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A comparison of the Raven Progressive Matrices (1947) and the performance scale of the Wechsler Intelligence… Wilson, Lolita 1952

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A COMPARISON OF THE RAVEN PROGRESSIVE MATRICES  (1947) AND THE PERFORMANCE SCALE OF THE WECHSLER  INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN FOR ASSESSING  THE INTELLIGENCE OF INDIAN CHILDREN by LOLITA WILSON A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS Members of the Department of Philosophy and Psychology. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1952 A COMPARISON OF THE RAVEN PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (1947) AND THE PERFORMANCE SCALE OF THE WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN FOR ASSESSING THE INTELLIGENCE OF INDIAN CHILDREN Abstract This study reports the use of the perform-ance scale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Raven Progressive Matrices (1947) with three groups of children. These groups consisted of thirty children each. The experimental group was composed of Indian child-ren hospitalized in the Charles Camsell Indian Hospital at Edmonton, Alberta. These children were selected as a sample of the Indian children from the large geographic area served by that hospital. The second group comprised hospitalized white children, selected on the basis of avail-ability in hospital at the time of the testing program, and approximated the Indian group in socio-economic status and illness. The third group consisted of white children from intellectually privileged homes. The hypothesis was that the Indian group and the white groups would show less difference in scores ob- . tained on the Raven Progressive Matrices than they would on the performance portion of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. ' The resultant data did not support this hypothesis. . On the basis of the findings of the study, ' suggestions were made for further studies both with children and adults. ACMOWLEDGMEOTS The author i s very grateful to her Faculty Adviser, Br.E.I.Signori, for his helpful suggest-ions, criticisms and encouragement. She also wishes to express her gratitude to Professor E.S.W. Belyea, and to Dr.D.E.Smith, University of Alberta, for their suggestions i n the i n i t i a l stages of the study. The author i s indebted to the Heads and the Staffs of the Children's Division i n the Charles CamseLl Indian Hospital, Edmonton, The Vancouver General Hospital and St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, for permission to test the hospital]zed groups. She is also grateful to Mrs.D.E.Smith who arranged for the testing of the third group of children. C O N T E N T S CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of Problem 1 Background of Problem 1 References to Literature 2 II PROCEDURE 4 Selection of Tests 4 Selection of Subjects 6 Test Administration 1 1 III TEST RESULTS 1 3 Correlation Data 1 7 Significance of Group Differences 1 7 Interpretation • 2 1 IV SUGGESTIONS FGR FURTHER STUDY 2 5 V SUMMARY 3 0 REFERENCES 3 2 APPENDICES A Comparison of Raw Scores - WISC 3 5 B Comparison of Raw Scores - Raven 3 6 Matrices C Comparison of Scaled Scores - WISC 3 7 D Comparison of Scaled Scores - Raven 3 8 Matrices E Ages represented in each Group 3 9 F Working Percentile Points on Book 4 0 Form of Raven Progressive Matrices i v LIST OF TABLES School Enrolment of Indian and Non-Indian Children i n Various Geographic Areas Pre-School and School Age Indian Children i n Alberta, North-West Territories and the Yukon ( 1 9 5 0 ) Data obtained with the Perform-ance Scale of the WISC Data obtained with the Raven Progressive Matrices (1947) Correlation between Scores on the Performance Scale of the WISC and the Raven Progressive Matrices (1947) - for each of the three Groups Significance, of the Difference between the Means on the WISC -Raw Scores and Scaled Scores Significance of the Difference between the Means on the Raven. Progressive Matrices (1947) -Raw Scores and Scaled Scores CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of Problem This work i s submitted as an exploratory study, the basic consideration of which is to. find a test which can be used in a preliminary assessment of the level of intel-ligence of Indian children living in northern Alberta and the North-West Territories. Although comparisons are made between the scores of Indian children on the performance scale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and on the Raven Progressive Matrices (1947) and the scores made by two matched groups of white-children on these same tests, the work is not concerned with the problem of racial superiority or inferior-i t y . Background of Problem These children do not belong to one tribal or language grouping, but represent many bands and use any one 2 of a score