage the c h i l d r e n to stay away from the town centre. When c o n s i d e r a t i o n was given to r e c r e a t i o n f o r c i t i z e n s of a l l ages, however, preference was expressed f o r c e n t r a l f a c i l i t i e s , such as a c i v i c auditorium. Those survey committee members who favoured c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , s t r e s s e d the importance of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s f o r the a f t e r -school-age group, whose members u s u a l l y frequented the centre of town when not at work or at home. The c e n t r a l l y - l o c a t e d r e c r e a t i o n agencies i n Bellingham, r e c e i v e d much more f i n a n c i a l support than the "neighbourhood a g e n c i e s " — f o r i n s t a n c e , over 60% of the 1949-1950 funds a l l o c a t e d to "Character B u i l d i n g and L e i s u r e -31. Time Guidance" from the Bellingham Community Chest and C o u n c i l , was p r o v i d e d the Y.M.C.A., Y.W.G.A., and the Tomahawk C l u b . 1 0 Much l e s s money was granted the Camp f i r e G i r l s , Boy Scouts, and Boysport a s s o c i a t i o n a , which f e a t u r e d neighbourhood r e c r e a t i o n , c h i e f l y f o r those up to 15 years of age. I t might he s a i d , however, t h a t the many s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g church c l u b s , s e r v i c e and f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e d a balance as f a r as c e n t r a l and neighbourhood r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s were concerned. C e n t r a l i z i n g f a c i l i t i e s 1 1 appeared to be the e a s i e s t way of p r o v i d i n g a b a s i c minimum of r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the community. I f the need and d e s i r e f o r ' l e i s u r e - t i m e s e r v i c e s was g r e a t enough, then c i t i z e n s would a v a i l themselves of the c e n t r a l l y - l o c a t e d f a c i l i t i e s . C o - o r d i n a t i o n i n the use of a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n the c i t y was f e l t p o s s i b l e through having a c e n t r a l programme, which would spread out i n t o the v a r i o u s neighbourhoods. To some committee members, however, t h i s i m p l i e d prearranged programmes or imposed p l a n s f o r 10 Annual Report, Bellingham Community Chest and C o u n c i l , 1949, p. 7. 11 During meetings t h a t were h e l d e a r l y i n the survey, r e l i g i o u s , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s t h a t were con t r a r y to the i d e a of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n * were expressed. With d i r e c t reference to a suggestion t h a t a R e c r e a t i o n Commission be set up~Th Bellingham, church r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s expressed strong d i s f a v o u r w i t h having any such co-o r d i n a t i n g body, since~~it might take l o c a l autonomy away from neighbourhoods, in,,regards to p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s l i k e r e c r e a t i o n . 32. organized r e c r e a t i o n , and such was h e l d counter to "grassroots movement" or growth of s e r v i c e s "from below", which would l i k e l y be c l o s e r to i n t e r e s t and need. Some committee members r e p e a t e d l y . s t a t e d " r e c r e a t i o n belongs i n the neighbourhoods" and o f t e n reminded others t h a t t h i s was where i t had evolved n a t u r a l l y . I t was also shown t h a t , r e a l i s t i c a l l y , Bellingham could not a f f o r d extensive r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s at the present, and t h a t support f o r other needy welfare s e r v i c e s was needed. I t was apparent t h a t a balance between support of c e n t r a l i z e d and neighbourhood s e r v i c e s was needed by both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n agencies. Although the trend was towards supporting c e n t r a l i z e d s e r v i c e s , support f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n the depressed areas was e s p e c i a l l y needy, and such s e r v i c e s c o u l d be s u p p l i e d by e i t h e r the c e n t r a l l y - l o c a t e d or the neighbourhood agencies. While l o c a t i o n and nature of f a c i l i t i e s was important, much was dependent on the type of l e a d e r s h i p and programme provide d by the agencies. J u v e n i l e Problems As o f t e n happens i n other c i t i e s , - B e l l i n g h a m ' s needs f o r r e o r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s r e c e i v e d more a t t e n t i o n whenever s o c i a l problems such as j u v e n i l e delinquency came to the f o r e . Awareness of the community's j u v e n i l e problems in c r e a s e d d u r i n g the second world war. Minutes of a Bellingham Community Chest and C o u n c i l Board Meeting, h e l d A p r i l 15, 1943, reported: 33 "Judge fX* reviewed the s i t u a t i o n over the country, where he s a i d delinquency had incre a s e d very much, e s p e c i a l l y i n centres where the g r e a t e s t defense e f f o r t was being put f o r t h . He s a i d the r a t e was up about 10% since P e a r l Harbour and up to 50% i n some p l a c e s . He t o l d of England 1 s experience, where delinquency rose from 15 to 60%, i n the months f o l l o w i n g d e c l a r a t i o n of war. He thought the causes were emotional u n r e s t among the young, removal of s u p e r v i s i o n , c r i p p l i n g of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s as t r a i n e d  personnel went to the war s e r v i c e s , e t c . He mentioned t h a t there used to be s u p e r v i s i o n i n 8 or 9 of the parks i n Bellingham during the summer, which i n recent years had been given up. He f e l t t h a t delinquency had r i sen i n south Bellingham and the Eureka d i s t r i c t s and t h a t t h i s might be a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . He s t a t e d t h a t cases brought before the J u v e n i l e Court had incre a s e d n o t i c a b l y .....Judge »Xf s t a t e d t h a t the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e was fa c e d w i t h the dilemma of f i n d i n g p l a c e s f o r boys because the reform schools were f u l l . I t seemed b e t t e r t o make p l a n s to avoid more delinquency i f p o s s i b l e . " The r a t e of delinquency i n Bellingham decreased i n post-war years. S p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s t h a t occurred i n the community* however, served to remind c i t i z e n s t h a t as a s o c i a l problem, delinquency i n the c i t y was c o n t r o l l e d but not cured. Among i n c i d e n t s t h a t caused some degree of p u b l i c alarm, were "wandering gangs", "break-ins", and "sex misconducts". As i n other c i t i e s during t h i s p e r i o d , .considerable p u b l i c i t y was gi v e n to the whole subject. In t h a t the general p u b l i c was enlightened about j u v e n i l e problems and encouraged t o a s s i s t i n f i n d i n g p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s , such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n seemed to be c o n s t r u c t i v e . 1 2 12 Ref. Appendix "C". 34. Although Bellingham c i t i z e n s from time to time, showed much i n t e r e s t f o r the c i t y ' s j u v e n i l e problem, the general l e v e l of concern d i d not appear to be h i g h . During survey committee meetings, f o r example, r e l u c t a n c e towards accepting t h a t the community had a .juvenile delinquency problem was obvious. Several members claimed the magnitude of the problem was not gr e a t enough to make i t h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and r e f e r r e d to such matters as the c i t y ' s p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n and t h e i r " c o n t r o l of delinquency". Regarding c o n t r o l , one community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t the c i t y was not b i g enough to make p o l i c i n g d i f f i c u l t , and t h a t " a n t i - s o c i a l persons c o u l d not get l o s t e a s i l y " . I n the course of meetings, reference o f t e n was made to the number of r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies e x i s t i n g i n Bellingham, and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the pre v e n t i o n and treatment of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . 1 ^ 13 One of the survey workers' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was the assessing of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n agencies i n Bellingham. I t was found t h a t while there were many " r e c r e a t i o n a l " s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the community, there were l i t t l e or no s o c i a l group work or community o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v i c e s to be had. I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s r e f l e c t e d a gap i n treatment and prev e n t i v e s e r v i c e s , although there were many forms of s o c i a l case work s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the c i t y . Agency represent-a t i v e s seemed r e t i c e n t to accept that there were many d i f f e r e n c e s between " r e c r e a t i o n " and "group work M, however, t h i s may have occurred because of the f a c t that much more a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o o b j e c t i v e s r a t h e r than to methods i n v o l v e d . During one committee meeting,,-!t was rev e a l e d t h a t a r e c e n t school survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n a c l a s s of 30 students, 19 came from "broken homes". ("Broken home" was d e f i n e d as a home where one or b o t h p a r e n t s d i d not l i v e i n the house.) Another c l a s s of 19 had 10 c h i l d r e n 35, Through the i n f l u e n c e of the Chief of P o l i c e and the Pr o b a t i o n O f f i c e r i n Bellingham, other survey committee members became informed t h a t the c i t y d i d have a j u v e n i l e delinquency problem, and t h a t there was need f o r acceptance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e . I t soon became evident i n the survey, t h a t the r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies assumed only p a r t of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the existence of the j u v e n i l e delinquency problem. A review of the agencies purposes showed t h a t a l l had a connotation of " a s s i s t i n g i n the t r a i n i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s " . I t was apparent t h a t the agencies provided p l a c e s f o r persons t o engage i n c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s could be gained from the f o l l o w i n g e d i t o r i a l t h a t appeared i n the Bellingham Herald newspaper during the time the survey was being conducted: "VIEWS OH RECREATION AT VARIANCE The value of r e c r e a t i o n i n pre v e n t i n g j u v e n i l e delinquency i s being over-emphasized....recreation i s not oonducted to prevent delinquency any more than we run schools to prevent i t . . . . A t the same time, one should not overlook the va l u a b l e t r a i n i n g that boys and coming from broken homes. There was r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r community s e r v i c e s t o support the home, y e t whether support was being g i v e n , appeared q u e s t i o n a b l e — none of the r e c r e a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s attempted v i s i t i n g homes or keeping records , f o r example, and t h i s f u n c t i o n seemed more r e l a t e d to group work s e r v i c e s , f o r which the community had an apparent need. Two agencies i n the community, the Fairhaven and Boysport o r g a n i z a t i o n s , seemed to do some work w i t h young persons who e x h i b i t e d e x c e p t i o n a l behaviour such aB delinquency. I n t h i s r espect there was l i m i t e d p reventive work i n the area of pre-delinquency. 36. g i r l s receive through organized reereation. Undoubtedly, such act iv i t ie s tend to develop a balanced l i f e and have great influence i n preventing children from getting involved i n questionable ac t iv i t i e s " . During interviews with staff members of agencies, statements were made to the effect that delinquency was prevented because of the existence of their organizations. References were made to their agencys' positive functions of providing constructive ac t iv i t ie s during leisure hours. Although i t was accepted that a person* s behaviour depended largely on the training received, there was less acceptance that the home, school, church and other organizations i n the community shared i n such training. During the survey, the workers found a definite lack of co-ordination of services i n the community, and this may have been because need for co-ordination was not real ized. few persons in Bellingham seemed to realize that juvenile delinquency, as a social problem, existed i n the community. To acknowledge that there was a problem, meant accepting responsibi l i ty for i t s existence. One result of this lack of acceptance, was that there were inadequate services in the community that could deal with delinquency and other behaviour problems. While considering the community's a b i l i t y to provide services with which to counteract delinquency, other causes of social disorganization needed to be observed and services provided accordingly. 37. Financial support for agencies Six of the seven private recreation agencies under consideration, were financially-participating members of the Bellingham Community Chest and Council. Due to limited "volunteer" assistance, their " a b i l i t y to provide services" to the community depended largely on the financial support given by the Chest. The amounts of such support for each agency was, in theory, determined by a Budget Committee within the Chest and Council set-up, and this sub-committee reviewed conditions in regards to: (1) Budget deficiency of an agency, (2) Amount requested by the agency, and (3) The agency's contribution to the community, i n terms of numbers of persons served and the nature of such service. (Effectiveness of agency services was determined by surveys and other methods.) As in most councils, however, there were other "pressures" or forces operating i n Bellingham, and these affected the tangible support the agencies received each year. One such force could be termed "representation". The Bellingham Young Mens* and Womens* Christian Associations, for example, were long established i n the community, and i t was commonly accepted that because of their support mostly from leading business-men i n the community, who had "grown-up" in the "Y", were able to press for higher grants from the Community Chest and Council. 1 4 14 Minutes of one Chest meeting refer to "a quiet solicitation for $1,400 for the Y.M.C.A. resulted in unanimous approval". 38. The Chest and C o u n c i l , i n t u r n , depended h e a v i l y on business l e a d e r s i n Bellingham f o r success i n the annual d r i v e s f o r funds. Furthermore, the Community Chest and C o u n c i l was always i n a p o s i t i o n of having an agency withdraw to conduct i t s own d r i v e , and t h i s would be counter t o the main p r i n c i p l e of "combined appeal" of the Chest. C e n t r a l f i n a n c i n g i n the community was p u b l i c i z e d as having two advantages; i t worked against " m u l t i p l e approaches" or many appeals i n the community f o r funds f o r welfare expenditures, and, when there was assurance of f i n a n c i a l support each year, i t l e f t agencies f r e e to concentrate on p r o v i d i n g e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s . 1 5 Although the Chest and C o u n c i l was a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body, there were i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t when a choice had to be made, i n f l u e n t i a l members on i t were more w i l l i n g to support the Y.M.C.A. and Y.V.C.A. than the other agencies. I n such i n s t a n c e s , l o y a l t y to an agency r a t h e r than to the community, seemed to be emphasized. when any agency was favoured, and support was manipulated f o r i t , the Chest and C o u n c i l body was p l a c e d i n the p o s i t i o n of being an " u s e f u l means of g e t t i n g 15 Seme c i t i z e n s s a i d they favoured having the agencies o b t a i n t h e i r own f i n a n c i a l support. Remarks made i m p l i e d t h a t s e r v i c e s s u p p l i e d by the agencies should be known by the p u b l i c , and l o y a l t y and support should not be d i f f i c u l t f o r the agencies t o obta i n i f t h e i r s e r v i c e s were e f f e c t i v e . 16 I t i s not meant to imply t h a t support given the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. was not support f o r the community. 39. increased f i n a n c i a l support" as one survey committee member commented. In recent years, the amounts granted the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. by the Ghest and Council, averaged over 60% of the t o t a l proceeds that were set aside f o r the community's recreational services "by the Community Chest group. More than one-half the funds c o l l e c t e d each year by the Chest and Council, were devoted to the community*s recreational services. These amounts often were viewed with concern by leaders i n the community who questioned whether too much money was being spent f o r "recreational services f o r ch i l d r e n " and a disproportionate amount f o r casework "child-welfare and family services". The way funds were allocated would tend to indicate that f i n a n c i a l support f o r p a r t i c u l a r agencies was given over-emphasis when the actual needs of the c i t i z e n s were being considered. While providing services the recreational agencies i n Bellingham other than the two "Y1 s", also gained the support that was necessary f o r t h e i r existence. A review of agency board memberships showed that each agency had i n f l u e n t i a l persons on them, and several such persons served on one or more boards. 1 7 Regarding members served, 17 One leader i n Bellingham, who was responsible f o r administration of recreational services, stated that, i n h i s opinion, members of four s p e c i f i c f a m i l i e s who had l i v e d i n the Bellingham area f o r many years, p r a c t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d f i n a n c i a l expenditures f o r anything such as recreation. The implication was that undemocratic power 40. survey r e s u l t s snowed that a l l the agencies served c i t i z e n s l i v i n g i n every d i s t r i c t i n Bellingham. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.G.A., however, served many more c i t i z e n s i n each d i s t r i c t than any other r e c r e a t i o n a l agency. Yet the amount of f i n a n c i a l support was d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y higher f o r the "Yf s" than f o r the other agencies--the" Y* s"had an average of two and three times as many persons c o n s i s t e n t l y a v a i l i n g themselves of t h e i r s e r v i c e s as had other agencies, hut the f i n a n c i a l support f o r t h e u Y f s"amounted to between s i x and seven times more than the other agencies. I t could be s t a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t f i n a n c i a l support g i v e n each agency by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l , bore l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to numbers of c i t i z e n s served. The two "Y's" d i d provide more g e n e r a l i z e d r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s , however, and these were c o s t l y to maintain. Their h i g h c o s t s were due, p a r t l y , to the nature of t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . A l l the other r e c r e a t i o n agencies had "modest" f a c i l i t i e s to m a i n t a i n . "Whenever support of any k i n d was considered during the survey, inter-agency f r i c t i o n became 18 apparent. This antagonism was a very r e a l f o r c e working against agency co-operation that appeared to be needed. was wielded by prominent persons serving on agency Boards, and that the s t a t u s of such persons\ was based more on f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n and connections i n Bellingham than on a b i l i t y , i n the sense of c a p a c i t y , i n t e r e s t , and knowledge of community a f f a i r s . 