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The staff development program of the Social Welfare Branch Vecic, Claire St. John 1954

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THE STAFF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH by CLAIRE ST. JOHN VECIC Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of " Master of Social Work 1954 The University of British,Columbia - iv -ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to enquire into the policies and methods of staff development followed by the Social Welfare Branch with respect to i t s Field Service staff. The survey involves understanding i t s generalized, multi-service program, the philosophy and goals of the social legislation of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the administra-tive organization which brings these social welfare services to citizens. The concurrent development of professional social work practice, and the planning of staff development opportunities as a means of obtaining qualified personnel are outlined. Related to the Agency's role in continuing the professional growth of staff on the job are standards of practice and the appropriate use of personnel. The implementation of a costly welfare program places respon-s i b i l i t y upon the Social Welfare Branch to ensure that these services are administered by qualified personnel. In common with other professions that of social work is continuously using new knowledge to refine practice. As i t is the personnel who give l i f e to a service program research was f i r s t directed to the qualifications, professional and otherwise, of staff employed on the survey date, February 1, 1952. Because of the key position of the District Supervisor, a job analysis to show time distribut-ion by type of work performed was completed. While not a true indication of the quality of work, i t is suggestive of the availability of District Supervisors to staff. As a supplementary means of gauging the way in which District Supervisors work the survey questionnaire requested infor-mation concerning supervisory procedures. Other data con-cerning staff development methods was obtained from Branch f i l e s , and interviews with administrative personnel: Div-ision Heads, Regional Administrators, Field Consultants, District Supervisors, the Training Supervisor, and the Assis-tant Director of Welfare. The study showed that i t is the objective of the Social Welfare Branch to offer professional services,to employ qualified personnel, and to promote their profess-ional development on the job. The findings confirmed what was already known about the excessive volume of work placed upon the Field Staff which makes i t d i f f i c u l t to maintain satisfactory standards of practice. It is apparent the administrative function of the District Supervisor limits unduly the teaching requirements of this position. In order that a well-planned staff develop-ment program be carried out i t is recommended adminis-trative responsibility and additional personnel for function be given to the Division of Training, and a budget for this program be allocated. To raise the qualifications of Field Staff to a desirable profess-ional standard the extension of bursaries and educat-ional leaves with pay especially for District Super-visors, would have permanent results. Administrative reorganization to separate out the function of Personnel would f a c i l i t a t e better focus upon the staff develop-ment program. Several suggestions concerning the In-Service Training Plan are referred to in the text. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to thank a l l members of the Social Welfare Branch who gave their wholehearted support in making this study possible. Of the large number of staff who contributed I am particularly indebted to the District Supervisors who faith f u l l y completed the detailed questionnaire to show the kind of work they are doing. From the Field Consultants, Miss A. Mess and Miss M. King, and Mr. J. Sadler, Regional Administer, I gained understanding of the f i e l d operations, and from Miss R. McKay and Miss A. Carroll, an appreciation of the objectives of several specialized programs. Miss M. Moscrop, Training Supervisor was an invaluable resource in obtaining material on the Agency's staff development act-i v i t i e s . I am most appreciative of the sponsoring of this study by Miss Amy Leigh, Assistant Director of Welfare. I should also like to mention the encouragement given by Miss M.J. Smith and Mr. W. Dixon, of the School of Social Work, University of British Columbia. - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter 1. The Social Welfare Field and Pro-fessional Social Work Practices The growth of social welfare. Develop-ments in professional training and standards of education and practice. Staff development, a means of obtaining qualified personnel. Principles and methods of staff development. Purpose,' of this survey, and research method followed 1 Chapter 2. The Agency Framework and Its Personnel Social policies and goals of the Social Welfare Branch; Establishing a professional service. Administrative reorganization 194-2-1952. Personnel policies, social work job classifications, and proposed changes. Qualifications of social work personnel; general education, professional training and previous professional experience, by sex and grade. Average length of service by grade 23 Chapter 3. The Agency1s Methods of Staff Development Agency policy on staff development. Key personnel in staff development. Orientation. The d i s t r i c t setting. The work of the District Super-visor, a time distribution study, the tabulation and analysis of questionnaire returns s to indicate type of work performed and supervisory procedures. Evaluations. The use of staff meetings. Supervisors 1 Institutes Professional literature. Financial aid for professional training. Professional stimulation outside the agency 54-Chapter 4. The In-Service Training Plan The need for In-Service Training and i t s purpose. Historical sketch. Selection of candi-dates. The current plan. Reasons for terminations . . 9 9 Chapter 5« Conclusions and Recommendations Services required and levels of per-formance. Improvement of personnel standards. i i i -Page The strengthening of District Staff, extension of bursaries and educational leaves. A se l -ection Committee for In-Service Training can-didates. Administrative responsibility for the staff development program 117 Appendices: A. Sample Questionnaire 130 B. Social Work Job Classifications 135 C. Social Work Salary Schedule 142 D. The Sample Evaluation Guide . . . . . . . . 143 E. The I n i t i a l Application Interview for In-Service Trainees . . 145 F. Samples of the C i v i l Service and Social Welfare Branch Application Forms . . . 147 G. Bibliography . 148 TABLES IN THE TEXT Table 1. Social Work Training by Education and Sex, February 1, 1952 49A Table 2. Social Work Training by Grade and Sex, February 1, 1952 . 51A Table 3« Previous Professional Experience . . . . . 51B Table 4. Average Length of Service by Grade . . . . 52A Table 5. Distribution of Supervisors' Time by Type of Work Performed, January, 1952, Showing Average Percentages . . . . . . . 63A Table 6. Percentage Distribution of Super-visors' Time by Type of Work Performed, January, 1952 68A Table 7. Content of Staff Meetings During Preceding Six months 80A THE STAFF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH CHAPTER 1 THE SOCIAL WELFARE FIELD AND PROFESSIONAL SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE The Growth of Social Welfare The development of professional social work pract-ice has closely paralleled the unprecedented expansion in the f i e l d of social welfare, which to-day has truly become a vast and growing enterprise. As an expression of the democratic ideal of equal opportunity and the good l i f e for every human being, social welfare measures not only assist individuals and families to attain their maximum well-being, but also seek to u t i l i z e the state and community resources to create the most favorable environment. Internationally, co-operation to improve the social organizations of individual countries by means of exchange of personnel and ideas, as well as economic aid to "underdeveloped" countries, has extended greatly since the organization of the United Nations in 1945. Although far below what is required to provide for a world-wide minimum standard of health and welfare mutual assistance has been given through such organizations as the United Nations Educa-tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund, the United Nations Program of Technical Assistance, the International Labour Organiz-ation, the World Health Organization and others. Various international conferences are held at regular intervals to share information and establish standards of child welfare, social security, mental health, and many other phases of - 2 -social welfare. Perhaps the most significant of these pro-grams is the United Nations sponsored training of social welfare students from many lands in modern concepts and methods. In their native countries these leaders w i l l be testing and adapting what they have learned, and from their experience w i l l , in turn, make their intrinsic contributions. On the Canadian scene there has been steady pro-gress towards the goal that Individuals achieve their maximum potentiality through adequate social welfare provisions. In 1952 total expenditures for health and welfare amounted to one and one-half b i l l i o n dollars or some eight percent of the national income."'' With respect to social security legislation, the recent enactment by the Federal government to provide for allowances to the c i v i l i a n disabled leaves medical care the only major uncovered aspect. The National Health Grants, which commenced in 1948, have been extended and increased, some of these to establish mental health clinics and to train social workers. Notwithstanding the f a i r l y solid nation-wide foundation to provide for economic security there remain some serious gaps to be f i l l e d before the "social" features are realized. Because of their constitutional responsibility the 1 Welfare In Canada 1953, 33rd Annual Report of  The Canadian Welfare Council. Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, p. 5. - 3 -Individual provinces s t i l l are l e f t to carry out many wel-fare services, the importance of Which cannot be f u l l y measured in terms of dollars and cents costs. These include the major portion of public assistance, which does not generally cover the unemployed, family and child welfare services, most of which originate from voluntary agencies even though they may receive public subsidies, and most of the rehabilitation and correction services, to name the broader categories. Old Age Assistance, Blind Allowances, and the anticipated Disability Allowances are administered by the provinces, which pay for 50 per cent of the basic allow-ance of $40.00. There is much unevenness across the country with respect to the amounts and adequacy of material aid given, e l i g i b i l i t y requirements are complicated by conflict-ing residence and other regulations, and in some areas, mainly rural, rehabilitative and preventive social services are not available, either through lack of funds, organization or personnel. Similar disparities obtain concerning standards and services in child and family welfare. It i s , however, a far cry from 1930 when there exist-, ed only the one national assistance program, Old Age Pensions at seventy, and in some provinces Mothers' Allowances and Workmen's Compensation. While the voluntary agencies were then well established in urban areas, there was no social security program as we know i t to-day. In this condition of unpreparedness local, provincial and federal governments attempted to cope with the depression-created needs of thous-ands for food, shelter and hope. Growing out of this hap-hazard and what was to many individuals a damaging experience was the realization that national planning was necessary to meet the normal contingencies of li v i n g : protection for the young and the old, unemployment, illness, both physical and mental, and dis a b i l i t y . There was also a growing appreciation that income maintenance alone was, not sufficient to solve problems of personal and family breakdown, and that auxilliary service programs to assist the emotionally handicapped should be integrated with them. Such national planning, i n addition to joint federal-provincial consultation, has been carried on mainly by the Canadian Welfare Council which has given leader-ship in helping social welfare organizations to improve their services and to adjust their policies and practices to meet the needs. Its continuing activity has been augmented by means of the biennial Canadian Conference on Social Work and several alternating regional and local conferences in which workers in the f i e l d and interested citizens participate. Likewise, the Canadian Association of Social Workers has exerted its i n -fluence, locally and nationally, in social welfare planning and organization in addition to i t s primary interest in raising professional standards. - 5 -Developments in Professional Training: To a not inconsiderable degree the growth of social welfare in Canada has been influenced by comparable devel-opments in the United States with which country Canada main-tains close cultural ties. So i t is with the evolving pro-fession of social work to administer the multitude of welfare services. From the experience in the United States of the Charity Organization movement, settlement workers," and others who helped to improve the lot of the disadvantaged workers and immigrants by social action and individual aid, there was better understanding of the complexity of social and family problems and the need to educate personnel engaged in this f i e l d of work. From i t s beginnings in apprentice-type train-ing on the job, preparation became more formalized in the early part of the century in separate schools, colleges, and later in universities, mainly for casework positions in family and child welfare agencies. By 1919 there were some 17 associated training schools in the United States.^" Subsequently, the other two sub-groups in the social work f i e l d - group work and community organization - developed organized curricula. Although the origins of social work as a profession came later in Canada, i t received stimulation from i t s American 1. Hollis, E.V. and Taylor, A.L. Abridgment of Social Work Education in the United States, American Assoc-iation of Social Workers, New York, 1952. p. 5 - 6 -counterpart, and i n 1914- the f i r s t school of s o c i a l work was established i n Toronto. S i g n i f i c a n t national developments followed: i n 1920, when the Canadian Council on Child Welfare (now Canadian Welfare Council) was organized, i n 1927 when a small nucleus of s o c i a l workers formed the Canadian Assoc-i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers, and i n 1928 the organization of the present-day Department of National Health and Welfare. Since then the pressing demand for s o c i a l work personnel commenc-ing with the public assistance programs of the 1930s has matched the steady expansion of s o c i a l services both public and voluntary. To-day, some nine major f i e l d s are represented: f i n a n c i a l a i d , family and c h i l d welfare, s o c i a l work with the adult offender, i n hospitals and c l i n i c s , with the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped, group work and recreation, community chests and councils and s o c i a l work teaching. Multiple service agencies, the largest of which are the p r o v i n c i a l departments of s o c i a l welfare, are a f a i r l y common pattern. A national "Survey of Welfare Positions", made i n October, 1951, which did not constitute a complete coverage, showed a t o t a l of 4,221 such positions, 30 per cent of which were f i l l e d by graduates of schools of s o c i a l work. 1 The Report showed an annual Increase of positions during the years 1949-1951 of nine per cent, 1 Canada, Research D i v i s i o n , Department of National Health and Welfare, Survey of Welfare Positions Report. Ottawa, A p r i l , 1954, p. VII. which together with loss of those leaving the welfare f i e l d or resigning to take further training, would mean an annual recruitment of one-fifth of the total welfare establishment. In contrast with this demand the eight Schools of Social Work were providing an estimated 250 graduates annually to f i l l some 329 to 632 anticipated positions for professionally trained staff. The findings of this Report were roughly duplicated.by a comparable survey, in the United States.* Although this Report points primarily to the problem of staffing, which may be further aggravated by population increase and shifts as well as international de-mands, i t also poses serious questions concerning standards of training and performance. The majority of the Canadian Schools of Social Work offer a two year post-graduate course, generic in content, which is considered basic preparation for practice. Because of the demonstrated Inadequate supply of professionally educated social workers, including those with one year of training, agencies have had no choice but to employ the best suited of those available, with or without professional qualifications, in sufficient numbers to f i l l a l l vacancies. In some instances agencies have not been able to obtain personnel with the desired background and essential positions have been l e f t unfilled. 1. United States Department of Labor, National  Survey of Salaries and Working, Conditions in Social Work, 1951 - 8 -It can be assumed that standards of agency practice vary greatly. Agencies which employ f u l l y qualified staff and have established other standards conducive to good practice such as limited intake, consultative services, and attractive personnel policies have largely influenced pro-fessional training. On the other hand, the public welfare organizations as well as private agencies with delegated public functions, have usually not been able to adhere to acceptable standards as to qualifications or performance. They are obligated to carry out the major welfare provisions as lai d down by social legislation on behalf of the general populat-ion as effectively as possible. While job classifications are f a i r l y standard procedure, work studies or job analyses and the setting of minimum standards of performance have not been generally carried out. The professional organization, both •in Canada and the United States, which perhaps have a greater vested interest, have delineated such standards in a number of specializations and settings. Responsibility for working out these problems of an expanding role for social work rests equally upon the agencies, more so the public departments, the schools, and the pro-fession. Following the impetus of the Hollis-Taylor report there has been a concerted effort to make c r i t i c a l study and evaluation of the underlying propositions of social work. If social work is to deal effectively with individual and community problems and attain f u l l professional stature, a l l those who have a stake in social work are involved in finding answers to the questions now being asked. Is social work a distinct profession, and what is i t s unique and essential function? Has this altered since i t s early beginnings, and has specialization meant there is actually more than one pro-fession? How does this affect the educational curriculum? Basic studies which w i l l specify the content of social work positions and define acceptable competency are urgently re-quired so that schools can better equip candidates for these positions. Joint efforts are needed to improve selection and recruitment, and to make the f i e l d more attractive to persons of high calibre. As a f i r s t step in this direction workshops on education for social work at local, regional and national levels are now taking place throughout the country. One such workshop was held in Vancouver in A p r i l , 1954, to study the immediate issues of how to meet the need for more, staff, ways of maintaining the schools as centres of learning, and how to protect and improve standards of practice. As a result of this cooperative endeavour, there is confidence that the continuing body w i l l find some solutions. Staff Development It is in this context of immediate and long-range objectives that social work agencies are carrying on in their day-to-day work. As one way of obtaining better qualified staff and to place them most advantageously many agencies have given - 10 -special attention to the method of staff development. Under optimum conditions a beginning worker, who has completed two years of post-graduate study, requires another two years of "interneshlp" with selected experience and competent super-vision in order to test and integrate theoretical knowledge with practice, and to acquire a professional self-discipline. Because of factors beyond their control few agencies have been able to make this degree of investment in continuing the worker's formal education. Nonetheless, agencies do recognize that i f the desired services are to be given a l l social work staff need to improve their qualifications, regardless of previous experience or study, and they have taken responsib-i l i t y in varying degrees for their on-going education during their whole period of practice. When basic s k i l l s become part of the worker's professional equipment subsequent growth may lead to any one of a number of specialized areas - advanced practice, supervision, administration, research or teaching. Staff development thus represents the conscious planning by the agency administration to provide for con-tinuing growth of individual staff members in efficient per-formance on the job. This undertaking, in no way a substitute for the selection of competent workers, assumes that a l l staff w i l l benefit from planned training opportunities. Such a program should take into consideration the differential educational needs of staff as well as their responsibilities according to job classifications. As an integral part of the agency operation the training process follows the lines of - 11 -regular administrative and supervisory responsibility. For this reason i t is important that the training supervisor take part in' administrative staff meetings so as to be informed on administrative developments in the agency, and to have the administrator's endorsement of and participation In the sfeaff development program. A staff development program is based upon sound administrative practices. There should be a clear under-standing and acceptance of agency philosophy and purpose, and related policies and procedures lai d out in a written manual. The kind of program and level of performance expected should be outlined in the description of individual job functions. This also serves the purpose of avoiding any overlapping and unallocated responsibilities. The channels, through which decisions on any major policy changes are to be made, should be c l a r i f i e d . Without such a framework duplication and con-fusion ensue, and decrease the agency's effectiveness through lowered staff morale. Planning of the program is dependent upon knowledge of each individual staff member's performance as shown in the written evaluation, and is directed towards improving the worker's practice in relation to the work expected. In a larger agency i t is desirable that the responsibility for staff development be a full-time position. Other competent staff members to help in the planning and direction, and to ensure adequate content and method, need to be provided. In this - 12 -way staff development becomes a dynamic process which, as i t improves the competence of staff, serves to strengthen the administration. Staff development divides i t s e l f into three broad groups of act i v i t i e s : supervision of day-by-day work, i n -service training, and other resources. The major respon-s i b i l i t y for the professional growth of staff Is assumed by the supervisor who is immediately concerned with the worker1s daily assignments. The supervisory process is a co-operative undertaking between the supervisor and worker to maintain and develop the agency's standards, and to promote the worker's all-round professional growth. It implies an understanding by the supervisor of the worker's intellectual and emotional readiness to which the teaching content is related. Individual conferences need to be held regularly, with privacy, and without interruption. It involves thoughtful preparation by both supervisor and worker. Each requires a certain measure of competence and discipline If the conference is to be of educational value. Group conferences of workers dealing with similar problems can be utilized for the same purpose. Staff meetings, which c a l l on the supervisor's leadership in planning and stimulation, are a valuable means of staff development. Use of group process in enabling staff to take responsibility for planning and participation is most productive. Staff meetings should also be held on a regular basis, and content should be planned around daily - 13 -practice. Suitable topics may relate to common problems en-countered in practice, questions regarding application of agency policy, how to improve recording and other techniques, and introduction of material which w i l l add to the workers' knowledge. Staff meetings provide an important outlet for the worker's expression of feelings about his work and the agency, and as he learns to participate he gains recognition for his contributions. Especially for the new staff member the staff meeting enables identification with the agency. Continuity of program between meetings aids in adequate cover-age of certain topics so that some conclusions may be reached. In agencies in which there is an elaborate organizational structure and a variety of services i t is advisable to separate but the administrative regulations of a routine nature to avoid the danger they w i l l usurp the educational purpose. These can be better handled in short "briefing" sessions. Participation of administrative personnel in staff meetings from time to time is to be encouraged so they w i l l have f i r s t -hand knowledge of the workers' concerns, and u t i l i z e their experience in transforming social policy into social services. It is the most effective way in which unity of purpose can be realized. The periodic evaluation, oral and written, affords a means of measuring staff development. It has value in relation to the quality of working relationships carried on in staff meetings and individual conferences, and is a part - 14 -of the supervisory process. The supervisor needs to keep a record of instances of the worker's performance over a period of time, and both supervisor and worker prepare for evalua-tion by the reading of case records and review of any special assignments. Through analysis of progress following the written evaluation outline and standard of performance the worker makes his own self-evaluation. To the extent that the supervisor has aided the worker in understanding, developing and using his professional self the evaluation conference w i l l be a natural summation, and his anxiety at a minimum. As the written evaluation becomes a part of the worker's personnel f i l e , and provides the administration with information affect-ing his tenure, placement, and promotion, there w i l l be some emotional investment by him. Following evaluation there should be conscious planning by supervisor and worker to consolidate their new understanding of the worker's individual needs. Supplementing the work of the supervisor there should be avail-able administrative and technical consultants, not necessarily within the agency. In i t s broader concept in-service training applies to a variety of functions carried on by the training person which advances the work being carried on in the f i e l d . Formal in-service training courses include orientation for new staff members, and special courses, training meetings or institutes directed towards the special needs of a particular group of staff such as those without previous social work experience - 15 -or training, beginning or. experienced supervisors, and others. The training person also carries responsibility to supervise the preparation of material to be used in staff development, and to recommend methods of using such material. He usually engages in related activities such as committee and staff meeting participation, the planning of some local or regional staff meetings, assisting in the development of standards of performance, recruiting of personnel, assisting in the preparation of the annual report, and other miscellaneous duties. In practice, the planning and conducting of the orientation period has been one of the main assignments of the training supervisor. The purpose of the orientation period, which need not be all-inclusive, is to give the be-ginning worker a grasp of the agency's function, i t s legal basis, and the administrative structure. The content of such a course emphasizes the intent and methods of the one agency, and general knowledge Is limited to direct application in everyday operations. Knowledge of the historical background is valuable in conveying perspective and how changes have come about. The orientation period should be utilized to outline the more detailed policies to do with the particular job and the general rules and regulations affecting the employee. Written material illustrative of these aspects and also out-lining personnel policies is helpful. The arranging of f i e l d trips to agencies and institutions with which the worker should be. familiar is another useful means of orientation. While - 16 -orientation is usually thought of as a prelude to placement, i t may be more advantageous from the standpoint of including the maximum number and offering a more comprehensive content, to schedule this after placement. When a worker has been on the job from three to six months he is better prepared to participate in the sessions and to f i l l in his gaps in the understanding of the agency's operations and interrelationships. Under either plan some of the responsibility for orientation is taken by the supervisor. Other means of staff development include attendance at occasional outside lectures, institutes and social: work conferences. Regular stimulation of this kind is needed by a l l staff at least once a year, and is doubly important where the calibre of supervisory staff is uneven and workers have not secured basic training. Educational leave for promising staff members to advance their qualifications is another method of implementing the total