of Indian languages or dialects. They may or may not speak English or French as a second language, and i t i s often d i f f i c u l t to discover i n a short time the extent of their fluency i n either of these two languages. I t would therefore not be practical as an i n i t i a l study to consider the construction of a new test as this language d i f f i c u l t y might prevent the use of such test interchangeably from one group to another. In many instance, the children, particularly the boys, do not go to school u n t i l they are eight or nine years of age. Under such circumstances i t i s essential to have some reliable method of assessing their level of i n t e l -ligence. Table I gives some indication of the numbers of children involved. The numbers concerned are rather small compared with the number of non-Indian children attending schools i n the same area. This does not lessen the need for research but i t does increase the d i f f i c u l t y of arranging the problem into a controlled experimental design. It has been necessary to make use of the material which i s available and, from this exploratory study, to suggest areas for further study and point out errors which might be avoided. References to Literature The literature consulted, relative to the various tests, testing methods and previous studies, w i l l be referred to throughout the work, rather than concentrating the review i n one section. TABLE I SCHOOL ENROLMENT OF INDIAN AND NON-INDIAN CHILDREN IN VARIOUS GEOGRAPHIC AREAS INDIAN ENROLMENT Indian Schools - day and residential - 1 9 5 0 : Alberta ... ... 2 , 7 7 5 ' Yukon 2 7 0 North-West Territories ... 6 5 1 Total ... 3 , 6 9 6 Total for Canada i n Classes above Grade VIII : 1 9 4 9 6 6 1 1 9 5 0 8 3 4 NON-INDIAN ENROLMENT Public and Private Schools, 1 9 4 8 : Alberta 1 3 5 , 9 2 9 (Canada Year Book, 1 9 5 1 ) CHAPTER II PROCEDURE Selection of Tests It seemed that the starting point would be the selection of a test which would be "culture-free", i f such a test were available. The Cattell culture-free test was not suitable because of the age range which begins at twelve years ( 4 ) and the need for considerable verbal i n -struction i n giving the test. The Raven Progressive Matrices (1947) test was selected as i t i s .suitable for children i n the age range of the primary and elementary schools. It i s also a method of comparing the subject with others of his own age and i s suitable for use where language d i f f i c u l t i e s may exist ( 1 6 ) . In dealing with the concept of intelligence, the Matrices assume that the area of intelligence which they sample would be that which has to do with the a b i l i t y to 5 reason by analogy, rather than that area which might be considered to be dependent upon the r e c a l l of previously learned material ( 1 7 ) • The second test selected was the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. This test does not purport to be culture-free but i t has the advantage of providing, i n addition to the t o t a l scale score, individual scores for the verbal and performance portions of the scale. The scores may also be recorded as raw scores, scaled scores or I.Q.s. Because of the language handicap of some of these children, the verbal portion of the scale was not considered suitable for the study. The performance portion of the scale might be assumed to have a relationship to the culture i n which the children were l i v i n g and would seem to be more susceptible to the.effects of that culture than would be the Raven Matrices. The test author of the WISC states ( 2 5 ) that he i s attempting to measure general intelligence rather than intellectual a b i l i t y and that for this purpose he considers i t more appropriate to use several tasks rather than one single kind of task. For these reasons and others stated later, the performance portion of the WISC was selected for comparison with the Raven Matrices. The high correlation of the performance portion of the scale with the f u l l scale 6 WISC appears to justicy the use of the performance portion as, a means of sampling the individual's general intelligence. Selection of Sub.jects In the selection of the subjects for the Indian group i t was necessary to use those children who were readily accessible and available. In this case, i t meant those children who were hospitalized at the Charles Camsell Indian Hospital at Edmonton, Alberta. Although this hospital was originally intended for tubercular patients only, a unit has been added for non-tubercular patients and most of the sub-jects were found i n this l a t t e r group. This hospital serv-ices the Indians of Alberta, the North-West Territories and the Yukon ( 7 ) and the population from which the sample was drawn i s shown in Table II. Other studies comparing the results of various tests given to r a c i a l groups have been concerned with determin-ing " r a c i a l " superiority, i n f e r i o r i t y or equality (6) ( 1 2 ) . A major d i f f i c u l t y has been the classification of the subjects into the various r a c i a l groups (21) and estimating the degree to which the individual's r a c i a l extraction could be called "pure" ( 1 3 ) . One such study of negroes classified the sub-jects by the degree of pigmentation, dividing the subjects into three groups, those who were dark, those who were medium and those who were light i n coloring ( 2 1 ) . 