18 There was much evidence of l a c k of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and understanding of the work of the v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies i n the community. F o r example, the Tomahawk 41. While attempts were being made to b r i n g b e t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s at the community l e v e l , Boys 1 and G i r l s ' Club was g e n e r a l l y accepted as an outgrowth of the Y.M.C.A. Redwing Club. During the l a s t war a c r i s e s s i t u a t i o n arose, centered around a l i q u o r problem and d r i n k i n g while attending dances i n the Y.M.C.A. The persons i n v o l v e d , withdrew t h e i r member-ships from the "Y", and s t a r t e d the Tomahawk c l u b by organizing a group of 'teen-agers a f t e r school-hours, and approaching Service c l u b s and business l e a d e r s f o r support f o r f a c i l i t i e s . (The club a p p l i e d f o r f i n a n c i a l support from the Community Chest and was turned down on the f i r s t request. Since the club l a t e r was s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r approach to business l e a d e r s , the Community Chest r e a l i z e d t h a t what amounted to a ban to c e n t r a l f i n a n c i n g was going on, and e v e n t u a l l y , granted the Tomahawk club f i n a n c i a l support.) Much c r i t i c i s m of "Y" le a d e r s h i p r e s u l t e d . Soon a f t e r t h i s i n c i d e n t , another instance of " f a i l u r e on the p a r t of the "Y" o c c u r r e d — v t h e i n f l u e n c e of the Boys' Clubs of America became apparent i n Bellingham, and, i n order to provide opportunity f o r boys who d i d not attend the "Y" the Boysport Club evolved. (Reasons g i v e n by the boys f o r t h e i r l a c k of attendance were (1) i n a b i l i t y to pay the necessary f e e s , and (2) l a c k of acceptance by the "Y" l e a d e r s and members, even i f membership f e e s were paid,) Although "Boysport" had much support i n the community (among i t s prominent supporters were the Mayor and the P o l i c e Chief of Bellingham), the club was never able to g a i n f i n a n c i a l a i d from the Community Chest. Leaders i n both the e s t a b l i s h e d and the l e s s -e s t a b l i s h e d types of r e c r e a t i o n agencies i n Bellingham f r e e l y c r i t i c i z e d one anothes I n regards t o the or g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t emerged i n recent years, the "Y" l e a d e r s claimed " l o a f i n g was being l e g i t i m i z e d " , "leaders were un t r a i n e d " , " l a c k of d i r e c t i o n was being given members", and "agency o b j e c t i v e s were questionable". I t was f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t " s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s " f o r any one group, such as the high-?school group that Tomahawk served, c o u l d not be afforded i n the community. I t was reasoned t h a t the two "Y's" were p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s of a general nature f o r a l l ages, and, th e r e f o r e , were i n an advantageous p o s i t i o n to see where expansion of s e r v i c e s was needed. Leaders and members of the newer agencies claimed t h a t the "Y's" were not p r o v i d i n g the k i n d s of s e r v i c e s needed i n the community, e l s e Tomahawk, P a i r -haven, and Boysport would not have come, i n t o being. They reasoned t h a t although there appeared t o be some 4 2 e s e v e r a l problems r e l a t e d t o f i n a n c i a l support were presented. Among these problems were, how to ob t a i n i n c r e a s e d support f o r the expanding p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s , and how to g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the p r i v a t e agencies were meeting b a s i c needs that might best be provided through government auspices. d u p l i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e , the methods employed were quite d i f f e r e n t to the "Y' s" (e.g. The Tomahawk Club members assumed a gr e a t degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e i r c l u b . Many ad u l t volunteer l e a d e r s a s s i s t e d . The c l u b worked i n cl o s e co-operation w i t h the school and home). The above two k i n d s of r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies v i e d w i t h each other i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s and g a i n i n g support. The need f o r support s t i m u l a t e d competition which seemed to f u r t h e r the growth of each type of agency, during r e c e n t years. There was l i t t l e or no clearance of programmes between them while s e r v i c e s i n the community expanded; i t seemed f a i r to say that the agencies grew w i t h l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to each other. In view of the f a c t that what any agency co u l d accomplish depended on i t s a v a i l a b l e resources (and t h i s o f t e n was not understood by the p u b l i c ) , a clearance of f u n c t i o n s of each agency was recommended. This was to enable each o r g a n i z a t i o n to concentrate on what i t could do best. F u r t h e r , i t would be h e l p f u l i n determining where f i n a n c i a l support should be given i n order to ma i n t a i n the increa s e d r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . R e - d i s t r i b u t i o n of Community Chest funds would work against one commonly-accepted c r i t i c i s m of the Chest, which one c r i t i c termed "an i n t r a - m a n i p u l a t i v e device, c o n t r o l l e d by the p r i v a t e agencies t h a t had gained the support of 'leading business' i n Bellingham". 4 3 . Agency f u n c t i o n s A community r e c r e a t i o n programme i n v o l v e s i n t e r -agency understanding and c o - o p e r a t i o n . The r e c r e a t i o n agencies i n B e l l i n g h a m worked together m o s t l y through the Community Chest and C o u n c i l and the R e c r e a t i o n Commission, which d e a l t w i t h the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c agencies r e s p e c t i v e l y . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l i n t e r - a g e n c y a c t i v i t y o c c u r r e d i n a f u n c t i o n a l way; t h a t i s , a p a r t i c u l a r j o b of work needed doing by the agencies (e.g. o r g a n i z i n g a summer programme of s p o r t a c t i v i t i e s f o r the c h i l d r e n ) and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from most of the agencies would meet once or twice as a sub-committee of the Community C o u n c i l . Once a c t i v i t y was organized, however, the agencies tended to r e v e r t to the accustomed p a t t e r n of o p e r a t i n g on t h e i r own. There was some p r i v a t e i n t e r - a g e n c y a c t i v i t y and t h i s o c c u r r e d to meet immediate needs. Outside of c o u r t a c t i o n r e g a r d i n g j u v e n i l e problems, however, there seemed v e r y l i t t l e 1 9 c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y between the p u b l i c agencies. S i m i l a r to t h i s , p r i v a t e - p u b l i c agency c o - o p e r a t i o n 20 i appeared to be l i m i t e d , and there was l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n programme was needed i n the community. 19 The g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n of the schools and p a r k s i n the c i t y p r o v i d e d evidence of l a c k of p l a n n i n g . 20 The h i g h and j u n i o r - h i g h s c h o o l s and the Tomahawk c l u b d i d work i n c l o s e harmony, however. 44. E s p e c i a l l y i n the area of community planning f o r r e c r e a t i o n , there was need f o r much work. F o r example, clearance and refinement of i n d i v i d u a l agency f u n c t i o n s went unattended. There was l i m i t e d understanding "by the agencies as to where they might f u n c t i o n best and the scale of operations t h a t would be i n v o l v e d . Some of the f o r c e s t h a t combined and worked against co-ordinated e f f o r t by a l l the r e c r e a t i o n agencies i n the community were: (a) types of r e c r e a t i o n programmes (e.g., "what 1s i n v o l v e d i n r e c r e a t i o n i s not s t a r t l i n g or important enough to p l a n f u r t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n — i t w i l l come about i t s e l f " ) , (b) l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y (e.g., p e r s o n a l i t y problems, l a c k of t r a i n i n g , community-mi ndedness, time, or e f f o r t ) , (c) philosophy regarding c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and f e a r of l o s s of autonomy (through the years, the agencies had a h i g h degree of s e l f - i n t e r e s t , and, w i t h a view to o f f e r i n g b e t t e r s e r v i c e s , had put emphasis on b u i l d i n g the "home base", or agency f i r s t . ) , and (d) the weakened p o s i t i o n of the co - o r d i n a t i n g bodies, such as the Re c r e a t i o n Commission and the Community Chest and C o u n c i l . Summary I t c o u l d be s a i d that a l l the above d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n Bellingham were ingrown, complex and i n t e r r e l a t e d . The problems were developing as agency s e r v i c e s changed i n answer to r e c r e a t i o n needs th a t were becoming apparent. The survey brought out 45. t h a t , as i n other c i t i e s of s i m i l a r s i z e , the f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g r e c r e a t i o n i n the community had many causes and were d i f f i c u l t to understand and handle. They were al s o dependent on other r e l a t e d welfare needs and s e r v i c e s e x i s t i n g i n Bellingham. A recent " c r i s i s " s i t u a t i o n arose i n the area of s p orts which "brought out some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n r e c r e a t i o n : i n Bellingham. Records kept during the survey, r e v e a l "A b a s k e t b a l l league got s t a r t e d under the auspices of the Y.M.C.A. — the league p r o v i d e d an opportunity f o r senior 1 teen-agers (male), who were members of agencies and who had b a s k e t b a l l a b i l i t y , to compete together. Agency p a r t i c i p a t i o n was not h i g h , being l i m i t e d to s e v e r a l teams from two p r i v a t e agencies and two schools. The Y.M.C.A. provided much c o n s i s t e n t support i n terms of l e a d e r s h i p and f a c i l i t i e s . The competitive element was h i g h amongst the teams, and although emphasis was on a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y , some p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s were observed. The p l a y e r s took p a r t i n other p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s while i n the agencies, but there were few meetings to provide a balance and to give the members opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n planning league games and team p l a y s , and working out other personal d i f f i c u l t i e s . The league became quite popular and was a p r o f i t a b l e source of revenue f o r the Y.M.C.A. There was an increase i n the number of school teams p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the league and p r e s e n t l y the schools sponsored i t . The p r i v a t e agencies such as the Y.M.C.A., which had done a l e a d e r s h i p job i n regards t o org a n i z i n g b a s k e t b a l l , passed out of the p i c t u r e . P u b l i c - p r i v a t e agency co-operation seemed to be re p l a c e d by h o s t i l i t y at the time the league became p u b l i c l y sponsored. Much of the antagonism was expressed by the l e a d e r s i n both types of agencies, and these f e e l i n g s continued. Opinions expressed regarding the s i t u a t i o n r e f e r r e d to improper transference of the league (e.g., "experienced l e a d e r s were dropped from the league'.'), the league s t i l l was not of gr e a t enough s i z e to make.public sponsorship necessary, and, w i t h the l o s s of sponsorship of t h i s major sport a c t i v i t y , another important source of revenue was cut o f f from the p r i v a t e agencies. One of the values r e s u l t i n g from the c r i s i s t h a t occurred, was the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a c o - o r d i n a t i n g body w i t h broad p u b l i c -45. private representation was needed. At the time of change of sponsorship, the basketball issue was not seriously considered by either the Community Chest and Council or the Recreation Commission. Many defences at a community, inter-agency l eve l , became apparent at the time. For example, the Community Chest and Council tended to overlook (or escape) the problem, and this was interpreted by the Y.M.C.A. as lack of support for the private agencies. Also important, i t decreased f inancia l self-support by the private agencies and i n this respect, made them more dependent on the Community Chest and Council. By not considering the matter, however, an opportunity to act on a community problem was missed, and this was interpreted by many cit izens as lack of ab i l i ty by the Chest and Council to assume one of i t s important respons ib i l i t ie s . " Due to such incidents as the above, which involved recreation problems that have been considered, social action based on understanding the community recreation picture, became even more essential . The survey was to be a part of the democratic understanding, planning, and taking of remedial action, that was needed. Chapter I I I THE ORIGINS Off THE SURVEY A review of the o r i g i n s of the survey "brought out i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the study grew out of needs and d e s i r e s of the Bellingham people. E s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the end of the second world war, when heightened i n t e r e s t occurred i n home c o n d i t i o n s or l o c a l a f f a i r s , there was a growing awareness of community problems a f f e c t i n g the welfare of the c i t i z e n s . 1 One of the primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the c i t i z e n s i n a democratic s o c i e t y , i s to f a c i l i t a t e a c t i o n to remedy problems of s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . Leaders i n the Bellingham community, who were accepted as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the c i t i z e n r y , assumed t h i s f u n c t i o n by b r i n g i n g the i n v o l v e d problems of r e c r e a t i o n to the a t t e n t i o n of such groups as the Bellingham R e c r e a t i o n Commission and the Community Chest and C o u n c i l . A community-wide survey was considered as one means whereby f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n could f i r s t be gathered, and then used to provide a sound b a s i s f o r a c t i o n . Although there were requests f o r a survey from Beveral groups and i n d i v i d u a l s i n Bellingham, as might be expected, f i n a l e f f o r t s f o r i t centered i n the Community Chest and C o u n c i l . One of the main reasons f o r t h i s was the Chest and C o u n c i l ' s expressed purpose of "developing 1 A review of the h e a d l i n e s of the Bellingham News Herald f o r the war and post-war years, showed the s h i f t of h i g h i n t e r e s t from i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l news, to news about l o c a l a f f a i r s . 48. e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s o c i a l welfare and 2 r e l a t e d programmes i n the community. Working w i t h community problems was a primary f u n c t i o n . F o r 23 years, the Community Chest served the c i t i z e n s . I t organized and supported needy s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the Bellingham Community Fund was s t a r t e d and c o n t i n u o u s l y supported by the l o c a l Chamber of Commerce. The main reason f o r o r g a n i z i n g the Chest was the d e s i r e to overcome "multi-approach f o r f i n a n c i a l support... .(and) d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t by agencies i n t h e i r f u n d - r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s " . * ' With reference to "planning of welfare services' 1, the Community C o u n c i l was of f a i r l y r e cent o r i g i n , being organized i n 1946. I t was accepted as the means of b r i n g i n g out co-operation between the v a r i o u s s o c i a l work agencies i n the c i t y . Another such c o - o r d i n a t i n g body was the Bellingham R e c r e a t i o n Commission, which was comprised of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the p u b l i c departments such as the c i t y c o u n c i l , park and school boards, and law c o u r t s . The p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n agencies i n the c i t y were represented by the E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l , who attended meetings of the Commission. The main duty of the Commission 2 1949 Annual Report of the Bellingham Community Chest and  C o u n c i l , p . l . 3 I b i d . , 49, was to co-ordinate p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s ; however, the s t a t e d c h i e f i n t e r e s t was described simply as "money-raising". There a l s o was constant concern f o r j u v e n i l e problems or delinquency. I n view of the i n f r e q u e n t and i r r e g u l a r meetings h e l d , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Commission's work appeared d o u b t f u l . The Commission, however, was i n t e r e s t e d i n the c i t y ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l problem. Several members of the Commission, a l s o belonged to the Chest and C o u n c i l , and these members seemed t o d i r e c t t h e i r e f f o r t s towards the success of the C o u n c i l . Many Commission members were opposed to having a survey, neve r t h e l e s s , a f t e r formal approval by the Chest and C o u n c i l the Commission decided to give support to the p r o j e c t . Other c e n t r a l c o - o r d i n a t i n g bodies concerned w i t h r e c r e a t i o n and the survey, were the Co u n c i l of Churches and the Bellingham Youth C o u n c i l . The former r e c e i v e d requests from i n d i v i d u a l churches, but i t was r e a l i z e d that r e c r e a t i o n as such was a secondary f u n c t i o n to r e l i g i o n . Regarding the Youth C o u n c i l , i t s main f u n c t i o n seemed t o be to p u b l i c i z e young people's l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were conducted i n the e s t a b l i s h e d p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies. This p u b l i c i t y was used to advantage, and supported the agencies, and e s p e c i a l l y , the Community Chest and C o u n c i l . Many other important groups i n the c i t y were v i t a l l y concerned w i t h -Hie survey because of i t s broad scope and s i g n i f i c a n c e . In t h i s r e s p e c t , the C i t y C o u n c i l , Chambers of Commerce, 50. and some Labour o r g a n i z a t i o n s became i n t e r e s t e d i n the study. I t -was to the Community C o u n c i l , however, t h a t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e v e n t u a l l y f e l l f o r f a c i n g the r e c r e a t i o n problems i n Bellingham. C i t i z e n and agency concern f o r a study of the s i t u a t i o n , proved to be a f o r c e t h a t helped strengthen the C o u n c i l . This seemed to be a beginning of acceptance of the C o u n c i l ' s r o l e s of research and e d u c a t i o n , 4 and of doing an experimental, l e a d e r s h i p job such as was i n v o l v e d i n surveying. The a c t i v i t i e s i n the Bellingham Chest and C o u n c i l groups, e s p e c i a l l y from 1946 onward, revealed how the survey was a p a r t of the Chest and C o u n c i l , and how i t g r a d u a l l y gained impetus. At an Annual Meeting of the Community Chest h e l d i n January, 1946, a Budget Committee submitted a recommendation 5 t h a t "a survey be made of the s o c i a l work i n Bellingham". This committee was aware of the i n v o l v e d nature of the r e c r e a t i o n a l problems i n the community, and t h i s accounted f o r the i n c l u s i v e term " s o c i a l work" being used. 4 Weeks, Don J . , The C o n t r i b u t i o n of the Survey Method to  the Process of Community Org a n i z a t i o n as demonstrated by  the a c t i v i t i e s of a C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies, Thesis presented i n p a r t i a l , f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the Degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949, p. 19. 