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A preliminary study of the musk-oxen of Slidre Fiord District, Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island Tener, John Simpson 1952

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A Preliminary Study of the Musk-oxen Of S l i d r e Fiord D i s t r i c t , Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island, by John Simpson Tener /fb'i. As-Oft A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of The Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts i n the Department of Zoology. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l , 1952. We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the standard required for candi-dates for the degree of Master of Arts. Members of the Department of Zoology ABSTRACT Herds of musk-oxen i n the v i c i n i t y of S l i d r e Fiord, Ellesmere Island, 1T.T7.T., were studied from A p r i l 19 to August 24, 1951, to obtain f a c t s concerning the l i f e requirements of these ungulates. The Canadian W i l d l i f e Service, Department of Resources and Development, Ottawa, i n i t i a t e d the investigation In order to he able to consider these requirements f o r manage-ment, purposes. "Vital s t a t i s t i c s were gathered on the herds. The sexes and ages of the animals were determined, and the proportions of these classes were analyzed.. The calving and the breeding seasons were determined as s p e c i f i c a l l y as possible. Winter and summer ranges were examined to determine th e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s satisfying, the needs of musk-oxen. Movements to the ranges were observed to ascertain whether or not they were migratory. The kinds and densities of plant species e x i s t i n g on the summer range were recorded. Food habits of musk-oxen were de-termined by timed counts and by the examination of the stom-ach contents of a two-year-old b u l l . Wolf predation was evaluated by scat analysis, by the ex-amination of wolf, stomachs, "by 'tine examination of remains ot dead musk-oxen, and by observation of attempted predation. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 3 DEFINITION OF STUDY AREA 8 PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION 9 Geography 9 Climate 11 PROCEDURES, METHODS AND MATERIALS 13 Equipment 13 Herd Observations 13 P a t h o l o g i c a l Studies 17 Range Studies i d Observation of Feeding Habi ts 19 M o r t a l i t y Studies 20 RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS 21 Composition of Herds Throughout Study Per iod 21 Calving Observations 24 Mating A c t i v i t i e s 28 Movements from Winter to Summer Ranges 32 Range Studies 34 Feeding Habits 36 P a t h o l o g i c a l Examinations 41 M o r t a l i t y Factors 41 Predat ion 41 M o r t a l i t y Through F i g h t i n g 45 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 4? CONCLUSIONS 61 SUMMARY 67 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 70 BIBLIOGRAPHY 71 LIST OF PLANTS COLLECTED ON FOSHEIM PENINSULA, ELLESMERE ISLAND, N.W.T. 76 II LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Page Table I Temperatures i n Degrees Fahrenheit Recorded at Slidre Fiord, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. October, 1947 to July, 1951. Following 80 Table II Results of Analysis of Range by Clarke-Point Sample Method. Following 80 Figure 1 A map of Ellesmere Island and Neighbouring Islands 81 Figure 2 A map of Topographic Features, Slidre Fiord, Ellesmere Island 82 Figure 3 Winter and Summer Range, Slidre Fiord, Ellesmere Island 83 Figure 4 Format of Cards used for Recording Observations 84 Figure 5 Herd of 4 adult, one calf musk-ox, April 25, 1951. South shore Slidre Fiord. Temperature - 27°F. 86 Figure 6 Herd of 11 musk-oxen, including 2 calves, May 26, 1951. 86 Figure 7 Adult b u l l musk-ox and dogs. Note horn growth on forehead. August 7, 1951. 87 Figure 8 Two bulls with dogs near mouth of Slidre Fiord, August 16, .1951 • Note position of animals. 8? Figure 9 Herd of 6 adult bulls, Eastwind Lake area, August 6, 1951. 88 Figure 10 Grazing musk-oxen, Black Top Creek Valley, June 26, 1951. 88 Figure 11 Winter dung of adult cow musk-ox. South shore Slidre Fiord. May 26, 1951. 89 Figure 12 Summer dung of adult cow musk-ox. Black Top Creek Valley. June 26, 1951. 89 I l l Figure 13 Gravel p l a i n wi th w i l l o w , dryas and Carex r u p e s t r i s . near Eastwind Lake, August 6, 1951• 90 Figure 14 Rock used by musk-oxen to rub shedding h a i r from h i d e . Eastwind Lake area, August 6, 1951. 90 Figure 15 Typica l grass density on c lay s lopes , Black Top Creek V a l l e y , J u l y 20, 1951. 91 Figure 16 Tussock formations, vegetated w i t h Casslope  tetragona. w i l l o w and other speeies, August 6, 1951. 91 A Preliminary Study of the Musk-oxen of Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. INTRODUCTION;: Much material has been written about the musk-oxen (Ovibos moschatus subsp.) of Canada and Greenland by popular and s c i e n t i f i c w r i t e r s . While valuable data are evident i n t h e i r reports very few investigations have been made to determine and study the many factors influencing the l i v e s of a given population. The natures of these c o n t r o l l i n g factors are important from an administrative point of view, as they must be known before the herds of musk-oxen through-out the Canadian Arctic; can be managed wisely. With t h i s object i n mind, the Canadian W i l d l i f e Service, Department of Resources and Development, Ottawa, i n i t i a t e d an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the musk-oxen of Canada. I t was decided that a e r i a l surveys of areas known to contain musk-oxen, combined with ground studies i n regions of musk-oxen abundance, would provide the information necessary for management purposes. Reports of a large number of these animals on Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island, Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , led to the i n i t i a t i o n of the musk-oxen study i n that area i n the spring of 1951. The writer was assigned to the project. Material for t h i s thesis was gathered during the course of the inv e s t i g a t i o n . Arrangements were made by the Northern Administration D i v i s i o n , Department of Resources and Develop-ment, Ottawa, through the Meteorological Service of the - 2 -Department of Transport, Toronto, and the United S t a t e s Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C., f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of the w r i t e r w i t h h i s equipment, from Ottawa to S l i d r e F i o r d , Sllesmere I s l a n d , and f o r p a r t i a l accommodation and food w h i l e there. The w r i t e r l e f t Ottawa March 26, 1 9 5 1 , and with stops at Goose Bay, Labrador, Fro b i s h e r Bay, B a f f i n I s l a n d and Resolute Bay, C o r n w a l l i s I s l a n d , a r r i v e d at S l i d r e F i o r d A p r i l 1 9 . F i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s began immediately and con-tinued w i t h i n t e r r u p t i o n s caused by bad weather u n t i l August 20, when word was r e c e i v e d that the writer.would be r e t u r n i n g to Ottawa v i a Boston, Mass., on an ic e b r e a k e r . The ship l e f t S l i d r e F i o r d on August 24 and a r r i v e d i n Boston September 4. The w r i t e r a r r i v e d i n Ottawa th a t n i g h t . STATEMENT OF PROBLEM; Observations of the proportions of the sex and age classes contained i n herds, along with those of calving and mating behaviour, were desired to determine the present status of the population of musk-oxen on Fosheim Peninsula, and to attempt to educe the p r i n c i p l e s governing apparent low rates of increase i n musk-oxen generally. The proportions of calves, yearlings and im-matures to adult cows would indicate the b i r t h rate and e f f e c t i v e reproduction. The trend i n numbers of the population would then be known. The proportions of adult b u l l s to cows may be s i g n i f i c a n t i n successful breeding of unmated cows. Information on the proportions throughout the study period, therefore, was needed. Reasons for an unbalanced sex r a t i o i n adult mammals may vary f o r d i f f e r e n t species and for d i f f e r e n t populations of the same species. An unbalanced sex r a t i o at b i r t h , greater mortality of one sex during l i f e or deferred maturity of one sex, may create such a s i t u a t i o n . Feeding habits and range requirements of musk-oxen are known imperfectly. S t a t i s t i c a l treatment of the composition and density of the more common plants growing on summer ranges had not been made by past investigators. The data obtained by such analysis, correlated with the quantitative determination of food choice by observation - 4 -and by stomach examinations, would i n d i c a t e the food r e q u i r e -ments and range p r e f e r e n c e of musk-oxen on Fosheim P e n i n s u l a . Winter and summer ranges of most ungulates i n v o l v e d i f f e r e n t geographic areas and o f t e n d i f f e r e n t food s p e c i e s . Movements from w i n t e r to summer ranges by musk-oxen were noted d u r i n g the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the range and the movements were r e c o r d e d . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the f a c t o r s r e s u l t i n g i n m o r t a l i t y o f musk-oxen i s of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the study o f these animals whose r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i s so low. The e f f e c t s o f wol f p r e d a t i o n on r a t e s o f pop-u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e and the m o r t a l i t y o f b u l l s through f i g h t -i n g f o r cows, were i n v e s t i g a t e d . In. summary, the l a c k o f f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on c e r t a i n phases of the l i f e h i s t o r y o f musk-oxen l e f t a h i a t u s i n knowledge t h a t must be f i l l e d b e f o r e p l a n s f o r t h e i r c a r e f u l management may be formu l a t e d . T h i s t h e s i s i s a r e c o r d o f the attempt to p r o v i d e some of the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n . No other animal i n mammalian e c o l o g y and sys t e m a t i c s i s of greater i n t e r e s t , perhaps, than the musk-ox, Ovibos mosohatus subsp. A mammalian r e l i c e x i s t i n g under harsh environmental c o n d i t i o n s , i t has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f both the sheep (Ovls) and c a t t l e (Bos) genera, but belongs to n e i t h e r genus. - s -The droppings, hairy muzsle and shorter l e f t sac of the reticulum of a musk-ox are si m i l a r to those of the sheep, while characters such as the absence of the mid-fi s s u r e of the l i p , an unusually large number of cotyledons i n the placenta and the presence of four mammary glands indicate a rela t i o n s h i p to c a t t l e (Lonnberg (29.)).. The closest l i v i n g r e l a t i v e today i s considered by Osgood (34), A l l e n ( 2 ) and Seton (42) to be the bison. During. Pleistocene times ancestors of ex i s t i n g musk-oxen ranged over northern Europe, northern A s i a , Alaska and North America south to Iowa, Indiana, Pennsylvania and Kansas (Allen ( 2 ) Hone ( 2 2 ) ) . As the ice retreated with the passing of the l a s t i ce age, musk-oxen were able to follow i n i t s wake, remaining i n the environment to which they were successfully adapted. Certain contemporary animals, such as the mammoth and woolly rhinoceros were unable to survive i n changing c l i m a t i c conditions and became e x t i n c t , but lemmings, ptarmigan and others were able to move north with the musk-oxen. Musk-oxen became extinct i n Europe and Asia i n prehistoric times. Hone ( 2 2 ) considers that the northern extension of land, creating conditions unfavourable for musk-oxen i s the p r i n c i p a l reason for th e i r existence i n North America and Greenland today. The f i r s t account of musk-oxen observed i n North America was published i n 1 7 2 0 by Nicolas Jeremie - 6 -( i n A l l e n (2)), a French o f f i c e r i n charge of Fort Bourbon on the west coast of Hudson Bay from 1697 "to 1714. At h i s time musk-oxen probably existed from Hudson's Bay to Alaska, north of t r e e l i n e , and north to the A r c t i c Ocean, as w e l l as on many of the islands of the A r c t i c Archipelago. Evidence obtained by A l l e n (1) and Hornaday (24) indicate that musk-oxen died out i n Alaska about the middle of the nineteenth century. On the Canadian mainland and on c e r t a i n A r c t i c Islands the numbers and range of musk-oxen have been seriously reduced from t h e i r former p o s i t i o n by indiscriminate k i l l i n g s by natives equipped with modern weapons and by whalers and early explorers who k i l l e d great numbers to provide food and bedding for themselves. The present range of musk-oxen i s confined to part of the A r c t i c mainland of Canada, to certain A r c t i c Islands and to northern Greenland. On the Canadian mainland herds are known i n the Bathurst I n l e t area, the TheIon Game Sanctuary, and In the region between Wager I n l e t and Boothia Peninsula. P r i n c i p a l Canadian A r c t i c Islands known to support herds are Prince Patrick Island, M e l v i l l e Island, Bathurst Island, Devon Island, Axel Heiberg Island and Ellesmere Island. There i s l i t t l e objective information upon the behaviour of any population of large ungulates l i v i n g under A r c t i c conditions. The musk-ox i s an unique animal, highly adapted to A r c t i c conditions and inhabiting a range extending north and south through t h i s habitat for 1,200 - 7 -miles. Even i n the r e l a t i v e l y uniform climatic conditions of the A r c t i c regions l i f e circumstances can be expected to vary considerably over so great a l a t i t u d i n a l range. I t i s w e l l known that the b i o t i c p o t e n t i a l of a species varies from region to region i n company with the environmental resistence to the animal. At the same time the influences tending to s t a b i l i z e the population vary d i r -e c t l y with the density of the population beyond the c r i t i c a l l e v e l of environmental tolerance. This study was conducted on what i s almost the world's most northerly land mass and concerns what i s with the exception of northern Greenland, the most norther-l y population of large ungulates. I t was believed then that i t offered unique research opportunities. V i t a l s t a t i s t i c s , environmental resistence i n terms of food production, predators, parasites and diseases, accidents and cl i m a t i c influences a l l gave promise of y i e l d i n g information of the greatest interest from a t h e o r e t i c a l standpoint and at the same time of paramount importance i n the management of the population. - 8 -DEFINITION OF STUDY AREA; Fosheim Peninsula l i e s on the west coast of Ellesmere Island, Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . I t i s bordered on the north by Greely F i o r d , on the west and south by Eureka Sound, and contains an area of roughly 2 0 0 0 square miles. S l i d r e F i o r d penetrates the peninsula i n a south-east d i r e c t i o n and l i e s on the in t e r s e c t i o n of 8 0 ° North l a t i t u d e , 8 6 ° 3 6 * West longitude. Figure 1 i s a map of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n of Fosheim Peninsula to Ellesmere Island and the rest of the A r c t i c Archipelago. Figure 2 i s a map of S l i d r e F i o r d and surrounding t e r r a i n with names of the more important topographic features. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION; Geography S l i d r e Fiord i s l 6 miles long and averages 2§ miles i n width. At the mouth of the f i o r d and p a r a l l e l i n g Eureka Sound i s a low, narrow coast range. A broad, deeply dissected p l a i n extends east of the range to a 3000 foot escarpment of in t r u s i v e rocks of d o l e r i t e over-lapping sandstone, the escarpment being known as Black Top Ridge. The p l a i n continues north to Greely F i o r d , but i s penetrated on the west by a range of h i l l s that are con-tinuous with the coast range. Two streams of extensive drainage flow from the p l a i n , emptying into S l i d r e Fiord. They have cut deep, wide valleys and several l a t e r a l t r i b u t a r i e s again deeply dissect the p l a i n . The westerly of the two streams i s known as Station Creek while the stream p a r a l l e l i n g Black Top Ridge has been named Black Top Creek. The slope im-mediately fronting the f i o r d i s rock, highly eroded and dissected. The r e l i e f of the p l a i n i s that of apparently r e l a t i v e l y t h i n l y covered, l e v e l bedded, sedimentary rocks. Much of the surface i s clay covered with l i t t l e stone sur-face e r r a t i c s . Bedrock outcrops of sandstone occur oc-casionally and are greatly eroded. Marine shells of several genera are present at elevations from sea l e v e l to over 300 feet, suggesting that the entire plains area was under water during early times. L a t e r a l terracing on slopes near the eastern end of S l i d r e Fiord lend credence to t h i s supposition. On the south shore of the f i o r d a p l a i n r i s e s to 2 5 0 feet where i t encounters on the east a mesa-type formation of sandstone r i s i n g to 7 5 0 feet i n a l t i t u d e , and on the south, Eureka Sound, At the eastern end of S l i d r e Fiord a broad p l a i n extends toward a mountain range 3 0 miles inland. The p l a i n extends northeast of Black Top Ridge towards Greely Fiord and southerly towards Eureka Sound. Extensive sand f l a t s at the eastern end of the Fiord are dissected by the deep channel of S l i d r e River and by i t s braided mouth. This i s the only r i v e r known to run a l l summer, the others drying up toward the end of July. Romulus Lake l i e s to the southwest of the mouth of S l i d r e River. I t has a rock bottom and i s deep. No emergent or aquatic vegetation i s present. Salt f l a t s extend on each side^ of the stream emptying the lake into S l i d r e Fiord. The action of permafrost throughout the peninsula has created polygons of varying sizes and depths. The larger ones range up to 5 0 feet i n diameter while smaller polygons of 1 0 to 1 5 feet are r e l a t i v e l y frequent. Hummocks are common, giving a very rough surface to much of the- p l a i n . As a r u l e the hummocks are covered with vegetation. The extremes of high and low t i d e i n S l i d r e Fiord are not more than 18 inches apart. This action, how-ever, i s s u f f i c i e n t to create shore leads l a t e i n June by - 1 1 -breaking up the ice adjacent to, and attached to, the shore. The f i o r d water was determined to have a s a l t content of 3.5 per cent, and to have an average surface temperature i n July of 35° F. Ice i n the f i o r d reaches a depth of nearly 8 feet by the end of A p r i l . Warming May suns and pressure of tide action then exert stresses on the ice so that i n May cracks appear running transversely, often e n t i r e l y across the f i o r d . Ice on the eastern end usually breaks up early i n July and by the f i r s t of August the entire f i o r d i s clear except f o r f l o e ice and icebergs d r i f t i n g i n from Eureka Sound. By the end of August i c e forms along the shore edges and two weeks l a t e r the f i o r d i s generally frozen to a depth of 4 to 6 inches. Climate The climate of Fosheim Peninsula i s subjected to influences of the Ellesmere Island icecap to the north and east and of the A r c t i c Ocean to the northwest, although the effects of the l a t t e r are modified by the land mass of Axel Heiberg Island, which l i e s midway between the ocean and the peninsula. Winter at Fosheim Peninsula begins i n September, with most of the snow of the season f a l l i n g i n September, October and November. Weather after t h i s i s usually calm, clear and cold but blizzards occur occasionally. Pr e v a i l i n g northwest winds usually clear much of the snow from slopes and h i l l t o p s , f i l l i n g g u l l i e s and hollows. U n t i l l a t e i n May the windblown snow i s very hard and w i l l support animals and vehicles. The period of constant darkness begins October 22 and l a s t s u n t i l February 2 0 . Sunlight of twenty-four hours a day duration i s present from A p r i l 15 u n t i l the end of August. Returning sunlight gradually warms the a i r and ground u n t i l moderating temperatures l a t e i n May begin to melt snows on the southern exposures of h i l l s and v a l l e y s . By the middle of June d a i l y temperatures may reach 50° F. Run-off i s at a maximum, f i l l i n g streams and r i v e r s to over-flowing. Shore leads i n S l i d r e Fiord open at t h i s time and at the end of June are wide and deep enough to permit canoe t r a v e l . Temperatures i n July and early August may range from 33° F to 66° F but by l a t e August drop below freezing. Lakes, streams and the shores of the f i o r d usually have frozen for the winter by the f i r s t of September and the f i o r d i s frozen completely across about the middle of that month. P r e c i p i t a t i o n on Fosheim Peninsula i s l i g h t . An average of 3*3 inches per year has been recorded f o r the past four years. Summer storms y i e l d l i t t l e r a i n , although occasionally an unusually wet year or heavy r a i n w i l l increase a p a r t i c u l a r year fs t o t a l . Most of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s the r e s u l t of early winter snow. The temperatures recorded at S l i d r e Fiord from October 1947 to July 1951 are l i s t e d i n Table 1 . PROCEDURES. METHODS AND MATERIALS; Equipment Equipment f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n -cluded normal camping gear i n addition to clothing and food appropriate to A r c t i c conditions. S c i e n t i f i c equipment i n -cluded a pair of 10 x 35 binoculars, three cameras, dissect-ing k i t , alcohol and formaldehyde, v i a l s and bottles of several s i z e s , plant press with paper, tape measures, s i x t y -four ounce and one-hundred pound scales, and paper bags of one, two and f i v e pound size s , as w e l l as material necessary for other w i l d l i f e investigations conducted simultaneously with the musk-ox study. In the laboratory of the head o f f i c e of the Canadian W i l d l i f e Service at Ottawa, f a c i l i t i e s were used for examinations of scats of foxes and wolves. Herd Observations: Many observations of musk-oxen (Ovibos moschatus ward! Lydekker) were taken on short f i e l d t r i p s made.from the s t a t i o n from A p r i l 21 to August 20, although the majority of data were gathered during studies made while camping i n the f i e l d . On several occasions herds were studied by the writer when he was accompanied by dogs. The character-i s t i c defense group formed by musk-oxen upon sighting the dogs would be retained as long as the dogs were present, permitting the w r i t e r to approach to within f i f t y feet or less of a herd. Sex and age class i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s of most animals were then possible. - 14 -Most observations of musk-oxen were made when dogs were not present. Often the ungulates then would run i f approached nearer than one hundred yards. The binoculars were used to c l a r i f y necessary d e t a i l s under these conditions. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of sexes i n adults was based i n a l l cases upon horn structure, as stated i n A l l e n ( 2 ) , although the method of urinating confirmed many opinions. The horns i n adults i n both sexes sweep down, out and up; those of the male are thicker and longer, nearly uniting on the forehead i n t h e i r s i x t h year, according to A l l e n ( 2 ) and Pike ( 3 7 ) , to form a massive basal expansion used i n f i g h t -ing f o r mates and i n defense of the i n d i v i d u a l or of the herd. Horns of adult females are shorter, more slender, and do hot unite over the forehead, but are separated by normal hide and h a i r . Immature animals are d i f f i c u l t to separate as to sex. Confusion exists i n animals up to three years of age, although i n the second year the horns of b u l l s are whiter and project straighter from the head. This l a t t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was used i n some cases by the w r i t e r , but he did not f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n using i t i n the majority of cases because of .. elements of doubt that arose as to. r e l a t i v e horn s i z e s . The ages of sexual maturity of cow and b u l l musk-oxen have not been d e f i n i t e l y established. Hoel ( 2 0 ) and Pedersen ( 3 6 ) have concluded from t h e i r observations of adults raised from calves i n c a p t i v i t y , that musk-oxen - 15 -matured at three or four years of age. Jennov (2.5) believed, however, that the males were not mature u n t i l s i x , or i n other words, u n t i l the massive horn development over the forehead has been completed. Of interest i n the l a t t e r connection are the : ages of b u l l s found to be associated with herds during the mating season i n the present study. Without exception b u l l s contending for mates, b u l l s already i n possession of herds and b u l l s observed to mate with cows had f u l l y developed horns. I t i s unknown whether the younger b u l l s were not as-sociated with mating a c t i v i t i e s because of immature develop-ment of sex organs or because they were unable to contend successfully with b u l l s f u l l y developed and of greater experience i n f i g h t i n g . In view of the fact that the only b u l l s active i n mating had completed t h e i r horn growth, t h i s l a t t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was diagnostic In c l a s s i f y i n g the adults of t h i s sex. The determination of the age at sexual maturity of females i s more uncertain. Cows with calves observed dur-ing the present study carried horns that belonged to Allen's group of females three years of age and older. As with the b u l l s , older females were grayer i n appearance and darker i n horn colour than young females. For purposes of the present study, females were considered adults i f the basal depression of t h e i r horns had reached the maximum, almost touching the - 16 -jaw, and the a p i c a l portions of the horns were curved upward and out. This would be at three years of age. Immature animals were distinguished by incom-plete horn development and smaller body s i z e . Yearlings of both sexes have small straight horn projections; i n the males the length of the horn sheath i s probably about 1 0 0 mm. i n length and the females about 6 0 mm., as A l l e n ( 2 ) found that 18 month old males had horn sheaths of about 1 6 5 mm. i n length and females sheaths of about 1 1 0 m i l l i -meters. Calf i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s s e l f explanatory. Musk-oxen observed i n the present study were placed i n four age groups, adults, immatures, yearlings and calves. Using the c r i t e r i a explained above, adults included b u l l s s i x years and older, cows three years and older; immatures, two, three, four and f i v e year old b u l l s and two and three year old cows; yearlings one year o l d anim-al s of both sexes, and calves, animals of both sexes born i n 1 9 5 1 . Card records were kept of each herd sighted. A sample of t h i s card i s given i n Figure 4. In addition to age and sex data noted above, u n c l a s s i f i e d animals were re-corded as either adults or immatures and adults. Herd movements and composition, calving data, feeding habits of adults and calves i n late winter, spring and summer, defensive action of b u l l s and cows against wolves, dogs and man, f i g h t i n g between b u l l s , actions of herds during r u t , - 1 7 -post-rutting a c t i v i t y and other observations were recorded on the cards or i n f i e l d note-books. On August 24, a brief,.survey of herds i n the-Eastwind Lake region was made by helicopter,. One hour was spent i n covering 150 square miles of musk-oxen t e r r a i n , i n order to obtain data comparable to those obtained i n 1950 by Lawrie and to obtain a f i n a l check on the study population, - T W O Pathological Studies One musk-ox, a tfar»e year o l d male, was collected under permit July 29, for pathological examinations and for record purposes of the National Museum of Canada, Examination was made for external parasites, and stomach and intestines were searched for i n t e r n a l parasites. Labelled v i a l s and jars containing a 10 per cent solution of formaldehyde were used to preserve the parasites. The para-s i t e s were sent for I d e n t i f i c a t i o n to Dr. L.P.E, Choquette, I n s t i t u t e of Parasitology, MacDonald College, Quebec, Records of each musk-ox found dead on the range were kept and the lower mandibles of most sk u l l s were retained for tooth measurements to be made l a t e r i n the laboratory. A l l of the animals found had been eaten by foxes and wolves, excluding the p o s s i b i l i t y of obtaining much useful Information, Some facts were obtained, however, on the location of the remains, approximate age, sex, possible.cause of death and length of time animal had been dead. In the l a t t e r case many of the animals had been dead several years. The slow rate of decomposition of organic matter i n high l a t i t u d e s makes - 18 -the determination of the year of death of an animal very d i f f i c u l t . Range Studies Determinations of composition, frequency of occurrence, and density were made of plants growing on spring and summer range of musk-oxen on the p l a i n north of S l i d r e F i o r d , July 19 to 2 7 . Plants were collected throughout the study area hut special attention was paid to the spring and summer range. The plant material was pressed, dried and la b e l l e d . The c o l l e c t i o n of 64 species and 114 specimens was submitted to Mr. A. E. P o r s i l d , Chief Botanist, National Museum of Canada, who made the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s and who deposited the c o l l e c t i o n i n the National Herbarium. Vegetation was so sparse i n most instances, that any method based on v i s u a l estimation of percentage occurrence or of area covered of any given plant was con-sidered to be too inaccurate. The Clarke Point Sample Method (8) was used to determine the frequency of occur-rence of vegetation growing on the musk-oxen range. This area extended over the Black Top Creek v a l l e y , the Station Creek v a l l e y and the range between the two v a l l e y s . Ten thousand points i n 1000 quadrats were taken 50 yards apart on p a r a l l e l transects running transversely