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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The evaluation of a less structured form of interest test item Smith, Robin Nelson 1951

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Sc j B K THE EVALUATION OF A LESS STRUCTURED FORM OF INTEREST TEST ITEM  ROBIN NELSON SMITH  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d  from candidates f o r the  degree o f MASIffiK OF ARTS.  Members o f the Department o f E d u c a t i o n THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Octoher, 1951  1  A b s t r a c t o f t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r the degree o f Master o f A r t s i n the Department o f E d u c a t i o n , the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia.  The E v a l u a t i o n o f a Less S t r u c t u r e d Form o f I n t e r e s t T e s t Item. by Robin Nelson  Smith  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n might he summed up as f o l l o w s . A new type o f i t e m f o r use i n i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r i e s was conc e i v e d t o he one s t a t e d i n r e l a t i v e l y g e n e r a l terms.  I t was  f e l t t h a t the use o f t h i s type o f item, coupled w i t h a s s i s tance to the s u b j e c t i n making the comparisons  by the use of  the paired-comparison form might r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d r e l i a b i l i t y and c o u n s e l l i n g v a l i d i t y i n i n t e r e s t  inventories.  P a r a l l e l t e s t s composed o f matched items were administ e r e d , under as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e i d e n t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , t o the same group o f approximately e i g h t y h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , and the r e s u l t s compared.  The f i r s t o f these t e s t s was com-  posed o f l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items matched t o c e r t a i n items o f the second t e s t , " T h e Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record" form BB, as e x e m p l i f y i n g the use o f the u s u a l s p e c i f i c or s t r u c t u r e d item. There appeared t o be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the reliabilities  o f the two t e s t s .  S i n c e there were  approxim-  a t e l y seven times as many items i n the Kuder as t h e r e were i n the experimental t e s t i t was concluded that the evidence warranted g i v i n g c r e d i t f o r s u p e r i o r r e l i a b i l i t y type, or l e s s s t r u c t u r e d , item.  to the new  aosT-racc - page a:  Very s i g n i f i c a n t c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n were  ob-  t a i n e d between the t o t a l scores f o r the corresponding of the two  tests.  ence t h a t the two  areas  T h i s appeared to p r o v i d e s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d types of item were measuring  essentially  the same t h i n g , at l e a s t i n major r e s p e c t s . A t e s t of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y was o f the experimental  devised.  The  items  t e s t and the matching items of the Kuder  were compared on t h i s b a s i s .  The  l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items  appeared to be m a n i f e s t l y s u p e r i o r i n regard to t h i s An e f f o r t was  property.  made to i n d i c a t e the extent to which each  t e s t d i s t i n g u i s h e d c l e a r l y between the s u b j e c t s f e r r e d area and l e a s t p r e f e r r e d a r e a .  1  most pre-,  Here a l s o the e x p e r i -  mental t e s t and hence the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d item appeared to demonstrate a d i s t i n c t s u p e r i o r i t y . In the l a s t s e c t i o n o f the r e p o r t v a r i o u s observations  and impressions  incidental  were r e p o r t e d as such.  In c o n c l u s i o n i t seems s a f e to say t h a t the new o f item shows c o n s i d e r a b l e promise f o r use  type  i n interest  t o r i e s , and t h a t v e r i f i c a t i o n and f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n would be w e l l warranted.  - 0  -  inven-  i  CONTENTS page v  LIST OP TABLES Chapter I  page  INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Introduction  1 1  Definition of interest  1  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of interests  2  Value o f a knowledge o f i n t e r e s t s  2  Methods i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t areas  3  Response to a d e s c r i b e d a c t i v i t y  4  Conclusions i n r e g a r d to the use o f specific activities Related studies  II  THE PROBLEM Frame o f r e f e r e n c e  5 6  9 9  The "less s t r u c t u r e d i t e m  10  D e f i n i t i o n o f the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d item  11  The problem i n g e n e r a l terms  12  S p e c i f i c problems  12  ii  CONTENTS Chapter III  page  EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Method and m a t e r i a l s  IV  14 14  Experimental method  14  Choice o f c r i t e r i o n  14  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t  15  Description of subjects  16  Experimental f a c t o r s  16  The t e s t program  18  Preparation  18  Administration  18  Time schedule  19  TREATMENT OF DATA T a b u l a t i o n o f data  20 20  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f raw scores f o r the l e s s structured test  20  R e l i a b i l i t y , l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t by c l a s s e s  21  R e l i a b i l i t y , l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t by areas  21  R e l i a b i l i t y , l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t v s . the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record  22  iii  CONTENTS Chapter  page  V a l i d i t y : l e s s structured  t e s t v s . the Euder  P r e f e r e n c e Record less structured  23  t e s t - v a l i d i t y against  internal  criterion  24  Euder P r e f e r e n c e Record - v a l i d i t y a g a i n s t internal criterion  V  £9  INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS  31  Problem a  31  Problem b  33  Problem c  34  Range i n the degree o f i n t e r e s t expressed i n the Tables o f Preference General c o n c l u s i o n  71  .  v  38 .  41  NOTES AND INCIDENTAL OBSERVATIONS Multiple  scoring  42  o f items on the Euder t e s t  Experimental t e s t u n r e f i n e d by i t e m a n a l y s i s Discriminating  42 42  power o f c e r t a i n items o f the  l e s s structured of the s u b j e c t s  test affected  by the sex 43  iv  CONTENTS Chapter  page  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g power o f c e r t a i n l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items a f f e c t e d by the s t a t u s o f the s u b j e c t s 44 C e r t a i n s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e n t l y p r e f e r r e d an area out o f i t s i n d i c a t e d order  44  SUMMARY  45  BIBLIOGRAPHY  48  APPENDICES A  Experimental  B  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the Kuder Preference  C  Test o f Less S t r u c t u r e d Items  Record and Experimental  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Preferences  Test  52  f o r the Experimental  Test D  49  56  P h i C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Less S t r u c t u r e d and Kuder Items  57  0  V  LIST OF TABLES page TABLE I - T e s t R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y o f Less S t r u c t u r e d T e s t by P u p i l Groups  21  TABLE I I * R e l i a b i l i t y : L e s s S t r u c t u r e d T e s t v s . Euder P r e f e r e n c e Record TABLE I I I - V a l i d i t y :  22  the Less S t r u c t u r e d T e s t  A g a i n s t the Euder P r e f e r e n c e Record TABLE IV - I n t e r n a l Consistency:  23  Average P h i  C o e f f i c i e n t s o f I n d i v i d u a l T e s t Items i n Each Area - L e s s S t r u c t u r e d and Euder Tests  29  TABLE. V - D i f f e r e n c e Between Average P h i C o e f f i c i e n t s of Corresponding  A r e a s , D i f f e r e n c e Between  Typical Phi Coefficients of  Corresponding  Areas and " t " R a t i o s , by Areas  37  TABLE VI - Range i n S t r e n g t h o f I n t e r e s t : Euder v s . Experimental  Test  40  0  ACETOWLEDGEME1T May the a s s i s t a n c e r e c e i y e d during the course o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n he r e c o g n i z e d and the indebtedness o f the author be expressed to Mr* J.A, I n k s t e r , P r i n c i p a l o f the West Vancouver High School, f o r h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n i n a l l o w i n g the use o f the f a c i l i t i e s  o f the s c h o o l , t o Miss T*  Melensek, Mrs. B. G-ratten, Mrs, G. G r i f f e n , Mr. R . J . Wright, and Mr. D. Todd f o r t h e i r m e t i c u l o u s care i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the t e s t s , and t o Dr. J . Ranton Mcintosh f o r h i s  encourages  ment and d i r e c t i o n , without which t h i s study would never have been  completed.  0  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND  The i n f l u e n c e o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r e s t s upon h i s success i n a v o c a t i o n i s conceded "by most persons concerned with vocational counselling.  Indeed, i t i s probable t h a t  no d i s c u s s i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s takes p l a c e today without some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the i n t e r e s t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l concerned.  Thus, i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g i n t e r e s t s  are o f some p r a c t i c a l importance i n c u r r e n t personnel and p s y c h o l o g i c a l work.  Introduction D e f i n i t i o n of i n t e r e s t . Gates (2:452) d e f i n e s i n t e r e s t i n terms o f adjustment. His d e f i n i t i o n describes  an i n t e r e s t as a symptom i n d i c a t i n g  the s t a t e o f adjustment o f the i n d i v i d u a l f o r the a c t i v i t y i n question.  More r e c e n t l y , Challman (3:624) has  t h a t i n t e r e s t s are based on combinations o f needs,  stated that  i n t e r e s t i s d i s p l a y e d i n a c t i v i t i e s which s a t i s f y an i n d i v i d u a l ' s needs.  T h i s p o s i t i o n i s v e r y c l o s e to t h a t o f Gates.  2  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s . The fundamental  d e f i n i t i o n o f an i n t e r e s t g i v e n above  r e f e r s to a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y .  I n other words a person has  as many i n t e r e s t s as there are a c t i v i t i e s i n which he  has  participated.  thought  T h i s f o l l o w s n a t u r a l l y enough from the  o f I n t e r e s t as a symptom of adjustment ever, s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s may  to an a c t i v i t y .  How-  be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o g e n e r a l areas  or c o n s t e l l a t i o n s , to serve some u s e f u l purpose.  These  c a t e g o r i e s are not e n t i t i e s but merely groups of s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s arranged i n a p a r t i c u l a r way  to g a i n an o b j e c t i v e .  For example, i n t e r e s t s i n a c t i v i t i e s o f a m a n i p u l a t i v e chara c t e r or h a v i n g to do w i t h t o o l s , c o n s t r u c t i o n or mechanical d e v i c e s may  be d e s c r i b e d as mechanical  interests.  Value o f a knowledge o f i n t e r e s t s . A knowledge of i n t e r e s t s , then, i s v a l u a b l e i n v o c a t i o n a l counselling.  The r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h of these v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t  areas i n an i n d i v i d u a l should i n d i c a t e c l a s s e s of a c t i v i t i e s which t h i s person has found to s a t i s f y h i s fundamental  needs*  A knowledge of the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h of v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t areas can then be used as an important a i d i n i n d i c a t i n g satisfying activities,  s i n c e i t i s reasonable to assume t h a t  a c t i v i t i e s which have brought s a t i s f a c t i o n to the i n d i v i d u a l i n the p a s t w i l l continue t o d o so i n the f u t u r e , even though these a c t i v i t i e s may i n nature.  become v o c a t i o n a l i n s t e a d of a v o c a t i o n a l  Thus an estimate of the degree  o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  i n t e r e s t i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i s an e s s e n t i a l process i n much c l i n i c a l and p e r s o n n e l work.  Methods i n the e v a l u a t i o n of i n t e r e s t  areas.  P o s s i b l e methods f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of i n t e r e s t appear to be q u i t e v a r i e d .  