5 Records and Reports of Community Chest and C o u n c i l  Meetings, Bellingham Community Chest and C o u n c i l , Bellingham, Wash., 1946, p. 24. Unless annotated otherwise, a l l f o l l o w i n g quotations used i n t h i s chapter are taken from Chest and C o u n c i l Records. 51. These d i f f i c u l t i e s c r y s t a l l i z e d i n t o the form of one f i n a n c i a l problem, which was r e f e r r e d to as "problems of apportionment of a v a i l a b l e monies", w i t h which the Budget Committee had to d e a l . The above recommendation r e c e i v e d formal approval and p l a n s f o r o r g a n i z i n g and c a r r y i n g out the survey was l e f t u n t i l l a t e r . By way of f o l l o w - u p , a Chest Board Meeting was h e l d two weeks a f t e r the Annual Meeting, and a West Coast r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l Incorporated, Hew York, was i n v i t e d to speak. Outside help of t h i s form was of t i m e l y assistance to the community, i n t h a t o b j e c t i v e help was g i v e n w i t h the two main problems which then were seen as "the i d e a of a s o c i a l work survey, and labour p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Chest". The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , Mr. S.^  was given the opportunity f i r s t "to v i s i t some of the l o c a l agencies i n the community, to l o o k over o f f i c e r e cords, arid to review the s i t u a t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d i n Bellingham". Most of h i s i n f o r m a t i v e t a l k t h a t subsequently .was g i v e n , d e a l t w i t h forming a Community Co u n c i l to do the spade-work f o r a general survey, however, some a t t e n t i o n was devoted to the other Chest problem of meaningful p a r t i c i p a t i o n of labour. Mr. S. recommended a Community C o u n c i l be immediately formed so that a base would be provided f o r a survey to be conducted at a l a t e r date. Much p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the survey was seen necessary and i t was suggested that "a community c o u n c i l could s t a r t g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n which 5 2 . would be needed by a survey committee". He s a i d "the community ought f i r s t to be drawn together and l o c a l problems discussed, and t h a t only i f a cl o s e working r e l a t i o n s h i p were e f f e c t e d w i t h p u b l i c s o c i a l work depart-ments and outside s o c i a l agencies of a p r i v a t e nature, could a survey r e a l l y improve matters". Mr. S. thought i t was p o s s i b l e that the proposed community c o u n c i l e v e n t u a l l y might b r i n g about the improvements without a survey, but l e f t the matter up to the meeting to decide. He s a i d the f i r s t f u n c t i o n , however, of the Chest Board was to create and b u i l d a c o u n c i l body, and repeated t h a t "there must be a r e a l d e s i r e f o r a survey i n the community and a r e a l understanding and w i l l i n g n e s s to co-operate on the p a r t of a l l agencies concerned". When s t r e s s i n g the need f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , Mr. S. s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r e d to the p r e v e n t i o n of delinquency. He suggested that the f i r s t concrete step was to form a small committee which should immediately l o o k i n t o the matter of forming a c o u n c i l . Mr. S. made other suggestions that were r e l a t e d to the recommendation of forming a c o u n c i l . !Ehese suggestions i n c l u d e d , the h i r i n g of an Exec u t i v e Secretary to serve the Chest and C o u n c i l , the working toward p a r t i c i p a t i o n of labour through encouraging membership of labour r e p r e s e n t a t i v e saon a l l agency boards and committees, and the f i n a n c i n g of the c o u n c i l by the Chest so tha t the former could devote a t t e n t i o n to s o c i a l problems which were making a survey 5 3 . necessary. Throughout, Mr. S. emphasized "the need to attend to p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and community o r g a n i z a t i o n work". He i n t i m a t e d t h a t a chest and c o u n c i l should he e q u a l l y strong, and t h a t while separate, they should work c o - o p e r a t i v e l y and interdependently. In the l i g h t of changes that f o l l o w e d , the above meeting seemed h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e . At the next Chest Board meeting two f i n a n c i a l l y prominent members of the community spoke i n favour of immediately h i r i n g an Executive Secretary--i n doing so, they " s t r e s s e d the need f o r s o l u t i o n to numerous problems c o n f r o n t i n g the community such as the r e t u r n i n g veteran, j u v e n i l e delinquency, h e a l t h agency c o - o r d i n a t i o n , and the f u t u r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of (chest) campaigns". S h o r t l y a f t e r , a graduate s o c i a l worker, who had been t r a i n e d at the same school as Mr. S., was h i r e d as the Executive Secretary. At a s p e c i a l meeting of the Chest Board h e l d j u s t p r i o r to the above meeting, however, a motion was passed which recommended t h a t a Community C o u n c i l be formed. Those members who favoured having a c o u n c i l , again reminded the Chest group of problems i n the community which were of h i g h concern to the p r i v a t e agencies at that time: "....one member of the committee expressed the b e l i e f t h a t many people thought there were some th i n g s wrong w i t h the Chest, such as f o r ins t a n c e , the f a c t t h a t h a l f the funds r a i s e d f o r l o c a l use was given to the "Y" agencies. He wanted to know more about the reasons f o r such d e c i s i o n s , and thought a 'Community C o u n c i l * might be of value i n g e t t i n g a l l the f a c t s before the community. Others agreed w i t h t h i s and thought much could be done by such an o r g a n i z a t i o n which would otherwise never be accomplished." 54. " . . . . R e v . 0. eulogized the case for a Community Council, which would increase the effectiveness of the Chest and other social welfare agencies, clear up misunderstandings and improve the whole system of public relations. He thought the function of a Council was f i r s t toward a continuous and aggressive public relations programme,., as inclusive as possible." Flans were made for strengthening the Community Chest and Council when a motion was passed which recommended that invitations be extended to "labour persons in the community" to attend council meetings and "participate in the planning of Bellingham1s social services for which they were paying".^ While these steps prepared "the base for a survey" to which Mr. S. had referred, the strength of the base was dependent on many factors. Although much prestige \ra.s attached to being a member of the council group, judging by remarks made by council members, the council body was consistently subordinated to the Chest. The council group was looked upon as more of a consultative, advisory one, while the Chest maintained a sanctioning, paternalist ic role , and "controlled the purse-strings". It was impossible to view the community problems and do something about them 6 It i s significant to note that those labour persons personally contacted and asked to attend the community council (not agency boards as Mr. S. suggested as a f i r s t step towards labour participation) were not labour leaders in the sense of belonging to the Central Labour Council. The questions of why labour leaders were not invited to jo in agency boards, or why Central Labour Council representatives were not contacted,_were not recorded as being discussed at future Chest or Council meetings. 5 5 , when power to act r e a l i s t i c a l l y did not exist. This encouraged avoidance of important problems and Council interest centered on other matters. Actually this meant less preparation for the survey. Along with the d i f f i cu l ty in lack of power, was the question of representation—how to obtain labour representation on the council remained a problem.''' Several council leaders attributed the lack ot true labour representation on the community council, to disorganization of labour i n general in the Bellingham area. It was said that the way had been l e f t open for labour to participate, but l i t t l e action had been taken by labour groups. Labour leaders, on the other hand, explained their lack of participation on the council was due to inab i l i ty on their part to be effective. They suggested that real community planning by the "ordinary" working c i t izen was thwarted because of lack of power. In their opinion the Community Chest and Council was s t i l l accepted as another "tool of industry" which belonged to the upper economic classes of society. They intimated that the control of finances put labour in an infer ior posit ion of dependency. Although Bellingham had been re lat ively free of labour-management s tr i fe , lack of co-operation between the two groups was 7, A few labour representatives did attend council and committee meetings but i t was accepted that these persons spoke as individual cit izens f i r s t and labour representatives second. 56, obvious, while there was unequal b a r g a i n i n g power. Labour l e a d e r s f u r t h e r explained t h a t t h e i r members f e l t t h a t "Labour" was p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Chest and C o u n c i l because of t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y h i g h support during the annual Chest D r i v e s f o r f i n a n c e s . Among many other reasons f o r l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the C o u n c i l was that "Labour" had t r a d i t i o n a l l y shown h i g h concern f o r employment, housing, h e a l t h , and education o p p o r t u n i t i e s , w i t h l e s s i n t e r e s t f o r r e c r e a t i o n as a b a s i c need.® Very l i m i t e d progress was made i n g a i n i n g "labour p a r t i c i p a t i o n " that was seen as necessary i n working w i t h contentious s o c i a l problems. Other f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t e d survey p l a n n i n g were the f e e l i n g s attached to recognized community problems w i t h which the survey was d i r e c t l y concerned. I t was soon r e a l i z e d t h a t to b u i l d support f o r the survey, much p o s i t i v e p u b l i c i t y would be needed. To r e f e r to "community needs", "delinquency" or youth problems, "depressed areas", "l a c k of f i n a n c i a l support", and other such s o c i a l phenomena, i n as p o s i t i v e a manner as p o s s i b l e , aroused a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and g u i l t i n c i t i z e n s . I n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , 8 Bellingham, s i m i l a r to the whole state of Washington, has a comparatively h i g h labour p o p u l a t i o n . ( H i s t o r i c a l l y , "Labour" i n Bellingham voted Democratic. The.State of Washington has a Republican Government i n power at present.) The h i g h incidence of home-ownership would i n d i c a t e a secure f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n f o r the average f a m i l y . There was an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t , however, i n r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r labour f a m i l i e s (e.g., The C e n t r a l Labour C o u n c i l r e c e n t l y purchased ex-Y.M.C.A. f a c i l i t i e s , which are t o be used mainly f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes). 57. "surveying existing recreational services" had a connotation of investigation, "police-work" or censorship to most c i t izens . This implied that much was wrong about past work in community recreation, and that efforts had been unwisely used. There was awareness that the community problems were human ones, existing i n a setting for which the citizens were very proud. Survey committee members were aware that elements of unpleasantness and gu i l t were attached to studying unpopular subjects. Furthermore, even with the assistance of outside help, the ab i l i ty of the community "to help i t s e l f " and thereby maintain i t s self-respect, was questioned. A "qualitative" survey meant studying relative matters which, to many cit izens, few definite and comprehensive answers could be given, and i t was f e l t this also would arouse resistance to the survey by the c i t izens . A l l cit izens had natural interests in themselves and primary groups such as their families and churches, but to be concerned with "the community" and especially with such aspects as "forces operating in i t " demanded "larger thinking" and maturity of a higher-than-average degree. It was expected that few persons would fee l capable and confident i n working in the survey without considerable assurance being given. Moveroyer, whether or not sufficient numbers of cit izens i n Bellingham actually were acquainted with, or had enough practice or experience i n dealing with community affairs, to support 58. what was termed a "broad base" or a "high degree of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n " , was questioned. I t was r e a l i z e d that much support i n b u i l d i n g s e c u r i t y i n the community study would be necessary, and t h i s e s p e c i a l l y while the survey was g a i n i n g momentum during the preparatory and planning stages. The pre-survey meetings th a t were h e l d , d e a l t w i t h some contentious community problems that had r e c e i v e d l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e meetings before. There was awareness that l i t t l e had been accomplished i n the p a s t w i t h these problems, and t h a t c i t i z e n s commonly used many "defenses" against r e a l i s t i c a l l y working w i t h c i v i c matters. To "escape", " r a t i o n a l i z e " , and "regress" were not uncommon. Regarding "escaping" community problems, i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t when i t came to studying unpopular subjects, few c i t i z e n s 1 a l l e g i a n c e to the community was h i g h enough to obtai n the support r e q u i r e d to overcome the problems. One of the predominant thoughts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s , which was expressed by c i t i z e n s during survey a c t i v i t i e s , was the "inconsequence of the i n d i v i d u a l " or the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t one person of "ord i n a r y " s t a t u s was unable to do much about s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . I t was remarked th a t one person "might j u s t as w e l l save time and e f f o r t by f o r g e t t i n g " community problems. This amounted to withdrawal or escape, from t h i n k i n g and a c t i n g on problems a f f e c t i n g the welfare of the c i t i z e n s . 59. The tendency towards r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n v/as common. I t o f t e n was expressed i n terms v a r y i n g from "our community i s tops* — these problems are being magnified" to "they w i l l solve themselves as has happened i n the p a s t " . Regression® a l s o was evident during the survey. Other defence r e a c t i o n s were apparent while r e j e c t i n g s o c i a l problems. These were r e p r e s s i o n (e.g., " l e t ' s concentrate on go a l s f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n the community"), p r o j e c t i o n (e.g., "the k i d s b u i l t the Tomahawk Club; it?s t h e i r problem") and subli m a t i o n . With reference t o the l a t t e r , the survey p r o v i d e d an e f f e c t i v e means f o r l e a d e r s and other c i t i z e n s i n the community to acceptably express t h e i r f e e l i n g s (such as h o s t i l i t y , f e a r , and g u i l t ) regarding community problems, to agencies, l e a d e r s and other c i t i z e n s who p a r t l y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r them. While the survey was e v o l v i n g , and f u r t h e r p r e p a r a t i o n s were being made f o r i t s i n c e p t i o n , f e e l i n g s towards the survey were a f f e c t e d by s p e c i f i c r e l a t e d events. F o r example, i n 1949 the Bellingham Y.M.C.A., and Y.W.C.A. were "surveyed". Although some contentious subjects such as fin a n c e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were g e n e r a l l y reviewed, one important o b j e c t i v e t h a t was acknowledged as being missed, was determining the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these agencies I n the community. This seemed to be caused mainly through the study 9 Ref. Chapter 1, p. 5. 60. being l a r g e l y q u a n t i t a t i v e w i t h emphasis on s t a t i s t i c a l measurements t h a t were not i n t e r p r e t e d adequately. The survey was done by two d i s t i n g u i s h e d Bellingham c i t i z e n s , who worked i n cl o s e co-operation w i t h agency personnel. There seemed t o be l i t t l e awareness of i t s e x i s t e n c e , by the c i t i z e n s i n the community. Agency l e a d e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , were h o s t i l e to the p r o j e c t being c a l l e d a survey, and p r e f e r r e d to term i t "a b r i e f l i m i t e d review". One of the p o s i t i v e outcomes of these s t u d i e s , however, was the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a general survey needed to be made of a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies i n Bellingham. With some emphasis on expenditures of the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A., these s t u d i e s p a r t l y s a t i s f i e d f e e l i n g s expressed by c i t i z e n s i n Bellingham, regarding "how the welfare d o l l a r was being spent". The question of whether agency funds were being used w i s e l y , however, s t i l l remained. With the f e e l i n g t h a t economic c o n d i t i o n s were d e t e r i o r a t i n g , the need f o r a l l r e c r e a t i o n agencies to save money VT&B considered necessary. This was seen p o s s i b l e through c o - o r d i n a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s , which was one of the o b j e c t i v e s of the gene r a l survey t h a t evolved. Although the c i t y - w i d e survey was an a d d i t i o n a l immediate expense to the community, i t was accepted as ah investment f o r the f u t u r e . S h o r t l y before the survey o f f i c a l l y commenced, a s p e c i a l committed'within the Ghest and C o u n c i l i n v e s t i g a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of having a survey done by q u a l i f i e d persons 61. from outside the community, who were s p e c i a l i s t s i n surveying communities. With t h i s approach, emphasis would he on having the survey done f o r , r a t h e r than w i t h , the c i t i z e n s i n the community. The lowest quotation r e c e i v e d f o r "purchase" of such a survey, was approximately |4, 0 00. 