7 TABLE II PRE-SCHOOL AND SCHOOL AGE INDIAN CHILDREN IN ALBERTA, NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES AND THE YUKON (1950J North-West Ages Alberta Yukon Territories Under 7 3,819 777 3 0 4 7-16 3 , 0 6 6 870 3 7 5 A l l ages 1 2 , 4 4 1 3,816 1,531 Total under 7 4 , 9 0 0 Total 7 - 1 6 4 , 3 1 1 Total of a l l ages 1 7 , 7 8 8 Total Indian Population in Canada 126,000 (Canada Year Book, 1951) 8 This problem of classification does not present i t s e l f here as admission to the hospital was an indication that the patient is an Indian under the terms of the Canadian legislation governing such designation (3) and there was no need to be concerned with the r a c i a l origin of the subjects. In addition to belonging to the Indian group, the subjects were characterized by a degree of isolation and by a lack of formal education. Of the children tested i n the Indian group, only one had more than one year of formal education (Number 23 of the Indian Group, Appendices A to D) and most of them had had only that amount of teaching which was available to them i n the hospital. Part of this lack of formal education i s a function of the age of some of the subjects but i t has been estimated that a third of the patients i n the hospital, including the children (7), have had no previous educational training. The recent study of scholastic aptitude of Indian children of the Caradoc reserve deals with children who are attending school with some regularity and who l i v e close to well-established cultural centres (20). The child-ren can therefore be assumed to understand and to speak fiiglish and the problems of a language handicap, a lack of formal education and an undetermined amount of contact with the non-Indian culture, do not exist. The studies dif f e r on these points. The selection of the Indian group was made by using those children who were available and well enough for testing and who f e l l within the age range of the tests. Many were i n hospital for treatment of fractures, for minor surgery and for observation. The composition of the group i s shown i n Appendix E. The age of each child was determined by the hospital record but i n some instances the exact date of birth was not known and an approximation was necessary. This Indian group was then matched for age and sex with a group of t h i r t y white children who were hospitalized i n a general hospital. No attempt was made to consider the socio-economic status of the hospitalized white children: they were chosen on the basis of a v a i l a b i l i t y at the time of testing i n the same manner i n which the Indian children were selected. It happened that this group of hospitalized white children approximated the socio-economic status of the Indian children i n that no professional groups were represented. Using the occupation of the father as the basis for classification, the group i s shown to represent the semi-skilled and manual labor socio-economic group. In the hospitals visited there was a generally relaxed atmosphere i n the children's wards. Most of the 1 0 children were able to -be up and about and they quickly became accustomed to the idea that they might be asked to take the tests. In every case the child's consent was asked, and there was only one refusal - that of a six-year-old white child. After the f i r s t child had been tested the news soon spread and i t was considered a privilege to be given the test. There was no evidence that the children who had taken the test told the others of the test content. The co-operation was of a high order. The third group consisted of t h i r t y white children from intel l e c t u a l l y privileged homes. Here again the determinant was the occupation of the father, professional training being the requisite. In a majority of the cases, the fathers were members of the University faculty. Information was available i n the case of a l l the white children as to school grades. The testing was done after the promotions were known for the preceding school year and i n only one instance was a child not promoted on the basis of his year's work (Number 14 , white hospitalized, Appendices A to D). This child scored above the mean i n each test i n his own group. Such school records were ava i l -able for only one child i n the Indian group. The hypothesis on which the study was based