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A geographical study of the Port of Vancouver in relation to its coastal hinterland Cornwall, Ira Hugh Brooke 1952

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A GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY OF THE PORT OF VANCOUVER IN RELATION TO ITS COASTAL HINTERLAND by IRA HUGH BROOKE CORNWALL A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of A r t s i n the Department of Geology and Geography We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d from candidates for the .degree of Master of A r t s . Members of the Department of Geology and Geography. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1952 ABSTRACT The Port of Vancouver, s i t u a t e d on Burrard I n l e t i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia, i s of major importance both as a world deep-sea port and as a c o a s t a l p o r t . This importance i n a dual f u n c t i o n r e s u l t s from: f i r s t , the wealth of f o r e s t r y and f i s h e r y resources of c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia; secondly, the a b i l i t y of the port to forward to world markets the p r o -duce r e s u l t i n g from these resources; and f i n a l l y , the fact that Vancouver i s a major hulk g r a i n exporting p o r t . The port occupies a l l of Burrard I n l e t which was f i r s t seen by Europeans i n 1791. I t was not u n t i l 1&59, however, when an unsuccessful attempt was made to mine c o a l , that any use was made of the a r e a . The years of e a r l y growth from 1362 to 1&$6 were marked f i r s t by the s t a r t of lumbering on Burrard I n l e t followed In 12526 by the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of Vancouver and the completion of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway to Port Moody. By 1919 bulk shipments of wheat from Vancouver v i a the Panama Canal had been proved as s u c c e s s f u l . Thus, with wheat shipments e s t a b l i s h e d and the lumber i n d u s t r y extending beyond the l i m i t s of Burrard I n l e t , the Port of Vancouver had become e s t a b l i s h e d as a world export centre of wheat and wood p r o d u c t s . As Vancouver increased i n importance as an exporting p o r t , so there followed an increase i n I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n with the r e s u l t a n t increase i n p o p u l a t i o n , i n d u s t r i a l power, supply and r a i l f a c i l i t i e s . However, a v a i l a b l e i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n s on the harbour waterfront had become scarce with the r e s u l t that some new, l a r g e i n d u s t r i e s — most notably pulp and paper — were l o c a t e d i n small c o a s t a l settlements nearer the sources of raw m a t e r i a l . From these small centres there s t a r t e d d i r e c t shipments to world markets r a t h e r than e x c l u s i v e l y through Vancouver. As small o u t - p o r t s operating alone, i t i s doubtful i f such an arrangement would have been p o s s i b l e ; w i t h the a t t r a c t i o n of manufactured goods and wheat a v a i l a b l e i n Vancouver, however, i t was p o s s i b l e to draw ships to B r i t i s h Columbia and so to the small ports with t h e i r s p e c i a l commodi-t i e s f o r world markets. At the same time Vancouver p r o f l t t e d because of i t s own deep-sea shipments, p l u s the fact that the o u t - p o r t s are dependent on Vancouver for v i r t u a l l y a l l r e q u i r e -ments of labour, food supply and mechanical equipment. This dependence by the c o a s t a l area on Vancouver i s the b a s i s of very extensive c o a s t a l movement of various s p e c i a l i z e d types of vessels which operate almost e x c l u s i v e l y from Vancouver. Thus the Port of Vancouver, competing economical ly but cooperating f u n c t i o n a l l y with the o u t - p o r t s , i s a c o a s t a l port of major s i g n i f i c a n c e while at the same time i t s world shipments place i t i n a p o s i t i o n of Importance as a deep-sea p o r t . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE Statement of the Problem Three Basic Concepts F i e l d Work Previous Work by Others D e f i n i t i o n s CHAPTER TWO H i s t o r i c a l and P h y s i c a l Background L o c a t i o n Discovery of B u r r a r d I n l e t S u i t a b l e P h y s i c a l Features f o r a Major Port F i r s t Attempts to Develop Natural Resources Settlement and Growth B u i l d i n g the Railway The Panama Canal and Western Wheat L o c a t i o n Factors f o r Lumber and Wheat The Harbour Commission CHAPTER THREE The Port To-Day D i v i s i o n s of the Port and t h e i r Main Uses E n g l i s h Bay The Main Harbour The Eastern Harbour and Indian Arm F a l s e Greek Growth of the Port Industry i n the Port Railway System I n d u s t r i a l Power Labour Growth of Services to Industry Types of Industry and t h e i r L o c a t i o n CHAPTER FOUR Hinterlands D e f i n i t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n of Vancouver^ H i n t e r l a n d P r i n c i p a l Exports from B r i t i s h Columbia Ports Lumber H i n t e r l a n d The F i s h H i n t e r l a n d M i n e r a l s — C o p p e r , Ores and Concentrates Wheat TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) The R e c i p r o c a l R e l a t i o n Between Port and H i n t e r l a n d World Markets Passenger T r a f f i c CHAPTER FIVE The Port of Vancouver i n R e l a t i o n to Hinterlands and the Port System The Spread of Vancouver's Influence Types of Shipping Wireless Communication The "Geographical P o r t " , or "port d i s t r i c t " CHAPTER SIX Conclusion BIBLIOGRAPHY MAPS — i n attached envelope. 1. B r i t i s h Columbia 2 . Burrard P e n i n s u l a — P h y s i c a l Features . Vancouver Harbour . Vancouver's World Markets, 1921-193M-5. Vancouver's I n d u s t r i a l Zones and R a i l r o a d s 6. B r i t i s h Columbia—Hinterlands 7. Vancouver's World Export Markets, 194-3-19*1-9 2 . B r i t i s h Columbia—Ports of G a l l of Scheduled Coastal Shipping 9 . The "Geographical Port" of the B u r r a r d Peninsula i v Tables Page 1. A r r i v a l s — O c e a n Going Ships^ I9I9-I934, by Nationality 40 2. P r i n c i p a l Export Commodities, 1921-1934 41 3. Coastal and Deep-Sea Passengers, Landed and Embarked at Vancouver, I92 I - I 9 3 5 k. Increase of In d u s t r i a l Power, Vancouver, I92I-I95I 52 5. Percentage of Net Registered Tons, Coastal Shipping A r r i v a l s , 1934-19485 77 6. Approximate Tonnage of Unspecified Cargo Shipped from the Port of Vancouver to a l l Coastal Ports of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19*14-1948 78 7. Foreign Exports, 1933-19^9 (Tons and Percentages) 850 8. Passengers Embarked from Vancouver, 193&, 19*Wj 19*14, 1948 82 9. Passenger Movements at P r i n c i p a l Canadian Ports, 19144-194.3 84 10. Vessels Entered Several Canadian Ports i n Coastal and Foreign Service, By Rig, 1949 89 11. Tugs Entered i n Coastal and Foreign Service, 1949 90 12. Sizes and Capacities of Scows 93 13. A r r i v a l s of Fishing Boats at Several Canadian Ports, 19^9 96 l*k Sizes of Vessels i n Coastal Service 99 15. Vessels with Radio-Telephone, (August 1, 1950) 100 \ FIGURES Page 1. Rate of Increase of Employment and P o p u l a t i o n , 51 1922-1951. 2. Percentage of Foreign Exports of Group 1, from B r i t i s h Columbia Ports for the Years 1943-1949. 6 l 3. Percentage of Foreign Exports of Group 2, from B r i t i s h Columbia Ports f o r the Years 1943-i949. 62 4. Percentage of Foreign Exports of Group 3, from B r i t i s h Columbia Ports for. the Years 1943-194-9. 63 5. Percentage of Foreign Exports of Group 4, from B r i t i s h Columbia Ports f o r the Years 1943-1949. 64-6. Percentage of Foreign Exports of Group 5, from B r i t i s h Columbia Ports f o r the Years 1943-1949. 65 7. Percentage of Foreign Exports of Group 6, from B r i t i s h Columbia Ports f o r the Years 1943-1949. 66 g. Percentage of Foreign Exports from a l l B r i t i s h Columbia P o r t s , 1943-1949. Made up of Groups 1-6, and Groups 1-6, plus Wheat. 73 9. Percentage of Wheat Exported from B r i t i s h Columbia P o r t s . 74 v i PHOTOGRAPHS Page r. Beach on south side of E n g l i s h Bay. 11 2. Cove on "north shore of E n g l i s h Bay. fl2 3. G l a c i a l d e p o s i t s , north side of Burrard I n l e t . 16 4 . T i d a l mud-f lats , north shore of Burrard I n l e t , .16 5. Conveyor g a l l e r i e s , from g r a i n e l e v a t o r . 26 6. Coal Harbour, Vancouver. 31 7. F l o a t i n g gas s t a t i o n s . 32 g . Logs on t i d a l mud-f lats . 3^« 9. F a l s e Creek, Vancouver. 37 10. Open type scow, Vancouver, 93 11. Covered newsprint scow, Vancouver. 93 12. Railway barge, Vancouver. 9^ 13. O i l barge, Vancouver. 95 14. S e i n e r s , Vancouver. 97 15. Salmon t r o l l e r s on f a r side of j e t t y , Vancouver. 97 A GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY OF THE PORT OF VANCOUVER IN RELATION TO ITS COASTAL HINTERLAND CHAPTER ONE  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM A geographical study of a port may be made i n two ways. The f i r s t approach i s the c l a s s i c a l , systematic method, which begins with l o c a t i o n and passes on through a l l the aspects of p h y s i c a l , human and economic geography. A study f o l l o w i n g t h i s procedure can no doubt produce the d e s i r e d r e s u l t of w e l l c o r -r e l a t e d f a c t u a l Information, f i r m conclusions and, i f necessary, a degree of p r e d i c t i o n . This approach, however, does not em-phasize s u f f i c i e n t l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . The r e l a t i o n s h i p to be stressed i s the o n e t h a t e x i s t s between the l a n d , i n terms of h i n t e r l a n d s , and t h e , s e a , i n terms of shipping r o u t e s , ships, commodities and markets. To overcome p o s s i b l e weaknesses and to depict c l e a r l y the prime r e l a t i o n s h i p , a second method can be used. An ex-p l a n a t i o n of the second method of treatment can be covered with the b r i e f headings: why does a port e x i s t i n a c e r t a i n p l a c e ; how has that port grown; what are i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the land i n terms of h i n t e r l a n d s ; what are i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the sea i n terms of i t s l o c a l importance and i t s world importance? Three Basic Concepts For f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of what i s , to a l l Intents and purposes, a r e l a t i v e l y new f i e l d of geographic r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g i n Canada the awareness of c e r t a i n basic concepts i s 2 necessary. The f i r s t , and most elemental f a c t o r i s that a port i s a zone of t r a n s i t i o n between methods of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The very l i f e , success, and value of a p o r t hinges on i t s a b i l i t y to f u l f i l l the primary f u n c t i o n of t r a n s i t between the methods of l a n d transport and the methods of marine t r a n s p o r t . The second major concept concerns h i n t e r l a n d s . The t r a -d i t i o n a l idea of a h i n t e r l a n d , as that p o r t i o n of space that i s served by a port or whose people and i n d u s t r y use a p o r t f o r entry or e x i t , can, i n general be a p p l i e d only to a young coun-try w i t h incomplete i n t e r n a l communications and new, under-developed p o r t s . In a country such as Canada where settlement, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r i a l development are w e l l beyond the pioneer stage, numbers of h i n t e r l a n d s appear; indeed, there may be a h i n t e r l a n d f o r each commodity. Again, each of these h i n t e r l a n d s may w e l l be represented w i t h i n the port area by a v a r i e t y of forms of s h i p p i n g , d i f f e r e n t commodities r e -q u i r i n g , or being adaptable t o , d i f f e r e n t forms of t r a n s p o r t -a t i o n . A t h i r d concept concerns shipping and i t s place, i n a geographical study.. I t i s a fact that a s h i p , as such, i s not geographic. However^ where a.type of ship or method of marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has been developed i n response to c e r t a i n en-vironmental c o n d i t i o n s , then that s p e c i a l i z e d form of shipping becomes of geographic s i g n i f i c a n c e . Several s p e c i a l i z e d methods of shipping have been developed i n B r l t i s h Columbia for specific uses..... As there i s a c lose r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n n a t u r a l resources of the province and these s p e c i a l methods, a des-c r i p t i o n of them and of t h e i r uses has been i n c l u d e d . Some of the more standardized types of shipping have a l s o been i n c l u d e d i n order to make the s e c t i o n complete. A f i n a l concept, and one applying to Oanada i n particular, i s that the major ocean po rt s of the country are Canadian rather than r e g i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l p o r t s . The i m p l i c a t i o n presented with t h i s idea i s that H a l i f a x and Montreal , f o r example, are almost as important to the f r u i t farmer of B r i t i s h Columbia and the trapper of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s as they are to the people of Nova S c o t i a , the Montreal region or Eastern Danada; i n e x a c t l y the same way, Vancouver i s almost as important to the E a s t e r n Canadian as to the B r i t i s h Columbian. Although each p o r t has considerable l o c a l or r e g i o n a l importance through i t s own c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g , nevertheless, the fact that Canadian ports have great n a t i o n a l importance, r a t h e r than p u r e l y l o c a l importance, must be considered. The reason i s simple. Com-modities exported are r e l a t i v e l y few but i n large q u a n t i t i e s . These commodities are moved to sea-ports by long rai lway l i n e s that cut across many of the regions of Canada and tap most of the various h i n t e r l a n d s . Therefore, Canadian produce d e s t i n e d f o r world markets can move to e i t h e r eastern or western p o r t s . An awareness of the b a s i c concepts, combined with the method of treatment to be fol lowed, w i l l r e s u l t i n an under-standing of the Port of Vancouver as i t f i t s i n t o the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p between land and sea. Not only w i l l the m o t i -vations of the p o r t ' s functions be seen, but there w i l l a l s o appear c e r t a i n f a c t o r s of both the n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l l a n d -scapes which any reader may subtract from the completed work to apply to h i s own p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of i n t e r e s t . This l a t t e r phase w i l l be supported wherever p o s s i b l e by maps, photographs, diagrams and s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s . Unfortunately there are weaknesses i n the s t a t i s t i c a l treatment. In p a r t t h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d to a change i n port a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1936. A further d i f f i c u l t y r e s u l t s from the lack of the f igures on commodity tonnages moved by c o a s t a l shipping between p o r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A f i n a l weakness, and p o s s i b l y the most s e r i o u s , i s a c o n t i n u a l lack of agreement between shipping f i g u r e s p u b l i s h e d by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s i n the annual "Shipping Report" and those shown f o r the Port of Vancouver i n annual reports p u b l i s h e d by the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board. I n p a r t , t h i s discrepancy i s due to human e r r o r , but at the most only 1=2$. The greatest p o r t i o n of the e r r o r stems from the fact that the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s does n o t r e c o r d any v e s s e l of l e s s than 10 tons. In r e c o r d i n g the movement of f i s h i n g v e s s e l s there i s a l s o d i s -agreement. The N a t i o n a l Harbours Board l i s t s each v e s s e l , every time i t enters p o r t , while the Dominion Bureau of S t a t -i s t i c s records each v e s s e l only once during a f i s h i n g season. Despite these weaknesses, an attempt has been made to give as c l e a r an explanation as p o s s i b l e of why Vancouver, with the geographical l o c a t i o n that was chosen many years ago, operates as a major sea-port to-day. 5. F i e l d Work In order to discover why the Port of Vancouver has be-come so important, i t s h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , growth and present operation, had to be i n v e s t i g a t e d . This was accomplished In two p a r t s : f i r s t , observation and i n v e s t -i g a t i o n i n the f i e l d ; second, the study of reports and a r t i c l e s r e s u l t i n g from surveys by o t h e r s . The major p o r t i o n of the f i e l d work was done i n J u l y , 195Q» preceded by p e r i o d i c I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n October and November, 1949. This work c o n s i s t e d p a r t l y of a study of the p h y s i c a l features of the p o r t , the dock i n s t a l l a t i o n s , l o c a t i o n s of i n d u s t r y , l i n e s of communications, types of s h i p p i n g , the d i v i s i o n s of the harbour, and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n -ships of each of these. A second, and e q u a l l y important part of the work c o n s i s t e d of interviews and correspondence with F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l Government a u t h o r i t i e s ^ i n -d u s t r i a l representat ives and members of shipping f i r m s . The purpose of the interviews was to supplement the i n -formation gained by personal observation and study. This a c t i v i t y covered a wide range of subjects such as sources of n a t u r a l resources; types of v e s s e l s , t h e i r o r i g i n and uses; growth of i n d u s t r y , r a i l s e r v i c e s and power supply; and most important, d e f i n i t e s t a t i s t i c a l information, on the shipping a c t i v i t y of Vancouver. With the exception of one major item, a great deal of cooperation was r e c e i v e d . The exception was i n connection with unpublished s t a t i s t i c a l information and here the best that could be expected was a rough guess or an 6. estimate as to q u a n t i t i e s or volumes moved through the p o r t . Very often s t a t i s t i c a l data were refused. Previous Work by Others Because of the f a i l u r e to secure unpublished s t a t i s t i c s , i t was necessary to r e l y e n t i r e l y on information p u b l i s h e d by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s and the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board. The fact has already been stressed, that these r e p o r t s are not the most desirable>for t h i s type of. study. Other p u b l i s h e d information, however, was of c o n s i d e r -able v a l u e . For the h i s t o r i c a l background, " E a r l y Shipping i n Burrard I n l e t " by Judge F . Howay, "The Port of Vancouver" by Tom Mclnnes, and "Rise of the Port of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia" by Leah Stevens proved very h e l p f u l . For g e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y and s t r u c t u r e the two p r i n c i p a l sources consulted were "The geology of Vancouver and v i c i n i t y " by E . M . J . Burwash and "Geology of the Fraser River map area" by W.A. Johnson. While t h i s i s not an urban study, c e r t a i n aspects of urban geography were c o n s u l t e d . The main sources of information were "Railway and harbour r e p o r t , Vancouver, B . C . " by H. Bartholomew and A s s o c i a t e s , a Town Planning c o n s u l t i n g f irm and " V a n c o u v e r — A Study i n Urban Geography", a Master 's t h e s i s by Donald P. K e r r . F i n a l l y , a Master 's t h e s i s by G.M. Schuthe, "Canadian Shipping i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Coastal Trade", and a r e p o r t by S i r Alexander Gibb, "National ports survey, 1 9 3 1 - 3 2 " , were frequently c o n s u l t e d . A l l these r e p o r t s d e a l with some s p e c i a l aspect of the port and i t s a c t i v i t y , or include the p o r t as part of a wider study. In no r e p o r t or a r t i c l e i s there a synthesis of the h i s t o r i c a l , p h y s i c a l and economic information on the port to show how, through the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of each, p l u s the favourable f a c t o r s of l o c a t i o n , i t has grown to i t s present p o s i t i o n . The c o r r e l a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of work i n other d i s c i -p l i n e s , plus c a r e f u l f i e l d observation, and a f i n a l p r e s e n t -a t i o n substantiated by maps, i s the method of the geographer. I n t h i s work the method i s a p p l i e d to a1 survey of the Port of Vancouver, which, i t i s hoped, w i l l prove of i n t e r e s t both to geographers, as w e l l as to those connected with the p o r t . I t i s hoped that those of t h i s l a t t e r group who read t h i s , w i l l have a greater understanding of the port and i t s a c t i v i t y . For geographers, i t i s hoped that they w i l l be able to p r o f i t from the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered, and, at l e a s t i n con-nection with s t a t i s t i c a l data, be warned of e x i s t i n g weaknesses. Perhaps i n t h i s way geographers i n other countries who are s t r e s s i n g the Importance of port studies might r e a l i z e that i n Canada the approach to the subject and the method of treatment i s d i f f e r e n t from that, say of Europe. In several European c o u n t r i e s , p u b l i s h e d s t a t i s t i c s and a v a i l a b l e unpublished m a t e r i a l are so extensive that an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t treatment of a port study i s p o s s i b l e . D e f i n i t i o n s As an a i d to the understanding of c e r t a i n shipping terms used, the fol lowing d e f i n i t i o n s are s u p p l i e d . Barge - a schooner or other s a i l i n g v e s s e l converted f o r use as a hulk cargo c a r r i e r . Decks, masts and r i g g i n g are r e -moved to gain a l l p o s s i b l e h o l d space. This type of v e s s e l , c l a s s e d as unrigged, i s towed by a tug. A barge as defined here i s used almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia and must not be confused with the s p e c i a l l y designed barges so common on European r i v e r s and the canals of England. Scow - a r e c t a n g u l a r , wooden, shallow draft bulk cargo c a r r i e r of the unrigged type. Scows vary i n s ize from 30 feet by 90 f e e t , with a capacity of 375 tons, up to 36 feet by 100 feet with a c a p a c i t y of 600 t o n s . For cargoes such as c o a l , sand, g r a v e l , e t c . , open scows are used; f o r p e r i s h a b l e cargoes such as cement o r newsprint, a covered type i s uaed. Tugs - towing v e s s e l s which vary from small harbour tugs which average 30 feet i n l e n g t h and 165 H . P . to 135 feet with up to approximately iKOO H . P . The most common type Is 60 feet long and between 300 and 500 H . P . The main b a s i s f o r e f f i -ciency r a t i n g i s the t u g ' s a b i l i t y to move economically 35 sect ions of logs or two scows. Gross Tonnage i s the i n t e r n a l cubic capacity of a v e s s e l measured i n u n i t s of 100 cubic feet of a l l the enclosed spaces i n the s h i p , i n c l u d i n g both space below and above decks. Net Tonnage i s the r e s i d u a l tonnage a f t e r the various allowances f o r p r o p e l l i n g power, crew space and n a v i g a t i o n space, have been deducted from the gross tonnage. Harbour i s the n a t u r a l feature such as a bay, i n l e t or r i v e r mouth, which affords s h e l t e r from the open sea f o r s h i p p i n g . Port i s the n a t u r a l feature of the harbour, w i t h , i n add-i t i o n , the necessary mechanical equipment and docking space f o r handling a l l types of s h i p p i n g . CHAPTER TWO , HISTORICAL AND PHYSICAL; BACKGROUND The Port of Vancouver i s both a c o a s t a l and a world port of major importance. The growth of the p o r t to a p o s i t i o n of such s i g n i f i c a n c e r e s u l t s , i n p a r t , from the f a c t o r s of location, s u i t a b l e p h y s i c a l formation, a v a i l a b l e n a t u r a l resources and q u i t e r a p i d growth. L o c a t i o n Vancouver i s s i t u a t e d on the south side of Burrard I n l e t In southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. This i n l e t , which extends eastward f o r almost 15 miles from E n g l i s h Bay, i s the southern boundary of the Coast Mountains of B r i t i s h Columbia. To the east of Burrard I n l e t low l a n d allows easy access to the v a l l e y of the Fraser R i v e r , and so to the i n t e r i o r of the p r o v i n c e . With the s i n g l e exception of the rai lway from Squamish at the head of Howe Sound, there i s no other p r a c t i c a l route from the coast to the i n t e r i o r of the province between Vancouver and P r i n c e Rupert 450 miles to the n o r t h . Even though the c o a s t -l i n e i s deeply indented by long f i o r d s r e a c h i n g , i n p l a c e s , many miles i n l a n d , access to the i n t e r i o r from the sea i s barred by the Coast Mountains. This mountain mass with e levat ions of from 2,000 to 10,000 f e e t , backs the e n t i r e c o a s t l i n e from B u r r a r d I n l e t to the Alaska Panhandle (Map 1) and c o n s t i t u t e s an e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r to any east-west movement. I I . D i s c o v e r y o f B u r r a r d . I n l e t T r a d i t i o n , s u p p o r t e d b y t h e c u s t o m o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , has i t t h a t B u r r a r d I n l e t was d i s c o v e r e d by C a p t a i n G eorge V a n c o u v e r i n J u n e , 1792, w h i l e s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e N o r t h -west P a s s a g e . I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , however, t h e i n l e t was f i r s t s e e n b y a S p a n i a r d , J o s e M a r i a N a r v a e z i n A u g u s t , 1 7 9 1 . 