1 0 This was f i g u r e d to he too c o s t l y f o r the community to hear. I t was a l s o decided t h a t , although a survey done by " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " would r e q u i r e l i t t l e v olunteer l e a d e r s h i p from w i t h i n the community, l a c k of t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n would work against b u i l d i n g a "carry-over e f f e c t " to a survey. Energy to implement recommendations r e s u l t i n g from a survey, was seen as v i t a l to " e f f e c t i v e n e s s " of a study. With the co-operation of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's School of S o c i a l Work, the cost was f i g u r e d at being about |500. In a d d i t i o n to a meaningful r e p o r t , another, at l e a s t e q u a l l y important o b j e c t i v e aimed a t , was o b t a i n i n g a c t i v e support from l e a d e r s and other c i t i z e n s i n B e l l i n g h a m . 1 1 10 Ref. Appendix "D" 11 Regarding s e l e c t i o n of committee personnel, f o r the f i r s t s t e e r i n g committee of the survey, both l a y and p r o f e s s i o n a l persons were suggested as p o s s i b l e members. I t was a l s o mentioned t h a t such s e l e c t i o n should be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of groups, and according to a b i l i t y , i n t e r e s t * and connections i n the community, Smith, M., l e t t e r from the School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Aug. 5, 1949. 62. In summary, i t can be seen th a t needs and d e s i r e s f o r the survey i n t e n s i f i e d during the f i v e years before i t s i n c e p t i o n . The survey evolved as i f i n answer to r e c r e a t i o n problems e x i s t i n g i n the community. Although i t was an i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n i n t e r e s t , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e groups i n Bellingham became concerned about these r e c r e a t i o n a l problems. The Bellingham R e c r e a t i o n Commission and Community Chest and C o u n c i l , worked c l o s e l y together i n supporting the coamunity study that evolved. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the survey, however, was l e f t to the. Bellingham Community Chest and C o u n c i l . This body r e a l i z e d I t s p o s i t i o n i n regards to a community-wide study; i n s o f a r as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was concerned the Chest and C o u n c i l was not strong, and the g o a l was h i g h . The survey was a challenge to them. While c o n s i d e r i n g the p r a c t i c a l i t y of the survey some prophesying was r e q u i r e d to determine whether c o n d i t i o n s were such, t h a t the survey would g a i n the support that would be necessary. Chapter IV THE PROCESS OF ACCOMPLISHMENT The Bellingham survey was conducted mostly between' the months of September, 1949, and June, 1950. During these nine months,, just over one hundred persons in the community were direct ly involved in the study. Participation was on a voluntary basis--no person was paid for their services. It was found to be f r u i t f u l to have personal contact with community volunteers i n order to secure the benefit of their assistance. A large majority of those who consented to help with the survey already were active in organizations functioning in the community. Committee Participation During the planning stages of the survey, six committees were active. A l l these committees were concerned both with survey objectives and methods. Apart from the Central Steering Committee, these small groups functioned on an average of six weeks each. The work of these committees was of an intensive nature and the results were channelled through the Central Steering Committee for modification and approval. Except for the Central Steering Committee chairman, different members served on each sub-committee. Members of a l l sub-committees belonged to the Central Steering Committee, however, and this f ac i l i t a ted co-ordination of work done i n the various committees. Attendance at committee meetings i s shown i n the following table: 6 4 . Table 1. Survey Cmaaittee Attendance, up to Hay 20th., 1950. number of Total Average Attend-Committee He etings Attendance ance per Htg. Central Steering 10 160 16 Objectives 3 15 5 Techniques 5 20 4 Job Analysis 1 5 5 Committee Chairmen 3 12 4 C S C . Executive 5 25 5 Private Agency 2 14 7 Total 29 251 1 Source: Records kept of the survey by the writer. Although the Central Steering Committee had an average attendance at meetings of 16 members, 32 cit izens served on i t at different times. They attended an average of 7.5 meetings each. Pract ica l ly a l l the members of this committee were "leading c i t izens" i n the sense that they held prominent positions in agencies or organizations in Bellingham. There was a noticeable lack, however, of representation from trade unions, and from other organizations to which persons of "ordinary" social status belonged. Considering the high "labour population" 1 in Bellingham, this lack of representation was detrimental to the development of part icipation in the survey. 1 There were 40 A . F . of I . , 5 C . I . O . , and 1 large unaf-f i l i a t e d trade unions in Bellinghan in 1949. One labour leader estimated that two out every three adult persons l i v i n g in the c i ty , were "members of the l i b our class" . 65. Table 2 COMMITTEE PERSOl^ IBL AND PARTICIPATION Summary of Attendance at Committee Meetings, and Contacts made by the Workers, during the Recreation Survey, up to May 20, 1950 A. Members direct ly concerned wl th Recreation Services NAME FIELD NUMBER MTGS. COMMITTEE ATTENDED Jiiss wT~Physical Training Instructor (Chairman of the Survey) . Miss B. Y.W.C.A. Executive Secretary Mr. R. Pub-Lie Recreation Director Mr. S-. Boys Scouts Assoc. Member Mr. 0. Y.M.C.A. Executive Secretary Mr. G. Recreation Director, Schools Mr. H. Fairhaven Club Executive Scty 'Mrs. F . Campfire Assoc. Ex. Scty. Mrs. H. Tomahawk Club Ex. Scty. Mr. P. Boys Scouts Assoc. Ex. Scty. . 0 . s. c. 6 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 1 OTHER 10 9 4 INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS 10 10 2 3 10 1 2 1 4 3 B. Members not direct ly concerned with Recreation Services NAME FIELD NUMBER MTGS. COMMITTEE A' Mr. G. Insurance Co. (Co-chairman of the Executive Survey) Dr. K. Psychologist Mr. J . Public Welfare Ex. Scty. Mr. H. Social Security Ex. Scty. Mr. I. Sociology Instructor Mr. L . Newspaper Reporter Rev. W. Clergyman Mrs. D. Parent Teacher's Assoc. Mrs. B. Free-lance writer Mrs. M. Bellingham City Council Mr. H. Red Cross Assoc. Ex. Scty. Mr. M. Bellingham City Council Mrs. J. "Parent Teacher's Assoc". Rev. C. Clergyman Mrs. L . Housewife Mr. N. Probation Officer Miss T. Central Labour Council Mr. B. Chief of Police Dr. R. Teacher Training Instructor Mr. M. Personnel Manager -Mrs. E . Housewife Mrs. L . Bookkeeper Mr. R. College Student c . s. c. 2 2 6 6 2 4 1 6 3 4 3 2 2 3 1 3 1 TENDED OTHER. 3 3 5 12 2 3 1 2 2 2 1 2 INDIVIDUAL .CONTACTS 4 1 3 11 5 3 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 Source: Compiled from records of the survey, kept by the writer. 66* 2 From a review of the Central Steering Committee personnel and their part icipation in the survey, i t can be seen that the Bellingham recreation agencies were in close contact with the study. There was considerable professional advice regarding recreation services in Bellingham, to be had at the C.S.C. meetings, since a l l organizations but one ( i . e . , Boysport) were represented, in comparison with the 3 "lay members", the average professional member attended more survey meetings than did the average lay member. There were more than twice as many lay members, however, than there were professional members who belonged to the C.S.C. Objectivity to the study was heightened because of the support of lay members, i t should be noted that a majority of the lay members were active in the f i e l d of welfare, -and this fact assisted the relating of recreation to other yrelfsxe services. Both the chairman and co-chairman, who were members of the professional and lay groups respectively, were active i n sub-committee work. Similar to the workers they had many "individual contacts" , 4 and these also helped by way of 2 Subsequent references to the Central Steering Committee, are indicated by the let ters C.S.C. 3 The term "lay members" i s used to refer to those C.S.C. members l i s t ed in Table 2 , part "B". These persons were interested in recreation and the survey, and voluntarily donated their services. 4 "Individual contacts" refers to conferences or interviews that.were held for specific purposes that were related direct ly to survey work. Correspondence, and telephone ca l l s , which, by necessity, increased as the survey pro-gressed, were excluded from the numbers of "individual contacts". 67. exchange of information regarding central and sub-committee 5 work. Survey Methods The f i r s t few committee meetings i n the survey were concerned c h i e f l y with the getting together of representatives from as many groups i n Bellingham as possible. This group was known from the s t a r t as the Central Steering Committee. During the f i r s t two meetings, problems d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y connected with recreation were considered. Opinions were expressed and ideas shared. Objectives and techniques f o r the survey were suggested. The purpose of these meetings was not only to form a base of thinking f o r future sub-committees to use, but also to get the representatives informed about the survey so that they would be able to in t e r p r e t back to the i r "home" groups. This was to be the chief means of "spreading the base of the survey" or procuring c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . At the f i r s t C.S.C. meeting, the following committees were set up: (a) Objectives, (b) Techniques, and (c) P u b l i c i t y . The purposes of the C.S.C. increased, as i t came to be the central u n i t f o r the survey. Since much i n i t i a t i v e was l e f t i n the sub-committees' work, the use of "central" rather than "upper", f o r the main committee, was considered appropriate. 5 The term "sub-committee" purposely was not used during the survey. Committee members preferred naming each committee, and doing away with the p r e f i x "sub" which they f e l t implied unimportance. 6 8 , As reports from the sub-committees were.cleared in the C.S.C. progress in the total survey became evident. Through co-ordinating the work of the committees, direction of the survey was achieved. (a) The purpose of the Objectives Committee was to pin down ideas that had been expressed in the C.S.C. Working from previously expressed opinions, and focusing on "what" was to be survey, the group (six members) was expected to do the intensive thinking that was believed to be feasible in a small committee. Written Objective Committee reports were presented to the C.S.C. for changes and approval. (b) The Techniques Committee (six members) also received guidance from and gave direction to the C.S.C. It worked i n close co-operation v/ith the Objectives Committee, and focused on the -"how" of the survey. Its responsibil i ty was to devise appropriate means of accomplishing the general and specific objectives that had been recommended. 6 It was thought, best to have small committees of members who were sk i l led in particular areas, work on such specific tasks, as suggesting survey objectives. This procedure of "breaking the survey into appropriate parts" v/as a valuable means of developing insight during the survey. It was helpful to have members accept responsibil i ty for particular areas of work in the study—usually an area, in which they v/ere interested, v/as chosen by members volunteering their services. A disadvantage of having small committees functionvwas that control of the survey was possible by a minority group. To avoid possible misuse of power, i t was necessary that the sub-committees gain acceptance of their work by the "representative" central committee. A leadership job was done when committee chairmen brought reports back to the C.S.C. 69. (c) The Publ ic i ty Committee's purpose was defined simply as "creating publ ic i ty and enlist ing participants in the survey". Despite this high responsi-b i l i t y , only one or two leaders in the survey served on this important committee. The reason given for this was that publ ic i ty was recognized as a specialized task that had to be done by persons who had many contacts in the community. The Publ ic i ty Committee members attended a l l committee meetings that functioned during the planning stage, and this added, to the inter-exchange of information. The Publ ic i ty Committee assumed a functional approach i n that particular incidents of news value were used to publicize the whole survey. Publ ic i ty v/as achieved mainly through interpretation given by C.S.C. members through personal contacts. Newspaper items and material printed at the Community Chest offices, was considered by the C.S.C. as supplemental. During the f i r s t month of the survey, concern was expressed in several ways for recreational needs, resources, gaps, and duplications. C.S.C. members agreed that cit izens of a l l ages l i v i n g i n any area in Bellingham should be considered. Much early interest also was shown for the community's leisure-time fac i l i t i e s , , programmes, and leadership. High concern also developed for agency finances, administration and co-ordination of recreational services within the community. Subsequently, during the f i r s t month of the survey, the approach outlined by the following organizational chart, was recommended by the workers from U.B.C. I 70 F i g . 1. Method proposed by Social Workers from U.B.C, Big Representative Group C.S.C. Functional Objectives Techniques Publ ic i ty Committees Background F a c i l i t i e s He i ghb ourho o d Leadership Programme Finances Admin*n & Co-ord'n With the creation of "community ferment" and the blossoming out of the C.S.C. that was anticipated, the above "Big Representative Group" was to consist of many citizens regardless of their age, background, position, or other factors of difference. This over-all group of "ordinary-people" was expected to have several meetings, at which times the work of the C.S.C.L would he approved and new ideas gained. From the "Big Representative Group" i t also was expected to enl i s t many participants for the study. It was presumed that the cit izens receiving recreational services would have much to contribute to the appraisal of the services. The functional committees .were seven in a l l . (a) Background Committee; The purpose of this committee v/as to provide descriptive h i s tor ica l information about the development of recreation within the community, to the end 71o that appropriate introductory material would be available for other committee reports. A l l committee reports, in turn, would be included in the f ina l survey report, and the report by the Background Committee was to serve as introductory material. How Bellingham1 s recreational f a c i l i t i e s came into being, for example, was one task of the Background Committee. (b) Neighbourhood Committee: The purpose of this committee was to focus on neighbourhood areas existing in the c i ty of Bellingham, and to seek out the recreational needs of the cit izens in each such area. (Due to the scope of the work of this committee i t was expected to have many more members on i t than ©another functional groups.) (c) F a c i l i t i e s Committee: The purpose of this committee was to review the recreational f a c i l i t i e s that existed in the community. This study would include both tax-and voluntary-supported agencies and organizations. (d) Programme Committee: The purpose of this committee was to study recreation programmes being conducted in the community, from a citizen-participant* s point of view. As in a l l functional committees, this would involve studying the relationships of the various programmes conducted in a l l the leisure-time agencies. (e) Leadership Committee:- The purpose, of this committee \^ as to review the leadership involved in the recreational set-up in Bellingham. Again, this called for observing the community^ leadership resources from abroad as well as 72. specific point of view. What the leadership pattern was in each agency and in the whole community, was held as important. (f} Administration and Co-ordination Committee: The purpose of this committee was to study how the different agencies carried out their purposes and functions, and how their services were administered in relat ion to other existing recreational services in the community. (g) Finance Committee: The purpose of this committee was to study the amounts of money available for recreational purposes in Bellingham, and to relate each agency's f inancial structure to the tota l f inancial set-up in the community. It can he seen from this , that each committee was involved in studying these subjects dealing with recreation, from agency and community points of view. The community approach involved studying the relationships of various organizations providing leisures-time services i n the community. This allowed for c i t izen participation, i n terms of thought and action, to he done on the part of members serying on the functional committees. It meant that these committees operated at the level of persons in the community receiving recreational services. Preference v/as shown for this approach by one Private Agency Committee member, who expressed the theory that "as far as leisure-time services were concerned, cit izens were more interested in where f a c i l i t i e s were located, and what sort of leaders 7 3 o were present, than i n what groups sponsored the services or the philosophy "behind a particular agency. Each functional committee was "dynamic'' in respect to viewing the stages of development of the particular aspect of recreation "being studied. In doing this , problems direct ly related to recreation (e.g. , delinquency, and commercialism of recreation), were facedby a l l committees. There was necessary a high degree of co-ordination and integration of work between the committees, and this was accomplished through the chairman and co-chairman of the C . S . C , the chairmen of the functional committees, the members of the Objectives, Techniques and Publici ty Committees, and the social workers. Some functional committees were expected to be more active than others during the survey procedure. The Administration and Co-ordination, and Finance Committees, for example, were expected to be more active after the other functional committees had reached a peak of act iv i ty . From the C.S.C. members' points of view, this was an advantage, i n that i t allowed attention to be focused as need was required, on the work of the various committees. 7 It was not implied that any one recreation agency in Bellingham was unimportant. Decreased interest was shown for particular agencies and increased concern for the total job to which a l l agencies and organizations were contributing. Concern was evident regarding whether or not a "basic minimum" of recreational services for a l l c i t izens, existed in the community. o 74, In summarizing this f i r s t method proposed for the survey, many social work concepts can he realized. Through i t s use, the survey could become a research project and means of community organization. Its comprehensive scope provided for an inclusive or generic study of welfare subjects which were direct ly and indirect ly related to recreation. The group work aspects of the approach, emphasized the use of relationships--resuits of having agency executive directors, for example, meet and work together on the subject of recreation in the total community, was benefic ia l . While looking at the subject from a broad community point of view, however, the importance of the "home" unit , or agency, was not to be overlooked. The welfare of the citizens served by the agencies was kept in mind. The methods proposed for the survey l e f t the way open for expression by the cit izens who were receiving recreational services. Their participation and contribution to the survey was essential to i t s success. F i n a l l y , the survey was to be a helping, educating process. The workers suggested the above method in order to have a framework within which the citizens would be enabled to understand welfare conditions in the community, and to take action to change adverse conditions. Decisions to be made during the study, were l e f t to the members of the survey committees. Individuals and groups were encouraged to participate in the self-study, and thereby help themselves. Participation was gained through 7 5 o attracting citizens to worthwhile goals and through assisting, them to r e a l i s t i c a l l y accept the survey as a means of self-help. While considering the approach suggested by the workers from the School of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia/ and while working through resistances to i t , the Techniques Committee suggested the following approach: .8 g ig . 