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The relation of the ecological conditions in Bear Lake, Cassiar District, British Columbia, to the production… Foskett, Dudley Robert 1951

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THE RELATION OF THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS ' l S > / ^ I- /k K 3 IN BEAR LAKE, CASSIAR DISTRICT, BRITISH COLUMBIA TO THE Cc^- I PRODUCTION OF SOCKEYE SALMON. by DUDLEY ROBERT FOSKETT A THESIS SUBI/HTTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n tha/Department o f Zoology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the s tandard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r the degree o f MASTER OF ARTS. Sfembers o f the Department o f Zoology THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1951 THE RELATION OF THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN BEAR LAKE, CASSIAR DISTRICT, BRITISH COLUMBIA TO THE PRODUCTION OF SOCKET SALMON. by Dudley Robert F o s k e t t ABSTRACT Tie c o n d i t i o n s i n a g e o l o g i c a l l y y o u t h f u l a rea are o u t l i n e d , and a l s o the chemica l and b i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n Bear l ake of the Skeena watershed. The l i f e h i s t o r y o f the sockeye, Qncorhynchus ne rka , i n t h i s a r ea i s o u t l i n e d as c l o s e l y as i n f o r m a t i o n p e r m i t s . The spawning o f the sockeye where stream c o n d i t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y unfavourable and the p r o b a b i l i t y o f lake spawning i n the deeper waters i s d i s c u s s e d . The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s a rea i n r e l a t i o n to the whole Skeen soekeye run i s e s t i m a t e d . i i i AOMOWLEDGEMEWTS Thanks are due to a l l the itBinbers o f the s t a f f o f the P a c i f i c B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i o n who have at v a r i o u s times a s s i s t e d the w r i t e r i n co m p i l i n g and a n a l y s i n g the da ta conta ined i n t h i s t h e s i s . I n ' p a r t i c u l a r I w i sh to acknowledge the he lp and encouragement g i v e n me by my co-workers i n the f i e l d , MR. P . T. Abear and Mr . J i W. S tokes . D r . H . E . F o e r s t e r , D r . A . L . P r i t c h a r d and D r . D . J . M i l n e have c o n t r i b u t e d i n many ways. D r . V/. A . Clemens, head of the Department o f Zoology, and other members o f the u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f have a s s i s t e d w i t h sugges t ions , encouragement and c r i t i c i s m . Mr. C a r l Hanawald, t rader at Bear l a k e , a s s i s t e d i n many ways, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n o f l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . My wife has been of i ne s t imab le he lp i n s o r t i n g and assembl ing the da ta , and c r i t i c i z i n g and t y p i n g the manuscr ip t . TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES • • 1 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS i i ACKNQUJDGEMENTS 1 1 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Time spent i n a rea . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Methods used • r • • • • • 2 DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • 4 L o c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . • » • 4 Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cl imate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 F l o r a and fauna of the area 6 Run-of f and drainage • • • • 6 D i s c u s s i o n , . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • « • • • ? BEAR LAKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Morphometry . . . . . . . . . . 8 P h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s 8 D i s c u s s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Chemical c o n d i t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . 12 D i s c u s s i o n 13 F l o r a o f the lake 13 Rooted aqua t i c s . . 13 D i s c u s s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 Algae . . . . . . . . . . 14 - D i s c u s s i o n » » : 15 Fauna of Bear lake 16 Entomostraca • . 16 Table of Contents , con t inued . D i s c u s s i o n ? . 1 7 F i s h 17 D i s c u s s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 B i r d s . . • • 25 Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 SOCKEYE * * * • 2 6 M i g r a t i o n , * 2 6 ?7 Spawning F e c u n d i t y 30 F r y . . 30 Y e a r l i n g s •- 3 0 A d u l t s 3 1 C o n t r i b u t i o n to the Skeena r i v e r sockeye run 32 D i s c u s s i o n 35 Food and food compe t i t i on 3 6 P r e d a t i o n 3 6 B u f f e r spec ies • 3 8 GENERAL DISCUSSION . . #8 SUMMARY 4 0 LITERATURE CITED 41 FIGURES, 1 to 20 • 4 5 Appendices . . . . . . 56. i LIST OF TABLES Fo l lows page Table l a Water temperatures at S t a t i o n I , Bear l a k e , 1945 T 47, " l b Water temperatures at S t a t i o n I , Bear l ake , 1948. " l c Water temperatures at S t a t i o n I I , Bear l a k e , 1945 to 1948. " Id Water temperatures at A z u k l o t z l a k e , 1946 to 1948. Table 2a 2b 2c R e l a t i v e abundance o f algae genera i n p l ank ton samples taken at S t a t i o n I , 1945 to 1948. R e l a t i v e abundance of algae genera i n p l ank ton samples taken at S t a t i o n I I , 1945 to 1948. R e l a t i v e abundance o f algae genera i n surface tow p lank ton samples i n Bear and A z u k l o t z l a k e s . 14 Table 3 Summary o f stomach contents o f f i s h - n e t t e d i n Bear l ake a rea i n 1945 t o 1948. 19 Table 4 Bear lake tag r e c o v e r i e s , a c c o r d i n g to age c l a s s e s . " 5a Ocean tag r e c o v e r i e s a t Bear l a k e , 1947. tt 5b Bead pickup and tag r e c o v e r i e s from Bear l a k e , 1948. " 6 Bead p ickup at Bear l a k e , 1947. 26 Table 7 Egg counts a f sockeye at Bear l a k e . 30 Table 8 Bgarcdakesfeiice records o f sockeye tagged, 1948. " 9 Tag r e c o v e r i e s by area , Bear l a k e , 1947. 32 Table 10 Bear l ake r e c o v e r i e s , 1947. 33 i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS: F igure Subjec t . Page 1 A map o f the Bear lake a rea , showing contour l i n e s , S t a t i o n s , Expe r imen ta l area , dead p i c k - i i p a reas . 45 2 Bear l ake and mountains o f Tsaytut spur to the west . 46 3 Bear l a t e and the Conne l ly range to the e a s t . 46 4 Bear lake l o o k i n g southeast from the camp. 47 5 A c t i v e e r o s i o n on the banks of Bear r i v e r , f i v e m i l e s below the l a k e . 47 6 Trees washed out o f the bank and then caught on a . g r a v e l b a r . 48 7 A z u k l o t z creek i n the foreground, the bed of W i n d f a l l creek i n the background. 48 8 A z u k l o t z creek, where W i n d f a l l c reek s t a r t s . 49 9 W i n d f a l l creek d r y . 49 10 Stony creek, the stream i s beneath, s tones . 50 11 Mouth o f Stony creek . 5 0 12 W i n d f a l l creek showing t y p i c a l w i l l o w bank. 51 13 A z u k l o t z creek between A z u k l o t z and Bear l a k e s . 51 14 Graph of temperatures at S t a t i o n I and IA i n Bear l ake on August 15, 1948. 52 15 Diagrammatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f apparent normal thermal c o n d i t i o n i n Bear lake d u r i n g August . 53 16 T r a c i n g o f bathythermograph records o f S t a t i o n s I and I I i n Bear l a k e , August 26, 1946. 53 17 Sockeye male and female . 54 18 Spawning salmon on redd at Salmon p o i n t . 54 19 Seepage cu r ren t through redds shown by pa th o f dye 55 p laced i n g r a v e l . 20 Bear lake count ing fence , l o o k i n g n o r t h . 55 - 1 -IHTRQDUC TI OH The main salmon spawning areas o f the Skeena r i v e r drainage were v i s i t e d by employees o f the F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1944 to 1948 w i t h a view to de te rmin ing t h e i r r e l a t i v e va lues as spawning and p roduc t ion areas ( P r i t c h a r d , 1948) . One o f these , the Bear r i v e r system, was r epor ted to be the spawning grounds f o r l a rge numbers o f s p r i n g and sockeye salmon and the f o l l o w i n g pages are an assessment o f the va lue o f t h i s a rea to the l a t t e r s p e c i e s . Dur ing the e r o s i o n o f tha mountains o f B r i t i s h Columbia many l akes and g r a v e l l y streams were formed and many o f these have become the f r e s h water h a b i t a t o f the v a r i o u s spec ie s o f f i s h and e s p e c i a l l y members o f the genus Oneorhynchus which have an important p lace i n the economy of the p r o v i n c e . The sockeye salmon has, i n a ve ry l a rge measure, a f f e c t e d the Ind i an and white man a l i k e i n tha t bo th have come to r e l y on the r e t u r n o f the " red g o l d o f the r i v e r s " f o r t h e i r l i v i n g , a n d the s u f f e r i n g s and p r i v a t i o n s wrought by the o c c a s i o n a l f a i l u r e o f th is : r e t u r n has r e s u l t e d i n e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s o f f r e s h water c o n d i t i o n s as they a f f e c t salmon. S t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d on i n many areas which are i n v a r i o u s s tages o f g e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y and which i n r e l a t i v e l y r ecen t time have come under the i n f l uence of man. The Bear l ake study i$ o f p r i m i t i v e c o n d i t i o n s i n which man's e f f e c t has been s l i g h t and i n which g e o l o g i c a l l y the count ry i s i n a stage o f you th ; Al though the v a l l e y s are f i x e d , many o f the watercourses are subjec t to cons ide rab le d isplacement from yea r to year and i n many p laces are prone to forsake the surface to t r a v e l through the; depos i t s o f g r a v e l , o f t en not emerging u n t i l they e n t e r the l a k e , Time spent i n the Area The time spent i n the a rea was conf ined to the l a t e summer and f a l l o f the years 1945 to 1948 i n c l u s i v e and v a r i e d from 16 days i n 1946 to 76 days i n 1948. In 1945 two weeks were spent i n a gene ra l survey o f the l ake i n the e a r l y pa r t o f August and the f i r s t week o f September i n checking c o n d i t i o n s i n the streams and i n Bear and A z u k l o t z l akes i n r e l a t i o n to spawning. I n 1947 the main e f f o r t was d i r e c t e d to an e s t i m a t i o n o f the numbers of sockeye salmon spawning i n the area and the i l o c a t i o n o f the main spawning areas i n the l a k e . The f i n a l year 1948 was spent i n checking the 1947 r e s u l t s and i n o b t a i n i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n on the c o n d i t i o n s under which lake spawning o c c u r s . Methods used While i t i s o b v i o u s l y imposs ib le to assess adequate ly from surveys ex tending over such a s m a l l s e c t i o n o f the year a l l the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the salmon,many i n d i c a t i o n s of what takes p lace can be ob ta ined from the l i t e r a t u r e on the area, from the known f a c t s o f o ther areas , and from the c a r e f u l ques t i on ing of the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . I t was found adv i sab le when d e a l i n g w i t h n a t i v e s to avo id g i v i n g any clue as to what was i n the q u e s t i o n e r ' s mind and e s p e c i a l l y to avo id g i v i n g any sugges t ions as to what answemwas expected , as w i t h some i n d i v i d u a l s the d e s i r e to p lease exceeded the d e s i r e to t e l l the t r u t h . Food h a b i t s o f the v a r i o u s animals were cons idered i n connec t ion w i t h the l o c a t i o n and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f sockeye at d i f f e r e n t s tages o f both t h e i r l i f e h i s t o r i e s . I t i s no t , however, o n l y b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s which must be taken i n t o account, but a l s o p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s s ince these can, under c e r t a i n c i rcumstances , des t roy so l a r g e a percentage of a spawning or a p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s a w e l l known f a c t tha t no th ing remains - 3 -unchanged, and so, i n a s sess ing the e f f e c t o f any f a c t o r , i t s past h i s t o r y , i t s p resen t s t a t u s , and i t s future p r o b a b i l i t i e s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s , must be cons ide red . S ince the Bear lake- watershed i s l o c a t e d approximate ly 200 m i l e s from the neares t r a i l w a y and about 100 m i l e s from the neares t road connect ing w i t h c i v i l i z a t i o n i t was dec ided tha t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to and from the a rea should be by a i r . Consequently to reduce the b u l k and weight o f the o u t f i t to be taken, c e r t a i n p o s s i b l e phases of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , such as bottom sampl ing, were o m i t t e d . Soundings were made by means o f a stone t i e d to the end of a graduated l i n e . Temperatures were taken i n the f i r s t two years o f the survey by means o f a bathythermo-graph and i n the l a s t two w i t h a r e v e r s i n g thermometer. P l ank ton was sampled by means o f nets o f s i l k b o l t i n g c l o t h w i t h e i t h e r 173 meshes to the i n c h ( i . e . No. 20) o r 109 meshes to the i n c h ( i . e . No. 10 ) . Salmon were es t ima ted by means of a c t u a l counts on the spawning grounds and a l s o , i n the l a s t two yea r s , by means of t agg ing i n the Bear r i v e r w i t h subsequent recovery o f tags from f i s h captured i n the l a k e , on the spawning grounds o r a long the lake shore . The Ind i an c a t c h was es t ima ted by means o f a c t u a l counts and by q u e s t i o n i n g the Indians on t h e i r c a t ch and requirements. F i s h were sampled by u s i n g g i l l ne t s composed o f , g e n e r a l l y , 5 meshes 50 yards long and 6 fee t deep, the mesh s i z e be ing from 1 1/2 to 5-1/2 or 6 i n c h e s . The f i s h caught were measured and the-sex recorded and s c a l e s and stomach contents were taken f o r fu tu re analyses i n the l a b o r a t o r y . M e t e o r o l o g i c a l da t a f o r the a rea are scarce and are conf ined to the observa t ions o f people who have spent some time i n the a rea and the few records taken by the a u t h o r ' s p a r t i e s d u r i n g the time they were i n tha t region. These c o n s i s t c h i e f l y of maximum-minimum records f o r the p e r i o d s , o f the years 1946, 1947 and 1948 w i t h notes on wind and c loud cover on those dates when the temperature s e r i e s were r eco rded . These da t a are reproduced i n Appendix I . A few record ings o f the d i r e c t i o n o f surface cur ren t s i n the l ake were ob ta ined i n 1948, and are i n c l u d e d . Sca le impress ions were made and these were read under the low power o f a microscope , the h i g h power be ing used whenever a d d i t i o n a l c l a r i t y was d e s i r e d . The stomachs were analysed by volume and weigh t . When p o s s i b l e the contents were i d e n t i f i e d to spec ie s i n the case o f f i s h and p l ank ton organisms, to order i n the case o f i n s e c t s , and to p h y l a i n other cases . The analys is ; o f the zooplankton was c a r r i e d out by Mr . V . H . McMahon and unpubl i shed da ta on t h i s i s reproduced here w i t h h i s p e r m i s s i o n . The author has i d e n t i f i e d the phytoplankton as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e , though the method o f p r e s e r v a t i o n o f samples and the f ragmenta t ion and d i g e s t i o n o f stomach contents l e f t much to be d e s i r e d . S ince the algae have been presumed to be the b a s i c producers i n the lake and thus a v i t a l l i n k i n a l l food cha in s , a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i r r o l e i n l akes and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Bear lake has been i n c l u d e d ; DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA L o c a t i o n -Bear lake i s l o c a t e d on the headwaters o f the Skeena r i v e r i n t o which i t s waters f low through the Bear and Sus tu t r i v e r s . I t l i e s i n a mountain t rough j u s t no r th -eas t o f the j u n c t i o n o f 56° N . L a t . and 127° W. Long. The t rough has a sou th-eas t , nor th-west t rend and i s cont iguous w i t h the Dr i f twood V a l l e y t o the south and the Bear r i v e r and B i r d f l a t creek v a l l e y s to the n o r t h ( f i g u r e 1 ) . Geology The v o l c a n i c rocks o f the J u r a s s i c p e r i o d o f the Mesozoic e r a , forming c h i e f l y the Tsaytut Spur t o the v;est of the l a k e , are the o l d e s t exposed rocks i n the Bear l a k e watershed. These ( f i g u r e s 2 to 4) r i s e to an e l e v a t i o n o f four to f i v e thousand fee t above the lake and have on t h e i r peaks s e v e r a l s m a l l g l a c i e r s . To the eas t o f the lake sedimentary rocks of the Susfut group o f the Cretaceous and T e r t i a r y pe r iods form the Conne l ly range o f the Omineca mountains . D r i f t from these sedimentary conglomerates, c h i e f l y i n the form o f coarse g r a v e l s , covers the f l o o r o f the A z u k l o t z v a l l e y and the area to the south-eas t o f Bear l a k e , and i t forms W i l l o w and Salmon p o i n t s . In a d d i t i o n i t u n d e r l i e s the. p ine f l a t s bo rde r ing Pa tcha creek and on e i t h e r s ide o f Bear r i v e r . C . S; Lord (1948) desc r ibes the s t r u c t u r e o f the t e r r a i n , i t s fo rma t ion , m i n e r a l content and age. He s t a t e s that the Bear l ake and r i v e r v a l l e y may have been formed by the movement o f the i c e sheet i t s e l f r a t h e r than by v a l l e y g l a c i a t i o n . Acco rd ing to D r . W; F . Jenks , p ro fe s so r o f Geology, U n i v e r s i t y o f Roches t e r (pe r sona l communication), t h i s took p lace approximate ly 15,000 years ago. Cl imate Both Lord (1948) and S t a n w e l l - F l e t c h a r (1943) g ive accounts of the c l ima te o f the Bear l ake a rea , the l a t t e r r e c o r d i n g minimum temperatures between 6 and 8 a.m. f o r tte r e g i o n j u s t south of Bear l ake f o r such t imes as they were r e s i d e n t there between November 1937 and September 1941. Maximum and minimum.temperatures recorded at the n o r t h end o f the l ake by the author are g i v e n i n Appendix I . The normal c l ima te appears to be one o f severe win te r s and moderate summers. The s n o w f a l l i s heavy and the r a i n f a l l moderate ly heavy. The au tho r ' s exper ience was tha t the p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n September and the f i r s t p a r t o f October g r e a t l y exceeded tha t o f the l a t t e r pa r t o f J u l y and of August . From the r e p o r t s o f r e s i d e n t s the s n o w f a l l i s n o r m a l l y heavy, o f t en r each ing 20 f ee t i n c e r t a i n areas . The lake i s r epor ted to f reeze over i n the f i r s t h a l f o f November and to break up i n the l a s t pa r t of May ( C a r l Hanawald, p e r s o n a l communicat ion) . S ince there are mountains on the ea s t and west s ides o f the l akes i t i s o n l y g r e a t l y d i s t u r b e d by e i t h e r n o r t h e r l y o r s o u t h e r l y winds . F l o r a and Fauna of the a rea The abundant r a i n f a l l supports a f a i r l y heavy v e g e t a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y o f f i r and p ine w i t h w i l l o w s and a l d e r s a long the c r e e k s . The l a s t two form ve ry dense growths and o c c a s i o n a l l y so obscure , the creeks tha t t r a v e l a longs ide o r i n them i s exceed ing ly d i f f i c u l t ( f i gu re 1 2 ) . Lord (1948) g i v e s a ve ry good summary o f the f l o r a and the fauna o f the a rea and S t a n w e l l - F l e t c h e r (1943) goes i n t o g rea t d e t a i l ^ l i s t i n g 281 spec ie s o f p l a n t s , 13 of f i s h , 4 amphibia , 139 b i r d s and 41 mammals. Run-of f and Drainage. The steep mountain s i d e s and heavy s n o w f a l l r e s u l t i n a ve ry heavy r u n - o f f i n the s p r i n g i n the Bear r i v e r watershed. Th i s acco rd ing to r e s i d e n t s r e s u l t s i n severe f l o o d i n g o f the s t reams. With the ve ry loose s o i l which , as has been s t a t e d , i s l a r g e l y coarse g r a v e l s there i s a grea t tendency f o r the creeks to be s e v e r e l y eroded and i n a d d i t i o n there i s a tendency to form more than one channe l . F i g u r e s 6 t o 11 show the type o f m a t e r i a l s moved by the streams-and the appearance of the stream channe ls . I n a d d i t i o n to the severe e r o s i o n another phenomenon r e l a t e d to the loose nature of the s o i l i s the prevalence of s o - c a l l e d ghost s treams, i . e . streams which though o c c a s i o n a l l y of cons ide rab le s i z e , f l o w i n t o the - 7 -g r a v e l of t h e i r beds and d isappear from s i g h t . These are the r u l e r a t h e r than the e x c e p t i o n along the west shore o f Bear l a k e . Many o f these apparen t ly are capable o f moving cons ide rab le m a t e r i a l d u r i n g t h e . s p r i n g r u n - o f f ( f i g u r e s 10 and l l ) ye t e n t e r the lake as seepage o n l y , d u r i n g the summer and f a l l , Pa tcha creek i s the so le creek c a r r y i n g g l a c i a l s i l t i n v i s i b l e q u a n t i t i e s . D i s c u s s i o n Wi th the heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n and the severe e r o s i o n i t would seem tha t the Bear l ake area cou ld o f f e r l i t t l e i n the way o f s u i t a b l e spawning streams f o r sockeye salmon. Such i s the case s ince o n l y A z u k l o t z creek supports a s i z e a b l e run and i n t h i s case two f a c t o r s g ive r e l i e f - from the e r o s i o n . The f i r s t o f these i s tha t the s m a l l l akes above the redds tend to temper the e f f e c t of the r u n - o f f and the second i s tha t the f l o o d i n g b r i n g s i n t o use a second channel , W i n d f a l l creek ( f i g u r e s 8, 9 and 12) , which c a r r i e s a cons iderab le pa r t of the peak f l o o d waters d i r e c t l y t o A z u k l o t z l a k e , thus bypass ing tha t pa r t o f the stream u t i l i z e d by the sockeye. I t i s no t , however, and unmixed b l e s s i n g s ince i f too l a rge a p r o p o r t i o n o f the water enters the a l t e r n a t e channel i t may have a n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t on the spawning salmon as w i l l be shown l a t e r . Though the looseness o f the s o i l i s a g rea t hazard to s t ream spawning i n the Bear lake area i t i s , a l s o , a g rea t asset to spawning s ince i t permits a free f low o f water through the reddSj 'and thus the eggs would not no rma l ly be apt t o s u f f e r from i n s u f f i c i e n t a e r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , w i t h the abundant seepage a long the l ake shores , many salmon are enabled to spawn i n the l ake and thus they escape the e f f e c t s o f e r o s i o n . The pa r t t ha t p l a n t s p l a y i n p r even t ing e r o s i o n cannot be too f u l l y s t r e s s e d . Indeed, the presence of w i l l o w s and a l d e r s appears to be a l l tha t prevents Stony creek ( f igu re 10) from gouging out a permanent channel which, wh i l e robb ing the p o i n t o f seepage would not o f f e r c s u i t a b l e stream spawning grounds to the sockeye thus depr ived o f t h e i r r edds . The e f f e c t on the sockeye o f v a r i o u s members o f the fauna o f the r e g i o n w i l l be d i scussed l a t e r . BEAR LAKE Morphometry I t has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d tha t Bear lake was formed by g l a c i a l a c t i o n approximate ly 15,000 years ago. S ince tha t t ime e r o s i o n and d e p o s i t i o n of m a t e r i a l s have apparen t ly mod i f i ed the lake to some degree. The main changes appear to have been the fbrmat ion o f Salmon and W i l l o w p o i n t s by the d e p o s i t i o n of g r a v e l s i n the l a k e , the r e d u c t i o n o f Tsaytu t bay by \ the d e p o s i t i o n o f d e b r i s and the-encroaohment o f p l a n t s , • and the format ion o f A z u k l o t z l ake apparen t ly by a rock s l i d e which cut o f f the end o f the bay and narrowed the approach to the new l ake thus formed. A deep cut i n the escarpment eas t o f the lake was the source o f the r o c k s which d i v i d e d the two l a k e s . F i g u r e 13 shows the rocky charac ter of the streams/between the two l a k e s ; F i g u r e 1 shows the present shape and depth o f the l a k e . P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n s The c h i e f f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the thermal c y c l e i n Bear lake are the s ix-months i c e cover and the winds which , due to the l o c a t i o n of the lake i n a mountain t rough, blow e i t h e r from the nor th-west o r sou theas t . The no r the rn wind i s the p r e v a i l i n g wind i n the a rea (C. Hanawaldj p e r s o n a l - 9 -communicat ion) . The southern wind d u r i n g the summer at l e a s t ; g e n e r a l l y b r i n g s storms and inclement weather . Temperatures i n the l a t e were recorded c h i e f l y at S t a t i o n I l o c a t e d near the n o r t h end and S t a t i o n I I near the south end o f the lake ( f igu re 1 ) . Between the two s t a t i o n s a aarrows w i t h a maximum depth o f 12 to 15 f ee t e f f e c t i v e l y separates the two b a s i n s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n the thermal c o n d i t i o n at the two s t a t i o n s are thought to be connected more i n t i m a t e l y w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f the S t a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b a s i n s r a the r than r e p r e s e n t i n g d ive r se thermal c o n d i t i o n s as w i l l be shown l a t e r . The temperatures recorded i n Bear lake are shown i n Table 1 a, b , c , d . ' The maximum surface temper atures.vrecorded v a r i e d from 1 4 . 4 ° to 1 9 . 2 5 ° C . I t must be noted tha t the f i g u r e s are the maxima recorded and not n e c e s s a r i l y the maximum a t t a i n e d by the waters s ince no cont inuous r e c o r d was made. P robab ly the normal maximum surface temperatures cou ld be expected to f a l l between 15° and 20°C and the maximum bottom temperatures between 5° and 6°C at bo th s t a t i o n s . SandstrSm (1919) shows tha t under the i n f l u e n c e o f a s teady wind the thermocl ine i n a s t r a t i f i e d body o f water may become t i l t e d and tha t t h i s c o n d i t i o n when e s t a b l i s h e d i s s t ab l e u n t i l the wind c o n d i t i o n s change. Currents are se t up i n the upper waters ( e p i l i m n i o n ) and these i n t u r n induce cu r ren t s i n the lower waters (hypo l imn ion ) . I t appears tha t these two s i t u a t i o n s occur i n Bear l ake s ince on the same dates a t Bear lake the thermocl ine i s lower a t S t a t i o n I I than at S t a t i o n I (Tables 1 a, b , c) and on August 15, 1948 temperatures at S t a t i o n s I and IA i n the nor thern b a s i n show tha t the thermocl ine i s lower at S t a t i o n IA ( f i g u r e 14 ) . D r i f t meters show tha t the normal surface cur ren t s i n the no r the rn b a s i n of Bear l ake are south bound, even when the wind i s too s l i g h t to move the .water a c t i v e l y t h i s TABLE l a water Temperatures at S t a t i o n I , Bear Lake, 1945 to 1947. Depth 1945 1946 1947 ( i n f e e t ) Aug . 6 Sept . 3 Aug. 26 Sep t . 5 Aug. 8 Aug* 21 Sep t . 25 Oc t . 5 Surface 15 .75°C 14 .5°C 14*5°0 15 .3°C 15 .0°C 14 .2°C 11 .7°C 10<5.°c: 15 15,00 13.5 13.8 14.0 14.0 13.6 10.75 10.25 22.5 - - - - - 13.0 - -S30 10.50 13.0 11.8 13.0 10.8 11.8 10.4 10.25 37.5 - - - - - 8.3 - -45 7.20 8.0 8.8 7.9 8.2 8.2 10,2 9.75 60 7.20 7.5 7.5 7.7 14.2 8.0 9.0 9.5 67.5 - - - - 14.2 8.0 - -70 - - - - 14.0 - - -75 7.00 7.5 7.2 7.5 7.8 8.0 8.75 9.0 90 - - 7.0 6.8 - 7.7 - 8.75 105 6.00 5.7 5.9 5.5 6.0 6.4 - -120 - 5.25 5.5 5.3 - - - -124 - - - - 5.75 - - -129 - - - - - 5.7 - -135 - - - - - - 6.0 6.0 150 — - — — — — — — - to f o l l o w page TABLE l b Water Temperatures at S t a t i o n I , Bear Lake, 1948. Depth J u l y J u l y Aug. Aug. Aug. Aug. Sep. Sep. Sep. Sep. Sep. Oct . ( i n fee t ) 29 31 10 15 22 26 5 12 20 21 28 3 0 15 .0°C 19 .25°C 17 .25°C 18 .25°C 17.5°C 14 .75°C 12 .5°C 11.8°C 17.0°C 11 .0°C 9 .25°C 8 .75°C 7.5 - - - 17.0 - -' - - - - - -15 13.7 14.3 14.8 9.7 - 13.0 11.8 11.2 - 10.5 9.0 8.5 22.5 7.8 9.6 13.4 - 13.3 12.5 - - - - - -30 7.5 7.2 7.8 7 .3 8.2 8.8 10.8 10.6 10.9 10.5 9.0 -45 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.0 - 7.5 9 .1 9,2 - - 9.0 8.5 60 6.5 6.7 6.8 7.0 - 7.3 7.6 7.8 - 10.5 8.8 -75 6.4 6.5 6.7 6.9 - 7.0 7.4 7.5 - 8.0 8.5 8.5 82.5 6.2 6.4 - - - - - - - - - -90 9.4 6.2 6.6 6.5 - 5.9 7.0 . - 7.5 7.8 -97.5 12.4 5.9 - - - - - - - - -' -105 5.6 5.8 5.8 6.0 6.0 5.9 6.0 6.1 - 6.2 6.3 6.1 114 - - - - - - - - 5.8 - - -120 - - - •- - - 5.7 5.8 - - 5.8 -123 - 5.3 5.4 - - - - - - - — 124.5 5.6 - - - - - - - - - - -126 - - - 5.5 5.7 5.5 - 5.8 - - -129 - - - - - - 5.7 - - - - -132 - - - - - - - - 5.8 5.8 -135 - - - - - - — — — — — 5*8 S e c c h i D i s c - to f o l l o w Table l a -12 ' 1 1 . 2 5 ' 13 ' 12 ' 14 ' TABLE l c Water Temperatures at S t a t i o n I I , Bear Lake, 1945 to 1948. Depth ( i n f ee t ) 1945 Sept . 4 1946 Aug. E6 1947 1948 Aug. 8 Aug . 22 J u l y 30 Aug. 11 Sept . 6 Sep t . 23 0 14 .8 °C 16 .2°C 16 .0°C 14 .75°C 17 .25°C 18 .0°C 13 .0°C 10 .75°C 7.5 _ - - 12.0 - - -15 14.5 14.8 15.6 14.5 11.7 17.8 12.8 10.5 22.5 — - - 14.3 16.4 - - -30 12.5 10.7 11.3 11.4 16.7 17.5 12.3 10.5 37.5 _ - - 8.0 8.0 - 10.2 -45 7.7 8.0 7.0 7.7 6.5 17.4 8.3 10.5 60 6;8 6.8 14.6 6.8 6.4 15.0 7.0 7.9 67.5 _ - - - - 6.7 — — 75 5.8 6.2 5,7 6.5 - 6.3 5.8 6.8 90 5.5 5.3 5.3 - 5.3 5.8 5.7 — 105 5.5 5.3 5.2 - - - - 5.7 120 5.5 5.0 5.2 - — — 135 - - - - — - 5.5 145 - 5.0 - - — — 150 _ — - - - 5.2 5.2 — 165 - - - - - - - 5.5 180 5.5 - 5.0 5.2 - - - — 195 - - - - - 5.2 - 5.3 213 - - - 5,1 - - — 225 - - 4.9 - 4 ,8 - — 230 5.2 - - - - — — — 240 - - — 5.2 Secch i D i s c 16 ' 14.5* 17« - to f o l l o w Table l b -TAB IE Id Water Temperatures at A z u k l o t z Lake, 1946 to 1948. Depth ( i n f ee t ) 1946 Aug . 