1 The d i s c o v e r e r o f t h e h a r b o u r i s u n i m p o r t a n t , s i n c e no u s e was made o f t h e a r e a b y E u r o p e a n s u n t i l 1859. S u i t a b l e P h y s i c a l F e a t u r e s f o r a M a j o r P o r t T h i s i n l e t , d i s c o v e r e d b y N a r v a e z o r V a n c o u v e r , had a l l t h e n a t u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a g r e a t p o r t , p l u s t h e r e s o u r c e s t o a t t r a c t s e t t l e m e n t . By f a r t h e l a r g e s t p a r t o f t h e h a r b o u r i s E n g l i s h Bay (Map 3) w i t h a n a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 s q u a r e m i l e s . The s o u t h s h o r e o f t h e b a y i s l i n e d w i t h wide s a n d y b e a c h e s made P h o t o . 1. Bea c h on s o u t h s i d e o f E n g l i s h Bay. K c i n n e s , Tom. "The P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r " , C a n a d i a n  G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , V o l . 2, No. 4, A p r i l , 1931, p . 289. 12 up l a r g e l y from m a t e r i a l c a r r i e d along the shore by t i d e s from the h i g h clay banks which extend eastward almost 3 miles from Point Grey. The shallowness of the water over t h i s area of beaches precludes any shipping a c t i v i t y . The north shore, i n Photo. 2. Cove on north shore of E n g l i s h Bay. c o n t r a s t , i s rugged and rocky with many small bays where the water i s deep enough that they are often used f o r s h e l t e r by f i s h i n g boats and tugs. At the eastern end of E n g l i s h Bay the low promontory of Stanley Park divides the bay: to the north the water-way i s r e s t r i c t e d to form the narrow entrance to the i n l e t beyond; to the south, the bay tapers gradually to a s m a l l , shallow, stream mouth c a l l e d False Creek. Beyond the narrow entrance l i e s the almost landlocked main harbour of Burrard I n l e t . The excellence of t h i s i n l e t as a harbour can be a t t r i b u t e d to the fact that i t i s an an-c i e n t o u t l e t of the Fraser River that was s l i g h t l y over-deepened by g l a c i a t i o n.2 The over-deepening was not s u f f i c i e n t 2 Johnson, W.A. Geology of the Fraser River Map Area. Memo. 135, Dept. of Mines, G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Ottawa, 1923. P. 55 to create the excessive depths found i n f i o r d s which make dock c o n s t r u c t i o n d i f f i c u l t , but i t was great enough to leave s u f f i -c i e n t depth of water f o r use as a port a f t e r post g l a c i a l emer-gence. At the present time depths i n the main harbour are ample f o r the l a r g e s t ships a f l o a t w i t h the main c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r being the depth at the F i r s t Narrows ( L i o n ' s . Gate) entrance. Here the maximum depth at low t i d e i s feet but t i d a l r i s e s varying from 11 to 13 feet g r e a t l y increase the l i m i t s . ^ By dredging, an average depth of 31 feet at low t i d e has been achieved at the p r i n c i p a l p i e r s . With two major exceptions, depths considerably g r e a t e r than 31 feet ( s l i g h t l y more than 5 fathoms) p r e v a i l over much of the harbour. The f i r s t exception i s Coal Harbour at the western end of the harbour where the water i s extremely shallow (Map 3 ) . This shallow area extends northeastward towards Brockton P o i n t . Between Brockton Point and the F i r s t Narrows, there i s a second, but s l i g h t l y l e s s shallow area, t h a t , with the t i d a l f l a t s on the northern shore, tends to r e s t r i c t the harbour entrance. The narrowness of t h i s entrance has an a d -vantage i n that there i s considerable scouring of the channel by f a i r l y fast moving, t i d a l c u r r e n t s . T i d a l currents i n the main harbour, while they do not c o n s t i t u t e a great danger, at times cause d i f f i c u l t y to ships approaching or l e a v i n g p i e r s . The f l o o d , or r i s i n g t i d e flows ^ Wallace, F.W., compiler, Canadian ports and shipping d i r e c t o r y , Gardenvale, N a t i o n a l Business P u b l i c a t i o n s , 191+8, p. 271. from F i r s t Narrows to the v i c i n i t y of Ballantyne P i e r (Map 3 ) . From Ballantyne P i e r the main stream continues on through Second Narrows to the eastern p o r t i o n of Burrard I n l e t , while a back eddy flows from Ballantyne P i e r to Opal Harbour. With the ebb or f a l l i n g t i d e , the flow i s reversed, the current moving from Coal Harbour towards Ballantyne P i e r where i t i s Joined by the current from Second Narrows which i s moving d i -r e c t l y out to sea. The greatest d i f f i c u l t y to shipping i s caused by the back eddy with i t s a c t i o n s around the various docks which are almost unpredictable from day to day, and t h e i r effect on moving v e s s e l s . The d i r e c t current through Second Narrows, while s l i g h t l y more powerful, has not the u n p r e d i c t -able c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the back eddy i n the main harbour. Nevertheless, i t s effect must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r any movement, p a r t i c u l a r i l y of small s h i p p i n g , through the Narrows at e i t h e r the f l o o d or the ebb t i d e . Considerable care must a l s o be used by small vessels such as pleasure boats and f i s h i n g boats, at the time of the ebb t i d e at F i r s t Narrows, In t h i s narrow channel, when a west wind blows, waves can reach a height of s i x f e e t , which, combined with the strong current moving at between 4 and 5 M . P . H . , can prove dangerous. The southern boundary of the i n l e t i s Burrard P e n i n s u l a , which c o n s i s t s of two long r i d g e s . The northern r i d g e with a maximum e l e v a t i o n of 1135 f e e t , extends from Stanley Park e a s t -ward f o r 12 miles to the Junction of the Fraser and P i t t r i v e r s (Map 2 ) . The southern r i d g e , with a maximum e l e v a t i o n of 400 f e e t , extends f o r 17% miles from Point Grey to Brunette Creek k on the east . Between the two r i d g e s l i e s an important low-land area which i s d i v i d e d between two minor drainage systems: to the west, F a l s e Greek which leads i n t o E n g l i s h Bay; to the east, S t i l l Creek, which flows to Burnaby Lake, and i n turn Brunette Creek and the Fraser R i v e r . (Map 2) This lowland area has been described by Burwash as a n -other of the o l d o u t l e t s of the Fraser River,5 abandoned at the time of u p l i f t of the l a n d to the north of Burrard I n l e t . The presence of the height of l a n d at Grandview, cut through by the Great Northern-Canadian N a t i o n a l r a i l l i n e , might i n d i c a t e r a t h e r that the two small streams are the remnants of somewhat l a r g e r , post g l a c i a l streams flowing i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s from the watershed at Grandview r i d g e . Both the r i d g e s of Burrard Peninsula are deeply covered with g l a c i a l d r i f t which has afforded an e x c e l l e n t foundation f o r the b u i l d i n g of a c i t y . The northern r i d g e slopes down gently to the waterfront of Burrard I n l e t . On the north side of the i n l e t the steep slopes of the Coast Mountains are covered w i t h g l a c i a l d r i f t from a p p r o x i -mately the 1,000 foot l e v e l — and even higher i n some of the mountain r i v e r v a l l e y s — down to the shore l i n e which c o n -s i s t s l a r g e l y of t i d a l mud-f lats . These f l a t s r e s u l t from de-p o s i t i o n by Capilano, Lynn and Seymour Creeks, three streams ^ Burwash, E . M . J . The geology of Vancouver and v i c i n - i t y . Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , l ° , lg . . p . 9. 5 Burwash, The geology of Vancouver and v i c i n i t y , p .11. t h a t f l o w down t h e s t e e p m o u n t a i n s i d e t h r o u g h t h e l a y e r o f g l a c i a l d r i f t , and t h u s c a r r y a c o n s i d e r a b l e l o a d o f m a t e r i a l t o be d e p o s i t e d i n t h e w a t e r s o f t h e i n l e t . P h o t o . 3. G l a c i a l d e p o s i t s , n o r t h s i d e o f B u r r a r d I n l e t . T h e s e m u d - f l a t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n d i s t u r b e d b y t i d a l a c t i o n • W i t h b o t h t h e r i s i n g and t h e f a l l i n g t i d e , t h e P h o t o . 4. T i d a l m u d - f l a t s , n o r t h s h o r e o f B u r r a r d I n l e t . c u r r e n t w h i c h r u n s c l o s e t o t h e s o u t h s h o r e t e n d s t o s c o u r c l e a n t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e h a r b o u r w h i l e t h e more g e n t l y s l o p -i n g n o r t h e r n s h o r e a c c u m u l a t e s l a r g e m u d - f l a t s . 17 F i r s t Attempts to Develop Natural Resources When B u r r a r d I n l e t was discovered i n the l g t h Century, the p e n i n s u l a on the south and the lower mountain slopes on the n o r t h , were completely covered by stands of some of the f i n e s t timber i n the w o r l d . Yet, i n s p i t e of such f o r e s t r e -sources so e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e , the f i r s t attempt at resources development was c o a l mining at Coal Harbour, i n the southwest p a r t of Burrard I n l e t , This was attempted i n 1859, a few years a f t e r the successful opening of the f i r s t c o a l mines i n Nanalmo. The venture f a i l e d because of the thinness of the seam. Three other ports were i n existence by 1259; V i c t o r i a , the Hudson's Bay Company centre on Vancouver I s l a n d ; New Westminster, the port of entry for prospectors heading f o r the g o l d f i e l d s of B r i t i s h Columbia; and Nanalmo, the c o a l mining centre on Vancouver I s l a n d , Thus i t would seem that there were s u f f i c i e n t ports f o r the young, u n s e t t l e d t e r r i -t o r y . Such was indeed the case, but s u f f i c i e n t a t t r a c t i o n s e x i s t e d i n and around B u r r a r d I n l e t to make i t the s i t e of a f o u r t h c o a s t a l settlement i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia, Coal had been a f a i l u r e i n i t s e l f , but I t a t t r a c t e d , i n 18>62, c a search for p o t t e r y c l a y by an Englishman, John M o r t o n , 0 who was accustomed i n England to f i n d i n g c o a l and good p o t t e r y c l a y together. This too f a i l e d , but f i n a l l y the f o r e s t s were recognized as the major l o c a l n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e . I n 1S62, Mclnnes, "The p o r t of Vancouver", p , 304. 12. T.W. Graham secured a lease of 420 acres of f o r e s t l a n d on the nor th shore of Burrard I n l e t , and In 1263 the Pioneer m i l l be-gan operation^ at Moodyvi l le , now a p a r t of North Vancouver. Though some success i n resources development had f i n a l l y been achieved, a f u l l e x p l o i t a t i o n without r a i l connection was impossible f o r the e a r l y lumbermen of Burrard I n l e t . Thus i t must have been, that the e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t i e s of the i n l e t as a n a t u r a l harbour with a l o c a t i o n f o r a settlement on I t s south shore, and with such a l a r g e source of lumber so r e a d i l y a v a i l -a b l e , bulked l a r g e i n t h e i r imagination and p l a n n i n g . To the nor th there were many other i n l e t s — l o n g , s t e e p - s i d e d f i o r d s w i t h deep water — where f o r e s t resources were e q u a l l y as good. These areas were only developed l a t e r as the f o r e s t s of Burrard I n l e t were exhausted and more advanced methods of logging and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were devised to deal w i t h the d i f f e r e n t type of t e r r a i n and the distances Involved. Settlement and Growth The three f a c t o r s , the n a t u r a l harbour, the f o r e s t r e -sources and the settlement s i t e , were the primary a t t r a c t i o n s to Burrard I n l e t i n the e a r l y days of i t s settlement and growth. These a t t r a c t i o n s alone, i t i s t r u e , were not s u f f i c i e n t to place the new settlement on a par with the major competitors, V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo and New Westminster. The a b i l i t y to compete and the eventual supremacy came a f t e r many years of growth and 7 Howay, F . " E a r l y shipping i n Burrard I n l e t " , B r i t i s h .Golumbla HIs t o r 1 c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 1, January, 1937. p. 3. 19. the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r a i l w a y . New development concentrated nevertheless on the basic elements of forest resources, e x c e l -l e n t harbour and good b u i l d i n g s i t e . In a d d i t i o n to the advantages of r e s o u r c e s , harbour and s i t e , much of the success of Vancouver as a young settlement and a considerable amount of i t s r a p i d growth depended on the proximity of the a g r i c u l t u r a l lowlands of the F r a s e r V a l l e y , Both Vancouver and New Westminster r e l i e d on t h i s area of f e r -t i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r a large part of t h e i r food supply. To-day i t represents one-quarter of the developed a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d of the province and, though only 58$ of i t s h a l f m i l l i o n acres i s s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , i t nevertheless s t i l l sup-p l i e s an Important p a r t of the l o c a l needs of d a i r y produce, vegetables and f r u i t . One s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t i s that Vancouver i s not e n t i r e l y dependent on a d i s t a n t source of supply f o r a l l the food that i s r e q u i r e d . Where complete r e l i a n c e on a d i s -tant source of supply for f r e s h foods does e x i s t , as i n the case of Prince Rupert for example, r a p i d growth and development are d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e . The growth of the p o r t r e s u l t e d from lumbering, the b u i l d i n g of the rai lway to Vancouver and f i n a l l y the opening of the Panama Ganal. The opening of the f i r s t m i l l i n 18563 was followed i n 18565 by the establishment of a second m i l l at Hastings, and i n 1869 the beginning of the settlement at G r a n v i l l e . This was the s t a r t . Not only was there i n d u s t r y 8 s a g e , w.N. "Vancouver 185856-19^6". J o u r n a l of Com- merce Year Book, 19^6. p . 1085. 20. e s t a b l i s h e d on the i n l e t , u s i n g l o c a l resources, and a l s o the beginnings of a settlement, but the i n l e t , as a s h e l t e r e d h a r -bour, was being used f o r the s a i l i n g ships that took lumber to the O r i e n t , to South America, and to Europe. I t was the bui ld-i n g of the r a i l w a y however, that proved to be the major st imu-l u s to the growth of the c i t y and i t s p o r t . B u i l d i n g the Railway The primary f a c t o r governing the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway to B r i t i s h Columbia was p o l i t i c a l ; but the f a c t o r s d i c t a t i n g the choice of Burrard I n l e t f o r the P a c i f i c Terminus were p r i m a r i l y p h y s i c a l and economic. One r e s u l t of the negotiat ions culminating w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia entering Confederation i n 1271, was the promise that the province would be l i n k e d with the r e s t of Canada by r a i l w i t h i n ten y e a r s . Though t h i s time l i m i t was not met, the l i n e being f i n i s h e d and ready f o r use to Port Moody i n 1226, the p o l i t i c a l i n c e n t i v e was nevertheless of importance. With the p o l i t i c a l agreements decided and f i n a n c i a l problems solved, the major d i f f i c u l t y remaining as f a r as the B r i t i s h Columbia s e c t i o n of the l i n e was concerned, was the choice of a route through the mountains. Of the three, passes through the Rocky Mountains that are s u i t a b l e for a r a i l r o a d — Yellowhead, K i c k i n g Horse and Crowsnest — the K i c k i n g Horse was chosen. The p r i n c i p a l reason for t h i s choice was that the K i c k i n g Horse Pass l e d not only through the Rocky Mountains, but a l s o to Rogers Pass i n the S e l k i r k Mountains — a pass 21. unknown u n t i l discovered by the rai lway surveyors — a n d so to the somewhat lower e levat ions of the Shuswap Lakes on the,edge of the I n t e r i o r P lateau . From the Shuswap Lakes the l i n e f o l -lowed the Thompson and Fraser Rivers to the . sea . (Map 1) The route chosen l e d to the n a t u r a l P a c i f i c coast t e r -minal reg ion of the Lower Fraser V a l l e y . This reg ion , extend-ing from the sea. to Hope on the Fraser River , i s the larges t area of l e v e l l and on the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia, Two settlements, G r a n v i l l e — l a t e r Vancouver and New West-minster were already i n existence In the area; a g r i c u l t u r a l l and to compliment a growing populat ion was a v a i l a b l e ; the lumbering indus try , while smal l , was establ ished; and f i n a l l y , t h i s lowland at the end of the Fraser V a l l e y provided the only r e a d i l y access ib le approach to the P a c i f i c Ocean. This then, was the natural out let for the new transcont inenta l ra i lway . Suggestions for a poss ib le terminus c i t y i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia v a r i e d from New Westminster, to Port Moody and even V i c t o r i a on Vancouver I s land . The f i n a l choice i n lg>2>6, was Port Moody at the head of Burrard I n l e t . This proved to be a very unsat i s fac tory l o c a t i o n . One of the major purpose of the ra i lway , that of l i n k i n g with ocean shipping, was defeated by the shallow water at Port Moody. While the water of the eastern part of Burrard In l e t i s , on the whole, deep enough for shipping (Map 3) the water-front at Port Moody i s made up almost e n t i r e l y of a wide t i d a l mud-f lat . A further disadvantage was the l i m i t e d area f o r the b u i l d i n g of a large settlement i n comparison with the excellent 22. site at the western end of Burrard Peninsula. In addition, the western part of Burrard Inlet was already being used to some extent by shipping and lumber mills and there was an already existing settlement at Granville. The settlement of Granville had grown sufficiently that by April 6, 1226, i t had been incorporated as the Gity of Vancouver.^ This was followed by the extension of the railway from Port Moody in 1227 following negotiations in 1226 between the Canadian Pacific Railway Company and the Provincial Govern-ment. As a result of the negotiations, the government made considerable land grants to the railway company. These grants included: the right of way along the south shore of the Inlet; 39 lots in Granville townsite of the City of Vancouver; lot number 541 of 420 acres, extending from the north side of False Creek to Burrard Inlet; the whole of lot number 526 con-sisting of 5»795 acres in what is now one of Vancouver's finest residential areas.-0 With the exception of the right of way along Burrard Inlet, this land was deeded to the company for re-sale to cover the cost of the extension from Port Moody, and the building of workshops, a terminus on Burrard Inlet and railway yards with-in the city. The only large extent of land s t i l l held by the company is situated on the north side of False Creek (Map 3) where the company now has a large assembly yard and repair shop. 9 Sage, "Vancouver 1226-1946". p. 109. 1 Q Province of British Columbia. Sessional papers, 3rd Session, 4th Parliament of the Province of British Columbia, Session 1226, p. 29. 