areas  Remmers and Gage (7:407) i t e m i z e  the f o l l o w i n g : a) i n d i v i d u a l i n t r o s p e e t i o n r e g a r d i n g p l e a s a n t unpleasant  activities  b) o b s e r v a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l by another who  and  person  e v a l u a t e s signer, of p l e a s u r e and d i s p l e a s u r e  i n r e g a r d to a c t i v i t i e s performed c) o b s e r v a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n experimental  sit-  u a t i o n s designed f o r the purpose d) paper and p e n c i l t e s t i n g d e v i c e s o f two main types 1- those based on d i r e c t comparisons or expressions of p r e f e r e n c e by the  individual  2- those t h a t assume a r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r e s t and a measure o f i n f o r m a t i o n or . a b i l i t y i n r e g a r d to a g i v e n f i e l d  or t o p i c .  By f a r the most p r a c t i c a l method i n the school or clinical  s i t u a t i o n would seem to be the paper and  pencil  t e s t i n g device of the f i r s t type mentioned. The most u s e f u l of these instruments," S t r o n g s V o c a t i o n a l 1  I n t e r e s t Blank" or the"Euder P r e f e r e n c e Record" f o r example, ask the s u b j e c t to i n d i c a t e p r e f e r e n c e s or l i k e s and for  a wide v a r i e t y o f s p e c i f i c  activities.  dislikes  4  The  responses are then summed and a numerical  score i n d i c a t e s  the r e l a t i v e or a b s o l u t e s t r e n g t h of i n t e r e s t s i n v a r i o u s areas.  These t e s t s a l l have i n common the r e f e r e n c e to l a r g e  numbers o f s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s .  Response to a d e s c r i b e d a c t i v i t y . As the t e s t s of i n t e r e s t  areas r e q u i r e responses to  d e s c r i p t i o n s of a l a r g e number o f s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s as s t i m u l i , the b a s i s o f t h i s response must be  considered.  There are three d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . F i r s t , the s u b j e c t may  be f a m i l i a r w i t h a l l aspects  of the a c t i v i t y d e s c r i b e d . Second, the s u b j e c t may  be f a m i l i a r  only with  isolated  aspects o f the a c t i v i t y . T h i r d , the s u b j e c t may  be t o t a l l y u n f a m i l i a r w i t h  a c t i v i t y ^ or even have f a l s e impressions indirect  the  through  contacts.  Thus, i f the i n f o r m a t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n e r r o r (7:409) i n the response i s to be minimized, then the a c t i v i t y must be w i t h i n the experience Strong matter*  presented  o f the s u b j e c t .  (8:288) has the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n on  From evidence  this  advanced he s t a t e s t h a t f a m i l i a r i t y  w i t h an a c t i v i t y i s necessary  for liking i t .  to say:**If f a m i l i a r i t y i s necessary  He goes on  f o r l i k i n g , the hypo-  t h e s i s must be advanced t h a t when one i s u n f a m i l i a r w i t h a situation  one w i l l respond by i n d i f f e r e n c e or d i s l i k e but  not by l i k i n g .  5  Only a f t e r the s i t u a t i o n i s understood possible to l i k e i t . need be completely  or a p p r e c i a t e d i s i t  T h i s does n o t mean t h a t the s i t u a t i o n  a p p r e c i a t e d i n order f o r t h e r e t o be  l i k i n g but merely t h a t some p a r t o f the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n has been encountered.  Liking  under the l a t t e r c o n d i t i o n may  change t o d i s l i k i n g when other p a r t s o f the s i t u a t i o n a r e appreciated."  Thus the importance o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the  a c t i v i t y i s emphasized.  C o n c l u s i o n s i n r e g a r d t o the use o f s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . A t t h i s p o i n t two c o n c l u s i o n s would seem j u s t i f i e d . F i r s t , s i n c e an i n t e r e s t  area i s c o n s i d e r e d not to be an  e n t i t y , but a composite made up o f a g r e a t many  interests  c l a s s i f i e d i n one area, then the v a l i d i t y o f a score f o r an a r e a would be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y a f u n c t i o n o f the numb e r o f s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d , compared t o the t o t a l number p o s s i b l e f o r the a r e a . an i n t e r e s t  Secondly,  the degree t o which  t e s t would g i v e a t r u e p i c t u r e f o r an i n d i v i d u a l  would be d i r e c t l y dependent on the degree o f f a m i l i a r i t y o f the s u b j e c t w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s presented as s t i m u l i . aspect would be p a r t i c u l a r l y important of l i m i t e d  experience,  This  i n the case o f persons  such as h i g h s c h o o l  students.  Thus the v a l i d i t y o f a s c o r e f o r an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l he dependent on the extent to which the t e s t adequately  samples  the p o s s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s i n a g i v e n a r e a and a t the same time r e f l e c t s the i n d i v i d u a l s  own e x p e r i e n c e s .  The p r o b a b i l i t y  of b o t h these c o n d i t i o n s b e i n g even reasonably met by the use o f s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s as s t i m u l i i n an i n t e r e s t t e s t would seem t o be low.  Related Studies A search o f the E d u c a t i o n Index r e v e a l e d one p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n which might be c o n s i d e r e d to have a b e a r i n g on t h i s t o p i c . ation  Crosby and Winsor (1) r e p o r t an i n v e s t i g -  e n t i t l e d "The V a l i d i t y o f Students?  Interests." investigate  I t i s further  Estimates o f T h e i r  d e s c r i b e d as an attempt "To  t h e extent t o which c o l l e g e  students can draw,  t h e i r own i n t e r e s t p r o f i l e s and to determine  the c o r r e l a t i o n  "between t h e i r estimates o f the degree or i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and t h a t r e v e a l e d by an i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r y . " i n v e n t o r y used was the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record.  The  The authors  conclude t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p between measured and estimated i n t e r e s t s does e x i s t under the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r  experiment,  ( r r .54) T h i s would indicate, a degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p h a r d l y s u f f i c i e n t f o r c o u n s e l l i n g purposes.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to  note, however, t h a t s u b j e c t i v e judgement o f i n t e r e s t s , even when u n a s s i s t e d i n any way, does correspond t o a l i m i t e d degree w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f a s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r y *  7  Wilson- 1  has conducted an u n p u b l i s h e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n on  the p r e f e r e n c e s expressed f o r i n t e r e s t areas by the p a i r e d comparison method.  With l e n g t h y  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the i n t e r e s t  areas i n terms o f t y p i c a l a c t i v i t i e s his  subjects  of paired  Por  f o r reference,  he had  express t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r each a r e a by means  comparisons,  example? Mechanical I n t e r e s t : t h i s i n c l u d e s your l i k i n g to r e p a i r c l o c k s , machines, and s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . Hobbies t h a t i n v o l v e the use o f hands and f i n g e r s i n a s k i l l e d way t o make or r e p a i r o b j e c t s .  You w i l l  also  have a l i k i n g f o r , e t c * , e t c . , ..........  (Instruction) With these paragraphs before you, and r e f e r r i n g t o them as f r e q u e n t l y as you l i k e , u n d e r l i n e  the in^-  t e r e s t you p r e f e r i n each o f the f o l l o w i n g p a i r s :  Mechanical — Persuasive  literary artistic e t c . , e t c . , ......  He s t a t e s the r e s u l t as f o l l o w s , that the "patterns" the o r i g i n a l Kuder: got  " I n general  we found  tended to conform t o those obtained by i n several instances  of variance  t h e impression from v o c a t i o n a l and h i s t o r i c a l  we  criteria  t h a t the paired-comparison method was c l o s e r to a c t u a l i t y . " 1  Douglas J . Wilson, M o n t r e a l , Quebec, Canada.  )  8  In t h i s study we  f i n d s u b j e c t i v e judgements o f the degree  of i n t e r e s t ( a s s i s t e d by ready r e f e r e n c e to the d e f i n i t i o n s ) combined w i t h a h i g h degree o f d i r e c t i o n i n making the parispns  (the use  com-  o f the paired-comparison form) a p p a r e n t l y  t e n d i n g to r e s u l t i n some c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of  conformity  to the Kuder i n t e r e s t p a t t e r n s . I n the f i r s t o f these r e p o r t s s u b j e c t i v e judgement of the degree o f i n t e r e s t i n each area i s u n a s s i s t e d *  In the  second, s u b j e c t i v e judgement o f the degree of i n t e r e s t i s a s s i s t e d by d e s c r i b i n g each i n t e r e s t area i n terms of t y p i c a l activities*  I t would seem l o g i c a l t h a t the next step would  be to a s s i s t the s u b j e c t i v e judgement of the s u b j e c t even f u r t h e r by d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n to a number o f c l a s s e s o f a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n , or r e l a t e d t o , each i n t e r e s t a r e a ,  and  to combine t h i s w i t h adequate d i r e c t i o n i n making the  choices  by the use  of the p a i r e d comparison method or some v a r i e t y  of i t .  - 0 -  9  CHAPTER I I THE PROBLEM Frame o f r e f e r e n c e . The purpose o f the preceeding  d i s c u s s i o n was to estab-  l i s h the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s . a) The v a l i d i t y o f an i n t e r e s t t e s t f o r c o u n s e l l i n g w i l l depend i n some degree on the extent t o which the a c t i v i t i e s used as s t i m u l i f o r a g i v e n  area  r e p r e s e n t a l l the p o s s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h a t area* b) The v a l i d i t y o f the t e s t w i l l a l s o depend on the degree t o which the a c t i v i t i e s used as s t i m u l i l i e w i t h i n the experience c) The s u b j e c t i v e judgement  o f the s u b j e c t .  o f an i n d i v i d u a l on h i s  degree o f i n t e r e s t i n a g i v e n a r e a does seem to correspond  to some extent t o the r e s u l t o f a  standardized i n t e r e s t  inventory.  d) The degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p does seem to  mentioned i n " c " above  be i n f l u e n c e d by the extent o f the  a s s i s t a n c e a f f o r d e d i n making the comparisons. e) The r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f the judgement  o f the i n d i v i d u a l  to the r e s u l t o f a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t appears t o i n c r e a s e as the a t t e n t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l i s directed  from the g e n e r a l area to the d e f i n i t i o n  o f the area i n terms o f t y p i c a l a c t i v i t i e s .  10  The new type o f item. I t was f e l t t h a t the next step i n t h e form o f the s t i m u l u s was t o d i r e c t the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t t o a number o f subareas w i t h i n or r e l a t e d t o each i n t e r e s t f o r which a score was d e s i r e d .  area  F o r example, c o n s i d e r t h e  i n t e r e s t a r e a i n c l u d e d i n the l a b e l "Mechanical".  This  a r e a c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o such groups o f a c t i v i t i e s a s : a) operate a machine b) use a mechanical  device  c) b u i l d something d) make t h i n g s e) p u t together or assemble something f ) mend or r e p a i r t h i n g s g) take t h i n g s a p a r t h) work w i t h  tools.  Items such as those i l l u s t r a t e d above might be c o n s i d e r e d to meet the c o n d i t i o n s s e t up p r e v i o u s l y as f o l l o w s : They p r o v i d e a sampling  o f a c t i v i t i e s i n each a r e a .  I n d e f i n i n g h i s f e e l i n g f o r such a stimulus t h e s u b j e c t would be l i k e l y t o sum h i s f e e l i n g s f o r a l l the a c t i v i t i e s f a l l i n g w i t h i n the category o f f e r e d o f which he was aware. Stimulus a c t i v i t i e s a r e w i t h i n the s u b j e c t ' s e x p e r i e n c e . As f e e l i n g s aroused by such a stimulus would be a t t a c h e d to some s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y i t I s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t these f e e l i n g s w i l l be a t t a c h e d t o such a c t u a l experiences as the s u b j e c t construes as f a l l i n g w i t h i n the description offered.  11  T h i s type o f i n t e r e s t t e s t item w i l l he r e f e r r e d t o as "less structured".  D e f i n i t i o n o f the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d i t e m . A l e s s s t r u c t u r e d item i s deemed t o he one i n which the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a c t i v i t y i s couched i n v e r y broad  terms.  