29 1947 1948 Aug. 7 Aug. 23 J u l y 30 Aug. 11 Sep. 7 Sep. 24 0 17 .2°C 16 .0°C 16 .2°C 16 .75°C 19 .75°C 14 .75°C 10 .25°C 7.5 - - 14.7 - - 13.1 -10 - - - 15.7 - - -15 13.8 14.5 13.8 - 17.8 12.6 10.0 20 - - - 14.5 - - -21 - 13.5 - - - - -27 - - 13.0 - - - -29 - - - - - - 10.0 30 12.8 - - - 16.2 12 .1 -31 — — — 13.7 — Secch i D i s c 15 f 1 2 ' - to f o l l o w Table 1c -- 10 -way. F igu re 15ushows a diagrammatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of what i s apparen t ly the normal thermal c o n d i t i o n i n Bear l ake dur ing August . The e p i l i m n i o n i s t h i c k e r at the southern end o f each b a s i n toward which the surface cu r ren t f l o w s . The r e t u r n cur ren t above the upper p a r t of the thermocl ine induces complementary cu r ren t s below the thermocl ine which c i r c u l a t e the waters o f the hypol imnion to approximate ly the 100 foo t depth . Below this : depth the waters have l i t t l e or no- c i r c u l a t i o n . Th i s i s shown by the temperatures and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n bathythermograph records from S t a t i o n I ( f i gu re 16; t ab l e l a , b , c ) . I n a d d i t i o n , e i t h e r l a y e r s o r c louds of warmer water were encountered at depths at S t a t i o n s I and I I on one occas ion i n each o f the years 1947 and 1948. I f these were l a y e r s the o n l y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r them would be tha t because of t h e i r g r ea t e r d e n s i t y they could m a i n t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n desp i t e t h e i r temperature. Th i s would n e c e s s i t a t e p o s t u l a t i o n of m i n e r a l sp r ings i n the bed of the lake o r a t u r b i d o r s i l t e d l a y e r . However, as no m i n e r a l sp r ings are known i n the a rea and the Bear l ake waters are ex t remely f r e s h (as w i l l be shown l a t e r ) the m i n e r a l s p r i n g theory appears to be unsound. Since no s i l t e d water en te r s the southern b a s i n o f the lake the s i l t e d l a y e r theory a l so appears to be u n l i k e l y . I t i s p o s s i b l e tha t these areuclouds caused by turbulence se t up i n the l ake d u r i n g pe r iods o f changing s t a b i l i t y and sucked down by the cu r r en t s i n the l a k e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y n e i t h e r the time nor apparatus was a v a i l a b l e f o r s o l v i n g t h i s problem. While temperature records at Bear lake are a v a i l a b l e f o r on ly a s m a l l pa r t o f the year they can be expected to show c o n d i t i o n s a t or near the maximum of the thermal cyc l e i n three out of the four years d u r i n g which the l ake was s t u d i e d . Thus, a rough es t imate o f the summer heat - 11 -income can be fo rmula ted . In o b t a i n i n g the f i g u r e f o r the lake the c louds of warmer water have been ignored , the normal temperature f o r the depth under c o n s i d e r a t i o n be ing e x t r a p o l a t e d from the temperatures above and below the c l o u d . The average o f S t a t i o n s I and I I i s f e l t to be the bes t rough f i g u r e f o r the l ake as some compensation f o r the t i l t i n g o f the thermocl ine would be obta ined i n t h i s way. Appendix I I I g i v e s the summer heat income as c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l adequate temperature s e r i e s . The aver-age o f the h ighes t summer heat income f i g u r e s f o r the four years i s 21,089 gram c a l o r i e s per c m 2 . - Th i s f i g u r e has not been c o r r e c t e d f o r the volume of the d i f f e r e n t s t r a t a , bulj as the temperature s e r i e s do not i n every year i nc lude the time o f the maximum thermal s ta te and the angle of the thermocl ine was unknown f o r the obse rva t ions , i t i s f e l t tha t the f i g u r e i s rough ly of the c o r r e c t order and fu r the r refinement would no t add m a t e r i a l l y t o the accuracy of the f i g u r e of approximate ly 20,000 gram 2 c a l o r i e s per cm . • • D i s c u s s i o n Temperatures at Bear lake do no t appear to be abnormal c o n s i d e r i n g the l o c a t i o n and a l t i t u d e of the l a k e . The l ake i s s l i g h t l y co lde r than those o f P r i n c e A l b e r t N a t i o n a l P a r t as r epo r t ed by Rawson (1936) as would be expected s ince i t i s s l i g h t l y f a r t h e r n o r t h and ljOOO fee t h i g h e r . The summer heat income i s rough ly o f the same value as t ha t o f C u l t u s l ake ( R i c k e r , 1937) and K a r l u k lake (Juday, R i c h , Eemmerer and Mann, 1932) and i s almost twice that of Lakelse l ake ( B r e t t , 1950) . Wi th no da ta on win te r temperatures no attempt has been made to es t imate the annual heat budget o f the l a k e . However, from the above, temperature would no t appear to be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r f o r sockeye p r o d u c t i o n at Bear l a k e . The c i r c u l a t i o n i n the hypo l imnion cou ld be expected to minimize s t a g n a t i o n . Chemical C o n d i t i o n s As i t was f e l t tha t chemica l cond i t i ons were u n l i k e l y to be s e r i o u s l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s i n the area and s ince i t was necessary to reduce the b u l k and weight o f the equipment no chemica l k i t was taken i n t o the l a k e . However, on October 3, 1948 a l i t r e o f water was taken from the surface a t S t a t i o n IA and t h i s was l a t e r sent to G. S . E l d r i d g e and Company, L i m i t e d , fo r a n a l y s i s . S ince the temperature at t h i s t ime was almost constant to a depth o f at l e a s t 75 fee t and thus the lake was presumably mixed throughout t h i s top l a y e r the sample may be regarded as a reasonable r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the l ake a t t h i s t ime . The ve ry low t o t a l s o l i d s , 44 pa r t s per m i l l i o n , i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f v o l c a n i c rock i n the watershed (Smith, 1949) . The f o l l o w i n g i s a copy o f the E l d r i d g e r e p o r t : REACTION pH 7.3 The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s i n pa r t s per m i l l i o n Suspended mat ter Trace ( l e s s than 1) ALKALINITY: Carbonates (CO3) None Bica rbona tes (HC0„) 28.6 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS: 44 F i x e d S o l i d s 26 V o l a t i l e Scblids 18 ANALYSIS OF FIXED SOLIDS: S i l i c a (SiOg) 5.0 I ron Oxide and Alumina (FegOg, AlgOg) 1.0 Ca lc ium Oxide (CaO) 10.6 - 13 -A n a l y s i s o f f i x e d S o l i d s , cont . Magnesium Oxide (MgO) 2.6 Undetermined ( a l k a l i e s , e t c . ) by d i f f e r e n c e Sulphates (SO,,) 4 .5 6.5 C h l o r i d e s (CI) None. D i s c u s s i o n That the character of the rocks and s o i l i n the watershed a f f e c t s p r o d u c t i v i t y i s i n d i c a t e d by Smith (1949) i n h i s work on t r o u t i n the m a r i t i m e s . Rawson (1942) goes i n t o more d e t a i l i n comparing some of the a l p i n e l akes o f western Canada and r e l a t e s the p l ank ton p r o d u c t i o n to the s o l i d s content o f the water o b t a i n i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0 . 8 5 . S ince Bear l ake has on ly about h a l f the t o t a l s o l i d s o f Rawson's poorer group i t should be, from t h i s p o i n t o f v iew, l e s s p roduc t ive than any o f the l akes mentioned i n h i s paper. Apar t from the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e i t i s w e l l known tha t shortages o f e s s e n t i a l m ine ra l s may l i m i t s p e c i f i c organisms. However, there i s no p l a n t o r animal whose absence from Bear l a k e can be a t t r i b u t e d at t h i s t ime to the shortage of any p a r t i c u l a r e lement . The F l o r a o f Bear Lake  Rooted Aqua t i c s Rooted aqua t i c p l a n t s are d i s t r i b u t e d i n patches throughout the l a k e . The main areas o f abundance are a long the n o r t h shore' o f Tsaytu t bay, i n the narrows, on the southeas t s ide o f Salmon p o i n t and a t the n o r t h and south ends o f the l a k e . The most conspicuous spec ies are the y e l l o w water l i l y Nymphaea s p . , Potamogeton z o s t e r i f o l i u s and Polygonum amphibium. - 14 -D i s c u s s i o n In g e n e r a l the roo ted aqua t ic p l a n t s cou ld be expected to have o n l y minor secondary e f f e c t s on a p e l a g i c spec ies such as the sockeye. The work at Bear l a k e has not been i n t e n s i v e enough to r e v e a l t he se . However, i n one p a r t i c u l a r there may be a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sockeye and, the roo ted p l a n t s c i n tha t water l i l i e s are growing on the redds i n some bays i n the narrows. As the l i l i e s have not ye t e s t a b l i s h e d them-se lves i n many apparen t ly favourable s i t u a t i o n s i n the lake i t i s p o s s i b l e t ha t they ars of comparative recent i n t r o d u c t i o n and tha t t h e i r i n v a s i o n o f the redds i s j u s t commencing. Algae No s p e c i f i c attempts were made to o b t a i n samples o f algaB from Bear l ake and the f o l l o w i n g da ta were obta ined c h i e f l y from surface tows taken f o r q u a l i t a t i v e zooplankton samples and from a n a l y s i s of f i s h stomachs. P r e s e r v a t i o n o f the samples, wh i l e adequate f o r the animals i n v o l v e d , was not designed to r e t a i n unchanged the s t r u c t u r e s used i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a lgae . Thus, w h i l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n can be c a r r i e d i n most cases to gen-e r a t h i s i s not always p o s s i b l e and s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n has not been at tempted. The chapters by Edgar W. O l i v e (1918) and J u l i a W. Snow(1918) i n ?/ard and Whipple were the c h i e f sources used i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the a lgae . The samples were not q u a n t i t a t i v e but the r e l a t i v e abundance o f the main forms i n the samples has been noted ( t ab le 2a, b, c ) , and t h i s i n d i c a t e s which algae were dominant i n the area at the time the sample was taken . The three samples o f August 12, 1945 were taken i n the narrows and Tsaytut bay and an a l g a l bloom of Anabaena was present i n those areas at tha t t ime . Other than i n these samples i t i s ev iden t tha t the phytop lank-TABLE 2a Rela t ive- Abundance of Algae Genera i n P lank ton Samples Taken a t S t a t i o n I , 1945 to 1948. 1945 1946 1947 7 1948  Genera Aug.6 Sep.3 Aug.26 Sep.5 Aug.8 Aug.21 Sep.25 J u l . 2 9 Aug.10 Aug.26 Sep.5 Sep.28 35 89 63 11 A s t e r i o n e l l a 34 14 36 T a b e l l a r i a 22 7 56 C y c l o t e l l a 24 61 3 Cera t ium 8 2 2 Anabaena 3 Dinobryon 3 7 Pedias t rum T e t r a c y c l u s 2 2 Gocconema 2 Gloeotnece 1 P leurocoecus 1 1 Coelosphaerium 1 1 O r t h o s i r a K ? ) 1 Diatoma 1 Stauras t rum 1 Bot ryococcus C h a r a c i o p s i s 1 Gloeocapsa K ? ) R i e n t e r i e l l a l S u r i r e l l a F r a g i l a r i a 85 89 98 93 <79 82 74 1 10 3 13 10 16 10 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 5 5 2 1 1 2 4 1 2 1 1 - to f o l l o w page 14 -TABLE 2b R e l a t i v e Abundance o f Algae Genera i n P l ank ton Samples Taken a t S t a t i o n I I , 1945 to 1948. Genera 1945 1946 1947 1948 Sep t . 4 Aug. 26 Aug . 25 J u l y 30 Aug . 11 Sep t , 6 A a t e r i o n e l l a 25 36 87 58 80 95 T a b e l l a r i a 16 62 9 19 6 6 Dinobryon 40 1 Cera t ium 24 M e l o s i r a 13(?) 1 Anabaena 2 12 Botryocoecus 9 2 C y c l o t e l l a 2 5 4 Diatoma 3 Gompho sphaer i a 2 Pediaat rum 1 1 Goelosphaerium 2 G l o e o t r i e h i a 1 Synedra 1 Sphae rocys t i s 1 - to f o l l o w Table 2a -TABLE 2c R e l a t i v e Abundance o f Algae Genera i n Surface Tow P l a n k t o n Samples In Bear and A z u k l o t z l a k e s . Bear Lake a rea , August 12, 1945 Genera Salmon p t . Shal low Tsay tu t bay, to Wi l low pa r t o f among p o i n t Narrows water l i l i e s Anabaena 67 87 44 A s t e r i o n e l l a 24 11 8 T a b e l l a r i a 21 Cera t ium 8 1 Dinobryon 8 Synedra 5 Diatoma 5 Co c cone i s 2 C y c l o t e l l a 1 Botryococcus 1 Oedogonium 1 C h a r a c i o p s i s 1 E u d o r i n a K ? ) Stauras t rum l Nav i c u l a l Cosmariura l PediastEum l A z u k l o t z l a k e , . 1 9 4 6 and 1948 Genera Aug. 26 J u l y 30 Aug; 11 Sep t . 7 Sep t . 24 1946 1948 1948 1948 1948 Anabaena 94 19 82 3 Gloeothece 75 1 4 3 Dinobryon 4 8 53 9 M 9 l o s i r a 28 42 A s t e r i o n e l l a 3 2 4 13 42 T a b e l l a r i a 1 5 3 Batrachospermum 3 P ieurococcus 1 Synedra 1 - to f o l l o w t ab le 2b -- 15 -ton i s dominated by the diatoms o f which A s t e r i o n e l l a i s the abundant genus* Chara was found i n the stomachs of Rocky Mountain w h i t e f i s h taken i n ne t s on the s o u t h s ide o f Salmon p o i n t on J u l y 28 and 29, 1948 and i n the Bear r i v e r near S p r i n g pond on August 6, 1948. One e a s t e r n w h i t e f i s h which had eaten Chara was captured on the s o u t h s ide o f Salmon p o i n t on J u l y 29, 1948. Tetraspores and some fragments i n f i s h stomachs i n d i c a t e d the presence o f one of the Rhodophyceae i n the lake but m a t e r i a l was not enough f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n * D i s c u s s i o n P r e s c o t t (1939) summarises the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the algae present to the l ake t y p e . The preponderance o f diatoms and b lue -g reen algae i n Bear l ake would i n d i c a t e i t i s a e u t r o p h i c l a k e . R i c k e r (1937) has shown tha t young sockeye feed almost e x c l u s i v e l y on zoop lank ton . P r e s c o t t (1939) shows tha t w h i l e some f i s h and zooplankton do feed on phytoplankton i t may not be the b a s i c food i t em and tha t o rgan ic substances can a l so be u t i l i z e d . While the t rue s i t m a t i o n p robab ly l i e s i n the middle o f the two extremes i t seems a reasonable assumption tha t u l t i m a t e l y much o f the food syn thes i zed by the phytoplankton w i l l be r e l e a s e d to be used by the zooplankton and e v e n t u a l l y the sockeye. The presence of Chara beds would p o s s i b l y tend to inc rease the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the l ake bes ides be ing a food i t s e l f , i t s h e l t e r s many food organisms as w e l l . S h e l f o r d (1918) s t a t e s on page 47 tha t "Aqua t i c p l a n t s are o f p a r t i c u l a r use to animals as c l i n g i n g , h i d i n g and n e s t i n g p l a c e s " , and on page 51 r e f e r r i n g to the comparative va lue o f p l a n t s to an imals , he s t a t e s tha t " c w a t e r l i l i e s a n a ghara are o n l y f a i r . " However, F a s s e t t (1940, p . 357) s t a t e s tha t Chara i s " f a i r s h e l t e r and an - 16 -e x c e l l a n t producer o f f i s h f o o d , e s p e c i a l l y f o r young t r o u t . . . . . " Hubbs and Eschmeyer (1938) s t a t e tha t "Chara o f f e r s s p l e n d i d p r o t e c t i o n f o r young f i s h , i s s u i t a b l e f o r the spawning o f some s p e c i e s , and i s u s u a l l y r i c h i n i n s e c t s and c rus t aceans . " Needham (1938) s t a t e s tha t " In the p r o d u c t i o n o f food per acre the stone wort , Chara . was found to y i e l d the: most ." The f a c t t ha t Chara supports abundant food organisms and i s present i n at l e a s t one r e g i o n where salmon spawn cou ld have a grea t e f f e c t on the sa lmon. The Chara . suppor t ing a food supply , would accustom the f i s h to v i s i t i n g tha t a r ea . In e a r l y s p r i n g when the Chara had made l i t t l e growth the f i s h v i s i t i n g the area would f i n d many salmon f r y a v a i l a b l e and these would become easy p r ey . F u r t h e r evidence on t h i s p o i n t w i l l be presented l a t e r . The Fauna o f Bear l a k e Fauna l s t u d i e s i n the lake have been conf ined c h i e f l y to those forms d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c i n g the sockeye* e i t h e r as p a r a s i t e s , food , food compet-i t o r s o r p r e d a t o r s . The samples and data i n the f i r s t mentioned ca tegory have been turned over to a s p e c i a l i s t and as y e t no r e p o r t i s a v a i l a b l e . The nematode, Phi lonema oncorhynchi (Kuitunen-Ekbaum) i s the most p r e v a l e n t p a r a s i t e i n the adu l t sockeye at Bear lake and i t i s presumably present i n the y e a r l i n g s s ince the author found i t qu i t e common i n y e a r l i n g s at Babine l a k e . Entomostraca The entomostracans which presumably form the b u l k o f the food o f the young sockeye i n Bear lake as i n Cul tus l ake ( H i c k e r , 1937) are p.