across the r i v e r valleys. The positions of the transects, which were 500 yards apart, are indicated i n Figure 3. The transect area involves two square miles of range, representing types of habitats varying from plants growing on dry h i l l s and plains to those on moist r i v e r beds and slopes. To ascertain the area covered by the more numerous plants, two hundred quadrats, each ten feet square or one hundred square feet i n area, were l a i d out and studied i n conjunction with the Point Sample studies. The quadrats were one hundred yards apart on transects 2 and 4 i n the Blaek Top Creek val l e y and on transects 11 and 12 in. the Station Creek v a l l e y , one hundred in. each v a l l e y . A one square foot frame, one per cent of the quadrat area, was used to determine the area of ground covered by each species. The frame was placed over a plant i n the quadrat and the amount of space occupied by the plant could then be expressed as a per cent of the t o t a l area studied. Observation of Feeding Habits Two methods were employed to discover the species of plants eaten by musk-oxen during l a t e r winter and early summer months. A record was kept, when possible, of the number of minutes the animals fed on certain plant species. The minute counts were made with d i f f i c u l t y . The habit of musk-oxen ni b b l i n g here and there, walking as they eat, further complicates observations that are d i f f i c u l t i n the f i r s t place because of sc a r c i t y of food plants. The second method of determining food species irwo was the examination of the stomach contents of a ^.hrjsis year - 20 -old male collected July 28, on the summer range where quadrat studies were conducted. M o r t a l i t y Studies Wolf scats were picked up on the winter and summer ranges of the musk-oxen and l a t e r analysed for t h e i r contents. Three wolves were collected and t h e i r stomach contents were examined. One observation of wolves attacking a herd of musk-oxen was recorded. - 2 1 -RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS: Composition of Herds Throughout Study Period In A p r i l and May, 1 9 5 1 , herds of musk-oxen were scattered, usually f i v e to ten miles apart, over t h e i r winter range on the south shore of S l i d r e Fiord and north of Eastwind Lake to Greely Fiord (Figure 3 ) . Once a favour-able area had been found for feeding, the herds generally remained there for several days, f a c i l i t a t i n g observations. Some herds were too distant for the w r i t e r to obtain more than a t o t a l count and a determination of the presence or absence of calves. On A p r i l 2 1 , for example, the w r i t e r walked eighteen miles i n temperatures from - 2 7 ° F to ±10° F to obtain data on one herd. Four other herds were seen f i v e to eight miles away i n several d i r e c t i o n s , two of which were censused A p r i l 2 5 . The remaining two were i d e n t i f i e d as to number or absence of calves. In A p r i l and May, herds usually contained two or more adult b u l l s . A herd composed s o l e l y of b u l l s was noted only once i n t h i s period. From June u n t i l August 1 5 , f i v e of sixteen herds had two or more b u l l s , eleven having only one. Twenty-six additional b u l l s were observed on the area at the same time; fourteen were s o l i t a r y animals with the remainder i n three herds of two, four and s i x animals. In some cases the s o l i t a r y b u l l s were f i v e to ten miles from the nearest musk-oxen; i n most instances, however, the b u l l s were found with i n two miles of other animals. The s o l i t a r y t 1 . Results of Analyses of Herds of Musk-Oxen Observed April /£ to August 24, 1951. Observation Bates No. of Herds No. of Bulls No. of Adult Cows Ratio bulls to cows No. of Calves Ratio Calves to Cows No. of Year-lings No. of Immature Animals Ratio Immatures to Cows Total No. Animals Less Calves Total 1 No. Calves Ratio Total Animals to Calves Per cent Calves of Total April 19-25 3 7 15 1:2.1 3 1:5.0 0 6 1:2.5 56 4 14:1 6.6 May 17, 18, 26 4 8 17 1:2.1 7 1:2.4 0 12 1:1.4 40 7 5.7:1 15*0 June 20 7 8 32 1:40/.' 7 1:4.6 3 5 1:6.4 55 7 7.9:1 12.7 June 3-23 12 21 46 1:2.2 9 1:5.1 3 8 1:5.8 92 11 8.4:1 10.8 Summation of a l l obsolvations, Apr. 19 to June 23 17 40 78 1:2#' 19 1:4.1 3 26 1:3.0 215 22 9.8:1 9.3 August 4, 5, 6 A 5 13 1:2.6 3 1:4.3 0 6 1:2.1 73 5 . 14.6:1 6.4 August 24 9 9 122 9 13.5:1 6.9 A&gust 29, 19AS 43 9 8.4:1 17.3 i August 25, 1950 j 381 32 . 11.9:1 - 22 -b u l l s were res t l e s s feeders, eating small amounts of vegeta-t i o n while walking across the range. Only two herds were noted throughout the summer i n which no b u l l s were present. I t i s believed that duplication of records of herds was avoided u n t i l June 2 3 . Herds u n t i l t h i s date were c a r e f u l l y observed for movement and possible change i n numbers. These data, therefore, may be compiled for analysis. In the table, attached to t h i s page, the data recorded on the herds are summated and analysed. Columns two to ten include herds i n which a l l or nearly a l l of the animals were i d e n t i f i e d according to age and sex. Columns 11 and 12 l i s t the t o t a l number of animals and calves observed, i n c l u d -ing adults and immature animals which were not further i d e n t i -f i e d . Columns 13 and 14 l i s t the r a t i o and percentages,-respectively, of calves to a l l animals observed, having regard only to those groups i n which a l l or a random sample were sexed and aged. Records for August 2 9 , 1948, August 2 5 , 1950, and August 24, 1951* were obtained from observations made from a helicopter and varied i n the amount of range sampled. In the period A p r i l 19 to 2 5 , the sex r a t i o of adults was 1:2.1 or seven b u l l s to f i f t e e n cows; on May 1 7 , 18 and 26 the r a t i o was 1:2.1 or eight b u l l s to seventeen cows, and on June 20 the r a t i o was found to be 1:4 or eight b u l l s or 32 cows. The sex r a t i o of adults recorded from A p r i l 19 to June 2 3 , i n c l u s i v e , was about 1:2, or 40 b u l l s s i x years of age and older to 78 cows four years of age and older. , - 2 3 -This r a t i o includes s o l i t a r y h u l l s as well.as animals i n herds. The proportion of hulls to cows i n herds on the arctic; islands have been reported by MacMillan (31) and Howard ( 2 3 ) . The former believed that a r a t i o of two males to three females was an average proportion; the l a t t e r found that 2 7 per cent of the animals he studied i n the Franz Joseph Fiord d i s t r i c t of east Greenland i n 1933 were b u l l s . These data serve to confirm the statements of Hearne (18) who noted a preponderance of females i n herds on the a r c t i c main-land. As i t was not possible to age accurately im- . mature musk-oxen, apart from yearlings, and calves, they were classed as one age group, the immatures. This group probably was composed of two and three-year-old females and two to five-year-old males. Ten of seventeen herds noted between A p r i l 21 and June 2 3 contained one or more immatures giving a t o t a l of twenty-six i n a l l . The r a t i o of immatures to adult cows during t h i s period was 1:3 or 2 6 to 78. Only three yearlings were recorded i n the course of the summer. These animals were observed on^June 2 0 i n the Black Top Creek v a l l e y , and were i n three separate herds, two of which contained no calves. The significance and possible reasons for the proportions of the age and sex classes determined f o r the herds observed throughout the study period are considered i n the section Discussion of Results. . - 24 -CALVING OBSERVATIONS; Calving by musk-oxen on Fosheim Peninsula during 1951 occurred between A p r i l 15 and June 1 5 . Most calves appeared to have been born between the l a s t week i n A p r i l and the end of May, corroborating the evidence of Greely ( 1 6 ) Sverdrup (47) who found young calves on Ellesmere Island i n l a t e A p r i l and early May. Temperatures i n the calving months of A p r i l , May and June are included i n Table I. From A p r i l 1 9 to 2 5 the temperature ranged from - 2 7 ° F to 10° F. Clear skies and l i g h t winds prevailed during the week, and were present i n the twenty-five days of the next month. At the end of t h i s period, May 2 5 , temperatures had reached the freezing point and by June 1 5 , the end of the calving season, they had been as high as 45° F. I t i s apparent that early calves are subjected to more rigorous conditions than those born i n the l a s t month of the season. Calving had commenced shortly before the writer arrived i n the area on A p r i l 19, as two calves i n a herd of 14 adults and immatures were observed on that date on the south shore of S l i d r e F i o r d . The calves were estimated to be not more than forty-eight hours o l d . On A p r i l 2 5 a newly born c a l f was found with a small herd consisting of three cows and one mature b u l l . This herd was two miles inland from the south shore of the f i o r d , on. a slope from which much of the snow had been removed - 2 5 -by wind, exposing grasses, willow and other vegetation. The cal f was very unsteady on i t s feet, walking short distances when the cow moved while grazing. The c a l f nuzzled the region of the udders on the cow upon one occasion, but did not feed. Throughout the observation period the c a l f remained close to the cow whose hindquarters were p a r t i a l l y covered with frozen blood. Three other herds of f i v e , eight and eighteen i n d i v i d u a l s , were noted the same day. The l a t t e r herd con-tained one young c a l f , the former herds none. Five calves that were present i n two herds on May 1 7 at the end of the f i o r d were estimated to be about two to three weeks old. The calves nibbled dried grasses and ran about a c t i v e l y . Calves were f i r s t noted on the north shore of the f i o r d on June 3» There were no calves present im two herds sighted f i v e miles north of Eastwind Lake on May 5 . On June 14, 2 0 and 2 3 calves were i n nine herds grazing i n the Black Top Creek v a l l e y . Nine of these calves were w e l l developed, probably four to s i x weeks o l d . One recorded June 2 0 , however, was estimated to be one to two weeks of age. This animal was i n a herd of eleven musk-oxen, which included s i x cows, one b u l l , one ye a r l i n g and ome other c a l f , the l a t t e r about s i x weeks old. No other examples of l a t e calving were noted. - 2 6 -Because of the herd protection given calves, i t was not possible to sex them. Observations of the method of urinating showed that both sexes were present, however. There was no evidence to suggest that cows seek a s o l i t a r y spot to bring f o r t h calves. A l l cows, observed during the calving months of A p r i l , May and early June were i n herds. None were found by themselves or with only other cows or. immature animals. The protection given by other individuals of a herd would be of value to a cow and her calf during the c r i t i c a l b i r t h period. The r a t i o of ealves to cows i s considered to be more s i g n i f i c a n t i n the determination of yearly product-i v i t y than that of calves to a l l other animals, as v a r i a b l e s , such as the number of immature animals and p a r t i c u l a r l y the number of b u l l s , influence the proportions beyond the point of significance i f the samples are small. Over a period of years, however, the percentages of calves i n a t o t a l popula-t i o n would give a r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t i o n of productivity. Although the samples are small, the r a t i o of calves to cows obtained throughout the summer i s f a i r l y constant, with the exception of records obtained i n May. In May, during the height of the calving season, a high propor-t i o n of calves to cows was found. Proportions i n l a t e June and i n August were nearly the same, two calves to nine cows. That the percentage of calves i n herds i s low throughout the range of musk-oxen, has been recorded by - 2 7 -several w r i t e r s . Jensen ( 2 6 ) , Manniche ( 2 ) Nathorst ( 3 3 ) ' and Pedersen ( 3 6 ) have found a low percentage of calves i n herds i n Greenland, and Hoare ( 2 1 ) and Clarke ( 7 ) recorded similar findings for herds i n the Thelon Game Sanctuary. Summation of records obtained from June 3 to June 2 3 indicated i n the table on page 2 2 i n columns two to 1 0 , involve 1 2 separate herds i n which a l l animals were i d e n t i f i e d . Columns 1 1 to 14 included unidentified animals as wel l as those whose sex and age were c l a s s i f i e d . The percentage of calves found i n the herds, 1 0 . 8 per cent, or 19 . 6 per cent of adult cows, i s believed to be an accurate in d i c a t i o n of the productivity of musk-oxen at the end of the calving season on Fosheim Peninsula. Two helicopter counts were extensive enough to obtain comparable r e s u l t s . On August 2 3 , 1 9 5 0 , the survey conducted by Mr. Andy Lawrie showed that 3 2 or 7 * 3 P©r cent of 4 1 3 animals, counted on 2 7 0 square miles of range were calves. A more l i m i t e d survey made on August 24, 1 9 5 1 , by the w r i t e r , showed that 9 or 6.9 per cent of 1 3 1 animals counted on 1 5 0 square miles of the same range were calves. Both a e r i a l counts included the :Eastwind Lake t e r r i t o r y , a preferred musk-ox range. Apart from the a e r i a l counts, the percentage of calves* of the t o t a l population for the period June 3 s to 2 3 i s the only one considered s i g n i f i c a n t , as e a r l i e r observations were taken during the calving season. The lower - 28 -r a t i o found i n the a e r i a l count two months l a t e r may he the result, i n part, of calf mortality during t h i s period and of the d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining an accurate count of calves from the a i r . The implications of the c a l f r a t i o s are examined i n the section Discussion of Results. The commencement of calves feeding on vegeta-t i o n appears to occur a few weeks aft e r b i r t h . Five calves noted eating grasses on the south shore of the f i o r d on May 1 7 , were considered to be two to three weeks of age. In June calves fed extensively on plants, but were also obtain-ing milk from cows. Similar observations were made i n July and August. During the summer months, calves romped frequently, running s t i f f - l e g g e d and turning around i n c i r c l e s quickly, s t i f f - l e g g e d and with heads flung up. Even when playing, however, the calves stayed close to the herd and p a r t i c u l a r l y to t h e i r mothers. Cows that had given b i r t h to calves were l a t e r i n shedding hair than other adults. At the end of June the inner wool of most of these cows was just beginning to shed, patches appearing on the hump. The generally sleek appearance of these animals was i n marked contrast to the patchy appear-ance of other adults i n which the shedding was w e l l advanced. Mating A c t i v i t i e s The gestation period of a musk-ox cow i s thought to be about nine and one-half months, - 2 9 -closely p a r a l l e l i n g the 2 8 5 days of a buffalo. On Fosheim Peninsula the calving dates i n late A p r i l , i n May and possibly early June would place the dates of conception from some time i n July to the end of August. Observations of mat-ing i n early August support t h i s view. On August 5 a cow