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A comparison of the Raven Progressive Matrices (1947) and the performance scale of the Wechsler Intelligence… Wilson, Lolita 1952

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A COMPARISON OF THE RAVEN PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (1947) AND THE PERFORMANCE SCALE OF THE WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN FOR ASSESSING THE INTELLIGENCE OF INDIAN CHILDREN  by LOLITA WILSON  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY  We accept this thesis as conforming t o the standard required from candidates f o r the degree o f MASTER OF ARTS  Members of the Department of Philosophy and Psychology.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1952  A COMPARISON OF THE RAVEN PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (1947) AND THE PERFORMANCE SCALE OF THE WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN FOR ASSESSING THE INTELLIGENCE OF INDIAN CHILDREN  Abstract This study reports the use of the performance scale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Raven Progressive Matrices (1947) with three groups of children. These groups consisted of thirty children each. The experimental group was composed of Indian children hospitalized i n the Charles Camsell Indian Hospital at Edmonton, Alberta. These children were selected as a sample of the Indian children from the large geographic area served by that hospital. The second group comprised hospitalized white children, selected on the basis of availa b i l i t y in hospital at the time of the testing program, and approximated the Indian group i n socio-economic status and illness. The third group consisted of white children from intellectually privileged homes. The hypothesis was that the Indian group and the white groups would show less difference in scores ob- . tained on the Raven Progressive Matrices than they would on the performance portion of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. ' The resultant data did not support this hypothesis. . On the basis of the findings of the study, ' suggestions were made for further studies both with children and adults.  ACMOWLEDGMEOTS  The author i s very g r a t e f u l t o her Faculty Adviser, Br.E.I.Signori, for his h e l p f u l suggestions, c r i t i c i s m s and encouragement. She a l s o wishes t o express her gratitude t o Professor E.S.W. Belyea, and t o Dr.D.E.Smith, University of Alberta, for t h e i r suggestions i n the i n i t i a l stages of the study. The author i s indebted to the Heads and the S t a f f s of the Children's D i v i s i o n i n the Charles CamseLl Indian Hospital, Edmonton, The Vancouver General Hospital and St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, for permission t o t e s t the hospital]zed groups. She i s also g r a t e f u l t o Mrs.D.E.Smith who arranged for the t e s t i n g of the t h i r d group o f c h i l d r e n .  C O N T E N T S  CHAPTER I  PAGE 1  INTRODUCTION Statement o f Problem Background o f Problem References t o Literature  II  4  PROCEDURE Selection of Tests Selection o f Subjects Test Administration  III  V  4 6 11 13  TEST RESULTS Correlation Data Significance o f Group Differences Interpretation •  IV  1 1 2  17 17 21  SUGGESTIONS FGR FURTHER STUDY  25  SUMMARY  3 0 32  REFERENCES APPENDICES A B C D E F  Comparison of Raw Scores - WISC Comparison o f Raw Scores - Raven Matrices Comparison o f Scaled Scores - WISC Comparison of Scaled Scores - Raven Matrices Ages represented i n each Group Working Percentile Points on Book Form of Raven Progressive Matrices  iv  35 36 3 7 38 39 4 0  LIST OF TABLES  School Enrolment o f Indian and Non-Indian Children i n Various Geographic Areas Pre-School and School Age Indian Children i n Alberta, North-West T e r r i t o r i e s and the Yukon ( 1 9 5 0 ) Data obtained with the Performance Scale of the WISC  Data obtained with the Raven Progressive Matrices ( 1 9 4 7 ) Correlation between Scores on the Performance Scale of the WISC and the Raven Progressive Matrices ( 1 9 4 7 ) - f o r each o f the three Groups  Significance, o f the Difference between the Means on the WISC Raw Scores and Scaled Scores Significance of the Difference between the Means on the Raven. Progressive Matrices ( 1 9 4 7 ) Raw Scores and Scaled Scores  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  Statement of Problem This work i s submitted as an exploratory study, the basic consideration of which i s to. find a test which can be used i n a preliminary assessment of the level of i n t e l ligence of Indian children living i n northern Alberta and the North-West Territories.  Although comparisons are made between  the scores of Indian children on the performance scale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and on the Raven Progressive Matrices (1947) and the scores made by two matched groups of white-children on these same tests, the work i s not concerned with the problem of racial superiority or inferiority. Background of Problem These children do not belong to one t r i b a l or language grouping, but represent many bands and use any one  2 of a score of Indian languages or dialects.  They may or may  not speak English or French as a second language, and i t i s often d i f f i c u l t t o discover i n a short time the extent of their fluency i n either of these two languages.  