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Contribution to a further understanding of the occurrence of the Indian paint fungus, echinodontium tinctorium… Thomas, George Philip 1956

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SffinSSn els w&gf ©MtlrTesJ IS  stao(] for,-, taster t£so i w p i of forest, o a ^ i t ^ t e s ^mt. osiots* JtatlaB o f rtaniii laol-adoi r o w s © bafeg w t e «tf «»%  The « w »  oeo^mMMy ^ o f c  ooA figcittoc feob&t o f the f t n e n * t a g s ^ w « t t b wsiwto o f t l »  pdaad^a fto*a»0 o f o w » p t asfl fiaasoue h e t d t a t o . t h e W3^lt® « f  io tSs© font of iheMtet fojwtlp* tiooa*. o w l i » % i « of Wm foalaro «bet ©ostfol B. 4lo»*e»luei hehttaie «ae art® in the lidM of the i%fS«te3i««l tojaitaWMeete of this Anojoo* the soMdtfci «f ttsln oonSsoASm ftve fe*ette*oa te^eldeer wtfti • i o M | H « of the www u t e o l r m$Mm& M M feetonra w^r 'he mtm§s&wm M thooo aoeaalmtdocHJ as* ©ntialiM Ijowte  the SkUoji pi&sl faap® fSre* *®«4t3®i % and BswSiiwt CM) 1» 3095 on sooitpt of a daan;«Q orotatom of Xto fruitfeofiyoelloot* oa by J#G« i*MB aaS f-¥, CoeiU* oo MsfeOty X « t a i JkSasiau It os* #  ad0titesl^  tessM wA  naaod as Ifoeo. . t ^ - j ^ g ^ i ^ ^« and  mmm  the opitses of tho f*dt body bariag baao, heeiejn o f f ©tf their bettor afta^eftea » r j a m * (a6) teo ! | ^ o » oust* asrtar of tho fstdt beo^ <m waaoipt f«» Piper of a wsw po«foot oioolewn eollootad <^ JM(M £M$$M (l*w$U) M a l l , at SmmmSD** Stteho ana asset tte tec?w ij^bapp tfogtoriiau E H I % M mmmpmOmm with Uop«» aoejaeetea: thai «s® Mots© oat jftossi» ooHssetioar mm uodeolrt* ®S3^ of the M ftraga»f ehleh lie stopoeee: tho fi»e a f a ^ o ^ a ^ g ^ tlnetcgfoai Ellis* « S Ewrfwt* l>uboeq«**Jt; otaltesgots to this mr* fa? tha fur«;>tts aoso *s®S» ejaa. £t w aniser ocrao ^ s w Ssto% oho f i m l y oot^Oishad tho tsars® £• ^JBOk^iffi* rose ocaftrovoray exia&e as t© the ^ot@ttt4o eaa»UQiB*kit of £• tAaatcaKto bat* co^wdloou of ito befog pSsoot is the foarooaaaeyo) by Hilor (30), ooot other waste® a*«srta lte wfamttat In the jgAKflMfc* of  1  the l^wsaoiixwfinx!Dromon of tlw tmcvm am foCTotf i a oontoot with an aerial ©anrircasrwot. 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Uaotorlao too^r# a sSeosy la ite fico! 8t&e©e utwsOly wmalte & aoatamtloa of tho imee^mxA* tho otaih otsge of i:» %SM%OI*W Aaaey aa it At 53 feat abow tho ^rosaa X i » Ss a f t p s * #*  2ia» o f tiba  at 13 foot ahaee the  taaa aa 133a*ee*ftea  m  Mmm  s. as i t  af 0^300X0 i l l  %  a® W&ak m& mlm oftt*mamptmwm is oftm* fount  <UUnift0MiWCi  w f S D p i u 0 «yplOGLl WB»  OT «UB OBMnuQ  OWNR*"'  OBarta&a oftt*ssdaawooosst© tetoilo c f tft* ftongua* as OTOKXW* i n ««ad to iiffosnw* irtapse of o»*6/» tew bom aowpsstboafeyaiwrt ( 2 2 } and  agar* (27) •  Botti « a t t w « 4muStm% m mMwmm to  aofM&sf l ^ e p ^ r  i***12ar with oMor Ign?***  ami S««»S % l & s * W I tti$% ©£t*n !$«2ii*v  otap®, m& twmXfy vittmxt o o s ^ ^ M l c w * art; ttstoi^ aftin wsowotsi  both of tei m**m oteotwa tt»t in «*& edjaserA to m^Ilojy rsain m m w  te  «fe£i»  tte  vitfa «3®*$E fete** «©o^»iitlaii  «* t^l*g> g» . M ^ f ^ p tt*4t  ©oi3®®»t«t<§  ©i*tsitaa# ®m t t *  of sp*3UWl opcood* f l * mA te^o tt*t olm^otoxte wcog  rtaftsiBS of vmi 0®Bs by i^tsstlfm sa*" the diffusion of ootetog ssstttsr* Ctertste oftt*g p w isM sdtaroooopio ANtoaw* oftt*ftssguoj,m ajT-amxt 1® artailMsi o u l t u ^ , ten tm®si teoxteS by iwtfiss® j § M A s s U l ) both of  i n  *inaaf£tt*fnop*  Sah^t*, lit a •fesy Oftt*mmm  purpose  tt*  (12) •** of t^sarSfe-  aetivity of 1* . f l b a j * * * ^ (>')»  aotivl% i s % teiss^t f i M t t t * i l ^ s i ^ ^ of « ^ m$*m tW}§. aft* mfjm^mi tfe* mmmmm of *l«a* « ^ # t ^ i ^ | . M ^ W - 2* * te^w ©tadj of the oae^s* aat£s$% oftt*:£uaga» «l*isaiei3 'Ha Oiworw* t  «8» wsspii® TmtimmBA in b©#s ooHtotoll*  votHftl ggwrtfe aad peosace of hftte fae*  a» owolatat oa tha basic of mssto torts that too ©sw^oo®  tiootq^bjyfta*tdoBelnoot o u t t e l y in tho ipqurfch of tho £tegi»« "She BO&I of ottaols by ft»®s0 5m wxA mm fto* »4spot«a % Bo%soot (19) *bo ozptwood th© opinio* that It flaat ottoeiso tho apvtag «Orf of oooh aneaal rinc, ooaotegtt©woodtoa*pe*ete iote £ao!swf aad that « * 0 2 j tha oood io fo* tea |»**ha* pert fiictolvod sssi Soft in a ^&Hm or bwoo atarlany «we# Tha w o dotoHojt w t o of ihfeart (22) ©al 'femora (27) pkm& particular att*tr upon the » 3 o of winHa^ J ^ s In the pttajeeea of $o«v# r«a*re aa^^fftafi a @o«|iionse of deeey u^volopncnt forfuoeuo em foBowat of j|*  tho ^Jaswaife ^ ^ ^ M e baeetc tloon to leave o ]**eet of dacKi/ «h@» tho r^'ullary **y {aweee teoo#i the g ^ i r c wsat* Swh peoioto em fozwd i s tte eprSng woeS of iEd|ooost ssatpaci riogc iM2o tho owner eoei m t e txawal*» ®O»»»3JI0  tb*  b s » » » ©f mmma.  «sai% both i*a»rt «** ^hewta  aooo^xdad that <S©li@3ifSoot&» flcwt ooes» i!*a»eat te tha %mm of the m i l tat |#Oii#tip %8®rtH» the «si*SII§ 1 M O H % nixiefe Im a s y owo® g«eii» inttet*  *l$eh the -^POOIISK ia^ato t^aj*ta1l^ia|y o£tfe&i .hoot  t « w % hj^jshao aaa*  ooter oe$lEp ipaee&XIXy at the bass of o !m*aEB3!i ofeit or on tha <aa* «f a biajejfc «®r». mA iaitlate tba fossmfelim ©f «|>o^^fos«^ FtoSit aeoy xoKoatoon esMfflw ittpit^giww otsrsor ISM oitnor 0*0 vet tao ^ ^ ^ a l loyow 007 bo foxa*d wsfe year* 2ho frxtit b©^* (aao f3a^» ZZZ and XV) i a t*t*oaJaJL to tha tb/vt for a w ^ » l tsosoatls  Klgg 2X3* f$9mm-V^ * W  mm m* mmmm*  mjmmumGm*  ***** tpcm*****  %t» vpr**  oladt m& wasted, at llluiftnxtad*featia j m g w it $® tmsaalJjr teasn, aaaatife «nS saoa*  mpmz0mm  ^pi  1 1  •  k¥W£, ,,Wr:mm- X« aj*aaja»aao tt* Imm OttXfMJt Oaaj&ata o f f W t t » X l ^ arranged taota, e r apiaaa* that ax* haw* aa6 gs«gr. to youngsr ^ « » S * W I I « # a* saanftMAMlji •* ao» tt* aasaiaa of mm fes l e w is tjrpiaallr aasoalait? «aa aftlto to Hgjii tan to ooSov*  mm  FigUgFO 1 2 . « * laaa*. fyarfeaft. m mtaml taaaatlaB i n the. of ts® teitMl portion of tt* Jtassr aoERfOQo ooours 2ft ©]yNuF a?jj-tsfsfeowof its iXttistrst^dj to tte- potet aaava a eporophoa* * W P to faaofclaa i a «P*a3£gt&C*»  TOXfeo® of * s « « * * l 3 « r 4 ^ ^ £ » ^ a ^ S i i S a t i « $M aoat ataaaant aaa* tt* oate of tha @p$g»@ i s oUs* cporo^»rec ass$ l a wwsJlj Jjsffitt&if# as tt2saaa*taat % «M1&a» Mtftoa*  Pfcitt W§ U p M M * i f  M  Flrur* 14* ton* «Vaa*a»A to t i e axajl* Itoajgadfeytha th© tan* tela* Spwaftjww at*toa@ala on tha 3*»« aotfaoe of livingfewsaAsitat illutaM*© HIND tha boita*  mm® u>* IttaafearteaV  Ticxao  *7«  laaattloa. of clloae to tha  3Uno 3® staaSs iat S5# ac Illtartia*e6«  ao  or  « mm b$»mtm th&t  i t em  eoegOately* fee OO JWiT^fffW  aoBttaiy  fkudt* boety boo bnjft  eews th© loswr wfiw® by 'Stir and I l i w t (42)  ®2ho OWtef jp®»s ataraetarfeyvitiab.  the fjpu£t£n£ o^fiza of tho ftagsw ooy be foedily foo^pdswS is o %a®sitoo oesasliSt"* J»g Of Wiasawwt f i r s , tltfe** ataarooliitad tooth of « light trow The upper ®*ft»o i a alanet htoo% i s o2S i)i,eja1ii)iioj>i oeeftl2y of o Mfjbtw o@X©f w!*o» JS^osws gp and , eawrt»iomtt|f eeoodf oooh aom roprooanting a j'«aa?8 pmwtb* & a c p w l ^ ooiidttliBt the €»ts» M M i s ahlte «r bwo% acefeaet eolid and of a r%wNowis0a to oaieiRe* f ^ A w ooXajr* Sis fiMl otw&o&ejstotio© of tho faulting organ ^^g^oo^^2^%^bswaiy ollipo«Wj^x^«j •fdbaM} bfa*ste «f yowag gyoa&nc fanajae io no mono tooted i n tho bogtesiisg but ia tygtaslly  by  dnafeOfile:**  after a Da* yewss the tttswt to ebioh a nor byentttua i s 2©ia <kxm lejg&ee ^ lis aest e « % en &wami fofeotios. $Mfee©stent of fee Jkeitt* 2aeo* anaer* eejfeUfeef * * l easy i s fe*let»d ft*«eMaiN» eaS fteape ^ fee ftjpjwt* She «pwis letfeae ^ w e i ^ r t fee aa)*** «** e«e% «no fee? being, fotetet fw* o a * l|ae»*fti l a i d etee* they ea» M%o*s»ei tatofeem to feffttata tm $atim*tmm»  ?  j§* -iaoto~f,p  w$ .ff»t so^trtea  froa  Aleaam  on ^mm  ap* (M)  e*t a***feJMfj JJP#I OtoagU) UaSU Cafe** Wr) M JSah* q&U ft® first autfestic report of J** o o ^ ^ ^ o o Ifeam, IW^fWlal.lf mm* ?m*mm imMmk^ me-featof fea&ee* (39) eh» «* fee mm ^ » i«po*iai i t o oootwoaa© en i j t e a^#434« {freyjU) for** CiwtMBott*),1* ff^iff^a fevr* C@Mlter% fir )» A» S t t t e Xindl. * Goreu fir)9 ^ f t o f g s ^ (a«**) sott. ( o l t t e f£r)> M* eaflgifioa A ter. (cod f i r ) , 1# #  ««ol^yyi  ^erty (^aloaon  sprooo)»  ^U.  (coble fir), ^aaj|  ontt r ; ^ ^ ^ f a i , taaftgcft|f. (roir»)  BSnUtaa (BoorjSbw « r ) V  Ssir aoS  Ifchast (42) teport It adtttSattOly  (&**£•) Xootu (fertotloooeo fir) a d effrtfls^am (Dong.) Caw* (awtirfu laaloek) *M ^Egtowww (38) ho* *©pert«S I t on Jg$g$& $*qo* (**»ooh) Vooe war* alhagtfan^ (.awam) S«ee• (vmtoan white «pw®»> thaa earjOotdns, to the ortbor»o ta»le%Ot the aisrsant tmmn feoet xaana of th* fuo^» for Berth Asa-rioa. a mppme&i thorofowi* that of ta» ooaa**aSa& tMe£toou» tcoo i^wsoisw i t t t i i to British Ge3i»fet% ameJas of &fm^^s^ Bsa^.,. .^a^3£» ginqu 0 0 wall aa ELaqa a i t e ^ t e ^ s (Dane.) &KV* (Sitka 6 ' « « 8 ) m& /> JSSaaat (HUI*) B.^.P* (biaafc «pn»e} ox* jsKMifely not aatasaSly sissaoptllsl® to E« tinotoiltsa 5af®etic© but* I f #% only to <^iateJMa%*l  #  f  :  laowSalfP or W  a*l*?aa& cH>i:iootim.la#@oiol*#  3MMSjx*|X»a  faagp  fiio*  (34)  or J^* SSS^SSmmM  ®«©E!0  raoa  tne  Idaho (26- ^ | Jinn  of f i t ttotijf f*w *Naett£aY6£$* in «*ptofii tstalooife  'laltajetoj Weportea i t m biiag w r y ©oaaeii Hi (fcdlfotnia* taarioaalarib/ aa Kbit© fir (2T.). fair ana Unbar* «*) ftaavtaa its dattaBftattaa iaftatnftawaa*a* Ibe&ag ;f§nj| jgf^«$n »rth©rs Itegio© saS an fto on§l$68Nl aa Ha© lis^tta of gianS fir at* wootaxa haalook la Canada ass3 >%ntam. ^&*rth (15) aoSiflaa tha aaaaaatva aaa&^ida SW^B alaaaatf fortoofm%m by ?%sto atat a&bsot, mm mm Qswgsa aa£ Saalila^atB ar* taaaaxaaaV i» M a saratt that th® Aneaa oaoaro Sa theoa etato® oaly i a tha Gaawa!© a « « a w#stt art* than* «a2y wtwO^r ia o o w ^ a l ©fewla* IteOTahte  aid |flfiao  in w r i M t e tfc&aal &a*to» Cit)*  »wt»fed the fmm te * oXp&a© f i r la the onaiaaa oleee* of 1?* S»o% 'aaftelft raf0(«i i» .aiwrta* »er* epeadm a m t l c a At l t « cUetributl<» ia DriUah Seluabia So g M t $& the report® of Ittekoua. (13), Bi@r j § j * * 0)» oad sheata*** (4> hm  (36) ai:i of waoa revert i t to bo aoanon i n th© U4*>er ?vmm  saa^ae*  irinee Soer&o* In ouHiitleo, star (2) o&ooK»oti«i iMVtat taslfiA enl « A H s f i r i n w i ) eooitol  owta «aS #o»t of the foocoe m  f o i s t s , M T S&ltat* and Bseoae e£  (?) p o r t e d i t <» the w o  #§>oei@i tit  tho irfefeetty of *%aaejee* ftavflier p^s%t cf the fowgae **e gftuti. tr Wmmm (6) fay too ee«a*ajeaB» en oljdna f j » and tto&Omm aptsee i n the fine 8113% near l a e v o % by :oct&r $J|  Mtost is too uenev eoiatfegn by m k r and aolanr  f«"  raglai,  by ieetoir oaft  aaae c-r tho $&mtiM0&$m ta**  Aaae* 06) im  m  its «e«igs«tiiae aeiaweily ttaimu>ate>  0tem«£bmty arf It* ^ M ^ ^ I W  (17) t o r oaotesm  ®mmmm&  a®*®*  with oat or other « p s § t of  ehlle to elanjree Ofspsgpet 4$fJe)iNBaeaa> i n t l »  the itagpi feat S* ea*ae«e»i by tfte ftlfJar* ami beete. & t M s awipset sftaea* (8?) M$O a t»#@r of l a t e A ^ taate to <atet«^i«s fee sel&tlipe «sooo|^iM,lttte of e l f fiwssit to streak*  iegMO « r ^ ^ l « l l % t o  Hie osyeateehe ineOaaes pwttng «s© funguo oa s w i i % to « M * haft haea o i i a i  4£fJaa«e% ^ o o  m$m®%&m& of heortmil and eapsoafi of z&rnml ayeeies, m& mxm'Ms *«®d b2esl» of tho  to *ae»4B*fee» e**Aattr •* «*• f « g » »  mm  eroeioe  91 tho taarte of thMtt tanfte be  ijat&antoa « mmm «f aawaoaia© ««*:»SM31%' as fattaaat aanh£ttA f i % «wt®»  haata&t m^lm  fto*  IslMtti <W 1IU1*)* aaatann rod outer*  telfleA  fir - Iffiiao,  wad S t y « »i»*©«  **, ©b~  s«w®a ®3«» that tt» Aaieis 0 m » ant*«r mam nni*«Hto3sfiti* aalmunV  Iw  -of Issftrtsfoed  1  «nt awpwai- o f « t f J» f i r ,  i^Sg^y mwl Se*^te» fir uaao  <te too cttknv  to tt® pwSag &*$$& ^owt s l t t e i t *  «ia$2«f atttaaat&aaa  spfi*a t natS bates* fir « j p w t ^  f i r * lowiaan  f j M weefeows sin  a*aa*» Sitka  anSooid gKarth of j|* tijftalflrfan  00 ^w^tsi to tfjigji tfcog" hoi baon.  figonV navfta 01* is  €ttU2anaia  to «n0tRatfdk*ft*oa of  thafta&nUs ahlta  &  s^fW by I»l3*8fee ( 2 % 39) wfao ©ei^Bdal tt»t# In  tela hoot it-an* aajootaa* stent to th* oaftlaoSan of othat fand* aatr ossl £Ubo** (4B) .«psrloi * ain&ar idtuatio* 3»tta»one* of' aaatek &att*©2)a*** :-&mt a**2»*B0  wastas®  of Soaba*  •:•» the ottwr  aaatt antfitna CIS) feaaittan%anoay loaoa* 3* aaattnm b r f « * aaaalfr^  $m Ana  £• tJaaTtaaJajt anaa  Son  naataa* C^api* saad .-mfithvf^i.  Sotnaaaiagtt*d e a t a r ^ i i a natea* of tbaftaagoaia afcaao* tailor Badtiah 0©la^&» ocadltlogw» Siobaoa U0)» /4ar g | M t a w  (36) i*iaBlad tbat %mms j» atofio of  0)a ood on*  *£*t#a& anito ^mase l a th* nppor 3n***T caglon &m cw**aiy aich but  that l than  a w  ia  ofWi-e^Kl s t a t u my  os^oataa to  b* soarJssfc loss  tteaa Sa isa*Bttwar?al atoj^s, &obaaa attributed noat of tt*  to £» tir-^tagiiy  I.  b»  m  b£# atety of *»ay  ia  ap. war rxiaa* Gsafps  i a tli© mmm*s aaaaantioa that t a t e « to inJioata ts* m&m ttsaa amJ>llis f i r ia m snob astt*waai rrov&Aafi to Ma for tt* r w . « of those toato wsra ffctbarod ia aa «»aa i a ^doh aaaMli® f i r *a* noi> oawft  siSpiBa  «35»  Bi**jftl*« ^  ^  t  e  i» tik> mm  ^  t the ioeoy fe osarod lv/ Stoswm ammsaiBQlmte s a c i r ^ m ! 1y Bfcfe A§|* i i i  of  •tMkt^^v'*  fe i t  fe  TOstetm  felfe  ^  ®m  lafeette*fefeo  optioo feo «• tew feg$tiR<  In feto w s e i i to oocw o3aoot s»mfetOjfr m too too ©feorfenf Brora© {&) foo»s tl® fusaguafefe  tot.  t  l o oto@flo *3f lasitau» oppM oooj* f o n m fe fe® Spa Bin©*  feat 10 pa* ooi* offeaofeaa/ fe If  r«2»  ooot or tint fe ojpfe* f i r l afeoSpa ffils «n®  ¥l*lla^lte  .%xls «f  k-.M  . ^ M l i s fir  r fomaoo a* mmm t » * l .  (?) ^  ttimmmfe®ifeiefe  Xt wss fe  3g0|^Mfei§  teirlwlz  a* fe@B fe oeaso oboot 30 par oaiot  saS afajol f-0 par oast of feat fmajS  fe assaMl^ fir* f o o f e r t i f ^ .  (m) mrngSm®,  »fei*5® of m t e i tasloaig  fefeou r ^ T ColtKJuia fogfeo «oi s^oporfea * gooosmXly M#%  atat imrlaolo*  W pm mm* to U pw oemi of feo  aaSMaeof E. ifeMMMNfai ^Tifeoa^»of ao) fe«ai feat « * mm  mam  m  lafeofefa]afeatt*  mm  3B feto  fetfeten of  im} mmm  feo mmmmm of ofeglt. fwett M S w os feo i8»t©r» tmfeotsaf &«& gssaf fife to oofeifeigtifoof' g&sr£»nelv®  m& a*ost  $mmmi0mm mm wkm mmm* tma m0m mmmm m a ofegle twofe§lar^wt ftoufe%«f «•* p « fes«»fe©Jy fegtaMfeo«eo# of poifeo* te. tfeoy ftotfl ofee tt»t feo oiwonoo of frttifeifeofem criterion of mmtamm fe o few oaf fert w &  iMf*  fJ» M M  ^18P8N8^o' '"o^WB^^^e^OBf^a^p^  ,  feo  jfefen? mmmmm  SSiiS^'SS^Si^© ^88^''MSi3W6^  ^^^^^S^^a ^^S^t^^fiWS  ^BBHfGSIj^y^  of f » » fee*** onfeni»ofeg fetfeiilai % tfo*  «ofefe«lfei(om>lr A #  Jo^^SO^^M^  o f e l M CIS), fe M »  of deevfefefeo*»• foifel feot 25 no* ooni o f tbo iafoefel teao®  W hfe' plots bore feofo feiliM arefefefetwiw •feoiMTit* t o i l y iosofoifeooofeo w ? fe groupo * l f e OIK? or mam offeopoi^ Iswwfeg tmM feifegs# ©fewfeaS,Sfe* j | 0} tmeAfefeesww isagfeii oofeofOfelfei 07ferittttttfen*tdontqrian pfolseoa f W * belies fe M f t t r oil *# :tn-rcsti-'>tj a *fegtt««iy of fesaw ^^iBSi^^lSB^S  ^li^88Sil&  ^^^^a^^i^^l 'Is^^^^^^fe  '^S^^^bo^  ^1^. ^fp$i!5^|^ ^l?)fP§^ijp^^^  ^j?  1  ftefeasps Ml'lassains feo €S§ot»!'#eBi* of £» feaioto»taao  fefeooto ooisigiflowi o^imioi^fefeOP fenorfent footedfefeo0 0 3 % ^tiMiAMi of #®fey out woofptfesi,fefe*§oooroo o f an jmmUmmmi of «fe psttefegy of ottfe ft* fe OpOUowfe <29)»fess»feporten*ofego® fefeslife nlcfery of feife mm* tfe fife* «fe§® «w feo »e® of laffeft* ism M b fe pta&et «* «o yono or feos. Sortfe^oo*^ t o e iWPifely l e f e l ! mm tm^ ^ f e i » o««a no#J^Mo mwaife offeooy.tfe  •me* mm$ «* mmmZL §mm» *a* plmm  a* about  ]9»  yosara mm  mexmppomma t o a stag* *fb» atdban a emMaMm of pwwaiswa wgp&aaiiai ant hawy awatfise ®«»sml3y  At thie  yaaalt* in aa«loi» daoay.  bowma> aouadiag alono ma ftaoafi iaaufflalsa* to y  ©mtsmat ttatfiaiaaaa of «wtb* tt® thlan ®ta®»i th* *«£• of aaalSa*** *«• ptassi a* abotft 150 p a w «** mmmpmm t o a Ms* -  *w  «e*a i a ^ n a n t tawa* wmm atiijeat to i w t a a  Atts^h  ba r*c$ar&s<5 a^psaoolxtti aa  a »Jor faotor a**aat£*B- f * Mmtemm  e*m>jt tmmOm  that a®a®7 ItatOf ana.a*%  ^2feaa*a^Nfcp^a^fi*wi ^^^^P3»^^aaa^p*%%S^9 ^2$k ^ISa^K^lSjI^&n^^a? ^»aTPC»^8iBB^j-  ^^8^Ja*3P  Maatoafl*;*, aaa» oa tha basis of oboay«aM^ a *  far 48k2nSK5^  of ^ t M ^ o t t a i  ateas* of h&sOeok « i gum! S r to'3aaaa ( t t ) » tbay ianaatiiftaB m  themf of i s ^ t l o a aitfe faaaaat to theae «®o@ptsu liaa> ttaaay iaMa that law tigWfc at* to 0mrt£wti$x*$ of the loser eaono m&  •wkm^y$22M$. i w o a h i a at&ia* fbaw baHaimi to la© 3at  last** j^aaaaaa t i * b M n h attte isMoh  ?