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n must d e f i n e o n l y the type or c l a s s o f a c t i v i t y toward which i t i s d e s i r e d t o d i r e c t the s u b j e c t ' s attention. I n s t a t i n g h i s l i k e s and d i s l i k e s i n r e g a r d t o such an item, or h i s p r e f e r e n c e between two such items, the s u b j e c t w i l l probably sum the f e e l i n g s he has f o r such exp e r i e n c e s as f a l l w i t h i n t h e s t i m u l u s terms*  Alterna-  t i v e l y , he may base h i s d e c i s i o n on the most v i v i d and/or r e c e n t experience, r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g i n t h a t category. I n e i t h e r case the d e c i s i o n i s l i k e l y to be based  on a c t u a l  experience An example (5:2) o f the u s u a l s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s t o be compared i s g i v e n below. a) Make l i n o l e u m b l o c k p l a t e s . b) Teach game3 to c h i l d r e n * I n the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d form these items might appear a s : A) Make p i c t u r e s . B) Show people how t o do something p l e a s a n t *  12  The problem i n g e n e r a l terms. I f the a c t i v i t y s t i m u l i , or items, i n an i n t e r e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e were so coneeived t h a t they f o r c e d the subj e c t to search h i s experience f o r a c t i v i t i e s  actually  experienced, i n order to d e f i n e h i s l i k e s and  dislikes,  and y e t a t the same time focused the a t t e n t i o n of the subj e c t on a p a r t i c u l a r group of a c t i v i t i e s , as determined  by  the t e s t maker, then would the r e s u l t i n g scores f o r t h i s t e s t y i e l d more r e l i a b l e and more v a l i d data f o r c o u n s e l l i n g than the scores of a t e s t composed of d e t a i l e d or h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s as t e s t  items?  S p e c i f i c problems. The how  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to  determine  the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d item w i l l f u n c t i o n under c e r t a i n  circumstances i n an i n t e r e s t t e s t , i n comparison w i t h the u s u a l type of item.  A more d e t a i l e d statement  i s given  below. The  o b j e c t i s t o compare, under as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e  i d e n t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , a t e s t composed of s p e c i f i c or h i g h l y structured stimuli  (the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record) w i t h a  matched or e q u i v a l e n t t e s t composed of l e s s s t r u c t u r e d s t i m u l i , i n order t o o b t a i n answers to the f o l l o w i n g questions. a) W i l l the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items f o r each a r e a cons i d e r e d be, i n g e n e r a l , s i g n i f i c a n t l y as r e l i a b l e as the s p e c i f i c items f o r the corresponding  areas?  13  b) W i l l the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items f o r each area show a s i g n i f i c a n t degree o f c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the scores earned on a standardized i n t e r e s t  inventory?  (Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record)  c) W i l l the u n s t r u c t u r e d items show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r degree o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o r agreement w i t h the t o t a l s obtained f o r each a r e a than the c o n s i s t e n c y o f the h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d items w i t h the t o t a l s o f the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record?  - G -  14  CHAPTER I I I EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN  Method and M a t e r i a l s Experimental  method.  In t h i s experiment i t was  d e s i r e d to evaluate an  ex-  p e r i m e n t a l f a c t o r , the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d item, a g a i n s t an o u t s i d e c r i t e r i o n , the s t r u c t u r e d or s p e c i f i c item. t h i s reason the One appropriate,  Group Method was  For  chosen as being most  A t e s t composed of l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items  and  a t e s t composed of s p e c i f i c items, the Euder P r e f e r e n c e Record, w i t h the items matched item f o r item, was to the same group of s u b j e c t s and the r e s u l t s  administered  evaluated.  Chqice of c r i t e r i o n . The b a s i s o f comparison used was Record.  T h i s i n t e r e s t t e s t was  the Euder Preference  chosen because i t i s a good  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f i n v e n t o r i e s employing the h i g h l y s p e c i f i c i t e m and a s s i s t a n t s are f a m i l i a r w i t h i t s use.  Also  by g i v i n g a s u c c e s s i o n o f p a i r e d comparisons i t p r o v i d e s a h i g h degree of d i r e c t i o n to the s u b j e c t s , when i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r preferences. obvious c h o i c e .  F o r these reasons i t appeared to be  the  15  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t . An. i n t e r e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e composed o f l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items was c o n s t r u c t e d *  T h i s i n v e n t o r y p a r a l l e l e d the Kuder  P r e f e r e n c e Record i n the f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s . 1) The items were grouped i n t r i a d s , w i t h the s u b j e c t required to indicate  t h e g r e a t e s t and the l e a s t  preference. 2) The number o f comparisons made between the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t f i e l d s was^ i n the same p r o p o r t i o n as the s c o r e s r e q u i r e d t o r e a c h the one-hundredth p e r c e n t i l e f o r boys o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n .  These  scores were taken d i r e c t l y from the Kuder p r o f i l e sheet. 3) As f a r as was p r a c t i c a l , the items used were those a c t u a l l y o c c u r r i n g i n the sampling  o f comparisons  made from the Kuder i n what was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e i r l e s s s t r u c t u r e d form. 4) I n g e n e r a l , the i n s t r u c t i o n s  conformed t o those o f  the Kuder. The  c o n s t r u c t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i f f e r e d from the Kuder  P r e f e r e n c e Record i n r e g a r d t o : 1) The number o f items,  See; number two above.  2) The manner o f i n d i c a t i n g c h o i c e s .  T h i s was by pen-  c i l l e d "X" i n an a p p r o p r i a t e space. 3) The g e n e r a l appearance and arrangement. 4) The method o f s c o r i n g . the  T h i s was by i n s p e c t i o n o f  responses*  A copy o f the. t e s t i s contained i n appendix A.  16  Description of subjects. The  e n t i r e grade t e n enrollment of West Vancouver High  S c h o o l , H o l l y b u r n , B.C.  was  t o t a l number o f students was  used as the s u b j e c t group.  The  n i n e t y - f i v e of which t h i r t e e n  were unable to complete the experimental program f o r the following  reasons.  Absent f o r one or more t e s t s .  - - - - - - - - 7  Had p r e v i o u s l y taken the Euder, - - - - - S u f f e r e d from a language d i f f i c u l t y , Uncooperative The age range was  or other reason,  - - - -1  -->----  -3  from f o u r t e e n t o e i g h t e e n years w i t h the.  median age b e i n g s i x t e e n years t e n months. o f the group ranged I.Q,  -2  The  intelligence  from e i g h t y - f i v e to one hundred t h i r t y  p o i n t s i n an approximately normal manner.  These t e s t  s c o r e s were o b t a i n e d from O t i s t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h i n the l a s t two y e a r s .  A t e s t o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y had been a d m i n i s t e r -  ed t o t h i s grade e a r l i e r i n the s c h o o l year and no reading d i s a b i l i t y s e r i o u s enough to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the t e s t s  was  detected.  Experimental The  factors.  f o l l o w i n g experimental f a c t o r s were c o n s i d e r e d as  indicated.  17  1) M a t e r i a l s f o r the experiment as s u i t a b l e f o r use a t the proposed l e v e l . By usage, and "by the o p i n i o n o f i t s author (6:3) the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record i s c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e f o r use i n High Schools f o r guidance purposes.  The i n v e n -  t o r y o f l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items was c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h as l i t t l e language or concept  d i f f i c u l t y as was p r a c t i c a l .  £) The p l a c e and time o f the experiment. As the s u b j e c t s chosen normally complete the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record i n group guidance p e r i o d s as p a r t o f the guidance program, the u s u a l l o c a t i o n and time o f these p e r i o d s was c o n s i d e r e d  suitable.  3) B i a s o f the experimenter o r a s s i s t a n t s . As the success  of the experiment depended on both  inven-  t o r i e s being completed as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e , and as the r e s u l t s were unknown u n t i l both t e s t s were completed, t h i s f a c t o r c o u l d not a f f e c t the r e s u l t a p p r e c i a b l y , 4) Enthusiasm or u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f a s s i s t a n t s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t e s t s o f t h i s nature a r e a r o u t i n e p a r t o f the work o f the a s s i s t a n t s and n e i t h e r undue enthusiasm nor u n w i l l i n g n e s s was  experienced,  5), C a p a b i l i t y o f a s s i s t a n t s . A s s i s t a n t s were capable teachers f a m i l i a r w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s i n g e n e r a l and had g i v e n the Kuder b e f o r e .  18  6) B i a s o f the s u b j e c t s . The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f an i n t e r e s t t e s t i s a r e g u l a r  p a r t o f the guidance program f o r these s t u d e n t s .  They  were unaware o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d test*  Under these circumstances the "bias'* f a c t o r c o u l d  h a r d l y p l a y any a p p r e c i a b l e  part,  7) D i f f e r e n t or inadequate time allowances, The  t e s t s were untimed and generous allowances o f time  were  provided.  The  T e s t Program  Preparation, One week p r e v i o u s gram the f o u r teachers  t o the commencement o f the t e s t p r o concerned were g i v e n copies  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s t o study.  o f the  Subsequently, the  purpose and method t o be f o l l o w e d ware d i s c u s s e d w i t h them i n d i v i d u a l l y and the r o u t i n e reviewed step-by-step. administration i n s t r u c t i o n s are inoluded  These  i n Appendix B.  Administration. I n the f i r s t group guidance p e r i o d o f f i f t y minutes, the v a l u e s  and l i m i t a t i o n s o f i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r i e s were  taught by the u s u a l group guidance teacher, a prepared o u t l i n e *  a c c o r d i n g to  19  T h i s was  done so t h a t the expected r o u t i n e of the c l a s s might  he d i s t u r b e d as l i t t l e  as p o s s i b l e .  I n the second p e r i o d the m a t e r i a l o f the f i r s t was  re-  viewed b r i e f l y by the same t e a c h e r from the p l a n s u p p l i e d * f o l l o w i n g . i t h i s review, was  the i n v e n t o r y of l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items  a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a r o u t i n e manner.  imposed.  I t was  was  found t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y a l l students were  f i n i s h e d i n twenty minutes, hour.  Fo time l i m i t  one took as l p n g as h a l f an  There were no d i f f i c u l t i e s r e p o r t e d , e i t h e r i n r e g a r d  to the language o f t h e t e s t or i n r e c o r d i n g the  responses*  During the t h i r d p e r i o d the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record a d m i n i s t e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o i t s i n s t r u c t i o n s , but npt  was  scored.  I n the f o u r t h p e r i o d the i n v e n t o r y o f l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items was  r e a d m i n i s t e r e d so t h a t t e s t - r e t e s t  c o u l d be o b t a i n e d .  reliabilities  F o l l o w i n g t h i s the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e  Record p r o f i l e s were g i v e n out t o g e t h e r w i t h the answer pads and those t e s t s scored i n the u s u a l manner by the s t u d e n t s . The answer pads of the Kuder and both c o p i e s of the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t c o n s t i t u t e d the raw  data obtained from the  experiment.  