program. It is usually the case that without some financial aid from the agency the worker cannot take a . f u l l university year. The agency's main con-sideration in deciding whether i t should grant educational leave is how its program can best be served, and secondly, which individual can receive maximum benefit. Selection should be directed not only towards providing professional training for a l l f i e l d staff who can qualify, but also to allow for f u l l graduate training of personnel required for supervisory positions and advanced practice. The credit which may accrue - 17 -to a worker through improving his qualifications are the gain in professional status and greater satisfaction in the performance of his work. The agency, on i t s part, should recognize the worker's increased competence by considering him for promotion and increase in salary in line with i t s personnel policies. The policy with respect to the financing of educational leave w i l l vary according to the agency's total administrative costs and other staff development costs. It is reasonable for the agency to expect that when i t grants leave with pay or a bursary to the worker i t should receive the benefit of the worker's services for a stated period upon which there has been prior agreement. If the agency's staff development program is to achieve worthwhile results and to justify the costs involved, the matter of staff selection requires appraisal. Public welfare agencies which employ staff without previous social work education or experience need to have carefully worked out c r i t e r i a of selection so as to obtain candidates capable of professional growth and personally suited for all-round practice. Co-ordinated planning between the agency and school of social work to establish such standards of selection and required training, and to allocate financial responsibility, facilitates this objective. The current shortage of qualified personnel suggests that state-supported agencies and the federal government as well need to establish or increase grants for social work education. Otherwise, the progress - 18 -.. already made in providing social services of a reasonably good standard w i l l be diminished. The f i e l d of social work, in which is included the various social security measures and different service prog-rams to provide opportunity for personal, family and community development, has become a part of contemporary l i v i n g . The budget estimates of the Social Welfare Branch, Department of Health and Welfare, British Columbia, were approximately 1 5 million dollars for the f i s c a l year 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 5 4 , and additional millions were distributed in this province in the form of Family Allowances, Old Age Security,.Veterans' Allowances, and Unemployment Insurance. The expenditures of the voluntary agencies within the community chests further swell the total sums being spent on welfare. The profession of social work, which is now going through a stage of c r i t i c a l self-examin-ation regarding i t s scope and function, is giving increased attention to providing suitable education to satisfy agency requirements. Concurrently, agencies are examining their role in continuing professional growth on the job, to.standards of performance, and to appropriate use of personnel. Purpose of Study; The purpose of this study is to enquire into organ-ization, methods and procedures in staff development as practiced in the Social Welfare Branch with respect to i t s d i s t r i c t staff which is engaged in a generalized social service covering the entire province. It is based upon a - 19 -personnel survey of staff employed as on February 1 , 1 9 5 2 , which affords basic information concerning their general education, professional training, previous social work ex-perience, and length of employment by the agency according to grade and sex. Because of the key position held by the d i s t r i c t supervisor a work study has been completed to show the time distribution by the type of work performed i n the month of January, 1 9 5 2 . This job analysis i s supplemented by the findings of a questionnaire to highlight supervisory pro-cedures being followed. A sample questionnaire is shown in Appendix A. Since 194-3 this agency has carried on a well-developed in-service training plan for f i e l d staff who have not had previous social work education. Chapter 4 describes the evolution of this particular training plan, and an analysis of the calibre and placement of in-service trainees from 1943-1952 has been derived from information available in their personnel f i l e s . The Social Welfare Branch; The Social Welfare Branch, which employed a total of 220 individuals classified as social workers on the survey date, has been concerned with the standard of services pro-vided, and since 1943 has engaged a full-time training supervisor to promote the development of qualified personnel. This development of the Social Welfare Branch into one of the largest welfare agencies in Canada from the exper-imental to a relatively mature stage has occurred within the - 20 -relatively brief span of the last twenty-five years. Examin-ation of the social legislation of British Columbia, of the administrative framework of the Social Welfare Branch, and of the personnel who have provided these services throughout the province discloses a consistency in social philosophy and policy and progressive methods of implementing these goals. Notwithstanding a number of administrative problems such as maintaining communications between headquarters and the f i e l d , the degree of decentralization of services, relationships with municipal welfare departments, and the scarcity of pro-fessional personnel, which w i l l require continuing study and steps towards resolution, the Social Welfare Branch has grown into a stabilized and integrated organization giving effective service. Recognition of what has been accomplished in the creation of a unified and generalized f i e l d service has been made in a United Nations publication which describes this agency as "one of the outstanding developments in the f i e l d of social welfare administration and organization in Canada. By pooling a l l the social work staffs of various governmental agencies into one large task force and then assigning them to the posts for which they are best f i t t e d , the welfare admin-istration gains much in f l e x i b i l i t y , adaptability and a b i l i t y to meet heavy pressures.... The workers gain a wide range of experience, because from time to time they can be trans-ferred to different types of work without breaking the - 21 -1 continuity of their service." Some indication of the calibre of leadership developed in the Social Welfare Branch was the award made in 1948 to the Deputy Minister of Welfare, Mr. E.W. Gr i f f i t h , of the Professional Institute Gold Medal for the most outstanding Canadian contribution to national or world well-being - for having developed a modern social welfare program. In 1951 the province of Newfoundland obtained the services of the Assistant Director of Welfare, Miss Amy Leigh, to conduct a survey of its welfare services and to make recommendations as to their organization. In retrospect, the predecessors of these present-day leaders, such names as Dr. Laura Holland, Dr. Harry Cassidy and Dr. George Davidson come to mind, were convinced of the need to establish B r i t i s h Columbia's welfare program on a professional basis. The beginnings of this modern approach can be traced to surveys conducted by the Canadian Council of Child and Family Welfare of children's and family services in 1927» and a subsequent study by the National Committee for Mental Hygiene in 1929. Following their recommendations con-cerning provision of casework services by professionally trained social workers, the provincial government engaged several ex-perienced social workers from eastern Canada, and instituted a policy of assisting suitable individuals to obtain profess-ional training. The f i r s t educational grants were given 1. United Nations, Methods of Social Welfare  Administration. Department of Social Affairs, New York, 1 9 5 0 , P. 3 1 . - 22 -within several years to five persons to take specialized training in psychiatric social work for positions at the Provincial Mental Hospital. 1 In the intervening years the practice of B r i t i s h Columbia politicians in using profession-a l leadership has continued, and i t has been possible to plan for the attainment of over-all professional standards in practice. From scrutiny of the current social legislation and of related policy statements i t is apparent that the only way much of this can be carried out is through pro-fessional service. 1 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Health and Welfare, Annual Report of the Social Welfare" Branch. 1948. "Historical Review"King's Printer, Victoria, p. 14. CHAPTER 2 THE AGENCY FRAMEWORK AND ITS PERSONNEL The Program of Soeial Welfare in British Columbia The legislation and organization of welfare services in British Columbia have been motivated by social thinking which has been deeply concerned with the promotion of the well-being of a l l citizens to the end that individuals and families may be as independent as possible and function as contributing members of the community. This kind of thinking is exemplified in many of the Acts designed to meet the social needs of the general population. This has not always been the case, and prior to 1 9 3 5 British Columbia's social legislation was undistinguished. Limited categorical public assistance such as Mothers* Pensions, Old Age Pensions, a fund for the "destitute, poor and sick", and direct r e l i e f were available but did not include aid other than financial. In the f i e l d of child welfare, such legislation as the Infants Act ( 1 9 0 1 ) the Adoption Act ( 1 9 2 0 ) and the Children of Un-married Parents Act ( 1 9 2 2 ) , both in word and administration, were more concerned with legal questions of custody and maintenance than in providing adequate protection and services to children and parents. Historically, the major responsibility for social services has been carried by the provincial government because of the small number of incorporated local areas and their financial in a b i l i t y to meet the costs of a comprehensive program. This became quite apparent during the economic depression of the 1930s which quickened the organization of a l l welfare services at both provincial and municipal levels. The concept of individual study and treatment of those in trouble with society or within themselves, f i r s t to be adopted in the care of the mentally i l l , was soon extended in 1931 under the direction of Miss Laura Holland. This marked the real beginning of professional service in this province, and the organization of various social welfare services since then has been characterized by the use of qualified personnel. As they have never been available in sufficient numbers, a con-tinuing policy of staff development has been followed. Social Policy and Goals Current social legislation and policy are com-prehensive in scope and aim at high standards of service. Illustrative of the broad social goals i t s framers had in mind is the Social Assistance Act (194-5). In generalized form this Act most clearly indicates the philosophy and purpose of our public welfare program. The definition of "social assistance" is an inclusive one, and covers not only financial assis-tance but counselling and health services, institutional, nursing, boarding and foster home care, occupational training and therapy, and "generally any form of aid to relieve desti-tution and suffering." 1 The objective of such assistance to 1 "Social Assistance Act", R.S.B.C. 1948, Chap. 3 1 0 , Sec. 2 . . - 25 -any individual or family is to maintain a reasonably normal 1 and healthy existance. It provides that applications are to be taken by a "social worker" by which is meant a "qualified person who is performing case-work services in the f i e l d " . Several important provisos are written into the Regulations with respect to the confidentiality of records and the opportunity for appeals to a Board Review. Section 8 of the Act ensures that a l l citizens are eligible for aid by barring discrimination for any reason. This Act has provided the legal basis for the growth of "Family Service" which was formally organized in 1945 "to serve those suffering from some aspect of social disability or disadvantage with emphasis upon the case-work point of view and individualized service 2 to those who need i t . " Examples of the problems cited are the effects of i l l - h e a l t h , domestic entanglements and behavior problems of children, with the understanding that "destructive attitudes of mind can disrupt family l i f e as surely as inadequate income." Recognition was made of the need for professionally qualified personnel in the f i e l d , and that the level of service at that time was such that not a l l of those whose circumstances or behavior brought them into d i f f i c u l t i e s could be helped. The Social Assistance Act thereby offers 1 . "Social Assistance Act;", R.S.B.C. 1948, Chap. 3 1 0 , Sec. 3 . 2. British Columbia Department of the Provincial Secretary, Annual Report of the" Social Assistance Branch, 1 9 4 5 , Kings Printer, Victoria, p. 28. - 26 -aid to persons not covered under any of the categorical types of legislation. In terms of numbers, public assistance services constitute the major portion of the di s t r i c t caseload and, in addition to allowances granted under the Social Assistance Act, over 42,000 persons over the age of 65 were given finan-c i a l aid, including Old Age Assistance, the Cost of Living Bonus and Health Benefits in 1953. 1 While i t might be thought that a minimum of professional service is required in work with the aged, the Assistant Director of Welfare has reported, "the time and s k i l l involved in placing an old person safely in a boarding home can be as great as the time involved in placing a child in a foster home. Many of the same pro-2 fessional methods are used...." Concerning child welfare, the most important piece of legislation is the Protection of Children Act (1943) in which the focus is upon what w i l l be of benefit to the child, and upon preventative services to parents in the care of their children. When such services are inadequate or too late, placement may be ordered by the Court. In 1952-1953 a total of 1,850 children were in the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare, most of these in foster homes throughout 1. Bri t i s h Columbia Department of Health & Welfare Public Welfare in British Columbia. 1953, Queen's Printer, Victoria, p.. 14. 2. Ibid, p. 13 the province. The Adoption Act, revised in 1936, gives respon-s i b i l i t y to the Superintendent to report to the Supreme Court on the "character and fitness of the petitioners to assume parentage", the suitability of the child for adoption, and provides for one year of probation after placement to ensure adequate time for study and service. In the Children of Unmarried Parents Act the mother "may apply to the Superintendent for advice and protection ... and the Superin-tendent shall take such action as may seem to him advisable in the interests of the mother and child." * Other legislation to do with child welfare* namely the Juvenile Delinquents Act, the Boys' Industrial School Act and the Girls' Industrial School Act emphasize their treatment purposes, and allow for the indefinite sentence and the use of probation. Needless to say, a l l work with children and parents requires much s k i l l and time which the di s t r i c t worker may not be able to give. One other significant welfare measure, the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act (1948) should be mentioned, because of its far-reaching application. This provides for the supervision of institutions for the care of two or more children under the age of 15» of maternity homes, boarding homes, day-nurseries, play-schools and summer camps to ensure adequate standards of care and service. In a l l , 1 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Health & Welfare, Public Welfare In British Columbia. 1953. Queen's Printer, Victoria, p. 46' - 28 -the work of the generalized f i e l d service embraces some 14 categories including f i e l d work for the Psychiatric and Tuberculosis Divisions, and excluding specialized caseloads (Old Age Assistance), the average number of cases per d i s t r i c t worked was 1 5 8 in 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 5 3 . 1 Establishing a Professional Service The use of qualified personnel to provide these services,- which have placed heavy pressures on the individual worker, became o f f i c i a l policy with the organization of the Welfare Field Service in 1 9 3 5 . Under the direction of Dr. H . M . Cassidy, this agency marked the i n i t i a l conception of an integrated system of generalized social services in the province. With the exception of the major forms of public assistance, the categories of service were almost as varied as today, and although there was no o f f i c i a l authority, what is now termed Family Service was included. Despite the handi-caps of lack of proper supervision and inexperience, the f i e l d personnel, nearly a l l of whom had professional training, per-formed an admirable pioneering job. Even with unbelievable travelling distances to isolated areas and constant overtime (one worker put in an estimated 1 6 5 days of overtime in 1 9 3 6 -1 9 3 7 1 ) morale was high. As a result, this professional service became firmly established, and won public acceptance and support. 1 . B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Health and Welfare, Public Welfare in B r i t i s h Columbia. 1 9 5 3 , Queen's printer, Victoria, p. 14. - 29 -By 1940 the personnel numbered 36 working from 14 different centres. Caseloads at this time were in the neighborhood of 250 per worker. At the time the Welfare Field Service was estab-lished in Apr i l , 1935, personnel standards concerning sele-ction and staff development were la i d down for the f i r s t time. Professional training in social work became a pre-requisite for a l l new appointments, and scholarships were provided to persons already on the job, and promising candidates on the condition they would f i l l positions on completion of their studies. Special attention was given to the recruiting of mature persons from al l i e d professions who would have poten-t i a l leadership qualities. In 1935 the budget estimates of the Welfare Field Service provided $ 2 , 5 0 0 . 0 0 to assist suit-able persons to obtain social work training. 1 In this year eight students were assisted, and in 1936-1937 nine students received educational grants, and in the following year there were five. Although this need to subsidize the training of personnel was greater in the organizational stage, the shortage of qualified staff has remained a persistent problem. In co-operation with the C i v i l Service Commission, rules and regulations concerning applicants were drawn up, and rather s t i f f written and oral examinations were held. As reported 1. British Columbia Department of The Provincial Secretary, Annual Report, Welfare Field Service. 1936-1937  Supplementary Report. King's Printer, Victoria, p. 1. - 30 -by the Supervisor of the Welfare Field Service, "Rules and regulations, combined with the compulsory examinations, have had an educational value in helping a portion of the public to realize some of the qualifications necessary for this service." In order to provide professional stimulation and to discuss day-to-day application of policy the plan of holding two conferences annually began in 1936. Usually, one such staff meeting would be held in the interior for f i e l d workers, and the other, a joint conference for a l l staff including administrative, took place in Vancouver. As a further means of providing a sense of security to the f i e l d workers and to promote a feeling of unity of purpose, the Supervisor of the. Welfare Field Service and those of the Branches made periodic v i s i t s to the f i e l d offices. The most serious weakness of the program from the standpoint of enabling staff to maintain or improve standards of service was the absense of adequate supervision. Responsibility for many decisions of necessity had to be taken by the f i e l d worker on the spot without con-sultation. What supervision was attempted was of the post-office variety by means of frequently incomplete reports from the f i e l d and was subject to delays between the f i e l d and Branch offices. 1. Br i t i s h Columbia Department of The Provincial Secretary. Annual Report. Welfare Field Service. 1936. 1937  Supplementary Report. King's Printer, Victoria, p. 1. - 31 -Concern for professional standards lead to several new developments. In 1938 a small c i r c u l a t i n g l i b r a r y was formed. In the same year a l l s t a f f were enabled to attend the Canadian Conference on S o c i a l Work held i n Vancouver, and a number were assisted to take part i n the National Con-ference on S o c i a l Work i n Se a t t l e . Several s t a f f members also took advantage of the Family Service Association of America Northwest Institute i n the previous year. The pract-ice of orienting beginning workers was started, mainly through v i s i t s to Branch o f f i c e s . The f i r s t casework i n s t i t u t e for f i e l d s t a f f took place i n January, 1941, given by Miss Marjorie J. Smith, now Director of the School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. This covered a three-day period, and was opened to s t a f f of some of the Vancouver agencies. The agendas and minutes of the s t a f f conferences indicate a wide coverage of topics. The planning for the annual meetings of a l l s t a f f was carried out by the Super-vi s o r of the WFS i n consultation with the Branch heads, and with respect to those held i n the d i s t r i c t for the f i e l d workers the l a t t e r presented some of the material. One representative topic was "Interpretation of Public Welfare i n the Community". During this developmental period from 1935 to 1942 there was some anxiety expressed concerning the danger to standards of performance occasioned by overly-high caseloads and i n a b i l i t y of d i s t r i c t workers to develop th e i r s k i l l s . - 32 -Administrative Reorganization Prior to 194-2 the administration of social services in British Columbia presented a confused picture. These services were spread throughout several Departments: Labour, which administered Unemployment Relief, The Provincial Secretary, which had jurisdiction over the Welfare Branch and the Welfare Field Service, and the Workmens' Compensation Board, which administered Old Age Pensions through the Old Age Pensions Branch. Each of these administrative units maintained a separate province-wide f i e l d staff. Some dup-lica t i o n of work was involved, not only in direct service to clients, but in overhead administrative functions and medical care. Moreover, the variation in approach, policies and standards created some f r i c t i o n and lack of co-operation between the Branches. A policy of non-intervention in muni-cipal affairs prevailed, and with respect to unemployment re l i e f the provincial government was loathe to prescribe standards of municipal administration including personnel. In effect, there existed no common policy or unified planning of public welfare services. Administrative reorganization was facilitated by improvement in economic conditions resulting in discontin-uance of unemployment r e l i e f in September 194-0. When the Minister of Labour also assumed the portfolio of The Pro-vincial Secretary in 194-1, the f i r s t stage of reorganization was to group a l l public assistance within the Department of - 33-The Provincial Secretary under the Social Assistance Branch organized in October, 194-2. In addition, the Child Welfare Branch and the Welfare Field Service, renamed the Field Service, were placed in the Social Assistance Branch. Shortly afterwards, an Old Age Pensions Board was created and brought into the Provincial Secretary's Department. Outside the Social Assistance Branch were s t i l l l e f t jurisdiction over the Boys' and Girls' Industrial Schools, the Provincial Home, the Provincial Infirmaries, the Collect-ions Office and charitable grants, a l l of which were dele-gated to the Deputy Provincial Secretary and serviced by the operational arm, the Field Service. This o f f i c i a l also ad-ministered quite a number of anomalous non-welfare functions. The other main divisions of this Department were the Pro-vincial Board of Health, the Mental Hospitals including the Child Guidance C l i n i c , and the Inspector of Hospitals. At this stage of integration, policies with respect to the auxiliary services of personnel, accounting, business manage-ment, and public relations were only partially formulated or non-existent. Advisory or "staff" functions were assigned to an "Advisor on Social Welfare Policy". It is apparent the Provincial Secretary must have experienced d i f f i c u l t y in obtaining a comprehensive grasp of the variety of services within the Department, and in giving sufficient attention to each of the o f f i c i a l s who reported to him. - 34 -Further important changes were accomplished in the spring of 1943 in accordance with principles of economy, better service in the f i e l d and towards a more simplified administration. In order to strengthen the then amalgamated Field Service and to provide for closer liaison with local areas, the province was divided into five "Regions" with head offices in Victoria, Vancouver, Nelson, Kelowna, and Prince George. A sixth Region, roughly comprising the Fraser Valley, was s p l i t off in 1952. Each Region was placed under the dir-ection of a Regional Supervisor, who was responsible for the operation of the d i s t r i c t offices in his Region. By means of this regional framework the provincial government could be-come more closely acquainted with municipal as well as rural problems, and give better guidance to the municipalities with respect to the administration of special grants and develop-ment of their own social welfare departments where feasible. In 1940 these municipal grants for social assistance, medical care and public health amounted to 72.3$ of the combined provincial-municipal expenditures.^" Responsibility for social planning, policy-making and the orderly operation of the Social Assistance Branch and Field Service was assumed by the "General Administration." This was comprised of three o f f i c i a l s : the Assistant Deputy 1. Cassidy, H.M. Public Health and Welfare Organ-ization in Canada, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1945, Table IV, p. 192. - 35 -Provincial Secretary, Superintendent of Welfare, and Assistant Superintendent of Welfare. The last-named carried the import-ant functions of management of personnel, organization of rural offices, and building and maintaining standards of service. An almost immediate start was made in 1943 to train some 40 odd r e l i e f investigators and three f i e l d workers from the Old Age Pensions Branch to prepare them for the general-ized program in a series of In-Service Training courses which continued for a year. This course served to introduce these f i e l d workers to professional theories of social work, content of the job which meant familiarity with a l l phases of divis-ional work, and learning to work under supervision. At that time staff already in the f i e l d were seriously burdened with additional war services, and caseloads were around 500. 1 While the effect of amalgamation resulted in some loss in professional standards, i t was essential to man the posts, and this f i r s t group of In-Service Training graduates offered much by way of experience and knowledge of local resources. At the same time the Branch established a policy of appointing professionally trained staff as available for the Field Service. Professional staff were named to several adminis-trative positions - to the newly created Family Services 1. British Columbia Department of Health & Welfare, Annual Report of the Social Welfare" Branch. 