2 . Method proposed by the Techniques Committee Big Representative Group C.S.C. Functional Background Finance Objectives Techniques Npublicity Committees Commercial Neighbourhood Private Agencies Public Agencies The essential differences between this approach and the previous one considered, were in the methods of studying the agencies. With the use of the Techniques Committee approach, i t was proposed to study each public, private, and commercial organization separately, in what was called a "ver t ica l " or "straight-down-the-line" manner. In reviewing each agency in this fashion, the relat ion of i t to the community would be one factor included in the review. It was considered pract ical to have one committee (e.g., the Public Agency Committee), rather than several committees (e.g., 8 Ref. Appendix " E " . F a c i l i t y , Programme, and Leadership Committees), consult with each agency. This would permit establishment and continuation of relationships of survey members of one committee with an agency. Relationships between survey members and agency personnel , were f e l t to be of primary importance. Those objecting to this approach, pointed out that such relationships could be established with the use of the afore mentioned approach, and that through the same members studying several agencies in the community, objectivity would be- enhanced. Another disadvantage of the U.B.C. approach, that was pointed out, was expressed in terms of "you don't study the fenders, t i res , etc. of a car separately, to see how a car runs", or, in order to see one part of an agency you should see the most important part f i r s t . The reply given to this method suggested, was i n the form of a question: "Is 'recreation in one agency' more important than 'recreation in the community'?". Both were accepted as being inseparable and important. The U.B.C. method provided for study of recreation in the community in various "parts". These parts were leadership, programme, etc. The Techniques Committee method provided for the breakdown into parts such as types of recreation agencies (e.g. , Private Agency, Public Agency Committees). This la t ter approach emphasized the importance of an agency, which was likened to "a car motor". The C.S.C. members who favoured the U.B.C. method, pointed out that, from the point of view of a c i t izen needing recreation 77. services, what programmes were available in the community, was of primary importance. It was acknowledged that with the use of the Techniques Committee approach, and the studying of each agency by i t s e l f , there would be a tendency for committee members to overemphasize agency s tat i s t ics , or to do "a counting job". This was seen as working against intensive thinking at the level of the functional committee. Analysis of committee material probably would be concentrated in the C . S . C , rather than in the sub-committees, where, what was termed a "horizontal" or "across-the-board" community view, would be taken. Functional committee members studying relationships of recreational programmes in the c i ty , was held as v i t a l to obtaining a community approach. The community approach was seen as essential to having rea l i s t i c c i t izen participation in the survey. Three months after the survey formally commenced, the C.S.C. members were undecided regarding which of the various approaches that had been suggested, should be used. Early in January, a Job Analysis Committee was formed. It was set up to review past methods suggested for the survey, and, i f possible, to integrate these methods into one workable approach A comprehensive Job Analysis Committee report evolved* 1^ From i t , the essentials of the method suggested, are shown in the following chart. 9 No method proposed for the survey was formally dis-approved in any meeting. The C.S.C. members seemed to prefer working towards an integration of a l l methods suggested. This was thought to constitute a "building-on" of former methods recommended. Thus there was a continuing thread from one method to another. 10 Ref. Appendices " F " , "S". 78. F i g . 3. Method proposed "by the Job Analysis Committee C.S.C. job Analysis Cte. Informational Cte. Analysis Cte. I Background Cte. E d i t o r i a l Cte. 1 Aspiration Cte. Status Cte. Programme neighbour-hood F a c i l i t i e s Leadership Finances Admfn and Co-ord rn Juvenile Problems Commercial Handicapped Through having the past, present, and future development of recreation in Bellingham examined, i t was anticipated that many answers or clues to leisure-time needs and services would be found. This was to be accomplished through having a Background Committee deal with the past history of recreation in the c i ty , a Status Committee work with the present development of recreation, and the Aspirations Committee deal with what the cit izens would l ike i n the way of leisure-time services. The Status Committee was to focus on what existed in the community in terms of f a c i l i t i e s , programmes, for instance, and this committee naturally was expected to be a large one. This group was not expected to go into the developmental picture of such aspects as recreational leadership, and finances. 7 9 . This whole approach was considered more feasible because of i t s s implicity. C.S.C. members f e l t that because of the l imitations in terms of support and time l e f t for the survey, a simplified study, with clear-cut responsibi l i t ies for each sub-committee, was required. Simplicity furthered understanding of the survey at a time when increased security seemed to be needed. Constant reviewing of the survey objectives also heightened C.S.C. members* understanding of the study. At the same time, the approach recommended by the Job Analysis Committee, 1 1 was considered by the C.S.C. to be an integration of past approches suggested, in that i t embodied the essential features of the U.B.C. and Techniques Committee methods. Shortly after the presentation of the J .A.C. method, however, i t became evident that i t was more of a eompromise, in that parts were dropped of each of the previously suggested approaches. Although parts of the U.B.C. method were retained through the functions of the Status sub-committees, with the use of the J .A.C. method, the bulk of' the thinking to be done in the survey, was to be transferred to the Analysis Committee. The Analysis Committee was to be a re lat ively small one. Should further control in the survey develop, i t was expected that i t would occur i n the Analysis Committee. 11 Subsequent references to the Job Analysis Committee, are shown with the l e t t e r s " J . A . C . 1 1 . 3 0 . During the f o u r t h month of the survey, while attempting to r e t a i n a " q u a l i t a t i v e study" or a survey w i t h r e a l c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , f u r t h e r compromises were made. The f o l l o w i n g method, w i t h s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y committees, was f i n a l l y decided to he used as a working basi3 f o r the survey. g i g . 4. Method proposed by the C.S.C. C.S.C. Obj e c t i v e s Executive Cte. Techniques P u b l i c i t y F u n c t i o n a l Committees Background P r i v a t e Agency Cte. Neighbourhood Trade Labour Union Cte. Tax-supported Agency Cte. Churche s Commercial Cte. Service Clubs and misc. F r a t e r n a l and Veterans Cte. The above approach was used as a means of determining r e c r e a t i o n a l needs, gaps, s e r v i c e s , and d u p l i c a t i o n s . These f a c t o r s were kept i n mind by survey v o l u n t e e r s serving on the above small f u n c t i o n a l committees. The Trade Labour Union Committee, f o r i n s t a n c e , used questionnaires w i t h union members i n order to a s c e r t a i n what t h e i r members were doing, and wanted to do, i n the way of r e c r e a t i o n . The Neighbourhood Committee focused on the needs and d e s i r e s of c i t i z e n s i n what were considered " t y p i c a l " or average neighbourhood b l o c k s . The P r i v a t e Agency Committee d i d s i m i l a r i l y w i t h 81. the seven p r i n c i p a l l e i s u r e - t i m e agencies t h a t were v o l u n t a r i l y supported by the c i t i z e n s . Information from committees such as these, was used "by the other survey committees. This means of c o - o r d i n a t i n g survey work was done through progress r e p o r t s given during the many C i S . C . meetings. The C . S . C . was the main group of the survey and through i t , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the c i t i z e n s became informed about r e c r e a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s i n Bellingham. Chapter V THE STAGES OS* DEVELOPMEHT It i s generally accepted that, in addition to such recommendations as are made, a valuable outcome of a community study i s the education afforded to the participants. This i s especially so in the case of a "self-appraisal" type of study, such as the Bellingham survey. With the timely help of advisors, citizen-members in this type of survey are required to recognize community problems, to secure factual information about them, to study and Integrate material gathered, and to make recommendations to be implemented. How this i s done in the case of annual agency reviews, i s clearly revealed in a thesis written on the subject. 1 The educational benefits of community surveys appear to be similar to those gained from a meaningful group experience, in that there i s a broadening of knowledge and the increasing of relationships among participants. New interests, s k i l l s and attitudes develop while members contribute their efforts for the benefit of the community. During a community survey, individual group responsibil ity i s heightened. Education, however, presupposes learning. Learning takes place while participants experience or " l ive with and get the feel of" a project. In other words, members come to 1 Thompson, A . E . , A Review "of Social Welfare Agencies: A  study of the annual review procedure practised by the  Portland Council of Social Agencies. Master of Social Work Thesis, School of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949. 83, understand i t on an emotional as well as an inte l lectual "basis. For the purposes of observing the learning processes that occured while the survey developed, four phases of development through which i t passed, are reviewed. These phases or stages have "been termed (1) Preliminary stage, (2) "Sink-or-swim" stage, (3) Intellectual-acceptance stage, and (4) Intellectual-emotional integration stage. (1) Preliminary stage This stage lasted from October 13, 1949, when the Central Steering Committee formally approved of the survey, to November 9, 1949, when survey objectives and techniques crysta l l ized. During this phase there was a bringing together of theories as to what the survey should include and how i t should be done. There were many community problems discussed at meetings held during this period. Diverse opinions were given wide expression. There was much questioning regarding how a "qualitative study" ( i . e . , a study of subjects that were highly intangible in nature, such as the "effectiveness of an agency") involving c i t izen participation could be accomplished. A feeling of high interest but l imited capacity on the part of the community was evident. I t was believed that the involved nature of the community's recreational problems, called for the work of specialists , not for the work of cit izens 2 Reynolds, Bertha C , Learning and Teaching in the Practice of Social Work, Farrar and Rinehart, I n c . , . N . Y . , 1942, pp. 69-85. 84 s who were untrained in regards to working with community problems. During the preliminary stage, there was a tendency to acknowledge d i f f i cu l t i e s and to accept the theory as to what could "be done. It soon "became apparent that there was a lack of real understanding of what was involved and what could "be accomplished through having a study. The attitude that the survey was to "be the f i n a l answer to community, problems, was displayed by one committee member's typical remark, "there are many problems involved in recreation, but these w i l l be analyzed and answered by the survey". Survey members were highly dependent on the community leaders who were among the f i r s t to verbalize acceptance of the survey. These leaders accepted the responsibil ity of enl is t ing the support of other group representatives in the community, who were unaware of the survey. It was noticed, however, that there was reluctance by some individual members to accept responsibil i ty unt i l a group responsibil ity was b u i l t up in the Central Steering Committee. During the f i r s t few months, the C.S.C. came" to represent a "superego" or group consciousness to members of the survey. Members' dependency on one another, was high during this stage. While getting orientated to the community during this period, the social workers acquainted themselves with the problems of recreation in the community. The relationship of the University to the survey groups was not determined clearly, however, the three representatives were able to offer 85. timely assistance and functioned as a team in a general helping way. Different specializations of the workers were used to advantage. The caseworker, for example, was more active in interviewing individuals connected with the survey, while the group worker was more active during committee meetings. Many times, however, both assumed dual functions in working v/ith individuals and groups synonomously. By and large, the roles of the social workers were those of resource and supportive persons. The workers were active especially in the areas of c lar i fying survey objectives, and suggesting methods and techniques during this early development period of the survey. (2) "Sink-or-swim" stage This stage lasted from November to the end of the year. There v/as a carry-over of d i f f i cu l t i e s from the preliminary stage as survey plans became more crystalized. Increased attention was devoted to the methods involved in surveying. Whereas the C.S.C. usually had considered survey objectives f i r s t , and then techniques, the procedure often was reversed during committee meetings held in this stage, because of indecision regarding what approach should be used. There v/as noted confusion during the "sink-or-swim" stage. Confusion seemed to result from lack of understanding. C.S.C. members claimed that they thought the U.B.C. approach was impractical, (e.g. , "agencies would not accept the idea of having members of several committees ca l l ing on them"). They v/ere unable to understand the expressions and terms used 86. "(e.g., "community leadership"), and they disagreed with the philosophy of the approach (e.g., many C.S.C. members said that much direction should "come from the top" in the survey, and that the cit izens would expect this support). Lack of understanding continued despite constant interpretation of the various methods. Terms of reference were spelled out and acceptance of the "ordinary" c i t i zens '^ab i l i ty , was encouraged. Symptomatic of confused feelings regarding the survey were meetings held infrequently, lack of attendance at C.S.C. and sub-committee meetings, and "controls" set up such as manipulation (e.g., publ ic i ty of the survey withheld). While considering the various methods proposed for the study, C.S.C. members gradually moved to the point where they could express negative feelings and frustrations regarding the survey. A peak of frustration seemed to occur, when, at one meeting an Executive Director emphatically announced that the method proposed by the U.B.C. workers "would not work and had never worked before". At this time in the survey, additional help was sought from survey experts i n Seattle, Washington. The question of whether or not the survey should be continued i n Bellingham, hung in the balance. The chairman, co-chairman, original convenor of the survey, and three other "survey leaders", came forward i n leadership, however, to keep the project afloat. These persons seemed to be able to accept the theory of the U.B.C. and other approaches, and continued to work towards devising the most appropriate method to use in studying recreation in Bellingham. 87. During this period, the social worker's main roles were those of supportive and enabling persons. Continual reassurance was given to the leaders who showed theoretical acceptance, at least , of the survey. " . . . . A t the second C.S.C. meeting, a public recreation o f f i c i a l displayed a great degree of hos t i l i ty to the proposed "study. For the following month he withdrew his support from the project. Shortly after, while in discussion with the C.S.C. chairman, i t was pointed out that the assistance of this person, who was in a key position in the community, was essential to the success of the project. The chairman asked that the workers obtain his co-operation, and the workers replied that they would help him. During an interview with another prominent leader in the community, at a later date, an incidental remark was made to the effect that the public recreation o f f i c i a l ' s support to the survey was required. Unknown to the workers, these two persons had a close relationship with each other. Shortly after, the recreational leader was v i s i ted . The benefit of h i s support in providing information was so l ic i ted , regarding the social areas believed to be existing in Bellingham. The leader explained that he had always had a high concern for this subject, and he immediately furnished much information. He also consulted other professional persons present at the time. Following discussion about social areas, the whole survey progress was outlined and the leader was given opportunity to express h i s negative feelings for the survey. Workers accepted his crit icisms and invited additional analysis. He accepted the invitat ion to express his opinions at the next C.S.C. meeting and was given the responsibil ity of assisting i n the work of the Public Agency Committee. . During the last quarter of the interview, the community leader's remarks were favourable towards the survey. Thereafter his co-operation was very positive, and this was highly beneficial to the survey outcome."3 3 Extract from a "personality f i l e " of the Central Steering Committee members, that was kept by the writer during the survey work. 88. (3) intellectual-acceptance stage Characteristic of this stage, i s movement towards understanding and accepting new subject matter on a theoretical basis. There i s increased ab i l i ty to verbalize or discuss new material, there i s movement towards action independent of outside help, and there i s increased acceptance of responsibi l i ty . That the committee members were i n the inte l lectual-acceptance period, was evident during a Central Steering Committee meeting held on December 21st. At this time, the social workers brought in new organizational chart material, and the members were able to verbalize comparison of i t with previous methods which were more familiar to them. There \*as much progress made at this meeting as the C.S.C. moved to a point of recognizing the need for an appropriate method in dealing with the community recreation problems that had arisen* The U.B.C. method was thepretically accepted, only after the method proposed by the Techniques Committee had reached a high degree of understanding. The survey committee remained in this stage for over three months. During this time there was increased ab i l i ty by the C.S.C. members to operate independently of outside help. The workers focused their attention on suggesting techniques that could be used in the survey. They also increased their work with the private recreation agencies in the c i ty . The C.S.C. remained concerned about possible methods that could be used, and, with l i t t l e support 89. from the social workers, worked towards "integrating" past approaches that had been suggested. The C.S.C. members credited themselves for originating most of the method that f i n a l l y was used for the survey. As emphasis changed from "planning" to "act iv i ty" during this stage, there was increased acceptance of responsibi l i t ies within the C.S.C. Sub-committee chairmen and co-chairmen, for example, were obtained. Some "blossoming out" in the functional committees occurred, as cit izens were attracted to assist with specific jobs of work in the survey. It was during this stage, the survey noticably increased in size of membership. Personal satisfactions seemed to be received as progress was made and the C.S.C. members could see tangible results (e.g., reports from questionnaires) of their efforts. There was increased \d.llingness to consider some subjects that i n the past had appeared threatening to the C.S.C. The C.S.C. freely considered the community's juvenile problems, for instance. To the leaders, a turning point had arrived, and act ivi ty in the survey was much more meaningful to them. The C.S.C. chairman wrote "the survey has l e f t the cocoon stage"! During this period the social workers were able to focus on being timely supporters and to be selective where their efforts could best be applied. Increased r e l i a b i l i t y on being spontaneous, and the ab i l i ty to accurately predict future movement in the survey, was afforded. 