i n a small herd near Eastwind Lake was seen to mate with a b u l l . There were two other cows, two calves, four immatures but no yearlings, present i n the herd. On August 12 a b u l l served a cow i n the v i c i n i t y i n which the previous observation was made. Fourteen animals were present i n t h i s herd* Fighting between b u l l s for the possession, of one or more cows occurred c h i e f l y during the summer months of June, July and August, but was observed twice i n May. On May 17 three adult b u l l s were i n a group about one mile from a herd of 14 animals on the south shore of the f i o r d . When f i r s t observed the b u l l s were l y i n g down, but upon sighting the w r i t e r , they immediately rose to t h e i r feet and ran a short distance. Detecting no. movement, two b u l l s ran a short distance further p a r a l l e l to each other and about 25 feet apart, and suddenly turning towards each other, met with a crash that was heard one h a l f mile away. The animals repeated the operation twice, one appearing to be the ag-gressor, and then commenced grazing. On May 26 a young b u l l flashed once with an old b u l l , both belonging to a herd of 14 animals. Sporadic c o n f l i c t s such as those just - 3 0 -described are not considered to be s i g n i f i c a n t as far as the dominance of a herd i s concerned. There may be some desire on the part of the aggressive b u l l to dominate a herd but i t appears that the chief cause of such f i g h t i n g i s the short temper and antipathy of the b u l l s for one another. In l a t e spring and early summer b u l l s that were unsuccessful i n obtaining mates generally l e f t herds i n which they had been tolerated during winter months. Oc-casionally the bu l l s herded together but more frequently they roamed singly over the summer ranges. Late i n June, as the breeding season approached, the b u l l s became aggressive, attacking those b u l l s i n possession of herds of cows. In nearly a l l cases the dominant b u l l i n a herd was o l d , and probably widely experienced i n f i g h t i n g . At t h i s time he was content to defend himself i f attacked and to keep him-sel f between an aggressive b u l l and the herd. ¥i/hen the breeding season was i n progress, however, the s l i g h t e s t ap-proach to a herd by an outside b u l l would r e s u l t i n c o n f l i c t between the outside and herd b u l l . Typical actions of such behaviour were noted on several occasions. On June 2 6 , for example, the actions of two herds i n the Black Top Creek v a l l e y were under observation for several hours. One herd of four adult b u l l s grazed past the other herd of 1 0 animals, i n which were one b u l l , s i x cows, two calves and one yearling. One of the four adult b u l l s detached i t s e l f from the herd and started graz-ing near the second herd, with the r e s u l t that the defending - 31 -b u l l placed i t s e l f between the intruder and the herd. For three hours, a l l of the animals grazed qu i e t l y u n t i l the two b u l l s suddenly, as i f at a given s i g n a l , met head on with a crash. The outside b u l l was the aggressor. F i r s t , a l i g n i n g himself about 15 paces i n front of the herd b u l l , and shaking his head once or twice, he twice charged the other who remained s t i l l . The f i r s t charge was halted about two feet from the other, but the second was completed. A f t e r the l a s t charge, the two animals remained as they were for a minute then turned slowly away to feed. The herd b u l l , after a short pause, turned suddenly on the herd and charged i t for a distance, scattering the cows and calves. The outside b u l l remained near the herd another hour and twenty minutes and then walked away toward Eastwind Lake. Gn August 5, the second type of behaviour where a b u l l defended h i s herd at the s l i g h t e s t provocation was noted near Eastwind Lake. In t h i s ease the w r i t e r and the geographer, Mr. Pierre Gadbois, were the intruders. Upon the approach of the two men, the b u l l l e f t f o r a short distance the herd of ten animals. He stopped, snorted, bellowed, extended his tongue, pawed the earth with h i s front hooves and rubbed his nose on his forelegs and on the edge of the hole he had scooped i n the ground. The b u l l then strode through the herd several times, occasionally snorting. - 32 -On August 11 a b a t t l e between two old b u l l s was fought f o r four hours near a herd of 17 animals i n the Black Top Creek va l l e y . No wounds resulted from the c o n f l i c t and the b u l l that previously was i n possession of the herd was the v i c t o r . Movements from Winter to Summer Ranges The p r i n c i p a l requirement of suitable winter range of these animals i s an area such as a slope j top of a ridge or p l a i n where p r e v a i l i n g winds keep snow depths at a minimum and where grasses and other foods are present i n s u f f i c i e n t quantity* A secondary requirement i s an area such as a- g u l l y where shelter may be obtained during blizzards and periods of sub-zero winds. Summer range appears to require fresh water and green vegetation. Winter and summer ranges of musk-ox on the study area were f i f t e e n to twenty miles apart for some herds and between f i v e and ten miles apart f o r other herds. In many cases, the jnovement from winter to summer range was v e r t i c a l , which involved leaving a windswept slope or p l a i n for a wide valley below. In other cases the movement was ho r i z o n t a l , from a windswept p l a i n where the supply of grasses, while adequate for winter forage was reduced i n quantity be-cause of grazing, to areas where winter snow had protected vegetation from musk-oxen u t i l i z a t i o n , and where a moist habitat resulted i n denser, more succulent vegetation. Musk-oxen were found i n A p r i l and May on the - 33 -slopes and plains of the south shore of S l i d r e F i o r d , on the ridges at eastern end of the f i o r d , and on the plains r i s i n g from the south shore of Greely f i o r d . These three areas s a t i s f i e d the requirements for an adequate winter range. Snow where the animals were feeding varied i n depth from none at a l l to ten inches. Food i n the form of dried grasses (Poa sp., Agropyron latiglume. Aretbgrostis l a t i f o l i a and Festuca braohyphylla), dryas (Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a ) saxifrage (Saxlfraga sp.) and other less preferred species, were present i n quantities s u f f i c i e n t l y large enough to enable the musk-oxen to remain i n those areas for at l e a s t two months. Numerous g u l l i e s provided ample protection i n times of inclement weather. The movements from, winter to summer ranges took place by i n d i v i d u a l herds t r a v e l l i n g slowly, Early i n June, as snow was melting from the steeper slopes and v a l l e y s , herds were noted leaving the plains on the south shore and at the end of the f i o r d f o r the Black Top Creek v a l l e y , f i f t e e n miles away. Herds from Greely Fiord moved into the Eastwind Lake area at the same time (Figure 2). On June 20 f i f t y - f i v e animals i n seven herds were grazing along a seven mile stretch of Black Top Creek valley. These herds remained there u n t i l early i n July and then moved toward Eastwind Lake. At t h i s time streams were drying up and vegetation was not as dense nor as succulent as that found i n the v i c i n i t y of Eastwind Lake and nearby ponds. On August 24, one hundred thirty-one animals, many - 34 -i n large herds were counted by helicopter within a f i v e mile radius of the lake. The mating season was nearly finished and the behaviour of forming large herds i s i n accordance with the observations of other investigators. Although the investigations of musk-oxen terminated on August 24, i t i s expected that the herds moved to their winter ranges i n September and Oetober, as the snows of these months would soon cover to a depth of a foot or more a l l vegetation growing i n the lake area. This f a c t o r , com-bined with the lack of protection from blizzards and with the depletion of the range through grazing during July and August would induce the herds to seek a more favourable habitat. The evidence indicates that the musk-oxen of Fosheim Peninsula are i n no sense of the word migratory, but rather are nomadic, grazing seasonally where conditions are most favourable for the obtaining of food and shelter. Range Studies The Station Creek Valley and the Black Top Creek v a l l e y are drainages of the p l a i n extending from S l i d r e Fiord to Eastwind Lake. S o i l formation and composition are sim i l a r and vegetation i n both valleys was found to be uniform. Moreover grazing musk-oxen moved f r e e l y over the two v a l l e y s , which are separated by part of the p l a i n that also was sampled. Because of these s i m i l a r i t i e s i n f l o r a l composition and u t i l i z a t i o n , the range has been I - 3 5 _ considered as one unit i n the analysis of the plant studies. The r e s u l t s of these analyses are shown i n the table below. The most outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the very large proportion of non-vegetated ground occurring on t h i s range. Gravel, rock, s i l t and clay constituted 8 5 . 5 per cent of the area, while the t o t a l vegetative cover was 14.5 per cent. Frequency of Occurrence and Percentage of Area Covered by more Abundant Plants on Musk-ox.Summer Range. July. 1951.  Frequency of Percentage area Species Occurrence Covered Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a 2 . 7 % 3 . 5 % S a l i x a r c t i c a 2 . 5 % 2 . 2 5 % Poa species 3 « 0 % Carex rupestris 1 . 8 % . 1 8 % Alopecurus species 1.1% . 1 6 % Agropyron species . 7 2 % .11% Stream beds and small rock outcrops accounted fo r part of the unproductive area, and clay h i l l s i d e s and h i l l tops, dry and eroding, were frequently barren. On the whole, however, the low percentage of cover of plants i s the r e s u l t of t h e i r scattered growth, because of c l i m a t i c and s o i l conditions, rather than the r e s u l t of the additive eff e c t of large bare areas. - 36 -The frequency of occurrence of the recorded • plant species i s tabulated i n Table I I . Gf these only f i v e species each exceeded one per cent i n occurrence. These were Poa species of 3 . 0 per cent, Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a of 2 . 7 per cent, S a l i x a r c t i c a of 2 . 5 per cent, Carex rupestris of 1.8 per cent and Alopecurus alpinus. of 1 . 1 per cent. Agropyron latiglume. a preferred musk-oxen food, constituted . 7 2 per cent of the points examined. Of p a r t i c u l a r significance are the percentages of willow and grasses available for musk-oxen food. As a l l grass species were eaten by the ungulates, t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y i s considered to be a prime factor i n the abundance of musk-oxen on Fosheim Peninsula. The determination of area covered by the more numerous plants, indicated i n the above table, shows that the plants of greatest frequency of occurrence are not necessarily those covering the largest area. Those species of small basal area, the grasses and sedges, were of lower density than willow and dryas. Food provided by these l a t t e r species, per pound of plant, does not appear to be as much as that given by grasses, as the twigs and stems of the willow and roots of the dryas occupy a large proportion of the t o t a l surface area. Feeding Habits D i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered i n making timed counts of feeding musk-oxen. The s c a r c i t y - 37 -of food plants and the habit of musk-oxen of walking as they graze, made i t v i r t u a l l y impossible to record the number of minutes the animals had grazed on each plant species. For this reason four species of grasses, Poa sp., Agropyron  latiglume, P u c c i n e l l i a angustata. and Festuca brachyphylla -that were found to have been grazed by musk-oxen, have been grouped i n the following table under one heading as grasses. Musk-oxen Minute Counts A p r i l .. 25 May 17 May 18 June 20 June 22 June 23 June 26 Total Grasses 8 0 140 1 6 0 192 1 3 5 1 8 3 175 IO65 Dryas 21 11 32 Willow 47 31 20 25 123 Saxifrage 14 6 • 20 Total No. Minutes 8 0 140 1 6 0 260 18 0 220 200 1240 No. Musk-oxen under Observ. 4 7 8 13 9 11 10 6 2 Dryas, willow and saxifrage were not eaten i n detectable quantities i n A p r i l and May, but were u t i l i z e d i n summer months to some extent. Sedges growing on the 1 edges of ponds and streams were usually grazed to a large degree * Grasses were the p r i n c i p a l foods i n A p r i l , May and June. Although quantitative data were not obtained i n July and August, observations of grazing during these months indicated - 3 8 -s i m i l a r u t i l i z a t i o n . These l a t t e r observations and the r e s u l t s of the minute counts were substantiated by the examination of the stomach of a three-year-old b u l l musk-ox collected July 2 8 , two miles north of S l i d r e F i o r d , near transect one. Grasses constituted the greater portion of the contents, and willow and dryas, with a few plants of other species such as Melandrium t r i f l o r u m made up the remainder. In A p r i l and May, before the snow had melted, musk-oxen were feeding on slopes and h i l l tops where snow depth did not exceed ten inches. By breaking the crust with t h e i r front hoofs, which are larger than their hind hoofs, and by pawing away the snow with t h e i r hoofs and frequently with t h e i r noses, the musk-oxen were able to obtain dried grasses and other plants. In summer the action of musk-oxen grazing while walking slowly i s necessitated to a c e r t a i n extent by the s c a r c i t y of suitable food. Grasses and willow, for example, grow i n clumps often several feet apart. Much of the constant walking, however, was due to other unknown causes, as many grass clumps were l e f t untouched. P r i o r to grazing, herds often were seen to rest on an area with a good view of the surrounding country, usually on an elevated slope or a h i l l . While resting,' the animals got up occasionally, stretched, and then l a y down again, often i n a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n . I t seems a - 39 -general practice f or the b u l l of a herd to rest twenty or t h i r t y yards from the rest of the herd. The b u l l s and cows sleep on t h e i r sides, occasionally with t h e i r heads stretched out i n front of them resting on t h e i r chins, but more often with t h e i r heads turned back to rest on t h e i r sides. In chewing i t s cud, the chin of a musk-ox i s low to the ground, with the animal l y i n g down i n the normal p o s i t i o n . When grazing undisturbed, herds were spread out over an area of several hundred square yards; frequently i n d i v i d u a l s were three to four hundred yards apart, but the entire herd was moving i n the same general d i r e c t i o n . Upon several occasions i n d i v i d u a l cows or immature animals observed to have become separated further from the herd than was customary, ran to the herd immediately upon n o t i c i n g t h e i r unusual s i t u a t i o n . Two types of droppings were found on the range. Round, hard caribou-like dung, i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 11, was determined to be winter dung. The dry, coarse d i e t i s believed to be the cause of t h i s type. Summer dung, Figure 12, i s softer and shaped l i k e that of a domestic cow and was a product of green, often succulent vegetation. F i r s t examples of t h i s type were noted on June 9. A herd of nine musk-oxen had been grazing on green grass shoots and on dried grasses of the previous summer i n the Station Creek Valley. The two types of food resulted i n droppings that were only p a r t i a l l y - 40 -of summer consistency. Ponds and streams s a t i s f i e d water requirements of musk-oxen from early i n June to the end of August. In winter snow was eaten. Several observations of the l a t t e r action were made i n A p r i l and May, but the quantity consumed da i l y was not determined. On either bank of the stream flowing from Romulus Lake to S l i d r e Fiord are patches of white s o i l . Results of the analysis of a sample of the s o i l by the Depart-ment of Agr i c u l t u r e , Ottawa, are given below. Calcium sulphate (Ca S O 4 ) 0 . 