Time  Schedule,  Class  1  2  4  3  l e s s Structured Test  lst#  11th  6th  * 11th  Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record  8 th  12th  11th  12th  15 t h  13th  15th  12th  l e s s Structured Test H # A l l dates r e f e r to June  18 boys 27 boys 21 g i r l s 22 1951,  girls  20  CHAPTER IV TREATMENT OF DATA  T a b u l a t i o n o f data. I n order t o f a c i l i t a t e the many c a l c u l a t i o n s , and the i t e m a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n the data were t a b u l a t e d i n two p a r t s . A) The t o t a l number o f p r e f e r e n c e s f o r each a r e a on the two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t as w e l l as the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record were entered a g a i n s t each s u b j e c t ' s name, by c l a s s e s . B) The p r e f e r e n c e s expressed  i n each t r i a d i n the l e s s  s t r u c t u r e d t e s t and the p r e f e r e n c e s i n the matching t r i a d s o f t h e Kuder were t a b u l a t e d f o r each i n d i v idual .  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f raw s c o r e s f o r the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t . Each p r e f e r e n c e expressed The  r e c e i v e d one score p o i n t .  t o t a l score i n an a r e a then r e p r e s e n t e d the number o f  times the s u b j e c t i n q u e s t i o n p r e f e r r e d t h a t a r e a over some other.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these t o t a l scores i s shown i n  Appendix C, by a r e a s . are a l s o shown.  The means and the standard d e v i a t i o n s  21  R e l i a b i l i t y , less structured I t was  t e s t "by  found i m p o s s i b l e f o r s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons  to g i v e the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d f o r each of the  r e t e s t a f t e r the  four classes  involved.  t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the first are  classes.  calculated  For  same i n t e r v a l this*'reason  l e s s structured  s e p a r a t e l y f o r each group.  g i v e n i n Table I and  the  t e s t were  These  results  r e p r e s e n t Pearson Product-Moment  correlation coefficients, calculated  from s c a t t e r  diagrams.  TABLE I TEST RETEST RELIABILITY OF LESS STRUCTURED TEST BY AND  PUPIL GROUPS  INTEREST A R E A S I N T E R V A L S BETWEEN TESTING AS  No. o f Choices 26 18 22 £6 24 18 10 52 22  17 Boys 11 Days  Area 1-Mechanical £-Computational 3-Scientific 4-Persuasive 5-Artistic 6-Literary 7-Musical 8 - S o c i a l Ser. 9-Clerical  i902 .831 .807 .918 .936 .860 .975 .774 .859  R e l i a b i l i t y , less structured An  inspection  21 G i r l s 4 Days  .820 .950 .857 .841 .932 .900 .855 .846 .817  .641 .849 .937 .867 ,947 .888 .929 .914 .882  .890 .910 .749 .867 .866 .852 .975 .774 .670  t e s t by  t e s t and  r e l a t i v e s i z e of the  particular Intervals  areas.  r e t e s t had  correlations  were concerned.  c a l c u l a t i o n s were repeated f o r the r e s u l t s as  19 G i r l s 7 Days  of Table I would seem to i n d i c a t e  time i n t e r v a l s between the ence on the  25 Boys 4 Days  SHOWN.  no  that  great  as f a r as  In view of t h i s  influthese  the  group as a whole w i t h  shown i n column A of T a b l e I I .  the  22  TABLE I I RELIABILITY  Area 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  - LESS STRUCTURES TEST VS KUDER PREFERENCE RECORD  Number o f Items L e s s S t r . Kuder 13 9 11 13 12 9  5  16 11  96 56 84 105 77 80 35 104 89  Less Structured Reliability B^ Ai .890 .911 .889 .869 .926 .904 .903 .862 .829  .984 .983 .984 .982 .988 .989 .985 .974 .962  ,  Kuder Reliability C»  .93 .90 .90 .82 .91 .91 .90 .87 .87  D4  .89 .83 .89 .80 *92 .91 .91 .93 .90  1 - The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y o f the experimental group as a whole. Average i n t e r v a l 6fe days. N - 82. 2 - The r e l i a b i l i t y o f the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t extended by the Spearman-Brown prophecy f o r m u l a t o the same number of items as the Kuder. 3 - Reported r e l i a b i l i t y (6:19) f o r the Kuder. E s t i m a t e d by the Kuder-Riehardson formula, 125 High School S e n i o r s , Male. 4 - Reported r e l i a b i l i t y (6:19) f o r the Kuder. 125 As f o r C i n other r e s p e c t s .  Female.  R e l i a b i l i t y , l e s s s t r u c t u r e d v s the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record. A t a b u l a t i o n a l l o w i n g t h i s comparison to be made i s s e t up i n Table I I . I t s h o u l d be notefl t h a t i n the t r i a d arrangement  o f items,  each i t e m i s used t o make two comparisons and hence the possi b l e score i n any a r e a i s double the number o f items. number o f items shown f o r the Kuder was  The  found by h a l v i n g the  p o s s i b l e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d from i t s answer pad.  23  As a matter of i n t e r e s t the experimental r e l i a b i l i t i e s were extended to cover the same number of items as the Kuder by a p p l y i n g the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula* shown; , i n column 1  These are  B..  Reported r e l i a b i l i t i e s  (6:19) f o r the Kuder are g i v e n i n  columns C and D o f the t a b l e , and are f o r the most group shown.  Two  p o i n t s might be kept i n mind.  comparable  The s u b j e c t s  t a k i n g the Kuder would be, on the average, about two years o l d e r than the s u b j e c t s t a k i n g the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t . A l s o the  Kuder-Richardson formula used to o b t a i n these' r e l i a b i l i t i e s  gives a s l i g h t underestimate of the t e s t - r e t e s t  reliability.  These two f a c t o r s might be expected to c a n c e l one another out, to some extent a t least.,  Validitys  l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t v s . the Kuder Preference Record.  The Pearson product-moment c o e f f i c i e n t s of  correlation  between the area t o t a l s f o r the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t and the t o t a l scores o f the Kuder were c a l c u l a t e d .  These v a l u e s are  given i n Table I I I .  TABLE I I I VALIDITY: THE LESS STRUCTURED TEST AGAINST THE KUDER PREFERENCE RECORD Area .  ..818  r N  1  _  2  3  ..6U.5  ,768  ^ ' .660  5 .670  6 ' .781  7 .81^  8 ,687  9 .631  81+  Note - For t h i s N an r o f .283  i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 1% l e v e l .  2%  Less s t r u c t u r e d t e s t - v a l i d i t y a g a i n s t i n t e r n a l  criterion.  As a t e s t o f t h i s p r o p e r t y the f o l l o w i n g proceedure  was  adopted., 1)  The t o t a l score i n each area f o r every student was con-  v e r t e d i n t o a percentage  of the p o s s i b l e score f o r t h a t a r e a .  e.g.. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o express a preference f o r area 26  times.  A s u b j e c t who expressed  1  a preference f o r t h i s area  h times, thus o b t a i n i n g a raw score o f  a c t u a l l y demonstrat-  ed t h i s preference i n 17% o f the c h o i c e s i n v o l v i n g area 1. was used t o i n d i c a t e the extent o f the s u b j e c t ' s preference f o r t h i s area.. 2)  The percentages  c a l c u l a t e d i n step 1 were then placed i n  rank o r d e r f o r each student * e..g... One student obtained the f o l l o w i n g percentages. Area  '%  1  2  3  U-  17  39  68  58  6  7  8  9-  10©: 56  80  14-7  *f  5  These were placed i n rank order as shown.  % Areai  100  80  68  58  56#  h7  39  17  h  5  7  3  ^  6  8  2-  1  9  # I n d i c a t e s no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e i n s t r e n g t h o f preference between areas h and F o r convenience,  6,  the t a b l e above w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as  the student's "Table o f P r e f e r e n c e s " *  17  25  3) The standard e r r o r o f an obtained  score was then  f o r areas h and 5? which were judged  the best r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  areas f o r t h i s purpose.  calculated  These standard e r r o r s were found t o  be 1.8*+ and I.36 r e s p e c t i v e l y from the formula  (TTk -  \/l~ i r  was a p p l i e d to f i n d the standard e r r o r o f a d i f f e r e n c e between scores f o r areas h and 5»  T h i s was found  t o be 2..29 score p o i n t s .  As  the mean number o f p r e f e r e n c e s i n these two areas was 25, 2.29 score p o i n t s approximates 9 percentage  points.  However,  the standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r areas h and 5 a r e s l i g h t l y i n . excess o f the mean f o r a l l nine areas and i n order t o put any advantage from t h i s approximation an 8% d i f f e r e n c e was judged  on the side o f the Kuder,  to constitute a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e  between two s c o r e s . h) The percentages  obtained i n step 2 were then reviewed, and  areas having a d i f f e r e n c e o f l e s s than e i g h t per cent were shown a s t i e d o r considered as having no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e i n strength of preference. 5) The 50 s u b j e c t s having the 25 h i g h e s t and the 25 lowest raw scores i n area 1 were chosen to t e s t the p r e f e r e n c e s i n v o l v i n g items o f area 1.. 6) Each preference expressed step 5 was as  by each s u b j e c t s e l e c t e d i n  checked a g a i n s t h i s o r her t a b l e o f preferences-  obtained from steps 2 and 3 and designated as c o n s i s t e n t  or i n c o n s i s t e n t .  26 F o r example:  the student whose t a b l e o f p r e f e r e n c e s  i l l u s t r a t e d i n s t e p £ was  chosen as one  was  of the £5 lowest i n  r e g a r d to area 1. The  f i r s t t r i a d of the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t r e q u i r e s  c h o i c e s to be made between areas 1 and 6, and 1 and 5.  This  subject, expressed p r e f e r e n c e s f o r areas 6 and 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y . As these two  areas are both h i g h e r on the t a b l e of p r e f e r -  ences f o r t h i s student than a r e a 1, t h i s item o f a r e a one i s judged to d i s t i n g u i s h c o r r e c t l y i n these two  situations.  A  p r e f e r e n c e f o r a r e a 1 i n e i t h e r case would c o n s t i t u t e an e r r o r on the p a r t of the item or an i n c o n s i s t e n c y on the p a r t of the student depending on the p o i n t of view. The s t e p s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s process are e x p l a i n e d i n more d e t a i l below. a) The  s u b j e c t s making the £5 h i g h e s t scores f o r a r e a 1 were .  s e l e c t e d and t h e i r names p l a c e d along one a x i s of a p i e c e o f squared  paper.  b) A l l the c h o i c e s i n v o l v i n g a r e a 1 were t a b u l a t e d i n order a l o n g the remaining  axis.  c) Each t a b l e of p r e f e r e n c e f o r these £5 s u b j e c t s was examined f o r t i e s i n v o l v i n g a r e a 1.  then  These t i e s were then  i n d i c a t e d a g a i n s t the t a b u l a t i o n o f choices f o r the i n d i v iduals  concerned.  27  d) A n o t a t i o n was made t o i n d i c a t e those c h o i c e s which were a g a i n s t the p r e v a i l i n g t r e n d . Por example: the s u b j e c t whose t a b l e o f p r e f e r e n c e s was c i t e d p r e v i o u s l y was s e l e c t e d as one o f the 25 lowest i n p r e f e r e n c e f o r a r e a 1.  When c h o i c e s i n v o l v i n g a r e a 1 were b e i n g con-  s i d e r e d f o r t h i s student, a r e a 1 should be l e s s p r e f e r a b l e i n a l l c h o i c e s except those comparing; a r e a 1 w i t h a r e a 9, when a r e a 1 should be p r e f e r r e d s i n c e i t i s h i g h e r on the table o f preferences.  Hence a n o t a t i o n was made a g a i n s t the  c h o i c e s i n v o l v i n g a r e a 1 w i t h a r e a 9 f o r t h i s student t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a r e a 1 i n t h i s case was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the t a b l e o f p r e f e r e n c e s . e) The p r e f e r e n c e s expressed by each o f these students i n c h o i c e s i n v o l v i n g a r e a 1 were now examined and designated as c o n s i s t e n t or i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r t a b l e o f p r e f e r e n c e s . f ) T h i s process was repeated w i t h t h e 25 students having the 25 h i g h e s t scores i n a r e a 1.  7) Prom t h i s t a b u l a t i o n a two-by-two d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r each c h o i c e i n v o l v i n g a r e a 1 was s e t up.  Each item i n t h i s a r e a  was judged c o n s i s t e n t or i n c o n s i s t e n t i n each choice f o r t h e 25 h i g h e s t and 25 lowest Subjects i n a r e a 1. P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s were then c a l c u l a t e d f o r each item from the standard formula.-  26  A sample c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n i s shown below. Two by two c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n f o r the c h o i c e "between the items f o r a r e a 1 and a r e a 5 i n t r i a d 23 - item f o r are a 1 on t r i a l Chose h i g h e r a r e a Chose lower a r e a on t a b l e of p r e f . on t a b l e of p r e f . Totals Highest 25  Lowest 25  ##  (Inconsistent) 6 (b)  (inconsistent) 5 (c)  Totals  # Two  (Consistent) 19 (a)#  24 (a / c)  t i e d scores not  (a  (Consistent) 18 (d)  25  i  b)  - 23 (c d)  i  24 (b / d)  48#  counted.  