-represented by the f o l l o w i n g spec ies (Foske t t , 1947): the Copepoda, Heterocope s e p t e n t r i o n a l i a , and Cyclops s p . , and the C ladoce ra , Daphnia  l o n g i s p i n a , Bosmina l o n g i s p i n a and Polyphemus p e d i c u i u s . McMahon (1948) - 17 -r ecords i n a d d i t i o n the copepod Diaptomus sp . as b e i n g abundant i n Bear lake-. As MeMahon used t o t a l v e r t i c a l hauls f o r h i s work wh i l e the author used surface tows i t i s probable tha t t h i s p l a n k t e r i s found below the surface a t l e a s t dur ing the l a t e summer and e a r l y f a l l , a h a b i t which presumably would g ive i t an inc reased va lue as a food for the young sockeye which are b e l i e v e d to feed i n the r e g i o n of the thermocl ine ( R i c k e r , 1937) . D i s c u s s i o n MeMahon (1948) i n h i s comparison o f the p l ank ton p roduc t ion o f the Skeena l a k e s uses the term " f u n c t i o n a l depth" fo r tha t depth o f a l ake above which 80% of the p l ank ton i s found and he compares the p r o d u c t i o n per foot o f f u n c t i o n a l depth . On t h i s b a s i s , Bear lake i s seen to be one o f a group o f f i v e l a k e s , A l a s t a i r , Bear , Swan, M o r r i s o n and L a k e l s e , w i t h moderate p roduc t ion and mean depths of between 24 and 75 f e e t . Babine lake has a p l ank ton p roduc t ion o f the same order as these l akes but i t s mean depth i s much g r e a t e r , though i t s f u n c t i o n a l depth i s s i m i l a r . Thus, t h e i r p l ank ton p roduc t ion would, rough ly speak ing , be comparable to t h e i r a rea and presumably t h e i r p o t e n t i a l sockeye p roduc t ion when cons idered from the food supply ang le . F i s h The f i s h fauna o f Bear lake c o n s i s t s of ' p r e d a t o r ' s p e c i e s , 'compet-i t o r ' spec ies and ' b u f f e r ' spec ies when cons idered w i t h regard t o the sockeye salmon. Though subjec t to e r r o r s and l i m i t a t i o n s the ca t ch per net n igh t i s p robab ly the bes t comparative index o f abundance of the l a r g e r spec ie s o f f i s h i n a lake ( W i t h l e r , 1948). Thus u s ing t h i s as a c r i t e r i o n the f i s h found i n Bear l ake i n the order o f t h e i r abundance, e x c l u s i v e of the minnows, arenas f o l l o w s : - 18 -S c i e n t i f i c name Common name . Number caught Prosopium w i l l i a m s o n i Hocky Mountain w h i t e f i s h 381 Oncorhynchus ne rka sockeye salmon 282 Coregonus c lupeaformis e a s t e rn w h i t e f i s h 188 Catostomus catostomus f i n e s ca l e sucker 97 I o t a l o t a l i n g or burbot 40 Cr i s t i ' vomer n amaycush lake t r o u t 26 Catostomus spec i e s* suckers 16 Oncorhynchus ne rka kenne r l y i kokanee 2 Salmo g a i r d n e r i rainbow t r o u t 2 Oncorhynchus k i s u t c h coho salmon 1 S a l v e l i n u s malma d o l l y varden char 1 CottuB spec ies ** s c u l p i n 1 T o t a l 1,037 The d a t a f o r the above l i s t i s g iven i n appendix I I . The Rocky Mountain w h i t e f i s h was found to range from 6 to 12 inches i n l e n g t h i n the g i l l ne t catches (Appendix I I ) . I n age they ranged from 3 to 9 y e a r s . T h e i r food i n Bear l a k e , Bear r i v e r and A z u k l o t z l a k e , as There has been some d i s c u s s i o n as to the spec ies i n v o l v e d here . However, Dr . A . D. Welander(personal communication) has i d e n t i f i e d bo th C. macroche i lus and C. commarsonii i n young specimens sent t o him from Bear l a k e . No adequate s e r i e s o f C o t t i d s was c o l l e c t e d . Welander (pe rsona l communication) r e p o r t s C_. asper and C. a l e u t i c u s w i t h p o s s i b l y C. pe rp lexus . C. cognatus and G, gu lo sus . or even a new spec ie s may be p r e s e n t . - 19 -determined from stomach ana lyses , c o n s i s t e d c h i e f l y of i n s e c t s ( l a r v a e , pupae, and a d u l t s ) , gas t ropods , p l ank ton and f i s h . The l a s t two i tems are of importance p a r t i c u l a r l y s ince they i n d i c a t e tha t t h i s spec ies may he both a compet i tor and a p reda to r . Th i s p o i n t i s pursued fu r the r i n the d i s c u s s i o n . The r e s u l t s o f the stomach analyses are g i v e n i n t ab le 3 . The ea s t e rn w h i t e f i s h was taken i n a s i z e range of 9 l / 2 to 18 1/2 inches (Appendix I I ) and from 3 years to about 12 years of age. The l a s t mentioned i s i n d e f i n i t e due t o the d i f f i c u l t y o f d e c i p h e r i n g the s c a l e s af ter the f i s h becomes o lde r (Van Oosten, 1923) . The e a s t e r n w h i t e f i s h i n Bear l ake feed on p l a n k t o n , m o l l u s c s , i n s e c t l a rvae and f i s h ( table 3 ) , S ince they eat p l ank ton they are compet i to r s w i t h r egard to the sockeye and as they a l s o eat f i s h they are i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d preda tors o f the sockeye at l e a s t d u r i n g the s p r i n g f r y emergence as i s d i scussed l a t e r . The t h i r d most abundant indigenous f i s h i n Bear l a k e , the f i n e s c a l e sucker , feeds on p l a n k t o n , i n s e c t s , m o l l u s c s , p l a n t s and a lgae . Since p l ank ton was the most abundant food i t e m these f i s h are undoubtedly compet i tors w i t h the sockeye f o r the a v a i l a b l e f o o d . The burbot , a l though f o u r t h i n abundance i n the ne t catches (Appendix I I ) , may be somewhat more abundant than the f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e s ince t h e i r shape and smoothness are presumed to make them l e s s l i a b l e to be captured i n a g i l l ne t ( W i t h l e r , 1948) . On the o ther hand t h e i r s l u g g i s h -ness makes capture r e l a t i v e l y easy and by c a r e f u l l i f t i n g o f the ne t the author has s e v e r a l t imes boated l i n g which were l y i n g a g a i n s t the net and thus had come to the surface when the net was l i f t e d though they cou ld have swum away at any time before they were s i gh t ed i n the n e t . Burbot have, m a i n l y , a p i s c i v o r o u s d i e t ( W i t h l e r , 1948) though due to one p a r t i c u l a r c a t ch salmon eggs are the main food i n the Bear lake r e c o r d s . TABLE 3. Summary o f Stomach. Contents o f F i s h Ne t t ed i n Bear Lake Area i n The Years 1945, 1946, 1947 and 1948. Stomach Contents Net ted F i s h CO 60 W) CD a o a CO CD CD 8 & U o CD & o o CO co •H U o CO •p o CD CO •H 1 O CO o p) •H ^ if I CO O o cd -p CO o Pi o •p M 3 cd o co CO •a CO -p s no 3 CO CD « H .£> a u o CO L i n g o r burbot Lake Trout D o l l y Varden Rainbow Trout Eas t e rn 'Whi tef i sh Rocky M t . W h i t e f i s h F ine Sca le Sucker Coarse Sca le Sucker Sockeye o r Kokanee C o t t i d 9 8 4 1 2 5 5 5 1 28 3 47 1 1 58 3 2 2 1 30 17 1 1 o 6 1 6 1 1 1 5 5 1 T o t a l s 10 3 24 93 66 50 15 7 13 - to f o l l o w page 19 - 20 -No young salmon were found i n the stomachs of the burbot a t Bear l a k e . This supports W i t h l e r ' s con ten t ion tha t i t " i s l i k e l y an umimportant predator on the l a c u s t r i n e sockeye ." S a p o l i o Jack and other Ind ians r epor t ed tha t the on ly time they ca tch l i n g i s i n the e a r l y s p r i n g n e t t i n g which , i n S a p o l i o ' s case at l e a s t , i s done on the sockeye redds south o f Salmon p o i n t . O r d i n a r i l y there i s a r a the r low c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f f i s h i n tha t area but i t i s r epo r t ed tha t i n the s p r i n g a l l types o f f i s h are present i n the area i n l a rge numbers. S a p o l i o r epor t ed these f i s h ate s m a l l f i s h at tha t t ime, but he d i d not know the k i n d . He i n d i c a t e d they were about the s i z e of newly emerged sockeye f r y . That the l i n g ate salmon eggs has been mentioned p r e v i o u s l y . That they congregate on the sockeye redds i n the deeper water f o r t h i s purpose seems probable s ince n e t t i n g i n Expe r imen ta l Area #1 i n 1948 produced l a r g e r catches as the spawning season approached and the l a r g e s t ca tch was ob ta ined when the n e t t i n g was done d u r i n g the soc lsye spawning. Every l i n g caught at tha t time had salmon eggs i n i t s stomach ( tab le 3 ) . That these eggs were obta ined from redds was i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t ha t , o f the e i g h t l i n g found w i t h eggs i n t h e i r stomachs at tha t t ime, s i x had a l s o f i n e g r a v e l w i th no t race of mud or organic d e b r i s . Thus, i t i s h i g h l y probable tha t the l i n g i s an important preda tor o f the sockeye i n Bear l a k e . The lake t r o u t taken v a r i e d i n length from 14 1/2 inches to 31 l / 2 inches and i n age from 3 t o 9 years (Appendix I I ) . These f i s h acco rd ing to Indian r e p o r t s a t t a i n e d a much l a rge r s i z e i n t h i s l ake f o r m e r l y , and probably were present i n much l a r g e r numbers s ince there used to be a f l o u r i s h i n g Ind ian spear f i s h e r y f o r them. The S t a n w e l l - E l e t c h e r s (1943) r epo r t tha t i n 1938 t h i s spec i e s was i n poor c o n d i t i o n and the Ind ians t o l d them that u n t i l 1935 they had been l a r g e r and h e a l t h i e r . That the d e c l i n e - 21 -could have been due to p o l l u t i o n from b a t t e r i e s dumped i n the lake as suggested by Stanwell-3?le t che r seems u n l i k e l y s ince the volume o f the lake i s so g rea t compared to the s m a l l number o f b a t t e r i e s which would have come from such a s m a l l s e t t l ement . Many specimens caught by the author were g i v e n to the Indians who r epo r t ed they had never before had lake t rou t i n such good c o n d i t i o n . The lake t r o u t stomachs examined conta ined o n l y f i s h and i n s e c t s and, o f the ten records of the former, three were e i t h e r sockeye or kokanee ( t ab l e 3 ) . This i s i n accordance w i t h W i t h l e r (1948) who found tha t t h i s spec ies was a sockeye predator i n M o r i c e , Babine , N i l k i t k w a and M o r r i s o n the l a k e s . The ex ten t to whi c h e l a t e t r o u t i s a p reda tor on the sockeye i s d i f f i c u l t to assess , as mentioned by W i t h l e r . C h a r l i e N i c h o l a s , c h i e f o f the Bear lake t r i b e , r epor t ed that one s p r i n g r e c e n t l y (probably 1944) he had taken 30 lake t rou t i n one net j u s t south of the Narrows. The ne t , which the author examined, was o f b l a c k thread about 30 fee t long by 3 f ee t deep. I t seems p o s s i b l e that t h i s concen t r a t i on would be feed ing on y e a r l i n g sockeye which, as the author observed i n Babine l a k e , tend to c o l l e c t i n l a rge numbers behind c e r t a i n p o i n t s o f l a n d . The lake t r o u t i s probably as important a sockeye p reda tor as the l i n g i n Bear lake s ince i t s a c t i v i t i e s would no rmal ly extend over a much longer p e r i o d of the year , thus making up f o r i t s apparen t ly l e s s e r numbers. The coarse s c a l e d sucker was o r i g i n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as Oatostomus  commersonii by the author . L a t e r Dr . A . D . Welander (pe rsona l communic-a t i o n ) i d e n t i f i e d specimens of bo th Oatostomus commersonii and Catostomus  mac roche i lu s . among specimens sent him. The coarse s c a l e d suckers were presumed to be one species throughout the p e r i o d o f f i e l d work ' a t Bear l a k e . That Catostomus commersonii cou ld migrate i n t o the headwaters o f - 22 -the Sustut r i v e r v i a Lfoosevale creek i s i n d i c a t e d by Godfrey (1949) and by A l e e Bob, a l o c a l i n d i a n ( v e r b a l communicat ion). The rainbow or s tee lhead t rou t i s probably more p reva len t i n the r i v e r and streams than i n the l a t e . Thus i t c o u l d be expected to be o n l y of minor consequence un less i t also congregates on the sockeye redds i n the s p r i n g . W i t h l e r ' s (1948) remarks r ega rd ing t r o u t p r eda t ion i n l akes w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t t r o u t p o p u l a t i o n probably apply here as i n the l a k e s he s t u d i e d . This i s , tha t " the r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y o f the t r o u t tends to negate t h e i r effect'.".' Very l i t t l e i s known o f the kokanee i n Bear l ake but i t i s f e l t that t h e i r s c a r c i t y i n the net catches i s p robab ly due to t h e i r h a b i t s r a t h e r than to a c t u a l s c a r c i t y of numbers. Be ing s i m i l a r to the sockeye i n every way they are at once compet i tors for food and a bu f f e r aga ins t p r e d a t i o n . However as so l i t t l e i s known about them there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y t ha t they cou ld be " r e s i d u a l s " such as were found i n Cu l tus l ake ( R i c k e r , 1958) and no t rue kokanee may e x i s t i n the l a k e . The young o f the coho salmon, j udg ing from net ca tches , cou ld not be considered numerous enough i n Bear lake to be of grea t consequence i n t h e i r p r e d a t i o n on sockeye salmon. However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t ha t they are more numerous and impor tant than the ca t ch i n d i c a t e s s ince R i c k e r (1941) s t a t e s tha t "The s c a r c i t y of s t i c k l e b a c k s and the absence of p r i c k l y s c u l p i n s i n d i c a t e s tha t cbho t y p i c a l l y feed i n the p e l a g i c r e g i o n of the l a k e " . Thus they are no more l i k e l y to be caught i n the g i l l ne ts than kokanee or young sockeye. In a d d i t i o n , f eed ing i n the p e l a g i c r e g i o n , they would tend to eat sockeye s ince these are also a p e l a g i c s p e c i e s . Normal ly d o l l y varden char and the lake t r o u t are not found i n the same l a k e . However, w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of the former i n the Bear r i v e r and - 23 -another i n A z u k l o t z lake one would expect that they would o c c a s i o n a l l y en te r Bear l a k e . The p o s s i b i l i t y tha t they are present i n numbers i n the lake a t c e r t a i n t imes o f the year cannot be i gno red . However, though t h e i r numbers i n Bear lake are i n s i g n i f i c a n t t h e i r presence i n A z u k l o t z ; l ake means tha t l o s s e s o f young sockeye f r y must occur d u r i n g t h e i r passage through t h i s l a k e , even though the young sockeye may not spend t h e i r f r e s h water l i f e i n t h i s water . The d o l l y varden has been observed by the author f eed ing on sockeye f r y i n the Babine r i v e r and no doubt i t feeds upon them i n A z u k l o t z creek and A z u k l o t z l a k e . However, no da ta are a t hand r e l a t i v e t o the amount o f the p r e d a t i o n here . W i t h l e r (1948) s t a t e s that "Only f o r Stephens lake dees the c a t c h per net n i g h t i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i v e l y concent ra ted p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i s spec ies which i s a l so c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a h igh stomach content volume f o r sockeye" . In a d d i t i o n he s t a t e s "the low catches and few young present i n stomachs from other areas i n d i c a t e that d o l l y varden are p robab ly not a se r ious f a c t o r i n the removal of sockeye d u r i n g the l a c u s t r i n e stages " However, bo th work at Lakelse ( W i t h l e r , 1948) and C u l t u s lake ( R i c k e r , 1941) show tha t d o l l y varden ma in t a in a un i fo rm d i e t of pa r r throughout the y e a r . Thus they may occur i n Bear l ake and consume numerous sockeye dur ing some p o r t i o n o f the year such as win te r or s p r i n g . At Lakelse l ake the s c u l p i n s were found to eat as many as three y e a r l i n g s when they were conf ined i n the migrant traps ( W i t h l e r , 1948) . While i t i s h a r d l y l