1948. "Historical Review", King's Printer, Victoria, p. 22. - 36 -D i v i s i o n and that of Research Consultant. The l a t t e r " s function was to as s i s t i n the planned development and improve-ment of services by means of surveys of various aspects of the program. The objective of promoting a higher standard of personnel throughout the province found expression i n the "Social Assistance Regulations (194-5) Section 6 (b) of which states that "where s o c i a l workers are employed by municipal-i t i e s (applies to those with a population of 10,000 or over), such workers must have q u a l i f i c a t i o n s equivalent to those required i n the P r o v i n c i a l Service." In continuance of the process of reorganization to achieve a unified administration and a degree of decentral-i z a t i o n consistent with adequate controls, the most s i g n i f -icant phase was entered into i n 1946 with the formation of a Department of Health and Welfare, divided into the Health Branch and the S o c i a l Welfare Branch. Within the next year s o c i a l work personnel i n the Health Branch, those i n the T.B. and V.D. S o c i a l Service and Psyc h i a t r i c S o c i a l Service Divisions were added to the S o c i a l Welfare Branch for admin-i s t r a t i v e purposes. The same transfer, which increased the f l e x i b i l i t y of s t a f f placements, took place concerning the s o c i a l work s t a f f of the Boys' and G i r l s 1 I n d u s t r i a l Schools, the Old Age Pensions Board and the P r o v i n c i a l Infirmaries. After careful study and planning, the l i n e s of authority between the general administration, a u x i l i a r y service were progressively established i n the years 194-6-194-8. - 37 -The regional administrators were delegated complete f i s c a l authority except for Mothers1 Allowances and Old Age Pensions, and responsibility for a l l operations within their respective regions. It had been recognized for some time that the kind of supervision of the individual di s t r i c t worker from quite a number of remote Division offices was unsatisfactory both administratively and in promoting staff development. Accord-ingly, regional supervisors were placed in three regions which allowed for some face-to-face supervision. Following some i n i t i a l anxiety about safeguarding standards of practice, and valid questions concerning how much authority could be relinquished by o f f i c i a l s carrying statuary authority, the f i r s t year's experience was positively evaluated. In the 194-8 Annual Report the Assistant Director of Welfare advised, "The day-to-day supervision of staff is considered the most important means of improving the calibre of staff, and is in effect a continuation of professional training begun in university schools or by means of in-service training, "and also the comment that, "training is secondary to teaching of administrative detail." How workable this delegation of responsibility for on the job supervision can be relates directly to the s k i l l of the individual supervisor. Some of the di s t r i c t super-visors appointed during the years 194-8-1952 were not as ex-perienced or qualified as was desired to meet the demands - 38 -placed upon them. Notwithstanding these weaknesses, the advantages of this system of supervision have been generally demonstrated and accepted. By February, 1952, the establish-ment had increased to 16 d i s t r i c t supervisors (apart from amalgamated and municipally-supervised offices) responsible for the direction of 103 d i s t r i c t workers of the Field Service or an average ratio of one to six. The present line of authority in the Social Welfare Branch commences then with the d i s t r i c t worker responsible to the District Supervisor for a l l aspects of his work. The latter is accountable to the Regional Administrator concern-ing funds expended, office and personnel management, and the over-all standard of performance. With respect to the indiv-idual category of service rendered the supervisor reports to the responsible Division as to both policy and practice as required, and makes use of the Regional Consultant for help with questions to do with supervision and any problems which should be referred to the general administration or the heads of the eight Divisions. These, in turn, are responsible to the Assistant Director of Welfare either f u l l y or in relation to personnel and professional standards. Mobile liaison between the Divisions, General Administration and the Field is carried out by the Consultants of whom there were three in 1952. The auxiliary Divisions-Research, Personnel (unfilled), Training, Accounting and Medical Services report to either the Assistant Director or the Director of Welfare. The f i n a l authority is carried by the Deputy Minister of the - 39 -Department. Two separate co-ordinating bodies have been created to f a c i l i t a t e social planning and to minimize the inherent d i f f i c u l t i e s in an organization administered on the dual basis of generalized geographical subdivisions and specialization of service. The principal of these is the Planning Council, which consists of members of the General Administration, Divisional Heads, Regional Administrators, and Field Con-sultants. As defined in i t s tennis of reference i t s functions "shall be those of co-ordination and interpretation of divisional and f i e l d thinking." Meeting bimonthly, the Council reviews current changes or trends which may affect policy or necessitate changes in legislation, sets up study committees, and makes recommendations to the Deputy Minister. One of i t s specific duties is to advise the Assistant Director of Welfare on any matters to do with standards of practice and staff development, such as staff evaluations, professional development of staff, institutes, conferences, educational leave, and the recruiting, training and placement of staff. Much of the Council's activity has been taken up with this key function, and i t recently submitted a brief to the C i v i l Service Commission outlining staff problems arising from changes in professional training, the need to recruit and train persons without professional training, the requirements of an essential staff development program, and the different - 40 -needs of District and Divisional o f f i c e s . 1 With a view to obtaining and holding competent staff this document repre-sents the f i r s t definite statement of personnel needs and policies together with recommended changes in job descript-ions, qualifications and salary schedule. On a less formal-ized basis the Regional Administrators consult together Immediately prior to the Planning Council meetings to discuss common administrative matters and to clear questions of policy with Division representatives on occasion. Personnel Policies The personnel policies of the Social Welfare Branch are determined by the C i v i l Service Commission of Br i t i s h Columbia as authorized by the C i v i l Service Act (1945). This Act, which was intended to rule out p o l i t i c a l influence and to establish high standards of service, generally follows the provisions of the so-called "merit system." The main features of such a system are: 1. An open competition for each position including both written and oral examinations. 2. Classification of each candidate according to s u i t a b i l i t y and certification of a l i s t of eligible candidates in order of preference. 1 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Health and Welfare, Social Welfare Branch, Draft of Brief to the C i v i l Service Commission, Office of the Assistant Director of Welfare, February 1, 1954. - 41 -3. With respect to professional appointments a represen-tative of the professional organization sits on the examining board to advise on professional competence. 4. The principle of equal pay for equal work. 5. Promotions are made on merit as indicated by individual evaluation and suitability. 6. The right of the employee to appeal from any personnel action. In the United States the writing in of the merit system in the Federal Security Act has been instrumental in raising standards across the country. In Canada, the con-cept of a career c i v i l service Is just emerging, more so at the federal than provincial level. Relative to appointments to social work positions in B r i t i s h Columbia, the above-noted provisions are carried out partially with respect to the f i r s t two conditions, but there is no provision in the Act for the third one. This procedure is in effect for examinations for federal social work positions, and a representative of the Canadian Association of Social Workers is a member of the examining board. Since 1943 the practice of holding written as well as oral examinations, established in the Welfare Field Service, has been discontinued. A degree or certificate of graduation from a school of social work accompanied by a written evaluation has been accepted as sufficient evidence of professional competence. The applications of a l l candi-dates are reviewed by the Assistant Director of Welfare, the - 42 -personnel officer, who advises the C i v i l Service Commission as to their qualifications and suitability. In most cases the Assistant Director interviews applicants for In-Service Training, who have been screened by other o f f i c i a l s . Some of this responsibility is assumed by the Training Supervisor who interviews the majority of applicants without social work training, who are required to success-fu l l y complete the In-Service Training course. The agency does not view this course as a substitute for professional training, but as orientation to the specific job in the f i e l d . When there is no mitigating reason, personal or financial, applicants who hold a university degree are advised to obtain their professional qualifications before consider-ing entering the service. In the selection of suitable candidates for the In-Service Training course preference is given to those with a B.A. degree, with a minimum educational qualification being Junior Matriculation. Evaluation of personal attributes and temperamental sui t a b i l i t y for social work poses the most d i f f i c u l t question, and is dependent upon personal judgment. Some of the stated personal qual-i t i e s desired are, " backbone of honesty, integrity and decency, with an early training in spiritual values." No aptitude tests are in use. Since 1 9 5 3 the establishment has been "frozen" except by special permission in line with government policy affecting a l l departments. Although i n -creasing the d i f f i c u l t y of expanding the Field Service where - 43 -needed, i t has not altered the essential problem of staffing unfilled positions. Under the terms of the C i v i l Service Act a l l c i v i l service employees including social workers must successfully complete a six months probationary period which may be ex-tended to one year. The grading is carried out according to the C i v i l Service Rating Scale, a point system broken down into a number of factors such as quality and quantity of work personal attributes and potential growth among others. While resulting in a rough approximation of the worker's suit a b i l i t y , the resultant ratings are quite variable depend-ent upon the individual rater. The standard of work expected is not defined, and could be adjudged in relation to what is considered "average", in relation to the worker's potential capacity, or in relation to a written minimum standard of professional performance. This last point is covered in some degree by the written evaluation of professional per-formance required by the Social Welfare Branch. However, what constitutes a minimum standard is l e f t to the individual supervisor. Temporary appointments are limited to a period of one year. It is noteworthy that married women employed in social work positions, of whom there are a considerable number, are obliged to sign a letter of resignation as a con-dition of their employment. While the continued employment of married women may be uncertain, i t is probably not more - 44 -so than applies to single women, who may resign upon marriage, or to married men who leave to obtain better paid positions. Job Classifications Social work positions are classified under Group "PR" Professional - Class 12, Sociological and Psychological, as shown in Appendix B. The existing salary schedule is indic-ated in Appendix C. The principal classifications of operat-ional staff are those of Social Worker, Grades 1 - 5, or PR 12-10, 12-11, 12-22, 12-23, and 12-24, and have been in effect since 1951. In brief, the qualifications and job descript-ion of each Grade is as follows: Social Worker, Grade 1: With minimal general education of Junior Matriculation and satisfactory completion of the In-Service Training course, and under direction, "to assist individuals in making the best use of resources...., to sub-mit comprehensive case reports, .... to interpret the Acts and Regulations to the general public." Social Worker. Grade 2. With a B.S.W. or completion of the f i r s t year of professional training as a special student, or in l i e u of either of these three years experience, to carry-out the same duties outlined for Social Worker, Grade 1. Social Worker, Grade 3. With an MSW degree and major in psychiatric social work, and under the direction of a case-work supervisor and psychiatrist to provide casework services - 45 -in a mental hygiene c l i n i c or hospital. In li e u of a major in psychiatric social work a major in social casework and one year's experience in the f i e l d is accepted. The same Grade applies to a caseworker ("child counsellor") in a treatment centre with the qualifications being "preferrably a Bachelor's or Master's degree." Persons with a B.S.W. degree are re-quired to have two years experience "in related work." Social Worker. Grade 4. With respect to psychiatric place-ments, M.S.W. qualifications plus one year's experience, and for child welfare positions, to review f i e l d reports on a particular phase of the child welfare program, "to give guidance" to f i e l d staff. The qualifications for the child welfare positions are either a Diploma in social work or a B.S.W. plus three year's experience. Social Worker. Grade 5. With a B.S.W. degree or Diploma and fiy'e years of related experience, under direction to super-vise social workers including university students and in-service training students, In order that better service be given to the public, and to evaluate the a b i l i t y of staff or students under supervision. One of the s k i l l s required is "an a b i l i t y to supervise." i As has already been recognized by the Branch, this classification system has fallen out of line with changes in professional training and the requirements of the work expected. Accordingly, recommendations have been made to the - 46 -C i v i l Service Commission to rectify some of the anomalies, to provide for up-grading starting with the lower grades by means of accrediting qualifications, and to increase a l l salaries to a point consistent with the degree of responsibility assumed as well as to make them competitive. Comparison of the duties of the existing Grades 1 and 2 show no differentiation as to s k i l l . The proposed classification does require the Grade 2 worker, who must have a B.S.W. or M.S.W. degree, to possess professional s k i l l s - "understanding of the dynamics of human behavior and ab i l i t y to apply this in the forming of social case (group) work treatment plan designed to enable the individ-1 ual ... in achieving a better solution of his d i f f i c u l t i e s . " If carried out, this policy should have the eventual effect of placing the Branch's program on sounder professional basis. With respect to employed workers without formal train-ing, i t is suggested that they be regraded to Grade 1 (most of those with three years experience are Grade 2) with the pro-viso they would not take a salary loss under the new salary schedule. Future promotion from Grade 1 to Grade 2 would be made upon obtaining a B.S.W. degree, one year of an accredited course, or several years.of "outstanding performance." While preference would be given to applicants with a B.A. degree, this is not a prerequisite. Some d i f f i c u l t i e s in obtaining professional training may be encountered later on by Grade 1 workers as schools of social work raise their standards. In 1. Br i t i s h Columbia Department of Health & Welfare Social Welfare Branch, Draft of Brief to the C i v i l Service Comm- ission Office of the Assistant Director of Welfare, Feb 1, 1954, Chapter 6, p. 4. - 47 -order to attain f u l l status in offering a graduate course of studies, the schools may discontinue accepting "special" students who do not have university graduation, and many schools no longer grant a B.S.W. degree. Although those eligible are encouraged to acquire professional training, this is not a condition of employment. The agency takes the position that In-Service Training graduates should remain in employment for at least two years to justify the cost of their training. At the end of two years consideration of educational leave may be given. Concerning the present Grade 3 classification, this provides recognition of f u l l professional qual i f i c -ations to workers in psychiatric settings which have been more advanced generally in standards of performance. How-ever, the d i s t r i c t or divisional worker with the same qual-ifications, the same or equivalent experience, and perform-ing work which requires the same degree of s k i l l , can now be graded only in Class 2. This anomaly has been corrected In the proposed change which covers workers with two years of professional training and one year's experience regardless of placement. This step is in accord with changes in profession-al education, the basic course now being a two-year generic one, and the nature of specialization altered. There were no Grade 3s at the time of the survey, but some appointments have been made in the interim. - 48 -The present Grade 4, which was intended to accredit senior workers who preferred to specialize i n s k i l l e d pract-ice and also to recognize the greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y carried by supervisors i n the c h i l d welfare f i e l d , has been dropped i n the new plan. The requirements of the proposed Grade 4, which has been combined with the present Grade 5, that of supervisor, are applicable to any supervisory position through-out the Branch. The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as to professional educ-ation range from an M.S.W. degree to a minimum of one year as a "sp e c i a l " student, and at least two years experience. Preference would be given to those better equipped i n both q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and according to performance. Some f l e x i b -i l i t y i s required i n th i s Grade to prevent downgrading of s t a f f already i n these positions. The chief advantages of the new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n plan are I t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y to any p a r t i c u l a r setting i n the Branch's service, the recognition given the degree of professional q u a l i f i c a t i o n , and a general r a i s i n g of standards i n both selection and promotion. By means of accrediting, i t i s hoped to a t t r a c t and re t a i n better q u a l i f i e d s t a f f . For the same reasons a more a t t r a c t i v e salary schedule has been recommended to the C i v i l Service Commission. As i t affects Grade 1 the range covering s i x annual increments i s increased from $218-$2^0 to $233-$298, Grade 2 i s stepped up from $245 -298 to $276-$336, and corresponding raises are suggested for the two higher Grades. Because of unfavorable comparison with - 49 -social work salaries elsewhere, and also with other pro-fessions, these salary increases appear essential i f a stab-i l i z e d staff of competent personnel is to built up. The Social Welfare Branch social work staff, who are equally concerned with the need to obtain adequate numbers of qualified staff to provide a high standard of professional service, presented a brief in March, 1954, to the Provincial government. This brief included job analyses, a study of 1 salary anomalies and problems of staffing. The job analysis of the Grade 2 position based on questionnaire findings sub-stantiates the workers' belief that their responsibilities are given insufficient recognition in the present c l a s s i f -ication and salary schedules. They have requested a 20$ increase in salaries for a l l social workers. A similar brief was presented in 1952. From the employee's standpoint there is some disadvantage in that the B.C. Government Employees Association has not as yet been given complete recognition as the representative of c i v i l service staff on personnel matters. Qualifications of Personnel by Sex and Grade As shown in Table 1, "Social Work Training by Education and Sex", of the total of 221 positions in the Social Welfare Branch establishment on February 1, 1952, 153 or slightly over 69$ have professional education ranging 1 Social Workers Brief to the Provincial Govern-ment , March, 1954. Table 1. S o c i a l Work Training By Education And Sex, February 1, 1952 Education Graduation from School of S o c i a l Work To t a l In-Service F i l l e d One Two Training Positions Total Year Diploma B.S.W. Years M.S.W. r;^.? " o r i e _  J? If W tf M W f M W M W f W T J M V f M vT^lTW F i l l e d positions TOTAL 221 83 138 153 49 104 15 9 6 29 4 25 82 21 61 2 2 25 13 12 61 29 32 7 5 2 High School or less 40 18 22 12 3 9 6 3 3 6 6 25 12 13 3 3 Some University 33 17 16 ; 19 9 10 9 6 3 8 1 7 2 2 12 7 5 2 1 1 Batchelor's Degree 140 42 98 117 34 83 14 2 12 78 19 59 25 13 12 22 8 14 1 1 Post-Graduate de-gree Arts & Science 1 1 1 1 Education 4 2 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 Law 1 1 1 1 Theology 2 2 2 2 2 2 Source: Personnel cards, O f f i c e of The Assistant Director of Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch. from one year at a school of social work as a "special" student through to the M.S.W. degree. This is a consider-ably higher figure than the national average of 30$. By comparison, over one-half or 53.6$? have a B.S.W. degree, 9.8$ one year, 18 .9$ the Diploma, and 16.3$ an M.S.W. degree. In explanation of the Diploma, this was granted by the University of British Columbia School of Social Work prior to 194-5 when i t became o f f i c i a l l y a graduate school and re-ceived accrediting by the American Association of Schools of Social Work. Approximately one-half of the Diploma holders are university graduates, and their standing can be equated to the B.S.W. Women, who comprise 62.4$ of total staff, have a slightly higher degree of professional education than the men in that they represent 67.9$ of the total with such training. Of the staff with In-Service Training, only, 27.6$ of the total, they are almost equally divided as between men and women. With respect to general education just over two-thirds are university graduates with 14.4$ having some university education and 18.1$ with high school or less. This again is considerably higher than the national average of 44.3$ of social workers who are university graduates.^ 1. Canada Research Division, Department of National Health and Welfare, Survey of Welfare Positions  Report. Ottawa, Apr i l , 1954, Table 35 , P . 63 . - 51 -By sex, 70$ are women and 30$ men Indicating a relatively higher educational background for women. Slightly over one-third of the In-Service Trainees hold a B.A. degree, nearly a l l of these being new appointments since the course commenced. According to Table 2, "Social Work Training by Grade and Sex", Grades 1 and 2 Social Workers, the majority of whom are placed in d i s t r i c t or municipal offices, con-stitute 76.4$ of the total staff. Of these 65$ have pro-fessional training. Relative to Grade 5 supervisory positions, which form 10.1$ of the total establishment, 91$ of these have professional training. Of the 16 serving as dis t r i c t supervisors in the f i e l d , 14 have professional training. In administrative posts comprising nearly 9$ of the total positions 60$ are professionally trained. There are relatively more men than women in administration, the majority of the former having seniority in length of service. Table 3» "Previous Professional Experience", shows that 63$ of the staff have not worked in any other social agency, and are, therefore, dependent upon the Branch starting as beginning workers for their professional devel-opment on the job, by means of supervision, educational leave and in other ways. For over one-third of these the previous social work experience was less than one year, and for over one-half i t was two years or less. Those with five years or more of previous professional experience represent Table 2. S o c i a l Work Training by Oracle and Sex, February 1, 1952. Grade Total Graduation from School of So c i a l Work In-Service F i l l e d Positions T o t a l One Year Diploma B.S. Two W. Years M.S Training ,W. r.zi:.-: NONE T M W T M w T M W T M V T M W T M T M W T M W T H W F i l l e d Positions TOTAL 221 83 138 153 49 104 15 9 6 29 4 25 82 21 61 2 2 25 13 12 61 29 32 7 5 2 S o c i a l worker 1 33 12 21 33 12 21 2 136 48 88 110 34 76 9 4 5 9 9 77 20 57 15 10 15 24 14 10 2 0 2 4 4 1 3 4 1 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 5 24 9 15 22 8 14 5 4 1 8 1 7 4 1 3 1 1 4 1 3 2 1 1 Supervisor of Welfare l 6 1 5 6 1 5 4 4 2 1 1 2 8 5 3 5 2 3 4 2 2 1 1 3 3 3 3 l 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 Assistant Director 1 1 1 1 Director 1 l 1 1 Others 5 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 Source: Personnel cards, Office of The Assistant Director of Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch. Table 3. Previous Professional Experience' 8 /////////////////// ////////////////// 7 ¥////////////////////// 6 ////////////////////// 5 //////////// /////////// 4 ////////////< //////////// 3 /////////// 2 ///////////////////////////////< ////A//////////////////////////, W ^/ Oi ////////////////////////////// ft CO m //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// M Wo. of workers 5 10 15 20 25 30 A 140 or 63$ have none Sources Personnel carsds, Office of The Assistant Director of Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch. 8$ of t o t a l s t a f f . This r e l a t i v e inexperience of s t a f f at the time of employment suggests that more inducements are required to obtain and hold the services of experienced s o c i a l workers. Another implication i s the greater resp-o n s i b i l i t y of d i s t r i c t supervisors for continuing pro-fessi o n a l t r a i n i n g than would be the case were a higher proportion of s t a f f experienced. Table 4, "Average Length of Service by Grade", indicates the f i e l d s t a f f are r e l a t i v e l y inexperienced, the average time on the job for Grade 1 being 1.85 years and 3 years for Grade 2. Supervisors have 7.6 years of service, and the length of service r i s e s correspondingly f o r administrative positions. It i s of interest to note that the average length of serviee of the Grade 5s p r i o r to promotion to that p o s i t i o n i s 3.16 years, and that f i v e with no ser-vice show an average of 6.5 years of previous professional experience. The average length of previous professional experience of supervisors i s 2.85 years, and of nine who have none, these show a longer agerage length of service before promotion - 4.8 years. From the standpoint of years of experience, either within or outside the Branch, the super-visors have not had an optimum opportunity to prepare them-selves for t h e i r increased r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Analysis of the professional q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of supervisory s t a f f discloses that four have an M.S.W. degree, one has two years of professional education, four have the Table 4. Average Length of Service by Grade General Hdrainist. /////////////////////////////////////I//////////////////////////// ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Others l/l/lll/l/l/l1117/11/1/7777^ ////////////////////////////////////////////////// ////////////////I////////////////// ////////////////////////////////// S 7/77/7/7777///7777/77777777 //////////////////////////////////////////////////// 3upervisor of Melt. 1 /7/7//////7/7777/77777/77m ///////////////////////////////////////////// //////////////////////////////// /////////////////////////////// 4 //////////////////// /////////////////// ' 2 ////////////// ///////////// Social tforker 1 ///////// //////// No. of years |T~ " ~" : " 10 • ' IT Source: Personnel cards, Office of The Assistant Director of Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch. - 53 -B.S.W. degree, eight hold the Diploma, Wo have In-Service Training, and f i v e have one year of s o c i a l work education. Those with the higher educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are placed i n p s ychiatric or other d i v i s i o n a l settings with the r e s u l t that the 16 d i s t r i c t supervisors are somewhat weaker i n t h i s respect. It i s apparent that while undoubtedly the d i s t r i c t supervisory s t a f f were the best f i t t e d of those available at the time of t h e i r appointments, they are not a l l well q u a l i f i e d as to experience or professional t r a i n i n g as the p o s i t i o n requires. In view of t h e i r educational and very heavy administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , as w i l l be detailed i n Chapter 3, the d i s t r i c t supervisors require considerable strengthening i f they are to perform at a reasonably adequate l e v e l . An optimum standard of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for t h i s p o s i t i o n would require at least f i v e years of professional experience and the f u l l two years of professional education as Well as a b i l i t y to supervise. CHAPTER 3 THE AGENCY'S METHODS OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT Agency Pol i c y on S t a f f Development The planning of the s t a f f development program, then, i s based upon knowledge of the quality of professional educ-ation and experience of each s t a f f member, as indicated i n Tables 1 - 4, as well as upon periodic evaluations of i n d i v -i d u a l performance. While the S o c i a l Welfare Branch has a l -ways planned opportunities f o r s t a f f to better t h e i r pract-ic e and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , recent analysis of the agency's ser-vices has served to emphasize the t o t a l values of a s t a f f development program to c l i e n t , agency, and worker a l i k e . The Assistant Director of Welfare, who car r i e s the o v e r - a l l admin-i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the s t a f f development function, has defined i t s role i n th i s manner, "While additional s t a f f i s urgently required, the conclusion has none the less been drawn that more active steps must be taken to hold the s t a f f now employed, u t i l i z e them to the best possible advantage, and develop t h e i r potential s k i l l s to the utmost, — Of major importance i s the necessity to step up the already established methods of s t a f f development i n the Branch, p a r t i c u l a r l y those which are dieigned for supervisors." 1 1. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Health and Welfare, Public Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 1953j Queen's Pr i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , p. 11. - 55 -Formulation of the Branch 1 s p o l i c y i s contained i n the "Brief To The C i v i l Service Commission,11 March, 1954-, Chapter I I I , "The Necessity of A S t a f f Development Programme." It highlights the importance of the worker and supervisor to have selected opportunities to enable them to grow with experience, which w i l l i n turn benefit the Branch by improv-ing services. As i t affects the f i e l d worker, the e s s e n t i a l feature of s t a f f development i s the quality of supervision of day-to-day work so as to provide "continuous learning act-i v i t i e s " and "to r e l a t e theory to p r a c t i c e . " Other methods of; professional growth such as the use of s t a f f meetings, Branch l i b r a r y , provision of educational leave, bursaries, >\ and attendance at conferences, are b r i e f l y delineated. Ref-'? erence i s made to the manifold administrative duties of the supervisor, e s p e c i a l l y the d i s t r i c t supervisor, who has "scant time for professional teaching." It recommends the d i s t r i c t supervisor be relieved of some of these administrative re-s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and that annual i n s t i t u t e s and leaves of absence with pay be arranged to allow those now i n super-vi s o r y positions to improve t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Consider-ation i s also given to adequate t r a i n i n g for the supervisory r job. Key Personnel i n S t a f f Development While the Assistant Director assumes general r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for planning s t a f f development, i t s operation depends mainly on the work of the Training Supervisor, the F i e l d Consultant, and the D i s t r i c t Supervisor. The chief function of the Training Supervisor, i n charge of the Div-i s i o n of Training, i s to plan, conduct, and co-ordinate the In-Service Training program, which as of March, 1954, pre-pared 77 employees, or 48$ of the F i e l d Service s t a f f . 