I t would  therefore not be p r a c t i c a l as an i n i t i a l study to consider the construction of a new test as this language d i f f i c u l t y might prevent the use of such test interchangeably from one group to another. In many instance, the children, particularly the boys, do not go to school u n t i l they are eight or nine years of age.  Under such circumstances i t i s essential to  have some r e l i a b l e method of assessing their l e v e l of i n t e l ligence.  Table I gives some indication of the numbers of  children involved.  The numbers concerned are rather small  compared with the number of non-Indian children attending schools i n the same area.  This does not lessen the need  for research but i t does increase the d i f f i c u l t y of arranging the problem into a controlled experimental design.  I t has  been necessary to make use of the material which i s available and, from this exploratory study, t o suggest areas for further study and point out errors which might be avoided. References to Literature The l i t e r a t u r e consulted, relative to the various tests, testing methods and previous studies, w i l l be referred to throughout the work, rather than concentrating the review i n one section.  TABLE  I  SCHOOL ENROLMENT OF INDIAN AND NON-INDIAN CHILDREN IN VARIOUS GEOGRAPHIC AREAS  INDIAN ENROLMENT Indian Schools - day and r e s i d e n t i a l - 1 9 5 0 : Alberta  ...  ...  2,775 '  270  Yukon North-West Territories Total  ...  651  ...  3,696  T o t a l f o r Canada i n Classes above Grade VIII : 1949  661  1950  834  NON-INDIAN ENROLMENT Public and Private Schools, 1 9 4 8 : Alberta  135,929  (Canada Year Book, 1 9 5 1 )  CHAPTER  II  PROCEDURE  Selection of Tests I t seemed that the s t a r t i n g point would be the selection of a t e s t which would be "culture-free", i f such a t e s t were a v a i l a b l e .  The C a t t e l l culture-free  test  was not suitable because of the age range which begins a t twelve years ( 4 ) and the need f o r considerable verbal i n struction i n giving the t e s t . Matrices  (1947)  The Raven Progressive  t e s t was selected as i t i s .suitable f o r  children i n the age range of the primary and elementary schools.  I t i s also a method of comparing the subject with  others of h i s own age and i s suitable f o r use where language d i f f i c u l t i e s may exist ( 1 6 ) .  In dealing with the concept of i n t e l l i g e n c e , the Matrices assume that the area o f i n t e l l i g e n c e which they sample would be that which has t o do with the a b i l i t y t o  5  reason by analogy, rather than that area which might be considered to be dependent upon the r e c a l l of previously learned material  (17)•  The second t e s t selected was the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.  This t e s t does not  purport  to be culture-free but i t has the advantage o f providing, i n addition t o the t o t a l scale score, i n d i v i d u a l scores f o r the verbal and performance portions o f the scale. may  The  scores  also be recorded as raw scores, scaled scores or I.Q.s.  Because of the language handicap of some of these children, the verbal portion of the scale was  not considered s u i t a b l e  for the study.  The performance portion of the scale might be assumed to have a r e l a t i o n s h i p to the culture i n which the children were l i v i n g and would seem to be more susceptible to the.effects of that culture than would be the Raven Matrices.  The t e s t author of the WISC states ( 2 5 ) that he  i s attempting to measure general i n t e l l i g e n c e rather than i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y and that for t h i s purpose he  considers  i t more appropriate to use several tasks rather than one single kind of task.  For these reasons and others stated  l a t e r , the performance portion of the WISC was comparison with the Raven Matrices.  selected f o r  The high c o r r e l a t i o n  of the performance portion o f the scale with the f u l l scale  6  WISC appears to j u s t i c y the use of the performance portion as, a means of sampling the individual's general i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Selection of Sub.jects In the s e l e c t i o n of the subjects f o r the Indian group i t was  necessary t o use those children who  accessible and a v a i l a b l e . children who  were r e a d i l y  In t h i s case, i t meant those  were h o s p i t a l i z e d at the Charles Camsell Indian  Hospital at Edmonton, Alberta.  Although t h i s h o s p i t a l  o r i g i n a l l y intended for tubercular  was  patients only, a unit  has  been added f o r non-tubercular patients and most of the subjects were found i n t h i s l a t t e r group.  This h o s p i t a l serv-  i c e s the Indians of Alberta, the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s and the Yukon ( 7 ) and the population from which the sample  was  drawn i s shown i n Table I I .  Other studies  comparing the r e s u l t s o f various  tests given to r a c i a l groups have been concerned with determini n g " r a c i a l " superiority, i n f e r i o r i t y or equality ( 6 )  (12).  A major d i f f i c u l t y has been the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the subjects into the various r a c i a l groups ( 2 1 ) and estimating the degree to which the individual's r a c i a l extraction "pure" ( 1 3 ) .  