&mxm®$M$& for  aoat 1* ti^aterieai Is^^licsa*  ®w«#bailligg of tha ami* in eAtlaiaa to baotoata® *o N a t i o n  af aianaa ataan* aas heti«*p«t by ttwa t o ****** a abate ami wtetaw® ooaiitim  J******** to aaisaniftanB o f epore* aafl mfamm of tha fane***  to m$mam% to ta* aosolaasaioae a f air aaa IMwyt w«*e tba* of EsgMrth  (15) aha atufeafi t h a i  1* tjaaatorim  aaany  U mm&m® t o amU tern of ]** *i*a*  thai poor aitae*  lafily  aaa )»oeaaw proroc^isite to .n«at iafootiiew by this fanp».flaaaosesaeatal oa tha TOtitlow that appeaaafi to proaoto dooay 1st ataoao of aaataaa haolook « g amhilia fi»  aopp****** t w * a  aa  Sa w w t a » G w p a ana ^ a l i l i ^ t o  aitaat  -1B»  mm* lltJant (&% otatSag tt** away  anfsjaanaia* inawaay iaaaaoh atnaa  imfisfam a laa^or than aaiaal  of aiaaaaat ana  tja* te naatf l a atMltioii U 10m fctlUtog taps attoea*by oanaf aaaaaaaaa* Caaaaiyqhiiai *pp*}  mi& mm mmmmm  #  of aa*jraf Anat aetata* aa* m a  tantaka, all  mmmM  rxesaoto aaatitioaa favorable to iaoay aaaaaaaa* SSair mm mum aifcaaaptaa to «E«»oraI the laaulte of thai* ataSy of teloab at "riejji lata** by iatoypspatAnE the waalfe of m tpmMmm£m gent by taaa to iaaaaaat* ana other vm&mmm tftwaa^hooa- fasffie northt»  aaatam Qtetted aaaaaa* fhaa« Iter ooaalraaaA (42) that & Maat^Mu  any oasw *«* henloak fpatiag on augr tro* of soil bat that it aeaaaa tioat nbuB&^felj «sn turoo© ffMwtag! aa aatu aa^baa^aai aitoa« Iba least dafwrtiv© amnio war® baliowd to ooowr m mn*®m$gm& aapasf• alanantanajt aaa* oa.  sl#p©%  :  ©Mia, at  "Bbaroa© aba aoat aefnatxnv ataaaa  aaca Mfcia**B -to « a w oa fws%*Ss«ia^ enllo»  at laaar alaaaal^aaip emA an tajjetan the etfaat of altStaaa upon the  m *taar«a***an tmm* Wpartaa 0 1 ) that * t follow It® «aoar*o to their ribml:j$o naa*r I M t a ©f #i»«itSs® onS that aptoaMb 5TO faat taa aan bo«»f» of Wm tm&m mm **a£3a* ia aabit and atao bn% tt*t aajrtnt 5000 fan* tha find* b«M« am aaataaff aaa gaav aiaar oa fhatr ffiuaaerpte. I**!** o£ (27} wsportafi & «£1itiltlea i a « b H s of naanaaa teloek|» «t» ia*** onlanaia. me$m Qw* ia $» mmm^ mm tost »gortoa: by lair aaa laaaail .far- Maaat mm* a»®a l a g ^ f a t o r a Ibwl a « s M ttwaS of Saoaroaalog immmm^ aaS iaisortftaea of I . tiaatayfoa |»tt»^ » CJaMJte rogios,  $m  ajacttay*  that aaa aoioo^wt  tftth  timmm*  tte wbpL&mm of too fo*Gfefejwsng afeafe and fwng lanae of anotajrMQ»J efepfe hoa boon oxief taife(S upea by a»feia2< mm^^mm for o e w t o of 64£Sweat MOOojife* Infeooa«® of afaife f i r i n OlXttlncbfe*. IttUantt* (89) fan** fefe la*aa&i<t» oamtfsa* «* to «r loo© «»tona> iwoa ojrfy fefootfet» taaro soft aowHtffr tesoo&itei fefe «§s»fe ooo«ip p f t e o % ^feaatmmm® ty fUe* Ittfeaoofc (39) «l^)M#odfeoojslttofeatJ *ffnafoflgftai900mfelaica©* aafi fS# t  (i^gg aw*) atoaatfefeaefetaakft of ofee* hmrtrmMtiim. ffeal % feoofin «ffeoewfe&Iaanat of i t earlierfette life offeo*a*epee tea neat ofe» aooeiMebfetajg faagu msfe* onftftftert(48)feootvoda <iSffIMMfefe§jpwt»el»JI& s^pa of eer&Loot infeat&c© infeo<oioa of atftetfeeftajkpo»fee oa iftoMMo^fesn sifeo' oo eppaeie ofenfe ^onrfeg oo otUkjmay feo tet eemovfeg at 44 y e a r s m&feolatter at  yenfetofiajlavfe(35) afeje efeajrwaiea*feanefeaa On@Qft and flssbfegfea offeoaceo offe*r^\p-.ir feeae lufbofed by £• % i n o t ^ ^ a *4ni*alSBgfefen% p * of $®immm oeurs e#*fe&afea: eife oust* fefeet&en* la foe** aot <€ 14 A^efetaae eaenfeaft'feepaoneoot lafeefeft tie© TO 57  :  yeea* o3sS « Sfeat*feofeetta**feXltofrfeea®oas© »**» e*ooAJaSe« elfefeoofelfeat liefaeWaiBU Motem (13) dofevadaefi fee fefeeofeft of AMoa ap» infeetfjper a»eo* togicm tofe125 yeara* riww &fer e£ s*> 0)» aofefee in wmvawnpst ataafe oi' th© aaaa opoofeofefeoaaaa r«@£«% dofeasafeoelfeaeje of osrHoetfefeattaato bofeesfean75 yaero. footer e£ JfcV C » ) focaai J * ^feoABgfeB to Im -4» rriaary fonsos iw;oae&2e for iway in bofe l » f e s » m£ aafere efeaa* of !««Joekfetan uppor SoSaj^a region and that fef«feioso fefen fJeso fe none of tho treea eaaofeetf. % then at atfoa of loco than 75 joarr.,:  9$  •ssv  m mmmmtag  pwat® tfao aMajpana*  *b* lentaon toot  M ^ a s s f y s lalsawis  / ooannataft that* Sit  of jp>  n | « * ttwpe s » t bo  «o og*lsi3% annates^ nanttkaaw*.peannnnafl* of aotor spS@ty.2is tt*> for too 6aaaSofa*n& -of too f t a g t i % any tmMm  soils of  iM3mmi®$  the quota  iaportaaae*  of i?ato;' ttdgirnts%  lwmimmi& nnot bo of  S»s% be oaaciutad tint tiso aSalaetes of air and ^<o  «^©ro*4ett of  na&or «U injuriaa  oi' i i * a&taro of ilsn fnvct* #  l£JbfeiaG» uiad» and biobon bioncboo uro Jtotlaoxaly ootawo^ed sad-fib the progxoea ct? <b*joy* te oor»lu}o£  * tbr> oealo <x" on uswJ  r  #  tbo pgeheSbiie ontho£& of at^taaona of that f i r e ootaod* ere tbo ocwt  oonrict}  iJ^^ospm  glean  £tar  into ahito £ir . t  and t h a % &s a ooo90(|uoooe  v  aeon;,- ai&artc saooi oinan ia the butta oi' afclto f i r .  (42}# as abo o t o r  o  :air ana flabnrt  KKOI found £» tbo oaaa of west»» twOook aaa5 #  an laaan tan* floo  sAayaa a **ay  *eJ« l» aba eaia^bas*ta»  uemt of ,J|« tlmi^glu^ nasi than % forfeegonntent jsenaantoge of ia^aalp£aaa s»s tswsssfels aa battel* $%ibn# DSn$a**3se oonaiilisofl faaat ^m<^'S t o ba a  loaa J^pGrtsrt  ssoio oC oatoy then fix* noonan but that  th*y fun**laana Inlaw oa on anpotaant aaaa* of aaaia iwa^loa* opart of iba HnKsy  faan tan onan# A f$m$y.m» opissfcea. oo to tho &!ip$i!ioanen  of float ataate 2s anonitto f i r l a . the ajsjer Sanaa* tagU* ana oalpaaaona by  1©)* IWaJpt (•$}« ojannariliie aaa*ft*lsi®wi*%r  Of th* Jaagon l a i t o laajaaabiaa pbaaa a&pana aaaaaaa baalaat,, etata* get* It a l f t *aan*n a » w » altta***  iaaaaaa»afitSaabaa  *nl*4a¥ oaaattiaaa «T * 'loan f a r mm ton*, fiaa *•*«**  et©»* i a th*  mm  m a mm  to)  mmmm  mm  m  m m * of m  m*m.  «sdMiBrt fea* Its* mUtam af 1»flajjaflipl afeefraitfe? afee* iaStowfrsutatfeae:&m  «II«MM,*S  aafe af fe* anafe*  «n8 aea&feta*  af f j n i t hottee im thfeaee: as! vm& ®%m£o of healee* aa* gms& f f e fe Sfeba* they obotsmfi  2a feo  oan» af both cpoefesfeatfe»f s q x M i of  few* fe * ^ t n f o a a i f e o f e m wow ofcfefeafl fe fe» fefenoA afeaea« leetiftat fe fee dspfes eat c f fxtett hatte*  swi **feafie£ feo foxaafeaa  *&m sMvt. fetaaaxtfee asc* <K»fetaoa>» e*£«efe offeooooy  afeSfea  «**oV ^ ^ ^ ^ f f the* **•» o i w f e i <eefe nBaae te fefe immM0Mm Ofssass*fe'b© oa ar&anefe&fee of it® Mfo ccfole. £fe mmw a f w f e a a l avefen*e» ejtf i f e abOSt* fe fttw eaaaeefe* ofei*e*» ttaaoeaji MPPSSI ieaeafeaafesa I M © aaie oo@o i ^ l M g w tofeoeoa&t&oae fe tsntts«  f e l afefeaJt fe feisg the ssXfeat hfelogtotil, fo^oirofea of'fe©ftatgwi aat i f e mmmpm feptfeff mm « * amaasttaaa «T fee** aaalfefe, 53a» 1 * ***** tee  « # W  efetoh fee fen&ae aafefe* ther* has heaa a© m  fen ovofeeJeiSitytofeadfetfeaoe^wmsoe en* eftoaafeaa of £• tita^arlv^fefeoBgfefe af OSfffeeat swsoopis, ®tetS% ssai S o M l i t ^ * S t e i f ^ t t o a of ma ooolorr af feo f«^Ks,feirsfr*jraftio«tort aaaa laiaalaAaja <^ ife aooaapfe aattfe©ffleost o@ailM«« feat s ^ w r t i f e osonmaa®! siottw^fetes aaaafel docRi^ootetioa of  data amtrflmtosy  to t l m eodo. Wso|« tho owfe «fefertifnr iinitotloa plaeofl i w a feg wafalwss of ^ w t o w laaeatt&aajaae fe fete rogaaS baa aaaa feo feo^life  tod o a t w a l i ^ *»fe« of t?» a®aoripticj»c affoaaaa fea  anal**** of ta» fm&m aa2 ito swoapfe. Saw,, i t Is oiSbar O&fJloolt oer ^onaiblo to ionstify s«C «? theflorin*eboarfntlaao jsafe of too fvnjja, is Tosroot of i t e c*auR<*aae ana ;s> 2JS m t o i , ^ i l ' ; tho •awole© crciliticuj unfier *sk*oh 'the i\s<-u3 atriata". at tJx? t^ne « » ploe© of ^* ; L ^ 6 ^ f f i y t!»at a-, oarc to OOJUT * r  «itM?t lULo-Jonooc,  toiptfcar nith the ©swan :«g3fei^tv' t l ^ t tuoh *?ttrto"JUaie r o c . f r c t a  IhnmU; c^ime&s $o tUo aeoan®^ of roaajyriafns *ad oaa*nibin£ eojMjratni,-/' tha vari.-oo fncnoot oox-ix^na utxJoj" nhioh tha fisagua i a fbuou* 'Jau. uoo nou boon ucoei^JLieboo l»y r:ro*ioua 4is§n»M^teiPi *£th aba «nml% l&nt tfeoisas& s ^ « 3 » « & s aliYoiaanaa btrfewwa foroat oooditkjno^  ^daioU? nor finally m^mmMmi apctt on o*ja$*ann* haido* ^Itfcoot tho nrco^ontt of o$tn?apt£o*a oatagonloo * i * l * * onion to aaaanaft* obaamtdoea p©y%ia»t to tha aagno it,teeboon ia^noa^dlblo iseaf sn'nfiaoB Swwtis'itefs to asanas i t s oan&Mlitieo anci bob«*wr n» tan ongfon *Moa » oaaaiartft oaaawtanStoe of it xeojtfx*** Za oonaao&$aa aith tbo otntaiii of iaawlatfct* of .^fittelift «w» it ososn* i n 3*ltton {taiuatHn*. i t is ®vl*3oai tb&& oonaiiioiKUai of ito biolOf^oal x*?a>*£iaate boa bean, t o a langa on;:***, *jwbb*&al to aaraeya of th*. purnty oooacnSo aa-oots of i t * <?*ony« .'^fczetlon o f eiolo^oal ooDaJdoxol&xw t o thooa on wowaio aatujva a?«*h on bao loan dona in tbo oaoa aT tliia by noat i n ^ t ^ l * ^ , - P ^ ^  «a©a « d M s « 80®»p««i  #  Vj£J  3  1  on tannvtaia bauds «?.«* wbiob to owliw^o tha fuoouB oTf&<5tivo3^» Gs«sa@^itljr atn? obaawectioaa of tf» faaga^ l*iaa tbna tiodtoatvoayo of &oay bwa boom oanttaan. for th* nnot part to #*so*j*% «ad loaalitt®® that hn*» m&@m& toto tha r*ji$o«i of J5woat ntOiaat|«ai ti«t #  P  has pcroroilofi oecaarronoe  trp  to t*»  and <lootr afcive offablllta«  Col-*'><a haws boon laaaetitatal aaoe#*  Tho roov.lt t*v. h «j tz«t  Twwer.t  to on3y a aery  <>•'" ~. tfaatoriqa .In  lolitivotv few  io  t*«  MtMj  am% In ~<wt  afcsor dngtae*  Oaaaaal 4h»!oiw»t of tho ooooopi of rogwsoal Misotortsa  British Ch&aeiA  IXKMK*  iKr^crtoaoe ao Kigessfc Ji#  noaa.--scar,, «hou  both »R'-or-  i«t»a««ojS«»l «a4«tis» in tho mmnwm one aUaViosae of tha i'aagw treason ea&£aat»  =.inoo  ao strio^  <^:~j»;phic  llatV.s wro .iafiiaa^a . far  tae ftsoeua itTO;J^gQsl G p ^ s ^ l i v x to aarc^o i i  1  who '.acdn uV ita  ooairwsoa SifSfcroat, owl'.t&oao of f o » r , c^wsiu as ccoaatK ana* oould bo taataotofuat tr ^o^' :c\rct.;:^j -Jic om;.:fcr«*» Geology t l » ^»£aB» tho Ot»© &f ^^no^r^> afiiow srae o&»ntialo of i t ® 2&e ^«3o aesa afawSy l a » % i t wr.- mmStlmmi pecnlh2eto«K;«ad oar O&iofctegtesm&lM&maf se»e of tho molm&ml aeneotc of its Ufa h&etory 1400 of a rxsro ccapiatc otofly of itc lifa hictcg? oca yet ant&cfy tha ehjoetivee of thie ismctlgxtiaa* 2a tho o w t that tho on&aa-~oa' atfaaaoh qa mSm&imMm af ^ 0 faagaa sftrcM im-fequoto I t one iwsogaiwia feet a w e divorao a.-fcooah, ouafc aafeetadveoctcd % 3oobs <<2) TOM eoboaxaejatty msgkmrnU. m»$mm of a liaiiad otuSy of tho eoatoGfeal 3ife hftotoJT af £. tinotwgloa bofef aaeojaate far the jyarpeeoo of tlsio «aa»jr mmum mmoaiMm af a»a«feS.«t aaa p r i ^ m « *e ta tea aafeanl mmm% at tea t*m»tiiatfea* a® tia> a p p a M t eaoaeea open m $mmm&m» mm eatthe* mmmmmm. of the aaafe! mmmmm af the ttaaaa* eoa*iea*» #  atloa of the &wmmmmm  of Ito aisanapto and, of tha too, tha  f q p g a a n a o to of Iter the oost s s q ^ l i o s t otartioe point* m m$mm  Bospit®  vwm *» boot aa©®oi^blXl% (27), JuoMflostloo f w  gSwSag piriaasy emiisaaiatoa oooalOeiatlca of thefralnaaa**of the mm$®& mmmmm  mm m&&m&  J» too lan****** wm% mm fiwtoio  easost a atfoot lajaaowa ape®- the * * * # » at  mmml  l i t l l f i e «p#8* * tli® otoar n**a» &^m^m^  « ftSaal pwio«s i a  * * * * S«^**«» of  potential boat iotlaoa*** no*teaantspllnanina of a d**ofa**7 of ouooapto. Than, i t aaa Qm$S®6 that* l a th* Satosdis at leant, obsosmtiom o f the baaiift**- **£»ftfc)aii|aala»fM #t  i bo «t>o@ta«  tea*  the l i A m M  itoaaiialasa^woata* D;ujt,rlb!jtl^ oM Santa***  the decision to- I»»*itl#to tho O @ I H M I of ft.  axily, on tha o**n* of the infSiaavoo of aortal o a ^ n i » a a l a r e a r e d th* aof^figatjfi^j of j f e » ^ t osta*1 isto a^loaf*** «ssd i^^pi^aabSa saiito of' ^gatstic©*  It baa a*** Siitiostot thai a s®$©r l l s l t e t K s i  ipsa  the aa^fantooo of p w » t e » in*an**^pxkSnn* ha* been th* immsimm g«oam1i»l m t e © of th*  taa^te  aaa  a f ^ ^ i i tha tebitate of £*  ^anjbnajaj* ana its ®mmm&&*  th* ®$agk& ooat 3ar«vtaat rasaon, of the  aUtjr that mmemoM  ataaattaa* ***** to B© S» tha baaao aoaS  to  Hat femem****ftatoaao**w Into wm  «be»*y obswwAioog an** * t e ® 3 * -  iaat ami later ©«sp*f©&. Us aaay fta****** th* haata o f foreat olaaeif* a**1aa* anat w  o*aa*«lal|y aslte«ttea* on* Ration* th*  mmmmm®*  mmm§mm9 wpMAoml vote*feataa£ttttleoar » batata* onae, MologSesl o^wliiwttew* x* other im&mmm tho beeJe we I f e i f e i * to th© extent of l l O l A g eeV «BO or afewhaMfet (ftfeo^Aferfefefeo* Safe «S«*«ifIo&tiaftti ylolilaS wocfeMeaa uolfe ahat w w too avKcel fe feefe aeope olid felo% th®»fo»o oa-5M not o^voofefe mm of tho #  M t e o w W #se»swt that oocw froa m& laldtot to feo aaxt* &©»»»  eaqeenUy,  i t «oo  evident thot oonefeesation sbxtsM  Sag * feefe f o r teost olosolffeotdai that  be 3Ueatoaoloet-  aooU yfeM anife of feraet  ho ropsiaa ax: aeferal wife.  aosar thot  have boo© dovoOopet! anS «w2 mtmMm&&fe^SifJsraa* fteaao of fareetfeeeetl4pti«*n>f f e waseoaa S*«wol  ayofeDi  of forest oittn^ffeati*  of 4Mflmsft syoteafew^y^i'g^yf wben ©sals 10 ®c^plep,.tx! naltw ofeaii» for  aMah it -mo <Ioa5@3sai . ;-as®rpi£aati« of |g«  ot^^te* system oa v  fe  eonflouall Infea&ijnf&loae boae«f 0 0 fea f ©seat aaito tho? ylo&ftf  tfeBfea&aeft&efe  aether  thee* -fee* eould b o tho «io» nffe @ai«tfe«^oog^Mo ayefene 00 .-'mrelojtfid hy §o«w eaa: Omoofe (39) and #?#l«oyo§ by tfctttfey CM) t o deaavfeofeneafeafoxoote* aiaatJa^eacrarhfe ayxfeae) ooni »sj©efed f w tfe i»paoa offefeiaoee^featlan £»feeswsm feo* jpafe eyafeae ic&pkr aa t£a&r frpooootttal unit o f oI*imIiS4»tloa. o nmrnMrnP* isM* is Jateadea:fexepnaeat aojnrteMaafeatis fe fete®* a f t s t fe® »««g©*@^*t« of vrtattsexy googw^M® rasfcoae* Sue ®?b» eanfeote IMUO ©f olaao^ffeatioB of eaeh tsyafew aimfesfeOfMtoasgww tetawaacftaaal a&fftreaeee of » w ^ o U « t o ana, m euefa,te«UttSe epallejatfeafeopisaSffe ufeafe a* looolltioo. ^3ogtes& m^mm aessposoat a g r o u p of feteet alaauatfia>atfea> ayetonc that v e r y f w tfaoaa tfet axa hmm3> m&M® ®im efeflfcfe aoooa^aaotlaav^ aaaa. aa tha ayafea af HOle  *na* nm aeaad m ®Umm mmfrta, m& **0*tat£e* •mmmmm bat **i«li ^aan abaftv csaanaa* st*©** n p n th* ^ i a a M a ® of one or other •*n*Jn**atIan ma* m Wm ^mmimUmm of dajana** (3) £fcV&)«  §  #  mm  «*- qaiiaaaay Hf >• on* **<*** potait Biitai mm th* of * **J«**aojr footer aaa, * 4 * % a© not pwftfl© «b* aaaanijoti**  mam, mmmmmi mmmm to tfe&t tw#«mgftti«. ^ o w ^ i o o a a******* gMh m that eaptayeo by do**** C®)» »s««s wj^totim an iftftae a oooatantly ahwgiag Oos&etlo atlfusrte© eo o«T«»e<3 to tha oooameio© of **8ite*&»* onftto tbat a** i a baJUroe oith tfaeiy <HttT«*enneato* ^sab system* by failing to Moogai** any dog*** of etaattift? of ^ a t o i i w i anit* *a*o l o ^ a o taaadtoa to the pca^eee of th&o *ta%# Haotadml a?atea of a^aaaatyJag faroatg* eXtlwsgh to oaaalaat witftaSevan teotteam #  jte*ot«y* an*  psmMto  naltbar  the wowaaiy $@aorS|«feto» of ftoaai owaiitioae  & thny ttW8§al» iistiB0t  baaaanaio* I O I M I oonl&E£aaai fas*** bftbit*  *es ami a*ae» tbesefoa?©, » | e o t o 4 S^>l^g4oi3,  SG  a aathod of ata»8 4oa»riptien»  03? l*to36|o«eofe3j#i\is:sX aynton*§ dtMfii HP' that W^ISM^KA by  aod pzmm&aist'ij tboa* of DrtiawSw CH) aaa eo*tt®g 02)* appeawi t* be the btsst auitai of aU ayataaa to the jwpws of tiiis 4 « ^ S # * i i » « M b ay#tow» anion mi&m m ^mwmm^im m tba ianft* aaatftal oai* o f oSaMSfaaaataa« toanflata* ani aafla* thoir wits* m tha baaia of tbato epeaifle eo©tope% £•*•» th* * a w i w W » of thane fa@ttat£fa ataaaphaaia* eenpble* and *op*ymfc&* envaaonaa**** 2b* wgatoiim a^wcMt of Wm mm®mim ia dafJisof a* the tela of ito ecsaatway aith mspoottotha eomarsroo®, «bra3«wo* aoanaeneo ooi aiear of tba |teat% l&ateaiag t p w of abiob i t i a o ^ o a o t * ^ a tmii a t e ^ f i a a M o a of aneb ayatoaa i»# « s e w « w % a eatand aait of « i i o t e t e « isbat io o s ^ M a a d by ito omsatelfioxiotteatasatoro arr: abioh ItooM toasa^^tegsiai 0 )  9  t  t  /  Tmatmm&. Ia f o o t atera mm  mm  IJWOI  by aoap&oo aa a oa^SSas! diswo^dc® fi^H* aaaatavjfl l y afiosgr Jboroi i a * g f « * JQaJt wfeffl iaaaaaaa« aaittmfea ®i to <§spW3 af a r e a r o fea f@sspo®ffiO$ J^owrarad  iiX2»*  eaafeafea' afeiattooo fe aaofea* o f  dsjp  ra&ow  aaaa  A 1 » SonfeRftt safl oowflaafenaTi tyaas * a *feaeaeeafefetrooe B i s ofwfejpsifeaaeaad nta&e t a i l o r feaa O&K 3 2 » overtopped l a w aaa" aatfeefeaofeaaeta?  lag^gi  + 1 2 3  =aolitar7 saoatfesad «op fe 1/9 of «*sa - 1/5 t o 1/2 of ass» 4 V 2 fe 3/4 of area 5 » 3/4 oa*Are asm  fe  foot feet  *• eolltery oeloisfes aa fe one aqoave foot aoXoafe® fe one mp*a» yean: > an^oalea sip t o 5 ss*ias» s*asai» 4F soloaies a? to 2,00 ncpem ?e»v2i '> o o l i t e aafe#» agave vaataf  0 * dcoc! off lEa^QHtinc !WteH% 1 » law f $ g » 2 « iatowiiafe vigor 3 4- Hsdraa® vigor Iterfeeaagfoa aa^i  to *» naaaa layer iae^anfee;fealittar t l » aalaafead fea&axa &2 ss jpotaol. tjotdaoa  0 » peroot aeterial 3 * afed tertaaa .feaajaaja^ f**?0Bney of &» 50« ®»w Xl«* iaf^&Bjneas  "X » taaa  vh-^to^ixss m  SxMm1m&  byfeeSBetiaaeafe  * l  ¥«httoxoph7l3&t  112 1-2.+.2 X.+.2 ••+•2*0  lug****  •to*  A2 «%tt*  B1  1. y.plieato 7,  i.*.i l.t~3^  A 1 I T  wertobl* tap to .5 JUJB.  2.1-3.2-3  at©* ?:»S©toW|^i3ft  A  X  |  to S4 ft** mmi  to j a l M A « t d g*e»©l  grasal@s to >  42 3 1 fei %wtm\ lis© 4*/ft*tfe* ttati «f  I  9*&aet afe*£j»fe3yfeeftwdaefe of the € ^ » i f c m f®efeeo of 5xr13#Ubml hafcltafe* &fecuga enay iae&ateiS eoaaraoenee of S* tinatarfen aeee eneaueteiee'* It ftaally tsoaaae apparent that *noh ooatswasonc cix> 7M » t bo iater» rxctosS as la'ieotivo of tho fun^c Irvine a fecal ocolo -lool fejosoooe fefcj ratho?