1 Since September, 1953, this program has been i n t e n s i f i e d i n order to meet s t a f f shortages, and this phase of the Training Supervisor's functions has developed into a f u l l time pos-i t i o n . In addition to the actual teaching periods, which include orientation to the agency and introduction to pro-fe s s i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s and methods, the Training Supervisor needs to have close contact with the administration, d i v i s i o n s and f i e l d concerning the general program, personnel needs, and s p e c i f i c placements of In-Service Trainees. As already stated, the Training Supervisor has some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e-garding the s e l e c t i o n of In-Service Training candidates, and this applies to other applicants as w e l l . The reason for th i s delegation of authority i s that the Assistant Director's main o f f i c e i s i n V i c t o r i a , and i t i s necessary to have a representative i n the Vancouver o f f i c e , the main centre of population. Other functions of the Training Supervisor i n -clude arranging the orientation of beginning workers, (other than In-Service students), University students taking the 1. Memorandum dated March 24, 1954, Assistant Director of Welfare's O f f i c e . - 57 -"Introduction to S o c i a l Work" course, and U.N. Fellows. Operation of the Braneh Library, consisting of over 1,000 volumes plus numerous p e r i o d i c a l s , pamphlets, and reports, as v e i l as films 1B another time-consuming aspect of the Training Supervisor's work as was the planning and editing of " B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare", a monthly professional b u l l -e t i n , u n t i l i t s discontinuance i n August, 1953• Because of her specialized function and knowledge, the Training Super-visor serves on several standing committees of the Planning Council (Bursary, Annual Report) and on committees of the Canadian Welfare Council and American Public Welfare Assoc-i a t i o n to do with personnel and education for s o c i a l work. As a matter of Branch p o l i c y , she has also acted on numerous committees including the S o c i a l Planning Committee of the Vancouver Community Chest and Council, and has been active i n C i v i l Defense Training. This o f f i c i a l has ca r r i e d out most of the preparation of inte r p r e t i v e documents and papers de-s c r i p t i v e of the Branch's operation. The F i e l d Consultant, three of whom were appointed i n 1949, represent another v i t a l l i n k i n the chain to develop the s t a f f ' s understanding of the program and to better t h e i r performance. 1 The F i e l d Consultant's p o s i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y an advisory o n e — t o aid the D i s t r i c t Supervisors i n organiz-ing t h e i r work with s t a f f t r a i n i n g , and to a s s i s t i n the development of both l o c a l and Branch resources. In close 1. Sinee 1953 there has been only one F i e l d Consul tant. - 58 -liaison with the Divisions and the administration, the Con-sultant is able to be effective in promoting the desired standards of service and in applying policy. Conversely, by means of reviews of caseloads and familiarity with the qual-i t y of work being carried out, the Consultant is able to report specific needs to the senior Branch o f f i c i a l s . While carrying no direct authority, the Consultant is in a pos-it i o n to advise on staff placements, and to evaluate the work of the d i s t r i c t supervisors. Much use has been made of the Consultant in the area of child and family welfare, and in interpretation of the complex content of legislation and pro-cedures. Despite clear policy and procedural statements in the form of Acts and Regulations, (30) the Policy Manual, Forms Manual, Office Manual, Serial Letter Book, and Account-ing Manual, the more inexperienced supervisors need help i n the use of these. By interpreting, supporting, and acting as a buffer to absorb h o s t i l i t i e s from both ends, the Consultant has performed a valuable service. It is uncertain at the present time i f this system of using Field Consultants can or should be continued. How-ever, i n view of the geography of the province, and the expressed inab i l i t y of senior o f f i c i a l s to go to the f i e l d often enough to obtain the desired firsthand knowledge, the Consultant would appear to provide a useful liaison function. The alternative plan of combining this function with that of the Regional Administrator is now in effect in two Regions. - 59 -The effectiveness of this arrangement depends upon the pro-f e s s i o n a l competence of the Regional Administrator, and i n his having s u f f i c i e n t freedom from other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to provide this s e r v i c e , altogether an onerous assignment. Even where there i s a high standard of supervision, con-s u l t a t i v e services, i n addition to what i s provided i n t e r -mittently by the T r a v e l l i n g Child Guidance C l i n i c , appear desirable. The orientation of the beginning worker, which i s planned by the Training Supervisor, has been i n so far as possible, modelled a f t e r the kind of orientation given to the In-Service Training student, although i n a more condensed form. The plan usually followed has consisted of eight to ten days with the content broken down into one day o u t l i n i n g the agency's history and administrative set-up, and the work of the Family Service D i v i s i o n , the Child Welfare D i v i s i o n , the Old Age Assistance D i v i s i o n . A half-day i s a l l o t t e d to the operation of the T.B. and V.D. D i v i s i o n , the P r o v i n c i a l Mental Hospital, and the Boys' Ind u s t r i a l School, to which f i e l d t r i p s are usually arranged. Another half-day i s spent on such functions as Hospital Clearance, Medical Services, the various p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and other resources, as well as a half-day r e l a t i n g to o f f i c e procedures and accounting. The orientation class i s held i n Vancouver, and, occasionally, i f there are only one or two workers, they v i s i t the D i v i s i o n a l Offices i n V i c t o r i a . Upon the workers 1 placement i n the d i s t r i c t much of this o rientation i s augmented as needed by the d i s t r i c t supervisor, and i n learning from experience the scope of the agency 1s operation, and the correct channeling. In a multi-service agency too much d e t a i l at the onset can be confusing, and i t i s Sound to send the worker to his placement without undue delay so that he can f i n d out f o r himself. D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s t a f f meetings and annual regional s t a f f meetings afford the workers other opportunities to f i l l i n gaps concerning the agency's t o t a l program. At the operational l e v e l the s ervices of the agency are carried out by the d i s t r i c t worker with the guidance and support of the d i s t r i c t supervisor. The objective of super-v i s i o n , i n thi s agency as elsewhere, i s to get the job done, and supervision i s the administrative vehicle to carry out the agency's function. Through the dynamic and enabling r e-lationship between supervisor and worker, which s h i f t s accord-ing to the professional development of each, the worker is helped to improve his standards of practice so as to meet the needs of c l i e n t s . Another goal of supervision i s to aid the worker i n assessing s o c i a l needs and i n interpreting these to the community* As s o c i a l workers are exposed to a l l the pathologies of l i f e i t i s normally an anxiety producing ex-perience, e s p e c i a l l y for beginning workers, vtt i s through professional supervision that the worker i s helped to modify his attitudes, and to be strengthened so that he himself i s - 61 -able to make c l i e n t s want to change. The supervisory process involves education, consultation, evaluation, and adminis-t r a t i o n i n varying degrees according to the i n d i v i d u a l supervisor's a b i l i t y and the p a r t i c u l a r community and agency se t t i n g . The D i s t r i c t Setting There exists considerable v a r i a t i o n i n d i s t r i c t settings from the standpoint of geographical area, numbers of o f f i c e s , and i n the r a t i o of supervisors to workers. On the survey date there were 32 o f f i c e s i n the then f i v e Regions, and a t o t a l of 16 supervisors placed i n Regions I - IV i n -cl u s i v e , there being no supervisor at the time i n Region V. The number of workers per supervisor ranged from four to 11^ and the number of d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s covered by any super-v i s o r varied from one to three. The geographical coverage involved and extent to which the d i s t r i c t supervisor must "spread" himself i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by the spotting of d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s . Apart from the o f f i c e s In which the d i s t r i c t supervisors make th e i r headquarters there were eight "one-man" o f f i c e s and 14 other o f f i c e s , with usually two workers. These workers perforce carried out t h e i r duties independently except for periodic v i s i t s by the d i s t r i c t supervisor which varied from weekly to monthly, time, t r a v e l l i n g and other conditions permitting. In the outlying regions during the winter months mueh of the t r a v e l l i n g of the d i s t r i c t super-v i s o r has to be carried out during daylight hours which cuts to a great extent into the regular duty hours. - 62 -To understand what I t means to be the only s o c i a l worker i n a large area i n which the distances are great and population sparse, the following d i s t r i c t i s representative of the "one-man" o f f i c e s . 1 The area served comprises approx-imately 24,000 square miles, roughly 300 miles long and 100 miles wide, with 2,200 miles of roads of which 28 are paved. Within the d i s t r i c t are located two police detachments, two doctors, one d e n t i s t , 22 schools, and churehes of four r e l i g -ious denominations. Of the caseload of 255 30$ are c h i l d welfare (36 children i n foster homes) and 20$ "family" cases. To arrange for even minimal medical and dental care for the children i n foster homes and to ascertain progress i n foster homes and school on the basis of a l l o t i n g one hour of service per c h i l d per month, was more than the one worker could manage. For each hour spent on outside v i s i t i n g an estimated two hours of o f f i c e work i s required. It i s safe to say that d i s t r i c t workers i n most settings put i n constant overtime i n t h e i r endeavor to meet a l l requests from the community and admin-i s t e r the services for which they are held responsible. I t also means that workers who need to have some time for them-selves, are, regardless of s k i l l , unable to provide services they see are needed. The d i s t r i c t supervisor, although usually once r e -moved from d i r e c t service, finds i t necessary to work outside of regular o f f i c e hours to handle the demands of the p o s i t i o n , 1. Williams Lake, 1952, D i s t r i c t Worker's Report - 63 -even those who are experienced and could not be accused of being overly-conscientious. The Work of the D i s t r i c t Supervisors A Time D i s t r i b u t i o n Study Table 5» " D i s t r i b u t i o n of Supervisors* Time by Type of Work Performed, January, 1952» Showing Average Per-centage" represents the average percentage of t o t a l s for each category of work compiled from the d a i l y job time s t u d i e s . 1 In cases of returns covering a d i f f e r e n t number of work hours than the normal 160.5 hours, these have been corrected. This was occasioned by absences due to holidays, i l l n e s s , and also due to not a l l of the questionnaires reaching the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s by January 2. In some instances, the returns spread over a few days of the following month. In view of the fact that 9 of the 14 returns are reported i n amounts of 15 minutes or multiples thereof, the monthly tot a l s of each return must be considered as approximations. There i s also the subject-ive factor of unconscious weighting of the time allotments i n favor of the type of work preferred or what one f e e l s one should have done. It i s l i k e l y , however, that i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n between the supervisors' preferences and pattern of reporting w i l l cancel out some of this weighting. At best, the percentage analysis i n Table 6, "Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Supervisors' Time by Type of Work Performed, January 1952" indicates trends and the v a r i a t i o n as between supervisors i s 1. One return Invalid, one not attempted. Table 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Supervisors 1 Time by Type of Work Performed, January, 1952, Showing Average Percentage Scheduled Conferen-ces with Workers H////////W//// //////////7T////A >////// //// / ///> V////////////////J 7////////////////t /////////////////) / / / //// //////////// Reading Case Records }///I///////////t\ ///////////////// U/////////77////7) v////////////////> V//7////////////7) '////////////////A ////// / / // Miscellaneous n/////////  ///////////////// / Mall Reading n/////////////// ///////////////// 0 7// 77/77777 '////////////// T r a v e l l i n g t//////////////// ///////////////// n // V///////// Occasional Confer-ences with Workers i//////////////// ///////////////// '/ / /// V////// C l e r i c a l n/////////////// ///////////////// V//  t//// Reviewing Case Loads ////////y//////// ///////////////// t O f f i c e Management u////////////// //////////////// Telephone / ? / / / / / / / / / //////////////// C9mmunity Relations 777777777777 f/J/'////////r\. Interviewing C l i e n t s 777777777 %A ////////// h^. S t a f f Meetings ////// ////// Professional Reading \//7 Overtime W////////////// a/////////////// )/////////////}}//> U //t //(U//{//< //// //  Percentage 10 15 20 - 64 -affected by quite a few unmeasured factors. Some of these are explained under the category of "Miscellaneous," and others could well be the nature and a c t i v i t y of p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i c t caseloads, t r a v e l l i n g conditions, and other ex-ternal factors, as well as the i n d i v i d u a l supervisor's pattern of working and the d i f f e r e n t i a l needs of workers. While Tables 6 and 6 represent a quantitative analysis sugg-estive of the scope of the supervisors' work, they also give some in d i c a t i o n as to i t s organization and q u a l i t y . The l a t t e r aspect i s p a r t i a l l y indicated i n the section of the questionnaire to do with supervisory procedures. Examination of the supervisors' a c t i v i t i e s i n Table 5 having a d i r e c t bearing on s t a f f development, those being "Scheduled Conferences With Workers," "Reading Case Records," "Occasional Conferences With Workers," and "Staff Meetings" altogether take up s l i g h t l y over 45$ of the supervisor's time. Personal conferences with workers account for 26.4$ of the monthly time d i s t r i b u t i o n , with over one-quarter of this being "on-th-spot" supervision. These unplanned con-s u l t a t i o n s , some of which are necessary, would occur i n the case of r e a l emergencies, intake supervision which could not wait u n t i l the scheduled confeuence period, or i f the super-vi s o r found i t necessary to cancel the regular period through some other unavoidable commitment such as a court hearing. It might also r e f e r i n some instances to a p a r t i c u l a r work pattern. S t a f f meetings, which make up less than 2$ of the - 65 -t o t a l , do not appear to be much used as a means of s t a f f development. I t i s to be questioned i f the supervisors' time would not be more economically and productively a l l o c -ated i f the group teaching method were more frequently u t i l -ized. The "Reading of Case Records," comprising nearly one-f i f t h of the supervisors' a c t i v i t i e s i s a prerequisite for both administrative and educational purposes. The category of "Miscellaneous," took up nearly one-tenth of the period covered. This figure i s weighted some-what higher than the actual owing to the reporting of some a c t i v i t i e s which properly f a l l under "Community Relations" or "Office Management." The majority of supervisors i n -cluded i n t h i s category consultations with the Regional Administrator, F i e l d Consultant, the preparation of special reports for pa r t i c u l a r D i v i s i o n s , planning and taking part i n d i s t r i c t supervisors' meetings, and some d i c t a t i o n , and checking of "closed" f i l e s . Occasional a c t i v i t i e s reported by one or several supervisors were attendance at a Regional s t a f f meeting, supervision of students, transferring of a s o c i a l allowance caseload to a municipality, court atten-dances, committee p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such organizations as the Canadian Welfare Council, C.A.S.W., and l o c a l municipal councils, handling cases i n the absence of workers, making arrangements for presenting cases to the Child Guidance C l i n i c , preparing for s t a f f meetings, and a number of others, including looking for a " l o s t " worker. One supervisor sub-- 66 -s t i t u t e d for the Regional Administrator who was absent through i l l n e s s . In effect the supervisor may be c a l l e d on to perform i n any s e t t i n g or capacity as representative of the agency. It i s to be noted that the preparation for and giving of evaluations was not s p e c i f i e d i n this category, but, i f ca r r i e d out, may have been considered under "Sched-uled Conferences With Workers." "Community Relations", although reported as only 3.4$ of the t o t a l , accounts for an estimated 5$ i n view of several important and time-consuming a c t i v i t i e s c l a s s i f i e d as "Miscellaneous," These include C i v i l Defence planning and meetings i n which a majority of supervisors took part, and also preparation and presentation of talks to such organiz-ations as the P.T.A., and p o l i c y or case consultations with other professional personnel—magistrate, minister or p r i e s t , probation o f f i c e r , teacher, public health nurse, etc. and, i n one instance, interviewing a volunteer, To both "Mail Reading" and " T r a v e l l i n g " were devoted s l i g h t l y less than 10$ of work hours, and these together with 4.3$ spent on "Office Management" comprise a constant which would appear i r r e d u c i b l e . What has been c l a s s i f i e d under " C l e r i c a l , " 5.6$ of the t o t a l , i s subject to several interpretations as i t was not s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r l y defined. In such instances as the signing of vouchers i n the granting, changing or sus-pending of allowances, inspection and approval of issue or expense and various s t a t i s t i c a l reports there would be a c l e r i c a l element i n the checking of such figures, but the decision to approve i s an administrative one. Without a further breakdown i t cannot be estimated how much of t h i s a c t i v i t y i s of a s t r i c t l y c l e r i c a l nature which could be per-formed by c l e r i c a l s t a f f . "Telephone c a l l s , " constituting 4.3$ of the time allotment i s an anomalous category i n that the purpose of the conversation would relate to some other category, for example supervisory conferences, community r e l a t i o n s , or miscellan-eous. Its only significance i s that on the assumption these are e s s e n t i a l c a l l s , there i s an o v e r a l l average of about 20 minutes per day which cannot be planned for other purposes. With respect to "Interviewing C l i e n t s " to which 2.4$ of the time was devoted, some of the returns have not separated workers' cases from supervisors' cases, or indicated i f these interviews were of an intake nature. Five of the supervisors reported carrying cases of t h e i r own, and only one reported no c l i e n t interviews. "Professional Reading" i s a minor a c t i v i t y , being 1.3$, and a majority of supervisors stated that this was carried out p r i n c i p a l l y on t h e i r own time, which they did not consider as overtime but part of the i r pro-f e s s i o n a l development. In consequence, there are no complete figures to show the extent of this a c t i v i t y . The time spent on "Reviewing Caseloads," 5$ of the t o t a l , i s normally part of the administrative function, and at the same time would also a i d i n s t a f f development. The figure perhaps of greatest interest i s the t o t a l average - 68 -overtime which i s 11.5$. This seems heavy, and i t i s with-out compensation. I t i s possible that the p a r t i c u l a r month of January may have been unusually demanding, and i t i s noteworthy that the supervisors assumed, considerable C i v i l Defence organizing and other community a c t i v i t i e s outside of regular work hours. The time allotment of each supervisor, as shown i n Table 6, "Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Supervisors 1 Time By Type of Work Performed, January, 1952" shows few correlations, and the only conclusions which can be drawn are that the differences i n external factors—numbers and s k i l l s of workers and the number of o f f i c e s to be covered, a c t i v i t y and nature of caseloads, extent of l o c a l organization, and so f o r t h , as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l differences i n organization and a b i l i t y between supervisors preclude any common pattern. What i s of i n t e r e s t , however, i s the degree of v a r i a t i o n between supervisors, and the spread for each category of a c t i v i t y . In some instances, these can be accounted f o r , and to t h i s extent, i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f e r e n t i a l demands made upon each d i s t r i c t supervisor, and how they respond. In the f i r s t cate-gory, "Reading Case Records," the range goes from 6.1$ to 24$. The "low" supervisor reported the highest percentage i n "Review of Caseloads" which had not been ca r r i e d out i n that d i s t r i c t for several years. The "high" supervisor, on the other hand, spent no time on "Staff Meetings," "Community Relations," or "Miscellaneous" even though his overtime was - 68A -Table 6. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Supervisors' Time  By Type of Work Performed. January. 1952. Reading Case Records H a i l Reading Scheduled Conferen-ces with Workers Occasional Conferen-ces with Workers Reviewing Caseloads Office Manage-ment Tele-phone C a l l s Staff Meet-ings C l e r i -c a l Commun-i t y Re-l a t i o n s Travel-l i n g Interviews with C l i e n t s Wi S. Profes-s i o n a l Reading Miscel-laneous Over-time 15.0 10.3 19.8 6.3 .6 5.6 3.1 2.2 4.3 3.3 16.7 neg. neg. 1.2 11.8 20.3 h 7.9 5.0 20.5 3.7 2.3 1.9 1.8 4.9 2.5 4.1 8.9 2.5 1.8 .9 10.51 3.3 h 22.8 10.8 21.6 10.6 0.0 3.8 6.4 1.4 2.9 1.0 .7 1.7 0.0 2.5 13.3 4.3 15.2 8.1 23.5 8.9 4.9 4.9 4.5 1.5 3.0 8.0 8.1 2.0 .8 .6 11.0 10.1 12.5 5.5 25.5 3.8 7.1 2.7 3.3 4.8 2.2 4.2 13.8 2.7 2.7 1.2 8.4 8.4 12.5 12.8 87.5 2.9 1.0 3.6 10.3 0.0 2.1 0.0 7.3 1.0 0.0 0.0 9.2 19.7 "5 9.8 7.7 7.2 5.3 3.2 10.8 3.0 3.2 11.4 2.7 8.7 3.5 4.7 .9 18.2 10.9 21.9 17.3 10.8 13.8 0.0 2.4 6.5 1.6 4.3 6.7 5.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 13.5 lh 24.0 7.7 26.7 5.7 7.2 9.2 2.6 0.0 6.1 0.0 5.5 1.7 0.0 2.7 0.0 14.0 16.5 11.4 15.2 8.7 2.0 4.0 4.8 1.9 7.8 1.6 8.5 2.5 1.6 0.0 13.7 13.7 n i g 17.2 7.3 10.5 6.4 12.3 1.3 3.7 2.0 18.1 8.8 2.5 4.6 0.0 1.8 8.0 2.9 w i 6.1 9.9 16.8 4.0 15.1 1.5 0.0 .4 7.3 9.4 12.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 7.5 21.9 19.6 7.3 18.6 11.6 6.4 2.4 4.1 1.9 2.9 2.7 3.5 1;2 4.4 1.5 11.8 6.7 OT8 19.6 7.1 ( 12.3 11.2 7.4 5.6 6.8 0.0 4.5 5.6 10.4 1.8 0.0 .8 4.7 10.2 - 69 -above average. As might be anticipated there Is some corre-l a t i o n between planned and on-the-spot interviews with workers. The seven supervisors reporting less than the aver-age $ f o r "Scheduled Conferences" spent one-third more time than the average on "Occasional Conferences." S i m i l a r l y those reporting over the average f o r "Occasional Conferences" u t i l i z e d 11$ l e s s than the average time on "Scheduled Con-ferences". As the supervisor who spent the most time on "Scheduled Conferences," 37«5$ was supervising s i x students, this figure has made for some skewing. The next highest i s 26.7$. Other supervisors having students, either u n i v e r s i t y or In-Service Training, had only one. The lowest figure reported was 7.2$ and this supervisor spent nearly one-quarter of his time on "Office Management" and " C l e r i c a l " a c t i v i t i e s , either by preference or necessity. The number of workers supervised was four placed i n three o f f i c e s . This super-vi s o r also reported 8.2$ of his time interviewing c l i e n t s , the greater period devoted to his own cases. From the set t i n g described one would deduce that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r supervisor was frequently alone i n the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e , and would, there-fore, carry the main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for intake. There i s less f l u c t u a t i o n i n "Mail Reading," the v a r i a t i o n here being related to differences i n quantity of mail, and the supervisor's f a m i l i a r i t y with caseloads, i . e . , the need to read the com-plete f i l e . "Reviewing Caseloads" i s an a c t i v i t y i n which a l l but one supervisor was involved (and th i s one recognized the need). The va r i a t i o n was from zero to 15.2$. Its - 70 -importance i s the greater where s t a f f turnover Is f a i r l y high, likewise high caseloads, and decisions need to be reached as to agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and what service the d i s t r i c t worker can provide. To ensure that the ground be covered i t would seem better planning to make this a con-tinuing a c t i v i t y spread out over the year. Relative to "Office Management" the d i s t r i b u t i o n ranged from 1.3$ to 10.8$. The more experienced supervisors, and those with only one o f f i c e to cover, found that less of t h e i r time was needed for these mechanics. While the amount of time spent on "Staff Meetings" i s small, i t does appear to have some s l i g h t relationship to the time devoted to i n d i v i d u a l conferences. Those supervisors with less than average i n t h i s a c t i v i t y (three reported none) gave an average of 12$ more to i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n . Of the eleven returns showing s t a f f meetings four of these are of two hours or longer duration, s i x show a pattern of more frequent and shorter periods up to one and one-half hours, which could be interpreted as having more to do with p o l i c y changes, and one i s a mixed type. The d i s t r i b u t i o n for "Community Relations" runs from zero up to 9.4$. On analysis of questionnaires, only one of the two supervisors reporting zero did not take part i n any community a c t i v i t i e s , this being i n Vancouver where the need would be l e s s . The other reported a f a i r degree of t h i s a c t i v i t y under "Miscellaneous." Those spending more than the average for this category had less than average time for - 71 -"Scheduled Conferences." In t e r e s t l y enough, supervisors who were more active i n community work reported somewhat less than the average overtime, suggesting perhaps better o v e r a l l planning of work. The v a r i a t i o n i n " T r a v e l l i n g Time" from almost none to 13.8$ i s affected i n the main by external f a c t o r s . It i s of inte r e s t that supervisors doing the most t r a v e l l i n g gave so much time to "Scheduled Conferences." S u r p r i s i n g l y enough, those doing more than the average " T r a v e l l i n g " put i n only 3$ more than the average overtime, and expended s l i g h t l y over the average time for "Community Relations." With respect to c l i e n t interviews the v a r i a t i o n here i s from zero to 8.2$, and the majority of supervisors did not under-take to carry cases of th e i r own, presumably because this i s agency p o l i c y as well as because of other demands. However, a l l but two were involved i n d i r e c t service to c l i e n t s , either because they wanted to, or had to, i n the absence of workers. The category of "Miscellaneous," a c a t c h - a l l , shows the greatest v a r i a t i o n from zero to 18.2$. The l a t t e r figure i s too high because of incorrect reporting, and actually should be around 12$. Five of the eight supervisors engaged i n more than the average for "Miscellaneous," did better than average on "Scheduled Conferences." Ho e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f -icant patterns show for these supervisors putting i n more than average overtime, except for a higher proportion on "Office Management" (20$ above average), "Mail Reading" (28$ above - 72 -average), and less r e l a t i n g to "Reviewing Caseloads" (14$). As these categories are among the r e l a t i v e l y smaller ones, i t would appear that overtime i s attributable more d i r e c t l y to volume of work and other external factors rather than to any p a r t i c u l a r phase of the job. Supervisory Procedures The section of the questionnaire e n t i t l e d "Analysis of Supervisory Procedures," i n Appendix A refers to methods of working which are more suggestive of q u a l i t y of super-v i s i o n than the time d i s t r i b u t i o n . A l l 16 d i s t r i c t super-visors f i l e d returns for t h i s section. The timing of super-visory conferences, Question 1, shows that the most commonly used system i s to schedule one weekly conference period for each worker. Thirteen supervisors follow this plan and the s t a f f s of s i x use these periods regularly. Seven super-visors advise they have regular weekly periods available and that the workers take advantage of more than one-half of these periods. Three arrange supervisory conferences "as conven-ie n t " . Supervisors covering more than one o f f i c e have to vary th e i r coverage, and the extent of supervision available i s best stated from the