i k e l y t ha t under o r d i n a r y c i rcumstances they cou ld ca t ch y e a r l i n g s the emergence o f f r y i n the lake would g ive them an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r sockeye p r e d a t i o n . I f the f r y here , as those observed by the author at Shuswap and Babine l a k e s , c r u i s e a long the shore f o r some time a f t e r t h e i r emergence from the g r a v e l , the numbers . - 24 -consumed by s c u l p i n s cou ld be h i g h , Jtoerster (1925), R i c k e r (1941) and Y / i t h l e r (1948) r e c o r d s c u l p i n p reda t ion but have not attempted to es t imate i t . Except t ha t they may act as b u f f e r spec ies l i t t l e can be s a i d of the remain ing types of f i s h i n the lake . Be ing minnows, the shiner,,. R icha rdson ius b a l t e a t u s . a n d the lake chub Gouesius g r e e n i . may be presumed to i n h a b i t the sha l lower waters and thus have much l e s s e f f e c t as a bu f f e r than would a p e l a g i c spec ies except perhaps i n the s p r i n g . N e i t h e r the s p r i n g nor p i n k salmon reach the lake i n any numbers and are therefore of n e g l i g i b l e importance i n i t s economy. In the Bear r i v e r they are poobably a bu f f e r spac ies w i t h r e spec t to the m i g r a t i n g y e a r l i n g sockeye. D i s c u s s i o n I t i s ev iden t from the stomach contents analyses ( t ab l e 3) tha t a l l thg l a r g e r spec ies o f f i s h i n Bear l a t e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the suckers , must be regarded as p o t e n t i a l sockeye p r e d a t o r s . Cameron (1941) found a l o s s o f 81% i n p ink salmon from the p o t e n t i a l egg d e p o s i t i o n t i l l the f r y l e f t M c C l i n t o n creek. Foe r s t e r (1938) found tha t sockeye l o s s e s i n Cu l tu s lake f o l l o w e d a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t ime , w i t h 65.4% o f the l o s se s o c c u r i n g dur ing the f i r s t 2.5 months w i t h on ly 14.7% s u r v i v i n g at 11.5 months. He a l so s t a t e s tha t "Observat ions l i k e w i s e i n d i c a t e tha t heavy p i e d a t i o n occurs j u s t p r i o r to and at the time o f seaward m i g r a t i o n " . S ince i t waswot p o s s i b l e to v i s i t Bear l ake dur ing the two pe r iods o f heavy p r e d a t i o n mentioned above, the a c t u a l p r e d a t i o n found was l i g h t . Only the lake t r o u t and l i n g were found feeding on sockeye. In a d d i t i o n , d o l l y varden and rainbow t r o u t , p robably of minor importance i n Bear l a k e , cou ld be expected to take t h e i r t o l l o f migrants i n A z u k l o t z l ake and the - 25 -Bear r i v e r , However, i n the Bear r i v e r the supply o f p i n k , s p r i n g and coho f r y would act as a b u f f e r r e d u c i n g p r e d a t i o n on the l a r g e r sockeye m i g r a n t s . B i r d s B i r d s which would be l i k e l y to a f f ec t the salmon at Bear lake are r e l a t i v e l y few. There are g e n e r a l l y one or two f a m i l i e s of mergansers, Mergus s p e c i e s , and one o r two f a m i l i e s o f b a l d eag l e s , H a l i a e e t u s ' l eucocepha lus . i n the a r e a . Only on one o r two occasions was an osprey , Pandion h a l i a e e t u s , observed. While many b i r d s eat the dead salmon almost none other than the eagles mentioned above would be capable of t a k i n g the l a r g e l i v e salmon from the s t ream. Mergansers p robably take f r y i n the s p r i n g and perhaps y e a r l i n g s . They do e a t salmon eggs but they have no t been observed on the sockeye redds i n t h i s a rea and crops examined from b i r d s feeding 6n the Bear r i v e r conta ined on ly s p r i n g salmon eggs. One grea t horned owl , Bubo v i r g i n i a n u s . was found to have heen feeding on salmon but the i n d i c a t i o n s were that the f i s h had been dead f o r some time before being consumed. Mammals The e f f e c t o f the mammalian p o p u l a t i o n on the sockeye cannot be judged wi thout a g r ea t d e a l more s tudy . Many mammals feed upon the salmon but most of . these are b e l i e v e d to content themselves w i t h the ca r ca s se s . Man i s the c M i e f mammalian predator i n the r e g i o n . However, even here , the sockeye are taken c h i e f l y by two f a m i l i e s whose squaws were of the Babine t r i b e . Normal ly the Sikanee ^ndian i s a "meat" eater (Mor ice , 1<J05) and regards the d r i e d salmon as an e a s i l y por table dog food . He i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n spea r ing s p r i n g salmon than n e t t i n g sockeye. S m a l l numbers o f salmon are taken by bears , bo th b l a c k and g r i z z l y , - 86 -However j the former probably k i l l s few salmon which have not at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y spawned. Wolves are s a i d t o feed on the dead f i s h ( S t a n w e l l -F l e t c h e r , 1946) . Otter cou ld n o r m a l l y be expected to ca t ch sockeye and i n one t r i p up A z u k l o t z creek A l e x Bob repor ted s i x o f these animals i n the c reek . The au tho r ' s o p i n i o n i s t ha t , except at t imes o f low water , mammalian p reda t ion on the spawning sockeye i s no t s e r ious and w i l l a f f e c t c h i e f l y spawned end dy ing f i s h . SOCKEYE The Bear l ake sockeye are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y la rge humpbacked f i s h ( f i gu re 17) which are predominant ly o f the 5g age c l a s s ( t ab le 4 ) . The smal le r s i z e of the stream spawning p o p u l a t i o n , however, suggests tha t they are a year younger. Due to s ca l e e r o s i o n t h i s assumption cou ld not be checked. There i s u s u a l l y a number o f j acks i n bo th the s tream and lake p o p u l a t i o n s . M i g r a t i o n The sockeye n o r m a l l y migra te to the sea i n t h e i r second s p r i n g and r e t u r n i n t h e i r 4 t h or 5 th yea r . Tag r e c o v e r i e s at Bear lake i n d i c a t e t ha t they en te r the f i s h e r y i n i t s l a t e r s t ages . As Bear lake i s a l i t t l e f a r t h e r from the mouth o f the r i v e r than Babine lake i t i s to be expected t ha t they would take s l i g h t l y longer to reach the l ake than i s r e q u i r e d fo r the Babine f i s h t o reach tha t l a k e . Tag r e t u r n s from Bear lake are no t numerous enough to t e s t adequately t h i s assumption. -Upon r each ing the lake the f i s h spent about a month t o s i x weeks i n the watershed before dying as i s shown by the recovery of tags put on or recorded at the Bear l ake fence ( t ab les 5a) / : ' TABLE 4 . Bear Lake Tag Recove r i e s , A c c o r d i n g to Age C l a s s e s . 1945 to 1948. Length i n 3 2 4 2 5 2 T o t a l s Inches 15.75 1 1 21.5 1 1 22.0 1 1 22.5 1 1 22.75 1 1 23.5 1 1 24.0 1 1 24.5 1 1 2 24.75 1 1 25.75 1 1 26.0 1 1 26.75 1 1 T o t a l F i s h 1 4 8 13 Average l e n g t h i n inches 15.75 22.63 24.75 23.4 Percentage 7.69 30.77 61.54 100 - to f o l l o w page TABLE 5a Ocean Tag Recove r i e s , Bear Lake a rea , 1947, Tag Number Date Date Days How Recovered Remarks Tagged Recovered Out Sockeye: 28620 28913 29719 29990 30318 30516 31198 J u l y 4 Aug. 9 56 " 12 " 15 34 " 19 Oct . 6 " 20 Sept .10 52 " 24 " 1 0 48 " 24 " 20 62 " 26 Aug* 24 29 Ind ian g i l l ne t . Gaffed i n Bear r i v e r . 79 Dead on shore . Spawning i n A z u k l o t z c reek . Spawning i n A z u k l o t z c reek . F l o a t i n g i n Bear l a k e . Passed though the fence . Ind ian s a i d i t was a s p r i n g . Dead about 10 to 14 days . A j a c k . Jus t d y i n g . - to f o l l o w Table 4 . TABLE 5b Dead P ickup and Tag Recover ies From Bear Lake, i n 1948. Date Sockeye D a i l y No. Tag T o t a l Cumul. t o t a l s of d 9 t o t a l tags scars tags F i s h Tags and and scars scars Aug. 20 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 24 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 Sept . 9 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 10 4 0 4 0 0 0 7 0 14 4 4 8 0 2 2 15 2 15 3 1 4 0 0 0 19 2 16 0 1 1 0 0 0 20 2 17 3 3 6 0 0 0 26 2 18 4 5 9 0 0 0 35 2 19 0 1 1 0 0 0 36 2 21 1 2 3 0 0 0 39 2 25 9 23 32 0 1 1 71 3 27 0 5 5 0 0 0 76 3 29 41 59 100 0 1 1 176 4 30 21 36 57 1* 0 1 233 5 Oc t . 2 5 18 23 1** o 1 256 6 3 0 2 2 0 0 0 258 6 4 1 1 2 0 0 0 260 6 * #657 tagged at Bear lake fence on Aug. 1 7 > 1948. ** #653 tagged at Bear l ake fence on Aug. 17, 1948. - to f o l l o w Table 5a . TABLE 6 Da ad P i ckup by Areas , from Bear Lake i n 1947. Date Area I Area I I A r e a I I I Area IV A r e a V A r e a V I A r e a V I I Fence tags Sep t .5 32 31 6 9 5 7 1 2 9 1 10 1 1 11 4 13 58 9 1 4 1 18 1 20 160 69 2 27 1 21 4 1 22 8 11 9 14 25 4 26 39 3 27 80 15 2 30 12 68 5 6 Oc t . 1 133 12 4 2 4 2 7 16 4 1 3 9 36 1 3 57 3 5 6 6 105 112 11 11 3 7 25 1 T o t a l s 557 491 51 47 34 3 61 23 T o t a l 63 14 3 1 1 4 72 1 258 5 42 4 42 95 85 145 33 106 6 239 25 1244 - to f o l l o w Table 5b -- 27 -Spawning Though sockeye spawning could he observed along the shore o f the west s ide of the l ake "in 1945 and 1946 i t d id not appear to be s u f f i c i e n t to account f o r the l a rge number o f dead f i s h along the beaches nor was there any evidence tha t ths f i s h cou ld have come from e i t h e r S a l i x or A z u k l o t z c r e e k s . A c c o r d i n g l y i n 1947 a r e c o r d o f l o c a t i o n was kept of a l l dead f i s h found around the JLake ( t ab le 6 ) . To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s , the l ake was d i v i d e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t areas ( f igure 1 ) , When a f i s h was counted i t was opened to r eco rd i t s sex and, i f i t was a female, the degree t o which i t had spawned. I t was then cut i n two to prevent d u p l i c a t i o n of r e c o r d s . From these da ta i t was obvious t h a t the g r ea t e s t number of f i s h were found at the nor the rn end of the l a k e . F u r t h e r , almost a l l the dy ing f i s h recovered were found i n that area which was subsequent ly des igna ted Exper imen ta l Area #1. Recover ies o f spawned dead f i s h showed tha t ve ry few r e t a i n e d more than 15 o r 20 eggs. Dying f i s h seldom appeared on the surface o f the lake before l a t e a f te rnoon. They would s p l a s h around at the surface at i n t e r v a l s f o r a few minutes before d y i n g . No f i s h were observed to l i v e as long as f i f t e e n minutes a f t e r coming to the s u r f a c e . No f i s h hav ing spawned i n sha l low water was observed behaving i n t h i s manner. From these da ta i t was concluded tha t spawning grounds were l o c a t e d i n t h i s a rea and i n 1948 an attempt was made to o b t a i n f u r t h e r evidence on t h i s p o i n t . Nets were set i n the a rea a t i n t e r v a l s throughout J u l y , August and September and i t wasr.noted tha t as the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f sockeye increased the numbers o f other spec i e s decreased w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the burbot which inc reased i n numbers, the l a r g e s t c a t ch having been made i n the l a s t set i n t h i s a r ea . At t h i s t ime, September 15 th , e igh t burbot were caught i n one set and a l l of them had ea ten - 28 -salmon eggs ( t ab le 3 ) . Host of them had g r a v e l i n t h e i r stomachs a l s o , thus i n d i c a t i n g that the eggs had been p i cked up on the redds . I t i s ex t remely u n l i k e l y , tha t , were these f i s h not a c t u a l l y on the redds , they would have a l l conta ined salmon eggsjsince they are g e n e r a l l y s l u g g i s h and probably do not migra te any g rea t d i s t ance i n a shor t t ime . In a d d i t i o n , the l a rge numbers o f spawned and p a r t i a l l y spawned sockeye i n the net i n d i c a t e d tha t redds must be l oca t ed i n tha t a rea s ince sockeye are not known t o migrate any cons iderable d i s tance once they commence spawning. The neares t known redds to t h i s a rea are l oca t ed on the south s ide o f Salmon p o i n t , a t l e a s t a m i l e away. The known spawning area at Bear l ake are not s u f f i c i e n t to support the normal sockeye run to tha t a rea . In a d d i t i o n the numbers o f dead spawned out sockeye at the nor the rn end of the lake g r e a t l y exceed the number o f f i s h seen on the redds a long the shores of the lake n o r t h o f the narrows. The on ly p lace that sockeye were observed dying i n a spawned out c o n d i t i o n was i n Expe r imen ta l Area #1. Thus i t i s concluded t ha t the sockeye spawn i n the deep water and i n p a r t i c u l a r i n the v i c i n i t y o f Exper imen ta l Area #1 i n Bear l a k e . Sockeye spawning at some depth i n l akes has not been de sc r i bed p rev ious t o the au tho r ' s sugges t ion o f the p o s s i b i l i t y i n Johanson lake (Eoske t t , 1947). Salmon ova are des t royed at 400 atmospheres pressure accord ing to S h e l f o r d (1918), and H e i l b r u n n (1943) s t a t e s tha t salmon eggs exposed f o r s i x hours t o a pressure 200 atmospheres developed n o r m a l l y . As the pressure at 100 fee t i s about 4 atmospheres,pressure would not be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . To determine under what c o n d i t i o n s spawning occurs i n l akes some work was done at Bear l ake and obse rva t ions were made at v a r i o u s p laces i n the upper Skeena watershed. The author - 29 -n o t i c e d i n 1944 and 1945 tha t the o n l y known l ake spawning at Babine lake was at the mouths of s t reans v&iere the v i s i b l e f low was s l i g h t or absent . S i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s were n o t i c e d i n many p laces along the west shore o f Bear l ake i n 1945 and almost a l l these had redds . Where no apparent stream e x i s t e d on the south s ide o f Salmon p o i n t a p a i r o f sackeye was observed i n a l a g o o n - l i k e p o o l ( f igure 18) f o r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l days . The redd was then opened i n two p laces and bags o f dye (potassium pe r -manganate) were b u r i e d i n the g r a v e l about s i x inches deep. W i t h i n a few minutes the dye appeared at the sur face o f the g r a v e l s l i g h t l y to one s ide o f the p lace where i t was i n s e r t e d and cont inued to d r i f t i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n ( f i g u r e 19) , thus i n d i c a t i n g tha t seepage through the g r a v e l occur red i n t h i s redd* Dye p l aced i n another redd produced s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . Lake spawning i n Sus tu t lake was observed where seepage was ev ident i n one place and i n another i t occur red i n the lake a t the base o f a h i g h g r a v e l bank on the other s ide o f which a creek ended a b r u p t l y . Thus, i t i s r e a d i l y seen tha t seepage occurs i n those p laces where spawn-i n g has been observed and where c o n d i t i o n s cou ld be checked. No apparatus was a v a i l a b l e to determine the oxygen content or other d i s s o l v e d substances i n the seepage. Temperature i n f o r m a t i o n i s s l i g h t but i t was noted tha t the bottom temperatures i n Expe r imen ta l Area #1 were between 6.5*C and 7.5°G i n 1948. In Expe r imen ta l Area#2 temperatures were taken at the surface of the water , surface o f 1iie g r a v e l and 3 inches below the surface of a redd on September 12, 1948. These temperatures were r e s p e c t i v e l y , 8 . 2 5 ° C , 8°C and 3 . 