* tfsst feey otwuls" bo sr>. *>.3*3«« ur:- " o l % cso'uoltet t??.tfe iiaSaaal w w w w af g*e*lee haaftefe that eve mmx-M&m fe efee* sal mm twtowtw osiws af iitfeefean* Bene* i t baaaaa ea&eeft that tha eafemfet gsepmfMa aacpa of thaa faagoa «aa not aaaaeoajrlS^ with, oa aatoaafoa ooologioal toClaraaoa*  nfmmfmam  (Sa the oontaxry, i t bootne  evident feat S* tinofealao suaoepts hew o -u«h wider ooole/ieal toler* m t than cloeo tha faanne Ataalf • In tho li^jfe of a conriatlao that ^. t4^qtj)ffi^teaa r e s t r i c t s ooo^e^fealfe&eraneefree that of it® macoptej, s Hesitation i a fe® extant to "rtiiah habitat ^©t-orni.mtioae of itc oaaee]?t© o-poexoc!- testified*  bo m S ©  '3c«TOq«mtly i t jwoultod that oeatroo of K# #  tiaetcrita infoctdco bseorae ih& nejor fool  V.Mfet ^tor^jvrt-rona  and» io addition, i t wx; froo ©soli foci that hcMtet deter-instione «sro aaaa of oca&iticas that dM ant favour fee w s * s s w of the fca^uo.  3& oovoscl inarkaaoes, hosovor, i t nae noeeosary to docoribr  hort hebitat© in eareoc: where  ^r^as^ffii ecrld net be fourth in order  that eortefe of tha aahifet tkstcrainotioaa aonld b© vosdffad and feeir ioso^«ttoa® »gaoated,  ft® p«wfeo» w s eaXfaao' eithia fea Xiaafe  latioafei above atfefeoenoeptioa of ito aaat aoitteay legtoae* It fe  w»mMm&feata l l fereat a^eeefetSene eana&feg «  feila  or aaaa aV  taaafeefeaj aaavjapta too notfeoos.fefetfeaedfor tha m^mm osasta©%  neat of than* that aup***rt th* ********** of mis <tatw hmm twin wmmm*. PmQmnmp i i 4® b a l i w t S that, ©? tb* mmttBMMMam that 4* not MBpr«xr% the mmmmm of f.-Vn^,^.'^ guf fin* last of then taw* bean ^otormlaBi oral eaaaalbatf to T*mm as aaat|omat #**aas**an of tha faaaa that ©prate far aaa « ^ a ^ th© aalfata of flat* f»gaa. I t in ballevcd thai  fleiflate of tha SI stssoQiati.saaBS ant etn>«aneooiAtittt j^enjaf^iaai i a tflto ****** o f tbia l » a w « ® a i i ^  ana* aanaaanaa*  by  iwwitptofs  ©aefe m.m&mxm  teat of * » ***•*» Of ,ito ^ t a ^ a a t i ^ t  mm.  mumm by- tt» a ^ a » to b i a oas *nt«niaa*San aafava i t o *nn*p«****» S^flsst&enjl to ©rlgim! entotaijari&oa* w r e aonatftaea T®m%m8. i n MOltiajsto-the. d^.vetism ©f a w OM®oJb%ttea# sft&l* teoa^pti^* of a H o f the  mm®$&t±im&  g**t#aVn*t i a the M I  beva oot bean 2anilo**n &  thta  aanarte  of tbo l«sstiip;t4©a  of tfeos buro bean aaooasibo^ i a  a M a a M l . to tea®* i a ghn** |* *jfl*1ojSiff oaow®. i  t  Sh* taaaiaaan;  a*iea»  iatloa* hs&a been lisisad., togatlaw aittt t&oaa 3a *MOa< the ffeBpsg ©wears*  Iftaaaf bto Imam n*nlM*otofoottl**** aaaaaaaa* ******  m®mm$m^  mmWsm of aa* »*#o*t# the oaanrtaaaa o f atsoaopto aooe^^af to tha fsoo 2ay®» aMab tfeay oooaptsii i a &mk of tha mmmMom  ana at**.  ia fgweatoa 3a anaaaay foaa te SaMa S» !# The reporting p<eoatae at^Ooyoil i n tha Jtanaal Beport o f m Foyoat Set**®®, aojewaaont of toona m& Forests, VIator:-% doaa not p e w i t tha anaaat to oito otsaatly tha aoato&antiaaa of &L» Sebaiat aatl jylldge to olt»«*yi* «2a©isifiaafcksa* i n ao**i est' 9baan4ar fteecto foapaatftaa^r*  «iaoa^ion»  rofi^T:  Ar,-cm\?i-tr- r i mamon  O W W I A  POSTS?::  Strffioiost raaordo of tea OOWBTW© of JJ. tirwttqyfty i© laoifSo  Siitod atete® atf British ColuriMn hava m a t e g fyoa ianaaao* immMttitom to Jan3*o*o * ifciaa? soanaml iistiftwtiai for too fwp»» a© iJ»«^teM« so IMtoatoS w«% tw«*w# aaota ***&*$rapn» tt» »a**J** o f a Saaltoftrasslwof : iwaet&gMfeton* of * 2ttn& miswo* Ckj»^s»fi*ly# tint aowtiw <<f the fwv^* on a&ollar waapto is* www oitaar than nana* mmitimlly oxnalwyfto©noon Hsrga^ & a&ttor of apoc^tdosu 7b® mtslmMac eafioio&o;' of t%£t> no amlustie* of tbo onotonouftSott of jfc ^^e^gt Mm i » sh* itttas* ©# ma^mm^mm  p^BfifiSBffi jtaw*t§|ptSoaf to o*nK3*iftonto the istiftij^ite oeMIticg® |*** th* ftjisgy to oooor nod, eJ^s, th* soon* tsSbenato*' onoh -0000^1^000 o*jr  Ste O*«»*B* tWtetigiitfe*:tasonnnnnonoon to **£*»»* tfcSm oatSononoy % oaf&s&ag ona**** Issbltoto osa" wwrxliar: ttntlr memvmm .in the* proline* « % at -fee sane tl-w, aasooietbc with oash bald/tot eitoer th* pmmmm or steouo® of the fmm&*to"t*» *ocalt of thin ^roooonao 4.? of 53 nwoofife Ix&bltoto ***» found to s»?-ort iiswife ofti»fango* to oono or oth*?? d®$pem» Ttm txs^m «ass not ohmrmd lafttssw l a f e g 23 iabitoto fiM^to a diligent oeartb for it and n e u r i t the foot Sat too 13 b&Mtoto in gabion a«aa3% « w is oloo* la^adnitytotoo** Ja oMott th* Aaa?* ro*adox3y ooonas* *H» eootopee anealfJ*to***a habitat In atdon tfootoa&un mas found on* oo*at*han Ua if^&s XH« mo «Hio^tS« Jo* th* of likUvSAanl ?0»to Sa tha <Sao*riptioaa of e?eolfle noeteps® at© glaaa ia Appenfilx I. Tbooo habitat* in whtoh the tm&m *»a noat alwiaM as* ilXe*t**ton i n i-latee V-2X.  max %  wimm  19  ftfoc* W* Amamum mmm * • £» tteikj«|a w « »tathis — " ~ tanttRMvilB f a i r issgatisitr but i s H » firwioonfty. I*® mmsmam i s e*o*3»wft fe 'tM«o offe»3os«r O»F*J@S •»fefeotofe» g £ < » o f feooo of omojifeo* Stehfe oT tbi* ooeoolatioo f w p e t f ? oaout$fe»»»gSis of efegswt fehot* Figure  t  lfaoofedjgft M i l tvjflp3»jri|j» W3JS OOSSOOfetd^ eMMR^ fft uteafis ©f th© w-sfeem olopo ©f Uoxmuvor XtlanS. » oow»e 0&™toriesl«13^fefeotrspor half af fee baa* of toiwat flat oo-teSacajt tseoo*  FlGare 2 1 . _ aeaaafetioa bat taotisly on doaiaant oad oo-feifewst analdlfefitaa*So* ImS nonelZy occur wife rcaaood vigorfefeteasaooiatico* jdJBOttMS||po £a . rtfgioB fe feia feotStV 1 M ^ f e t t e . stiwte of a g m f e t t e wafer 16 w « m mi testes *ppor atose&i oo msrn^wm at e2e*Kfeeae) of feoo 360O to S t e feet M  •5S-*  VI, ?itf*»a  »©iSarl;? berto* a*j^ caoas^ tbo ooafftaoaoaof" aooaaatai e t a s m £• ^ ^ t g e l i e oomam w ^ u l a ^ i a fftis it§ao§*» iotsioft tart «"3A a'lanaar fm$mmy <abaa i a »8|oiai^ &s$®eo£a££oaa« F l p » .Si* ^ q g ^ ^ v S . na^agjJD* Jtadc of t^iie acaooiatioii ro^aoaaat naaiaar.: ocuJitioaa for tiaatoiloa ja wDctera issetofk Iter  "Bgtisoa m  CPA 26*flaanaffifrkap.iacftfig . f f S t e a l s of talo tmm&gMm iQpjooenfc tasgfesp ooftUtftoao for B» Msotes'ittj iaffeoV.ce te onabilio f i r far the Oaoaatta  f I t mnx^r wjooiatloB  Fi&ae &  ^raita M ^ c z above snot**! >. fei? i t coca fe €rtjaeent o-rsotfaMaM*  ^eyaaflXfcJaa .aBabaa jf. S t e l a of fei@ aeooei&fciiaa  cstrofesi tsfaem fee cvoiatKi x i m l a otssmls of thfe ^ooc&atirti* S t e t e of thie aeoooSatim by aaaa!!? fcoaelose by v a n ere theee of eeacetta&tae tmtm aeon? o l o w fe «b» sweat i a fefe eaeeev istioo, dtbc-.^h i a dtxrat tha osao frosaescy, l^*r* t ^ c do i s afeodc of aoooalnticoradbe?r„t.  rigove >%fcffiotiotttSBTiii^MX^*  -53U  1 1 K 1112* Jigsaw 31 * 34  of tfcic tmm^t&m mioljr i a the irrxjy half of the ateo leasth of dominant aad ao* twos* It hno a W^i f » q » e y oa3j< m vow old steads* ^ «a«»3®*  i<atwtifiUan '•rt«s.,3 » tfatisa^ oacm *m ^ ^ e»aata*» faerrjarsay 5a saaag «.*«BO a f tfcJn acrosaatioa tftsss i s then® of ©s»«^^a ogee cf susaooiatdOR tarfewp 29, althc«efc e*aa in' thie easoaiatioa the flewa Ms a b i t * fte^^aaey onto i n 1  Pi^aw 33 eal 34. i ^ S S a ^ t e ^ * I*.  3s# __ far tho region i n etsadc of this ooaocdatiocu I t mmm m^Mmgr an weataaa tela* i a a l l  i  ricum 35*  ** t&tttoatfr^ IvuB, to _  __  a ? wile aooooueMon t**m f a « m i^jeoK^ oosa&ftlono *o.wlto uauoil;.'- l c fea^  of s t a & of thi* ao»otetto9 i s toss oxottaofjfe to EAfcetottea Sjtfaot&on than am t* <4«i of Ksoaaanftleno nvoftor 45 «s* 4,7*feotogwamwallr &y s»ff bet for ?sont cf tt» otoa loosstb of tvsoo. •iftlfMlfffelnf! nm'wr 17 i ! i u £ > < ^ ^ - v ^ .  ftojxla of th.'n csub*  rc-aaoiotdoa £^oatoa % j j , t % t l ^ | | | , octseoiljot lota then. s?o t-Vao of % o csjx:^Mc«^TO}yjr« tcowlatiu^ for  yogiceu  *»« i t o t % l « 8 t ra^oney for Si* meSai l a nton"* of tola mmmS&Mm but 4s 1«M dteng&ag te & oodt* of £bn asjooont cooaoloMoeju l i o*si?g i n atgeofcAi-xi cal;, o*i bti^jto to tbcx-t. tfooo of  4< 4 ' f ^ ^ f ^ i ^ l *•  pTOfMis «sd?T.a oso&lil£« fes» k)» timtaor&ai ^cvclo?ncrtf-. f a r l&e rogios. r*j© otcarl illi«strat«(5 ^r-mxmba a G'^TO of otsrirl fiwolcrn«t 5a t?fe?Loh vor:- o3i! w ^ f f i !Krtl«te a?o "actio?? •w/lftoa' oM, *«r'-. s^^oi^*?©**, osnbili? J I W U fttofdc that a » ol'.cr than to case ili^-TO'vy Ixvvo a "ttsoh fit'tcc? fyoqudoo7 of IJuwfse-eiaoc? srafeill* f i r s that as** i a t'ou se^te^ horijoolte of the OOB» oiae* 1  FiCtx?© 40»  4^ajjaff^i0B j i l r t m f ; , , ^  fifwnte of eMa art»ociaUt*i m ^ » t i t e«Q£±t$x.<nr- that are, i n ^ s r ^ o l l"f*r, aopteaaS/m to **• t&xrSes&r: lt#oetis» titan / O T t^ooa of oflsooi«*Mer m - V r "IITTO* te^EKfes^si i a eterdc of i*!:lc msmi&itm *-rc Xosrar t m ffef*-«e ?c ;ridto to SttfootiGSi far tha 3osrt.*Sn of tho fnr-iKr-wi'w of ?x*Cn«t4m Ob* taiaofl by tiaotae^aa is» asaootefetna itrSMir 4*5 aasa r-i'-Xnoatf In tMa *i.-atxrf.*j?5 on V ; *v*c piiii infoetifiho {£. (SK&O) ?leg£} ir. t'te oara of "watom her loaf ^ ^ o f * Sxtfootioas af?«Satrf t l t h a crooioo t  :  v  i  On tha basis of « M r o p i e r 0ft*nT***a» of too tm&m laatt**** aaa i t s oboonnt fswt  has  otbor* i t nonIA  ff@u  in oootoin  that ttw fmsps  a nafittfte 4ftotriiwtl«« ***$*» fa«pl*» i t o ***ene*ve 0an»sat3aio  tton*4aat&aa#  tooftaajo*hm  nth a^ffaotet- ******** on bona to  am <woiogio toSosmsa  auah wmmm®  temais&to tbat  froes those  ts* axttaaat. beato i t a**aa*» o » « i r a % ******** to asm©® s pssstor a*n%ion*io* for too fanga* t h * i t toy o&omr to bwa. m. tha ©Hiar banS,. i t I# S*aa»ioa4to-aaa*** tbat t i e fonjonv i o t a w t i n * ooglon oatsi i t hm oJKoa boat # n w a r t p « « abet s t 2***t aaa* of tha baMtoto •iasotfeai i a Agspaailx IS ©awe i a %m m0m* mm mmm «f *** tt^d^te of M a o t e ^ ia $&3a*4a*jtoft 07 a o®jffill$*iP'feti&®: of tl^o lower ooiat recilm odT Sa^ttob bolaanlfc in «&*** tfc* fnaga* ana at on* t&*» aalaa*** to bo o&toa* iaaioatoi f o r  that  it*  **oi**t* habitats oew» rogato^r  t h a i vbaxwoar oaftoia  oosim*  of than  tfcaoutfwot th*  »s«iiffia anfii  ar* faan* th® fro-jas will J i i w ^ a b l y  it baa boan fount that* of 19 mwam& habitoto aaftoai Ite tha lo*** oooot forest, £• *|aa*ppftMfl oaowa in 10 of than* A oafhaita oaatiaontiea fm&tofsa fo iafiiaatod for too fango* not only hy i t s oootwwoa i a aoso hahitoto onft it© abisofioa ttm othat* bat* a2*o» by the w w w of it* mammm in th* different trae la**** o f it* h*ai*«** w i by to* a w w r of ita ooannono* on otttaa* ana or worn tfess aaa of ito different ooB**rto althla laiftriaaal babiteto* Sable II ]?aoa*nto a *n*saiy ^ o w w e f w o of Jg. l ^ ^ ^ m na i t o &£T*ront euaaepto aooardlnctothatoo*lapaas *h£na a**y o o t ^ r in M M t e l baMtato* 5ab*» I I asgr b® mm&mm' m onianatto2aa3o X* maw  G  tag  hpdJtaak  <3ttov&c .iox iiawv ac. w  'Xor.Vaai'.cB &" v&likaj 2 oau odvinahllity of evaluartfej:  feo  ©f  basil affeosiafjlo aadferico a f IsoMiaV  llnnharfua a feo  1% ia o^Lfe c^Merf. feat  CC.JZQGS o-" eaeeoptibilit? to E* tdaotrrite infoetlcn »ay t * ttitaebed  to i f e ;*iff£x«ant rrucccr-tc .^oroEJitv; :r,aa txt  their coo^rro^co  within spooifio fso^itssto cut, oX-x>, nTOOwlinr to th« oimvofenooa tskfer whiOh they ooear i a i»divi!&»l heh&te# 1tS3s i tfeebooa #  © » » d ti*at eastern banlanl: mmg&m fiaoftaant aad oo*4osteisk poaltdaea fe 31 Of S3 boo;:. habitats hstt only i a 2; c f then© .lata £• y-^ffl^j^gg ijooa P©ocrted»  l a tha ear* of Euuclao f f c 29 of 53 hebifete rc^Anr*  3? feature this opcx&oo i nfeed«:laurl s»a ooxtoUaaot levels but only fe ©no hahifet sasfeefunjcoe m « M «* deedaojab aad oo^afeaat troes* fe ovoa acrts estwsa oaao oxiirifc i sfeaobaorvatim that* doer&to feo oaattmoxtc of tz^sxxa  opraoe a© dooiaeafc and oo^mlswfc  feaoe i a 10 of 33 heat hahifete* E# tlnotoslur. fruit bedims tiere not ebaorroS  this spcoi'js i s x r o? fena» "Sat ffijpfejffig I s fewem  to feffet r«co£Xce f i r , <^:clmsx 9;ti«»t jut?* vcriarn ohitc cj^coc ware freajBantly fean l a indieatod  thefeoddeaoaof fruit bodiot; baa boon  djanoeefeefed by iaoliLin^ 5 to dooay i n oaifere free fees* o;*aiae»  &  ocnsot^ioo 1 r eofe ajWe vax&t iono l a th? dfetrltetloa pevtera of fe© fesgoe alfete fedfeidart hoblfefe I t would enpaar odvioaMn, steoa jae» dieting the oosurtarao of thi© f s v ^ a , to oonsi^ar mob  SCMCO;  t Jsliitat  Ifepqpeney of J|# ajbaaj^j^aoj Th* aaaa gaaaexaei of £• ^ i s o t & ^ a i n -ismw&flmX otoada a^gaaae fe boar ttfele twXsttoa tofeeooa»#saw© of ife dsaay tofeeswm^soat  of onah otoftte « * g j * too fisst o f i t i ]?ean*aoo out I * ipO££fesl on the ^t£x«.toe of tlw ixc^tasasn of B*  bwtio oi* firoqfuoiiey of sw-af3»r»e»  teB(*k«Sw <3oo*y i a fetiixiducl atontb of oonto ooajst foaasie* f o r taaa^ltt oooM bo «aigr atolaonlac TO t!»y basea only oa tha psmmm  m i&mm®  a£ t.iO *ta-^«= for i a t-.lc i i ^ i a a  bo of littlfe irriuei&roG ot'-or thaa i s the  .^laa^jg^m  & ^OB>\* (  to  e£ srabSJir f i r trfj,  tiaoaa only taxler aysotal oteoaanuaioao* Iu ot&o* ffW»Soi aogiaa* of toe p«wtoao s tfif^ront aiiuo-tlon c c d ^ ^ to ibo oxtoat flmt sovosai of i t s ouooopto off© r*ar.lo«c2;.-- r.n.1 ocra&otoneZy aTi'aotoS by toid fs*gs»* I t aypoorad atitdaabla, tbninCBoa* to reoogniao mmh  fctotNoaa $mm*m0.m^i &xemmem by o£aan$4£og:tooaateto t*a> i o o i ^ M o a of tbn ftegus fftat.tooaapo&fc -of too iMm$mm °f 4*0 Sritablo E » a » 3 S \af i'^pcaqy naler tlui ©irxMiotooooa of tbio tovootfcartioe aoao £Lffloult to obtoiu) too rjaaoaro aotoOUy -iiaaa mm  m sab&imXi' of  Tm  «**>•  a^ittouo/ *T \**> foa&uo m,& JtadeocI  |*^afrun£ioa of £su£t bo&leo  tbo basics  steals t&at bo£ $ms£&® tf» stog»  of antority i&giontod l a tho bobftteA C e c ^ p t l a w olrwabore l a aaaafi (aaa .typtstitai 122).  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Slatfla* feaaSo «oa  b#  mmmtmm fm otter tng&oan oo> f«p  too M i e o a OOOMN  toeoo of too fango* i n f^ooao of ooooolooaoo ooooor 21 f*ra that J »  mm6® of eanenntotton wmtior 19  'toi 9s«»§e Heoninnan> or tbo  abotoio of tbct fongoa on w * s i « » ooolook laan s t a t e of a*aoal*£la* aagjtox Avo ana loo ommmmm^ in m^wmiMbkm wai*w  soast  iteooto* BaSaoofi i % e r ttswS ia tha oersae oa i»fcbeabwo oxatrlns data not refer to jnofix^ser growth by raoauo of tm»^r^m the fartiaisSaa? enllitgr of a woo**  metttian  hat# -a«:«rx to r  t o ocwfpr oad ci«wlof> io a  apooifSo habitat* Watt m&mm vi^tm wc-atiae fmm mp-.mm&m through mm^m^3SQ lo f howotor* r a i s e d to a tioaaovioa ix&aojttoa l a  tedwtsstod  to&idaooe  of L*  i ntooobenYoatinn Mats ln£ao£&o*  So ^wwotoriatloaa^ g»iatoF l a toeer that have auetoiaed ovor^^plao  than i nttw*®oftoeoano ace that bewa w t tew. oanjietontay aupjarotsoef * She oiro^mtonoeo atwroby ouppraanicw a:;jr*ms»a to bo on i:5po?-.fjnt footer a* a o o a d i t i c a s r to * blgfo ;l«?M««a ox &a?oat£on «gr  ^^tej^g  »oxo ^Saltan, toine o o o f t o f i to tboao hOUitato i n ocleft ooaiiticne  fmmm&&» to Saasofei* oatanaaa  Ssto too iowsr oano^toa* It « » M to  iaadvlaable* thojofore* to aoonoo t i n * mt^^aror^Avsi hi recneot of i t a 9  oonfiatog laniYttaal txeno to the laaor otnordoe, to oa otfraVly o& toportont faetor io standa o f * aay* Hoaoolatiou nunbe? 30  I n etoaia  or «»ooiat&wi§ :itn.xr 33 aafi 34 1mmm» mimUmm mat "fesow ^« ^ f j ^ f f l ^ H are 0c«eaati!O®ol nl^onr above fftooo: i a o^aoo'a-ivai tosbor 30 toaa toay aw ia the erihor too habitat**  I* 5.* appeofently for tfete  xoaoaa *lm^ **awi» iwiae ©«ri»oepMt&8 alanlay to ibe>» alanw^eriatta of gwaoalefetMft noibor 33 oaff 3& and to ahiob ovovotooiofl of Xox9a>  03sl» dwcm.it  wwr.? as-o vsatO:*;, J-.r.o>>-  :*. nuoh ^r-aior  dagsc© thaa ese ateMe 4a ahiah audi aa mits-aittsy ao©?; act ©cacr» fSaaoeftfe Ag* Grajoept a x i s uB^peAOi£«»M$ © -ajor f/*etor wwo; e l l ©thar-j that eertrol t i * ixJoSUouoc of £^T,soti.oa % ftoster* «sc$ doo» :wl ayres? %  idncrioiftiaa Vrat, r.n a nrb^lc  o-yjaufio e ^ l ^ i ^ I y o f ©-ifcrr frsotOTo*  It baa boon abcaftvit], -Cox eaacrOLOj t «' «!tV:<j.? oonu cii^*fcatri*riecr troee :  ;  at tae aas» a@» «ay- have either a greater a r loaae*ftaobfamaaaf J» £&«wtii\: ta ^ p r o s a i c a V  U » £«GP>O to *«^viob iirry havo  ex^s*^jda$>  iaoMonco of £• t i . ^ o a ^ i ^  oub^iOt-tHS  ?i:f1:aor^c of hoot &T.O ca tha "« c^-o.rs'.*-^-! jf^n, hovovcr, t t i Vto  eVfe? fes^e -vV stand- bcoocse, 1A0 --srcafter i s tin  eatonfc that*  f * o q » s a ^ <>•* in"3o%4©i4 l a itess &a5 tlx  ^ow3ig*tt:d a » tho -lif*o>»  o » ^ i u i f * i * i » i % o f irCml&zi "mimm if'oront KiMtav, of tho « y » v  Cm o f tho ba^ic t»asca?a f o r a lovelllnG" «ff 3ii the tno?.<iovy* of l a f notion 'Ji cider ctevJc of different ia&iteto a, roars to 'xv t*ia& ,  oast olfo-?