workers' standpoint. Of the t o t a l of 103 workers, 83 have weekly periods a v a i l a b l e , of which 37 use them, and the balance using over one-half of the periods. For 20 workers, supervision periods are i r r e g u l a r with four averaging one per week, 11 workers having a conference less that once a week but oftener than once per month, and f i v e - 73 -having conferences once a month or less frequently. It Is assumed that those i n this l a s t group are workers i n one-man o f f i c e s , those carrying Old Age Assistance caseloads, and possibly the more s k i l l e d d i s t r i c t workers. The reasons for the t o t a l of 46 workers or nearly one-half who have weekly periods available but do not use them f u l l y were not covered i n the questionnaire, but would r e l a t e to how much independence the worker could be given as well as access-i b i l i t y of the supervisor. For Question 2 concerning "on-the-spot" supervision outside of regular periods, four of the supervisors report th i s took up more time than regular periods. With respect to 17 of the t o t a l s t a f f of 20 supervised, only one of those so reported on the time a l l o c a t i o n i n Table 6. These four supervisors rate low on "Scheduled Conferences" being 38$ less than the average, and 30$ above average for "Occas-ional Conferences." There may have been some misunderstand-ing of the term "Occasional Conferences" by which was meant "on-the-spot" supervision outside of regular periods. Generally, unprepared conferences without benefit of reading recording, are less valuable, even where they may be confined to what seems to be straightforward application of p o l i c y . One Inference i s that pressure f o r immediate action i s such that neither supervisor nor worker can wait for recording to be completed, or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , that both allow themselves to be pressured beyond the r e a l i t y need. - 74 -The keeping of supervisory records or notes of conferences to indicate the workers' performance i s consid-ered a he l p f u l practice. In t h i s way instances of the kinds of case situations which present some d i f f i c u l t y to the worker are better appreciated by the supervisor who can then focus his teaching upon such areas. In reply to Question 3» nine supervisors report the keeping of such records. It was not questioned i f this was ca r r i e d out f o r each conference, but one would expect some variance. Two supervisors keep such records f o r less than one-half of their s t a f f , and f i v e state they keep no records. The r e p l i e s to Question 4 dealing with preparation for supervision periods by both supervisor and worker show a wide variance of practice. Section (a) covering p r i o r review by the supervisor of material presented by the worker shows that two supervisors do so i n a l l cases, s i x i n more than one-half of cases, s i x i n less than one-half of cases, and two report "infrequently." Here again, the quality of super-v i s i o n i s d i r e c t l y related to the degree of p r i o r prepar-ation, and one concludes that this was not possible i n many instances. Relative to the worker's pr i o r review of mater-i a l presented by the Supervisor there i s a s l i g h t improve-ment i n that the workers of three supervisors do so i n a l l cases, eight i n more than one-half of cases, three i n less than one-half of cases, and the workers of two supervisors i n no case. Question 5 asks what workers' recordings are seen by the supervisor, the determining factors being adminis-t r a t i v e and teaching needs, as w e l l as opportunity, and the findings are as follows: (a) Workers' records seen i n a l l cases - 32$ of (b) Workers' recordings seen i n a l l new cases - 64$ workers (c) Workers' recording seen where administrative decisions pending - 89$ " (d) Workers' recordings i n cases selected by the worker - 83$ " (e) Workers' recordings i n cases selected by the supervisor - 85$ " With respect to (e), some explanation Is necessary. One supervisor apparently acts only i n the capacity of consultant as he reports he sees only cases selected by the workers. One supervisor does not see recordings he wishes to discuss of two of seven workers. A t h i r d supervisor reporting "none" for (e) sees a l l workers' recordings, but may not follow the practice of s e l e c t i n g cases f o r discussion. While d e s i r -able for the supervisor to see the workers' recordings e s p e c i a l l y those whose performance i s weaker, i t appears the volume of work precludes t h i s . It i s presumed the bulk of new cases not seen by the supervisor would consist of O.A.A. and O.A.S.B. f i l e s i n which e l i g i b i l i t y decisions are made by the Old Age Assistance Board. With respect to (c) i t i s necessary that some authority be delegated to the more ex-perienced workers i n one-man o f f i c e s to make administrative - 76 -decisions. As f o r (d) i t i s concluded some supervisors do not nave s u f f i c i e n t opportunity to see f i l e s the worker wishes to discuss, or may not consider t h i s necessary. Question 6 deals with frequency of review of i n d i v i d u a l caseloads, and i t i s to be noted there i s no agency p o l i c y concerning t h i s phase of work, except that i t holds the supervisor responsible to know what i s happening. Two supervisors state they are able to review the workers' caseloads once a quarter, and a t h i r d does so with respect to Child Welfare and Family D i v i s i o n cases only (for other categories unspecified). Such a review i s accomplished on a semi-annual basis by three supervisors, by four on an annual basis. The remaining supervisors review the Individual caseloads at other int e r v a l s according to apparent need and other exigencies. One supervisor i n his present p o s i t i o n for 17 months, advises he i s commencing caseload reviews; another supervisor, newly-appointed, i s doing the same. Other patterns are "as often as time permits," "Periodic of c e r t a i n categories" and "according to changes i n p o l i c y , changes i n s t a f f , and for evaluations." One supervisor, i n his present placement for one year, reports he has not attempted to examine Individual caseloads. The need for this kind of administrative supervision depends upon the degree of independence of the i n d i v i d u a l worker, and any hard and fast p o l i c y cannot be l a i d down. When undertaken, such reviews should be the j o i n t enterprise - 77 -of both worker and supervisor with the worker retaining f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r his caseload. At the time of trans-fer of a caseload and at other evaluation periods, the supervisor should have information as to the status of the worker's caseload. The need f o r such an o v e r a l l review would otherwise a r i s e i n situations i n which the Worker i s ex-periencing d i f f i c u l t y i n providing adequate coverage or the caseload has grown to unmanageable s i z e . Where this occurs the supervisor would need to decide that only p a r t i a l or no service can be provided i n some cases as they are beyond the worker's s k i l l or he cannot spread himself to that extent. This decision whether or not to o f f e r service (opening or closing cases) would apply only to those categories such as come i n Family Service i n which no statutory r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e x i s t s . I f there i s f l e x i b i l i t y as to case assignment, i t might be f e a s i b l e i n some instances to transfer cases to a more s k i l l e d worker. It i s of interest to report what the d i s t r i c t supervisors themselves consider optimum frequency of review of i n d i v i d u a l caseloads i n answer to Question 7. Seven are of the opinion this should be c a r r i e d out "quarterly," s i x state "semi-annually," two advise "annually" and one does not believe any s p e c i f i c periodic review i s necessary. From the wording of the questionnaire i t i s inferred that these reviews should be the work of the supervisor. However, some supervisors may have interpreted t h i s to mean review by the worker only. The l a t t e r c e r t a i n l y should assume some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The qualifying remarks have a bearing. With reference to quarterly reviews, these are, "at time of transfer of caseload," " s p e c i a l situations by B/F," and " i f regular reading of d i c t a t i o n and reviewing of s p e c i a l categories such as adoption, family services i s taking place." Relative to the optimum frequency of "semi-annually" one supervisor feels "for the inexperienced worker or the worker whose performance i s below par, more frequent review would be valuable." The supervisor who does not hold to any p a r t i c u l a r frequency advises i t "depends upon i n d i v i d u a l s t a f f and other f a c t o r s . " What does appear e s s e n t i a l i s that there be a means of administrative check to indicate caseload coverage, which could be accomplished by the super-v i s o r having a duplicate Eardex, showing the case category and worker's a c t i v i t y . The fact that on the survey date the average caseload was 322 suggests the d i f f i c u l t y the supervisor must experience i n exercising his administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t y without some mechanical a i d . Questions 8 and 9 have to do with methods used i n reviewing caseloads. The d i s t r i b u t i o n reported Is: - 79 -(a) Reading a l l f i l e s i n caseload - 2 supervisors (b) Reading more than 75$ - 3 n (c) Reading more than 50$ but less than 75% of f i l e s - 3 " (d) Reading more than 25$ but less than 50% of f i l e s - 4- " (e) Reading more than 25$ or less of f i l e s - 2 " In addition, one supervisor covers a l l Child Welfare and Family Service cases only, and another varies his method "according to the worker's s k i l l and r e l i a b i l i t y . " Two supervisors do not review O.A.A. and O.A.S.B. cases as " t h i s i s done by the d i v i s i o n a l o f f i c e . " Of the 13 supervisors following a sampling method, 11 do so by category, one selecting random f i l e s , and one by number, e.g. every second f i l e . The further question as to whether some combination of these methods i s used was not asked, and no explanatory remarks were made. Questions 10, 11, and 12 relate to frequency, planning and content of s t a f f meetings. The common pattern i s "as convenient averaging once a month or more often" reported by ten supervisors. Three hold weekly meetings, and one arranges them on a regular monthly basis. The b a l -ance of the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s one every two months, and one "every three months approximately." One supervisor also arranges a jo i n t s t a f f meeting for a l l three o f f i c e s covered every three months i n addition to those i n the main o f f i c e . Responsibility f o r planning of s t a f f meetings varies. One - 80 -supervisor gives f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a s t a f f program committee, f i v e report s t a f f take more than 50$ respon-s i b i l i t y , f i v e report s t a f f take less than 50$ of the re-s p o n s i b i l i t y , and f i v e supervisors take a l l the responsib-i l i t y . Table 7 "Content of S t a f f Meetings During Preceding S i x Months" i s based upon returns from a l l 16 supervisors. The content of s t a f f meetings covered during t h i s period i s roughly evenly divided between the s i x categories mentioned but the weighting shows some variance. Content c l a s s i f i e d as "Major Part" i s 80$ represented by administrative commun-ic a t i o n s , e l i g i b i l i t y and other p o l i c i e s , and 20$ pertain to c l i e n t needs and professional practices. Of the "Proportion-ately Equal" 64$ has to do with administrative and p o l i c y considerations, and 36$ ( s l i g h t error i n reporting) are con-cerned with c l i e n t s ' needs and how to meet them. Under "Less Than Equal," 31$ r e l a t e to administration and p o l i c i e s , and 69$ to do with how c l i e n t s are served. "Negligible" appears to be evenly spread out between the two types of material discussed. In summary, there i s considerably more emphasis upon administrative matters than upon material designed for s t a f f development. The supervisory methods above described, which have the purpose of improving the q u a l i t y of worker's performance, f i n d t h e i r summation i n the written evaluation. The super-visory process as the means of continuing professional Table 7. Content of S t a f f Meetings During Preceding Six Months Content Major Part Proportionately Equal Less Than Equal Negligible Totals Case Presen-tations 2 9 3 14 Administrative Communcatlons 5 7 4 16 E l i g i b i l i t y P o l i c i e s 1 9 5 15 C l i e n t Needs 1 4 7 2 14 Standards of Assistance 3 6 3 12 Use of Commun-i t y Resources 4 4 4 12 Other P o l i c i e s of S.W.B. 2 6 4 3 15 Other . Mate r i a l * 1 (a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 10 Totals 10 38 41 19 108 A (a) Studies of books, a r t i c l e s from "Social Casework." (b) Reading material, reviews of a r t i c l e s , c l e r i c a l , f oster care, cars, (use and care), manual use. (c) Philosophy re cases involving custody of children, j o i n t meeting i n the Health Unit showing fi l m s , "Families F i r s t , " "Your Family." (d) Films. - 81 -education is a d i f f i c u l t teaching method. The supervisor-worker relationship involves the expression of the deepest and frequently contradictory feelings in many subtle ways, and can result in either inspiration or a sense of inadequacy for both. If the supervision is coldly objective or swings over to psychotherapy of the worker, the educational aspects cannot be successful. In addition to furthering the worker* s growth through education supervision is concerned with the client's growth, a treatment process. These dual responsib-i l i t i e s are exacting, and neither can be neglected at the expense of the other. Through the periodic evaluation these two phases are examined together by worker and supervisor, and have meaning for the worker's future development and place-ment. Similarly, i t has meaning for the supervisor's own growth. Evaluations Following decentralization and the appointment of d i s t r i c t supervisors, the Branch gave increasing attention to quality of service and how the professional growth of workers could be furthered. A committee of 10 senior supervisors studied the subject of evaluations and compiled a brochure outlining the principles and purposes of evaluation, and as a basis for evaluation an analysis of the d i s t r i c t worker's job. 1 Included in the study are a discussion of the super-1. Evaluation Committee, Social Welfare Branch, Study on Staff Evaluations, March 1, 194-9. - 82 -visory function, methods and techniques of evaluation, and an evaluation outline. The importance of the evaluation to the administration is clearly defined. It is v i t a l to know the capacities of the f i e l d personnel and how well services are being given, as this affects selection of staff and the planning of any additional services. Satisfactory placement, tenure, and promotion of the individual workers are dependent upon a f a i r evaluation. The total program of staff develop-ment is based upon the written assessment of the workers' educational needs. What is impressive about the job analysis is the detailed body of knowledge required for the different prog-rams—public assistance, family and child welfare services, mental health, community organization, and other services, and the variety of mechanics and procedures to be followed. This unalterable characteristic of a generalized program means that during the f i r s t year and probably longer much of the worker's energy w i l l be consumed in mastering the admin-istrative aspects of his work, and supervision w i l l be focused in this direction. As the worker becomes comfortable in his understanding and use of the large mass of regulations he i s ready to increase his self-knowledge. What the agency expects of the d i s t r i c t worker is all-embracive, and i f he is to per-form reasonably well, he requires a high degree of profess-ional training and personal s u i t a b i l i t y , including a b i l i t y to be selective and to withstand conflicting pressures. Regard-less of qualifications, the beginning worker w i l l be - 83 -dependent upon the supervisor for a considerable period. Suggested standards concerning evaluations are made in the "Study on Staff Evaluations." It is considered desirable to conduct the f i r s t evaluation at the end of the six months' probation period required by the C i v i l Service Commission in conjunction with the Efficiency Rating. There-after, an annual evaluation should be made, although this would vary according to the individual worker's capacity. It would not seem necessary in the case of a worker who has reached his optimum development, to submit an annual eval-uation indefinitely. On the other hand, when there are serious questions concerning the worker's performance, more frequent evaluations would be needed. The need for an eval-uation prior to transfer is obvious as the decision relative to the proposed new placement would be dependent upon this knowledge. Further, i f the transfer is effected, the new supervisor should have the benefit of what is already known about the worker's level of growth. The policy now in effect is that evaluations are obtained at the end of the f i r s t year, then in three years, and whenever a worker is transferred, regardless of time element. In respect of In-Service Trainees, three evaluations are made during the six months training period. Sound techniques of evaluation are recommended cover-ing the use of periodic oral summaries, adequate advance pre-paration by both worker and supervisor, the keeping of super-visory notes, and the selection of cases for discussion. It - 84 -i s stressed that the worker's own comments and interpretations should be included i n the recorded evaluation. The evaluation outline formulated at t h i s time (1949) places emphasis upon the worker's fa c t u a l information and work organization. It has since been replaced by a more recent outline i n use since 1953. Appendix D. This gives more weighting to the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s required for professional practice—knowledge and understanding of human behavior, interviewing s k i l l s , and the helpfulness of the worker's relationships. The current outline points to a higher stand-ard of work expected. As evaluations are c o n f i d e n t i a l docum-ents, and were not accessible to the writer, i t i s not known i f they are being submitted i n l i n e with the suggested timing, and to what extent they are serving the purposes stated. This might be a suitable subject for review, at the present time. The Use of S t a f f Meetings In addition to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the d i s t r i c t supervisor i n s t a f f development, the Branch has promoted s t a f f meetings, i n s t i t u t e s , and conferences for d i f f e r e n t groups of s t a f f to this same end. While the holding of regular s t a f f meetings at d i s t r i c t l e v e l i s encouraged by ad-ministrative personnel, t h e i r frequency and planning i s l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of the d i s t r i c t supervisor. The question-naire returns showed considerable v a r i a t i o n as to frequency— i n some areas weekly meetings were held, and the least f r e -quent being two during the preceding s i x months. It i s - 85 -apparent that to bring the staffs from two or three widely separated offices is d i f f i c u l t to arrange, and this might be feasible only once every two or three months. At the same time the value to staff in receiving not only practical help in their work but recognition and support is immeasurable. In realizing the values in staff meetings in aiding staff development, the Branch has recently circularized a pamphlet on this subject prepared by the Training Supervisor which offers useful suggestions as to their organization and 1 content. In future, the Training Supervisor expects to be more active in assisting the d i s t r i c t supervisors in this phase of their work, and with their co-operation, i t is plann-ing to make an assessment of such meetings. For the d i s t r i c t supervisor the planning of staff meetings is complicated by the differences in levels of development of staff, and also by the need to get across procedural and policy matters and to serve sufficient time for the professional content. When there is reliance on review of mechanics, such meetings tend to be s t e r i l e and participation is at a minimum. The practice of holding brief staff meetings solely for administrative communications is one device to retain the educational pur-poses of the regular meeting. The organization of staff meetings is most productive when f u l l responsibility for program planning is given to a staff committee with the supervisor stimulating their thinking and serving as a resource person. In areas in which there i s 1. Moscrop, Martha, Staff Meetings, Draft prepared for the Canadian Welfare Council, April 12, 1954. - 86 -a smaller number of s t a f f , four or f i v e , the supervisor may need to share i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for presentation of material and keeping of minutes. Examinations of the s t a f f meeting minutes of one d i s t r i c t o f f i c e for the period 1947-1951 showed that t h e i r quality was i n direct r a t i o to the degree of s t a f f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r planning. During the period a s t a f f committee worked out a program plan, which was mutually agreed upon, the professional content was of greater value. Presentation of material by s t a f f was thought-f u l l y prepared, and each s t a f f member i n turn had an oppor-tunity to present material, lead i n the discussion, and keep minutes. By recognizing that each worker has a contribution to make and by leading rather than d i r e c t i n g , the supervis-or can be most ef f e c t i v e i n stimulating the growth of s t a f f i n t h i s group process. Turnover of s t a f f does affect the organizing of s t a f f meetings and t h e i r continuity, but they are equally important for reasons of orienting new workers and helping them to f e e l a part of the agency. They are use-f u l , also i n guaging the i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s , and needs of the new worker. At the Regional l e v e l a f a i r l y consistent pattern of annual s t a f f meetings since 1943 has been followed. These have had not only the purpose of s t a f f development but have also contributed to the integration of s t a f f , and provided a means of communication between administration and f i e l d . The d i s t r i c t s t a f f have been encouraged to express t h e i r needs with respect to professional development, t h e i r problems i n - 87 -d a i l y practice, and to make recommendations concerning p o l i c y changes. Casework i n s t i t u t e s formed the p r i n c i p a l part of such conferences i n V i c t o r i a (1944), at Nelson (194-5) and i n Kamloops (1946). An i n s t i t u t e for Regional administrators and supervisors on the subject of administration took place i n Vancouver (1948). A l l of these i n s t i t u t e s were lead by Miss Marjorie J . Smith. Since 1951 the annual Regional s t a f f meetings have assumed greater s i g n i f i c a n c e . By t h i s time the d i s t r i c t supervisors possessed several years 1 experience i n working with s t a f f , and had become more s k i l l e d i n freeing them to express t h e i r needs, and were less threatened by t h e i r wishes. Planning of such meetings has improved to the point where s t a f f are playing the p r i n c i p a l role i n organization, and the administration has aided i n providing requested resources. These meetings, which usually comprise three days, have proven to be an excellent method of s t a f f development i n that the major portion of the material i s presented by the f i e l d s t a f f , has been c l e a r l y focussed upon professional concerns, and has afforded the s e t t i n g i n which administrative and operational personnel can come together as equals i n exchanging ideas. Minutes of these Regional s t a f f meetings convey the impression of a healthy status of a l l personnel i n that no one group has a s p e c i a l stake, and there i s ample opportunity for s e l f -expression i n "jam sessions" and evaluate discussions. The scope of the programs have been "down to earth" a r i s i n g from - 88 -the concerns of d a i l y practice i n such subjects as mental health services, working with the community, intake problems, and the spec i a l needs of p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t groups—the physically-handicapped, the unemployed, the aged, chi l d r e n , and others. During the past year several casework i n s t i t u t e s have been arranged as part of the Regional s t a f f meeting pro-grams with the teachers being provided by the U.B.C. School of S o c i a l Work. Some of the material presented appears suitable for d i s t r i c t s t a f f meetings programs. In short, the Regional annual s t a f f meetings have value i n furthering the workers' professional development and i n providing the admin-i s t r a t i o n with information concerning the s o c i a l needs of the public and how these are being served by the exi s t i n g pro-visions and personnel. They afford the main opportunity for D i v i s i o n personnel to meet with f i e l d s t a f f , and to discuss new concepts and p o l i c i e s . In this manner s t a f f relationships are strengthened, and the in d i v i d u a l worker gains needed recognition for the role he i s playing i n the t o t a l organ-i z a t i o n . Supervisors' Institutes Relative to building up the c a l i b r e of supervisory s t a f f , both d i s t r i c t and d i v i s i o n a l , the Branch has made several important decisions which, i f approved by the Minister, should contribute to a higher q u a l i t y of performance. En-suing from the successful experience of the Supervisors' Inst i t u t e held i n January, 1954, i t has been recommended that - 89 -these be held annually, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r planning has been assigned to the D i v i s i o n of Training. The 1954 I n s t i t u t e , which lasted four days, was divided into two sec-tions. The f i r s t , a two day i n s t i t u t e given by Miss Smith who used case material selected by the supervisors, was d i r -ected toward Improving diagnostic s k i l l s with stress upon the t o t a l family approach. The second section covered discussions on material requested for the "Supervisor's K i t " the changes i n the In-Service Training course, evaluations, agency organ-i z a t i o n , community organization, and s p e c i f i c questions re-l a t i n g to the various programs which the heads of Divisions were able to c l a r i f y . Planning for the 1955 I n s t i t u t e , i n which the supervisors w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e to a much greater extent, i s already under way. Two previous i n s t i t u t e s for supervisors have been held, an " I n s t i t u t e on Child Welfare" i n 1949, and an i n s t i t -ute i n 1951 r e l a t i n g to the purposes and methods of super-v i s i o n . The 1949 i n s t i t u t e , which lasted f i v e days, was arranged by the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare and the supervisors of the Child Welfare D i v i s i o n . The l a t t e r pre-sented case material to i l l u s t r a t e the services involved i n c h i l d protection, placement, and foster care, adoptions and unmarried parenthood. The purpose of t h i s i n s t i t u t e for d i s t r i c t supervisors was to increase t h e i r understanding of the c h i l d welfare program so they could assume increased r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n this area. I t was following t h i s prepar-- 90 -ation that the case supervision of c e r t a i n phases-non-ward care, work with unmarried mothers, and protection s e r v i c e s — was decentralized i n A p r i l , 1949. It was considered advis-able that authority to apprehend, the approval of adoption placements and court reports, and the administrative aspects of services given under the "Children of unmarried Parents Act" remain ce n t r a l i z e d i n the D i v i s i o n o f f i c e . When i t i s considered the d i s t r i c t supervisors are able to assume greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the authority to apprehend and the f i n a l adoption court reports could be delegated. These are casework decisions which are d i f f i c u l t to make at a c e n t r a l o f f i c e . The 1951 Institute accomplished much i n strengthen-ing the d i s t r i c t supervisors and i n increasing knowledge of how to assess workers' s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s and problems, and how to help them to learn. This was lead by Mrs. Helen Exner of the U.B.C. School. Other material o u t l i n i n g the function of the C i v i l Service Commission, Woodlands School, and In-Service Training was discussed. These three i n s t i t u t e s for supervisors have given them concrete help, and have undoubtedly lessened t h e i r f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n . The secondary gain, that of knowing the administration feels t h e i r e f f o r t s are worthwhile, i s not to be discounted. Another important medium by which supervisors receive stimulation and share i n t h e i r thinking are the regular meetings of d i s t r i c t supervisors held within each Region. There i s some v a r i a t i o n between Regions as to frequency, dependent upon other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , however, these are encouraged on a bi-monthly basis at l e a s t . Apart from t h e i r s t a f f development purpose, the d i s t r i c t super-vi s o r s ' meetings represent the channel between the operation-a l s t a f f and the Regional Administrator. The supervisors use t h i s opportunity to present any recommended changes requested and the Regional Administrator may, i n turn, present these d i r e c t l y to the Administration, or r a i s e them at meetings of the Regional Administrators or Planning Council. This channel works down as well. Professional Literature The Branch Library, consisting of over 1,000 volumes, i n d i v i d u a l papers and p e r i o d i c a l s , i s an essential aid i n s t a f f development. The operation of the Library, as well as the c i r c u l a t i o n