3 7 4 % Magnesium sulphate (Mg S O 4 ) 0 . 5 4 6 % Sodium sulphate (Na 2 S O 4 ) 9 . 8 8 0 % Sodium chloride (Na 0 1 ) 5 . 5 9 0 % Organic matter (loss on i g n i t i o n ) 0 . 2 7 0 % Total 1 6 . 6 6 0 f. Traces were present of Nag C 0 j and a potassium s a l t . Tracks of musk-oxen and shallow, scooped-out p i t s were scattered over the surface of the patches, possibly i n d i c a -t i n g that musk-oxen ate the s o i l to s a t i s f y t h e i r mineral requirement. Dung found i n the v i c i n i t y of the stream was greyish and f r i a b l e . Cowan and Brink (9) have reported on the - 41 -u t i l i z a t i o n by ungulates of s a l t l i c k s i n the Mountain National Parks -of Canada. They found that the Artio d a c t y l a of these parks used the l i c k s during summer months and that t h i s seasonal use, was, i n part, based upon factors other than those of a v a i l a b i l i t y . A s i m i l a r condition must exist i n the musk-ox u t i l i z a t i o n of the l i c k under consideration, as although much of the area was free of snow when v i s i t e d May 17, tracks of musk-oxen were not present i n or around the l i c k . Pathological Examinations These examinations were divided into two phases, the examination of a two year old b u l l and the analyses of dung collected on the range throughout the summer. On July 28 the two year old b u l l was collected under permit one mile north of the north shore of S l i d r e Fiord. Careful examination resulted i n finding only one species of parasite, a tapeworm (Mbnezia sp.) i n the small i n t e s t i n e . Five individuals of t h i s species were present. External parasites were absent i n the specimen examined. Mosquitoes are the only insects observed that may have bothered musk-oxen. The appearance of mosquitoes was confined to a period of about ten days to two weeks i n July, and may have been confined further i n that period to days that were warm and humid?, M o r t a l i t y Factors Predation Adult musk-oxen are p a r t i c u l a r l y well adapted for defense against wolves, the only predator - 42 -of these animals on Fosheim Peninsula. Sharp, heavy horns, nimble feet and. powerful bodies combined with the herd defence formation enable them to withstand most attacks.' The population of wolves (Canis lupus arctos) on the peninsula i n past years i s unknown. Verbal statements of t h e i r numbers and a c t i v i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y of S l i d r e Fiord had been received p r i o r to t h i s study from observers who had v i s i t e d the area i n 1 9 5 0 . These reports placed the wolf population at a high l e v e l , but observations i n the f i e l d over a period of four months i n 1951 led to the conclusion that i f previous reports of a high wolf population at a high l o v o l , but ob&e-rvatlons in- the f i e l d over a period of, four mon£fas^n^l~9.51—l^d Q.f.-a—fa-i-gh wolf population were s u b s t a n t i a l l y correct the population had undergone a considerable reduction i n numbers i n the past year. Although no figures e x i s t on past popula-t i o n s i z e s , records have been kept of the numbers of wolves k i l l e d near the weather s t a t i o n since 1 9 4 7 . Six were shot i n the winter of 1 9 4 7 - 4 8 , about a dozen i n the winter of 1948-49 s i x i n the autumn of 1 9 4 9 , at least twelve during the sum-mer of 1 9 5 0 , four during the winter of 1950-51 and three dur-ing the summer of 1 9 5 1 , a t o t a l of 43 wolves. The presence of dogs at the sta t i o n i s a source of a t t r a c t i o n to the wolves. Eleven observations of a t o t a l of twenty-seven wolves were made during a four month period i n 1 9 5 1 . At - 4 3 -least f i f t e e n animals were involved. Most observations involved single or paired animals, but on August 2 0 a pack of three adults and nine young invaded the st a t i o n area, nearly k i l l i n g one of the dogs. The data indicate that the population of adult wolves i n the v i c i n i t y of S l i d r e Fiord during the summer of 1 9 5 1 was not high, probably not exceeding ten animals. Tracks were uncommon and, with one exception, were seen after a wolf had been sighted. The analyses of eighty-five wolf scats picked up on the summer and winter ranges of musk-oxen disclosed that 7 0 or 8 3 . 3 per cent were remains of A r c t i c hare (Lepus  arcticus monstrabilis) and f i f t e e n scats, 1 6 . 7 percent, were remains of musk-oxen. Three wolf stomachs were examined of which one collected June 2 9 was empty, one collected June 2 contained remains of A r c t i c hare and one col l e c t e d June 8 was p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d with musk-ox hair and bones. Further evidence of wolves eating musk-oxen was determined by Mr. Charles Handley i n 1 9 4 8 . J.P. K e l s a l l ( 4 9 ) reported that Handley saw a pack of four adult and three young wolves attack an adult musk-oxen August 2 9 , 1 9 4 8 , near Eastwind Lake. One of the wolves was shot and an examina-t i o n of i t s stomach contents revealed that the animal had been eating musk-oxen l a t e l y . An observation during the present study of wolves attacking a herd of musk-oxen was recorded on June 2 0 . - 44 -A herd of fourteen musk-oxen that had been feeding undisturbed for several hours on the western slope of Black Top Ridge, were seen to form a defensive group. Two wolves, one white and one grey were then noted l y i n g down together f i f t y yards from the herd. Occasionally one of the wolves c i r c l e d the herd and then returned to l i e down. Eventually ten of the musk-oxen lay down, while four remained standing facing the herd. The ca l f i n the herd kept close to the cows, grazing near the resting adults u n t i l the white wolf suddenly dashed around the four standing adults and toward the c a l f that was now outside the animals l y i n g down. The c a l f im-mediately ran i n to the centre of the herd and a l l of the animals rose to the i r feet. The lone adult b u l l present charged the wolf i n an attempt to gore i t but the wolf nimbly turned aside and trotted o f f to i t s mate. Both wolves l e f t about one half hour l a t e r , heading towards the eastern end of the f i o r d . The remains of twenty-eight musk-oxen were, found at d i f f e r e n t points throughout the study. Scats of wolves and foxes (Alopex lagopus groenlandicus) were present at each. Twenty three were adults, of which fourteen were b u l l s , seven were cows and two were of unknown sex. Five of the musk-oxen skeletons were of immature animals. - 45 -The ages of the twenty-six musk-oxen are l i s t e d i n the table below. Ages of 2 6 Musk-oxen Found Dead on the Range 6 m o . l y r . % r. 6 y r . 7 y r . Syr . lOyr. l l y r . 1 2 y r . Total Immature 1 1 3 5 Male Adults 1 1 4 5 3 14 Female Adults 1 1 2 3 7 Total 1 1 3 2 2 2 4 5 6 2 6 The causes of deaths Of these musk-oxen can only be hazarded. The s k e l e t a l remains had been scattered and often p a r t i a l l y destroyed. Death from old age i s of rare occurrence i n wild animals and with the r e l a t i v e l y high wolf population present on Fosheim Peninsula during the l a s t three years, i t i s concluded that many of the dead animals including the f i v e immature animals were wolf k i l l s . The lone wanderings of b u l l s increases t h e i r v u l n e r a b i l i t y to predation", and i t i s probable that i f a pack of wolves encountered a lone b u l l , wounded or o l d , they would be able to k i l l i t . M o r t a l i t y Through Fighting I t i s known that musk-oxen b u l l s have k i l l e d or seriously wounded t h e i r opponents i n the mating season. Hearne, Pike t Jensen and others have discussed the battles observed by them. Most such battles occur i n July and August but have been reported i n February by Jennov. Evidence of the violence of the f i g h t i n g was - 4 6 -found t h i s summer when three s k u l l s with broken horns, and what appeared to be one case of cracked c e r v i c a l vertebrae were discovered. One s k u l l was found i n which the horn on the l e f t forehead was broken through to the s k u l l . This animal also had the cracked vertebrae. No wounded b u l l s were recorded on the range covered during the study. One old animal, however, was noted to have l o s t h i s l e f t horn from the l e v e l of the eye. - 47 -DISCUSSION 0? RESULTS: The analyses of the composition of the herds throughout Fosheim Peninsula t h i s year hear out many of the observations of e a r l i e r investigators. The observation of Hearne that very few mature bu l l s were present i n musk-oxen herds have been v e r i f i e d by a l l serious investigators since his time, and were further v e r i f i e d for herds e x i s t i n g on Fosheim Peninsula. The percentage of b u l l s i n 1 1 8 adults recorded from A p r i l 1 9 to June 23, 33» 9 percent, Is mid-way between the findings of MacMillan (40 per cent) and Howard ( 2 7 per cent). While precise reasons f o r the discrepancies cannot be given i t i s probable that differences i n predation pres-sure, types of t e r r a i n under observation and degree of thoroughness of observations account for the v a r i a t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n t fact of course, i s the existence of the low proportion of males. The p r i n c i p a l factors leading to the smaller number of males found on the present study may be due to three causes. S o l i t a r y b u l l s were often found many miles from herds. I t i s probable that some b u l l s were missed, p a r t i c u l a r l y as they preferred ridges and alpine meadows and gorges, where they would be hidden e a s i l y . The second cause for smaller numbers may be the greater mortality of b u l l s , r e s u l t i n g from f i g h t i n g and from predation. The fa c t that fourteen of twenty-one -. 48 dead adult animals found on the range were b u l l s , would indicate that b u l l s may suffer greater mortality than cows, i n proportion to t h e i r numbers. I f t h i s were true, however, the average age of the b u l l s found dead should be less than those of the cows, while the contrary was found. The t h i r d reason for the unbalanced r a t i o may be the deferred maturity of b u l l s . As t h i s sex i s reported to mature two to three years l a t e r than cows, any counts of sexes i n adults i n herds would omit four and five-year-old b u l l s , m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t i n g the r a t i o . Evidence obtained from studies of 2 6 immature animals suggest that nine were four and f i v e year old males. To equate the sex r a t i o of males and females over three years of age, the nine animals have been added to 4G males giving a r a t i o of 49 b u l l s to 78 cows or 1:1 .6, In a l l cases observed i n the present study, b u l l s i n possession of herds were well-matured animals. S o l i t a r y b u l l s , on the other hand, ranged from mature young animals to the very old. A combination of experience and strength i s probably necessary for the successful conclusion of c o n f l i c t s for cows. Immature b u l l s are tolerated i n a herd u n t i l they reach sexual maturity. Fighting experience, therefore, would not be gained u n t i l after the f i f t h or s i x t h year of age. Success i n such f i g h t s probably i s not reached u n t i l the seventh or eighth year of age, thus accounting for the rather l i m i t e d age class of successful b u l l s . - 4 9 -The p r o p o r t i o n of immature animals to cows was found to be 2 6 to 7 8 or 1 : 3 . The c a l f to cow r a t i o f o r the same p e r i o d o f A p r i l 1 9 to June 2 3 was 1 9 to 7 8 or 1 : 3 * 8 . As the immatures are composed of a t l e a s t t h r e e and perhaps fou r age groups, two and t h r e e - y e a r - o l d females, two, t h r e e , f o u r and p o s s i b l y f i v e - y e a r - o l d males the s u r v i v a l of the immatures f o r a l l ages, i n c l u d i n g y e a r l i n g s , i s c a l c u l a t e d to be 3 8 per c e n t . The c a l c u l a t i o n i s based om s e v e r a l as-sumptions, but l a c k i n g f a c t s n e c e s s a r y f o r a p r e c i s e ' d e t e r -m i n a t i o n , the f i g u r e was d e r i v e d i n order to have a mathemat-i c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f s u r v i v a l f o r f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e . To obtain, the f i g u r e s i t was assumed t h a t the c a l f crop was normal f o r 1 9 3 1 and f o r p r e v i o u s years and t h a t 7 8 cows could have p r o -duced c a l v e s f o r t h e f i v e years under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The c a l c u l a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : 1 9 3 0 - male and female y e a r l i n g s - 19 1 9 4 9 - male and female two year o l d - 1 9 1 9 4 8 - male and female t h r e e year o l d - 1 9 1 9 4 7 - male o n l y (females mature) 1 9 4 6 1 - male o n l y (females mature) 1 9 — T o t a l - 7 6 No. o f immature animals found 26 No. o f y e a r l i n g s 3 2 9 S u r v i v a l 2 | x 1 0 0 = 3 8 . 1 % - 5 0 -Assuming that the immature group includes females two and three years old and males two, three, four and f i v e years o l d , then the 26 animals consisted of one-t h i r d or 8 . 6 females and two-thirds or 1 7 . 