7 5 ° C . A second redd gave temperatures o f 8°C at the surface and 4 .25°C one i n c h below thecaurface o f the g r a v e l . These temperatures are d e f i n i t e l y below those recorded f o r S a l i x creek i n which the temperature - 30 -i n the g r a v e l and the stream agreed and v a r i e d from 10°G on August 1s t to 12 .5°C on September 25, 1948. Fecund i ty In 1948 the o v a r i e s o f 26 sockeye ob ta ined from g i l l n e t t i n g and fence ope ra t i on were p rese rved . Counts o f the number o f eggs i n each f i s h were made, The range was from 2741 to 5524 w i t h the average 3650 ( t ab le 7 ) . T h i s i s l a r g e r than the averages ob ta ined i n three years counts at Babine , 5181 (Wi th l e ry 1950), and l e s s than those f o r L a k e l s e , 3816 (Aro and Broadhead, 1950). I t i s , however j more comparable w i t h the f i g u r e s obta ined f o r counts on K a r l u k lake i n 1926 when 40 f i s h averaged 3728 eggs ( G i l b e r t and R i c h , 1927). The f i g u r e s f o r Bear l ake are low i n comparison w i t h those o f C u l t u s l a k e , 4500 (Foe r s t e r , 1936), but are approximate ly average fo r sockeye according to Neave (1948). F r y Ve ry l i t t l e can be s a i d o f the sockeye f r y at Bear lake s ince no i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the area was made i n the s p r i n g . S ince l a rge numbers must emerge i n t o the lake where preda tors are numerous and the concen t ra -t i o n o f a l l f i s h on the redds i s r epo r t ed above average, i t i s presumed that l o s s e s must be heavy e s p e c i a l l y when cognizance i s taken of the f a c t tha t at l e a s t f i v e spec ie s of f i s h p resen t i n abundance, l i n g , l ake t r o u t , two spec ies o f wh i t e f i s h and c o t t i d s i n the lake are known to e a t f i s h at l e a s t o c c a s i o n a l l y ( t ab l e 3 ) . R i c k e r (1941) s t a t e s tha t "Consumption o f sockeye, as i n d i c a t e d by frequency o f occurence and average number found per stomach appears i n gene ra l to be p r o p o r t i o n a l to t h e i r abundance". Thus i t i s obvious tha t f r y l o s se s w i l l be h igher than y e a r l i n g l o s s e s . Y e a r l i n g s As with f r y the y e a r l i n g sockeye have not been observed at Bear l a k e . TABLE 7 . Egg Counts o f Sockeye at Bear l a k e , i n 1948. Date Taken Specimen No. l e n g t h i n T o t a l eggs inches i n ova r i e s August 2 BS48-172 23 3736 3 -211 26 5524 6 -215 23 1/4 3057 7 -219 22 1/2 3011 10 -251 26 4452 14 -299 22 1/2 2741 19 -306 23 1/2 4457 19 -350 22 3113 20 -393 21 3/4 3003 25 -396 26 4185 25 -397 22 3/4 3434 25 -398 22 1/4 3372 27 -399 22 1/2 3879 29 -410 23 3672 29 -418 22 1/2 3827 29 . -435 • 22 3/4 3779 29 -436 22 1/2 3552 29 -452 24 3/4 4661 29 -453 22 1/2 3621 29 -454 22 2929 29 -455 21 1/2 3596 29 -456 21 1/2 3230 Sep t . 10 -461 23 3/4 4160 19 -566 23 3058 19 -567 22 3/4 3385 19 -568 22 1/4 3200 Average number of eggs per female sockeye 3640.5 - to f o l l o w page 30. - 31 -I t i s probable tha t they would no t v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y from the migran ts of such area as Lakelse and Bab ine . Wi th the few samples o f uneroded s c a l e s a v a i l a b l e , ob ta ined by means o f tag r e c o v e r i e s , i t was f e l t tha t c a l c u l a t i o n s of the l e n g t h of the y e a r l i n g s would be u n r e l i a b l e and thus they were no t at tempted. A d u l t s Wi th on ly a t o t a l of fou r t een tag r e c o v e r i e s from sockeye i n the Bear l ake area, of which one sca le sample conta ined no readable s c a l e s , v e r y l i t t l e can be s a i d of the age c o m p o s i t i o n ! However, the f a c t tha t e i g h t o f the f i s h , 61.5%, were i n the 5g age c l a s s i s sugges t ive ( t ab l e 4 ) . The average l eng th o f g i l l ne t caught f i s h i n the Bear l ake area was: 1945 - 25.84" 1946 - 25.92" 1947 - 24.33" 1948 -r 23.89" Sockeye tagged at the: Bear lake fence i n 1947 averaged 24.57" and i n 1948, 23 .89" . For comparison the average l e n g t h o f sockeye tagged a t the mouth of the Skeena r i v e r i n the same years was: (Foske t t , unpub l i shed data) 1945 - 23 .3" 1946 - 23 .2" 1947 - 21 .8" 1948 - 21 .7" While t h i s shows tha t the Bear lake sockeye are l a r g e r than the average Skeena sockeye the f i g u r e s would show l e s s d i f f e r e n c e i f the same Bear l a t e f i s h cou ld have been measured before secondary s exua l dimorphism had s t a r t e d . The average o f Lake l se sockeye tagged i n 1946 was 2 3 . 1 " which i s d e c i d e d l y below the Bear l ake average o f 25.9" f o r the same y e a r . Babine averages f o r 1946 and 1947, based on a sample o f 100 f i s h , were 21 .9" and 20 .0" though the l a t t e r was undoubtedly lowered by the l a r g e number o f jacks i n c l u d e d . The hump-back shape o f many o f the male sockeye at Bear l ake i s shown i n f i gu re 17. - 32 -C o n t r i b u t i o n to the Skeena r i v e r sockeye run One o f t i e most important phases of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n at Bear l ake was the assessment of the run to- the area i n comparison to the r e s t o f the Skeena. In a d d i t i o n to the u s u a l problems of salmon enumeration there was the added d i f f i c u l t y tha t o n l y a s m a l l percentage o f the p o p u l a t i o n cou ld be observed on the spawning grounds. Thus, i t was obvious tha t t agg ing would be necessa ry . Attempts to ca tch sockeye f o r tagging i n Bear r i v e r «e were o f no a v a i l . E v e n t u a l l y i n 1947 a rough p i c k e t fence , j u s t over 300 fee t l o n g , was cons t ruc ted i n a s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n about one-quar ter m i l e below the lake ( f igure 2 0 ) . 783 sockeye were tagged here between August 18 and September 9 o f tha t year ( tab le 8 ) . The tags were l a t e r recovered ( t ab l e s 5b, 6 and 9) from the redds i n A z u k l o t z creek, and from g i l l n e t t i n g i n the l a k e , and from the dead f i s h around the l a k e . Both l i v e counts and dead r e c o v e r i e s were used i n making es t imates and though the former gave c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s i n Bear l ake , the d i sc repancy between the two es t imates u s i n g l i v e counts i n A z u k l o t z creek ind ica t e s tha t t agg ing o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n could not have been adequate f o r purposes o f enumer-a t i o n . Three es t imates made from the p r o p o r t i o n o f tagged t o untagged sockeye i n l i v e counts i n Bear lake gave the f o l l o w i n g : Date No. f i s h No. f i s h No, tags Es t imate F i d u c i a l l i m i t s tagged i n sample i n sample 0.95 confidence l e v e l . • %we,r Pjggj-r Sep. 13 773 73 1 56,429 10,077 1,880,967 Sep. 22 773 151 2 58,362 8,105 291,810 Oct . 2 773 118 2 45,607 6,334 228,035 Combined samples 773 342 5 52,873 22,595 165,228 TABLE 8. Bear Lake Fence Records . The Humber o f Sockeye Tagged i n 1948. Date Sockeye Number Number D a i l y c? 9 tagged o f j acks t o t a l 28 0 1 1 1 29 2 0 2 30 0 1 1 31 0 2 1 2 1 3 5 8 2 16 23 16 1 39 3 6 6 12 4 28 22 4 4 50 5 4 6 10 6 29 29 4 3 58 7 20 15 35 8 50 63 113 9 127 130 2 257 10 122 129 1 251 11 42 42 84 12 25 16 24 41 13 48 44 4 92 14 33 57 2 90 15 25 35 1 60 16 8 6 14 17 25 22 42 2 47 18 27 29 4 56 19 38 49 87 20 34 21 55 21 38 24 62 22 93 64 1 157 23 68 59 1 * 127 24 28 17 45 25 55 33 25 88 26 31 15 3 46 27 20 15 1 35 28 4 4 8 29 9 10 19 30 165 72 2 237 31 85 63 2 148 - cont inued on next page - to f o l l o w page 3 2 -TABLE 8, cont inued Bear Lake Fence Records . The Number o f Sockeye Tagged i n 1948. Date Sockeye i lumber Number D a i l y o* 9 tagged o f jacks t o t a l Sep t . 1 36 21 2 57 2 25 ' 16 41 3 3 2 5 5 4 20 8 28 5 15 12 17 1 27 6 7 4 11 7 2 2 4 8 3 8 11 9 8 4 12 10 36 22 58 11 23 29 1 52 12 13 12 25 13 21 16 1 37 14 15 17 32 15 16 24 40 16 27 22 49 17 17 19 5 36 18 12 11 1 23 19 10 5 15 20 3 1 4 21 1 7 8 22 2 1 3 23 3 3 6 T o t a l s 1626 1395 139 45 3021 TABLE 9 Tag Recover ies by Area , From Bear Lake, i n 1947. Date Area I Area I I Area I I I A r e a IV A r e a V A r e a V I A r e a T i l T o t a l s Sea Fence Sep t . 10 1 1 13 1 1 20 1* 1 1* 1 27 2 2 30 1 5 6 Oc t . 1 4 4 2 1 1 3 2 1 3 6 1 1* 2 1* 3 7 1 1 T o t a l s 8 2* 11 1 1 1 0 1 2* 23 denotes a sea t a g . - to f o l l o w Table 8 -r 33 -In making these es t imates the tags recovered from l i v e f i s h by g i l l - n e t t i n g o r other means before the es t ima tes were made were sub t rac ted from the t o t a l number o f tags i n the lake ( t ab l e 1 0 ) . The dead f i s h r e c o v e r i e s from the lake extended from the time the f i s h f i r s t s t a r t e d dy ing u n t i l October 5 . Dur ing t h i s p e r i o d , 23 tags were recovered from 1,244 f i s h which gave an es t imate of 41,742 sockeye w i t h f i d u c i a l l i m i t s o f 27,953 and 65,863 at the 0.95 confidence l e v e l . However, o n l y one tag put on i n the l a s t ten days of t agg ing was recovered d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d which extended for o n l y 28 days a f t e r the c e s s a t i o n o f t agg ing . An average o f 36 days from tagging to r ecove ry o f the dead f i s h was found f o r 20 f i s h . While t h i s average i s no doubt s l i g h t l y h igh due to the f a c t t ha t some o f the f i s h had been dead s e v e r a l days when recovered , f r e s h l y dead spawned f i s h were found from 27 to 46 days a f t e r t agging and one f i s h recovered 26 days from tagging appeared to have been dead f o r some t ime . A c t u a l l y o n l y three sockeye tagged a f t e r August 30 were recovered , one of these having d i e d apparen t ly from a g a f f wound. The other two had the sho r t e s t t imes from date o f t agg ing to date of recovery o f the dead f i s h (table. c j5a). The exac t e f f e c t o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s hard to judge. Cameron (1940) se t up three h y p o t h e t i c a l cases i n the p a r t o f h i s paper on d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e tagging and i n each of these the percentage of f i s h tagged had become constant by the end of the r u n . I f m i x i n g had occur red by tha t time the r a t i o o f tagged to untagged f i s h would have become cons tan t . No one can say to what ex ten t m i x i n g had occur red i n the Bear lake f i s h or what the r a t i o would have been had i t been p o s s i b l e to remain at the lake and sample f i s h u n t i l a l l were dead. The s i m i l a r i t y o f t l s l i v e count es t imates and the dead r ecove ry es t imate suggest t ha t the f i s h were w e l l mixed . Rounding the f i g u r e s ob ta ined from dead f i s h r e c o v e r i e s gave TABLE 10 Bear Lake Tagging Recove r i e s , 1947 season. Date No. No. % No. No. No. % Recov. Tagged Tagged Recovered Recovered Recovered Recovered Recovered as Dead p ickup a l i v e i n nets dead p ickup / A u g . 18 12 1 8.3 - - 1 8.3 19 4 0 0 .0 - - - 0.0 20 35 3 8.6 2 - 1 2.9 21 54 2 3.7 — - 2 3.7 22 54 7 13,0 3 1 3 5.6 23 24 2 8.3 - - 2 8.3 24 45 3 6.7 2 - 1 2.2 25 45 2 4 . 4 - - 2 4 . 4 26 32 1 3 .1 - - 1 3.1 27 32 4 12.5 - 1 3 9 .4 28 17 0 0 .0 - - - 0.0 29 7 1 14.3 - - 1 14.3 30 14 1 7 .1 - — 1 7.1 31 13 0 0.0 - - - 0.0 Sep t . 1 15 0 0 .0 - - - 0.0 22 17 0 0 .0 - - - 0.0 3 66 0 0.0 - - — 0.0 4 87 2 2 .3 - - 2 2 ,3 5 63 1 1.6 - - 1 1.6 6 30 1 3 .3 - - 1 3.3 7 31 1 3.2 - 1 - 0.0 8 36 1 2.8 - - 1 2.8 9 50 0 0 .0 — — 0.0 T o t a l s 783 33 4.215 7 3 23 2.92 - to f o l l o w page 3 3 -- 34 -l i m i t s of approximate ly 66,000 and 28,000 w i t h a raean of 42,000 fo r the sockeye run to Bear lake i n 1947. I f , to be on the safe s i d e , the f igure o f 28,000 i s used, i t f o l l o w s tha t the bes t es t imate then o f the Bear l ake run was 4.0% of the t o t a l Skeena r i v e r escapement i n tha t year ^•Pr i^chard, 1948), and i f , as was e s t ima ted , the escapement was 60% of the t o t a l r un , then Bear l ake c o n t r i b u t e d approximate ly 18,600 sockeye to the Skeena r i v e r pack i n 1947. Us ing t h i s 4.0% f o r the f i v e years d \ i r ing which the Bear lake area was v i s i t e d by members of the P a c i f i c B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i o n s t a f f , 1944 to 1948, the run to Bear l ake would be, on the b a s i s o f the most probable escapement as" es t imated f o r those yea r s , as f o l l o w s : 1944 - 24,800; 1945 - 54 ,400; 1946 - 27,200; 1947 - 28,000; 19#8 - 44 ,000 . However, as i s known, a l l p o r t i o n s o f a run do not n e c e s s a r i l y f l u c t u a t e the same way and the 1948 es t imate o f the Bear l ake run from t agg ing and r e c o v e r i e s was 5 ,720. Th i s f i g u r e i s comparable w i t h that o f 40,000 f o r 1947 and, a l l o w i n g f o r a o n e - t h i r d o v e r - e s t i m a t i o n , a f i g u r e o f 3,814 i s ob ta ined f o r comparison w i t h the 28,000 f i g u r e i n 1947. The o p i n i o n o f a l l who were f a m i l i a r w i t h the r e g i o n was tha t 1948 had one o f the sma l l e s t runs they had seen i n the a rea . However, the f a c t tha t one run f e l l below the es t imate i s reason enough to examine the other e s t i m a t e s . Th i s can be done on ly i n a r e l a t i v e way s ince there was no t a g g i n g . In 1945, acco rd ing to the e s t ima te s , about 60,000 sockeye went to the Bear l ake area . In t h i s year over 200 dead sockeye were counted on the bar near the mouth of Pa tcha creek i n August whi le i n 1947 l e s s than 500 were recovered on that s ide o f the lake between the r i v e r and Salmon p o i n t from August to October 7. T h i s i n d i c a t e s that the run i n 1945 may have f a r exceeded the es t imates f o r that yea r . As 1947 i s the year f o r which the Skeena es t imates o f the spawning p o p u l a t i o n was regarded as be ing the best a v a i l a b l e , a comparison o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n other areas w i t h that o f Bear lake i s i n o r d e r . For t h i s purpose P r i t c h a r d (1948) accepted the. es t imate of 40,000 spawners f o r Bear l ake which was 5.8% of the es t imated Skeena escapement o f 687,000 sockeye. Babine i n t h i s same year had 523,000 sockeye or 76.1% o f the escapement. Morice lake had a p o p u l a t i o n of 50,000 sockeye but s ince i t was not v i s i t e d by S t a t i o n personnel tha t year the f i g u r e can on ly be regarded as a rough es t imate though work a t Moricetown f a l l s g ive s some i n d i c a t i o n o f the s i z e of the r u n . Lakelse lake had i n tha t year 20,000 sockeye. The K i s p i o x system and A l a s t a i r l ake were r epo r t ed to have popu la t ions o f 15,000 and 14,000 sockeye r e s p e c t i v e l y . The o n l y other areas where surveys were i n t e n s i v e enough to g ive es t ima tes tha* can be cons idered as more than a guess are Kitsuragallum and Ki twanga l akes w i t h 8,000 and 4,000 sockeye r e s p e c t i v e l y , percentages o f 1.2 and 0.6 o f the t o t a l e s t ima ted escapement f o r that y e a r . In the Skeena R i v e r Salmon I n v e s t i g a t i o n I n t e r i m Report ( P r i t c h a r d , 1948) Bear lake i s p l aced t h i r d i n the areas c o n t r i b u t i n g to the run , be ing preceded o n l y by Babine and Me'rice l a k e s . The few tag r e c o v e r i e s i n d i c a t e tha t Bear lake sockeye en ter the f i s h e r y c h i e f l y a f t e r the end o f June and thus are sub jec t to i n t e n s i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n at t ha t t ime . D i s c u s s i o n While the eu t roph i c nature of Bear lake would tend to produce an abundant supp ly o f food the low m i n e r a l content o f the water i s p robably a check on p r o d u c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n tte v a r i e d d i e t of many o f the f i s h suggests that food of a l l k inds i s not abundant and thus i t would seem that food compe t i t i on must at times be an important f a c t o r i n the