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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the popularity of Edmund Spenser as revealed by allusion and criticism between the years 1600… Armstrong, Robert James 1951

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A OF  OP T H E P O P U L A R I T Y  EDMUND S P E N S E R A S R E V E A L E D BY A L L U S I O N  AND  CRITICISM  1850,  BETWEEN  THE YEARS  1 6 0 0 AND  WITH AN A P P E N D I X ADDED T O SHOW T H E  EXTENT IN  STUDY  O F S P E N S E R S T U D Y AND S C H O L A R S H I P  L E A D I N G NORTH A M E R I C A N AND  UNIVERSITIES  C O L L E G E S TODAY  by ROBERT  A THESIS THE  JAMES  ARMSTRONG  S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF REQUIREMENTS MASTER in  FOR T H E DEGREE O F OP A R T S  t h e Department o f English  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o the standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r t h e degree o f Master o f A r t s .  Members English  THE  UNIVERSITY  o f t h e Department o f  OF B R I T I S H  OCTOBER, 1 9 5 1  COLUMBIA  . ....ABSTRACT...  This Spenser years .the  thesis  as r e v e a l e d  extent  I  have  Elizabethan  mantics  among the  a small  reveal wards  it's lowest  strength  institutions  that,, mainly  I n my  because  small  the whole,  group  have  I think become  of interested  I have  but of  since. questionnaire,  Spenser Spenser  study receives'  i s paid  opinion,  shown t h a t  scholars.  writers  of student  the property  and  Spenser's  a t the time  the r e s u l t s of a  and M i l t o n .  romantics;  n o t among  u n i v e r s i t i e s , concerning In these  by t h e r o -  Victorians.  point  by t h e  by t h e neo-  qualification  has d e c l i n e d  contains  Shakespeare  Spenser  showing  i n leading  attacked  him, u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e not f o s t e r i n g a  Edmund a  was  f r a c t i o n of the attention, that  the fact  On  between t h e  regarded  by t h e l a t e r  and not r e g a i n i n g  appendix  highly  by t h e e a r l y  reaching  scholarship.  Chaucer,  was  without  qualification  I believe,  to leading  only  Spenser  praised  attacked  romantics,  sent and  was  readers,  The  and s c h o l a r s h i p  and Jacobean w r i t e r s ;  severely  criticism  Edmund  u n i v e r s i t i e s today.  and w i t h  popularity,  study  shown t h a t  classicists;  of  An a p p e n d i x h a s b e e n a d d e d  of Spenser  American  of the popularity  hy a l l u s i o n and  1600 t o 1850.  North  was  i s a. s t u d y  to  the r e s u l t s apathy t o -  study  of  Spenser.  the works o f  of writers  and o f  i.'.TABLE OF CONTENTS...  INTRODUCTION Chapter  One;  C h a p t e r Two:  • i ELIZABETHAN AND PROSE  JACOBEAN  ELIZABETHAN AND  JACOBEAN  WRITERS 1  VERSE  WRITERS; 19  Chapter Three:  THE NEO-CLASSICISTS  33  Chapter  Four:  THE PRE - R OM ANT ICS  61  Chapter  Five:  THE ROMANTICS'  82  Chapter  Six:  THE EARLY VICTORIANS.  Chapter Seven:  CONCLUSION  .106 123  APPENDIX  150  BIBLIOGRAPHY'  138-  . INTRODUCTION.  No a t t e m p t a definitive The of  study  thesis t o present  o f Spenserian a l l u s i o n s  i n t e n t i o n has s i m p l y been t o r e v e a l Spenser's  and  fifty  with  popularity  and c r i t i c i s m .  the u n d u l a t i o n s  o v e r a p e r i o d o f some two h u n d r e d  y e a r s , w i t h t h e hope  Spenser's or  h a s b e e n made i n t h i s  works a r e n o t b e i n g  t h e same t h o r o u g h n e s s ,  that  the reasons  r e a d t o t h e same e x t e n t , as those  M i l t o n , a n d C h a u c e r , m i g h t be f o u n d .  of  Shakespeare,  I am c e r t a i n  some o f t h e s e r e a s o n s , i f n o t a l l , a r e m a n i f e s t criticisms objective  quoted  i n this  why  i n the  essay, b u t , wishing t o remain  towards Spenser's  a r t , I am f o r c e d t o a l l o w t h e  r e a d e r t o draw h i s own c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h i s The At  thesis  covers  the beginning  benefit and  o f such  romantic.  fell  convenience  problem.  t h e y e a r s b e t w e e n 1600 and 1850.  I h a d h o p e d t o p r e s e n t my d a t a l a b e l s as n e o - c l a s s i c a l ,  without  pre-romantic,  B u t i t was f o u n d i m p o s s i b l e t o do so a s  c e r t a i n w r i t e r s , d i s t i n g u i s h e d by s i m i l a r tentions,  that  easily  i n t o groups,  of labelling  critical in-  and the e f f i c a c y and  s u c h g r o u p s c o u l d n o t be o v e r -  looked. The 1850  reason^/ f o r c o n c l u d i n g the thelsis a t the y e a r  was t h r e e f o l d .  I n the f i r s t  place, i f later material  - i i -  was  t o be p r e s e n t e d  would  have  Secondly, many  not  a vast  criticism  In the third  prepared  would  through  relevant  universities  such  A  t h e waning  even  though Heeding  today  and c o l l e g e s  study  of this  i n an appendix  that  h a d t o be scholarship i s  t o the demands important,  To c o r r o b o r a t e  and s c h o l a r s h i p  America.  scholarship, i n  have  a questionnaire to determine  leading  tripled.  of  the trend  final  h i s importance  and s e n t  I t t o a l lthe  of English-speaking  questionnaire, which i s  popularity  i s still  advice  point  the extent o f  a t the end o f the t h e s i s ,  o f Spenser's  Spenser's  this  i s still  shows  unchecked,  recognized.  that  Him • • • i l l b e s e e m e s , a n o t h e r s f a u l t t o name, T h a t may v n w a r e s b e b l o t t e d w i t h t h e s a m e ; (Fg, I I , i x , 5 8 ) I  shall  this  t o d i s c o v e r n a d a l r e a d y , b y 1850,  established.  study  presented  even  probably,  Spenser  p l a c e , and most  eager  Spenser  North  o r , more  of details,  o f the type  had been most  the length of the thesis .  of later  consideration  been f i r m l y I  amount  the study  into  thesis. I  had t o be d o u b l e d  cases  taken  adequately  l e t the critics  speak f o r themselves.  -1-  ...CHAPTER  ELIZABETHAN  -Literary activity virtually ever,  non-existent  eulogies  beginnings  studying  Puttenham,  Harvey, tively  of Sir  Nashe, brief  his  Reynolds,  about  his  one c a n o n l y  Poly-Olbion, Baron's his  and D a n i e l  Wars,  critical  "critical"  quantitative  verse  with  the-  that  Many  and accentual  were e x -  a s c a n be s e e n b y Carew,  Webbe,  i nhis  letter  that  compara-  time  time  which  judg-.  on. h i s .  into the  i n developing  which  p e c u l i a r embroilment metres  friend  and sound,  h i s Mortiraeriodos  of the tracts  critic  reveals  so much  more  Campion,  Apologie  t o his  a r e wise  he spent  of spending  that  embryonic  There  and poesy,"  contemporaries  o r i n changing  dealt  How-  and i n t h e f r a g -  o f course,  "Of.poets  faculty.  Period.  1580, i s t h e g r e a t e s t  i nhis  instead  separate  - a l l o f whom p r o d u c e d  about  regret  rare  Sidney,  Sidney,  age. Drayton  Henry  c a nbe seen  Aseham,  works.  of writers  were  a  c r e a t i o n , was  as an a c t i v i t y .  b u t they  Poetrie, written  ments and  jottings  of criticism to this  artistic  i n the Elizabethan  o f poets  ceptions  PROSE.  a s we k n o w i t t o d a y ,  t o and a i d i n g  i n t h e random  mentary  for  AND JAC QBEAN W R I T E R S :  criticism  akin  ONE...  arose  were regarding  when i t was  -2-  discovered  that English could  argument i n t e r e s t i n g now our verse  as  such,  time  period  shall  the a l l u s i o n s  and  comment made a b o u t  We  I t would be  cri-  o r h i s works  f i n d no  the n e c e s s a r y  depth of h i s  trends.  reasons g i v e n  i m p o s s i b l e to g i v e every or-his  works.  g i v e n , however, to i l l u s t r a t e  We  allusion  Enough  the importance  that  legends are i n t e r p o l a t e d  not  or held  i n doubt.  t o escape  i s desultory certain  stories  that years l a t e r  dis-  Like  the t e l l i n g  ham's D i a r y o f 1602-3 we  learn  are  S u r r e y and M a r l o w e , of tales.  Spenser  Prom J o h n  Manning-  that  When h i r M a j e s t i e had g i u e n o r d e r t h a t S p e n s e r s h o u l d haue a r e w a r d f o r h i s poems", b u t S p e n s e r c o u l d haue n o t h i n g , he p r e s e n t e d h i r w i t h these v e r s e s : I t p l e a s e d y o u r G r a c e v p o n a tyme To g r a u n t me r e a s o n f o r my ryme, B u t f r o m t h a t tyme v n t i l l t h i s s e a s o n I h e a r d o f n e i t h e r ryme n o r r e a s o n . (Touse) 1 Westminster, p.  he  among h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s .  proved was  shall  Spenser  In a l l scholarship and  how  i n the prose o f the  o r c e n s u r e b u t w i t h few  either.  had  s t u d i e s Spenser  t o gauge t h e b r e a d t h and  for  should-be  of  an  Although there i s  i n the poetry', g i v e u s  u p o n the p e r i o d . find praise  folly.  r e f e r e n c e s t o him  m a t e r i a l s by which impact  -  I n a survey of Spenser  grave  even mihor, which the b r i e f  and  language  only f o r i t s implications  t i c i s m , h o w e v e r , w o u l d he tract,  a literary  developed.  To o v e r l o o k t h i s  no  he  43.  Camden S o c i e t y ,  J.B.  Nichols,  1  1868,  The  story  i s a common one h u t i t c a n n o t be s u b s t a n t i a t e d .  T h a t Queen E l i z a b e t h h a d o r d e r e d a sum t o be g i v e n t o Spenser, and t h a t he had n o t r e c e i v e d  i t because  of the  i n t e r v e n t i o n o f one o f h e r m i n i s t e r s we may a c c e p t a s facts.  That Spenser  protest  c a n be d o u b t e d .  Likewise  sent h e r such a p i e c e o f d o g g e r e l as  i n the Jonson conversations  r e c o r d e d by  W i l l i a m Drummond we a r e t o l d : That t h e I r i s h h a v i n g r o b ' d Spenser's goods, and b u r n t h i s h o u s e a n d a l i t l e c h i l d new b o r n , he and h i s wyfe escaped; and a f t e r he d i e d f o r l a k e o f - b r e a d i n K i n g S t r e e t , and r e f u s e d 2 0 p i e c e s s e n t t o h i m by my L o r d o f E s s e x , a n d s a i d , He was s o r r i e hfeclaad n o t i m e t o spend them. T h a t i n t h a t p a p e r S. .¥. R a u g h l y h a d o f t h e A l l e g o r i e s o f h i s F a y r i e Queen, b y t h e B l a t i n g B e a s t t h e P u r i t a n s were u n d e r s t o o d , b y t h e f a l s e D u e s s a t h e Q. o f S c o t s . 2 The q u o t a t i o n r e m a i n s that  controversial.  t h e r e was a ' l i t l e  doubtful.  Either  child',  the paper  Jonson i s r e f e r r i n g  i n fact  i ti s the Ralegh l e t t e r  is  made o f e i t h e r  i s lost or  t o R a l e g h w h i c h was  t h r e e books  If  i ti s highly  'Raughly had'  to the l e t t e r  published with the f i r s t  There i s no p r o o f  of the F a i r i e  Queene.  i t must be n o t e d t h a t no m e n t i o n  the Puritans  o r t h e Queen o f S c o t s . 3  must be remembered t h a t J o n s o n was n o t a l w a y s  It  accurate;  2 T h e Works o f B e n J o n s o n . F r a n c i s Cunningham, e d . , L o n d o n , C h a t t o & W i n d u s , 1 9 0 3 , v o l . 3 , p . 4-78. 3 The S p e n s e r - R a l e g h l e t t e r i t s e l f p o s e s i n t e r e s t i n g problems. I f i t was w r i t t e n a f t e r t h e f i r s t t h r e e books why i s t h e p l a n i n i t i n e r r o r ? I f i t was w r i t t e n p r i o r t o t h e s e books why was t h e p l a n n o t changed t o c o n f o r m w i t h the b o o k s when p u b l i s h e d ?  - 4 -  once  he  scars  says  that  Surrey  when a c t u a l l y  was d i s f i g u r e d , b y  i t was  Surrey's mother  small-pox who  was  dis-  figured. . Biographers with  which  been  i n the case  or  t o draw  n o t t h e y have  inter-relate are an  have b e e n b y no means a picture  t h e works  their  the  The forms his  extent  writing  as t h e y  have  ask whether  closely  enough to  with h i s l i f e .  There  d i d not arise  indeed, until  century. o f Spenser's  o f composition is. w e l l  Preface  findings  of materials  by h i s contemporaries:  i n biographical  seventeenth  life  B u t we m u s t  o f the author  no b i o g r a p h i e s w r i t t e n interest  o f Spenser's  o f Shakespeare. examined  as s h o r t  to Eclogues  importance  as a w r i t e r  illustrated  of Virgil,  of various  by W i l l i a m  (1628),  Lisle i n  when he w r i t e s  that  Only Master Spenser l o n g s i n c e t r a n s l a t e d the Gnat...giving the world peradventure to c o n c e i v e t h a t he w o u l d a t one t i m e o r o t h e r have gone through t h e r e s t o f t h i s p o e t ' s works: and i t i s h o t improbable t h a t t h i s v e r y c a u s e was i t t h a t made e v e r y m a n e l s e so v e r y n i c e t o m e d d l e w i t h a n y p a r t o f t h e b u i l d i n g w h i c h h e h a d b e g u n , f o r f e a r t o come s h o r t w i t h d i s g r a c e o f t h e p a t t e r n w h i c h he h a d s e t b e f o r e t h e m . ...4 Even  as l a t e  as 1628 S p e n s e r  was  held  t o be a m a s t e r  trans-  lator. Another observe so,  that  method  how m a n y  o f gauging  a poet's  quotations from  other poets  embed  importance  Spenser,  i n their  own  verbal,  writings.  i s to or  almost  One  4 Qjuoted i n t h e " I n t r o d u c t i o n " t o V. S c h o l d e r e r ' s E n g l i s h E d i t i o n s and T r a n s l a t i o n s o f G r e e k and L a t i n C l a s s i c s , London, B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1911, p. x x l v .  -  example matter  w i l l be  sufficient  of import  the F a e r i e :  5  -  to i l l u s t r a t e ;  to our t h e s i s .  