23. While t h i s l o c a t i o n of the yards has e l i m i n a t e d much of the area from p o s s i b l e i n d u s t r i a l use i n conjunction w i t h the r e s t of False Creek, considerable advantage i s gained i n having an assembly area f o r both passenger and f r e i g h t cars so close to the terminus on Burrard I n l e t . The possession of the 39 l o t s i n G-ranville town s i t e and the 5*795 acres of l o t number 526 meant that the rai lway com-pany c o u l d r e g a i n at l e a s t a p a r t , i f not a l l of the f i n a n c i a l outlay i n v o l v e d i n the extension from Port Moody and the neces-sary c o n s t r u c t i o n . This proved to be s u f f i c i e n t i n c e n t i v e f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c to develop i t s holdings In Vancouver to the status of a major rai lway terminal w i t h the r e s u l t a n t growth of both the c i t y and the p o r t . The Panama Canal and Western Wheat One f i n a l step was s t i l l to be taken, however, before the Port of Vancouver c o u l d hope to achieve f u n c t i o n a l maturity. Up to t h i s stage of i t s development the port was, to a l l intents and purposes, a P a c i f i c p o r t . P o t e n t i a l European markets, reached by way of Cape Horn or the Suez Canal, were too remote for Vancouver to create severe competition to the p o r t s of Eastern Canada and the United States A t l a n t i c sea-board. The Panama Canal changed t h i s unfavourable r e l a t i o n s h i p . True, there was l i t t l e noticeable difference Immediately f o l l o w i n g the opening of the canal i n 191*1- because of the wartime l a c k of shipping, but the new p o t e n t i a l i t i e s nevertheless e x i s t e d to Vancouver's advantage. Vancouver was v i s u a l i z e d as an a l l -24. year o u t l e t f o r Western wheat, destined not only to P a c i f i c markets, but to B r i t i s h and European markets as w e l l , because of a decrease of 5,600 miles to L i v e r p o o l v i a Panama r a t h e r than v i a Cape H o r n , 1 1 Despite the a t t r a c t i o n s of a l l - y e a r n a v i g a t i o n there were major obstacles to overcome, one of the greatest being the misconception that wheat could not be shipped i n bulk through the t r o p i c s . As the greatest part of Canadian wheat was shipped i n bulk, t h i s could have remained as a major obstacle were i t not for t e s t s conducted by chemists of the G r a i n Research Laboratory. I n 1912 and 1919 f i v e s h i p s , loaded w i t h a t o t a l of 200,000 bushels of wheat, s a i l e d from Vancouver. Each ship c a r r i e d a chemist who made d a i l y tests of the con-d i t i o n of the g r a i n , 1 2 The great success of t h i s experiment p a r t l y e l i m i n a t e d o l d objections to the new r o u t e . Other p r e -j u d i c e s , most notably those of e s t a b l i s h e d g r a i n exporters, shipping and handling agencies, and the r a i l r o a d s , had yet to be overcome i n favour of the Western r o u t e . I t was a long struggle ending i n 1927 w i t h an eleven cent per bushel reduc-t i o n i n f r e i g h t r a t e s from Calgary to Vancouver, 1 3 The success of the campaign to develop wheat shipments from Vancouver i s r e f l e c t e d to-day In the storage f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the p o r t . From a small bebinning of one e levator 1 1 Stevens, Leah. "Rise of the p o r t of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia", Economic Geography, V o l . 12, No. 1. January 1936. p . 62. 1 2 Stevens. "Rise of the p o r t of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia", p . 64. 1 ^ Loc. c i t . 25. with a capacity of 1,250,000 bushels i n 1923, capacity increased during one eighteen month p e r i o d of 1923 and 1924- a l o n e , , to 6,500,000 bushels . By 1933, when the l a s t one was b u i l t , there were seven e l e v a t o r s w i t h a t o t a l capacity of 181,716,500 b u s h e l s . L o c a t i o n Factors for Lumber and Wheat While the f i g h t was being waged to g a i n the wheat s h i p -ments, lumber had continued i t s growth from the e a r l y s t a r t at Moodyvil le and Hastings, and as the i n d u s t r y grew, more of the waterfront of the port was occupied. In general the areas chosen were those where there was no great depth of water, the reason being that the booms of logs and the vessels that moved them to Vancouver, were of a shallow d r a f t . In a d d i t i o n , the areas of shallow water i n the port were g e n e r a l l y those with a gently s loping shore l i n e . Two such areas are the north side of B u r r a r d I n l e t , l i n e d by t i d a l mud-f lats , and F a l s e Creek, where, at low t i d e , the water i s almost everywhere l e s s than 20 feet deep. Other a t t r a c t i o n s of False Creek to the lumber i n d u s t r y were G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d and the False Creek f l a t s to the e a s t . G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d was reclaimed by the Vancouver Harbour Com-m i s s i o n i n 1916, the False Creek F l a t s J o i n t l y by the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway Company and the Great Northern R a i l -way Company i n 1917• Stevens, "Rise of the port of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia", p . 65. 26. The f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f g r a i n e l e v a t o r s were p r o x i m i t y t o a r a i l w a y l i n e and t h e w a t e r f r o n t and s u f f i -c i e n t d e p t h o f n a v i g a b l e w a t e r f o r d e e p - s e a f r e i g h t e r s . The o n l y l o c a t i o n c o m b i n i n g a l l t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s was t h e s h o r e o f B u r r a r d I n l e t i n t h e a r e a t h a t i s now t h e m a i n p o r t w a t e r -f r o n t t o t h e west o f t h e S e c o n d N a r r o w s . W i t h one e x c e p t i o n t h e e l e v a t o r s a r e a l l s i t u a t e d on t h e s o u t h s h o r e c l o s e t o t h e r a i l w a y l i n e t h a t f o l l o w s t h e w a t e r f r o n t , and a r e a l l e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o s h i p s l y i n g a t l o a d i n g b e r t h s . I n some c a s e s t h e e l e v a t o r s a r e on p i e r s and s u p p l y g r a i n d i r e c t t o s h i p s . I n o t h e r c a s e s , where t h e e l e v a t o r s t a n d s a s h o r t d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e d o c k s i d e , o v e r h e a d c o n v e y o r s move t h e g r a i n t o t h e s h i p s w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t r a f f i c m o v i n g a l o n g t h e w a t e r -f r o n t . The one e x c e p t i o n i s t h e l a r g e e l e v a t o r on t h e n o r t h P h o t o . 5. C o n v e y o r g a l l e r i e s f r o m g r a i n e l e v a t o r . s h o r e w h i c h s t a n d s on i t s own p i e r and t h u s h a s d i r e c t s u p p l y t o s h i p s . T h i s a r e a i s s e r v e d by a r a i l w a y l i n e o p e r a t e d by t h e p o r t management. The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f g r a i n e l e v a t o r s and new d o c k s p r e -27. eluded the expansion of the lumber i n d u s t r y i n the immediate port area, at l e a s t on the south side of the i n l e t . This n e c e s s i t a t e d the increased development of the i n d u s t r y i n the False Creek a r e a , w i t h the r e s u l t i n g d i v i s i o n i n t o B u r r a r d I n l e t f o r g r a i n and deep-sea s h i p s , False Creek for lumber. Thus i t was that the o r i g i n a l i n d u s t r y that f i r s t a t t r a c t e d world s h i p p i n g , continued almost i n p a r t n e r s h i p with the new world trade i n wheat. Lumbering of course i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t e d a l l i e d i n d u s t r i e s with the f i n a l r e s u l t that ships coming to Vancouver for e i t h e r g r a i n or lumber, or both, found added d i -v e r s i t y of goods with which to make up f u l l cargoes. The Harbour Commission P r i o r to the F i r s t World War, w i t h lumber as the lone major i n d u s t r i a l i n c e n t i v e , development of port f a c i l i t i e s was slow, the l i t t l e that was accomplished being done by a few i n -d i v i d u a l s or the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. The need f o r a c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y not only to administer and l e g i s l a t e , but a l -so to b u i l d , was met by the formation of the Vancouver Harbour Commission i n 1 9 1 3 * T h i s commission, operating under the Federal Department of Marine and F i s h e r i e s (now the Department of Transport) administered the port through the p e r i o d of growth and c o n s t r u c t i o n , and deserves much of the c r e d i t f o r the Im-portance of the port to-day. Under the Commission's leadership, new docks, a terminal r a i l w a y , and g r a i n elevators were b u i l t , at the same time that ships began using the port i n i n c r e a s i n g *5 Harbour and Shipping, February, 1944. p . 50. 2g. numbers. The d u t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and property of the Com-mission were taken over i n 1935 by the Vancouver s e c t i o n of the National Harbours Board, which i s now the governing a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n the p o r t . CHAPTER THREE THE PORT TO-DAY There are c e r t a i n commercial requirements that are essen-t i a l i f a port i s to achieve greatness among shipping centres of the world. These requirements a r e : l a r g e numbers of ships a r r i v i n g and departing; q u a n t i t i e s and v a r i e t i e s of commpdities moving through the p o r t ; adequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r handling and s t o r i n g ; r a i l connections to move goods and passengers both to and from the p o r t . These commercial a c t i v i t i e s are more e f f i -c i e n t i n t h e i r operation i f , as i n the case of the Port of Vancouver, d i f f e r e n t s u b d i v i s i o n s of the p o r t area, w i t h s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l features, are e a s i l y adaptable to the v a r i e d commercial a c t i v i t i e s . D i v i s i o n s of the Port and t h e i r Main Uses There are four main s u b d i v i s i o n s of the port a r e a : (Map 3) E n g l i s h Bay; the main harbour between L i o n s ' Gate Bridge and Second Narrows Bridge; the eastern harbour, c o n s i s t i n g of B u r r a r d I n l e t from Second Narrows to Port Moody plus Indian Arm to the n o r t h ; and False Creek. E n g l i s h Bay E n g l i s h Bay. l i e s between the western boundary of the port area and F i r s t Narrows (or L i o n s ' Gate). I t serves as an anchorage ground f o r ships when necessary and near the south shore there are f i x e d mooring buoys f o r l o g booms and scows. Almost the e n t i r e southern shorel ine with i t s sandy beaches, 30. s u i t a b l e f o r swimming, i s used for r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. In a d d i t i o n there are two yacht c l u b s , the Royal Vancouver and the K i t s i l a n o , plus e x c e l l e n t swimming pools at K i t s i l a n o and at Second Beach i n Stanley Park. The north shore of the bay, which i s i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of West Vancouver, i s used e x t e n s i v e l y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes. The many bays and coves i n a d d i t i o n to a f f o r d i n g s h e l t e r f o r small v e s s e l s , are a l s o as popular for bathing as the south side of the bay. Unfortunately the e n t i r e area of E n g l i s h Bay i s subject to a considerable amount of p o l l u t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the dumping of sewage and some i n d u s t r i a l waste d i r e c t l y i n t o , the harbour, p r i n c i p a l l y from the i n d u s t r i a l areas i n the p o r t . The strong t i d a l currents through the F i r s t Narrows c a r r y t h i s refuse i n t o E n g l i s h Bay where, w i t h l e s s disturbance from the c u r r e n t s , I t tends to accumulate. Large amounts of r e f u s e , p a r t i c u l a r i l y driftwood, i s washed up on the beaches as a r e s u l t of incoming t i d e s and waves. Some attempt i s made each summer by the c i t y to remove the driftwood and thus i m -prove the c o n d i t i o n of the beaches f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use, but i t accumulates each year as a r e s u l t of winter storms and g e n e r a l l y higher winter t i d e s . The Main Harbour The second s u b d i v i s i o n i s the main harbour between F i r s t Narrows Bridge on the west and Second Narrows Bridge on the e a s t . Within t h i s area (g square miles) are the multitude of i n s t a l l a t i o n s and f a c i l i t i e s necessary f o r the operat ion of a 3 1 . p o r t . The m a j o r i t y a r e on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f t h e h a r b o u r , due i n p a r t t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l s e t t l e m e n t was made on th e s o u t h s h o r e where t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more l e v e l l a n d t h a n i s f o u n d i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r . E v e n more s i g n i f i c a n t how-e v e r , i s t h e t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e s o u t h e r n s i d e w h i c h makes t h e a r e a h i g h l y s u i t a b l e a s a p o r t w a t e r f r o n t . The s h o a l i n g n a t u r e o f t h e m u d - f l a t s b u i l t up by t h e t h r e e r i v e r s o f t h e n o r t h s h o r e , p r e c l u d e d e e p - s e a s h i p p i n g f o r much o f t h e a r e a , u n l e s s e x p e n s i v e d r e d g i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e wa t e r c l o s e t o s h o r e on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e i s deep due t o t h e g l a c i a l o v e r - d e e p e n i n g , t h e a b s e n c e o f d e p o s i t i n g s t r e a m s , and t h e s c o u r i n g e f f e c t o f s t r o n g t i d a l c u r r e n t s t h a t p a r a l l e l t h e s h o r e w i t h b o t h t h e ebb and t h e f l o o d t i d e , t h u s p r e v e n t -i n g a n y g r e a t d e g r e e o f d e p o s i t i o n . A t t h e e s t e r n end o f t h e m a i n h a r b o u r i s C o a l H a r b o u r . B e c a u s e o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n a f f o r d e d b y B r o c k t o n P o i n t and Dead-p a n I s l a n d (Map 3) a n d t h e s h a l l o w w a t e r o f t h e bay, s m a l l P h o t o . 6. C o a l H a r b o u r , V a n c o u v e r , b o a t a c t i v i t y h a s become c o n c e n t r a t e d h e r e . O r i g i n a l l y C o a l 3 2 H a r b o u r e x t e n d e d a l m o s t t o E n g l i s h Bay, b u t a causeway was b u i l t c u t t i n g o f f t h e w e s t e r n p o r t i o n , w h i c h became known as L o s t L a g o o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e R o y a l V a n c o u v e r Y a c h t C l u b and t h e V a n c o u v e r Rowing C l u b , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s m a l l s h i p -y a r d s , b o a t r e p a i r d o c k s , s t o r a g e d o c k s a n d t u g and f i s h i n g b o a t b e r t h s o c c u p y i n g a l m o s t a l l t h e s h o r e l i n e o f C o a l H a r b o u r . As a f u r t h e r a t t r a c t i o n t o s m a l l b o a t s f o u r p e t r o l e u m companies have f l o a t i n g s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s a n c h o r e d t o t h e e a s t o f Deadman I s l a n d . P h o t o . 7. F l o a t i n g gas s t a t i o n s . The main s h i p p i n g and i n d u s t r i a l a r e a o f V a n c o u v e r H a r b o u r i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e s o u t h s h o r e o f t h e i n l e t f r o m C o a l H a r b o u r t o S e c o n d N a r r o w s . The C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company's d e e p - s e a and c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g d o c k s a r e the f i r s t m a j o r i n s t a l l a t i o n t o t h e e a s t o f C o a l H a r b o u r . B e c a u s e o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p a s s i n g a r o u n d B r o c k t o n P o i n t t o r e a c h them, t h e s e wharves ( P i e r A and P i e r B.C) were b u i l t a t a n a n g l e p o i n t i n g s l i g h t l y away f r o m t h e h a r b o u r e n t r a n c e . W i t h s u f f i -c i e n t d e p t h o f w a t e r and m a n o e u v e r i n g s p a c e f a r t h e r e a s t , s u c h c o n s t r u c t i o n i s not necessary and with two exceptions the docks have been b u i l t p o i n t i n g s t r a i g h t out i n t o the harbour to give any p o s s i b l e advantage of greater depth. The two exceptions are the Terminal Dock and the A l b e r t a Pool E l e v a t o r Dook. These l i e at the narrow eastern end of the harbour and were b u i l t almost p a r a l l e l to the shore to prevent b l o c k i n g of the Second Narrows. This p o s i t i o n a l s o f a c i l i t a t e s docking and c l e a r i n g i n t h i s area of r a p i d t i d a l c u r r e n t s . The main I n s t a l l a t i o n s on the north shore l i e between the two large areas of t i d a l f l a t s (Map 3)» Here the greatest part of the waterfront equipment i s devoted to s h i p b u i l d i n g and ship r e p a i r . During the F i r s t World War, when s h i p b u i l d i n g reached very l a r g e proportions i n Vancouver, the most favour-able l o c a t i o n s f o r such an i n d u s t r y on the south shore of the harbour were occupied by other port f a c i l i t i e s . The need f o r deep water w i t h i n the harbour l i m i t s l e d , therefore, to the establishment of the Industry i n i t s present l o c a t i o n . T h i s i s the only area of deep water on the north shore, and i t i s occupied almost e n t i r e l y by shipways, f l o a t i n g dry docks and marine railways which are used, i n peace time, almost e x c l u -s i v e l y f o r ship r e p a i r r a t h e r than s h i p b u i l d i n g . The mud-flat areas are used e x t e n s i v e l y as booming and storage grounds by the lumber m i l l s of the north shore. At h i g h t i d e the water over the f l a t s i s deep enough that booms or r a f t s of logs can be brought i n and moored to rows of d o l -phins or wooden p i l e s . I t Is here that the r a f t s are broken up to be sorted by ownership and by species i f necessary. When 3%, the t i d e ebbs the logs are exposed to the a i r thus k i l l i n g teredo worms which do extensive damage to logs that have been a considerable time i n water. Photo, 6. Logs on t i d a l mud-f lats . The Eastern Harbour and Indian Arm The t h i r d s u b d i v i s i o n includes a l l the area east of the Second Narrows, c o n s i s t i n g of Burrard I n l e t to Port Moody and Indian Arm, with a t o t a l area of almost 20 square m i l e s . This p o r t i o n of the harbour, and i n p a r t i c u l a r the northern extension, has very much the appearance of a f i o r d . The sides of the i n l e t are more p r e c i p i t o u s than the main h a r -bour area and there i s considerable evidence of g l a c i a l erosion. In the northern arm the most t y p i c a l f i o r d - l i k e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are the depth of the water, which v a r i e s from 300 to almost 700 f e e t , and the steep rocky sides with elevations of from 2,000 to 5,000 f e e t . With the exception of the extreme eastern end of the i n l e t beyond the s i x fathom l i n e (Map 3B) and the t i d a l f l a t s to the east of Second Narrows, the e n t i r e area has s u f f i -c i e n t depth of water f o r use by deep-sea shipping. A major handicap to greater use of the area by shipping i s the narrow - 35o entrance at Second Narrows where t i d a l currents both with the f l o o d and the ebb t i d e r e a c h a speed of between 6 and 7 miles per hour. This r a p i d current p r e v a i l s f o r only a quarter of a mile on each side of Second Narrows, the r e s t of the eastern harbours and Indian Arm being l i t t l e a f f e c t e d by t i d a l flow. In t h i s s e c t i o n of the harbour petroleum r e f i n e r i e s and storage tanks are the main i n d u s t r i a l establishments. S i x com-panies (Map 3B), I m p e r i a l , Union, B r i t i s h American, McGoll Prontenac, S h e l l and Standard are l o c a t e d i n t h i s a r e a . Lower taxes on l a r g e areas of l a n d necessary f o r t h i s type of oper-a t i o n , and the d e s i r a b i l i t y of r e l a t i v e l y u n s e t t l e d areas out-s ide the main p o r t , for safety reasons, are two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s that a t t r a c t e d the i n d u s t r y to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r e a . Other considerat ions were the need f o r s u f f i c i e n t depth of water to accommodate deep-sea o i l tankers, and s u f f i c i e n t slope f o r g r a v i t y feed from storage tanks to barges and c o a s t a l tankers. Sawmilling i s the only other a c t i v i t y of any importance i n t h i s part of Burrard I n l e t . There are four lumber m i l l s and two shingle m i l l s , a l l l o c a t e d east of the entrance to I n d i a n Arm. T h i s area i s the nearest one p o s s i b l e on the waterfront to the source of supply of lumber on I n d i a n Arm and to the east of Port Moody. In a d d i t i o n the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway l i n e follows the shore of the i n l e t so c l o s e l y that waterfrontage i s a v a i l a b l e only i n t h i s eastern part of the i n l e t . With the exception of two rock q u a r r i e s (Map 3C) which are the main source of supply of rock for the j e t t i e s at the 3°> mouth of the Fraser R i v e r , and a s u b s i d i a r y h y d r o - e l e c t r i c s t a t i o n , Indian Arm i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y used f o r r e s o r t p u r -poses. The main r e s o r t area i s Deep Cove, but there are many small summer homes along the steep s h o r e l i n e of the i n l e t . False Creek False Creek i s the f i n a l s u b d i v i s i o n of the port a r e a . T h i s narrow, d i r t y , overcrowded waterway, i s the main i n d u s -t r i a l area of the p o r t . With the growth of the g r a i n trade i n the years f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t shipments i n 1920 and 1921, i n -dustry moved to t h i s waterway from the waterfront area of the main harbour. At that time, when the c i t y of Vancouver was considerably smaller than I t Is to-day, and when slower t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d the l o c a t i o n of Industry near r e s i d e n -t i a l and commercial areas, no great d i f f i c u l t y e x i s t e d . To-day i t i s the "problem area" of the c i t y . Almost surrounding a square mile of water are crowded sawmills, processing p l a n t s , warehouses, wharves and r a i l w a y yards. Because of the shallow-ness of the water In False Creek — 20 feet and l e s s at low t i d e — only small boats and tugs with scows or l o g r a f t s can use the waterway. Even f o r many of these, the low l e v e l v e h i c u l a r bridges that cross the I n l e t at G r a n v i l l e Street and at Cambie S t r e e t , must be opened. This i s a serious hindrance to the r a p i d movement of s t r e e t c a r s , buses and automobiles that must cross the I n l e t i n t r a v e l l i n g between the commercial area of the c i t y and the main r e s i d e n t i a l areas. The h i g h -l e v e l Burrard Street Bridge el iminates some of the t r a f f i c 37. delay, and s t i l l further improvement w i l l r e s u l t from the p r o -posed h i g h - l e v e l G r a n v i l l e Street B r i d g e . U n t i l t h i s l a t t e r thoroughfare i s completed, however, the e x i s t i n g low bridges w i l l continue to cause lengthy delays to both t r a f f i c and s h i p p i n g . Photo. 