l a k e . The apparent v a r i a b i l i t y i n the number o f f i s h i n the l a k e from year to - 36 -year cannot be e x p l a i n e d wi thou t more work, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the s p r i n g o f the year when p r e d a t i o n i s p robably at i t s maximum. Enough work has not been done on the Bear l ake sockeye run to adequately assess i t s c o n t r i b -u t i o n t o the f i s h e r y i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l Skeena c a t c h , but i n 1947 i t wascabout 4%. Food and Food Compet i t ion Though no da t a are a v a i l a b l e r ega rd ing the food o f young sockeye i n Bear l ake i t i s presumed tha t they w i l l feed on the p l ank ton organisms as i n other l a k e s . R i c k e r (1937) has shown tha t i n Ctiiltus lake the sockeye feed on p lank ton organisms, c h i e f l y C ladoce ra and Copepoda, w i t h i n s e c t s forming a s m a l l percentage of the d i e t . Unpubl ished da t a o f the Skeena Salmon I n v e s t i g a t i o n support these f i n d i n g s . In Bear l a k e , as mentioned c* above under fauna, the most abundant Entomost ra A are Heteroco-pe s e p t e n t r i o n - a l i s , Cyclops s p . . Diaptomus s p . , Daphnia l o n g i s p i n a . Bosmina l o n g i s p i n a and Polyphemus p e d i c u i u s . Which o f these organisms would form the c h i e f food of the sockeye i n the lake i s not known though i t i s l i k e l y tha t a l l c o n t r i b u t e to some degree. A v a i l a b i l i t y at d i f f e r e n t times of the year undoubtedly has much to do w i t h what i s ea ten , fsahdppsss'ihly to some ex ten t , wi thoc&mpet i t ion f o r f ood . R o t i f e r s and phytoplankton are a l s o a v a i l a b l e and as at Cul tus . l a k e , are p robably u t i l i z e d to a minor e x t e n t ( R i c k e r , 1937). Diaptomus. as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , because o f i t s h a b i t a t may form one of the main items i n the sockeye d i e t . P r e d a t i o n Th i s has been l a r g e l y covered under the s p e c i f i c f i s h p r e d a t o r s . Other p reda to r s , as mentioned e a r l i e r , are c h i e f l y b i r d s and mammals, the l a t t e r i n c l u d i n g man. Except i n the s p r i n g when the y e a r l i n g sockeye migrate and feed at the sur face and the f r y are a v a i l a b l e i n the s h a l l o w s , - 37 -b i r d p r e d a t i o n i s p robab ly not heavy. Mergansers tend to feed on s p r i n g salmon eggs i n the Bear r i v e r i n the f a l l and were not observed over the sha l low sockeye redds i n the l a k e . Wo la rge concen t ra t ions o f grebes or o ther f i s h e a t i n g b i r d s were observed. I t i s cons idered u n l i k e l y tha t they would have more than a minor e f f e c t on the p o p u l a t i o n . Mammals are p robab ly of minor importance i n the eco logy o f the salmon except w i t h the adul t spawners i n the streams and i n s h a l l o w water . G r i z z l y bears ca t ch the f r e s h salmon but they are uncommon on the sockeye streams, seemingly p r e f e r r i n g the l a r g e s p r i n g salmon o f the Bear r i v e r . B l a c k bears o f ten take one b i t e out o f the nape of a sockeye and then go on to another but these are g e n e r a l l y spawned salmon. O t t e r s undoubtedly catfih sockeye and wh i l e they are exper t f i shermen t h e i r s m a l l numbers i n comparison to the runs would tend to minimize t h e i r e f f e c t . Sha l low water i n A z u k l o t z creek, as when a l a rge p r o p o r t i o n of the stream goes down W i n d f a l l creek, may make c o n d i t i o n s favourable f o r a c t i v e p r e d a t i o n i n which case normal scavengers may become p reda to r s . When A z u k l o t z creek i s low many of the salmon are i n j u r e d though not caught by the p r e d a t o r s . Whether t h i s would l e a d to a d i m i n u t i o n i n the number o f eggs depos i t ed i n the g r a v e l i s no t known but i t may have c o n s i d e r a b l e ' e f f e c t . Man, the a rch-preda to r , undoubtedly takes a t o l l o f the Bear lake sockeye bo th at the r i v e r mouth and a t the l a k e . The Ind ians , however, do no t f i s h harder when sockeye are scarce i n t h i s area but are apt t o s top f i s h i n g f o r them and r e l y on the l a t e r s p r i n g salmon run to supp ly t h e i r needs. Undoubtedly the hope of g e t t i n g a t ag and o b t a i n i n g the regard f o r i t r e s u l t e d i n a heav ie r t o l l o f sockeye d u r i n g the f o u r years t ha t the runs i n t h i s a rea were be ing i n v e s t i g a t e d . - 38 -Buf f e r Spec ies P r e d a t i o n i s a phase of l i f e which undoubtedly i s l a r g e l y a f f e c t e d by a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the p rey . I t i s r a r e l y s p e c i f i c as i n the r e l a t i o n o f p a r a s i t e and host and thus "the ups and downs" o f other f i s h popu l a t i ons i n the lake i s sure to have some e f f e c t on the sockeye. Though ope ra t ive f o r o n l y a shor t time i t may r e a d i l y be seen how an extreme abundance o f s p r i n g salmon f r y i n the Bear r i v e r would decrease the p r eda t ion on the y e a r l i n g sockeye m i g r a t i n g at tha t t ime . An ex t remely s u c c e s s f u l spawning o f ea s t e rn w h i t e f i s h i n Tsay tu t bay c o u l d , c o n c e i v a b l y , h o l d a c o n s i d e r -able number o f preda tors i n that a rea i n the s p r i n g , thus r e l i e v i n g somewhat the p r e d a t i o n on the sockeye f r y o f the narrows. Genera l D i s c u s s i o n The f a c t that sockeye can apparen t ly spawn at some depth i n a lake i s perhaps the s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s paper . No c l a i m can be en tered tha t the c o n d i t i o n s e s s e n t i a l to t h i s spawning have been analysed i n d e t a i l . One c o n d i t i o n presumed to be necessary , namely seepage, has been i n d i c a t e d as p re sen t . ?/hether t h i s deep spawning i s s u c c e s s f u l has not been proven though i t i s h a r d l y l i k e l y tha t the f r i nge o f sockeye carcasses r epor t ed as an annual fea ture cou ld p e r s i s t i f the spawning was a b o r t i v e . That the porous nature o f the s o i l c o u l d be expected t o favour the format ion o f sp r i ngs and tha t g l a c i a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h the accompanying d e p o s i t i o n of s i l t , could r e a d i l y form l a y e r s , which , r e s i s t i n g the passage o f water , would cause these sp r ings to ; emerge at some depth i n the lake i s presumed though not p roven . I t was, however, noted tha t i n s e v e r a l p l aces a long the Bear r i v e r , s p r i n g s emerged at the j u n c t i o n o f g r a v e l and c l a y . The c o n d i t i o n which has apparen t ly r e s u l t e d i n the f a v o u r i n g o f l ake spawning of sockeye i n t h i s area i s the extreme e r o s i o n which takes place i n the s p r i n g due to the steep watershed and the poor w a t e r - r e t a i n i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f the s o i l . F i g u r e s 6 to 11 show the nature o f the m a t e r i a l s moved by the s p r i n g f l o o d s i n the a rea . Egg p r e d a t i o n w i t h the p o s s i b l e excep t ion o f that o f the burbot i s not b e l i e v e d to be e x t e n s i v e . F r y p r e d a t i o n , as at C u l t u s l ake ( R i c k e r , 1941), i s p robab ly f a i r l y heavy. Th i s presumption was supported by ques t i on ing the Indians as to t h e i r s p r i n g f i s h i n g grounds and the concen t r a t i on and k inds o f f i s h caught on them. That p r e d a t i o n does take p lace was i n d i c a t e d by S a p o l i o J a c k ' s i n fo rma t ion tha t f i s h caught on Salmon p o i n t which had t h e i r stomachs s l i t whi le be ing cleaned had s m a l l f i s h i n them. The Indians apparent ly d i d no t , however, connect the concen t r a t i on of f i s h w i t h spawning o f the salmon the p rev ious f a l l . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y the p r e d a t i o n o f spec ies not no rma l ly p i s c i v o r o u s cou ld be an important fea ture i n the m o r t a l i t y of sockeye f r y . As the f r y grow they forsake the shal lows f o r the open water where the preda tors are assumed to be fewer. Here undoubtedly the lake t r o u t i s a p reda to r as shown i n stomach analyses bo th at Bear lake and i n o the r r e g i o n s . I t i s not , however, as abundant a t present as i t was i n the p a s t . That i t may be of major importance at c e r t a i n t imes o f the yea r was mentioned above. The sockeye food supply i n Bear lake was shown by McMahon (1948) to be about average f o r the Skeena l a k e s . There i s , however, as shown by stomach ana lyses , cons ide rab le compe t i t i on between spec ies f o r the a v a i l a b l e s u p p l y . Whether t h i s r e s u l t s i n a s c a r c i t y i s d i f f i c u l t to say . - 40 -SUMMARY Bear lake supports a cons ide rab le p o p u l a t i o n o f sockeye salmon but the s i z e o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n v a r i e s g r e a t l y from year to y e a r . I t c o n t r i b u t e s on the b a s i s o f 1947 es t imates at l e a s t 4% o f the Skeena r i v e r sockeye r u n . Only a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n spawns i n the s treams. E r o s i o n and the i n s t a b i l i t y o f the bed are the f a c t o r s which are b e l i e v e d to prec lude the b u i l d i n g up o f l a rge stream spawning popr-i-. t i u l a t i o n s . The porous nature o f the s o i l o f the area i s b e l i e v e d re spon-s i b l e f o r the prevalence o f lake spawning. I t i s shown that t h i s spawning takes p lace a t depths of between 60 and 100 f e e t . The success o f t h i s spawning was not determined but the numbers" o f salmon i n v o l v e d and the pe r s i s t ence of the runs i n d i c a t e tha t i t i s s u c c e s s f u l . P r e d a t i o n du r ing the f r y stage i s i n d i c a t e d as probably be ing r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the major l o s se s d u r i n g the f r e s h water stages though the ex ten t o f egg l o s s cou ld not be e s t ima ted . - 41 -LITERATURE CITED A r o , K . V . and G. C. Broadhead. 1950. D i f f e r ence between egg counts o f sockeye salmon at Lakelse and Babine l a k e s , F i s h . R e s . B d . C a n . P r o g . R e p . P a c . 8 2 ; pages 17-19. B r e t t , J . R* 1950. The p h y s i c a l l imno logy o f Lakelse l a k e , B r i t i s h Columbia . J . F i s h . R e s . B d . C a n . 8 ( 2 ) ; pages 82-102. Cameron, W. Mi 1940, The tagging r a t i o and i t s use i n the e s t i m a t i o n o f a spawning salmon p o p u l a t i o n . Unpubl i shed t h e s i s , U n i v . o f B . C . 1941. M o r t a l i t y du r ing the f resh-water ex i s t ence of the p ink salmon. Unpubl i shed manuscr ip t , P a c . B i o l . S t n . F a s s e t t , R . E . 1940. A manual o f aqua t ic p l a n t s . M c G r a w - H i l l Book C o . , L t d . , New York and London. F o e r s t e r , R. E . 1925. S tud i e s i n the eco logy o f the sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchua n e r k a ) . C o n t . C a n . B i o l . , N . S . , 2 (16) ; pages 335-422. 1936, Sockeye salmon propaga t ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia . B u i . B i o l . Bd .Can . 53; pages 1-16. 1938. M o r t a l i t y t rend among young sockeye salmon (Oncqfliiynchus  nerka) du r ing v a r i o u s stages of l ake r e s i d e n c e . J . F i s h . R e s . B d . Can. 4 ( 3 ) ; pages 184-191. F o s k e t t , D . R, 1947. Lakes o f the Skeena r i v e r Dra inage . V . Bear l a k e . P rog .Rep .Pac . 70j pages 10-12. 1947. Lakes o f the Skeena r i v e r d ra inage . V I . Lakes of the upper S u s t u t r i v e r . P rog .Rep .Pac .72 ; pages 28-32. G i l b e r t , C . H . and W. H . R i c h , 1927, I n v e s t i g a t i o n s concerning the r ed salmon runs to the K a r l u k r i v e r , A l a s k a . B u i . U . S . B u r . F i s h . , 43 , Document 1021, pages 1-69. - 42 -Godfrey, H . 1949. A s tudy o f the l i m n o l o g i c a l cond i t i ons of Skeena l akes as they a f f e c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance o f the w h i t e -f i s h e s , Coregonus and Prosopium. Unpubl ished t h e s i s , U n i v . of B r i t i s h Columbia . H e i l b r u n n , L . V . 1943. An o u t l i n e o f g e n e r a l p h y s i o l o g y . 2nd E d . , W. B . Saunders C o . , P h i l a d e l p h i a , U . S . A . Hubbs, C L . and R. W. Eschmeyer. 1938. The improvement o f l akes f o r f i s h i n g . B u i . 2, I n s t i t . f o r JJ ' ish.Res. , U n i v . M i c h . , Ann Arbor , M i c h . Juday, C . , W. H . R i c h , G. I . Kemmerer and A . Mann. 1932. L i m n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f K a r l u k l a k e , A l a s k a , 1926-1930. U . S . D e p t . of Comm., B u r . F i s h . , B u l . 12; pages 407-436. L o r d , C. S . 1948. McConnel l creek map area , C a s s i a r d i s t r i c t , B . C . Dept. o f Mines and Resources, G e o l . S u r . of C a n . , Memoir 251; pages 1-72. McMahon, V . H . 1948. D i s t r i b u t i o n and r e l a t i v e abundance of p l ank ton i n the l akes o f the Skeena r i v e r system. Unpubl ished appendix to I n t e r i m Repor t , Skeena River Salmon I n v e s t i g a t i o n , F i s h . R e s . B d . Can. M b r i c e , A . G. 1905. The h i s t o r y o f the nor the rn i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia^ 1660-1880. Neave, F . E . 1948* Fecund i ty and m o r t a l i t y i n p a c i f i c salmon. Trans , of R o y a l Soc . C a n . , 42, s e r . 3 , s e c . 5 , ; pages 97-105. Heedham, P . R. 1938. Trout s treams. Comstock P u b l . C o . , I n c . , I t h a c a , N . Y . O l i v e , E . W. 1918. B lue -g reen algae (Cyanophyceae). F resh Water B i o l o g y , Ward and Whipple . Stanhope P r e s s , Bos ton , U . S . A . ; pages 100-114. P r e s c o t t , G. W. 1939. Some r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f Phytop lankton to Limnology - 43 -and aqua t ic b i o l o g y , Amer. A s s o c . Adv. S c i . , P u b l . 1 0 . P r i t c h a r d , A . L . and a s s o c i a t e s . 1948. I n t e r i m Repor t , Skeena r i v e r salmon i n v e s t i g a t i o n . P a c . B i o l . S t n . Mimeographed r e p o r t . Rawson, D. S . 1936. P h y s i c a l and chemica l s t u d i e s i n l akes o f the P r i n c e A l b e r t Park , Sask, J . B i o l . B d . C a n . , 2 ( 3 ) ; pages 227-284. 1942* A comparison o f some l a r g e a lp ine l akes i n western Canada. Eco logy , 23^2), pages 143-161. R i c k e r , W. E . 1937. P h y s i c a l and chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C u l t u s lake*. B . C . , J - , B i o l . B d . C a n . , 3 ( 4 ) ; pages 363-402. 1937. The food and food supply o f sockeye salmon i n Cul tus l a k e , B . C . J . B i o l i B d . C a n . , 3 ( 5 ) ; pages 450-468. 1938. " R e s i d u a l " and kokanee salmon i n Cu l tu s l a k e . X . F i s h . R e s . B d . C a n . , 4 ( 3 ) ; pages 192-218. 111.1 1941. The comsumption o f young sockeye salmon by predaceous f i s h . J . F i s h . R e s . B d . C a n . , 5 ( 3 ) ; pages 293-313* SandstrtJm, J . V/. 1919. The hydrodynamics o f Canadian A t l a n t i c wa te r s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the G u l f of S t . Lawrence and A t l a n t i c waters of Can. Dept. o f N a v a l s e rv i ce* C a n . F i s h . E x p e d . 1914-19L5T; p'ages 221^348* • S h e l f o r d , V . E . 