The  as i t i s n o t  following  lines  a  from  Qpeene, L i k e t o a n Almond tree; ymounted hye On t o p o f g r e e n e S e l i n i s a l l a l o n e , Witn blossomes braue bedecked d a i n t i l y ; Whose t e n d e r l o c k s do t r e m b l e e u e r y one A t - e u e r y l i t t l e b r e a t h , that vnder heauen i s blowne. ( I , v i i , 32)  appear  as f o l l o w s  i n Marlowe's T a m b u r l a i n e  the  Gve&t,  .. Upon t h e l o f t y and c e l e s t i a l mount Of e v e r - g r e e n S e l i n u s q u a i n t l y d e c k e d W i t h b l o o m s more w h i t e t h a n E r y c i n a ' s b r o w s , Whose t e n d e r b l o s s o m s t r e m b l e e v e r y one, At e v e r y l i t t l e b r e a t h t h r o u g h h e a v e n i s blown.5 (IV, i i i , 120-125) A  s t u d y o f t h e number o f t i m e s he  t e m p o r a r i e s w o u l d be w i d e l y and The  quoted  by h i s c o n -  most v a l u a b l e as i t would r e v e a l  c o m p l e t e l y he was  y e a r 1579  was  brought  read.  the landmark p u b l i c a t i o n o f  S h e p h e a r d e s C a l e n d e r whose h a n d l i n g , e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n diversity  of v e r s i f i c a t i o n brought  i m m e d i a t e fame. Discourse of  that  1586  "To  be  and  Immerito,  devised differences  "...many  Sheepeheardes Calender,'which  may  sortss  o f numbers...."  auoyde t h e r e f o r e t e d i o u s n e s s e and  i n thys  s o r t e s o f v e r s e s out well  serve  he  confusion, I of  the  of  the  to beare .  matter."6  5 T h i s may p r o v e t h a t Marlowe saw the m a n u s c r i p t F a e r i e Queene p r i o r t o i t s p u b l i c a t i o n ; 6 Westminster,  the  when W i l l i a m Webbe, i n h i s  w y l l r e p e a t e o n e l y the d i f f e r e n t  authoritie  i t s author,  o f E n g l i s h P o e t r y , d i s c u s s e s the  v e r s e s as may  says  By  how  C o n s t a b l e , 1895,  p.  59.  - 6 -  The age  and  importance  o f the Shepheardes  to the development  over estimated.  Calender to  of English literature  " M a s t e r Edmund S p e n s e r h a d  f o r the i m m o r t a l i t y  o f h i s name,, had he  the prime  cannot  done  enough  o n l y g i v e n us h i s  C a l e n d a r , a m a s t e r - p i e c e , i f any....Spenser pastoral!st  of E n g l a n d . "  whose judgment i s s o u n d , Calender that  be  A f t e r Spenser's d e a t h the v e n e r a b l e  Drayton writes that  Shepherd's  Spenser's  I n many ways D r a y t o n ,  7  i s correct.  S p e n s e r ' s fame was  is  I t i s w i t h the  assured.  George P u t - .  \ ,  tenham r e c o r d s i n h i s A r t e o f E n g l i s h P o e s i e , i f i n d e e d i t be' h i s , , t h a t  "For Eglogue  and p a s t o r a l l P o e s i e , S i r P h i l i p  Sydney and M a i s t e r C h a l l e n n e r , and who  wrate  the l a t e  shepheardes  To F r a n c i s M e r e s , P o e t . . . . " ^ and no  to Giles  1  o t h e r Gentleman  Callender."^  S p e n s e r was  " . . . o u r famous  F l e t c h e r he was  o t h e r name more g l o r i o u s  Spenser...." ^  that  t h e n h i s own)  J o n s o n , i n one  t o the Masque o f Queens, s p e a k s  "...our Mr.  English  ( I know  Edmund  of h i s interminable of  "...the grave  notes  and  7 "To t h e R e a d e r o f H i s P a s t o r a l s , " i n The Works o f t h e E n g l i s h . P o e t s . . . , A l e x a n d e r Chalmers, ed., London, J . Johnson and O t h e r s , 1810, v o l . 4, p . 431» C i t e d h e r e a f t e r as C h a l mer's P o e t s . 1895,  8 /l598/,Arber's R e p r i n t s , Westminster, C o n s t a b l e , p . 77.  . 9 " P a l l a d i s Tamia," / 1 5 9 8 7 , i n E l i z a b e t h a n C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , Gregory Smith, ed., Oxford, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y • P r e s s , 1904 (193 7 ) , v o l . 2, p . 313. 10 The Complete Poems o f G i l e s F l e t c h e r , Alexander G r o s a r t , e d . , L o n d o n , C h a t t o & Windus, 1876,-p. 116.  B.  - 7 -  diligent  Spenser...." ! 1  Although of  writers  find  Harvey  Countesse  ar  now  freshest  of  the i d l e s t  as  we  shall  Faerie  say  a  are rare,  reporting  o f sum.fine  & the Paerie  Harvey  humanists."  d i d not approve  we  that  i n r e q u e s t : & A s t r o p h i l , & Amyntas  whose  "...Spenser's  some  first  three  Que.ene  a r none, However,  1 2  o f the  pride  The  years  Jonson,  Meres,  be  written."  that  he  i n 1598, " . . . I  knowe n o t w h a t  i s high  more  a n d , he  praise  t o be  con-  and i t  Spenser's  Queene.  language  was  Nashe  c e n t u r y the  p a r a l l e l e d by  t r a v e l and  Italianate Englishman  58  eternized  Indeed  the p u b l i c a t i o n of  of foreign  op. c i t . , p .  op.  wrote  o f the sixteenth  I n 1589 Thomas  1 2 G.C. M o o r e s p e a r e Head P r e s s , 13  after  the i n f l u e n c e s  scorned.  11  This  i n the E n g l i s h  literatures.  plays,  i n the worlde,  of the Paerie  the l a s t  i n the f a c t  E l i za, the F a i r y , Queene, h a t h t h e  years  books  I  P o e m may  a Poet."13  eight  During  of  rests  o f a l l the Queenes  comes  fear  fame  F a i r y Queene,  or exquisite  so d i u i n e  growing  chief  o f Shakespeare's  o f Spenser's  aduantage  be  works  o f Pembrokes A r c a d i a ,  pastimes  listing  tinues,  a  of their  output  Qpeene.  excellent  by  concerning the  i n h i s Marginalia  see l a t e r ,  Meres, made  remarks  or the p o p u l a r i t y  Gabriel  "...the  contemporary  was  writes,  foreign  an o b j e c t  i n his  to  Introduction  n.  Smith, ed. , Stratford-Upon-Avon-,-. Shake1913, p . 232. c i t . , p.  316.  - 8 -  t o Greene's Menaphon. t h a t . . . s h o u l d t h e c h a l l e n g e o f deepe c o n c e i t e he i n t r u d e d by any f o r r a i n e r , t o b r i n g o u r Engl i s h w i t s t o t h e t o u c h s t o n e o f A r t , I would p r e f e r r e d i u i n e M a s t e r Spencer, the m i r a c l e of w i t , t o b a n d i e l i n e by l i n e f o r my l i f e , i n the honour o f E n g l a n d , a g a i n s t S p a i n e , F r a u n c e , I t a l y , and a l l t h e w o r l d . 1 4 A l i s t o f t h e "...most p r e g n a n t w i t s o f t h e s e o u r t i m e s , whom s u c c e e d i n g ages may j u s t l y admire" i s made by W i l l i a m Camden.  He w r i t e s ,  ...what a w o r l d c o u l d I p r e s e n t t o y o u o u t of S i r P h i l i p S i d n e y , E d . Spenser, J o h n Owen, Samuel D a n i e l , Hugh H o l l a n d , Ben J o h n son, Thomas Champion, M i c h . D r a y t o n , George Chapman, John M a r s t o n , W i l l i a m Shakespeare....15 R i c h a r d Carew makes a c o m p a r a t i v e l i s t i n g o f t h e l e a d i n g p o e t s and one w h i c h i s i n t e r e s t i n g because o f h i s c h o i c e o f c l a s s i c a l counterparts: W i l l y o u reade V i r g i l l ? takethe E a r l l of S u r r e y : C a t u l l u s ? Shakespeare^ and Marlowes fragment: Quid? D a n i e l e : Lucane? Spenser: M a r t t a l l ? S i r Iohn P a u l s and o t h e r s . 1 6 A more l i m i t e d l i s t i n g o f p o e t s i s made i n 1621 by P e t e r H e y l y n i n h i s /'ft kPOKofr/lof. A L i t t l e D e s c r i p t i o n o f the G r e a t W o r l d . The c h i e f e i n m a t t e r o f P o e s i e haue b i n 1 Gower, 2 Chaucer, o f whom S i r P h i l i p S i d ney. . . m a r u a i l e d how t h a t man i n t h o s e m i s t i e times c o u l d see so c l e a r e l y , and how we i n t h e s e c l e a r e t i m e s goe so s t u m b l i n g l y a f t e r 14, The Works o f Thomas Nashe. R.B. McKerrow, ed., London, S i d g w i c k & J a c k s o n , 1910, v o l . 3, P- 323. C f . The V n f o r t v n a t e T r a v e l l e r , v o l . 2, o f Works, f o r Nashe's a n t i - f o r e i g n f e e l i n g s . 15 Remains C o n c e r n i n g B r i t a i n , / e d i t e d 167^7, London, John R u s s e l S m i t h , 1870, p. 344-. 16 "The E x c e l l e n c y o f t h e E n g l i s h Tongue," / 1 5 9 5 - 6 7 , i n E l i z a b e t h a n C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , v o l . 2, p. 293.  -9-  him, Harvey's  list  3  Edmund  17 4 Drayton.... •  Spencer,  i n his Marginalia  i s limited  also:  T r i a v i u i d i s s i m a Britannorum Ingenia, C h a u c e r u s , M o r u s , J u e l l u s : ©jaibus a d d o t r e s f l o r e n t i s s i m a s i n d o l e s , Heiuodum, S i d n e i u m , Spencerum. Qui Quaerit i l l u s t r i o r a Anglorum ingenia, inuenit obscuriora. Perpaucos e x c i p i o ; eorumque p r i m e s , S m i t h u m , Aschamum, Vilsonum; Diggeslum, Bluhdeuilum, Hacliutum, mea Corcula.-^ Later of  we  find  writers,  Harvey  that  l a m e n t i n g , u s i n g .an a l m o s t - n e w  there  x  slate  were  Not manie C h a w c e r s , o r L i d g a t e s , Gowers o r O c c l e u e s , S u r r i e s , o r Heywoods, i n t h o s e d a y e s : & how f e w A s c h a m s , o r P h a e r s , S i d n e y s , o r Spensers, Warners o r D a n i e l s , S i l u e s t e r s , o r Chapmans, i n t h i s p r e g n a n t age. To  Spenser,  Meres  i s one  of  the  kindest  critics:  As T h e o c r i t u s i s f a m o u s e d f o r h i s I d y l l i a i n Greeke, and V i r g i n f o r h i s E c l o g s i n L a t i n e * : so S p e n s e r t h e i r i m i t a t o r i n h i s Shepheardes C a l e n d e r i s renowned f o r the l i k e a r g u m e n t , and h o n o u r e d f o r f i n e P o e t i c a l l i n u e n t i o n and most e x q u i s i t w i t . Meres  also  elegiac,  and  Nashe classical  17 Chaucer Trench, No. 4 8 ,  lists  Spenser  among  the  best  of  the  2  0  lyric,  pastoral.poets,...  i n h i s Foure examples  QjUoted i n Criticism. Trubner & P t . 1, p .  18  Harvey,  19  I b i d . , p.  20  Meres,  but  Letters adds  note  also  of' c e n s u r e  turns  to  -  C a r o l i n e Spurgeon's F i v e Hundred Y e a r s o f .., Chaucer S o c i e t y , London, Kegan P a u l , C o . L t d . , a n d H e n r y F r o w d e , 1 9 1 4 , S e r . 2, 194.  Marginalia,  op.  a  Confuted  p.  231. c i t . , p.  398  122.  -10-  i .  H o m e r and. V i r g i l , two v a l o r o u s A u t h o r s , ' y e t were t h e y n e u e r k n i g h t e d ; t h e y w r o t e I n Hexameter v e r s e s : E r g o , C h a u c e r , and S p e n s e r , t h e Homer a n d V i r g i l o f E n g l a n d , were f a r r e ouerseene that they wrote not a l l .their Poems i n H e x a m e t e r v e r s e s also.^ 1  In  Haue w i t h  with the  one  of  highest  yov  to S a f f r o n - W a l d e n , however,  his characteristic  twists  Nashe  of idea,  has,  written  only  praise:  . . . M a s t e r S p e n c e r , whom I d o n o t t h r u s t i n t h e l o w e s t p l a c e b e c a u s e I make t h e l o w e s t v a l u a t i o n o f , b u t a s wee v s e t o s e t t h e Summ'tot' a l w a y s v n d e r n e a t h ' " o r a t t h e b o t tome, he b e i n g t h e S u m ' t o t ' o f w h a t s o e u e r c a n be s a i d o f sharpe i n u e n t i o n and s c h o l lership. ^ '  -  2  In for  1622  Spencers  conceits Ben against  George  W i t h e r warned  or Daniels  well-composed  of now-flourishing Johaon the  uses  his readers  Iohnson" ^ 2  S p e n s e r as  'common-reader.'  one  He  not  numbers;  to  or the  "...looke deepe  i n h i s work.  side  of  an  .  argument  writes,  . . . i f i t were p u t t o t h e j q u e s t i o n o f t h e W a t e r - r h y m e r ' s /John Taylor7 w o r k s , a g a i n s t • Spenser's, I doubt not but they would find more s u f f r a g e ; because the most f a v o u r common v i c e s , o u t o f . a p r e r o g a t i v e t h e v u l g a r have t o l o s e t h e i r judgments and l i k e that which i s n a u g h t . ^ • Before look is  at  to  the verse  the p r o s e c e n s u r e which,  generally  vol.  turning  sound  i n  praise  o f Spenser-we  although slight  must  i n bulk,  judgment.  21  Nashe,  op.  cit.,  22  Ibid.,  p.  23 1,  "To t h e p . 17.  Reader,"  25  Jonson,  op.  v o l . 1,  p.  299.  108.  cit.,  Juvenilia, p.  298.  Spenser  Society,  1871,  ..  -11  Sir  Philip  guage, b r i e f l y Poetrie.  He  Sidney  touches  upon  and t o the p o i n t ,  Spenser's  use o f  lan-  i n h i s Apologie f o r  writes,  The S h e a p h e a r d s K a l e n d e r , h a t h ' m u c h P o e t r i e in h i s Eglogues: indeede worthy the r e a d i n g i f I be n o t d e c e i u e d . T h a t same f r a m i n g o f his s t i l e , to an o l d r u s t i c k language, I dare n o t alowe, s i t n neyther T h e o c r i t u s i n Greeke, V i r g i n i n L a t i n e , n o r Sanazar, i n Italian, did affect i t ; 2  Jonson in  i s a little  affecting  s t i l l  harsher  when h e  the a n c i e n t s , writ  i s Bolton'<s  no  5  remarks  that  "Spenser,  language...." ^ 2  Stronger  censure:  Inv-verse t h e r e a r e E d . S p e n c e r ' s Hymns. I cannot a d v i s e the allowance o f o t h e r h i s Poems, a s f o r p r a c t i c k E n g l i s h , no more 'than • I c a n do J e f f . C h a u c e r , L y d g a t e , P e i r c e ' Ploughman, o r L a u r e a t S k e l t o n . ^ 7  At  least  Spenser  question, poetry  has been p u t i n good  however,  when h e  the v a l i d i t y  company.  of Bolton's  We  can  judgment o f  adds,  My: j u d g m e n t i s n o t h i n g a t a l l i n P o e m s o r P o e s i e , a n d t h e r e f o r e I d a r e n o t go f a r , b u t w i l l s i m p l y d e l i v e r my M i n d c o n c e r n i n g t h o s e . A u t h o u r s among u s , w h o s e E n g l i s h h a t h i n my C o n c S i t most p r o p r i e t y , and i s n e a r e s t t o t h e P h r a s e o f C o u r t , a n d t o t h e S p e e c h u s e d among t h e n o b l e a n d among t h e b e t t e r s o r t i n L o n d o n , t h e two s o v e r e i g n S e a t s a n d , a s i t w e r e , Parliament tribunals to t r y the question in,*'  20 / W r i t t e n c. 1 5 8 0 , p u b l i s h e d 1595J7, Arber's R e p r i n t s , London, C o n s t a b l e , 1 9 2 9 , pp. 6 2 - 6 3 . 26  Jonson,  op. c i t . ,  p. 4 1 2 .  2 7 Edmund B o l t o n , " H y p e r c r i t i ' c a , " / 1 6 1 8 ? / , i n C r i t i c a l E s s a y s o f t h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y , J . E . S p i n g a r n , e d . , Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1 9 0 8 , v o l . 