9. False Creek, Vancouver. Growth of the Port The future of the p o r t of Vancouver was i n d i c a t e d , a l l unknowingly to the men r e s p o n s i b l e , by the f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l use of a n a t u r a l resource on the i n l e t . From the small be-g i n n i n g i n I863 and 1865, the f i r s t two sawmills had grown s u f f i c i e n t l y that by 1876, f i f t y ships l e f t the i n l e t with approximately 30,000,000 board feet of lumber and 1,000,000 feet of s p a r s . ^ Thus lumber exporting, as one phase of future development, was e s t a b l i s h e d . The second major advance i n the value of the port ap-peared with the a r r i v a l i n September, 1886, of the f i r s t trans-!6 Annual Report of the Harbour Commissioners of Vancourer, 1920, p . 5. 38. P a c i f i c cargo from the Orient f o r shipment overland "by r a i l . ' I t i s true that t r a n s - P a c i f i c shipping with cargoes f o r e a s t -ern Canada would he a t t r a c t e d to almost any port on the British Columbia coast that possessed a r a i l l i n k w i t h the e a s t . Nevertheless the trend was i n d i c a t e d , and was even f u r t h e r strengthened w i t h the granting of a t r a n s - P a c i f i c m a l l contract • to the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway hy the B r i t i s h Government i n 1 2 2 9 . l g I t was the increase of the wheat export that s t a r t e d the growth of the port towards a p o s i t i o n of world importance. The f a i t h of a few men i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of Vancouver as a wheat shipping centre, i n the face of strong o p p o s i t i o n from many s i d e s , f i n a l l y r e s u l t e d In the p o r t achieving I t s present p o s i t i o n . This f i n a l r e s u l t came about because lumber retained i t s former importance and even i n c r e a s e d i n quanti ty of both imports and exports as more s h i p s , a t t r a c t e d by wheat, came to the port for cargoes of both g r a i n and lumber. Even i n de-p r e s s i o n years when shipping and lumber export both d e c l i n e d , wheat shipments remained Important, and i n fact even reached a maximum i n 1932, as i s i n d i c a t e d by Table l . 1 ^ ! 7 Annual Report of the Harbour Commissioners of Vancouver, 1920, p . 5. 12 Sage, "Vancouver 1 1 , p . 110. 19 Figure 1 and f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c a l presentations i n Chapter 3, cover the p e r i o d 1921-1935. This represents both the p e r i o d of greatest growth before the Second World War — the p e r i o d i n which the Port of Vancouver became e s t a b l i s h e d — and the p e r i o d of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n under the Vancouver Harbour Commission. From 1936 the port has been under the adminis-t r a t i o n of the National Harbours Board. During these l a t t e r years a combination of world economic and p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s p l u s a d i f f e r e n t form of s t a t i s t i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , make com-p a r i s o n s d i f f i c u l t . To add to the d i f f i c u l t y of any s t a t i s -t i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n many cases there i s no information for the year 193Q. Once a s t a r t had been made with wheat and lumber, there fol lowed a steady growth of the p o r t . The meagre g r a i n storage capacity a v a i l a b l e i n 1923 (1,250,000 bushels) was not enough f o r the shipments planned i n the f u t u r e . New e l e v a t o r con-s t r u c t i o n l e d to new docks, dockside equipment, and greater a b i l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y of conducting the a c t i v i t y of a p o r t . This i n i t s t u r n served as f u r t h e r inducement to shipping com-panies to use Vancouver. From t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d of growth, i t i s exceedingly d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible , to determine which are the most important f a c t o r s or i n what sequence they appeared to c o n t r i b u t e to the growth of the p o r t . The impor-tant elements to consider i n t r y i n g to assess the growth of the p o r t a r e : the increase i n numbers of ships u s i n g the h a r -bour; the r e l a t i o n s h i p s with various outstanding world market-, areas; and the appearance of more and more diverse commodities. Because of the d i f f i c u l t y of separating them, determining their r e l a t i v e importance and p l a c i n g them i n an acceptable o r d e r , they are presented i n graphic form on pages ho and M-1. In the case of Table 1, not only the annual t o t a l of ships a r r i v i n g i n Vancouver i s given, but also the country of o r i g i n . While i t cannot be assumed that a ship r e t u r n s to i t s country of r e g i s t r y , the f i g u r e s do show a growth of i n t e r e s t by other countries i n the cargoes a v a i l a b l e i n Vancouver. At the same time there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between these f i g u r e s and Map No, which shows the p r i n c i p a l markets f o r exports and sources of imports that pass through the port of Vancouver. Table 2 i n d i c a t e s the p r i n c i p a l commodities exported between EABLE 1 - Arrivals - Ocean-Goirig Ships 1919-1934 "by Nationality Year Britain U.S.A. 3 Norway Prance Holland Denmark Yugoslavia Sweden Russia Mexico Peru Chile i Cyprus Italy China Spain Nicaragua Panama G-ermany Belgium Greece Guatemala Finland TOTAI 1919 122 114 28 17 32 3 5 7 328 1920 154 150 15 3 9 — — — 2 — 336 1921 190 190 84 5 4 10 6 — 6 — — 1 496 1922 303 225 122 25 15 17 7 — 3 717 1923 33S 2S3 129 37 IS 15 8 — 7 1 — 1 1 — 7 — 845 1924 422 293 123 71 19 20 21 — 11 — 2 — 2 — 4 — 2 2 5 12 989 1925 376 285 147 28 19 11 — 12 — 3 mmmm 1 l 12 1 3 — — 916 1926 430 283 158 63 23 21 24 — . 21 — — 19 — — 5 18 5 l — — 1,071 1927 445 327 155 54 25 22 25 — 24 — 23 3 18 — — 2 — 1.123 192S 553 352 222 69 20 23 37 — 18 — 1 — 2 35 1.364 1929 466 372 219 68 22 23 28 — 27 — 1 — — — 17 — 1 1 45 4 1 — — 1.295 1930 394 337 169 87 24 24 23 -- 28 15 42 13 — — 1 1.157 1931 349 292 119 88 20 22 36 — 31 — — 21 1 46 l l 1.036 1932 451 24l 146 108 19 23 35 — 33 — — — — 1 17 2 43 3 l — — 1,122 1933 434 234 165 102 22 24 37 1 28 16 4 43 3 — — — 1.113 1934 476 245 164 28 42 33 — 34 — — 17 — — — 4 45 — 3 — 4 1,211 Source: Annual Report - 1934. Vancouver Commission. TABLE 2 - Principal Export Commodities 1921-1934 Year GRAIN (Ba.) LUMBER (Bd. Ft.) FISH Canned (Cases) FISH Salted Dried (Tons) APPLES (Boxes) FLOUR (Tons) zinc (Tons) LEAD (Tons) PAPER (News) etc. (Tons) PULP (Tons) SHINGLES (Bundles) MILK, CANNED (Cases) DOORS FISH MEAL (Tons) FISH OIL (Tons) TOTAL TONS! 1921 1,128,734 166,122,164 — — — — — — — 329.906 1922 14,463.883 203.977.705 — — — — — — — — — — — • — — 785.340 1923 24,663,017 429,592,806 — — — — — — — — — — — -- — 1.523.311 1924 53.240,516 553.030,610 — — — — — — . — — — — — — — 2.374,434 1925 3^,868,192 504,895.367 1,652,806 39.827 199,959 80,959 101.996 — — — — — — — — 1.845,725 1926 45,229,906 629..O53.3O9 1,303,291 50,347 284,912 103,146 37.584 76.421 — — — — — — 3,353.512 1927 43,602,210 585.891.926 1.657.838 49,139 210,605 126,053 51.548 101,583 1 mmmm mwm» 3,296,272 97,561,716 Barrels 1928 578.127.523 1,522,577 70,170 212,029 1.789,640 50,846 84,619 — — — — — — 5.053.621 1929 73.984,114 501,463,056 1.398,525 57,280 152,944 2,759.144 35.421 72,317 — — — — — — 4,528,977 1930 63,437,312 411,497.784 1,064,799 42,916 240,244 1.429,535 34,133 39,898 — — — — — — — 3.672.050 1931 70,841,445 277.173.726 937.620 58.076 81,858 1.058,325 30,141 31.593 28,967 18,198 219.994 — — — — 3.717.091 1932 105.006,925 213.573.796 932,668 24,653 104,157 1.075.761 18,514 36,774 33.768 8,441 530,790 69.105 •mmm — — 3.793.105 1933 68,828,024 272,224,223 1,170,412 29,094 160,439 1,271,127 8,418 17.786 45,786 10,084 863,501 7L349 92,581 — — 2,881,015 1934 51,757,614 435,960,625 1,038.173 24,814 171.033 973.605 7.879 12,831 55.5O6 23,889 913.490 49.990 176.657 8.749 3.233 2,594,932 Source: Vancouver Harbour Commissioners Annual Reports, 1921-1934. t 1921 and 1935* a n < i a t the same time shows a steady growth i n the number of commodities exported. T h i s i s by no means a com-p l e t e l i s t of export goods f o r the p e r i o d 1921 to 1935, but rather the l i s t i n g s given i n annual r e p o r t s as each category reached s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s these three i l l u s t r a t i o n s show a growth of both shipping and tonnage up to the years of the de-p r e s s i o n , and an establishment of c e r t a i n f o r e i g n areas as r e -g u l a r markets f o r exports and sources of imports. A l s o n o t i c e -able i s the f a c t that while the number of ships and export tonnage f l u c t u a t e d as a r e s u l t of economic depression, the areas d e l i m i t e d i n Map No. maintained t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s to a considerable degree. A f i n a l aspect of the growth of the port can be i l l u s -t r a t e d with the movement of passengers. As Is so often the case, s t a t i s t i c a l information again i s very sketchy and a d i v i -s i o n i n t o c o a s t a l or deep-sea passenger movements Is not always p o s s i b l e . However, s u f f i c i e n t information i s a v a i l a b l e to i n -d i c a t e an increase i n passenger movement from Vancouver between 1921 and 1929. This Increase was fol lowed by a d e c l i n e during the e a r l y depression years, and i n t u r n , by a s l i g h t Increase before the Second World War. The e n t i r e p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g 1921 i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a steady d e c l i n e In deep-sea passenger movements, Vancouver at no time having a large t o t a l i n com-p a r i s o n to the c o a s t a l passenger f i g u r e s . Much of the c o a s t a l passenger t r a f f i c for each year can be accounted for as t o u r i s t movements i n the summer months, TABLE 3 - C o a s t a l and Deep-Sea Passengers Landed and Embarked at Vancouver 1921 to 1935. LANDED EMBARKED Year C o a s t a l Deep-Sea T o t a l Year C o a s t a l Deep-Sea T o t a l 1921 342,151 16,199 558,350 1921 339,602 16,036 335,638 1922 354,100 11,092 365,192 1922 362,959 13,501 376,460 1923 421,147 1923 431,739 1924 404,408 1924 mm mm mm 414,470 1925 479,967 1925 485,386 1926 508,661 1926 513,908 1927 478,024 1927 499,148 1928 528,743 1928 539,928 1929 550,292 1929 561,753 1930 489,437 13,473 502,910 1930 506,696 16,645 523,341 1931 412,817 1931 425,724 1932 323,303 7,633 330,936 1932 323,041 13,791 336,832 1933 328,629 6,751 335,380 1933 331,338 10,597 341,935 1934 19351 388,723 8,951 397,674 1934 1935 1 393,609 11,525 405,134 Source,: Vancouver Harbour Commissioners, Annual Report 1934. No data a v a i l a b l e . p a r t l c u l a r i l y between Vancouver and Vancouver I s l a n d . A second important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the growth of passenger movement r e -s u l t e d from the increase development of c o a s t a l sett lement. Table 2 shows an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g l i s t of commodities exported from Vancouver. Of the f i f t e e n commodities l i s t e d , nine of them — lumber, paper, p u l p , s h i n g l e s , doors, canned f i s h , processed f i s h , f i s h meal and f i s h o i l are produced i n the c o a s t a l area of B r i t i s h Columbia. When the development of these resources f i r s t s t a r t e d , sources of supply c lose to the port s u f f i c e d , but with the Increase of shipping and exporting that followed 1921, greater supply areas were needed, with the r e s u l t that centres of production moved to c o a s t a l s i t e s , l e a v -ing to the l a r g e r c i t i e s much of the processing stages of both f o r e s t r y and f i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s . The growth of c o a s t a l settlements l e d to an i n c r e a s e d dependence on Vancouver as a supply c e n t r e . This I n t u r n con-t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y to an increase i n c o a s t a l passenger movements. Major c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the importance of a seaport are the number of ships served, the ships being a t t r a c t e d by the f a c i l i t i e s and services o f f e r e d , as w e l l as the cargoes a v a i l -able for export, and the demand f o r cargoes Imported. E q u a l l y Important to the port are i t s h i n t e r l a n d s and the i n d u s t r y w i t h i n i t s own l i m i t s , to process the goods of those h i n t e r -l a n d s . This aspect, i n t u r n , demands c e r t a i n l o c a l condit ions e i t h e r n a t u r a l or man-made. Therefore, growth as experienced by Vancouver depends on the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of the two phases which cannot be p l a c e d i n any c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r : the Increase *5. i n numbers of s h i p s , tonnages handled, markets and passenger movements; the development of Industry, not because of the de-mand only, but a l s o because of the l o c a l f a c t o r s p e r m i t t i n g i t . Industry i n the Port L o c a t i o n , or s i t e , i s perhaps the most important l o c a l f a c t o r , with a c o n d i t i o n i n g f a c t o r being the l o c a t i o n of r a i l and r o a d communication to i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s . In a p o r t area the proximity of r a i l and road connection to shipping i s a l s o important. A f u r t h e r p r e r e q u i s i t e common to a l l Industry i s power and considerable advantage Is gained i f more than one type of i n d u s t r i a l power i s a v a i l a b l e . A f i n a l requirement i s the maintenance of a labour f o r c e , which grows i n response to the demands of i n d u s t r y . A l l these requirements are met, to a greater or l e s s de-gree, i n Vancouver and i t s p o r t a r e a . Of the major i n d u s t r i a l areas of Vancouver, one zone l i e s outside the port a r e a . The one exception i s the i n d u s t r i a l zone i n the lowland of the Burnaby Lake a r e a . (Map 2) This zone enjoys the advantages of r a i l and highway s e r v i c e s but, as i s so common throughout the waterfront area as w e l l , l e v e l l a n d i s s c a r c e . The greatest disadvantage i n the area i s the neces-s i t y of deep p i l i n g . The lowest l e v e l , c o n s i s t i n g mainly of peat, i s the p a r t i a l l y abandoned bed of a once l a r g e r Burnaby Lake. To g a i n a f i r m foundation f o r i n d u s t r i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , p i l e s have been d r i v e n to a' depth of over 50 f e e t . The i n d u s t r i a l zone w i t h i n the immediate p o r t area con-s i s t s of two main areas; False Creek with the two reolaimed areas of G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d and False Creek F l a t s ; and the water-front f a c i n g on Burrard I n l e t . When the False Creek area was f i r s t used f o r i n d u s t r y the p r i n c i p a l advantages were that i t was near the c i t y and i t was on water navigable by shallow draft v e s s e l s . Because of the s l o p i n g nature of the shore, considerable p i l i n g and f i l l -ing i n behind p i l e s was necessary to b u i l d up s i t e s not too f a r from the edge of the water. A d d i t i o n a l space f o r i n d u s t r y was provided by the reclamation of False Creek F l a t s and G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d (Map 5 ) . On G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d there are 20 l o t s varying from 50 feet to 60 feet i n width and 200 feet to 300 feet i n depth, each l o t w i t h e i t h e r water frontage o r r a i l connection. The second main I n d u s t r i a l area l i e s along the water-front on both sides of the main harbour sect ion of Burrard I n l e t . On the south side of the i n l e t , because of the steeper shore, the f irm l a y e r of g l a c i a l deposits and deeper water, d i f f i c u l t i e s of i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n were not nearly as great as i n False Creek or on the north shore. In some areas f i l l i n g was necessary but the task was not as great as on the north side of the i n l e t . On the l a t t e r shore the major obstacles to be dealt with were the t i d a l mud-flats which r e s t r i c t the f o r e -shore i n i t s i n d u s t r i a l use. Within the l i m i t s of the C i t y of North Vancouver, however, (Map 5) considerable reclamation has been c a r r i e d out and the new area used f o r both i n d u s t r y and s h i p p i n g . A minor p o r t i o n of the Burrard I n l e t i n d u s t r i a l water-47. front l i e s to the east of the Second Narrows B r i d g e . Here the combination of deep water, steep slopes and f i r m foundation have been adopted f o r use p r i m a r i l y by petroleum r e f i n e r i e s . Lying between False Creek and B u r r a r d I n l e t i s a commer-c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l area that l i n k s the two s e c t i o n s , but, b e -cause i t l i e s on the landward side of the gently s l o p i n g , d r i f t covered, northern r i d g e , does not suffer from the Inherent . weaknesses of t i d a l mud-flats, peat, or steep slopes found i n other areas. T h i s c o m m e r c i a l - I n d u s t r i a l area l i n k i n g False Creek and Burrard I n l e t , i s a d i v e r s i f i e d one. Because i t i s close to the main commercial area of Vancouver, there are a few r e t a i l s t o r e s , but wholesale warehouses and d i s t r i b u t i n g . firms are more common. Intermixed with these are poor housing,-small shops, and a number of l i g h t i n d u s t r i e s which produce such commodities as p a i n t , paper and cardboard, l i g h t machinery and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s . Location near means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by water or r a i l has been a major f a c t o r i n the choice of i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . For those i n d u s t r i e s on the waterfront, a connection has been p r o -v i d e d with d i f f e r e n t forms of shipping which are i n t u r n , de-pendent on depth of water and space f o r movement. Without r a i l -way f a c i l i t i e s that l i n k a l l the i n d u s t r i a l areas, however, none of the areas would have achieved a maximum development. Railway System The railway network, l i n k i n g the sect ions of the port and .connecting Vancouver with New Westminster and i n turn with the r e s t of Canada and the U n i t e d States, i s complex (Map 5). Five rai lway companies, Canadian P a c i f i c , Canadian N a t i o n a l , Great Northern, B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c and P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n , e i t h e r own right-of-ways and operate t h e i r own equip-ment or move t h e i r equipment over the l i n e s of another company, under j o i n t agreement, o r , as i n one case, lease l i n e s to a n -other operating agency — the National Harbours Board — and move no r o l l i n g stock of t h e i r own over the l i n e s . The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i s the major r a i l company w i t h i n the port and, i n conjunction w i t h the Terminal Railway of the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, supplies r a i l service to both sides of Burrard I n l e t . From the Canadian P a c i f i c yards on the n o r t h side of False Creek, the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway moves cars to G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d , a p o r t i o n of the south side of False Creek, and to the New Westminster a r e a . The r e -mainder of the south shore of False Creek Is l i n k e d by the Great Northern Railway,to the combined Canadian National-Great Northern marshal l ing yards at the eastern end of F a l s e Creek. This area i s i n turn j o i n e d to the B u r r a r d I n l e t waterfront by a short l i n e operated J o i n t l y by the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board and the Great Northern Railway Company. Not only does t h i s rai lway network J o i n a l l the Indus-t r i a l areas but i t a lso meets the primary need w i t h i n a p o r t , of p r o v i d i n g r a i l connections d i r e c t to s h i p s . I n t h i s way, one of the major functions of a p o r t , i t s a b i l i t y to l i n k d i f -ferent modes of t r a n s p o r t , i s f u l f i l l e d . Indeed t h i s l a s t f u n c t i o n i s further r e i n f o r c e d through the use of f i r s t c l a s s highways which a l s o J o i n a l l the i n d u s t r i a l areas of Burrard 49. Peninsula with each other, as w e l l as with the waterfront (Map 9 ) . I n d u s t r i a l Power The t h i r d p r e r e q u i s i t e of i n d u s t r i a l development Is power. In Vancouver one u t i l i t y company, the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company, supplies both e l e c t r i c i t y and gas to the e n t i r e B u r r a r d P e n i n s u l a . The company has f i v e main hydro-e l e c t r i c production centres with a combined capacity of 377,200 kw. (506,434 H . P . ) . 2 0 This output i s s u f f i c i e n t not only f o r a l l present demands from both i n d u s t r y and port i n s t a l l a t i o n s , but a l s o to supply some r e s e r v e power to the Northwest Power Pool which covers the states of Washington, Oregon and western Idaho. Coal gas i s the second i n d u s t r i a l power s u p p l i e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company. Using c o a l p r i n c i -p a l l y from the mines of the Comox-Courtenay area of Vancouver I s l a n d , the company provides gas f o r the e n t i r e B u r r a r d P e n i n s u l a . Two p l a n t s are i n operation, one with a d a i l y p r o -duction of 15,750,000 cubic f e e t , and: a reserve plant, w i t h a d a l l y production of 4,000,000 c u b i c f e e t . Gas i s used p r i -mari ly by the metals industry but not too excessive demands from other i n d u s t r i e s can r e a d i l y be met. As gas gives a more r a p i d heat than e l e c t r i c i t y , and the equipment i s more e a s i l y I n s t a l l e d , cheaper to operate, and governed by l e s s s t r i n g e n t 2 0 B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company, L t d . l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , 26 November, 195 1 * 21 Loc. c i t . 