One  could be c a l l e d  such study of negroes c l a s s i f i e d the sub-  jects by the degree of pigmentation, d i v i d i n g the subjects into three groups, those who and those who  were dark, those who  were l i g h t i n coloring  (21).  were medium  7  TABLE I I PRE-SCHOOL AND SCHOOL AGE INDIAN CHILDREN IN ALBERTA, NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES AND THE YUKON ( 1 9 5 0 J  Ages  Under 7 7-16  A l l ages  Alberta  Yukon  North-West Territories  3,819  777  304  3,066  870  375  12,441  3,816  1,531  Total under 7  4,900  Total 7 - 1 6  4,311  Total of a l l ages  17,788  Total Indian Population i n Canada  (Canada Year Book, 1951)  126,000  8 This problem of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n does not present i t s e l f here as admission to the h o s p i t a l was an i n d i c a t i o n that the patient i s an Indian under the terms of the Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n governing such designation (3) and there was  no  need t o be concerned with the r a c i a l o r i g i n of the subjects. In a d d i t i o n to belonging t o the Indian group, the subjects were characterized by a degree of i s o l a t i o n and by a lack of formal education.  Of the children tested i n the Indian group, only one had more than one year of formal education (Number 23 of the Indian Group, Appendices A to D) and most o f them had had only that amount of teaching which was a v a i l a b l e to them i n the h o s p i t a l .  Part of t h i s lack of formal education  i s a function of the age of some of the subjects but i t has been estimated that a t h i r d of the patients i n the hospital, including the children (7), have had no previous educational training.  The recent study of s c h o l a s t i c aptitude of Indian children of the Caradoc reserve deals with children who  are attending school with some r e g u l a r i t y and who  close to well-established c u l t u r a l centres (20).  live  The c h i l d -  ren can therefore be assumed to understand and to speak fiiglish  and the problems of a language handicap, a lack of  formal education and an undetermined amount of contact with  the non-Indian culture, do not e x i s t .  The studies d i f f e r  on these points. The s e l e c t i o n of the Indian group was made by using those children who were available and w e l l enough f o r t e s t i n g and who f e l l within the age range o f the t e s t s . Many were i n h o s p i t a l f o r treatment o f fractures, f o r minor surgery and f o r observation. i s shown i n Appendix E.  The composition of the group  The age of each c h i l d was determined  by the h o s p i t a l record but i n some instances the exact date of b i r t h was not known and an approximation was necessary.  This Indian group was then matched f o r age and sex with a group of t h i r t y white children who were h o s p i t a l i z e d i n a general h o s p i t a l .  No attempt was made to  consider the socio-economic status of the h o s p i t a l i z e d white children:  they were chosen on the basis of a v a i l a b i l i t y at  the time of t e s t i n g i n the same manner i n which the Indian children were selected.  I t happened that t h i s group of  hospitalized white children approximated the socio-economic status of the Indian children i n that no professional groups were represented.  Using the occupation of the father as the  basis f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the group i s shown to represent the semi-skilled and manual labor socio-economic group.  In the hospitals v i s i t e d there was a generally relaxed atmosphere i n the children's wards.  Most of the  10 children were able to -be up and about and they q u i c k l y became accustomed to the idea that they might be asked to take the tests.  In every case the child's consent was asked, and there  was only one r e f u s a l - that of a six-year-old white c h i l d . After the f i r s t c h i l d had been tested the news soon spread and i t was considered a p r i v i l e g e to be given the t e s t .  There  was no evidence that the children who had taken the t e s t t o l d the others of the test content.  The co-operation was of a  high order.  The t h i r d group consisted of t h i r t y white children from i n t e l l e c t u a l l y p r i v i l e g e d homes.  Here again  the determinant was the occupation of the father, professional t r a i n i n g being the r e q u i s i t e .  In a majority of the cases,  the fathers were members of the University f a c u l t y .  Information was available i n the case of a l l the white children as to school grades.  The t e s t i n g was  done a f t e r the promotions were known f o r the preceding school year and i n only one instance was a c h i l d not promoted on the basis of his year's work (Number 1 4 , white hospitalized, Appendices A to D).  This c h i l d scored above the mean i n  each test i n his own group.  Such school records were a v a i l -  able f o r only one c h i l d i n the Indian group.  