4 males, an average increment of the herds under study of just over four of each sex per year. The percentage of calves of a l l animals t a l l i e d from the a i r i n 1950 i s close to that found i n 1 9 5 1 . As both samples are large enough to be s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y , p a r t i a l support i s given the assumption that the c a l f crop for 1 9 5 1 was normal. Evidence obtained t h i s year indicates that 7 5 per cent of 78 cows observed from A p r i l 19 to June 25 did not have calves. This o v e r a l l percentage i s s i m i l a r to that obtained June 20 when 25 of 32 cows, 7 8 per cent, were without calves, and to that obtained for the period June 3 to 2 3 , when 37 of 4 6 cows, 80 per cent, were barren. These figures c l e a r l y demonstrate the low productivity of musk-oxen. A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n has been reported i n the writings of Jensen, Manniche, Nathorst and Pedersen, who found a low percentage of calves i n herds i n Greenland, and i n the writings of Hoare and Clarke of herds i n the Thelon Game Sanctuary i n Canada. The question of frequency of breeding of adult females has never been answered f u l l y . An explanation of the low-productivity has been forwarded by Jensen, Ereuehen ( 1 5 ) , - 5 1 -Hermesay ( 1 9 ) , Johansen (28), C r i t c h e l l - B u l l o c k ( 1 0 ) , and o t h e r s , who b e l i e v e that musk-oxen c a l v e i n a l t e r n a t e y e a r s . The low percentage of c a l v e s found i n herds on Fosheim P e n i n s u l a i n 1 9 5 0 and 1 9 5 1 and the f a c t t h a t o n l y 20 to 25 per cent of a d u l t cows had c a l v e s i n 1 9 5 1 , would support the theory o f breeding i n a l t e r n a t e y e a r s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t each of the t h r e e cows observed i n three herds on June 2 0 which were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one y e a r l i n g , were wi t h o u t c a l v e s . These o b s e r v a t i o n s , along with t h a t of August 5 i n which a cow without a c a l f , i n a herd of two other cows w i t h c a l v e s , was seen to mate w i t h a b u l l , may suggest t h a t as l o n g as a e a l f i s w i t h a cow, the cow w i l l not mate. Fruchen was of t h i s o p i n i o n a l s o . The importance of environmental l i m i t a t i o n s on c a l f m o r t a l i t y or p r o d u c t i o n i s unknown. S t o r k e r s e n b e l i e v e s t h a t the adverse weather experienced i n A p r i l accounts f o r the deaths of numbers of c a l v e s born d u r i n g t h a t month. The u t i l i z a t i o n of food consumed i n w i n t e r f o r the maintenance of body heat and l i f e f u n c t i o n s reduce the amount of nourishment a v a i l a b l e f o r embryos", and under extreme c o n d i t i o n s , may cause r e s o r p t i o n or a b o r t i o n . Such c o n d i t i o n s have been r e p o r t e d i n deer, e l k and other animals and p o s s i b l y c o u l d a f f e c t a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n c a l f p r o d u c t i o n of musk-oxen. Much i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d on t h i s s u b j e c t , however, be f o r e d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn. The significance of predation upon c a l f s u r v i v a l i s discussed below. Dates of calving i n musk-oxen of Fosheim Peninsula agree with those reported by Greely, Sverdrup and Ekblaw ( 1 1 ) for l a t i t u d e 8 0 ° North on Ellesmere Island, and are similar to those found on M e l v i l l e Island by Storkerson and l a the Thelon by Clarke. An in t e r e s t i n g point i s , that although Fosheim Peninsula i s more than 1100 miles north of the Thelon River and has a reduced summer period, the calving dates should be s i m i l a r , and i f anything are perhaps e a r l i e r than those of Thelon musk-oxen. I t might be expected that the contrary would be true. Light i n various periods of l i g h t and darkness i s responsible for the onset of breeding i n ce r t a i n large ungulates of temperate regions, Thompson (48); has given evidence of t h i s i n h i s studies with sheep. In the Thelon Game Sanctuary, l a t i t u d e 63 GN., maximum sunlight i s of 21 hours duration on June 21. By July 31 sunlight l a s t s 18 hours a day and decreases st e a d i l y u n t i l December 21. On August 3 1 , the end of the breeding season, 14 hours of d a i l y sunlight are experienced. On Fosheim Peninsula, l a t i t u d e 80°N.,; 24 hour daylight commences about A p r i l 14 and l a s t s u n t i l August 3 1 , the end of the musk-ox breeding season there. To re c a p i t u l a t e , then, periods of sunlight grow shorter before musk-oxen commence to breed i n the Thelon Game Sanctuary, but the sunlight on Fosheim Peninsula i s of - 53 -24 hours a day duration throughout the mating period. I t would appear that the trig g e r mechanism of a l t e r n a t i n g l i g h t i n t e n s i t i e s i n i t i a t i n g the onset of the oestrus cycle i n musk-oxen acts on the animals before the onset of twenty-four hour daylight or before the period of maximum daylight, whichever the case may be. I t i s suggested here that t h i s causal mechanism may be associated with the vernal equinox, March 21. Breeding throughout the range of musk-oxen would them be uniform i n time. Musk-oxen of Fosheim Peninsula are more fortunate than most of the Art i o d a c t y l a i n that external parasites appear to be absent, or negli g i b l e i n t h e i r affect on the health or a c t i v i t y of the animal. Internal parasites may exert some influence on general well-being, p a r t i c u l a r l y during winter months, but there i s no evidence, as yet, to support "this contention. I t may be i n d i c a t i v e of the status of the d e b i l i t a t i n g a ffect of i n t e r n a l parasites that the three-year-old male musk-oxen collected July 28 was i n excellent condition, with an abundance of f a t , although f i v e large tapeworms were present. The l i f e h i s t o r y of the genus Monezia om Fosheim. Peninsula i s not known, except that the adult stage of the tapeworms i s reached i n the i n t e s t i n e of a musk-oxen. I t i s possible that an intermediate stage of the cestode may be spent i n an aquatic invertebrate, many indi v i d u a l s of which exist i n shallow ponds scattered over the musk-oxen - 54 -summer range. I t has been demonstrated by Stunkard ( 4 7 ) that an intermediate host of the Monezia was a mite, Galumna species. Two instances have been recorded i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the i n f e s t a t i o n of parasites i n musk-oxen. Fielden ( 1 2 ) s t a t e d that two species of parasites he found i n musk-oxen i n east Greenland were a Taenia sp. and a F i l a r i a sp. Jensen ( 2 6 ) mentions findi n g "a tapeworm i n the phase" i n the l i v e r of a b u l l musk-ox shot August 7 , 1 8 9 9 at Hurry I n l e t , Greenland. There does not appear to be any reference i n the l i t e r a t u r e to parasites of musk-oxen inhab i t -ing Canadian t e r r i t o r y . One of the most in t e r e s t i n g behaviour actions of musk-oxen i s the method of defense employed upon the ap-proach of danger. The animals i n a herd that i s approached by wolves, for example, w i l l form a c l o s e l y - k n i t group, with adults facing outwards and calves between adults or occasion-a l l y underneath the long hair of the cows. Single animals seek high ground or a c l i f f where some measure of security can be obtained. This defense system i s p r a c t i c a l l y im-pregnable against wolf attacks. Cases of s o l i t a r y animals being k i l l e d by wolves, however, are r e l a t i v e l y numerous© The assessment of wolf predation on the musk-oxen under study can only be inferred from observation of musk-oxen remains, and these, with the exception of three, were i n a condition such that causes of death could not be determined. Indirect evidence of the k i l l i n g of musk-oxen by wolves may l i e i n the observations of Handley and the writer of wolves attacking the ungulates, and i n the r a t i o s of adult b u l l s to cows i n s k e l e t a l remains. In the former instance, while the wolves were not successful i n obtaining prey, possibly because of man's interference, the f a c t that musk-oxen remains have been found i n stomachs of wolves by both observers i s a strong i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r success i n k i l l i n g the animals. The r a t i o of two b u l l s found dead to each cow i n 2 1 adult" remains suggests that s e l e c t i v e i n -fluences create a greater mortality among b u l l s , These i n -fluences may be the s o l i t a r y habit of b u l l s unsuccessful i n obtaining mates^ and the wounding of b u l l s during con-f l i c t s to obtain - females. In" either- case, but p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l a t t e r , the b u l l s would be vulnerable to wolf preda-t i o n , as the protection through herd defense i s absent. The numerous instances of lone b u l l s being k i l l e d by wolves that- have been enumerated by Fielden, Sverdrup, Ekblaw, Rasmussen (39), Jennov and others, support -the view that" the greater proportion of b u l l s found dead i n the present study i s the r e s u l t of the afore-mentioned influences. The effect on the rates of increase of musk-oxen by the k i l l i n g of adult b u l l s by wolves, i s not con-sidered to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The r a t i o of one adult b u l l to two cows, and the f a c t that twenty-six unmated b u l l s were - 5 6 -observed would suggest that i n a polygamous species such as musk-oxen the removal of the unmated b u l l s would not decrease the opportunity for successful breeding of available cows. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that 12 of the 14 b u l l s found dead were determined to be ten or more years of age. I t suggests that the tendency for s o l i t a r y wanderings, with consequent increased v u l n e r a b i l i t y to predation, occurs when they may be no longer successful i n contending f o r mates. The f a c t that only seven dead females were found on the range can be attributed to t h e i r gregarious habit of remaining i n a herd, even though i t i s a small one, with r e s u l t i n g increased protection. In two cases, however, a female and an immature musk-oxen had been k i l l e d together, suggesting that i n c e r t a i n circumstances even t h i s protection i s not s u f f i c i e n t against a determined attack. Although the data are i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r v a l i d analysis, the ages of the cow remains may indicate mortality i s spread through various ages, as would be expected i n a normal population. Three^two and one-half-year-old, one yearling and one six-month-old musk-ox found dead are almost c e r t a i n to be wolf k i l l s . The immature animals do not leave the herds, nor do they become involved i n f i g h t s for cows. While accident may account f o r deaths of any of the animals d i s -covered, i t i s not l i k e l y that a l l deaths can be attributed to t h i s cause. Unfavourable winter range conditions also may - 57 -cause some mort a l i t y , but Stefansson (43) believes the opposite to be the case for he has found the animals f a t t e r i n January than i n July. The k i l l i n g of cows and immature animals, including calves, may exert a s i g n i f i c a n t check on popula-t i o n growth or maintenance. The figures given i n the table of age and sex classes of musk-oxen i n herds under study show that an exceptionally heavy c a l f loss must have been experienced between. September, 1 9 5 0 , and A p r i l , 1 9 5 1 , as only three yearlings were present t h i s spring. Although only one c a l f was found to have been k i l l e d by wolves, i t i s not sound to state that the low yearling count was due to other causes, because wolves are able to destroy most of the carcasses of calves. The low yearling count i n 1951 may have been due to an exceptionally low b i r t h rate i n 1 9 5 0 . An examination of the climatic records for the winter and spring of 1 9 4 9 - 5 0 does not reveal unusually adverse conditions. I t i s u n l i k e l y also, that i f i t be true that musk-oxen breed every second year, the spring of 1950 was a year of low productivity for a l l adult cows i n the area. The f i n d i n g of Lawrie i n August of 1950 refutes the l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y . He reported seeing 32 calves i n a t o t a l of 413 musk-oxen giving a r a t i o of calves to other age classes of 32 to 3 8 l or 1 to 11 .9. From A p r i l 19 to June 2 3 , 1 9 5 1 , only three yearlings were observed i n a t o t a l of 166. animals, which included 22 calves. The yearl i n g r a t i o of 3 to 144 or 1 to 48 Indicates c l e a r l y that excessive - 5 8 -mortality of calves took place during the eight winter months. The reportedly high wolf population on Fosheim Peninsula i n 1 9 5 0 and possibly part of the early months of 1 9 5 1 would have exerted a maximum predation pressure on the herds. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to a t t r i b u t e a l l of the reduction i n yearling numbers to wolf predation, p a r t i c u l a r l y as a p l e n t i f u l and more e a s i l y obtained supply of A r c t i c hare was avai l a b l e . I t would appear that much of the reduction, how-ever, i s the result of such predation. The observations concerning the rather sedentary habits of musk-oxen under study add to the weight of evidence of Greely, MacMillan, Hanbury ( 1 7 ) , Bernier ( 6 ) , Stefansson, Clarke and others who have opined that musk-oxen are not migratory, but ex h i b i t seasonal movements to areas where food and shelter requirements are most favourable. Their habit of seasonal movement can be compared to that of other w i l d ruminants such as sheep and goats that leave t h e i r summer ranges at the approach of winter for areas where food i s available and shelter can be obtained. Certain secondary effects of the non-migratory custom and of the low rates of increase are probable. The re-occupying of depleted musk-ox ranges and the invasion of new t e r r i t o r y would be a gradual process. Fielden reached s i m i l a r conclusions from h i s observations i n Greenland. No evidence was found of overgrazed range on either summer or winter grounds during the present study. - 5 9 -Population checks that are exerted against musk-oxen of Fosheim Peninsula have prevented t h e i r numbers from reaching the point where overgrazed range e x i s t s . I t has been pointed out by Clarke, et a l (8), that the number of samples required to determine the bota-n i c a l composition of the vegetation of a range i s apparently a function of the grass cover. Their analyses have shown that i n an area where the plant cover i s about 4.8 per cent some 3&00 points obtained by the point sample technique should be examined to reduce the standard error of the mean to less than f i v e per cent of the mean. The sampling by examining 10,000 points on the summer range of musk-oxen undertaken during the present study i s considered to have reduced the standard error of the mean to less than, f i v e per cent, as the grass cover of Poa species, Alopecurus alpinus, and Agropyron latlglume. the more abundant species, t o t a l l e d 4.81 per cent. The most abundant single plant species on the range, and the one occupying the largest area, was Dryas  I n t e g r i f o l l a . although c o l l e c t i v e l y the three species of Poa, indicated i n Table VI, are of greater occurrence. S a l i x  a r c t i c a was i n second place. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that two genera of grasses, Poa sp.