- ot-r.3d^» 5e^,^Iter; c f thai"? nprjoifio l a t i t a t , t r w on of/w e&oataro eaffissSoot ta tbo asSoat tint oAaeephaxta eaaVilt&nat ./StfcSa then aw  noro l a s t f o ? ^ fawoKitila to £« t4«r&*te «to*nlcri»Ta*r;; -fhea  •H»7 ajw i a tho oaao of ^ a c e r rfwofta* thsa, f o r emn^l%  ha  W s y J l i t t l o a i T f e w m betxoen the incident c f inrhoMoa .n olfcaf etwnde 4  ©f oawMiaUons m * n r 3t *w3 3,1 <8as?Ate & jraewsawfi diffttteooe Sa 1M& rogasrc« bat^oon jrm;ysv gftssfe of t h e teftaWOO  afJsstisi^tSiaaa*  A farther  o f iaaronain^ ag*, aorrtaaaatarr t o that o f rowitfiag a aaaa  favourable &*msr.Mrl& mv$mmemt Of  o» liMMMNft  aeaaam o f tine OPW  £ar ilid  fua&t** M $3m aete Jaat  atdoa l a t w U t t i i oav.  csoiar anl  ejbaaa too aaaaar o f laaaefeaft «K*arte i s iaowaci**. Hem oeaanaaalMo; im Msmmmm of heat ago ts^an tb» lasiseaae of  dwiag  $» % j f e f f f t f * i t onjiMI *0 lor-laal to ®gmm£»tm «§sc» j»**&i3fl aifJ3araooo* |» tola l o j a i aaaaaa* fete* eoaao of fwgg «t*als  and too** of tha « ml oasrJod oui in fciw  mm ago o f ©Mar otondo* w%a©i?witi*«ra w omaoo o f t a i o laivosMiatioa for t k i * aaoio of oosawtmiioiio toot of  olior OtoaiOi  O O P I  ^OOMOB«O1  lAnrpoao in A, en the to elNai9ovs&a»  i t appeared that •ro^r 21tt2a  tha too o»lit&oao#  aaoa sj&fiy  £iffeaanoo esters tstooaa  4 #|,f-^-i#y laiiomtic» *mc ^idaed % .'ostor ;g|  (1?) i atoos o m of their w$* So ytwa^ and oM steals cf *\artos» hea2aofc .iatooCoSwMa I4aa* lea^Una It Of^aawet* thoxv£asx> that* opart f r a i a ^Mmm  aa*ian laota** atriafe ire\atioot££ oat  ooaar  Wiier lay oixom^o»o% y©a»;? to©e# of yotag ctonde uro oifaaXl;* ^.isept1KL@tois®iatl«iO taaa of* tow© oftoteasa agofeo34*r otonfle c f ammo fei&tat «ai i f dSffim»oa» co easts?* - --  th*  th&tfeyoaso  :  9  of litUJe ^ ^ f e - f t e .  too fraquaaay andtaxur&aaeeofft,tSartostea fruit toSien e^pearod totoSi&rlT aloa*%' oolatodtott©i ^ M o w of iaitooticr. V tbfa ftaigaa sa oost oftoeotonfis* oaaaiaaa* Sta*, i t «rat ttertpg that, !  «naa laanaaaa**todtoteaaf t a e M *. *a**V ffeult boSiw o i c M s e t ij«Aeint>l7 bo fosasi* A pooa&ia l a th*  oaaee  of aajBfclaaan  exaoptioa to s*tetifle*14F oxteto  oad wostoru white epruao.  .atbeu,*£> i > d t  bedfea mm oajseraei ©a aettho* af feoaf oaaeai*te fe a l l Smtmmw t  «te?@  $m$m<mfe.fewm&  •Mb tfetao f l * emft* afaalta a®»  fee? tifeefeg i a isfettsa !ieatoea# %©fe of lettfe  oooww*  eaafet*  leaieaiap mmmi * * mm mm. mam**  af  iMoetis% ©*oa l a ©toad® atefe aoastitfeaa ^©re M ^ s ^  i ir  vt Vifca£*'w  . *ae  c&2bxx©i^0f]ip0 oaai*i#ea  ^iffij^ioinaefi o*  ^ f i ^ L % ^ M ^  oondtsaiTO fe ei3wt  «iai£oaiKy!ia  iaa% hommfS't Iana f^oa^Mssd l a oMssr t^wt aad ataisSs ttes afeA*  ;  ftia t*a p*M*x&ma& m mSm featitfei  comlticsje  & $eosgE  feat  pfwidod Iter raaimiD ooaftlVoaa forfeoltfec.fesao&r. latdlidtfea of f&c&ifegi, as a liRdtinG feeferfefeotoeidonoea f lafet&fee la/ £. j f t f f l t a f f t ^  e^jpamst fe beMfefe as* ra"laas  abet®feafenfla*w i test abwsdoat «r rteae th-  aotfeife o ffeefu&eue  «ea ooaffead fe a licsfeeA perttoa offeeafea lawgfe of feo©o# Tkwy i t aaa ©tsgafoai*tefeeawe of Wbitefet •tt.:  sul^lr..im  m-:\ oeafeii tetefer  pSefeeat  attfla a loo feeidow® offlrcdftfeci s s w « % fedJosfed a  imadaso© aftofeet£©a feefeaJdeae*offefeat&st*woo w t p  (feafetarfemmm  of that of ffcuitlae*  >*3iea fraiUne fed set ©saawod  lattlfe*feftted« w « © d i a ©ajas^t Instate* fefeofeooe •aaM fewsrtaMy bafeu*fefeofebftaetfew I M faultingfedaot oaaawedttiUtasgttswtsHyfea »*sa«a fwpsaa^ f*wfee*of hafefefe l a aMaa fraiMag lad ooounad* FWhtaworo, a t freitfeg Immm i a a fmrtfealar  feaaeaai^  itfdielfeo to a tebifeft» apsa, m m0m* fea fsaspooey of  lafoaMea OAO feaswstog*? l o wfeaeate sw»fe a isaHttaOft* afend  feoa  a  to  aldaa £ndtfes ta* aaaaa^aoV t ^ M m f e ^fefeo  ^ t e o tafaa«a» did aot oow*  aa»  AUbogfctiffie&lomm ®m$mA afly m 9&m^& t'-aSr posa ©Iwmtostetto ir, th® ooarae o f tfefa iawatijSjKticw, i t oao SRiawfc that thai* l^al^®3L 408 alMaa! ;a*votte**s mm a ooaaiDaaaa]* inftoatte* ugsao tb» oanatMeaai fimp*YMgr of £• t ^ Q t c ^ r n . ft®** tli® ooilo msmtmrfjm® of £lf!taoat habftete «**a Axvml to fewrt « B  M t e s a t o qpon tett tha m l f e w of mxmpm mi. 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So p w « l 4* «aa fe  i a i a % aaiSfea%feefeMjoajfei t e m efe»eea* m mmjum tie*«e» mm  fOeadfefeeM t e w ef a fsai*4o oliaafe aad is mm  algs^aa* fe  fegioae fee* asa o p i o i d fe a . ^ii£ioc! smtOm olfeafe^ i#e*» a aew  alLSfefe aaita fi,@ fe 000% offeoCeee* %gBtwriNa>  ^P^^Hpt^i^l,  SSa*tfefeoease af eaea of i f e imepfep i t ap^wc fee*$» ejaoaeefejo.. feooaao  mm  fhmmm  afcsaSaa*feiM  O  festafe fee ouoeepU  as* ffeafeafe*  af a leetfffe alfeafe* p^oidel feat afeea^oi^a imssMity i a  aaSafeiiWi at a oeaafeat hifih level.. Qirtafe <H£te»oao aa iegosi® fea teQuwar of  Mm^m^m tea  feaa «saf4i»a: % jawlcue iaaaaattaeAeaai fe aavfe aai m & em#t Ifeaafe ahioh, fe feat* base felfeani*  a©  pg?oaoofefe3aoo pmmmmmmfeamaao formerly  a m t feeea*feaaiaa Aaem UnitfeaI t a i tea a  fefeir oaifema etta*e*taUe» fefos#ioat wwfe aw& eosfe ewe* fawwfe fe fea exasai feat i t 4oa® asst w w r fe © a * * fe ©ifea* a ffeooom§$mm fe ataate feat a » f a t t y ©mjotaft fe feo feflwiwea o ffeeleatffe ©SJmfe* ^ng^  Jlfe^aj^^  fe  eefe xegioBa  oafy whtM mxm mmum® of  lavloaMoafeeaYejfteafee*feafeammm feBa^oaatew feat otsajstafe*-. feofeoSewStte fcfea  mmm* tmmmmmVnfeaftaio ffeoJ  * * *  tm$m *  e a w r i a naffe aoaat ffeaafe aajfeaaasfeot fe feo l a ^ i a  taasafefeat^ a w t w d a a a fete legioa* •»» o a a a a W diffaaaaaa fefeooa  mflk « s  mmk foaa*t% *» m$mg&M im mmmmm  j&ffiWK&SV appw» to etoa ttm this  routes© of bote  of  XOC&QOB ess  not to a tartfora «Sotritet£<» of tha fuattaa i n j»*to aaatt fonoto olcoa.  ^ono4 oatoon&tioo of no«*J ©oast mioto  f*aa ftwa thatega%joot as io ilaoaam tha Asltoiiaa mm^sim  tbo  vector*  a*o virfcally  ©lop© off l a o w w  2410***  of tho oaat Salato ana tba oaiioyo  « a « t « 7 to tnas aaoaaUr p r o f i t ooajtitlon*  thai as© bi^xSy o«3wiw  to U# t&aatorSiaii oawlcpcsaat*  tte ®s«iiia» a&aaajS® ::totoiaa o* ooli ao thair m^Umrn m* tmmSmm i*se?ao*at mo81%t&m tbat arc*  ia f a w n l *  « * o oontaoi** t o  a high lnsliiofM of tho ftegpaa torn ar© the** cs£ the OOB^t togloa* fb£i% aaatam berSosfc i a at t$*w ***y aei£cuo3y oaaagai by £• ffifllffljfi^ i a tho CaM»lo "raEtasinc, oc i s ms»otetim s t r t w 1% timimm i i Is easyiy o l i ^ t i y Same**'- i n oa.'.rt fos?o3i.c*  Zlm fnoJdcaoe of theftmgtisau  oaoh of i t o «oo@ipto i atoo§ M O O * loiaiftots® aay bo fofoaaai oa botsg  region sad that of tho SeEd** She eoeanaial filtew H o t opfsowo  S^e»aidioto hotoaaa toot o ftt*owfe « t laaashigo iwatotoo wsgtes**  to' ©mint betooeato®Oooiaia m0m mi tho &mm oaf teaohao »gbm $o aba* oa% l a a vcay Hs&tom water o f babtteto i o  tffafftoa^aa  ox******nt3r ftbwte^ Jn %to OaoaoSo i o # e % i ^ o a o *ttoww* **if**aiy afesxtet i a « pastor n o t e * o f habtisto te tha mOmk m& mmOm  ft® |wa®ti@stio» mmtOM that « ^ t o a M ® ©inUerity oar o* oatl^pstoa oo ri§a*£®too-oiwwao* of  . ^ F ^ a t o  oate*4n*»a-  aten3t§ ofttafteoaSo immtimSm on* tho 0i»tha» interior peajally «***  la amnio of * * ******* iatoitae ]daaa«o« 3a a* otter m&jm of tha  pswlaoo m&  tha lasiteaoo of tt» ^mgcm oo well oafinoa ©a  a f c i » f t * t$»S» oftt©r a g i ^ a antwawo  of local  ollEPte#  iafJontooV ptoteiabr for the  tho  roaaan  soil* anfi ©Maxr ociviroor^tal ftwtore oooar  otth jgooot te@s3issrl% oasr Tory abort oaotonooa* 3 * ®w®»2 tftQb. Zaa&teacm of tfl^aoffijbja. that taa boon o^or&oa to elpima fir etonta |5©asfb% nton*ftssestho aossSo of oitoo* cr btfsitatOy tbat otaoai^riaao the rc-giorsstof b l A **wsjr Che oalJ^tfcy of arr^y***: a eonoral. big* laeiiEoaoo of tho fangc* to alaiaafiroteato So ojaioaioaannt Io tbo H2J* o f tho cnitstonitac Mbtott Mflorwsa©0 ooob 00 ?ora «cooaa*@»al i s tha ©ears© of tfct* iosootioatioot paaiioite2j-- i f o tjpo of fefoat mas^m^ i s warteigia tbat a H l tafco i*$t© aanouat th© « m w s s of & f i o « t n t oitoa or babltata*  1*. Igi«a% ibf*  Qp* otafiaaa  Is tha %aanooon«  2XX»  tbo  iS&EIKOjjjg-TTTwm «awa»* • • 2» Biar> Forest pot*o3o©^ i a w l s t a r t o tho « « l i * a M i i f t on* im@aaon% o f l a t a t a t mmm hmam i n tho fttfaat m B«C* Can., I-a;?t* Agr-, tor. Biol* Xoh*» 7Jtoanrnt» 1945. %  Mar* J«2»,  ftollonwo  «fi M i a ,  M i a n i n fofooo,  ia th© t e p r  Pbonor rtgion of ' M i l l 'SoSalife* ^B#« mm** Soon* IWH* 66, Qtlioio* H t * -  , * Ap** Agr*#hat* apt*Mrf e , jojftft*  ftta.  SB****  % A * of tho n r .  l»f|*  oa*.  1984* 0ftO»i» «?55#  a. ^nan-SoMotA J# l"aaat aooioloar • taa otaay of  JAM*  6 . aroaao,^ v«o «* Moataftr & 9 tte _ _ Bow _ tot ooaata Golanbta* Oa*** Soft* agr» SoA» Onrv.y for* Bds&# Inh., ?3otaeI&» i952. uTOoCTr  %  Footer, .V?« and ^ i r » ^ % 0,r. A -^.SMmrf immtMmMim lata iim 4mm l&mm arartaiaoft M e e o t o r a hmloofc and trn-Mlfc. fir Xn tV, 'n~sr :*4*i-nt mmA (fcOunftda* te. Dor*. *er*# GtoU :<orv., Iter. McflU  yamm*  lab., YiotorSa, 1950*  !?3»o«:- at* forest  ^por„  *cta r<w5a?.?£ Tr-'Soaj,  !l.  <h$aad«r. lUt,  9*  Cfedw, ;:«B» Seeleeioat U f a Matery oatBato for tm^* Zoology, jZxT&Jf®. Oatobor* V)5U  ;  to, Ckwloa* ll»3* 2ha ©oolo^S-dai *t3£t?-4*s of iV: an tfcatloa cs «rs*l #aiaa af late raafeoVssw Set* ^aav* 27f95-117, M7H2ra 281*  3-3B, 3&»?;i. 1ST).  t  tt* Ittdovadao* &»?• I3aa&s aad mw±mxmm&» Wrm, "Hoy sal "rsa l a a . t a® Ta^te* 3.%?*  S* Bwlfiaoa* »•«•, ^^aH, f*JW ana SaftaOtU* M . M f H w *oo&^eea>yi=£ funr- by i!ffidr wajVors on gellic cr tscwSa oeM striate. J* % * * aa*, 59t6«M9f. 2W* 23,  iftataeB*** A H * aftea-voatoaatttlla 2a the ajpo? f * a r * r seeioa of Britten @®|*# DopV S®*»S l i « a w . « W »  ^ ^  fto C ^ t e ^ M ^ jfcT^mv.  Brit,  l i t mm* £«s# aad Baiate*** M » ife* fangs* s©®«^ i ^ i ^ a a 3f^l*aflaa*o« froa r^tmm looat^tec «&* a ace aaaas t*m  rs*36fc. 3595* %a$mm$ CUR. Soeay of «@otow l^loafe io ewatam Oregca at* M ^ t « a # Ma tMir** Salt* a*,* S a i l * !i» "biases, To». Dot.  AJa/daa.  15.  36* Foatar# run, as  ap* -feonaa, i .E» a Moos of ffee iriSa* paint fsjsjgo* X::lcv** San*, ran*. Jigr,, Sat. Sosr,, Far* Biol,  Ia**# V!aa*ari** 29£U poli»2o©?« 3 3 2 * i M W i  roBSaaf.  Boosy of «ao*t«k teio®* ia tfte tefsr  Caa*  J» *3ot*t 3 2 t 3 4 5 » m .  ?.954.  19» Tlad^poooky Botes oa a w diocooos o f trooo nnr >r:t.i0HBl foaaata* 'l^topRth*^ 2t1&Jft+ 29S2* 2B% Hills, A«G» fte asa af aaajawl ^ ^ 8 ^ % in aarrJai* sril sitoa* fear* 8fcjo««» aot/^37*  21.  flttl**  tho «l-:'3.3ifioitim ©afl «witasafel« of sit© for  ®Ot0y« $000* Of  CfSt»#  %*e a t * . 998»  Boot* '$0000 M l WWiif: HlO#. 'fillf*f  IS* §abort§ IMS* tb# #ttt|$aaoS® i f 6«aW lift «N»of« #* Agr« Has** 29 23*  aft«%  B*S^  i»bo* o f « t i i i m^mm. f t ^ t t o ooot*  24*  25.  *mwto$ m*  ©apt* ^ p » f  M3»%U«  dtaojftfieojltaft of l»«ft©@% f®wtt <anaa*afe'aaaav >Mte» l o p * 1 ! oa WWU IS* t*atr« Soft*  ft  w**  Y*J* fMpaallalM' aaaaa o» o e o X o ^ a l oaatftaa o* aaoite ttr Ideate oatoooast ooaat o f Ibaaotiwor Island* -M&r* 8rlt» CoSUtf- $0$l» B@t#ft taaaogftfOJOto  27* a^taa* oaaaaat oa the otolow of £• oa* £« tatfr* Qrit» Cel., Dart* Bot.,' 28*  Idaoolo* B,?« Moaaa toaa diwafoa a*anaa Hi Galtfowlo H»S«# 0o»o» M a t * Offloo, <ia**» O.C.  2&*  iaiaooaat B*P#  Bawwt pattetaar to feaaat taji&eftlaa* ©*s*« Aer*t B a a . 275. j g &  tf«S«*  3Q» M H o r * L»r?.  a© gear** of Mt§o%*>  2HU  Stodtioa Sa foaroot pathology* f l # ^ ^ l ^ j f f l r t f e f i o f  32*  flob3oOf  WSflBJa, 25t2B6*e?;* 193©*  ©mtoroa of w&o&msmW^ foagl* San, J . Pas., c* 36t 8 * otofey of plant mmmmm* to., San i t o s i s o o . 194C.  Fwfjxw* of Qritiab Oolaribia* tho yaar «md32Jg lSao»§ib©ir  34, ftwrtato of Bvftlioa Ootaeba**  Sopor*  MM* S W w » m&  of tba Fwwtflenrfoeftr ?4®toria« 3$5J*  aaport of too Sbreet Sorvlao for too year endtoe BooaBbor, 31, W . Vlotorie. 1952.  99m  Ii;»2* fttS Baife* B*3» PteWrt «SftO fepae o f fee SeefeRae aotfeoaot*. r w * of felt* Ctai** sea«« Uufe aw! nor*, for* aw**, Seea. 9mU$ 130, %efesia# 29W«  BB&*W*$  38* fcoafeaaar, ^*E* fe iisferto fopost m 6®m&fefeoi^pj©e-*oawa tone fotoofe of fe© fifeoo Gewso laslom* Cea*. fleet* aa***' Sit* SeVfe* Efe# SSftX* tea,, flefefte* 1990* 39* feaaer, J*E. on3 aXeoeofe, F.2. Float eooXoc?. ilsQvMlliX Jook Co* Im*, icaic, Toserito wd tasaom* 1 9 3 ? .  40* l o i r i, ^.T.^ Bsofewtiw eff eefe of SMafefl. .akd ct*l t o ^ . rfeteeaAfe*, 3 i i a * ^ i . 41* ®sto|s ?*1U tola® <©» feo elt£fe3toal m&m  M^SMIa v™™*™  a f feagi* "^aolorfe*  &t4*34* *91£* 42* ?Jeir, J*n* asd !^,5ort. *"*r*  1 etudfcr of bmrt-sot i a W 3 t « benlook. u*U, !Jopt. 4gr., 1X01. 732*  43*  fefe  p  £*Be oaf Ifcfeart, E.2* a» iaflsieaae o f tto*Ja<? fe eeefeea lafeloefe una graa* f i r ?xtfbote& eife fefafeafaitaiai tjoofcoritm* J * 9Bfef X7.2fc*35* 19®. rTOTCT™™.!.™ « T w . n  44*  m  H  H  V  S i l l e r , ^.G* oa* tfotasr, &*C* nelatloe of feo feAlen poiat foagaa fe leavee fe eoefeeo banXook* aea*, rapt* Agr*, a » i . ::ow.t J 5 fea* %t* a f fee S**. "ae* and M « * flam, Ottawa*  iWlllWBPIIP'***"!'  1  «r  {S* •."•ate*)  4»  {Sfett*} (Sum.) 3wah 6 2ti*np«  (itodu) F*t*  ?*wite*  (Porch) float, (vtooa)  (Book*) _____  I  n  (icre.)  i  n  A Gey*r  ©ir.  e  .wmmix i i wmmt  mmimtm  AI»  *m.Jomx*t H**  oMoo*o - CroooAfreooo  2. flPPP  o*»oooo«*a-Ieoio  or  a i t t i i «otaoiu  »ooifo^>-<fclto tot 1*0/  »Uettlo»la%m a M O ^ m ^ t W I f l i i  _ toeiioUo (SSlSstotjoyooorMo^»tio>o.SSSl&Slsfoiiiooio o j y i l i e > l i l i l * « B a  10  m  m  * u  •  am po»oro»oottp^iy>* m$mterWmmm &n^-fmsaiio trlfollata.  • i * . tmmm^mmsm^^^t^,. 1  jteeeoUiftoee or«f isoo vitb o» sinctarliua  tee  MOereoe.  eeteriek •«•» teee* i» ooiofc IslllilSgSIm  -2-  mmu 15.  is {©©*%•«)  taagj^tffff^  tto^^lf  IS.  19,  20.  21. mm mMMM$S@£8t{BM&.m*&*W-Vm)*%  23. Mm&.mmtem^mtm  27.  silS^Jsmllli*  i^ummtmrfirnXUtom *mWm**m-  11 (coat'cU  31. 3a.  mm  mmmmmtmm tumWaumkL limmmMm  33.  35. ?JWif*fW* *g*J&Uft-  3?.  ».  tuna dd»***v4*m mmmx^mmmm  mmMm-mmmm  4  •  *5.  ?M»* gl^<*-AM« 9  4t».  giema alpaca. lea  *  •  %Mi9HMV  JBW^«*ii«Ss*i"P*  Ir.aioca^-^^ab>.i9  ygvtfl ar»«>Ma^CTe i  *M*«i«WPlWWW»»"W*"W'"<^P • ^ W ^ ^ ^ W ^ B ^ P " ^ ^ ^ ™  *...  Aff»9tZ Z U fSOfOrW fffCEPIC TO HABITATSft'ITHHWSICS KCHl^O A^fel-HIH fflMSftlSBl OCCUBS IK Bit? I8B COUM***. Aeeeeiatiea aaaear. eaee.  I (aaWeeeaole****)  gbajo aiieaia- tyaaaoaiooaofeaatfellai.fil»le« a a a b l l l a . .MtSStffl feflelhai.  Oeoerreae*,  tit* w#»t»r» alepaa of tee Caac*4« !satsot«.ln» 00 <sil«*l«a iM>n«hee foraed »jr seasonal ar periodic flooding e«t which ore eerreetlr «te»t fleoo H w l , Sianea af t i i a aaa. eeeeeietiee oeeer *!#•»* tea* af froa ?60 to afcamt  Qm»% aOmatotos  Va^etettea. 1.  I W M , 'ihala eMeata aee eaMUaat aeveiUryaaat la a l l eaae$ie*,' fMfcrtiaeiarly ta lever aleretiee  ' stand*.  Aeloa aiw^tlla Oaa -vary «oo4 fi«TOlep«ea% wo ta ee~3ealaaat laral e»o*e whioh i t ate reeaee* raoeaOtaaam U x i f o U t occurs i a v»ty «®e4 irS^t**? i s Urn hWmv mm-pion bat aeaaliy oa ©air raised *?>ove ta* level af tea gener-sl garoo. 1>a^a k ^ t f y o f f ^ I f £ta* a verlaale ©eeaireae* teat te aattaiiy confined to th* lawor eaeeaiee. •feat v i l l M « a » w&d toteta eaoiwfte* «a eluded where eealfereae re#»a»rati©a ia laekiag. It h»e it« «re«te«t a%mad*«c* *« low #levaUon*. Itlsua fgefflgfi ia * eaarwltvea ;»ieaeer epeele* tea*awstaalijf losae dsmlaaaoe to eitaar eagle or eoaiforooa a-peaiee. 2,  lae ecru* isyer wlee free M l a g coaul*te to dlMcootiaooaa aot io teaeafeelr reefeeeele* ay Jaa^oaa gu&iM* i g | § a  loeeer veaatftUoa.  MKiStX i l l Dominant mm$  fofsefr&ssfcy MA N i l ,  «o«»«9 ara Malaa iiaaatataa. __,  fee teftograaajr  *• «9»»r»lly f l a t wltk law diaeeetUc rla«*e. The s a i l la af allaaial ayigta and lacks etraftlfiaastea other %hm a fairly distinct imm» layer. Beaanfta tea thin layer of doff null feaaea the aallte»*«rth~a«ll ehmraetarletlee, Sak~awfa®« aralae** U aoadtottae s a i l ts ftraaaaatly aoiat.  Saa-allHata. ttaaia af tfcie eea-eeeeeteilea aeva aa «ari*l aeeaat teat 1* aaattaaaaeSy ^sM aa* eooi, etker *ta» l a th» tops af aaalaaak t w i wbe** eeaenaal v*r» taaaata*"  AeeoeUtiea aeakar. 8  Saeftera ulaaea af tk* mmU.tm ma& «««lera aleae* af the $mm®» Maaetoia* i a areea iaaediaaely *r«*a%»*y to etagaaet lakae. ?hl« aeeoeietiea aay •i%ka» develop free aeeeaiatleaa aaatar 5 est 10, l a tka area* tka* suk-aarfae® d r a i n s i s aeeeaae, ar aay eavelar lata &»»®ei&flens 4 and U aaaald aareetriated drainage aae&a. It ©eears fraa nearly can leva! to akee* f£00 feet.  fegetatiea. 1, trees. ©tie 1* a aoe-eoswerclal feveet »a*&«iat£e» aktak ia,feai***r(eeraally adjacent to steade ®f etteer aeeeaiatleaa ef •aoaaala i»p©rt«*isc«. iav vigor aad «*#*^teeltiag #f ireee ia a aos-sal featsre of tkie eaeeelaUee. yflaaa, aaaterta mad I. aaakleola dominate tae M«k«et eaaopy *k»ra»a feenn katarapferlla aad ffottift qlleate daalaate la the lever eaaeeiee at lev elevations m& fakjH atrfraaataaa amd %aaaonjraarJfr n t t r a t « B 8 l f t at hl«aer «&a*aMaaa. 2. lesser rage tattea. fhe i&rab layer is aeraaUy vail d*Ytlafe4 *a# iaamrlatlr pre seat ar© ?»lifo>ia. ttaalekorla • ftteeieiaalalaia ograooeea. Qearttr ] *ke QQ  i« I « M wail eaveleeea' althaa^a larartAkly  3wmrnm  xss  (eeot'4)  Allatateo aad Srlaaboram af, fa» mess Uyvr Is  i.he to?>egrap&y variee from flat lo geaily sloping, fhe eoll is contittaettaiy •mt otiaer tte&a for & ee&eea&l dry lag of toe tapper layers of imams, fhe taenia layer ia tatek, pee.tr aad everliee a aiaerellsed eoll that tea the eeoelateaey of black oaok. Saoh aolle are vary acid,  Totjograpby and e e i l .  