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Supervised homemaker service in Vancouver, Canada Burch, Gwendolyn 1951

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SUPERVISED HOMEMAKER SERVICE IN VANCOUVER CANADA by GWENDOLYN BURCH Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the Department of Social Work 1951 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, ABSTRACT SUPERVISED HOKMAKER SERVICE" IN A VANCOUVER FAMILY AGENCY Supervised Homemaker Service i n the Family Welfare Bureau of Greater Vancouver provides "homemakers" to f a m i l i e s that are without mothers, ei t h e r temporarily or permanently, for the purpose of maintain-i n g the home and caring f or the c h i l d r e n . The Bureau has developed over a period of twelve years a group of experienced and well-trained women to do t h i s work. The Service a l l e v i a t e s what might otherwise be a t r a u -matic experience for a growing c h i l d , by keeping him i n the f a m i l i a r surroundings of h i s home; and i t r e l i e v e s the anxiety of the parents. As' a r e s u l t , i n case of i l l n e s s of the mother, ei t h e r at home or i n h o s p i t a l , her recovery i s not retarded by \«?orry about her family. The Service b u i l d s upon the e x i s t i n g strengths within the family toward planning for t h e i r future well-being, and to t h i s end i t i s co-ordinated with casework service to a s s i s t i n the s o l u t i o n of family problems. The material for the study was secured from many sources wi t h i n the Family Welfare Bureau, which included minutes of the Home-makers' Committee; D i r e c t o r ' s Reports since 1938; minutes of other com-mittees and meetings having a bearing on the homemaker service; minutes of homemakers1 meetings; personal discussions with members of the profes-s i o n a l s t a f f ; records of homemaker cases and a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r s e r v i c e . Two questionnaires were used; one for the caseworkers supervising homes which had homemaker service; the other to secure the views of home-makers themselves. The balance of the material was obtained from a r t i c l e s on the subject and correspondence with and v i s i t s to agencies i n other c i t i e s having a s i m i l a r s e r v i c e . The study traces the development of the Service i n Vanc-ouver from i t s beginning i n 1937; the methods by which i t has been sup-ervised; and the changing d i r e c t i o n of p o l i c y , from the p r o v i s i o n of an emergency housekeeper to coordination with casework. Types of service, and s p e c i a l problems are i l l u s t r a t e d by sample cases. A tentative evaluation i s made of the homemakers as a group, and of t h e i r growing appreciation of t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to team-work within a family agency. — ACKNOWLEDGEMENT — The writing of this thesis has "been a great pleasure to me; not only because of the interest I have had in the subject, but because of the wonderful spirit of co-operation which has been extended to me both by the Family Welfare Bureau of Vancouver, and by the Social Work Department of the University of British Columbia. This invaluable assistance is gratefully appreciated. Responsibility for any shortcomings is necessarily my own. Chapter I. INTRODUCING HOMEMAKER SERVICE Homemaker Service may be briefly described as a service given by the Family Welfare Bureau of Greater Vancouver, in British Columbia, Canada, to place women in motherless homes as "substitute mothers". Homemaker service did not originate in Vancouver, but was patterned after similar organizations to be found throughput the North American continent. Predecessors to the homemaker service on this continent may be found in a number of European countries.^ Some of the European homemaker services have made splendid progress in the high standards they require of homemakers, training programmes, and the establishment of status in their communities. Many magazine articles have been read by the writer which give a bird's-eye view of this work in foreign countries of which England, Sweden, and Finland are outstanding examples, but conditions in those countries are so different to what exists on this continent that material from these articles will not be used in this paper.1 Supervised homemaker service is an aid in preserving family and home l i f e , and is frequently used as an alternative plan to foster home placement of the children when the mother la MacDonald, Theresa, "Home Helps in Great Britain," Reprint from "The Child." June 19U9, U. S. Children's Bureau, Washington 25,D.C. b Nordstrom, Margareta, "Homemaker Service in Sweden", News and  Views, (October 1950), Reprint 2 pages. c Schwartz, Doris, R., "The Swedish Homemakers, A Friend in Need", Public Health Nursing, (June 1950), Reprint. d Larsson, Sigrid, "Homemakers Help Finnish Mothers", Reprint from The Child, July, 19U8, U. S. Children's Bureau, Washington 25, D.C. must be out of the home, due to illness. The folio-wing quotation from a United States Government publication covering homemaker service in its general aspects is applicable: "The advantages of such a plan are apparent. It preserves the responsibility of the father in the direct care of the children; i t maintains the home to the advantage of both father and children; and i t requires far less adjustment on the part of a l l concerned than a plan which temporarily or permanently calls for the breaking^ up of the home and the separation of the family". Supervised Homemaker Service in Vancouver is a casework service, which means that its effectiveness depends on adapting i t to meet individual needs and situations. It is a casework service because i t has been found that many of the people or families requiring homemakers have other problems which they have not been able to solve, and for which they need help. Moreover, a homemaker often makes i t possible for a family to accept the other needed casework services. The following composite case with fictitious names will illustrate the value of homemaker service: The Carter Case A crisis has occurred in the Carter family. There have been other crises during the ten years since Mr. and Mrs. Carter were married, and the subsequent arrival of the three children, B i l l seven years old, Jack four years old, and Dora two years old. One difference between this crisis and the others is that there seems to be no solution that will preserve the unity of the family. Mrs. Carter must enter the hospital in two days for an operation 2 Homemaker Service, Washington, D. C, U. S. Children's Bureau Publication 296, 19ho, p.2. which her doctor assures her is necessary i f she is to maintain her health and continue as wife and mother. A relative was coming from Saskatchewan to care for the children, but wrote a week ago that she was unable to come. The family exhausted their ideas in the intervening week trying to get a housekeeper. They interviewed several women who were either unsuitable, or who were not satisfied with the ten dollars a week the Carters could afford to pay. Finally, three friends came to the rescue, saying they would each take one child. Mr. and Mrs. Carter reluctantly agreed to this plan, but they were fearful that i t would not work out well, for the children were accustomed to being together, and Dora had required a great deal of special care due to a club foot which had now been corrected. Also, the doctor said that after two weeks hospitalization, Mrs. Carter must not do any housework for at least three weeks. This meant that the only part of the problem which was solved was the period of hospitalization. Then a neighbour told Mrs. Carter about the Supervised Homemakers' Service. A telephone call to the Family Welfare Bureau was made, and an office appointment was arranged for Mr. Carter with the district worker. Mr. Carter was worried and nervous when he met the worker, and since.he knew very l i t t l e about the service, she explained i t briefly to him as follows: The Supervised Homemaker Service was only one of the family services offered by this agency, and was supported by the Community Chest. It was designed primarily for emergency situations, in homes of more than one child, where the mother must be out of the home temporarily due to illness, or required complete bed rest at home, and when no other plan could be made for care of the children in their own home. The worker would need much information from Mr. Carter so the individual needs of his family could be satisfied. Mr. Carter was also told that the homemakers were a group of mature, older women, who received their salaries and supervision from the Family Welfare Bureau. Most of these women had successfully reared their own families. They were neither in the same category as charwomen, nor ordinary housekeepers, as they were carefully selected for their qualities in adapting themselves to a l l kinds of family situations. They must have real love and understanding for the needs of children, and be able to cope with their problems, as well as ability to meet their physical needs and prepare low-cost meals of good nutritional standards. In other words, they acted as "substitute mothers", to carry on as nearly as possible the mother's planning for the family while she was out of the home. It was further explained that the service was given to each family on an individual basis, to meet the particular needs of that family, and the homemaker who was best suited to the conditions of the home was placed there, i f possible. Mr. Carter asked about the total cost of a. homemaker. He was answered that the cost of - 5 -the service for a five-and-a-half-day week, not including administration, was dollars. The cost to him would be worked out on an individual basis, according to his income and the budget needs of his family, and what they could afford to pay. Mr. Carter said immediately that he could pay $10.00 a week. Later in the interview, i t was discovered that according to the minimum budget standards as set forth by the Dominion Govern-ment, and due to a loan he had secured to pay previous medical b i l l s , Mr. Carter could not be expected to pay anything. However, he was proud, and the worker felt i t was better for his morale to accept his agreement for payment of $$.00 per week. It was explained that a recommendation from the family physician was necessary for home-maker service, and permission was secured to contact the doctor. Arrangements were made with Mr. Carter for the worker to v i s i t his wife at home. The visi t to Mrs. Carter was made the same day, as this was an emergency situation, and i t was understood that Mrs. Carter must be worried about leaving the children to enter hospital. Mrs. Carter was expecting the worker, and apologized for the un-tidiness of the home, although the worker thought the housekeeping standards were good, but had probably been recently neglected, owing to Mrs. Carter's i l l health. The homemaker service was also explained to Mrs. Carter, which seemed to relieve her natural anxiety. Mr. Carter said that he could manage with a non-resident homemaker, who would be in the home for eight hours a day, leaving - 6 -him with responsibility for the children the remainder of the time. . Mrs. Carter did not agree, and pointed out that this would mean that Mr. Carter would have to work a short day in order to get home before the homemaker left, which would result in a corresponding decrease in his income. She said that when she was not home, Mr. Carter did not take care of himself, although he was good with the children. Enquiry was then made regarding home facilities, as homes must meet certain minimum standards^ and in the case of a resident homemaker, arrangements are made for a separate bed and preferably a separate room. The Carter home was a four room war-time bungalow with two bedrooms, one occupied by the boys, the other by Mr. and Mrs. Carter and Dora, the youngest child. It was arranged that a resident homemaker would stay in the home while Mrs. Carter was in the hospital, sharing the bedroom with Dora, and Mr. Carter would sleep on the chesterfield in the living-room. It was planned that when Mrs. Carter came home from the hospital, the homemaker would become non-resident for the remainder of the time she was needed, in accordance with the recommendation of the doctor. The worker learned as much as possible about the children, and Mrs. Carter's housekeeping routine, explaining that this was to help the homemaker follow Mrs. Carter's plans as much as possible. It was arranged that the homemaker was to have some evening time off, and the usual weekend leave from Saturday noon to Monday morning. The worker reassured Mrs. Carter by telling her that she would - 7 -personally be visiting the home frequently to see that every-thing was running smoothly. The homemaker selected, Mrs. MacRae, was taken to the Carter home by the district worker, and introduced to the family the day before Mrs. Carter was admitted to the hospital. The worker described the arrangements which had been previously made, in the presence of both the family and the homemaker, to alleviate the possibility of a misunderstanding. Plans were then completed for the homemaker to return for resident duty the following day. The caseworker visited the homemaker in the Carter home on the third day while Billy was in school and the two younger children were having their afternoon nap. The homemaker was very pleased with the Carter home, and said that this was a happy'and congenial family. There was only one problem which Mrs. MacRae had noticed in the home to call, to the attention of the caseworker as follows: Dora, aged two, ruled the homej everyone jumped to obey her wishes, and i f this was not done immediately, Dora had a tantrum, jumping up and down and screaming. Dora had to be wheedled into eating, and this usually resulted in Dora's leaving her vegetables and eating two helpings of dessert. The only way that Dora would drink milk was from a baby bottle, which she insisted on having every night in bed. Mr. Carter had a great deal of anxiety about Dora, showing this by arising several times during the night to assure himself she was sleeping. The homemaker had tried to start teaching Dora to feed herself, but Mr. Carter thought - 8 -she wastoo young. Mr. Carter also thought that when Dora grabbed one of the boys' toys, even though he was playing with i t , she should be permitted to keep i t . The caseworker told Mrs. MacRae that she would talk to Mr. Carter about this matter on a basis of making the work easier for the homemaker. Mr. Carter in his f i r s t interview with the caseworker after the placement of the homemaker, expressed himself as very pleased with the homemaker in every respect except her care of Dora. This gave the caseworker an opportunity to discuss methods of child care, and Mr. Carter's anxiety regarding the youngster. Mr. Carter realized that Dora was not as advanced in motor activi-ties as most children her age, but attributed this to the hospitali-zation which had been necessary for her club foot. Mr. Carter was quick to grasp the idea that Dora was now setting her personality and behaviour pattern for l i f e , and that he and Mrs. Carter were not helping her to grow into an emotionally mature adult. This was not accomplished in one interview, but was a gradual learning process, wherein the homemaker and the caseworker supplemented each other in assisting the family to develop a normal attitude toward Dora. Mr. Carter was now glad to have the homemaker's help in teaching Dora to feed herself and to drink milk from a cup, and to start teaching Dora that she could not always have a toy, especially i f i t belonged to one of her brothers and he was playing with i t . Mr. and Mrs. Carter were pleased both with the casework services which had been made available to them, and to the homemaker - 9 -programme as demonstrated in their home. The Carter case illustrates the use of homemaker service and its co-ordinated use with casework. The majority of families needing homemaker service have more complicated emotional difficulties, often necessitating casework services long after the homemaker service has been terminated. Five Categories of Homemaker Service Five classifications of homemaker service are generally accepted by social agencies to differentiate between the kinds of 3 service given . The majority of agencies, however, are not able to provide a l l five of these services, and this is true of the Vancouver agency. (a) Inclusive Care. This service is given when the mother is absent from the home either permanently or for a long period of time. This type of service is not usually given by the Vancouver Family Welfare Bureau, although a few families have received homemaker service over a long period when no other plan was available, and i t was considered detrimental to place the children in foster homes. This type of home requires an especially skilled homemaker, not only in her housekeeping abilities, but in meeting the emotional needs and aiding in the growth and development of the children. The homemaker-must be very careful not to supplant the father in his relationship to his children, but rather to supplement and further 3 These five categories may be found in several authoritative pamphlets on homemaker service and can not be attributed to a single source. - 10 -that relationship. (b) Interim Care is that given by a homemaker during the temporary absence of the mother from the home. This is the type of service given in Vancouver to the majority of families which they serve, although i t is called short term homemaker care, rather than the above name. The emphasis is on maintaining the home as near as possible in the same manner as though the mother were at home, and in effecting as few changes as possible in the - care of the children. During this type of care, which varies in length of time from one week to three months, the emphasis is on good housekeeping standards, including the preparation of proper food, good physical care of the children, and continuance of the mother's training program for them. If a homemaker, over a short period of time, tried to initiate extensive changes in the home, regardless of how much they might be needed, this might make the mother feel inadequate, resentful and hostile, and cause trouble between husband and wife by pointing up to the husband uncomfort-able comparisons of achievement between the homemaker and his wife. (c) Exploratory Care is service offered in a motherless home, while the father and agency are trying to decide upon the best permanent plan for the future. The homemaker must do a good casework job in observing, and being able to understand and inter-pret the actions and behaviour of the children and father to the district worker, and not become involved, herself, in the family relationships} otherwise her effectiveness in the home is weakened. - 11 -(d) Supplementary Care is the use of a homemaker in a situation when the mother is at home but is unable to do any physical work. This means that the mother does the planning and directing of the home, which can be a very difficult situation . for the homemaker, since she does the work but has no freedom in doing i t the way she wishes. Usually, this service is given on a non-resident basis, and requires supervision from the worker to see that the plan is working smoothly, that the client under-stands the function of a homemaker and does not try to use her as a charwoman, and that the homemaker is not completely frustrated in being unable to use her homemaking talents as in a motherless home. (e) Auxiliary Care is used by only a few homemaker services, as this is given when the mother is employed and there is no other plan available for keeping the family together in their own home. This service is not given in Vancouver. Types of Care Given by the Vancouver Agency The Vancouver homemaker service gives "Interim" and "Supplementary" care, which is short time care^usually given when the mother is i l l and is dependent for its use on the recommendation of a physician. It is •natural"that this type of service should be the one given in the large majority of the homes served, not only because the need is more prevalent but this kind of service reaches more families and requires less homemaker time. This type of - 12 -service is important, making i t possible to extend the amount of service further -within the budget allotment from the Community Chest. There are two reasons for not giving "Inclusive" service as a general policy: fi r s t , the budget will make no allowance for homemaker service in a permanently motherless home; second, i t curtails the usefulness of homemakers who are in permanent place-ments, by making i t impossible for them to circulate among the many homes receiving short term care as mentioned above. In other words, "Inclusive" service is too expensive to be financed by the Community Chest -when measured in value received by the community in comparison with other types of service. There are two families who are being given long term homemaker service. Both of these families are large, the father in both cases is a good parent, responsible and interested in his children. When a father dies, the mother is given an allowance to remain at home and care for her children, but there . is no such provision when a mother dies. If the father has the financial means he may hire a housekeeper; i f he is without financial means, foster home placement of his children is often the alternative. Possibly the right solution for these families, and less expensive to the tax payers, would be for the public welfare department to establish a homemaker service to be used in homes where the primary need is not for casework services. Inclusive service is given to a limited number of families and is financed through other than Community Chest funds. It is a plan to provide homemaker service in homes which have a tuberculous mother, through the recommendation of the Metro-politan Health Committee, and financed by a federal health grant. The other special families which f a l l within the limits of this service are those when the mother is i l l with cancer, financed by the Canadian Cancer Society; and the families when the mother has poliomyelitis, which is financed by the Kinsmen Charities. Exploratory homemaker care is sometimes given in a permanently motherless home, but the homemaker is placed on a time limit basis, and only i f the father has a constructive plan and this service is used as a stopgap until permanent plans can be made. The Family Welfare Bureau does not consider It is good casework to help a family get nowhere, so the families who receive help in these situations are the ones who have family strengths, and can be helped to help themselves. Auxiliary care to provide a homemaker for a working mother is usually impractical, as this would entail long term service, therefore would be too expensive for the agency. In most cases, the mother's income would be l i t t l e more than the homemaker' wages. There are agencies, however, which give this type of home-maker service. The homemaker service in Vancouver has been in operation for thirteen years. Splendid progress has been achieved by the - Ill -agency and valuable service given the community, in spite of the intermittent need of extending a too slender budget to attempt coverage of a field dictated by need. Supervised homemaker service may be given by a family agency, a children's agency, or a public agency. In Vancouver, where the family agency provides this service, the focus has continued to converge on maintaining the family as a unit. The following two quotations from a general article on homemaker service seemed apt in describing the Vancouver homemaker service: " . . . i t uses the homemaker as a vehicle of treatment, and so assumes a responsibility comparable to that assumed in placement by the children's agency".^ Thus, "Homemaker Service has an unique opportunity to enrich and strengthen individual security and family l i f e , and co-operate with those efforts in the community which foster these purposes".'' h Homemaker Service, A Method of Child Care, New York City, Child Welfare League of America, June, 19U1, P«3» 5 Ibid., p.2. -±S -CHAPTER 2 RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING During the "depression" years of the t h i r t i e s , when unemployment, poverty and a low standard of l i v i n g were widespread, the Family Welfare Bureau of Vancouver, a p r i v a t e f a m i l y agency, was constantly made aware of the serious c o n f l i c t s and d i f f i c u l t i e s by the f a m i l i e s who came to them f o r assistance. Much of the work of the Family Tfelfare Bureau was devoted to helping c l i e n t s resolve t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s , determine and b u i l d up t h e i r strengths, and overcome t h e i r weaknesses. Part of the work of the agency was to help c l i e n t s meet t h e i r environmental needs through using a v a i l a b l e community resources. However, one group - namely, motherless homes i n the submarginal income brackets - had no community resources other than r e s o r t to foster-home placement of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; and i t i s obviously impossible to explore the p o s s i b i l i t y of meeting the need of such homes, i n other ways. In Vancouver, two events combined i n 1937 to stimulate an i n t e r e s t i n attempting to solve t h i s problem of the motherless home. The Family ¥felfare Bureau annual meeting (May S i n that year) heard an address by Mrs. Cody of Toronto, who spoke on the V i s i t i n g Homemaker Service of that c i t y , which was a service provided the motherless home. At the same meeting, a report was made by the D i r e c t o r of the Family Welfare Bureau, Miss Mary McPhedran, on a recent study of 39 motherless f a m i l i e s known to the agency. Of these f a m i l i e s , eleven mothers had died, nineteen had deserted t h e i r f a m i l i e s , eight were i n mental h o s p i t a l s or - 16 -sanitariums, and one father was granted the custody of h i s c h i l d r e n following a divorce. The economic status of t h i s group was as follows: 17 fathers were employed, $ had pensions, 15> were re c e i v i n g r e l i e f , and 2 f a m i l i e s were re c e i v i n g support from older c h i l d r e n or other r e l a t i v e s . These fathers were harrassed by t h e i r dual r o l e of being both mother and father to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Neighbours made complaints about the c h i l d r e n which would not have been made i f there had been a mother i n the home. When these complaints were investigated, as a rule no legitimate b a s i s was found f o r them. Usually, the father was t r y i n g desperately to keep h i s family together. He was often handicapped economically by being unable to a f f o r d the services of a good r e l i a b l e housekeeper, consequently the supervision of the chi l d r e n was affected. I t was thought that the f a m i l i e s who applied to the agency f o r help were probably a small percentage of the t o t a l number of f a m i l i e s i n the community who were motherless and without the economic resources to resolve t h e i r problem s a t i s f a c t o r i l y on t h e i r own. I t was due to t h i s preliminary survey and recognition of the needs i n the community that the v i s i t i n g homemaker service was o r i g i n a l l y i n s t i t u t e d i n the agency. I t sta r t e d i n the form of an experiment, to a s c e r t a i n whether or not such a service would help to meet the needs of motherless homes, e i t h e r temporarily or permanent-l y . C r i t e r i a a t that time f o r a recruitment programme were scarce, and due to the e a r l y concept of a homemaker as someone who d i d housework and cared f o r the p h y s i c a l needs of the family, i t was at f i r s t thought that "good strong Mennonite g i r l s " might make good homemakers. I t was also suggested that homemakers might be r e c r u i t e d from the Y.W.C.A. I t was soon found that, although the Mennonite g i r l s were c e r t a i n l y good strong charwomen, they were not suitable as homemakers, while g i r l s from the Y.W.C.A. were too young and inexperienced f o r the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h i s service. I t was at f i r s t decided to have two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of women doing t h i s work: f i r s t , there would be housekeepers when the mother was i l l but i n the home; and second, there would be homemakers when the mother was out of the home e i t h e r temporarily or permanently. Three homemakers started tonrork e a r l y i n 1938. Two were middle-aged women, known to the Family Welfare Bureau, who were seeking employment and also were known to have s u c c e s s f u l l y r a i s e d t h e i r own f a m i l i e s . The t h i r d homemaker was recommended to the agency by one of these women. I t was from t h i s e a r l y experiment with only three homemakers that the service has developed to i t s present p o s i t i o n of prestige i n the community. I t was very d i f f i c u l t i n 1938 to lea r n what other homemaker services were doing on t h i s continent, as l i t t l e w r i t t e n material on the subject was a v a i l a b l e , since the National Committee on Homemaker Service was not established i n New York u n t i l 1939.^  There i s nevertheless an i n t e r e s t i n g h i s t o r y of the homemaker service which can be traced on t h i s continent. I t had i t s beginning i n the United States during the 1930's when unemployment was r i f e , and the Works Progress Administration had to f i n d employment f o r many women. The United States Government started housekeeping ^"Homemaker Service", Reprint from S o c i a l Work Year Book, 1939, Copyright 19U7 by Russell Sage Foundation, U.S. Children's Bureau, Washington 2£, D.C, p.232. - 18 -services i n many parts of the country to give oemployment to women. P a r a l l e l i n g the need of these women f o r employment was the need f o r people who could serve i n the many motherless homes to prevent the temporary or permanent d i s r u p t i o n of f a m i l i e s . The end of the Works Progress Administration brought no cessation of requests f o r t h i s service i n homes f i n a n c i a l l y unable to make t h e i r own arrange-ments. Many homemakers were l a t e r able to return to other employment more to t h e i r l i k i n g ; but a nucleus remained who enjoyed the work, l i k e d people and were fond of c h i l d r e n . 0 The Chicago Home f o r the Friendless i n Chicago, I l l i n o i s , s tarted a housekeeping service as a short-term plan to keep a family together i n t h e i r own home when the mother was i l l and out of the home temporarily. This i s a p r i v a t e child-care agency which was o r i g i n a l l y an orphanage, but i s now devoted e n t i r e l y to short-term f o s t e r home care and the above-mentioned housekeeping se r v i c e . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the housekeepers h i r e d were negroes. Many of them 7 came to the agency w e l l - t r a i n e d by the Red Cross. The Experiment Started. The methods used i n r e c r u i t i n g new homemakers were i n a f l u i d or experimental state i n Vancouver i n 1938. I t was feared, that p u b l i c i t y regarding the need f o r homemakers might a t t r a c t unsuitable persons f o r these p o s i t i o n s . No c a r e f u l l y l a i d plans to i n t e r e s t prospective homemakers had been made, although securing - — . Chicago Home f o r the Friendless, Chicago; information obtained from personal interview with the executive, January, 19U9. - 19 -the r i g h t kind of women f o r these p o s i t i o n s was recognized as a serious problem. The c h i e f sources of a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h i s work were Family Welfare Bureau c l i e n t s , the Nurses' Registry ( p r a c t i c a l nurses), and personal a p p l i c a t i o n s - some i n the l a t t e r instance having heard of the service through one of the homemakers or from a family who had used the service. In t h i s way, one at a time, a fourth, then a f i f t h homemaker was added to the homemaker s t a f f before the year 1938 was ended. The conditions of employment under which homemakers were r e c r u i t e d are exemplified by the personnel p r a c t i c e s under whichthe homemakers operated i n 1938. The v i s i t i n g homemakers were termed "Mother Substitutes", and were sent to manage the home i n the following instances: (a) when the mother was i l l , e i t h e r i n or out of the home; (b) when she had deserted; (c) when the mother was dead; and (d) when the mother needed i n s t r u c t i o n i n home management. I t was decided to have two types of v i s i t i n g homemakers: f i r s t , the capable, e f f i c i e n t housekeeper and household manager, who was s k i l f u l with c h i l d r e n when both parents were out of the home; and second, the capable, e f f i c i e n t housekeeper who could work under the guidance of a mother who was i l l at home but s t i l l able to manage her household. V i s i t i n g homemakers could be required to be e i t h e r resident or non-resident, or they might be placed i n homes on a part-time b a s i s . The scale of wages depended on the following f a c t o r s : the problem i n the home; the number, age, and nature of - 20 -the children; the condition of the home; and the hours of work required. The wages were established at from twenty-five cents per hour to ten d o l l a r s per week, plus transportation, i f needed. I t should be r e c a l l e d that i n 1938, these wages were not out of l i n e with wages i n s i m i l a r f i e l d s , as domestic help was being 8 p a i d an average of twenty d o l l a r s monthly. In 1938, the t r a i n i n g of homemakers consisted of i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n homes where they were assigned. Emphasis was placed on the f a c t that they were employed by the Family Welfare Bureau, and that t h e i r choice of l o y a l t y was to the agency rather than to the family being served. The need f o r a r e a l t r a i n i n g programme was recognized at t h i s e a r l y date. However, these were depression days, which necessitated p l a c i n g the emphasis of t r a i n i n g on economical household management. During the year 1939, recruitment and t r a i n i n g of v i s i t i n g homemakers was continued arduously. Although the number fluctuated, at the end of the year there were twelve v i s i t i n g homemakers on the s t a f f ; seven were working f u l l - t i m e , four were working half-time, one was working two days each week, and one was working one and one-half days each week. As the agency acquired more experience and learned more about the desirable q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a homemaker, i t became cl e a r that women over f o r t y years of age were u s u a l l y b e t t e r adapted to t h i s work. Also the f a c t that a woman had su c c e s s f u l l y reared her own family was recognized as a good c r i t e r i o n f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n . _ g _ : _ The w r i t e r , i n the f a l l and winter of 1938, p a i d from $1$ to $25 per month f o r domestic help i n Vancouver. - 21 -Another important q u a l i t y was f l e x i b i l i t y i n her thinking, so that she could accept work with any kind of family, i n any kind of s i t u a t i o n , and so that the behaviour often found from emotionally disturbed c h i l d r e n would not a f f e c t her adversely. The agency was co n t i n u a l l y aware of the need f o r a t r a i n i n g course, as the t r a i n i n g continued on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , both at the agency o f f i c e and i n the homes. Emphasis i n t r a i n i n g was placed on care of the c h i l d r e n and proper n u t r i t i o n f o r the family who u s u a l l y had a low income. Sometimes, the homemaker's i n s t r u c t i o n was to enable her to help the mother i n household planning so the l i v i n g standards of the family might be elevated. Sometimes, the homemaker was a s s i s t e d i n a plan to teach the older g i r l or g i r l s i n a family so that they might assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the home when the homemaker was no longer there. The early, records give no i n d i c a t i o n that working conditions were discussed with the homemakers, but there was a constant desire to r a i s e the standards of the personnel p r a c t i c e s . Psychologically, homemakers were s t i l l being c l a s s i f i e d as domestics, although t h e i r work was approaching that of a profession. E a r l y i n 19h0, i t was decided that homemakers who had been employed f o r a year would be e n t i t l e d to a week's holiday with pay, although no l e g a l holidays were granted, as the Minimum Wage Board of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia had r u l e d that domestics need not be given t h i s time away from work. - 22 -Since no s p e c i f i c recruitment plan was established f o r homemakers, and standards were not s u f f i c i e n t l y well-defined to p r e d i c t with any accuracy which women would be able to adapt them-selves ID the r o l e of homemaker, the turnover of these employees was considerable. Many frequently l e f t of t h e i r own accord, or were t o l d they d i d not seem s u i t e d to the work. This can best be i l l u s t r a t e d by the number of homemakers employed during 19U0. Of twenty-five homemakers given employment, f i f t e e n were former c l i e n t s of the agency, three were r e f e r r e d by other agencies, and seven made personal a p p l i c a t i o n s . During the next year, t h i r t y homemakers were given employment, and i n 19U2, f i f t y - n i n e homemakers were h i r e d during the year; but t h i s number gives no i n d i c a t i o n of the number of f a m i l i e s served, nor how many homemakers were on the s t a f f at any one time. The number of f a m i l i e s using homemaker service 9 may be some i n d i c a t i o n of the development of the se r v i c e : Year Homemakers Families Cost i n Homemaker  Hired Served S a l a r i e s 19U0 25 38 $2,397.60 19U1 30 h9 $2,888.10 19U2 59 i l l $U,382.53 F i r s t Standards i n Personnel Practice In January 19Ul, a f t e r three years of experimentation, t r i a l and e r r o r , an attempt was made to set c e r t a i n standards f o r the recruitement of homemakers, and to c l a s s i f y those already on the s t a f f according to t h e i r various a b i l i t i e s i n t o two c l a s s i f i -cations: group A would be bet t e r paid; there would be educational - _ Director's Reports, V i s i t i n g Homemaker Service, Family Wel-fare Bureau of Greater Vancouver, 19li0, 191*1, 19h2. - 23 -requirements; age and weight of the applicant would be taken i n t o consideration; but there would be no hard and f a s t r u l e s . The f i n a l choice of the homemaker would be l e f t i n the hands of 10 the Supervisor, a home economist at t h i s time. When selected, t h i s group would meet f o r discussion groups on the following sub-j e c t s : the home, n u t r i t i o n , budgetting, the c h i l d i n the home, the i d e a l home, the homemaker as an i n t e r p r e t e r of l i f e to the c h i l d , and co-operation i n the home. This group would act as "substitute mothers" under the following circumstances: when the mother was to be absent f o r a long period of time; when the mother was dead; when the mother was incapable of assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r her family and i t was necessary f o r the homemaker to teach her, or to look f o r or obtain evidence of neglect. Group B would be housekeepers to go int o homes with the mother assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the ch i l d r e n , or the housekeeper assuming the r o l e of the mother f o r short periods of time. I t was thought that women i n t h i s group would need good p r a c t i c a l knowledge and have marked a b i l i t y as housekeepers. I t was recognized from the beginning of the homemaker service i n 1938, that a uniform medical examination was necessary f o r the homemakers. I f a new homemaker d i d not already have a physician who could c e r t i f y to her good health, the Family Welfare To d i f f e r e n t i a t e the t i t l e s of the supervisor of homemakers and the supervisor of caseworkers, the terminology of the Family Welfare Bureau i s followed. Since a home economist was h i r e d espec-i a l l y f o r the former p o s i t i o n , "home economist" when used i n t h i s and following chapters r e f e r s to the supervisor of the Bureau's homemaker ser v i c e . - 2h -Bureau paid f o r such an examination. The Tuberculosis C l i n i c agreed to give chest x-rays to homemakers and prospective home-. makers, i f they brought a l e t t e r from t h e i r physician, and they also agreed to give i n s t r u c t i o n to any homemaker who was placed i n a home where there was tuberculosis. At t h i s time, the Family Welfare Bureau's requirement regarding health of the homemakers was a p h y s i c a l examination, to include vaccination and tuberculosis x-ray. An attempt was being made to have these p h y s i c a l examinations performed free of charge by the Outpatients' Department of Vancouver General Ho s p i t a l . D e f i n i t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of employment p o l i c i e s , duties of homemakers, t r a i n i n g , working conditions, wages and hours, were f u r t h e r moulded i n t o a program of w r i t t e n procedure i n 1°U2. In t h i s , emphasis was placed on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of v i s i t i n g homemakers to the Family Welfare Bureau, and the need f o r reporting progress i n the home or any incident a f f e c t i n g the r e l a t i o n s of the family, as w e l l as bringing any reports or misunderstandings to the a t t e n t i o n of the Supervisor. A v i s i t i n g homemaker must take the p o s i t i o n to which she was appointed, but i f she had a s u i t a b l e reason f o r requesting that she be withdrawn, t h i s might be done. I t was ruled that a homemaker must not smoke while on duty. The duties of the v i s i t i n g homemaker i n home management included assistance to the mother i f she was i n the home, but unable through sickness to do her own work, or care of the home i f the mother was i n the h o s p i t a l . Emphasis was placed - 25 -on care of the c h i l d r e n according to t h e i r regular routine, and i f no routine existed, to s t a r t one i n s i m p l i f i e d form, so that i f the mother was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s l a t e r , i t would not be too d i f f i c u l t f o r her to le a r n the rudiments of such a plan. Other duties consisted of preparing n u t r i t i o u s and low-cost meals f o r the family, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the regular household cleaning, washing and ir o n i n g . Wages were increased i n 1°U2 to a minimum of $30.00 per month f o r eighteen days service (the usual maximum), and $1.