was concerned with the effect of cultural background on the 11 scores of the children. The int e l l e c t u a l l y privileged group was selected to make the differences as great as possible, i t being expected that under such conditions the scores obtained on the Raven Matrices by the Indian group and by the i n t e l -lectually privileged white group would show less difference than the scores obtained on the performance scale of the WISc, which is assumed to have "culturally loaded" features. The group of hospitalized white children was selected to compen-sate for the factor of il l n e s s present i n the Indian group. As i t happened, the white hospitalized group also had the effect of Supplying a control group more closely related to the Indian group i n socio-economic status than was the privileged white group. This control was the result of the method of selection on the basis of a v a i l a b i l i t y i n hospital rather than as a planned condition. Test Administration The tests were administered.individually. The use of group testing methods has been found to be less satisfactory for studies of this kind (l) particularly where a language handicap i s thought to exist (13). The perform-ance portion of the WISC must be administered individually and, although the Raven Matrices might have been given as a group test (17), the individual method was followed (9) (15) (22). 12 In each instance, the Progressive Matrices were presented f i r s t , followed by the performance scale of the WISC, the order being influenced to some extent by an anticipated language d i f f i c u l t y on the part of the subjects. The test data was no doubt affected by this order of presentation and had the tests been given alternately, the results might have been different and the general design of . the study would have been improved. This defect can no doubt be overcome i n subsequent work suggested i n Chapter IV. The test administration was i n accordance with the directions set out in the manuals, regardless of the child's presumed a b i l i t y to understand the language. The children were asked i f they had taken the tests previously and none had, although a few described other tests which they had been given. CHAPTER III TEST RESULTS After the tests had been administered to the subjects, the responses were scored i n accordance with the instructions i n the manual and the raw scores noted. These raw scores were then converted into scaled scores and the information obtained i s set out for each of the three groups i n Appendices A, B, C, and D. There was no d i f f i c u l t y i n converting the raw scores on the performance scale of the WISC into scaled scores, but the manual for the Raven Matrices shows the scaled scores i n percentile points ( 1 7 )• Reference to Appendix F w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining any-thing but a crude scaled score using the percentile points supplied. Turner and Penfold ( 2 0 ) did not have this problem as the number of subjects used i n their study was large enough; to allow them to classify the children into age groupings. As the ages are held constant i n comparing the 14 groups, i t i s possible to make use of raw scores i n treating the data. Table III shows the mean and the standard deviation for each of the three groups on both the raw scores and the scaled scores of the performance scale of the WISC. The means on the scaled scores for the Indian group and for the hospitalized white group are below that of the represent-ative groups selected by Wechsler ( 2 5 ) , but the privileged white group exceeds these means. The standard deviation for the representative groups i s most closely approximated by the hospitalized white group, but each of the three groups shows a standard deviation less than that of the representative groups ( 2 5 ) . Table IV i s concerned with the data obtained on the Raven Matrices and the discrepancy mentioned- previous-l y between the raw scores and the scaled scores i s apparent here. The raw scores yield results which show the means of the Indian group and the hospitalized white group to be closer than the means of the hospitalized white group and the privileged white group. The scaled scores show the hospital-ized white group to be midway between the other two groups. The data provided i n the manual (17) does not make possible any further comparison of these three groups with the standard-ization group. 15 TABLE III DATA OBTAINED WITH THE PERFORMANCE SCALE OF THE WISC Raw Scores Group Mean Indian 80 29.3 5 - 5 White Hospitalized 87 29.9 5 - 6 4 White Privileged 123 3 4 - 5 6 . 5 Scaled Scores Group Mean 0M Indian 4 1 8 . 2 1-35 White Hospitalized 4 4 9.8 1 . 8 4 White Privileged 58 7-1 1 . 