1 , p. 1 0 9 . 28  Loc.  c i t .  -12-  By the  1650,  substance  slowly  of  developing  tne  critical  Sir  William  because  the  of  ages  end. o f  the  period  this  chapter,  we  and  maturing  and  to  Davenant  we  have  been using  find  that  criticism  come.  In  his  writes,  and  we  i t s importance  to  acting  Spenser  as  herald  "Preface" quote  a  to  long  criticism,  for is  for  G-ondibert, passage that  S p e n c e r may s t a n d h e r e as the l a s t o f t h i s s h o r t f i l e o f h e r o i c p o e t s ; men, whose i n t e l l e c t u a l s were o f so g r e a t a m a k i n g , ( t h o u g h some h a v e t h o u g h t t h e m l i a b l e t o t h o s e f e w c e n s u r e s we h a v e m e n t i o n e d ) a s p e r h a p s t h e y w i l l , i n w o r t h y memory, o u t l a s t , even makers of l a w s , and f o u n d e r s o f e m p i r e s , and a l l b u t s u c h as must t h e r e f o r e l i v e e q u a l l y w i t h them, b e c a u s e t h e y have r e c o r d e d t h e i r names. A n d s i n c e we h a v e d a r e d t o remember t h o s e e x c e p t i o n s , which the c u r i o u s have a g a i n s t them, i t w i l l not be e x p e c t e d I s h o u l d f o r g e t what i s o b j e c t e d a g a i n s t S p e n c e r : whose o b s o l e t e l a n g u a g e we a r e c o n s t r a i n e d t o m e n t i o n , t h o u g h i t be grown the most v u l g a r a c c u s a t i o n that.is l a i d to his charge. Language (which i s the o n l y c r e a t u r e o f man's c r e a t i o n ) h a t h , l i k e a p l a n t , s e a s o n s o f f l o u r i s h i n g and d e c a y ; l i k e p l a n t s , i s r e m o v e d f r o m one s o i l t o a n o t h e r , and by b e i n g so t r a n s p l a n t e d , d o t h often-gather v i g o u r and i n c r e a s e . But as I t i s f a l s e husbandry to g r a f t o l d branches upon young s t o c k s ; s o we may wonder t h a t o u r l a n g u a g e (not l o n g b e f o r e h i s time, c r e a t e d out of c o n f u s i o n o f o t h e r s , and t h e n b e g i n n i n g to f l o u r i s h l i k e a new p l a n t ) s h o u l d (as h e l p s to . i t s i n c r e a s e ) r e c e i v e f r o m h i s hand new grafts of o l d withered words. But t h i s vulgar e x c e p t i o n s h a l l o n l y have the vulgar excuse; which i s , t h a t the u n l u c k y choice o f h i s s t a n z a , h a t h , by r e p e t i t i o n o f a rhyme, b r o u g h t h i m t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f many e x p l o d e d words. . I f we p r o c e e d f r o m h i s . l a n g u a g e t o h i s a r g u m e n t , we m u s t o b s e r v e w i t h o t h e r s , t h a t h i s n o b l e and most a r t f u l hands d e s e r v e d t o be e m p l o y e d u p o n m a t t e r - o f a more n a t u r a l and t h e r e f o r e o f a more u s e f u l k i n d . His alleg o r i c a l s t o r y (by many h e l d d e f e c t i v e i n t h i s  -  13  -  •connexion).resembling (methinks) a Cont i n u a n c e o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y dreams"; s u c h a s e x c e l l e n t p o e t s , and p a i n t e r s , b y b e i n g o v e r - s t u d i o u s may h a v e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , o f f e v e r s : And t h o s e m o r a l v i s i o n s a r e j u s t o f s o m u c h u s e t o human a p p l i c a t i o n , a s . p a i n t e d h i s t o r y , when w i t h t h e c o u s e n a g e of l i g h t s i t i s represented i n scenes, by w h i c h we a r e m u c h l e s s i n f o r m e d t h e n b y a c t i o n s on the stage.29 According  t o Drummond,  succinct  when  not,  h i s matter...."30  nor  criticism, His  words  however,  His  subscribe  to  that  the  third  be  touching  be  feeLling he  may  language and  the  sections  and  the  the  modern  reader..  the  Faerie  Queene a  the  reason  of  reader  of  have  -  and  been  made u p  of  than  of  actions.  This,  29  Chalmer's  Poets,  30  Jonson,  op.  great  why  the  chasm  According  of  We  cannot,  stanza  however, of  and  (but  not  rime.  f o r our  by  pp.  have  may  is  well  little  Spenser  purposes  the  the  well  consciously)  that, separates  pictures or  470.  he  Queene  to Davenant  v o l . 6, p.  later  evolutionary  Paerie  h o w e v e r , may  cit.>  reading.  surveying  importance:  lessened  vivid  him  q u o t a t i o n D a v e n a n t may  of  more  Davenant's  Spenser's-use  in particular,  has  series  the  i n  was  pleased  a casual  necessity of  discovered  of  on  being  justify  the  a matter  one  i s more  wnile  as  Jonson  stanzas  w e l l phrased. to  of  paragraph,  well  There  i n mind  of  f o r the  "Spenser's  kept  attempt  upon  admitted,  i s apparent  acute  his  be  than  words because  In  read:  be  view  particularly  archaic  said  should  critics. is  he  i t must  value  fact  that  tableaux been  250-251.  here, of i t is  rather  Spenser's  -14-  intention, The not  and, i f s o , i t s achievement  i s artistic.  unknown "H.R." ( i f he be n o t Henry R e y n o l d s ) i s  so h a r s h when he w r i t e s i n t h i s  Mythomystes;  . . . I must approue t h e l e a r n e d S p e n c e r , i n t h e r e s t o f h i s Poems no l e s s e t h e n h i s F a i r y Qjueene, a n e x a c t b o d y o f t h e E t h i c k e d o c t r i n e ; t h o u g h some good i u g m e n t s haue w i s h t , and p e r h a p s n o t w i t h o u t c a u s e , t h a t he h a d t h e r e i n b e e n e % l i t t l e f r e e r o f h i s f i c t i o n , and n o t so c l o s e r i u e t t e d t o h i s Morall...who, i n other l e s s e laboured t h i n g s , may haue i n d e e d more h a p p i l y (howeuer, a l w a y s c h e e r e l y and s m o o t h l y ) w r i t t e n . In the l i g h t  o f some o f - t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s  censure the p e d a n t i c Harvey Spenser  about  we  cannot  t o o s t r o n g l y when he w r i t e s t o  the p o r t i o n o f the F a e r i e  Queene  manuscript  he h a d r e a d I n good f a i t h I h a d once a g a i n n i g h f o r g o t t e n y o u r FAERIE QUEENE: ' h o w b e i t , b y g o o d c h a u n c e , I haue nowe s e n t h i r home a t t h e l a s t e , n e i t h e r i n b e t t e r n o r worse c a s e t h a n I f o u n d e hir. And m u s t . y o u o f o e c e s s i t i e haue my •Iudgement o f h i r I n dee&e: To be p l a i n e , I am voyde of. . a l l i u d g e m e n t . .. I f . . . t h e FAERY QUEENE be f a i r e r i n y o u r eye than' t h e NINE MUSES And " HOBGOBLIN runne away w i t h t h e G a r l a n d f r o m A p o l l o , Marke what I s a y e , a n d y e t I w i l l n o t say t h a t T thought; b u t t h e r e an End f o r t h i s o n c e , a n d f a r e y o u w e l l , t i l l God o r some good A u n g e l l p u t t e y o u i n a b e t t e r m i n d e . ^ 2  At  least  we must n o t c e n s u r e H a r v e y  Thomas Nashe when he  i n t h e same way as d i d  wrote,  I m m o r t a l l S p e n c e r , no f r a i l t i e h a t h t h y fame, b u t t h e I m p u t a t i o n o f t h i s I d i o t s f r i e n d s h i p : v p o n an v n s p o t t e d P e g a s u s s h o u l d  31 I n C r i t i c a l P  .  147.  .  Essays  o f t h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y , v o l . 1,  ;  32 I n E l i z a b e t h a n C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , v o l . 1, p p . 115-116.  -15-  thy gorgeous a t t i r e d F a y r i e Queene r i d e t r i umphant through a l l r e p o r t s dominions, but t h a t t h i s mud-born bubble, t h i s b i l e on the browe o f the V n i u e r s i t y , t h i s bladder of p r i d e newe blowne, c h a l l e n g e t h some i n t e r e s t i n her p r o s p e r i t y . 3 3 Although h i s works are f i l l e d w i t h many a l l u s i o n s  to  Spenser, M i l t o n makes o n l y one important r e f e r e n c e to our poet when he c o n g r a t u l a t e s  " . . . o u r sage and s e r i o u s Poet  Spenser...a better  then [ s i c ]  teacher  Scotus o r Aquinas"34  f o r h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of Temperance i n the F a e r i e Queene. The success  of Spenser was, as we have seen,  and w h o l e - h e a r t e d .  immediate  There had not been s i n c e Chaucer any  poet of such s t a t u r e .  He b u r s t upon the E n g l i s h l i t e r a r y  scene at a most f a v o u r a b l e  time - a t a time when the E n g -  l i s h language was t r y i n g to f i n d i t s p l a c e as an l i t e r a r y medium.  He was an i n n o v a t o r i n m e t r i c s ; he gave new i m -  petus to the p a s t o r a l form; he r e v e a l e d the l a t e n t m u s i c a l powers o f E n g l i s h ; and he presented a l l e g o r y i n such a way t h a t i t a t t a i n e d the h e i g h t of g r e a t a r t .  It  i s no wonder  t h a t h i s contemporaries p r a i s e d him h i g h l y , f o r he l e d the way to t h e i r greatness was a p a r t o f ,  Spenser h e r a l d e d , and  t h a t great phenomenon, the E l i z a b e t h a n Age.  There i s , however, certain incongruity. presages  also.  disaster.  i n Spenser's  sudden p o p u l a r i t y a  In the A r t s immediate fame Often an a r t i s t who gains h i s  often zenith  a t once i s w r i t i n g too much f o r h i s own time a n d , w i t h 33 Nashe, op. c i t . . , v o l . 1,  p . 282.  34 " A e r o p a g i t i c a , " [ I 6 4 4 ] , The Works of John M i l t o n , New Y o r k , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1931, v o l . A> P« 311.  -16passing longer  y e a r s and  changing  speaking to l a t e r  t h a t are of importance less  f o r h i s own  time  c u s t o m s and m o r a l s ,  r e a d e r s i n words, i n i d e a s  t o them. and  more  The w r i t e r who for  whose fame, t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y indeed, of  increases.  t r a n s l a t i o n was The m e t r e s for  He  find  that  i s praised  n o t one  i s the  immediate,  Spenser  i s , on  writers  i n their  works.  These  a l l the c r i t i c a l  mained u n t i n g e d by  although  by o t h e r  as t h e  Many quo-  contemporary  things reveal h i s popularity.  I t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t  may not,  either  that  but, i n e i t h e r critical  the p r a i s e  i s j u s t i f i e d or that  praise,  you  analysis  of the o r i g i n a l  work.  On  u p o n y o u r own  c a l powers t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t y o u i n j u r e  the  to set against  c a n o b s e r v e t r e n d s t h a t were o c c u r i n g  c e r t a i n period without c a l l i n g  your f i n a l  i t is  c a s e , you a r e b a s i n g your judgments upon  o t h e r h a n d , i f t h e r e i s some a d v e r s e c r i t i c i s m the  to balance  i t y o u a r e a t a l o s s f o r what t o do ?/ith i t : y o u  think  y o u r own  to  c a n a c k n o w l e d g e i t s e x i s t e n c e and i t s  amount, b u t u n l e s s y o u h a v e some a d v e r s e c r i t i c i s m against  basis  p r a i s e o f Spenser, however, r e -  censure.  e v a l u a t e p r a i s e - you  criticism  l i t e r a r y occupations.  study o f E n g l i s h m e t r i c s .  f r o m h i s works a r e u s e d  and,  the whole,  Calender are used  tations  one  endures  as a t r a n s l a t o r  o f h i s major  o f the Shapheardes  an E l i z a b e t h a n  Not  a l l time  speaks  I n t h e s m a l l amount o f p r o s e  S p e n s e r ' s p e r i o d we  highly praised.  i s no  personal  at a i criti-  the v a l i d i t y  of  judgment.  The m a i n c r i t i c a l  a t t a c k matte by S p e n s e r ' s  contemporaries  -17-  was  against h i s use of language.  for  his rustic  s t y l e ; Jonson  s a i d he  and b o t h B o l t o n and D a v e n a n t to  he r e p r e h e n s i b l e .  (so  called)  Sidney censured Spenser " w r i t no  found h i s use of  for  h i s use of a r c h a i c  may  be c o n s i d e r e d  the  subject.  to  find to  they?  were n o t c r i t i c s  Spenser  that  Spenser had  be a b l e  that  I wish only that  "where These  Spenser's use of  to" p a s s  lan-  judgment  the problem  thesis for i t w i l l  be k e p t i n  o c c u r a g a i n and  are brought t o g e t h e r the  t o f o r m h i s own  opinion. b a s e d on  c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r and h i s h a n d l i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r was  phrase  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f h i s work.  A s e c o n d c a u s e f o r c e n s u r e was  the  attempted  i s n e c e s s a r y : they say i t i s  When a l l t h e a r g u m e n t s  r e a d e r may  thinks f i t -  Yet they dared to  I do n o t w i s h i n any way  problem.  right  i s peculiarly fitting.  i n effect,  says h i s language  on  even  deny a p o e t ' s  by any means he  and i m m e d i a t e  mind t h r o u g h o u t t h i s again.  ends  would  reasons  f o r censure  The u s e h e r e o f t h e t r i t e  are saying,  bothersome. on t h i s  who  smoke, t h e r e ' s f i r e "  guage h i n d e r s f u l l  These  S i d n e y , J o n s o n , and  on t h e v e r y g r o u n d  make i n v i o l a t e .  f o u r men  language.  as t h o s e ends a r e a c h i e v e d .  fault  there's  rustic  Spenser,  gave h i s r e a s o n s  t o a b o l i s h any grounds  achieve h i s a r t i s t i c  as l o n g  and  critics  small importance.  t h r o u g h t h e p e n o f t h e m y s t e r i o u s E.K.,  Davenant  language  Compared t o most E l i z a b e t h a n  t h e s e f o u r a r e o f no  B u t do  language;"  Spenser's  of i t .  To  n e i t h e r n a t u r a l nor u s e f u l .  c o n s i d e r e d a l l e g o r y t o be t h e dream t h a t a r i s e s  Davenant He  from a  -18-  fever,  a n d he c o n s i d e r e d m o r a l v i s i o n s  made a s i m i l a r  criticism.  so c l o s e l y a t t a c h e d  to lack action.  H.R.  Spenser's f i c t i o n ,  h e s a i d , was  t o h i s moral that i t l o s t  i t s freedom.  