of study material for supervisors and s t a f f , i s ca r r i e d out by the Training Supervisor who acts as a resource person. The Training Supervisor i s consulted by s t a f f with reference to p a r t i c u l a r phases of t h e i r work, for example, adoption practices, or suggested readings de-signed to enlarge their general knowledge of personality development and casework s k i l l s . Reference material may be requested to a s s i s t i n the preparation of papers for d i s t r i c t and Regional s t a f f meetings. Bibliographies have been pre-pared on such subjects as supervision, inte r p r e t i v e material for public r e l a t i o n s , for foster parents, and other topics of common i n t e r e s t . A number of s p e c i a l pamphlets prepared - 92 -by s t a f f members concerning protection of children, adopt-ion services and others have been c i r c u l a r i z e d . The Library subscribes to some 15 periodicals of s o c i a l work i n t e r e s t , and contains numerous pamphlets published by the Canadian Welfare Council, Department of National Health and Welfare, Council on S o c i a l Work Education, Family Service Association of America, and other organizations. The Library, which i s registered by the Canadian Library Association, follows the Devey decimal system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n modified to be s p e c i f i c enough f o r s o c i a l work subjects. There i s no budget as such for the Library, and expenses are a charge on "Incidentals." As i t i s d e s i r -able that reading be u t i l i t a r i a n and rel a t e d to the worker's readiness to Incorporate the material, i t i s expected the d i s t r i c t supervisor w i l l suggest suitable references. In 1952 there were 32 individual requests for 73 books and pam-phlets, and i n 1953 a t o t a l of 55 requests for 180 items. The Library i s used more frequently by the d i s t r i c t super-v i s o r s , who probably pass on some of the material to s t a f f . In response to question 13 of the Questionnaire on "Super-visory Procedures" 14 supervisors reported the Library was adequate for t h e i r needs. The chief comment made was that neither supervisors nor workers have s u f f i c i e n t time to keep up with current periodicals and other reading they would l i k e to pursue. Requests for an up-to-date catalogue have been made, and also f o r a small basic l i b r a r y at the Regional - 93 -O f f i c e s . A number of p e r i o d i c a l s , "Social Casework," "Child Welfare," and "Canadian Welfare" are available to s t a f f at either d i s t r i c t or Regional o f f i c e s . U n t i l August, 1953, new acquisitions were noted and often reviewed i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare." which i s greatly missed by the f i e l d s t a f f . Issues of " B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare," published from 194-4, are available i n d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s , and they are also useful reference resource. On the whole, i t appears the Library i s not used as much as one would expect, and the explanation of lack of time could be further explored. To make the Library more "functional" a new system of r e q u i s i t i o n s has been imple-mented so that d i s t r i c t supervisors and administrative per-sonnel may forward a "Quarterly Library Order Form" to i n d i -cate t h e i r preferences together with comments. Because of other commitments, the Training Supervisor has been unable to bring cataloguing up-to-date, as well as to c l a s s i f y the more useful material. It i s planned to engage a q u a l i f i e d person to accomplish t h i s project, and to c i r c u l a r i z e a quarterly b u l l e t i n , o u t l i n i n g the content of new volumes. Included i n the Library services are the provision of films as requested and available. Each d i s t r i c t o f f i c e has the National Film Board catalogue, "Health, Welfare and Recreation Films" some of which are of educational value for s o c i a l workers. The use of these i s somewhat li m i t e d , p a r t l y because the projection equipment has to be borrowed. Of s p e c i a l interest i s the - 94 -f i l m , "A Friend at the Door" (1950) descriptive of the gen-eralized services of the Branch, which has been found e f f e c t -ive i n promoting public understanding. F i n a n c i a l Aid for Professional Training The provision of bursaries and educational leave represents another method the Branch has followed as part, of i t s s t a f f development program. Apart from the worker* s desire to improve his qualifications and the Branch's support of this general purpose, such requests need to be considered i n the context of the o v e r - a l l s t a f f picture and the f i l l i n g of vacancies created. The underlying p r i n c i p l e of such assistance i s that the agency does have a stake i n promoting higher professional standards of s t a f f , and therefore i t should give f i n a n c i a l aid and other support to t h i s means of s t a f f development. P o l i c i e s concerning bursaries and educational leave were formulated i n 1949 i n which year an Order-in-Council was passed to e s t a b l i s h an annual fund of $2,400.00 for this purpose. The amount of an i n d i v i d u a l bursary was fixed at $1,200.00 to a s o c i a l worker with de-pendents, and $600.00 to those without dependents. These could be i n any combination. Applications for educational leave are made to the Bursary Committee, a standing committee of the Planning Council. This committee has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of assessing the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and i n d i v i d u a l needs of each candidate on - 95 -the basis of his written evaluation and other first-hand i n -formation regarding his capacity; and the planning of the leave of absence. In this way any f i n a n c i a l aid would be granted only upon proven merit, and primarily for the benefit accruing to the work of the Branch rather than for the devel-opment of the s o c i a l worker concerned. F i n a l approval rests with the Deputy Minister. Two groups are e l i g i b l e to apply for f i n a n c i a l a i d . (a) "Those with s i x years' experience with the Branch who are now holding supervisory positions, or those with t h i s length of service who might qu a l i f y for supervisory positions i f they could have the advantage of further t r a i n i n g . " 1 (b) "Those with In-Service Training, some of whom might have less than s i x years' service, but who, nevertheless, show 2 promise of remaining with the Branch for some time." This has since been amended to three years of s e r v i c e , and, i n outstanding cases, has been waived to two years. Concerning the f i r s t group, that of supervisors or those of p o t e n t i a l supervisory c a l i b r e , i t was decided that the bursary could best take the form of leave of absence with pay. This leaves some f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with the supervisor for his professional development by way of fees, t r a v e l l i n g expenses, and other items. The type of course 1. S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Bursary Committee  Minutes, March 29, 194-9, p. 1. 2. Loc. c i t . - 96 -considered most advantageous for supervisors are the short, intensive summer institutes usually of six weeks' duration, offered by the major schools of social work. Although the preferred type of course this would not preclude consider-ation of those who might benefit more from a f u l l year's study. It is specified that such leave w i l l be exclusive of holiday leave. Despite the attractiveness of this plan for either refresher purposes or adding to one's professional s k i l l s , there i s a record of only four supervisors being granted leave with pay, and several refused for different reasons. A few others have taken advantage of the national grants for medical social work and mental health which came into effect in 194-8. While these grants acted as a stimulus, few were able to u t i l i z e them, and they did not meet the needs of the majority of staff. To build from the bottom up became the guiding principle of staff development. With respect to the second group, those with In-Service Training, the type of course most suitable was l o g i c a l l y considered to be the f i r s t year at the U.B.C. School of Social Work. This leads to the B.S.W. degree for those students having university graduation. The points con-sidered in these applications are educational and occupation-a l background, self-effort in obtaining an education, job performance, personality, desire to improve competence, and qualities as a potential supervisor. Each approved applicant enters into an agreement with the C i v i l Service Commission - 97 -to return to the Branch following completion of the eourse for a period of two years. During the five years the bursary system has been in effect a total of 3 6 applications have been considered of which 16 have been granted, 12 were refused as "unsuitable," and five withdrew. In only one year, 1 9 5 0 , was the total of $2,400.00 insufficient to cover grants for three satisfactory applicants. To improve liaison with the U.B.C. School of Social Work a School representative attended committee meetings in 1954. Professional Stimulation Outside the Agency Attendance at conferences and institutes is another effective method of advancing professional s k i l l s , and where feasible the Branch has tried to provide such opportunities for stimulation to as many staff as possible. Conferences held at long distances away are most costly, and are usually attended only by senior administrative o f f i c i a l s , most of whom take part as program participants. There has been a notice-able economy during the past year in that only two had expenses paid to the Canadian National Conference on Social Work held in Toronto in June, 1954. Three w i l l be able to attend the American Public Welfare Association conference to take place in Seattle in September, 1954. Some concession has been made in that staff on holidays and wanting to attend may have their registration and hotel fees paid. Attendance at con-ferences in previous years has been higher. A total of eight - 98 -had expenses paid to the National Conference in Quebec in 1952, five were sent to the Western Regional Conference ± 1 Winnipeg in 1951* and 95 attended the National Conference in Vancouver, 1950* A large number were assisted financially to attend the A.P.W.A. Conference in Victoria in 1952. When conferences are close at hand many of the junior staff, those with several years 1 service, and those who can make the best use of them, are given preference. CHAPTER 4 THE IN-SERVICE TRAINING PLAN The Need fo r In-Service Training Since the amalgamation of welfare services i n 1943 the generalized program of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch has expanded to improve province-wide coverage and to meet i n -creasing demands for s o c i a l services. During the decade 1943-1953 the number of s t a f f increased by 200$ to 240 and during th i s period the t o t a l turnover of s t a f f amounted to 59$.* Because of the constant short supply of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y q u a l i f i e d workers the Branch has conducted a continuing s t a f f t r a i n i n g plan to meet i t s personnel needs. That th i s plan i s a major aspect of s t a f f development carried on by the Branch i s apparent i n the most recent s t a f f report of Feb-ruary 28, 1954. Of the t o t a l s t a f f the In-Service trained comprise 34.6$, and of the s o c i a l workers i n the f i e l d (ex-clusive of supervisors) they represent 53.1$. This s i t u a t i o n i s not peculiar to this public welfare agency. Similar In-Service Training programs have been i n s t i t u t e d by a number of public welfare agencies i n Canada, the United States, and other countries to prepare employees for essential f i e l d p o sitions. On the l o c a l scene 1. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Health and Wel-fare, Public Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 1953. Queen's Pr i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , Table 1, p. 13. - 100 -i t i s estimated that the S o c i a l Welfare Branch i s r e c r u i t -ing a proportionate share of school graduates. The under-l y i n g problem of both s o c i a l agencies and schools of s o c i a l work Is not only the r e c r u i t i n g of s u f f i c i e n t numbers of suitable persons to meet the demand, but also making the profession s u f f i c i e n t l y rewarding so they w i l l remain. Several trends which affect the a v a i l a b i l i t y of school grad-uates to the S o c i a l Welfare Branch should be noted. F i r s t l y , a substantial proportion of students at the U.B.C. School come from outside the province, many of them subsidized by bursaries from public welfare agencies to which they are committed to return. Secondly, there i s a loss of graduates and experienced workers to positions outside of the province, more es p e c i a l l y to the United States. In t h i s background of a s t e a d i l y expanding estab-lishment and i n competition with other s o c i a l agencies and f i e l d s of work, the Branch has r e l i e d heavily upon i t s In-Service Training plan to cover i t s s t a f f shortages. Although i t had been anticipated the need for In-Service Training r e c r u i t s would diminish, the reverse s i t u a t i o n has occurred. During the past year this t r a i n i n g program has been inten-s i f i e d with 34 candidates i n f i v e groups completing the course including two from private agencies. 1 Coincident with the 1. Martha Moscrop, Training Supervisor, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, In-Service Training; A P a r t i a l Solution to the S o c i a l Worker Shortage, August, 1954, p. 9. (unpublished) - 101 -increase i n numbers of trainees the organization and content of the In-Service Training course, has been modified since September, 1953. The agency expects It w i l l need to continue this course for some years to come. The Purpose of In-Service Training In-service t r a i n i n g , which i s concerned with teach-ing and learning, d i f f e r s both i n purpose and approach from univer s i t y education. The goal of in-service t r a i n i n g i s preparation for a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n so that the work may be done most e f f e c t i v e l y . The content of this type of course i s based mainly upon the Intent, methods and experience of the one organization with general knowledge usually limited to dire c t a p p l i c a t i o n . The determination of adequate performance requires study as well i f the success of the t r a i n i n g plan i s to be assessed. Professional t r a i n i n g , on the other hand, aims at generalization of p r i n c i p l e s and methods i n the devel-opment of a basic d i s c i p l i n e . The s o c i a l work curriculum develops an understanding of the role of the s o c i a l services i n our s o c i a l order, the nature of human behavior, and a d i s c i p l i n e d approach to s o c i a l problems and interpersonal rela t i o n s h i p s . The university student learns the common s k i l l s u t i l i z e d i n the various areas of s o c i a l work—case-work, groupwork, community organization and research i n s o c i a l work. The In-Service t r a i n i n g plan i s e s s e n t i a l l y an - 102 -apprenticeship kind of learning, and i t s results depend main-l y upon the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the trainee and practice super-v i s o r and the teaching opportunities presented i n the d a i l y work. Although the formal i n - t r a i n i n g course including pract-ice work does not approximate professional t r a i n i n g i n a l l i t s phases, more p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to i n t e l l e c t u a l con-cepts, the promising trainee can make excellent progress i n acquiring and developing professional s k i l l s with the aid of a competent supervisor. Such progress w i l l continue for some time a f t e r the completion of the in-service t r a i n i n g course, and should have the effect of stimulating the worker to ac-quire the basic professional education/ Given the same learn-ing opportunities through provision of subsidized education-a l leave the pot e n t i a l performance of the i i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n -ing graduate should not be any less than that of the worker who obtains his s o c i a l work education prior to employment. H i s t o r i c a l Sketch The f i r s t objective of the Branch's In-Service Training course, when organized i n 194-3, was to integrate the experienced s t a f f transferred to the F i e l d Service from the former Unemployment R e l i e f and Old Age Pension Branches. This group presented a d i f f e r e n t educational problem than those subsequently recruited. At the outset equitable per-sonnel p o l i c i e s were ensured i n that C i v i l Service s e n i o r i t y was maintained with no loss of salary or job .security. This - 103 -group of men, who brought with them a wide experience and range of c a p a b i l i t i e s , had learned the "hard way," and many f e l t i n f e r i o r because of t h e i r lack of educational oppor-t u n i t i e s . Learning under the supervision of a young woman was i n i t i a l l y threatening to some, and i t required consider-able s k i l l to make them f e e l accepted as equals and to en-courage th e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the course discussions. Equally unfamiliar to this f i r s t group was the conscious use of casework methods, and the evaluation of t h e i r own work by these standards. In small groups of s i x to eight these ex-perienced s t a f f members were given a s i x weeks' course out-l i n i n g the agency's services, with a written examination at completion. The majority displayed both a b i l i t y and interest i n learning and s e l e c t i v e placements according to capacity were made. It was g r a t i f y i n g to the senior Branch o f f i c i a l s when these untrained personnel l a t e r requested they be r e -ferred to as " s o c i a l workers" instead of "members of the F i e l d S t a f f " as f i r s t c a l l e d . In the same year the f i r s t "apprenticeship c l a s s " composed of f i v e newly-appointed trainees completed a three-months' t r a i n i n g course. This period of time was considered the minimum necessary to e s t a b l i s h the s u i t a b i l i t y of candi-dates. The content of the course emphasized the "why" of p o l i c i e s and l e g i s l a t i o n , knowledge of community resources and relationships and orientation to the professional approach. The s i x weeks of lectures and discussions also i n -- 104 -eluded f i e l d t r i p s to various p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , hos-p i t a l s and other s o c i a l agencies. The practice period under supervision consisted of s i x weeks. Although i n i t i a l l y t r a i n -ees were given a subsistence allowance during the t r a i n i n g period this p o l i c y was l a t e r a ltered, and they were given the f u l l salary for the Grade 1 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . At least one In-Service t r a i n i n g class was held each year during the decade 1943-1953, and with experience a d e f i n i t e pattern emerged. Candidates were f i r s t placed i n th e i r f i e l d assignments for a period of two months or longer, and then came together for four weeks of lectures and d i s -cussions. To make for worthwhile group discussion and also to j u s t i f y the time given by the Training Supervisor and other Branch personnel who presented material i t was f e l t that the class should number at lea s t s i x . As developed p r i o r to 1953 the content of the four weeks' course was approximately divided into 40$ devoted to B.C.'s s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , pro-grams and agency procedures, 25$ to personality development and casework methods, 20$ to f i e l d t r i p s , and the balance dealing with s o c i a l services i n general, Branch organization, administration and personnel p o l i c i e s . The Training Super-vi s o r i n addition to arranging the a l l - o v e r planning and eval-uation was responsible for much of the teaching of profession-a l concepts. Many senior s t a f f members ahred i n the tr a i n i n g process-as presented i n 1952 a t o t a l of 22 p a r t i c i p a t e d . - 105 -Because of t h e i r p r i o r f i e l d placements students were more ready to p a r t i c i p a t e and integrate new knowledge with pract-i c a l experience. Mimeographed material given to each student included "The organization of S o c i a l Services i n Canada and B.C.,H "Outline of B.C.'s Welfare Programme," "Normality and Maturity," "Principles of S o c i a l Case Work," and a " L i s t of Required Reading." Following such an intensive course the interested worker r e a l i z e d that he had much to learn, and was encouraged to continue further study on his own. Under t h i s plan the i n i t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for orientation lay with the d i s t r i c t supervisor, who also aided the trainee to consol-idate new learning following completion of the course. After eleven years of experience with In-Service s t a f f the Branch has reached these conclusions: "The In-Service .trained 'Staff member, though conscientious, seldom acquires the knowledge and depth of understanding s o c i a l work practice necessitates. He can do only a li m i t e d job, f o r he has not, i n the time that can be given to t r a i n i n g him, gained a complete awareness of professional knowledge and method, l e t alone s k i l l i n u t i l i z i n g these basic components of professional p r a c t i c e . " 1 Selection of In-Service Training Candidates The success of the In-Service Training plan depends not only on the qu a l i t y of learning experiences provided, but 1 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Health & Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Draft of B r i e f to the C i v i l Service  Commission. Office of The Assistant Director of Welfare, February 1, 1954, p. 1. - 106 -upon the c a l i b r e of the i n d i v i d u a l trainees. The select-ion of candidates who have capacity to work constructively with people requires s k i l l e d judgment i f the people to be served are to receive r e a l help with t h e i r problems. In addition the agency also wishes to safeguard i t s invest-ment i n the trainee, and to avoid having this wasted. The interviewing of applicants for the In-Service Training course i s shared between several senior o f f i c i a l s , one of them the Training Supervisor, and the f i n a l screening and approval i s made by the Assistant Director of Welfare. The following factors are given considerations 1. Ages Preferrably between 25 and 35, although the usual C i v i l Service regulations with veterans' preference are c i t e d . 2. Healths A medical examination i s required as evidence of good physical health. 3. Educations A minimum of Junior Matric i s quoted i n the job description. In practice the standard has been considerably higher with a B.A. preferred. During the past year about 7% of candidates have been university graduates. Other means of evaluating i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity are u t i l i z e d such as previous occupational achievement and a b i l i t y to verbalize. 4. Personalitys The importance of personality factors i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work i s recognized, and are judged c a r e f u l l y . Qualities looked for are "character, maturity, - 107 -s o c i a l poise, warmth of personality, humour, and above a l l the nature of the desire to be of help to others. 1 In making an assessment of applicants' maturity the interviewer i s a l e r t to r i g i d i t y of attitudes and opin-ions, and evidences of neurotic patterns. This i s d i f f i c u l t to accomplish i n several interviews, and may not be uncover-ed u n t i l l a t e r i n the supervised practice work. The demon-strated desire and a b i l i t y to learn as d i s t i n c t from i n t e l l i -gence, i s e s s e n t i a l . Some thought has been given to the use of psychological testing as an aid i n s e l e c t i o n , but this step has not been followed. In the l a s t analysis i t l i e s within the competence of the q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l worker to make this kind of evaluation. To offset errors i n judging s u i t a -b i l i t y the accepted trainee i s told that the t r a i n i n g period i s a t e s t i n g period, and that he w i l l be evaluated at var-ious times. The trainee has an opportunity to read and d i s -cuss the evaluation outline, and knows i f he does not a t t a i n the standard expected, he w i l l be dropped. 5. Other Factors; With respect to sex, marital status, r e l i g i o n and national o r i g i n , the Branch aims to have a balanced representation. I f the applicant Is a married man with dependents, the matter of salary i s discussed early i n the i n i t i a l interview. A b i l i t y to drive a car i s required. Except i n s p e c i a l cases, applicants are 1. Martha Moscrop, op_. c i t . p. 2. - 108 -usually advised they may expect to be placed anywhere i n the province. Appendix E i s descriptive of "The I n i t i a l Applica-t i o n Interview for In-Service Trainees." Appendix P i s the C i v i l Service Commission Application Form, and a s i m i l a r form for use i n the S o c i a l Welfare Branch personnel f i l e . Factual information concerning the applicant's education, pr i o r employment, war service, dependents, and other personal data are covered. Three references, preferrably previous employers, are requested. There i s no special application form for In-Service Training applicants. Following the i n i t -i a l interview, the applicant who appears suitable i s given an application form to complete. Letters to references are written by the Assistant Director of Welfare, who outlines what q u a l i t i e s are needed for this p o s i t i o n , and requests reasons why the applicant i s believed to be f i t t e d for s o c i a l work. References have been found useful, on the whole, i n giving additional data concerning the applicant's r e l a t i o n -ships and general functioning. The Current In-Service Training Plan From time to time modifications i n the In-Service Training course have been made, and the current plan has been i n operation for only one year. This i s more comprehensive i n that i t covers a period of s i x months, divided into three parts: an orientation period of four weeks, a practice period - 109 -under supervision, of four months, and a concluding i n s t r u c t -i o n a l period of four weeks. This longer period makes i t possible to obtain a clearer understanding of the trainee's a b i l i t y , and relieves the D i s t r i c t Supervisors of the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r orientation. In the new plan the greater portion of the two months of formal course i s given to teaching of personality development and casework methods with use of case material from the f i e l d . In Part I of the In-Service Training Course, which i s the orientation period, the beginning trainees meet a l l day every day i n group sessions under the d i r e c t i o n of the Training Supervisor. The p r i n c i p a l teaching method used i s that of discussion to encourage the group to express t h e i r own thinking. Other methods used include the lecture type of presentation, assigned reading, and observation. During the f i r s t week the morning sessions are spent i n understanding the nature and causes of s o c i a l problems, s o c i a l security measures, and the s o c i a l welfare services i n B.C. including private agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Some of these agencies, such as the Western Society, Cancer I n s t i t u t e , and C.N.I.B. are v i s i t e d to obtain first-hand knowledge of t h e i r operation. In the second and t h i r d weeks the mornings are devoted to o u t l i n i n g p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , the administration of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, the municipal welfare depart-ments, and community resources. How these organizations are i n t e r - r e l a t e d i n function, and the making of r e f e r r a l s are - 110 -c l a r i f i e d . Considerable time is also given to work organiz-ation and procedures with the trainees instructed in the actual completion of some of the forms used. The use of the Policy Manual, which is referred to in case studies, is illustrated by class exercises to look up answers to questions posed. The trainees are taught how to read an Act, and the Social Assistance Act is studied in some detail. The use and handling of individual case records is also given some attention. The balance of the morning sessions cover such topics as public relations, professional ethics, inter-pro-fessional relationships, personnel practices and preparation for the projects the trainee w i l l complete for Part III of the course. A l l of the afternoon sessions of the orientation section are given to introduction of the group to profess-ional concepts and methods. As a basis for discussion train-ees are given mimeographed material in simplified and con-densed version on the subjects of "Normality and Maturity," and "Principles of Social Case Work." In the f i r s t period personality development and behaviour are presented from the standpoint of the "normal" and what deviations occur. The significance of family relationships in contributing to emotional growth is stressed. During the second period i l l -ustrative case records are discussed to show some of the di f f i c u l t i e s people present, and how these are handled. - I l l -These records serve toteach how interviews are used to help elients to t e l l what is troubling them, the worker1s assess-ment, and what he does to help. Because of this limited preparation the trainee realizes he is not ready to practice social casework, but w i l l need to learn under supervision in his f i e l d placement. Reading assignments include "Inter-viewing" by A. Garrett, "Common Human Needs," by C. Towle, and other references used are "Normality and Maturity," by M. Levine, "Common Neuroses of Children and Adults," by English and Pearson, "Social Case Work in Practice," by F. Hollis. At the end of the orientation period the Training Supervisor conducts an evaluation interview with each trainee, and a written evaluation is forwarded to the District Super-visor, who w i l l be responsible