3 4 For each group, N = 3 0 16 TABLE IV DATA OBTAINED WITH THE RAVEN PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (1947) Raw Scores Group Mean Indian 18 5.8 1.09 White Hospitalized 21 5-9 1.11 White Privileged 26 7.1 1.34 Scaled Scores Group Mean <r Ok Indian 19 15.5 2.92 White Hospitalized 45 24.8 4.67 White Privileged 7 0 25-5 4-81 For each group, N = 30 17 Correlation Data In Table V, the correlation between the per-formance scale of the WISC. and. the Raven Matrices, both scaled and raw scores, i s shown for each of the three groups. When the raw scores are used, the correlation i s high and positive for a l l three groups, with the greatest degree of positive correlation being found for the hospitalized white group. When scaled scores are used, the correlation remains positive but i s much lower. In this instance the highest degree of positive correlation i s found i n the scores of the privileged white group. Significance of Group Differences The significance of the difference between the means of the three groups on the performance scale of the WISC, raw and scaled scores,, i s shown i n Table VI. In each case the difference between the Indian group and the hospital-ized white group i s not significant. The difference between the Indian group and the privileged white group i s highly significant, and the difference between the hospitalized white group and the privileged white group i s also s t a t i s t i c a l -l y significant. Similar results are shown i n Table VII i n a 18 TABLE V CORRELATION BETWEEN SCORES ON THE PERFORMANCE SCALE OF THE WISC AND THE RAVEN PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (1947) - FOR EACH OF THE THREE GROUPS Group White Hospitalized Raw Scores Scaled Scores r. r. Indian .75 . 2 7 .83 . 4 2 White • Privileged ' 8 1 »49 19 TABLE VI SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS ON THE PERFORMANCE SCALE OF THE WISC -RAW SCORES AND SCALED SCORES Raw Scores  White White Indian Hospitalized Privileged t. t . t . Indian - . 8 9 4 . 8 White Hospitalized . 8 9 - 4 « 2 White. Privileged 4 « 8 4 . 2 Scaled Scores  White White Indian Hospitalized Privileged t • t . t • Indian - 1 . 3 1 8 . 9 White Hospitalized 1 . 3 1 - 6 . 1 2 White • • Privileged 8 . 9 6 . 1 2 2 0 TABLE VTI SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS ON THE RAVEN PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (1947) -RAW SCORES AND SCALED SCORES . Raw Scores  White White Indian Hospitalized Privileged "fc • "fc • fc • Indian - 1 . 2 9 4 - 7 Hospitalized 1 , 2 9 " 2 , 8 8 Scaled Scores  White White Indian Hospitalized Privileged t . t . t. Indian - 4 . 9 9 . 2 White Hospitalized 4 . 9 - 3 . 7 3 White Privileged 9 . 2 3 . 7 3 21 comparison of the means obtained on the raw scores of the Raven Matrices. Here again the difference between the Indian group and the hospitalized white group i s not significant, while the differences between the hospitalized whji e group and the privileged white group, and between the Indian group and the privileged white group, are significant. In comparing the results of the scaled scores on the Raven Matrices, there i s found-to be a significant difference between each of the three groups. This i s the only instance i n which there i s a significant difference between the Indian group and the hospitalized white group. Interpretation The results reported make possible certain conclusions, about the groups tested. The f i r s t i s the existence of a positive correlation between the scores obtained, whether raw or scaled, by each of the groups on the Raven Matrices and the performance scale of the.WISC. When the raw scores are used, for either of the tests, with the age of the subjects held constant for the purpose of comparison, i t would appear that either test w i l l place the subject i n relatively the same position i n relation to his own group. The difference between the white privileged 22 group and either the Indian group or the hospitalized white group i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant, whether raw or scaled scores are used, and whether the test used i s the Raven Matrices or the performance scale of the WISC. There i s no significant difference between the Indian group and the hospitalized white group except when the scaled scores of the Raven Matrices are used. When the scaled scores of the performance scale of the WISC or the raw scores for this latter scale or the Raven Matrices are used, the two groups may be considered as being samples of the same population. It i s to be remembered that there were no professional groups representedin the white hospitalized group and that the socio-economic status of this group might therefore be considered to be close to the status of the Indian group, using the employment of the father as the criterion. It may be supposed that the difference between these two groups and the white privileged group may be attributable i n part to the enriched environment of the privileged group. Formal education as such does not seem to be the