^and Agropyron latlglume. that were found i n the stomach of a young b u l l musk-ox and that were recorded along with two other less abundant genera of grasses i n the minute - 60 -counts, should constitute about 3 .8 per cent of the points sampled. The grasses, along with willow of 2.5 per cent of the t o t a l points, contribute measurably to the t o t a l food supply available to musk-ox herds. Food habits determined f o r the musk-oxen study do not d i f f e r greatly from those reported by Storkerson, Johansen, Fielden, Bay (4) and others. Greely considered that saxifrage and dryas were the p r i n c i p a l winter foods of musk-oxen on the east coast of Ellesmere Island, but t h i s may have been the r e s u l t of s c a r c i t y of grasses rather than preference of food by the musk-oxen. Certainly the food value stored i n seed heads of the grass species would be greater than that of the dried leaves of the willow and dryas, and would s a t i s f y n u t r i t i o n a l requirements more e a s i l y . I t i s also possible, of course, that musk-oxen have a rather wide range of food habits, being able to survive i n several areas, each of which may d i f f e r i n plant composition and abundance. Minute counts of grazing musk-oxen show that grasses were preferred foods during the months of A p r i l , May and June as 85.9 per cent of 1240 minutes were spent by 62 musk-oxen i n grazing on these plants. Willow was second i n preference, occupying 10 per cent of the t o t a l time observed* Dryas and saxifrage were less preferred species© 61 -CONCLUSIONS; 1 . In A p r i l and May, 1 9 5 1 , herds of musk-oxen on Fosheim Peninsula usually contained two or more adult b u l l s . Only one herd composed solefer of b u l l s was noted i n t h i s period. 2 . From June u n t i l August 1 5 , f i v e of sixteen herds had two or more b u l l s , and eleven herds contained one b u l l . Twenty-six adult b u l l s , of which 14 were s o l i t a r y and the remainder were i n three herds of two, four and s i x animals, were noted i n addition. 3 . The sex r a t i o of a l l adult animals recorded from A p r i l 19 to June 2 3 , i n c l u s i v e , was 1 :2 or 40 b u l l s to 78 cows. 4. The r a t i o of immature animals, composed of two and three year old females and two to f i v e year old males, to adult cows was 1 :3 or 26 to 7 8 . The immature animals were present i n 10 of 17 herds noted between A p r i l 19 and June 2 3 . 5 . Only three yearling musk-oxen were noted during the course of the study. 6 . Calving of musk-oxen during 1951 occurred between A p r i l 15 and June 15'. Most calves appeared to have been born between the l a s t week of A p r i l and the end of May. An example of late calving was noted. June 20 when a c a l f one or two weeks old was found i n the Black Top Creek v a l l e y . - 62 -7. Calves born i n A p r i l and early May experience harsher cli m a t i c conditions than those born l a t e r i n the calving season. 8. There was no evidence to.suggest that cows seek a s o l i t a r y spot to bring f o r t h calves as a l l cows observed during the calving months of A p r i l , May and June were i n herds. 9 . The proportion of calves to cows observed at the end of the breeding season, June 20, was 1:4.6 and for the period June 3 to June 23 was 1 : 5 . 1 or 9 calves to 46 cows. This l a t t e r r a t i o i s considered to be an accurate i n d i c a t i o n of the reproductive success of musk-oxen on Fosheim Peninsula. The percentage of calves of a l l animals observed from June 3 to 23 was 10.8 per cent of 103 animals, or 25.6 per cent of the adult females. 1 0 . On August 24, 1951? a count of musk-oxen by helicopter i n the Eastwind Lake area revealed that 9 or 6 .9 per cent of 131 animals were calves. 1 1 . Calves begin grazing wit h i n a few weeks after b i r t h . Five calves noted eating grasses on May 17 were considered to be two to three weeks of age. In June, July and August, calves were grazing extensively, yet were obtaining milk from cows. 1 2 . Cows with calves were l a t e r i n shedding their winter coat than other adults and t h i s c r i t e r i o n might be used to recognize cows that had l o s t calves soon aft e r b i r t h . - 63 -1 3 . Two observations of mating were made, one on August 5 and one on August 1 2 . The breeding season i s thought to extend from mid-July to the end of August. 14. Fighting by b u l l s for the possession of cows occurs during June, July and August. Sporadic c o n f l i c t s were observed i n May but are not considered s i g n i f i c a n t as f a r as the desire to obtain mates i s concerned. 1 5 . The b u l l i n possession of a herd during the mating season was generally an experienced, older animal. 1 6 . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a musk-ox winter range include an area where pre v a i l i n g winds keep snow depths at a minimum, a s u f f i c i e n t quantity of grasses and other food plants, and a sheltered l o c a t i o n . Suitable summer range appears to include fresh water and green vegetation. 1 7 . Winter and summer ranges of musk-oxen on the peninsula are not separated by great distances. In some cases the movement from winter to summer range was v e r t i c a l , which involved leaving a sloping plateau for a wide v a l l e y below. In other cases the movement was h o r i z o n t a l , from a windswept p l a i n where the food supply had been depleted through grazing, to areas where winter snow had protected vegetation from musk-oxen u t i l i z a t i o n , and where a moist habitat resulted i n denser, more succulent vegetation. - 64 -18. The movements from winter to summer ranges took place by i n d i v i d u a l herds t r a v e l l i n g slowly. The distances were not great, f i f t e e n to twenty miles apart for some herds, while other herds tr a v e l l e d f i v e miles or l e s s . Herds from the plains on the south shore of S l i d r e Fiord and at the end of the f i o r d moved into the Black Top Creek v a l l e y early i n June. Herds from Greely Fiord moved into the Lake Eastwind Area at the same time. 1 9 . The evidence obtained during the present study indicates that musk-oxen are not migratory i n t h e i r habits, but graze seasonally where conditions are most favourable for the obtaining of food and shelter. 20. 8 5 . 5 per cent of the summer range under study was found to be rock, gravel, s i l t and clay. The t o t a l vegetative cover was 14 .5 per cent of the 10,000 points sampled by the Clarke Point Sample Method. 2 1 . Poa species occurred i n 3.0 per cent pf the samples, Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a 2.7 per cent, S a l i x a r c t i c a 2 . 5 per cent, and Carex rupestris 1.8 per cent. 22. The plants covering the largest percentage of area i n 200 quadrats were, Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a , 3*5 per cent, S a l i x a r c t i c a , 2 . 2 5 per cent, and Poa species .48 per cent. 2 3 . Minute counts of grazing musk-oxen show that grasses were preferred foods, as 8 5 . 9 per cent of 1240 minutes were spent by 62 musk-oxen i n grazing on these plants. - 65 -Willow was second i n preference, occupying 10 per cent of the t o t a l time observed of grazing musk-oxen. Dryas and saxifrage were of l i t t l e value i n food preference. 24. Grasses made up the greater portion of the stomach contents of a two year old b u l l musk-ox collected July 28, two miles north of S l i d r e Fiord; willow and a few plants of other species made up the remainder. 25. Two types of musk-ox droppings were found on the peninsula. Round, hard, caribou-like dung was determined to be winter dung, and i s believed to be caused by the dry, coarse diet of winter months. Summer dung i s softer and shaped l i k e that of a domestic cow, and was a product of green vegetation. 26. Sodium chloride and sulphates of calcium, magnesium and i sodium were obtained by musk-oxen i n June from an extensive area of mineralized s o i l near Romulus Lake. 27. Five individuals of the Mpnezia sp. were obtained from the small intestine of a two year old b u l l musk-ox. No other i n t e r n a l or external parasites were found. 28. The analyses of 85 wolf scats picked up on the summer and winter ranges of musk-oxen disclosed that 70 or 83.3 per cent were remains of A r c t i c Hare and 15 or 16.7 per cent were of musk-oxen. One wolf collected June 8 had musk-ox ha i r and bones i n i t s i n t e s t i n e s . - 66 -Two wolves were observed to attack unsuccessfully a herd of 1 2 adult and two c a l f musk-oxen i n the Black Top Creek v a l l e y on June.20, The remains of 28 dead musk-oxen were found on the summer and winter range under study. Twenty-three were adults, of which 14 were b u l l s , seven were cows and two were of unknown sex. Five animals were immature animals. The cause of death of the animals could not be determined pre c i s e l y . The length of time the animals had been dead varied from several years to less than one year. - 6 7 -SUMMARY: The musk-oxen i n the v i c i n i t y of S l i d r e F i o r d , Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T., were studied during the course of w i l d l i f e investigations there i n 1951 to obtain information on the many factors surrounding t h e i r l i v e s. The study lasted from A p r i l 19 to August 24, and involved surveying herds on an area of 450 square mile's. U n t i l June 2 3 , duplication of data obtained from herd observations was avoided, as the herds remained on th e i r i n d i v i d u a l winter grounds or moved to the summer range i n a manner to permit of th e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . After June 23 the intermingling of herds from the south shore of S l i d r e Fiord with those from the south shore of Greely Fiord i n the Eastwind Lake area and Black Top Creek Valley prevented the compilation of the data obtained from them on sex and age classes. The age and sex classes of a l l animals observed from A p r i l 19 to June 23 were t o t a l l e d and then examined f o r t h e i r r e l a t i o n to each other and to the t o t a l . Adult cows were found to outnumber b u l l s 2 : 1 . Herds i n l a t e winter and early spring usually were composed of one or more b u l l s i n addition to cows and other animals. With the approach of summer usually a l l but one b u l l l e f t the herds, wandering singly or i n small herds over the range. During the two month period mentioned above, - 6 8 -2 9 immature animals, including three yearlings were recorded. As 7 8 adult cows were i n the herds under study the small number of immature animals, p a r t i c u l a r l y yearlings, suggests that mortality factors and b i o t i c p o t e n t i a l r e s u l t i n a low rate of increase i n musk-ox herds. Calving occurred from mid-April to the end of May or early June. The proportion of calves to adult cows t a l l i e d after the calving season was 1 to 5 . 1 ? and the percentage of calves of a l l animals c l a s s i f i e d during t h i s period, June 3 to June 23? was 1 0 . 8 per cent of 1 0 3 animals, or 1 9 . 6 per cent of the adult females. The breeding season of musk-oxen on the study area i s considered to extend from mid-July to the end of August. Fighting by b u l l s f o r the possession of cows, however, begins i n the l a t t e r part of June and extends through July and August. Two observations of mating were recorded, one on August 5 and one on August 1 2 . Winter and summer ranges were examined to determine the prerequisites f or musk-ox. In winter, a r e l a t i v e l y snow-free area with adequate winter foods and a measure of protection from adverse weather appear to be the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of suitable range. In summer, green vegetation and fresh water are a l l that appears to be required. The summer and winter ranges are not f a r apart. Movements to the ranges are seasonal, and do not appear to be migratory. - 69 -Vegetation on the summer range constituted 8 5 . 5 . per cent of 10,000 points examined by the Clarke Point Sample Method. Grasses, the preferred musk-ox food, occurred i n 4 . 8 per cent of the points. Determinations of musk-ox food preference by timed minute counts revealed that the grasses occupied 8 5 . 9 per cent of 1240 observed minutes. Examination of the stomach contents of a two year old b u l l confirmed the above observations. Only one predator of musk-oxen, the wolf, co-exists on the study area. The influence of wolf predation i s not known preci s e l y . Examination of wolf scats and of wolf stomachs disclosed that the ungulates are being eaten. The f l e s h may have been scavenged from animals dead from other causes or may have been taken from musk-oxen k i l l e d by predation. The surplus of b u l l s of breeding age i n the musk-ox population during the mating season indicates that any loss of t h i s sex would not a f f e c t reproduction of the herds. A low yearling count i n the spring of 1951> however, suggests a high mortality of calves, possibly as a r e s u l t of wolf predation. The musk-oxen of the S l i d r e Eiord d i s t r i c t are e x i s t i n g i n an area where l i f e circumstances have permitted them to l i v e and reproduce successfully. The study of the nature and influences of these circumstances has resulted i n preliminary information, that while not conclusive, leads to interesting, and perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t conclusions. - 70 -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS;: Material f or t h i s thesis was gathered during f i e l d investigations f o r the Canadian W i l d l i f e Service, Department of Resources and Development, Ottawa. Thanks are due to Dr. Harrison F. Lewis, Chief, Canadian W i l d l i f e Service, for permission to use t h i s material. Dr. Ian McT. Cowan, Department of Zoology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, provided valuable c r i t i c i s m and comments. Mr. Robert D. Harris and Mr. Jean-P'aul Cuerrier gave h e l p f u l advice and encouragement during the writi n g of t h i s paper. The very excellent l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s provided by Miss Jean Creighton, L i b r a r i a n , National P'arks Branch, Department of Resources and Development, greatly s i m p l i f i e d l i t e r a t u r e research. Mr. Pierre Gadbois, Geographer, Geographical Branch, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, was .the best of f i e l d companions and a steadfast f r i e n d . ; ' -The writer extends h i s sincere thanks to a l l of these people i n grateful appreciation of th e i r advice and help i n the development of t h i s t h e s i s . - 71 -BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1 . A l l e n , J.A. 2. .Allen, J.A. 3 . Anderson, R.M, 4. Bay, E. 5 . B e l l , W.B. 6 . Bernier, J.E. 7. Clarke, C.H.D, 8. Clarke, S.E., J.A. Campbell, J.B. Campbell. 9 . Cowan, I . McT, V.C. Brink. The Probable Recent Occurrence of the Musk-ox i n Northern Alaska. Science, N.Y., Vol. XXXVI, Mo. 934, pp. 720-722, Nov. 22, 1912. Ontogenetic and other variations i n Musk-oxen with a systematic review of the Musk-ox group, recent and ext i n c t . Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hast., New York, 1, part 4, 226 pp., 1913. Catalogue of Canadian Recent Mammals. Nat. Mus. Can. B u l l . 102, Ottawa, 238 pp., 1946. Animal L i f e i n King Oscar land and the neighbouring t r a c t s , i n Mew Land; the Norwegian expedition of I 8 9 8 - I 9 0 2 , by Otto Sverdrup. Experiments i n re-establishment of Musk-oxen i n Alaska. Jour. Mamm., Baltimore, 12, p. 292-97, 1931. Report on the Dominion of Canada expedition to the a r c t i c islands and Hudson S t r a i t on board the D.C.S. A r c t i c , 1908, Ottawa, 529 pp., 1910. A B i o l o g i c a l Investigation of the Thelon Game Sanctuary. Nat. Mus. Can. B u l l . 9 6 , Ottawa, 135 PP» 1940. An ecological and Grazing Capacity Study of the Native Grass Pastures i n Southern Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Dept. of A g r i c , P u b l i c . Nib. 738, Ottawa, 1942. Natural Game Licks i n the Rocky Mountain National Parks of Canada. Jour. Mamm., Baltimore, 30 (4), p. 379-387, 1949. . - 72 1 0 . C r i t c h e l l - B u l l o c k , J.C. 1 1 . Ekblaw, W.E. i n MacMillan, D.B. 1 2 . Fielden, H.W. 1 3 . 