90. (4) Intellectual-emotional Integration stage From March 27th onward, the C.S.C. members accepted the community study on.an emotional as well as inte l lectual basis. Through being involved in "doing the head and leg work" required for the survey, they had a sense of belongingness to i t . They had a part in creating sub-committee and C.S.C. reports, and through this creative effort, had b u i l t a? psychological feeling of attachment for the study. The survey became "a l i v i n g thing" with the members. While the study reports evolved, the survey participants had become consciously or not, emotionally involved, and "force" or energy resulted, with which to carry the study further. It was during this stage that the central survey group came to function interdependently with the social work team. This was evidenced through reliance on themselves for much of the work that needed to be done during the last quarter of the survey. At the same time, however, they were aware of their " l imitat ions" . At points in the study where the C.S.C. members f e l t that assistance of a technical nature was needed, they called on the social workers for support. The social workers, for example, accepted responsibil i ty to help evaluate some of the private agencies in regards to effectiveness of services. In addition, one small part of the f i n a l survey report was submitted by the workers. Recognition that the group had attained a high point in the intellectual-emotional integration stage came, when leaders in the Central Steering Committee expressed the opinion that the Bellingham Recreational Survey should he used as a model, to show other communities in the State what could he done in reviev/ing a c i t y ' s recreational set-up. Inferred v/as an ab i l i ty to teach others, and this indicated a high sense of satisfaction v/ith the level of accomplishment that was attained. Through reviewing the above stages, some insight can be obtained into the learning process and emotional development that took place in the Central Steering .Committee. As self-help was encouraged and ab i l i ty increased, this central group passed from a position of dependency ( i . e . , Preliminary Stage), to a position of some acceptance of independency ( i . e . , "Sink-or-Swiin" Stage), to almost over-independency ( i . e . , Intellectual Acceptance Stage), and to . inter-dependency ( i . e . , Intellectual-emotional Integration Stage). There was a continuing thread from one stage to the other. Much overlapping of the stages also took place, and this occurred partly because new members always v/ere being added. Although the C.S.C. moved in the direction of maturation indicated, i t should be noted that the stages of survey development were measured chiefly in terms of the methods that were applied during the study.- As reviewed in Chapter Four of this thesis, the majority of the Central Steering Committee members claimed that the 'JC. S.C. • method" that f i n a l l y was used, was an "integration" of past methods. 92. In that integration means a "combination of parts without loss to any one p a r t " , 4 however, the C .S .C . ' s def init ion of integration would not seem to apply. Since essential features v/ere omitted of the U.B.C. method that had been recommended, at i t s best the C.S.C. method amounted to a "compromise" of previously suggested methods. With the use of the C.S.C. method, some important subjects (e.g. , agency finances), were dropped from the study. This meant that some of the main objectives of the survey, such as studying recreation problems existing i n the community, were not reached. In other words, while the C.S.C. members f e l t much progress had been made during the survey, such progress was measured with reference to applying the C.S.C. method and reaching some of the important objectives of the study. At the same time, however, progress as related to other important survey objectives, appeared to be l imited. Considering a l l methods and objectives involved in the survey, 5 the C.S.C. remained in the "Intellectual acceptance" stage. Survey methods and stages of development four methods were used and four stages of learning took place, in the Central Steering Committee. 4 Metcalf, Wr. and Urwick, D . , Dynamic Administration, The Association Press, JF.Y., 1947, p. 68. 5 This stage i s reviewed on p. 88. 93, F ig * 5. Duration of Survey Methods and Stages of Learning Method Dates (1949-50) 1. U.B.C. Oct. 21 to Nov. 23 2. Techniques Cte. Nov. 9 to Nov. 29 3. J . A . C . Dec. 8 to Jan. 9 4. C.S.C. (Compromise Approach) Jan. 30 onward. • Stages of Learning Dates (1949-50) 1. Preliminary Oct. 13 to Nov. 9 2. "Sink-or-Swim" Nov. 9 to Dec. 21 3. Intellectual-acceptance Dec. 21 to Mar. 27 4. Intellectual-emotional Integration Mar. 27 onward. From this chart, i t can he seen that the C.S .C. * s stages of learning and the main methods used, were closely related in regards to when each occurred. It also suggests that the understanding of methods, figured in the development of the learning stages. The strength of the survey was in direct relat ion to the ab i l i ty of the community to organize and to carry through with i t . As with any community project l ike a survey, the epigram "a chain i s only as strong as i t s weakest l ink" can be applied. The weakest element in the Bellingham survey 9 4 . appeared to be any individual leader who, for several reasons (e.g. , inte l lectual and emotional development, vested interests) and through various methods, could control and hinder the development of the project. Such a form of resistance was overcome to some degree by Central Steering Committee "pressure", yet the f i n a l outcome of the survey was adversely affected. Despite such influence, the survey had many democratic aspects. It was conducted by both leaders and followers in Bellingham, a l l of whom volunteered their services for the benefit of the community. Several Committee members reflected that, i t was seldom cit izens had the opportunity to "work for the community". The survey provided a means whereby cit izens could participate d irect ly in a city-wide project aimed at helping a l l individuals to gain a better understanding of recreation in Bellingham. Chapter VI THE SIGNIFICANCE OP THE SURVEY Most of the Bellingham survey act ivity took place over a period of eight months. During that time, development of the project seemed to come quickly for the f i r s t month, slowly for the three months following, and in rapid surges of growth for the remaining four months. The project was seen, at f i r s t , as the answer to contentious problems that existed in the c i ty concerning-recreation. Hope was high for the effectiveness of the project, consequently leading" cit izens turned out to support the study in the beginning weeks. The survey then seemed to go through a "testing period", during which time the project received some support but much rejection in the community. A handful of leaders and the three workers carried the study along during this time. Gradually, plans crystal l ized regarding survey methods to be used, and support was enlisted for l imited responsibi l i t ies in the study. The survey appeared to he re-accepted by leaders -in the c i ty , and support for the study rapidly increased. Prom the experience gained in the survey, some conclusions can be drawn: 1• In order to have a community survey, there needs  to be a "broad base" or a high degree of c i t izen -participation. Most of the recreation problems that became apparent in Bellingham, and which added to the impetus to have a survey, rested with the citizens themselves. Por instance, the c i ty was spread out and the ci t izens 1 loyalty to support the 9 6 . centrally-located recreational f a c i l i t i e s that were deemed desirable by many leaders in the c i ty , seemed to be highly questionable. The matter of f inancial support for the existing leisure-time services in the centre of the c i ty and in the neighbourhoods, also depended on the support of the ci t izens . In order for the survey to be a means of assistance to the community, consideration was necessary of f inancial problems in the community. To have a survey without the active participation of the cit izens who were in the "front l i n e " as far as the f inancial and other community recreation problems were concerned, was to have a false base for the study. 2 . Cit izen participation in a community survey, i s dependent on the ab i l i ty of cit izens to jo in in' community  affairs . Although the citizens of Bellingham could understand the reasons for having a survey, and were interested in i t , their ab i l i ty to participate also was affected by the lack of opportunity in the past to share or experience community planning. The degree of democratic functioning in community affairs seemed to be l imited. "Labour" representation, for example, on inf luentia l bodies such as the Community Chest and Council, had almost been non-existent down through the years. Considering the high number of families in the "labour class" in the c i ty , this lack of representation was a serious matter. Cit izen participants in the survey said that there had been few opportunities for them to participate in 97. community projects. The implication was that the c i t izen of average status had l i t t l e voice in matters affecting his welfare. The pattern of leadership that seemed to exist in Bellingham, worked aganist democratic participation of cit izens; cit izens of ordinary status did not "belong to the groups in the c i ty that were acknowledged as being the most powerful ( i . e . , the City Council, the Chambers of Commerce, the Board of Trade, the Coimuunity Chest, and the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. Boards). The c i t izens ' ab i l i ty to participate in community affairs also was influenced by the amount of training received. The workers were of the opinion that there were inadequate opportunities for cit izens to "learn democracy". There were few recreation agencies, for example, where the focus was on citizens gaining experience in deciding their own programmes and assuming responsibi l i t ies for themselves, for the agency, and for community affairs . There seemed to be few trained leaders in the agencies who could assist members to have the benefit of democratic experiences and to help the members to move to the point where they could participate in community affairs . Mature thinking was required to participate at the community l eve l . The home, school, church, and recreation agency had v i t a l parts to play in this development. 1 The Mayor of Bellingham, however, gained the support of Labour groups in the c i ty in 1949. 9 8 . 3. A survey can be a means of developing c i t izen  participation in community affairs. Any review of progress in a survey, should he made in the l ight of the d i f f i cu l t i e s that were involved. The Bellingham survey did not develop the amount of c i t izen participation that was expected. Opportunity for the development of this participation was l imited, mainly because of the method that f i n a l l y was employed. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia method that had been proposed for the stud$ allowed for the development of "thinking, acting, and feeling;' in the functional committees where cit izens were most l i k e l y to participate. The breakdown of survey content into "leadership", "programme", etc . , was in terms of what the ordinary c i t izen was concerned with, in regards to recreational services in the community. The Central Steering Committee method that f i n a l l y v/as used, permitted c i t izen participation of a less-meaningful type. Por example, the analyzing of material collected by the sub-committees, was to be done at the C.S.C. l eve l , where only the leaders of the survey were active. The C.S.C. method restricted participation of the citizens in the areas where contentious problems existed. The citizens seemed to have many questions regarding agency finances and administration, for example, but there v/as l i t t l e opportunity for consideration of these matters in the survey by the cit izens of "average" status. The reasons suspected for the "heading-off" of the study of these important subjects in the -survey, were: 99. (a) lack of confidence by the Central Steering Committee members during the important planning stages, of t h e i r own and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia personnel 1 s a b i l i t y , (b) "vested i n t e r e s t s " would be threatened (e.g., "you can't s t r i p an agency's soul bare i n front of the p u b l i c " ) , (c) personality problems of some of the C.S.C. members who were i n key positions and who through various means, could "control" the survey, (d) lack of unity within the community (e.g., "labour" and "management" groups did not co-operate together), and (e) lack of confidence by the C.S.C. members 2 i n the a b i l i t y of c i t i z e n s of "ordinary" status, to pa r t i c i p a t e i n a, thorough-going survey. Several C.S.C. members reasoned that a survey should be a r e l a t i v e l y simple one, else much "dire c t i o n from above" and expert advice, would be needed. As the survey passed through the planning stages, the C.S.C. members f e l t that, regardless of the amount or kind of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , they were committed to having a, good survey report evolve. Nevertheless, with the use of the Central Steering Committee method, the survey did achieve success i n bringing c i t i z e n s together to review some of the important recreation conditions i n the community. The many questionnaires used and interviews held with the c i t i z e n s , f o r example, encouraged thought about recreation needs and services i n the community. Over one hundred c i t i z e n s accepted r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s " A b i l i t y " defined here, as "capacity, inte r e s t , and experience". 100. i n the s u r v e y , such as p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s i x t e e n sub-committees t h a t f u n c t i o n e d . Compared w i t h p a s t community p r o j e c t s , t h e r e was a h i g h degree of l a b o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s u r v e y . A t a C e n t r a l S t e e r i n g Committee, the .chairman of the La b o u r Committee s t a t e d t h a t " l a b o u r a p p r e c i a t e d b e i n g c o n s u l t e d about r e c r e a t i o n i n the c i t y , and b e i n g asked t o a s s i s t w i t h the study". The f e e l i n g about the su r v e y was t h a t a hand had been extended t o " l a b o u r " because t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n had been i n v i t e d . "Labour" o b v i o u s l y h i g h l y approved of the community st u d y . ~4. Concepts t h a t are i d e n t i f i e d v / i t h the s o c i a l  group v/ork method, need t o be c o n s i d e r e d when a community  p r o j e c t i s attempted, such as a survey of r e c r e a t i o n . D u r i n g the s u r v e y , committee members c o n s t a n t l y were reminded of the importance of d i s c o v e r i n g the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of the c i t i z e n s i n B e l l i n g h a m , and the r e l a t i n g of these needs t o the c i t y ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l and o t h e r w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the c i t i z e n s of o r d i n a r y s t a t u s i n the study was encouraged, s i n c e t h e y v/ere the ones f o r whom the r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s v/ere b e i n g s u p p l i e d . The su r v e y was seen as a means of h e l p i n g the c i t i z e n s t o u n d e r s t a n d r e c r e a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s , t o the end t h a t they would be p r e p a r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i o n aimed a t i m p r o v i n g the s e r v i c e s t h a t e x i s t e d . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was seen as f e a s i b l e v/hen the c i t i z e n s were g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o do some of the v i t a l t h i n k i n g i n v o l v e d i n the study ( e . g . , a p p r a i s i n g the community programme of l e i s u r e - t i m e s e r v i c e s , v/hieh i n v o l v e d 101. the studying of the kinds of agency •programmes and their relationships with other agency programmes in the community). Through haying many cit izens involved in assisting with the analyzing of survey material, there would he created the " w i l l and energy" necessary to assure carry-over effect to the survey. The use of the U.B.C. method that was proposed for the survey, would have permitted this kind of participation in the community project. The U.B.C. method embodied social group work concepts that would have contributed to the community organization process involved in the survey. These group work principles included: (a) encouraging meaningful c i t izen participation ( i . e . , intel lectual and emotional involvement of the citizens), (b) studying subjects closely concerned with community problems (e.g., f inancial support for recreational agencies), (c) functioning at the level of the citizens ( i . e . , studying of survey material in. the sub-committees), and (d) providing the "ordinary" citizens with the opportunity to develop self-help, through being involved in the improvement of their recreational services. Research i s needed to determine where the "U.B.C. method" that was suggested for the Bellingham survey, can be 3 applied to advantage. It might be that the studying of such aspects as f a c i l i t i e s , leadership, and programme, on a 3 Gustafson H.51., l e t ter to the writer, dated May 30th, 1950, in which an approach similar to the U.B.C. method, was successfully attempted in d i s t r i c t s located in the c i ty of Houston, Texas. 1 0 2 . broad multi-agency "basis, should he attempted within a more compact or smaller area than that which comprises the c i ty of Bellingham. The. writer i s of the opinion that the U.B.C. method could he employed in c i t i e s of any size. Before such a method i s employed, however, there should be adequate preparation for i t s use (e.g., some assessment made of the degree of co-operation between the different economic groups existing in a c i t y ) . 