Ico-oiiaate. - foe higher eoooptee of ataada of thie association are epea «ad tew a very dry aoaeoaal aeaeot. Toe lover ©aaopiee, thrae, here, aad aeaa layere are «ore eneltered aad exaielt eoaetaat high hualdltle. m& moderate tesperatarea. Aaeoelatiea au»fe«r.  11.  alopee ef tho Coast Metmtalss aad weetera slope* ef the Cascade Mountains on Offer elepee aad oa tie ereete of gently rolling M i l e . It eeeors at ele**Ueee of froo ooaot faat to aeeot 3&@0f«at «»eva sea level. Yegetatlea. 1. freee.  fao^a hetero^tarlla eeeore l a a l l eaaopioe l a f a i r Ttfer. It rarely eeecrelea to* M«a+st l a yooae ataada where Beaglee f i r deataatee.  J^detfOA ** ******** epeelee la fetm* etaaate, teajetaer wit*. «ee*er» white plae, tat It %®mm « * Aeaoelatieo at aa •arly afe ©tS»r teas for a fair eemttered traaa. j|lleo p a l l i a reatalae i o the lower aaoootoa  for ao loaf, a* Douglas f i r reaaiaa e©~<l©alaaat wlta aa* i t ovoaaaollf' fallow* heoloek lato the aieaeet mmw. oooora ealy to redaeod vigor.  weeterafcealaek  Flnaa  aoatlcola has a low freauaaer la the eifaeat ef olior ataadafeatteaa greater aeoadaaee la  I l l Uaat'd) lanJn, r i i l e ^ o haa f a i r l y fee* vi^or una ap to aa~daaiaaat laval r a t *«*a aet i a toa nt«lt»a% aaaeiiy l a alder etaade.  «f@»dieally aat la tae layer l a often aeerly  Invariably preaeat l a aaallaa. §, avaijfella. narttf alien, art £ . are fee ia eyaeiee aaa aaaaUy freeeat la t h i s , Vtola orMcraUtn. as^mSSkt ^laaaaa iaaa layer is aeeally *y  fran tolas f l a t to eleree af aedereto eteenaeee. y«#»aeiiee4 telle, naaally of glacial ortfia, eisaraetoriae tote eeeoetatien. A raw aaaaa layar thai varlee a f to fear toatoa l a thiekaeee aay overlie a tola layar af dnff anil lamaa, toaealaf aay aaewr l a a eeatlaaeae toriaan ant aara eoaaanly eaeara l a in ^rowlnity to eteaae aaa rente, ?to portlaa af toa a a i l baa a eani eaf a traaala* to eeaeated etwetore, aaaally tola* 10 inches i f at a l l . If an eretoin la prevent there 1« aaaally eear «rMea## of gleie&tiea. *ar n r e f t l e la aaaaaaally try mm to «toa* 2§ laeh««, aalaw aaiee I t ia eeattarenaly aalat.  ef  tale erenonattaa ara eftea aapaaad to vlas" laflaaaea far tae rartna aa* aa a eeataafllly dry a a r l a l «gp*#i. ««itenuityextranet far tha rtgioa mm to t a l a aaseetoftien, far neat af ara fairly epea, aartJaatarlr la aaa a l * *  Aeeeetatiaa aaaaar. It,  Oeearreaae. Ceaat aaaatolaa and tat weators elefea af toe Oaeeade leanto-toe mm to* Invar portloaa of alaaaa  or oa well^dratoed a l l atrial f l a t * . It elevotieaa of frea aaoa* 200 ta a » e feet level, reaehias i t * higaeet elevatleae aa tae fiiJej^J^jJe^  $l&£k  ^^.ea^e^ ^S^ft^a^e^^  StSa^'tea^a^WSea^ee^e^ ^  Te«*«attoa. 1. Treee. Thle le a atoMy i»?*daetto* alia free tae aapeat af tre© gvewtk, ^t«yaa^flla oeear* r*«ttlarly i a o i l SMI i a *aaelleat vtoar, jfatetfliaea taatfalla to oft** i»r»*®ai ia tha highest, o*a®fy It ha* a aoowwlio aaaaavaaaa ia ©Met etaa&a ssiy aaaa a #ood oto*ri*a»tea ia #  Aalee aaaallto occur* r«gul^vly in A l l aaaoatoe aaa aSwlly i a «»»* viear. It eae*t*aeetothe «p**to* Sa tie lower  Thai* .fltaato aataily aaa » reaoiar ta a l l oaaogtoa, %m to usually atnoM leoe ar* weetera lieoXoeti aad aoaellie f to  to  Mao** altoteaato bao a fairly raptor to^^attoal^e oat eeeare aol* to tee &i«beet nod vita tforoJio  j&aoa a^aasg woolly jtoneor* thto ae*e*Se*Iee oat doe* aot oeear ia mtm® etaeae. 2.  Meeer ve«et»tiaa. far eAraft laoar to oftoa o i * . oMttaotoa, eaeeat i a to* aaaa oetot ami eaea pert lone ef etoade * » r » mbw aaegtaoilto. aad ^B#aeoa. Tft^fff telamto. fhto toy** fiotSewto* rofrSatS ^ * low froyteaey of f awalifoltoa. Taa aat% layer  la atoost a&aagaj %»»  ^  ^  ^  J  ^  ^  ^  ^  l  ^  I. the tofa^rofay rorle* froa eetof f l a t to slept* of ooaoidemll© «to«pe*e«.. weakly eaeaeaieei »r«wa soil* oterooteria* tola association, fear aay a* oitaar of glacial or a l i a v l * l orto^a, elth&a^h ihB lattor ^odosiasM. f t e teas layer to alatlatt aaa irartoe aa ** a* l»a*t fto* toesisa* to depth. It la either of daff*»mii quality or raw aaaa*, to vhlsh oas* there to asaally a tale asderlyto* layer of doff aaU. m*t of sooh e o l l * ore * — * — w  mmm.  m  (eeat»4>  dletieet pedael horiaea aad are eitker eilty-eeade or enae sot gravel lease. SEery or* eeatiaaeaaly aoist tkreaatoai toeir «*#!» and are aeaeeaally wot. at laa eurf&ee. dlaiaetiea aeoaaa refnlarly aaa aeaally wttata 18 leahae aftoes a i l earfae*. lae-eitaate.  tola eeeeelatiea era reaanaaaly aaeitered frea «Uat leflaaaeaa ether tam i a tae tope af taa Umtmr tree eaaapiee ay raaaaa af eat* aeat etaade af  toeir taaagaaoMa laaatlaa awl taa deaeity af etoekia*. Soak etoa&e Mm mv\<A tbat are eeattaaoaaly  aapeeto  ea^SKe\-le^^a'  S a ' ^ a ^ a w -  Ja^a,$>nV9a%'  ^WfiM^n^.^  ^B6iSSe#  ne^eae^fe^frn^ ^ ^ai^3 ^  Oeeajnraaee.  Coast aeaataiaa aaa taa westers elepee af taa Ceannde Meaataiae oa weil~a^ &taed toaetoe er alepee at eleratlaae af frea stoat i m ta 23&G feat •tore aaa level, ftaafta af ihie aaaaalatiaa imm at their leveat elevatieee oa taa vaetera alape af t M Ceaat «e«at»i»e a s i ara of tea f w t e a t o t y vltkla larger art** of aaaaelatlam aaator 12, i  Vegatatlea 1  faaan totaraakrll* la eneaantarfeaieallr taa •ajar apaol#» ay velaae aad fffenaaaey, U tee i@ed «l«ar la a l l aaaapiaa, altoeasa eltatoly ~ * free ta»% ta aaaaaialSaa aaaaer 12.  treat,  aMaa, aaaaUla oeeare l a good vte*r ia t U eaaaeiaa eat aaa ita «reeteat tav^paaay ia aaa aaaaplea.  lower  ---.- aliaato oofisars i a a U aaaapiaa i a eoet stond® bat dene eat aarsally ooapato mumHmtmU*- vitk weetora laattaea ®a4 eaaailla f i r ia aatare -----n  r  tonjlalla la a aiaor rpeeiee of lee Uer la alder etaadetotle eeaettoae * aajer deal TrL^ aaaaaa. i*a*idad aaaH etaade tore had toeir  T  ertSbTia"  Plena ^aq^ieal^ toe a alalia? ©ewrwaea ead to that ef anajlae f i r .  -7-  2.  leeaer ve«9tatiea. the shrub layer i» eheraeterletiea l l y f o l l y devaloped m& Is *» | a ^ a l * n ovftilfoUqB end 1. igcrJete; uaaally praeant In this layer ara aaaltanrfta aad ttatwaia aarq;oea,. "iJoa aer* layar ia aorw pearly developed and af tea almoat laaniat, %ea aeree eeenr, iavariatly preeeat ara Soraaa aaalya trlatarlla. 'anile fan ami ia 'eeafotee Tsy  aaa.ttriliiaaalaaaatoraaa.  aaa aail.  far tepegrapay varies fre» eoia* flat ta eteeply •loping, altbo^h seat ataade af tola aeeeelatLea aeaar en «ea»la slopes. Pedselieed arWk aolls tant are aainiy af glacial origin eaaraetortee tala aeaeetoftaa. lean aotla tore * tale*, mm laanae teat vartee an te Ik laenee i n  det»to and a diatlact -padseitt©*i*e»of iitoal ens inoa deaf. 2a* aia«rali*«d jorcioa of the e e l l  la aeaally a aaad aad gravel loan, sad hm a  sraaalar atraetare at tae earf&a* toat stoagea te aalag either ewspaaled or eeaanted la tat aepta. faaee eaila aay to «£ eltae* «l«eUi or alluvial eri&ta, 9eeee af allnvial origin are deaf valla toeee ef glacial e r i f l a are often eMUev. Sen* anrfaa» dtr,i^ge ia very geed, altaoifn eiaVearfaee Irrlaiatlee la equally good aad I* «ffaetlre far «oat ef tae eell da#tn «*i»#a*at tfea ye**, ftleleetlea ef tea eeeure deep latoeprofile, fre%enntly an erteteia layer. A eeaaiamUea of larjaaaa* vlaa laflaenee  nere epea etraetore l a eaaaea of tola aaaaolatioa, fraa eaaee of aaaaoiaUaa attsfeer 12, aeraally reaalte la a e*a*#®aily dry aerial eavlreanent tbat de«n to fee co~4enlaeai level of %ra«§,  Ooearreaee, veeei «o»%«i»e and an ato wastom miepe af tan eaeeade H^wtoins. sneaae of tote aeaeeiaaiea ease* aataljr  A m i S l l 111 (**at*d) oa eteee slop** o% * l * * a t l * B * ** froa WW  to  3000 feet atave a*a l e r e l . fb*y eeear<et ta*tr lew** • U v a t i e a . io the Qeeet Maootolo* «at at their Mg^ar elevatl*** ia tat  Weeaeaatea. 1. Tr***. tr«* «r*wt» U ?#&*©«l ftaa tfaet obtained i o ****®i«%i*os *oe»*r 12 and 13, e a m e a l a a V a* to aalfet srowtb. faaaa h**eeeMBollo eeeare to a l l eeaaale* aat le o&tor* etaefe t* aoroally ia® aajor eeeetaa by v*lae* eat freaaaeay. Tfaaia oAleoto oooor* la n i l #**spi®a la ***d r l t e r except at tie eichtr elevetleaa vMm I t teaee a*feeceoleaee. ay yellow eyeteee. .ftiea, jflaOallle eeoars lo a l l  te* ik* greatest fr*f«isoy eat iri«e* i a tee Sower  % l t b ieer***ii« aAtltaee aad wmru oaly  l a its* lower oaaoei** <»t l*w#r elevolloaa.  „ , taaflfolia ba* ealy a sj^roiio la aetar* eiaade, alway* i a th* bi«s**t aad U r*dsa*d * l « * r . I t 1* * f t * e  partleeJUrly at olfher *l*votiea*.  bas a a l e l l a r seeawa* to taai'ef eeaejlae f t r . a* b w l f a l l * eeeare lo ta* lower eaaeelee *ie«B**a"^^e» ^e*e**ea>pw<^^^^^^^^^W' |  2  _  ^  _„  „•  U good TU*r aad ofto*la «®*r  u***r v*c* tattoo, fee etesb layer U torartobly well aafeleyat aaa le ooatoato* ay faeeleleo frallfolaa. 1. oayrifollaa aad fjrittaeYftJ j S f t o T ^ fl*!wXtey*r S a ^ greaUr ea to Ite i « . ^ * » « « L « i i * t a t lavarisfely eteeeat or* fffryea ^ ^ ^ S ^ S T eaaaUy ******* *** mm y i f t S S e g e T t r 1 * ^ 5 * * * * * by  »*^fdtojf,AfJaal  At M i ^ r eiaraueee ifcflftMaSaeta u a l m i s i *  -9-  amm*  l i t (a*e**t)  ia area* n ^ r a ^ l a r f a a i ^ ^ t t ^ e a le*lsU**a. i»pe«ra#&y .and. mil. Stasia af thto aaaeatotlea r*f»toriy •eaar aa aetata** ta very *to*p *top*e. F*d**li**d brow soil* af etoetoi ®rl«ia ara eharaetortotto. Th* g«**** material aay be aitbar glacial d*p**l* ar * l l e * t o l dtp** it t*m glacial rivers. Badreafc to efiea cloae ta %tt» aarf*a» aad layer that vertae froa tw» nptoIf, iaebaa 1% depth. leaahlag la aeoelly av Ideal a* a ttottoet herl**a bat aftaa ptaetoato* to wr* tons 12 laabaa,  dapeedtoc  largtly apaa to* *toala*e* af th* froaad. tba toxtar* * fto*»to*r*i pertto* of toe c e i l to aaad aad ereveltoaawith elite aaaettoea ereeea*. tbay ar* aornaily mmv&m aaaa toe earfaee aad vary froa *4^*ffttod to d«a**ly easpaetod l a toe depth, C*a*etottoa le uncommon aa to gletowttoa. Sab•arfeft* dratoafe to aaaaiiy «e*d bat 1* •eactto** tep*d*A aaaerdiat to la* arraeyeaeat of toff* etoae* •ad. tb* aaaftoarattoa af the a*4r*ak. Neat af to*** eetla mm eaaalsteatly aetot and ar* ofto®vet to their depth.  Saevelieete. beet *toad* »f tfeto «a**etot.toa aaaa earestrtotod air dr*to**e> to the latejeer «*a»pi«* *aly. M r twsparator** ar* eoaeletoetly aad*r*t* to the tower eaaepto* bat at* **a**s*lly hi«b aeet*. Atoe*oh*rie baaUltl** * r * **a*le%*»tly ate*,tothe tower eeaeetoe bat ar* aeah l**a aatoth® htotor ewaepte*. Aeaeetatiea aaaeey. 15. feaaa. betereaarlto-CMiaft  wmMsJ^i-  eat th* wastora elap** of th* „—... Heaatato* «a poorly-drained sella feeeUSac fr*» th* configuration mtto*bedrecH which 11** etos* to to* •mil •orf***. ttoad* of this Meeeiatlea aeear at *l*vmtl*m* of free abeat 15**° t* 1®©© fa*t ab*v* *#* l*v*l» th* assoetottoa eaear* aa fraaaaata withl* aar* *s**B*iv* • f a**9etottoa* aaaber 1? aad Ifc. f*#ttotl*a.  1.  fraaa.  r**erll*  * ia all  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ S l e a t o ^ l y '  ta tba  htetoet  -1ft.  mmmx.  m  ceeat'd)  distribution Is elder *taa£a tot say to yeaa* etaade. le a l l ©aaaptee feat eely l a eederate vigor. II .tea Ite greateet ekeMaaea at algiar elevatleae at lavar elevatleae %y veatera Ttmja aUk&liS, aaa ite greateet frvsnaaey i a tae lave* eaaeaiee. Itteeextreae lev vigar l a hee a nigH fteee«aay ta aS«a-tiU«a%iea stead* ^h«»e i t ee«ara i a tee eaaapiee, eseept l a vary eld ataade v&ere i t ^h^fcji5t'»B,iww  #, Wie  JMjton  A na  nil e% 'ft  jjMaa. aaaallle aaa aa eatreeely variable distrifeatiea* 'lata i t ia preeeat i t le eoafiaed te tea lever eaaeptee vaere i t bee lav  to yesag etaade «®A i f preeeat i a elder etoada i t w i l l eater: W * n « f t * U r «** ** l e * vigor. Taxua ^rovifalto eeeara ealy l a toe lever la lev ' a.  Leaaer vegetation, fat eerenintlaa preeeate a terarlaat aepeet ey reaeea ef a f e l l y developed ahrae layer. ts*«riafcly praeeat are  _ fhe tore layer ia aaaally laea well , tot ef tea tee a feed dietritotiea ef  $®m*,ma£mm^Mmm$amk.  other &**%* taat are eeaaily preeeat are laraiaMtaa aaertoaiaai.  ar3R  eUa^J  »y ^:li»cea.|aa m^S^m* tertld^de^haa a m i t t l B t U f J t e M l a tae totter drained a«d by era.. PWioShaelue aadalft  «ad i . i M l a m t» the wetter  fepegraphy aad eail.  the *epa#r»#ay i * aeaally flat tot vita fhe a e i l le ef flaelal origin ead aay aaaatat aalaly &f  * W i B t t III (eMt'd) aacmalatlatw ever a very etellow layer ef aiaar&llaed M U , fhe haaee variee up to elg&t laeaee tMe* aa* l a at very peer eaellty. Fedselieatiee invariably oeoare aaa a*y rme& 4avav%ir£ fat aor* ttaa 1% i a proxlaity ia root* «ad atoaea. laftraak l a aaaally elooe to the sarfaee and reek eaterope are aoraal. Seek soils are vat ead ara aeid itareagls©«.t their deptk ky reaeea ef .eltaate. Moot etMSda of tale aeeeetotlea are wiaeV te the tap ef the ehreJo leper kelew vfciefc * «s©aet*w**ly kaaU AgeaateUe*  a a * * * * .  ia.  Ceaat iioaatalae aad tae veatern elepee ef ta* iaaeato *!©«nta.Im* at «i«t«§*e of Area ^ 0 ° te aaornt 3§S© «aat *kov® aaa l a v a l . *taa4e ef tale aaaoeiatle© ara #ltk#r iatewtisei a i t a aaaealatieaa 13, 1*. 13. and 1? ar lie  1.  ^ ^ ^ J ^ W * ^  freee. a Mgis fre^aeaep- end good tiger l a nil kat laeke tee kel#* grew** i t attelaa la aaeeat. atteae aaeker 13 ead JA. aatta eankilfa eeoara la a l l o&aepleft , < v i t a good vigor.  aVMaYtteanl*; raaaitee Ite  Is t i l s aaeootatiea where i t la. a l l aanepte*. •  fiaUa =>Itoata Urn at eaet a eaattered l a tat* aaaaalatlaa. It ft** year vigor. taaaa yrteaatiiaa aaa i t * great**  yaeadetaaaa monjgalie In aev**Hr aaaaat tat i f pr«»eai ttkaoar* la lev * i § * r aaa trevaraay ta «aa atgaaat  -12-  mmmu m  (eeat'd)  ffiaea, oootlooift l e of tea preeeat a* a l a the hlchoct Ottaoey.  epealee  eeattered  i M S * araytfalta la rarely preeeat sat, If aa. It eocar* l a lav r l « e r l a the leva at eoaepy. 2.  Leeeee vogetatioa.  tha earab layer la wall developed. lararlably preowtt l a tola layar ere faaelalaa ovallfoliBa aad, at law elevatleae, £. oarvlfollaa. Uanally pr##*«t are S&altbarU timUm. I . wMK&U, «»d maam ssmm, «» herb layar la aaoally wall developed. Savariahly ereeaet i a this layar wre Sabaa aM&liiA. fittaft  $eae«?aphy aad s o i l ,  Steaea af tale aaaaelatioa eeoar aa eteop to moderate alopee aad aa beaahee, provided  SHSjjo* m9m^£m&m  ^ljRftieeflfc(^^e^ JLa)t jJifiWMi. ^  W"3feaeMBk -aWafla^^l(fctt9Pa?BW©^  gaole*** ia eerieaaly tepedad tae •eeeelatlea i a replaced by either a »J IJBUO varletlea of I t ar by aaaoeiatloa amber 15. toe e e l i i a af gUeiftl e r l a i a •ad U eooelty atreai^r podaoiieed aad aaid l a Its eeyar layers. ?her* te a raw hoae* layer af froa elm to 12 iasbte thlefeaeee, Xasept far tea oeearmem of la*«* steaee tae e o l l l e oooaliy 30 or aore teaeoo doef. foe tester* of tat a e l l l a atooat invariably eaad aad gr«rei leao. Saab eolls era peraoewatly aolet «ad are aemally elaieml* i a tbe depth. loe-elia&t*.  Meet etaaaa of tale eaaoeieMea are wiad •*pe**d nod toad to have sa ep*a etraetore l a tbair  13< APFUBIX III («eet'd) O*oarr*aee. stand* of thto aaao«Utl*a oeear aoeally a* fraoeeate vtthto a*** •xtoa*to* mtmmm of *»*®oi~ «%i*a aaetor 14, fboy eeeey lb eir***wtaae** where **l^*setf»e*.dimto**3* 1* toy**** t * tb» *st*et that «oxf*e* mmm3m%imm af wear potato* for aaa* of ta* y*ar. ®ooh «toad* haw* aa op*a Btraatar* la a l l *taa** of their d***lepaeat to aatarity. Tr** growth 1* aaaa r*dae«d free tbat of earraaadto* a*«eotatlea*.  Aaaoaiattoa eaeb*r  17  0*a*« Meaatotos aadto*****ere atop** of tb* teboad* Seastoie* at elaveUaae somally abov* 354*0 f * * t . Stead* of tMio aeeeelatiee r*pr«»*at *?j>rexi»at*iy tb* eaeef H o l t * of oerateotobl* eteaaa l a tub* eeeat f*r*et t««toe. Y*f*tottoe. 1, fr*e*.  fee**, eor**a*toa* I* tb* *mi® *p*et*# by valea* to to* hl«b**t oaaosa*,. I t oooara l a § M d vtoar to a l l eaaopto* *BO*ot atto*algtoet ele*a*ieae. Ibto* aaobllto a** itoitod dtotrtomttoatoto* bat eftoateema high frajaeaey In tb* lover e^yaopto*. I t * rigor to a l l eaooptoa 1*  lev.  doat aot oeear to too »!#»** to  oaotlool* *oa*ti«»s oeear*toto*htohMt , bat ©Ely to low  2. to***» vo^tottoa,  Che *br*h layer le **te*e*ly vartobl* a* to ito eftattoolty. larartobly , h*wcv«r, ate faoelatoa f*allfoltoa* 1. mmmm. aad Khod^Aendran atoiftoraa. fee barb * poorly d***3y*a*d both ae to the oasber of their f r*%o*aoy bat *s*&»ily Sabae weJotoa. ftoto arhtoatotou  S ^ e T S S IHiaiWa*a5» ^ p a t a daeto*t*e thto layer  to  -14-  wwwmm. aaa*  i l l (®**t*d)  elanea and eaaaaleaalljr to m i l  •a. *an .•all la a aaaatala aaeani vita a toiek raw hoeaa. fa* padaal karlsea la eaatiaaee* aad varlaa aa ta f l a n Inches l a taiekaese. The s a i l la of gtoalal a r l g l e , hae a wand, aaft # w * i lean la Boraftlly aaallaw, w t aaaaaalag l i l a dea-to. faa a a i l l a a*aaoa*lljr very dry at the eavfaee Hat la anatiaeeaelr aalat l a I t *  at tale aaeeeiatlen aaa* eleee ta wind aaaaaava far tat tegiea. *a*y keve aaa int#ra»di»te level af t:  •i^lWe^&en' J^fi*% a\^BNB SjSSSfl^Ma^W j,  *»**..  yk»4a allaata-  Ja^e*-^  (teena aaMgaakyllaJ.  at elevatles* af f sen IMQ fast 3000 feet akeve **a leeel aa aUavlal plain* torderlac aaa at tha eeaatlaaaae af tala i l i s a w , StaaAs af tala aeeeatetf en ara aftaa , laaHiaalaalqr at alike* alavaaaaaa. 