50. r e g u l a t i o n s , a greater use i s p o s s i b l e i n the f u t u r e . Future uses w i l l undoubtedly Increase with the p i p i n g of n a t u r a l gas from A l b e r t a to Vancouver. Unfortunately, even though one of f i v e p r o j e c t e d gas pipe l i n e s from A l b e r t a has been approved, there w i l l be considerable delay In c o n s t r u c t i o n . Labour The f i n a l requirement of i n d u s t r y i s an adequate labour supply, not only a t t r a c t e d to the area but i n c r e a s i n g i n num-bers i n p r o p o r t i o n to the demands from i n d u s t r y . F i g u r e 1, which shows the r a t e of the increase of Vancouver's population, and employment index, i n d i c a t e s a r a p i d growth of p o p u l a t i o n between 1922 and 1931. During the depression years employment f l u c t u a t e d and i n f a c t showed a decided decrease u n t i l 1933. A f t e r 1933 however, the employment index rose r a p i d l y , at a greater r a t e than the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e . This would indicate that as i n d u s t r y expanded, i t absorbed those who had c o n t r i -buted e a r l i e r to the r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e . The increase i n employment f o l l o w i n g 1933 would a l s o Include those who l o s t Jobs during the p e r i o d from 1930 to 1933 when the index de-c l i n e d . Growth of Services to Industry S u i t a b l e l o c a l f a c t o r s permitted the growth of i n d u s t r y i n response to e x t e r n a l stimulants of i n c r e a s e d shipping and new markets. A symbiotic development ensued, more f a c i l i t i e s * f o r Industry i n the form of extended r a i l r o a d s , i n c r e a s e d i n -d u s t r i a l power and a l a r g e r labour f o r c e , r e i n f o r c i n g the growth of shipping, increase i n export and import tonnages, 1000 9 0 0 . 8 0 0 7 0 0 6 0 0 5 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 100 R A T E OF INCREASE OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D POPULAT ION 1922-1951. E M P L O Y M E N T P O P U L A T I O N 1 9 3 9 I N D E X = IOO Comparison of Rotes of Growth Employment Index Vancouver Index of number of payrolls. Province 1,000,000 9 0 0 , 0 0 0 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 700 ,000 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 300,000 200 ,000 100,000 < / / y 9 0 1 —' ou 70 6 0 50 4 0 3 0 2 0 10 ^ -* ^ ^ " ^ — 1922 1931 1941 1951 1922 I 9 3 J 1941 1951 F IGURE I. 52. and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of commodities shipped. Unfortunately, i t i s impossible to present, i n a s t a t i s -t i c a l form, information on i n c r e a s e d r a i l f a c i l i t i e s . • Some information was s u p p l i e d by the Great Northern Railway Company, the l e a s t important of the three major rai lway companies oper-a t i n g i n Vancouver. The most s i g n i f i c a n t Information was.that "There have been numerous i n d u s t r y tracks p l a c e d since 1920 n 23 In the case of i n d u s t r i a l power, which i s a guide to i n c r e a s e d i n d u s t r i a l ! z a t i on, d e f i n i t e Information of expansion since 1920 i s a v a i l a b l e . TABLE 4. INCREASE OF INDUSTRIAL POWER - VANCOUVER, 1920-51 E l e c t r i c i t y Gas 1920 1930 1932 1942 1951 91,700 kw. l6o,900 kw. 196,100 kw. 241,100 kw. 377,200 kw. 1920 1930 1940 1950 1,750,000 c u . 5,000,000 c u . 9,500,000 c u . 15,750,000 c u . f t . / d a y f t . / d a y f t . / d a y f t . / d a y Source. B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company, L t d . l e t t e r to the w r i t e r November 26, 1951* 2 2 E x t r a c t from a l e t t e r to the w r i t e r from the Reports Branch, Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways. November 1, 1951» "I regret to advise you that s t a t i s t i c s are not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and that gathering them would involve a t r e -mendous amount of r e s e a r c h . . . . Our Vancouver r e p r e s e n t a t i v e approached appropriate o f f i c i a l s of the C i t y of Vancouver, the Board of Trade, the National Harbours Board, the Deputy M i n i s t e r of Railways f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, the Department of Trade and Industry and the r a i l w a y companies and they a l l r e -g r e t t e d that the information was not a v a i l a b l e . " NOTE: No information has been r e c e i v e d from Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. 23 Great Northern Railway C o . , Saint P a u l , Minnesota. L e t t e r to the w r i t e r , October 25, 1951* 53. Types of Industry and T h e i r Location Four types of Industry developed i n Vancouver with some degree of c o n t r o l by l o c a l f a c t o r s on the l o c a t i o n of each. The four types are primary, secondary, supply and s u p p o r t i n g . The primary i n d u s t r i e s , s h i p b u i l d i n g , lumber, f i s h p r o -cessing and o i l r e f i n i n g , are l o c a t e d on the waterfront. In some cases waterfront l o c a t i o n i s an abvious n e c e s s i t y as i n the case of s h i p b u i l d i n g ; i n other cases — lumber m i l l s , f i s h canneries and o i l r e f i n e r i e s — l o c a t i o n i s a r e s u l t of the mode of d e l i v e r y of raw m a t e r i a l s . The three remaining.types of i n d u s t r y are l o c a t e d on the waterfront i f p o s s i b l e , but i t i s not e s s e n t i a l . P a r t i c u -l a r i t y i s t h i s the case with the secondary i n d u s t r i e s such as plywood and veneer m i l l s , f u r n i t u r e f a c t o r i e s , p l a n i n g m i l l s , box and crate f a c t o r i e s , to mention the most important. These are v i r t u a l l y a s u b d i v i s i o n of the main lumber i n d u s t r y and, as they r e l y on the sawmills for t h e i r raw m a t e r i a l they have grown up i n the port a r e a . The supply I n d u s t r i e s are meat packing, baking, produc-t i o n of dairy goods, brewing and d i s t i l l i n g . As these i n d u s -t r i e s supply the needs of the p o p u l a t i o n i n the whole metro-p o l i t a n area, they are not n e c e s s a r i l y on the waterfront. In a p o r t however, some of them such as breweries, d i s t i l l e r i e s and meat packing p l a n t s , would use waterfront s i t e s i f they were a v a i l a b l e . The f i n a l d i v i s i o n includes the supporting i n d u s t r i e s . The p r i n c i p a l i n d u s t r i e s i n t h i s group are machine shops, machinery manufacturing, sheet metal p l a n t s , t o o l manufac-t u r e r s , e t c . Since these i n d u s t r i e s are supporting, on the one hand, the waterfront i n d u s t r i e s , and on the other hand, those that are not e s s e n t i a l l y on the waterfront, a d i v i s i o n between waterfront and i n l a n d l o c a t i o n s must be expected. I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s d i v i s i o n of i n d u s t r i e s , there has been a decided tendency, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i r s t group, t o -wards l o c a l i z a t i o n . This i s most marked i n the case of saw-m i l l s , concentrated in' False Creek or on the north shore of B u r r a r d I n l e t . A second example i s s h i p b u i l d i n g with the major f a c i l i t i e s i n North Vancouver. Petroleum r e f i n i n g , l o c a l i z e d i n the eastern p a r t of the harbour, i s s t i l l another example. Through i n d u s t r i e s may be p l a c e d i n groups and though some l o c a l i z a t i o n may be i n d i c a t e d , the h i s t o r i c a l growth of the p o r t , type of l a n d , and needs of other a c t i v i t i e s o r the p o p u l a t i o n , w i l l r e s u l t i n a degree of unconformity and mix-ture i n a zone such as the main waterfront of a harbour. The r e s u l t has been t h a t , though some areas show a conce ntrat ion of one type of i n d u s t r y , the immediate waterfront of Vancouver has achieved considerable d i v e r s i t y . In Coal Harbour, where there Is p r o t e c t i o n from wind and where the water i s too shallow f o r large ships, there are moorings and r e p a i r f a c i l i t i e s for small boats. Farther to the east, where the water of the harbour i s deeper, and there i s more space f o r manoeuvering l a r g e r s h i p s , are the deep-sea docks and the g r a i n elevators.(Map 5). Interspersed between 55. docks and elevators are the i n d u s t r i e s that would he expected i n an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d waterfront a r e a . One of the l a r g e s t i s a can f a c t o r y , an industry that f a l l s i n t o the supporting c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; two others, supplying p o p u l a t i o n needs, are a sugar r e f i n e r y , found e x c l u s i v e l y i n p o r t s i n Canada, and a large meat packing p l a n t . The remainder of the p o r t area from Goal Harbour to Second Narrows has f i s h canneries, small boat b u i l d i n g yards, i c e and c o l d storage p l a n t s , tug and scow moorings, s c a t t e r e d almost l n d l s c r i m i n a n t l y among l a r g e deep-sea docks, e levators and major i n d u s t r i a l developments. The two i n d u s t r i a l areas — False Greek and the Burrard I n l e t waterfront — have grown up on a b a s i s of l o c a l f a c t o r s , i n response to the demands of increased s h i p p i n g , and growing p o p u l a t i o n . The l o c a l f a c t o r s of s i t e , communications, i n d u s -t r i a l power, and labour, have permitted Increasing i n d u s t r i a l -i z a t i o n which has drawn p o p u l a t i o n and i n turn r e s u l t e d i n a s u c c e s s f u l growth of trade and commerce. At the same time i n -d u s t r i a l growth has both depended on, and a l s o permitted, a proper use of the advantages presented by the various h i n t e r -lands of the p o r t . This cause and effect r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o c a l f a c t o r s , i n d u s t r i a l growth and proper use of h i n t e r l a n d s i s a f u r t h e r example of a symbiotic development i n which, again, no c h r o n o l o g i c a l order need be devised.. The dominant c o n c l u s i o n i s that the port only prospers and grows as i t s h i n t e r l a n d s are developed. CHAPTER FOUR  HINTERLANDS D e f i n i t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n of Vancouver's H i n t e r l a n d A h i n t e r l a n d i s that p o r t i o n of space that i s served by a p o r t or whose people and i n d u s t r y use a port f o r entry and e x i t . By t h i s d e f i n i t i o n the c o a s t a l h i n t e r l a n d of Vancouver could be s a i d to extend from the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary on the south to the Alaska Panhandle on the n o r t h , and i n c l u d e the Queen Charlotte Islands p l u s both the immediate c o a s t a l waters of the province and c e r t a i n nearby deep-sea areas. On the south and north t h i s h i n t e r l a n d i s l i m i t e d by p o l i t i c a l boundaries. To the west i t s ocean l i m i t s vary with the y e a r l y movements of f i s h to sea or towards the l a n d . The boundary on the east v a r i e s as new settlements appear as a r e -s u l t of e i t h e r renewed mining a c t i v i t y or new logging methods that change p r e v i o u s l y unused f o r e s t s to a c c e s s i b l e economic lumbering a r e a s . Other areas of B r i t i s h Columbia use Vancouver as a port of entry and e x i t . To determine the h i n t e r l a n d of a port and to map i t s boundaries however, there should be some s t a t i s t i c a l b a s i s . For the area here defined as Vancouver's c o a s t a l h i n -t e r l a n d some s t a t i s t i c s of tonnages passing through the port are a v a i l a b l e though they are f a r from complete f o r the purpose. For other p a r t s of the province s u f f i c i e n t information i s not a v a i l a b l e , e i t h e r because no agency has c o l l e c t e d i t o r , as happens more commonly, the p r i v a t e firms i n v o l v e d i n t r a n s -57. p o r t a t i o n , w i l l not make the information a v a i l a b l e . In the case of some s p e c i f i c commodities such as concen-t r a t e s and f r u i t , Information p u b l i s h e d by the Port of?. New Westminster Commission, show that port as the main exporter. As these products come l a r g e l y from T r a i l and the Okanagan V a l l e y , the a v a i l a b l e information would i n d i c a t e that these two areas l i e more w i t h i n the h i n t e r l a n d of New Westminster than of Vancouver. In the case of the r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p — the supply from a port to these areas — t h e r e i s no a v a i l -able information to show that Vancouver i s the p r i n c i p a l sup-p l i e r , nor can i t be safely assumed that New Westminster f i l l s the r o l e e n t i r e l y . Because of the lack of necessary information and the danger of making a false assumption concerning Vancouver's r e -l a t i o n s h i p with other areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, no attempt has been made to determine the i n t e r i o r h i n t e r l a n d . Instead, the d i s c u s s i o n of the Port of Vancouver i n r e l a t i o n to h i n t e r -lands has been l i m i t e d to the c o a s t a l area of the province as some s t a t i s t i c a l information i s a v a i l a b l e to show the r e l i a n c e of t h i s area on Vancouver f o r supplies and equipment. This too i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by information s u p p l i e d by the business f i r m s , i n d u s t r y and shipping companies contacted i n Vancouver. P r i n c i p a l Exports from B r i t i s h Columbia Ports Within the c o a s t a l h i n t e r l a n d of the Port; of Vancouver, there are a v a r i e t y of n a t u r a l resources, or products r e s u l t -i n g from them, that are exported to world markets from B r i t i s h 52. Columbia p o r t s . The most important of these resources or by-pit products can be d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g s i x groups. Croup 1. Logs, posts , p o l e s , hog f u e l , lumber, plywood. Group 2. Paper and paper stock, wood pulp, pulpwood and c h i p s . Group 3» Copper ores and concentrates, other ores and concentrates. Group 4. C o a l . Group 5. F i s h ( f r e s h , cured, canned, f r o z e n . ) Group 6. Lime, l imestone, p l a s t e r . The importance of these groups as export commodities.is shown i n Figure 7, which deals w i t h the s i x groups combined, as a percentage of t o t a l f o r e i g n exports from a l l the ports of the p r o v i n c e . During the p e r i o d 1943-1949, the amount of f o r e i g n exports made up of these commodities f e l l below 50$ of t o t a l f o r e i g n exports by sea only i n 1945, 1946, and 1949. I f wheat exports are added, the amount increases to over 70% of t o t a l f o r e i g n exports i n 19^-5, and over 20$ f o r the remaining years of the p e r i o d . Thus only between 20$ and J0% of the t o t a l f o r e i g n exports from a l l B r i t i s h Columbia ports c o n s i s t of commodities other than those i n the s i x main groups. By no means do a l l these resources or products pass through the Port of Vancouver. Nevertheless, I t i s almost Im-p o s s i b l e to el iminate the a c t i v i t y and the inf luence of the p o r t from the functions of the c o a s t a l producing a r e a s . 24 These groups l i s t together the more or l e s s s i m i l a r commodities r e s u l t i n g from n a t u r a l resources that comprise, the fr e a t e s t part of the t o t a l . e x p o r t s from B r i t i s h Columbia ports l e s s wheat) as l i s t e d i n the Annual Shipping Report of the Dominion Bureau S t a t i s t i c s . Within the c o a s t a l h i n t e r l a n d of Vancouver, there are s e v e r a l smaller p o r t s , each with some p r o p o r t i o n of f o r e i g n exports, that compete with Vancouver. Two of these p o r t s , New Westminster and V i c t o r i a , export overseas a number of commodi-t i e s and operate as the most serious competition to Vancouver. Both V i c t o r i a and New Westminster have a d i v e r s i t y of i n d u s -t r i e s which draw on the same n a t u r a l resources as does Vancouver's i n d u s t r y . Other, but smaller ports export two com-m o d i t i e s . In the case of Port A l b e r n i these groups of commodi-t i e s — l o g s , lumber, e t c . , and p u l p , paper, pulpwood, e t c . — are produced from the same n a t u r a l product . In other cases, however, export commodities r e s u l t from e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t r e -sources such as lumber and c o a l from Nanalmo, p u l p , paper, pulpwood and limestone and p l a s t e r from Powell R i v e r . S t i l l other p o r t s export only one commodity group. Examples of t h i s a r e : Chemainus, exporting l o g s , p o s t s , p o l e s , lumber, e t c . ; Ocean F a l l s , exporting p u l p , paper, wood pulp and pulpwood; B r i t a n n i a Beach exporting copper ores and concentrates; Union Bay exporting c o a l ; and P r i n c e Rupert exporting f i s h . The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t s , Figures 2-7, show i n percentages of the t o t a l B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e i g n export, the amount of each group, exported from each p o r t . From these i l l u s t r a t i o n s i t can be seen that Vancouver, with a few exceptions, handles a smaller percentage of the t o t a l f o r e i g n exports than might be expected. Only i n the case of Group 1 do the f i g u r e s i n d i -cate a c o n t i n u a l growth between 19*1-3 and 19*1-9, while other 6o. categories show a f l u c t u a t i o n characterized by a gradual lessen-ing i n importance. There are exceptions, however. Most nota-ble i s the case of coal exports i n 19^-8, the very great increase being due e n t i r e l y to a large shipment to Japan. Since 1944 coal has not been a major foreign export from Vancouver, this one exception serving to prove Vancouver's adap t a b i l i t y and a b i l i t y to deal with various commodities when necessary. The other exception appears with Group 5 — fresh, frozen, cured and canned f i s h . While t h i s group has not equalled 2.% of the foreign exports from a l l ports (see F i g . 6 ) , by f a r the great-est percentage i s exported from Vancouver.^5 Figures 2 to 7 show that with a few exceptions, at lea s t some proportion of the exports of the province that r e s u l t from natural resources do f i n d t h e i r way to Vancouver. The fact that the other ports export d i r e c t l y as much as they do, i n d i -cates that, f o r the greater part of the coastal area, the Port of Vancouver faces severe competition i n the export trade. 2 5 Calculations for Figs. 2-7 are based on the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s Annual Shipping Report, which i s the only source of export figures for each port. According to National Harbours Board Annual Reports, f i s h exports are greater from Vancouver than the Shipping Reports show. The National Harbours Board figures are not used because there i s no basis of compari-son with other B r i t i s h Columbia ports. F i s h Exports - Vancouver 194-3-1949 1943 1944- 1945 1946 1947 19*tf 1949 DBS* 5,5^9 1^,095 to,695 10,937 M 3 ° 5,283 5,335 NHB Not given22,o47 46,796 72,162 71,M€5 38,170 29,478 * Fresh, cured, canned and frozen f i s h . AAcanned, preserved, fresh, frozen, dried, pickled, salted and smoked f i s h . 61, 1 0 0 GROUP I. L O G S . P O S T S . P O L E S , E T C H O G F U E L . L U M B E R . P L Y W O O D . 90 P E R C E N T A G E O F F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F G R O U P I F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S F O R T H E P E R I O D 1 9 4 3 - 1 9 4 9 . 8 0 3 Vancouver Port Alberni New Westminster ;" —| Chemainus E=3 Nanaimo 70 ^ Victoria • Other F I G U R E 2. 6 0 P E R C E N T A G E O F T O T A L F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F G R O U P I F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S . 5 0 45.2 4 2 3 2 32 .9 31.8 4 0 395 34£ 3 0 2 0 10 1 9 4 3 1 9 4 4 1 9 4 5 1 9 4 6 1 9 4 7 1 9 4 8 1 9 4 9 ' 1 9 4 3 1 9 4 4 1 9 4 5 1 9 4 6 1 9 4 7 1 9 4 8 1 9 4 9 62 GROUP 2. P A P E R a P A P E R S T O C K . W O O D P U L P . P U L P W O O D a C H I P S Vancouver Port Alberni New Westminster Ocean Falls ggi Powell River Quatsino • Other F I G U R E 3. ioo 9 0 P E R C E N T A G E O F F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F G R O U P 2 F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S F O R T H E P E R I O D 1 9 4 3 - 1 9 4 9 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 P E R C E N T A G E O F T O T A L F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F G R O U P 2 F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S 2 0 7 .7 6 . 7 6 . 2 5 . 3 5 . 4 8 . 5 9 . 8 /o 1 9 4 9 1 9 4 3 1 9 4 4 1 9 4 5 1 9 4 6 1 9 4 7 1 9 4 8 1 9 4 9 1 0 0 8 0 7 0 3 0 10 5 0 2 0 17 9 1-2 Q 3 207 3 .3 3 2 . 4 23 .3 2 2 3 9 . 3 2 7 9 415 10.7 6 9 3 3 . 4 2 2 5 6 4 . 6 1 9 5 11.6 1 // 1 0 0 GROUP 3. C O P P E R O R E S 8 C O N C E N T R A T E S . O T H E R O R E S . O T H E R M I N E P R O D U C E . 9 0 P E R C E N T A G E O F F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F G R O U P 3 F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S F O R T H E P E R I O D I943" I949 . 0 Vancouver j § | New Westminster Blubber Bay YA Britannia Beach S3 Stewart F I G U R E 4. 3 0 P E R C E N T A G E O F T O T A L F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F G R O U P 3 F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S . 2 0 3.1 10 9.1 6 . 3 2 . 5 3 . 2 PL 1 9 4 3 1 9 4 4 1 9 4 5 1 9 4 6 1 9 4 7 1 9 4 8 1 9 4 9 1 9 4 3 1 9 4 4 1 9 4 5 1 9 4 6 1 9 4 7 1 9 4 8 1 9 4 9 100 41 V/, 90 80 70 60 485 50 4 0 30 2 0 10 1.2 9.1 1 5&2 42.8 424 57.6 1.0 402 59.5 51 0.3 4 9 13.7 V/r 42.6 437 100 [79.4 9.3 l.l GROUP 4. C O A L 90 P E R C E N T A G E O F F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F G R O U P 4 F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A , P O R T S F O R T H E P E R I O D I 9 4 3 " I 9 4 9 . 80 Vancouver N an a i m o Union Bay 70 ^ Victoria 60 50 F I G U R E 5. 4 0 30 P E R C E N T A G E O F T O T A L F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F G R O U P 4 F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S 2 0 10 2.5 2.3 6.5 o/ 64 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1 0 0 1 0 0 GROUP 5. F I S H ( F R E S H , C U R E D , C A N N E D , F R O Z E N ) 6 5 9 0 P E R C E N T A G E O F F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F G R O U P 5 F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S F O R T H E P E R I O D I 9 4 3 " I 9 4 9 . ^ Vancouver New Westminster ^ Victoria fffti Prince Rupert • Other F I G U R E 6 . 0 . 5 l.l 1.6 J U L 0 . 7 0 . 6 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 P E R C E N T A G E O F T O T A L F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F G R O U P 5 F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S . io $± % 1 9 4 4 1 9 4 5 1 9 4 6 1 9 4 7 1 9 4 8 1 9 4 9 1 9 4 3 1 9 4 4 1 9 4 5 1 9 4 6 1 9 4 7 1 9 4 8 1 9 4 9 1 0 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 10 '-.4 962 0 . 5 10.7 V//A B92 7.6 91.4 1 0 0 66 GROUP 6. L I M E . L I M E S T O N E . P L A S T E R . 9 0 P E R C E N T A G E O F F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F G R O U P 6 F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S • F O R T H E P E R I O D 1 9 4 7 - 1 9 4 9 . 23 Vancouver £ 3 Blubber Bay Powell River • Oth er F I G U R E 7. P E R C E N T A G E O F T O T A L F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F G R O U P 6 F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S . 0 . 5 0 . 