5 . Outside specialized assistance i s valuable in  certain areas of a survey. Although the U.B.C. social workers were active participants in a l l survey committees, more assistance was given in certain areas. General helping roles were assumed throughout the survey, however, increased assistance was given in (1) providing technical information (e.g., referring tb studies carried out in other c i t i e s ) , (2) suggesting methods and techniques for the survey, (3) integrating the work of the various committees, and (4) assisting with the presentation of committee reports. During the survey meetings there v/as considerable free expression of opinions while references were being made to survey objectives and techniques. The workers' were not emotionally involved in the community's recreational problems, and through introducing new material, for example, v/ere able to increase objective thinking during the many committee meetings. The workers' participation in meetings v/as highest, during consideration of survey methods. It v/as while the various methods were being studied that ' 103. "resistances" on the part of individual members to the survey, became apparent. The U.B.C. personnel worked in close co-operation with the appointed leaders of the survey committees. Generally, the workers- "worked through the act iv i ty" , or focused on the interest in the survey, while enlist ing participation for the project. It was found beneficial , for example, to interpret br ie f ly the history or background of the whole survey project when contacting a new member. Presenting a total picture of the survey (e.g., through the ~ use of organizational charts), had the benefit of showing the important part that each sub-committee played. Interpreting the total survey effort, assisted in building enthusiasm for the project. The Central Steering Committee made most of the important decisions required during the survey. The workers assisted the survey committee members to carry out the plan3 that were decided. 6. A community survey should evolve. The results of the Bellingham survey up to May 15th, 1950, showed that progress had been made in understanding recreation conditions in the c i ty . The survey reports that were issued, provided tangible evidence of the accomplishments of the survey. This measurement of progress that was made, was in accordance with the limited degree of understanding of recreation that existed prior to the start of the study. 104. With the functioning of the Community Council, the appointment of an Executive Director for the Chest and Council, and some participation of "labour" on the Council, a start was made in the preparation of a "base" for the survey. A focal point existed in the city where community affairs could be considered. The annual "surveys" of the agencies which belonged to the Chest and Council, also had a part in the development of the recreation survey, in that recreational problems were uncovered. The need for a city-wide study repeatedly was recommended. From 1947 onward, however, increased attention was given to f inancial support for the recreation agencies functioning in the c i ty . The importance of matters closely associated with preparing for the support of the survey, such planning the comisuTiity' s services, was placed secondary to the high concern for finances. When the survey commenced, the Community Chest acknowledged that a community study was required, but the project s t i l l seemed to be considered "incidental" to the main concern for community finances. There were indications that the survey could have •been equally successful had i t occurred in 1947, rather than in 1949. The project could have been a natural outgrowth of the community organization process that had taken place within the Chest and Council in 1946. A survey at that time, also could have been a "building-on" act ivi ty used to increase organization of the welfare services in the c i ty . 1 0 5 . In order to know the reasons for a survey being started, and to be able to appraise the "strengths and l imitations" of a community in regards to a survey, the use of outside assistance as early as possible, would seem advantageous. The development of a community project depends on making the best use of the resources that are available for a study. 7 . A survey has many values. The Bellingham survey had many valuable outcomes. Kb similar project had been attempted before in the c i ty . Although only one hundred and five persons (excluding those citizens who answered questionnaires that were submitted to them) in the community participated, many of them were leaders in the sense that they were well-known by the other cit izens. Many of these leaders were representatives from organizations which were active in the c i ty , and this was important to the dissemination of information about recreation conditions that was obtained during the survey process. Labour participation in the survey was significant. Due to the support of the Bellingham Recreation Commission and the Community Chest and Council, the survey became associated early with what were accepted as "the ruling groups in the c i ty " by the ci t izens . The survey amounted to a pract ical means whereby the citizens of average status were able to express themselves regarding the services that were being provided for their benefit. A labour.representative on the Central Survey Committee expressed the opinion that labour persons f e l t that i n past years, they had had l i t t l e 106. say regarding the planning of services in the c i ty for which they had been contributing f inancial support. Gaining the support of "labour" in the project was a method of interpreting the need for support in the planning of a l l welf are services by members of "labour". There were many other values of the survey; most of which seemed of an intangible nature. Mainly because of the ab i l i ty of the natural leaders in the survey, there v/as much co-operative act iv i ty . Co-operation was especially noticeable in the Central; "Steering Committee. Most of the leaders in the C.S.C. had never participated in a community project before, and in this respect there v/as development of community leadership. Executive Directors of the recreation agencies iii the c i ty participated closely in some of the committees where "recreation objectives" and survey questionnaire answers, for example, v/ere studied. Consideration of these subjects had a bearing on the modifying of ther. agency s' goals and standards that took place. Through studying the effectiveness of agencies, there appeared to be a recognition that each agency's services needed to be co-ordinated v/ith those of the other agencies and organizations. There was increased recognition for the need of a community programme of recreation, and that the efforts v/ere required of a l l the agencies. Survey participants v/ere afforded the opportunity to think in terms of the whole community. Considering the survey objectives, for instance, v/as an informal method of 107. learning what the recreational services should be l i k e , or what should be aimed for in the near future as far as leisure-time services in the city were concerned. Studying the various methods that could be used in the survey, also assisted the survey members to think at the level of the average c i t i zen . There was, for example, some acceptance of the importance of recreation leadership, programmes, f a c i l i t i e s , and administration. As the city of Bellingham grows in population, the need increases for effective welfare services. The recreation survey represented a concerted effort by community-minded citizens to help in the development of the c i t y ' s recreational services. A P P E N D I X " A " 1 0 8 . Bellingham. Kecreation Survey — Prospectus I. IThat i s the purpose of a city-wide re c r e a t i o n survey? I t i s to f i n d out the needs of the people of Bellingham, Some persons i n the- c i t y say that there are nany needs f o r rocreationp others say there are enough f a c i l i t i e s but not i n the r i g h t places. S t i l l others say that we have no r e a l unmet needs and that they are s a t i s f i e d Tilth things as they are. Next, the survey i s to f i n d out what recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s we now have. This i s a'city-wide s t o c k t a k i n g of a l l the places we liave f o r recreation: parks, playgrounds, school gyms and p l a y f i e l d s , organisations, carp s i t e s , e t c . 17e also want to determine how many people use our r e c r e a t i o n a l services and f a c i l i t i e s , A n a t u r a l question which the survey must attempt to answer? "Is our o v e r - a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l program w e l l balanced?" I I . Can you answer these questions without a survey? Ho, you can't answer these questions c o r r e c t l y or o b j e c t i v e l y without a f a c t - f i n d i n g survey. I I I . Vfho i s making the survey? The survey i s i n charge of a steering committee, o r i g i n a l l y sponsored by the Council Cabinet of the Community Chest, I t i s now an independent" organization and i s not c o n t r o l l e d by the Community Chest or any one organization. • lluch of the work w i l l be done by members of a dozen or more committees;. many of our c i t i z e n s are"giving f r e e l y of t h e i r time and e f f o r t s to make t h i s survey a success. There i s no paid personnel. IV. -.That w i l l a survey accomplish? 1. I t w i l l give you a chance to say what you think about recreation, e s p e c i a l l y what your own needs are. 2. I t w i l l help to t e l l you how your money i s spent on rec r e a t i o n , 3. I t w i l l help the community to make sound plans f o r future recreation and w i l l evaluate our present f a c i l i t i e s and-services, V. IThat happens to the information you w i l l get from t h i s survey? Because so many Bellingham people are taking part i n i t , they w i l l learn a great deal about r e c r e a t i o n . The survey w i l l be published i n a report so that everyone can see the f i n d i n g s . VI. How much w i l l such a survey cost? No money i s being spent f o r fe e s . £;5>00 w i l l be spent f o r transportation and maintenance expenses of technicians from the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia who w i l l be required to give assistance on the survey for sever-a l months. This i s the amount'the Coaiaunity Chest and the Recreation Commission have set aside f o r i t . I t should be worth more than 05,000 to the community when completed.' This would be the cost i f outside "experts" were making the survey, VII. "Then i s the survey going to be made? The survey i s now underway and w i l l be completed i n the next for; weeks, VII I . V'liat i s included i n t h i s survey? A l l p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies (including Chest organisations); a l l public tax-supported agencies and commercial f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be studied. Interviews w i l l be made with school ch i l d r e n and i n neighborhoods to determine people's desires f o r and use of recreation f a c i l i t i e s and ser v i c e s . F O R F U R T E S H I N F O R M A T I O N C O N C E R N I N G T H I S S U R V E Y , c a l l _ APPENDIX "B" !09. REPORT OF O S COM^TTEE ON TECHNIQUES November 29, 19^9 I. OVER-ALL APPROACHES A. Longitudinal i n v e s t i g a t i o n — h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l s e t t i n g B. Horizontal a n a l y s i s — community/ neighborhood cross-sections C. V e r t i c a l and p a r a l l e l s t u d y — organized r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies D. See also methodological objectives # 2 and # 3 I I . SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES A. Committee meetings— planning and c a r r y i n g out the s t u d y — e f f i c i e n c y ; democracy B. Community conferences or commissions— idoa exchanges: checks on findings; edu-cation and p a r t i c i p a t i o n devices.— "mini.conp" (miniature conferences) C. I n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s — free or p r e s c r i b e d — with agency leaders, residents at home, p a r t i c i p a n t s , etc. D. Block "interviews 1'— v/ith groups of persons i n same c a t e g o r y — teachers, ministers E . Block sampling— d e t a i l e d study of selected c i t y areas thought to. be t y p i c a l F. Schedule f o r m s — for guided, patterned interviewing 0. Questionnaires— for mailing to residents, submission to p u p i l s , etc. H. Opinion surveys of residents without intent to procure s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y 1. Observation of group programs i n operation, of community l i f e by p a r t i c i p a n t s or non-participant s J . Recreational "case studies" of " t y p i c a l " persons representing various s t r a t a i n communi ty K. Master card index of organized p a r t i c i p a n t s i n r e c r e a t i o n — check on d u p l i c a t i o n L. Others: The Committee Assigned This Task: Mrs. Mr. Mrs. Mr. Mr.. Mr. 1 1 0 . REPORT OP THE COMMITTEE ON OBJECTIVES November 29, ISkS I . OVER-ALL OBJECTIVES A. COHTENT: Prepare a sound and solid report, neither innocuous nor militant. B. METHOD; Secure a baooad conmmnity-wide citizen participation in the conduct of the study C. METHOD: Develop cooperative teamwork collaboration with staff & workers from UBC II. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES WHY?— original motivation behind study WHAT?— content within scope of objectives HOW?— techniques SO WHAT?— implementation A. Learn what recreational services are available now regarding personnel, f a c i l i -ties, program, constituency 1. Private non-profit agencies— YMCA, YWCA, Scouts, Camp Eire Girls, Camps, churches, labor and industry, fraternal, private schools 2. Public agencies— war-geared, schools, city parks, community-county recre-ation, Federal and State programs 3. Commercial agencies— movies, bowling allfeys, dance halls B„ Learn what recreational needs are being met nov; 1. Compare social cliques, city areas, age ranges, sex groups, income levels, in-school/out-of-school, racial and religious groupings 2. Are programs adequate? Are there gaps? Is theie overlapping? Are needs being democratically met? Do programs lead to widening interests? Do they develop persons constructively? 3- What are the factors influencing recreational needs?—* housing, education, delinquency areas, economic status C. Learn what unfulfilled recreational needs and desires persons have 1. Are there resources available for these things? 2. Are they socially acceptable outlets? 3. What i s the time factor in the assimilation of nev; people in the community and into what groups do they first "become associated? D. Learn what are the criteria by which leadership personnel is selected, 1. What are the qualifications of the existing personnel? 2* What leadership training or recruitment is being conducted— volunteer and professional? E. Learn what can be done to integrate and co-relate resources in the community for their greater usefulness— "clearing house instrumentalities" The committee Assigned This Task: Mr. Mrs. Rev. Mr. _2 Mr. Miss 111. APPENDIX »C" Newspaper E d i t o r i a l "JUVENILE PROBLEM--WHAT IS IT? Despite admitted and widely recognized f a c t s , c i v i c - m i n d e d persons s t i l l h o l d meetings, appoint committees, and c r i t i c i z e each other's ideas i n an attempt to 1 solve the j u v e n i l e delinquency problem 1. Among the aforementioned f a c t s , i s the r e a l i z a t i o n i n aware c i r c l e s t hat the 'problem* of young people i n the present day community i 3 _ s t r i c t l y a problem of the k i n d of l i v e s c h i l d r e n lead—how they are t r e a t e d by t h e i r parents, and how they r e a c t to t h i s treatment and the r e c e p t i o n the world g i v e s them. In other words, of course, a 'problem c h i l d * i s an i n d i v i d u a l . He i s a person, a human being, w i t h h i s own t r o u b l e s , h i s own deep disturbances and h i s own p a t t e r n of r e a c t i o n to h i s l i f e . T his i s why endless committees, u s u a l l y appointed or c a l l e d together by p o l i t i c i a n s or busy o f f i c i a l s , are wasting t h e i r time when they hash over the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of c r e a t i n g youth c l u b s , community e n t e r t a i n m e n t — a n d even s t r i n g e n t l a w s — t o combat what everyone c a l l s delinquency, the establishment of a f i n e youth club r i g h t i n the c i t y center would not guarantee any change i n the behaviour of some youngsters. A community e f f o r t to i n s t r u c t everyone under 16 i n the f i n e a r t s of weaving would not reduce the number of g i r l s who do not behave j u s t as they should. And the passage of a l a w — o f any k i n d — n e v e r ab o l i s h e d crime. F o r t h a t matter, punishment has not stopped crime, and punishment i s one of mankind's o l d e s t i n s t i t u t i o n s . When people begin to t h i n k about the home l i f e of today's youngsters, the amount of a t t e n t i o n they do or do not get from t h e i r p a r ents, and the handicaps they o f t e n l i v e under, they w i l l be c l o s e r to the problem. When they cease t h e i r endless debating sessions, which o f t e n attempt to blame anything from movies to s l o t machines, they w i l l have more time to th i n k about c h i l d r e n — as tlie separate i n d i v i d u a l s they a r e . " 1 1 ( E d i t o r i a l i n The Bellingham Herald, Bellingham, Wash., Feb. 20, 1950TJ 1 1 2 APPENDIX "D" Newspaper A r t i c l e BELLINGHAM RECREATIONAL SURVEY "The Bellingham r e c r e a t i o n a l c o u n c i l has got i t s e l f tangled up on a r e c r e a t i o n a l survey of the community. 'The i d e a of tne survey i s f o r some expert outside group to come i n , look over the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n and t e l l the c o u n c i l what r e c r e a t i o n a l needs are being neglected and which ones are being d u p l i c a t e d . In other words, how t o get the most f o r the money.' The h i t c h i s t h a t the c o s t of the survey c o u l d w e l l amount to more than i t s savings. One company o f f e r e d to do the job f o r something around $4 ,000. Then the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia* s graduate school o f f e r e d to make a c l a s s p r o j e c t out of the survey and do i t at c o s t — p e r h a p s $500. 'Some of the c o u n c i l members thought i t was a good i d e a and some d i d n ' t . That's the way t h i n g s are when you have more than one person on a c o u n c i l . ' Objections centered around h i r i n g a Canadian group to do the j o b . Some b e l i e v i n g i t would be bad p o l i t i c s and bad p o l i c y f o r the Community Chest. Others thought t h a t the Canadians would have a d i f f e r e n t i d e a as to the r o l e of government i n the community. Those f o r i t p o i n t e d out t h a t i t was the cheapest o f f e r y e t made, the graduate school has an e x c e l l e n t r e p u t a t i o n i n the f i e l d , some of the i n s t r u c t o r s are Americans, and a B r i t i s h Columbia group would have a b e t t e r understanding of Bellingham's ways than would a New York o r g a n i z a t i o n . At l a s t r e p o r t the matter has been bucked to the Community Chest's cabinet c o u n c i l . The Chest group was thought to represent enough l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s to give a good c r o s s - s e c t i o n of l o c a l t h i n k i n g . " 1 Newspaper a r t i c l e appearing i n The Bellingham H e r a l d , Bellingham, Wash., March 15, 1949. A P P E N D I X " E " 1 1 3 . OVER-ALL ORGANIZATIONAL FLAN FOR CONDUCT OF THB STUDY Novem'ber 29, 19H9 CENTRAL SSEEtlHO CCJfiEECJfflaB P ^ t o Nominating BIG SEPHES3NTATIVB MEETING' J^ ?