The l e t t e r s i n the v a r i o u s c e l l s correspond to those i n the formula f o r the s o l u t i o n o f P h i on page 27,  8) P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d i n the same way  f o r each  2 i t e m o f the remaining  e i g h t areas  , ana then averaged  to  g i v e an o v e r a l l i n d i c a t i o n o f e f f i c i e n c y f o r the items i n each a r e a .  These c o e f f i c i e n t s are g i v e n i n Table  IV,  2. P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each item o f the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t are l i s t e d i n Appendix  D,  29  TABLE IV INTERNAL CONSISTENCY: AVERAGE PHI COEFFICIENTS OF INDIVIDUAL TEST ITEMS IN EACH AREA - LESS STRUCTURED' AND KUDER TESTS, Average Phi Coefficient Less S t r u c t u r e d Items  Area 1-Mechanical 2-Computational 3-Scientific 4-Persuasive 5-Artistie 6-Literary 7-Musical 8-Social Service 9-Clerical  Phi  .730 .737 .735 .644 .720 ,779 .902 .703 .630  Average Coefficient Kuder Items .498 .451 .532 .444 .511 *544 .618 .524 .484  Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record - V a l i d i t y a g a i n s t i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . The i d e n t i c a l process d e s c r i b e d f o r the 2LB_SS s t r u c t u r e d t e s t i n t h i s r e g a r d was  c a r r i e d out f o r the Kuder, items which  matched those of the experimental The 1) The  test.  f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s should be  noted,  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t a b l e of p r e f e r e n c e s f o r each  s u b j e c t was  made from the t o t a l t e s t score i n each area,  as g i v i n g a more v a l i d t a b l e than i f the t o t a l o f the p r e f e r e n c e s from the c h o i c e s which matched those o f the expe r i m e n t a l t e s t had been used, 2) The  standard e r r o r o f the d i f f e r e n c e between two  s c o r e s determined  i n step 3 was  f o u r per c e n t .  the d i f f e r e n c e i n range o f percentages of p r e f e r e n c e s f o r the two  tests.  obtained  This r e f l e c t s  making up the t a b l e s  The  range i n the t a b l e s o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r the t e s t  l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items was  of  r o u g h l y double t h a t o f the Kuder  t e s t , b e i n g from under t e n perooent  f o r the lowest a r e a to  over n i n e t y per cent f o r the h i g h e s t i n twenty-two out of the e i g h t y - f o u r eases. The average P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each a r e a o f the Kuder t e s t are g i v e n i n T a b l e IV,  The P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each  o f the matching items o f the Kuder t e s t are l i s t e d i n Appendix B,  31  CHAPTER V INTERPRETATION OE RESULTS  The a n a l y s i s of data made i n the p r e c e d i n g chapter must now he c o n s i d e r e d i n order to? a r r i v e a t c o n c l u s i o n s i n r e g a r d to t h e s p e c i f i c problems formulated e a r l i e r .  Problem a W i l l the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items be s i g n i f i c a n t l y as r e l i a b l e as those o f the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record? Here t h e assumption  i s made that i f t h e l e s s s t r u c t u r e d  items as grouped by areas a r e as r e l i a b l e as the items o f the Kuder t e s t as grouped by a r e a s , then the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items i n g e n e r a l a r e as r e l i a b l e . The  experimental f i n d i n g s i n t h i s r e g a r d a r e shown i n  Table I I .  An examination  o f columns "A , "C" and "D' of ,?  t h i s table reveal that the r e l i a b i l i t i e s  ?  o f the; l e s s  s t r u c t u r e d t e s t equal o r exceed one or both of t h e r e p o r t e d reliabilities  f o r the Kuder t e s t i n s i x o f the n i n e areas*  I n t h e o t h e r t h r e e areas t h e maximum d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l i a b i l i t y a r e *01, .07 and .07. I t can be s a f e l y s a i d t h a t  diff-  erences o f t h i s s i z e a r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t when c o n s i d e r i n g reliabilities  o f t h e order shown.  One  f a c t o r tending to i n c r e a s e the s i z e o f the: r e l i a -  b i l i t i e s shown i n column "A" group of hoys and g i r l s , w h i l e column "G" column "D"  i s the f a c t t h a t i t i s a mixed  thus i n c r e a s i n g the v a r i a b i l i t y ,  reports r e l i a b i l i t i e s  reports g i r l s only.  and  However, an examination o f  Table I , showing the r e l i a b i l i t i e s r e l a t i o n s h i p of approximately  f o r boys o n l y  by groups, i n d i c a t e s a  the: same o r d e r .  Another f a c t o r to be c o n s i d e r e d i s t h a t the method of a r r i v i n g a t the v a l u e s shawm f o r the Kuder groups i s by use  o f the Kuder-Richardson formula.  T h i s formula  the  gives  s l i g h t underestimates o f t h e t e s t - r e t e s t f i g u r e s . However, a f a c t o r i n f a v o r o f the Kuder  reliabilities  i s the f a c t t h a t the s u b j e c t s used a r e h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s , while  the s u b j e c t s f o r the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t are two  from graduation*  That m a t u r i t y  i n the s i z e o f the r e l i a b i l i t i e s  years  does p l a y an a p p r e c i a b l e p a r t f o r the Kuder may  be  seen  from an i n s p e c t i o n o f the t a b l e o f r e p o r t e d r e l i a b i l i t i e s  in  the maker's! manual, (6:19) A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the evidence  g i v e n above l e a d s to the  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t under the c o n d i t i o n s o f the experiment and c a l c u l a t e d , the r e l i a b i l i t i e s same o r d e r .  F o r t h i s reason  t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n may reliability  of the two  as  t e s t s are o f the  other comparisons i n v o l v e d i n  be made w i t h c o n f i d e n c e , as f a r as  o f the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d item i s concerned.  the  33  T h i s a l s o demonstrates  t h a t under a p p r o p r i a t e circumstances  t h e . l e s s s t r u c t u r e d type o f item has such r e l i a b i l i t y i t may  be used as a p r a c t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g instrument.  In moving from c o n c l u s i o n s i n r e g a r d to the two to  that  tests  c o n c l u s i o n s i n r e g a r d to the'two types of items the com-  p a r i s o n i n the number of items i n each area o f the two must be c o n s i d e r e d . a r e a of the two of  tests  The r e s p e c t i v e number o f items i n each  t e s t s i s shown i n Table I I .  An  inspection  t h i s t a b l e w i l l r e v e a l t h a t the Euder t e s t c o n t a i n s r o u g h l y  seven times as many items i n each a r e a as the l e s s  structured  test.  relative  That t h i s f a c t has a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on the  reliabilities  i s undeniable.  Taking t h i s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,  i t must be admitted t h a t the items o f the l e s s  structured  t e s t are markedly s u p e r i o r as f a r as these p a r t i c u l a r cir-? cumstances are  concerned.  While no p r a c t i c a l t e s t o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the erences i n r e l i a b i l i t i e s the circumstances  diff-  o f t h i s o r d e r i s a v a i l a b l e to f i t  (4:209), the evidence a t hand would appear  to warrant the above g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .  Problem h W i l l the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items: show a s i g n i f i c a n t of  degree  c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the scores earned on a s t a n d a r d i z e d i n -  t e r e s t i n v e n t o r y (the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record)?  54  Table I I I p r o v i d e s data r e q u i r e d to answer t h i s  question.  T h i s t a b l e shows t h a t i n each area the magnitude of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s much g r e a t e r than t h a t r e q u i r e d to be s i g n i f i c a n t a t the one p e r cent l e v e l this: i t may  (4:324),  be s a f e l y s a i d that, the two  In view of  tests exhibit a very  s i g n i f i c a n t degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p , as f a r as t o t a l  scores  are concerned. The  i n f e r e n c e t h a t the two  types of item a l s o show a  h i g h degree of c o r r e l a t i o n can h a r d l y be avoided. e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t under the circumstances  The  gen-  o f the experiment,  the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items show a h i g h degree of agreement with, the r e s u l t o f a s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r y t h e r e f o r e be made w i t h a reasonable  degree o f  may  assurance.  Problem c W i l l the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items show a  significantly  g r e a t e r degree o f c o n s i s t e n c y or agreement, w i t h the obtained  totals  f o r each area than the c o n s i s t e n c y of the matched  Kuder items w i t h the area t o t a l s o f the Kuder t e s t ? A t e s t of i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y or c o n s i s t e n c y s u i t i n g c h a r a c t e r o f the t e s t s used was devise. The  found most d i f f i c u l t  E v e n t u a l l y the f o l l o w i n g concept was  of p e r f e c t r e l i a b i l i t y  to  evaived.  i d e a l s u b j e c t o f u n l i m i t e d experience  a t e s t instrument  the  i n taking  covering  every  a c t i v i t y i n c l u d e d i n each a r e a t e s t e d would respond i n the f o l l o w i n g manner.  Each p r e f e r e n c e  expressed  would t r u l y  r e f l e c t the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of h i s i n t e r e s t s i n the represented  by the  item.  areas  35  T h i s concept  i s not c o n s i d e r e d t o be c o n t r a r y t o the  theory o f s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s o u t l i n e d i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter.  I t i s thought  o f as the n a t u r a l c o r o l l a r y o f the  i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d t h a t a b s t r a c t i o n s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f a h i g h order would occur as they are c o n s i d e r e d t o do i n r e g a r d t o the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s p e r t a i n i n g t o other but s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l  (2:361)  (3:430).  The P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained as d e s c r i b e d i n the t r e a t ment o f data are c o n s i d e r e d to i n d i c a t e the extent t o which each type of, i t e m f u l f i l l s t h i s concept  f o r each a r e a .  The average v a l u e s o f P h i f o r the items o f each a r e a are shown i n T a b l e IV f o r both t e s t s .  I n making t h i s com-  p a r i s o n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be g i v e n t o the f a c t that, the Kuder t e s t has an advantage i n t h a t the a r e a p r e f e r e n c e s ( t a b l e s o f p r e f e r e n c e s ) f o r t h i s t e s t a r e computed from the t e s t t o t a l s , r a t h e r than from the t o t a l s o f t h e matched alone.  items  They are based on approximately, seven times as many  c h o i c e s as the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d a r e a p r e f e r e n c e s and hence s h o u l d be more v a l i d f o r the purpose used.  T h i s , s i n c e the  g r e a t e r number o f items permits i n c r e a s e d r e l i a b i l i t y and as the g r e a t e r number o f c h o i c e s thus brought about should r e f l e c t g r e a t e r accuracy i n r e g a r d t o r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f the p r e f e r e n c e s i n t o the a r e a t o t a l s . A t e s t o f the. s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the corresponding average P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each a r e a of  the two t e s t s was performed.  36  T h i s procedure was 1) The d i f f e r e n c e  as f o l l o w s .  "between the average P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r  corresponding areas on both t e s t s was 2) I n d i v i d u a l  determined.  P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s which were c l o s e s t  to the  a r e a average and which gave e s s e n t i a l l y the same or a smaller difference selected  than t h a t obtained I n step 1 were  i n each area f o r both  tests.  Por example: from Table IV i t may difference  between the two average P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r  a r e a 1 i s .232.  I n a r e a one o f the l e s s  t e s t the P h i c o e f f i c i e n t c l o s e s t the  be seen t h a t the  structured  t o .730 i s t h a t f o r  c h o i c e between the items f o r areas 1 and 5 i n t r i a d  number 4, namely  .728.  