14. 1 5 . Freuchen, P. 1 6 . Greely, A.W. 1 7 . Hanbury, D>.T. 1 8 . Hearne, Samuel 1 9 . Hennessy, Frank 2 0 . Hoel, A. .An expedition to sub-arctic Canada, 1924-25, Can. Field-Nat., Ottawa, 44, pp. 187 -91 . Four Years i n the White North, 1913-17. New York, 426 pp., 1 9 1 8 . On the mammalia of north Green-land and G r i n n e l l land. Zoologist, London, 3rd., Ser. 1, 528 pp., 1877. Notes from an A r c t i c journal. Zoologist, London, 3rd. Ser., 3 , 496 pp., 1879. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Musk-ox i n Greenland. Zoologist, London 3rd. Ser., 1 9 , p. 41, 1895. General observations as to the natural conditions i n the country v i s i t e d by the expedition, i n Report of the 1st Thule Expedition by Knud Rasmussen. Meddelelser om Gronland. Copenhagen, 5 1 , pp. 390-400, 1 9 1 5 . Three Years of a r c t i c service, New York, 726 pp. 1 8 9 4 . Sport and t r a v e l i n the north-land of Canada. New York. 319 PP. 1904. A Journey from Prince of Wales Fort i n Hudson's Bay to the Northern Ocean, i n the years 1769, 1770, 1771 and 1772. London. 458 pp. 1 7 9 5 . Testimony recorded i n report of Royal Commission to Investigate the P o s s i b i l i t i e s of the Reindeer and Musk-ox industry i n northern Canada. Ottawa. Vol. 2. 1 9 2 0 . Cited i n Hone, 1934-. - 73 -2 1 . Hbare, W.H.B. 2 2 . Hone, Elisabeth 2 3 . Howard, J.K. 24. Hornaday, N.T. 2 5 . Jennov, J.G. 2 6 . Jensen, Soren 2 7 . Jeremie, Nicolas 2 8 . Johansen, F r i t z .29. Lonnberg, E. 3 0 . MacFarlane, R. 3 1 . MacMillan, D.B. Conserving Canada's Musk-oxen being an account of an i n v e s t i -gation of Thelon Game Sanctuary. 1928-29, Ottawa. 53 PP. 1930. The present status of the musk-ox i n A r c t i c North .America and Greenland. No. 5, Publ. .Am. Com. for Intern. W i l d l . Prot. Cambridge, Mass. 87 pp. 1 9 3 4 . Cited i n Hone, 1934. The Musk-ox i n Alaska. B u l l . New York Zool. Soc. No. 45, pp. 747-762. May, 1911. Cited i n Hone. 1 9 3 4 . Mammals observed on Amdrup's journeys to east Greenland, I 8 9 8 - I 9 0 O . Meddelelser om Gronland, Copenhagen, 29, 1904. Cited i n A l l e n , 1913. Testimony recorded i n Report of Royal Commission to'Investigate the P o s s i b i l i t i e s of.the' Reindeer and Musk-ox industry i n northern Canada. V o l . 2, 1920. On the Soft Anatomy of the musk-ox (Ovibos moschatus). Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 142-167. 1900. Notes on mammals collected and observed i n the northern Mackenzie r i v e r d i s t r i c t . Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington, 2 8 , 1027 PP. 1 9 0 5 . Four years i n the white north, 1913-17. New York, 426 pp. 1918. - 74 -3 2 . Manniche, A.L.V. 3 3 . Nathorst, AV.G. 34. Osgood, W.H. 3 5 . 3 6 . Peary, R.E. 3 7 . Pederson, A. 3 8 . Pike, Warburton 3 9 . Preble, E.A. 40. Rasmussen, K. 41. Richardson, J . 42. Sabine, Edward 43. Seton, E.T. The t e r r e s t r i a l mammals and birds of northwest Greenland (Danmark expedition, 1 9 0 6 - 0 8 ) . Meddelelser om Gronland, Copenhagen, 4 5 , 1 9 1 0 . The loup polaire et le boef musque dans l e Gronland o r i e n t a l . La Geographic, B u l l . Soc. de Geog. Paris 3 , Mo. 1 , pp. 1 - 1 6 . 1 9 0 1 . Scaphoceros t y r e l l i , an exti n c t Ruminant from the Klondike Gravels. Smithsonian Misc. C o l l . (quart, i s s u e ) , V o l. 4 8 , part 2 , Nio. 1 5 8 9 . 1 9 0 5 . Smithsonian Misc. C o l l . (quart, issue). Vol XLVIII, part 3 , No. 1 7 0 2 , 567 PP. 1 9 0 7 . The North Pole. New York. 191Q. Cited i n Hone, 1 9 3 4 . The Barren Ground of Northern Canada. London. 300 pp. 1 8 9 2 . A b i o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Athabaska-Mackenzie region. No. Amer. Fauna. No. 2 7 , pp. 1 5 0 - 1 5 5 , Oct. 1 9 0 8 . Greenland by the Polar seas. London. 326 p. 1 9 2 1 . Fauna BSoreali - Americana. London, 1 , pp. 1 8 2 9 . Mammalia. A supplement to the appendix of Captain Parry's 1 s t voyage i n the years 1 8 1 9 - 2 0 . London, 512 pp. 1 8 2 3 . The musk-ox. Lives of game animals. New York, 3> 689 p. 1 8 2 9 . - 7 5 -4 4 . Stefanssen, V. 4 5 . 46. S'torkersen, S.T. 4 7 . Stunkard, H.W, 4 8 . Sverdrup, 0. 4 9 . Thompson 5 0 . K e l s a l l , J.P. 5 1 . Lawrie, A. The northward course of Empire. New York. pp. 1924. The 784 f r i e n d l y P. 1 9 2 7 . a r c t i c . New York. Testimony recorded i n Report of Royal Commission to Investigate the P o s s i b i l i t i e s of the Reindeer and Musk-ox industry i n northern Canada. Ottawa. Vol. 2 . 1 9 2 0 . The l i f e cycle of Monezia  expansa. Science 86: :312. . 1 9 3 7 . New Land; the Norwegian expedi-t i o n of 1898-1902. London, 1, 4 9 6 p. 2, 504 p. 1904. Report on W i l d l i f e and Geological Observations from Task Ebrce 8 0 . 1948. In f i l e s of Canadian W i l d l i f e Service, Ottawa. F i e l d Report of a B i o l o g i c a l Reconnaissance of the Eastern Canadian A r c t i c Archipelago. July-Sept. 1 9 5 0 . In f i l e s of Canadian W i l d l i f e Service, . Ottawa. - 7 6 -LIST OF PLANTS COLLECTED ON FOSHEIM PENINSULA. ELLESMERE  ISLAND. N.W.T.;; Determined by A.E. P o r s i l d , National Museum. 1 . Algae (June 25) 2. " ( » ») 3 . 11 (July 6) 4. Moss (June 19) 5 . » (June 25) 6 . » ( " ») 7 . » ( ' » » ) 8 . Equisetum arvense L. (July 5) 9 . Agropyron latiglume (Scribn. & Sm.) Rydb. (Aug. 9) 1 0 . A. latiglume var. hyperarctica F/olunin (July 5) 1 1 . Alopecurus alpinus Sm. (June 30) 1 2 . A. alpinus Sm. (June 20) 1 3 . A. " (Aug. 9) 14. Arctagrostis l a t i f o l i a (R.Br.) Griseb. (July 5) 1 5 . . " » ( »» ») 1 6 . » « (Aug. 9) 1 7 . Deschampsia caespitosa var. (July 8) 1 8 . " ( » ») 1 9 . " b r e v i f o l i a R. Br. (July 20) 2 0 . «« " (July 8) 2 1 . » » (Aug. 9) 2 2 . Festuca brachyphylla Schultes (July 20) - 77 -2 3 . 24. 2 5 . 2 6 . 2 7 . 2 8 . 2 9 . 3 0 . 3 1 . 3 2 . 3 3 . 3 4 . 3 5 . 3 6 . 3 7 . 3 8 . 3 9 . 4 0 . 4 1 . 4 2 . 4 3 . 4 4 . 4 5 . 4 6 . 4 7 . Festuca brachyphylla Schultes Dupontia F i s h e r i R. Br. Poa glauca M. Vahl tt H a r t z i i Gand. it (July 20) (July 20) (Aug. 9 ) (July 20) ( » » ) (Aug. 9 ) ( " ") (July 3 ) (June 26) abbreviata R. Br. P'oa sp. P u c c i n e l l i a angustata (R. Br.) Rand & Redf. n ti ti II ti it Pleuropogon Sabinei R. Br. Carex Bigelowii 11 stans Drej. it it (June 25) (July 5) (June 25) (July 5) Carex rupestris A l l . " maritima Gunn. tt ti (June 13) (June 30) (July 20) Eriophorum angustifolium Honck. (July 5) » » (June 25) Eriophorum Scheuchzeri Hioppe (July 3 D » (June 25) Kobresia B e l l a r d i i ( A l l . ) Degl. (July 5) (Au ( «• ( « 9 ) ' » ) ») (July 20) - 78 -48. Juncus biglumis L. (June 25) 49. Luzula n i v a l i s (Laest.) Beurl. (June 25) 5o. " confusa Lindeb. (July 20) 51. tt ti (July 5) 52. tt tt (June 20) 53. S a l i x a r c t i c a B a l l . F. (July 9) 54. tt tt (June 13) 55. " " M. ( « '» ) 56. Oxyria digyna (L.) H i l l (June 30) 57. Polygonum viviparum. L. (June 25) 58. ti tt (July 5) 59. S t e l l a r i a longipes Goldie var . ( »') 6o. it tt (June 25) 61. S.ilene a c u l i s L. (June 9) 62. Melandrium t r i f l o r u m (R. Br.) J . Vahl (, 63. Cerastium alpinum L. ( 64. Arenaria r u b e l l a (Wahl.) Sm. (June 13) 65. Ranunculus ? Sabinei R. Br. (June 23) 66. " Sabinei R. Br. ( » ") 67,. " n i v a l i s L. ( " ») 68. n it (June 25) 69. Papaver radicatum Rottb. (June 30) 70. Draba ? groenlandica. Ekm. (June 23) 71. " oblongata R. Br. (July 5) 72. » B e l l i i Holm (June 30) » ) 7 3 . 7 4 . 7 5 . 7 6 . 7 7 . 7 8 . 7 9 . 8 o . 8 1 . 8 2 . 8 3 . 8 4 . 8 5 . 8 6 . 8 7 . 8 8 . 8 9 . 9 0 . 9 1 . 9 2 . 9 3 . 9 4 . 9 5 . 9 6 . - 79 -(June 30) (July 5) (June 20) (June 30) Lesquerella a r c t i c a (Wormskj.) Wats, tt tt Draba B e l l i ! " lactea Adams " cinerea Adams (June 25) (July 8) (June 27) (June 30) (June 20) (July 20) ti n Braya purpurascens (R. Br.) Bunge Cochlearia o f f i c i n a l i s L. ssp. a r c t i c a (Schlecht.) Hult. . (June 30) tt ti tt II it it tt tt Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a L. (June 25) 11 pratensis L. var. a n g u s t i f o l i a Hook. (June 25) Erysimum P a l l a s i i (Pursh) Fern. (June 30) Parrya a r c t i c a R. Br. - (July 9) Saxifraga cernua L. (July 5) » " (June 25) » f l a g e l l a r i s W i l l d . (July 5) tt tt tt o p p o s i t i f o l i a L. ti Saxifraga o p p o s i t i f o l i a L. " tenuis Wahlenb. (June 23) (June 19) (June 25) (Aug. 9) (July 5) tricuspidata Rottb. \ - 80 -9 7 . 9 8 . 99. 1 0 0 . 1 0 1 . 1 0 2 . 1 0 3 . 1 0 4 . 1 0 5 . 1 0 6 . 1 0 7 . 1 0 8 . 1 0 9 . 1 1 0 . 111 . 1 12 . 1 1 3 . 1 1 4 . S a x i f r a g a c a e s p i t o s a L . D r y a s i n t e g r i f o l i a M . V a h l it it P o t e n t i l l a p u l c h e l l a R . B r . tt ti P o t e n t i l l a ? e m a r g i n a t a v a r . E p i l o b i u m l a t i f o l i u m L . ( J u l y 5) ( J u n e 2 4 ) ( J u n e 25) ( J u l y 8) ( J u n e 25) ( J u n e 3 0 ) . ( J u n e 2 0 ) 1 1 " ( J u l y 5) A m e r i a m a r i t i m a ( M i l l ) V / i l l d . s s p . ? ( J u n e 3 0 ) " " s s p . l a b r a d o r i c a ( W a l l r . ) H u l t . ( J u l y 8) ( J u n e 2 7 ) ( J u n e 3 0 ) ( J u n e 2 0 ) ( J u l y 5) C a s s i o p e t e t r a g o n a ( L . ) D o n P e d i c u l a r i s h i r s u t a L . it tt " c a p i t a t a A d a m s A r n i c a a l p i n a ( L . ) O l i n s s p . a n g u s t i f o l i a ( J . V a h l ) M a g u i r e ( J u l y 8) E r i g e r o n c o m p o s i t u s P u r s h ( J u l y 5) T a r a x a c u m s p . ( J u n e 30) T a r a x a c u m p h y m o t o c a r p u m J . V a h l ( J u l y 5) TABLE I Temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit Recorded at Slidre Fiord, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. October, 1 9 4 7 » to July, 1 9 5 1 . 1947 1948 1949 1950 195 1 Month Max. Min. Mean Max., Min. Mean Max. Min.' Mean , Max. Min. Mean Max. Min. • Mean January - 0 4 . 6 -53.1 - 3 6 . 7 - 0 9 . 0 -55.4 - 3 9 . 1 -17.0 -56.9 -40.1 -10.0 -58.1 -38.1 February -12.3 -60.0 -44.5 -04.0 -55.4 - 3 6 . 4 - 0 7 . 0 -59.7 - 3 1 . 3 -16.9 _-56.8 - 4 0 . 5 March - 0 7 . 0 - 6 2 . 7 -38.7 00.8 -5O.8 -28.9 -07.7 -55.0 - 2 9 . 3 -01.8 -49.3 -30.6 April 21.0 - 4 5 . 9 -18.9 0 6 . 0 -42.0 -21.1 -04.1- -46.2 - 2 2 . 6 21.0 -41.0 -16.6 May 3 7 . 1 ' 08.8 1 6.9 4 1 . 6 -14.7 10.9 35.2 -19.0 1 1.9 36.0 6 . 5 18.1 June 5 2 . 2 28.0 3 6 . 8 54.0 30.0 37.8 5 2 . 4 21.5 3 6 . 1 55.2 10.2 36.9 July 66.1 33.7 41 .9 59.0 : 33.6 4 2 . 3 66.8 33.0 43.0 59.8 33.1 42.2 August 53.0 28.7 37.6 53.2 17.0 38.1 49.9 28.0 3 7 . 6 September ; 38.2 - 0 5 . 3 2 4 . 1 37.7 -05.0 20.1 38.9 -08.6 1 6 . 3 October 3 2.8 -24.0 20.2 - 2 9 . 3 - 0 5 . 3 18.0 -29.7 0 7 . 8 12.8 - 3 3 . 2 - 1 0 . 4 November 28.8 -44.0 17.9 -47.1 -20.0 - 0 4 . 8 -45.7 -23.5 24.0 - 4 0 . 7 - 1 9 . 6 December -06.0 - 5 1 . 8 1 3 . 4 -57.3 -43.5 - 0 6 . 2 -51.8 -35.7 00.2 -46.I 27.I TABLE II Results of Analyses of Range by Clarke Point - Sample Method Plant Species Poa species Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a S a l i x a r c t i c a Carex rupe s t r i s Alopecurus alpinus Agropyron latiglume Carex stans P b t e n t i l l a p u l c h e l l a Physcia muscigena Polygonum viviparum S t e l l a r i a longipes Cochlearia o f f i c i n a l i s Epilobium l a t i f o l i u m Casslope tetragona Moss Saxifraga o p p o s i t i f o l i a Luzula n i v a l i s Papavar radicatum Taraxacum phymotocarpum Dupontia f i s h e r i Cerastium alpinum Lichens P o t e n t i l l a emarginata Melandrium t r i f l o r u m Festuca brachyphy11a Eriophorum scheuchzeri Saxifraga tricuspidata Armeria maritima Erigeron compositus D.eschampsia b r e v i f o l i a No. of points recorded, out Percentage of 1 0 . 0 0 0 Occurrence 299 3 . 0 269 2 . 7 248 2 . 5 181 1 .8 108 1 .1 72 .72 39 . 3 9 29 . 2 9 26 . 2 6 23 . 2 3 18 .18 18 . 18 16 . 16 15 . . 1 5 15 . 1 5 14 .14 14 .14 10 . 1 0 6 . 0 6 5 . 0 5 4 .04 4 .04 4 . .04 3 . 0 3 3 . 0 3 3 . 0 3 2 . 0 2 2 . 0 2 1 . 0 1 1 . 0 1 Total vegetation 1452 14.52 85° 85° 100° c 60°rm M'Clintor/} , C. Rich... <5s Prrley I. * 1 -d r c 'sachsen C^.ThorsteirN1 floras1 Invincible,, of ,\dence Pt. c j a m e s \Gooddi Inlet ° E V 0 N ' ^ 2 i I 7 L J ^ I S L A N D / » T 7 5 » Cfewi. IMarliti I (Harding clvy I.. 11^  Griffith*^  r s T R 4 I I \ Parker I. J ,\ G'V°'</«. ^ 6»ren e"ce B A R RV i NTl MELVIUE SOUND ^ 9 ^ ^ ^ t " - W - - , f c ^ A * Fury Be, fury W-<u Bay W as c**"« "^gnby 1 r **** 2- ffi/l'c 3bElvir. '°JiODra*e?- BrownO*' 1 5°°°? t S l i MmtoHd. . ^Richards Pt. J ..V/N 1 P R I N C E O F W A L E : :SAL F I I S L A N D R 427^r,.flSe / ^ P o n d I n l e t 1 v Webb Pt. -v C. AckwortrT i ^[s L A N D \^C. Rljhard Collinson^  (,,,. RANGE ( •fiPttF'f R H'au8hton I *J jS^f^ £ T a s m a n i a Is. Rendet Log^ H* ^  - Jtjt Chandra t i . I s"erard O^ i^ Pt.v. I Allen Young Pt \c. Hansen X9 V HP* finely Haven ^ \ < f \ M'CLINTOCK \\G,uUemardJ V l Thackeray PtS B.^ nes * ... \ /Dickens Pt. c^.stang CHANNEL ftobi&haUB. c.sinbur^  } Isachsen Pt. -^C. Sverdrup Wellington ft 7 ^ A i. i / f\ Mac Alpine; ) I I U '-'LGaAy X I "95/ f 7 • W ^ T 4^ - Ay Inter 7^ 4, ^orkfiart ft. '.-5 2* ^ b«rd>en u {^ •^S**"" B a V c e t V f ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ V p* 500 (Dubaw, ~)Lake Nicholson L^ffi •''•if~ffpveyi-! Nowleye \ *?: ([Barlow ; I * * Z,. 130 ^Marjori* L-'Wharton L ^-^ak ! /Tebesjuak m I r v ^ . . . .• Ajtau'nelhad . z>. Labyrinth WhatdamS ^3 Snowbird ."Jj [ A N flCVRE I. A MRP offlLSSff^f£^^ 100° - 84 -F i g u r e 4 Format of Cards Used for. Recording Observations  INFORMATION ON CARD FOR RECORDING MUSK-OX OBSERVATIONS MUSK-OX INVESTIGATION MUSK-OX OBSERVATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 . 6 . 7. 8. 9. LOCALITY. DATE. OBSERVER. NUMBER OBSERVED. TIME. PUBLIC. BULLS . COWS. CALVES. YEARLINGS. UNKNOWN. ACTIVITY. GENERAL HABITAT FOOD. WEATHER. BAR. WIND. UTILIZATION. ESKIMO. INDIAN. WHITE. MAX. T. PRECIP. WET. B. MIN. T. SKY. GROUND. FOOD. WASTAGE. CLOTHING. OTHER. CACHED. 10. REMARKS. \ - 8 5 -INFORMATION ON CARD FOR RECORDING PATHOLOGICAL INFORMATION PATHOLOGICAL MUSK-OX INVESTIGATION EXAMINATION 1. NO. DATE. 2. LOCALITY. 3. SEX. PREG. 4. MEAS. L. HORNS 5 . APPROX. AGE. 6. TEETH I 7. CAUSE OF DEATH. 8. PHYSICAL CONDITION. 9. COAT. 10. HORN DEVELOPMENT. 11. PARASITES. TIME. OBSERVER. L. FOETUS SEX. H.F. H F H T SPREAD AT TIPS * "OUTER CURVATURE L. BREADTH AT BASE. WT. P.M. M. GROWN HT.MI. TOOTH WEAR. INTERNAL EXTERNAL 12. ;, BLOOD SMEAR. 13. STOMACH CONTENTS. 14. REMARKS. ) 5 . Herd of 4 adult, one ca l f musk-ox, A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 5 1 . South shore Sli d r e Fiord. Temperature -27°F. L A 6. Herd of 11 musk-oxen, including 2 calves, May 2 6 , 1 9 5 1 . 8 . Two b u l l s with dogs near mouth of S l i d r e Fiord, August 1 6 , 1 9 5 1 . Note po s i t i o n of animals. 10. G r a z i n g m u s k - o x e n , B l a c k t o p C r e e k V a l l e y , J u n e 26, 1951. - 89 -r ~ ^ 11. W i n t e r d u n g o f a d u l t c o w m u s k - o x . S o u t h s h o r e S l i d r e F i o r d , M a y 26, 1951. 12. S u m m e r d u n g o f a d u l t c o w m u s k - o x . B l a c k T o p C r e e k V a l l e y . J u n e 26, 1951. - 9 0 -• G r a v e l p l a i n w i t h w i l l o w , d r y a s a n d C a r e x r u p e s t r i s , n e a r E a s t w i n d L a k e , A u g u s t 6 , 1 9 5 1 . R o c k u s e d b y m u s k - o x e n t o r u b s h e d d i n j h a i r f r o m h i d e . E a s t w i n d L a k e A r e a , A u g u s t 6 , 1 9 5 1 . 1 6 . Tussock formations vegetated with Cassio-pe  tetragona, willow and other species, August 6 , 1 9 5 1 . 

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