^0 f o r each a d d i t i o n a l day worked. The work day was not to exceed ten hours a day, or s i x t y hours a week, and pre f e r a b l y the work week should be l e s s . Those i n residence service would receive s a l a r y consideration as an inducement. Each v i s i t i n g homemaker should have one and a h a l f days o f f each week, from not l a t e r than two p.m. on Saturday u n t i l Monday morning. Four out of the eight annual holidays would be given, and equivalent time o f f would be allowed f o r the other four holidays at the convenience of the fa m i l y and the Family Welfare Bureau. A medical examination was s t i l l r e -quired. In the case of substandard l i v i n g conditions, where a resident homemaker was necessary, a complete bed and bedding would be placed i n the home f o r the homemaker. Each v i s i t i n g homemaker was e n t i t l e d to two weeks' holiday with pay, i f she had been on the homemaker s t a f f f u l l - t i m e f o r a year. Accidents to the homemakers while on duty would be considered on t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l merits. V i s i t i n g homemakers would have the same consideration regarding s i c k - 26 -leave as other employees of the Family Welfare Bureau. This was a timely consideration and showed that progress was being made i n the improvement of status of the homemaker. A t r a i n i n g programme was now proposed, to c o n s i s t of twelve l e c t u r e s , given weekly, u n t i l completed. This was the most thorough plan devised up to that time to teach home-makers the various phases of t h e i r work. Enthusiasm was shown regarding the b e l i e f that t h i s need would soon be s a t i s f i e d . I t was believed that since these women were selected on the b a s i s of t h e i r past experience i n home making, housekeeping standards were not the c h i e f t o p i c s to be discussed, but that n u t r i t i o n , health, normal and abnormal behaviour of c h i l d r e n and adults and the reasons f o r such behaviour, would be f a r more h e l p f u l i n t h e i r work. "Period one" was to be a discussion of the Family Welfare Bureau, the V i s i t i n g Homemakers1 Service and how i t f i t t e d i n t o the agency programme. Periods two to seven were to be on house-keeping and n u t r i t i o n by the home economist. Periods eight and nine were to be on the care and t r a i n i n g of infants and home remedies given by one of the nurses from the V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses. Periods ten and eleven were to be a discussion on the t r a i n i n g of older c h i l d r e n and behaviour of problem c h i l d r e n and adults by the A s s i s t a n t Director of the agency and secretary of the Homemaker Committee (Miss Grubb) who was a s k i l l e d p s y c h i a t r i c worker. Period twelve was to be a summation, including a f u r t h e r discussion on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the homemakers to the Family Welfare Bureau. Unfortunately, due to the pressure of other work, i t d i d not prove possible to put t h i s t r a i n i n g programme into e f f e c t . - 27 -This was discouraging, but determination to improve was strengthened. The need f o r homemaker t r a i n i n g d i c t a t e d that t h i s programme be i n s t i t u t e d at the f i r s t opportunity. In August 19ul, i t was decided at the Conference on Supervised Homemaker Service, which was part of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work, to send a questionnaire to the agencies known to have a homemaker service to obtain information on e x i s t i n g personnel p r a c t i c e s as they applied to homemakers. F i f t y agencies r e p l i e d to the questionnaire; f o r comparative purposes, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to see what the personnel standards of the Vancouver Supervised Homemaker Service were i n r e l a t i o n to others on the North American continent. The following i s from t h i s report, made 11 available i n 19U2, and gives majority f i n d i n g s : Age: For long-term service cases, women between 35 and 50; f o r short-term cases, women a l i t t l e younger were sometimes acceptable, Many said age was not the only basis on which homemakers were selected. (This was close to accepted practice- i n the Vancouver agency). M a r i t a l Status: P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the agencies said widows or married women were most s a t i s f a c t o r y . Divorcees were too apt to p r o j e c t t h e i r own emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s onto the home where they were working. (This was i n l i n e with Vancouver p r a c t i c e , except that not enough experience was had i n Vancouver with divorcees to draw conclusions.) Medical Examination: Most of the agencies advised that they required some kind of medical examination; some required t h i s p r i o r to employment, some a f t e r employment, but t h i s seemed to be accepted p r a c t i c e f o r the pro t e c t i o n of the homemaker, the family and the agency. (Complete medical examination was required by the Vancouver s e r v i c e ) . Training programme: There was much v a r i a t i o n i n t h i s area, as twenty-one of the agencies had some kind of an i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of homemakers, and the s i x Works Progress Administration projects had a pre-service t r a i n i n g 1 ]-Duston, Esther H., "Study of E x i s t i n g Personnel Practices f o r Homemakers",. Highlights, Vol.11 No.9, (January 191+2), pp.lJiO-lltf. - 28 -of from three to f i v e days. (As mentioned previously, i t was r e a l i z e d that a t r a i n i n g programme was an u n f u l f i l l e d need i n Vancouver). Hours of Work; The majority reported a five-and-a-h a l f or six-day week, and an e i g h t - to ten-hour day. This question needed further study to bring about greater uniformity. (Vancouver reported on t h i s as varying from eight to ten hours per day). Wages: There was great v a r i a t i o n i n t h i s area, too, as weekly wages v a r i e d from f i v e d o l l a r s to twenty-nine d o l l a r s , and d a i l y wages var i e d from $1.1U to $k*80. The majority of agencies had no plan f o r payment on days when the homemaker was not employed. . The hourly pay f o r over-time was from twenty-five cents to f i f t y cents per hour. (Vancouver was i n the lower middle group regarding wages). Insurance; Only a few agencies provided l i a b i l i t y insurance, and only three agencies protected homemakers against l e g a l s u i t by a family i f a c h i l d i n the family was injure d . (There was no insurance arrangement at that time i n Vancouver). Sick Leave; Nearly two-thirds of the agencies had no arrangements f o r sic k leave. (Vancouver allowed the same s i c k leave to homemakers as to other members of the agency s t a f f ) . Vacation; There was a great v a r i a t i o n i n t h i s area, some agencies had no plan f o r vacation with pay, those who had such a plan reported that t h e i r homemakers had from a week to two weeks with pay a f t e r being employed as a homemaker f o r a year. (Those on the permanent s t a f f at Vancouver were e n t i t l e d to a two weeks holiday with pay). In the year 19*48, the above report and the e a r l y evolution of the Vancouver homemaker service were discussed with Miss Grubb. She commented that Vancouver was so f a r away from a l l other services of t h i s nature, that the evolution of t h e i r programme had been quite independent of what went on elsewhere. I t was g r a t i f y i n g to the Vancouver organization to r e a l i z e that t h e i r homemaker service had progressed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n comparison with other homemaker serv i c e s . The standard of personnel p r a c t i c e s also compared favourably with those of other agencies. This report, made a v a i l a b l e i n 19U2, was the most important help the agency had received to date i n evaluating t h e i r work, by seeing the progress which had been made elsewhere. I t had been noted during the ea r l y f o r t i e s that, i n the f a l l of the year, during Community Chest campaigns with p u b l i c i t y about homemaker service, the number of applicants to do t h i s work had increased. I t was due to the value seen i n p u b l i c i t y that advertisements f o r women to work as homemakers f i r s t appeared i n the Vancouver papers. The F i r s t Organized Training Programme A great deal of d i f f i c u l t y was experienced i n r e -c r u i t i n g women f o r work as v i s i t i n g homemakers, also i n holding the more adequate ones, due to the low sala r y scale and d i f f i c u l t y of the work. In 19U3, the agency had only three women on the permanent s t a f f as v i s i t i n g homemakers. They were guaranteed a monthly salary. Other women on the a u x i l i a r y s t a f f were paid f o r the time they worked by the hour. The a u x i l i a r i e s could be pro-moted to the permanent s t a f f a f t e r s i x months service, i f a vacancy existed. The permanent homemakers were provided with uniforms with the i n i t i a l s VH on the pocket, and the a u x i l i a r i e s were provided with arm bands. As a part of the t r a i n i n g programme, several j o i n t meetings were held between the Homemakers1 Cornrrdttee and homemakers. In t h i s way, the committee obtained a f i r s t - h a n d account of the problems which the homemakers encountered. The - 30 -homemakers, too, learned about the problems with which the committee worked. This contact with the committee was bene-f i c i a l i n r a i s i n g the morale of the homemakers. During the f a l l of 19k3, a long-awaited t r a i n i n g pro-gramme f o r v i s i t i n g homemakers was i n s t i t u t e d , which l a s t e d three days. This t r a i n i n g course started with an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Family Welfare Bureau, and i t s function i n the community. Then a h i s t o r y of the v i s i t i n g homemaker programme was given, i t s purpose, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and r e l a t i o n to other s o c i a l agencies i n the community. A portion of the t r a i n i n g programme was devoted to a discussion of the v i s i t i n g homemaker, her work and her r e l a t i o n -ship to other people i n the "team" or the community: the home economist; the s o c i a l worker of the Family Welfare Bureau; the s o c i a l workers of other agencies; doctors, the V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses; the p u b l i c health nurses; the school; and the family. There were le c t u r e s on household management, budgeting of the family income, food budgeting, and other household problems such as dishwashing, laundering, etc. The lectures on the behaviour of c h i l d r e n were given by the supervisor of the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . This material covered the c h i l d i n the home, at school and i n the community. A p s y c h i a t r i c caseworker l e c t u r e d on the behaviour of adults, and the meaning behind various kinds of behaviour. This was made p r a c t i c a l by f i t t i n g the homemaker into the s i t u a t i o n , showing what was required of the homemaker i n s i t u a t i o n s where the mother was out of the home, and i n other s i t u a t i o n s where the mother was i n the home. Fathers' needs were discussed, as w e l l as the meaning of both good housekeeping and poor house-keeping. A medical s o c i a l worker le c t u r e d on d i f f e r e n t types of i l l n e s s , both from the organic and fu n c t i o n a l point of view, pointing out the psychosomatic elements i n tuberculosis, and emotional factors i n other i l l n e s s e s . The r e a l i t y of at l a s t being able to inaugurate a t r a i n i n g programme was i n i t s e l f a b i g step i n improving the status of the v i s i t i n g homemakers. The importance of the t r a i n -ing programme i n t h i s respect was recognition that t h i s was a pro f e s s i o n a l group of women, by pl a c i n g emphasis on the emotional fa c t o r s i n the homes which required t h e i r services. I t was possible that the homemakers themselves d i d not recognize any change i n t h e i r status up to t h i s time, even though they had been t o l d repeatedly that they were s t a f f members, except that t h e i r work was i n homes of c l i e n t s rather than i n the o f f i c e . The differe n c e now was i n t h e i r being treated as a recognized member of the s k i l l e d team f o r a s s i s t i n g f a m i l i e s to keep t h e i r u n i t y as f a m i l i e s . The t r a i n i n g programme was also continued on an i n d i v i d u a l basis as in - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n homes which needed homemaker service. I t was decided that i t was no longer necessary f o r the programme to include both housekeepers when the mother was i l l a t home, and homemakers i n s i t u a t i o n s when the mother was out of the home. I t was r e a l i z e d that sometimes more s k i l l s were required on the part of the homemaker when the mother was home. The homemaker i n such a s i t u a t i o n must be c a r e f u l not to usurp the mother's p o s i t i o n with the chi l d r e n . She must not allow h e r s e l f to be imposed on by an inadequate mother, who might be very demanding, or a mother who might want to use the homemaker as a crutch on which to lean, thereby becoming more dependent. The following quotation gives a d e s c r i p t i o n of the a t t r i b u t e s of "the p e r f e c t v i s i t i n g homemaker" as follows: "....a woman of 35 to 55 , with an u n s e l f i s h love of c h i l d r e n and some experience i n caring f o r them and f o r a home. She should be a stable, balanced person who has made a success of her own personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and who can be cheerful under d i f f i c u l t i e s She should not be upset by d i s t u r b i n g behaviour on the part of adult or c h i l d , and should be able to adapt he r s e l f quickly from taking complete charge of a family to actingunder the mother's d i r e c t i o n . She should be able to turn out a wholesome meal with-out proper dishes and u t e n s i l s , and should not be above getting down on her knees to scrub a d i r t y f l o o r . Her own home responsi-b i l i t i e s should be such that she can, on occasion, work over-time, or even stay r i g h t with a family f o r several weeks when 12 both parents are away". Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r Homemakers Established The c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y encountered during the middle 19U0*s, 1914.5, 19U6 and 19U7, were i n r e l a t i o n to recruitment. -"-^Director's Annual Report, Family Welfare Bureau of Greater Vancouver, A p r i l 28, 19kk» - 33 -E v e r y f a c i l i t y known t o t h e F a m i l y W e l f a r e B u r e a u was u s e d t o a r o u s e s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t i n t h e communi ty so t h a t s u i t a b l e • a p p l i c a n t s w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n b e c o m i n g homemakers . A d v e r t -i s e m e n t s w e r e p l a c e d i n t h e V a n c o u v e r n e w s p a p e r s , a n d s p e e c h e s t o v a r i o u s g r o u p s r e g a r d i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f e i t h e r t h e F a m i l y W e l f a r e B u r e a u , o r t h e Homemakers 1 S e r v i c e i n c l u d e d m e n t i o n o f t h e n e e d f o r more homemakers . The homemakers w e r e c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g made aware o f t h e n e e d f o r more a p p l i c a n t s f o r homemaker p o s i t i o n s , a n d i t was f r o m t h i s s o u r c e t h a t m o s t o f t h e b e s t homemakers came. I n t h e y e a r 19 U6, t h e F a m i l y W e l f a r e B u r e a u p r e p a r e d a n d s t a r t e d t o u s e a f o u r - p a g e mimeographed b r o c h u r e d e s c r i b i n g t h e homemaker s e r v i c e , t o be u s e d b y a g e n c y w o r k e r s , and o t h e r a g e n c i e s who w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s e r v i c e . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e r v i c e was a l s o t o b e g i v e n t o women i n t e r e s t e d i n b e c o m i n g homemakers . The p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s a n d d u t i e s o f t h e homemaker w e r e s e t f o r t h as f o l l o w s : ^ 1. The V i s i t i n g Homemaker w o r k s u s u a l l y e i g h t h o u r s p e r d a y , £§• d a y s p e r w e e k . H o u r s may be v a r i e d s l i g h t l y t o s u i t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a s e up t o U8 h o u r s p e r w e e k . Some a u x i l i a r y V i s i t i n g Homemakers a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r w e e k - e n d w o r k w h e r e no o t h e r p l a n i s p o s s i b l e . H o u r s o f w o r k f o r t h e homemakers w e r e v e r y f l e x i b l e . The a i m was t o d i s c o u r a g e d e p e n d e n c y i n t h e f a m i l y u s i n g t h e 53 — I n f o r m a t i o n f o r A g e n c i e s a n d W o r k e r s o n V i s i t i n g Home-m a k e r S e r v i c e , F a m i l y W e l f a r e B u r e a u o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , J a n u a r y 19U6. The c l a u s e s w h i c h a r e p a r t o f t h i s " m a n u a l " a r e d i s c u s s e d s e r i a t i m i n t h i s c h a p t e r . -3k-service, to give the family enough hours of homemaker help so that i t would be an important factor i n the rehabilitation of. the family by helping the mother to regain her health. In one family, where the father had deserted, the mother was l e f t with three small children.all under five years of age. The mother was a recipient of Mother's Allowance. She had to be hospitalized for a hysterectomy, and she had no relatives or friends' who could assume the responsibility of her home and three small children. A resident homemaker was placed i n the home, but she remained for seven straight days at i t might have been emotionally disturb-ing to the children to have an auxiliary homemaker assume responsibility for them over the weekend. When the mother re-turned to the home, i t was possible to replace the regular home-maker over the weekends, and to give her some evenings off u n t i l this mother was able to resume her household duties. 2. The Visiting Homemaker w i l l care for the children, make meals and do the regular work of the house. When desired, she w i l l manage the family finances and do the shopping. She may take meals to a sick mother but i s not responsible for nursing care. Due to the homemaker's training, her a b i l i t y to shop economically and prepare nutritious low cost meals were such that when most families saw how s k i l f u l she was i n these ways, they were often eager for her to take over these responsibilities. The mother may have been struggling for a long time with an inadequate income u n t i l she became completely frustrated and could see no way of preparing appetizing meals with such a limited amount of money. The homemaker entering the home, with tasty - 35 -well-prepared food on an attractively set table, and a cheerful homemaker serving i t , combined to raise the morale of not only the mother but the entire family. 3. She tries to adjust herself to the desires and habits of each family to whom the case worker explains that she is not a domestic servant. She is told she is a substitute mother. All members of the family are expected to help her with the work of the home. A considerable portion of the homemaker's training was to stress the importance to her of adapting herself to the needs of each family, but this did not mean that she should allow her-self to be imposed upon. If the family was too demanding and unco-operative, this was a problem to be taken up with the agency, If i t was something which the homemaker could not work out with the family. U. She will do the current washing and cleaning, but is not expected to cope with arrears of dirty clothes or a very dirty house. The family was prepared before the entry of the home-maker by being told that she was not expected to do the work of a charwoman, but in spite of this, some families did expect un-reasonable amounts of work from the homemaker. The homemakers usually had plenty of work without having heavy cleaning, washing of blankets, etc. The homemaker passed on the results of her training to the family in the way of better housekeeping methods, and a larger quantity of good, tasty and nutritious food. The way she handled unreasonable demands was an individual matter, but she was expected to call on the agency for assistance if needed. - 36 -5. In the absence of the parents, she w i l l enter in t o and guide the children's spare-time a c t i v i t i e s , w i l l d i s c i p l i n e them when necessary, and w i l l main-t a i n the usual family contact with school and church. She w i l l t r y to teach the older c h i l d r e n to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r home management. Such s i t u a t i o n s were extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r the homemaker as she must assume the r o l e of both father and mother. The absence of both parents was often interpreted by the c h i l d r e n as p a r e n t a l r e j e c t i o n , which made the homemaker's task more d i f f i -c u l t . 6. The v i s i t i n g homemaker i s a s t a f f member of the Family Welfare Bureau and i s responsible to the Family Welfare Bureau Home Economist. She i s appointed, in s t r u c t e d , paid and discharged by the Home Economist and not by tbe case worker or by the family. General recognition was given to the d i f f i c u l t y which a l l agencies experienced i n r e c r u i t i n g homemakers. A United States Government b u l l e t i n gave much valuable information on the s e l e c t i o n and placement of homemakers, and emphasized that the success of a homemaker programme l a y to a large extent i n the q u a l i t y of the homemakers employed. Most agencies o f f e r e d lower wages than would a t t r a c t homemakers. To meet the requirements f o r t h i s exacting work, s o c i a l agencies should o f f e r good working conditions, and some kind of guaranteed annual income, depending on working a c e r t a i n minimum number of weeks during the year. They should a l s o o f f e r annual vacations, sick leave, and time and a h a l f f o r over-time. Some women could be i n t e r e s t e d i n becoming homemakers — i n Homemaker Service, Washington, D.C., U.S. Children's Bureau Pu b l i c a t i o n No. 296, 19U6. - 37 -by showing them that they were making a r e a l contribution i n caring f o r c h i l d r e n whose mother was i l l , and that i n working with a s o c i a l agency, they were sharing the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the well-being of a family with the caseworker. It has been w e l l s a i d that "the s k i l l s used by s o c i a l agencies i n f i n d i n g prospective homemakers are s i m i l a r to those used by c h i l d - p l a c i n g agencies i n f i n d i n g f o s t e r parents.... Well-Defined Personnel Practices i n l Q i | 8 In November, 19U8, the personnel p r a c t i c e s as used by the Family Welfare Bureau, i n r e l a t i o n to supervised homemakers were a matter of record. The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s d esirable i n a home-maker were itemized as follows: 1. "The homemaker should be between the ages of 35 and 65". This might seem l i k e a wide age range, but 35 as the lower age l i m i t Is intended to eliminate women with small c h i l d r e n . 65 as the upper age l i m i t might seem high, but occ a s i o n a l l y there has been a very capable homemaker i n her s i x t i e s who d i d not f e e l the work was too d i f f i c u l t or t i r i n g . 2. "She should have had experience i n the care of c h i l d r e n " . There have been very few sing l e women employed as homemakers. The majority of the homemakers have had experience i n caring f o r t h e i r own childr e n , and a few have previously been employed to care f o r c h i l d r e n . 15 Homemaker Service, Washington, D.C, U.S. Children's Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n No. 296, 19U6. - 38 -3. "She should have a sincere interest in children and should understand them". It is not difficult to learn how much interest and understanding a prospective homemaker has for children, because she tells that unwittingly in whatever she says about youngsters. U. "She should be able to work with different types of people". This is very important if she is to do a professional job. She cannot be governed in her work by strong likes and dislikes, since she must take any assignment given her. 5. "She should be able to accept supervision and take her place as a member of the Family Welfare Bureau staff. At the time of employment, if a homemaker has never previously worked outside her own home, it may be difficult for either the supervisor or the homemaker to know how well she can accept super-vision or adapt herself to the agency in its programme. When a homemaker is working in a home, she often becomes attached to the family. She must enjoy her work, to be of the best service to the family. This is recognized by the agency when a homemaker is enthusiastic in doing her share toward the rehabilitation of a family. However, if she becomes sentimental over the family, allows them to impose on her both in time and the work to be done in the home, does not follow the plan as worked out among the doctor, public health nurse, district worker, supervisor of home-makers and herself, and does not report important occurrences to the supervisor, she is not working to the best interest of either the agency or the family. The majority of new homemakers are - 39 -sentimental over their f i r s t family, hut through talks and the use of examples in showing how other methods work, a new worker may in time become one of the best homemakers, with a thorough understanding of the need for a professional attitude toward her job. 6. "She should be able to respect the confidence of families served". This means that the homemaker should maintain the same kind of confidentiality as the social worker. The homemaker should not discuss a family where she has worked with the family where she is working, with her own family, or friends. She should of course be free to discuss anything and everything regarding the family with the supervisor of homemakers, since she is a member of the Family Welfare Bureau staff, and the family understands her relationship as being on this basis. The status of the homemakers in 19U8 was as follows: S permanent homemakers were paid a monthly salary whether employed f u l l time or not; auxiliary homemakers were paid by the hour when they were working, but could be promoted to the permanent staff after six months of employment i f needed.. Fifteen or more working days in a month were considered a f u l l month, nine to fourteen, days as half a month. Salaries were paid twice a month, permanent staff receiving a salary of $75.00 to $90.00 per month and carfare. Increments of $5.00 after six months of satisfactory service, then $5.00 per year to the maximum. Auxiliary staff homemakers were paid U5£ per hour for the f i r s t six months, then 50(£ per hour i f not promoted to - Uo -the permanent s t a f f , plus carfare. In f i g u r i n g the length of service, f i f t e e n days would count as a f u l l month, nine to fourteen days as h a l f a month. Resident service e n t i t l e d the homemaker to $2.00 more per week, on the b a s i s of a hh hour week. Overtime was p a i d on the basis of $00 per hour. The F i n a l Stage of "Development, 19U9-1951 In 19U9, Homemaker service underwent a reorganization. In May of t h i s year, a d d i t i o n a l homemakers were needed to take part i n a programme of giving homemaker service i n homes where the mother had tuberculosis. This meant that a t r a i n i n g programme f o r the homemakers was a necessity, not alone f o r the new a p p l i -cants, but f o r those already on the s t a f f . A Family Welfare Bureau caseworker, Mrs. Cowper, became the supervisor of the homemaker service i n place of the previous home economist. She was made responsible f o r the r e c r u i t i n g and t r a i n i n g programme, and the homemakers were a l l made d i r e c t l y responsible to her, any problems which arose to be discussed between the homemaker and Mrs. Cowper. The d i s t r i c t workers were to supervise the homemakers i n the homes. This planning was intended to bring the homemakers more c l o s e l y into the family group of the agency, while they were to work with the caseworker toward a b e t t e r understanding of the f a m i l y with which they were vrorking. I t was to be a co-operative casework venture, and the j o i n t aim was to r e - e s t a b l i s h the strengths in. the family toward independence. - i l l -The programme to r e c r u i t s uitable homemakers was given impetus i n several ways, asking the homemakers to r e f e r any of t h e i r f r i e n d s whom they thought were s u i t a b l e , and l e t t i n g the need be known among f r i e n d s of the agency. During the e a r l y summer of 1950, one of the popular Vancouver newswriters wrote a short a r t i c l e on the homemaker service, and the need f o r new 16 applicants f o r homemakers. This was not j u s t p u b l i c i t y , but the r i g h t kind of p u b l i c i t y , and the a r t i c l e brought quite a large number of applicants, several of whom have since developed in t o good homemakers. At other times, when a new homemaker i s needed, and applicants are not av a i l a b l e from usual sources, the National Employment Service i s asked f o r assistance''in f i n d i n g women with the necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . C e rtain d i s t i n c t q u a l i t i e s are now looked f o r when h i r i n g a new homemaker. I t i s preferred that the applicant be a woman who has a family of her own, who l i k e s people, i s fond of ch i l d r e n , has some i n s i g h t i n t o c h i l d behaviour, and has a r e a l desire to help people. She must be a good household manager and a good p l a i n cook, i n good health, and with no emotional problems of her own which she might i d e n t i f y with the c l i e n t s . She must be calm and even-tempered, she must be p l i a b l e and able to adjust e a s i l y , and hence able to bri n g a f e e l i n g of assurance and r e l i e f to a troubled household. She must be r e l i a b l e , responsible and honest, and able to accept suggestions and c r i t i c i s m from both the caseworker and her supervisor. ^ "Welfare Bureau Seeks Homemaker Substitutes", Vancouver Sun, Vancouver Day by Day, (June 30 , 1950) . - U 2 - " I t i s not hard to r e a l i z e that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d an adequate number of good homemakers, and even more d i f f i c u l t to secure resident homemakers. Only a l i m i t e d number of home-makers are w i l l i n g to go to resident placements. The extra bonus of two d o l l a r s a week f o r resident service holds no p a r t i c u l a r appeal, as the majority much prefer to return to t h e i r own homes every evening. The Family Welfare Bureau now believes i t i s bet t e r to have no homemaker i n a home than to have the wrong kind. When the tuber c u l o s i s programme was inaugurated i n May, 19U9, a group of homemakers had to be employed quickly without proper screening f o r the r i g h t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , but since then, t h i s has been corrected by keeping only those women as homemakers who are f l e x i b l e enough to continue learning, and using t h e i r knowledge .with the f a m i l i e s they serve. The tuberculosis programme meant that the homemakers required greater s k i l l s i n the handling of emotional problems i n a family. The q u a l i t i e s which make a good homemaker - one who i s appreciated by the average family who needs short-term emergency homemaker service - are the very q u a l i t i e s which make her a threat to the tuberculosis mother. The tuberculous mother often d i r e c t s a l l the h o s t i l i t y she has i n other areas of her l i f e on to the homemaker, and i t has hotyet been determined how much h o s t i l i t y a homemaker should be expected to accept. The tuberculosis programme i s not handled as a separate d i v i s i o n of the supervised homemaker service, as most of the - 1*3 -homemakers work i n tuberculosis homes. No homemaker i s placed i n a tuberculosis home, however, i f she fears the disease. Due to the nature of homemaker placements i n homes with tuberculosis, and the need to extend the service to as many f a m i l i e s as possible, one homemaker may serve several f a m i l i e s simultaneously, going to two or three f a m i l i e s , two or three times a week, f o r whole days or h a l f days, as the physician recommends. This means that the homemaker must be tr a i n e d r i g o r o u s l y i n the meaning of confident-i a l i t y , so that she w i l l not t a l k about one family when she. i s working i n the home of another. This has been the most d i f f i c u l t part of the t r a i n i n g , as i t has been hard f o r some of them to understand what harm can come, f o r example, from making compli-mentary remarks which imply comparisons. During the past two years, a s a t i s f a c t o r y method of conducting interviews with prospective supervised homemakers has been developed. The f i r s t interview i s f o r the purpose of forming impressions. The majority of applicants have never worked except i n t h e i r own homes, so may f e e l and act a l i t t l e uncomfortable i n an interview f o r employment. I t i s necessary to keep i n mind that t h i s applicant i s not a c l i e n t , that the purpose of the interview i s to decide j o i n t l y whether t h i s i s the kind of work she can do and w i l l enjoy. She i s therefore made to f e e l as much at ease as po s s i b l e . The applicant i s never asked about her m a r i t a l status, as she may be defensive about i t , but she i s asked i f she has to work, i f she i s dependent on earning her own income. The question - ilk -put i n t h i s way often reveals her m a r i t a l state e.g., widowed, separated, or divorced. I t Is important to know p r i o r to employment how she f e e l s about marriage, men and child r e n , but t h i s Is u s u a l l y ascertained l a t e r i n a natural way when d i s -cussing her home and famil y experience. During the f i r s t interview, she i s given an explanat-io n of the service the Family Welfare Bureau meets i n the community, and an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a supervised homemaker as a "substitute mother". I t i s found out how she f e e l s about tuberc u l o s i s . A great deal of emphasis i s placed on t h i s being a d i f f i c u l t job, with many children's problems, and there i s some t a l k of the symptoms of c h i l d disturbance. The work i s hard, but emphasis i s made to discourage anyone who might not want work that i s d i f f i c u l t . An explanation i s given about everyone working together f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the family. The applicant i s sent home a f t e r the f i r s t interview to think i t over, unless," of course, she ind i c a t e s that t h i s i s not the kind of work f o r which she was looking, or i t appears to the Family Welfare supervisor that t h i s applicant i s not sui t e d to the work. In the l a t t e r case, t h i s would be f r a n k l y discussed with her. The second appointment i s made e n t i r e l y on the i n i t i a t i v e of the prospective homemaker. I t i s not u n t i l the second interview that she i s t o l d a l l the p a r t i c u l a r s of the work. Often the matter of pay Is not discussed u n t i l the second interview, then t h i s i s discussed i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l programme and the e n t i r e process i s explained thoroughly and c a r e f u l l y , including s t a f f meetings, t r a i n i n g programme, supervision by the d i s t r i c t worker when i n a home where the home i s also being supervised by the d i s t r i c t worker, and o v e r a l l supervision of the homemaker by the super-v i s o r of the homemaker service. At t h i s time, the a p p l i c a t i o n blank i s f i l l e d out. I t i s very h e l p f u l i f the applicant asks a l o t of questions, as her f e e l i n g s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s can be assessed more e a s i l y than i f she i s a woman who does no t a l k i n g . Arrangements are made f o r the applicant to have a f u l l medical examination through the Outpatients' Department of Vancouver General Hospital, and a tuberculosis x-ray. from the Tuberculosis Unit. No i n t e r e s t i s shown regarding a homemaker's personal l i f e , except as i t rel a t e s to her work. Much i s learned due to the way Lshe f e e l s and reacts to d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s ; however, i t cannot be stressed too much that she i s not a c l i e n t . There are c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s necessary to t h i s work which might not be valuable i n other types of employment. The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s which are most necessary are the at t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s of the prospect-ive homemaker toward people, her a b i l i t y to adjust to a l l kinds of people, and her i n t e r e s t i n doing so. The applicant i s checked through the S o c i a l Service Index to l e a r n i f she or her family i s known to any of the s o c i a l agencies; but t h i s should not be my f e e l i n g that t h i s should not be r e l i e d on too strongly. The programme of recruitment and t r a i n i n g of super-v i s e d homemakers has r a p i d l y come of age. Greater progress was achieved i n t h i s area during the past two years than i n the - 1*6 -previous f i v e years. This came from the b e n e f i t of experience and mistakes made i n the homemaker service during the period of evolution, as w e l l as learning from the many sources of information now ava i l a b l e of p o l i c i e s found to be sound i n other places i n a service of t h i s kind. I t was r e a l i z e d i n the agency that a programme of cl o s e r working r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the supervised homemakers would lead to b e t t e r morale. To further t h i s purpose and to e s t a b l i s h a t r a i n i n g programme, monthly s t a f f meetings f o r the homemakers were started i n January, 19U9. But t h i s new a c t i v i t y i s so c l o s e l y interwoven with supervision that i t w i l l be discussed i n a d i f f e r e n t section. CHAPTER 3 SUPERVISION During the ea r l y years of the Vancouver homemaker service, the frequent change of the supervisor of homemakers was not as disruptive as i t might seem, since continuity was maintained i n the o v e r a l l administration and supervision of the ent i r e pro-gramme by the d i r e c t o r of the Family Welfare Bureau, Miss McPhedran, and as s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r , Miss Grubb. A Homemakers' Committee was formed to e s t a b l i s h p o l i c y and act as a case com-mittee f o r homemaker cases. The f i r s t committee members were appointed from the Board of the Family Welfare Bureau, who at f i r s t met with the d i r e c t o r of the agency. Soon afterward, Miss Grubb became secretary of the committee, which p o s i t i o n she held u n t i l she r e t i r e d from the agency i n 19U9. The f i r s t homemaker committee meeting was held January 26, 1938, at which time i t was decided to employ a q u a l i f i e d home economist as supervisor of the new service. I t was established that the committee would a s s i s t i n determining which f a m i l i e s should receive the assistance of homemaker service. From the f i r s t meeting, a number of other agencies, such as the Children's Aid Society, C i t y S o c i a l Service Department, So c i a l Service Department of the Vancouver General Hospital, S o c i a l Service Department of the Tuberculosis Unit, the V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses, and the Metropolitan Health Nurses, were asked to send a representative to the monthly meetings of the homemaker - 1*8 -committee. I t was c l e a r that the f i r s t or experimental stage of t h i s programme would require c a r e f u l administration and supervision, as the Committee decided to request only $700.00 f o r homemaker s a l a r i e s during the year 1938. Later, a small a d d i t i o n a l amount was secured. The home economist appointed, attended the second meeting of the homemaker committee. Decisions made i n the f i r s t two meetings may be summarized as follows: the home economist's duties were to r e c r u i t and t r a i n (a) housekeepers f o r homes when the mother was i l l temporarily such as cases which would u s u a l l y be r e f e r r e d by the h o s p i t a l ; and (b) homemakers f o r s i t u a t i o n s when no mother was i n the home. The home economist was to explore the home before placing e i t h e r a housekeeper or homemaker. I t was recognized that great care must be used i n s e l e c t i n g the r i g h t housekeeper or homemaker f o r any given circumstances. The home economist was to i n s t r u c t housekeepers - and older g i r l s i n motherless homes - on the care of the home, budgeting and meal planning, and to a s s i s t c l i e n t s i n budgeting. In other words, d i r e c t supervision of the programme, the homemakers, and homes served by the homemakers,' were to be handled by the home economist, as supervisor of the s e r v i c e . A report made to the committee at the meeting held A p r i l 13, 1938, showed that three women had been employed f o r e i t h e r f u l l - t i m e or part-time service: two were i n motherless homes, and the t h i r d i n the home of an i n v a l i d . A fourth home-maker, when one was found, would be placed i n another motherless home. I t was acknowledged at t h i s meeting that other agencies would be able to use the se r v i c e . The most d i f f i c u l t problem was to f i n d s u i t a b l e women f o r the work. The home economist bel i e v e d that a t r a i n i n g c l a s s would conserve time she spent t r a i n i n g and supervising homemakers i n home. The V i s i t i n g Homemaker Service was i n i t i a t e d i n the f i r s t place due to the many permanently motherless homes i n the lower income groups which came to the att e n t i o n of the Family Welfare Bureau. However, i t d i d not take the home economist a year, working with the many applications f o r service, and a small budget which had to be extended over the e n t i r e period, to r e a l i z e that i t was not p r a c t i c a l to t i e up a l l the homemakers i n homes which would need a permanent or long-term service. In motherless homes, with an older g i r l , the home economist and the homemaker co-operated i n t r a i n i n g her f o r the work of caring f o r the home and family, as t h i s service was intended as a constructive plan i n r e h a b i l i t a t i n g f a m i l i e s . In other words, there had to be a balanced programme, enough emergencies of a temporary nature to balance the long-term cases, to preserve the f l e x i b i l i t y of the service, so homemakers would be a v a i l a b l e f o r an emergency such as a mother suddenly being sent to the h o s p i t a l , leaving several small c h i l d r e n at home. In a case of t h i s kind, i f no r e l a t i v e s or f r i e n d s could^ help i n the s i t u a t i o n , dad must stay home from work to care f o r h i s youngsters, which meant the family would be furthe r disrupted, with l e s s income to defray expenses. - 50 -The emphasis began to swing away from service to the permanently motherless home before the f i r s t year of operation ended. From A p r i l 1, 1938, to March 31, 1939, seventeen homes were provided service. The following indicates the reasons f o r placement of a homemaker: i n four f a m i l i e s , the mother was dead; i n four f a m i l i e s , the mother was i l l at home; i n f i v e f a m i l i e s , the mother was temporarily i l l i n the h o s p i t a l ; i n two f a m i l i e s , the mother was i n a mental h o s p i t a l ; and i n two f a m i l i e s , the mother had deserted. The home economist was kept busy, working v/ith the secretary of the homemaker committee, and the committee, to e s t a b l i s h some kind of uniform standards. I t was necessary to seek and read what scarce information existed on t h i s type of service i n other places. I t was a problem to know which f a m i l i e s who were re f e r r e d , or who applied f o r service, should receive i t , since there were not s u f f i c i e n t homemakers to care f o r a l l i n need. Although women were h i r e d f o r both f u l l - t i m e and part-time * work, the l a t t e r were often found u n r e l i a b l e when needed f o r an emergency, because t h e i r own f a m i l i e s might require t h e i r e f f o r t s before they could work i n another home. I t was also found that former c l i e n t s of the agency who had become homemakers often had personal problems which prevented them from being sympathetic to the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the homes where they were placed. - 51 -Meeting Environmental Needs The emphasis of the home economist i n supervision during the f i r s t year of the service was l a r g e l y on meeting the r e a l p h y s i c a l need of f a m i l i e s f o r someone to take over the organization of t h e i r homes and r e i n s t a t e routines. Some of the s i t u a t i o n s were so desperate and so near complete disruption that anyone coming i n to care f o r the home was better than having no one. There was the father (we w i l l c a l l him Mr. Brown), who was l e f t with f i v e c h i l d r e n between the ages of two and twelve when h i s wife died of cancer, following a long i l l n e s s . Complaints of neglect came to both the Children's A i d Society and the Family Welfare Bureau. Some of the complaints were: the father was lazy, s h i f t l e s s , quarrelsome with the neighbours, inadequate i n caring f o r the children; was unable to hold a regular job; l e f t the care of h i s c h i l d r e n to inadequate housekeepers; and was a l a v i s h spender, owing many b i l l s . I t would appear from these reports that t h i s was a protective case. The actual s i t u a t i o n s i f t e d out a f t e r seeing Mr. Brown was much d i f f e r e n t . Two years previously, i t was discovered that Mrs. Brown had cancer, so treatments had s t a r t e d at that time to t r y to cure her. Three operations necessitated large h o s p i t a l and other medical b i l l s . The family had no r e l a t i v e s who could help them i n the care of the c h i l d r e n when Mrs. Brown was unable to do so. Friends helped a great deal while Mrs. Brown was l i v i n g . Even then, Mr. Brown had to remain home from work sometimes to assure himself that the c h i l d r e n were getting proper care. - 52 -A f t e r Mrs. Brown died, f r i e n d s and neighbours advised Mr. Brown to break up h i s family, to e i t h e r r e l i n q u i s h them f o r adoption, or at l e a s t have the Children's Aid Society place them i n f o s t e r homes. The more advice he was given of t h i s nature, the more determined and defensive he became about h i s home and child r e n , e s p e c i a l l y as he r e a l i z e d h i s youngsters were not getting the kind of care to which they were e n t i t l e d . He was genuinely fond of h i s family, and was determined to keep them together, i f possible. C e r t a i n l y he had many debts, as he had always been too proud to ask f o r r e l i e f , but he was paying on them. I t was true that he had d i f f i c u l t y keeping a job, f o r with h i s small Income, he had been unable to hi r e the r i g h t kind of help. There had been a s e r i e s of inadequate housekeepers, and when one l e f t , or was released, i f no one was found to care f o r his family,- he had to stay home and do so. He had l o s t two jobs f o r t h i s reason as -these were the days when a worker was e a s i l y replaced. However, he pointed out that he had a good work record, and was always able to get another job as soon as he was r e l i e v e d of care of the home. He was quite discouraged, but i t was apparent that t h i s was a w e l l - k n i t f a m i l y group, and that i f he were r e l i e v e d from the worry of poor care of the youngsters, he would probably earn an adequate l i v i n g . A homemaker was placed i n the home. Mr. Brown responded by ge t t i n g himself another job immediately. At the end of the f i r s t week, of service, i t was evident t h i s was the r i g h t s o l u t i o n f o r the family. Mr. Brown's morale was l i f t e d , he came home to a well-cared f o r home, happy c h i l d r e n and a good hot meal at night. He l o s t h i s defensiveness when neighbours gave him unwanted advice, and commented v o l u n t a r i l y on how much h i s at t i t u d e had changed. Aside from the r e a l s o c i a l value of keeping the family together i n a family u n i t , the cost i n money of p l a c i n g these f i v e c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes, as no one home could take f i v e c h i l d r e n , would have been f a r greater than the cost of p l a c i n g a homemaker. Meanwhile, the home economist was learning about problems i n homes from the homemakers, problems which might not have been known by the agency f o r a much longer time. The home economist was i n the p o s i t i o n of working with both the family and the homemaker, but she was not a caseworker. Problems of household management were handled but other family problems, unless g l a r i n g l y evident or thought urgent were apt to be overlooked. The agency recognized that the s o l u t i o n of supervision was not completed by the employment of a home economist, but i t was the only way i n which- the programme could be financed. In September, 1939, the second home economist supervisor of homemakers was employed to replace the f i r s t . She started where the f i r s t home economist l e f t o f f , giving budgeting assistance to caseworkers, c l i e n t s , and homemakers; supervising homemakers and -5k-the homes where they were placed; making speeches on n u t r i t i o n , budgeting, etc., holding classes i n home management and budgeting f o r teen-age g i r l s from motherless homes. The home economist was responsible f o r the s t a t i s t i c s of t h i s new service, and the com-p i l a t i o n of the monthly report to the homemaker committee. She also gave budgeting assistance to several other agencies: the Children's Aid Society; the Vancouver Day Nursery Association; the Mother's Allowance Department of the Public Welfare; and the N u t r i t i o n C l i n i c of the Vancouver General Hospital. From A p r i l 1, 1939 to March 31, 19U0, the home economist supervised t h i r t y - e i g h t homes who had homemaker service. She h i r e d , t r a i n e d and otherwise supervised twenty-five homemakers who were employed at one time or another during the year. (As mentioned previously, the turnover was great, though there was an attempt to f i n d workable c r i t e r i a f o r a s c e r t a i n i n g the s u i t a b i l i t y of a p p l i c -ants). The home economist also drew up f o r t y - f i v e budgets f o r c l i e n t s of the Family Welfare Bureau, aside from the other duties enumerated above. During t h i s year, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the cases accepted f o r service was being changed s t i l l f u r t h e r to give more service i n emergency s i t u a t i o n s . The following reasons f o r placement of a homemaker may be of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s connection: i n seventeen f a m i l i e s , the mother was i l l at home; i n ten f a m i l i e s , the mother was i l l i n the h o s p i t a l ; i n four f a m i l i e s , the mother was dead; i n four f a m i l i e s , the mother had deserted; and i n three f a m i l i e s another member of the family needed care. Twenty-nine of these t h i r t y - e i g h t f a m i l i e s received help with other d i f f i c u l t i e s as follows: n u t r i t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n and family budgeting; children's - 55 -school and behaviour d i f f i c u l t i e s ; health d i f f i c u l t i e s ; lack of recreation; poor home equipment or housing; tangled family re-lationships} and financial d i f f i c u l t i e s . As can be seen from these factors, great emphasis was placed on an environmental level, which was natural to find under supervision by a home economist lacking i n casework training. During the year 19 UO, the v i s i t i n g homemaker service grew to large proportions, due both to the service becoming better known, and the need for homemaker assistance i n homes when the mother was i l l and the father was away i n military service. It became apparent even before the statistics were completed for the f i s c a l year Ap r i l 1, 19ii0 to March 31, 19iil, that the home economist could not conti-nue to supervise both the homemakers and the families where they were placed. Experiment i n Supervision On January 1, 19Ul, the new home economist who became supervisor of the homemakers had her work completely divorced from work with the families who had homemaker service. The d i s t r i c t workers supervised the homes, conferred with the home economist, who i n turn supervised the homemakers. I t was recognized that this method of operation was cumbersome, but the agency was experimenting with supervision, within the boundaries of the budget. The following home economist's report for the year April 1, 19^0 to March 31, 19U1, seems to be the best i l l u s t r a t i o n of . - 56 -the way i n which her work had changed. Forty-nine f a m i l i e s with 152 c h i l d r e n were supplied with a v i s i t i n g homemaker during the year, twelve of these were m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . The reasons f o r placement of a homemaker were as follows: i n thirty-seven f a m i l i e s , the mother was i l l ; i n seven f a m i l i e s , the mother had deserted; and i n f i v e f a m i l i e s , the mother was dead. The home economist continued to r e c r u i t , t r a i n and supervise the homemakers, she continued to be responsible f o r a l l records and s t a t i s t i c s f o r t h i s service, under the guidance " and supervision of the secretary of the homemaker committee, Miss Grubb. The home economist continued to be responsible to the homemaker committee which remained an active group i n recom-mending changes i n p o l i c y regarding supervision, personnel p r a c t i c e s , or advice as to continuation or withdrawal of a home-maker from i n d i v i d u a l homes. Much emphasis on an environmental l e v e l endured as the budgeting service continued. Part of the emphasis on budgeting was made necessary since the Family Welfare Bureau agreed to include i n the agency programme a war-time service with f a m i l i e s of men i n the armed forces f o r the Canadian Government, to determine e l i g i b i l i t y f o r assistance with medical b i l l s . The home economist prepared ninety-one budgets t h i s year, of which f o r t y - f i v e were f o r f a m i l i e s of e n l i s t e d men, and she held f o r t y - e i g h t classes on budgeting aside from her work of supervising homemakers. - 57 -For a short time an experiment -was t r i e d , the d i s t r i c t workers supervising both the homes who had homemaker service and the v i s i t i n g homemakers. The home economist continued to give general supervision to the homemakers and the s e r v i c e . The homemakers were quick to voice t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h i s arrangement as they had been s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r super-v i s i o n by a home economist. The agency placed emphasis with the d i s t r i c t workers that c o n f i d e n t i a l information regarding f a m i l i e s must not be passed 'on to the homemaker, but one of the duties of the homemaker was to pass on to the d i s t r i c t worker any information she might have regarding the family. The v i s i t i n g homemaker was not being reated as a co-worker, too much of the f e e l i n g of a "master-servant" r e l a t i o n s h i p existed. In other words, although the agency gave p a r t i a l recognition of the contribution that homemakers were making to the f a m i l i e s whom they served, and therefore to the agency, t h i s group had not yet received proper recognition of t h e i r importance to the programme. The programme had evolved at t h i s time to the point that super-v i s i o n of the homemakers started to emphasize care of the ch i l d r e n and proper n u t r i t i o n f o r the f a m i l i e s , p l a c i n g household tasks as such i n a secondary r o l e . On May 1, 19U1, another home economist, came on the s t a f f of the Family Welfare Bureau as supervisor of the homemaker service. During t h i s time, there was a r a p i d l y expanding need f o r homemakers, - 58 -and i t became more apparent that the mechanics of supervision had not.been resolved adequately. I t seemed a l o g i c a l evolution to have a caseworker i n t h i s department, supervising the f a m i l i e s who had homemaker ser v i c e , while the home economist supervised the homemakers, but i t was several months before a caseworker could be secured f o r t h i s work. P r i o r to the advent of the case-worker, the valanche of cases r e q u i r i n g immediate at t e n t i o n completely buried a c l e a r supervisory p i c t u r e . The home econom-i s t supervised some homes and a l l of the v i s i t i n g homemakers, while d i s t r i c t workers supervised the remainder of the homes. They had no time to s i t down then to analyse the elements of supervision, but p o l i c i e s were unconsciously being formulated, and the programme continued to be f l e x i b l e . A p p l i c a t i o n forms f o r f a m i l i e s needing the service, and other forms to s i m p l i f y the work of the supervisor were originated. To show the confusion around administration of the programme, a proposal was made to the homemaker committee that homemakers be paid according to the d i f f i c u l t y of the problem i n the home i n which they were working. A ten t a t i v e scale of wages f o r the v i s i t i n g homemakers was discussed with the homemaker committee without discussion of c r i t e r i a which would be used i n assessing p r i o r to placement the type of home i n which the home-maker was to be placed. The proposed scale was as follows: twenty-five cents plus carfare would be paid f o r work by the hour, four to eight hours; a s a l a r y of twenty-five d o l l a r s per month i - 59 -would be paid f o r the care of a home presenting no serious problem, and when the management of the home was not very d i f f i -c u l t ; a sa l a r y of t h i r t y d o l l a r s per month would be paid f o r the care of a home which needed a great deal of attention, and i n which the c h i l d r e n needed care and i n s t r u c t i o n ; wages of $7 .50 to $8 .50 per week and carfare would be p a i d f o r the care of a home during confinement and h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n ; wages of ten d o l l a r s per week would be paid f o r the care of a home where there was a d i f f i c u l t problem such as a c h i l d being released from Juvenile Court. J o i n t Supervision i n Homemaker Service There was a great deal of discu s s i o n regarding the problem of supervising homemakers, and the need of securing s k i l l e d women who could accept supervision, to. work i n homes which were disturbed through i l l n e s s or emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s . To s a t i s f y t h i s need a caseworker came on the s t a f f January 15, 19l|2, to supervise the homes which had homemaker ser v i c e , and to assess homemaker applications f o r service thereby gathering c r i t e r i a to help e s t a b l i s h plans and p o l i c i e s f o r the service. This co-operative e f f o r t of home economist and caseworker might have had a good chance f o r s u r v i v a l , except that the number of cases continued to increase to such a point that the caseworker was completely swamped with so much work that her e f f o r t s had to be almost e n t i r e l y on an e l i g i b i l i t y and environmental basis , - 60 -rather than working as intended, with the emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the f a m i l i e s requiring homemaker service. A f t e r a few months' t r i a l , the agency decided t h i s was not a workable method of super-v i s i o n but t h i s method remained i n operation u n t i l 19h3» In r e -viewing t h i s period nine years l a t e r i t i s apparent that both the caseworker and the home economist were too busy with immediate emergencies to formulate plans f o r the most e f f i c i e n t and con-s t r u c t i v e j o i n t supervision. The following report f o r the f i s c a l year A p r i l 1, 19U1 to March 31, 19U2 should give some i n d i c a t i o n of the way the need f o r t h i s service pyramided during t h i s period. One hundred and eleven f a m i l i e s , with three hundred and f i f t y c h i l d r e n , were pro-vided with a v i s i t i n g homemaker. Forty-four of these were m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . The reasons f o r placement of a v i s i t i n g homemaker were as follows: i n one hundred f a m i l i e s the mother was i l l ; i n f i v e f a m i l i e s the mother had deserted; i n four f a m i l i e s the mother died; and i n two f a m i l i e s the mother needed i n s t r u c t i o n i n home management. Aside from t h i s large number of f a m i l i e s needing supervision, f i f t y -nine homemakers were employed during the year, although only a portion of these continued i n employment as homemakers, since most were found unsuitable by the home economist. I t was becoming apparent, that not every woman who was a good housekeeper and who had success-f u l l y reared her own family, could n e c e s s a r i l y be train e d i n t h i s work. The supervisor r e a l i z e d that the homemakers must understand - 61-that t h e i r f i r s t l o y a l t y was to the Family Welfare Bureau, and not to the family. I f the home economist i n t r a i n i n g of the homemaker found her con t i n u a l l y u n w i l l i n g to accept super-v i s i o n , that homemaker could not be of value to the agency, since she might i d e n t i f y h e r s e l f too much with the family, and withhold information that was necessary f o r the worker to have to b e t t e r understand at what l e v e l t h i s family was funct-ioning. During t h i s period, the home economist prepared one hundred and ninety i n d i v i d u a l family budgets. One hundred and t h i r t y - f o u r . o f these were f o r f a m i l i e s known to the Family Welfare Bureau, twenty-four were f o r f a m i l i e s being a s s i s t e d by other s o c i a l agencies, and thirty-two were f o r f a m i l i e s known to the m i l i t a r y a u x i l i a r i e s . Ninety-nine of the t o t a l were f o r f a m i l i e s of men i n m i l i t a r y service. During t h i s period, too, twenty-two talks.on n u t r i t i o n were given by the home economist i n the commu-n i t y . The home economist conducted a regular weekly interview with two teen-age g i r l s i n one family who had a v i s i t i n g homemaker f o r a long period as the mother was dead. This was an experiment, but seemed to be getting the necessary r e s u l t s i n co-operation with the homemaker i n the home. The home economist had discussions with the g i r l s on: personal appearance, nutrition, work schedules, c l o t h i n g s e l e c t i o n and care, household equipment, purchasing and se l e c t i o n of household a r t i c l e s , home cleanliness and s t a i n removal. - ;62 -Aside from the immediate supervisory work within the Family Welfare Bureau the home economist acted as p u b l i c i s t i n the community i n r e l a t i o n to the service. She supervised seven n u t r i t i o n classes i n women's a u x i l i a r y groups, some of whom were enthusiastic. She gave a radio t a l k on the "Adequate Diet", under the auspices of the Greater Vancouver Health Programme. Each month, the home economist took sampling of food p r i c e s from several d i f f e r e n t classes of stores, and made necessary changes i n the costs of l i v i n g i n r e l a t i o n to minimum food budgets. Interesting information was gathered through a question-naire sent by The National Conference of Supervised Homemaker Service of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work to seventy agencies on the North American continent who had homemaker services. The questionnaire was on personnel p o l i c i e s , and on the question r e l a t i n g to supervision, out of t h i r t y - f o u r r e p l i e s , the following information was given: twenty-four agencies r e -ported that supervision was provided by the caseworker, s i x by the homemaker supervisor or home economist. Several of the homemaker supervisors were caseworkers with much experience, and many of the caseworkers who were doing supervision had t r a i n -ing i n home economics. In agencies where both a home economist and caseworkers were employed as supervisors, frequent consultation 1 was necessary. 1 ' : Duston, Esther H., "Study of E x i s t i n g Personnel Practices f o r Homemakers, "Highlights, v o l . I I , no.9, (January 191*2), pp. 11*0 - ll*3. - 63 -This report was s i g n i f i c a n t i n point up the importance of supervision of t h i s service by a caseworker. However, t h i s was probably overlooked due to the overwhelming numbef of app l i c a t i o n s f o r service which were being made to the Family Welfare Bureau. During t h i s wartime period, the caseworker, home economist combi-nation had no opportunity to function s u c c e s s f u l l y due to the large volume of work. D i s t r i c t Workers Supervise Homemaker Homes The home economist l e f t the Family Welfare Bureau i n June, 19h2 to j o i n the Army, and another home economist replaced her as the new supervisor of homemakers. The caseworker remained u n t i l March, 19^3 as supervisor f o r f a m i l i e s who had v i s i t i n g homemaker service. In March, 19l|3 a new era s t a r t e d i n supervision which con-tinued i n much the same manner u n t i l January 1, 19U9. The home economist continued to be the supervisor of the v i s i t i n g home-, maker service and of the homemakers. The d i s t r i c t workers now supervised the f a m i l i e s i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t who had a homemaker, but had l i t t l e contact with the homemaker except through the home economist. I t was apparent that much of the d i f f i c u l t y of supervision could be avoided by properly preparing the family before placement of a homemaker. I t was f u r t h e r recognizedthat the agency, by - 6U -eliminating unsuitable homes from service would also improve the ease of operation of the service. These considerations were incorporated i n the change made i n method of supervision i n March of 19U3. A d e f i n i t e plan f o r the handling of homemaker cases had been evolved. The agency intake worker took a l l the i n i t i a l information regarding a r e f e r r a l f o r the homemaker service. I t was f i r s t ascertained whether the family could make any other plan, whether they were f i n a n c i a l l y able to pay f o r service, and i f so, they were u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to the government employment service. I f the applicant seemed e l i g i b l e f o r t h i s s ervice, the name, number of c h i l d r e n , r e l i g i o n , problem and reason f o r r e -questing service were given to the secretary of the homemaker committee, who would accept i t and pass i t on to the d i s t r i c t worker, or i f c e r t a i n aspects needed f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n before acceptance, i t might be returned to the intake worker.' The d i s t r i c t worker would v i s i t the family the same day when i t was an emergency, otherwise an e a r l y appointment would be made to discuss the plan. The d i s t r i c t worker explained and in t e r p r e t e d the service to the family. She explained that the homemakers were q u a l i f i e d and s k i l l e d "substitute mothers", who could e i t h e r manage the home i f the mother was i n h o s p i t a l , o r could work under the supervision of the mother when i l l at home. - 65 -The service was not u s u a l l y given to homes with l e s s than two children, and the aim was to help f a m i l i e s by caring f o r the youngsters i n t h e i r own homes. Permission was secured to con-t a c t the physician, and i t was explained that length of service would depend on the doctor's recommendation. The worker ex-plained to the family, and both the mother and father had to be seen before placement of a homemaker, that the homemaker was not a charwoman, that she would do the regular housework, the regular washing and i r o n i n g , but would not be expected to do any heavy scrubbing or washing of blankets, etc. The family was expected to pay something toward the service, and the worker u s u a l l y worked out a budget with the family according to t h e i r income and needs. The father was expected to take some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the home, a s i t was not supposed to be l e f t e n t i r e l y to the homemaker. In v i s i t i n g the home i n which a homemaker was expected to work, the d i s t r i c t worker discussed the home f a c i l i t i e s with the family, f o r i f the home standards or equipment were too i n -adequate, no homemaker would be placed there. The home must be with i n a reasonable distance from transportation, so the home-maker would not have a long distance to walk. The homemaker was being placed i n the home to help the family, and the family was expected to help her i n every way possible, and not leave a l l the work and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e n t i r e l y i n her hands. At t h i s point there would probably be a j o i n t conference - 66 -regarding the placement of a homemaker i n t h i s home. The con-ference would be attended by the d i s t r i c t worker, her supervisor, the home economist and the secretary of the homemaker committee, and i t would be decided which homemaker was a v a i l a b l e , as an e f f o r t was always made to place a homemaker suited to the ciraum-stances i n a home. Since material under t h i s subhead shows an e f f o r t by the agency to avoid d i f f i c u l t i e s i n supervision by a good under-standing with the family at the commencement of service, i t seems appropriate to mention here the change of name of the service. This was done with the thought i n mind that the name V i s i t i n g Homemaker d i d not r e f l e c t the true p i c t u r e of the service, as i t f a i l e d to indic a t e that these homemakers could be accepted i n t o the home with confidence because they were trained and supervised i n t h e i r work by the agency. Therefore i n May, 19U6 the name of the service became "Supervised Homemakers' Service". The d i s t r i c t worker had no casework contact with the v i s i t i n g homemaker. The home economist gave the homemaker i n f o r -mation regarding the family, which she had secured from both the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r service and i n conversation with the d i s t r i c t •worker. I f a car was a v a i l a b l e , and i t was convenient to the d i s t r i c t worker, the homemaker would be taken the f i r s t morning to the home where she was assigned, but a f t e r t h i s , any time the d i s t r i c t v i s i t o r c a l l e d at the home, the homemaker must leave - 6 7 - . the room so the c l i e n t and worker could have a c o n f i d e n t i a l t a l k . This period might b e t t e r be c a l l e d the period of the "wedge", f o r any information regarding the f a m i l i e s , or any complaints from the homemakers could not be given to the d i s t r i c t worker d i r e c t , but must go through the channel of homemaker to home economist to d i s t r i c t worker. Any information which the d i s t r i c t worker wanted the homemaker.to know must go through the same channel i n reverse. More than once an embarrassing s i t u a t i o n arose because the homemaker did not choose to leave the room when the d i s t r i c t worker ar r i v e d , although she knew t h i s procedure was i n c o r r e c t , and of course knew t h i s would l a t e r be brought to her attention by the home economist. Such an awkward manner of supervision could not help but create a wide gap between workers and homemakers. There was constant complaint by the homemakers that the workers had no appreciation of what d i f f i c u l t i e s the homemakers had i n the homes. This system of supervising was d e f i n i t e l y holding apart the two f a c t i o n s which should be working i n close harmony. I t i s f o r t h i s reason that the term "wedge" i s used to i n d i c a t e the period a f f e c t e d . Casework Supervision of Homemakers The l a s t home economist to supervise the homemaker programme l e f t at the end of 19^8, and arrangements were made to use the service of the home economist on the s t a f f of the Metro-p o l i t a n Health Committee whenever the need arose