^ A°*A?'S£-l r^eciiraouoT] j P u b l i c i t y j Longi-tudinal H i s t o r y & j Setting j ~^ "Dollar- Horizon- V e r t i c a l — re leadership, program, t u d i n a l " ta2._~- "' f a c i l i t i e s , - clinnt-elo, a&mteis. Finance j Mei^a'bcrliOcd & Ooanraxiity 1 rivet a > i .?nT/j.:'.c- ; \ Cmnerr.i.aJ.. I I Others Coverage: Sex Age G-rouj work i Schools, college Occupation Camping & C i t y parks Socio-econ. hostais i Rae*Al R e l i g i ous iico . log3.ral areas t Housing i Juvenile problems » " C u l t u r a l " Forun Draua Kus i c Churches Fr a t e r n a l Labor' Industry Ootrmuni ty recreaf-i on. •Kar- geared Etate parks Movies Bowling Skating Deuce h a l l s Taverns Individual, Federal fc-mily U-H FFA Parks Each examined with regard to needs, resources, gaps, and proposals APPENDIX "3?" 114 General Plan of the Survey What we must learn; IThat kind of a c i t y i s it?{ (Background) Vihat- have wei • got? j i ! | (Status) j What do the people want? (Aspirations) What can we spend? (Finances) Wbav: do we suggest? (Analysis & Interpretation) i Write the report Submit the report ! Follow-up work i f necessary 115. O r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e S u r v e y S t e e r i n g • I n f o r m a t i o n a l C o m m i t t e e Commit tee B a c k g r o u n d C o m m i t t e e S t a t u s C o m m i t t e e S u b - C o m m i t t e e s : 1» P r o g r a m 2„ L e a d e r s h i p 3. F i n a n c e s he F a c i l i t i e s $ . A d m i n , & C o o r d i n . 6. N e i g h b o r h o o d s 7o Commercial 8 , J u v e n i l e p r o b l e m s 9„ H a n d i c a p p e d A n a l y s i s C o m m i t t e e Aspirations Committee j E d i t o r i a l j C o m m i t t e e 116. OPERATING PLAN' AND T±Ln3 TABLE i Who? S t e e r i n g C o n n . C o n n i t t c c s on O b j e c t i v e s a n d T e c h n i q u e s S t e e r i n g C o n n . J o b A n a l y s i s C o n n e S t e e r i n g C o n n . 3 o p e r a t i n g C o n n i t t c c s . I n f o r m a t i o n a l C o n n i t t c c IThat? Start P r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n ; a p p o i n t c o n n i t t c c s on o b -j e c t i v e s , T e c h n i q u e s a n d P u b l i c i t y . S t u d y a n d recommend o b -j e c t i v e s and methods o f t h e s u r v e y A d v a n c e d d i s c u s s i o n o f o b -j e c t i v e s a n d m e t h o d s ; a p p o i n t Job A n a l y s i s C o m m i t t e e D r a f t p o s s i b l e method o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n , a n d t e n t a t i v e t i m e t a b l e . 1. A d o p t o r amend r e p o r t o f Job A n a l y s i s C o m m i t t e e , 2. R e d e s i g n a t e P u b l i c i t y C o n n , a s I n f o r m a t i o n a l C o m m i t t e e , 3 . P l a n f o r e a r l y c o n t a c t w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s & a g e n c i e s . h* A p p o i n t 3 o p e r a t i n g c o n n : A , B a c k g r o u n d C o m m i t t e e . B . S t a t u s C o m m i t t e e w i t h f o l l o w i n g s u b - c o n n . • 1. P r o g r a n 2. L e a d e r s h i p 3. F i n a n c e s U . F a c i l i t i e s 5, A d m i n & C o o r d i n . 6, N e i g h b o r h o o d s 7, C o m m e r c i a l . 8. J u v e n i l e P r o b l e m s 9. H a n d i c a p p e d C o A s p i r a t i o n s Commit tee ( E a c h c o m m i t t e e t o c a r r y o u t g e n e r a l p r o g r a m o u t l i n e d b y Job A n a l y s i s C o m m i t t e e . ) 5. D e c i d e w h e t h e r t o h o l d n a s s m e e t i n g . ( I f h e l d , t h i s s h o u l d b e d u r i n g J a n u a r y i f p o s s i b l e . ) Hake d e t a i l e d p l a n s o f o p e r a t i o n ; f o r e a c h c o m m i t t e e , i n c l u d i n g l i s t s o f f a c t s d e s i r e d a n d n c t h o d s o f o b t a i n i n g s a n e . Hake d e t a i l e d p l a n s f o r i n -f o r m a t i o n a l w o r k ; g o a l i s t o p r e p a r e p u b l i c & o r g a n i z a t i o n s Nov Nov Nov Dec Dec J a n J a n E n d Nov Nov. Nov Dec Dec J a n J a n R a p o r t t o o r r e f e r t o ? C o m m i t t e e s o n O b j e c t i v e s a n d T e c h n i q u e s S t e e r i n g C o n n . J o b A n a l y s i s C o n n . S t e e r i n g C o n n , 3 o p e r a t i n g c o n n -i t t c c s a n d i n f o r m -a t i o n a l c o n n i t t c e S t e e r i n g C o n n . S t e e r i n g C o n n . 117 VJho? What? Start -* End Report to or r e f e r to? f o r the survey, cscplain i t s purpose and value, and obtain cooperation. Plan f o r nass meeting,, Steering Conn. Adopt or amend plans of four conns. Appoint Analysis Corxiittcc Jan • Jan 3 operating corxiittccs and Analysis Corxu Info r n a t i o n a l Committee Conduct i n f o r n a t i o n a l w o r k — v i a newspapers, radio, etc., and d i r e c t l y with organizations. Jan Mar Analysis Cbrxi & Steering Conn. Aspirations Committee Detcrainc what grass-roots f a c t s should be obtained, and how. Jan Feb Background and Status Corxiittccs Background Committee Carry out survey as planned. Feb 1 -Liar 31 Analysis Comm. Status Conn. Carry out survey as planned Each operating conn, to use i t s own nenbers. Feb 1 -liar 31 Analysis Conn* UBC t e c h n i c a l experts to a s s i s t a l l corxiittccs. Each committee should have sone c l e r i c a l help. Chairmen of 3 operating corxiittccs to l i a i s o n with Informational Committee Analysis Connittce during the survey. maintain and 3 operating corxiittccs should turn i n preliminary data to Analysis Corxiittcc from t i n e to t i n e . Analysis Corxiittcc empowered to suggest a d d i t i o n a l or d i f f e r e n t l i n e s of i n q u i r y f o r the operating corxiittccs. 3 operating committees to work i n harnony, exchanging information and data i f i t w i l l expedite the work. A l l corxiittccs to r e f r a i n from drawing any at t h i s time; purpose so f a r i s to c o l l e c t conclusions f a c t s . Steering Corxiittcc to exercise o v e r - a l l supervision and a s s i s t committees i n meeting time schedule. 118. Tfho? •That? | S t a r t ! End Report to or r e f e r to? Analysis Conn, Receive reports f r o n each operat-ing committee; analyse and i n t e r -pret the separate reports and the survey as a v/holc; formulate con-clusions and recommendations. Apr 1 - Apr 15' Steering Conn, Steering Conn, Consider and approve or axicnd the report.of Analysis Committee; appoint E d i t o r i a l Connittcc Apr 15- Apr 15' E d i t o r i a l Comm.. E d i t o r i a l Com.:, Draft f i n a l report Apr 15- May : . Steering Comm, Steering Conn. Accept and subnit f i n a l report llay Hay Community Chest Council and Recreation' Commission,' Steering Com, F i n a l meeting ;bo consider whether any follow-up work should be under taken; i f none, disoand co.i.dttcc. June June i APPENDIX "G COIIfflTTEE WORK AND ROLES OF THE U.B.C. WORKERS A l l work on the survey vd.ll be c a r r i e d out through committees — i . e . , Steering Committee, various f u n c t i o n a l corxiittces and sub-committees. Each committee should be headed by a chairman who i s responsible f o r a l l the rrork of h i s committee. The t e c h n i c a l survey workers (students) w i l l work with each c h a i r -man and each committee group and the survey group as a whole: 1. They w i l l provide a l l t e c h n i c a l information desired by the committee, i n addition to information provided by committee members who might wish to contribute„ 2. They, together with other committee workers and chairmen, can serve as a " c l e a r i n g house" as to developments i n other corxiittces working on the survey, to provide on-going information as i t comes through i n other, committees. 3. Because i t i s so w e l l understood and appreciated that the survey i s a now undertaking for a l l concerned, p a r t i c u l a r l y the method that i s being employed, the t e c h n i c a l -'workers w i l l serve to help the chairmen "carry the b a l l " i n stimu-l a t i o n , encouragement, i n i t i a t i o n of questions, etc., i n addition to giving t e c h n i c a l information. Any jobs that do not seem l o g i c a l f o r committee members and that the t e c h n i c a l workers could perform, w i l l be c h e e r f u l l y assumed, k» The t e c h n i c a l workers should be of groat assistance i n g i v i n g suggestions as to the method or methods on how to go about getting p a r t i c u l a r information,'or how a c e r t a i n job f o r a committee could bo c a r r i e d out. R e a l i s t i c a l l y , there arc t i n e l i m i t s f o r both corxiittec workers and t e c h n i c a l workers which w i l l be reckoned with. The one thing that night be stated i s that the t e c h n i c a l workers w i l l not "take over" from the committees and d i r e c t the survey. They w i l l help and be very active at c e r t a i n times and i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , but they w i l l be quite conscious of what they are doing, which w i l l not add up to taking over the planning and decision-making. This i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of each committee and the survey group as a whole. The t e c h n i c a l workers w i l l be c a l l e d the report of each committee and the workers arc primarily'concerned with the survey o b j e c t i v e s . upon to a s s i s t i n the e d i t i n g of t o t a l report of the survey. The helping the c i t i z e n s accomplish 1 2 0 . General Outline f o r Corxiittccs STEERING COIUITTEE 1. Represent the Cor.im.mity ({host Council and the Recreation Commission i n conducting a r e c r e a t i o n a l survey of Bellingham. 2 . Determine what typo of: oor.ir.iitr.iont of cooperation should bo secured from the local, agencies^ Hon i s t h i s to be done? 3. Appoint or delegate the appointment of corxiittccs to carry out the surveyo km Plan a t i n e schedule for the survey, 5. Review the reports of each corxiittcc and accept or amend same, 6. Accept the f i n a l d r a f t of the survey report and turn i t over to the Connunity Chest Council and liccroction Coixiission,, PUBLICITY OR INF0RIIATI01JAL CCIIilT.TDE 1, Hust get the information about the survey — i t s need, conduct, procedures, etc,, — • to the people of the city,, 2 , Should develop the r i g h t attitudes toward the survey among agencies, organizations and i n d i v i d u a l s 0 •3. Develop a bureau of speakers to t e l l of the survey to a l l organized groupa i n . Bellingham, km Conduct informational ana public r e l a t i o n s work through a l l possible media — press, radio, correspondence, speeches, etc. OPERATING, COII.ilTTEES ~ general statement: 1, Decide cooperatively as a corxiittcc what f a c t s arc pertinent to the p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the survey assigned to the committee. 2 , Decide how these f a c t s could best be obtained. 3, These corxiittccs arc f a c t - f i n d i n g corxiittccs. They do not make an analysis or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r findings but turn then over to the corxiittcc organised f o r that purpose» km Each committee may use U. B, C, workers to a s s i s t i i i devising questionnaires, etc*, to fur t h e r t h e i r work. 5>. Each corxiittcc w i l l pool with the U. B, C. workers the l i s t of information they wish to secure from e x i s t i n g organizations and agencies, and the workers w i l l secure the bulk of the information. (This i s to eliminate unnecessary d u p l i c a t i o n ) , 6. I f one corxiittcc comes across information pertinent to another committee, they should be sure such information gets to the r i g h t place« 7. Suggested questions f o r each corxiittcc arc not to be considered complete but rather as a springboard with which the corxiittcc may get s t a r t e d . 121. BACKGROUND COIIIIT'CI] 1. This corxiittec vri.ll t r y to ansvrcr the question, • "Vfhat kind of a c i t y do we have?" — i n terns of geography, histoi'y, ' peopleo 2. V/hat i s the geographical s e t t l i n g ? 3. V/hat pertinent factr, i n i t s h i s t o r y should be considered i n surveying the r e c r e a t i o n a l program i n 1950? km V/hat type of c i t y i s i t ? (Industrial? A g r i c u l t u r a l ? Commercial? Retired?) 5 , Docs the c i t y have an i n d i v i d u a l i t y or character? (T u l i p C ity? !7orld»s Largest Christmas Tree?) 6, V/hat i s the area of the community? 7, V/hat d i s t i n c t areas or neighborhoods arc there? 8». Does the community extend beyond the act u a l p o l i t i c a l boundaries? 9m V/hat i s the population now, compared r a t h 5 , 1 0 , and 20 years ago? Future trend? 10. Vfhat i s the makeup of the population, according to age, sex, r e l i g i o n , r a c i a l and n a t i o n a l groupings? 11. V/hat i s the makeup of the population according to s o c i a l status, l e v e l of income, educational l e v e l , occupational status? 12. How has the makeup of the population changed over the past 10 or 20 years? Future trends, i f p r e d i c t i o n i s possible? 13. V/hat i s the p h y s i c a l health of the people,, i n terms of TB rates, i n f a n t mortality, etc? l i t . V/hat i s the s o c i a l health of the population, i n terms of rates of juvenile delinquency, truancy, i l l e g i t i m a c y , family disorganization, crime, other evidences of s o c i a l breakdown? 1 5 . V/ho are the-community leaders, both p r o f e s s i o n a l and volunteer? 16. Y/hich are the powerful groups i n the community? 17. Arc there any major or minor c o n f l i c t s between i n d i v i d u a l s or groups which might a f f e c t e f f o r t s at community planning? 18. Other relevant features about the people i n the community? ASPIRATIONS COilHTTEE 1. This committee w i l l t r y to answer the question, "V/hat do people want i n the form of recreation?" 2 # i t i s not a f a c t - f i n d i n g committee; i t w i l l pass i t s decisions and materials on to the Background and Status Committees, 3. This committee should devise some method of getting to the grass-roots, or taking the pulse of the p u b l i c . This may be through planning door-to-door canvasses of t y p i c a l neighborhoods or blocks; d i r e c t - m a i l questionnaires; p o l l s of organizations or groups, such as school classes; and other methods. km Purpose i s to f i n d out what people would l i k e to do, not ne c e s s a r i l y what they should do. 182 STATUS C0I1IITTEE This w i l l midoubtcdly be the l a r g e s t aiid most important operating corxiittec. I t s general purpose i s to ascer t a i n what Bcllinghan now has i n the way of r e c r e a t i o n a l and l e i s u r e - t i n e opportunities — i t should include a l l types of lea cure-tine a c t i v i t i e s * • Corxicrcial (theaters, dance h a l l s , r i n k s , bowling a l l e y s , ctcV)j Public-supported (TI.ICA and other agencies, churches, cultural'groups, c t c 0 JJ Private (lodges, f r a t e r n a l orders, unions, e t c , ) ; and Unorganized* ~~ (hone entertainment, personal sports, personal hobbies, etc,) This corxiittec w i l l have 8 sub-corxiittccs, each with a sub-chairnan responsible to the general chairman of the Status Corxiittec, The sub-corxiittccs are as follows; 1„ Administration and Coordination; 1, IThat governing bodies authorize a recreation program? 2, V/hat arc attitudes and working arrangements between agencies and organizations? 3, V/hat are the functions of coordinating bodies i n thb f i e l d of recreation, and how w e l l do they operate? 2, F a c i l i t i e s ; (meaning p h y s i c a l plants). 1, V/hat f a c i l i t i e s arc there? 2, V/hcrc are they located? 3, VJhcn arc they available? it. How many can they serve? 5, How many do they serve? 3. Program; 1, V/hat p r i v a t e and public recreation programs arc there? 2, V/ho arc these programs set up to serve? 3, V/ho a c t u a l l y uses them? it, V/hon are they a v a i l a b l e f o r use? k» Leadership: 1, How arc leaders selected? 2, 'How arc the leaders trained? 3, V/hat arc the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of e x i s t i n g personnel? it, V/hat t r a i n i n g programs arc i n progress? 5, Is there supervision of workers? 6, HOT/ many can they serve? 7, How many do they serve? 8, Hov/ docs t h i s service compare with f i v e years ago? 5, Finances; 1, V/hat arc the nenbership and other fees charged by the various agencies and organizations? 123. \ 2, what arc the operating and maintenance costs? 3 . what arc the squrccs of funds? U» Hov; arc they operating? Hov; close to the l i n e ? 6, Neighborhoods} 1 % H O T; do various areas conparc i n regard to a v a i l a b i l i t y of r ecreation agencies? F a c i l i t i e s ? Services? 2. HOT; do they conparc as to the use of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n each area? 3» !7hat neighborhoods do v;c have? 7« Commercial; 1, 1 H O T; a v a i l a b l e i n terns of location? 2, what use i s made of then by the people? 3 , what are the costs? 8, Handicapped; 1. 7/hat i s being done f o r the handicapped? 2 . what agencies have then as part of t h e i r progran? 3» 7/hat leadership i s there, such as occupational therapy? 9 « Juvenile Problems: 124 BIBLIOGRAPHY A BOOKS 1. E n g l i s h , O.S., and Pearson, H.J., Emotional Problems  of L i v i n g , ¥.¥. Norton & Co., H.3f., 1945. 2. Mc M i l l a n , W., Communixy Orga n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l  Welfare, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Cmcago, 111., 1945. 6, P e n d e l l , E., and others, S o c i e t y Under A n a l y s i s , The Jaques C a t t e l l P r e s s , Lancaster, Penn., 1942. 4. Heeves, 3., and James, B.w., Report ox the  R e c r e a t i o n a l and C u l t u r a l Resources Survey of the  State ox Washington, u f t i c e of the Secretary of State, Olympia, Wash., 1946. 5. S t e i n e r , J.F.S., Community Organization: A Study of i t s Theory and Current P r a c t i c e , The Century Co., U.Y., 1925. 6. Wilson, G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work  P r a c t i c e , The R i v e r s i d e p r e s s , Cambridge, Mass., 1949. Y. Young, P.V., S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveys and Research, P r e n t i c e - H a i l Inc., H.Y., i94t>. B RELA-jED SlTLIDIES 1. Hopkins, John 1., West Vancouver R e c r e a t i o n a l Survey, Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, Deparaaeafc of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. 2. Jones, George V., Leadership i n Recreation: A Study  pi: xhe impact; ox l e a d e r s h i p on the r e c r e a t i o n a l  grogram i n aae c i t y of Bellingham, Wash., Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, Department of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949. 3 . Report on Roosevelt D i s t r i c t Survey, Bellingham Coamuaiiy Chest ana C o u n c i l , Bellingham, Wash., 194«. 4. Thompson, A.E., A Review of S o c i a l Welfare Agencies: A study of the annual review procedure p r a c t i s e d by  the P o r t l a n d C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies. Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949. 125. 5. Weeks, Don J., The Contribution of the Survey Method  to the Process of Community Organization as  demonstrated by the a c t i v i t i e s of a Council of  Soc i a l Agencies, Thesis presented i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r the Degree of Master of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949. C PAMPHLETS, ARTICLES, ASP REPORTS 1. Annual Report of the Bellingham Community Chest and  Council, 1949. 2. B r i g h t b i l l , C.K., "The Government and Recreation", National Conference So c i a l Work., 1946, The Columbia Press, N.Y. 3. Educating Youth f o r So c i a l Responsibility, Community Chest and Council Inc., N.Y., mimeographed, Jan., 1948. 4. La s k i , H., as quoted by Cutler, R., A Community  Surveys I t s e l f , r e p r i n t from the Harvard Alumi B u l l e t i n , May 14, 1949. 5. Maxwell, J.M., "Group Work and Community Surveys", The Group, V o l . 11, No. 4, American Association of Group Workers, N.Y,, Summer Issue, 1949. 6. P h i l l i p s , H.U., "Social Group Work--A Functional Approach" The Group, V o l . 10, No. 3. American Association of Group Workers, N.Y., March, 1948. 7. Records and Reports of Community Chest and Council Meetings, Bellingham Community Chest and Council, Bellingham, Wash., 1946. 8. Recreation: A Major Community Problem, National Recreation Association, N.Y., 1936. 9. Seider, V.M., "Overall Planning", Current Trends i n  Community Organization, Publication No. 131, Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, Canada, 1946. 10. S o c i a l Surveys; A Guide f o r use i n Local Planning, Council of Jewish Federations and Welf are Funds, N.Y., A p r i l , 1949. 

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