Whereas one may c e n s u r e S p e n s e r ' s u s e o f l a n g u a g e o n t h e grounds  shown a b o v e e v e n t h o u g h S p e n s e r a t t e m p t e d t o  justify  i t s u s e , one h a d b e s t  in  t h e manner o f D a v e n a n t  and h i s h a n d l i n g in his allegories his fictions  of i t .  exert great  care i n attacking,  and H»R., Spenser's s u b j e c t S p e n s e r was i n t e n s e l y  interested  a n d i n t h e m o r a l s he c o u l d draw f r o m  were l i t t l e  more t h a n o u t w a r d  matter  clothing.  them: As i n  t h e c a s e o f l a n g u a g e , t h e p r o b l e m o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r w i l l be examined  by l a t e r  A third  critics.  point of attack  i s touched upon by  Davenant  and h a s t o do w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f t h e F a e r i e Queene form.  As t h i s  p o i n t w i l l be l a b o u r e d by l a t e r  stanza  critics  we  h a d b e s t w a i t a n d o b s e r v e what t h e y h a v e t o s a y b e f o r e we set f o r t h our f i n d i n g s . These  three problems,  language,  s t a n z a f o r m , were a l l r a i s e d and were p r o b l e m s keep  s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and  by Spenser's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s ,  t h a t p u z z l e d many l a t e r w r i t e r s .  L e t us  them i n m i n d a n d w a t c h how t h e y were h a n d l e d b y t h e  neo-classicists,  t h e p r e - r o m a n t i c s , and t h e r o m a n t i c s .  On t h e w h o l e S p e n s e r was g r e a t l y f a v o u r e d b y h i s c o n temporaries.  I n o r d e r t o g i v e a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  of the height  o f h i s fame a n d t h e scojke o f h i s i n f l u e n c e  it  picture  i s n e c e s s a r y to devote a chapter to a quick survey  o f what was s a i d a b o u t h i m i n c o n t e m p o r a r y  verse.  -19-  ... .CHAPTER TWO.. .  ELIZABETHAN AMD JACOBEAN WRITERS: VERSE  '  A l l u s i o n s t o Spenser and h i s works i n t h e p o e t r y o f h i s contemporaries  a r e many:  some a r e obscure - i m p o s s i b l e  to s u b s t a n t i a t e ; some a r e d e f i n i t e - l o n g and f i l l e d the h i g h e s t p r a i s e .  with  I n g e n e r a l they f a l l I n t o f o u r main  c l a s s e s : I , p r a i s i n g o f Spenser; I I , mourning h i s d e a t h ; I I I , u s i n g h i s name to. f l a t t e r o r p r a i s e o t h e r p o e t s ; I V , c a l l i n g upon him f o r a i d o r p e r m i s s i o n t o w r i t e .  Many  o f t h e p o e t s who have a l l u d e d t o Spenser are known t o us now by name o n l y w h i l e t h e i r works r e s t untouched by most r e a d e r s upon l i b r a r y s h e l v e s o r have become t h e p e r s o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o p e r t y o f s c h o l a r s o f the p e r i o d . o f t h i s p o e t r y i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y bad but r a t h e r p o o r v e r s e .  S'ome  not poetry a t a l l  However, a q u i c k g l a n c e a t I t  w i l l r e v e a l , as d i d o u r b r i e f survey o f the p r o s e , how widespread was Spenser's fame.  I n the f l y l e a f o f h i s  D i a r y John Manningham made t h e f o l l o w i n g j o t t i n g I n Spenserum. Famous a l i u e , and dead, here i s t h e o d s , Then God o f P o e t s , nowe Poet o f t h e Gods. 1 / I 6 0 2 - 3 / , W e s t m i n s t e r , Camden S o c i e t y , J.B. N i c h o l s , 1868, p. 2.  -20-  a  sentiment  shall  o f the e a r l i e s t  to be found  meaning,  i n which  according  idea  o f what  we  references  i n verse  t o George  he r e f e r s  to Spenser i s  P e e l e ' s The Honour  t o "Great Hobbinol,"  to the editor,  A.H. B u l l e n ,  Spenser  n o t Harvey.2 There  class  i s a great  similarity  one, the p r a i s i n g  shown i n t h e h a n d l i n g esting. in  the general  i n the Prologue  the Garter  and  echoes  survey. One  of  which  o f Spenser,  the allusions i n  but y e t the i n d i v i d u a l i t y  o f them b y v a r i o u s  I n 1597 J o s e p h  his satires,  among  Hall  makes  writers  i s inter-  two r e f e r e n c e s  V i r g i d e m i a r u m ; .once  i ndirect  to Spenser  praise;  But l e t no r e b e l l S a t y r e dare traduce T h ' e t e r n a l L e g e n d s o f t h y F a e r y Muse, R e n o w n e d S p e n c e r : whome n o e a r t h l y w i g h t . D a r e s once t o e m u l a t e , much l e s s e d a r e s despight. 3  and  once  tinct  h i s use of the marriage  development  o f the style  T h e y /the • • Ere since The archaic  controversy language  impersonal  John  o f the r i v e r s  o f Spenser's  i s a  dis-  Prothalamion;  m u s e s / h a u n t t h e . t y d e d Thames a n d ,v - s a l t Med way, ' t h e fame o f t h e i r l a t e B r i d a l l day. about  i sused  Spenser's  :  use o f r u s t i c and  by Everard Guilpin  as a b a s i s  for  praise:  ,2 T h e W o r k s o f G e o r g e P e e l e , A . H . B u l l e n , e d / , L o n d o n , C . Wimmo, 1 8 8 8 , v o l . 2, p . 3 1 8 , 1 1 . 3 9 - 4 0 .  3 T h e C o l l e c t e d Poems o f J o s e p h H a l l , A . D a v e n p o r t , e d . , L i v e r p o o l , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949, p . 16, 11. 21-24. 4 Ibid.,  p . 12, 11. 29-30.  -21-  Some b l a m e  grandam words, O t h e r s p r o t e s t t h a t , i n t h e m he records His m a i s t e r - p e e c e of cunning g i u i n g p r a i s e , And g r a u i t y t o h i s p r o f o u n d - p r i c k t layes.^ The  date,  1598,  makes  valuable:  i t was  cation  the  ney's the of  of  Faerie the  that  of  Queene  on  by  no  great  of  presume  that  part  of  the  that  Spenser's  ter  for  write  and  his  not  a f t e r the  one  do  Queene.  year  were  lines  suggest carried  c e r t a i n l y have  of  i t .  Therefore  oral;  that  the  We  may  enough  to  knowledge  would  know: we  Sid-  prior  W h e t h e r i t was  not  records  were w e l l  publi-  e n t i r e l y upon h i s  Guilpin's  we  particularly  Faerie  published  discussions.  B a r n f i e l d was  praises works  have been  Spenser  poetry  the  widespread.  written  works  his  we  debates  presume, known t o  may were  however,  become  mat-  debate.  to  of  was  for  years  of  based  arguments  tavern  Richard  wise  of  the  books  was  mouth o r  number  two  Oalender.  controversy  word  only  three  and  Spencer  Guilpin quotation  S p e n s e r was  Shepheardes  the  the  written  first  censure  deep  of  down t o  us,  he  from  great  poet  contemporaries  forgotten.  appeared  agree"  his  no  whereas About his  pen.  his the In  but  has  his  brought  poetizing year  ability  1598  might two  " I f music  his  and  name other-  praises sweet  writes,  S p e n s e r t o me, As, p a s s i n g Thou l o v ' s t That Phoebus' And I I n d e e p  whose d e e p c o n c e i t i s s u c h a l l c o n c e i t , needs no defence. to h e a r the sweet m e l o d i o u s sound l u t e (the queen o f m u s i c ) makes; d e l i g h t am c h i e f l y d r o w n e d  • 5 S k i a l e t h e i a , ££598/,.London,,Humphrey Satire VI, n.p.  Milford,'1931,  ,  -22-  Whenas It  i s possible  argument Faerie  that  that  he  Q u e e n e ) was  remembrance  singing  subject  he  betakes.®  defence" matter  refers  to  ( i n the c a s e  the of  the  incomprehensible.  uses of  to  "needs no  Spenser's  Barnfield "A  himself  the  theme  of  some E n g l i s h  "deep c o n c e i t "  p o e t s " when he  again i n  says  L i v e , Spenser, e v e r i n t h y F a i r y Queen, Whose l i k e , f o r d e e p c o n c e i t , was n e v e r s e e n . Crowned m a y s t t h o u be, u n t o t h e y more r e n o w n , As k i n g o f p o e t s , w i t h a l a u r e l crown. Two two at  interesting  parts  o f The  Cambridge  doubtfully  references  Return  about  the  attributed  from year  to  a  t o Spenser, appear  Parnassus 1600  and  J . Day.  which  whose In  were  i n  the  produced  authorship i s  Part  One  Gulllo, says,  N o t i n a v a i n e v e i n e ( p r e t t i e , i ' f a i t h j ) : make mee t h e m i n two o r t h r e e ' d i v e r s v a y n s , i n C h a c u e r ' s , G-ower's a n d S p e n s e r ' s a n d M r . Shakespeare's. M a r r y . . . 0 s w e e t Mr. S h a k e s p e a r e . ' I ' l e h a v e h i s p i c t u r e i n my s t u d y a t t h e c o u r t e . In  Part  Two  discussion  a  long  section  of various  of  poets.  the Of  play  i s devoted  Spenser,  Judicio  to  the  remarks,  A s w e e t e r Swan t h e n . e u e r s o n g i n P o e , A s h r i l l e r Nightengale then euer b l e s t T h e p r o u d e r g r o u e s o f s e l f e a d m i r i n g Rome. B l i t h Was e a c h v a l l y , a n d each" s h e a p e a r d p r o u d , W h i l e he d i d c h a u n t h i s r u r a l l m i n s t r a l s i e . A t t e n t i u e was f u l l many a d a i n t y c a r e . Nay, h e a r e r s h o n g v p o n h i s m e l t i n g t o n g , W h i l e s w e e t l y o f h i s F a i e r y Queene he s o n g , '  6 I n P o e t r y o f the E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e 1509-1660, W i l l i a m J . H e b e l a n d H o y t G. H u d s o n , e d s . , New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1929, pp. 259-40. 7 8 Return Press,  Ibid.,  p.  240.  T h e P i l g r i m a g e t o P a r n a s s u s w i t h t h e Two P a r t s o f t h e from Parnassus, W.D.. Macray, ed., Oxford, C l a r e n d o n 1 8 8 6 , P t . 1, I I I , i , p . 5 8 .  -23-  While to the waters f a l l he t u n ' d [her] fame And i n eaeh barke engrau'd E l i z a e s name, And y e t f o r a l l t h i s , vnregarding s o i l e V n l a c ' t the l i u e of h i s d e s i r e d l i f e , Denying mayntenance f o r h i s deare r e l e i f e . C a r e l e s s e [ere] to preuent h i s exequy, Scarce d e i g n i n g to shut vp h i s dying eye. g  The amount of space a l l o t e d to Spenser i s  second to  that  g i v e n John Marston who i s n o t p r a i s e d but defamed w i t h r i b a l d censure.  The other poets d i s c u s s e d are  Constable,  D a n i e l , Lodge, Watson, D r a y t o n , John D a v i s , L o k , Hudson, Marlowe, Jonson ("The w i t t i e s t  f e l l o w of a B r i c k l a y e r i n  E n g l a n d , " p . 87),  Churchyard, and Nashe.  Shakespeare,  P r e v i o u s l y Ralegh had w r i t t e n h i s famous sonnet "Methought I saw the grave where Laura Lay" i n which he wrote: A l l suddenly I saw the F a i r y Queen, At whose approach the s o u l of P e t r a r c h wept; And from thence f o r t h those graces were not seen, For they t h i s Queen a t t e n d e d ; i n whose stead O b l i v i o n l a i d him down on L a u r a ' s h e a r s e . Hereat the hardest stones were seen to b l e e d , And groans of b u r i e d ghosts the heavens d i d pierce: Where homer's s p r i g h t d i d tremble a l l f o r g r i e f . And cursed the access of t h a t c e l e s t i a l t h i e f . 1 ° From F r a n c i s Thynne's amazing hodge-podge  of personal  advice and E l i z a b e t h a n r i b a l d r y , Emplemes and Epigrames, comes a s h o r t epigram e n t i t l e d " S p e n s e r ' s F a y r i e Queene." Revowmed Spenser, whose h e a v e n l i e s p r i t e e c c l i p s e t h the sonne o f former p o e t r i e , i n whome the muses harbor' w i t h d e l i g h t , g r a c i n g e thy v e r s e w i t h I m m o r t a l l t i e , Crowning thy f a r i e Queene w i t h d e i t i e , 9.The P i l g r i m a g e . P t .  2,  II,  i i , p . 8A.  10 The Poems of S i r Walter R a l e i g h c o l l e c t e d and authent i c a t e d w i t h those of S i r Henry Wotton and o t h e r c o u r t l y poets from 15A0-1650* J . Hannah, e d . , London, George B e l l , 1910, p . 8. -  -24-  the famous C h a u c e r y e a i d s h i s unto thy sugred penn, f o r thy  L a w r e l l crowne renowne.  Noe c a n k r e d e n v i e c a n n t h y fame d e f a c e , n o r c a t i n g e tyme consume t h y s a c r e d vayne; noe c a r p l n g e z o i l u s cann thy verse disgrace, n o r s c o f f i n g e Mdmus' t a u n t t h e w i t h d i s d a i n e , s i n c e thy r a r e worke e t e r n a l l p r a i s e d o t h gayne; then l i v e thou s t i l l , f o r s t i l l thy/;- v e r s e shall live,. • t o vnborne p o e t s , w h i c h l i g h t and l i f e w i l l g i v e . ' One  of  the. m o s t  toy B e n  Jonson  where,  after  i n his the  fanciful masque  following  allusions  The  Golden  verbal  to  Spenser  Age  Is  Restored  fanfare  made  /16157  -  You f a r - f a m e d s p i r i t s of t h i s happy i s l e , T h a t f o r y o u r s a c r e d songs have g a i n e d the style Of P h o e b u s ' s o n s , w h o s e n o t e s t h e a i r a s p i r e Of t h ' o l d E g y p t i a n o r t h e T r a c i a n lyre, E h a t CHAUCER, GOWER, L I D G A T E , S P E N S E R , n i g h t , . Put on y o u b e t t e r f l a m e s and l a r g e r l i g h t , T o w a i t u p o n t h e Age t h a t s h a l l yourngmes new nourish, Since Virtue pressed s h a l l grow, and buried Arts shall flourish.1^ the  four  and  are  told  "To  you  may  live  f o r ever* " -  ends,  poets  appe§r  and  write  take  your li  5  part  names  at  in  in  some new  which point  poet  most  Browne  who  spoke. o f " D i v i n e s t  Happy  Muse J " *  and  tried  style  i f not  William  1  11  the  prolific  to  in  tne  follow  praise  flower, masque  his  | That abruptly  Spenser  master  genius.  His  a l l u s i o n s are  /l60p_7,  London,  Early  English'Text  Works o f Ben J o n s o n , & W i n d u s , 1903, vol.  of  Spenser,  in  12 T h e Chatto  too  was  heav'n-bred faithfully many  Society,  to  in  be  1876,  p.  71.  F r a n c i s Cunningham, 5, p . 102.  ed.,  Lon-  14 T h e Poems o f W i l l i a m B r o w n e , G o r d o n G o o d w i n , L a w r e n c e & B u l l e n , 1894, v o l . 1, p . 225.  ed.,  Lon-  13 don,  entertainment  unfinished. The  don,  the  I b i d . , p/  104.  -25-  recorded  here.  •High in  praise  f o r Spenser  his critical, letter  came  from  the pen of Drayton  o f 1627 t o h i s f r i e n d  S i r Henry  Reynolds': G r a v e m o r a l l S p e n c e r a f t e r t h e s e came o n T h e n whom I am p e r s w a d e d t h e r e was n o n e S i n c e t h e b l i n d B a r d h i s I l i a d s u p d d i d make F i t t e r a.taske l i k e that to undertake, T o s e t downe b o l d l y , b r a v e l y t o I n v e n t , In a l l h i g h knowledge, s u r e l y e x c e l l e n t . - ^ ' A  rare  Shakespeare Praise  w a s made  The  i n 1630 by John  and Shakespeare last  verse  comes f r o m  Insonio  t o g e t h e r o f t h e names  o f H e m p - s e e d " when he  "Spenser,  here  linking  and  T a y l o r i n h i s "The  remarks,  i n passing,  that  d i di n Art excell. "  praise  of Spenser  Nathaniel Whiting,  Insonnadado,  o f Spenser  who  that  I shall  wrote,  mention  i n hisII  that  'Ir'n-sinewed Talus with h i s s t e e l y f l a i l Long s i n c e i th' right of justice d i d prevail Under t h e s c e p t r e o f the F a i r y Queen: Y e t Spenser'.s l o f t y m e a s u r e s makes i t g r e e n . ^ . 1  7  A  peculiar  poem w r i t t e n  Sidney  b y A , W.  reveals  between  Sidney  on t h e d e a t h  the close  and Spenser  poverty  Made  Since Upon the Death  Long  i n later  connection  and a l s o  Spenser's  life.  of S i r Philip  retells  The poem  that  existed  the story  of  "An E c l o g u e :  of S i rP h i l i p  Sidney," i s  15 T h e W o r k s o f M i c h a e l D r a y t o n , J . W i l l i a m H e b e l , e d . , Shakespeare Head P r e s s , 1932, v o l . 3, p . 228, l l . 79-84. 16  Spenser  Society,  1 8 6 9 , v o l . 3, p . 72.  17 /16367,' i n M i n o r p o e t s o f t h e C a r o l i n e P e r i o d , George S a i n t s b u r y , e d . , O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1906, 3, p . 5 5 0 .  v o l .  -26-  d a t e a 1599 and appeared i n F r a n c i s Davison's P o e t i c a l Rhapsody o f 1602. I t goes, i n p a r t , as f o l l o w s ! Thenot. Ah.' where i s C o l i n , and n i s p a s s i n g s k i l l ? For him i t f i t s o u r sorrow t o f u l f i l . Perin. I'way s o r e extremes our C o l i n p r e s s so n e a r : A l a s t h a t s u c h extremes s h o u l d p r e s s him s o l Tne want o f w e a l t h , and l o s s o f l o v e so d e a r : S c a r c e can he b r e a t h e from under heaps o f woe: He t h a t b e a r s heaven, bears no s u c h w e i g h t , I trow. . Thenot. Hath he sucn s k i l l i n making a l l above, And h a t h no s k i l l t o g e t , o r w e a l t h , o r l o v e ? Perin. P r a i s e I s t h e g r e a t e s t p r i z e t n a t poets g a i n , A s i m p l e g a i n t h a t feeds'tnem ne'er a w a i t . The wanton l a s s f o r whom he oare such p a i n , L i k e r u n n i n g water l o v e s t o change and f l i t . .... Ye shepherd's boys t h a t l e a d y o u r f l o c k s a f i e l d The w h i l s t y o u r sheep f e e d s a f e l y round about, Break me y o u r p i p e s t h a t p l e a s a n t sound d i d y i e l d ; S i n g now no more t h e songs o f C o l i n C l o u t . ^Because S i d n e y i s d e a d / l ^ L a t e r Thenot  sings:  A l a c k and w e l l - a - d a y J may shepherds c r y , Our W i l l y dead, o u r C o l i n k i l l e d w i t h c a r e .' Who s h a l l n o t l o a t h e t o l i v e , and l o n g t o d i e ? * ^ S i n c e t h i s poem was w r i t t e n on the eve -of Spenser's d e a t h , more o r l e s s , I t b r i n g s us n i c e l y t o c l a s s two - poems w r i t t e n i n mourning  f o r him.  How t r u e t h e s t o r y I s t h a t when Spenser was b u r i e d a l l the  l e a d i n g p o e t s o f t h e day wrote e l e g i e s upon h i s d e a t h 18 A.H. B u l l e n , ed. , London, 0-eorge B e l l , 1890, v o l . 1,  pp.  65-67.  19 Ibid .., p. 71.  -27-  and  tossed  written story  into  be  Besides  them  and the pens  t h e o p e n .grave  true these  we  written  about  poetry  of  which has been  John  the loss  elegies  of  One  was  then  lost  we  which  shall  can presume  i n h i s Thealma  had  been  know.  I f the  literature  that  Spenser's  references  they  never  to English  or, perhaps,  of the e a r l i e s t  Chalkhill  with  i s great.  a large  death  body  - a large  part  not yet  discovered.  probably  was  and C l e a r c h u s .  He  made  by  wrote:  C l o s e b y t h e r i v e r was a t h i c k - l e a v ' d g r o v e , Where s w a i n s o f o l d s a n g s t o r i e s o f t h e i r l o v e ; B u t u n f r e q u e n t e d now s i n c e C o l i n d i e d , C o l i n , t h a t k i n g o f shepherds and t h e p r i d e Of a l l A r c a d i a . . . . 2 0  Sometime wrote late  "A  true  between subiects  Soueraigne,"  1603  and 1606  sorowe,  i n which  the aging  f o r the loose  he m e n t i o n s  John /sic//  Spenser's  Lyly of his  death.  2 0 I n M i n o r P o e t s o f t h e C a r o l i n e P e r i o d , v o l . 2, p . 3 7 4 , 11. 31-55. I n a f o o t n o t e Mr. S a i n t s b u r y r e m a r k s t h a t he i s not c e r t a i n that the reference I s to Spenser. I f i t i s , he says, i t .would p o s t d a t e Thealma and C l e a r c h u s t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I do n o t f e e l t h a t M r . S a i n t s b u r y 's r e t i c e n c e i s j u s t i f i e d . There i s , i t must.be a d m i t t e d , some c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r w h e t h e r o r n o t C h a l k h i l l was t h e w r i t e r b u t e d i t o r s f a v o r t h e v i e w t h a t he was. He was a f r i e n d o f S p e n s e r and, a s a p o e t , f l o u r i s h e d a r o u n d t h e y e a r 1600. T h e r e s e e m s , t h e r e f o r e , t o be n o a d e q u a t e r e a s o n f o r n e e d i n g t o p o s t d a t e t h e poem. However, t h e m y s t e r y around the writer remains. H i s o t h e r w o r k s (one o r two o c c a s i o n a l songs) were p u b l i s h e d f i r s t i n I z a a k W a l t o n ' s C o m p l e t e A n g l e r i n 1653, a n d t h e T h e a l m a was f i r s t , p u b l i s h e d i n 1 6 8 3 b y W a l t o n who s a y s , i n h i s p r e f a c e , " . . . I have a l s o t h i s t r u t h to say o f t h e a u t h o r , t h a t h e was i n h i s t i m e a man g e n e r a l l y k n o w n , a n d a s w e l l b e l o v e d ; f o r h e was h u m b l e , a n d o b l i g i n g i n h i s behaviour, a gentleman,.a scholar, very innocent and p r u d e n t : a n d i n d e e d h i s w h o l e l i f e was u s e f u l , q u i e t , a n d v i r t u o u s . " (p. 3 7 3 ) . The f a c t t h a t C h a l k h i l l d i e d b e f o r e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e T h e a l m a i s o f no h e l p as h i s .death d a t e ( l i k e h i s b i r t h d a t e ) i s unknown. to  I t i s s"afe, h o w e v e r , I f e e l , w i t h o n l y one r e s e r v a t i o n , accept the quotation as r e f e r r i n g t o Spenser - that the  -23-  Wher's C o l l i n C l o u t , o r Rowland now become, That wont to leade our Shepheards i n a r i n g ? (Ah me) the f i r s t , p a l e death h a t h s t r o o k e n dombe, The l a t t e r , none i n c o u r a g e t h to s i n g . 2 1 P r o b a b l y the most famous b i t o f v e r s e i s  the  epithaph w r i t t e n by W i l l i a m Camden:  Upon Master Edmund Spencer,  the famous  Poet:  At Delphos s h r i n e one d i d a doubt propound, Which by the O r a c l e must be r e l e a s e d , Whether of Poets were the best renown'd, Those that s u r v i v e , or those t h a t be deceased. The God made answer by d i v i n e s u g g e s t i o n , While Spencer i s a l i v e i t i s no q u e s t i o n . 2 2  I t was i n e v i t a b l e Spenser's  that W i l l i a m Browne should e l e g i z e  death and he d i d so i n the f i r s t  Britannia's  book o f  his  Pastorals.  Had C o l i n C l o u t yet l i v ' d (but he i s gone), That best on e a r t h c o u l d tune a l o v e r ' s moan, Whose sadder tones e n f o r c ' d the rocks to weep, And l a i d the g r e a t e s t g r i e f s i n q u i e t s l e e p :  r e f e r e n c e may be to the death of C o l i n i n the Calender and not to Spenser at a l l . But even so i t would be f a r - f e t c h e d as the names C o l i n and Spenser were, long before t h i s , being i n t e r changed by w r i t e r s . 21 Works. R.W. Bond, e d . , Oxford, Clarendon P r e s s , v o l . 1, p . 516. 22 Remains Concerning B r i t a i n , / e d i t e d John R u s s e l l Smith, 1370, pp. 4 2 7 - 4 8 . 2  1902,  167^47, London,  -29-  Who w h e n h e s u n g ( a s I w o u l d do t o m i n e ) His truest loves to h i s f a i r Rosaline, E n t i c ' d each shepherd's, e a r to hear him p l a y , And r a p t w i t h wonder, t h u s a d m i r i n g . s a y : T h r i c e h a p p y p l a i n s ( i f p l a i n s t h r i c e h a p p y may Where s u c h a s h e p h e r d p i p e s t o s u c h a l a d y . Who made t h e l a s s e s l o n g t o s i t d o w n n e a r h i m ; And woo'd the! r i v e r s f r o m t h e i r s p r i n g s t o h e a r H e a v e n r e s t t h y s o u l ( i f s o a s w a i n may pray) And as t h y works l i v e h e r e , l i v e , t h e r e f o r a y e . In Shirley  1658  Dru.  Cooper  i n h i s commendatory  verses  be)  him. °  to.James  wrote, YsThen S p e n s e r r e i g n ' d s o l e P r i n c e o f P o e t s h e r e , As b y h i s F a i r y Queen d o t h w e l l a p p e a r , T h e r e was n o t o n e s o b l i n d , s o b o l d a b a r d , So i g n o r a n t l y p r o u d o r f o o l i s h - h a r d To e n c o u n t e r h i s sweet Muse, f o r P h o e b u s vow'd A s h a r p r e v e n g e on h i m s h o u l d be so p r o u d . . . 2 4  It  was  characteristic  comparisons classical wished third  t o be  one.  latter Daniel"  or  theme  I t was  also  or p r a i s e  said can  the  made b e t w e e n  to f l a t t e r poet  of  that  be  w r i t t e n by  he  seen  a n o t h e r he had  of the p e r i o d  a contemporary  characteristic  i n the  Francis  criticism  poet  that  compared  surpassed the following  a  i f one  poet  him  a  other.  poem  and  for  "To  to  This Samuel  Davison.  So, l e a r n e d D a n i e l , when a s t h o u d i d s t s e e , T h a t S p e n s e r e r s t so f a r had s p r e a d h i s fame, , T h a t h e was m o n a r c h d e e m e d o f P o e s y , Thou d i d s t , I g u e s s , even b u r n w i t h j e a l o u s y , L e s t l a u r e l were n o t l e f t e n o u g h t o frame A n e s t s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h i n e e n d l e s s name. • *> • •  . . . s o h a t h t h y Muse s u r p a s s e d S p e n s e r , a n d a l l t h a t do w i t h h o t d e s i r e To t h e t h u n d e r - s c o r n i n g l a u r e 1 - c r o w n a s p i r e . 25  Browne,  24 T h e ander Dyce, 25  op.  cit.,  v o l . 1,  p.  88.  D r a m a t i c W o r k s a n d Poems o f J a m e s S h i r l e y , A l e x e d . , London., . J o h n M u r r a y , 1 8 5 3 , v o l . 1, p . l x x x i v .  Davison,  op.  cit.,  v o l . 1.  pp.  1 3 6 - 1 5 7 . ''  '  -30-  Two  commendatory v e r s e s w r i t t e n t o W i l l i a m Browne  illustrate  this  comparative  Browne t o S p e n s e r ,  method.  Edward Heyward, e q u a t i n g  w r i t e s : •.  Him d i d N a t u r e f r o m h i s b i r t h . • And the Muses s i n g l e o u t , For a second C o l i n C l o u t . ^ 6 (  On  the o t h e r hand -E. J o h n s o n  Browne's The  i n his verses prefixed  to  S h e p h e r d ' s P i p e g i v e Browne p r e f e r e n c e t o  Spenser: A p o e t ' s b o r n , n o t made: no wonder t h e n T h o u g h S p e n s e r , S i d n e y ( m i r a c l e s o f men, S o l e E n g l i s h m a k e r s , whose ev'n names so h i g h E x p r e s s by i m p l i c a t i o n p o e s y ) Were l o n g u n p a r a l l e l ' d : f o r N a t u r e , b o l d In t h e i r c r e a t i o n , s p e n t t h a t p r e c i o u s mould, That nobly b e t t e r e a r t h , that p u r e r s p i r i t W h i c h p o e t s , as t h e i r b i r t h r i g h t s , c l a i m t.' i n h e r i t : And i n t h e i r g r e a t p r o d u c t i o n p r o d i g a l , C a r e l e s s of f u t u r e s , w e l l - n i g h spent h e r a l l . V i e w i n g h e r work, c o n s c i o u s s h ' had s u f f e r ' d w r a c k , H a t h c a u s ' d o u r c o u n t r y men e ' e r s i n c e t o l a c k T h a t b e t t e r e a r t h a n d - f o r m : l o n g t h r i f t y grown, Who t r u l y m i g h t b e a r p o e t s , b r o u g h t f o r t h n o n e : T i l l now o f l a t e , s e e i n g h e r s t o c k s new full (By t i m e and t h r i f t ) o f m a t t e r b e a u t i f u l , And q u i n t e s s e n c e o f f o r m , what s e v e r a l Our e l d e r p o e t s g r a c e s h a d , t h o s e a l l She now d e t e r m l n ' d t o u n i t e I n one, ^7 So t o s u r p a s s h e r s e l f , and c a l l ' d h i m Browne. Another desire Sir  characteristic  o f the p e r i o d  o f the a i d o r patronage  John D a v i e s  of another.  is a  poet's  In h i s Orchestra  writes,  0 t h a t I c o u l d o l d G e f f e r i e ' s Muse awake Or b o r r o w C o l i n ' s f a y r e h e r o i k e s t i l e , Or smooth my r i m e s w i t h D e l i a ' s s e r v a n t s 26  Browne, op.  cit.,  27 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp.  v o l . 1, p .  l?m  file.  12.  81-82.  28 / 1 5 9 6 7 , The Complete Poems o f S i r J o h n D a v i e s , A l e x a n d e r B. G r o s a r t , e d . , L o n d o n , C h a t t o & W i n d u s , 1876, v o l . 1, p . 212.  -31-  I't c a n  be  seen  again- i n W i l l i a m Smith's  Chloris  o f .1596  -  C o l i n , my d e a r a n d m o s t e n t i r e , b e l o v e d , ' My m u s e a u d a c i o u s s t o o p s h e r p i t c h t o thee-;, D e s i r i n g t h a t t h y p a t i e n c e be n o t moved  1  By Similarly  these  John  Marston  Colin  Clour."  glory  c o m e , | No We  have,  allusions  to  Our  endeavour,  these  or  to  into  mourning  his  other poets;  of  of  the  and  John  In  of  those  Browne,  been  Muse  verses  t o be  he  to  those  must  invoke  to  following  to  good  crown." ^ 3  a l l the  i n the  a  9  Spenser's  present  to present  They  see;^  for his  found  and  you  verse his  of  death.  