for supervising his practice work. During the four weeks i t is usually possible to judge the trainee's acceptance, intellectually at least, of pro-fessional ideas and some degree of his interest and suit-a b i l i t y for social work. The f i e l d placement, however, is considered to pro-vide the real test of ab i l i t y . Each trainee goes to a District (or Municipal) office to learn to be a social worker by doing i t , and he is assigned to a regular caseload, in some instances a specialized Old Age Assistance one. A few trainees have been also placed in the Boys' Industrial School. Once in the f i e l d there is no delay in case assignments as there is work requiring immediate attention. Upon study of - 112 -selected cases in which he uses his knowledge of how to read a record, how to search for policies, and how to assess the client's problem, the trainee is ready to discuss his assign-ments on the f i r s t day. As the placement is not a protected one, and he carries f u l l responsibility for his di s t r i c t the trainee needs much help at the onset in organizing his work, and in planning interviews. I n i t i a l anxiety can be minimized i f he feels reassured i t is a l l right to t e l l clients when he doesn't know the answer to some question. Organizing of a work time schedule at the beginning to allow for reading of records, regular supervision periods, and for interviewing clients at the office or home v i s i t s , dictation, and other office work, gives the trainee a feeling of security as well as making for the best use of his time. It is important also for the supervisor to be accessible outside of regular super-vision periods as the trainee w i l l need some additional help and emotional support. In so far as is possible, the super-visor selects from each case elements which the trainee i s capable of handling, beginning with the requests for a specific service. During this practice period the trainee selects and prepares a case record, and an essay on an assigned topic. These are of a general nature and require considerable background reading and study of case material. Some of the subjects selected are "The Meaning of Illness," "Social Casework Treatment of Family Problems," "In Quest of Foster Homes, " "Human Needs Met in Family Living," - 113 -"The Rehabilitation of the Handicapped," and "Special Needs of the Aged." The trainee is given a guide for developing his subject and reference material is provided. The case records and essays are mimeographed, and used in Part III of the course. At the completion of the four months in the f i e l d another evaluation is prepared by the supervisor, and forwarded to the Training Supervisor. In the second four weeks of group instruction that follow the teaching is shared with Branch administrative and supervisory personnel representative of the specialized fields which together make up the generalized services the trainee needs to understand. Using the material the trainees have prepared the discussion leaders from the Divisions and other specialists in the Branch meet with the group to enlarge on their respective programs. Professional theories and pract-ices with reference to individual cases arouses l i v e l y dis-cussion as the trainees now have had some experience of their own to draw upon. Further knowledge of social resources is added, and further examination of procedures and policies are included in addition to a few f i e l d trips. Daily evaluation sheets are completed with "comments," which contribute to the f i n a l summing up on the last day. Final evaluation interviews are conducted with each trainee at this point at which there is some planning of future educational steps. After complet-ion of two years* service the In-Service training graduate may request a Branch bursary, or financial aid from some other - 114 -source. A l l are encouraged to consider taking the f i r s t year of professional education. In a few instances, unsuitable trainees, four during the past year, may be asked to withdraw. Following successful completion of the six months1 course in In-Service graduate returns to his d i s t r i c t job to continue the learning he has started. Usually he returns to his previous placement, but this may be altered i f he shows a special interest or capability, or on the other hand, requires a longer probation period. On occasion, intermittent super-vision has been given because of other pressures on the super-visor, and i t is f e l t the trainee w i l l show progress in ano-ther placement in which adequate supervision can be offered. As previously indicated the In-Service trained worker is classified as Grade i , the starting salary of which is $218.00 or $27.00 less than the Grade 2. If the proposed new salary schedule is authorized there w i l l be a differential of $43.00 (slightly lower after the f i r s t year), and as a l l In-Service trained staff would be regraded to Grade 1 there w i l l be more incentive for them to obtain professional education. With respect to the kind of performance expected of the In-Service graduate, i t has been described as "limited. M The defining of minimum or acceptable standards of performance has not been spelled out for the Grade 1 worker or higher grades. Some question might be asked about the quality of work of the 12 In-Service graduates who did not merit Branch bursaries. - 115 -Reasons for Terminations During the period 194-3—February 1, 1952, a total of 59 In-Service trained staff were terminated for different reasons. Of these 30 were dropped as unsuitable, 8 were marr-ied women who resigned, five l e f t to take other positions in social work, three died, three retired, and ten l e f t for other reasons. From information available, the stated reasons i n -cluded leaving the country, remaining in the army, for a better paid job, transfers to other jobs in the Provincial C i v i l Service, and to enter or complete training in other pro-fessions. Of those considered unsuitable, a majority with£ drew of their own accord as they recognized they could not handle the work or, in a few instances, a health breakdown occurred. The average length of service of the 59 staff ter-minated was 2.04 years. The overall total of In Service trained staff in the service during this period was 130 making for a turnover of 45$. This is a somewhat lower rate than the 61$ derived from the 1953 annual report, Table I. By comparison the education background of the 59 staff members who l e f t was lower than that of the 71 In-Service trained in the service on February 1, 1952. Admittedly a partial solution to a serious problem the In-Service Training plan has made i t possible to keep public offices open, and to ensure that basic services are available. As this solution appears to be an increasingly necessary one for some years ahead i t becomes a l l the more - 116 -Important to support other means of promoting the professional development of s t a f f and to r e t a i n t h e i r services. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In B r i t i s h Colombia, as elsewhere, the preponder-ance of welfare services comes under public auspices. Despite the adoption by the S o c i a l Welfare Branch of pro-f e s s i o n a l philosophy and treatment goals there has always been too short a supply of q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l work personnel to f i l l the positions. In f a c t , the gap between the two has widened during the past two years. Today the generalized program of the F i e l d Service i s being carried out by personn-e l of whom s l i g h t l y over one-half do not have professional t r a i n i n g . In-Service trained personnel are able to provide f i n a n c i a l assistance and other environmental a i d , and to develop th e i r understanding of the use of r e l a t i o n s h i p and human behavior under good supervision. However, optimum f i e l d experience and personal aptitude does not compensate for the considerable t r a i n i n g and knowledge required to help individuals change i n attitude about themselves and others so as to manage th e i r own a f f a i r s . As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 2, p. 51A, the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of operational personnel vary greatly, and i t i s reasonable to assume a corresponding variance i n lev e l s of performance. With respect to the Grade 5's a l l of the d i s t r i c t supervisors now have at least one year of professional t r a i n i n g , some of them with a Diploma obtained p r i o r to 1945. Those with more recent s o c i a l work - 118 -education nave received improved preparation with the bene-f i t of newer experience. Services Required and Levels of Performance The dilemma faced by the Branch is that a large proportion of the services needed require professional s k i l l s , and under the generalized scheme of caseload assignment by geographical d i s t r i c t the possibility of separating out case-loads requiring the special s k i l l of a trained person, is quite restricted. In some of the population centres, of which there are a few, the Jobs requiring lesser degrees of competence, such as e l i g i b i l i t y for Old Age Assistance, have already been allocated to special caseloads. Another problem presented is to determine at what point caseloads are manage-able to permit of truly professional work. When the agency does not provide this opportunity, some professionally com-petent personnel may not be willing to accept these standards, and w i l l prefer to work elsewhere. While caseloads have been reduced, the most recent available figure for the generalized type being 158 on March 31, 1953, this is considerably in excess of the standard of 60-100 recommended by the American Public Welfare Association. In public welfare there has been a traditional reliance upon home v i s i t i n g , and i t may be feasible in some areas to increase the proportion of office interviews to make for greater eeonomy. The discriminating use of office interviews also means the client is accepting - 119 -some responsibility for his problem, and casework services are more l i k e l y to be helpful. The need for additional research on content of the job, capabilities of personnel and standards of service is being given attention by the Branch at the present time, and some material has been assembled and analyzed. The f i r s t report states the focus: "Our problem seems to be to determine the standard of service which we are capable of giving and to so define i t that we may aim at i t on a provincial basis."* Inherent in this question is examination of the range of client problems presented, and delineation of the competences required to meet them. Many public assistance clients, for example, do not need a therapeutic relationship, although the determination of such need does require professional s k i l l . The sorting out of cases requiring the attention of pro-fessionally trained caseworkers, and those which do not also has a bearing upon In-Service Training. In effect, there are at least two levels of competence or standards of service as indicated by client needs. The implication of such a separ-ation would be that two f i e l d workers would be available in any given lo c a l i t y . The geographical areas covered would not necessarily coincide. In deciding what should be a minimum as well as a desirable standard of performance the adminis-tration should have current knowledge of quality of service 1. Office of Assistant Director of Welfare, Preliminary Report on Job and Staff Analysis Study. July 5"» 1954, p. 1. - 120 -through continuous review of case material by qualified personnel. Because of staffing problems separation of case-loads in this manner would not appear feasible in areas of sparse population, but could be tried on an experimental basis in areas of relatively high concentration of popul-ation. Improvement of Personnel Standards The improvement of public welfare practice, on which public confidence and understanding is dependent, obviously has no ready or cheap solution. The personnel policies recently recommended by the Social Welfare Branch to the C i v i l Service Commission which guarantees the future appointment of well-equipped professional staff to super-visory vacancies is a progressive step. The same principle applies equally to administrative posts. For other positions as high a standard as actual conditions w i l l permit needs to be established. As applied to the position of Social Worker Grade 1, or applicant for the In-Service Training course, the educational qualification might well be raised to university graduation in view of the large number of applicants. If a sufficient number with this qualification is not obtained ways and means of recruiting those with the desired qualif-ications would merit action. - 121 -The Strengthening of District Staff There is awareness by the administration of super-vision as the central focus of i t s staff development program, and that the most far-reaching and permanent results are to be achieved by strengthening the supervisory staff. As indicated in Table 5> p. 6 3 A , the District Supervisors have an excessive volume of work placed upon them, and the maim emphasis of their supervision is upon administrative aspects as pointed up in Table 7 , p. 80A. While this function has to be carried out, i t would appear to be at the expense of teaching staff the professional content of the job. Several recommendations have been made by the Branch administration to the C i v i l Service Commission and Cabinet to improve this situation: 1. The setting up of the position of an assistant supervisor or "senior worker" to whom would be delegated some of the administrative responsibilities, and thus enable the supervisor to have greater opportunity for developing staff. The employee selected for this position would be considered to possess potential supervisory s k i l l , and might be given the supervision of one or more workers. This new position, i f established, would mean an increase in the total establishment. The grade for such a position, under the proposed new class-i f i c a t i o n appears to be Grade 3> but a more equitable basis would be to write in a new classification of ©rade 5 for supervisor, with the assistant supervisor assigned to Grade 4. - 122 -How many workers a District Supervisor can be expected to supervise would require study. Another consideration is the advantage in the supervisor's carrying a small number of cases in order to remain close to practice, and to continue the learning of casework. 2. The provision of planned training (In-Service training) for new supervisors. Some form of orientation appears desirable in addition to having the experience of the position outlined in 1, and the opportunity of attending the annual Supervisor's Institute. To arrange an extensive course for perhaps only one or two candidates would be costly. 3. The holding of annual institutes for supervisors. As experience has demonstrated this opportunity for consul-tation and studying cases in groups has been found of the utmost value. This kind of staff training is a l l the more important when there are limited opportunities for profess-ional consultation. 4. "That leaves with pay for study at a University School of Social Work be renewed." This policy was establish-ed in 1949, but has been l i t t l e used. A majority of the District Supervisors are not f u l l y qualified, and some have not had the benefit of professional study, either the f u l l university year or refresher courses, for some years. Further planning to decide how many supervisors could be granted leave of absence each year, and the costs of this educational subsidy is necessary. The suggested new position of assistant - 123 -to the District Supervisor w i l l make i t easier to grant such educational leaves. While Supervisors who have asked for educational leave have been granted this opportunity, they should be further encouraged with financial aid in selected cases, to obtain their f u l l qualifications or to take re-fresher courses to keep abreast of current practice. Potent-i a l supervisors should also be given consideration under this plan. The In-Service Training Plan With respect to bursaries for In-Service trainees there w i l l be a greater need for these within the next few years in view of the increased numbers currently employed, and the anticipated recruitment in the foreseeable future. In relation to the 35 In-Service trainees employed during the past year the average of three bursaries per year already awarded is insufficient i f the services required are to be efficiently administered. Somewhere between 10 and 15 bur-saries per year might be adequate. If the objective is not only to keep d i s t r i c t offices open, but to staff them with personnel capable of offering professional service the Branch must assume greater financial responsibility for their equip-ment. A closer follow-up of the progress of bursary students at the social work school by means of mid-term reports would further safeguard the expenditure of bursary monies. The amount of the bursary awarded, $600.00 to staff, without dependents, and $1,200.00 to those with dependents, is not very generous, and is insufficient to cover the costs of the - 124 -students' fees and living expenses for the eight months at sehool. It is recommended that the amount of the bursary be increased to $1,000.00 and $1,500.00 for the respective categories. The present proviso that the worker return to the agency for a period of two years employment, or refund the bursary, should be retained. Such an investment would contribute much towards raising standards, and making the Field Service a worthwhile career. The current In-Service Training plan, which should not be considered a miniature social work school, devotes approximately one-half of its content to a condensed expos-it i o n of theories of human behavior and growth and profess-ional concepts. For those students who have already com-pleted psychology courses in their undergraduate university education, such material on human hehavior may be too elem-entary and for those who have not had such education, i t may be too d i f f i c u l t to absorb in such short order. By adhering to a uniform educational standard, university graduation, i t would be easier to find a common level at which to pitch this material. Some consideration might be given to greater use of District Supervisors in presenting case records ill u s t r a t i v e of the integration of theory, policy and practice from their current experience. Relative to the selection of In-Service candidates and to reduce the margin of error, and to improve selection methods, i t is suggested that a Selection Committee comparable - 125 -to the set-up of the Bursary Committee be established. In that the U.B.C. School of Social Work has had similar ex-perience in the selection of candidates a representative from the School who would act in an advisory capacity would prove a helpful addition. The weighting of the various c r i t e r i a and how these are judged requires more careful study. Administrative Responsibility for the Staff Development Program In an agency of the size of the Social Welfare Branch, the numbers of social work staff, now circa 250, the scope of i t s services, and in view of present service stan-dards, i t is administratively sound to allocate to one o f f i c -i a l the Training Supervisor, the direction of a l l staff development ac t i v i t i e s . These include not omly the In-Service training program for staff without professional education, but the planning and co-ordination of institutes for other groups of staff, to prepare or supervise the preparation of the material to be used for staff development, to recommend methods of using material for training purposes, and to con-duct orientation courses for new staff members. To carry out this responsibility the Training Supervisor would need to attend selected f i e l d meetings, certainly some of the District Supervisors' meetings, and the annual Regional Staff meetings, and would need also to see workers' and supervisors' evalua-tions in order to assess their educational needs. The Train-ing Supervisor also is a member of the Committee on education-a l leaves (Bursary Committee). - 126 -Under the present arrangement of the sharing of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between the Assistant Director of Welfare and the Training Supervisor, the co-ordinated planning and exec-ution of a c l e a r l y defined s t a f f development program i s weakened i n that neither o f f i c i a l can cover the whole area of t h i s function, and there are gaps i n between. The Assistant Director of Welfare, who carries the o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for personal management and operation of f i e l d o f f i c e s as well as being deputy to the Director of Welfare, cannot give s u f f i c i e n t attention to a l l the aspects of s t a f f development. S i m i l a r l y , the Training Supervisor now finds the In-Service Training program alone, which i s only one part of the Branch 1s s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s , has now become a f u l l - t i m e occupation. In consequence, no one person has been able to give s u f f i c i e n t thought to po l i c y formulation and supervision of this program as a whole. With the expansion of the t o t a l operations of the Branch to three times i t s s i z e i n 194-3, these two o f f i c i a l s simply cannot cover the same ground as i n 194-3. For t h i s reason the function of personnel manage-ment also would be more e f f i c i e n t l y handled i f delegated to another o f f i c i a l , preferably one trained or experienced i n this s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . This would free the Assistant Director to give more consideration to questions of p o l i c y and stan-dards, and to maintain closer l i a i s o n with the t o t a l oper-tions throughout the province as well as that of the i n d i v i d -ual Divisions. - 127 -By allocating the administrative responsibility for a l l training or staff development activities to the Division of Training i t should be possible to formulate policy in more specific fashion, and to ensure a more e f f i c -ient operation. Heretofore, the Training Supervisor has been unable to attend District Supervisors' or Regional staff meetings, or the occasional d i s t r i c t office staff meeting, or to give sufficient time to preparation of material for staff development purposes. As she does not see the eval-uations she does not know definitely the progress of In-Service trainees after completion of the course, or for other f i e l d staff. For the effective planning and execution of a l l staff development a c t i v i t i e s , the services of a f u l l -time assistant in the Training Division would be required. The matter of a budget for staff development should be anal-yzed and broken down into i t s separate parts rather than covered up as "Incidentals and Exigencies." In acknowledg-ment of the essential nature of the staff development pro-gram a separate budget and vote would seem in order. In-cluded in this would be more adequate provision for atten-dance at outside conferences and institutes. With the additional help of a full-time assistant in the Training Div-ision, i t should be possible to enlist the participation of a larger number of staff in the total program. Another organizational aspect to do indirectly with staff development, that of the system of Field Consultants, - 128 -is under review. This plan has broken down, partly because of staff leaving, and for other reasons. The Field Con-sultants were able to keep the Division heads and the admin-istration informed as to the progress of District Super-visors and of the quality of work being carried on in the f i e l d . The current study on "Job and Staff Analysis" has been partly the work of the one remaining Field Consultant, who has since resigned. In the interim some limited consul-tative services to the f i e l d might be arranged by personnel from the Divisional offices. One important function, that of preparing evaluations of the District Supervisors, should be allocated, and i t would seem logical in the absence of any Field Consultants, that this be carried out by the Regional Administrators. Relative to attracting the services of skilled, experienced caseworkers, i t is recommended that considerat-ion be given to classifying them as Grade 4, or Grade 5 as outlined on page 121. In other words, equal weighting should be given to skilled practice in each specialization, casework or supervision so that recognition of s k i l l by means of promotion (and classification) w i l l not be contin-gent upon change of specialization. To stabilize the work of the Social Welfare Branch and to give a sense of achievement to the staff, the admin-istrative and social work staff as well, w i l l need to persist - 129 -i n their efforts to gain acceptance of the revised c l a s s i -fication plan and more remunerative salary schedule. This step, combined with improved opportunities on the job for professional growth and accomplishment, w i l l contribute to better welfare services to the people of B r i t i s h Columbia. APPENDIX A - 130 -DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND WELFARE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH FIELD SERVICE Parliament Buildings Victoria, B.C. January 4th, 1 9 5 2 . Dear Attached is a questionnaire on Supervision which is part of a thesis study on a STAFF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. The thesis is being written by Mrs. Claire Vecic (nee St. John), who at one time was a member of our Field Staff, and more recently has been a Supervisor in the Vancouver C.S.S.D. We a l l agree that the information requested w i l l be helpful not only to Mrs. Vecic in completing her thesis, but also to our Branch. Will you please give this matter your early attention and complete as many of the questions as possible. It would be very easy to answer some of the questions in accordance with what you would like to do, rather than what you are actually able to do, so please make sure that the information given is factual, otherwise i t w i l l be of no use whatever. Part of the questionnaire deals with supervisory procedures within the setting of our District Organization. Part II is an analysis of time expended upon the various jobs the District Supervisor is expected to carry on, and other jobs which, for a number of reasons, he has been assuming. For the answers to Part II to have any validity i t is believed that the time study should cover a period of at least one month. It is recognized that completing this w i l l add to an already well f i l l e d day; however i t is fe l t that a better understanding of what you are doing w i l l assist in Branch planning, and w i l l therefore be of con-siderable help to a l l concerned. Would you kindly return your completed forms to my office by February 1 1 t h , 1 9 5 2 . Yours truly, AL/MC Encl. Amy Leigh, Assistant Director of Welfare MONTHLY DISTRIBUTION OF SUPERVISOR'S TIME  BY TYPE OF WORK PERFORMED J A N U A R Y - 1 9 5 2  Working Days , 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 Total 1. Reading case records - i.e. current work 2. Mail Reading 3. Scheduled conferences with workers 4. Occasional conferences with workers 5. Reviewing case loads 6. Supervision of office routine, e.g. cars 7. Telephone calls 8. Staff Meetings 9. Clerical - i.e. signing vouchers, s t a t i s t i c s 10. Community relations 11. Travelling Workers' cases 12. Interviews with clients, Supervisors' cases 13. Professional reading 14. Miscellaneous a 15. Total Duty 16. Total overtime N.B. Express time in hours & minutes a Please itemize - 132 -ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION PROCEDURES No. of Yes. No. workers Are supervisory conferences scheduled on basis of: (a) regular weekly period (b) regular weekly period available i f so does worker use 1) More than one-half of periods 2) Less than one-half of periods (c) Arranged as convenient If so do periods average 1) One per week 2) Less than one per week but more than one per month 3) One per month or less fre-quent Does "on the spot" supervision outside of regular periods: (a) take more time than regular periods (b) Take less time than regular periods Yes No Are supervisory records or notes kept: (a) For a l l workers (b) For more than one-half of workers (c) For less than one-half of workers (d) For no workers Does preparation for supervision periods allow for: (a) Prior review by the supervisor of material presented by the worker 1) In a l l cases 2) In more than one-half of cases 3) In less than one-half of cases 4) Infrequently 5) In no case (b) Prior review by the worker of material presented by the supervisor 1) In a l l cases 2) In more than one-half of cases 3) In less than one-half of cases 4) Infrequently 5) In no case - 133 -No of Yes No Workers 5. Are workers* recordings seen by the supervisor: (a) In a l l cases (b) In a l l new cases (c) ) In cases where administrative decisions are pending (d) In cases selected by the worker (e) In cases selected by the supervisor 6. How often does the supervisor review Yes No individual case loads: (a) Once a quarter (b) Semi-annually (c) Annually (d) At other intervals (specify) 7. Given adequate time how often should case loads be reviewed: (a) Once a quarter (b) Semi-Annually (c) Annually (d) After other intervals (specify) 8. Individual case loads are reviewed by reading: (a) A l l f i l e s in the case load (b) More than 75$ of f i l e s in the case load (c) More than 50$ but less than 75% of f i l e s (d) More than 25% but less than 50% of f i l e s (e) 2% or less of f i l e s in the case load 9. Where sampling is done this is according to: (a) Category (b) Random (c) Number (e.g. every 2nd^file) (d) Other method (specify)f 10. How often do staff meetings take place: (a) Once a week (b) Once a month (c) As convenient averaging once a month or more often (d) At other intervals (specify) 11. In planning for staff meetings: (a) The supervisor takes f u l l responsibility (b) Individual staff members take less than 50$ responsibility (c) Individual staff members take more than 50$ responsibility (d) but not a l l A staff program committee takes f u l l responsibility . - 134 -12. Content of staff meetings during preceding six months: Major Proportion- Less Than Negligible Part a l l y equal Equal Case presentations  Administrative communications _____________ E l i g i b i l i t y policies _ , Client needs ___________ Standards of a s s i s t a n c e _ — Use of community rftsonrflea — Other policies of SWB _________________ • Other material (specify)  13. Is professional literature available from SWB sources adequate for your needs? What are the gaps? A P P E N D I X B - 135 -GROUP "PR" - PROFESSIONAL Class 12 - Sociological and Psychological SOCIAL WORKER, GRADE 1 PR 12-10 Characteristics of Position; Under immediate direction to interview persons entitled to the services of the Social Welfare Branch as authorized by the Acts and Regulations; to counsel and assist individuals in making the best uses of their own resources and those of the community; to submit compre-hensive case reports with recommendations to appropriate o f f i c i a l s ; to perform related duties as required. Qualifications Required: 1. Education and Specialized Knowledge Junior Matriculation or equivalent, preferably senior matriculation; satisfactory completion of the in-service training course; a working knowledge of a l l Acts and Regulations pertaining to the work of the Branch 2. Experience Some experience in a related f i e l d ; preferably between the ages of 23 and 35 in the case of females, and between the ages of 23 and 40 in the case of males. 