determining factor i n the comparison. As reported previously, both the hospitalized white group and the privileged white group were i n regular attendance i n public 23 schools and were making average progress. In the one instance of a child not being promoted, this child scored above the means of his group on both the tests. On the other hand, only one of the Indian children had had more than one year of formal education. The lack of a significant difference i n the scores of the Indian group and a comparable group of white children makes the use of the tests appear j u s t i f i e d by those who wish to have some assessment of a child's general intelligence, particularly when there i s no record of formal education to give a clue to the individual's a b i l i t y . By referring again to Tables VI and VII, i t will be seen that the assumption on which the tests were selected i s not confirmed. The hypothesis was that the difference between the Indian group and the privileged white group would be much greater on the performance scale of the WISC than on the Raven Matrices. Using the raw- scores, the " t " ratio i s 4 * 7 for the Raven Matrices and 4 . 8 for the performance scale of the WISC. In comparison of the Indian group with the hospitalized white group, the difference is less on the performance scale of the WISC than on the Raven Matrices. When the scaled scores are used, the Indian 24 group differs significantly from both the hospitalized white group and the privileged white group on the Raven Matrices. By contrast, when the scaled scores of the performance part of the WISC are used, the Indian group differs significantly only from the privileged white group. From this i t would appear that the performance scale of the WISC could be used as a basis of comparison of the general intelligence of the Indian children, under con-sideration i n this study, with white children of a similar socio-economic status. It would not be necessary to look for a "culture-free" test as the performance scale of the WISC could be used to sample several areas of the individual's intelligence. I f only one test i s to be used, the perform-ance scale of the WISC i s suggested, but the Raven Matrices can be used successfully with these Indian children and would supplement the WISC. CHAPTER IV SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY As this study i s an exploratory one, part of i t s purpose i s to suggest other ares i n which work may be done on this problem. The question of providing some criterion for the evaluation of the test results presents i t s e l f . In the case of these Indian children such useful information as school progress, examination records and the reports of teachers i s not available as the children have not establish-ed such records. In the case of the younger children this may be, as previously noted, a function of their age. In order to establish some such c r i t e r i a i t i s suggested that these tests be given to groups of Indian children who are i n attendance at school and whose backgrounds are similar to those of the experimental group. Such a test-ing program would give additional information about the 26 children whose a b i l i t y has been assessed by other methods and would be useful i n the establishment of norms. From this present study i t would appear that the tests can be given to children whose knowledge of English i s slight, or presumed to be non-existent. This would just-i f y further administration of these tests to children who are l i v i n g i n their own communities rather than to hospitalized children. This would eliminate the factor of diagnosed il l n e s s which was present i n the group used i n this study. A further study using the f u l l scale of the WISC would give an indication of the importance of the language factor. In some instances i t was reported that the children could not speak English, or could understand and use i t only sparingly. The general attitude of the children during the test administration seemed to confirm this, although they were able to perform on the tests adequately. However, after the children had been given the test, they displayed considerable fluency i n the English language. This l e f t some doubt i n the examiner's mind as to how much of the apparent language deficiency was related to shyness or reticence. It would, of course, be advantageous for the examiner to spend considerable time with the children before giving them the tests, i n order to gain some appreciation of 27 the extent of their language fluency or language handicap. In the case of the hospitalized Indian group this was not possible as the hospital population changed with considerable rapidity. At least three children who were scheduled for tests were discharged from hospital before the tests were completed. These same conditions were present i n the test-ing of