number  suf-  s h o w i n what, f o r m  f a l l ,  as  praising  u s i n g h i s name  stated p r e -  Spenser;  to  those  flatter  asking h i s permission to  or  write,  praise as i f  Poetry.  as  p o i n t s upon which  r e v e a l e d i n the  v e r s e s : John  of  when he  use  the  cit.,  English  was  chapter,  reveals  the  are  extent  language,  and  defends  Spenser's  "deep  arisen  over  Renaissance,  Marston, p. 341. v o l . 2,  last  Spenser  of  c o n t r o v e r s y had  of John v o l . 3,  op.  Guilpin  Spenser's  shows,  some  Poetry  i f my  my  here  first  immediately  has  three main  30 The Works Nimmo, 1 8 8 7 , 31  are  classes:  i n these  that  own  years  those  Richard'Barnfield  29  that  controversy over  concelt>"  :^And  were p r e s e n t e d .  death;  the  "But  his popularity  critically"attacked, mentioned  shall  written  means, a t t e m p t e d  the  four  a Muse  Two  writes,  however,  allusions  were  no  of  lines,  Browne*  king  reveal  viously,  he  and  0  Spenser  period  ficient  3  by  his  rude  A.H. p.  p.  Bullen,  213.  the 222. ed.,  London,  -32-  c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y of Spenser's s u b j e c t matter. however, are i s o l a t e d examples,  These,  and i t i s not u n t i l  that verse becomes a v e h i c l e f o r more s e r i o u s  later  critical,  analyses of Spenser's works. Looking backward from the y e a r 1650,  we can see Spenser  as a poet of immense p o p u l a r i t y w i t h , and immense i n f l u e n c e upon, h i s f e l l o w p o e t s .  Looking forward, however, we  find  a tempering of the p r a i s e and a g r e a t e r amount of. adverse c r i t i c i s m of h i s work.  Men  of l e t t e r s , as they become  f u r t h e r removed from Spenser, attempt t o s h u f f l e him a. permanent p o s i t i o n i n the e v e r l e n g t h e n i n g l i s t  into  of Eng-  l i s h w r i t e r s - but each s h u f f l e i s performed a c c o r d i n g to the  l i t e r a r y conventions of the p e r i o d i n which i t takes  place.  -35-  ...CHAPTER THREE... •  NEO-CLASSICISTS  THE As we  move i n t o  the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g  c h a n g e s c a n be n o t e d group of w r i t e r s .  i n the c r i t i c a l  Spenser  when t h e p e r i o d b e g i n s ; o v e r w r i t e r s who Spenserians) noticeable  tempering,  many  outlook of a  the d i r e c t  i n f l u e n c e he  f o l l o w e d him  s t r o n g so  t h e new  a mellowing  statements, but, o f t e n unwieldy  (the p o s t writers;  specific  The  f r e q u e n t l y used  the  terms must, p e r f o r c e , be  terms must be u s e d  As  t o make them  image t h a t l i t e r a t u r e the y e a r s s l i d e  sluggish u n t i l  i t empties  into  - n o t , however, t o be  sparkling  sometimes b y  reflections  and  general  comprehensible.  i s like  p a s t we  Spenserian brook widening  e d d i e s and  the  admitted,- g e n e r a l  narrow d a n c i n g  and  Spenser  e v e n s o , when o n e . i s v i e w i n g a l a r g e  and  itself  a  i s taking place;  T h e s e a r e , i t must be  topic  often valuable.  years  exerted  i s b e c o m i n g a p a r t o f a g r e a t b a c k g r o u n d known as E l i z a b e t h a n Age.  new  has b e e n d e a d f o r f i f t y  immediately  i s n o t as  1650  can  a river is  see  the  and b e c o m i n g more  the g r e a t r i v e r  l o s t b u t t o be  of  noted  literature by  swirls  a p a t c h of r a p i d s which g i v e s o f f  o f what once was  and  n e v e r c a n be  again.  -54-  The  notes  detected marks  as  "To  S'epha,  of mellowing,  early  the  as  the  the year  Reader"  looking  1651  of William  backward,  w h e n R.C.,  Bosworth's  can  be  i n his re-  Arcadus  and  says, His m a k i n g t h e e n d . o f one v e r s e t o be t h e • f r e q u e n t b e g i n n i n g o f the o t h e r , ( b e s i d e s the art o f t h e . t r o p e ) was t h e l a b o u r a n d d e l i g h t o f Mr. E d m u n d S p e n c e r , whom S i r Walt. R a l e i g h and S i r K e n e l i n D i g b y were used t o c a l l t h e E n g l i s h S 5 i r g i l , and i n d e e d V i r g i l h i m s e l f d i d o f t e n use i t . . .  Three u p o n Don  years later  Quixot  romances t h a t are  the  "...as  brief  1662  that  of  might  worthy list  Faerie eternal  would  Faerie  be  Queene  according the as  among  ones  c u t down  "Johnson"  of'his  remain  con-  book,  world."  today  Shakespeare's  would  by  to Gayton,  i n the  the  mentions  and  title  any  Motes  -  3  perhaps  romances,  as p a r t  of  a  read.  was  to publish  his History  1  Shakespeare,  Quijote,  jolly  bury,  O t h e r s he  further  inimitably  that  fame.  reading,  i s adequately  i n 1655,  being  Gondibert,,u n s p e c i f i e d  The  wrote,  as  expect from  the  i n his Fieasant  Queene  romances,  o n l y Don  the  Gayton  Fletcher,  English  where  possibly,  literature  and  one  well  a point  and,  The  t o what  Gayton's to  2  be  the  Randolph,  Beaumont  /Jonson/.  are  would  Arcadia,  Drayton,  trary  lists  Edmund  churchman of  Thomas  Fuller,  the W o r t h i e s  of  who  i n  England,  Chaucer  I n M i n o r P o e t s o f the C a r o l i n e P e r i o d , George e d . , O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 0 6 , v o l . 2, p .  Saints527.  2 Quoted i n Shakespere A l l u s i o n Book, C M . I n g l e b y and o t h e r s , c o m p i l e r s , London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932, Vol. 2, p . 5 6 . 3  Loc. c i t .  -35-  . . . l l e s b u r i e d i n the South-Isle of S t . Peters, W e s t m i n s t e r , a n d s i n c e h a t h g o t t h e company o f Spencer and Drayton (a p a i r - r o y a l o f P o e t s ) , e n o u g h ( a l m o s t ) to. make p a s s e n g e r s f e e t t o m o v e m e t r i c a l l y , who g o o v e r t h e p l a c e , w h e r e s o much P o e t i c a l d u s t I s i n t e r r e d . 4  James  Howell  also  Londoniopolis poetry  writer,  (1657).  and i n grave  Chaucer. In  commented  on the b u r i a l  He m e n t i o n s  to that  that  "Prince  places  Spenser  of English  i nh i s i s next i n  Poets." -  5  a lighter which  vein  appeared  i s "On  the Time  I n Choyce  P o e t s , " b y a n unknown  Drollery  o f 1656.  Of these, s a d P o e t s t h i s way r a n t h e s t r e a m , And D e c k e r f o l l o w e d a f t e r I n a d r e a m ; R o u n c e , R o b b i e , H o b b l e , he t h a t w r i t so  Dig/j7  high Basse f o r a B a l l a d , John Shank f o r a J i g ; S e n t b y B e n J o n s o n , a s some A u t h o r s s a y , B r o o m w e n t b e f o r e a n d k i n d l y s w e p t t h e way: Old C h a u c e r welcomes them i n t o t h e G r e e n , And S p e n s e r b r i n g s them t o the f a i r y Queen. Lighter.still,  and,•perhaps,  i s , , "To h i s I n g e n i o u s Poems. two  Carmen  years .  as the e d i t o r s  Friend,  the Author,  Jocoserium,"SW.  later  i n Samuel  W.C.C.  note,  a  hoax,  on h i s i n c o m p a r a b l e  Oxon." w h i c h  A u s t i n ' s Naps u p o n  appeared  Parnassus.  To thee compar'd, o u r E n g l i s h P o e t s a l l s t o p , And v a i l t h e i r B o n n e t s , e v e n S h a k e s p e a r ' s Falstop. Chaucer the f i r s t o f a l l wasn't worth a f a r t h i n g , L i d g a t e , and Huntingdon, w i t h G a f f e r Harding. Non-sente the F a e r y Queen, and M i c h a e l D r a y t o n , L i k e B a b e l ' s B a l m ; o r Rhymes o f E d w a r d P a i t o n , W a l l e r , a n d T u r l i n g h a m , a n d b r a v e G e o r g e S a n d y s g. Beaumont, and F l e t c h e r , Donne, Jeremy C a n d i s h ,  4 "Church H i s t o r y , " quoted i n C a r o l i n e Spurgeon, Five H u n d r e d Y e a r s o f C h a u c e r C r i t i c i s m a n d A l l u s i o n , S e r . 2, No. 4 8 , P t . 1, p . 2 3 1 . 5 Cited 6  Quoted  i n Studies i n Philology, i n Spurgeon,  op. c i t . ,  1925, v o l . 20, p.477 P t . 1, p . 2 3 4 .  -56-  H e r b e r t , and C l e e v e l a n d , and a l l t h e Are S a i n t s - b e l l s u n t o t h e e , and tiiou bell. V This as  we  Is  now  bandying  shall  see  about  below,  thought  of  enough  removed  f o r him  cepted  position.  things  of  present near  the  and  past  argued his  that  work  short  being to  immediate they  i n order Puller  although  may  he  Is  taken  of  the  this  as  a  past  given  will  must  make  ribaldry,  sign that  Spenser  but  not  to  show  their  was  one  of  kind  of  superiority first  was  not  England  always  of  (1662),  Spenser he  writes  the  attack  on  the  over i t . biographers,  ( i t might the  valuable.  i n -this that  that of  p o s s i b l e at  exceedingly  ac-  things  English  exceptionally Inaccurate  accuracy  far  writers  overshadow  the  yet  some u n i v e r s a l l y  some  noble Bow-  use. O f  common f e a r a m o n g  i s , nevertheless,  of  and  be  past  biographical sketch  Worthies  names  be  It is a  thus  Thomas and  as  of  train great  be  time)  In  History  his of  the  Spenser  ...became an e x c e l l e n t s c h o l a r ; b u t especially m o s t h a p p y i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y , a s h i s w o r k s do d e c l a r e ; i n w h i c h t h e many C h a u c e r i s m s u s e d ( f o r I w i l l n o t s a y a f f e c t e d by him) a r e t h o u g h t . b y t h e i g n o r a n t t o be b l e m i s h e s known by t h e l e a r n e d t o be b e a u t i e s , t o h i s b o o k ; w h i c h n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g had b e e n more s a l e a b l e , i f more c o n f o r m e d t o o u r modern language.8 Here,  once  again,  barrier,  but,  the  did not  book  we  are  forced  however, w i t h sell  well.  Puller  should  be  a double  7  Quoted  i n Shakespere  8  P.A.  Nuttall,  ed.,  the  to  view  Spenser's  intimation that  That  barrier  w h i c h was to us.  Allusion:Book,  London,  T.  Tegg,  the  Yet  language  because  of.It  barrier  to  one  cannot  v o l . 2, 1840,  p.  '  help  78.•  v o l . 2,  p.  379.  -37-  wondering  whether  increased.the be  mere  the  sales.  Any  of  answer  the b a r r i e r to  this,  would  have  of course,  would  ,  speculation.  Repeating•the the  absence  piece  story  of doggeral  told  sent by  when  h e ' f a i l e d to receive  that  i t was  "commonly  biographical Spenser's  and  John  Spenser  her monetary  told  sketch with  funeral  by  and  an  Manningham, c o n c e r n i n g to,Queen reward,  believed."^  only  monument  Elizabeth Fuller  He  partially  ends  true  says  the  account  of  -  N o r m u s t we f o r g e t , t h a t t h e e x p e n s e o f h i s f u n e r a l a n d m o n u m e n t v/as d e f r a y e d a t t h e s o l e c h a r g e o f R o b e r t , f i r s t o f t h a t name, e a r l o f Essex.!0 The  monument w h i c h  erected the  Countess A  by  until  shift  S i r John  1620  was  promised  by  and  was  f o r , n o t by  paid  Queen  Elizabeth Essex,  of weight  i n the  Denham when he  critical  except,  revealed He  still  10  that  by  writes,  op.  I b i d . , p.  would  case  important  of  more  have;  1  readily  accept  of  the  Sprat's Account  of  the L i f e  F a e r y Queene of  i s  Cowley.  that  c i t . ,p/  today.-  Fletcher.  influence  of Cowley,  Fuller,  we  i n the  i n Thomas  reports,  9  i s one  perhaps,  The  but  b a l a n c e s i s made  1  balance  not  of Dorset.  O l d m o t h e r W i t , and N a t u r e , gave S h a k e s p e a r e and F l e t c h e r a l l t h e y I n S p e n s e r , and i n J o n s o n , A r t Of s l o w e r N a t u r e g o t t h e s t a r t ; The  was  ,  379  380.  11 "On M r . A b r a h a m P o e t s , v o l . 7, p . 2 4 7 .  Cowley's  Death,"  /iQQTj,  in  Chalmer's  -38-  The o c c a s i o n o f h i s f i r s t i n c l i n a t i o n t o P o e t r y was h i s c a s u a l l i g h t i n g o n S p e n c e r ' s F a i r y Queen, w h e n he was but j u s t a b l e t o r e a d . That indeed I s a Poem f i t t e r f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f men t h a n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a C h i l d . But i n him i t m e t w i t h a F a n c y w h o s e s t r e n g t h was n o t t o be j u d g e d b y t h e n u m b e r o f h i s y e a r s . 1 ^ Later,  in  the  same w o r k ,  Sprat  says  that  . . . w h o e v e r w o u l d d o . . .^Cowley_7 r i g h t should n o t o n l y e q u a l him t o t h e P r i n c i p a l A n c i e n t W r i t e r s o f o u r own N a t i o n ^ C h a u c e r a n d Spensery , b u t s h o u l d a l s o r a n k h i s name a m o n g s t t h e A u t h o r s of the t r u e A n t i q u i t y , the b e s t o f t h e G r e e k s and R o m a n s . ^ 7  3  An  interesting  b i t of  of  the  F a e r i e Queene;  by  the  book's  owner,  verse  i t was John  appears  probably  Hacket  i n a  written  1609  about  Spenser,  No  mention,  1670  -  our g l o r i e t i s ' thy golden thee t h i r d b e f o r e a l l other Homer, V i r g i l , S p e n s e r L a u r e a t a poetical triumvirate.I  pen men.  Admitts Sage Make  copy  4  i t must. b e . . n o t e d ,  i s made  of  any  other  English  p o e t ss. About impossible "Tom  the to  same y e a r date  ( i t i s often difficult  individual  May's Death," a p p e a r e d .  and  at  times  poems) Andrew M a r v e l l ' s It included  the  Satire  following  lines:  I f t h a t c a n bp t h y home w h e r e S P E N S E R l i e s , A n d r e v e r e n d CHAUCER; b u t t h e i r d u s t d o e s r i s e A g a i n s t t h e e , and e x p e l s t h e e f r o m t h e i r s i d e , As t h e e a g l e ' s p l u m e s f r o m o t h e r b i r d s d i v i d e : 1 3 I n . 1671  vol.  1892,  S i r Thomas C u l p e p p e r  12 2,  /T.668/,  13  Ibid.,  14  "Verses  p.  In C r i t i c a l  Essays  gave  of  his  the  reasons  for  Seventeenth  not  Century,  121. p.  15 S a t i r e s , p. 13.  145.  on  Spenser,"  G.A.  