5 0 5 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 10 /o 1 9 4 7 1 9 4 8 1 9 4 9 1 9 4 7 1 9 4 8 1 9 4 9 67. Such q u a n t i t i e s of the d i f f e r e n t groups that do get to Vancouver can be accounted f o r by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . Lumber, l o g s , p o s t s , e t c . , are shipped to Vancouver, p r i m a r i l y because of the great i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of the p o r t . Increased i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n a d i v e r s i t y of manufactured goods which, combined w i t h lumber, a t t r a c t s deep sea s h i p p i n g ; be-cause deep-sea shipping i s a t t r a c t e d , other products f o r world markets such as p u l p , paper, pulpwood and wood pulp are a l s o drawn to the p o r t . The same s i t u a t i o n a p p l i e s i n the case of f i s h and copper ores and concentrates, which can be moved to the p o r t by c o a s t a l shipping for world export. Two reasons then f o r Vancouver being able to compete i n the export trade are h i s t o r i c a l and economic i n background. A t h i r d reason can be found i n the f a c t that the Port of Vancouver i s e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e , l a r g e and e f f i c i e n t l y operated — a l l being great a t t r a c t i o n s to world s h i p p i n g . Even with:the competition from so many smaller p o r t s , there are c e r t a i n areas that are considered by the i n d u s t r i -a l i s t s , operators, business and shipping men concerned, as con-t r i b u t a r y e s s e n t i a l l y to Vancouver. There are two such areas, overlapping to a c e r t a i n degree. Lumber H i n t e r l a n d The f i r s t i s the area that supplies f o r e s t products to Vancouver sawmills. This lumber h i n t e r l a n d c o n s i s t s of the c o a s t a l area on e i t h e r side of the waterway separating Vancouver I s l a n d from the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia as f a r north as 62. A l l i s o n Harbour, (Map 6) plus the Queen Charlotte I s l a n d s . In general the eastern boundary i n the mountains, of the mainland i s at an e l e v a t i o n of 4,500 f e e t . This l i m i t e x i s t s hot so much as a r e s u l t of tree s i z e , but r a t h e r as the maximum e l e v a t i o n at which present-day equipment can be used economi-c a l l y over the rough mountainous t e r r a i n . The maximum l i m i t has been i n c r e a s e d to i t s present general e l e v a t i o n during the post-War years through a change, by s e v e r a l companies, from rai lway equipment to trucks f o r moving logs to t i d e - w a t e r . From the lower, more a c c e s s i b l e slopes In the southern part of the a r e a , up to a maximum of 4,000 f e e t , Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga t a x i f o l i a ) i s the p r i n c i p a l species used. At higher e l e v a t i o n s , with an annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n of over 60 inches, there appears a mixed growth of western r e d cedar (Thuja p l i c a t a ) , hemlock (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ) and spruce (Picea  s i t c h e n s i s ) . In the northern part of the area i n c r e a s e d n o r t h -ern l a t i t u d e has the effect of reducing the e l e v a t i o n at which these species are f o u n d , 2 ^ and here hemlock i s the most common commercial type. In the Queen Charlotte Islands h i g h grade spruce i s v i r t u a l l y the only species used. Over the e n t i r e area supplying f o r e s t resources to Vancouver the Influence Is f e l t of the m i l l s at New Westminster and on the North Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r . The s t r e t c h of the B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of Lands, B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e , The forest resources of B r i t i s h Columbia, by F . O . Mulholland, V i c t o r i a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1937, p . 17. 6 9 . F r a s e r River extending from New Westminster to Marpole on the southern edge of Vancouver, i s a s i n g l e I n d u s t r i a l zone, p r e -dominantly of f o r e s t products f a c t o r i e s . Not only do the mills there draw from the same h i n t e r l a n d as Vancouver, but i t i s d i f -f i c u l t to determine any d i v i s i o n of l o g movements between the two a r e a s . A c o n t r o l l i n g inf luence over logging operations i n the lumber h i n t e r l a n d of Vancouver i s c l i m a t e . Goastal B r i t i s h Columbia has a Marine West Coast type of c l imate, c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by summer minimum and winter maximum r a i n f a l l , and the passage of m i d - l a t i t u d e depressions during the winter months. One r e s u l t of the r a i n f a l l regime i s that the f o r e s t s on the slopes of the Coast Mountains and on Vancouver I s l a n d often become very dry during summer, n e c e s s i t a t i n g a temporary close-down of lumber camps to a v o i d f o r e s t f i r e s . I n w i n t e r , with winter maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n , the woods again are often c losed temporari ly because of excessive snow. F i n a l l y , as a r e s u l t of thaws and r a i n , f loods often damage or destroy roads and r a i l l i n e s used In the lumbering areas. A further d i f f i c u l t y r e s u l t i n g from the c l i m a t i c type of the area i s storms. Winter storms can be a great danger to slow-moving tugs towing l a r g e r a f t s of logs from c o a s t a l centres to Vancouver. Much serious damage i s avoided however, because of the many long i n l e t s , Islands and bays of the coast, which a f f o r d e x c e l l e n t temporary s h e l t e r . 70. The F i s h H i n t e r l a n d The P a c i f i c Coast f i s h e r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia are the second area supplying resources to i n d u s t r y i n the Port of Vancouver and, w i t h the adjacent shore areas used f o r i n s t a l -l a t i o n , form the f i s h h i n t e r l a n d of the p o r t . In the case of t h i s h i n t e r l a n d too, there i s a d i v i s i o n i n t o two main a r e a s . The f i r s t i s one of open sea extending from the northern t i p of Vancouver I s l a n d to the Queen Charlotte Islands and, In some cases, to the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s . In t h i s area h a l i b u t are. caught under mutual agreements w i t h the United S t a t e s . 2 7 Tuna, the second major species obtained from t h i s area, are caught up to 200 miles o f f s h o r e . Inshore waters comprise the second main a r e a . They ex-tend from the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary In the south, northward to Cape Scott on Vancouver I s l a n d , and include the enclosed waters to the east and the Immediate c o a s t a l waters to the west of Vancouver I s l a n d (Map 6). From t h i s second area come the very great q u a n t i t i e s of f i s h — c h i e f l y h e r r i n g , cod, p i l c h a r d s , s h e l l f i s h , and s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s of salmon — which make B r i t i s h Columbia a major f i s h producing province of Canada. Though both these areas are c o n t r i b u t a r y to Vancouver, there are numerous zones of competi t ion. In the northern area p a r t i c u l a r l y , P r i n c e Rupert creates some r i v a l r y . To t h i s must be added the l o s s e s to American boats, even though f i s h i n g i s 2 7 B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of F i s h e r i e s , Report f o r the  year ended Dec. 31, 1949. p . D17. 71 c a r r i e d on under mutual agreements. I n both areas, f u r t h e r competition i s created hy the number of f i s h canneries and p r o -cessing p l a n t s at small c o a s t a l settlements to the north of Vancouver (Map 6) and at V i c t o r i a , New Westminster, and Steveston i n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver. Though only f i f t e e n of the seventy f i s h c u r i n g and pack-ing p l a n t s of the province are i n Vancouver 2 ^ the p o r t never-t h e l e s s p r o f i t s very g r e a t l y from f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y . Not only Is Vancouver the home port f o r much of the f i s h i n g f l e e t during the off -season, but i t a l s o serves as a major supply and com-munication centre during the f i s h i n g season and the export centre f o r the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s . Minerals —• Popper, Ores and Concentrates Figure 4 shows a steady decl ine of ores and concentrates, as an export commodity, from a l l B r i t i s h Columbia p o r t s . Even w i t h t h i s steady decrease i n importance, two other p o r t s , New Westminster and B r i t a n n i a Beach show an ever i n c r e a s i n g s u p e r i -o r i t y over Vancouver. New Westminster owes i t s importance to the close r e l a t i o n s h i p between the P a c i f i c Coast Terminals, the p r i n c i p a l docks i n the p o r t , and the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of T r a i l , the l a r g e s t producer of ores and concentrates i n the p r o v i n c e . The increase i n export from B r i t a n n i a Beach r e s u l t s from the growing tendency of a l l the small parts to export d i r e c t l y r a t h e r than through Vancouver. 28 " P r i n c i p a l S t a t i s t i c s of the Leading I n d u s t r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1947" In J h e Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s of  Canada by p r o v i n c e s r 1947. Table 51, op. 10&-109. (See Chapter F i v e ) . While T r a i l , exporting through New West-minster, i s not w i t h i n the h i n t e r l a n d of Vancouver, B r i t a n n i a Beach, despite the d i r e c t shipping to f o r e i g n markets, i s w i t h -i n the h i n t e r l a n d of the p o r t . The reasons are, f i r s t , that such ores and concentrates that the Port of Vancouver does ex-p o r t , come from B r i t a n n i a Beach. Secondly, B r i t a n n i a Beach i s almost e n t i r e l y dependent on Vancouver for supplies and equip-ment. Wheat, The t h i r d , and most important export commodity passing through Vancouver i s wheat. The wheat shipped through B r i t i s h 29 Columbia ports i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y from A l b e r t a , and as there e x i s t v i r t u a l l y no s i g n i f i c a n t r e c i p r o c a l trade r e l a t i o n -ships between Vancouver and A l b e r t a i t i s h a r d l y c o r r e c t to c a l l A l b e r t a a true h i n t e r l a n d of the Port of Vancouver* Instead, t h i s i s an example of a s i t u a t i o n t y p i c a l of s e v e r a l Canadian ports that serve a l l or a part of Canada more than a l i m i t e d , near-by, h i n t e r l a n d . Wheat exports increased from 2.5$ to 36.4$ of the t o t a l exports made up of Groups 1 to 6 plus wheat ( F i g . 2) from B r i t i s h Columbia between 194-3 and 1949; f o r the same p e r i o d , the amount shipped through Vancouver averaged 91,5% of the wheat exported from a l l po rts of the province (see F i g . 9 ) . Thus i t can be seen that wheat, i n i t s e l f , i s an important ex-port commodity. S t i l l f u r t h e r , however, i t must be recognized 29 Smith, F . Chairman, Board of G r a i n Commissioners, Vancouver, interview with the w r i t e r , J u l y 12, 1950. 100 90 80 y / / / 70 — -— / / / / / / / 60 50 40 30 20 10 FIGURE 8. PERCENTAGE OF FOREIGN EXPORTS FROM ALL BRITISH COLUMBIA PORTS I943"I949 MADE UP OF GROUPS l"6. Foreign exports of Groups l"6. Foreign exports of Groups l"6 plus Wheat. \ °/ 10 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 I949 100 100 74 5.6 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 899 1 io r V 1 5.9 I 4.5 4 6 , S3 ss 2 2 9\ 9 A 9 9r9 99 9 9 9 9 9~9 9 9 9 9 9-9 9 9 9 9 9 9 V\ V » 9, % « 9. % V V V\Vs\ 9 W i i 9 W t l ti 933 ^ V\Vs\ 9\Vs\ Vs\ 9 6 7 7.4 i 9s 9 % 9 9 9 9 vYv 9^9\ 9 9 9 9 9-9 9 9 9 9 9 9 99 9 9 9 9 If I 1 i sSS 924 -Vs 2 • KM II P i II 1 2 P E R C E N T A G E O F F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F W H E A T F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S F O R T H E P E R I O D I 9 4 3 " I 9 4 9 . 90 0 Vancouver ^ New Westminster ^ Victoria 80 70 F I G U R E 9 60 50 P E R C E N T A G E O F T O T A L F O R E I G N E X P O R T S O F W H E A T F R O M B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P O R T S 4 0 256 8.5 20.1 4 0 36.4 255 24.7 30 20 10 fo 1943 1944. 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1943 1944 1945 1946 947 1948 1949 • 75. as one of the great a t t r a c t i o n s of the Port of Vancouver. Other commodities, such as wood products, pulp and paper, f i s h and m i n e r a l s , are a v a i l a b l e to deep-sea shipping for d i s t r i b u t i o n to world markets. To a c e r t a i n degree however, the Port of Vancouver i s remote from world market areas. P a r t i c u l a r l y i s t h i s ture i n the l i g h t of the economic and p o l i t i c a l i n s e c u r i t y of much of southern and eastern A s i a , which, with i t s great p o p u l a t i o n , i s one of the c l o s e s t and g e n e r a l l y most e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e overseas markets f o r Vancouver. To serve s u i t a b l e market areas then, Vancouver's exports must move to Europe e i t h e r across the P a c i f i c Ocean and v i a the Suez£> Canal, or v i a the somewhat s h o r t e r , but s t i l l lengthy route of the Panama Canal and A t l a n t i c Ocean to E a s t e r n American or European markets. Both of these are voyages of too great a length f o r a l a r g e volume of s h i p s , loaded with cargoes of B r i t i s h Columbia p r o -duct o n l y . An a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r to be considered i s the competition offered by the Port of Montreal . One of i t s greatest advant-ages over Vancouver i n r e l a t i o n to European markets i s distance, Montreal being 2,700 miles from L i v e r p o o l while the distance from Vancouver to L i v e r p o o l v i a the Panama Canal, i s 2,600 m i l e s . This i s p a r t i a l l y compensated f o r by r a i l f r e i g h t r a t e s on A l b e r t a wheat which averages per bushel l e s s through Vancouver than through Montreal.-^ 0 A further advantage of Vancouver over Montreal i s that Vancouver i s an a l l - y e a r port 30 M i l l h e r , R.W., Transport C o n t r o l l e r , Department of Transport, Ottawa, interview with the w r i t e r , . J u l y 7, 1952. 76 and western wheat can he exported a f t e r the c l o s e of navigation on the S t . Lawrence R i v e r . Considering the q u a n t i t i e s exported, lumber and lumber products alone, might be considered a s u f f i c i e n t a t t r a c t i o n . There always e x i s t s however, the p o s s i b i l i t y of a ship having to make s e v e r a l c a l l s at d i f f e r e n t c o a s t a l p o r t s to complete a cargo e x c l u s i v e l y of lumber. With very l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of wheat a v a i l a b l e i n Vancouver, the necessity of side t r i p s i s l a r g e l y removed; a h o l d cargo of wheat can be loaded at the same time that a deck cargo of lumber i s taken on board, and i f f u r t h e r v a r i e t y i s d e s i r e d , a cargo can be completed w i t h other commodities — paper, f i s h , minerals , e t c . — that have moved to the port from c o a s t a l production c e n t r e s . Thus i t i s that wheat, a product from outside the p r o v i n c e , has achieved a top rank among export commodities, at the same time serving as a major a t t r a c t i o n to the p o r t . The R e c i p r o c a l R e l a t i o n Between Port and Coastal H i n t e r l a n d Another aspect of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between port and h i n t e r l a n d appears with an examination of the r e c i p r o c a l r e -l a t i o n s h i p between the two.^ 1 ^ U n f o r t u n a t e l y no Government a u t h o r i t y or p r i v a t e agency compiles s t a t i s t i c s to show the commodities, and quan-t i t i e s of each, moved by c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g . To determine the p r i n c i p a l goods shipped from Vancouver to c o a s t a l p o r t s , I t i s necessary to compare the Annual Reports of the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board with the Annual Shipping Reports of the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . . The f i r s t r e p o r t gives t o t a l tonnages of a number of commodities exported from Vancouver both f o r e i g n and c o a s t a l ; the second r e p o r t l i s t s the com-modities and t h e i r q u a n t i t i e s f o r f o r e i g n export. As there i s never.any agreement on t o t a l tonnages of cargoes or shipping, i n these two r e p o r t s , c o a s t a l tonnages cannot be de-termined. A l l that can be shown by a comparison of these r e -ports are the commodities that move from Vancouver to c o a s t a l p o i n t s . 77o The most Important feature i s the p o s i t i o n Vancouver h o l d s , as a c o a s t a l p o r t , i n r e l a t i o n to the other p o r t s of the ' c o a s t . The only a v a i l a b l e f i g u r e s to show t h i s are R e g i s t e r e d Net Tonnages i n Coastal Service at the various p o r t s , which are here shown (Table 5) as percentages of the annual t o t a l f o r a l l p o r t s . TABLE 5 - Percentages of Net Heg. Tons C o a s t a l Shipping, A r r i v a l s . 1949 1942 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 Vancouver 43.2$ 42.2$ 41.4$ 41.9$ 41.2$ 41.2$ 41 V i c t o r i a ) N ^ e s t m i n s t J ) * 1 - 1 * ^ 39.W 39.62 39.3* 37.W 38.62 Powell R i v e r ) A l l Others 15.4$ 17.1$ 19.2$ 12.5$ 19.5$ 20.2$ 20.0$ TOTAL A l l Ports m 22,332 24,025 23,607 19,950 12,775 12,272 17,701 000's of Tons Source: Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Re-p orts f o r the years 1943-1949. Converted to p e r -centages by the w r i t e r . These f i g u r e s show an increase i n t o t a l tonnage between 1943 and 1949, as w e l l as a continuously h i g h percentage of ttie t o t a l f o r Vancouver. A l s o , they show Vancouver with a higher percentage than the next four ports combined, a l l of which had annual t o t a l s i n excess of one m i l l i o n r e g i s t e r e d net tons* The annual t o t a l s i n some cases are made up, i n p a r t , by several a r r i v a l s i n one day, one week, or one month, by the same v e s s e l , p a r t i c u l a r i l y at Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , and Nanaimo, where c o a s t a l ships on scheduled voyages, g r e a t l y swell the t o t a l s . 78. Despite t h i s , however, the percentages given show Vancouver i n a l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n i n coastal s h i p p i n g , Vancouver, with i t s preponderance of c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g , serves as the supply centre for c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia. From a v a i l a b l e l i s t s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to determine only a few com-modities which are known to go to c o a s t a l p o r t s . Those shipped r e g u l a r l y each year and i n considerable q u a n t i t i e s a r e : petroleum products — f u e l o i l , gasol ine and kerosene; cement; a l c o h o l i c beverages; n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l machinery and p a r t s . Other goods, shipped spasmodically a r e : s a l t , sulphur, chemi-c a l s , t i n and t i n manufactures. By f a r the greatest s i n g l e commodity group comes under the heading " A l l goods not o t h e r -wise s p e c i f i e d " , and, with t h i s group an approximate f i g u r e can be given for tonnages shipped each year to c o a s t a l p o r t s . TABLE 6 - Approximate Tonnages of Unspecif ied Cargo Shipped From Port of Vancouver to a l l Coastal Ports of B . G X 19414-1949  1944 1945 1946 1947 1942 423,124 414,069 543,095 611,34-9 693,092 This category i s made up of a l l the commodities shipped outward that do not, i n d i v i d u a l l y , t o t a l 20,000 tons during 32 These tonnages are c a l c u l a t e d by s u b t r a c t i n g the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s f i g u r e f o r " A l l other f r e i g h t , n . o . s . " leaded f o r f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , from the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board f i g u r e f o r " A l l goods not otherwise s p e c i f i e d " , shipped outward from Vancouver. The f i g u r e i s an approximation because of the inherent disagreement between the two sources; i t i s presumed that the dif ference between "Cargoes loaded f o r f o r -eign countries" and "Cargo Tonnage Outward" i s cargo i n c o a s t a l movement. 79. the year, i n contrast to such items as petroleum products , machinery, e t c . , p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, that c o n s i s t e n t l y reach t o t a l s of over 20,000 tons a n n u a l l y . The items In the " n . o . s . " l i s t are numerous, and i n c l u d e such commodities as s t e e l , f r u i t , sugar, l a t h i n g , a s p h a l t , b r i c k , chinaware, coffee, wire goods, to mention but a few.33 Many of these are commodities shipped from r a i l - h e a d at Vancouver, to the commercial centres at V i c t o r i a and Nanalmo. Many others, however, are the needs of the i s o l a t e d i n d u s t r i a l settlements of the c o a s t l i n e , that are i n a c c e s s i b l e from the l a n d , and therefore r e l y e n t i r e l y oh the Port of Vancouver f o r t h e i r supply. Regular c o a s t a l shipping transports a part of the t o t a l tonnage. The remainder Is moved by s p e c i a l i z e d types Of s h i p p -i n g , developed e x c l u s i v e l y f o r the movement of one commodity, such as bulk petroleum products, or developed f o r the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n of c o a s t a l produce to Vancouver and the r e t u r n of necessary supplies to producing areas (see Chapter F i v e ) . World Markets Another l i n k between the Port of Vancouver and I t s c o a s t a l h i n t e r l a n d i s seen i n the export a c t i v i t y of the p o r t i n r e l a t i o n to world markets. From the l a t e war years through the post-war p e r i o d to 194-9, f o r e i g n exports from a l l B r i t i s h Columbia ports have shown a large increase p a r a l l e l e d by a s i m i l a r increase i n f o r e i g n exports from Vancouver (see Table 7X 33 Ottawa Off ice of N a t i o n a l Harbours Board. Interview by the w r i t e r . October 3, 1950. go. Though t o t a l export tonnages have Increased there has been a change from the pre-war markets that r e c e i v e d B r i t i s h Columbia exports (see Map 7 ) . Of a l l the markets e s t a b l i s h e d i n the p e r i o d 1921-1934, only that of the United Kingdom s t i l l remains of major Importance p r i m a r i l y because of the continued export of wheat and lumber. Increased lumber exports to the United States have r e s u l t e d i n that market-area becoming one of Importance to Vancouver during the p e r i o d from 1943 to 19*4-9, While exports to the Far East and Western Europe have d e c l i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . Other areas such as Scandinavia and the B a l t i c , the Mediterranean c o u n t r i e s , C e n t r a l America and the Carrlbean area and South America, never have been of great value as ex-port markets. TABLE 7 - Foreign Exports - 1943-1949 (Tons and Percentages) Exports Percentages Percentages Percentages Year Exports Vancouver from from New from other B.C.