the hospitalized white group. The area from which the sample of Indian children was drawn i s geographically very large• For any one investigator to undertake an adequate survey of the area, with a comprehensive sampling and testing program, would be time-consuming-and expensive. The most efficient way i n which the work might be carried on would be by teams of i n -vestigators, carrying out testing programs i n representative areas. The problem of lack of formal education applies also to the adult population. This study i s not concerned with the philosophy of education (10) but some consideration should be given to i t . If the Indian children and adults are to be given the same educational opportunities as other Canadians, then some measure of their general intelligence i s needed to help i n determining the extent to which they are capable of absorbing academic training. Such measures of a b i l i t y should take into consideration the lack of cultural 2 8 opportunity which exists for these groups i n the areas specified. It i s reported that one-third of the adults hospitalized i n the Camsell Hospital have not been to school ( 7 ) . A study akin to the present one might be undertaken with such an adult group, using the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale and the adult form of the Raven Progressive Matrices. The need for an assessment of adult intelligence i s present i n the hospitals. I f the individual i s to be hospitalized for any considerable period of time, he w i l l have the advantage of education training i n hospital. Those i n charge of such educational programs i n hospitals would be able to operate much more ef f i c i e n t l y i n the interests of the patients i f some such assessment could be made. The nature of the development of the geographic area under consideration makes i t d i f f i c u l t to determine the extent to which any of the subjects have been influenced by a culture other than their own. They may be quite sophisticat-ed about some advanced aspects of the culture on which the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children i s based and relative-l y unacquainted with others. This adds to the d i f f i c u l t y i n the selection of tests and i n the interpretation of the test results. The analysis of the sub-tests and their correlation with the test as a whole might be enlightening and might be another area i n which work could be done CHAPTER V SUMMARY This study was based on the assumption that an assessment of the intelligence of the selected group of Indian children obtained with the "culture-free" Raven Matrices (1947) would be more closely related to the scores obtained by a group of white children than would such an assessment obtained with the performance scale of the WISC. The Indian group of th i r t y hospitalized children was matched for age with a group of th i r t y hospital-ized white children and a group of t h i r t y privileged white children. When the Raven Matrices (1947) and the perform-ance scale of the WISC were administered to these three groups under controlled conditions and the resultant data analysed, the assumption was not supported. On the basis of the data obtained, i t would appear that an investigator would be less l i k e l y to err i n 31 comparing the Indian children with white children i n general intelligence i f he made use of the performance scale of the WISC than i f he used the Raven Matrices. In actual practice, i t i s f e l t that both scales could be used to advantage. They have a positive correlation and i n using both tests a more complete sampling of the individual's intelligence would be obtained. Further areas of study are suggested with Indian children of similar backgrounds to those tested i n this study and also with groups of adults of similar back-ground. REFERENCES BENDER, Lauretta. Child Psychiatric Technique. Springfield, 111.: Charles C. Thomas, 1952. BURGS, Oscar K. The Third Mental Measurements Year- book. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1949-Canada Year Book. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Department of Trade and Commerce, 1 9 5 1 . CATTELL, R. B. A Culture-free Test. Manual of direct-ions. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1947-CRAFTS, Leland W., et a l . Recent Experiments i n Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1 9 5 0 . DANIEL, Robert P. "Basic considerations for valid interpretations of experimental studies pertaining to r a c i a l differences." J. Educ. Psychol.. 1932, 15-27-DEW, F. N. and KERANS, Julia E. "Education and growth ' of the hospital school." Cams e l l Arrow. 1 9 5 1 , IV, 1 3 - 1 5 , (Charles Cams e l l Indian Hospital, Edmonton). EDWARDS, Allen L. Experimental Design i n Psychological  Research. New York: Rinehart & Co., Inc., 1950. G00DEN0UGH, Florence L. Mental Testing, i t s History. Principles and Applications. New York: Rinehart & Co., Inc., 1950. 