I n a r e a 1 o f the Kuder the P h i c l o s e s t  to .498 i s  t h a t f o r the c h o i c e between areas 1 and 5 i n the t r i a d 1 column 6 npq. , namely *SL2. The d i f f e r e n c e  between these two P h i  coefficients  i s .216 and f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes i s taken to r e p r e s e n t the d i f f e r e n c e  between the two average P h i coe-  f f i c i e n t s found i n step 1. I t i s here assumed t h a t i f the d i f f e r e n c e p these two t y p i c a l  between  P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s proves to be  n i f i c a n t , then the d i f f e r e n c e  sig-  between the average P h i  c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h i s a r e a w i l l a l s o be  significant.  1 - Kuder t r i a d s w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r column number and l e t t e r s g i v e n i n the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record, 2 — P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s s e l e c t e d i n step 2 above w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as " t y p i c a l " .  3) The standard e r r o r s selected  o f the t y p i c a l P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s  i n step 2 were c a l c u l a t e d  from t h e formula  b  t  d  where ^ i s the P h i c o e f f i c i e n t and a,b,c,d r e f e r t o the c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s i n the two-by-two c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n which the P h i c o e f f i c i e n t was 4) The standard e r r o r  from  calculated*  o f the d i f f e r e n c e  between the two  " t y p i c a l P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each a r e a was obtained from the b a s i c formula  5) The " t " r a t i o f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n g the formula  The  ^  was then found by apply<j> — (  (|>^  " f r a t i o s obtained i n t h i s way a r e shown i n Tahle V.  TABLE V DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AVERAGE PHI COEFFICIENTS OF CORRESPONDING . AREAS, DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TYPICAL PHI COEFFICIENTS OF  Area. 1-Mechanical E-Computational 3-Bcientific 4-Persuasive 5-Artistic 6-Literary 7-Musical 8-Soc. S e r v i c e 9-Clerical  Difference Average P h i Coefficients .232 .286 ,203 .200 .209 .235 *284 *179 .146  -Difference Typical Phi Coefficients  " t " Ratio  .216 .279 .205 .203 .206 .234 .274 .180 *125  35.5 52.6 28.8 24.1 35.1 40.3 49.4 27.1 15.1  38  F o r 80 degrees  o f freedom a " t " r a t i o o f 2,638 (4:324)  i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the one p e r cent l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . From a n ' i n s p e c t i o n o f the " t " r a t i o s g i v e n i n Table V i t w i l l he seen t h a t t h e t y p i c a l P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the l e s s  struc-  t u r e d areas are v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the c o r r e s ponding v a l u e s f o r the Kuder, The assumption  t h a t the average P h i v a l u e s are a l s o  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r corresponding areas o f the two t e s t s i s not hard to make, i n the l i g h t paragraph.  o f the p r e c e d i n g  Thus i t may he concluded t h a t the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d  i t e m permits a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r degree o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y than does the s p e c i f i c item, a c c o r d i n g to the experimental evidence g i v e n , A s u b s i d i a r y aspect o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r branch investigation  o f the  i s given here.  Range i n the degree o f i n t e r e s t expressed i n the Tables o f Preference, I f one accepts the concept o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y used f o r these two t e s t s there i s an obvious c o r o l l a r y .  That i s  t h a t the a r e a o f g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t should be p r e f e r r e d over all  others and hence o b t a i n a r a t i n g approximating one-  hundred p e r cent, and t h a t the a r e a o f weakest i n t e r e s t s h o u l d be l e s s p r e f e r a b l e than any other and r e c e i v e a r a t i n g approximating  zero p e r c e n t .  39  T h i s can he checked by an I n s p e c t i o n of the range o f percentages  from the t a b l e s of p r e f e r e n c e (these ranges  given i n Table V I ) ,  are  These t a b l e s o f p r e f e r e n c e were made  up i n e x a c t l y the same way  f o r both t e s t s *  b e r of p r e f e r e n c e s i n each a r e a was  The a c t u a l num-  expressed as a percen-  tage of the p o s s i b l e number o f p r e f e r e n c e s and these  arranged  i n rank order f o r each i n d i v i d u a l . T a b l e VI gives, a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these ranges, f o r boys and f o r g i r l s .  The f i g u r e t a b u l a t e d i s the d i f f e r e n c e  tween the h i g h e s t and the lowest percentage  be-  i n each, t a b l e of  preference. The mean d i f f e r e n c e f o r the t e s t o f l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items i s approximately e i g h t y per cent, w h i l e the mean d i f f erence f o r the Kuder i s approximately t h i r t y - f i v e per cent* A v a r i a t i o n of t h i s magnitude can o n l y be a s c r i b e d to the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d item as a major  factor*  An important p o i n t should be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e .  I t was  noted e a r l i e r t h a t there were r o u g h l y seven times as many c h o i c e s i n the Kuder as t h e r e were i n the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d test.  Thus a v a r i a t i o n o f one c h o i c e i n the l a t t e r  would produce a much l a r g e r change (roughly seven i n the percentage  times)  s t r e n g t h expressed f o r the a r e a o f g r e a t -  est or l e a s t p r e f e r e n c e n f o r the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t f o r the Kuder.  test  than  That the v a r i a t i o n i n d i c a t e d i n Table VI  should occur i n s p i t e of t h i s f a c t makes the d i f f e r e n c e between the two  t e s t s , and hence between the two  item, even more pronounced.  types of  40  TABLE VI RANGE IN STRENGTH OF INTEREST: EUDER VS. EXPERIMENTAL TEST  Difference^ 99-100 97-98 95-96 93=14 91-92 89-90 87-88 85-86 85-84 81-82 79-80 77-78 75-76 73-74 71-72 69-70 67-68 65-66 63-64 61.-62 59-60 57-58 55-56 53-54 51-52 49-50 47-48 45-46 43-44 41-42 39-40 37-38 35-36 33-34 31-32 29-30 27-28 25-26 25-24 21-22 19-20 17-18 N Mean  Less S t r u c t u r e d Test Boys Girls 2 1 8 ,1 3 1 2 3 1 3 3 4 2 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 1  1  Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record Boys Girls  2 1 4 1 2 2 1 9 4 1 5 2 2 1 1 1 2 1  1  4 5 5 3 3 5 1 4 4 2 2 2  1  2 46 79.34  43 78.11  1 43 35.20  -  5 :;2 3 5 8 3 1 1 5 3 2 2 1 4£ 33.45  # The d i f f e r e n c e column r e p r e s e n t s the d i f f e r e n c e between the h i g h e s t per cent and the lowest per cent on the t a b l e of preferences  41  As sharpness  o f d e f i n i t i o n , or the power to d i s t i n g -  u i s h c l e a r l y between areas of h i g h and low i n t e r e s t , i s an important  aspect o f the u s e f u l n e s s of an i n t e r e s t t e s t ,  the  l e s s s t r u c t u r e d item would appear to have a v e r y g r e a t advantage i n t h i s r e g a r d . I t would seem to be an obvious i n f e r e n c e t h a t i f the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d item d i s t i n g u i s h e s more s h a r p l y between the areas o f g r e a t e s t and l e a s t i n t e r e s t than does the s p e c i f i c item, then i t w i l l a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h more s h a r p l y between any two  areas than does the s p e c i f i c item.  T h i s evidence may  be i n t e r p r e t e d a l s o as showing t h a t  the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d item p e r m i t s the s u b j e c t to be much more c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r areas than the s p e c i f i c or s t r u c t u r e d i t e m does. While t h i s evidence must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n i t would a t l e a s t seem s a f e to say t h a t the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d i t e m c e r t a i n l y supports the concept  of i n t e r n a l consistency  to a g r e a t e r degree than the Kuder or s p e c i f i c item.  General c o n c l u s i o n . I n g e n e r a l terms, i t i s s a f e to say t h a t as f a r as can be seen from the experiment there i s a f a i r degree o f p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the concept  o f the new  type of item  serve as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , a t l e a s t under c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r to those of the experiment. 0  0  may  42  CHAPTER VI NOTES AND  INCIDENTAL OBSERVATIONS  During the t a b u l a t i o n o f data and i n working i t through, some impressions were gained and o b s e r v a t i o n s not b e a r i n g on the main problems were made.  directly  As these may  be of  i n t e r e s t they are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f the r e p o r t .  M u l t i p l e s c o r i n g o f items on the Kuder t e s t , A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f Kuder t e s t items are s c o r e d for  more than one a r e a .  P r e f e r e n c e s f o r c e r t a i n items have  been found to c o r r e l a t e w i t h i n t e r e s t s i n more than one area and hence such a p r e f e r e n c e i s g i v e n a score p o i n t f o r each such a r e a .  The number o f such items i s i n d i c a t e d roughly In  t h a t there are i n a c t u a l f a c t 504  items on the Kuder t e s t  and t h a t these account f o r 723 score p o i n t s , t h i s i n s p i t e of  the f a c t t h a t some c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f them are not  scored at a l l . reliabilities  J u s t what i n f l u e n c e t h i s may  have o f the  of the Kuder and i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the t e s t  of u n s t r u c t u r e d items i s not c l e a r *  Experimental t e s t u n r e f i n e d by item a n a l y s i s . Any  e v a l u a t i o n o f the two  types of items must take  the e f f e c t of an item a n a l y s i s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Normally,  t h i s process can be expected to improve the r e l i a b i l i t y a t e s t to some c o n s i d e r a b l e degree.  of  43  There appears to ,be no reason t o suppose t h a t the t e s t o f l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items would n o t he improved i n the same way, w i t h consequent i n c r e a s e d r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items* I n a s i m i l a r manner the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o u l d be expected to improve.  Those i t e m s having low P h i c o e f f i c i e n t s ,  by rewording or replacement, c o u l d be expected t o i n c r e a s e m a t e r i a l l y i n c o n s i s t e n c y , thus improving  the showing o f the  l e s s s t r u c t u r e d item* How t h i s process would a f f e c t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t o t a l scores f o r the two t e s t s i s not c l e a r , and even t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s i n r e g a r d t o t h i s p o i n t were b e t t e r l e f t u n t i l f u r t h e r evidence  becomes a v a i l a b l e *  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g power o f c e r t a i n items  o f the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d  t e s t a f f e c t e d by the sex of the s u b j e c t s . C e r t a i n l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items d i d appear t o be p r e f e r r e d out o f t h e i r proper  order by one sex o r the other.  For ex-  ample,in t r i a d 21 o f the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e s t , the item f o r a r e a 6 was p r e f e r r e d i n error by f o u r o f s i x boys b u t only by two o f eleven g i r l s i n one c h o i c e .  I n the other  choice  i n the same t r i a d t h i s same item was p r e f e r r e d i n e r r o r by three o f e i g h t boys but not by any o f the g i r l s .  T h i s may,  of course,be due t o chance o r t o some f a u l t i n the wording o f the item.  44  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g power of c e r t a i n l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items a f f e c t e d "by the s t a t u s o f the s u b j e c t s . Another impression gained during the t a b u l a t i o n was that-some items seemed to d i s t i n g u i s h e q u a l l y w e l l f o r e i t h e r the h i g h e s t t w e n t y - f i v e or the lowest subjects.  twenty-five  Other items were e x c e l l e n t f o r one group and  poor f o r the o t h e r ,  l o r example one item d i s t i n g u i s h e d  p e r f e c t l y f o r a l l f i f t y , s u b j e c t s thus o b t a i n i n g a P h i coe f f i c i e n t o f 1.00, another  d i s t i n g u i s h e d p e r f e c t l y f o r the  h i g h e s t t w e n t y - f i v e but t e n e r r o r s or i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s were made i n the. low group.  Whether t h i s i s due t o the c u r s o r y  n a t u r e o f the o b s e r v a t i o n , or t o some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the item, or t o the sampling  e r r o r i n the t w e n t y - f i v e cases or  t o some other reason i s , o f course, unknown.  