(Tons) (Tons) Vancouver Westminster B . C . Ports 1943 1,706,043 553,572 32.4$ 24.6$ 43 $ 1944 2,323,975 1,1*5,792 49.3$ 13.2$ 36.9$ 19^5 3,365,394 1,524,710 47.0$ 12.0$ 35.0$ 1946 4,316,952 2,445,495 56.6$ 12.5$ 24.9$ 1947 4-,221,357 2,244,522 45.9$ 24.2$ 29.3$ 1942 4,316,926 2,092,015 42.5$ 20.1$ 31.4$ 1949 5,060,259 2,676,252 52.2$ 12.7$ 22.5$ Source: Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Report for the Years 1943-1949. 1943 - see Table 6. 1944-1949 - see Table 7. Percentages c a l c u l a t e d by the w r i t e r . r i „ The l o s s to Canadian exporters of much of the O r i e n t a l market, due l a r g e l y to p o l i t i c a l upheavals i n China has been unfortunate f o r the Port of Vancouver. With such a great popu-l a t i o n concentrat io n so e a s i l y reached i n an area where exten-sive post-war r e c o n s t r u c t i o n was expected, i t was indeed a p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h market. Passenger T r a f f i c The decrease i n exports to the Orient i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d with the decrease i n overseas passenger movements from Vancouver. While the f i g u r e s i n Table g i n d i c a t e that Vancouver never had a l a r g e movement of f o r e i g n passengers, they do show a con-s i d e r a b l e decrease between 193& a n d 194g, of what l i t t l e p a s s -enger movement there was. This i s due l a r g e l y to the decrease i n f r e i g h t movement to the Orient combined with the l o s s , during the war, of much of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company's P a c i f i c f l e e t , or the t r a n s f e r of the remaining ships to the A t l a n t i c s e r v i c e . For the long t r a n s - P a c i f i c voyage from Vancouver to Yokahama, Shanghai, Hong Kong and M a n i l a , a b a s i s of f r e i g h t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r passenger movement w i t h the degree of luxury s u p p l i e d by the Canadian P a c i f i c Company u n t i l the beginning of the war. An example of the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced i n overseas p a s s -enger t r a f f i c i s seen with the present p o s i t i o n of the R.M.S. "Aorangi" of the Royal A u s t r a l i a n M a i l L i n e , the only t r a n s -P a c i f i c passenger ship using the Port of Vancouver. Before the war, t h i s s h i p , and her s i s t e r s h i p , the "Niagara", l o s t B2. during the war, made scheduled runs between A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand and Vancouver. Since the war, even with m a i l contracts, t h i s one service has fared so badly that plans were made to cancel the service as of January, 1951. This f i n a l measure has been avoided, but only by the payment of an annual subsidy J o i n t l y by Canada, A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand. TABLE 2 - Passengers Embarked from Vancouver. Embarked Foreign % of T o t a l 1936 Foreign Coastal 14,669 467,571 3o0$ 1940 F o r e i g n Coastal 5,746 665,794 . 2 $ 1944 Foreign Coastal 34 932,322 1942 F o r e i g n Coastal 2,014 274-, 212 . 2 $ Source: N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, Annual Report. 1936 p . 55. 1940 p . 27. C o n f i d e n t i a l Report. 1944 p . 66. 1942 p . 67 . A f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the decrease i n passenger t r a f -f i c i s the s e r v i c e now s u p p l i e d by a i r l i n e s . The Canadian P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s have scheduled f l i g h t s to Japan and A u s t r a l i a , and the B r i t i s h Commonwealth P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s have f l i g h t s to A u s t r a l i a from Vancouver. These s e r v i c e s handle a l l the e s s e n t i a l t r a n s - P a c i f i c passenger movement, thus decreasing the need of luxury passenger v e s s e l s . Passenger movement Is u s u a l l y of considerable importance 23. to a p o r t . Not only does i t tend to increase s h i p p i n g , but, almost i n v a r i a b l y there i s some f r e i g h t movement connected with i t . A r r i v a l s and departures of l a r g e numbers of passen-gers i s a l s o of value to r a i l w a y s , h o t e l s , and the commercial p o r t i o n of the p o r t ' s c i t y . As a port cannot he separated from i t s c i t y , and as p r o f i t to one i s p r o f i t to the other, so a l l gains from passenger t r a f f i c are mutually shared. Obviously, Vancouver suffers a considerable l o s s i n terms of overseas passenger movements. In the case of c o a s t a l passengers, however, quite the opposite s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s , and indeed, as Table 9 shows, Vancouver can be r a t e d as the g r e a t -est passenger p o r t of Canada. Tables 2 and 9 show both a great Increase i n c o a s t a l passenger t r a f f i c and a very h i g h t o t a l f i g u r e . A considerable p r o p o r t i o n of the y e a r l y t o t a l s — a p r o p o r t i o n Impossible to d e t e r m i n e — c o n s i s t s of t o u r i s t s i n summer and, f o r the r e -mainder of the year, a steady movement of passengers on the d a i l y t r i p s to V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo and S e a t t l e . I t can only be assumed, however, that the Port of Vancouver has a l a r g e p a s s -enger movement to B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t a l ports other than V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo. The i n c r e a s e d t o t a l each year of r e g i s -tered net tonnage to c o a s t a l ports shown In Table 5> i s one b a s i s on which to assume an increased passenger movement to c o a s t a l p o r t s . A second b a s i s on which such an assumption can be made i s the f a c t that of twenty scheduled voyages made by the three main shipping companies, with over 170 p o r t s of c a l l , only two emanate from ports other than Vancouver, and one of TABLE 9 - Passenger Movements of P r i n c i p a l Canadian P o r t s ; J944-1948.  F o r e i g n Passenger Movements ( A r r i v a l s & Departures) H a l i f a x S a i n t John Quebec Montreal Vancouver 1948 1947 87,430' 2,772 19,037 34,650 4,049 49,030 1,572 255 18,743 1,119 1946 83,721 1,246 39 . 8,717 6,248 1945 29,353 599 1,721 3,900 811 1944 12,825 560 — 1,406 281 C o a s t a l Passenger Movements ( A r r i v a l s & Departures) 1947 1948 104,415 "89,492 152,642 1,727,095 95,828 70,879 145,181 1,855,295 1946 112,442 78,367 144,048 1,897,680 1945 176,542 97,039 148,902 1,941,882 1944 156,454 75,568 125,514 1,866,167 T o t a l Passenger Movements ( A r r i v a l s & De p a r t u r e s ) ' 1948 87,430 107, 187 108,529 187,292 1-,731, 144 1947 49,030 97, 400 71,134 163,924 1,856, 414 1946 83,721 113, 688 78,406 152,765 1,903, 928 1945 29,353 177, 141 98,760 152,802 1,942, 693 1944 12,825 157, 014 75,568 126,560 1,866, 448 Source: N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, Annual Report, 1948, pp. 18, 24, 35, 46 and 67. 25. these i s a car f e r r y operated only during the summer months. 34 Not only does Vancouver appear to he the d i s t r i b u t i o n centre f o r equipment and supplies to the h i n t e r l a n d , but a l s o the p o r t of o r i g i n f o r the movement of passengers to' the same a r e a . Several ships that s a i l from Vancouver are combination f r e i g h t and passenger vessels so there Is a degree of over-l a p p i n g i n the two a c t i v i t i e s which serves s t i l l f u r t h e r to l i n k together the Port of Vancouver and i t s h i n t e r l a n d . 34 Canadian P a c i f i c "Princess Lines Schedule", June 16, 1950, and Union Steamships L t d . , " S a i l i n g Guide No. 150", June 30, 1950, and "System Time Tables", Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways, A p r i l 30, 1950. p . 71. CHAPTER FIVE THE PORT OF VANCOUVER IN RELATION TO  HINTERLANDS AND THE PORT SYSTEM The Spread of Vancouver's Influence In the e a r l y days of settlement In B r i t i s h Columbia the only p o r t s i n o p e r a t i o n were those of the southern c o a s t a l area — New Westminster, V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo and Vancouver. For any productive a c t i v i t y f u r t h e r a f i e l d , these ports were s u f f i -c i e n t : New Westminster as the port of entry and supply centre for the gold f i e l d s of the i n t e r i o r a f t e r 1863; Vancouver and V i c t o r i a as the centres of operation i n Canada for much of the movement to the Yukon g o l d f i e l d s a f t e r 1898• With the turn of the century, however, lumbering which had f i r s t s t a r t e d i n 1262, began to spread outward from Vancouver and New Westminster. With operations conducted f a r t h e r from the m i l l s , more and more settlements began to appear i n i s o l a t e d places on the c o a s t . Prospecting and f i s h -i n g , expanding outward with lumbering, added extra demands to a growing c o a s t a l shipping which had i t s o r i g i n and e a r l y growth as the response to demands from c o a s t a l sett lements. In many cases c o a s t a l shipping firms gambled on the future growth of a settlement and d i d a l l they p o s s i b l y c o u l d to move In s u p p l i e s , equipment and passengers to i s o l a t e d settlements, often miles from t h e i r r e g u l a r s a i l i n g routes.35 In cases where i n d u s t r i a l development such as l o g g i n g , mining, or f i s h 35 Mr. G.M. McBean, General Manager, Union S.S. Vancouver, B . C . , interview with the w r i t e r , J u l y 26, 1950. g.7. p r o c e s s i n g proved s u c c e s s f u l , there followed p r o f i t to c o a s t a l shippers not only hy continuing to d e l i v e r necessary f r e i g h t , but a l s o i n moving out to a l a r g e r port f o r world export, the m a t e r i a l s produced As the l a r g e r po rts of the southern part of the coast began r e c e i v i n g i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t i e s of c o a s t a l products p r i n -c i p a l l y wood products, so too the g r a i n export trade of Vancouver was growing. With the r a p i d growth of g r a i n storage and l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s a f t e r 1923, Increasing numbers of ships were a t t r a c t e d to the port (see Table 2) where mixed cargoes c o n s i s t i n g predominantly of g r a i n and lumber products were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . With i n c r e a s e d c o a s t a l shipping moving more raw mate-r i a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l l y lumber, to Vancouver, I n d u s t r i a l space i n the c i t y and on i t s waterfront became scarce. The s o l u -t i o n was to e s t a b l i s h large i n d u s t r i e s at c o a s t a l settlements, much nearer the raw m a t e r i a l s . Thus i n d u s t r i e s grew up at such places as Powell R i v e r , Ocean F a l l s , Port A l b e r n i and Chemainus. The f i n a l step i n the development of the B r i t i s h Columbia coast has given r i s e to an e f f i c i e n t combination of i n d u s t r y and s h i p p i n g . With world shipping a t t r a c t e d to the B r i t i s h Columbia coast by the g r a i n trade and with commodities f o r world markets a v a i l a b l e at several c o a s t a l p o i n t s , a few f a r - s e e i n g men v i s u a l i z e d the advantage of d i r e c t movement from c o a s t a l p o i n t s by deep-sea f r e i g h t e r s , rather than t r a n s -shipment by c o a s t a l shipping to Vancouver and then to the s h i p s . gg. This was not merely a simple matter of a d v e r t i s i n g c e r t a i n c a r -goes as a v a i l a b l e at various small p o r t s , but rather a long and i n v o l v e d campaign against e s t a b l i s h e d shipping custom of using recognized deep-sea p o r t s o n l y . The f i n a l r e s u l t was a growth i n the overseas export trade from such c o a s t a l p o i n t s as Powell River and Ocean F a l l s i n p a r t i c u l a r , two of the f i r s t p o r t s on the coast where new i n d u s t r y and deep-sea shipping were combined. 36 This new arrangement d i d not mean a very great l o s s i n the t o t a l ship movement through Vancouver. The g r a i n trade continued to be of major Importance; the wood processing i n d u s -t r i e s grew i n number and i n turn made greater demands on c o a s t a l supply areas for raw m a t e r i a l s ; greater p r o d u c t i o n at c o a s t a l settlements i n turn Increased the need f o r s u p p l i e s , equipment, and l a b o u r , a l l s u p p l i e d through the Port of Vancouver. Therefore, even with i n c r e a s i n g annual t o t a l s of export tonnage going d i r e c t l y from centres other than Vancouver, the port maintained and even strengthened i t s importance as the major supply and export centre for the e n t i r e c o a s t a l a r e a . Types of Shipping Because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of moving forest resources — the p r i n c i p a l raw m a t e r i a l moved on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast — the use of s p e c i a l i z e d shipping methods has grown up. .36 M.H. Dalton, Manager, B . C . D i v i s i o n , Canadian Manu-f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n and Mr. A . E . McMaster, Port Manager, N a t i o n a l Harbours Board,. Vancouver, interviews with the w r i t e r October 7 and October 14, 1949. TABLE 10 -- V e s s e l s i I n t e r e d S e v e r a l P r o v i n c e s , i n C o a s t a l & F o r e i g n S e r v i c e , by R i g , 1949'. STEAM MOTOR UNRIGGED 'TOTAL P r o v i n c e No. Reg.' N e t Tons No. Reg. N e t Tons No. Reg. N e t Tons No. •Reg. N e t s Tons Nova S c o t i a C o a s t a l 7,193 Fgre.ign 495 3,631 ,484 2 ,071,745 431 443,21'7 ' i o i 17,023 7,294 926 3 , 6 4 8 , 5 0 7 2,516,962 TOTAL 7,688' 5,703 ,229 431 445,217 101 17,023 8,220 6 ,165,469 Quebec C o a s t a l F o r e i g n 10,591 1,325 9,774,530 4,393 ,.668 .. . 386.. , 8 8 7 T 9 8 l 484 125,567 11,075 1,7H 9 , 9 0 0 , 0 9 7 5,281,649 .TOTAL 11,916 14,168,198 386 887,981 484 125,567 12,786 15,181,746 ' B r i t i s h C o l . C o a s t a l 31,551 F o r e i g n 926 17,785,232 3,051 ,402 1,275 2259,8,08 11,568 164 4,553,341 36,417 43,119 2,365 22 ,338,573 5,347,627 TOTAL 32,477 2 0 , 8 3 6 , 6 3 4 1,275 2,259,808 11,732 4 ,589,758 45,484 27,686 ,200 Canada C o a s t a l F o r e i g n 6-9,402 6,405 50,537,727 19,983,528 2,877 4,333,058 12,586 301 5 , 4 9 8 , 0 2 5 143,048 81,988 9,583 56,035,752 24 ,459,634 TOTAL 75,807 70,521,255 2,877 4,3 33,058 12,887 5,641,073 91,571 8 0 , 4 9 5 , 3 8 6 S o u r c e : Canada, 23. D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , S h i p p i n g R e p o r t 1949, , T a b l e 4, pp. 22-oa TABLE 11 - Tugs Entered In C o a s t a l and Foreign S e r v i c e s . 1949. COASTAL FOREIGN TOTAL Province No. Reg. Net Tons No. Reg. Net Tons No. Reg. Net Tons Newfoundland 37 P r i n c e Edward I s . 15 Nova Scotia 248 New Brunswick 74 Quebec 484 Ontario 408 B r i t i s h Columbia 1 3 , 3 7 0 1 1 , 9 8 2 1 , 9 6 3 4 1 , 0 2 7 9 , 6 8 8 6 7 , 9 8 0 8 1 , 0 9 1 1 , 5 7 5 , 4 9 5 5 1 2 2 3 340 1 , 0 6 8 5 4 7 1 7 , 4 6 5 3 , 5 4 3 6 8 5 5 6 , 7 7 0 1 3 2 , 3 5 2 40 1 5 2 9 9 9 6 4 8 7 7 4 8 1 4 , 4 3 8 1 2 , 5 2 9 1 , 9 6 3 5 8 , 4 9 2 1 3 , 2 3 1 6 8 , 6 6 5 1 3 7 , 8 6 1 1 , 7 0 7 , 8 4 7 Vancouver Nanaimo V i c t o r i a New Westminster 7 , 5 5 1 1 , 3 0 9 1 , 2 5 8 1,146 8 4 0 , 7 2 8 1 2 1 , 5 6 7 1 8 1 , 6 9 2 1 7 1 , 8 8 1 292 140 129 1 3 9 3 2 , 8 1 2 14,914 2 0 , 5 0 5 2 0 , 6 5 5 7 , 8 4 3 1 , 4 4 9 1 , 3 8 7 1 , 2 8 5 8 7 3 , 5 4 0 1 3 6 , 4 8 1 2 0 2 , 1 9 7 1 9 2 , 5 3 6 CANADA TOTAL 1 4 , 6 3 6 1 , 7 8 9 , 2 2 6 1 , 4 8 7 2 1 1 , 3 6 2 1 6 , 1 2 3 2 , 0 0 0 , 5 8 8 Source: Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . , Shipping Report 1949, Table 1 0 , pp. I I 4 - I I 7 . Not only are the methods the response to the demand, but a l s o they are methods that are s u c c e s s f u l l a r g e l y because of the many miles of s h e l t e r e d , enclosed waterways used by c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g . The b a s i s for the movement of the greatest part of the c o a s t a l resources i s tug t r a f f i c , w i t h tugs used f o r the towing of r a f t s or booms of l o g s , barges and scows. Shipping of t h i s type, c l a s s e d as "unrigged" i s one of the major shipping a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. U n f o r t u -nately the lack of s t a t i s t i c s showing cargo tonnages does not permit a c l e a r demonstration of t h i s aspect of s h i p p i n g . Tables 10 and 11, however, give an i n d i c a t i o n of the importance of "unrigged", or tug t r a f f i c throughout the B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t . Tug t r a f f i c has two s u b d i v i s i o n s : the movement of "unrigged" v e s s e l s , c o n s i s t i n g of barges and scows; and l o g towing. Because of the nature of the waterways used, logs cut i n the c o a s t a l f o r e s t s of B r i t i s h Columbia can be moved to any port on the coast by tugs. Navigable r o u t e s , p r o t e c t e d from storms and wind are necessary because of the slow speeds (average speed i s two knots) and therefore the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of l o g rafts.37 i f long voyages are made over unsheltered routes a Davis Raft i s used. T h i s , and other r a f t s s i m i l a r to i t , c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of a large cradle of logs Joined by 37 There i s a very high percentage of recovery of logs from r a f t s broken by storms. Licensed beachcombing, adminis-tered from Vancouver and supported J o i n t l y be s e v e r a l logging companies, has done much to e l i m i n a t e l o s s by storms or rough seas. 92 • cables and chains, f i l l e d with loose l o g s , and fastened f i r m l y with a d d i t i o n a l binding c a b l e s . These r a f t s project as much as twenty feet underwater and c o n t a i n up to 1,000,000 feet of lumber. In s h e l t e r e d areas, a f l a t r a f t or booms of l o g s , l o o s e l y h e l d together by an outside framework of j o i n e d l o g s , Is u s u a l l y used. These booms may measure up to 50 o r 60 s e c -t ions i n length, each s e c t i o n being 60 feet long and c o n t a i n -ing 40,000 feet of lumber. The second s u b d i v i s i o n of tug t r a f f i c i s the unrigged type c o n s i s t i n g of barges and scows. Again, the p r o t e c t i v e nature of the c o a s t a l waterways and the types of commodities, moved have permitted the development of a d i s t i n c t i v e type of s h i p p i n g . Some of the vessels used are barges, or converted s h i p s , u s u a l l y o l d s a i l i n g ships with a l l e x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r f i t t - , ings removed. Thus, just the h u l l i s l e f t f o r the h a u l i n g of bulk cargoes such as sawdust or wood c h i p s . There are some disadvantages to the barges, most notably the depth of water needed and a higher centre of g r a v i t y than the much lower scow. Scows, which are the much more common of the unrigged v e s s e l s , are made i n a v a r i e t y of s i z e s and types. The most commonly used s i z e s are l i s t e d i n Table 12. The majority of the scows are open and are used f o r moving c o a l , sand and g r a v e l , lumber, and other cargoes that w i l l not be damaged by exposure. For p e r i s h a b l e cargoes such as newsprint, cement, and general s u p p l i e s , covered scows are used. 93. TABLE 12 - Sizes and Capacit ies of Scows. Size Average Capacity B u i l d i n g Cost 30« x 90• 375 tons 32« x 90' 450 tons 34' x 90' 500 tons 119 ,000.00 (wood) $35,000.00 ( s t e e l ) 36' X 100' 600 tons $22,000.00 (wood) Source: J . C . F . Stewart, Vancouver Tug Boat Co. Interview with the w r i t e r J u l y l g , 1950. Photo. 10. Open type scow, Vancouver. Photo. 11. Covered newsprint scow, Vancouver. Many of the scows, moved by tugs, t r a v e l on r e g u l a r schedules between Vancouver and c o a s t a l i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s , moving products from m i l l s to Vancouver, r e t u r n i n g w i t h sup-p l i e s , machinery and equipment. Others c a r r y general cargo between Vancouver and points on Vancouver I s l a n d , while s t i l l others move lumber from sawmills to ships loading at docks. A s p e c i a l i z e d type of scow, ( i n t h i s instance c a l l e d a barge) i s used by the two railway companies to move f r e i g h t cars from the mainland to p o r t s on Vancouver I s l a n d . Each com-pany operates three barges, capable of c a r r y i n g f i f t e e n loaded f r e i g h t c a r s , and making the journey from Vancouver and r e t u r n i n twenty-four hours. Photo. 12. Railway barge, Vancouver. A second s p e c i a l i z e d type i s used by the petroleum i n -d u s t r y , an Industry that has given r i s e to many d i s t i n c t i v e forms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . In B r i t i s h Columbia, s p e c i a l l y - b u i l t tank scows capable of holding between 1,000 and 5,000 b a r r e l s of petroleum are used to supply the settlements of the south-ern coast from the r e f i n e r i e s located on Burrard I n l e t . For 9 5. the northern p o r t i o n of the coast, petroleum supplies are de-l i v e r e d to d i s t r i b u t i o n p o i n t s from the Vancouver r e f i n e r i e s by small c o a s t a l tankers with c a p a c i t i e s of up to 1,500 tons, (about 12,000 b a r r e l s ) . A second s p e c i a l i z e d form of shipping has developed with the c o a s t a l f i s h e r i e s , another of the great n a t u r a l resources of B r i t i s h Columbia. Because of the nature of t h e i r work, i t i s almost i m -p o s s i b l e to determine the number of f i s h i n g boats to be found r e g u l a r i l y based on a s p e c i f i c harbour. A boat may be r e g i s -tered i n one port but use one of many others f o r unloading f i s h , loading supplies and equipment, or f o r s h e l t e r during the c l o s e d season. Others may r a r e l y use a port during the f i s h i n g season, instead d e l i v e r i n g f r e s h l y c a u g h t - f i s h to f i s h packers — which i n turn d e l i v e r to canneries on the coast or i n the p o r t s . Despite the frequency of use of other than t h e i r port of r e g i s t r a t i o n , Vancouver i s an important centre for the f i s h i n g Photo. 13. O i l barge, Vancouver. 96. f l e e t . Table 13 compares the three main southern p o r t s to Prince Rupert, which has a l a r g e number of f o r e i g n v e s s e l s be-cause of i t s proximity to American waters, and S t . J o h n ' s , Newfoundland, which has the highest f i g u r e for the A t l a n t i c coast , TABLE 13 - A r r i v a l s of F i s h i n g Boats at Several Canadian Ports , 1949.  