f o r budgeting - 68 -service. Since the end of the war, need f o r budgeting service by the Family Welfare Bureau home economist had diminished, and since budget scales were set up i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l , the d i s t r i c t workers found i t simple to draw up any budgets they might need f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I t had also been learned through experience that the f a m i l i e s who needed budget service most, through t h e i r own inadequacy i n planning the expenditure of t h e i r income, were the most r e s i s t a n t to any budgeting suggestions. Also at the termination of the war, which brought an end to the government reports on e l i g i b i l i t y of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s f o r assistance with medical b i l l s , i t was no longer necessary to give the government information on the a b i l i t y of f a m i l i e s to budget t h e i r income adequately. Since the need of a home economist had diminished, and i t was believed to be a b e t t e r method of supervision to co-ordinate casework and homemaker service more c l o s e l y , i t was decided to make t h i s change during the reorganization necessita-ted by the resignation of the former a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r . The Family Welfare Bureau had a caseworker on i t s s t a f f who was already f a m i l i a r with the homemaker programme. She was a former business woman whose t r a i n i n g and experience f i t t e d her f o r the r o l e of supervisor of the homemaker service. The secretary of the homemaker committee and a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r of the Family Welfare Bureau, Miss Grubb, launched the new - 69 -programme of co-ordinating casework supervision of the homes and homemakers while on duty i n the homes by the d i s t r i c t workers, and supervision of the homemaker service and general supervision of the homemakers by the new supervisor of the service, Mrs. Cowper. Miss Grubb had nursed, cajoled, d i s -c i p l i n e d , and otherwise stood by during the infancy and adolescence of the homemaker service. Now that i t had reached adult status she f e l t she could leave. Mrs. Cowper took over a l l of Miss Grubb's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s pertaining to homemaker service, including secretaryship of the homemakers' committee. The new supervisor of homemakers r e a l i z e d that she needed to develop techniques to as c e r t a i n what q u a l i t i e s to seek i n the recruitment of homemakers needed immediately f o r the new tuberculosis programme. Because of the d i f f i c u l t emotional problems u s u a l l y accompanying tuberculosis patients, and the understanding necessary to cope with these problems, a programme such as t h i s needed the utmost i n co-operation from the homemakers, there would be no time to devote to prima donnas. In order to have t h i s co-operation, the supervisor f o s t e r e d close acquaintanceship with her homemakers and t h e i r problems, so a good homemaker-supervisor r e l a t i o n s h i p would be developed. The new supervisor r e a l i z e d that the homemaker's job was a very d i f f i c u l t one, so d i f f i c u l t that without the compensation of r e a l l y l i k i n g people, and wanting to help them, a homemaker could not do t h i s work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Now, instead of continuing to t e l l the homemakers that they were s t a f f members of the Family Welfare Bureau, which they had already been t o l d on numerous occasions, they were now i n v i t e d to the Family Wel-fare Bureau o f f i c e , as s t a f f members. Mrs. Cowper r e c a l l e d the f i r s t time one homemaker came to the o f f i c e to see her. This homemaker had been employed f o r several years, but had never been i n the o f f i c e since the day she was hired. When she walked down the h a l l , i t was noted that she s t r u t t e d a b i t . I t might seem a petty item, but the supervisor thinks t h i s i s very import-ant i n the morale of the homemakers, as t h e i r work i s often tedious, wearing, and tension-producing, e s p e c i a l l y i f they are i n a tuberculosis home and there i s the usual tuberculosis emotional pattern of c r i t i c i s m of everything the homemaker does. Another important way of i n d i c a t i n g s t a f f status r e l a t i o n s h i p to the homemaker was shown by the method used i n handling a complaint of them. No matter what the source of the complaint, the homemaker was asked to come to the o f f i c e on agency time to discuss t h i s f u l l y with the supervisor on a basis that the homemaker i s a s t a f f member. In 19U9, under the casework supervision of homemakers, homemaker s t a f f meetings were started. This was another morale booster, f o r i t was explained to them that the casework and c l e r i c a l s t a f f had regular s t a f f meetings during the day, but since - T i -the homemakers were busy during these hours, t h e i r meetings would be held at night. They understood that these s t a f f meetings would be used to discuss any business matters with them that were necessary, general problems which arose i n the homes, and that i t would also include a t r a i n i n g programme, and each evening would end i n a s o c i a l hour when the homemakers would have a chance to get acquainted. The f i r s t meeting was held January 28, 1 9 k 9 . I t was attended by f i v e homemakers, three homemaker committee members, and twelve Family Vfelfare Bureau caseworkers. I t was at t h i s f i r s t meeting that Miss Grubb outlined the new plan f o r the home-makers as follows: While working i n the home, the Supervised Home-maker w i l l have d i r e c t contact with caseworker and be free to discuss with the caseworker any problems i n the family s i t u a t i o n and ways of meeting these problems. Hours of work, time o f f , and arrangements f o r weekend duty while at the current job, w i l l be made with the caseworker. Mrs. Cowper w i l l assign cases, arrange pay, holidays, appoint and discharge Supervised Homemakers, and be a v a i l a b l e at a l l times to Supervised Homemakers i f they wish to discuss any aspect of t h e i r work. Problems i n connection with the family's a t t i t u d e or behaviour should be taken up d i r e c t l y with the case-worker. Supervised Homemakers, s t a r t i n g ^February 1, w i l l keep a d a i l y time sheet of hours of work, carfare, t r a v e l l i n g time, etc., these to be submitted on the 15>th and end of each month. The Supervised Homemakers p a y r o l l to be compiled from these sheets. A s t a f f meeting f o r the homemakers i s held the evening of the fourth Friday i n every month. They e l e c t t h e i r own o f f i c e r s , write t h e i r own minutes. Although they were not aware of i t , Mrs. Cowper was d e l i b e r a t e l y developing leadership, - 72 -and teaching the group parliamentary procedure. The meetings are planned ahead, sometimes speakers from outside the agency come and speak to the group. One meeting consisted of a speech about tuberculosis and the tuberculosis p e r s o n a l i t y , and two movies about tuberculosis were shown, followed by a discussion period. At other meetings, speeches on n u t r i t i o n and low cost meals were heard. At one meeting a pamphlet covering inexpensive but n u t r i t i o u s meals was given to a l l the homemakers. The home-makers e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d the t a l k s on behaviour and emotional problems, and some had a r e a l awareness of the kind of information needed by the d i s t r i c t worker, and the reasons f o r the need. The supervisor of the homemakers frequently t a l k s i n these meetings regarding c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , constantly cautioning them not to t a l k about one family to another family where they are working, or to t a l k about them to t h e i r own f a m i l i e s or f r i e n d s . Mrs. Cowper recognizes with them the d i f f i c u l t y of absolute s i l -ence as the homemaker works by h e r s e l f , and has no one to whom she can get something "off her chest", whereas the caseworker i s i n a be t t e r p o s i t i o n i n t h i s respect. Mrs. Cowper i s confident that the amount of t a l k i n g she has done on t h i s matter has had the desired e f f e c t , as i t now r a r e l y happens that t h i s kind of s i t u a t i o n has to be c a l l e d to the attention of a homemaker. The minutes of the homemaker meetings are taken and written by one of the homemakers who was elected secretary of the group. Mrs. Cowper at f i r s t thought i t would be necessary f o r her to e d i t the minutes, but soon found that t h i s would be 2 unnecessary. The supervisor of homemakers keeps constantly aware of any i n s t i t u t e s which may be of i n t e r e s t to the homemakers, such as care of ch i l d r e n , behaviour problems, n u t r i t i o n , etc. One meeting consisted of the reading by some of the homemakers of papers they had prepared on various aspects of t h e i r work, the information had been gained from the monthly meetings, other meetings they had attended, and books they had read. The subjects selected f o r these papers were N u t r i t i o n , Tuberculosis, The Home-maker Service, and others.-' These papers were considered to be so good that they were also read to the casework s t a f f . The long road the homemakers have come during the past two years with casework supervision i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d by the q u a l i t y of these papers. A d e f i n i t e p o l i c y of gi v i n g a homemaker a compensating easy assignment a f t e r she has been working i n an e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n f o r several months has been adopted. There i s also no h e s i t a t i o n i n commending a homemaker and p r a i s i n g her work when she has been unusually h e l p f u l i n r e h a b i l i t a t i n g a family. This type of recognition of t h e i r work i s e s p e c i a l l y 2 Minutes of one of the Homemaker Meetings are reproduced i n Appendix A. 3 Some of the papers written by homemakers are reproduced i n Appendix A. -7k-necessary, as they have no other yardstick by which to measure the r e s u l t of t h e i r e f f o r t , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r working with a family who has been very c r i t i c a l of everything the homemaker has done. The supervised homemaker service i s d e f i n i t e l y geared to a casework service, each aids and supplements the other. In f a m i l i e s where casework service has been r e j e c t e d i t has been found that i t was u s u a l l y inadvisable to continue home-maker service i n the family on the basis of an environmental need alone. As a r u l e t h i s kind of placement shows a lack of consideration of the homemaker and a lack of appreciation f o r or understanding of the service. I t may sound as though supervision of the homemaker i s divided; but i n i t s method of operation, the supervision i s co-operative, and produces a j o i n t e f f o r t of caseworker and home-maker to achieve the same r e s u l t - the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the family, p h y s i c a l l y and emotionally. I t might be said here that the new system of supervision, as now handled, has removed the "wedge" which had been holding apart the two f a c t i o n s of operation. A supervisory technique has been evolved to e s t a b l i s h closer working r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the homemakers and caseworkers. When a homemaker i s to s t a r t work i n a new home, Mrs. Cowper t e -lephones her and gives her a b r i e f summary of the new family, - 75 -and an idea of the length of time she w i l l be needed i n the home. An appointment i s then made f o r the homemaker to come to the o f f i c e to discuss the new s i t u a t i o n with the caseworker and Mrs..Cowper. During t h i s conference, there i s a frank discussion of the family, why a homemaker i s necessary, suggest-ions as to the ways i n which the homemaker can best help the family and the caseworker. The homemaker i s paid f o r the time necessary f o r t h i s discussion i n the Family Welfare Bureau o f f i c e . In a l l cases, the d i s t r i c t worker drives the homemaker to the new home on the f i r s t day. The worker also outlines again the duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the homemaker, and of the family, although t h i s has been done previously with the homemaker and family separately. A high degree of l o y a l t y has been developed i n the group of homemakers. Their sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and under-standing of t h e i r function as a s t a f f member of the Family Welfare Bureau are of a high order. A good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s a t t i t u d e shown by a l l the homemakers occurred when the transportation system f a i l e d during the snowstorm e a r l y i n 1950. A l l homemakers managed to reach the f a m i l i e s where they were working, some of them by walking through^now d r i f t s f o r several miles, because, as one homemaker said, "They were depending on me, I couldn't l e t them down". Another homemaker who was i n j u r e d i n a bus accident the previous night, s t a r t e d from home much e a r l i e r than usual the next morning, at 6:00 a.m., so she could reach the home \ - 76 -where she was working i n time to prepare the c h i l d r e n f o r school. She was surprised when t o l d that she should have: stayed home and looked a f t e r h e r s e l f . The supervisor of homemakers must be a warm and understanding person, who gives support to the homemakers when they f e e l discouraged. The Family .Welfare Bureau i s fortunate i n having such a person i n t h i s p o s i t i o n . The writer's personal observation revealed these women as a group of congenial, en-t h u s i a s t i c , good-natured, l o y a l and understanding "substitute mothers" with a kindred s p i r i t i n t h e i r work and attitu d e toward the Family Welfare Bureau. They are homey and confident, and radiate assurance. Their l o y a l t y and respect f o r t h e i r super-v i s o r was evident a l l evening, as was the pride that Mrs. Cowper showed i n her organization. The mutual f e e l i n g and present morale status of t h i s group must have i t s foundation i n the heart and spirit of the agency as administered by Miss McPhedran, and as int e r p r e t e d and supervised by Mrs. Cowper. An i l l u s t r a t -ion w i l l i n d i c a t e the effectiveness of the supervision given the homemakers: A c l i e n t gave the homemaker c o n f i d e n t i a l information, then said, "Don't t e l l the 'Welfare!'" The home-maker calmly r e p l i e d , "But I am the 'Welfare 1." CHAPTER k CURRENT METHODS OF OPERATION The Supervised. Homemakers1 Committee of today bears l i t t l e resemblance to the Committee which st a r t e d i n the year 1938, other than i t s continued energy and keen i n t e r e s t i n a l l matters concerning the service. The current Committee has a number of charter members who have been, and been a part of, the changes and evolution of the Homemaker Service. The com-plement'; of the Committee today i s about evenly divided between l a y and pr o f e s s i o n a l members. To the o r i g i n a l l a y members who were appointed by the Family Welfare Bureau Board of Directors, have been added other members who have shown an i n t e r e s t i n t h i s service given the motherless home. The pro f e s s i o n a l members are appointed representatives from various health and welfare agencies i n the community. The Homemaker Committee acts as a l i a i s o n group between the Homemaker Service and the Board of the Family Welfare Bureau, making recommendations regarding p o l i c y , financing, and other matters, which the Board must confirm before being used by the Homemaker Service. To i l l u s t r a t e how t h i s phase of the Home-makers' Committee operates, suppose the supervisor of homemakers, a f t e r consultation and authorization from her casework and administrative superiors i n the Family Welfare Bureau, should ask the Homemakers' Committee to study and recommend that an experiment be t r i e d i n supplying a l i m i t e d number of e l d e r l y - 78 -couples with homemaker service. This would require the h i r i n g of two new homemakers, who would work two hours a day with each couple. As complete a report as possible would be given the Homemakers' Committee, with information on t h i s type of service elsewhere, estimated costs, methods of f i n -ancing, etc. The Homemakers' Committee would discuss the matter, and i f approved by the majority i t would be presented to the Board f o r approval. The Homemakers' Committee i s close to the homemakers and t h e i r needs so makes necessary recommendations regarding personnel p r a c t i c e s which cannot become a part of homemaker service p r a c t i c e u n t i l confirmed by the Board. The committee t r i e s t o keep homemaker p o l i c i e s and personnel p r a c t i c e s abreast of p o l i c i e s and personnel p r a c t i c e s i n the Family Wel-fare Bureau as a s o c i a l agency. There are c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n t i a t -ions which must be made, since the homemakers' function d i f f e r s from that of others i n the agency, she works hard p h y s i c a l l y , and the s t r a i n emotionally i s also greater than on others i n the agency. However, i n a l l broad aspects, and interpreations, p o l i c y and personnel p r a c t i c e s f o r t h i s service must conform to the same f a c t o r s i n the agency as a whole. In c i d e n t a l l y , the Homemakers' Committee has shown a great deal of under-standing and sympathy f o r the work the homemakers are doing, and they are c o n t i n u a l l y t r y i n g to improve the working con-d i t i o n s of the homemakers. - 7 9 -The Homemakers1 Committee also acts as a Case Committee. Accepted procedure i s f o r the d i s t r i c t worker to present her case. There i s anonymity f o r the famil y by c a l l i n g them by an i n i t i a l , f o r instance, "Mrs.B". The f a c t s of the past s i t u a t i o n are given i n b r i e f summary form by the d i s t r i c t worker, then the present s i t u a t i o n i s discussed, together with the physician's recommend-ation, progress of the home due to the use of a homemaker, and a presentation of the present problem with which assistance i s being asked of the Homemakers' Committee. The d i s t r i c t worker may be asking that the homemaker be l e f t i n a home f o r a longer period than the time previously planned. I f progress i s being made, and further service i s needed, the Homemaker Committee w i l l probably agree to an extension of service, and a f u r t h e r review of, the s i t u a t i o n at a s p e c i f i e d future date. On the other hand, the d i s c u s s i o n may be around a family who seems unable or un-w i l l i n g to use the homemaker service constructively. In such a s i t u a t i o n , the committee may f e e l j u s t i f i e d to suggest that the service be terminated, but that the family be given a c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d time to make other arrangements. Current Personnel P o l i c i e s The personnel p r a c t i c e s i n i t s current form i s a t r i b u t e to the progressive thinking and action of the Homemaker Committee, and today i t i s considered that changes w i l l continue to be made i n the personnel p r a c t i c e s , i n l i n e with improved standards and - 80 -working conditions f o r the homemakers. In January, 1951, the supervisor of homemakers considered i t was time to discuss with the homemakers personnel practices which applied to them. I t would not have been possible to plan such a d i s c u s s i o n as short a time as a year ago, f o r the homemakers would have shown l i t t l e i n t e r e s t . During the past two years, there are no aspects of personnel p r a c t i c e s which have not been discussed with the homemakers, e i t h e r i n i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r -views or i n groups. The part which was new was to have the personnel p r a c t i c e s typed i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y , and provide a copy f o r each homemaker that she could follow the discussion i n t e l l i -gently. Personnel p r a c t i c e s were discussed by Mrs. Cowper at the January, 1951 Homemakers1 Meeting, at which nineteen homemakers out of twenty-four were present on a very co l d and unpleasant night. Two absentees were on 2l;-hour duty. Mrs. Cowper explained that these p r a c t i c e s , with one or/two exceptions, were the conditions under which the homemakers were now employed, and under which the service was now operating. The exceptions would be brought before the Homemaker Committee f o r approval i f the homemakers decided they would l i k e to have t h i s done. I t w i l l be h e l p f u l to present the o f f i c i a l statement on Personnel Practices of the Vancouver Homemaker Service, and to comment on t h i s section by section, and l a t e r to compare these - 81 -p r a c t i c e s with those recommended by the Committee on Homemaker Service of the Welfare Council of New York C i t y i n January 19U8. SELECTION AND PLACEMENT: The Supervisor has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of employing the Homemaker S t a f f . The Supervisor i s responsible f o r defining f o r the applicant the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s desired, the require-ments and the sa l a r y of the job and conditions of employment. The applicant i s responsible f o r making a v a i l a b l e to the agency f a c t s about h e r s e l f with regard to t r a i n i n g , experience, i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s and cap a c i t i e s , health and employment. The applicant i s required to f u r n i s h an up-to-date medical report or to undergo a medical checkup by her own doctor ot by the Outpatients' Department of the Vancouver General Hospital, with whom the agency has a s p e c i a l arrangement. She i s required also to have a chest x-ray, and i f employed, subsequent x-rays every s i x months, as we l l as medical examinations when requested by the Supervisor. A p p l i c a t i o n forms should be f i l e d at the time of personal a p p l i c a t i o n . References must be given from former employers or other responsible persons. The supervisor read the above f i r s t section from the personnel p r a c t i c e s , and asked i f there were any questions or comments. A number commented that they understood t h i s section. One homemaker asked what wasmeant i n the t h i r d paragraph - the reference to extra medical examinations i f the supervisor r e -quested i t . Mrs. Cowper gave a hypothetical i l l u s t r a t i o n by saying that i f she knew a homemaker had been working under un-1 Committee on Homemaker Service of the Welfare Council of New York C i t y , Recommendations f o r Personnel Practices f o r Home- makers, Welfare •  Council of New York C i t y , (January, 191*6), - 82 -us u a l l y d i f f i c u l t circumstances, and looked t i r e d and worn out, she might ask her to have a p h y s i c a l examination to determine her state of health, since i t was a part of her work as supervisor to look a f t e r the homemakers, and to be sure the agency was not keeping them working too hard. The tuberculosis x-rays every s i x months were a precautionary method since the majority of homemakers worked some time during the year i n at l e a s t one tuberculosis home. WORKING CONDITIONS: Hours of Work: For Homemakers working i n non-resident jobs the maximum weekly working hours are kk> T r a v e l l i n g time i n excess of one hour each way w i l l be counted as work and paid f o r accordingly. Homemakers w i l l be paid at over-time rates f o r any work beyond kh hours per week, and where possible w i l l be given the equivalent time o f f between jobs. In resident jobs Homemakers are e n t i t l e d to !§• days free per wekk, i . e . Saturday 1 p.m. u n t i l Sunday night or Monday morning, or the equivalent at a time to s u i t the family. When a substitute cannot be obtained and the Homemaker cannot be released f o r t h i s period, overtime at 8 hours per day w i l l be paid. When possible, time o f f during the week while the ch i l d r e n are at school or a f t e r they are i n bed w i l l be arranged. The supervisor i s to be informed immediately i n case of i l l n e s s or accident to the Homemaker. Meals: Non-resident Homemakers are e n t i t l e d to midday meal at l e a s t . Resident Homemakers are e n t i t l e d to a l l meals except during the 1-g- days o f f per week. I f the family can not pay f o r t h i s , other arrangements must be made by the Supervisor. Sleeping Arrangements: The Resident Homemaker w i l l , i f possible, have a separate room with reasonable privacy. She w i l l never share a room with anyone but a c h i l d . Bed and bedding can be provided by . the Supervisor i f needed. - 83 -Uniforms or Aprons: These s h a l l be worn, when supplied, while Homemaker i s at work. Infectious Cases: Homemakers w i l l be asked to enter homes where there i s i n f e c t i o n only when s a t i s f a c t o r y precautions are possi b l e . There was a l i t t l e confusion among the homemakers regarding the.number of hours considered a working week. There was apparently a good deal of unevenness regarding the number of hours each homemaker was working. I t was explained to them that t h i s month c e r t a i n homemakers might be working more than the kk hours per week. Next month, the same would be true of other homemakers, while the ones working long hours t h i s month might be working t h e i r s t r a i g h t hk hours next month. There was some good-natured joking regarding meals i n some homes. One homemaker commented that she took a sandwich with her on the three days a week when she worked i n one tuberculosis home. She does not know how the family can get a home so d i r t y i n the day or two between the days when she i s working i n the home. Mrs. Cowper t o l d her that the i n t o l e r a b l e conditions under which she was working i n that family would be discussed f o r the t h i r d time with thefamily, and that homemaker service i n that home would be withdrawn i f the family d i d not become more co-operative, or i f the condition could not be corrected by the a p p l i c a t i o n of casework service. Methods are provided f o r food i n a home which has home-- 814 -maker service i f the family cannot a f f o r d extra food f o r the homemaker: the Family Welfare Bureau can give the family an allowance to cover the food f o r the homemaker; an allowance can be given the homemaker to buy food f o r h e r s e l f , or noon-day meal i n a restaurant can be provided f o r the homemaker i f the l i v i n g standards i n the home are so poor that the homemaker cannot eat there. E a r l y i n the h i s t o r y of the homemaker service, i t was often found necessary to provide the homemaker with a bed and bedding i n homes when a resident homemaker was required. Often i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a family to understand why a home-maker needs a bed alone, why she cannot sleep with a couple of ch i l d r e n . The tuberculosis cases come under the heading of i n f e c t i o u s cases, and the p u b l i c health nurses see that the necessary precautions are maintained i n these homes. One homemaker commented how f e a r f u l she had been of tuberculosis before she had learned about the disease, and how to take precautions. A number of other homemakers agreed with her. Mrs. Cowper reminded them of that the health o f f i c e r had t o l d them about working i n tuberculosis homes, that they were l e s s l i k e l y to contract the disease i n such a home due to the hygienic measures taken than they were to contract i t on a bus or other p u b l i c place where there was no co n t r o l over people who had tuberculosis. TRAINING: Homemakers are expected to attend s t a f f meetings and t r a i n i n g courses when required. Time thus spent w i l l be counted as work hours. SALARY SCALE: Homemakers are classed i n three groups: Group C - s a l a r y .5>5^  per hour Group B - s a l a r y .600 per hour Group A - salary .650 per hour Group C: The s t a r t i n g group f o r a l l homemakers. The s i x months time spent i n t h i s group i s considered a probationary period. Group B: Homemakers with s i x months service or over comprise t h i s group. Group A: A selected group of homemakers with over one and a h a l f years of service. Elevation from Group B w i l l be determined by two f a c t o r s : length of service and q u a l i t y of work, with s p e c i a l emphasis on the homemaker's a b i l i t y to work with the s o c i a l worker on the case work l e v e l . A l l homemakers i n t h i s group must be prepared to remain i n resident service, i f so requested. Overtime: Rate of pay f o r a l l groups over a kh hour week i s . one and a h a l f times the regular s a l a r y rate. Resident Service: A f u l l working day on resident service i s computed at 8 hours, a h a l f day, i . e . , Saturday u n t i l 1 p.m., h hours. Bonus f o r resident service i s $2.00 per week. The homemakers thought that seeing the s a l a r y scale i n black and white c l a r i f i e d i t better f o r them. Mrs. Cowper explained to them that u n t i l quite recently, homemakers were ' divided into a u x i l i a r y and permanent homemakers, and those on the permanent s t a f f were formerly p a i d a monthly salary. Now, - 86 -a l l homemakers are considered on the permanent s t a f f a f t e r the f i r s t s i x months probationary period, and q u a l i f y f o r the r a i s e i n s a l a r y to 60^ per hour. In order to q u a l i f y f o r Group A, a homemaker must be a very s k i l l e d person who i s able to co-operate with the caseworker. The homemakers were asked i f they preferred to be paid on an hourly b a s i s , or would l i k e to receive a monthly salary, regardless of the number of hours worked. The homemakers were outspoken f o r the present system of being p a i d wages by the hour. Mrs. Cowper t o l d them that i t was because she wanted to be accurate i n f i g u r i n g the pay which was due them, that she kept st r e s s i n g the matter of the home makers turning i n t h e i r time sheets early, showing the number of hours they had worked i n the previous h a l f month. One homemaker mentioned that she had been working as a homemaker f o r seven months, and had noticed on her l a s t two cheques that she was s t i l l being paid on the Group C ba s i s . She was reminded that her f i r s t two months as a homemaker, she only worked part-time, so the f i r s t two months would t o t a l one month i n a c t u a l working time. She now r e c a l l e d that t h i s had been mentioned to her when she was working short months. She was t o l d that her next cheque would have her established on the Group B salary scale. Mrs. Cowper said she had been a b i t doubtful as to whether she should include the part about one and a h a l f times - 87 -the regular salary f o r overtime beyond a hh hour week, since t h i s had not yet been approved by the committee. She made i t cle a r that she was not sure of being able to secure t h i s f o r them, but that according to recommendations made i n a study by a Committee on Homemaker Service by the Welfare Council of New York C i t y i n 19l;8, t h i s p r o v i s i o n was recommended, or equivalent time o f f duty with pay. Mrs. Cowper. favours equivalent time o f f , but thinks i t i s not always possible to do t h i s , so f e e l s that they should have the p r o v i s i o n of a d d i t i o n a l pay. The present basis of pay f o r Vancouver homemakers i s 600 per hour f o r over-time, i r r e s p e c t i v e of the supervised homemakers1 s a l a r y scale. The homemakers agreed they would l i k e Mrs. Cowper to ask i f they could have t h i s p r o v i s i o n incorporated i n t h e i r personnel p r a c t i c e s , although she emphasized that both the Homemakers' Committee and the Board of the Family Welfare Bureau would have to pass on i t . TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT: Resignation: Legal notice of two weeks s h a l l be given by the Homemaker, except i f the Homemaker i s i n Group C, when one day's notice i s s u f f i c i e n t . Dismissal: Legal notice of two weeks s h a l l be given by the agency, except i f the Homemaker i s i n Group C when one day's notice i s s u f f i c i e n t . At the time of dismissal the Homemaker s h a l l be informed of the reason f o r discharge. Reorganization: Where i t i s necessary to reduce the s t a f f because of reorganization of the agency, the following factors s h a l l be considered: (a) The s k i l l and capacity of the Homemaker i n r e l a t i o n to her work record. (b) The length of the homemaker's service with the agency. - 88 -A number of homemakers s a i d they d i d not r e a l i z e that anyone i n Group C could be dismissed or leave of t h e i r own accord with only one day's notice. Mrs. Cowper explained i t to them by asking i f they a l l remembered t h e i r f i r s t week as a homemaker, and how they f e l t . A number of them made remarks to the e f f e c t that they wondered i f they could ever become pro-f i c i e n t homemakers. Mrs. Cowper went on to say that i t was not always possible f o r a woman to know whether or not she was suited to the work of a homemaker, and i t was f a i r e r to her to allow her to leave with only one day's notice, rather than making her stay i n uncongenial work while she gave l e g a l notice of two weeks. The homemakers nodded agreement to t h i s . Some of the homemakers wondered what the section of r e -organization meant, i f some of them were to be " l e t out". Mrs. Cowper said that was included simply as a precaution, and there was no i n d i c a t i o n at the present time that there would be a reorganization programme i n the near future. The tuberculosis programme was dependent on a government grant to pay f o r home-makers i n tuberculosis homes, and i t was never known whether or not such a programme would be placed on a permanent b a s i s . Mrs. Cowper stressed the need f o r t h e i r services i n t h i s community, and hoped to keep them a l l f o r as long as they wanted to be home-makers. 