1.  Traaa.  taalf, iaiS&S& i a toe aajar epeniea ia tae  Mgkeet aaaaff aad tea gaaarally wety gaaA vlga*. It i * eeaettnee teplaeed ta a latga dag*** ia aldar ky veeleae aeaally *»a®k«a tat klgtoat a a l r witk a eaantnve* eeearreaea. i ttaa*a dlatrlkatlaa aad gee* vim** l a t a * tower t e n i f e l l a dees aet seear to tke elieet aaa^aTkaa' tittoet alanattere. It to* a •anvtte*** eeaarrnaae at lov elawttoaa aad eaaetlaea dtetrfkaktea to  fjaan, aaaaanaaal eeeara nit klgker elevatleae in tka Mgatat ©aaasr aaly. I t kaa amiy a aeattsred nd 1* eroatoally raplaaad ay f.bigs aaakHia aaaafa aalaly la tke a«A aaaallr *»Sy 1» tow wliar aaf " '  -15AfPMSU 111 Uoafc'dJ ift f, glabrwa occur* ealy i n tea la elder eider etead* kat la e f t * * th» dsataaat ataaaa ar 'la ef*»lag* of a l t e r r  plant la  :  vegetfttlea.  tae earaa layer l a ay reaeea ef ta*  le ••A Caraaa e*na**a*ie. PeaaUy **eenas Sa tale layer layer le f a i r l y eeaelete with  ftte tepagrapay l a either f l a t er gently elepiag. ieattere4 lew aftea aeaar tkreugsaat * gesetslly lev-lytaB eat f l a t area. Tea e*U le d**p ttd a a a definite raw kemae that e«*fU*a a thinner layer ef aaff a n i l . I atellaa  si c a l l ,  grarel er e l l t y leaa. the e e l l i s aelst Ite depth bat kae exeelleat Santa,  Stead* ef tale aeseetatien are aeaally well ameltered frea wind laflaeaeee. Being cttaatei ia a ****** ef alga a  ileeeeiatien aaaaer. i f . .(laiee aaaellla)  at ebrratteaa ef tmm i W te mm feet eaeve sea level, ataade ef this »t Ion eaaar en well dralaed eat e*»-Irrigated alepee aad aeaaaee. Saaa etaade aaaaaUy^Ua tegetatlea. . . „ 1. tree*. |aaj& msmm&k **«**• l a a l l eaaeptee wtta. fair vlter, feeiag t i e aajer epeelve ey ~ ' l a ta* algaeet eaaepy.  JO. mmmx in Uoat'd) £M*m oaabllto ooea** In a l l emBOpl** bet l i * ireetoat *i«o* and «t!»s»4aaoe below to**!, ffieoa, ^TffTliffflHl is of tea **b*irat and has only a *eatt**«d dist*lbattoe to tb* highest p**«*a*. l a y#aa# a toad* ao* 1* eyaeaell* aad eosptotoly **plaood by w*»to*m tooloek. It has f*od »l|tP l a Pltma ajaaaiaolo has a alalia* *®oa***ee* ta that ©f Baoglas f l * eat l a mere pe*eiat«*t 4a ®ld** fhttto i^toato ha* a vartobto ©eee*r*ee* l a a l l eaaeytoe. It ha* It* «*e»to»* f**@,e*aey aad vife* in the !**«* eaoopto* oad at law** elaeaftteae.  2. to*a«* ve*«J*a**ee, *he ahrsb toy** to oeaally well dovoioped, b * l a i daol»»to* by ftMitoatia* eaaaiaftoe. fiieeiatoa airta^fflitti* • i nIM. iavalifoltott. mw-vi faaally pto**at bat to lew** Wmmm - - • iveoey a** jefflmeawaiajpi a . . . — — . aad Sarba* aib*aeeale. th* heffe ley** W t * *  The topography varies fwarn f l a t t * atop** of f*oe f l * * op to d*ft**s. to* eoll 1* etfeadftr pedaellaed, * f glaetol ** aitovtol ori«to, isad ha* a taw beam* lay** that *«*!*• to thieha*** ap to I f tach*». the podaol h**i**a varto* froa oa*. eaarto* laeh to attoaet fire laohee tototr aad * f t * a paa*t**to* to pocket*toonto pwoto* depths, isad and' g*av«l lo*a* j>**d*»l*at* aad s o i l depths vary IM to h© toetos. §l*lsattoa oftea oeoors bat always d**p to tb*. profli*. lee soil *t*oate** to  aad s o i l .  ~l?. tit ( >e*n Iffl 1!« €***». M l t t M l eeastla** bat 1* net a r*galar footer* of thee* eeile. ******* drmlaage la gaai aa la **»•***!«** irrigation. Sana eelle ara eoatlaaeaaly nalal l a th*ir depth ana aa«aaaally try only i a taa aeee aaa taan* layara. staade af %nte aaeeaiatlen vary eeaeiderafcly l a t h e i r vlnt although a heavy a eevor, *%an«*s% e * i i enietar*,, eontr lento ta a f ran tae green® line te tke taps  Associatioa annaer. 'If (  ef aaeeeiatian namaer If aaa eftea a* v i t h l a nere eaten*!** area* af eaeeeUtieae 2>27 taeleelve. they mem anaaaUy aaere Wm te afcont k&Q® feet mfeera aaa level. fteseoiatioa aanaer. lane,  feet  20.  fanan iwtemaa»lla>l%t»a aj^jlla-faaalalan ovalifqllanCliatoala aj)jttf|^y^»e®ratta ea»$&aa*l». Geearrone*.  i.  Caseade Meaataiee et elevattea* ef free te 3S@@ f « 9 t «** level en e e l l amines *l*p**. •tana* ef tale aeeealatlea represent eeaaltleaa taa* ara the neat faveraala to growth ef western he*la*k and e n a t l l i * f i r In th* eeather* pertl** ef the €a*ead* Heaaialn reglea.  'treat. 2 i s & .Hf»fffff%M» to ©Kcalleat vigor, i t eharea the 4 with eneeilte f tr *y *M*a i t i t **n*tla*e replaee* l a very old etanee. gfeiae aamhlli* eeeare ta e l l eat***** n t t a . ase*ll*at vigor. fiaift alieata l e eftea laekiaf i a very o l d *taaa«*a* nannlly l a nateara etaade l a all eaeof1*« area taaagh Is t*fa«d vigor.  mmm  in (mm%*0  t a x i f o l i a aay mm a high i a the highest eaaejr af yosag a l a * * * bet ia either Craa a l i a * et**te at aaa at beet only « epoKidie faataa etay/jfa}la tea a variable eeearresee that la always aaaf taed to tea lever ejiaoplea. 2, teaser vegetetlea. The eterak' layer la af taa enap&ete with Vooelaiaa ev«|lfalien denlaaiiai. tsaaliy vnneaan i a tala layer are I. aes^ranaeana. h o r r i d , ahododaadroa aiblfioraa. «erbaa 1* •** iafeaa aoee tab 13. la Tba her* layer I* beta, as te the annher ef epeelee aaa their , Alweye preaent and een^aetlag ara Clintaal* Carnal paasy&^nals. t l ^ f i U a aaifQl,i«,^a. aad stasia Oeeelly yreaeat are anient losdntna. ^ . y t i ^ ^ d i ^ SteffijLaffil. OfeSffla^&jLa, the aeee layer k w r varlee froa beiag be elanst aa ansa an**** ***** tnyftiftlannla roteasta aad always present. Seeally  E.  etssp slope* aaa aeaaiderabla *a»i*tlen aay be eayerieaead v i t h l a a eiagie stead. The s o i l aay be «f either glaelal or a i l e v t a l origin* eaaaliy the foraer, aad hae a rev bmm that varies % to eight lashes ihtek bat wfaieh i s eaaaliy ef «**« quality, there i s a veil oaf iaed padsei layer that varlee ap te fear iaafcea i a depth, altheagh laaehiag of tea peastratee to aaeh greater depths areaad staaea aad root*, fhe sia»r»l portion ef the e e l l varlee froa US laohas to mora thaa 3© iaehoa. * s*aa end gravel lean t * x t w i s aeraal far eell*. *he s o i l le greasier near the aw eggragated, eeneaeted, or eaaeated l a thi flelsatlea l a eaeaen, m r t i c u i a r l y u eld e l l n v i a l eelle. fh* profile l e continuously aoiet wet. are nenaeUy high as* are *an*l*t**tly high by mmm ef heavy prelrseted aaow ©ever whlah aay persist for  -19-  utmmu  I I I (eeet»4)  toe** tot toe aaa®**. 21. awe.  tssm  mmm^isumx  mwma)~wm mm^mmms** m to* lower elope* of steep b i l l * to tot ***** to* float toftoaaoe of  prostoitr to ettaer aaaeelatlee aaaber 18, free wbtoh It ear «***l*p, or •oseatottoa* aaator i f and 20. growth to f^morallr **ry good to thto •••aototioe.  f*f*tottoa, I.  fr«**. f*o*m aetofooarllo eaoeea r*f»JL*yiytoa l l wlto  to^tfelto, **o«re ragelarly to tee hlgtoat eaaofy toyoeaf *t«ate sot 1* rsptoewf. by itoek m& western ret eetar to older *t*at*. Tao^a alteata. oooors r*«al*rlr to a l l emaepto*  and to good viae*.  ^ aaaMlto occurs ®aly Irregelorly l a to* testosa* aaaopr *** i s rafolarly preeeat l a l*w*r  St to* low *toar «*•* la to* lower ©saoptos.  hrorlfelto ooeare l r r * f a t o r l y oat alweye to the lower *ea*pto*, aaa v%%h toot r l f » r .  2.  l o w e r v««etottoa.  fhe extoab  e***r varto* #re*tly i t * eastoaa t«v*l*pa*et i a *toat epaa herrito*. fa^o.totoa QTsHfolloa. »!*** laoaatra. tabaa. **setoblll*. f. aarviftora*. aot faaheoo* oabane are- uowsally pre**et. Tb* herb layer to lavarlably v * l l «*v*l«p*t. Bryoetorl* Itoe^waa,, Atorrlae f i l l s it ttalfeltota,. Cllawaia qa^flarq,.. fafaaj jfflQ, tyif^p.rgafr, Maaaoa, bagafjto. Saba* eat ttfjJBlejea msM ere tarartobly preaaat. •*» 1. lawtoxifoltoa. Viola atobolto-  Sa th* ear* eotot I . toatoa*. i . mS&im, Kitooto 'aeJle to the t r  faaaate^ey aot • o i l . '  th* t*pe*r*phy aey b* either flat or *to*ply al*pto<. Th* soil* ere either of «tootol  -20-  Mpwmm  i l l (cont'd;  or aUevtol origin out i o a l l eases oro eefttiaeeatiy moist soft, eamaliy, with eeaeeaal eoewsaJUitlea© of a»rf«ec sotor. ¥h»re It aeejiily • deep row baaes that ©varltos a thtoeer layer of daff avail. Leochtog eeeare, bat »ot «tosy* lo a woU deftoed hortooe. ffeoatoeral «©U t# eeaaiiy deep oad has o seed aot p-avel loon, toxtare vllb seas elite often present, foe etmetore vartot froa gronolor at toe earface to e©ogoetoa l o the depta. ©rtotoia fereettoa i s aaoeaeaa.' aietosiitoa efteo eoeore aaa eeaetloee aloee to tha earfaco. ®»h~ sarfaoe trrl®atloo aad dr*laa«e So. normally eaeellaat. lae-eliaate. Atoeepherto heeldittos are eeastotoatly high eat • teeperatare* are eeaeeaaily vara, psrttoalsrly l a tha  Associativa aaabe*.  23.  •aaa, ftosa eoi^tooaal-toii f torelto ao|feltoto. high alevoMea forest* of eoath esntrsl totortor plateaor, at. elevattoa* of froa »3«0 to feet shove • O A l e v e l , ftoadsof thle eoaoelatleo are leeotod aa former flood plato* of atoeeae aad lakea hot are at preeeat above the level of eeaaoaal or p«rtodie to** tattoo. 1, frees,  flea* eaoeloaoai at talma i t s aastooa devalojBeat for the reipe*to.this assoel&tioa. It oecars with good vigor to o i l eoooptos other ttee l a toe lowest eaaojy where Ite freqaaecy sad vigor or* leas.  Bm  ^  r  r  r  -  -  to a l l oasepto* ood to older stoats, to ssy aaaalately replace engeiawaa aprooe. gbl*a ^eto^to boo a 2 ,*>r-*dic mmstmmm to toe s asaatola atoads of toto aea*etottoa where i t eely to toe lower essepto* aod with low vtoer. Atoaatooalfaliahas as irWgator bet often ple*e*r* the- esbwMftattoa oa It ©owe sotoly to epsatogs to elder atoaea. 2  lessor w**to*toii. the ehrab toper to eftea vary well lovmrtobly preset are  -21APPMBIX 111 (eeat'd)  fhe topography la elthor flat m gsatly alepiag. Mast af taa aalla ara af aa eUavial origin and save a t a l a rat* haaee eve* a thleker layer ef oaff aaU. leaching eeeare hmt le eeidea expresesd «« aa i»rlsoa. the s e l l tsxtare le sllty-aaai aaa the straatare i s granalar, v i t h easpaetlea aad iaaipleat ortetetn feraatiea eeearrlag l a the depth. ®ieisntiea i s lararlaaly prseeat ead eftea elese te tae earfaee. *h* c e l l Is deep aad consistently moist.  Topography aad e e l l .  £ee-ellaate. steads ef title association hare a eeattaaeasly hanid atnospaare ap to, aaa msnally ineladlnf, the denlaant tree lwvel. Air teenaratmree are seasemlly warn in the higher eaaepiee hat ere eeatiaaoaaly eool eelev. Mr drainage Is eereaily reetrleted ether then i n the tops ef denlaant tree*. Aeeoelatien wiener.  2*.  Oooarrsaos. iah-alplne pertlens ef the C&se&da lonatalas and high elevation fernete of oenth aaatral tatarier platesnn at siwatieee of free to 55« feet above asm level. Stands ef this aaaaataalan eeear en the lever slepee ef h i l l s where greanA water aovensnt Is free aad e<nw?Ienans te Ite inflaenee apea the s o i l . 1  Treee. Pieaa ea«el«aaai has elese te aarlaae growth for tho region i s etaaae ef thie assoelatiea. It has its greatest afeasdaaee aad vigor l a the higher eeaeplee sat aaraally ©news in a l l  -22mrnsu  i n <*o»t«d)  aBiooaraa tea very good develepneat la e l l ts s to **4 eenstlasa* n y l u t t large extsst in elder #t*ad*.  lias*  tf^ffifla. * * •  *  ™7  it  i». elter e tends, alvays ia the highest  eftea pteneert  thai* aUsata has vary a speradi* awnwease i a ta* U N Y fetal 2.  he* e i M f i a h l *  l a stand* ef the 6e*nn«*  vegetatlea, fhe shtat fay** l e s e l l Isvelepsd, aad iarsriahly iaalaS** Measlesi*  L  Snrhna altahensfe. the a**n layer Is  '  thie layer are Coraag atalonlfarfe.  'laaariatly  6m*** mud  I  aad s e l l ,  Th* t*f*ir%yhy Is either flat ar gently sfepinf, the sells ar* ef either t l a e i s l er a l l a r i a i erigla aad ar* slightly pe&sells** a dietleet pedsel herlaea la eften laekiag. Tim mm rariee free an te eight taahee ef raw henna above a Layer ef daff «mll te ealy tea inehee ef i , the alaeral s e l l varlee free 18 to a*r« 30 tnahas In depth, has a sand and gravel eat, e i l t y textnre, and varies froa eeiag granalar at the sarfeee to either aggregated, enapaatad er, rarely, eonented Sn tfce depth. aieiaatiea aamaily eeeare, high i n th* aiatenX. s e l l sens, §«eh sells are aaiet threngheat their depth far nest af the year and art e*a*enally eat, fah-s«rf*ae drainage le asnally feed hat Is eonette** inpedod ey saanaalatiaes ef glaelal «f this  rv* m In th* *pp*r  at maturity, psrtiealarly , that taaalta l a *sas*aally and lew hanldltles i n the  -23-  memos* xu (••«•*<> oa tot other ha»d, ther* i s a ©oetiaoooaiy baati aad wosoaally mm *trato» of a i r thai blanket* tb* tower l * v * l * af *r«ae»  tossotottoa aaa*ar.  25.  Oeearraaea. Sob-alpla* parttoa* af th* Caacads Maaatotoa aad high *tov**to* farest* of •oath aejtttal totortor atotoaax a* elevatl*** atoliar to thoe* of aaM*tolatteee 23 aad ?A. steede of tola aoeeotottoa oftornoooar a* fragments vithto toffer aroaa af aaoeetottoe* aathor Z% 1*. asod tft. to«etotloa,  1  1. ?r*«*.  nm*. ooootoaaal oeoor* to a l l low vtojor.  otmoftoe  tit*  Iblo* toalooar^ mmm i a a l l eoaopi** to lew *i#or, l i too a «r«*tor frvqasaay l a tee tower c&ooptoe thist does #aceto«a» eoroee. A^laa* t»Oi$fofrto. oocora reffttoriy l « etoadi of a l l a*** ha* haa too greatest fre^tsRscy i s yaaag stoads. 2.  looser roeotoitioa. ?h* abreb layer i s aaaallr eeU dovelaaad aad i s etetoatod hy  flie to^Ofrofhy to o i t o a r f l a t or very «*a*Iy oloptof. fha s o i l toehs ooftoito *tratlfla»ttoa other tooa a'fairly distinct rm to daff Roll horn*. ?he reoatoder of the s o i l i s eeaoosod of ooaolose deposit that hits b#«ra a l a e r a l l ^ d to a rortohle €#«**#. Saoh sella or* ooatSaeooaly ««t aad or* *aty •aid. 9oh-ferfae* dr^lna^ 1* greatly landed, aooolly hy th* soaf toaratloa of aadorlytof todroa*.  aad soil,  • 2 * .  IZI {**«*»*) ef tfcls s**o*i»tl*a dry aad w*f» aortal eta** tfeaa far a law strata* af war*,feaal*a i r l * * * l af ta* «ara* iay*r. of  ef t&* ef t a l i associatioa eeaar at etaUar te tae** ef ae*e*.t»t,t*a aamber 2fe Il-draia**. e l * * * * aad ea. ta* ****** * f gestiy feg*t«iti*a. 1. tree*.  aataly to tae * it  aaiaiy to  A*l»a riger. i t le 1* ia elder  i a ta*  l a a l l «*a**l*«' wit* f a i r _ i a t a l * .*****l*ti*a taa* and aay r a t i * * * i t elaoet eeaplstely  faaea, aetereeterll* aa* a wery low wig*r l a tae lower  mm a law fr*%**a*y i a oidar etead* bat I*  3  t a l * layer * r * lacastra.  a*r» layer I*  -25-  mmmm i s i <*o»t<d)  topography aot soil, fee topography varl** free beisg f l a t to slop** «f about 15 d*gr***. Stood* of this aeeoetotlea are l*eat*d sa soils above sub-surfoes drainage Is seasonally «xtr*a* aad whera aab-sarfaas irrigatiea is ***trtot*d to the Is*** levels of the soil tartog ssoaor stseto*. Mass oftoesoils ore sobftlplae poissls of either glaotol or allartol * * i g t a . fa*** Is a thia rem laoas layer that la seasonally very dry.toaohtogIs preaooaeod sat to carried tola the soil depth aroaad roots eat atoa«« althoagh e tlsttoet podsel hertooa way be iaaktog. the oloerallset soil varies free either silty-taad*toeast sod graael lone*, fhe straetoretoasoally g***mla* attoe*erfece sat variously aggregated, oo»paotett or oeoeatottothe depth. Ortstola oftoooeear* withia 1*toehesof the soil sarfaoe althaaghtoaost sf saoh eases tho ortotstoittoso lasiptoat stage of develop****. Th*** e*ll* ere seasonally v*ry dry « tto*sorfa** aad only slightly aalst ta th* depth. loo-oltoot*.  Stand* of this ****«lattoa have a *e****aily dry a*p**t for o*st of the *too isagtb of *feee» e***teel a r l y to ***** of stoats that ar* ooawUtely «tadexp»**d. Heavy sod pretraotod •aow e*v*r aad fr*ao*at •eoawr rale* provide for « shallow strata* of warn hoato ear abate th* «a*ob toysr tartog saaaer eeatae.  to**ototlsa weebsr. 27. ®eo«rr*ao*.  §ab-ai»ia* portioas of the Ceaaaao* ioaoohe*, mA • saiMait tfoaatoto* *ad high elemtleo fereeeatf sooth e*atr»l iatortor ptotoaax. ftoad*of thto eeeeeleftfe* occupy mmm of *a**eae drmtoag* aaaa as th* er*sts ©f h i l l * . *ldg*», sottoth* vtolat.ty of rook outcrops, teee growth i * efei#*e**rtotlo*lly *a*y faer.  v*g*ta*loa 1. f * * * s .  Worn **f»|aaaal  aaa * at** frotasaay to *11 aaaealee other tbae to th* l*v**t ooaofy eaata I t to largely rexuaoefl by alpto* f i r . It l a * very l o * vigortoa l l  Mia It*  mimrm*»  greateet  fr*fO*»ey aad tov*l.  » ***•»«*• *f* »*• u  b**t  vlge* belowto*©*-  -ft.  mmmu i n (cont'd, Piaao eoafqrfca noraaliy oeeare la tha htgheet eaaepy altaaafk Ita frea.**»«y aa* aa law. It ia af taa the «*4etr dealaaat •aeelee la yeaag eteaae, 2. leaser vegetation, fhe skreh layar ie aeoally eenplsts althoagh the vigor ef plants le ea%optimal la ne*t aaeee. lavarinhiy pf*e*at are Vscelnioa  Topography aad eell. the topography warlee free helag flat te slopes ap to ahoat 50 degrees. fh« sails aim eftea ehallaw aad hare a thla raw henae layer that llee iaaedlately a*ev* a well defined pedsel herlsea. taaehiag ie IctariaUy earried deep lata eaoh soils, faad aad gravel leaae, asaaliy with as eJaixtare ef glaeiel reeke, er* aeraal for this **eeelatiea. fhs •trn*tar* ef sash eollo le «***Uy graaalar ar aggregated at the sarfae* to densely ae*^a***4 ia th* d*pth. fhs eeeplete profile is e*a*oeally very dry. iao-ellnat*. Stead* ef this en»ent**l*a are eaaally ta* aost wind exposed of th* regie*. They ar* e*a*oaally very dry aad war* ether than for * very shallow atrataa ef warn aania air that alaakete th* soss aat here layer*. Aaeoolatie* aonbor. 