The hypothesis on which the study was was  based  concerned with the e f f e c t of c u l t u r a l background on the  11 scores of the c h i l d r e n . was  The i n t e l l e c t u a l l y p r i v i l e g e d group  selected to make the differences as great as possible, i t  being expected that under such conditions the scores obtained on the Raven Matrices by the Indian group and by the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y p r i v i l e g e d white group would show l e s s difference than the scores obtained on the performance scale o f the WISc, which i s assumed t o have " c u l t u r a l l y loaded" features.  The  group o f h o s p i t a l i z e d white c h i l d r e n was selected t o compensate f o r the factor o f i l l n e s s present i n the Indian group. As i t happened, the white h o s p i t a l i z e d group a l s o had the e f f e c t of Supplying a c o n t r o l group more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the Indian group i n socio-economic status than was t h e p r i v i l e g e d white group.  This control was the r e s u l t of the  method o f s e l e c t i o n on t h e basis of a v a i l a b i l i t y i n h o s p i t a l rather than as a planned condition.  Test  Administration  The t e s t s were administered.individually. The use of group t e s t i n g methods has been found t o be less s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r studies of t h i s kind ( l ) p a r t i c u l a r l y where a language handicap i s thought t o exist (13).  The perform-  ance portion of the WISC must be administered i n d i v i d u a l l y and, although the Raven Matrices might have been given as a group t e s t (17), the i n d i v i d u a l method was followed (22).  (9) (15)  12  In each instance, the Progressive Matrices were presented f i r s t , followed by the performance s c a l e of the WISC, the order being influenced t o some extent by an anticipated language d i f f i c u l t y on the part o f the subjects. The test data was no doubt affected by t h i s order o f presentation and had the t e s t s been given alternately, the r e s u l t s might have been d i f f e r e n t and the general design of . the study would have been improved.  This defect can no  doubt be overcome i n subsequent work suggested i n Chapter IV.  The t e s t administration was i n accordance  with  the directions set out i n the manuals, regardless o f the child's presumed a b i l i t y t o understand the language.  The  children were asked i f they had taken the tests previously and none had, although a few described other t e s t s which they had been given.  CHAPTER  III  TEST RESULTS  After the tests had been administered to the subjects, the responses were scored i n accordance with the i n s t r u c t i o n s i n the manual and the raw scores noted.  These  raw scores were then converted into scaled scores and the information obtained i s set out for each of the three groups i n Appendices A, B, C, and  D.  There was no d i f f i c u l t y i n converting the raw scores on the performance s c a l e o f the WISC i n t o scaled scores, but the manual f o r the Raven Matrices shows the scaled scores i n p e r c e n t i l e points ( 1 7 ) •  Reference to  Appendix F w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining anything but a crude scaled score using the p e r c e n t i l e points supplied.  Turner and Penfold ( 2 0 ) d i d not have t h i s  problem as the number of subjects used i n t h e i r study  was  large enough; to allow them to c l a s s i f y the children i n t o age groupings.  As the ages are held constant i n comparing the  14  groups, i t i s possible t o make use of raw scores i n t r e a t i n g the data. Table I I I shows the mean and the standard deviation f o r each o f the three groups on both the raw scores and the scaled scores of the performance scale o f the WISC. The means on the scaled scores f o r the Indian group and f o r the hospitalized white group are below that of the representative groups selected by Wechsler ( 2 5 ) , but the p r i v i l e g e d white group exceeds these means.  The standard deviation  for the representative groups i s most c l o s e l y approximated by the h o s p i t a l i z e d white group, but each of the three groups shows a standard deviation l e s s than that of the representative groups ( 2 5 ) .  Table IV i s concerned with the data obtained on the Raven Matrices and the discrepancy mentioned- previousl y between the raw scores and the scaled scores i s apparent here.  The raw scores y i e l d r e s u l t s which show the means of  the Indian group and the h o s p i t a l i z e d white group to be closer than the means of the h o s p i t a l i z e d white group and the p r i v i l e g e d white group.  The scaled scores show the h o s p i t a l -  ized white group to be midway between the other two groups. The data provided i n the manual ( 1 7 ) does not make possible any further comparison of these three groups with the standardi z a t i o n group.  15  TABLE I I I  DATA OBTAINED WITH THE PERFORMANCE SCALE OF THE WISC  Raw Scores Group  Mean  Indian  80  29.3  5-5  White Hospitalized  87  29.9  5-64  123  34-5  6.5  White P r i v i l e g e d  Scaled Scores Group  Mean  0M  Indian  41  8.2  1-35  White Hospitalized  44  9.8  1.84  White P r i v i l e g e d  58  7-1  1.34  For each group, N = 3 0  16  TABLE IV  DATA OBTAINED WITH THE RAVEN PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (1947)  Raw Scores Mean  Group Indian  18  5.8  1.09  White Hospitalized  21  5-9  1.11  White Privileged  26  7.1  1.34  Scaled Scores Mean  Group  <r  Ok  Indian  19  15.5  2.92  White Hospitalized  45  24.8  4.67  White Privileged  70  25-5  4-81  For each group, N = 30  17 Correlation Data  In Table V, the correlation between the performance scale of the WISC. and. the Raven Matrices, both scaled and raw scores, i s shown f o r each o f the three groups. When the raw scores are used, the c o r r e l a t i o n i s high and p o s i t i v e f o r a l l three groups, with the greatest degree o f p o s i t i v e correlation being found f o r the hospitalized white group.  