Aitkin,  Athenaeum, ed.,  1883,  London,  v o l . 1,  Lawrence  &  p.  247.  Bullen,  -39-  using  outmoded  language.  In,his  Essayes  he  writes.  Some h a v e thoiiaght t o h o n o u r A n t i q u i t y toy u s i n g such /words/ were o b s o l e t e , as h a t h b e e n done by o u r famous S p e n c e r and o t h e r s , t h o u g h t h e t i m e s p a s t a r e no more r e s p e c t e d by an u n n e c e s s a r y c o n t i n u i n g of t h e i r words t h e n i f wee w o r e c o n s t a n t l y t h e same t r i m m i n g t o our. C l o a t h s as t h e y d i d , f o r i t i s n o t Speech, but things which render a n t i q u i t y venerable, b e s i d e s t h e d a n g e r o f e x p r e s s i n g no L a n g u a g e , i f a s S p e n c e r made u s e o f C h a u c e r s , we should likewise introduce his... ' a  It period,  is  disappointing  Thomas  little  to  the  little  they  In of  of  that  Rymer and  had  approach  s  say  two  John Dryden,  concerning  wrote,  the  we  Spenser.  are  major  critics  especially  of  the  Nevertheless,  introduced  to  the  the  latter in  critical  neo-classicism.  his  "Preface  Aristotle's  to  Treatise  the of  Translation of Poesie,"  Rapin's  published  Reflections  i n 1674,  Rymer  writes, S p e n s e r , I t h i n k , may be r e c k o n ' d t h e f i r s t o f our H e r o i c k Poets; he.had a l a r g e s p i r i t , a sharp judgment, and a Genius f o r H e r o i c k P o e s i e , perh a p s above any t h a t e v e r w r i t s i n c e V i r g i l . But our misfortune i s , . h e wanted a true Idea, and l o s t h i m s e l f by f o l l o w i n g an u n f a i t h f u l guide. T h o u g h b e s i d e s Homer a n d V i r g i l he h a d read T a s s o , y e t he r a t h e r s u f f e r e d h i m s e l f t o be m i s l e d b y A r i o s t o ; w i t h whom b l i n d l y rambling marvellous A d v e n t u r e s , he m a k e s no C o n s c i e n c e o f P r o b a b i l i t y . A l l i s f a n c i f u l and c h i m e r i c a l , without any u n i f o r m i t y , w i t h o u t any foundation i n t r u t h ; h i s Poem i s p e r f e c t F a i r y - l a n d . ! 7  .  o  He  then  n  continues: We m u s t b l a m e t h e I t a l i a n s f o r d e b a u c h i n g g r e a t S p e n c e r ' s judgment; and they c a s t him  16  In  Spurgeon,  op.  c i t . , pp.  247-248.  17.In  Spingarm,  op.  ext.,  167-168  pp.  -40-  on in That  the u n l u c k y c h o i c e o f the no w i s e i s p r o p e r f o r o u r  Spenser's  poem i s  the  highest praise,  The  blaming  repeated It  of  the  later i s  by  best  method  to  directly  turn  influenced  by  other  of  critics  this  point  when  Rymer  of  (but not  the  greatness"  says,  inimitable  Spenser  D u b a r t a s . . . . "19 the of  Original Spenser.  He  "puffy  was,  ' the  Twelve  Progress  t o be  such.  form  i s to  be  Johnson. chrono-  own  chapter  and  admission,  reservations  that  when I  was  Friar  and  (1681),  "looks  re-  of  I  thought Sylvester's  i n i".A D i s c o u r s e  Satire"  he  makes  Dryden,  like  a boy,  i n comparison  later  of  Rymer  Dr.  his  truth  ' _.  style"  years  i n  from, t h e  Spanish  a mean p o e t ,  Is  used, i n t h i s by  without  " I remember,  and  including  who  "Dedication" to  speaking  stanza  presentation being to Dryden  by  to depart  •  his  meant  f o r the  f u t a t i o n s ). In  Pairly-land"  although not Italians  at  logical  "perfect  stanza, which Language.18  a  Concerning  fuller  study  writes,  . . . t h e r e i s no u n i f o r m i t y i n the d e s i g n o f S p e n s e r : he a l m s a t t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of n o one a c t i o n ; h e r a i s e s u p a h e r o f o r e v e r y one. o f h i s a d v e n t u r e s ; a n d e n d o w s e a c h o f t h e m w i t h some p a r t i c u l a r m o r a l v i r t u e , w h i c h r e n d e r s them a l l e q u a l , w i t h o u t s u b o r d i n a t i o n , or preference.20 To  the  damning  18  modern  reader  this  criticism  when i t i s r e a l i z e d  that  Spingarn,  p.  op.  cit.,  19 E s s a y s o f J o h n D r y d e n , P r e s s , 1 9 0 0 , v o l . 1, p . 247. 20  Ibid.,  v o l . 2,  p.  28.  i s not  particularly  i t i s only a manifestation  168 W»P.  Ker,  ed.,.Oxford,  Clarendon  -41-  of  the  prejudices of  conventions  as  the  a period that  unities  was  interested  and•decorum.  Dryden,  i n  such  however,  continues, . . . f o r the r e s t , h i s o b s o l e t e language, and the i l l c h o i c e of h i s stanza?, a r e f a u l t s h u t of the second magnitude; f o r , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e f i r s t , he i s s t i l l i n t e l l i g i b l e , a t l e a s t a f t e r a l i t t l e p r a c t i c e ; and f o r the l a s t , he i s m o r e t o be a d m i r e d , that labouring under such a d i f f i c u l t y , h i s v e r s e s a r e , s o numerous, so v a r i o u s , and so h a r m o n i o u s . . . . ^ 1  Can to  these  "faults"  labour" under? Dryden,  the  had  of  touches  one. !^ 1  once  more  the  dialect  his  Shepherd's  English; As matter cation" the  to  the  In  the  on  language  w h e n he  Theocritus Calendar;  "Spenser  but  reason  I  to  any  end  that  Bossu;  'Dryden's  Spenser  more  "Progress  of op.  of  man to  Spenser  Satire" cit.-,  has  to  he  21  Dryden,  22  Ibid.,  p.  23  Ibid.,  v o l . 1,  p.  266  24  Ibid.,  v o l . 2,  p.  220.  support  65  i n  about  the to  born  with  28-29  i t i n  it."25  i n  i t . " ^  or  he  i t succeed  only  writes,  better  using  endeavoured  and-'Milton  v o l . 2 pp.  about  discussion  ever  a  Sylvae  attempt  wanted  was  has  to  finished,  the  speaks  writes, again  knowledge  study  " to  further  "Spenser  f o r no  been  neither will  forbore  returns  "Spenser  his action "Preface  "rules" Dryden  o r had  for  Aeneis,  that  i n the  Aeneis, of  states  the  And  i f wishing of  and  Queen, had  f o r which  rules  genius  of  "Dedication" to  action,  for his Fairy been  considered d i f f i c u l t i e s  •'  i n his  question  plea  be  the  "Dedi-  have a  read greater  4  i s most  interesting.  -42-  I found in.../EiltonJ a true sublimity, l o f t y t h o u g h t s , w h i c h were c l o t h e d with a d m i r a b l e G r e c i s m s , and a n c i e n t works, w h i c h he h a d b e e n d i g g i n g f r o m t h e m i n e s o f Chaucer and S p e n s e r . . . . S p e n s e r had s t u d i e d V i r g i l to.as much advantage as M i l t o n h a d done H o m e r . . . . ^  •  r  ' • A  few years  later  i n the Aeneis  "Dedication"  he  reports  that  Spenser and M i l t o n a r e t h e n e a r e s t , i n E n g l i s h , To V i r g i l and H o r a c e i n t h e L a t i n ; a n d I have e n d e a v o u r e d t o f o r m my s t y l e b y i m i t a t i n g their masters. And  ultimately  the  P a b l e s > " he  Spenser  tore is  i s difficult  period,  chasm  based  between down  whether  has acknowledged  this  We  may  Passing Spenser ^ 5  we  t o say whether  Spenser  indeed type  t h e chasm  did.  "Milton  to'  t o me,  that  or not the c r i t i c i s m  on t h e " r u l e s , " I s a s i g n  has been,  difficult  made  states,  work i n 1699, the "Preface  was h i s o r i g i n a l . . . . " ' ^  It this  i n h i s last  and t h e r e a d e r . - W h a t  the " r u l e s "  be  t o make  any d e f i n i t e d i s c o v e r y  deeper.  assume  o f the widening  i t must  of c r i t i c i s m  that  admitted,  built  had any l a s t i n g  I t i s doubtful  whether  up a g a i n .  effects, or in-the  Samuel  come  t o t h e i n t e r e s t i n g Soame-Dryden  of Boileau's  A r t of Poetry  credit  by the "rules" -  endi t - ' • "  over  lation  trite  I t  as to  i td i d not. Speed's  of  praise  i n which  i n verse  Spenser  of  transi s given  Spenser d i d next i n p a s t o r a l s excel, And t a u g h t t h e n o b l e a r t o f w r i t i n g w e l l , To s t r i c t e r r u l e s t h e s t a n z a d i d r e s t r a i n , 25  Dryden,  op. c i t . , v o l .  26  I b i d . , p . 225.  27  I b i d . , p . 247  28 " P r a g m e n t a C i r c e r i s , " B o o k , v o l . 2, p . 2 0 6 .  2, p / 1 0 9  /l67£/,. i n S h a k s p e r e  Allusion  -45-  And About biography hearsay  found  the of  f o r poetry  year  1680  Spenser,  evidence.  richer  John Aubrey  filled  He  a  tells  (as us  one  that  v e i n . ^  wrote  his  brief  might  expect)  with  Spenser  ...was a n a c q u a i n t a n c e and f r e q u e n t e r o f S i r Erasmus. D r e y d e n . His m i s t r i s , Rosalind, was a kinswoman o f S i r Erasmus' l a d y ' s . The chamber t h e r e a t S i r Erasmus* i s s t i l l called -Mr. S p e n c e r ' s chamber. Lately, at the'College takeing-downe the w a i n s c o t of h i s chamber, they found an abundance of c a r d s , w i t h s t a n z a s of the ' P a e r i e Queen' w r i t t e n on them.- f r o m John Dreyden, esq., Poet Laureate. ^ 3  The  identity Of  ston  he  was  little  Aubrey interesting (see  Rosalind  s t i l l  Spenser's.appearance  sayes  band, a n d  of  a  little  cuffs. " ^  relates  Chapter  One).  of He  Aubrey  a  mystery.  reports  that  short  haire,  man,  wore  This  i s a more  a^ s t o r y  in light  remains  concerning  "Mr.  little  credible  Spenser  S i r W i l l i a m Davenant's  Bee-  statement.  which  is  criticism  says:  Sir J o h n D e n h a m t o l d me, that archbishop '. U s h e r , L o r d P r i m a t e o f A r m a g h , was acquainted w i t h h i m , t b - v b t h i s t o k e n : when S i r W i l l i a m , D a v e n a n t ' s G o n d i b e r t came f o r t h , S i r J o h n a s k t t h e L o r d P r i m a t e i f he h a d s e e n i t . S a i d t h e Primate, 'Out u p o n h i m , w i t h h i s v a u n t i n g p r e f a c e , h e s p e a k e s a g a i n s t my o l d f r i e n d , Edmund S p e n s e r . ' 3 £ The life  of  29 others, 1898,  most  intriguing  Sir Philip  of  Sidney.  Aubrey's The  story  I n The A r t o f P o e t r y , A.S. G i n n & Co., 1892, p . 165.  30 B r i e f v o l . 2,  L i v e s , A. p. 232.  31  Ibid.,  p.  32  Loc. . c i t .  253.  tales  C l a r k , ed.,  goes  appears as  i n his  follows:  Cook,.ed. , Boston Oxford,  Clarendon  and Press',  -44-  Among o t h e r s Mr. E d m u n d S p e n c e r made h i s a d d r e s s e t o him, and b r o u g h t h i s F a e r y Queen. S i r P h i l i p was b u s y a t h i s s t u d y , a n d h i s s e r v a n t d e l i v e r e d Mr. S p e n c e r ' s b o o k s t o h i s m a s t e r , who l a y d i t by, t h i n k i n g i t might b e s u c h s t u f f e a s he was f r e q u e n t l y t r o u b l e d with. Mr. S p e n c e r s t a y d s o l o n g t h a t h i s p a t i e n c e was w e a r i e d , a n d w e n t h i s way discontented., a n d n e v e r i n t e n d e d t o come a g a i n . When S i r P h i l i p p e r u s e d i t , he was so exc e e d i n g l y d e l i g h t e d w i t h i t , t h a t he was e x t r e m e l y ' s o r r y he was g o n n e , a n d where' t o s e n d f o r h i m he knew n o t . A f t e r much e n q u i r y he l e a r n e d h i s l o d g e i n g a n d s e n t f o r h i m , m i g h t i l y c a r e s s e d him, and o r d e r e d his s e r v a n t to g i v e him...pounds i n g o l d . His s e r v a n t s a y d t h a t t h a t was t o o much; 'No,' said S i r Philip, 'he i s . . . , ' a n d o r d e r e d an addition. F r o m t h i s t i m e t h e r e was a g r e a t f r i e n d s h i p b e t w e e n them, to h i s d y i n g day. 5 5  There  can  be  place  the  part  concerning place  of  accepted. place  about  story  events •It  1578,  with  Sidney,  Dyer, The  Shepheardes  of  the  Faerie  Sidney  in  money  true  is  the  i t would  earlier,  a  when'Spenser op.  has  1579, most  and,  t o make  c i t . , p.  stories  become  was 248.  a  and  the generally  obtained the  .acquainted  the  "Aeropagus"  savy t h e  publication  probably  even  the  beginning  whether  i f i t were,  presentation s t i l l  told  Leicester in became  first  second  G a b r i e l Harvey of  the  much o f  i s highly doubtful  written  3b' A u b r e y ,  that  In  the  upset  others  and  to In  Spenser  and  enough time  life  year  Calender  begun  similar  household  that  It  is false.  Spenser.  that  Greville  Queene.  w o r k was  at  story  following year,  the  was  were  during  of  there  the  the  i s understood  and  formed.  latter  that  i n Spenser's  f o r Spenser  year  was  doubt  Queen E l i z a b e t h and  i f the  dating  a  no  unknown  of to  i t  this whether to  him.  In  his  inghamshire)  Essay  on  advises  Poetry the  John  Sheffield  r i s i n g poet  (Duke  of  Buck-  that  ...he m u s t be b e y o n d what I c a n say; Must above T a s s o ' s l o f t y f l i g h t s p r e v a i l , „ S u c c e e d where S p e n s e r , and S v ' n M i l t o n f a i l . The  matter  Atterbury  i n his  Poems, p r i n t e d ;  :  This  of  a  language  "Preface  to  i s revived the  i n 1 6 9 0 , " when he  again  by  Francis  second p a r t  of  Mr.  Waller'  writes,  . . . i ti s a s u r p r i s i n g - r e f l e c t i o n , t h a t between what S p e n s e r w r o t e l a s t , and W a l l e r f i r s t , there c o u l d n o t be much a b o v e t w e n t y y e a r s ' distance; and y e t t h e o n e ' s . l a n g u a g e , l i k e the money o f t h a t t i m e , i s a s c u r r e n t now as e v e r ; w h i l s t the o t h e r ' s w o r d s a r e l i k e o l d c o i n s , we m u s t g o t o an a n t i q u a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r t r u e m e a n i n g and value.^5 appears Sir  1685,  of  to  be  William  i s an  overstatement.  Temple's  attack  religious  an  on  kind.  