2*. **»*. thai*, wtUH^to&mmai h^rr^d^^r**t»yif lianaeen*.. Oaearroaa*, la th* Moaaahoo aad Selkirk a*«mt*las oa aeiet steep slepee sad ea aero gentle elepee that herder of this aeeoolatloa are oftea fragaeatary la larger fom«a°wlthinCan eUvntiea range of fro* IsS© to 4000 feat ***** ee* lorel.  A»yy*A|I Xn (©eat'd) 1  freee.  ybmte allcaia *e*ar* l a a l l enaap1** aa* attain* i t a aaataaa wig*r f a * th* regloa l a tala  aa a ta ***"aa^e**t*n»* laval. I tteaIta test fretaaaey «ed vigor la. tkle ea*e*l**lea at tha p*ris*t«r af that a** l a prextelty ta etaada af **a**latlaa t a a t f a l t e  ia tha deal****  «***W  s«y hava m law ff*fa*aay la **aally *b*e*i froa stater*  «*aa *aa*laai«tl tea m aparaila wary good vigor l a th* .high*** #***laa frlaheeerm way haw* & high f***.< i s th* d*aiaant eaaopy af yea** *taaft* ant'i* itaaliy **plae*l hy ^____ aa * a a i e i r l a th* l*w*r aaa*pi*« ant at :hlgh*r •lovatlaa*. I H £ a U S s a w » i f taa haw lag a law ta high l«*aay, *«*afylag ataad epsalag* with vary §**4 vigor. f,  leeeer w*g*tatl*a.  To* ekrah layer i * w*il-a*welepea  Qateaaa** faerrldoa. although Cerrlaa eallforalea. laaateate forre*te*»> sad faaetela* ewallfolta* ar* usually prveeet. f a * h*r% layer le luxuriant hath a* te th* aaah«r ef epftele* aa*- their pre-at ar* mmmM Ummm.  ^^J^K^S^  nCltoa^laLft * i * h * i l * . *** 1 oat ar* ||{*jSa &3 ^ » » t a i & w * ^ ^ l * P * « *a th* i s t h l * layer are mm f*f*gr*fhy aa* well.  *. mm* "  The t*pogr*phy varies free very et*«p te geatly eleplag etreaa emrgla*. fh* e*U l a coatiaaeaaly sotet threngaeat ite d*pth 1* a* seawall? wet at the e*rf*«* *y r*«eea ef a* water, 'fh* haaa* layer aay a* either daff m&U * r a thia teyor of raw «a*a* ahow* m thiaJcer layer of daff a a l l . teaehteg ie - * — - -  I l l <•»»*•*) d L U n c t poasol horisoa Is aowally ab«*»t. Mineralised iimm usaally scours for *so*rel toohe* above bh» td8*r*i s e l l proper. *eet of saab s s i l * ar* s f oltovtol a e i g i * , taw* a ellty-aaad t**tor* aad m graaator stnwjtars, Otoisattoa ©eessr* rogmlarly aad oaooily ap to to* top of to* ototral s o i l , ioo-sorfage draioag* to eeraally good d**p4to a *o»ti*JS»«*ly aoiet prof l i s . fOo~©ltoato. "*wd #f i b i s aeeawlaUe* eeraelly hav* a ooel eel** a e r i a l aspect other thao to too tops of aootooat fcrses vesro high healftittos md tooperatoro* prr*«til. ;  s  tosoetottoa aaafcer.  30.  fhttto olteato-AtferriQB f l l t o feotoa-tofsioMtoa I.  '•ha..ia laltoato ©««s«ra te a l l caaopto* with vigor hoi ae***%e* redact froa that to at toe aaaeer a». It to aorooily tb* aator •ps«to* by  Trses.  totoroohrlto r**eh*« th* Mgtost oaly l e ©Mo* stood*. I t * *eeorsr*eo* to t h i * *ssooto*ioi 1* etosslytopeodea*opoo meeosulRtioas of toosytog «o©d whtoh. I f l a *h*rt eeeialy, I t o l t a It* "  atoatlcola oay im«* a *«oradie blgh**t «*BtBer'ef old** atoeee.  ytoo* th*  --bles toaiooarm. hm 0 s t o l l a r ©ecurreoe* to that of «**t*ra toolooh bet at hlgtor etovattoa*. f  yo*a» hrevifoito oay swe & high f*©4 vigor to to*. leoor eaoopto*. J . to*s*r v*g*totto»»  fee esrteat of eeasiderably hot towtotely s harrlio* soft. faaatoJjto e * w i ^ yye*>*«t ere' jsag*^tor*f.* I as Mweeaa H**eswaBsa^ftjja* sea* ^••^•^••"^^•w^^^^^m*^ _ atohfaalsi-. fhe barb ley** tovartobly prsstot to t h i * preeeat bat less  t tat*** «f uaiftt  «•  toy** It ofto* ooaplote sod to «©mla*to4 by mijm s».,  -29-  ArTfaBIX XH  (cont'd)  Topography aad tail, Taa tepagrnpigr ta goaerally only slightly slepiag. The aelle ate ef either allevlal er glaelel origia aad mr« etmme tor1et iesliy alphagleleate, the #ai hertsea lying directly heaeath a thick, hlaek-aaek haaae. the textare of tho aiattal sell Is saad aad travel lee» ead the etraetare le granalar te peaty, faah soils are psrnaneatly wet threegkent their death f o r neat of tho yew. lesvelanei*. 8tallerljr to assoelatlea anchor f*. etaade ef this aeseelatlea have a ptrwaaoatly eeol sad haald aerial aeptet otter thsa l a the top* ef ieataaat aad A#soal»tlea aaaher,  31.  Sa the keneehsw ead Selkirk Moon t*. las ea well Irrigated elepee «ad beachee at elevatloae ef froa 1500 te 4800 foot akeve eea level, ttest ef *» " steads l i e kelew kQQO feet. I t le peeetble te gate this association late at loaat threi refleetlag different e e l l aaldltlee, v i a . , aa^lenalic, at so latetaiaed aa to jaevwat their es^aratloa ea a fsgetetiea. 1. freas,  foenn hetera^rlla attains i t s naxiaan develepaent for the regies l a this aeaeeiatiea. It in a l l eanopiee In aaninaa vigor, boleg the speeies hp  Paaaietsa&m aaatfaltn has very good growth i a *** eventeelly Usee ite plaee l a older stead, to western  'S^iTmmw _____  a entile* eeearreaee to that f i r hot persiate laager to elder dees assglas f i r . all eaaeplea with the deniaaa* eaaepy where ita vigor in  than'in  .mpmm m  (****t*d)  fteaaa bawlfolto h*a * cono! at«at  ^ y r l f e r a oftea p l a i e t n yeoag stands bat la older u n i t f t r e i % toagto* f i r aad H I M »to* »ao% lotor M H U | eeaalately by #  trooatoid** tea m «tolto* altboaris eer* abort.lived, ootrsrr#„e* to that of w**t*ra t  «hlta birch. 2.  v»«»toti*o. the extant of the ohrab layer vartoe  froa •ae_iea»# to ala©** eaapleto, Whea  , to*»ri»bly pr*eent are. Faotaa^tiaa  -ftllo w o o l l y  1.  _ _ _ _ _ _  '  preeeat ®re taba. •aarvlJl  Soaetiaea  toy»r l a aaaally eoaftoto *aito**§h t a y#a_ ®ay be alaoet toehtof, lavartobly freeeat  It  aotfellqfca. Oettally  ere ^rallffi bat lev i a «ad Athrrtoo fjl^x-foatoa. belaf eeapiete to *aada»».  t_ preeeat aad eooetto**  -he aaaa layer vttrto* £. 1. *Qtoato«a.. s_artl< Hciire^ri. iro^osatly tat. ia thie layer aa*  froa belag f l a t to elofiae ao t©. about ao d*gr***, «o«t aelle of thie wsootottoa baa*ftwtefely thiol, raw ho«* that *e*»tim* ii«* above » thiamer layer of doff soil. A wftoito pod**! boritoa i * i « oooooalr «rrl*4 to  mUB aey a* af. either glacial or e J l a r i a l arlgto, aaaa a *ilty-**ad or * ^ ^ s ^ ^ j j ® i * or oaae**** la to* depth, ttetoattea hot aaaally aot eo ele*« to th* *arf*o* aa i a e**e*i«lto» sstotor m. tho • • l l * or* aoreally aotot throaghoat tholr depth for th* oatir* year aa* d i f f e r to thie r»*f*«t froa the** of owootottoa aeeeer 29 aatoly to  -3U  Ie®.«il**te,  ttfWUU H I (*oat,d> that thejr ea_l.lt a greater **a**a*l fla*tootles l a the grenad water level. Stead* af thle **oocieties have a eontiaaoasi* haaid aortal aafsat throughout tho atoa loagth of tha  troo cover. Air taapirataroc ara ssaaoaally vara vithla steads depsadlag «fca th* d*gr** * f stocking. ' la very •14 steads whs** eteefeiag ia sroduesd froa. that aoraal ta yavafer steads, a vara. aad haaid aerial aspect reeahee t* groaad l * v * l . la yaaager aaa aer* daasoljr •.•stood «t*Me a strata* of eeel haaid air eeaare ap te ahaat th* level *f iater_edtet* treee.  _ce_rreaee.  Ia the seatfesra p»rtlo» of tho Keeaehee *M Selkirk Mountains a*.la*ia*«t vith th* northern lialte ef grand f i r ia laterier Irltieh eelanbte. Stead* ef this aaeeeiatiea **«r at oUvatiee* geaerall* %alav 3000 f*«t.  Yegetatiea. 1  free*,  faaaf hstfraatearll* *e*«r* i a a l l eaaeplss with good vigor, eltheagh seaowhat m$ms*& froa that  ia «e*©«l*ti*» aaaher JI.  It le aarsally th* *a_*r  epeeioe by velaa* aad fraaaeaay i a tho higher caaofis* hat soaettnee leooe its m$w states te grand f i r i a vary eld late* graaAte aeaar* l a a l l esaeplea vith vigor for thie speeies for th* rogtea, _______ ta-tlfalla has *«ljr a sfcradle < i a the higher *e**pi** ef ***** i. greater fr*e.«*a*y l a a*raally eeemr* i a a l l i t * boat devolapasat l a thie onasatettea l a th* lever  of  . Seagla*  fir  has * stellar oecarreac* t© that althoagh i t is svsa more %mmt%wy.  larla ae-ldeate-i* has a stellar ^ ^ SSeeglae « * « rf ior tother 1 "" that «f to eaaditleaa ef the lew*r eeaeple*.  -32-  (cont'd) Plttaa aoBtlcola tea % similar eee«rr*se* *© that •f BMCU« fir »tfa*r tha* its b*tag a*re p*r*lat*»t i a aldar stand*. AP?__D1X XII  ftaeae  * r * * i t o l i o eoeor*  eulaly ia shrub fara.  2. i**s**r v*g*tatl*a. Tha shrub layar oorr**pead* vary elossly to that of Maealatiea aaabsr 31 bath aa to esufoaitteti and •_*•*». fha hsrb layar also eoaferas elossly to that of aaaooiatloa auaber 31 with tho oxoeptioe of a ooro aooststaat sod s^unSaat ece_rr*a©* of Arallfl a^diQtai|s, Tha aoss layer 1* siallar to that of assoeiatloa aaaber 31 with possibly a groat** frequency of atoHletodelohea trlaaetrm fopography aad  s o i l . The topofraphy varies froa betay f i a t to , steeply sloplag. The soils are stellar la all risible respeots to these of assoeistleo a__b«r  31.  to*~ella«t*. A eoatiaoeaely haald aad ssaseaolly vara aerial sopeet featares attuada of this assoeiatiott. fhe oeoarreaoe aad 'depth of a eool haald stratus of air above the faeaad line varlee dlreotly with the deaeity of stsoaiag of individual steeds, elder aad aors opea •ts-ds havlag a warn haald aerial aapset that psaatratss to the ground Hoe, Association  aaobor. 33,  le the Itoaashae sad MlMrk Keaatolas at sievatioaa Of free l j » ** hJW fsot above sea level oe beaehss aad slopes where sab^arfaao lailoatftee Is soffloieatly roaote so m te have ao iafleoae* opoa tho growth of  T age tat loo. 1. Trees,  mm  h^teroohrlla regalarly ©oo_rs la, e l l  seaopies aad, l a elder at^sds, is the oajor speoiea by value* sod freeaaaay. It* vteor 1* l*«s^b*» that whieh It attale* i a ***o*i*ti*a  froe that  > i t * greet** ttmmmmw l a th i t ha* fair vigor* although 10 eaaaelaaaaae aaaber ft. 36* * o i 31.  33-  IS! (mt'tfj ta_ifalla ie * re»_l»r eeeaoBent of the hi£ber enaopl-s of a l l bat fas eldest staads. It eoeaetea with wester* waite pla* f o r la ye**«*r ****** of thlo oaoeetatloa. la a f * ^ a l a * eeapsasat of tba l a very old steads althoaab i a la sporadic. I t la almost af mem ataada. la anrab fera la. tae  fivee war te Soaglas f i r , woatera , sad woatera wait* flee, frea tbat walea i t attaiae ia 31, ______ traeaAeidee ie a ebert-lived t l * * * * r epeelce aad rarely oeoare l a etaade ef thie aeeoeiatioa "  ' tbw etataa of boias  layer werlee la ite froa highly  tefOfraphy wartes from flat to very eteep oleee*. Pedeelieed brewa eeile ef Slaelai, allaviai, er residaal arista ei»reeterlse aeeoeiatioa, Tfaer* ia a raw haaas that varies a* te five laehee i a tltlemaeee *M a. * i * t t * * t eedael hertsea that varlee aa te thro* iwbee thick, leaaaiaf action le carried te wmh creator depths thaa teat iadleatod by tha pedeel borisos, aa_aly la croxiaity to roots  aad s e l l , Taa  The aiaoral seas of tea s o i l varies free  -3*-  srwmmx m (eeat*d) ei*ht laehee «e at least 40 lashes Is depth. Ite » ^ t t m I. either ginamlar er a»f*««te4 eear the eeenre faltw r*_s__n*ly ead soasiiate* very eiaee te the serfsee. flleis«tlen ie aanally svideat la e shallow Meee i«_ediat*iy eheve the arte tela layer,  fhe terAare ef the alaerel eell varlee fnen silty-»a_da te sand eat travel lean, lerfe- glaelei heeldere eeear l a eeee eell*. 8*»»en*faee drmlnafe le eatreae to the extent that the apper pertloae ef the ooil are asasoaaliy very dry elthaach aeet soils are enatlaaenaly noist l a their depth.  -co-clissito.  Stands ef tale snaeelnftien have a eantianemsiy haaid eliaate ay reaeea ef haavy end pretreetad anew eever end freeaeat enaner ralae. fhey have a eeasoaaliy warn aerial aspect that roaehea te the ®renad Una, nertiewlarly In natnre etende.  Aeaoeiatlea aenaer. 3*>. iane.  Teaan aanatvannn^  anaanttaJaan^^ argainltae-  eataaideat with the northern l l n l t e ef Ahlae awaadla. Stands ef thle aaeoetatlea eeear el^ewntiens fwnsrnily helew jm feet en either er wsH-dralaed fe«eta*ien. I. frees,  fanjs.tete^renhs-lneaanre l a a l l aaaoplee with a hi#h frntanaey aaa with " " '  ihlea matek aasaaa in all Rinses western hsalaete to a inr#* It esews with rodaoed vtxer. -»«t.fffli-_ eenars l a at ls«st the ml nanally i n a l l ent*plee. i t has fair vi^or and has a senate*** dletrlhtttien In elder  saaa&leela has a etniinr ********** s fir ethoi la older  aa Ite fretneney «* M§m slsvatlons hat i s anniaaaA sy western henleefc and #***d fir  te that  -35III (eoat'd) Lariat oeeldaatalla is aftea. aboodaat ia the of ysuag steads be* is gwidaally replaced by westora baateeti «ed ayoee. f i r ia elder  hl^heTta^S*.  «« aa irroffalar oeearreriee la a l l i. It has its greatest ffaeeeeay sa* vi > ta aa-AeaiJtaat l e v e l bat its vicar ia this tsoelatloa ia aay ©oaepy is vary is eoeelly ahsaat f r o * older 2. lesser osyjatetlae. the shrah layer varies greatly ia its iawarlaaee hat Is tjwariobly area i f dls^eatiaaoas, It is iasiaatM by  fjLixj.**. Earn  ^re-o«tao__rlos  mmmm* %mmm  mmm  aro-aral. fhe herb layer Isfhe slai-aTta that af aesoelatlea layar is regularly eesjpleta aad aaaber stellar33.la 'a l l respeeta to taat ef aaeeelatlaa aaaber 33 atber ' of th* topography varies froa beta* f l a t to eleplag. the soils of this aeseoiatiea ore s t e l l a r ia a l l visible respect* to those of •asooiabloa aaabor 33 *tb*r thaa that they ere regularly drier dariaf the soaaei  fa^oarayhy aad soil,  fhe aoo*elteato of ****** of tola **e*e*aifae is stellar to that of aeseelatlea aaeiser 33 ether thaa  SSI  («MM1'«)  l^-#rai>kylla, rarely weare in the higher oneepto*. S% »*y here © high freqaeaoy la the lower ha* Its rigor la eeaatotoatly vary law.  Sow  ihtes,tofieeareo,ana its eost davolepaeat at i eSe-vatieaa tat eseaily oeeors aaly ta the Sowar tad ta Saw vigor. It la often »_s«afc froa. eSavatlaa astoly  to too lower ooaoyioo with roeiaoa rigor.  all aaaootoo. It to freejeeatly  .low rigor. rlaoa w e s t l - o l a has aa ooeorroooa of Seactee f i r . ftoaa  atollar  to that  aeatorto has. a tpetadte oaoarroaeo la older of too toe a h i g h frotoaaey aa a  etoada hat epeetoe to  yooag  etoade.  It hoe low vi«pr.  Z. Loaaer vsgstattoa. fhe ehrah toyer to «***erally well diavolofod oad eaattoaoaa eaeeee for i , St to ioalaatod hy  _  JaV  to lose wall developed hot to hy ChlMS-Qhlla tBg-ftUata. t liogaaioa .ato-ftoremr^d yootaom sp. fhe ees* t r t n ^ c ^ l e t o T a l to domtoated hy  f r a o stoop to g e a t l e s l e p e s . Stoada of thto seaoototioa e e a s l l y Kpoeod *ad roomy r l d g e e aad tho otoeto of h i l l s . ?hey are  of aaa ff»§^etory *i*ato sore ejrteeatte  3$ sod 3%. *h© sells ere  there le a thto layor of *m  hoooe that  t o . # eo^emaSly dry a a i very hot aerial aepeet f r a the groaat I toe to the teas of trees of this tfesoootottoa. - aaeay saa aad ff^fooat soeasr ratoo eoshtos to aaelst to tho of a shallow stratoe of wars taaid a i r the groead Ilea darteg fee earSy part of the  mmmu i n (*****«> « I I M U U M BOBber.  Thai* *&.le^t*-?le**  la the KeajMKh** aad ielkii* Maaafeaiaa an wall Irrigate* eleaee aaa aeaebee er borderlag aad at tba aeaf laeaae ef weaatala streams at elewatleae ef frea 3800 te abemt 5100 feet above sea level, stead* ef this asseeiatiea repressat the upper altitvMnal liaits ef westera red aedar as a eajer saeelee la this regiee. ve«tera red eedar is eftea replaced la the higher eaaopiss ef elder stsads by wsstera h*»leeh sad alflas fir at lewar elevatiens sad by eeeataia healeek aad alflas fir at the higher elwatteas. The fellevlag treee are regalarly preeeat la thie «***cl«tteai altheagh la v%rri_g frequencies ead vlger t fbj^a.filiiM___.SSSBk hetereahy^la. X, aarteaalaa*. ft*** sasalaaeMtj. aad hiea Iftaloearaa ^reaaetaaaee did set feralt a fall ewalsatiea ef this aaseeiatlea. A****_*ttea camber.  Jt.  la the Meaaehee sad, aaialy, i a the Selkirk iaaatatas ea w*ll-dr»la*_ seile et elevetloae ef frea tiff*) te %©S© feet shave am level. Tegatatiaa. 1. free*, mm  teaalpM  • **** *tawa-aay/aa*  fata  ablss l^flaa^ref eeeare ia ell eaaeples ia viger, it ese-lly has its greatest vigor- aad fro*n***y ia the lewar eaaeplee. It *o*wtl**»  veplaees eagslaaaa earaea te e very large degree Flams **aa*Hn freeaaatly ^leaser* this aeeeelatte* aad eeaars ***»lly ealy l a ta* algaaa*  r.  It has pied *ige*.  faafta wlAa**a has aa trregalar  ge'awral law vigor ia th* laws* — -  with vary lev vlger t». th«"7o*er e***pl**, rar*ly reaehtag the lat*t»»di*** level * f treee. • .  -31, jumm*  2.  1*9—r  HI  (oM**d>  vtfvlitlM. there l * a veil d*v*l*pet  Isyor that It usually It lt> aooteatstfeyfj^talao s^br*e***a* «at  ISt MMtor*pr*«*atottoa  •atoe* ay flfearaaa ma&ttlavufa. toaleera co_s>l*ta battotevartobly SamraedteQ y^a^toaa,. at'to^ft- ^laa^i aaraaitofiel* orblciilato. Pyrala chler^ntha. aad £, a*c»odaL *he aaaa layertor«gaL»rly eoaplete aadtodaetoatod CaiIl«rgonalla aehroheri, east mitoa ertotaat eett. t«* topography la either eeealy etoptog er flat. Stwoee of thto aeeeelatiea f*golt_»ly *eeaey vary old a liar Sal wile, preboMy tot flood ploto* of gtoetel rlvara aad lake*, they aro eaep, bav* a *Uty-**ai or east aad •ravel, ttoaetoro, Sol^aerfae* dratoag* to extras* «ad web eoll* *r* seasonally very dry a*ar to* •arfao*. toeohlay Is ff^*@a»o«d aadtoladloatod by & dtottoe* fodaol borlsM a* toll a* by ©mtleoet towhtog b*l«v tola horlseatota* fere of poefcots teat reach for eeaaMeiaele depth* tatoto** * i l . Ree-eltoote. ftoadsoftotoassociation aro aa_"wterlsii©ally op**, at eatarlty sad hav* a tOtt*oo*lly dry sad  ware aerial a***ot aJseve tb*totoraodtotol*v*l of tr*o*. fb* wrtel w_p*e* b*l*» tatotov*lto  to stead apeateg* niter* drier eew&ittea* premi.il.  teeeeUtlea aaeber. 