When scaled scores are used, the c o r r e l a t i o n remains p o s i t i v e but i s much lower.  In t h i s instance the  highest degree o f p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n i s found i n the scores of the p r i v i l e g e d white group. Significance o f Group  Differences  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the difference between the means of the three groups on the performance scale of the WISC, raw and scaled scores,, i s shown i n Table VI.  In each  case the difference between the Indian group and the h o s p i t a l i z e d white group i s not s i g n i f i c a n t .  T h e difference between  the Indian group and the p r i v i l e g e d white group i s highly s i g n i f i c a n t , and the difference between the hospitalized white group and the p r i v i l e g e d white group i s also  statistical-  l y significant.  Similar r e s u l t s are shown i n Table VII i n a  18  TABLE V CORRELATION BETWEEN SCORES ON THE PERFORMANCE SCALE OF THE WISC AND THE RAVEN PROGRESSIVE MATRICES ( 1 9 4 7 ) - FOR EACH OF THE THREE GROUPS  Raw Scores  Scaled Scores  Group r.  r.  Indian  .75  .27  White Hospitalized  .83  .42  White Privileged  •  '  8 1  »49  19  TABLE VI SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS ON THE PERFORMANCE SCALE OF THE WISC RAW SCORES AND SCALED SCORES  Raw Scores Indian  White Hospitalized  White Privileged  t.  t.  t.  Indian  -  .89  4.8  White Hospitalized  .89  -  4«2  White. Privileged  4«8  4.2  Scaled Scores White Hospitalized  Indian t• Indian  t. 1.31  -  White Hospitalized  1.31  White Privileged  8.9  •• 6.12  White Privileged t• 8.9  6.12  20  TABLE VTI SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS ON THE RAVEN PROGRESSIVE MATRICES ( 1 9 4 7 ) RAW SCORES AND SCALED SCORES  .  Raw Scores Indian  White Hospitalized  "fc •  "fc •  Indian  Hospitalized  -  ,  2  fc  •  1.29  -  1  White Privileged  "  9  4-7  2  ,  8  8  Scaled Scores Indian  White Hospitalized  White Privileged  t.  t.  t.  -  4.9  9.2  White Hospitalized  4.9  -  3.73  White Privileged  9.2  3.73  Indian  21 comparison o f the means obtained on the raw scores o f the Raven Matrices.  Here again the d i f f e r e n c e between the  Indian group and the h o s p i t a l i z e d white group i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , while the differences between the h o s p i t a l i z e d whji e group and the p r i v i l e g e d white group, and between the Indian group and the p r i v i l e g e d white group, are s i g n i f i c a n t . In comparing the r e s u l t s of the scaled scores on the Raven Matrices, there i s found-to be a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between each o f the three groups.  This i s the  only instance i n which there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the Indian group and the h o s p i t a l i z e d white group.  Interpretation  The r e s u l t s reported make possible certain conclusions, about the groups tested.  The f i r s t i s the  existence of a p o s i t i v e correlation between the scores obtained, whether raw or scaled, by each of the groups on the Raven Matrices and the performance scale of the.WISC. When the raw scores are used, for either of the t e s t s , with the age of the subjects held constant f o r the purpose of comparison, i t would appear that either t e s t w i l l place the subject i n r e l a t i v e l y the same p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to h i s own group.  The difference between the white p r i v i l e g e d  22  group and either the Indian group or the hospitalized white group i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , whether raw or scaled scores are used, and whether the t e s t used i s the Raven Matrices or the performance scale o f the WISC. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the Indian group and the h o s p i t a l i z e d white group except when the scaled scores of the Raven Matrices are used.  When  the scaled scores of the performance scale o f the WISC or the raw scores for t h i s l a t t e r scale or the Raven Matrices are used, the two groups may be considered as being samples o f the same population.  I t i s to be remembered that there were no professional groups representedin the white h o s p i t a l i z e d group and that the socio-economic status o f t h i s group might therefore be considered t o be close t o the status of the Indian group, using the employment o f the father as the criterion.  I t may be supposed that the d i f f e r e n c e between  these two groups and the white p r i v i l e g e d group may be attributable i n part t o the enriched environment o f the p r i v i l e g e d group.  Formal education as such does not seem to be the determining factor i n the comparison.  