C e r t a i n s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e n t l y p r e f e r r e d an a r e a out o f i t s indicated  order.  F o r example: i n c o n s i d e r i n g a r e a 3, i n the case of a c e r t a i n s u b j e c t i t was noted t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s between a r e a 3 and areas 1, 2,  3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  the t a b l e o f p r e f e r e n c e s but t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s between a r e a 3 and a r e a 9 accounted sistencies.  f o r e x a c t l y h a l f o f the t o t a l i n c o n -  45  T h i s i s n o t l i k e l y to he due t o shortcomings i n the items themselves as t h i s t r e n d c u t across s e v e r a l  items.  I t might he the i n f l u e n c e o f some p a r t i c u l a r l y v i v i d i e n c e i n a r e a 9.  exper-  On the other hand i t c o u l d he due t o the  f a i l u r e t o g e n e r a l i z e i n r e g a r d to area 9, on the p a r t o f t h i s student.  I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case a r e a 9 was the median  i n s t r e n g t h o f i n t e r e s t . T h i s f a c t c o u l d have a h e a r i n g on the matter,  No p a r t i c u l a r t r e n d i n r e g a r d to the s t r e n g t h  o f t h e v a r i a n t i n t e r e s t was noted.  T h i s type o f e r r o r c o u l d  h a r d l y he a s c r i h e d t o an e r r o r i n the order o f preference as i t was more-or^-less c o r r e c t i n r e g a r d to the remaining areas.  Summary. The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n might he summed up as f o l l o w s .  A new type o f item f o r use i n i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r i e s was conc e i v e d to he one s t a t e d i n r e l a t i v e l y general  terms.  f e l t t h a t the use o f t h i s type o f item, coupled w i t h  I t was assis-  tance t o the s u b j e c t i n making the comparisons by the use o f the paired-comparison form might r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d i t y and c o u n s e l l i n g v a l i d i t y i n i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r i e s *  reliabil-  46  P a r a l l e l t e s t s composed o f matched items were  adminis-  t e r e d , under a s ' n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e i d e n t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , to the same group o f approximately  eighty high school students.  There appeared to be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the reliabilities  o f the two t e s t s .  Since t h e r e were approxim-  a t e l y seven times as many items i n the Kuder as there were i n the experimental warranted  t e s t i t was concluded  t h a t the evidence  giving credit f o r superior r e l i a b i l i t y  to the new  t y p e , o r l e s s s t r u c t u r e d , item. Very s i g n i f i c a n t c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n were obt a i n e d between the t o t a l s c o r e s f o r the corresponding of  the two t e s t s .  areas  T h i s appeared t o provide s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d -  ence t h a t the two types o f item were measuring  essentially  the same t h i n g , a t l e a s t i i i major r e s p e c t s . A t e s t o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y was d e v i s e d . of t h e experimental  t e s t and the matching items  were compared i o n t h i s b a s i s .  The items o f the Kuder  The l e s s s t r u c t u r e d items  appeared to be m a n i f e s t l y s u p e r i o r i n r e g a r d to t h i s p r o p e r t y . An e f f o r t was made to i n d i c a t e the extent, t o which each t e s t d i s t i n g u i s h e d c l e a r l y between the s u b j e c t s ' most p r e f e r r e d a r e a and l e a s t p r e f e r r e d a r e a . Here a l s o the e x p e r i mental t e s t and hence the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d item appeared t o demonstrate a d i s t i n c t  superiority.  i n the l a s t s e c t i o n o f the r e p o r t v a r i o u s i n c i d e n t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and impressions were r e p o r t e d as such.  I n c o n c l u s i o n i t seems s a f e t o say t h a t the new type i t e m shows c o n s i d e r a b l e promise f o r use i n i n t e r e s t  inven-  t o r i e s , and t h a t v e r i f i c a t i o n and f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n would be w e l l warranted.  48  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1*  Crosby, E . G . , and Winsor, A.L. "The V a l i d i t y o f Students' E s t i m a t e s of T h e i r I n t e r e s t s , " Psychology, XXV  (August, 1941)  Journal of Applied 409-414.  2. ' Gates, A r t h u r I . Psychology f o r Students of E d u c a t i o n . New 5.  York: M a c M i l l a n Co., 1948.  612.  Pp xx /  799.  G u i l f o r d , J.P, Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology Education. 1942.  5.  Pp xv /  Gates, A r t h u r I . , and Others. E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. New  4.  York: M a c M i l l a n Co., 1930.  New  Pp x i /  Kuder, F r e d e r i c G.  and  York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 333. Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record,  (form  BB)  Chicago: S c i e n c e Research Associates., 1942. 6.  Kuder, F r e d e r i c G. Revised Manual f o r the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record. Chicago: Science Research A s s o c i a t e s , 1946.  7.  Remmers, H.H.,  Pp i x / 31.  and.Gage, N.L. E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement  and E v a l u a t i o n . New 1943. •8.  Pp i x /  York: Harper and B r o t h e r s ,  580.  Strong, Edward K. V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s of Men  and Women.  Stanford U n i v e r s i t y : Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1943.  Pp  788.  Nf.me Is t h i s the f i r s t , Grade .  Div, A\.ge(years) , , (months) ,Sex or the second, time you have taken t h i s t e s t ? Date I n t e r e s t T e s t . 1951 L  ^ *~~  Introduction. The purpose of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s to f i n d out what k i n d s ' o f a c t i v i t i e s you l i k e to do most, and what kinds of a c t i v i t i e s you l i k e to do l e a s t . N o t i c e t h a t i t i s the k i n d s of a c t i v i t i e s that we are i n t e r e s t e d i n here. Por t h i s reason the a c t i v i t i e s are purp o s e l y phrased i n vague and g e n e r a l terms. Por example, you are asked to c o n s i d e r the a c t i v i t y of w r i t i n g . You may i n t e r p r e t t h i s i n any way. you wish. You may t h i n k of i t a s w r i t i n g s t o r i e s , or peoms, or f r i e n d l y l e t t e r s or any other k i n d of w r i t i n g that may occur to you. The important t h i n g i s f o r you to decide whether you p r e f e r to do the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t occur to you as much a s the other a c t i v i t i e s w i t h which i t i s grouped. To make i t e a s i e r to decide what kinds of a c t i v i t i e s you p r e f e p l e a s e read the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs v e r y c a r e f u l l y , A number of kinds of a c t i v i t i e s are l i s t e d i n groups of t h r e e . In each group of three decide which k i n d or c l a s s you p r e f e r to do most. P l a c e a heavy X to the r i g h t of i t i n the column headed "Most", Now decide which of these three you l i k e to do l e a s t , and p l a c e a heavy X to the r i g h t of i t i n the column headed " L e a s t " , Repeat t h i s proceedure f o r each group of three on the next two pages. I f you change your mind about some k i n d or c l a s s of a c t i v i t y erase your X and put i t i n the proper p l a c e . In the s c o r i n g i t i s necessary to h o l d your paper up to the l i g h t and see your Xs from the opposite s i d e of the sheet so make them reasonably heavy. As each c l a s s of a c t i v i t y must be compared w i t h s e v e r a l others some of them appear q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y . Do not allow t h i s to d i s t u r b you. Remember t h a t you may i n t e r p r e t or t h i n k of these a c t i v i t i e s i n any way you wish. You may c o n s i d e r that you have a l l the a b i l i t i e s and a p p o r t u n i t i e s necessary f o r success, i f you d e s i r e to t h i n k of doing these t h i n g s f o r a l i v i n g , although t h a t i s not • n e c e s s a r y . When you t h i n k of two or more a c t i v i t i e s when c o n s i d e r i n g any one p a r t i c u l a r k i n d , you may compare the way you f e e l about e i t h e r one, or both, whichever s u i t s you. Now read a g a i n the paragraphs above, which t e l l you how mark your c h o i c e s , and then begin.  to  (Co / Build. Write. Draw,-  - '  -  -  - . .  -  _  —  - '  4. Do something which i s a public- s e r v i c e . C l a s s i f y or s o r t m a t e r i a l , Do l i t e r a r y work, 3 Operate a machine, . Manage or s u p e r v i s e people, Act or h e l p i n a p l a y ,  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  <~ -  Most ( ( (  -'  t Help people to s o l v e t h e i r problems. Make or d e a l i n something which i s v a l u a b l e because of i t s beauty, design, c o l o r , e t c . u u Use mathematics i n your work or p l a y . -  ( ( (  Most ( ( (  -  -  o  10  ' • ' S o l i c i t or canvass. Make out r e p o r t s . Record or score r e s u l t s . -  .  -  -  .  -  . -  / / I n v e s t i g a t e or f i n d out about t h i n g s . Make something. Record or score r e s u l t s . -  -  . <-  -  -  <-  /j-Make something more b e a u t i f u l . •— Check something f o r mistakes. A d j u s t or put something i n good working order, 13 W r i t e a r t i c l e s , Estimate the cost of- something. Do r e p a i r s . -•  — — •  ^ //Write something. g A s s i s t i n improving l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Pi Mend some broken o b j e c t . -. -  -  *-  //Manage people. , Do a task r e q u i r i n g some s c i e n t i f i c knowledge-. Help people*^ . T - • - . Discover or f i n d out hew t h i n g s , - • ^ Make people happy. -i.... ..-fMake something that- please.s be cruse of i t s form,  )  Most  ( ) )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  fa. 4.  -  -  u  mm  —  _  -  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  Most )  (  )  (  )  (  )  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  Most  Least ( )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  f )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  Most ;( ) .( ) )  Ol <  Least  (  (  P>  H"  Least  (  f )  CD  Least  (  -  >  )•  —  ( '7Make p i c t u r e s in' some,way. . Experiment,', -. Write essays  ( ) ( ) ( ) Least  _  Lm  -  ( ) ( ) (  ( ) ( ) Least ( ••) ( ') ( )  ( (  — 7 Use t o o l s . ( ) C o l l e c t o b j e c t s because o f t h e i r form, d e s i g n or ccoolloorr..(( ) A s s i s t s i c k or i n j u r e d people i n some way. ( ) Most _ VOperate an o f f i c e machine or instrument.( ) — Create p i c t u r e s , ( ) Teach people. ( )  ? Decorate something. R e l i e v e p a i n and s u f f e r i n g , I n f l u e n c e someone. -  ( ) ( ) ( ) Least ( ) ( ) ( ) T V  ( ( (  Most ( ( (  y Do some form o f a r t work.Do work r e q u i r i n g a. knowledge of some s c i e n c e . Work a t making something of wood or metal. s'Use mathematical instruments, machines, e t c . C l a s s i f y or s o r t m a t e r i a l . 3 e l l things. - • -  ( (  Least (  )  (  )  (  )  "(  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  o  6,5 1,5 1,6  1 6 5  9 ,,68/6; 8,9;  •8 9 6  4,5 1,5 • 1,4/  1 4 5  3,1' 5,1  5 3 1  ;  9,4 2,4 2.9  9 4  5,2. 8,2 8,5  5 2  5,8 1,8 1,5  1 5 8  5,8 9,8 9.5  9 5 8  8,4 5,4 5,8  5 .8 4  6,9. 4,9 4,6  •4 6 9  1,9 3,9 3,1  3 1 .9  9,1 5,1 5,9  •5 9 1  2,1 6,1 6,2  6 2 1  8,1 6,1 6,8  6 {8 •1  3,8 4,8 4,3  4 •3 8  8,5 ' 3,5  3 8  3,8  5  3.6 5,6 5,3  •5  3 6  T a l l y for page 1. 2 ' 1 3 4' 1st •Tally Count Check' • Tally  5'"  6  7  .8.  9  ^Supervise people, *" Experiment. - - 'Assist a group of underprivileged persons.  - •  //Make something more pleasing i n appearance, Investigate or f i n d out about things. »<~ Talk seriously about music. '  '  . <  - .  <  '  '  *fc»Make music. *^ <<^ Work with tools, . Use mathematical instruments/ machines, formulae. ^/Manage a business, team, competition e t c ' . <Do work involving grammar- and composition, »Use mathematics, '-' .. ..- ' • <tt Write f o r publication. Do s c i e n t i f i c work. >Advise people. -  -  <- .  -  -  A?Design something. Persuade people'. Do repairs.  *•  —  **-  *• <**..'-'  *-  */Sell.u Do c l e r i c a l work, '«Solve numerical problems,-  u w  -  <-  .  •  -  w  «w  <**'Use mathematical instruments, machines, formulae. Put together o r assemble things, ' S e l l things, ^.Perform some s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y , Operate machinery, -. Help people to enjoy themselves,.  <-  -•  ^  «-  <-  -  <?7 Speak or argue on behalf of someone. Work with handicapped persons.' -' ^ Make music. -. - . H  ^fBstimate costs f o r some process or.construction. C l a s s i f y or sort material, . -' Work with some form of animal or vegetable l i f e . :  Enable people'to solve t h e i r problem's. ••••--\ Write stories,, -_; ; ^ , - ., •.