89 -REHIRING: I f the Homemaker has been l a i d o f f due to r e -organization of the s t a f f , whenever possible she s h a l l be placed on a p r e f e r r e d l i s t f o r one year i n case the p o s i t i o n again becomes a v a i l a b l e . The period away from the agency should not be considered as termination of employment, i n order that she may be reinstated i n the s a l a r y scale. Where the Homemaker who has resigned v o l u n t a r i l y , i s rehired, she does not n e c e s s a r i l y assume the s e n i o r i t y which she has attained during her previous period of employment with the agency. Her p o s i t i o n i n the s a l a r y scale should be based on evaluation soon a f t e r her return. The above seemed clear-cut, and so f a r as the homemakers were concerned, they d i d not i n d i c a t e a need f o r explanation. Vacation: Vacations should be considered as a reward f o r past services and also an opportunity to recuperate mental and p h y s i c a l strength i n preparation f o r services to be rendered i n the future. Vacations should not be allowed to accumulate from year to year since t h i s p r a c t i c e defeats the purpose of vacat-ion leaves. The following i s the schedule f o r holidays with f u l l pay: "After s i x months of service and under one year at the rate of one working day f o r each month of service. A f t e r one year of service, 12 working days, Saturday being con-sidered one working day. The "vacation year" s h a l l measure from May 1st to May 1st." Statutory Holidays: Homemakers w i l l be paid at overtime rates i f they have to work on these days. Where possib l e , the Homemaker w i l l be given an equivalent time o f f duty. LEAVES: New Tear's Day Good Friday Easter Monday King's Birthday Empire Day Dominion Day Labour Day Thanksgiving Day Armistice Day Christmas Boxing Day - 90 -Sick Leave: Homemakers are e n t i t l e d to sick leave with f u l l pay up to 12 days each year a f t e r one year of service. A f t e r s i x months of service and under one year at the rate of one day f o r each month of service. This leave i s not accumulative from one year to another. The Supervisor may require the Homemaker to consult a doctor not l a t e r than the t h i r d day of i l l n e s s . S p e cial circumstances may be taken up with the Committee. The "Sick Leave Year" s h a l l measure from January 1st to January 1st. Leave of Absence: Leave of absence w i l l be granted at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Supervisor f o r such reasons as i l l n e s s of homemaker or i l l n e s s or death of member of her family, or f o r other reasons considered v a l i d by the Supervisor. The Supervisor and the Homemakers1 Committee w i l l always bear i n mind that Yfinter t r a v e l l i n g conditions, poor housing with inadequate f u e l supplies, long working and t r a v e l l i n g hours, as w e l l as the i n e v i t a b l e ' f l u and cold epidemics may contribute to the necessity of home-makers requesting leave of absence j u s t because of a run-down, t i r e d f e e l i n g . Whenever possible leave of absence w i l l be granted i n the above circumstances, but t h i s w i l l not always be possible due to pressure of work. The pr a c t i c e s currently i n e f f e c t were s t r a i g h t forward and required no explanation. Regarding the over-time rate i f homemakers must work extra time, i t should be remembered that the present rate of pay f o r overtime, no matter what sal a r y scale a homemaker may be on, i s 600 per hour, which Mrs. Cowper i s hoping to be instrumental i n having changed to payment of time and a h a l f f o r a l l over-time, and counting the work on statutory holidays as overtime. Regarding sick leave, two of the homemakers thought t h i s should be accumulative from year to year, as sometimes - 91 -they contracted ' f l u from a home where they were working which r e s u l t e d i n need of sick leave. Mrs. Cowper explained that i f a d d i t i o n a l s i c k leave was necessary from having con-tr a c t e d an i l l n e s s while working, t h i s would be an agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and treated as an i n d i v i d u a l matter i n bringing i t before the homemakers' committee; i n any case, the homemaker would not have to s u f f e r l o s s of sa l a r y i n such circumstances within reason. The matter of reo^uests f o r a leave of absence by a number of homemakers has become a r e a l problem, since working conditions and the emotional problems found i n tuberculosis homes, has completely worn out a number of homemakers. Mrs. Cowper could not very w e l l mention her intentions i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s matter at the time of t h i s discussion with the home-makers i n January. But since that time, she has worked out a bonus plan f o r homemakers f o r presentation to the Homemakers' Committee. A bonus would give the homemakers the income necessa-r y to enable them to take time away from their"work, and recoup the energy they have so generously expended i n t h e i r work as homemakers. Line Organization and Review Procedure The Bureau's statement on r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s now reads as follows: - 92 -While working i n a home, the Homemaker has d i r e c t contact with the s o c i a l worker, and i s free to discuss with the s o c i a l worker problems i n the family s i t u a t i o n and ways of meeting these problems. Hours of work, time o f f , and arrangements f o r week-end duty while at current job w i l l be made with the s o c i a l worker. The Supervisor assigns cases, arranges pay, holidays, appoints and discharges Homemakers and i s ava i l a b l e at a l l times to Homemakers i f they wish to discuss any aspect of t h e i r work. Ac t u a l l y , problems i n connection with the family's a t t i t u d e or behaviour should be taken up d i r e c t l y with the s o c i a l worker, but i f she cannot be reached, contact with the Supervisor i s advisable. Complaints: Complaints about an i n d i v i d u a l Homemaker's discharge of her duties or at t i t u d e to her work w i l l be discussed with her by her Supervisor. I f complaints p e r s i s t , a Homemaker may be placed on a probationary status with the p r o v i s i o n that i f her work or attitud e does not improve, dismissal may be necessary. Review Procedure; Review Procedure i s provided f o r prompt and i m p a r t i a l consideration and adjustment of misunderstandings and grievances. I t i s suggested that the following p r i n c i p l e s be observed: The Homemaker should consult the Supervisor and, f a i l i n g to reach a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment, e i t h e r or both may r e f e r the matter to the Director, who reviews i t with one or both of them. Should t h i s review f a i l to bring about a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment, the matter should then be r e f e r r e d to the Homemaker Committee. The decision of t h i s Committee i s f i n a l and w i l l be presented to the Homemaker by the Supervisor. During the homemakers' meeting, the homemakers f r e e l y discussed t h e i r work with the caseworkers, and how much they learned by having t h i s k i n d of supervision i n the homes. Some of the home-makers were embarrassingly complimentary regarding the supervisor of homemakers, and t h e i r f e e l i n g that she was always on the job to look a f t e r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . - 93 -Regarding the matter of complaints, the homemakers were agreed that the homemaker u s u a l l y knew when a family was going to make a complaint about her, as i t was often preceded by threats* Mrs. Cowper t o l d them that although i t was r e p e t i t -ion of what she had t o l d them previously, she would again say that whenever a complaint was made regarding a homemaker, t h i s would be discussed with that homemaker immediately. One home-maker sa i d that some of the tuberculosis f a m i l i e s were unreason-able i n t h e i r demands f o r service and complaints of the home-makers, i i r s . Cowper agreed, but she f e l t that every complaint of a homemaker, no matter how t r i v i a l or untrue, should be d i s -cussed with the homemaker, as r e p e t i t i o n of complaints by a family was often an i n d i c a t i o n of the family's unwillingness to co-operate. The question of accident insurance was brought up by one of the homemakers, and she was t o l d that the Family Welfare Bureau had an insurance p o l i c y to cover accidents to the home-makers while they are working i n a home as a homemaker, but t h i s has no coverage on t h e i r way to and from work. Some of the home-makers have taken out i n d i v i d u a l accident p o l i c i e s . Mrs. Cowper d e l i b e r a t e l y l e f t out of personnel p r a c t i c e s any d e f i n i t e age l i m i t a t i o n s f o r homemakers, p r i m a r i l y because there are two homemakers who are i n t h e i r s i x t i e s , who are s t i l l capable of meeting the high standards necessary f o r homemakers, -9k-and she f e l t that an age s t i p u l a t i o n would be discriminatory. Comparisons between the Supervised Homemaker Service of Vancouver, and homemaker services elsewhere regarding the status of homemakers are d i f f i c u l t to make without a study being made of the other services. Personnel p o l i c i e s have l i t t l e meaning without knowing the way those p o l i c i e s are administered. There i s , however, a method of drawing a comparison by measuring com-parative wages of a l l i e d f i e l d s i n the same v i c i n i t y . In Vancouver, according to the National Employment Service, wages f o r housework by the day range from 650 to 750 per hour, plus transportation and noon meal on a l l scales. On a basis of 650 per hour, f o r an eight hour day, the wage i s $ 5 . 2 0 , a wage of 700 per hour i s $ 5 . 6 0 , and an hourly wage of 750 amounts to $6.00 per eight hour day. Another worker i n an a l l i e d f i e l d i s the p r a c t i c a l nurse who has her c e r t i f i c a t e . The p r a c t i c a l nurse has a wage of $5.50 each eight hour day, and i f she i s on twenty-four hour duty, and must l i v e i n the home, she receives a d a i l y wage of $7 .50. Comparatively, the Vancouver homemaker on a basi s of 600 per hour earns only $1;.80 f o r her eight hour day, which i s l e s s than the minimum wage" paid f o r d a i l y house-work, and the homemaker must be considerably more s k i l l e d and v e r s a t i l e than e i t h e r the woman doing housework or a p r a c t i c a l nurse. - 95 -In New York C i t y , the minimum wages f o r household help f o r a hO hour week are $35.00, and f o r a 1+8 hour week $1+2.00 and up per week. The minimum wages f o r a p r a c t i c a l nurse are $32.70 per week f o r the f i r s t s i x months of service, and f o r the second s i x months of service there i s an increase to $35.00 per week. The recommended minimum salary f o r a homemaker work-2 ing i n New York C i t y was $35.00 per week. In other words, a homemaker i n New York i s expected to accept a salary which i s the minimum that an ordinary domestic worker receives. To carry-out our comparison, a conclusion may be drawn that the homemaker i n New York i s s l i g h t l y better paid than the Vancouver homemaker, inasmuch as the Vancouver homemaker's sal a r y i s B0% of what i s paid f o r housework. While i n New York, i t has been shown that the homemaker i s paid on a par with the one doing only housework. The Committee on Homemaker Service of the Welfare Council of New York C i t y gave the following recommendation f o r q u a l i f i -cations of a homemaker: "A Homemaker i s an employee of the agency and under i t s supervision i s expected to carry out the services planned by the agency with a family. The Homemaker has to maintain a balance i n i d e n t i f y i n g h e r s e l f appropriately both with the agency as her employer and with the family to whom she i s d i r e c t l y and personally giving service. In doing t h i s job she must exercise a high degree of independent judgment, and be able to make on Coimnittee on Homemaker Service of the Welfare Council of New York Cit y , Recommendations f o r Personnel Practices f o r Home- makers, Welfare Council of New York C i t y , (January, 191+8) the job decisions without consulting the agency, at each move. She must have understanding of people, a b i l i t y to maintain poise under adverse conditions and have an objective a t t i t u d e i n emotional s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g family tensions. She must be adjustable, able to go e a s i l y from one home to another, s e n s i t i v e to home s i t u a t i o n s , able to gear the degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y she assumes to the needs of a p a r t i c u l a r family as they d i f f e r from those of other f a m i l i e s or vary within the same family as conditions change - such as gradual convalescence of a mother. She must be able to perform e f f i c i e n t -l y under a v a r i e t y of circumstances the whole gamut of homemaker's tasks and be able to assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the manage-ment of a household and the care of the children. A Homemaker must be able to use her a b i l i t i e s , experience and t r a i n i n g i n helping people.^ Under the same heading of "Recommendations re S a l a r i e s " , i t i s stated that a part of a homemaker's compensation i s paid i n "status", "greater s e c u r i t y on the job", " s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the job", "recognition of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the f a m i l i e s and h t h e i r value to the community". I f a woman could be found with a l l of the above a b i l i t i e s , i t i s a matter of conjecture as to whether she would agree to i n work as a homemaker and/lieu of an adequate wage receive her 3 ; Committee on Homemaker Service of the Welfare Council of New York City, Recommendations f o r Personnel Practices f o r Home- makers, Welfare Council of New York City, (January, 19ij.8). U I b i d . - 97 -compensation i n the presumed "status" of the work and enjoyment in being of value to the families she serves and the community. The Vancouver homemaker service has excellent standards in relation to the recommendations of the New York Committee re-garding holidays, vacations and sick leave, since the Family Yfelfare Bureau has a flexible policy allowing for individual consideration rather than a r i g i d policy of so many days for each homemaker each year on sick leave. There are comparisons with homemaker services i n other countries which could be made - i n Sweden, Finland, and i n England. Briefly, the services i n these countries are government sponsored. Homemaker training clashes are available and required for those •wishing to do this work. Homemakers have status i n their commu-nities , and there i s job security i n the permanence of their work, insurance and retirement benefits. Organization As this study i s confined to the supervised homemakers' service, other areas of Family Welfare Bureau organization, such as the administrative "line", although important to the success-f u l operation of the agency, have not been emphasized. The Board of the Family Welfare Bureau establishes policy of this private family agency, and have delegated administrative respon-s i b i l i t y of the agency to the director, Miss McPhedran, whom they brought from eastern Canada i n 1928 to establish this agency. See footnote No.l, p . l , regarding magazine articles on homemaker services in European countries. - 98 -The Family Welfare Bureau i s a Red Feather service under the Vancouver Community Chest, and derives i t s income from the annual fund-raising campaign of the Community Chest. This agency's primary function i n the community i s the gi v i n g of casework services to f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s who need assistance with problems. A large part of the agency's work has been i n the experimental f i e l d developing new services and casework techniques of value i n the community. Four casework supervisors operate under the administrat-ion and general supervision of the d i r e c t o r , and supervise the caseworkers who are c a l l e d d i s t r i c t workers. A l l but two of the d i s t r i c t workers are senior caseworkers. One casework supervisor, Mrs. Mabee, i s general supervisor of the supervisor of homemaker service. This assures continuity of supervision of t h i s service, as Mrs. Mabee i s cognizant of and a party to a l l planning i n t h i s d i v i s i o n of the agency. Casework and caseworkers are important to the successful operation of the homemaker service, but t h i s i s not a paper on the casework f a c t o r s except i n s o f a r as i t i s necessary to i n t e r -pret t h e i r function i n r e l a t i o n to the homemaker i n the home, and the. family r e c e i v i n g homemaker service. The caseworker i n t e r p r e t s to the homemaker the needs of the family, and secures her co-operation i n constructive planning f o r the family. The caseworker understands that although the homemaker i s not a caseworker she i s ready and w i l l i n g to a s s i s t i n casework - 99 -planning. The homemaker may not know s o c i a l work terminology, and may not know or be able to understand the emotional b a s i s f o r some forms of behaviour i n adults and child r e n , but she i s capable under the d i r e c t i o n of the caseworker of f a c i l i t a t i n g the operation of the plan. - 100 -CHAPTER 5 THE DEVELOPMENT OP P O L I C Y The p o l i c i e s w h i c h g o v e r n t h e s u p e r v i s e d homemaker s e r v i c e have b e e n d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e f r amework o f t h e F a m i l y W e l f a r e B u r e a u . The b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s o f t h e F a m i l y Y f e l f a r e B u r e a u h a v e r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d f o r a p o l i c y - m a k i n g c o m m i t t e e t o b e d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e homemaker s e r v i c e i n t h e a g e n c y . A l s o , t h e S u p e r v i s e d Homemaker Commit tee h a s w o r k e d i n t h e c l o s e s t c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h F a m i l y W e l f a r e B u r e a u a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a n d t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e homemaker s e r v i c e . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o l i c y was a m a t t e r o f t r i a l and e r r o r i n m e e t i n g t h e needs o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , a s e x p r e s s e d b y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s on t h e Homemaker C o m m i t t e e , a n d as f o u n d p r a c t i c a l b y t h e F a m i l y W e l f a r e B u r e a u t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e . The method o f r e v i e w a d o p t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o s e t o u t t h e c u r r e n t s t a t e m e n t o f a g e n c y p o l i c y , a n d t o f o l l o w t h i s w i t h c a s e h i s t o r i e s , o r e x p l a n a t i o n s , o r b o t h , t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e way i n w h i c h p o l i c y o p e r a t e s . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s no p o l i c y f o r p l a c e m e n t o f a homemaker w h i c h i s n o t s u b j e c t t o a l t e r a t i o n b y t h e Homemaker' Commit tee when t h e y b e l i e v e t h e r e . a r e e x t e n u a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f n e e d , a n d no o t h e r s o l u t i o n p o s s i b l e e x c e p t t h e p l a c e m e n t o f a homemaker. The p o l i c i e s a s w r i t t e n s t i l l l e a v e t h e s u p e r v i s e d homemaker s e r v i c e o f t h e F a m i l y W e l f a r e B u r e a u o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , a f l e x i b l e p u b l i c s e r v i c e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . - 101 -The policy statement starts with a detailed explanation of the nature of the service: The Family Welfare Bureau has always been concerned about the motherless family and in 1938 the homemaker programme made its beginning as part of the agency service. It is under the direction of the Supervised Homemakers' Committee of the Family Welfare Bureau on which are representatives of the Family Welfare Bureau Board and staff and of the staffs of other health and social agencies. The homemakers are staff members of the Family Wel-fare Bureau. They go into the home to care for the children during temporary absence or illness of the mother. Usually they go by the day, but occasionally, when accommodation is suitable and resident care needed, they may give 2k hour service. The service is available to families known to Family Welfare Bureau and within certain limits, to other agencies, while many families make direct personal application. The aim of the Supervised Homemaker Service is to preserve family life and to protect the child from the disturbing effects of temporary loss of his mother. Incidentally, i t aidgin the recovery of the mother and the welfare of the father by relieving both of home worries. The service is intended as part of a case-work plan to be used for constructive purposes with a definite objective in view. It can best be used when the whole family is prepared to co-operate with the homemaker and is able to take responsibility for planning towards self-dependence. Failure to secure co-operation of both parents or a teen-age child before the homemaker is placed in the home may create insuperable difficulties later. The service is not suitable for care of children without a responsible guardian. While the greatest good of the family is the primary consideration, the comparative cost to the community of homemaker service and of placing the children in foster homes is of interest. In general, the expense of pro-viding a homemaker for a family of only one child is prohibitive. With two children, homemaker service may be more expensive, while where there are more than two, homemaker service, taking everything into account, is usually cheaper. The fact that the number of homemakers is limited makes careful selection of cases necessary. The homemakers cannot be employed by other agencies or by private individuals. Homemakers are not intended for the purpose of allowing the mother to take a trip. - 102 -This f i r s t section, intended as "Information for' Agencies and Workers", thus now gives a very complete d e f i n -i t i o n of the service and those f o r whom i t i s designed. The t h i r d paragraph, i n d i c a t i n g that homemaker service i s not a service i n i t s e l f , but i s supplementary to, and dependent on casework to ensure a reasonable expectancy of helping the fa m i l y see t h e i r problems i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . By t h i s method, t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s more l i k e l y to become a r e a l i t y . I t has been found through experience that without the co-operation of both mother and father, and teen-age children, a homemaker1s tasks i n the home can e a s i l y deteriorate to those of a charwoman's and the home become completely disrupted unless there i s a c l e a r understanding .with the family p r i o r to placement. I f the mother alone i s seen, the father may have no conception of the homemaker service, and may think the homemaker i s i n the home not only to do the housework and care f o r the children, but to assume h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , such as chopping and bringing i n the wood, mowing the lawn, caring f o r the ch i l d r e n i n the evening. I t i s much more conducive to a successful placement of a homemaker to have a c l e a r understanding p r i o r to placement, rather than t r y i n g to correct a misunderstanding of a homemaker's function a f t e r i t has occurred. I t i s also i n d i c a t e d i n the l a s t sentence, t h i r d paragraph of t h i s section, that: "The service i s not suitable f o r care of chi l d r e n without a responsible guardian". These are the f a m i l i e s - 103 -where the father doesnot l i v e i n the home, and the mother i s h o s p i t a l i z e d . Legally, a homemaker or the Family Welfare Bureau cannot assume the role of guardian without court action, which leaves both the homemaker and agency with f a r too much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . However, there are s i t u a t i o n s , without any other s o l u t i o n except f o s t e r home placement of a large family of chi l d r e n , where a homemaker has been placed and where the only guardian of the chi l d r e n , the mother, was i n the h o s p i t a l temporarily. The following case i l l u s t r a t e s one of the except-ions where ahomemaker was placed without there being a guardian i n the home: The Johnson family was r e f e r r e d to the Family Welfare Bureau f o r homemaker service. There were f i v e c h i l d r e n , the mother was i n the h o s p i t a l preparatory to an operation, the f a t h e r died two years ago and since he had been i n the army, Mrs. Johnson's income was a pension from the government. A middle-aged f r i e n d was caring f o r the c h i l d r e n , but she had suddenly become i l l , so there was no one caring f o r the c h i l d r e n . The worker saw the mother p r i o r to her operation, and found her preparing to leave the h o s p i t a l and return home, as she was not aware that arrangements could be made through the homemaker service f o r care of her ch i l d r e n . Mrs. Johnson had moved to Vancouver from Ontario soon a f t e r the death of her husband, as she thought her pension would be more adequate i n a milder climate, and she wanted to get away from her l a t e husband's r e l a t i v e s . Mrs. Johnson s a i d she had needed an operation f o r a long time and due to crowded conditions i n the h o s p i t a l and d i f f i c u l t y i n getting someone to care f o r the c h i l d r e n who would not charge more than she could a f f o r d to pay, t h i s had been her f i r s t opportunity i n nine months to take care of her health. Mrs. Johnson's physician was contacted with her permission, and he confirmed the information which she had given the worker, and recommended that she have a home-maker. - 10k -The caseworker t o l d Mrs. Johnson that the agency-d i d not u s u a l l y place a homemaker i n a home which was without a guardian of the chi l d r e n , but agreed to do so i n t h i s case. Mrs. Johnson was glad to t a l k to the worker about her problems, an inadequate income which meant sub-standard l i v i n g conditions, poor housing, i n -adequate food and c l o t h i n g . Also, due to Mrs. Johnson's medical condition, and the f a c t that she was t i e d down every minute of every twenty-four hour period with care of the c h i l d r e n , her morale was low. A resident homemaker was placed i n the home while Mrs. Johnson was i n the h o s p i t a l , and f o r two weeks a f t e r she returned home. Then a part-time non-resident home-maker was placed u n t i l Mrs. Johnson was able to do her own work. Casework services were continued, as Mrs. Johnson needed considerable support i n making plans as the only parent of her chi l d r e n . Some homemaker services would have rejected t h i s family f o r service immediately at the time the a p p l i c a t i o n was made, as c e r t a i n l y no responsible guardian of the c h i l d r e n was i n the home, since t h e i r sole parent, the mother, was i n the h o s p i t a l . The a l t e r n a t i v e s to homemaker service were: f i r s t , the mother could have postponed her operation and returned home to care f o r her c h i l d r e n . However, a postponement might have been detrimental to Mrs. Johnson's health, and there was no guarantee that she would be able to make a better plan f o r care of the ch i l d r e n at some l a t e r date. Second, the f i v e c h i l d r e n could have been scattered around i n l i c e n s e d f o s t e r homes by the Children's Aid Society. Wo f o s t e r home could, take a l l f i v e , so they would have had to be separated. The c h i l d r e n had already l o s t t h e i r f a t h e r through death, which to a c h i l d i s a traumatic experience and i s the same as desertion by a parent. Now the mother had l e f t - io5 -them, which was a furth e r traumatic experience. Then, as though the chi l d r e n had not had enough anxiety-producing experiences, i f someone placed them i n f o s t e r homes, t h i s succession of emotion packed experiences might r e t a r d t h e i r normal emotional growth f o r many years. A homemaker placed i n the home meant that they could remain i n f a m i l i a r surround-ings. The ch i l d r e n could have care by someone who was fond of and understood c h i l d r e n . The mother, too, was r e l i e v e d to know that her c h i l d r e n were r e c e i v i n g good care, and t h i s contributed to her r a p i d recovery. The second section of "Information f o r Agencies and Workers", has ;beeh^found.lhelpful w i t h i n the Family Welfare Bureau, i n e i t h e r confirming p o l i c y which the intake worker knew to be true, or to be read to an applicant f o r homemaker service, or one who was making an unsuitable r e f e r r a l . 1. The i n t e r e s t e d agency or worker discusses the proposed case with the supervisor of homemakers. I f the r e f e r r i n g agency has a representative on the Homemakers' Committee, t h i s representative should be i n on the d i s -cussion. A p p l i c a t i o n and agreement forms, supplied by the Family Welfare Bureau, i n d i c a t e the type of information required. See also the items under " E l i g i b i l i t y " . 2. I f a case from another agency i s to be accepted, decision w i l l have to be made as to whether the Family Welfare Bureau w i l l give casework service or only homemaker service. I f the r e f e r r i n g agency does not undertake casework service as part of i t s programme,, the Family Welfare Bureau w i l l assign a caseworker. 3. A f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n has been t e n t a t i v e l y accepted f o r the service by the supervisor of homemakers, forms should be completed by the caseworker and forwarded to the Family Welfare Bureau. The caseworker should ask to see the house to determine standards and s u i t a b i l i t y of the service. - 106 -U. The supervisor of homemakers w i l l then arrange f o r a homemaker. The caseworker describes the family to the homemaker, prepares the family f o r the homemaker's a r r i v a l and explains to them her p o s i t i o n and her duties. 3>. The caseworker sees that the homemaker has the means of securing food, minimum cooking and cleaning equipment, s u f f i c i e n t children's clothing and money f o r i n c i d e n t a l expenses. She sees that plans are made f o r care of the c h i l d r e n when the homemaker i s not there, i . e . , weekends. 6. The caseworker t r i e s to f i n d means of preparing the home, e.g., sleeping accommodation may be l i m i t e d , the house may be very d i r t y , or there may be an accumulation of d i r t y c l o t h i n g . The Family Welfare Bureau has beds and bedding that can beused by the homemakers when needed. 7. (a) In Family Welfare Bureau cases, the caseworker w i l l assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , during the period of service, f o r a l l contacts with the home, and w i l l v i s i t w i t h i n two or three days a f t e r the homemaker s t a r t s work. He w i l l interview members of the family and the homemaker as often as necessary to ensure the best value being obtained from the service. He w i l l obtain regular medical reports by which type and length of service can be determined. He w i l l keep the supervisor of homemakers informed as to the progress of the case and as to the a b i l i t i e s and develop-ment of the homemaker. I f d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e that the case-worker cannot meet, these should be discussed with the supervisor of homemakers. 7. (b) In cases where other agencies are carrying the casework, arrangements w i l l be made between the caseworker and the Supervisor of homemakers as to which of them super-vises the homemaker. I f the caseworker assumes t h i s respon-s i b i l i t y , frequent v i s i t s w i l l be needed and procedure w i l l be as 7 .(a). I f the supervisor of homemakers undertakes i t , there w i l l be frequent consultations between the two. D i f f i c u l t i e s should be reported at once. 8. The caseworker determines when service i s no longer needed, but the supervisor of homemakers w i l l assume the r i g h t to discontinue service, a f t e r f u l l discussion, i f i t i s f e l t that the service i s not constructive or i f other more serious needs warrant t h i s step. In doubtful cases, the Homemaker Committee may help to reach a decision. The proportion of cases which are c l i e n t s of another agency and r e f e r r e d by that agency are small. I t i s important to the - 107 -homemaker service that i t s h a l l be decided on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , as to which agency w i l l supervise the home, and the homemaker i n the home. Generally speaking, i f the other agency i s doing casework i n the family, and has established a r e l a t i o n s h i p with that family, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d they w i l l continue to supervise the home. The homemakers are not as happy under supervision by a worker i n another agency, as they f e e l Family Welfare Bureau workers have a better under-standing of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the homemaker's work. Often, too, i t i s found that a worker i n another agency i s not s u f f i c i e n t -l y f a m i l i a r with the programme to do a good i n t e r p r e t a t i v e job with the family who i s to have the service, and t h i s , too, creates d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t i s necessary that the Family Welfare Bureau have ce r t a i n minimum standards f o r the homes i n which a homemaker i s placed. The homemaker1s work i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f i c u l t , without the addition of working i n a home where there are no modern conveniences, where they are expected to cook when there i s only one cooking u t e n s i l , or walk a mile or two i n order to reach the home. Each family which has very sub-standard l i v i n g con-d i t i o n s and has applied f o r homemaker service i s decided on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . I t has been found e s s e n t i a l that the caseworker see each home before placement of a homemaker, as people d i f f e r widely i n what they consider acceptable l i v i n g arrangements. - 108 -There have been mothers and fathers who, i n an o f f i c e i n t e r -view, described t h e i r home as having every modern convenience, incl u d i n g a washing machine. When the caseworker a r r i v e d to v i s i t the home, she found the following conditions: a shack i n f i l t h y condition, both outside and i n s i d e . The kitchen stove was a broken-down a f f a i r which looked l i k e a good f i r e trap. The washing machine had broken down from o l d age s i x months previously, and nothing had been done to have i t repaired. They had an inside t o i l e t , but no bathtub, and no place to give the c h i l d r e n a bath but the kitchen sink. They had no wood chopped, and what was in. the yard had not been p i l e d , so was a l l wet from the r a i n . They had one cooking u t e n s i l beside a leaky t e a - k e t t l e , and a few cracked and chipped dishes, a l l of which were d i r t y . No clean clothes f o r the c h i l d r e n could be found. No food was i n the house except some potatoes and l a r d , and the c h i l d r e n s a i d that a l l they usually had to eat was potatoes cooked i n the l a r d . Also, neighbours ind i c a t e d that the c h i l d r e n were u s u a l l y l e f t to care f o r themselves as t h e i r mother was away from home most of the time, and the father was u s u a l l y away working. The co-operation of the mother and f a t h e r was completely lacking, the father was a l t e r n a t e l y evasive and i r r e s p o n s i b l e when appointments were made to interview him. A homemaker was not placed i n the home. This d e c i s i o n was not reached e n t i r e l y on a basis of.an unsuitable home, but because i t was apparent that the family were unable to take part i n a constructive plan to improve t h e i r l i v i n g conditions. - 109 -Another family, Mr. and Mrs. Lord, with a family of three children, had a home which was s i m i l a r i n l i v i n g standards to the above home. Both Mr. and Mrs. Lord were dependent kind of people who had both been sick a great deal, but they were w i l l i n g to put f o r t h e f f o r t to t r y and help themselves. A homemaker was selected who was e s p e c i a l l y good i n teaching a mother to organize h e r s e l f and her home. B e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s were obtained i n t h i s home, because of t h i s family's a b i l i t y to use casework services i n a l i m i t e d way. The homemaker who went into t h i s home was not given t h i s as an assignment, she was t o l d the exact home condit-ions i n a l l t h e i r grimness, and was asked i f she would be w i l l i n g to t r y i t . She was w i l l i n g and she was able, i n co-operation with the caseworker, to see a marked improvement i n t h i s family. The t h i r d section of "Information f o r Agencies and Workers", re l a t e s to " E l i g i b i l i t y " f o r homemaker se r v i c e , ( i n c l u d i n g costs) and reads as follows: In determining e l i g i b i l i t y , the following points are taken into account. 1. R e l i g i o n . The service i s , as a r u l e , l i m i t e d to Protestant and Jewish f a m i l i e s . 2. A b i l i t y to pay. At present, we are p r i m a r i l y accept-ing those f a m i l i e s who cannot a f f o r d to pay f u l l cost of a housekeeper of t h e i r own choosing. Exceptions have been made f o r f a m i l i e s who can pay f u l l cost but who, at the moment, are not able to choose or d i r e c t a housekeeper, or f o r whom very temporary service w i l l avert a serious c r i s i s . A d i s t -i n c t i o n should be made between cases where a domestic servant or charwoman would be more sui t a b l e and where family can pay f o r t h i s service, and cases needing someone to take more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . - 110 -3. Relatives. I t i s understood that a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of help from r e l a t i v e s have been explored before a p p l i c a t i o n i s made. Ii. Size of family. Cases are not u s u a l l y accepted where there i s only one c h i l d - i n the home and where the mother i s absent. 5. Medical advice. I f the homemaker i s requested because of the mother's i l l n e s s , a medical diagnosis and the doctor's advice as to the need and probable length of service w i l l be obtained by the caseworker. 6 . Mental or emotional i l l n e s s . Where the mother's i l l n e s s appears to be mental or emotional rather than p h y s i c a l , homemaker service i s not usually given. I f an exception i s made, i t w i l l be only with a f u l l understanding of the s i t u a t -ion and a f t e r consultation with a p s y c h i a t r i s t . A short period of t r i a l w i l l begiven i n such cases, e.g. one or two weeks. Some cases w i l l be found to have t h i s type of i l l n e s s as w e l l as p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s . Consultation f o r these should be arranged when po s s i b l e . 7 . " Nursing care. I f the mother needs f u l l nursing care i n the home such as cannot be given by a v i s i t i n g nurse, the case i s not u s u a l l y considered s u i t a b l e f o r homemaker service. Minor nursing service can be considered with the approval and under guidance of the V i c t o r i a Order of Nurses. Qi. Contagious or Infectious i l l n e s s . In general, the service i s not available where there i s contagion or i n f e c t i o n i n the home. Some exceptions have been made a f t e r consultation with p u b l i c health a u t h o r i t i e s and with the consent of the homemaker. 9. Time service w i l l be needed. Temporary service only i s given, i . e . , under three months, except by s p e c i a l arrange-ment. In cases of desertion, chronic i l l n e s s , or death of the mother, where the s i t u a t i o n appears permanent, the service i s sometimes given f o r a short period to enable the father to re-adjust h i s l i f e and make other plans. Continuation of service f o r a longer period, i s at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Home-makers' Committee. 10. Location of home. Service i s a v a i l a b l e only to f a m i l i e s i n Greater Vancouver. 