As reported  previously, both the h o s p i t a l i z e d white group and the p r i v i l e g e d white group were i n regular attendance i n public  23  schools and were making average progress.  In the one  instance of a c h i l d not being promoted, this c h i l d scored above the means of h i s group on both the t e s t s .  On the  other hand, only one o f the Indian children had had more than one year of formal education.  The lack of a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the scores of the Indian group and a comparable group of white children makes the use o f the tests appear j u s t i f i e d by those who wish t o have some assessment o f a child's general i n t e l l i g e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when there i s no record o f formal education t o give a clue t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y .  By r e f e r r i n g again to Tables VI and VII, i t w i l l be seen that the assumption on which the tests were selected i s not confirmed.  The hypothesis was that the  difference between the Indian group and the p r i v i l e g e d white group would be much greater on the performance scale o f the WISC than on the Raven Matrices.  Using the raw- scores, the  " t " r a t i o i s 4 * 7 f o r the Raven Matrices and 4 . 8 f o r the performance scale o f the WISC.  In comparison o f the Indian group with the h o s p i t a l i z e d white group, the d i f f e r e n c e i s l e s s on the performance scale o f the WISC than on the Raven Matrices. When the scaled scores are used, the Indian  24 group d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from both the h o s p i t a l i z e d white group and the p r i v i l e g e d white group on the Raven Matrices. By contrast, when the scaled scores of the performance part of the WISC are used, the Indian group d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y only from the p r i v i l e g e d white group. From t h i s i t would appear that the performance scale o f the WISC could be used as a basis of comparison o f the general i n t e l l i g e n c e o f the Indian children, under consideration i n t h i s study, with white children o f a s i m i l a r socio-economic status.  I t would not be necessary t o look  for a "culture-free" t e s t as the performance scale o f the WISC could be used to sample several areas of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s intelligence.  I f only one t e s t i s to be used, the perform-  ance scale o f the WISC i s suggested, but the Raven Matrices can be used successfully with these Indian children and would supplement the WISC.  CHAPTER  IV  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY  As t h i s study i s an exploratory one, part o f i t s purpose i s t o suggest other ares i n which work may be done on t h i s problem.  The question o f providing some c r i t e r i o n f o r the evaluation o f the t e s t r e s u l t s presents i t s e l f .  In the  case o f these Indian children such u s e f u l information as school progress, examination records and the reports o f teachers i s not available as the children have not e s t a b l i s h ed such records.  In the case o f the younger children t h i s  may be, as previously noted, a function o f t h e i r age.  In order to e s t a b l i s h some such c r i t e r i a i t i s suggested that these tests be given t o groups of Indian children who are i n attendance at school and whose backgrounds are similar to those of the experimental group.  Such a t e s t -  i n g program would give a d d i t i o n a l information about the  26  children whose a b i l i t y has been assessed by other methods and would be u s e f u l i n the establishment  of norms.  From t h i s present study i t would appear that the t e s t s can be given to children whose knowledge of English i s s l i g h t , or presumed t o be non-existent.  This would j u s t -  i f y further administration of these t e s t s t o c h i l d r e n who l i v i n g i n t h e i r own children.  are  communities rather than to h o s p i t a l i z e d  This would eliminate the f a c t o r of diagnosed  i l l n e s s which was present i n the group used i n t h i s  study.  A further study using the f u l l s c a l e of the WISC would give an i n d i c a t i o n o f the importance of the language f a c t o r .  In some instances i t was reported that  the children could not speak English, or could understand and use i t only sparingly.  The general attitude of the  children during the t e s t administration seemed to confirm t h i s , although they were able to perform on the tests adequately.  However, a f t e r the children had been given the  t e s t , they displayed considerable fluency i n the English language.  This l e f t some doubt i n the examiner's mind as  to how much of the apparent language d e f i c i e n c y was r e l a t e d to shyness or r e t i c e n c e .  I t would, of course, be advantageous f o r the examiner to spend considerable time with the children before giving them the t e s t s , i n order to gain some appreciation of  27 the extent o f t h e i r language fluency or language handicap. In the case of the h o s p i t a l i z e d Indian group t h i s was not possible as the h o s p i t a l population changed with considerable rapidity.  At l e a s t three children who were scheduled f o r  tests were discharged from h o s p i t a l before the tests were completed.  