Coastal Foreign T o t a l Reg. Net Reg. Net Reg. Net Port Number Tons Number Tons Number Tons Vancouver 712 28,188 138 3,646 856 31,834 V i c t o r i a 398 5,051 242 5,771 640 10,222 New Westminster 127 6,826 12 482 139 7,308 Prince Rupert 398 13,521 966 20,796 1,364- 34,317 St. John's 28 i , 4 4 o 325 165,961 413 167,401 Source: Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Re-p o r t , 1949, Table 11, pp. 122-125. Besides the f i s h packers, mentioned above, there are three other important types of f i s h i n g v e s s e l s . The l a r g e s t are the s e i n e r s , vessels v a r y i n g between 45 feet and 70 f e e t , that operate In inshore waters, and are equipped w i t h l a r g e seine nets . The two smaller types are the 35 feet to 45 feet salmon t r o l l e r s , and the g i l l netters of 25 feet to 40 f e e t . Both the l a s t two types are p r i m a r i l y salmon f i s h i n g boats, and they work c l o s e to shore, moving southward down the coast through the season, as the f i s h head for the F r a s e r R i v e r . By f a r the greatest number of ships moving through the Port of Vancouver are i n c o a s t a l s e r v i c e . This s e r v i c e 97 i n c l u d e s large f i s h packers, o i l tankers, small f r e i g h t e r s , p l u s the l a r g e r vessels of 5,000 or 6,000 tons that carry-Photo. 14. S e i n e r s , Vancouver. Photo. 15. Salmon T r o l l e r s on f a r side of j e t t y , Vancouver. passengers, m a l l , f r e i g h t , and automobiles between Vancouver, United States p o r t s on Puget Sound, Vancouver I s l a n d and c o a s t a l settlements to the n o r t h . Excluding f i s h packers and o i l tankers, which are s p e c i a l i z e d forms of s h i p p i n g , there are s i x shipping compa-nies handling coastal passengers and general cargo, with 3^  ships of varying s izes and uses. (Table 14). General ly speaking, the ships of l e s s than 1,000 tons are cargo v e s s e l s ; 98 over 1,000 tons, they carry passengers, f r e i g h t , and, i n the case of the Canadian N a t i o n a l and Canadian P a c i f i c s h i p s , auto-mobiles as w e l l * The majority of these ships operate on schedules from Vancouver, with regular p o r t s of c a l l . The three l a r g e s t com-panies have the fol lowing r e g u l a r s e r v i c e s : (Map 8) I . Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. (B.C. Coast Steamship Service) I: 1. The T r i a n g l e Route: Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , S e a t t l e . 2. Vancouver - Nanaimo. Vancouver - Gulf I s l a n d s . Vancouver - Westvlew - Comox. 5. V i c t o r i a and West Coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , b . Vancouver - Ocean F a l l s - Prince Rupert -southeastern A l a s k a . 7. Steveston - Nanaimo, (car f e r r y , summer o n l y ) . I I . Union Steamship Company of B r i t i s h Columbia. (Combined with Frank Waterhouse) - P r i n c e Rupert - A l i c e Arm - Stewart. - P r i n c e Rupert Queen C h a r l o t t e - Port Hardy - Ocean F a l l s - B e l l a - Knight I n l e t - A l l i s o n Harbour. - Westvlew - Stuart I s l a n d . - Sechelt - Pender Harbour. - West Howe Sound. - East Howe Sound. - Englewood - Quatsino - Port A l i c e . - Campbell R i v e r - Englewood - Knight - Woodflbre - B r i t a n n i a Beach - Port - Gibson's Landing - Gulf Coast -I I I . Canadian National Steamships. ( P a c i f i c Coast Service) Vancouver - Westvlew - Ocean F a l l s - P r i n c e Rupert - Ketchikan. This l i s t of po rts of c a l l , the dependence of the coast f o r petroleum and the use made by f i s h i n g v e s s e l s and unrigged 1. Vancouver 2. Vancouver I s l a n d s . 3. Vancouver Goola. K Vancouver Vancouver 6. Vancouver 7. Vancouver 8. Vancouver 9. Vancouver 10. Vancouver I n l e t . l l . Vancouver M e l l o n . 12. Vancouver Westvlew. TABLE 14 - S i z e s of V e s s e l s i n C o a s t a l S e r v i c e s Ships Less Than 1,000- 2,000- 3,000-Company 1,000 Tons 2,000 3,000 6,000 TOTALS Canadian N a t i o n a l — 1 1 2 Steamships C P JR. (B.C. Coast 2 4 7 13 Steamship S e r v i c e ) Union S.S. Co. of 4 8 — - 12 B r i t i s h Columbia Prank Waterhouse 2 & Company, L t d . Gul f L i n e s L t d . 2 B r i t i s h Columbia 2 Steamships L t d . 10 1 — 3 11 5 8 34 Source:: Interviews and p e r s o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n 100. c r a f t , show how the Port of Vancouver functions as the f o c a l p o i n t of a l l c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g . Wireless Communication Wireless communication Is the l a s t of the major s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s that l i n k Vancouver and i t s p o r t w i t h the coastal settlements to the n o r t h . The most common method used i s r a d i o - t e l e p h o n e , and i n t h i s type of s e r v i c e , B r i t i s h Columbia was an e a r l y , i f not the f i r s t , major u s e r . In 1921 the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service used one of the f i r s t radio-telephone networks i n the world. Now there are over 1,500 vessels equipped with radio-telephones through the Northwest Telephone Company, the t o l l s e r v i c e branch of the B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone Company. TABLE 15 - Vessels with Radio-Telephone (Aug. 1, 1950). Type of V e s s e l F i s h i n g Boats Tug Boats Pleasure Boats (mainly U . S . ) Passenger and F r e i g h t Ships Miscellaneous (Fishery P a t r o l , B . C . Forest Service, e t c . ) TOTAL Source: Abrams, B . F . Northwest Telephone C o . , Vancouver,  The most Important use o f radio-telephone i s f o r work o r g a n i z a t i o n . With head o f f i c e s of shipping f i r m s , manufactur-i n g companies and o i l r e f i n e r i e s i n Vancouver, and w i t h much of t h e i r various a c t i v i t i e s spread over hundreds of miles of Number h%2 328 231 9 * 79  1,574-c o a s t l i n e , waste of time, i n c r e a s e d c o s t , and l o s s of efficiency would r e s u l t i f quick communication was not a v a i l a b l e . With the telephone, however, company dispatchers i n Vancouver make m u l t i p l e , or "conference" c a l l s to a l l t h e i r s h i p s . C e r t a i n times are a l l o t e d each company and each i n t u r n , they send out s a i l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s , schedule a l t e r a t i o n s , changes i n p i c k - u p or d e l i v e r y c a l l s , plus any company business a f f e c t i n g the ships at sea. In a d d i t i o n there are a very large number of "non-conference" c a l l s , between shore s t a t i o n s and a l l the v a r i o u s kinds of c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g , plus d i s t r e s s s i g n a l s which average two per week and take p r i o r i t y over a l l other c a l l s . The fact that there were approximately g,000 c a l l s made from Vancouver during the month of J u l y , 1 9 5 0 , ^ gives an i n -d i c a t i o n of the importance of radio communication on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast . This t o t a l Is at l e a s t four times that of the Port of S e a t t l e and, In comparison to New York Harbour with approximately 5,000 c a l l s each month, i s s t i l l f u r t h e r evidence of the important r o l e of Vancouver i n a l l c o a s t a l a c t i v i t y . The "Geographical Port" or "Port D i s t r i c t " . Although Vancouver with i t s port i s the s h i p p i n g , i n -d u s t r i a l , commercial, and economic c a p i t a l of c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, i t cannot be considered a l o n e . Rather, the whole waterfront area of Burrard Peninsula c o n s i s t i n g of the Port of Vancouver, the Port of New Westminster, and the North Arm of Abraras, B . F . Northwest Telephone Co. , Vancouver, B.C., i n t e r v i e w with the w r i t e r , August 11, 195°« 102. the Fraser R i v e r , should he grouped together. (Map 9) This area i s a "geographical p o r t " or "port d i s t r i c t " ^ 9 The three port areas are served by the same rai lway companies; the areas are l i n k e d by f i r s t c l a s s highways; one u t i l i t y com-pany furnishes i n d u s t r i a l power to the e n t i r e p e n i n s u l a ; and, f i n a l l y , wood working i s the dominant i n d u s t r y over the whole a r e a , p a r t i c u l a r i l y on the North Arm of the Fraser R i v e r . In the case of the lumber i n d u s t r y alone, the e n t i r e p e n i n s u l a i s a c l o s e l y k n i t u n i t . Raw m a t e r i a l s f o r the m i l l s moving i n t o the p o r t d i s t r i c t cannot be d i v i d e d i n t o groups d e s t i n e d f o r the Burrard I n l e t m i l l s , the False Greek m i l l s or the m i l l s on the Fraser R i v e r , so complicated and continuous i s the l o g movement between port areas. Nor i s i t easy to determine where, i n the p o r t d i s t r i c t , the f i n i s h e d lumber i s produced, that goes to world markets from e i t h e r Vancouver or New Westminster. Wheat i s a second commodity common to both Vancouver and New Westminster. Though a v a i l a b l e i n much smaller q u a n t i -t i e s i n New Westminster, (800,000 bushels storage c a p a c i t y ) when added to the capacity and f a c i l i t i e s i n Vancouver i t does make a second s i m i l a r i t y i n two areas of the p o r t d i s t r i c t . A t h i r d f a c t o r tending to a u n i f i c a t i o n of the Burrard P e n i n s u l a , i s the s i m i l a r i t y of i n d u s t r i e s , other than lumber. Meat packing, brewing, metal working, machinery manufacturing, the most important, are d i s t r i b u t e d over the e n t i r e p e n i n s u l a 39 M i l l e r , W i l l i s H. "A method f o r determining the rank of seaports", " B u l l e t i n of the Geographical Society of  P h i l a d e l p h i a , V o l . 33, pp. 52-57, J a n . - O c t . , 1935. 103. with l i t t l e regard to municipal boundaries, out let p o r t or l i v i n g place of i n d u s t r i a l workers, who are widespread over . the e n t i r e p e n i n s u l a . CHAPTER SIX  CONCLUSION The Port of Vancouver f u l f i l l s two r o l e s : f i r s t , i t i s an important world deep-sea port;' second, i t i s the l e a d i n g port for the c o a s t a l shipping of B r i t i s h Columbia. In f u l f i l l -i n g e i t h e r of these r o l e s adequately the port functions as a p o i n t of contact between l a n d and sea. I t Is i n a p o r t , It i t i s to be a s u c c e s s f u l one, that t h i s contact between land and sea must be supplemented by the n a t u r a l and man-made f a c i l i t i e s for t r a n s i t i o n between d i f f e r e n t methods of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The s t a t i s t i c a l information that Is a v a i l a b l e has been combined with a study of the works of others plus p e r s o n a l observation to prove that Vancouver i s a great p o r t . Admirable p h y s i c a l features for p o r t i n s t a l l a t i o n s , most notably the deep, s h e l t e r e d i n l e t and the low Burrard P e n i n -s u l a , have been the basis on which men, i n a c o m p a r i t i v e l y short p e r i o d of time, b u i l t a great c i t y and seaport. The, commercial and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y of the c i t y , and i n t u r n , i t s p o r t , are based on extensive n a t u r a l resources. In the e a r l y days of the settlement of the c i t y , these resources were a v a i l a b l e close at hand, but, with the growth of i n d u s t r y , sources at a g r e a t e r distance were e x p l o i t e d . The ruggedness and i n a c c e s s i b l e nature of the c o a s t a l areas supplying raw m a t e r i a l s to Vancouver's i n d u s t r y , created a dependence on the p o r t : thus c o a s t a l shipping, at one p e r i o d In i t s growth a h i g h l y speculat ive venture, grew s t e a d i l y i n 105. importance. As i t s importance and so i t s scope of a c t i v i t y i n -creased, small p o r t s , capable of accommodating deep-sea f r e i g h -t e r s , became e s t a b l i s h e d . However, these small coastal centres g e n e r a l l y s u p p l i e d only one major commodity such as lumber, or newsprint, and thus were not able to a t t r a c t deep-sea shipping i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s . The Port of Vancouver with space for many s h i p s , s u i t -able s i t e s for g r a i n elevators and with r a i l connections to A l b e r t a , became one of the w o r l d ' s great bulk g r a i n shipping p o r t s . Thus, world shipping was a t t r a c t e d to B r i t i s h Columbia, a feat impossible for the smaller ports of the province to accomplish. This r e s u l t e d i n some l o s s to Vancouver of f o r -eign exports which went d i r e c t l y from the smaller c o a s t a l c e n t r e s . The p o r t , however, because of i t s i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , and i t s almost monopolistic c o n t r o l over a l l c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g , s t i l l maintained supremacy as the major port of the B r i t i s h Columbia coast . At the same time, because of the dependence of c o a s t a l settlements on Vancouver, i t became the centre of a p o r t system: the Port of Vancouver exporting wheat and lum-b e r , a t t r a c t e d world shipping to c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia; the s m a l l ports s u p p l i e d one commodity, d i r e c t l y to deep-sea f r e i g h t e r s ; Vancouver served as the supply centre f o r the small p o r t s . Vancouver as the centre of the system of p o r t s , was supplemented by the e n t i r e Burrard P e n i n s u l a , most notably New Westminster and the North Arm of the Fraser R i v e r . The e n t i r e p e n i n s u l a functions as a s i n g l e i n d u s t r i a l and shipping 106., u n i t , with Vancouver supreme because of i t s f ine harbour, r e -p a i r f a c i l i t i e s , g r a i n e l e v a t o r s , manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s , and with i t s c o n t r o l over c o a s t a l producing areas through the network of shipping l i n e s and radio communication. From the low slopes of the Coast Mountains, the immedi-ate c o a s t a l areas and the c o a s t a l waters of the p r o v i n c e , Vancouver draws raw m a t e r i a l s and f i n i s h e d goods which, p l u s A l b e r t a wheat; a t t r a c t world s h i p p i n g . The quantity of world shipping and the great number of c o a s t a l vessels of a l l kinds that use the harbour, are proof that the Port of Vancouver fulr-f i l l s i t s f u n c t i o n as a p o i n t of t r a n s i t i o n between methods of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . A l s o , the quantity of goods passing -through the port from the B r i t i s h Columbia coast to world markets, i s proof of an e f f i c i e n t use of the producing areas — the h i n t e r -l a n d s . Therefore, the Port of Vancouver functions s u c c e s s f u l l y as a point of t r a n s i t i o n between the l a n d , i n terms of h i n t e r -lands, and the sea, i n terms of shipping r o u t e s , and world markets. 'BIBLIOGRAPHY Federal Government P u b l i c a t i o n s Canada, Dept. of Marine and F i s h e r i e s , Report on Vancouver  Harbour, B . C . Ottawa, 1919. Canada, Dept. of Mines, G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Geology of the Fraser River map area, by W.A. Johnson, Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1923. ; Canada, Dept. of Mines and Resources, Mines and Geology Branch, Physiography o f , t h e Canadian C o r d i l l e r a , w i t h  s p e c i a l reference to the area north of the 55th p a r a l l e l , oy H . a . Bostocfc, Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1^48. Canada, Dept. of Trade and Commerce, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of the manufactur- i n g , i n d u s t r i e s , 19*1-7. Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1950. Canada, Dept. of Trade and Commerce, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , The Manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s of Canada by  p r o v i n c e s , 19^7, Ottawa, 195Q. [ ~~~~ Canada, Dept. of Trade and Commerce, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping r e p o r t f o r the year 1943 to 19^9« Ottawa. Canada, National Harbours Board. Annual Reports 1936-1950 I n c l u s i v e . Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . ~ Canada, N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, Port of Vancouver. B r i t i s h  Columbia, i n t e r e s t i n g information about the p o r t , '• Vancouver, 1950. P r o v i n c i a l Government P u b l i c a t i o n s B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of F i s h e r i e s , Report for the year  ended December 31, 19*4-9, V i c t o r i a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1950. B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of Trade and Commerce, Regional i n - d u s t r i a l index of B . C . , V i c t o r i a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 19^9. B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of Lands, B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e , The f o r e s t resources of B r i t i s h Columbia, by F . O . Mulholland, V i c t o r i a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1937. B r i t i s h Columbia, N a t u r a l Resources Conference. Transactions of the t h i r d B r i t i s h Columbia n a t u r a l resources conference, V i c t o r i a , 1950. ; '• B r i t i s h Columbia, Sesslonal_Papers, 3rd Session, 4th P a r l i a - ment of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Session ISSb, V i c t o r i a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1887. Miscellaneous Government P u b l i c a t i o n s Great B r i t a i n , A d m i r a l t y . Hydrographlc Department, B r i t i s h  Columbia P i l o t , V o l . 1., London, H.M. Stationery O f f i c e , m I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s Commission, Annual  r e p o r t , 194-9, New Westminster, 1949. Vancouver Harbour Commissioners, Annual r e p o r t , 1920. Vancouver, 1921. Books and S p e c i a l Reports Bartholomew, H. and A s s o c i a t e s , Railway and harbour r e p o r t , Vancouver, B . C . Vancouver, 1927. Burwash, E . M . J . , The geology of Vancouver and V i c i n i t y . Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1918. Gibb, S i r Alex, N a t i o n a l p o r t s survey, 1931-2, Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , . 1932"; Hurd, S i r A . , e d . , Ports of the world, London, 1949, pp. 9650-1010. — L o p a t i n , Ivan A l e x i s . Geography of Vancouver—an M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19'29. Sargent, A . J . Seaways of the empire, London, Black, 193°. Schuthe, G.M. Canadian Shipping In the B r i t i s h Columbia  C o a s t a l Trade — a n M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951. Wallace, F.W., c o m p i l e r f , Canadian ports and shipping d i r e c -t o r y , Gardenvale, N a t i o n a l Business P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1948. A r t i c l e s i n P e r i o d i c a l s B r e t z , "J.H. "The Juan de Fuca lobe of the C o r d i l l e r a n i c e sheet' 1 . J o u r n a l of Geology, V o l . 28, No. 4. pp. 333-339, May-June, 1920. Howay, P., " E a r l y s h i p p i n g i n B u r r a r d I n l e t " , B r i t i s h Columbia  H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 1. pp. 3-20. January, 1937. I m p e r i a l O i l Review, V o l . 33, Wo. 5., Dec.-Jan. 1949-50. Maclnnes, Tom, "The p o r t of Vancouver", Canadian Geogra-p h i c a l J o u r n a l , V o l . 2, -N0. 4', pp. 289-309. A p r i l , 1931. M i l l e r , W i l l i s H. "A method f o r determining the rank of s e a p o r t s " , B u l l e t i n of the G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y of  P h i l a d e l p h i a , V o l . 55, pp. 52-57, Jan.-Oct., i&aa. Sage, W.N.,"Vancouver 1886-1946". J o u r n a l of Commerce  Year Book, 1946. Stevens, Leah. "Rise of the p o r t of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia", Economic Geography, V o l . 12, No. 1, pp. 61-70, January, 1936. T a y l o r , G r i f f i t h , " B r i t i s h Columbia, a study i n topographic c o n t r o l " , Geographical Review, V o l . 32, No. 3, pp. 372-402, J u l y , 1942. Railway and Steamship Time- T a b l e s . Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway. System time t a b l e s , A p r i l 50, 1950. Canadian P a c i f i c Steamship Company, P r i n c e s s L i n e s schedule, June 15, 1950. 1 Union Steamship Co. of B r i t i s h Columbia, S a i l i n g guide No.  150, June 50, 1950. P e r s o n a l Communication - Interviews Abrams, R.P., Northwest Telephone C o i , Vancouver, 11 August, 1950. D a l t o n , M.H., Manager, B r i t i s h Columbia D i v i s i o n , Canadian Manufacturers A s s o c i a t i o n , . 7 October, 1949. E l l i o t t , H.A., Power s a l e s engineer, B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Co., L t d . , 26 July,.1950. Pla n n i g a n , T. I n d u s t r i a l Commissioner, C i t y of Vancouver, 23 J u l y , 1950, and 24 J u l y , 1950. Pry, D. Robinson and Hackett L t d . , Sawmills, Vancouver, 25 August, 1950. McBean, G.M., Manager. Union Steamship Co. of B.C. L t d . , Vancouver, 26 J u l y , 1950. McMaster, A.E., Port Manager, N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, Vancouver, 14 October, 1949. Shipp, J . A s s i s t a n t T r a f f i c Manager, Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -way, Vancouver, 24 J u l y , 1950. Smith, F., Chairman, Board of G r a i n Commissioners, Vancouver, 18 J u l y , 1950. S p i l l s b u r y and Hepburn L t d . , Vancouver, 11 August, 1950. Stewart', J.C.F., Vancouver Tug Boat Co., 18 J u l y , 1950. Westover, G., I m e r i a l O i l Co. L t d . , Vancouver, 12 J u l y , 1950. L e t t e r s to the W r i t e r B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Co. L t d . , 26 November, 1951. B r i t i s h Columbia Lumber Manufacturers A s s o c i a t i o n , 14 October, 1951. Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway System, 1 November, 1951. Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, 4 October, 1951. Great Northern Railway Company, S a i n t P a u l , Minn., 25 October, 1951. . . . I m p e r i a l O i l Company, L t d . , Vancouver, 15 J u l y , 1950. 134* 132* T~ 130' 128' 126* 124" 122' 120° 118' 116' L6C. A L B E R T A P a c i f i c Kicking Horse Pass 6 0 ° H 58" A 56' 5 4 ° 5 2 ' H \^  i Pass 5 0 ' - ^ M A P I. SCALE IN MILES 0 20 40 60 80 100 B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 0-2000 feet 2000-5000 feet 5000-10,000 feet — — International Boundaries — —-— National Boundaries Railways Over 10,000 feet - R a i l w a y P a s s e s Base i British Columbia 1^5,000,000 in Dent's Atlas. 48* H 46- H Quarry M A P 3 V A N C O U V E R H A R B O U R Railways o o o Petroleum Storage N H B Boundary Tidal Flats h— 49°i8 Point Grey :ALE 1:93,750,000 q n H30 MERCATOR PROJECTION Q n fin 0 1/4 1/2 3/4 I INDUSTRIAL ZONES AND RAILWAYS WMU Grain Elevators -49°I6 L = - - - - - - _ - | Tidol Mud Flats 1 BCER-British Columbia Electric Rlwy. CNR Canadian National Rlwy. CPR Canadian Pacific Rlwy. GNR Great Northern Rlwy. N.H3 National Harbour Board PGE Pacific Great Eastern Rlwy. Ownership and/or Operation-of Railway Lines Example : PG E by NHB Owned by PGE but leased to NHB CNR with GNR Joint Operation Base: Dept. of Mines 3 Resources, Hydrogropnic Chart No.3433,1949. 45 SCALE 1:93,750,000 I MERCATOR PROJECTION I 60 90 120 150 180 150 120 90 6 0 30 30 60 " i — : 1 : r 118° 116° 114° _ • _ 54°-A L B E R T A 52° H '•>. "• 50* i > ; ' U. S.. A. 4 8 ° -MAP 8 . SCALE IN MILES 0 20 40 60 80 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA PORTS OF CALL OF SCHEDULED COASTAL SHIPPING Base ; British Columbia I-5,000,000 in Dent's Atlas IZO-i 118° _1_ 116° I 

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