11. Other f a c t o r s . A c c e s s i b i l i t y of the home, adequacy of accommodation and equipment and a v a i l a b i l i t y of homemakers wj.ll be taken i n t o account. - I l l -12. Unusual types of case, needing mother substitute care can be presented, through the supervisor of homemakers, to the Homemakers1 Committee f o r decision. COST AND PAYMENT. The amount family should or could pay depends on t o t a l f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n , not on income alone. When a l l required information has been obtained, the supervisor of homemakers may be able to help decide a possible and reason-able fee, but the caseworker discusses t h i s with the family and i s responsible f o r seeing that c o l l e c t i o n i s made. The current hourly cost of the service, including administration, may be obtained from the supervisor of home-makers. Where payment i s being made by someone other than the family, i t i s w e l l to discuss the rate to be charged with the supervisor of homemakers. Any unmet payments come from contributions to the Community Chest. I f a family f i n d s i t s e l f unable to meet the payments agreed upon, the caseworker w i l l discuss the case with the supervisor of homemakers. Number one i s a general p o l i c y l i m i t i n g the service u s u a l l y to Protestant and Jewish f a m i l i e s . The Catholic Family Welfare Bureau u s u a l l y prefer to make t h e i r own arrangements f o r help i n the home of t h e i r own Catholic f a m i l i e s . Occasionally, an ex-ception i s made, a f t e r c l e a r i n g with the Catholic Family Vfelfare Bureau as to the correct procedure to follow i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , and of course the wishes of the family must also be adhered to. Second,, the p o l i c y of generally accepting only those f o r homemaker service who cannot a f f o r d to pay f u l l cost, i s necessary since often these people are l e s s capable of making t h e i r own plans, aside from t h e i r economic need. Families who are able to - 112 -pay f u l l costs of a homemaker are also l e s s apt to have problems which need a caseworker, or at l e a s t they have been found to t r e a t the service as more of an employment problem than anything else, and to wish only the service of a housekeeper. Exceptions are made at times. There was the physician, Dr. Wyckoff, with two small children, whose wife was i n the ho s p i t a l f o r confinement with her t h i r d c h i l d . The family had an excell e n t housekeeper to care f o r the children while Mrs. Wyckoff was i n the h o s p i t a l . The housekeeper had to be rushed to the h o s p i t a l suddenly f o r an emergency appendectomy. The doctor's o f f i c e nurse was caring f o r the chi l d r e n u n t i l other arrangements could be made. There happened to be a homemaker av a i l a b l e who was not urgently needed elsewhere f o r a few days. This homemaker was placed i n the home f o r a few days u n t i l Mrs. Wyckoff came home, and another housekeeper was h i r e d p r i v a t e l y . Dr. Wyckoff paid the f u l l cost of the homemaker, and was very complimentary i n h i s remarks regarding the homemaker, and the care she gave h i s chi l d r e n . The Family Welfare Bureau believes that the majority of homemaker placements should be made with i n the s p e c i f i e d p o l i c y of the homemaker service. Numbers three, four and f i v e under "Procedure" set c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s f o r service. Number three in d i c a t e s that i f there are r e l a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e f o r the care of the c hildren, u s u a l l y homemaker service i s not given to a family with t h i s resource. The same decision i s l i k e l y i n the case of one c h i l d i n the home, which i s number four. Number f i v e ensures that the worker w i l l secure from the doctor the diagnosis, prog-- 113 -nosis, and length of time a homemaker w i l l be needed i n si t u a t i o n s where service i s requested due to the i l l n e s s of the mother. I t i s the exception to the f i r s t two rules, and a demonstration of the wisdom of contacting the doctor i n the t h i r d , which i s shown i n the following case h i s t o r y . Mr. Pope telephoned to request homemaker service upon h i s wife's return from the h o s p i t a l . He was a veteran and a law student at the u n i v e r s i t y . His only income was from the Department of Veteran's A f f a i r s while he was i n the u n i v e r s i t y . There wagone c h i l d , a l i t t l e boy four years o l d . In r e p l y to a question about r e l a t i v e s , Mr. Pope s a i d Mrs. Pope's mother l i v e d a short distance from them, but he didn't l i k e to ask her to come to t h e i r home and help i n t h i s emergency. Mrs. Pope was ready f o r discharge from the h o s p i t a l a f t e r having had pneumonia. The youngster, David, had been run over by a car when he had been crossing the s t r e e t , and was also i n the h o s p i t a l i n a body cast. Both were now due f o r discharge from the h o s p i t a l . An inexperienced intake worker might have r e j e c t e d t h i s family f o r service at t h i s point, since there were several ways i n which t h i s f a m i l y d i d not meet the require-ments of p o l i c y . However, there was something about the urgency and anxiety of Mr. Pope which the intake worker thought should be examined more c l o s e l y , so t h i s case was turned over to the d i s t r i c t worker as an emergency. Mr. Pope had given h i s consent at the time.of the a p p l i c a t i o n that the physicians could be contacted. The worker v i s i t e d the home and found i t rather shabby, but homey and adequate. Mr. Pope was extremely worried about how h i s f a m i l y could be cared f o r ; he was w i l l i n g to do everything needed, but t h i s was examination time at the u n i v e r s i t y . He had used h i s allotment of c r e d i t s allowed him f o r u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g i n r e l a t i o n to the length of h i s m i l i t a r y service. He could continue only i f he had good grades through s p e c i a l arrangement with the Department of Veteran's A f f a i r s . Mr. Pope became almost panicky at the thought of asking h i s mother-in-law f o r help, but was agreeable that the worker contact her a f t e r seeing Mrs. Pope i n the h o s p i t a l . The worker telephoned Mrs. Pope's physician, who s a i d that she would be unable to do very much f o r a week a f t e r she - i i u -a r r i v e d home, and then could gradually resume her household duties. David would be unable to move very e a s i l y and would require care, but the physician thought that Mrs. Pope could look a f t e r most of David's needs. The d i s t r i c t worker v i s i t e d Mrs. Pope i n the ho s p i t a l . She found Mrs. Pope eager to return home, but f e a r f u l of j u s t how she would be able to manage the careof David and her home, as her doctor d i d not want her to do much f o r another week. The worker asked i f her mother could p o s s i b l y help f o r a couple of weeks. Mrs. Pope t o l d the worker her husband had already t o l d her that the worker had made t h i s query. Mrs. Pope s a i d that her mother had been opposed to her marriage because she f e l t that Mr. Pope's family were beneath them. Also, Mrs. Pope described her mother as a very neurotic person, who had nervous breakdowns whenever she needed an excuse to take a t r i p . Children made her mother nervous, and she could not bear to be around any-one who was i l l . The worker was s a t i s f i e d that t h i s family was one of the exceptions which should be granted homemaker service. A homemaker was placed i n the home immediately. At f i r s t , David whined or screamed i f he wanted something, even i f i t was j u s t attention. Mrs. Pope admitted l a t e r that she knew she couldn't meet David's demands, she thought the homemaker should have jumped to meet David's whims, but didn't l i k e to say anything f o r fear i t would sound c r i t i c a l when she was r e a l l y g r a t e f u l f o r the homemaker help. The f i r s t cotiple of days, too, there was a great deal of trouble with David over h i s wetting the bed. The homemaker had not been i n the home a week before Mrs. Pope r e a l i z e d that David was no longer behaving i n an i n f a n t i l e manner, andhe was no longer wetting the bed. She r e a l i z e d that the homemaker had brought about the change i n David i n a relaxed, pleasant way, so Mrs. Pope asked the caseworker f o r help with David, as the home-maker suggested that she do so. The homemaker a s s i s t e d Mrs. Pope i n being consistent with David, i n a co-operative plan formulated with the caseworker. Gradually, Mrs. Pope was able to resume her place i n the home, and the home-maker was released f o r use elsewhere. Number s i x under " E l i g i b i l i t y " i s a new p o l i c y , regarding service not us u a l l y being given i n a family where the mother - 115 -i s mentally or emotionally i l l , and only i n exceptional cases, a f t e r securing the advice of a p h y c h i a t r i s t as to the need and value of p l a c i n g a homemaker i n the home, and written assurance by the p s y c h i a t r i s t that the patient i s not dangerous to them-selves, t h e i r family or the homemaker. The service has been c u r t a i l e d i n homes of t h i s sort, as the value of p l a c i n g a homemaker there i s questionable, since casework services are us u a l l y unacceptable to such a person, and to those i n t h i s category who do accept casework services, l i t t l e value i s us u a l l y apparent. The Pearson case which follows, points up a number of the p o l i c i e s found necessary i n the granting of homemaker service: Mrs. Pearson made a personal a p p l i c a t i o n f o r home-maker service, as she had not been i n good health since she had rheumatic fever a year ago. She s a i d that her physician t o l d her she had a heart murmur, and should be h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r two months to give her heart a complete r e s t . Her problem was that her husband, Mr. Pearson, was employed i n the post o f f i c e , and h i s s a l a r y was not s u f f i c i e n t to secure an adequate housekeeper while she was out of the home. No r e l a t i v e s or f r i e n d s could help. They had two children, a g i r l Darlene, age four and a h a l f , and a boy Ray, age two and a h a l f . Mrs. Pearson's physician was contacted a f t e r her consent. The physician t o l d the worker that Mrs. Pearson had been h i s patient f o r a number of years, but that she never followed h i s orders. He had not intended to h o s p i t a l i z e her, but had suggested that i f she could not fol l o w h i s orders at home, she have someone else care f o r the children, and that she go and v i s i t r e l a t i v e s where she could remain i n bed f o r a minimum period of two months. The doctor disgustedly t o l d of a succession of housekeepers, who had a l l proved unsuccessful as f a r - 116 -as Mrs. Pearson was concerned. The doctor considered that Mrs. Pearson was a p e r f e c t i o n i s t regarding her home and c h i l d r e n . The doctor recommended that Mrs. Pearson have the homemaker service on a t r i a l b a s i s . In r e p l y to a question by the caseworker, the doctor d i d not f e e l that Mrs. Pearson was any more neurotic or emotionally unstable than a good many other women who were able to function normally. Arrangements were made to check with the physician at regular i n t e r -v a ls as to Mrs. Pearson's condition, and the e f f e c t i t was having on her and her family to have a homemaker. The worker saw Mrs. Pearson again, and talked with her fur t h e r regarding homemaker service. Mrs. Pearson seemed to be an i n t e l l i g e n t woman with a good deal of understanding regarding c h i l d psychology. A thorough i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of homemaker service was given Mrs. Pearson. She was asked by the d i s t r i c t worker about her understanding that she was to be h o s p i t a l i z e d . She had talked with her doctor today, and s a i d he t o l d her there was no chance f o r her to have bed r e s t i n a h o s p i t a l , due to the overcrowded conditions. She knew that he f e l t she would not r e s t at home, and l e t anyone else take over the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of her home. She t o l d of the succession of poor housekeepers she had had, who had no idea of even simple cooking or housework, and she could not l i e i n bed and see everything neglected. The d i s t r i c t worker gave a second and thorough i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of the homemaker's function i n the home, and the conditions and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which the homemaker and the family would share. I t was explained that the homemaker was being placed i n her home to r e l i e v e her not only of the housework and care of the chi l d r e n , but to r e l i e v e her of anxiety. I t was explained that the homemaker was a s t a f f member of the Family Welfare Bureau, and worked c l o s e l y with the d i s t r i c t worker i n order to achieve the greatest good i n t h e i r home. Mr. Pearson was seen i n the o f f i c e , and a thorough i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the service was given him. Mr. Pearson agreed to take over r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c h i l d r e n at night, and on the weekends from Saturday noon u n t i l Mon-day morning, to give the homemaker her usual time o f f . F i n a n c i a l arrangements were made with Mr. Pearson f o r him to pay ten d o l l a r s a week which he i n s i s t e d he could do, although the minimum budget showed h i s income to be inadequate f o r the minimum famil y needs. I t was explained to Mr. Pearson that homemaker service was being given as an experiment, and due to medical recommendation. Arrange-ments were made that the service would be given f o r two months i f Mrs. Pearson followed the doctor's orders f o r complete bed r e s t at home. - 117 -I t was not u n t i l the homemaker was placed i n the home that a true p i c t u r e was seen of the family. Before continuing t h i s case h i s t o r y , i t might be w e l l to point out the number of p o l i c i e s which have already been shown. This seemed l i k e a p e r f e c t l y straightforward a p p l i c a t i o n f o r homemaker service, within the range of p o l i c y which could be accepted f o r supervised homemaker service. This was a f a -mily with too low an income to h i r e an adequate housekeeper p r i v a t e l y , there were no r e l a t i v e s or f r i e n d s who could be useful i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , there were two c h i l d r e n , the physi-cian recommended the use of a homemaker, as the mother needed two months bed r e s t at home, the family gave assurance of t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to co-operate. Mrs. Pearson was to have minor nursing service from the homemaker as s t i p u l a t e d i n number seven under " E l i g i b i l i t y " , and the time l i m i t had been tenta-t i v e l y set at two months, which was l e s s than the three month time l i m i t set i n number nine under " E l i g i b i l i t y " . Both Mr. and Mrs. Pearson were seen, and both understood and were w i l l i n g to co-operate with regard to the homemaker. A homemaker was placed i n the home, who was cheerful, calm and capable. At f i r s t , Mrs. Pearson was f e a r f u l that the work would not be done as she wanted i t done. She s t a r t e d to get out of bed a number of times when one of the c h i l d r e n c r i e d or yowled, but the homemaker was r i g h t on the spot to joke Mrs. Pearson out of carrying out her move to get up and attend to the children. The c h i l d r e n were very i n f a n t i l e and dependent. Neither c h i l d - 118 -could dress himself. Ray, age two and a h a l f , s t i l l had h i s baby b o t t l e to take to bed with him, and neither c h i l d had ever been but i n the yard to play. Neither c h i l d had ever played with any toys except s o f t rag d o l l s . A f t e r the homemaker was i n the home f o r two weeks, Mrs. Pearson commented to the homemaker that the children whined only to her, and that she had.been very pleased over the way the homemaker had taught the c h i l d r e n to dress themselves, and the contented way the c h i l d r e n now played by themselves with things of i n t e r e s t con-cocted by the homemaker. They were also now s t a r t i n g to venture i n t o the fenced back yard. This gave the homemaker the opportunity she had been waiting f o r , to suggest that Mrs. Pearson might f i n d i t h e l p f u l to d i s -cuss these matters with the d i s t r i c t worker, since helping people with t h e i r problems was the p r i n c i p a l work of the' caseworker. The homemaker had been aware of the problem with the children, and had already discussed i t with the. d i s t r i c t worker, who advised her to wait u n t i l an opportune time, then suggest that Mrs. Pearson discuss these problems with her. As i t neared the end of the two month t r i a l period, advice was again secured from the physician, who advised that Mrs. Pearson had shown marked improvement, but he considered she shoub remain on bed r e s t f o r another f i v e or s i x weeks. Mr. Pearson had been paying h i s ten d o l l a r s per week r e g u l a r l y , and t h i s was a matter of concern to the d i s t r i c t worker, as she f e l t he could not a f f o r d to pay t h i s amount f o r homemaker service. Casework services had not only been f u l l y accepted by Mrs. Pearson, but by Mr. Pearson- as well, as he had also been instrumental i n keeping h i s ch i l d r e n too dependent. This f a m i l y was showing marked progress,, improved p h y s i c a l health of Mrs. Pearson, c l e a r e r recognition and e f f o r t i n changing t h e i r methods of c h i l d care, the assuming by the family of an adult type of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and consideration of the homemaker. I t was now necessary to take t h i s problem to the Homemaker Committee f o r f i n a l d e c i s i o n , as to whether homemaker service should be extended beyond the three month period as s t i p u l a t e d i n the p o l i c i e s . Due to the progress and improvement made i n t h i s home, the Homemaker - 119 -Committee was glad to vote the extension of homemaker service i f i t was needed. The Homemaker Committee also voted that Mr. Pearson's weekly payments be r e -duced to f i v e d o l l a r s per wekk, since t h i s service was needed f o r a longer period than the family had thought would be necessary. Number eight i n the section on " E l i g i b i l i t y " , regarding the i m p r a c t i c a l i t y of using homemaker service i n homes which have contagious or i n f e c t i o u s diseases i s necessary i n order to p r o t e c t the homemakers. Exceptions to t h i s p o l i c y are rare, and then only with the advice and approval of the Public Health a u t h o r i t i e s and the consent of the homemaker. The following case i l l u s t r a t e s an exception to the r u l e : Mr. and Mrs. Brewster were having a hard struggle f i n a n c i a l l y , as Mr. Brewster's earning power i n a lumber m i l l was not high, although he was a steady worker. There were s i x children, and Mrs. Brewster was going to the h o s p i t a l any day f o r confinement with her seventh c h i l d . Mrs. Brewster had arranged that f r i e n d s would take a l l the c h i l d r e n i n one's and two's while she was absent from home. At almost the l a s t minute before she went to the h o s p i t a l , two of the c h i l d r e n contract-ed mumps so a l l must be kept home. There was no one to care f o r the children, unless Mr. Brewster remained home from work. There was no other s o l u t i o n but.to place a home-maker, i f one could be found who would agree to enter the home i n s p i t e of there being a p o l i c y regarding contagious diseases. Also, the homemaker selected must be one who could capably care f o r a large f a m i l y of children. The homemaker selected had raised a large f a m i l y of her own a f t e r her husband died, and she had some way seen every c h i l d through high school and two of them through business school. The homemaker had never had mumps, but she r e a d i l y agreed to care f o r t h i s - 120 -family, which she did. The aftermath was that the homemaker had to have sick leave as she contracted mumps, and passed mumps on to a grown daughter who was l i v i n g with her. The dangers of r e a d i l y accepting f a m i l i e s f o r homemaker service where there i s a contagious or i n f e c t i o u s disease, as a matter of routine p o l i c y , can be seen. In the above case, advice regarding precautions was secured from the Public Health Department, and adhered to; but, i n spite of t h i s , the agency was deprived of one of the most capable homemakers while she recovered from a disease contracted while working f o r the agency. The cases accepted with a tuberculosis mother from the Metropolitan Health Committee are accepted on a d i f f e r e n t b a s i s , and the homemakers have s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g regarding necessary precautions and care by a pub l i c health nurse. Number twelve under the section " E l i g i b i l i t y " gives further proof of the f l e x i b i l i t y of the p o l i c i e s of the homemaker service. As has been shown, exceptions are made to most p o l i c i e s , and the f i n a l paragraph i n t h i s section has fo r i t s purpose caring f o r any other kind of sit u a t i o n s which may not have been covered under a s p e c i f i c heading. I t would take too long, and might be confusing to recount the many d i f f e r e n t types of cases which are covered by t h i s heading. Each case of t h i s nature i s decided on i t s i n d i v i d u a l merits, and i n r e l a t i o n to a l t e r n a t i v e solutions to the family problem, i n deciding whether or not i t i s v a l i d to use a home-- 121 -maker i n the home. I f the homemaker service becomes more prolonged than i t i s an t i c i p a t e d when placement i s f i r s t made, i t i s reviewed at regular i n t e r v a l s , and d i s p o s i t i o n made by the Homemaker Committee. The following case i s one of the unusual kind of cases which was decided by the Homemaker Committee. I t might also come under the heading of an "Exploratory" case, i f t h i s agency had such a category: Mr. Scott came to the Family Welfare Bureau f o r help i n f i n d i n g a f o s t e r home f o r h i s four c h i l d r e n . Mrs. Scott had deserted the family, a l l e g e d l y due to another man. She had deserted twice before, but Mr. Scott had been able to persuade her to return on both previous occasions, and he f e l t he would be successful , t h i s time, i f someone were looking a f t e r the ch i l d r e n , and giving him plenty of time to spend with h i s wife. In the course of several casework interviews, i t was suggested that a homemaker might f i l l a temporary need. The Homemaker Committee agreed to t h i s as a temporary plan, and Mr. Scott accepted a homemaker on t h i s basis. The caseworker had pointed out to Mr. Scott how d i f f i c u l t f o s t e r home placement would be f o r h i s children, f i r s t l o s i n g one parent, then the other parent, making the c h i l d r e n f e e l that neither parent wanted them. Even though Mr. Scott was ready to t r y the plan of using a homemaker i n his home, he was not sure that t h i s was the r i g h t s o l u t i o n . Mr. Scott said he was not sure that he d i d want h i s child r e n , f o r h i s wife had never wanted them, and had deserted him because of them. When asked, he d i d not know whether or not he loved h i s wife, but he wanted her home, and was w i l l i n g to take her back on her own terms. At t h i s point, the worker did not have a very good idea as to what strengths, i f any, there were i n the family. The homemaker placed i n the Scott home was one who had shown h e r s e l f to be e s p e c i a l l y s k i l f u l i n d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s such as t h i s , and able to help a father regain h i s self-confidence and strengthen h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with his c hildren. Mr. Scott surprised himself regarding the pleasantness he f e l t about coming from work.to a clean - 1 2 2 -home and a good hot dinner every night, and four clean-faced youngsters greeting him eagerly, as the homemaker made a point to get the c h i l d r e n to wash t h e i r faces and hands when she knew i t was nearly time f o r t h e i r father to a r r i v e home. The homemaker said, "Father needs to have h i s family fuss over him, he works hard without much appreciation of how hard he has to work. He needs to come home to kids who have spruced up e s p e c i a l l y f o r him, and to a hot dinner that i s ready e s p e c i a l l y f o r him. This makes working f o r h i s family seem more worthwhile". The homemaker remained i n the home f o r three months, during which time the caseworker saw Mr. Scott once a week, and.the homemaker once a week. Sometimes, i f there was s p e c i a l need f o r consultation between the homemaker and the caseworker, t h i s was done during the day when Mr. Scott was at work and the children were at school. At f i r s t , the homemaker had d i f f i c u l t y with the children, e s p e c i a l l y the two older boys who were twelve and t h i r t e e n years old, and who resented her as an i n t e r l o p e r i n the home, and because she was a woman toward whom they were t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s about t h e i r mother as she was a reminder to them of a bad mother. Gradually, the c h i l d r e n were won over by the home-maker, and were able to v e r b a l i z e t h e i r d i s l i k e of t h e i r mother, and to f i n a l l y say they hoped she would never come home. Mr. Scott was helped by the caseworker to become more r e a l i s t i c regarding h i s own f e e l i n g s , and what he r e a l l y wanted. He f i n a l l y decided that i t was h i s pride which made him think-he wanted his wife home. He saw that he r e a l l y had no f e e l i n g of love f o r her, or even l i k i n g . He was also helped to see why h i s wife reacted the way she did, and that she could not help her actions, since she was an immature person. She could not stay with her children,. because emotionally she was a c h i l d , and she could not t o l e r a t e competition from other c h i l d r e n i n the family. I t was l i k e a weight l i f t e d from h i s shoulders, when Mr. Scott r e a l i z e d d e f i n i t e l y that he d i d not want his wife home. From that time on, Mr. Scott's r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s c h i l d r e n improved ra p i d l y , he made them f e e l that they were important to him, and the c h i l d r e n enjoyed the new closeness to t h e i r father. - 123 -Once Mr. Scott knew that he was going to be s o l e l y responsible f o r h i s children, with the case-worker's help, he was able to make permanent plans f o r h i s family. Mr. Scott arranged f o r h i s widowed s i s t e r with her one c h i l d to come and keep house f o r him. At the end of three months, the homemaker had completed her work i n t h i s home and was withdrawn. Another family u n i t was preserved. Since that time, Mr. Scott has o c c a s i o n a l l y returned to the Family Welfare Bureau f o r casework services, when he had a problem with which he wanted help. To the Family Welfare Bureau, i n the acceptance of a family f o r homemaker service, " p o l i c y " as established by the. agency, i s used as a guide post — i t i s not a r i g i d set of ru l e s . The homemaker service, i n r e l a t i o n to "policy", t r e a t s each family as an i n d i v i d u a l problem, and decides between acceptance and r e j e c t i o n on a basis of need, and lack of any other acceptable f a c i l i t i e s as a so l u t i o n . The following s i t u a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s the acceptance of unusually d i f f i c u l t circumstances by homemakers: • Mrs. Jones with sub-standard housing, three c h i l d r e n and e l d e r l y parents l i v i n g i n the home, applies f o r a homemaker while she i s i n the h o s p i t a l . I t w i l l be a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n . This family should be auto-m a t i c a l l y rejected f o r service i f the adherence to p o l i c y were s t r i c t , very poor housing and r e l a t i v e s i n the home, but I The mother considered the e l d e r l y parents could not give the c h i l d r e n proper care, i n f a c t needed someone to care f o r them, too. Foster home care f o r the c h i l d r e n was no s o l u t i o n ; aside from the traumatic disturbance of moving the c h i l d r e n to strange homes, the e l d e r l y couple would be l e f t without care. In a s i t u a t i o n such as t h i s , no homemaker i s given the assignment and t o l d she must accept i t . The supervisor of homemakers gives the homemaker the f a c t s of the home s i t u a t i o n i n a l l t h e i r starkness and the homemaker u s u a l l y says without - 12k -h e s i t a t i o n , "Of course I ' l l go". This shows t h e i r a t t i t u d e of l o y a l t y and co-operation toward the agency and to the homes which they serve. Exceptions to p o l i c y such as t h i s would be d i f f i c u l t to make without the co-operation of the homemakers. - 125 -CHAPTER 6 THE HOMEMAKERS A l l agencies agree that women with the necessary q u a l i -f i c a t i o n s to be good homemakers are scarce. I t i s also r e - • cognized that the success of a homemaker programme i s dependent on the s k i l l of the homemakers. A Chicago agency recognizes the importance of the above statements i n i s s u i n g t h e i r b u l l e t i n which shows what they believe are the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r a homemaker, as follows :"*" Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a Homemaker: a. Age - women between ages of 25 and 60 years; maturity and richness of experience are not necess-a r i l y measured i n chronological age. b. Desirable Q u a l i t i e s - honesty, r e l i a b i l i t y , good morals, industry, co-operation, a d a p t a b i l i t y and understanding of human behaviour. c. . Health - good health and high standards of per-sonal cleanliness are e s s e n t i a l . d. Experience - previous work as a domestic or a p r a c t i c a l nurse i s desir a b l e . Knowledge of children, gained through employment or rearing own family, and s k i l l i n household management are required. e. A b i l i t i e s - a b i l i t y to f i t service to the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l members of the family; s e n s i t i v i t y to home s i t u a t i o n s ; s e c u r i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Department to the extent that the Homemaker w i l l recognize and f e e l f r ee to assume the degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y that she should c a r r y i n any home; a b i l i t y to observe o b j e c t i v e l y s i t u a t i o n s of s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e within the family and to br i n g such s i t u a t i o n s to the attention of the Supervisor f o r the purpose of providing more e f f e c t i v e service to the family; a b i l i t y to work e f f e c t i v e l y with people and to accept and u t i l i z e supervision and c r i t i c i s m . 1 C i t y of Chicago Department of Welfare, Homemakers1 Se r v i ce, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , O f f i c i a l B u l l e t i n No. 2173, 16 A p r i l , I9I18. - 126 -The present chapter examines how f a r the Vancouver homemaker service i s developing the desired q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n homemakers; and i t i s based, on records of the supervisor of homemakers, as w e l l as two questionnaires, one of which was answered by the caseworkers with a separate questionnaire f o r each homemaker placement, the second questionnaire being answered by the homemakers a f t e r discussion i n a homemaker 2 meeting. The average person knows very l i t t l e about homemaker service; i n f a c t , the majority of people have never heard of i t . The f i r s t question asked u s u a l l y i s , "What i s homemaker service?" When t h i s question i s answered s a t i s f a c t o r i l y the second question i s , "What kind of women become homemakers?" At the present time there are twenty-four women employed as homemakers i n the Vancouver homemaker service, whose length of service varies from s i x months to eleven years; and the age of the homemakers v a r i e s from t h i r t y - f i v e years to s i x t y plus. The majority of the homemakers are married women or widows. Most of them have grown c h i l d r e n . Some of the married home-makers need employment due to a sick husband, or because a r e t i r e d husband has an inadequate income due to the present high cost of l i v i n g . Several of the widows have worked f o r years supporting and educating t h e i r c h i l d r e n . One homemaker has seen a l l of her children through college through her previous employment. The formal education of the homemakers varies widely, 2 ~ See Appendix B f o r questionnaires. - 127 -the lowest being fourth grade, the highest being college, with the average being eighth or ninth grade. The work history, of the homemakers range from no previous employment, having gained t h e i r experience through rearing t h e i r own children, to employment i n various business a c t i v i t i e s or p r o f e s s i o n a l work. Good health i s a requirement which a l l of the homemakers are able to s a t i s f y , and a l l are clean i n t h e i r personal habits and neat i n personal appearance. The a b i l i t i e s of the homemakers vary widely, but i n general they approach the a b i l i t i e s set f o r t h above as the. requirements of a Chicago homemaker service. Evaluation of the Vancouver Homemakers by the Agency Yforkers The questionnaires answered by the caseworkers who supervised both the f a m i l i e s within t h e i r own d i s t r i c t s who had homemaker service, and the homemakers i n the homes, have a two-f o l d purpose. F i r s t , they are an evaluation of the homemaker i n , ( i a p a r t i c u l a r home at the completion of the service, and secondly, they are a progress report f o r Family Welfare Bureau f i l e s . The present study i s concerned only with the l a t t e r . The question-. naire was i n t e n t i o n a l l y designed to show b r i e f l y the family s i t u a t i o n , reasons f o r placement, and l a t e r withdrawal, of the homemaker; homemaker's comments to the caseworker regarding the family; the e t h i c a l conduct of the homemaker i n that home, and her a b i l i t y to observe c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . The caseworker i s then asked to place the homemaker i n a category which most nearly describes her a t t i t u d e inward her work i n that p a r t i c u l a r home - 128 -as follows: f i r s t , f o ur sub-heads under a mother person; second, four sub-heads under a grandmother person; t h i r d , four sub-heads under a f r i e n d person; and fourth, a blank category which permits the caseworker to show a d e f i n i t i o n not previously designated. Eighty questionnaires answered by the caseworkers have been used. The compilation of t h i s material by Family Welfare Bureau casework s t a f f was a d i f f i c u l t task since some of the cases were closed, and some had been the cases of students who were no longer i n the agency, so were answered by the supervisors. A minority of the cases had more than one homemaker, some had as many as three or four within the period of 19S>0 and each homemaker was evaluated i n r e l a t i o n to her work i n that p a r t i c u l a r home. A long-term tuberculosis case with emotional problems may wear out two or three homemakers i n a year, .just as two or three f o s t e r homes may be worn out by an emotionally disturbed c h i l d placed by a c h i l d r e n 1 s agency. Constructive casework planning may require d i f f e r e n t q u a l i f i c a t -ions i n a homemaker when a mother i s both p h y s i c a l l y and emotion-a l l y able to assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n her home. She may at t h i s time require a homemaker who w i l l encourage her to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , instead of doing a l l the work he r s e l f , as.the f i r s t homemaker had been doing. The second phase may l a t e r progress into a t h i r d phase where a homemaker w i l l be needed only h a l f a day twice a week, at which time the mother's need - 129 -may be f o r an e f f i c i e n t , p r a c t i c a l , impersonal and thoroughly p r o f e s s i o n a l homemaker, a f t e r which the mother w i l l be able to resume complete care and management of her home. This does not mean that the f i r s t homemaker i s n e c e s s a r i l y incapable of making the psychological adjustment i n r e l a t i o n to the progressive needs of the family, but i n changing the amount of time the homemaker has to spend with a family, t h i s may better f i t the schedule of another homemaker. A d e s c r i p t i o n of two of the homemakers shows the wide v a r i e t y i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s which are s u c c e s s f u l l y used i n Vancouver homes when a homemaker i s needed. We w i l l c a l l the f i r s t one 3 Mrs. Jones although that i s not her name. Mrs. Jones has been a homemaker f o r two years. She has been a widow f o r many years as her husband was k i l l e d i n an accident. She reared and educated her three c h i l d r e n by doing p r a c t i c a l nursing. Her r e -ferences who were previous employers, spoke very h i g h l y of her. Mrs. Jones i s an a t t r a c t i v e l i t t l e woman, speaks i n a well-modulated voice and dresses smartly. She has an overv;helming sense of humour, as w e l l as a great imagination. Children love her. With her sunny d i s -p o s i t i o n and her a b i l i t y to make up to ch i l d r e n , she could be a great threat to mothers, but Mrs. Jones i s smart enough to sense t h i s , and handles the s i t u a t i o n very w e l l . She has the a b i l i t y to r e l i e v e a mother of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y without the mother f e e l i n g she i s l o s i n g something. Mrs. Jones has boundless energy. Mrs. Jones i s an excellent housekeeper and manager and can accomplish a great deal i n one day. Cli e n t s are amazed at her a b i l i t y to keep several small c h i l d r e n amused as w e l l as accomplishing so many household tasks. Mrs. Jones i s not above l e t t i n g one of the c h i l d r e n play hobby horse on her back while she i s on her knees scrub-bing the f l o o r ; thus she keeps the c h i l d amused and does 3 A l l personal information regarding homemakers are from f i l e s kept by the supervisor of homemakers, but i n each instance they have been disguised so that t h e i r i d e n t i t y cannot be known. - 130 -her work. She believes i n having a routine i n a home, i t i s not long before she has one established and the family are enjoying the s e c u r i t y of i t . Mrs. Jones has a strong sense of l o y a l t y to the Family Welfare Bureau, and enjoys her contact with the s o c i a l workers. She considers the c l i e n t ahead of h e r s e l f and i s i n c l i n e d to give almost too much to the c l i e n t . Because of Mrs. Jones' warm p e r s o n a l i t y she natu-r a l l y f a l l s into the category of a mother person, but her a b i l i t y to adapt h e r s e l f to the d i f f e r e n t circum-stances may place her i n a d i f f e r e n t category i n her work. Her best work i s i n f a m i l i e s burdened with many environmental problems, or serious health problems. Homemakers who are mother persons may vary widely from Mrs. Jones, they may be outgoing, f l e x i b l e but also consistent; or permissive, overly kind and lacking i n d i s c i p l i n e ; or over-i d e n t i f i e d with c l i e n t . The l a s t two headings under mother person sound undesirable, however they do have t h e i r important roles to f u l f i l l . A permissive mother person may be exactly what a c h i l d with a stern and harsh father needs, whose mother i s i n the tuberculosis h o s p i t a l f o r a long time. A homemaker who i s a mother person and o v e r - i d e n t i f i e s with the c l i e n t i s u s u a l l y too sentimental to work w e l l with the agency, she often "takes sides" with the c l i e n t , and loses her e f f e c t i v e -ness as a representative of the agency by f a i l i n g to report when a c l i e n t imposes on her, or when a c l i e n t i s not following medical orders. The grandmother person, with the same sub-headings as the mother person, i s placed under a separate ca-tegory, although there may be some confusion i n making a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . - 131 -The t h i r d category, a f r i e n d person, was d i f f i c u l t to name, and p o s s i b l y more d i f f i c u l t to explain. She i s not