3. Specialized Abilities and S k i l l s Tact, sound judgment; a b i l i t y to maintain an objective interest in people and a demonstrated or potential a b i l i t y to work with them; a b i l i t y to withstand the taking of long trips by various modes of transportation and on foot; a b i l i t y to interpret the Acts and Regulations to the general public. GROUP "PR" - PROFESSIONAL Class 12 - Sociological and Psychological SOCIAL WORKER. GRADE 2 PR 12-11 Characteristics of Position; Under direction, to interview persons entitled to the services of the Social Welfare Branch as authorized by the Acts and Regulations; to counsel and assist individuals in making the best uses of their own resources and those of the community; to submit comprehensive case reports with recommendations to appropriate o f f i c i a l s ; to perform related duties as required. Qualifications Required; 1. Education and Specialized Knowledge A Bachelor of Social Work degree or completion of a special student course in Social Work at a University of recognized standing; a knowledge of a l l Acts and Regulations pertaining to the work of the Branch. 2 . Experience In l i e u of a Bachelor of Social Work degree or completion of the special student course at a University of recognized standing, a minimum of three years' experience in work related to the duties to be performed; preferably between the ages of 23 and 3 5 . 3 . Specialized A b i l i t i e s and S k i l l s Tact; sound judgment; a b i l i t y to maintain an object-ive interest in people and a demonstrated a b i l i t y to work with them; a b i l i t y to withstand the taking of long trips by various modes of transportation and on foot; a b i l i t y to interpret the Acts and Regulations to the general public. - 137 -GROUP "PR" - PROFESSIONAL Class 12 - Sociological and Psychological SOCIAL WORKER, GRADE 3 PR 12-22 Characteristics of Position; Under the direction of a psychiatrist and case work supervisor to work in a mental hygiene c l i n i c or hospital as a case worker within a department of social work; to plan the handling of a case load of a maximum of 80 cases involving case work services to patients on the ward or relatives of patients and patients on probation follovring hospital treat-ment; to bring the patients on probation case work services of a rehabilitative nature; to obtain information from patients undergoing psychiatric examination and treatment, of the intimate details of their family and personal histories and the domestic, economic, social and occupational conditions of their environment, through interviews with relatives and patients, friends and professional associates, and through references to sources of public information; to analyze and submit data to the psychiatrist; to assist in arriving at a definite diagnosis and in outlining a course of treatment; to keep current records of patients in the hospital or c l i n i c as assigned; to provide instruction and interpretation re-garding social services and social case work to other hospital or c l i n i c personnel; to undertake and plan adminis-tration of the social service department through participat-ion in staff meetings and staff planning sessions and assume administrative responsibilities at the case worker level; to undertake community education along the lines of mental health. or Under direction to supervise a l l activities of a cottage unit having approximately 1 5 children In a treatment centre; to carry out a treatment plan for each child; to help meet their emotional, mental and physical needs; to keep adequate records of progress for every case; to counsel the children in day to day problems approximating as required the role of father or mother person in the family. Qualifications Required: 1. Education and Specialized Knowledge -(Psychiatry) Master's Degree with a major in psychiatric social work from a school approved for graduate psychiatric social work training; or - 138 -Master's degree from an approved graduate school of social work, with a major in social case work, and one year of successful, full-time employment in an approved psychiatric c l i n i c or hospital under the supervision of a qualified psy-chiatric social worker. 1. Education and Specialized Knowledge - (Child Counsellor) Preferably a Bachelor or Master's degree in Social Work from a University of recognized standing. 2. Experience - (Psychiatry) Preferably some f i e l d experience in addition to that gained during training. 2. Experience - (Child Counsellor) Experience qualifications vary according to degree of formal training. Persons holding a Master's degree require no agency experience; persons holding a bachelor's degree require two years' experience in related work; persons with no formal training require at least four years' experience in related work. 3. Specialized Abilities and S k i l l s - (Psychiatry) Abi l i t y to work with people; good judgment, tact and resourcefulness in meeting day to day problems and s i t -uations; a b i l i t y to express self tactfully, clearly and con-cisely both verbally and in writing. 3. Specialized Ab i l i t i e s and Sk i l l s - (Child Counsellor) Must have a good understanding of the dynamics of child behaviour and a sympathy toward differential treatment; must have the ab i l i t y to maintain an objective interest in, and to work with children. GROUP "PR" - PROFESSIONAL  Class 12 - Sociological and Psychological SOCIAL WORKER. GRADE 4 PR - 12-23 Characteristics of Position; Under the direction of a psychiatrist and case work supervisor to work in a mental hygiene c l i n i c or hospital as a case worker within a department of social work; to plan the handling of a case load of a maximum of 80 cases involving case work services to patients on the ward or relatives of patients and patients on probation following hospital treat-ment; to bring to patients on probation case work services of a rehabilitative nature; to obtain information from patients undergoing psychiatric examination and treatment, of the intimate details of their family and personal histories and the domestic, economic, social and occupational conditions of their environment, through interviews with relatives and patients, friends and professional associates, and through references to sources of public information; to analyze and submit data to the psychiatrist; to assist in arriving at a definite diagnosis and in outlining a course of treatment; to keep current records of patients in the hospital or c l i n i c as assigned; to provide instruction and interpretation re-garding social services and social case work to other hospital or c l i n i c personnel; to undertake and plan administration of the social service department through participation in staff meetings and staff planning sessions and assume administrat-ive responsibilities at the case worker level; to undertake community education along the lines of mental health. or Under direction to review the reports of the f i e l d staff covering a particular phase of the Child Welfare pro-gramme; to give advice and guidance for the purpose of achieving greater effectiveness and uniformity of work. Qualifications Required: 1. Education and Specialized Knowledge - (Psychiatry) Master's Degree with a major in psychiatric social work from a school approved for graduate psychiatric social work training. or - 140 -Master1 s degree from an approved graduate school of social work, with a major in social case work, and one year of successful, full-time employment in an approved psychiatric c l i n i c or hospital under the supervision of a qualified psy-chiatric social worker. 1. Education and Specialized Knowledge - (Child Welfare) Preferably a Social Work diploma or degree of Bachelor of Social Work from a University of recognized stand-ing; a knowledge of the Acts and Regulations pertaining to Child Welfare. 2. Experience - (Psychiatry) At least one year f i e l d experience in addition to that gained during training. 2. Experience - (Child Welfare) Three years' experience in work related to the duties to be performed. 3. Specialized Abilities and S k i l l s -Ability to work with people; good judgment, tact, and resourcefulness in meeting day to day problems and situations; a b i l i t y to express self tactfully, clearly and concisely both verbally and in writing. - 141 -GROUP "PR" - PROFESSIONAL  Class 12 - Sociological and Psychological SOCIAL WORKER. GRADE 5 PR 12-24 Characteristics of Position: Under direction, to supervise and direct the work of Social Workers who may be staff members, university students, in-service training students, or students from related fields of work, for the purpose of achieving greater effectiveness and uniformity in the service given to the public and eval-uating the a b i l i t y of Individual Social Workers and trainees. or To assist the Director of Treatment at the Boys' Industrial School in the direction of the diagnostic and classification services with the institution; to assist with the development of the recreational, group work, staff training, religious, vocational, educational, pre-release, intensive treatment, and individual and group therapy programmes; to assist with formulation of recommendations on admission and discharge of boys in need of guidance; to perform related duties as required. Qualifications Required: 1. Education and Specialized Knowledge -Preferably a Social Work diploma or degree of Bachelor of Social Work from a University of recognized standing; a working knowledge of a l l Acts and Regulations pertaining to the work of the Branch. 2. Experience Five years' experience in work related to the duties to be performed. 3. Specialized Abilities and S k i l l s Tact; sound judgment; a b i l i t y to maintain an object-ive interest in people and a demonstrated or potential a b i l i t y to work with them; abil i t y to withstand the taking of long trips by various modes of transportation and on foot; a b i l i t y to interpret the Acts and Regulations to the general public; a b i l i t y to supervise a small staff of professional social workers and trainees. Social Worker, Grade 1 Social Worker Grade 2 Social Worker Grade 3 Social Worker Grade 4 Social Worker Grade 5 - 142 -APPENDIX C PRESENT SALARY SCHEDULE 2nd 3rd 4th 225 233 239 255 266 276 271 281 292 292 303 315 315 327 339 1st 218 245 260 281 303 APPENDIX D PROFESSIONAL EVALUATION GUIDE District Office: Date: Supervisor: Date of Last Evaluation: Social Worker's Name: Date of Placement (in present post): A. Administrative Ability: 1. Experience and training (particularly in f i r s t evaluations). 2. Description of case load and local setting. 3 . Knowledge and handling of legislative aspects. 4. Work habits: organization of job, coverage of case load, selectivity and focus, application of Office Manual, ceapacity for steady flow of work, adjustment to pressures and emergencies. 5. Knowledge of community resources. B. Professional Practice: 1. Knowledge and understanding of human behaviour, and social forces - degree of intellectual curiosity - the interest and type of questioning by the worker, and retention and application of learning in growing situation. 2. Method: Interviewing s k i l l s such as planning, timing, direction, focusing, and concluding. Understand-ing of the necessity of securing, and the a b i l i t y to obtain and confirm, necessary factual data, s t a t i s t i c a l and social, for study and diagnosis and of the developing of relationship in this area. 3 . Integration of administrative knowledge and case handling, a b i l i t y to interpret the scope of the services and the client's responsibilities to the agency. 4. Understanding of recording as sc i e n t i f i c data; prepar-ation, quality and promptness. 5. Referrals, within agency or without. Proper channelling and preparation of client and agency. 6. Relationships; With client - courtesy and respect - warmth and under-standing - professional assurance, resulting in a relationship that is meaningful, helpful for clients' maximum benefit, and meets his unique needs. - 144 -With Supervisor - acceptance of supervisory role, a b i l i t y to share thinking, accept criticism and use this constructively, problems which derive from personal qualities such as resistance to authority, too great dependence, etc. With Community - agencies, schools, Public Health, other professions and community organizations. With Department as a whole - other staff members, a b i l i t y to share and contribute, acceptance of agency limits and capacity to work pro-ductively therein. d. Summary of Professional Development; 1. Supervisor's opinion of worker's adequacy in terms of job performance, productivity, helpfulness, and professional growth. Assessment of the worker's present development in relation to his training, experience and personal suitability; his potential for further growth and i n -creased responsibility. 2. Worker's own awareness of where he i s . 3 . Special interests or capabilities: areas in whfch he needs further development. N.B. Evaluation to be fu l l y discussed with worker before i t is written by the supervisor, the worker reading the written evaluation i f he so desires, and being free to add his own comments i f he wishes to amplify or disagree with comments made. APPENDIX E - 145 -The I n i t i a l Application Interview  For In-Service Trainees Depending upon the applicant, the i n i t i a l interview takes never less than forty minutes and i f obviously the candidate is pro-mising then more than one hour is invariably spent. The following points are covered f u l l y in this time: 1. The applicant is encouraged to start the interview by discussing why he is interested in social work. This leads to his being queried about how much he knows about the work in-volved and why he thinks he could do i t successfully. It has usually been found that the more promising applicants have thought seriously for some time about social work, and have cultivated an interest in following news stories, editorials, etc., which have social work implications. At times the applicant has to be helped to talk about his interest, and often, in this interview, he learns about the nature of the work for the f i r s t time, and begins to think about his own sui t a b i l i t y to do this work for the f i r s t time. His respon-ses to such interpretation form part of the recorded appraisal. During this part of the interview he is queried about his present work, and success in i t . 2. The qualifications such as education, age, and healtha are then ascertained. Where these cannot be met, the reasons for this are carefully explained and the interview moves toward a conclusion. This cannot be abruptly done, however, and where justified alternative avenues are explored, with en-couragement given to make up educational deficiencies, to take part in volunteer work, and so on. Though a door has to be shut, i t must be shut gently and with consideration for the natural disappointment the person feels. 3 . Where qualifications meet basic requirements, the work of the Branch is discussed in some det a i l . Opportunities are made for the applicant to comment on or question this ex-planation, the nature of these comments indicating his com-prehension. Case illustrations are often given. Throughout, great emphasis is placed on the professional knowledge re-quired of the staff, and the necessity for continuous learning on the job is stressed. Supervision is explained in relation to this point. The applicant is asked i f he is prepared to go anywhere he may be needed in the Province, and the rural aspects of the work and rural liv i n g conditions are explained. 4. This leads to an explanation of the In-Service Training Scheme. The policy of employing professionally trained staff - 146 -is outlined, and the expectation the Branch has of the In-Service trained staff taking professional training is ex-plained. This usually leads to a discussion of the di f f e r -ence between the two, the applicant's acceptance of this being a further indication of his attitude toward and compre-hension of a professional career. At this point, too, the matter of obtaining professional training before seeking employment is discussed. The t r i a l nature of the In-Service Training period is also covered here and the nature of evaluations is discuss-ed. This a l l serves to impress upon the applicant the fact that he must be prepared to put a l l he has into learning. 5 . Terms of employment: Salary, hours of work, holidays, superannuation, etc., are usually discussed last, except in the case of young married men with families, who are early on in the interview asked to consider what relatively low salaries, moving about, and the limited opportunities they may have for advancement w i l l mean to them and their families. The a b i l i t y to drive a car must be established at this time also. Depending upon a positive appraisal of the qual-it i e s outlined above, the applicant is given an application form. He is told that i t w i l l be kept in an active f i l e , and i f and when a position he might be able to f i l l becomes vacant, he w i l l be interviewed again by Mrl Sadler. No absolute assurance of employment is ever given at this time. However, when staff needs are great, the applicant may be encouraged to submit his application quickly, though he is urged to think over carefully a l l that was said in the interview. When the appraisal is negative in certain important respects, and positive in others, these opposing factors are weighed carefully and recorded. The recommendation made regarding s u i t a b i l i t y for employment is usually qualified in these instances, and the need for a careful review of the negative aspects in the next interview is stated. When these are apparent during the i n i t i a l interview, they are discussed at that time also. 6 . Various qualities of the applicant are observed: natural-ness and ease of manner, mannerisms, a b i l i t y to express him-self, selection of words, grammatical shortcomings i f any, general appearance, dress and grooming; degree of apparent maturity and of sophistication; v i t a l i t y or lack of i t . 1 9 5 3 - 3 6 D E P A R T M E N T O F H E A L T H A N D W E L F A R E SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, VICTORIA, B . C . Date. Miss Name in full Mrs Mr. (Surname.) Address.. Next of kin and address Length of residence in British Columbia Birthdate Nationality Homeowner EDUCATION Where Educated Date of Entry Date of Leaving Subjects Specialized In Degree or Diploma Rlernentary High school Business college . . Technical school N ight-school Private school X University Postgraduate course ... -(Show most recent employment at top, working back, show dates for any period of unemployment, with reasons.) PRIOR EMPLOYMENT Address Period of Employment with Dates Duties (Christian name.) !Residence-Business Religion. Birthplace.. Date naturalized-Marital status-WAR SERVICE Date of enlistment Date of discharge. Branch Period served overseas.. DEPENDENTS (If married show occupational status of husband.) IF APPLYING FOR SOCIAL WORK POSITION Have you a driver's licence? State driving experience Are you willing to serve anywhere in British Columbia?— If not, state reason : State locality preferred : State reason for preference IF APPLYING FOR STENOGRAPHIC POSITION Words per minute: Shorthand Typing REFERENCES Name, address, and occupation (preferably former employers). 1 2 _ 3 Date available for employment Form 299—1M-U51-9920 (Signature.) THE GOVERNMENT-OF THE PROVINCE OF BfUTtSH COLUMBIA CIVIL SERVICE Test Scores: Employment Test (Form Clerical Aptitude Test Stenography (w.p.m.) Typing (w.p.m.) FOR USE ONLY BY CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION Remarks: Draughting Aptitude Form Board Mathematics Other APPLICATION FORM A L L items on this form to be completed in handwriting of applicant. Items not applicable to be marked " N.A." Application to be signed and forwarded to the Chairman, Civil Service Commission, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. This application is valid for a period of one year. Temporary or permanent Position applied for Name in full (PRINT IN BLOCK LETTERS). (Surname.) Present address (Christian names.) Telephone No Permanent address.. Are you a British subject?-Length of residence in Canada. (If naturalized, give place and date of naturalization.) .In British Columbia Place of birth Age- Date of birth- Sex (Proof of age required upon appointment.) (Day.) (Month.) (Year.) Other dependents and their relationship to you Have you any disability? Explain. Marital status (Male or female.) (Single, married, widow(er), divorced, separated.) . Have you ever had any serious illness? Give particulars —: Height Jt in. Weight lb. Are you now employed.by the Government of British Columbia? In what position? Since what date?— Were you ever previously employed by this Government? Give details and your reason for leaving Are you willing to serve anywhere in British Columbia? State localities preferred EDUCATION.—List the schools, colleges, or universities you have attended with the dates. Mention any subject or courses in which you have specialized, any technical or apprentice training you have received, the degrees or diplomas obtained, and your age on finally leaving. Institution Place Date of Entry Date of Leaving Subjects specialized in Degree or Diploma, or Grade completed Age on Leaving Any further Information Elementary school High school Business college Technical school Night school Private study or cor-respondence courses . University ?orm C.S.C. 7—25M-651-6S13 (OVER) If a member of a professional association, give details List any special skills you may possess and certificates held (such as radio operating, comptometer operating; technical, scientific, or professional devices, etc.) If trained in stenography: Words per minute in typing — In shorthand RECORD OF EMPLOYMENT.—State particulars of your previous employment, starting with your last position and working back to the first position you held. If more space is required use a separate sheet, sign it and attach it to this form. EMPLOYER Type of Business Started (Month and Year) Left (Month and Year) Your Duties SALARY Reason for Leaving Name Address Start | Final — ~ State briefly how your experience has prepared you for the position for which you are applying Which of the above employers would you like to supply references as to your ability? If accepted for employment how soon could you report for duty? WAR SERVICE. Date of enlistment Unit. Identification No Rank on enlistment Theatre of service Duties (mention any trade proficiency or other qualifications attained) Date of discharge Rank on discharge : Have you any disability? If so, give particulars CHARACTER.—Give the names, addresses, and occupations of three persons (not relatives) well known in your community who would supply testimonials as to your character. Name. Address. Occupation. 3 The above answers are certified to be in my own handwriting, and to the best of my knowledge are correct. (Date)^^^——m—^^^^^m^amg^^^ima(Signature oj applicant)m^^t^mamm^^^^mnmmmmmm^^^^^^mm^^^^ - 148 -BIBLIOGRAPHY General References Books American Association of Social Workers, Standards For The  Professional Practice of Social Work. A.A.S.W., New York, 1951. Canada, Department of National Health and Welfare, Survey  of Welfare Position Report Research Division, Ottawa, Ap r i l , 1954. Canadian Welfare Council, Welfare in Canada. 1953, C.W.C. Ottawa, 1953. Cassidy, H.M., Public Health and Welfare Organization in  Canada, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1945 De Schweinitz, Karl, People and Process in Social Security American Council on Education, Washington, D.C. 1948. Garrett, Annette, Learning, Through Supervision. Smith College Studies in Social Work, vol. XXIV, No. 2, North Lampton, Mass., February, 1954. Hollis, Ernest V. and Taylor, Alice L., Social Work Education  in The United States. Columbia University Press, New York, 1951. Proceedings of the Workshop on Social Work Education. April 2-3, 1954, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Reynolds, Bertha C , Learning and Teaching In the Practice of  Social Work, Rinehard & Company, New York, 1942 Trecker, Harleigh, Glick, Frank Z. and Kidneigh, John C , Education For Social Work Administration, American Assoc-iation of Social Workers, New York, 1952. United States, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Bureau of Public Assistance and Children's Bureau Public Social Welfare Personnel. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C, 1953. - 149 -Articles Altmeyer, Arthur J., "Issues Facing Social Welfare To-day" Social Work Journal. January, 1 9 5 2 , American Association of Social Workers, New York. Babcock, Charlotte C. "Helping The Social Worker To Live With Present-Day Realities: Social Work As Work," Paper presented at National Conference of Social Work. Cleveland, Ohio, June 3 , 1 9 5 3 . Bower, Chester L., "Social Workers and The Community: A Challenge to Education," Social Work Journal. Ap r i l , 1 9 5 3 > American Association of Social Workers, New York. Cockerill, Eleanor, "Developmental Tasks For Social Casework Within The Evolving Profession of Social Work," Social  Work Journal. A p r i l , 1954, American Association of Social Workers, New York. Kendall, Katherine A., "Education For Social Work," Social  Work Journal, January, 1 9 5 4 , American Association of Social Workers, New York. Kidneigh, John C , "Standards of Performance For a Social Welfare Agency," Public Welfare, Nov. 1948, American Public Welfare Association, Chicago. Vasey, Wayne, "Partnership Between Administrator and Staff In Developing Sound Welfare Programs," Social Casework Ap r i l , 1 9 5 2 , Family Service Association of America, Albany, N.Y. Youngdahl, Benjamin, A. "Social Work At the Crossroads," Social Work Journal, July, 1 9 5 3 , American Association of Social Workers, New York. Specific References Books: H i l l , Ernest D., The Regional Administration of Public Welfare  In B r i t i s h Columbia. M.S.W. Thesis, University of Brit i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 1 9 5 1 . United States, Federal Security Agency, Social Security Admin-istration, Division of Public Assistance, The Work of the  Full-Time Training Supervisor In State Public Assistance  Agencies, Division of Technical Training, Washington, D.C. January, 1 9 5 1 • - 150 -Wiltse, Kermit T., So c i a l Casework and Public Assistance. State of C a l i f o r n i a , Department of S o c i a l Welfare, Sacramento, 1953. A r t i c l e s : Berengarten, Sidney, "A Pioneer Workshop In Student Selection B u l l e t i n of the Hew York School of S o c i a l Work. Columbia University, New York, 1951. Bingham, T.D., "Remarks Concerning Williams Lake Area: A s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of a r u r a l area i n r e l a t i o n to needs of children and available s t a f f , 1952 (unpublished). Blackley, E l l e n , "The Development of S t a f f s i n Public Wel-fare Agencies," Public Welfare. January, 1944, American Public Welfare Association, Chicago, 111. Cassatt, Anna A. "Staff Development Is Teamwork", Public  Welfare, September, 1948, American Public Welfare Assoc-i a t i o n , Chicago, 111. Craig, Mary, " F i e l d Supervision: An Adaptation of S o c i a l *Work S k i l l s , " Journal of S o c i a l Casework. May 1949, Family Service Association of America, Albany, N.Y. Feldman, Yonata, "The Teaching Aspect of Casework Super-v i s i o n , " Journal of So c i a l Casework, A p r i l , 1950, Family Service Association of America, Albany, N.Y. Feldman, Yonata, Sponitz, Hyman, and Nagelberg, Leo, "One aspect of Casework Training Through Supervision," S o c i a l Casework. A p r i l , 1953, Family Service Association of America, Albany, N.Y. Moscrop, Martha, "Augmenting Professional S t a f f By Means Of In-Service Training", paper presented at Western  Regional Conference on S o c i a l Work, Winnipeg, May, 1951. Moscrop, Martha, "The Matter of The Untrained Experienced S t a f f Member," paper presented at meeting of the Public Welfare D i v i s i o n , Canadian Welfare Council. Regina, Feb. 1951. Shiebley, Evangeline, "The Continuation of Professional Education i n the Agency Setting," Family Service of Montgomery County, Dayton, Ohio, 19%T. Taylor, Inez. "Staff Development i n Pierce County, Washington Public Welfare. Nov. 1945, American Public Welfare Assoc-i a t i o n , Chicago, 111. - 1 5 1 -Trout, Bessie E., "Educational Leave In The Public Welfare Programs" Public Welfare. June-July, 1 9 5 0 , American Public Welfare Association, Chicago, 1 1 1 . United States, Federal Security Agency, Social Security Board, Bureau of Public Assistance (pamphlets) "Staff Development As a Factor In Agency Administration" ( 1 9 3 9 ) . "The Use of Staff Evaluations In a Staff Devel-opment Program"(1939. "Staff Training To Meet Personnel Needs of Public Welfare Agencies" (194-3). "Educational Leave", State Letter No. 4 4 ( 1 9 4 8 ) , Division of Technical  Training. Washington, D.C. An important part of references used included material avail-able in Social Welfare Branch f i l e s . These included minutes of the Planning Council, Bursary Committee, Regional Staff Meetings, one d i s t r i c t office staff meeting, Supervisors' Institutes, Library acquisitions and circulation and mimeo-graphed material used in the In-Service Training plan and for other staff development purposes. Other agency documents referred to are "Study on Staff Evaluation, 1 9 4 9 " , draft of "Brief To the C i v i l Service Commission," March, 1 9 5 4 , Degrees and Training of Total Professional Staff as at February 28, 1 9 5 4 " , "Preliminary Report on Job and Staff Analysis Study, July, 1 9 5 4 , and "In-Service Training: A Partial Solution To The Social Worker Shortage." 

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