1918. C o n d i t i o n s of E x i s t e n c e , F r e s h Water B i o l o g y , Ward and Whipple . Stanhope Pres s , Bos ton , U . S . A . ; pages 21-60. Smi th , M. W. 1949. R e l a t i o n o f rock format ion to t r o u t p roduc t ion* P r o g . R e p . A t l a n t i c , 47; pages 3-4 . Snow, J . W. 1918. Fresh-water a lgae . F re sh Water B i o l o g y , Ward and Whipple . Stanhope P r e s s , Boston^ U . S . A . ; pages 115-177. S t a n w e l l - F l e t c h e r * J . F . and T. C. S t a n w e l l - F l e t c h e r . 1943. Some accounts o f the f l o r a and fauna of the Dr i f twood v a l l e y r e g i o n - 44 -o f n o r t h c e n t r a l B . C. Occ. Paper o f B . C. P r o v . M u s . , 4 . S t a n w e l l - F l e t c h e r , T. C . 1946. 'ihe Dr i f twood V a l l e y . L i t t l e Brown and C o . , Bos ton . W i t h l e r , F . C. 1948. F i s h p r e d a t i o n on the young sockeye ( £ . nerka) i n c e r t a i n l akes o f the Skeena r i v e r • drainage as eva lua ted by s tudy o f the catches and stomach contents o f p reda tors ob ta ined by g i l l - n e t t i n g . Unpubl i shad t h e s i s , U n i v . o f B r i t i s h Columbia . 1950. I g g content of Babine sockeye. P r o g . R e p . P a c . , 82; pages 16-17. Van Oosten, J . 1923. A study o f the s ca l e s of w h i t e f i s h e s o f known ages*-Z o o l o g i c a , 2 (17) ; pages 375-412. Figu re 1 Map of the Bear l ake a rea . -Figure 2 Mountains to the west o f Bear Lake . F igure 3 Conne l ly Range to tba eas t o f Bear Lake, w i t h I n d i a n se t t l ement a long the lake sha re . Figure 5 A c t i v e e r o s i o n on the banks o f the Bear r i v e r , f i v e m i l e s below the l a k e . Figure 6 Trees washed out o f the bank and then caught on a g r a v e l bar i n Bear r i v e r . The raw m a t e r i a l f o r a l o g jam. F igure 7 A z u k l o t z creek i n foreground and the empty bed o f W i n d f a l l creak i n the center background. Figu re 9 W i n d f a l l creek d r y , i n September. F i g u r a 11 Mouth, o f Stony creek, west s ide o f Bear l a k e . - s i -Figure 12 W i n d f a l l creek j u s t above the mouth, showing t y p i c a l w i l l o w banks . F i g u r e 13 A z u k l o t z creek between A z u k l o t z l ake and Bear l a k e , showing i t s rocky n a t u r e . Figure 14 Graph o f temperatures at S t a t i o n s I and IA i n 3ear lake on August 15, 1948. - S 3 -Figure- 15 Diagrammatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of apparent normal thermal c o n d i t i o n i n Bear lake i n August , Station I 7~en?pera-tuire- "F. Station X T Tet-npera.tu.re. *M *r AT) T. Figure , 16 e Trac ings o f bathythermograph records o f S t a t i o n s I and I I i n Bear l a k e , August 26, 1946* Figu re 17 Sockeye, male above and female below. Sca le i n foreground i s one f o o t . Spawning salmon on redd , at Salmon p o i n t i n Bear l a k e . I 'lgure 20 Bear lake count ing fence, l o o k i n g n o r t h APPENDIX I A i r Temperatures at Bear l a k e , 1946 to 1948. Date 1946 1.-. Minimum Maximum L5 1947 Minimum Maximum 1948 Minimum Maximum Date J u l y 22 44° F 50°F J u l y 22 23 44 57 23 24 42 60 24 25 47 58 25 26 49 64 26 27 49 62 27 28 48 .5 64 28 29\ J44 73{ f29 30J 130 31 44 82 31 Aug. 1 - - Aug. 1 2 39 70 2 3 39 64 3 4 48 70 4 5 - 72°F 50 72 5 6 44° F 68 49 72 6 7 46 63 52 79 7 8 46 65 49 78.5 8 9 41 60 48 83 9 10 46 59 51 78 10 11 48 70 - - l l 12 42 72 49 71 12 13 44 77 48 67 13 14 49 67 48 79 14 15 47 65 48 82 15 16 40 64 - - 16 17 44 62 49 77 17 18 42 53 44 65 18 19 32 63 - - 19 20 39 53 42 70 20 21 43 65 47 68 21 22 43 66 36 68 22 23 41 64 49 64 23 24 34° F 70°F 39 62 39 56 24 25 34 74 39 61 30 50 25 26 38 74 43 53 - - 26 27 36 79 49 63 32 56 27 28 40 76 46 53 36 58 28 29 39 78 49 62 46 54 29 30 40 79 42 63 48 56 30 31 45 83 46 59 44 52 31 - cont inued on next page - 5 7 -APPENDIX I A i r temperatures a t Bear l a k e , 1946 to 1948.. Cont inued . Date 1946 1947 1948 Date Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Sept . 1 46°F 80°F 48°F 54°F 40°F 54°F Sep t . 1 2 51 76 42*5 58 43 57 2 3 51 64 41 49 43 46 3 4 39 64 35 48 40 54 4 5 39 63 - 54 39 69 5 6 32 70 31 52 44 60 6 7 35 40 50 48 59 7 81 } •42 J 57 -42 61 8 51 60 9 10 42 54 44 - 10 11 47 55 37 57 11 12 39 50 34 56 12 13 32 67 38 48 13 14 34 42 39 48 14 15 35 51 38 59 15 16 34 52 40 56 16 17 34 55 37 52 17 18 29 62 45 57 18 19 35 60 44 .5 52 19 20 45 52 40 52 20 21 51 64 36 48.5 21 22 44 62 31 49 22 23 48 64 28 51 23 24 33 66 25 48 24 25 37 69 34 49 25 26) 27f •35 V65 38^ 48J J26 (27 28) J J 31 45 28 29 47 60 28 45 29 30 44 64 26 49 30 Oc t . 1 47 58 35 52 Oct . 1 2 45 53 35 48 2 3 35 46 41 46 3 4 31.5 52 38 - 4 5 34 49 5 6 28.5 54 6 7 28 50 7 8 9 8 9 10 10 APPENDIX I Wind Becords at Bear Lake, 1947 and 1948. Date P lace D i r e c t i o n Strength. Remarks 1947 Aug. 7 A z u k l o t z l a k e L i g h t 8 Bear l a k e , S t n . I NW 1 98% c loudy Bear l a k e , S t n . I I NW to W 1 to IW 4 21 Bear l a k e , S t n . I NW 1 50% c loud 22 Bear l a k e , S t n . I I NW 1 15% c loud cover, 23 A z u k l o t z l ake SE 1 Sep. 25 Bear l a k e , S t n . I N veered L i g h t 95% c loudy to E 28 Bear l a k e , S t n . I S S t rong Oct . 5 Bear l a k e , S t n . I NW 2 90% cloudy 1948 J u l y 29 Bear l a k e , S t n . I N 2 Cloudy 30 A z u k l o t z lake N 1 Bear l a k e , S t n . I I NW 2 Cloud cover 85% 31 Bear l ake , S t n . I 0 C l e a r Aug. 10 Bear l a k e , S t n . I NW 1 C l e a r 11 Bear l a k e , S t n . I I N 2 C l e a r A z u k l o t z l ake S L i g h t 15 Bear l a k e , S t n . I N 1 Bear l a k e , S t n . IA N 1 22 Bear l a k e , S t n . I 0 C l e a r 26 Bear l a k e , S t n . I SE 1 C l e a r Sep. 5 Bear l a k e , S t n . I 0 100% c loudy 6 Bear l a k e , S t n . I I N 2 High overcas t 7 A z u k l o t z lake 0 12 Bear l a k e , S t n . I N 1 85% c loudy 19 Bear l a k e , S t n . I S 4 Wind rose f i r s t hours a f te r midn igh t , cont inued to even ing , swi tched to N . 20 Bear l a k e , S t n . I S 3 Low overcas t 21 Bear l a k e , S t n . I s 2 50% c loudy 23 Bear l a k e , S t n . I I N 3 90% c l e a r 24 A z u k l o t z lake S 1 28 Bear l a k e , S t n . I NW by W 2 50% cloudy Oct . 3 Bear l a k e , S t n . I S 3 100% c loudy , APPENDIX I Surface and. Bottom Temperatures a t S t a t i o n s i n Bear Lake. 1948. Date L o c a t i o n Depth Temperature Remarks Surface Bottom J u l y 31 Goose Bay S t a t i o n 18 .25°C No surface cu r r en t . Entrance to Goose Bay S t n . 19.5 Very s l i g h t cu r r en t , 3 . towards S t a t i o n IA 105 ' 19*2 6 .5°C S t a t i o n IB 61 18.75 6.5 S l i g h t southward c u r r e n t . Aug. 1 S t a t i o n ID 33 16.5 7 .3 No surface c u r r e n t . Aug. 9 S t a t i o n IA 90 17.0 6.73 Current towards sou th . S t a t i o n IB 57 17.5 6*8 Aug . 15 S t a t i o n I A 87 18.0 7.0 Surface current sou th . S t a t i o n IB 57 19.0 7.0 S t a t i o n ID 30 18.5 11.0 Aug. 22 S t a t i o n I A 16.5 6.8 N o r t h c u r r e n t . Sept . 5 S t a t i o n I A 111 12.5 7 .1 Sept .12 S t a t i o n IA 102 12.25 7 .1 S t a t i o n IB 60 12.25 7.6 S t a t i o n IC 102 12.25 7.1 S t a t i o n ID 30 12.5 10.4 Oct . 3 S t a t i o n IA 8.5 7.5 -4f-APPENDIX I I Bear Lake F i s h Catches A c c o r d i n g to Length and S p e c i e s . +> o £( © & ^| .^ 1 © & . p j p l u c o d c o H o PQ CD ffiri r J m E H O (4© © C O © ©© O M M AO M O © H d +»-H ©O ftO 60 o ° w 5 o j§ 3 -H g £ orf S 3 a s a co co s a © • H ffl o 3 c3§: O E S -HCO oca T J . CD-H 6 1 11 2 1 13 19 1 7 29 1 1 34 8 1 19 1 1 11 5 9 5 2 1 2 8 7 10 6 10 6 4 7 20 11 1 11 9 22 7 1 12 31 4 12 3 20 1 4 14 13 2 4 1 1 6 4 1 14 24 1 1 1. 1 31 8 1 15 26 1 1 18 3 3 16 16 1 2 1 12 2 1 17 1 3 2 6 2 2 1 18 1 1 1 1 19 2 1 1 1 2 1 20 4 1 2 2, 3 21 1 1 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 21 . 2 1 3 22 3 5 1 4 22 2 1 9 - cont inued on next page APPENDIX I I Bear Lake E i s h Catches Acco rd ing to Length and S p e c i e s . Cont inued . o CO f-l W)0 <D (D O ^ * £ £ ^ w 3 %s- » J Q K'v; H OS: -HCO OCO t-1 CD >. in <D ra , M ,d<D o o o o CO CO «o c+ 23 5 1 2 6 1 24 1 1 5 6 1 1 2 6 25 1 4 4 5 3 3 4 26 1 6 8 1 4 9 3 27 19 5 5 12 2 28 1 1 22 8 29 -1 30 32 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 33 Other f i s h , Cot tus a l e u t i c u s , 4 1/2 inches Kokanee , 10 1/2 inches C O C O C O C O C O C O C O C O M H H H H M M H CO -<1 O <D CO -3 O CO H U H CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO P H H W W H M H C O i f ' l - ' C O C O CO W H O I H (_i (-J CO o H «3 Ol M if- CO H O CO l e n g t h i n inches D o l l y Varden E a s t e r n W h i t e f i s h Bocky Mtn . W h i t e f i s h F ine Sca le Sucker Coarse Sca le Sucker L i n g o r Burbot o* Sockeye 9 Sockeye Length i n inches & O c+ N s-CD H -CO o CO c+ o 10 CQ a o o H $ TO CR I CO •s O H-CD CQ H M APPENDIX I I Nat Catches i n Bear and A z u k l o t z Lakes , 1945 to 1948. Species 1945 1946 1947 1948 1945-1948 o f E i s h &a &a $$> | | &'a o - p - e s CO CD fH+f f H - P ® ^ CO X J P75D * d •H . d a . 3 ^ a o o o o o o o o •p - p • p - p - p • p - p •p - p - p •P at CO CD a) CO CD cO CO CD CO CO CD o o O f l o o d o O P i o Bear Lake Sockeye 23 0 .82 57 1.90 56 1.87 146 2.43 282 1.91 Rocky M t n . W h i t e f i s h 122 4.36 50 1.67 51 1.70 158 2.63 381 2.57 E a s t e r n Whi te f i s h 33 1.18 34 1.13 45 1.50 76 1.27 188 1.27 F ine Sca le Sucker 32 1.14 13 0 .43 11 0.37 40 0.67 96 0.65 L i n g o r Burbot 7 0 i25 7 0 .23 5 0.17 21 0.35 40 0.27 Lake Trout (char) 7 0.25 3 0.10 13 0.43 3 0.05 26 0.18 Coarse S c . Sucker 2 0.07 3 0.10 2 0.07 9 0.15 16 0.11 Rainbow Trout 1 0 .03 1 0.02 2 0 .01 Kokanee 1 0.03 1 0.03 2 0 .01 D o l l y Varden char 1 0.03 1 0 .01 Coho 1 0 .03 1 0.01 S c u l p i n 1 0 .03 1 0.01 Bear Lake T o t a l s 226 8.07 168 5.59 188 6.26 454 7.57 1036 7.01 No. o f Net N i g h t s 28 30 30 60 148 A z u k l o t z Lake Sockeye 17 1.70 6 1.20 23 1.53 Rocky M t n . W h i t e f i s h 30 3.00 16 3.20 46 3.07 E a s t e r n White f i s h 5 1.00 5 0.33 Coarse Sca l e Sucker 10 2.00 10 0.67 F i n e S c a l e Sucker 4 0.80 4 0.27 L i n g o r Burbot 4 0.40 4 0.27 D o l l y Varden char 3 0.30 3 0.20 A z u k l o t z l a k e T o t a l s 54 5.40 41 8.20 95 6.34 No. o f ne t n i g h t s 10 5 15 APPENDIX I I Bear Lake N e t t i n g P o s i t i o n s : No. 1 Out from south s ide o f Hanawald p o i n t towards south , i . e . a t an angle from shore, i n s i d e end i n about 25 t o 30 fee t o f water , t o about 120 fee t a t end of 250 ya rd gang. Sandy shore w i t h more o r l e s s r e g u l a r s lope for 100 yards and then a s teeper i n c l i n e , f l a t t e n i n g again at around 100 f e o t depth . No. 2 As i n No. 1, but shore end i n about 4 f ee t o f water . No. 3 Across lake- from Hanawald p o i n t . Very s l o w l y s h e l v i n g and s h a l l o w shore , mos t ly sandy bottom w i t h s m a l l areas of weeds i n sparse clumps* Outer end o f 250 ya rd ne t , se t w i t h inshore end i n 3 to 4 f ee t of water , would be about 30 f ee t deep. No. 4 Jus t n o r t h o f base o f Salmon p o i n t , shore s l o p i n g ve ry g r a d u a l l y u n t i l about 4 f ee t deep then dropping o f f r a p i d l y to about 30 f e e t , s teepes t i n f i r s t 10 f ee t o f d r o p - o f f . No. 5 Of f center o f rock s l i d e s n o r t h of W i l l o w p o i n t . Shore end o f 250 ya rd ne t a t r i g h t angles to shore was i n 6 f e e t o f water and outer end i n 87 f e e t . Drop o f f i s f a i r l y s teady. No. 6 J u s t n o r t h o f sha l low p a r t of narrows n o r t h of Tsaytu t bay, from eas t shore , outer end of 250 y a r d net i n about 14 f e e t o f water . No. 7 Out from south shore o f Tsaytu t bay yus t before narrow par t where S a p o l i o ' s cab in i s l o c a t e d . Depth range from 5 to 20 f e e t . No. 8 In p o s i t i o n No. 5, but p a r a l l e l to shore i n a depth of 30 f e e t . No. 9 South o f p o s i t i o n No, 1, p a r a l l e l to shore . Depth o f 18 to 33 f e e t . No. 10 Out from p o i n t on west shore, west o f S t a t i o n I I . Outer end i n about 200 f e e t and sha l low end on shore . No. 11 From p o i n t on west shore n o r t h of Thread Narrows, out across midchannel towards end o f p e n i n s u l a j u t t i n g n o r t h from Thread Narrows. No. 12 From western bay at n o r t h end of Goose bay down center of west s ide o f Goose bay. No. 13 D i a g o n a l l y across the mouth o f Goose bay and out i n t o the Blake s t a r t i n g from s m a l l bay on west s ide o f entrance to Goose bay. No. 14 Along n o r t h s ide of Expe r imen ta l Area #1. No. 15 From south shore o f Salmon p o i n t eas t of t u r n i n g p o i n t at r i g h t ( con t . ) APPENDIX I I Bear Lake N e t t i n g P o s i t i o n s , con t inued : angles to shore . Ju s t between the s ide main spawning a reas . No. 16 In weeds on no r th shore of Tsaytu t bay j u s t eas t o f stream e n t e r -i n g middle o f s h o r e l i n e i n ea s t e rn b igh t o f the bay. No. 17 Along ea s t side of Exper imen ta l Area #1. No. 18 D i a g o n a l l y , nor theas t to southwest, across Expe r imen ta l A r e a #li APPENDIX I I I Summer Heat Income, f o r S t a t i o n I , Bear Lake. 1945 to 1947, Heat Income per L a y e r . Depth 1945 1946 1947 i n f ee t Aug . 6 Sept . 3 Aug. 26 Sep t . 5 Aug. 8 Aug . 21 Sept .25 O c t . 5 15 5184.2 4494.3 4640.6 4869.2 4800.6 4526.3 3305.6 2916.9 22.5 2126.0 30 4023.4 4366.3 4046.2 4412.0 3840.5 1920.2 2985.5 2857.5 37.5 1383.0 45 2308.9 2788.9 2651.8 2948.9 2514.6 971.6 2880.4 2743.2 60 1545.3 1691.6 1691.6 1668.8 1874.5 1874.5 2560.3 2574.0 75 1453.9 1577.3 1545.3 1554.5 1783.1 1828.8 2208.3 2400.3 90 1348.7 1531.6 1385.3 1371.6 1325.9 1760.2 1545.3 2231.1 105 1074,4 1165.9 1097.3 983.0 1325.9 1394.5 1545^3 1545.3 120 135 708.7 800.1 685.8 213.4 859*5 229.2 937.3 562.3 1545.3 1545.3 1545.3 1545.3 T o t a l s 16,938.8 18,324.6 17 ,858.2 18,707.2 18,553.8 19,284.7 20*121.3 20,358,9 APPENDIX I I I Summer Heat Income, f o r S t a t i o n I , Bear Lake. 1948, Heat Income per Laye r . Depth i n f ee t J u l y 29 J u l y 31 Aug. 10 Aug. 15 Aug. 26 Sep. 5 Sep. 12 Sep. 21 Sep. 28 Oc t . 3 15 4732.0 5843.0 5500.1 3115.8 4 5 1 7 i l 3726.2 3429.0 3086.1 2345.4 2116.8 22.5 1543.1 1817.4 2137.4 • 30 834.4 1005.8 3657.6 2057.4 3397.0 3337.6 3154.7 2971.8 2286.0 2057.4 45 1417.3 1394.5 1554.5 1440.2 1897.4 2720.3 2697.5 2971.8 2286.0 2057.4 60 1188.7 1280.2 1325.9 1371.6 1554.5 1988.8 2057.4 2971.8 2240.3 2057.4 75 1120.1 1188.7 1257.3 1348.7 1440.2 1600.2 1668.8 2400.3 2126.0 2057.4 82.5 525.8 788.7 90 480.1 525.8 1211.6 1234.4 1120.1 1463.0 1508.8 1714.5 1897.4 1508'; 8 97.5 434.3 468.6 105 388.6 422.9 1005.8 1028.7 868.7 1143.0 1188.7 1303.0 1394.5 1508.8 120 731.5 800.1 777.2 845.8 891.5 914.4 937.3 891.5 123 850.3 124.5 951.0 219.5 126 320.1 310.9 129 466.3 493.7 132 731.6 658.4 135 891.5 T o t a l s 13 ,615.4 15,585.9 16,463.8 14 ,854.4 15 ,883.1 17 ,291.2 17 ,090.1 19,065.3 16,171.3 15,147.0 APPENDIX I I I Summer Heat Income, f o r S t a t i o n I I , Bear Lake . 1945 to 1948, Heat Income per Laye r . Depth 1945 1946 1947 1948 i n f e e t Sep. 4 Aug. 26 Aug . 8 Aug. 22 J u l y 30 Aug. 11 Sep. 6 Sep. 2J 7.5 2430.0 15 4914.9 5074.9 5395.0 4860.0 1805.9 6355.1 4069.1 3031.2 22.5 2377.4 1623.1 30 4297.7 3931.9 4320.5 2023.1 1325.8 6240.8 3909.1 2971.8 37.5 1303.0 1257,3 1668.8 45 2606.0 2263.1 2354.6 880.1 743.0 6149.3 1200.2 2971.8 60 1472,2 1408.2 1234.4 1714.5 1120.1 5577.8 .1668.8 2377.4 67.5 1577.3 75 1092.7 1111.0 914.4 1211.6 845.8 ..571.5 .1097.3 1531.6 90 745.2 777.2 685.8 845.8 845.8 937.3 800.1 1028.7 105 649.2 548.6 571.5 845.8 480 .1 685.8 662.9 1028.7 120 617.2 502,9 548.6 845.8 480.1 685.8 662.9 731.5 135 580.6 502.9 502.9 845.8 480.1 685.8 662.9 , 731.5 150 580.6 502.9 502.9 845.8 480.1 685.8 662.9 685.8 165 580.6 457.2 502.9 845.8 480.1 548.6 548.6 685.8 180 553.2 457.2 502.9 845.8 480.1 548.6 548.6 640.1 195 521.2 411.5 434.3 525.8 480 .1 548.6 . 548.6 640.1 210 521.2 365.8 434.3 525.8 480.1 548.6 213 105.2 225 521.2 365.8 434.3 480.1 548.6 240 548.6 T o t a l s 2 0 , § 5 3 . 7 18,681.1 19,339.3 21 ,447 .1 16,317.7 31 ,388 .1 20 ,356.6 19^056.0 

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