33 10. HUTCKLNS, Robt. M. "Some questions about education in North America." The Marfleet Lectures, University of Toronto, 1 9 5 2 . U. JAMESON, Elmer and SANDIFGRD, Peter. "The mental capacity of Southern Ontario Indians." J. Educ.  Psychol., 1 9 2 8 , 5 3 6 - 5 5 1 . 1 2 . KLINEBERG, Otto. "A study of psychological differ-ences between 'racial 1 and national groups in Europe." Archives of Psychology, New York, September, 1 9 3 1 . 1 3 . PETERSON, Joseph and TELFORD, CW. "Results of group and individual tests applied to the practically pure-blood negro children of St. Helena Island." J. Comp. Psych.. 1 9 3 0 , Vol. 1 1 , 1 1 5 - 1 4 4 -1 4 . POWELL, Joan A. "A comparison of the Stanford-Binet (1937 Revision, Form L) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children of different age and intellect ual levels." (Unpublished thesis), University of British Columbia, 1951. 15. PQRTEOUS, Stanley D. The Porteous Maze Test and Intelligence. Palo Alto, California: Pacific Books, 1950. 16. RAVEN, J. C. "The comparative assessment of intellect-ual ability." Brit. J. Psychol.. 1 9 4 8 , 1 2 - 1 9 . 1 7 . RAVEN, J. C. Guide to Using Progressive Matrices (1947). London: H. K. Lewis & Co., 1951. 18. SEASHORE, Harold, WESMAN, Alexander and DOPPELT, Jerome. "The standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children." J. Consult. Psychol., 1950, 99-110. 1 9 . TERMAN, Lewis M. and MERRILL, Maude A. Measuring Intel- ligence . Cambridge: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1937* 3 4 2 0 . TURNER, G. H. and PENFOLD, D. J. "The scholastic aptitude of the Indian children of the Caradoc Reserve." Can. J. of Psychol., Vol. 6 , 1, March, 1 9 5 2 , 3 1 - 4 4 . 2 1 . TYLER, Leona E. The Psychology of Human Differences. New York: D. Appleton-Century Co. Inc., 1947• 2 2 . VALENTINE, C. W. Intelligence Tests for Children. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1 9 5 0 . 2 3 . WECHSLER, David. "Cognitive, conative and non-intel-lective intelligence." Amer. Psychol.. 1 9 5 0 , 7 8 - 8 3 . 2 4 . WECHSLER, David. The Measurement of Adult Intelligence. Baltimore: The Williams and WilkLns Co., 1944-2 5 . WECHSLER, David. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Manual. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1949* 2 6 . WILSON, W. A. Jr., and HAGGARD, Ernest A. "A compar-ison of two methods of analyzing a set of data on intelligence test performance." Amer. Psychol., 1 9 4 8 , 3 4 4 . 35 . APPENDIX A COMPARISON OF RAW SCORES - WISC Subject White White Number Indian Hospitalized Privileged 1 48 43 • ^ 46 2 43 16 96 3 3 0 71 72 4 3 0 43 89 5 63 49 80 6 65 61 72 7 47 70 103 - 8 61 79 85 9 91 85 106 10 53 91 92 11 71 78 135 12 54 84 112 13 87 93 91 14 71 90 104 15 60 70 130 16 79 117 121 17 145 89 143 18 103 113 129 19 99 42 146 20 96 109 164 21 100 117 171 22 61 112 139 23 117 S3 169 24 85 71 160 25 45 150 147 26 113 139 183 27 106 109 157 28 116 129 156 29 1 3 0 124 136 3 0 125 86 156 3 6 APPENDIX B COMPARISON OF RAW SCORES - RAVEN MATRICES Subject White White Number Indian Hospitalized Privileged 1 12 13 11 2 13 13 17 3 11 18 12 4 9 14 16 5 12 • 15 17 6 11 15 18 7 1 0 21 19 8 13 21 23 9 14 19 33 1 0 16 22 31 11 19 27 29 12 9 2 4 28 13 16 27 18 14 14 25 22 15 16 15 25 1 6 18 27 27 1 7 2 2 18 2 4 18 22 28 32 1 9 26 15 2 6 2 0 2 4 25 3 2 2 1 28 22 3 2 22 21 3 2 2 7 23 26 23 3 4 2 4 23 12 35 25 17 3 4 28 26 2 4 29 3 6 27 2 4 22 3 4 28 2 4 25 27 29 2 6 25 3 6 3 0 11 13 33 37 APPENDIX C COMPARISON OF SCALED SCORES - WISC Subject White White Number Indian Hospitalized Privileged 1 57 49 53 2 40 31 73 3 34 54 51 4 34 39 58 5 38 34 51 6 44 43 47 7 36 49 61 8 42 50 62 9 51 50 60 10 38 50 55 11 44 42 68 12 35 42 61 13 45 42 50 14 37 50 50 15 37 35 61 16 35 52 51 17 63 41 55 18 48 48 56 19 44 20 59 20 39 50 74 21 39 40 65 22 28 43 57 23 52 31 68 24 33 21 64 25 20 62 54 26 41 57 69 27 38 43 54 28 44 46 56 29 43 43 48 30 44 72 51 38 APPENDIX D COMPARISON OF SCALED SCORES - RAVEN MATRICES Subject White White Number Indian Hospitalized Privileged 1 25 37 22 2 25 25 75 3 8 81 10 4 2 43 5 0 5 5 37 58 6 2 37 66 7 2 80 75 8 10 83 92 9 10 65 99 10 25 63 99 42 93 96 12 2 5 0 95 13 10 68 21 14 7 68 50 15 10 5 69 16 7 68 69 17 25 8 37 18 25 68 92 19 5 0 5 50 20 50 47 95 21 50 15 80 22 10 68 56 23 38 12 90 2 4 19 2 95 25 5 90 50 26 25 50 95 27 25 18 90 28 25 32 44 2 9 38 25 95 30 2 1 85 APPENDIX E AGES REPRESENTED IN EACH GROUP Number Years of Subjects 5h 1 6 3 7 * a 4 9 3 1 0 5 11 3 12 6 13 1. N = 3 0 4 0 APPENDIX F WORKING PERCENTILE POINTS ON BOOK FORM OF RAVEN PROGRESSIVE MATRICES+ Percentile Points Chronological Age i n Years 6 8 11 2 6 35 24 3 4 21 3 1 18 28 16 2 4 14 21 13 17 95 90 75 50 25 1 0 21 2 0 17 15 13 12 """Representative ages are shown rather than quoting the whole Table. 

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