- . / > - . .'• >/..• Do a ~"ob requiring some musical talent,. - ' .. - "i m k  3«Work with music. Do o f f i c e work, Work at helping people.  -  si Help someone. S e l l something.Repair something.  <- .- - • <- . «- , -  - '.. -  .  -  w -  » ' - ' . w -  *. . »  ^jfc-Do something which makes people happy. . »M Persuade people to do something,. >~ >*5 Work i n an o f f i c e , ' • CD  pfiUse some knowledge of mathematics. Use some s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. . *Use some knowledge of o f f i c e work. u  u  u u  .-  I  •'• 4 3 '•• • 8  3,8  4,8 ; 4>,3 ; ; v  3,7^' ; 5,7 ••' 5,3 i  •  1 , 2 ' .. 7,2 '  ;  ' 5 }3  :  v  ;  i 7  ?1  7,1 '  ! 2  6,2 • \ 4,2 •  4 , 6 •' 3,8 6,8  - 4  1  :  ; 6 ' 2  .  :  ' \  6  3  i.  6,3  8  4 , 1 ;' : ' 5,1 ' •. 5,4 ;  :  •:  '  9,2  • 5 i 4 • 1 :  HIS, 2 ; f6.,9  ': 9 ' 2  1,4 : 2,4 2 , 1 •'  \Z 1  r  4  3 1  1,8 '  3,8  3,1  ; .  8  8,7 { 4,7  '  4,8 •  •; .7  9,3 : 2,3 2,9 ;  '  6,7 8,7  •' :8 . .6  :  :  ; :  8,6  \ •  9,8 7,8  '  ;4 •8  9 3  .  4,1 . 8,1 '  A  •  1.  1st  Page  2nd  Page  here.  4: V5' 6 , 7  2. 3  9  V  8  1  8,4  4,9 8,9  totals  TOTALS  7 9 •8  7,9  Put  ;2  ;  .  8  ; ,4 / • .9  8 , 4 •;  3,9 2,9 2.3 •  2  3  :9  T a l l y f o r page 2 .  1 •  1st  Tally  Count Check Tally —s  •2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  APPENDIX B  &2  ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE KUDER PREFERENCE RECORD AND THE INTEREST TEST 1951. (  P e r i o d 1. A- D i s t r i b u t e the mimeographed m a t e r i a l " V o c a t i o n a l  Choice",  to a l l s t u d e n t s . B- D i s c u s s t h i s m a t e r i a l p o i n t - b y - p c i n t , answering and a m p l i f y i n g where necessary.  questions  N.B. - Ensure t h a t the  d i s t i n c t i o n between " a b i l i t i e s " and " i n t e r e s t s " i s understood by a l l s t u d e n t s . C- E x p l a i n t h a t another o p p o r t u n i t y t o measure i n t e r e s t s may not occur, and count the number w i s h i n g D- I n s t r u c t t h e students  t o take the t e s t .  t o p u t the " V o c a t i o n a l Choice"  sheet  i n the E f f e c t i v e L i v i n g s e c t i o n of t h e i r notebook. Period  2,  A- D i s t r i b u t e the " I n t e r e s t T e s t 1951"  t o each student who  wishes t o take t h e "Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record". N.B.- As the number o f c o p i e s i s l i m i t e d , g i v e t h i s o n l y t o those who have expressed  questionnaire  their intention of  t a k i n g t h e Kuder. B-  Say - " T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s n o t the Kuder  Preference  Record, i t w i l l be g i v e n i n t h e next p e r i o d . necessary the Kuder*  It i s  t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e f o r e and a f t e r The reasons f o r t h i s w e l l be e x p l a i n e d t o  you a f t e r the t e s t s a r e completed*  53  I n s t r u c t the students to f i l l  i n t h e i r names e t c . a t the  top o f the t e s t and announce t h a t pen or p e n c i l may he used. Read the i n t r o d u c t i o n aloud to the students, paragraph by paragraph.  Answer questions and e x p l a i n , where necessary.  I l l u s t r a t e the method o f marking c h o i c e s by w r i t i n g the f o l l o w i n g item on the b l a c k board and demonstrating. Most Least Organize people f o r some p r o j e c t . - - _ - - - ( ) ( ) Work w i t h correspondence. - - - - - - - - - - ( ) ( ) •Write a r t i c l e s .  - - -  <  ( )  ( )  Emphasize - t h a t each group o f three must be answered. - t h a t a c h o i c e has v a l u e even when no p r e ference i s f e l t consciously. - t h a t i t i s necessary f o r each student to make h i s or h e r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f what any a c t i v i t y means. - t h a t only two Zs a r e used f o r each group o f three  activities.  When a l l questions have been answered, have the p u p i l s commence. Answer f u r t h e r questions by r e a d i n g to the student, the a p p r o p r i a t e paragraph  from the i n s t r u c t i o n s .  Answer no questions about marking the t e s t . C o l l e c t the papers as the students f i n i s h and p r o v i d e some r e a d i n g or other work to-be done when they  finish.  54  P e r i o d 3. A- D i s t r i b u t e Kuder b o o k l e t s t o those w i s h i n g t o take the t e s t . B- I n s t r u c t t h e students to f i l l  i n t h e i r names, e t c . on the  answer pad. Gr- When the names a r e f i l l e d  i n , have them t u r n back t o page  one and proceed as i n s t r u c t e d t h e r e . D- As the students f i n i s h , c o l l e c t the b o o k l e t s , ensuring t h a t - the names are p r o p e r l y f i l l e d i n . - the p i n s a r e s e c u r e l y f a s t e n e d i n each cover. E- P r o v i d e some r e a d i n g o r other work t o be done when f i n i s h e d . P e r i o d 4. A- D i s t r i b u t e the " I n t e r e s t T e s t 1951" t o a l l students who answered i t i n p e r i o d 2. B- I n s t r u c t t h e students t o f i l l  i n t h e i r names and so on.  G- Say - "When t h i s i n t e r e s t t e s t has been done a g a i n , t h e Kuder w i l l be marked, and then any q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the two t e s t s w i l l be answered." D- I n s t r u c t the students t o commence. E- As the students f i n i s h c o l l e c t the t e s t and r e t u r n t o them t h e i r Kuder answer pad and a p r o f i l e sheet. I n s t r u c t them to  f o l l o w the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the p r o f i l e sheet, a s s i s t  where  necessary.  E- C o l l e c t t h e answer pads as soon as the p r o f i l e sheet i s completed. G- I n s t r u c t t h e students t o b r i n g the p r o f i l e sheets t o the next c l a s s so t h a t t h e i r scores may be i n t e r p r e t e d .  55  Period A-  5.  Give out the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s and their  demonstrate  use.  B- Have students make a l i s t  of the i n d i c a t e d v o c a t i o n s i n  t h e i r E f f e c t i v e L i v i n g notes. C- C o l l e c t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s h e e t s .  -0-  56 APPENDIX C DISTRIBUTION-OF PREFERENCES FOR THE HESS STRUCTURED TEST  Per, Cle Mec. Com, Art, 26 Choice aT8 Choice:sfe2 Choice s|26 Cho ices|2 + Choices 18 Choice'stLO Choiceis|32Choices 22 Choices f IScore f Score f Score f Score f Score f Score f Score f Score f IScore 6 30. -31 8 18-19 3 2 16 2 22 1 2lf 25-26 a 3 2U.-25 3 10 17 16 1 22- -23 3 X 2 8 28- -29 *f 16-17 7 2 0 - 2 1 7 22-23 23-2^ 9 7 20--21 1 ll+ 6 8 11 26- -27 *+: 1^-15, 7 18-19 9 20-21 21-22 8 15 Ih If 16-17 2 8 2lf- •25 5 12-13 9 7 9 18-19 . 5 18--19 6 13 19-20 6 10 16--17 10 12 2 6 8 22- •23 8 10-11 Ik 17-18 l^f-15 11 16-17 13 8-9 11 12 6 12-13 2 6 20- -21 12 if 6 . 1U--15 15 14-15 6 11 15-16 5 6-7 18 tf if 1 + 1811 10-11 18' 12-13 8 1210 10 •19 15 13-lK -13 3 5 if-5 11 lit 1610 10-11 11 10--11 7 -17 6 9 3 11-12 8 8-9 5 3 2-3 3 llf. .11 88 2 8 •15 7 9-10 6 6-7 ;H 8-9 -9 3 9 13 9 0-1 1 if 12l O ' • 1 3 8<> 6 66 1 7-8 8 1 0 , 7 -7 k-5 3 6-7 -11 lfll+ 10. 6 0 7 2-3 1 5-6 11 7 -5 7 7 3 ^-5 8 ••9 h 2 6 8 0-1 1 2-3 2--3 2 9 3-^ 5 2 i+ 6-•7 0 1 1 15 7 1-2 1 5 3 if V.•5 7 3 5 1+ 2- •3 2 5 3 10 2 1 7 if 1 0 1 0 5 n  J  ?  :  I  N, 8»+ M 15..0U, SD 6.77  8>+ 6.57 If .02  8U, 12.79 5.03  11.If 6 5.12  8*f 11.82 5.2*f  8U, 6.65 ^.35  8*f 3M  8*f 19*93 6.56  8if 9.57 if.29  57 APPENDIX D PHI COEFFICIENTS FOR LESS STRUCTURED AND EUDER ITEMS l e s s S t r u c t u r e d Items T r i a d No.  1 1 3 3 4 4 7 7 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 20 20 23 23 25 25 26 26 31 31  Choice by Areas 1,6 1,5 1,4 1,5 1,5 1,3 1,5 1,8 1.3 1,9 1,5 1,9 1,6 1,2 1,6 1,8 1,7 1,2 1,5 1,4 1,2 1,4 1,3 1,8 1,8 1,4  Phi Coeff. *917 .690 .601 .764 .728 .785 .636 .636 .316 .539 ,836 .629 .915 .524 .915 .837 .848 .959 .534 .722 .832 .779 .650 ,715 .841 .885  Matching Euder Items T r i a d No. Choice by Areas IE IE Id Id lr lr 2E 2K 3U 3U 3k 3k 4G 4G 4G 4G 5G 5G 6n 6n 9U 9U 9n 9n lOr lOr  1,6 1,5 1,4 1,5 1,5 1,3 1,5 1,8 1,3 1,9 1,5 1,9 1,6 1,2 1,6 1,8 1,7 1,2 1,5 1,4 1,2 1,4 1,3 1,8 1,8 1,4  Phi Coeff. .659 .784 .322 .478 .773  .660 ,825 .715 .109 .312 .584 .319 .624 .449 .564 .439 .535 .052 .512 .717 .374 .442 .329 .683 .871 ,752  58 APPENDIX D PHI COEFFICIENTS FOR LESS STRUCTURED AND KUDER ITEMS Less S t r u c t u r e d Items T r i a d No, 5 5 6 6 14 14 20 20 21 21 24 24 25 25 28 28 33 33 4 4 11 11 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 22 22 26 26 28 28 33 33  Choice byAreas  Phi Coeff.  ,9 ,4 ,8 ,5 ,6 ,1 ,7 ,1 ,4 ,6  *857 .918 .914 .778 .407 .362 .956 .909 .677 .710 .775 .815 .874 .922 .341 .639 .553 .867 .817 .820 .489 .525 .865 .962 .902 .626 .711 .818 .744 .673 .632 .582 .732 *914 .635 .958 .807 .381 .764 .811  A  ,9 ,1  A  ,9 ,3 ,3 ,9 ,5 ,1 ,1 ,9 ,4 ,8 »8 ,5 ,5 ,6 ,4 ,8 *5 ,7 ,6 ,8 ,1 ,8 ,2  ,9  t2  ,9  Matching Kuder Items T r i a d No. Choice by P h i Areas Coeff. 2A 2A 2G 2G 4G 4G 5G 5G 6A 6A 7A 7A 9U 9U 10a 10a 12A 12A lr lr 3U 3U 4k 4k 41T 4N 4K 4K 4k 4k 4h 4n 6U 6U 9n 9n 10a 10a 12A 12A  2 ,9 2 ,4 2 ,8 2 ,5 2 ,6 2 ,1 2 ,7 2 ,1 2 ,4 2 ,6 2 2 ,9 2 ,1 2 ,4 £ ,9 2 ,3 2 ,3 2 ,9 3 ,5 3 ,1 3 ,1 3 ,9 3 ,4 3 ,8 3 ,8 3 ,5 3 ,5 3 ,6 3 ,4 3 »8 3 ,5 3 ,7 3 ,6 3 ,8 3 ,1 3 ,8 3 ,2 3 ,9 3 ,2 3 ,9  A  .378 .197 .785 .734 .585 .522 .431 .163 .386 .521 .562 ,371 ,282 .333 .265 .301 .764 .536 .572 .762 .125 .668 .487 .512 .365 .403 .680 .635 .487 .512 .349 .656 .559 .766 .221 .457 .479 .586 .714 ,825  APPENDIX D PHI COEFFICIENTS FOR LESS STRUCTURES AND KUDER ITEMS Triad 3 3 5 5 9 9 10 19 15 15 18 18 21 21 25 25 24 24 25 25 27 27 51 51 32 52 1 1 3 3 4 4 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 12 12 16 16 17 17  Less S t r u c t u r e d Items No. Choice byPhi Areas Coeff. ,5 ,1 ,2 ,9 ,5 ,8 ,6 ,9 ,5 ,8 ,5 ,8 ,& ,2 ,5 ,1 ,9 ,2 ,2 ,1 ,8 ,7 ,8 ,1 ,8 ,9 ,1 ,6 ,1 ,4 ,3 ,1 ,8 ,2  A  ,8 ,9 ,8 •8 ,4 ,9 ,1 ,5 ,8 ,3 ,6  .241 .674 .864 .704 .588 .704 .100 .509 .870 .717 .786 .580 .650 .718 .637 .745 .659 .732 .825 .854 .397 .747 .591 .788 .665 .404 .689 .846 .670 .478 .910 .778 .681 »750 /753 .548 .746 .872 .598 .707 .748 .746 .769 .551 .911 ,746 !  Matching Kuder Items T r i a d No. Choice by Phi Areas Coeff* Id Id 2A 2A 2r 2r 3K 3K 4k 4k 4k 4k 6A 6A 6n 6n 7A 7A 9U 9U 9r 9r lOr lOr llu llu IK IK Id Id lr lr 2G 2G2K 2K 2d 2d 2r 2r 3k 3k 4N 4N 4X 4X  4,5 4,1 4,2 4,9 4,5 4,8 4,6 4,9 4,3 4,8 4,3 4,8 4,6 4,2 4,5 4,1 4,9 4,2 4,2 4,1 4,8 4,7 4,8 4,1 4,8 4,9 5,1 5,6 5,1 5,4 5,3 5,1 5,8 5,2 5,1 5,8 5,9 5,8 5,8 5,4 5,9 5,1 5,3 5,8 5,3 5,6  .036 .406 .320 .609 .282 .548 .358 .478 .546 .633 .546 ,633 .427 .548 .334 .710 .662 .583 .500 .702 .203 .226 .266 .620 .476 .471 .552 ,641 .311 .105 .909 .706 .614 .655 .606 .523 .273 .751 .438 .434 .348 .610 .432 .740 .667 .700  60  APPENDIX D PHI COEFFICIENTS FOR LESS STRUCTURED AND KUDER ITEMS Less s t r u c t u r e d Items Matching Kuder Items T r i a d No. Choice byPhi T r i a d No. Choice by Phi Areas Coeff. Areas Coeff* 19 19 23 25 1 1 2 2 10 10 13 13 14 14 17 17 21 21 22 22 29 29 19 19 20 20 27 27 29 29 30 30 2 2 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 14 14  ,3 ,7 ,4 ,1 ,1 ,5 ,8 ,9 ,4 ,9 ,2  ,1 ,8 .1 ,5 ,3 ,4 ,2  ,3 ,8 ,8 ,7 ,6 ,3 ,1 ,2  ,4 ,8 ,8  t6  ,9 ,8 »9 ,6 ,5 ,2  ,1 .6 ,9 ,5 ,5 ,4 ,6 ,1  .722 .718 .667 .491 .919 .809 .691 .701 .177 .590 .778 1.000 .867 .878 .765 .839 .707 .872 .829 .873 ,825 .915 .874 .835 .864 .958 .849 .960 .960 .806 .957 .960 ,656 .611 .652 .862 .737 .755 .447 .703 .428 .550 .870 .737  4n 4n 6n 6n Ik Ik 1U 1U 3K 3K 4G 4G 4G 4G 4X 4X 6A 6A 6U 6U lOg 10g 4n 4n 5G 5G 9r 9r 10g 10g lOr lOr 1U 1U 2G 2G 2K 2K 2d 2d 2r 2r 4G 4G  5 ,3 5 ,7 5 ,4 5 ,1 6 ,1 6 t'5 6 ,8 6 ,9 6 ,4 6 ,9 6,2 6 ,1 6 ,8 6 ,1 6 ,5 6 ,3 6 ,4 6,2 6 ,3 6 .8 6 ,8 6 ,7 7 ,5 7 ,3 7 ,1 7 ,2 7 ,4 7 ,8 7 ,8 7 ,6 7 7 ,9 ,8 8 ,9 8 8 >6 8 ,5 r2  8 8 ,1 8 ,5 8 ,9 8 ,5 ,5 8 8A ,6 8 ,1  .199 .384 .277 .412 .867 .675 .471 .176 .432 .314 .325 .684 .087 .639 .753 .790 ,347 .485 .664 .815 .730 .544 .519 .684 .535 .399 .532 .418 .790 ,562 .870 .872 .615 .422 .476 .764 .914 .276 .473 .748 ,236 ,512 .305 .085  61  • APPENDIX D -. PHI COEFFICIENTS FOR IESS STRUCTURED AND KUDER ITEMS Matching Kuder rhems l e s s . S t r u c t u r e d Items T r i a d No. Choice byPhi Phi T r i a d No. Choice byCoeff. Coeff. Areas Areas  -  15 15 16 16 18 18 22 22 26 26 27 27 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 2 2 5 5 8 8 10 10 11 11 12 12 24 24 28 28 30 30 32 32 33 33  8,4 8,3 8,3 8,5 8,4 8,3 8,6 8,3 8,3 8,1 8,4 8,7 8,6 8,7 8,7 8,9 8,4 8,1 8,4 8,9 9,8 9,6 9,2 9,4 9,5 9,8 9,4 9,6 9,3 9,1 9,5 9,1 9,4 9,2 9,2 9,3 9.7 9,8 9,8 9,4 9,2 9,3  .730 .958 77,44 .813 .550 .872 ,725 .873 .837 .741 .377 .721 .747 .802 .882 .720 .503 .737 .614 .553 .576 .646 .578 .586 .795 .572 .386 .490 .584 .632 .582 ,593 .713 .714 .315 .555 .870 .627 ,687 ,575 ,866 .914  4k 4k 4N 4N 4K 4K 6U 6U 9N 9N 9r 9r lOg 10g lOn lOn lOr lOr loU 10U 1U 1U 2A 2A 2d 2d 3K 3K 3U 3U 3k 3k 7A 7A 10a 10a lOfi lOn llu llu 12A 12A  8,4 8,3 8,3 8,5 8,4 8,3 8,6 8,3 8,3 8,1 8,4 8,7 8,6 8,7 8,7 8,9 8,4 8,1 8,4 8,9 9,8 9,6 9,2 9,4 9,5 9,8 9,4 9,6 9,3 9,1 '9,5 9,1 9,4 9,2 9,2 9,3 9,7 9,8 9,8 9,4 9,2 9,3  .514 ,663 .305 .648 .545 .713 .643 ,.534 .621 .621 .264 .417 .490 .689 .682 .445 ,566 .827 .366 .389 .413 .415 .300 .615 .312 ,704 .707 .353 .587 .534 ,352 .507 .282 .372 .269 .755 ,735 .396 ,586 ,428 .397 ,622  

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