a mother or grandmother person, as a homemaker she enters a home as a f r i e n d to help i n whatever ways she i s needed. A short summary w i l l be given of a homemaker who Is generally speaking a f r i e n d person, and she w i l l be c a l l e d Mrs. White although that i s not her name. Mrs. White has been a homemaker f o r only s i x months. She too has been a widow f o r many years, so supported h e r s e l f and her family of c h i l d r e n by doing housework. • Mrs. White looks much younger than her years. She i s p r e t t y and a t t r a c t i v e , dresses young but not too . young, and with good taste. She speaks i n a quiet composed way, and you have the f e e l i n g of a very sincere wholesome person. She seems to have a great d e a l of f e e l i n g f o r people, yet she i s not demonstrative. Mrs. White has displayed i n her short p e r i o d of employment a remarkable a b i l i t y to grasp casework con-cepts and to understand the motivation of people. She has a keen i n t e r e s t i n homemaker service and the agency as a whole, asks i n t e l l i g e n t questions, and has shown a remarkable a b i l i t y to grow. She quickly grasped her own ro l e and that of the caseworker and has been of great assistance to the caseworkers i n evaluating d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s . Mrs. White i s the type of homemaker who could' help an emotionally immature person to grow up because she does not s a t i s f y t h e i r dependency needs. Some-times c l i e n t s r e f e r to her at f i r s t as being unfriendly, but t h i s i s only because of her reserved manner. She does not get too close to people and yet„she i s int e r e s t e d i n them. She i s fond of c h i l d r e n but again i s not too demonstrative. Mrs. White i s the kind of homemaker who can be placed i n a home which has serious emotional problems; and w i l l not be-come involved i n the family s i t u a t i o n ; she w i l l remain objective - 132 -and h e l p f u l to both the family and the caseworker. Both Mrs. Jones and Mrs. White have some a t t r i b u t e s i n common, although they are e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t types of women, and should be placed i n d i f f e r e n t kinds of homes, both are f u l l y cognizant of being s t a f f members of the Family Welfare Bureau and render a pr o f e s s i o n a l service, and both are we l l able to remain within the l i m i t a t i o n s established by the agency. Mrs. White has been.a homemaker an unusually short length of time, t h i s f a c t i s i n d i c a t i v e that length of service i s not ne c e s s a r i l y a c r i t e r i o n by which the s k i l l of a homemaker may be figured. The summaries of Mrs. Jones and Mrs. White were selected as t y p i c a l of the homemakers as a whole, other summaries might j u s t as w e l l have been selected. The supervisor of homemakers has co n t i n u a l l y talked with the homemakers, both at the homemaker meetings and to the homemakers i n d i v i d u a l l y , regarding e t h i c a l conduct and con-f i d e n t i a l i t y , impressing the importance of never discussing with a family other f a m i l i e s where they have worked. Answers to the question regarding e t h i c a l conduct of the homemakers as answered by the caseworkers, shows a good understanding of t h i s phase of t h e i r work by the homemakers. The eighty questionnaires showed sixty-two s i t u a t i o n s where the homemaker kept the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y expected of her, and i n only sixteen s i t u a t i o n s d i d a homemaker t a l k to a c l i e n t of another c l i e n t , and on two questionnaires t h i s question was not answered. - 133 -One homemaker, i n each of her four placements, talked about other homes where she had been as a homemaker. Each time t h i s was thoroughly discussed with her, but she seemed to have no understanding of the reasons f o r observation of con-f i d e n t i a l i t y , and since she seemed unable to correct her gossiping, she i s no longer employed as a homemaker. Two of the sixteen i n f r a c t i o n s occurred consecutively i n the same home, and with two of the t r i e d and experienced homemakers. What caused two homemakers of good p r o f e s s i o n a l standards to be g u i l t y of t h i s i n f r a c t i o n ? Let us consider the p o s i t i o n of these homemakers: f i r s t , they are i n a con-f i n i n g kind of work without contact during the day with any-one except f a m i l i e s i n d i f f i c u l t i e s who need homemaker help; second, the mother i n a home may be a l t e r n a t e l y f a u l t - f i n d i n g and prodding f o r information u n t i l even the endurance of an experienced homemaker undergoes a momentary lapse. In con-versation with both supervisors of the service, they agreed that t h i s i s what occurs i n many instances, and i s the p r i n -c i p a l answer to the above question. Considering t h i s expla-nation, i t i s possible that sixteen i n f r a c t i o n s i n eighty placements i s a low percentage, e s p e c i a l l y when we know that the supervisor i s cognizant of the importance of c o n f i d e n t i a -l i t y , and i s working continuously on the improvement of t h i s condition. - 131; -A d a p t a b i l i t y to cases An attempt was made to assess the twenty-four home-makers i n r e l a t i o n to the ca t e g o r i c a l analysis of the case-workers on the eighty questionnaires. This was soon found to be more complicated than expected. A homemaker c l a s s i f i e d as a "mother person" who was c o n t r o l l i n g , kind and consistent on one questionnaire, was assessed by the same caseworker, but i n another home, as a " f r i e n d person" who was relaxed, impersonal and p r o f e s s i o n a l . I t i s obvious that the kind of family, and. the problems i n that family, had a strong influence i n pro-ducing the kind of care which the homemaker gave i n that home. I t can have no meaning as an i s o l a t e d f a c t to state that i n ten s i t u a t i o n s the homemaker was a mother person who was con-t r o l l i n g , kind and consistent; i n seventeen s i t u a t i o n s the homemaker was a mother person who was outgoing, and f l e x i b l e but also consistent; and i n four cases she was e i t h e r permissive, overly kind and lac k i n g i n d i s c i p l i n e , or o v e r - i d e n t i f i e d with the c l i e n t . Information of t h i s kind i s of no value without considering the family s i t u a t i o n s . Three homemakers w i l l be described to i l l u s t r a t e the v e r s a t i l i t y with which the home-makers use t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s i n working with f a m i l i e s . l ) l M r s . A.-'. This homemaker worked i n four homes during the year 1950. The mother i n the f i r s t home had been i l l and out of the home f o r a long time. At f i r s t the mother was very - 135 -permissive with the two small children. Mrs. A. i s shown as a mother person, who was outgoing and f l e x i b l e but also consistent. At f i r s t the mother was i r r i t a t e d by the home-maker d i s c i p l i n i n g the c h i l d r e n , but l a t e r the mother e s t - -ablished b e t t e r controls and became more secure with them. The homemaker was instrumental i n bringing about the needed changes i n the mother's a t t i t u d e s and therefore an improvement i n the care of the c h i l d r e n . Evidently the homemaker sensed the necessity of consistency with the c h i l d r e n i n the home. The r e s u l t was a successful placement according to the family, homemaker and caseworker, as shown on the questionnaire, Mrs. A. i s shown as a mother person who i s permissive, overly kind and lacking i n d i s c i p l i n e i n her second placement. The mother had tuberculosis, and was both over-protective and had a demanding attitud e toward her children. The father was overly s t r i c t with the c h i l d r e n so the r e s u l t , as f a r as the c h i l d r e n were concerned, was that of r e j e c t i o n . The homemaker showed her wisdom i n tempering the parental a t t i t u d e s by being permissive, which res u l t e d i n a successful placement from the point of view of the family, homemaker and agency, accord-ing to the questionnaire. Mrs. A. i s shown as a grandmother person who i s per-missive, overly kind and l a c k i n g i n d i s c i p l i n e , i n the t h i r d family. The mother was i l l but at home, and f e l t threatened as a mother at the mere suggestion from the homemaker of help - 136 -i n d i s c i p l i n g the child r e n , so i t was necessary that the homemaker e x h i b i t a permissive attitu d e toward the c h i l d r e n i n order to help the mother recover her health. This Is .another case which i s shown as successful from the three aspects o f i f a m i l y , homemaker and caseworker. The fourth family which Mrs. A. served as a homemaker was s i m i l a r to the f i r s t case, and she was shown as a mother person, who was outgoing and f l e x i b l e but also consistent, but no comment seems necessary as t h i s too i s shown as a success-f u l placement. 2) Mrs. B. The second homemaker i l l u s t r a t e d here has been a homemaker l e s s than two years. She has made a remarkable adjustment to a lower standard of l i v i n g than the one to which she was accustomed, but which has now become necessary due to an i n v a l i d husband. She i s j o l l y and w e l l -adjusted, has a strong sense of l o y a l t y to the Family Welfare Bureau and the c l i e n t , and i s w i l l i n g to work hard. She has an excellent work record, as she has good understanding of her r o l e as a homemaker i n the t o t a l p i c ture of agency service, and works w e l l with caseworkers. The f i r s t placement of Mrs. B. during 195>0 was very d i f f i c u l t . Regarding her f i r s t placement Mrs. B. has t h i s to say, "This i s the most d i f f i c u l t case to which I have been assigned. The chief problem was t r y i n g to kindle any spark - 137 -of maternal i n s t i n c t i n the mother towards her two child r e n , also the lack of sui t a b l e food to feed the chi l d r e n was a problem, i n one instance the only thing to feed the year o l d c h i l d was a can of peas." The caseworker s a i d of the family regarding marital r e l a t i o n s h i p s , "There i s a bond but both are n a r c i s s i s t i c and, f a i l i n g to f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the other, each i s u n s a t i s f i e d and punishing." The father was uncouth, used much obscene language, and both he and the mother refused to do anything to help the homemaker. The homemaker f e l t sorry f o r the c h i l d r e n and permitted the parents to impose on her. The caseworker's evaluation of Mrs. B. placed her i n the cate-gory of a helper who was easy, kind, and h e r s e l f be "put upon" by the parents. The caseworker's analysis regarding the success of the case i s i n t e r e s t i n g as follows. The caseworker states d e f i n i t e l y that t h i s placement was not successful but adds that t h i s placement would t e s t the endurance of anyone. The placement was successful from the standpoint of the family as they were able to get much more work from Mrs. B. than they were e n t i t l e d to. The placement was unsuccessful from the homemaker1s point of view as the was "unable to cope with two immature, dependent -parents", according to the caseworker. The caseworker con-sidered the case unsuccessful since the homemaker was unable to get the mother to do her share of the work which had been planned with the caseworker. The second placement of Mrs. B. i n 1950 was i n an East - 138 -Indian home where the mother had tuberculosis. The following i s again quoting from the homemaker's remarks about the family. "The c h i e f stumbling block here i s the two f a m i l i e s , Mr. two sons by a former wife and the younger two ch i l d r e n by h i s present wife. I n c i d e n t a l l y , when I f i r s t met the older sons, they could not speak a word of English and had a r r i v e d that day d i r e c t from India. Mrs. i s very jealous of Mr. 's s l i g h t e s t a ttention to h i s own sons. I have endeavoured to show complete i m p a r t i a l i t y and to lead Mrs. to think of the boys as she does her own sons. I have found more d i f f i c u l t y dealing with the two younger c h i l d r e n because the parents exercise l i t t l e or no d i s c i p l i n e . However, i n spite of these, drawbacks I f e e l that exceptional progress has been made. Mrs. has almost completely recovered and the family i s slowly and surely approaching unity." There i s no need to make f u r t h e r remarks regarding the problems i n the family as these'have been covered by the homemaker. The caseworker evaluates Mrs. B. i n t h i s home as being a mother person who i s outgoing and f l e x i b l e but also consistent. The caseworker considered the placement was successful from the viewpoint of the family as they depend on her l i k e a mother. I t i s successful from the homemaker's point of view as her ro l e i n the home i s s a t i s f y i n g to her. The case i s successful from the caseworker's viewpoint as the homemaker has proven very valuable to t h i s family as she has been with them since homemaker service was started i n the home, - 139 -and i s able to work with the caseworker. The homemaker has l i s t e n e d to t h e i r s t o r i e s and helped them where she can, and yet has not o v e r - i d e n t i f i e d with them. The homemaker, the caseworker, and the c l i e n t s have a l l been working very c l o s e l y . The homemaker, Mrs. B., s a i d of her t h i r d placement, "This was the most p i t i f u l case I have ever been assigned." The mother was i l l , there were three small c h i l d r e n , m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was poor, there was much s i b l i n g jealousy. The father takes no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the home or with h i s family, and the mother i s compensating by over-indulgence of the children. There are no comforts of any kind i n the home, and many necessi-t i e s such as proper clothing are lacking. In spite of the f a c t that the homemaker p i t i e d the family and gave them some used • clo t h i n g which was not i n the. planning with the caseworker, the evaluation of the homemaker from the caseworker's viewpoint was a mother person who was outgoing and f l e x i b l e but also consistent. The caseworker also considered the placement was successful from the point of view of the family, the homemaker and the caseworker, since the homemaker was able to remain on a p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l regarding t h i s family i n s p i t e of her f e e l i n g s of extreme sym-pathy f o r them. 3) Mrs. C. The t h i r d homemaker r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s study i s one of the more experienced homemakers, as she has been on the Family Welfare Bureau s t a f f In t h i s capacity f o r ten years. - IliO -She has shown h e r s e l f to be r e l i a b l e , f l e x i b l e , adaptable, able to work w e l l with a family, and possesses a great deal of i n s t i n c t i v e awareness of people's f e e l i n g s . She works well i n e i t h e r a long-term or short-term placement, and i s good with small c h i l d r e n , babies, or the older c h i l d . There i s no s i t u a t i o n where she cannot be used as a homemaker. Mrs. C. worked i n f i v e homes during 1950. She was placed i n home number one following a long h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n of the mother, during which time the three c h i l d r e n had been cared f o r by a succession of inept people both outside and i n the home. The c h i l d r e n needed to have a f e e l i n g of love and s e c u r i t y from t h e i r parents. Mrs. C. sensed immediately her ro l e i n the home, and the caseworker c l a s s i f i e d her i n t h i s home as being i n the fourth or "other" category, as a helper who i s not aunt or f r i e n d , but i s c o n t r o l l i n g and consistent to the ch i l d r e n , kind as w e l l to the parents. Mrs. C. helped the mother to resume her p o s i t i o n i n the home. There was need f o r very close working r e l a t i o n s h i p between caseworker and homemaker, as the homemaker was very cautious i n her conversations with the family, and frequently sought the help of the caseworker when she was not sure how much the physician had t o l d the family regarding the progressive i l l n e s s of the mother. Mrs. C. was c r i t i c a l regarding the hand-l i n g of the c h i l d r e n by both parents, but t h i s d i d not i n t e r f e r e with her r o l e as homemaker i n the home, as she turned to the caseworker to express t h i s disapproval instead of to the family. - l l l l -The placement i s shown as successful from the point of view of the family, the homemaker and the caseworker. In the second home i n 1950 where Mrs. C. served as a homemaker, the mother was awaiting a bed i n the tuberculosis h o s p i t a l . The father's behaviour was obnoxious and inconsiderate toward h i s wife, and he projected t h i s a t t i t u d e on to the home-maker. Both parents were very permissive and inconsistent with the c h i l d r e n . Mrs. C. i s shown as. using much d i s c r e t i o n i n spite of r e a l d i f f i c u l t i e s due to the father's behaviour toward her, and h i s i n a b i l i t y to understand her r o l e i n the home. Mrs. C. i s shown i n t h i s home as being a f r i e n d person who i s relaxed, impersonal and p r o f e s s i o n a l . Homemaker service was withdrawn from the family a f t e r a great deal of work by the case-worker i n t r y i n g to work with the family. In spite of the reason f o r withdrawing the homemaker, the caseworker evaluates the case as being successful from the family's p o i n t - o f view, p a r t -i a l l y successful from the homemaker's point of view, and success-f u l from the caseworker's point of view since the family continued to use suggestions and methods of routine and c h i l d t r a i n i n g i n s t i g a t e d by the homemaker. Mrs. C. was placed i n the t h i r d home because:the home needed a homemaker who could work on a good pr o f e s s i o n a l case-work l e v e l , a f t e r the withdrawal of an unsuitable homemaker no longer with the agency, who o v e r - i d e n t i f i e d with the mother and - Ih2 -conspired with the family to keep e s s e n t i a l information from the caseworker. This was an extremely d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n i n which to place Mrs. C , but she worked c l o s e l y with the case-worker to co r r e c t the harm done by the previous homemaker. The caseworker c l a s s i f i e s Mrs. C. i n t h i s home as a f r i e n d person who i s a n a l y t i c a l , objective and undemonstrative. In sp i t e of the family's resistance to the placement of t h i s second homemaker, the caseworker considers that t h i s was a successful placement from the point of view of the family, home-maker and caseworker. Mrs. C. had a second placement i n t h i s home during the year which we w i l l return to l a t e r f o r consider-ation. The fourth placement of Mrs. C. during the year was a home i n a wartime housing p r o j e c t where l i v i n g standards were very low. Mrs. C. sa i d t h i s was. the poorest equipped home i n which she had ever worked. There were three ch i l d r e n at home, the youngest a year old, and the mother was i n h o s p i t a l f o r confinement with a fourth c h i l d . Family r e l a t i o n s h i p s were strong but the fa t h e r was a dependent and inadequate person regarding home f a c i l i t i e s or guidance of the ch i l d r e n . Mrs. C. was able to r e t a i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e , and define her work to neighbours, i n spite of a large amount of gossiping i n the housing p r o j e c t about her, due to her attractiveness, and the mother being i n h o s p i t a l . Mrs. CI was able to induce the father and older c h i l d r e n to put up shelves and hooks f o r - 1U3 -clothing, and a d r i e r over the stove instead of continuing to dry the clothes on chairs placed i n the room where the baby s l e p t . Because of Mrs. C's c o n s i s t e n t l y p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e , the mother f e l t she was no threat, upon her return from h o s p i t a l , and Mrs. C. was able to a s s i s t the mother i n management of the home. The caseworker places Mrs. C. i n the category of a mother person who i s outgoing and f l e x i b l e but also consistent. The emphasis i n the home was help on an environmental b a s i s , but as both parents were dependent people who needed a mother substitute, i t i s not easy to determine the permanent value of the service i n t h i s home. The caseworker, however, evaluated the case as being successful from the point of view of the family, the homemaker and the caseworker, as there was a noticable improvement i n home conditions r e s u l t i n g from homemaker service. The f i f t h placement f o r Mrs. C. during the year was a return to family number three. The members of the family already knew her and were delighted to have her back. The harm which had previously been done by another homemaker was a thing of the past. The father had died suddenly, and the mother was extremely c r i t i c a l of the "Welfare", but Mrs. C. retained her p r o f e s s i o n a l and a n a l y t i c a l a t t i t u d e , r e a l i z i n g i t was healthy f o r the mother to show her confusion by expressing her h o s t i l i t i e s , f o r Mrs. C. i s d e f i n i t e l y an agency person i n her thinking. - ma -The same caseworker now changed her evaluation of Mrs. C. i n the same home, from a f r i e n d person who i s a n a l y t i c a l , objective, and undemonstrative, to a f r i e n d person who was relaxed, impersonal and pr o f e s s i o n a l . The placement was successful from the point of view of the family, homemaker and caseworker. Mrs. C. d i d not show the v a r i a t i o n i n evaluation that some homemakers show, but there i s enough v a r i a t i o n to show that Mrs. C. f i t s her work i n a home to the needs of a family at the time she i s i n the home. In the second placement i n the same home, the amount of pressure which existed around the homemaker was lessened, therefore she could be more relaxed. The years of successful experience of Mrs. C. as a homemaker helps her to remain p r o f e s s i o n a l . Mrs. C. i s not lacking i n maternal f e e l i n g as can be seen when she i s placed i n a mother-l e s s home, with deprived c h i l d r e n , i t simply means that during the year 1950 she d i d not have a placement which emphasized t h i s q u a l i t y . A Family Welfare Bureau supervisor gave an i l l u s t r a t i o n of Mrs. C's mother q u a l i t i e s i n a home, when Mrs. C. sa i d de-f e n s i v e l y to the d i s t r i c t worker about a c h i l d i n the home, "Who ever s a i d B i l l y i s a bad boy, a l l he needs i s l o t s of l o v i n g J " • An analysis of the above cases i n t h i s study i n d i c a t e s that the true value to be gained from the information shown on these questionnaires i s the measurement of the homemaker's - 1U5 -a d a p t a b i l i t y to circumstances rather than a conclusive judg-ment of her c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , A few general conclusions may be made by a study of these questionnaires: . f i r s t , a homemaker may b a s i c a l l y be a mother, grandmother, f r i e n d or helper person; but she may be so adaptable that, i n a home needing a homemaker with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i f f e r e n t from her own, she w i l l a c t u a l l y be the kind of person i n that home which that family needs at that p a r t i c u l a r time. Second, the majority of the homemakers, according to the questionnaires of the caseworkers, and the records of the supervisor of homemakers, f a l l i n the mother or grandmother categories, and although some of these homemakers are very f l e x i b l e , there are l i m i t a t i o n s to the kind of s i t u a t i o n s where they may be used most e f f e c t i v e l y . Third, the homemakers who f a l l b a s i c a l l y i n t o the categories of f r i e n d or other person, although i n a minority, seem to be the most s k i l l e d group, the members of which can be placed i n any kind of home under any kind of circumstances. The l a t t e r group seem best able to work with the caseworker on a casework l e v e l , although some i n the mother or grandmother categories can also work on a casework l e v e l . There seems to be no measurement scale which can be drawn from the material so f a r a v a i l a b l e from the present study. Views of the Homemakers Themselves The questionnaires answered by the homemakers in d i c a t e two f a c t s : t h e i r s p i r i t of co-operation with the supervisor of homemakers; and t h e i r understanding of what i s expected of them by the agency. I t also p l a i n l y shows t h e i r a b i l i t y to analyse - I i i6 -t h e i r work i n co-operation with the caseworker and family. Nineteen of the twenty-four homemakers completed the question-naire and returned i t to the agency, and answered the questions without h e s i t a t i o n i n a straightforward manner. A l l who knew about the questionnaire, except the supervisor of homemakers, were surprised at the f a c i l i t y and candor with which the questions were answered. The information from these question-naires i s given i n narrative form, since tabulation i s not appropriate to a small t o t a l .(19): i t i s very revealing of ge-neral a t t i t u d e s , however. One question, i n personnel p r a c t i c e s , appeared to have been misunderstood, and no use could be made of the r e p l i e s . Question number one asked that the four parts of the question be numbered i n the order of t h e i r importance to the homemaker as follows: a, c h i l d t r a i n i n g and understanding; b, preparation of low cost meals with emphasis, on n u t r i t i o n a l needs; c, household management and e f f i c i e n t work methods; d, helping to meet the emotional and p e r s o n a l i t y needs of f a m i l i e s . Four out of nineteen thought these were a l l of equal importance, and .that a l l phases were important. One of the four wrote, "I found t h i s rather d i f f i c u l t to decide. To me i t i s a l l so c l o s e l y woven together. I f e e l that a well managed household takes care of the emotions and p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the inmates. I t also embraces the understanding of c h i l d r e n and n u t r i t i o n a l meals follow. I do not consider that a spotless house i s n e c e s s a r i l y - 11*7 -a well-managed household, though I greatly admire e f f i c i e n t work methods". The other sixteen questionnaires showed a large percentage who gave preference to sections "a" and "d" as f i r s t and second choices i n order of importance to them. By c l a s s i f y i n g these two sections together as being on a casework l e v e l , I t i s found that 75 per cent place these two sections i n f i r s t place; and 69 per cent place these two sect-ions i n second place. Those who placed sections "b" and "c" as f i r s t and second choices were a minority, showing that the majority of the homemakers are aware of the importance of the emotional aspects of home l i f e , and see t h e i r work in4 wider sense than meeting only the environmental needs of f a m i l i e s , although of course the material needs of a family are important. Question number two e l i c i t e d a wide v a r i e t y of answers which i t seems best to break down into'as few categories as possible. The question read as follows: "Have you any suggest-ions which would make your work easier or more e f f e c t i v e as r e -gards your contact with the caseworker or family ?" Section one immediately following the above read: "What information i s most h e l p f u l to you regarding a family before you enter a home?" Ten homemakers wanted information regarding general.home and fam i l y conditions; four wanted information regarding the emot-i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the home; two wanted s p e c i a l information regarding the mother's p h y s i c a l and emotional condition; one wanted, information regarding the children; and two misunderstood - 11+8 -the question. One homemaker would l i k e to le a r n , "Any odd p e r s o n a l i t y angles or habits that the family f i n d d i f f i c u l t to discuss with a stranger". Another homemaker expresses her-s e l f as follows: "Information regarding the mother's health. I f she i s a tuberculosis patient, what extra care i s needed. Do a l l the other adults i n the house follow the rules about the disease ? What d i f f i c u l t i e s are there between members of the family". A t h i r d homemaker makes the following suggestion under t h i s heading: "Would l i k e to meet the mother i f possible before entering the home i f she i s h o t at home and a v a i l a b l e to v i s i t " . This homemaker i s r e f e r r i n g to mothers who may be i n a l o c a l Vancouver h o s p i t a l . Other answers could be quoted, but the above gives an i n d i c a t i o n of the thinking of the homemakers, some of them on a casework l e v e l instead of being bogged down only with thoughts of washing dishes. Section two under question number two may be answered by e i t h e r "yes" or "no". The question reads: "Is the method used to introduce you to the family s a t i s f a c t o r y to you ?" There was not a si n g l e dissenting vote; a l l answered i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . However, one homemaker added a suggestion f o r use p r i o r to entrance i n t o the home of a homemaker: "I would suggest that the caseworker inform the mother that our system (home care) may d i f f e r from hers, but that what we do ( i n the home) Is with the Welfare approval". A number of homemakers who remember the "old order" have expressed pleasure over the manner of t h e i r - Ih9 -present introduction to the family. The caseworker accomp-anies the homemaker to the home, introduces the homemaker to the family, sees that the family thoroughly understands the duties of the homemaker, the caseworker also makes sure that the necessary f a c i l i t i e s are i n the home f o r the homemaker before she leaves. This method of introduction shows, the family that there i s a united f r o n t of the caseworker and home-maker, thereby introducing the homemaker as a s t a f f member of the Family Welfare Bureau. Section three under question number two asks, "What do you see as the part the caseworker plays i n working with you to help the family?" This question would probably have r e -ceived more revealing answers i f i t had been worded to ask what part the homemaker thought she played i n working with the caseworker. The answers to t h i s question have been broken down int o as few categories as possible. Five homemakers thought the caseworkers helped them to a cl e a r e r understanding of the goal toward which to work i n a family; three considered that the caseworker helped regarding the p e r s o n a l i t y problems i n the home; seven saw the caseworker as giving co-operation and support to the homemakers. One saw the caseworker as an a v a i l -able counsellor; one thought the caseworker made be t t e r work possible due to a cl e a r e r understanding of the problems; one would l i k e more co-operation from the caseworkers; and one did not reply to the question. One homemaker ap t l y summed up her ideas on t h i s question as follows: "In helping to untangle - 150 -the p e r s o n a l i t y problems. Simply knowing that the caseworker Is there to help with the d i f f i c u l t i e s that one i s at a loss to know how to handle, i s a wonderful morale booster". Another homemaker gave her d e f i n i t i o n simply but e f f e c t i v e l y as follows: "She must i n t e r p r e t the family's needs to me, help me understand why they act as they do". Question number three showed a wide v a r i a t i o n i n answers. I t concerns "Analysis of your a t t i t u d e toward your work", of which the f i r s t part i s : "What do you most enjoy?" Six homemakers enjoyed the s a t i s f a c t i o n of accomplishment i n a home. One homemaker r e p l i e d , "Knowing we are helping to keep a family together, seeing improvement i n health and fami l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s " . Four homemakers most enjoyed seeing a home with normal family r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; three most enjoyed the c h i l d r e n ; two enjoyed everything i n homemaker work; two enjoyed some phase of housework; one enjoyed most, s a t i s f y i n g the emotional needs i n the home; and one said she most enjoyed a f u l l - t i m e homemaker placement. Another homemaker candidly and humourously r e p l i e d that she most enjoyed "The v a r i e t y that i s introduced into what otherwise might be the drab existence of a middle-aged woman". The second part of question number three, "What i s most d i f f i c u l t f o r you ?" was discussed f u l l y during the home-maker meeting January 26th, 1951, but the influence of the d i s -cussion i n the meeting i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the r e p l i e s w ritten on the questionnaire. During the meeting the majority of the - 151 -homemakers expressed d i f f i c u l t y i n preparing meals i n homes where there was i n s u f f i c i e n t money to buy food, a number of homemakers mentioned the unreasonable demands made by some of the tuberculosis p a t i e n t s . None of the complaints were made i n a c r i t i c a l manner, or with any expectation that they could be corrected, these matters were simply mentioned as part of t h e i r work, and treated i n an objective manner, and some were treated with humour. The. r e p l i e s to the question on the questionnaire are broken down as follows: f i v e most d i s l i k e d a p a r t i c u l a r phase of housework; four had no d i s l i k e s ; two d i d not f e e l that a f u l l accomplishment was possible on a part-time placement; two most d i s l i k e d something of a personal nature, one of these took her food from her own home as she did not l i k e eating the food from a sub-standard home; three most d i s l i k e d "spoiled" children; one d i s l i k e d having to do the useless things which some f a m i l i e s expect to be done such as washing Venetian b l i n d s once a week; one homemaker most d i s -l i k e d short finances i n a home; and one homemaker d i s l i k e d the f e e l i n g she had when there was lack of accomplishment i n a home. The way i n which t h i s question was answered would i n d i c a t e that many of the homemakers found i t d i f f i c u l t to f i n d some phase of t h e i r work which they s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s l i k e d , to include i t as an answer i n t h i s questionnaire. The fourth question asks the opinion of the homemakers regarding the improvement i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and the question reads as follows: "Of the t o t a l number of f a m i l i e s served by , - 152 -you during 1950, mark the number below which i n your opinion come under the following headings: exceptional improvement, good improvement, f a i r improvement, no improvement." The su-per v i s o r gave each homemaker a l i s t with the dates of service i n each home during the year 1950. Although the homemakers knew the questionnaires d i d not require t h e i r signature, the majority used the names of the c l i e n t s under the category they selected to show improvement i n the home, which indicates that the question was answered thoughtfully. They showed a good understanding of what was wanted i n t h i s question, and an a b i l i t y to evaluate t h e i r work o b j e c t i v e l y . Twenty-seven fami-l i e s were placed under the category of "exceptional improvement" twenty-eight were placed under the category of "good improvement t h i r t e e n were placed under the category of " f a i r improvement", and twelve were shown as having "no improvement". In other words the concensus of opinion among the homemakers shows 6 9 per cent under the top two categories combined as showing e i t h e r exceptional or good improvement, and they are able to recognize that 31 per cent of the f a m i l i e s showed either only f a i r improve ment or none at a l l . There i s also an i n d i c a t i o n from t h i s evaluation, and the i n t e r e s t the homemakers demonstrated i n answering the question, that there i s a c e r t a i n compensation f o r them i n a f e e l i n g of accomplishment. A f i f t h question, "In your work what would you say i s the most recurring d i f f i c u l t y ?" brought out a wide v a r i e t y of - 153 -r e p l i e s , which i n d i c a t e d that there i s no s i n g l e problem, but instead dhows the m u l t i p l i c i t y of problems which must be met by the supervisor of homemakers. This question was thoroughly discussed by the homemakers i n t h e i r meeting January 2 6 t h , 1951, at which time no serious recurring problem was mentioned. The • l i s t i n g of the answers to t h i s question w i l l i n d i c a t e the d i -v e r s i f i e d character of the.problems: two homemakers had no r e -curring d i f f i c u l t i e s ; two named the high p r i c e of food i n r e l a t -i on to the f i n a n c i a l means of f a m i l i e s ; two named bed-wetting; one s a i d the f a m i l i e s expect too much from the homemaker; one named "spo i l e d " c h i l d r e n as the most commonly recurring d i f f i c u l t y ; one named emotional i n s t a b i l i t y of mother; one s a i d her p r i n c i p a l d i f f i c u l t y was lack of s u f f i c i e n t time to give "deprived" children; one named lack of f a c i l i t i e s i n d i f f i c u l t homes; one named personal food i n sub-standard homes as her p r i n c i p a l d i f f i c u l t y ; another homemaker said she found two part-time placements d i f f i c u l t when there was a long t r a v e l l i n g distance between them; one f e l t i t was d i f f i c u l t to get tuberculosis, patients to follow the doctor's orders; one homemaker thought the most recu r r i n g d i f f i c u l t y was to understand the d i f f e r e n t d i s p o s i t i o n s and temperaments of patients; and one found., that abnormal behaviour was' the most r e -curring d i f f i c u l t y . The discussion on t h i s question i n the homemakers' meeting i n d i c a t e d that the majority of homemakers were w e l l aware of the emotional f a c t o r s i n i l l n e s s , although some might not - 15U -accept a caseworker's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of emotional f a c t o r s . Because of t h i s , the caseworker uses great care i n making her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c