These same conditions were present i n the t e s t -  ing of the h o s p i t a l i z e d white group.  The area from which the sample o f Indian children was drawn i s geographically very large•  For any  one investigator t o undertake an adequate survey of the area, with a comprehensive sampling and t e s t i n g program, would be time-consuming-and expensive.  The most e f f i c i e n t way i n  which the work might be carried on would be by teams of i n vestigators, carrying out t e s t i n g programs i n representative areas.  The problem o f lack o f formal education applies also to the adult population.  This study i s not concerned  with the philosophy of education (10) but some consideration should be given t o i t .  I f the Indian children and adults  are t o be given the same educational opportunities as other Canadians, then some measure of t h e i r general i n t e l l i g e n c e i s needed t o help i n determining the extent t o which they are capable o f absorbing academic t r a i n i n g .  Such measures of  a b i l i t y should take i n t o consideration the lack of c u l t u r a l  28  opportunity which exists f o r these groups i n the areas specified. I t i s reported that one-third o f the adults hospitalized i n the Camsell Hospital have not been t o school (7).  A study akin to the present one might be undertaken  with such an adult group, using the Wechsler-Bellevue and the adult form of the Raven Progressive Matrices.  Scale The  need for an assessment o f adult i n t e l l i g e n c e i s present i n the h o s p i t a l s .  I f the i n d i v i d u a l i s to be h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r  any considerable period of time, he w i l l have the advantage of education t r a i n i n g i n h o s p i t a l .  Those i n charge o f such  educational programs i n hospitals would be able to operate much more e f f i c i e n t l y i n the i n t e r e s t s of the patients i f some such assessment could be made.  The nature o f the development o f the geographic area under consideration makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o determine the extent t o which any of the subjects have been influenced by a culture other than t h e i r own.  They may be quite s o p h i s t i c a t -  ed about some advanced aspects of the culture on which the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale for Children i s based and r e l a t i v e l y unacquainted with others.  This adds t o the d i f f i c u l t y i n  the s e l e c t i o n o f t e s t s and i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t e s t results.  The analysis of the sub-tests and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n  with the t e s t as a whole might be enlightening and might be  another area i n which work could be done  CHAPTER  V  SUMMARY  This study was based on the assumption that an assessment of the i n t e l l i g e n c e o f the selected group o f Indian children obtained with the "culture-free" Raven Matrices (1947) would be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the scores obtained by a group of white children than would such an assessment obtained with the performance scale of the WISC.  The Indian group of t h i r t y hospitalized children was matched f o r age with a group o f t h i r t y h o s p i t a l i z e d white children and a group o f t h i r t y p r i v i l e g e d white children.  When the Raven Matrices (1947) and the perform-  ance scale o f the WISC were administered t o these three groups under controlled conditions and the resultant data analysed, the assumption was not supported.  On the basis o f the data obtained, i t would appear that an investigator would be l e s s l i k e l y to e r r i n  31 comparing the Indian children with white children i n general i n t e l l i g e n c e i f he made use of the performance scale of the WISC than i f he used the Raven Matrices.  In a c t u a l practice,  i t i s f e l t that both scales could be used t o advantage. They have a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n and i n using both t e s t s a more complete sampling of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e would be obtained.  Further areas o f study are suggested with Indian children o f s i m i l a r backgrounds to those tested i n t h i s study and also with groups o f adults of s i m i l a r background.  REFERENCES  BENDER, Lauretta. C h i l d Psychiatric Technique. S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: Charles C. Thomas, 1952. BURGS, Oscar K. The Third Mental Measurements Yearbook. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press,  1949Canada Year Book. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Department o f Trade and Commerce, 1 9 5 1 . CATTELL, R. B. A Culture-free Test. Manual o f d i r e c t ions. New York: The Psychological Corporation,  1947CRAFTS, Leland W., et a l . Recent Experiments i n Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1950.  DANIEL, Robert P. "Basic considerations f o r v a l i d interpretations o f experimental studies pertaining to r a c i a l differences." J . Educ. Psychol.. 1932, 15-27DEW, F. N. and KERANS, J u l i a E. "Education and growth ' of the h o s p i t a l school." Cams e l l Arrow. 1 9 5 1 , IV, 1 3 - 1 5 , (Charles Cams e l l Indian Hospital, Edmonton).  