38.  Oaaemeae. C^atral ead northern portloas of tee 6**oad* Koaatotes at *l*v*ttoas of froa *•* level to atom* 306 foot. Stood* of toto oasooifttloa mm* aattely oa allmvlal flood plolat of river* aottofce*.¥h»y ar* faaerally abev*toasoaalfloodtowlstotar* p*rt»dleally s«bj*et to flwdtog of a atoor aatar*. 1.  Tre**.  Me**, aitoaaaatetotb* aato efoetee by voloe* *3^*^Saoytobee appor esaoptes laatre It boa  wry «*** vlg*r. It 1* raptowdtoold** stood* by «a*tor» ret e*dar *ad oaetofe b*atoek.  ~3Pmm®m  nt  (cont'd)  r e g a l l y in o i l eeaesles in older etaade l a food vigor aad fre^aeney. i t tea Ita greatest frequency l a yeang otoada l a taa lewer as Its grsatest fre^nsaey l a ike lower eaneyle* "aad in older etanee. St bas f a i r vigor eat Is generally overtopped ay either ettka er waters red  Abies aisablliB eeears nataly l a alder stands where i t has only a speradle eenarreaee l a the higher eaneyiee. Ite fr«%«e*ey i a a l l saneplse le entreeely variable and ite vlger le esn-eytiaal. fe-alas trlehaoaraa ia gsaerally tha aajor denlaant epeelae i n atense that ocenoy newly f s s e l l s . It has ssnelleat viger, bat i s rsflaaed eventaally by sltka epmee and v#st*m red eoder 2.  laneev vegetation.  The shrub layer Is sftsn very jtartlenlarly In stands where bleak eettenweed ferns the dominant ewaepy. Iwrariahiy present In. this layer are Sanbnans anjtoaaaswnn. ete-oalfern. aabaa aneat&kllls. 1. aawwjflaaae. Somas ataloal and Oj^tonanan, ¥aeeiai_» ovalifoll-a, ZMSMMBEk* ***** <MMeiH)HwSMe^^ —ew«swewaos-tooia a»ea- *mmi!HQ**0*i*Ki***ii^iG^w**^ I^T^iL,-^ b f ^ i e Inrariakly well deweleysd and Is danlaated by fflmm IJllAHLmtM mrrantirio liaaaaaan- f-arejla aaf foliate.  the neoe layer is elnllarly well ebaenred by the I n d i a n a * of the dealaated by jnjfn ____IM_». ft.  sad soil. «he tofegranky Is flat ether than for lew dlse*#41sg haaeneks. tne sell Is asmlly an Innntnre alluvial a e i l tknt lanke stratlf lentioa at her than for a layer ef daff a n i l hanns, Iks taxtnre io either silty-sand er seed and. gravel lean are enmlskea^ ef thle aseeeintlea have a eeasletontly hen aeneet. Air taennrata?*e ere essaaaally w mpm&im largely npen the density of tree grawtk. Snow eevsr is  aerial  are fanenaat.  *~»  I l l {*•**•«)  Aeeoeiattea aanteer.  39.  ©**te«l end aerthtra pirttena of th* Meantaia* ** *t**»ttea* of froa elose %m aaa l * v * l %» shoal ?00 foot, stead* af tela -nseatetlea eeaar regvOarly oa sllavtel oxaatea aaa at taa of atepto. ¥*g*tatl®*. 1. treee.  SMia olicata te taaorallyteaamjar apoatoa ay vela** aad trimmer, *lihaagh l a It aoaotteaa aoaaotoo v i t a altfca  ' f*«*» tetei%a_ylla occur, ta a l l eaneplos vita *sneilflat vigor. It aaa Ita great*** fr*e**«*ytetea i f yeaag *tende nat eaaallf eharee th* of elder ataaia vita ******* r*€ •leer *tead*, -here i t hat aay bar* a _pr****r 1  *  attains in aaooaiettea *M*s anahiii* mmm **#®JU*rly l a a U hat fens Its greatest fr*<i*aa*y and vigor l a tea lover feanlas trioh_Q*rt>a Is neaally ****** fren e U e r mt often eeenrs In th* doniaaat **n*py ef etesde. It ha* wmmmmm vlger 1*. tfct* *s**elatl< 35. lesser vetetntlen.  the shrah layer Is v e i l developed, een*tta** te** so than heneash itetten annhsr _#. lawsartealy ******* ar*  i hsr* leysr Is siallariy well etorttefe* ea* la*n*ta*4y _*•*•*% i n this tey*r % r e *m_vr.ten f l l l a ^ f * * . * * . . ®rr**l*»l* ltea*****, Jf. |r*f*-f_te_: leynr i s v e i l developed a a.  Jb_AFFMIU topography aad t o i l .  UI (cont'd)  Tha topography varte* f mm flat to *to#ply  •toplag. Tha s o i l i * weakly podsolls-d aad  la of *ither aliavtel or glacial o r i f t a . The pod**l horlaoa to oaaally atotiaat *v*a If eeavetlaae dieeea»toue<-». there le a daft aaU hsama that varleo ap to ahoat to* toshes tetefe. The atoeval portiea af the eoil- Is aaually very does aad vwrto* l a i t a toxtar* froa allty-saada to eead aad gravel lesa, etotoattoa eeeare reejOarlr aad usually vary alee* to tho e o l l •arfaee, i«eh telle are eoetlaeoaaly eoiot aad are eeeooaally aot. loo-oils***.  Stood* ef thie aaaoetatloa have aa **o»«:ito»to e l a l l a r to that of aosoetotie® aaahor 38 with the exeeatloa that tha aore deeoe eteelElae of *r##* that . eharaeterlaet thie aaaoelatloa preeorvee a aool haald atretee of air free above the ground to at leaet the te**re«*itoto level of treee.  Aeeeelatiea ausber. h®.  h,t«roofaylla-^la_ *amMlto»f*eetotoo ovalifoliu-al-a -_l-n„ena-a_ytldla<ielnh__ lorsaa-Kfaytidiorttig . Oaattal aad aorthore portion* of the Meuotaina oa vell-dratoed elepea aad booahea at elevatloas of free 1006 to J$W feet abev* tea l*v*l. W*ge tatlea  1. Tr*«*.  t t ^ h*t*r**hrll* oeoer* vita good vigor *ad high fr*aje*a*y la e l l eaaeyi**, although i t 1* !••* totoraa* to overtoepiag la thi* a**oeiatloa Is osiabili* f i r aad toad* to b* smpiaoed by this •feels* l a th* higher e*a*pi*« of v*ry old etaad*  m%mn aaabtlla oeear* with *xeeU*at vigor la all aaaopto*, probably *tt*laiag i t * b*«t for th* regioa ia this ***oototioa. ta* a •poradic •eoarrea** la law •iovatioa «t**d* wh*r* i t eeaate l a to* bigh»*t  with poor vigor.  fmsa, -ellcft-a ooour* aalaly l a th* lower to to* high**t oeaopy It has greatly >*s»tto*s hut do** aot owar to older  -at-  mpwmu i n (*****&)  fnpagraphy a_d ».u. ffce topographyT«_-lae fro* h«i*g flat io uleplag bat, vader oither eiraiaMt****, __fe-__rface dreJUatg* I* good, ftroagly pee*eli*ed brew* oolls that arc ef either gUoi«l or allarial orlgia prodeaiaat* ia thio aeeoeiatiea. fhere le a lay** ef re» haaae that rarlee frea throe te 12 laehe* i« thieaaeee. leaaktag le t**arl**ly iailaated by « podsol h*rt**a, eltheagh it poaetratoe ia peekete to depth* of at leaet l i leehee. The depth ef th* alaeral soil varlee froa * few i&*he* to a*** thaa 3$ iaehae. fhe * * i l text*** la cither ailty-eaad or •aad aad gr*r*l leea. fhe aeil etrastar* le either fw«Bttlar er aggregated a*«r th* •arfae*. beeoatag ^r^Je- e^Jen^-3f %^^r^9^^^Se*w^e^a%^^ft^ ^SNa^" e^^Naaa^a^ffi^r^a^^Jl ^_^^B^3L^@^*^ ^  ^^fe^^**^*ea^  _ft3eVa^  Irrigation ie g*e***Llly law'la the profile dartag ****** aeathe **d *oet of each eeile ere eerfsae dry at tale ****** of th* year. Se*.*li*mt*. staade ef thla aaeeelatiea bar* a ooaataatly haaid eorlal aepeet eatept la the top* ef deaiaaat treee. Mr t**f*raiar** ar* ***eea*lly vara e***pt la 'fta^Ee^C^a^a^^ 0%^ft**aJ _  *^^J*aaa»^_aa^  S^aftae  ^^M^K*?®*^  oteekiag aad expeeare to vi*de, at»ade ef thie a**eetati*» are ***a*aelly dry. Aeaootatlea *•»***. an (eah-«*»»eiati**)  Oae*Wf*aaa>. at * l a l l a » leealltl** aa etaade * f aaaeefetlaa BM**er hO hat aader J ^ J ^ * ^ * 8 ^ * * ^ * ^  m%mm  i n (cont'd;  lrrtgatlea regularly oeear* soar th* **U surfaee. -ub-wssociaUoa eey be •rt#**ir* hat they h*v* their gre*te*t fr«%am*y a* fragaeat* vitals larger ***** of a**«*latl*** aaaber h© asm hi.  Stood* *f this  Aeeeelatiea an_b*r. %JL. •aa*. faoae tsrophrllt.- Ibl** wtab 1 1 1 , - ^ 0 0 t a r 1* diktat*-. Prrp^tf*r ts liam**W.*i*l3ttJ ^ ^ * % * f i . . Qmwmmm. 4aatt*el sad aorta*** port loss of th* €»«*«** ttoaataiaa at •i#r*tlea* of frse about 70© to 3J»* f**t above **» level *» well irritated bat w«ll-trai»e<S b*a_h*« aad slopes. t««*t»tioa.  1. tross^ taaaa h»-*roabr-l*. occur* la a i l aaaoplo* with •xaelleat vigor, tt attola* It* tost i*v*l*pB«at for th* regie* la thi* «a*«oiati*a. ibt** aaabllls occurs la all. •aaopl** with eood vigor mad e***tia*s r*pl*je«* «**t*ra he*l*«k a* the major •psei** first la ta* lower mmpMm l*t*r la th* higher swoop!**. t  ^haia ffllcaU uowlSy ha* only a s^omaie  oooarreae* Sa thi* association aad. whs* preaeat. It *la**t larariablr eeeapie* s*l**t loeai site* «l*hS* a gtocrol ataa of •ssooiatloa aaaber hi. t,  l****r v*«»tatioa, the •hrub Sayvr 1* very **SS developed oa daauded ar*** aad la • l * * r ataads bat 1* eft** itiseeatleeee* is «t*aad* at tat*f»*dl*t* atages *f thslr 4^*lef*»a*.  Savsriably 'fr#s«at la this Sayer or* Soaiaea*  ®»i soil.  t*o t e v e a W * eattee free aearly flat to »»d*r»*«iy aiopiag. f*d*olis*4 brew* soils  mmam  in (cont'd)  of *tth*rftUvarlalor «l«ei*a ©riglo *h**aot*rls* thio -soooi&tieft. Th* horeau layor r«rl«« a» to ***** inch** i» A*$t- m& eonstat* of *, t**«r of JPSSIl^  _S^en^fc*-a^ft*^fe@|f^P(a*St *^8iejr*^3f  ^S**^ a****?*? a*^**—j_  1  a^l***^ Jpt^o^^BMoOp^  i**f» atoml **U ***• that ha* - i t - © / * sUty-oLa or oaKu! aaa gravel tartar* m& * mtmmkm to lightly eoapaotod *tr**t*r*. Moot of th*s* o*li* ar* boto« l * i _ * % * , oAtbOmg- lOMUKOt *ipfa»-*-Oi_*fcS. Too *mttr* t n f l U to «*ati»a*aaly aoiat «®a to m***nm%%w l*w~*li*mi*, **4*vla of mi* a«***ia*i** baa* to bar* a contloaoaitly haaid cartel saacet froa tho ground lla* to tho toy* of trooo. ^ooaally warn air toaferat**** ar* eea-  *»^Jfc** i n <««**•«)  toyar U a*a*l)y rory w*U  Sov*3og04 ia aldar «toa&eho* to to.  robaata. ito^tolMal__»_ tyi*e**ro*. f*_o**o*M*. mi. P t l l i a a jfla^i-  * * • MaytJM : aaato t. Btoaaaiai  Jayoo*.  *M aail, fb* topography la aaoally flat atoptog p«wvlto4 that a*J*H»*tf*oa is eatoea*. ftoaafiy patooll*** bravo aetle af altoar gtootel ar allartal a r l g i a mmmmUttw* tola aosaotettott. «baretoa tola* toy*r of taw hamt*» toot ito* a atottoo* peasel borto** that nay *•*« af fear iaobes. fbc olaoraJ. portiaa of to* preflte ooy bo ebaltev bob aoaally to *or* toao at tooha* to vorto* from _iUy-o*Bd« to for so**  of to*  aatot to  ^•rl—'i^f ^S&iMlf' *_MBHOJ^S^ ^^SGft for to* fmU booitity to **an11y  tor*l  of  whtoh potet i t to  mimm m i.  (ecat'd;  with #*#i vigor la a l l lima la af taa replaced te a rety eateat l a older etaade *y elptaa f i e .  la all  «ait«  la. a l l eat tae eldest ef stead*. taxifolia ha* a scry H a l t e d  as* * Ilni**d It  calf 1* ta* 'lew**  wiftr.  aay haw* a high f r*%**»*y la scent* l a the ktgfear eaaeplee with «**d wife*. It. Is vmmhumm la elaer etaad* ey alpta* f i t and woeteta white, Ajan* teenlfalla ha* a linited ia th* " "  tt  1* always well d***I*sw>d *nd tnwarlahly  1* mmmmm? flat er « * * t l y eleplng. *ae chnraaterlstie sell «f this I*  '"  - - - - - -  #*!****, « d » i s •llty-**n* tanvarn, there 1* saaallr • mmw* lata lap** af raw hanas that *w*rlles « %M***r l*y*r ef eaft anil. tea sell  mm®u in (oeat'd) varies free o*freea%od i» the upper 10 leches ef alaerai sell te pasty or eoe^ootod la the depth. lavas' af ores* e tree tare le very easily la sueh a sail, as ef tea ©soars doriag pratieae. fhe eeil Is eoatlaaeesly aeist its depth aad Is sseseaelly wet. Sueh .sella are af aliavlsl e r l g l a . haald aerial aapsat frea the ereaad lies ta the taps ef tresa. Wr t«sfsr»t»roa vary greatly with the density ef steeaiag aad the age #f ataeda hat i a the la the  1stlea aaaher.; he\  iwstrai lateriar flateaa forests oa wel£»dy*lae* shove those ef •saooietloas aaehor 05 sad *T. l e sltaatioas whore •eh-sarfaoo dimiaago i s uerostrioted oat where sah-sarfaeo Irrlgotlea i s elfeetire «• rsgords th® growth of treoe. Vagetatlea. 1, ;rees. Picos a l a a o a eeeare l a a l l eaaeelee with f a i r to food vigor. I t has sash hotter dsvolepeeat i a eeeeetotlaae aaahor «$ mA kf i t has l a this eewaeletiaa. Jthtes laa^aoaiae. occurs l a a l l ©eaopios with vigor. I t has lees toadoaoy to raplaoe 1* this aasooiatioo thaa i o eaeaeioelea aaahar 05. t a y i f Q l l s has i t a graeaeet for tho' tatfe* i a stand* of this aaaeetMlea aitheagb I t s eooarroaeo i a older etaade i s ealy aporadlo,  1 high freeeeaey i a higher eaaopUs of yoaag stood* hat has eely sporadio eeoarreaoe l a older el with iedgspoi* piae hot aaa oaly a sjoradl© ojaA very low vigor ia older etaade.  Ill (  »n)  ie * laager lived pleaoer species is aspen, l i f«rsists is the  af all am. tha eldest  t.  wall  Usually gasls,. J|aaa_ ep>, f»s|»Jia^lka^ai aad ia^yaff lac Id*, ilia eoss >let* and i * dominated by S S ) _ » l _ . ^t*ff»tfffaji  t* Saavan) eaaa-sasla. aad s ato_adaa%, bat af taa pr<  Clintoela aatficra. iitella, sp.,  fyya4a sraafaiata- *as aass layer i s else wall developed, aalaly ay reaeea ef e f tjs-titiadeliaas triasnferns s a * ttteasls. Use abvjtdaat bat aeaally ad M. fei*graghy sat sell.  The  varies ftea  §»atle  te  water lavel ie resets frea the sell face for satcaded periods tbat inclade tha i ef the flowing season. There ia a lsy«r ef raw haens ef free tea aa te five laches thick that seactiaec has caff wall feelitiss la its depth. I#s*hlag Is ia-ieataa by a distinct fedselfaoriseecf vary lag depth, the tsxtarc ef the mineral ceil ie either eUty-eaad er pars ite airoetars varies frea ^ranalar te aggrcge acar the ecMaae te coveted la the depth, sells arc aaaally vary deep, fhe profile is aolst ta ite depth bat is seasonally dry for of this fhe haaldlty e f high ap te  layer te aS» vithla the it is  is lavel dry.  Ill wtvaen  ** and k€.  the** %m% ffcataro  nesoel-  Vsgstatton.  I.  ia s l l te  is geaerelljr higher  lass whieh It attains ia easeolatlea sntnhsr k€ ant frea that ia association ssnser a j . AMoa s Mca  •lger la all,  ia tha higher ewe only a speradte is sftsa absent.  feetgroaHylln has its greatest far the region la this assoaistiaa. It osear* ©alyia tha lawn* eeanniee asm with law vigor. »**ala aaai»yewa has a siailar sa that vhlah it attains In. eesestetlen  le aasaily sloping» *h* soil  be sitkMf alAnvtal or glaoial in I t s origin and has a t h i s * l*y*r af raw hanns that sons* tiaos l i e s shav* a thlaner iajrsr ef daff a n i l , fhs  podsal horlsan la seaatlnes dlaaantianans hat laonhlag l a etreng in tala easesiatlea and nay as earri*d t s  ©onaidsrshls depths In foahsts ajroant roots, fhs eapt* of ths nlneral soil varl»s an to wars than 3 § leaha* hat l a asnally less. *hs sail tenters v&rlm frea  mmna i n Ce©at*d} silty~»»»ds to send «»a grovel low. fa* . o i l etraetare Is sjrsoalar aaar ta* emrfaoe and either eospaotod er esacated l a ths depth, eictoettoa Is eeaaea sat i s aet tovartobly presest. Saeh sails are eeattoaoualy aelet thraogheat *eet of their profile nod are seoaooolly dry ealy very elose le the lee~®lteato, staaia af this aaaootettoa have as s e r i a l aspeet that Is wars tusifomiy haald thaa that ef eeeo«i~ •11am saaher k& mt leas as thaa la. aaseeiattoa aaaber a*, loasoaally aeae teaperatares pesetrata ©loser to tho greead ia this •eseototlea thaa they characterlatioally do .1% assoolatloii asaher ^-5. ee* less so than l a aeeeelatiea aaaher h*\  saaeetettoa aaaher. h? (« Flcea, eftaaea^Jfctootoqlocaroi^Vfroeloitasaaaa^raaaeeaiaCoroao, oaaftdeaala-BartidtadftlahaB trlaa«tra«-CftUlargoaeIla  Stands of this esb-aeseetetioe eoeor la areas of • l i g h t l y hotter sab-sflvfaae dveteage thaa i a eharaetortotle ef araee swpperttog asseototie* »7. i t freeeeetiy eeears that •taads of anther h? are temporarily ©•averted to this «ah«aa«@elatloa whoa their degree of etoektog is fe* see* roaeea seriously rodtteed, Saoh staado a •eaoeaally dry aerial aspect froa abewo ths to ths tops ef trees. »eeeclatlea  interior  plateaa feraeto l a areas of e o l l arjteaara aet reetrleted eeaveavfeee Staase ef thie eeeeeiaftSee oftoa eocer wtthto aero exteaslv* ereee of other  fegetatiea. 1. treos.  flea* ofleaao, has  a high froot»»«y hot vary low rigor i a o i l oaaoplee. I t i s roflaoed to vary tog hy hlaok eyeaea froa toe totoroodtoto level 'aaaolly *eae mt oesar to the  M«tos*"e»aepy of woll-*toeteed staado.  It has i t s  -51-  mmsmx in <•«»«*«.) greateet  mmt  freaaeaaf,. jfritetft  yeaag etssule  although only maderato viger,  aaa aeaally <mm?i«« e£ all a»t the *l«ar.  ia  hae * him freaaaaay to oereietg ia the higher olde.t stand*, i t haa low  faqffli ^ e r g o ^ H s lima a eeaaiateat law freeaaaay aaaapiae where it eaeara vith very peer  the lower vigor. ia  tjjjffftl iM^arrifera oeeure  a  variable  freqaaaey im the  wary law vigor aad signer aaaejiaa. vita  * 1 — t^amtfalja; aawlly asa * high fr®*aeaey i a ilia lawer #*a«aie». whet* i t eftea oeaare te eteraa fora.  fofN&graghy as& eeil.  9ha tepegrayhy i a geaairaUjr f l a t ar aaipe*. Stanae ®f thie aaeeelatiaa seat ftraejaaatly eaeajsy aeaatitate aaa* feefceta. ffcltfc, peaAJr, hasan that direeUy e*#ve a thtalc postal feeriaea ia aaaal far thta association, fhe a i a a r a l fartiaa af th* e a i l ia aeaally aaap. tea a clay feo s l l t y aaa* textare mA a atraetare that aaries froa either graaaiar to eras* at ti» caffaaa to compacted ia. th* topta. {fast af aaaa, aaila are alfJ^MSlalaate. me haaae layer ia aaaaenelly vary t r y bat tha aiaaral aertlea af tha M i l varies froa aamtiaaaaaly aalat ta  •mK  •  i»a~ciii8ate. ffaaaa of thie aesoeieties are e ^ r a a t e r i a t i a a l l y «faa at witarity mm oreaeat m a e r i a l eapeet that l a mmmosmllf vary dry mn& mm above th* level af the  

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