l e a r to the homemaker. However, without understanding psychological reasons f o r disturbance, a home-maker often i s able to accept a c l i e n t with emotional d i f f i -c u l t i e s , and i s able to work with the caseworker toward the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of t h i s person, because the homemaker l i k e s people and wishes to help them. -155 -CHAPTER 7 PROGRESS REVIEWED The success of a new venture.depends on the e f f e c t s of t r i a l and erro r . The measure of good administration i s the use made of these r e s u l t s . The Family Welfare Bureau has shown remarkable a b i l i t y to prepare f o r a n t i c i p a t e d problems, and alertness i n taking e a r l y advantage of e r r o r s . The Vancouver homemaker service was i n i t i a t e d i n 1938, at a time when most business concerns had c u r t a i l e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s due to the precarious economic condition of the country and the world. Unemployment wasa serious problem, and the majority of people had sub-standard incomes. The Family Welfare Bureau recognized the need, f o r homemaker service i n the community, and courageous-l y experimented with t h i s new service. The service was established to help preserve mother-le s s family units i n the low income group, Tfhere the only a l t e r -native was f o s t e r home placement of the c h i l d r e n . The experiment established the f a c t that i t was a sound programme to preserve the u n i t y of f a m i l i e s having p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y strong i n t e r - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s : while, economically, the cost was l e s s i n homes with three or more children than f o s t e r home placement. The los s of one parent i s a traumatic experience f o r a c h i l d , and when both parents are l o s t by a c h i l d through placement.in a f o s t e r home, the experience i s doubly disturbing - 156 -emotionally; the c h i l d f e e l s thoroughly rejected, and experiences g u i l t f e e l i n g s i n h i s b e l i e f that h i s own behaviour must have caused h i s parents to desert him. Careby a homemaker i n the ch i l d ' s own home giveshim a continued f e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y because-he i s i n f a m i l i a r surroundings, and even though both parents are absent, he f e e l s that a parent w i l l be coming home. Unlike f o s t e r home placement, homemaker service more nearly provides a c h i l d with the opportunity f o r normal-emotional growth: while these intangible values are more far-reaching than monetary considerat-ions, the t r u t h of t h i s a s s e r t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h . The f i r s t experimental homemaker cases established the f a c t that a private f a m i l y agency could not a f f o r d the cost of maintaining homemaker service permanently i n motherless homes, and that p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i t was better planning to help the fat h e r r e l y on h i s own resources, using homemaker service i f necessary as an emergency measure only. Too much long-term service defeats i t s purpose of f i l l i n g an emergency r o l e . Often household planning, or care of the child r e n , i s l e f t i n the hands of the mother; but, through experience, the Family Welfare Bureau has learned that including the father i n the plans i s an e s s e n t i a l component f o r a smooth operation when a homemaker i n the home. In recent years the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l concept that mothers possess stronger a f f e c t i o n a l t i e s f o r t h e i r - 157 -children than fathers has been seriously questioned, and in some quarters denied. What has been learned i s that fathers may need a l i t t l e more help than mothers i n express-ing their feelings: and they may need reassurance i n letting their children know of their fondness for them. The family bureau, therefore, i s right i n placing an emphasis on the father, not alone for his co-operation or to l e t him know that casework services are available to him. A f t e r a l l , he i s a parent, each child has two parents, and for a child to l i v e a well-balanced l i f e and grow into an emotionally mature adult, i t i s important that he have both a father and a mother -and that the father himself realizes that he i s very important to his child. The establishment of a three-month lim i t for home-maker service was found necessary by the heavy demands for long-term service; however, f l e x i b i l i t y was maintained by the policy of the agency which permitted the Homemakers1 Committee to extend service for any case considered on i t s merits. Flexibi-l i t y i s the keynote of the Vancouver homemaker service, as policy has been developed as a guidepost not as a barricade. The general policy of maintaining the service for those financ-i a l l y unable to make their own arrangements for care of their children on a short-time basis when the mother i s i l l cannot always be adhered to. Financial pressures are often only one of the pressures which a family feels, therefore the close t i e - 158 -with casework service i s of assistance to these f a m i l i e s . -Qualifications and Remuneration The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s recognized by other homemaker agencies, and the Vancouver Family Welfare Bureau, as necessary f o r homemakers, are so high that the compensation of good wages i s e s s e n t i a l . A homemaker who i s s u f f i c i e n t l y compulsive to be s a t i s f i e d with r e c e i v i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n i n her job as a part of her wages, might not have the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of f l e x i b i l i t y and a d a p t a b i l i t y necessary to do the work. Homemakers are wanted - not missionaries. Comparatively, homemakers i n Van-couver had a b e t t e r salary scale i n 1938 than they do today. In 1938 the wages var i e d from twenty-five cents, an hour to ten d o l l a r s a week; the wages f o r charwomen were then twenty-five cents an hour. A resident homemaker has received a bonus of two d o l l a r s per week from 19hh to the present day, whereas the hourly wage has increased from twenty-five cents per hour to s i x t y cents per hour. The pro r a t a increase f o r a resident home-maker should give her a bonus of $k.75 per week today. The minimum hourly wage today i n Vancouver f o r char-women, according to the National Employment Service, i s s i x t y -f i v e cents per hour, and the majority charge seventy-five cents. per hour. A charwoman can be s e l e c t i v e about the homes i n which she chooses to work, she may be s e l e c t i v e about the hours she works i n a day as w e l l ; while the only q u a l i f i c a t i o n s she - 159 -needs f o r her work i s a b i l i t y to do housework. The homemaker, with a l l the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s she must have, i n the way of poise, s t a b i l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , l i k i n g f o r people, i n t e l l i g e n c e , a b i -l i t y to manage a home and care f o r children, a d a p t a b i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y , resourcefulness, kindness, a b i l i t y to work with the agency, good health, and a healthy a t t i t u d e toward family problems - these and many more which are not mentioned - i s today working f o r lower wages than the lowest paid charwoman. I t would seem that she merits more consideration i n salary; and i t i s s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d a homemaker organization composed of the f i n e c a l i b r e of women seen i n the Vancouver homemaker service under the present salary arrangement. A change i n payment of wages to homemakers was effe c t e d i n 19U9 i n f a i r n e s s to the homemakers who had been with the agency f o r a number of years and were receiving a month-l y salary. In some cases t h i s monthly salary was l e s s than the amount received by newer homemakers who were on a hourly rate of pay. A l l homemakers were then placed on a hourly basis, although the hourly rate varied, and was dependent on both length of service and s k i l l i n working on a casework l e v e l with a caseworker, f o r the highest hourly rate of s i x t y - f i v e cents an hour. This voluntary " f a i r play" exhibited by the agency i n the readjustment of wage scales i s the kind of action which makes a marked contribution to the morale of the homemakers. - 160 -Much of the available l i t e r a t u r e on homemaker service i n general, and the l i t e r a t u r e from other agencies who have homemaker service, places emphasis on the job s e c u r i t y which homemakers have. This seems l i k e a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n since enquiry e l i c i t s the information that most agencies have no retirement plan f o r t h e i r homemakers, and not a l l agencies carry l i a b i l i t y insurance f o r protection of t h e i r homemakers. The job s e c u r i t y a c t u a l l y depends on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of funds enabling the agency to continue the work, which i s i t s e l f de-pendent on the success of the annual fund-raising campaign of the Community Chest. In the present instance i n Vancouver, job s e c u r i t y i s l a r g e l y dependent on the continuance or with-drawal of the government grant which provides homemaker service to tuberculosis homes, i n which the Family Welfare Bureau i s providing the casework and homemaker s k i l l s . A retirement plan i s a d i f f i c u l t problem, as yet unsolved, since the majority of homemakers s t a r t t h e i r employment too l a t e i n l i f e to b u i l d up an adequate pension through a contributory plan. While they are working i n a home i n Vancouver, the homemakers are protected by the agency through l i a b i l i t y insurance. The personal l i a -b i l i t y insurance c a r r i e d by some of the homemakers gives low-cost protection with an annual premium of f i v e d o l l a r s . The p r o v i s i o n has r e c e n t l y been made i n Vancouver to place any homemaker who has given s a t i s f a c t o r y service on a p r e f e r e n t i a l - 161 -l i s t subject to r e h i r i n g , i f i t i s necessary to terminate her service due to curtailment or reorganization of the service. A l l of t h i s does not add up to much se c u r i t y . Some of the members of the homemaker committee are aware that homemaker wages have not kept pace with the r i s e i n l i v i n g costs. The committee i s aware of the d i f f i c u l t y i n se-curing capable homemakers, and keeping them s a t i s f i e d on low wages. The supervisor of the service has re c e n t l y made a pro-posal to give a bonus to homemakers who are worn out from work i n d i f f i c u l t homes, to enable them to take a re s t before working i n another home. I t i s not yet known whether the budget can absorb these a d d i t i o n a l costs; but, i f t h i s plan i s possib l e , i t i s hoped the agency w i l l not hesitate to e f f e c t i t . Supervision and Case-Selection P o l i c y . Supervision of homemakers by a caseworker was an in e v i t a b l e and foreseen r e s u l t of the evolutionary process i n the Vancouver homemaker service. The need was not only f o r a caseworker to act as supervisor, but f o r one who was p a r t i c u l a r l y f i t t e d by experience, and had the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to r e c r u i t , t r a i n , and supervise homemakers, and do a l l the paper work neces-sary i n the.service. The supervisor i s a symbol of the agency to the homemakers since she in t e r p r e t s the work, r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s , and p o l i c i e s of the agency. The homemakers have d i r e c t super-v i s i o n i n the home from the various caseworkers; i f a homemaker i s working i n three homes at the same time i n three d i f f e r e n t - 162 -d i s t r i c t s , she w i l l he supervised by three d i f f e r e n t case-workers. D i s t r i c t workers i n the Family Welfare Bureau have given assurance that t h i s plan of supervision vrorks smoothly, " and p o s s i b l y since agency p o l i c y works on a basis of d i s t r i c t s , and each worker works only w i t h i n her own d i s t r i c t , i t might not be f e a s i b l e to have separate caseworkers f o r the homemaker cases. The present supervisor of homemakers provides the con-t i n u i t y necessary f o r homemaker supervision, any complaint, even minor ones, being discussed immediately with the homemaker involved. The supervisor also recognizes that the homemakers work under exceedingly d i f f i c u l t conditions, that sometimes i t i s necessary to place a homemaker i n a series of discouraging homes, and that even one of the more s k i l l e d homemakers may need praise to boost her morale. Another question which a r i s e s i s the im-portanceof c o n t i n u i t y f o r i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n the homes. The homemakers enjoy t h e i r contacts and supervision by the d i s t r i c t workers, but there i s much to be gained from the co n t i n u i t y of supervision by the same caseworker, as caseworkers vary i n t h e i r methods of supervision. In the present instance, the supervisor of the service i s a s k i l l e d person i n co-ordinating the programme, and t h i s may be more of the answer to the success of the d i v i s i o n i n supervision i n Vancouver, than that i t i s s o l e l y an e f f i c i e n t plan of operation. - 163 -Emphasis on short-term temporary homemaker service continues to be the general p o l i c y of the Family Welfare Bu-reau. The greatest b e n e f i t i s given more people at l e s s ex-pense than In other kinds of cases. This plan makes i t possible to spread the service over a l a r g e r number of f a m i l i e s , with the same budget required to serve a few f a m i l i e s on a long-term bas i s . The Family Welfare Bureau demonstrates that p o l i c y i s often e a s i e r to change than f a m i l i e s ; the f a m i l i e s given home-maker service who f a l l outside the p o l i c i e s l a i d down, show that t h i s agency believes that p o l i c i e s are made to serve f a m i l i e s instead of f a m i l i e s being made to f i t p o l i c i e s . The tuberculosis programme financed through a grant by the Federal Government i s an important experiment"in determining the value of homemaker service to tuberculosis f a m i l i e s . The value to these f a m i l i e s r e c e i v i n g homemaker service, and to the community, cannot be f i g u r e d i n d o l l a r s and cents. A mother with tuberculosis often means a broken home; or a mother may refuse to be h o s p i t a l i z e d as there i s no one to care f o r the family. This may mean the spread of i n f e c t i o n and carelessness i n the measures necessary to protect others from the i n f e c t i o n . Many of the "tuberculosis homes" present very serious emotional con-f l i c t s as w e l l , f o r which they may need casework help. In a general study such as t h i s , i t i s not possible to do more than touch the outer edges of the homemaker service i n t h i s s p e c i a l - i6U -f i e l d , which includes co-operative work being done with the public health nurses. A separate study would be needed to evaluate the work being done i n t h i s area, which i s espe-c i a l l y important since monetary costs run high f o r service i n these homes due to the long-term planning necessary f o r the cure of tuberculosis, and i t i s easy f o r government o f f i c i a l s to assess the value of services only i n d o l l a r terms. The Family Welfare Bureau i s to be commended f o r the smoothness of operation with which the co-operative homemaker cases are handled. The w r i t e r has not found t h i s type of co-operation elsewhere as a matter of p o l i c y , although some agencies w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y place a homemaker i n the home of another agency. I t would seem that one reason f o r the f a c i l i t y of the Vancouver service i s because other health and welfare agencies have been a part of the Homemaker Committee almost since i t s inception. Opportunities f o r Further Study Comparing the tabulation of material obtained from the questionnaires regarding the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of homemakers under four categories, and the same material a r r i v e d at indepen-dently by the supervisor of homemakers from her records, i t Is found that each summarizes approximately 60 per cent of the homemakers c l a s s i f i e d under the combined categories of "mother" and "grandmother" persons. While information from these two - 165 -sources varies f o r i n d i v i d u a l homemakers, there i s reason to assume from the above showing., that, a f t e r a s u f f i c i e n t number of questionnaires have been accumulated on each home-maker f o r a v a l i d study, a general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may be obtained f o r each homemaker, as w e l l as a measurement of her degree of a d a p t a b i l i t y . The development of such c r i t e r i a and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s might w e l l be a fur t h e r study. The present t h e s i s has made i t c l e a r that there are many other studies which might be made of the operations and implications of homemaker service. The most urgent need i s no doubt a study of the tuberculosis programme, but other topics which suggest themselves are: Co-operative homemaker cases with other agencies; the kinds of homemaker cases which can most e f f e c t i v e l y use casework services; homemaker service i n emotionally disturbed homes; homemakers f o r permanently mother-l e s s homes; and the need of homemaker service i n the homes of the aged, the two l a t t e r topics being perhaps p a r t i c u l a r l y r e -levant f o r a-public welfare programme. Other methods might also be used to assess the performance of the present service i n Vancouver. But the present study has been p a r t i c u l a r l y con-cerned to compare the Vancouver homemaker service with i t s own past performance, because of progress made through developing f l e x i b i l i t y In a p p l i c a t i o n , and i n b u i l d i n g a s t e a d i l y greater co-ordination between casework and the simpler f a c t of the motherless home. - 166 -B I B L I O G R A P H Y Manginelli, Madeline V.H., Homemaker Service Meeting Crises i n Family L i f e with A New Horizon i n C h i l d Care, New York, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., June 191+1. McLean, Francis H., Summary of Returns From Four Family Agencies •on Questionnaire on Homemakers, New York C i t y , Family Welfare Association of America, 1937. Goldfarb, Dora, Personnel Procedures f o r Homemaker S t a f f , Washington, D.C, U.S. Children's Bureau, S o c i a l Security Administration, Federal Security Agency, 191+6. | Exploring Some Pot e n t i a l Uses of Housekeeping Service, New York C i t y , Welfare Council of New York Cit y , 191+1. Directory of Agencies Providing Homemaker Service, Washington, D.C, U. S. Children's Bureau, S o c i a l Security Administration, Federal Security Agency, 191+7. Homemaker Service, Washington, D.C, U.S. Children's Bureau Pu b l i c a t i o n No. 296, S o c i a l Security Administration, Federal Security Agency, 191+6. Committee on Homemaker Service of the Welfare Council of New York C i t y , Recommendations f o r Personnel Practices f o r Homemakers, New York City, January 191+8. Report of "Report Form Committee" of the National Committee on  Homemaker Service, New York City, 15 October, 191+8. Fraenkel, Marta, Some Tentative Results of a Study of Housekeeping  Service f o r Chronic Patients, New York C i t y , Welfare Council of New York C i t y , 23 May, 191+1, 10 pages. C i t y of Chicago Department of Welfare, Homemakers' Services, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , O f f i c i a l B u l l e t i n No. 2173, 16 A p r i l , 191+8. Preston, Frances, and MacLennan, Rika, "Homemaker Service Helps to Preserve Family L i f e " , Reprint from The Ch i l d , Vol. 12, No. 2, Washington, D.C, U.S. Children's Bureau, August, 191+7. Fenger, B o d i l , "Selection of Homemakers f o r a Family Agency", The Family, Vol. 29, No. 6, (June 191+8) pp. 222-227. Boggs, Marjorie H., "Some Treatment Implications i n the Use of Homemaker Service", Reprint from The Family, May, 191+3. "Homemaker Service", Reprint from S o c i a l Work Year Book, 191+9, Copyright 191+7 by Russ e l l Sage Foundation, Washington, D.C, U.S. Children's Bureau. - 167'-BIBLIOGRAPHT (cont'd) - 2 -MacDonald, Theresa, "Home Helps i n Great B r i t a i n " , Reprint from The C h i l d , June,19U9, Washington, D.C., U.S. Children's Bureau. Duston,. Esther H., "Study of E x i s t i n g Personnel Practices f o r Homemakers", Highlights, Vol. 2, No. 9, (January, 19U2) pp. U4O-IJ4.3. Schwartz:, Doris R., R.N., "The Swedish Homemakers, A Friend i n Need", Public Health Nursing, (June, 195>0) Reprint. Nordstrom, Margareta, "Homemaker Service i n Sweden", News and Views, (October, 1950) Reprint. - 168 -APPENDIX A SAMPLE MINUTES OF A HOMEMAKERS1 MEETING October 27th, 1950 The meeting was called to order at 8:00 P.M. by our President, Mrs. Large. The roll call was taken and 13 members were present, also Mrs. Cowper and Mrs. Mabee. The minutes of the previous meeting was read and adopted. During Mrs. Cowper1s remarks she said that the time sheets were sometimes late in reaching the office. Sometimes they were im-properly f i l l e d out. So forms were handed to each member and we were required to f i l l in a sample form in the correct manner. These we were permitted to keep so that we may use them as a sample. Two papers were then read on the Sessional Meetings of the Canadian Association of Social Work Conference. Mrs. Kines reported on a meeting which she and Mrs. Bailey attended on."Family Relations." Dr. Schmidl was the first speaker and he stressed the need for family counselors and social study groups, who could give individual help where i t was needed. Then Dr. Emanuel spoke of the change and stress of modern society and its effect on a l l institutions, including that of marriage. He also said there should be a family counselor to turn to when help is needed. Miss Marchaud spoke briefly of Family Counselling work in Roman Catholic families in Quebec. Here the local priest and the worker co-operate. They have a good attendance and the results are gratifying. Then Mrs. Sutton reported on the meeting she attended, where the speaker was Miss Lillian Johnson of the Ehyther (Child) Institute in Seattle. She said that children must be treated as individuals. A good foster home should be provided when necessary, where the children are treated exactly like the other members of the family, and so made to feel as i f they really belong. Parents should not quarrel in the presence of children. Also parents should instruct teen-agers truth-fully regarding sex. When they ask about these things, the parents should let them know that they understand the child's problem and are ready to help them. Mrs. Cowper then read a very wonderful paper on "The Swedish Homemaker." There the homemaker is well-trained and f i l l s very necessary role in society. We a l l discussed and commented on the similarity and difference of their work and our own. Meeting adjourned at 9:30 P.M. - 169 -APPENDIX B Homemaker Mrs. HOMEMAKERS WORK WITH TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS For the past year Homemakers have been placed for the f i r s t time in homes where the mother is a T.B. patient. This service has been financed by the Dominion Government. A homemaker can expect to remain for six months or more in the home on f u l l or part-time, depending on the mother's condition. She may be asked to divide her time between two or more families. Some T.B. patients are unable to do any of their own work, though they may get up for meals; others are able to do part of their own work and some can do a l l but the heaviest tasks. It would seem that three types of workers are needed - practical n u r s e B , homemakers and charwomen. Last May 27th, when we had just begun our work, Mr. Blanche of the B. C. Tuberculosis Society, showed us two films, "Goodbye Mr. Germ," and "Behind the Shadows". These films explained an emphasized the need for the special precautions we must take when we work in T.B. homes. Dishes must be boiled and kept separate, separate tea towels and dish cloths used for the patient's dishes. Damp mops and dusters should be used in the patient's room, her laundry done separately and the bedding aired regularly. The hands should be washed after handling the patient's belongings. The dresses or aprons we wear are not to be worn on the street or in our own homes until they have been laundered. Some homemakers launder their aprons or dresses with the family laundry. The patient and family are expected to co-operate with the homemaker in carrying out these rules. Sometimes we have to do these things under difficulties, such as the lack of a good fuel supply to provide hot water, and a place to dry clothes in wet weather, or even the lack of a dry mop or good broom, or cooking utensils, even though the home is equipped with an electric washer, mixing machine, refrigerator, vaccum cleaner or even an ironer. Sprinkling tea leaves on the floor or carpet is an old-fashioned trick that is useful in keeping down the dust i f there is no vaccum, or is inconvenient to use one while the mother, the baby, or even the father is sleeping. Occasionally a woman will object to seeing these things done because i t never allows her to forget that she is a T.B. patient, so we try to carry on as quietly and efficiently as possible. When a homemaker goes into a home where she may stay for six months to a year or more, her role differs from that of one who is help-ing a family meet an emergency which may last only a few weeks. She sould be expected to wash bedding, keep curtains and woodwork clean and other seasonal jobs which the mother is unable to do. One homemaker bakes Christmas cakes and puddings for a family, and that extra work is really appreciated. Very often the T.B. patient has emotional problems a s well as a physical problem. The relationships between the members of the family are often strained, with misunderstandings and lack of sympathy between the husband and wife and between them and the children. The mother and father and children have to become acquainted a l l over again after a long separation - 170 -lasting one or two years. The children feel their mother may be taken away from them at any time and the mother feels she must make up for lost time with her family. Children are often noisy and since the mother must have rest, they can hardly lead a normal l i f e . The lack of what the mother feels is a normal li f e for a young couple - and many of the T.B. patients are in their 20's - is one of the hardest conditions for them to accept. They haven't the strength - nor the money - to go out or to entertain at home, their circle of friends dwindle as they as they hesitate to make new friends for fear they will not be accepted because they have T.B. The long illness is usually a strain on the family finances far be-yond what a young man earns. After a succession of hired housekeepers, friends and relatives who have tried to keep things going, the children are out of hand, household equipment is often in poor shape, the father has not settled in steady employment, nor have they acquired a suitable home. So the homemaker may be asked to help them stretch their food allow-ance so the home may be run efficiently and old debts paid off as their income allows. The family probably have been buying from day to day from the corner store without any planning and paying higher prices, and buying fanvier foods than necessary, and running big b i l l s . (A T.B. patient hasn't the strength to shop at a cash-and-carry store unless her husband will -or someone else help her.) In hospital a T.B. patient has to become accustomed to having everything done for her; at home the homemaker may have to encourage her to take her normal place in the family as her strength will permit. Some-times the mother is too timid or unwilling to give up her role of invalid. Just as often she must be restrained from using her strength in needless activities, and in either case, taking unfair advantage of the service. Where there are children, the homemaker must not usurp the mother's place in their affection so the mother feels she is not needed. The essential thing is to keep things running smoothly, the house tidjr, the children rested, and a hot meal for the mother to serve her family when the father comes home from work. The mother begins to feel, after a while, as though she lives in a goldfish bowl, when so many people, including the social workers, the Metropolitan Health Nurse, the T.B. doctors and nurses and the homemaker, a l l have a say in their affairs. Even so, they are glad of your visits in an otherwise monotonous day. Some of them depend a great deal on the home-maker for sociability, someone to talk to or to share a morning cup of coffee or an afternoon cup of tea. Sometimes the homemaker has to take the brunt of i t when the whole situation and the mother's feelings of ostracism and inadequacy, not the homemaker, is the cause of an outburst. At these times, we have to remember to leave the family's problems with them or to refer them to the social worker who can help, and not discuss them at home or among our friends. One of the visitors the T.B. patient enjoys seeing is the Occu-pational Therapist. There are two of them - Miss Krag and Miss Ringham -who visit in 125 homes every two weeks. Their office is at Abbott and Cordova Streets and is part of the Metropolitan Health Unit. They work closely with the T.B. Clinic and provide materials at cost and instruction for craft projects which the patients can do without overtaxing their strength. We were amazed at the variety and beauty of the work which Miss Ringham showed us. There were samples of felt-work, bead work, clay modelling, painting on glass or cloth, raffia work as well as crocheting, knitting, weaving and fine needlework. The patients are not advised to make things to sell, as a complete return to health is the first consideration. When they - 171 -have been allowed two hours exercise each day, there is a class held at the office to which they may go each Wednesday afternoon. This year with the Family Welfare Bureau has given us a better understanding of the work i t does, and I, for one, have appreciated the opportunity we have had to share in the agency work and to see the fruits of our efforts. ___*****___ By Homemaker Mrs. NUTRITION In my l i t t l e job of homemaker, the important business of eating, also drinking, presents itself every few hours. We homemakers are indebted to Miss Ross for an instructive talk last October here at our Homemakers' Meeting - and we have tried to relay on her inexpensive recipees. Sometimes I don't think people eat as mueh as they did years ago (or need to). I have never yet prepared a ful l three course meal and I can count on my ten fingers the number of times I have come across dessert. However, the family a l l around, usually gain in weight during the period I'm there. So perhaps coaxing porridge and a lunch of soup with bread, and dinner of bologna and potatoes and the occasional tin of vegetables may be a l l right as a diet. There is also the adult breakfast of a cigarette, coffee and piece of toast which was not on Miss Ross's menu. Meat from the butcher shop has gotten to be a special treat and the small tin of meat is what is generally used. This has a tendency to cause dissen-tion, because there is never enough to go around. And then there is the family that does a l l the fault-finding with the children during the meal which ends up with the children not even eating what there is to eat. Some families consider themselves economical by skimptng on food, yet they use their allowance cheque to buy l i t t l e Johny fancy cowboy togs. Then there is the mother who said they would have to stop eating for two weeks because the car needed a repair - and she did very well. Always, there is the complaint that food is high in cost, which we a l l know, yet three cartons of coke at a time are cheerfully brought home. People do endeavor to buy a l l the milk they think they can afford. The margerine has been a blessing. Fish does not seem to be popular - the one Catholic family was the only place that had i t . For a part of the country where fruit is grown, children seem to go very short of i t and could eat twice as much I'm sure. I don't want to give the impression that the mothers are not making the best of what they have. Generally speaking they try to make their low budget spread as far as i t can. Father too, does his best to hold down his job and dreams of the time when he can afford a good steak every day. - ***** - 172 -By Homemaker Mrs. A ROFfrMAKER TALKS OF THE CHILD IN THE HOME Adults usually think of "security" in terms of money or sound financial rating, but in a child's -world, a sense of security comes through belonging to a family unit whose parents give an overflowing sense of understanding and affection to their children. This statement was made in a talk by a member of the Child Guidance Clinic at a recent monthly meeting of the homemakers. We also saw an excellent film showing incidents in a happy, well-balanced family. The speaker emphasized, giving numerous examples, the constant need for affection, approval, encouragement and trust in dealing with children and their behavior problems. A child needs to be loved for himself, even when his behavior doesn't quite measure up to adult standards. A small child can't quite understand why his mother sometimes says, "Daddy and I don't love you when you're a naughty boy," but his childish reasoning makes him feel that his parents don't want him. This feeling of inferiority can develop until the child becomes an aggressive bully, or on the other hand, shows signs of being dreamy, shy and withdrawn. Behavior problems, such as dis-obedience, stealing, lying, jealousy, enuresis and babyishness, a l l stem from a child's feeling of insecurity and of not being wanted, and can only be remedied by love and understanding. Homemakers as "substitute parents" can do a great deal in this direction, and their experiences often make i t possible to give genuine help in solving behavior d i f f i -culties. In one family, a baby, not quite a year old, developed a rash and suffered from diarrhea shortly after his mother returned from hospital with a new infant. The homemaker sensed that the older baby might be feel-ing neglected and consequently jealous, so she advised the mother to give him a very special share of her time and affection eaoh day, with the result that his physical complaints soon disappeared, and his personality developed in normal fashion. One homemaker, in charge of a motherless family, was asked i f she couldn't attend the monthly homemakers* meetings. Yes, she admitted, she'd like very much to be present, but, she continued, "By the time I've stories, loved and prayered my youngsters, it's just too late to get out to meetings." Surely a true mother's, and homemaker's, reply. Often children are puzzled and upset when someone else takes over in place of mother. Maybe they have been cared for by various neighbors and friends for a while, and eating and sleeping habits have become upset. Behavior or children, which has been described as "diffioult" to us by the person referring the family, we have often noticed soon subsides when regular and adequate.sleeping and eating habits are restored. As one father said, "When the homemaker arrived everything levelled off." With this "levelling off" of the problems and strains in the family group, the sense of security begins to return to the child and the father, and i t is then that a homemaker is truly f u l f i l l i n g her role of substitute mother. 7 3 APPENDIX C QUESTIONNAIRE FOR HOMEMAKERS 1. Please number the following in the order of their importance to you in your work. Child training and understanding Preparation of low cost meals with emphasis on nutritional needs. ....... Household management and efficient work methods Helping to meet the emotional and personality needs of families. -. 11. Have you any suggestions which would make your work easier or more effective as regards your contact with the case worker or the family? 1. What information is most helpful to you regarding a family before you enter a home? 2. Is the method used to introduce you to the family satisfactory to you? 3. What do you see as the part the caseworker plays in working with you to help the family? Analysis of your attitude toward your work. 1. What do you most enjoy? ....... 2. What is most difficult for you? IV. Of the total number of families served by you during 1950, mark the number below which in your opinion come under the following headings regarding reaching our goal of holding a family together during the mother's illness or absence from the home. Exceptional Improvement Good Improvement Fair Improvement No Improvement V. Are the present personnel practices satisfactory to you and do they permit of the best service being given to the family? Have you any suggestions? ..... VI. In your work what would you say is the most recurring difficulty? •APPENDIX C REPORT OF HOMEMAKER'S WORK NAME FAMILY NAME Father Mother Children Homemaker Service from to Reason homemaker placed Reason homemaker withdrawn FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS: Your comments on or evaluation of -Ma r i t a l S i b l i n g Parent-Child Other HOMEMAKER'S COMMENTS TO YOU REGARDING TIIS FAMILY: ETHICAL CONDUCT AND BEHAVIOUR OF HOMFMAKER INCLUDING ABILITY TO OBSERVE CONFI-DENTIALLY: COULD YOU FIT IN THIS HOMEMAKER IN ONE OF THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES: (1) MOTHER PERSON (a) C o n t r o l l i n g , kind and consistent (b) Outgoing and f l e x i b l e but also consistent (c) Permissive, overly kind and lacking i n d i s c i p l i n e (d) O v e r - i d e n t i f i e d with c l i e n t (2) GRANDMOTHER PERSON (a) C o n t r o l l i n g , kind and consistent (b) Outgoing and f l e x i b l e but also consistent (c) Permissive,overly kind and lacking i n d i s c i p l i n e (d) O v e r - i d e n t i f i e d with c l i e n t (3) FRIEND PERSON (a) Relaxed, impersonal and professional (b) A n a l y t i c a l , objective and undemonstrative _____________ (c) O v e r - i d e n t i f i e d with c l i e n t ( d ) Permissive,overly kind,and lacking i n d i s c i p l i n e (4) OTHER SUGGESTION AND COMMENTS: Was placement successful, or not? (a) from family's viewpoint (b) from homemaker's viewpoint (c) from caseworker's viewpoint / 7 V AGE 

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