EDWARDS, A l l e n L. Experimental Design i n Psychological Research. New York: Rinehart & Co., Inc., 1950. G00DEN0UGH, Florence L. Mental Testing, i t s History. P r i n c i p l e s and Applications. New York: Rinehart & Co., Inc., 1950.  33  10.  HUTCKLNS, Robt. M. "Some questions about education i n North America." The Marfleet Lectures, University of Toronto, 1 9 5 2 .  U.  JAMESON, Elmer and SANDIFGRD, Peter. "The mental capacity of Southern Ontario Indians." J. Educ. Psychol., 1 9 2 8 , 5 3 6 - 5 5 1 .  12.  KLINEBERG, Otto. "A study of psychological differences between 'racial and national groups i n Europe." Archives of Psychology, New York, September, 1 9 3 1 .  13.  PETERSON, Joseph and TELFORD, CW. "Results of group and individual tests applied to the practically pure-blood negro children of St. Helena Island." J. Comp. Psych.. 1 9 3 0 , Vol. 1 1 , 1 1 5 - 1 4 4 -  14.  POWELL, Joan A. "A comparison of the Stanford-Binet (1937 Revision, Form L) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children of different age and intellect ual levels." (Unpublished thesis), University of British Columbia, 1951.  15.  PQRTEOUS, Stanley D. The Porteous Maze Test and Intelligence. Palo Alto, California: Pacific Books, 1950.  16.  RAVEN, J. C. "The comparative assessment of intellectual ability." Brit. J. Psychol.. 1 9 4 8 , 1 2 - 1 9 .  17.  RAVEN, J. C. Guide to Using Progressive Matrices (1947). London: H. K. Lewis & Co., 1951.  18.  SEASHORE, Harold, WESMAN, Alexander and DOPPELT, Jerome. "The standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children." J. Consult. Psychol., 1950, 99-110.  19.  TERMAN, Lewis M. and MERRILL, Maude A. Measuring Intelligence . Cambridge: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1 9 3 7 *  1  34  20.  TURNER, G. H. and PENFOLD, D. J . "The s c h o l a s t i c aptitude o f the Indian children of the Caradoc Reserve." Can. J . o f Psychol., V o l . 6 , 1 , March, 1952,  31-44.  21.  TYLER, Leona E. The Psychology o f Human Differences. New York: D. Appleton-Century Co. Inc., 1 9 4 7 •  22.  VALENTINE, C. W. I n t e l l i g e n c e Tests f o r Children. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1 9 5 0 .  23.  WECHSLER, David. "Cognitive, conative and non-intellective intelligence." Amer. Psychol.. 1 9 5 0 , 78-83.  24.  WECHSLER, David. The Measurement o f Adult Intelligence . Baltimore: The Williams and WilkLns Co., 1 9 4 4 -  25.  WECHSLER, David. Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r Children, Manual. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1 9 4 9 *  26.  WILSON, W. A. J r . , and HAGGARD, Ernest A. "A comparison o f two methods o f analyzing a set of data on i n t e l l i g e n c e test performance." Amer. Psychol., 1948,  344.  35  .  APPENDIX  A  COMPARISON OF RAW SCORES - WISC  Subject Number  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 - 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  26 27 28 29 30  Indian  48 43  White Hospitalized  30  43 • 16 71  30  43  63 65 47 61  49 61 70 79 85 91 78 84 93 90 70 117 89 113  91  53 71  54 87 71 60 79 145 103  99 96 100 61 117 85 45 113 106 116 130 125  42  109 117 112 S3 71 150 139  109 129 124 86  White Privileged  ^ 46 96 72  89 80 72 103  85 106 92 135  112 91 104  130 121 143  129 146 164 171 139 169 160 147 183 157 156 136 156  36  APPENDIX  B  COMPARISON OF RAW SCORES - RAVEN MATRICES  Subject Number  1 2 3  4  White Hospitalized  White Privileged  12  13  11  13 11  13  17 12  Indian  9 12  18  16  8  13  14 15 15 21 21  9 10  14 16  19 22  33  11 12  19 9 16  27  29  24 27  28 18  14 16  25 15  22  5 6 7  13  14 15 16 17  18  19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27  28 29 30  11 10  18  •  27  17  18 19 23  31  25 27  18 28 15  24 32 26  24  25 22  32 32  21 26  32  27  23 12  34 35  34 29 22  36  22 22 26  28  23  17 24 24  28  24 26  25 25  34 27 36  11  13  33  37  APPENDIX C COMPARISON OF SCALED SCORES - WISC  Subject Number  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  13  14 15 16 17 18 19  20  21 22 23  24 25 26  27 28 29  30  Indian  57 40 34 34 38 44  36 42  51 38 44 35 45 37 37 35  63  White Hospitalized  White Privileged  49 31 54 39 34 43 49 50  53 73 51 58  50  50  42 42 42  50 35  52 41  48 44 39 39 28  48 20 50  33 20 41 38 44 43 44  21  52  40 43  31  62  57 43 46 43  72  51  47 61  62  60 55 68 61  50  50 61 51 55 56 59 74 65 57 68 64 54 69 54 56 48 51  38  APPENDIX  D  COMPARISON OF SCALED SCORES - RAVEN MATRICES  Subject Number  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14  15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  26 27 28 29  30  White Hospitalized  White Privileged  25 25  37  8 2 5 2 2 10 10  81 43 37 37 80 83 65 63 93  22 75 10  Indian  25 42  2 10 7 10 7 25 25 50  50 50 10 38 19 5  25  50  68 68 5 68 8 68 5 47 15  25 25  68 12 2 90 50 18  25  32  38 2  25  1  50  58 66 75 92  99 99 96 95 21 50  69 69 37 92  50 95 80 56 90 95 50 95 90 44 95 85  APPENDIX  E  AGES REPRESENTED IN EACH GROUP  Number of Subjects  Years  5h  1  6  3  7  *  a  4  9  3  10  5  11  3  12  6  13  1.  N  =  30  40  APPENDIX  F  WORKING PERCENTILE POINTS ON BOOK FORM OF RAVEN PROGRESSIVE MATRICES +  Percentile Points  Chronological Age i n Years 6  8  11  95  21  26  35  90  20  24  34  75  17  21  31  50  15  18  28  25  13  16  24  10  12  14  21  13  17  """Representative ages are shown rather than quoting the whole Table.  

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