Essay:  Spenser's He  of  poetry,' p u b l i s h e d  handling  of  subject  i n  matter  says,  T h e r e l i g i o n o f t h e G e n t i l e s h a d b e e n woven i n t o the c o n t e x t u r e of a l l the a n c i e n t p o e t r y , • with a very agreeable.mixture, w h i c h made t h e moderns a f f e c t to g i v e t h a t o f C h r i s t i a n i t y a p l a c e i n t h e i r poems. But t h e t r u e r e l i g i o n was n o t f o u n d t o become f i c t i o n so w e l l as a • f a l s e had done, and a l l t h e i r a t t e m p t s o f t h i s k i n d seemed r a t h e r t o d e b a s e r e l i g i o n , t h a n to heighten poetry. Spencer endeavoured to s u p p l y t h i s w i t h m o r a l i t y , and t o make i n s t r u c t i o n , i n s t e a d o f s t o r y , the s u b j e c t o f an - E p i c poem. H i s e x e c u t i o n was e x c e l l e n t , a n d h i s . f l i g h t s o f f a n c y v e r y n o b l e and h i g h , . . b u t h i s d e s i g n was p o o r , a n d h i s m o r a l l a y so bare, that i t l o s t the e f f e c t ; ' t i s t r u e , the  34 35 London,  /I6827,  i n Chalmer's  Poets,  vol.  I n T h e Poems o f E d m u n d W a l l e r , A.H. B u l l e n , 1901, p. x i x .  G.  10,  p.  94.  Thorne Drury,  ed.  -46-  p i l l was g i l d e d , b u t s o t h i n t h a t t h e c o l o u r and t h e t a s t e were t o o e a s i l y d i s c o v e r e d . ^ 3  What  S i rW i l l i a m reports i s mostly  over-simplified the  Faerie  poem set of  Queene,  religion,  fears, less,  o f the moral.  He  has  well  as b e i n g  i t ever taken,  so.  i t was  "lay bare,"  Spenser  which  were  allegory of these nor,.one  i s , neverthe-  d i d n o t debase  he d i d s u c c e e d  ( o r , n o t t o change  t h e c h a s m ) , b y means  religious  an  The m o r a l  H i s main p o i n t  and a l t h o u g h  a  viewed  i n raising  o u r image  i n widen-  of his dark  conceits,  h i m s e l f and h i s reader. 1691 someone a s k e d ' T h e  "Which i s t h e b e s t Opinion,  do  of barrier  and deepening  In  that  n o t b y a n y means  only  implications  and morals.  to heighten poetry,  sort  between  himself:  politics,  does  will  religion  and  h a s , however,  i t appears,  by Spenser  allegories  ing  He  and h a s f o r g o t t e n t h e o t h e r forth  some  the matter  true.  deserves  Poem  that  the T i t l e  an unknown w r i t e r  Athenian  ever  was m a d e ,  o f the b e s t  answered  as  Mercury  Poet  the q u e s t i o n  a n d who that  i n your  ever  was?"  follows:  P l a u t u s wrote w i t t i l y , Terence n e a t l y - and S e n e c a h a s v e r y f i n e t h o u g h t s * - B u t s i n c e we c a n ' t go t h r o u g h a l l the w o r l d , l e t ' s l o o k home a l i t t l e . Grandslre Chaucer, i n spite of t h e A g e , was a M a n o f a s m u c h w i t , s e n s e and h o n e s t y as a n y t h a t h a v e w r i t a f t e r h i m . F a t h e r B e n was e x c e l l e n t a t Humour, S h a k e s p e a r e d e s e r v e s t h e Name, o f s w e e t e s t w h i c h M i l t o n g a v e h i m . - S p e n c e r was a n o b l e p o e t , his F a i r y - Q u e e n as e x c e l l e n t p i e c e o f Morality, Policy, History. Davenant had a g r e a t g e n i u s . - T o o much c a n ' t b e s a i d o f Mr. C o l e y . M i l t o n ' s P a r a d i s e L o s t a n d .some o t h e r P o e m s  36 T h e W o r k s o f S i r W i l l i a m T e m p l e , 1 7 5 7 , . v o l . 3, p p . 4 1 9 - 4 2 0 .  London,  T . Wott.on,  -47-  o f h i s w i l l n e v e r be e q u a l ' d . Waller,i s t h e m o s t c o r r e c t P o e t we h a v e . 3 7 In Sir  h i s "Preface  Richard  to Price  Blackmore  A r t h u r , An H e r o i c k  attacks Spenser's  use o f  Poem,"  allegory.  He w r i t e s , ... A r i o s t o a n d S p e n c e r , h o w e v e r g r e a t w i t s , n o t o b s e r v i n g . . ./Xh&J j u d i c i o u s C o n d u c t o f ••'*;,• V i r g i l , n o r a t t e n d i n g t o any s o b e r R u l e s , are. h u r r i e d on w i t h a boundless, impetuous Fancy over H i l l and D a l e , t i l l they a r e b o t h l o s t i n a Wood o f " A l l e g o r i e s , - A l l e g o r i e s so' w i l d , u n n a t u r a l , and e x t r a v a g a n t , as g r e a t l y d i s please the Reader,3a If  one i s t o w r i t e  Sir  Richard  and  the v i r t u e s  this is  way  as Goddesses  the reader  will  conform  introduce  or other  immediately  to t h e  "rules,"  the vices  divine know  as  Furies  persons.  that  an  In  allegory  3 9  R i c h a r d goes  Aristotle,  that  c o n t i n u e s , he m u s t  intended. Sir  allegories  on t o s a y , e c h o i n g  but not  following  that P r o b a b i l i t y must be i n t h e A c t i o n , t h e C o n d u c t , t h e M a n n e r s ; a n d when humane /"sic_ 7' m e a n s c a n not, Machines are i n t r o d u c ' d t o support i t . N o t h i n g i s more n e c e s s a r y t h e n P r o b a b i l i t y , no R u l e more c h a s t l y t o be o b s e r v ' d . ^ O i  At  least  he cannot  of  the Machine.  allegorical mould. not  p.  malleable 37 J u l y 263.  Spenser  Blackmore  romance  This  accuse  and w i l l  being  either  11, 1691, quoted  38  /T695J7,  39  Loc.  c i t .  40  Loc.  c i t .  of not using  has accepted  c a n be f i t t e d  i s f a r from  1  i n Spingarn,  into  possible itself  the f a l l a c y a  that  an  neo-classical as t h e romance i s  break  i n Spurgeon, op. c i t . ,  the technique  o r cause  the  o p . c i t . , v o l . 1,  v o l . 3, p . 2 3 8 .  -48-  neo-classical make i t  tools  to  break while  seventeenth  large  century  p r o p o r t i o n of  r i b a l d r y ta;S;, f o r  case  satires,  of  and on s o c i a l  niscent  of  being used  f o r the  there  were  conceivable  rejected  downright  crudity  The a t t a c k s  conditions  sake  of  readers that  its  for  to  poets  subjects,  type  are  It  of  were  they  the  verse,  appeared seem  literature have  they  and  it  been  had w r i t t e n  p o p u l a r because  light-  remi-  would  who would o t h e r w i s e If  later  and, i n  Other  obscenity.  as • ' p o e t s ' ,  the  on i n d i v i d u a l  and t h o u g h t  this  of  so much f o r i t s  s u c h a s Denham and Oldham,  completely  conventional  verse  E l i z a b e t h a n pamphleteers.  w r i t t e n by w r i t e r s obviously  its  vituperation.'  writers  the  the  c a n be n o t e d n o t  hearted  is  are  conform.  A somewhat  that  they  on more  versified  obscenity. One s u c h p o e t , vulgarity  was  at  his  times  presentation. long  title  -  astonishing,  "A S a t y r . the  how l i t t l e  present  Age"  study.  reveal  Oldham's  -  is  It  who p r a c t i s e d however,  redeemed by h i s  mostly with  esteem'd enough  irreverent  of  to  alclever  exceptionally  Spenser  is  and e n c o u r a g ' d  importance;  handling of  the  brought  Study o f P o e t r y ,  A l t h o u g h t h e poem i s  two t h i n g s  be  is  satires  important  more t o  His v u l g a r i t y ,  The P e r s o n o f  is  versified  satires.  A u t h o r from, t h e  shewing  does  vitriolic  One o f h i s  i n Dissuading  detailed  mentioned,  J o h n O l d h a m , who i s ,  remembered f o r though  just  in  and this  w a r r a n t .a r a t h e r not  a critique,  i n the  Spenser;  first  and i n t h e  it  place, second  -49-  plaee, views  h i s use of Spenser about  .The  the c o n d i t i o n  poem  opens  with  a s a means of poetry  to present  h i s own  o f h i s own a g e .  a description  o f Spenser's  ghost:  I n came a g h a s t l y S h a p e , a l l p a l e a n d t h i n , A s some p o o r S i n n e r , who b y P r i e s t h a d b e e n Under, a l o n g L e n t ' s Penance, s t a r v ' d and whip'd, Or p a r b o i l ' d L e c h e r , l a t e f r o m H o t - h o u s e c r e p t : Pamish'd h i s Looks appear'd, h i s Eyes sunk i n , . L i k e Morning-Gown about h i m hung h i s S k i n , A W r e a t h o f L a w r e l o n h i s H e a d he w o r e , A B o o k , I n s c r i b ' d t h e F a i r y Q u e e n , he b o r e . 4 1  Spenser hands  i s disillusioned  of Poetry  by  the treatment  he h a s h a d a t t h e  and e x c l a i m s ,  Had I t h e c h o i c e o f F l e s h a n d B l o o d ' a g a i n , To a c t once more i n L i f e ' s t u m u l t u o u s Scene; I'd be a P o r t e r , o r a Scavenger, A Groom, o r any t h i n g , b u t P o e t h e r e : The  reason  f o r this  bitterness,  he c o n t i n u e s , i s t h a t  S o m a n y now, a n d b a d t h e S c r i b b l e r s b e , 'Tis s c a n d a l t o be o f t h e Company: ,The f o u l D i s e a s e I s s o p r e v a i l i n g g r o w n , • So m u c h t h e F a s h i o n o f t h e C o u r t a n d T o w n , T h a t s c a r c e a man w e l l - b r e d i n e i t h e r ' s d e e m e d ; B u t who h a s k l l l ' d , b e e n o f t e n c l a p t , a n d o f t h a s rhim'd: 4 i S  Grimly  Spenser  tells  Oldham t o  . . . g o , h a v e t h y p o s t e d Name F i x ' d u p w i t h B i l l s o f Q u a c k , a n d p u b l i c k Sham; To b e t h e s t o p o f g a p i n g P r e n t i s e s , And r e a d b y r e e l i n g D r u n k a r d s , when t h e y p i s s ; Or e l s e t o b e e x p o s ' d o n t r a d i n g Stall, W h i l e t h e . b i l k ' d Owner h i r e s G a z z e t s t o t e l l , 'Mongst S p a n i e l i s l o s t , t h a t A u t h o r d o e s n o t s e l l . and  warns  41  him  that  London,  42  Ibid.  45  Ibid.  44  Ibid.  M.  Hindmarch,  1698.  Incoherent pagination.  4  4  -50. . . g r a n t thy P o e t r y should f i n d s u c c e s s , And (which i s r a r e ) the squeamish G r i t i c k s p l e a s e ; Admit, i t r e a d , and p r a i s ' d , and c o u r t e d he By t h i s n i c e Age, and a l l P o s t e r i t y ; I f thou expectest ought hut empty Fame; Condemn thy Hopes, and Labours to the F l a m e : ^ The system o f patronage ghost.  i s a l s o censured by  Spenser's  He speaks of 1  . . . a gay wealthy S o t , who would not b a i l For bare f i v e Pounds the Author out o f J a i l , Should he s t a r v e t h e r e , and r o t ; who i f a B r i e f Game out the needy Poets to r e l i e v e , To the whole t r i b e would scarce a T e s t e r g i v e . But f i f t y Guinneas f o r a Whore and C l a p ! The p e e r ' s w e l l u s ' d , and comes o f f wond'rous cheap: A Poet would be d e a r , and out o' Finally,  Spenser warns,  way to live."''*''•'  But seeing  th*  "Be a l l but P o e t ,  way....^ and  there's  t h a t Oldham i s not i n c l i n e d to  take h i s a d v i c e he b i t t e r l y remarks - "Then s l i g h t e d by the very Nursery,|May st 1  me."^  thou a t l a s t  be f o r c e d to s t a r v e ,  8  T h i s b r u t a l and v i v i d l y v u l g a r a t t a c k  on the s t a t e o f  poetry makes Oldham's a t t r i b u t i n g of the a t t a c k all  like  the more remarkable, e s p e c i a l l y  to  i n l i g h t of the  Spenser fact  t h a t Spenser i s u s u a l i y c o n s i d e r e d to have been m i l d tempered (even when h i s I r i s h views are seen to r e f l e c t his  a facet of  character). Alexander Pope, a l s o ,  showed a y o u t h f u l d i s r e s p e c t  for  Spenser by u s i n g the F a e r i e Queene stanza form i n The A l l e y / 45 Oldham, op. c i t .  47  Ibid.  46 I b i d . 48 I b i d . t Joseph Warton fEssay on the Genius and W r i t i n g s of Pope. London, Dodsley, 1782, pp. 92-100] deprecates t h i s i m i t a t i o n of Spenser whose " p e n c i l . . . i s as powerful as t h a t of Rubens."  -51  a poem found  which  tells  about  i n the low a l l e y s Both  following  the o b s c e n i t i e s o f an average  f o r i t s confused imagery passage  from  that  a r e t o be  city.^^  and i t s t h o u g h t , t h e  Samuel C o b b s 1  Poetae  Britannici i s  interesting. S u n k I n t h e S e a o f I g n o r a n c e we l a y , T i l l C h a u c e r r o s e , and p o i n t e d o u t t h e D a y , A j o k i n g B a r d , whose A n t i q u a t e d Muse I n m o u l d y Words c o u l d s o l i d Sense Produce. O u r E n g l i s h E n n i u s . H e , who c l a i m ' d h i s p a r t I n w e a l t h y .Nature, t h o u n s k i l l d i n A r t . The s p a r k l i n g D i a m o n d on h i s D u n g - h i l l s h i n e s , And G o l d e n F r a g m e n t s g l i t t e r i n h i s L i n e s . W h i c h S p e n c e r g a t h e r ' d for" h i s L e a r n i n g known, A n d b y s u c c e s s f u l G l e a n i n g s made h i s own. S o c a r e f u l B e e s o n a f a i r Summer's D a y , Hum o ' e r t h e F l o w e r s , a n d s u c k t h e s w e e t s a w a y . ®£ G l o r i a n a , a n d h e r K n i g h t s h e s u n g , Of B e a s t s , w h i c h f r o m h i s p r e g n a n t F a n c y s p r u n g . 0 had thy Poet, B r i t a n y , rely/d' On n a t i v e S t r e n g t h , a n d F o r e i g n A i d d e n y ' d i Had n o t w i l d F a i r i e s b l a s t e d h i s d e s i g n , ' . •Moeonide's a n d V i r g i l h a d b e e n T h i n e J T h e i r f i n i s h * d Poems he e x a c t l y v i e w ' d But Chaucer's s t e p s R e l i g i o u s l y p u r s u ' d . He c a l l ' d a n d p i c k ' d , a n d t h o u g h t i t g r e a t e r p r a i s e T'adore h i s Master,.than improve h i s Phrase. Twas c o u n t e d S i n t o d e v i a t e f r o m h i s P a g e ; So s a c r e d was t h ' A u t h o r i t y o f A g e J . The C o y n must s u r e f o r c u r r a n t S t e r l i n g p a s s Stamp'd w i t h oLd C h a u c e r ' s V e n e r a b l e F a c e . But Johnson found i t o f a gross A l l o y , M e l t e d i t down and f l u n g t h e Scum away. He d u g p u r e S i l v e r f r o m a Roman M i n e And p r e s t h i s ' S a c r e d Image o n t h e C o y n . 1  5 0  In makes of  h i s " D i s c o u r s e on P a s t o r a l , "  a blazing  this  form.  allegorical,  attack  on what  The e c l o g u e s , he and c o n t a i n  he  published  felt  finds,  t o o much  was  i n 1704, Pope  Spenser's  are too long,  which  treats  of  misuse too  religion.  49 The Works o f A l e x a n d e r Pope, J . W i l s o n C r o k e r a n d W h i t w e 1 1 E l w i n , e d s . , L o n d o n , J o h n M u r r a y , 1 8 7 1 , v o l . 4, p p . 425-428. T h i s p o e m was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1 7 2 7 . 50 / c . 1 7 0 0 7 ,  i n Spurgeon,  op. c i t . ,  v o l . 1, p p .  271-2.  -52-  The to  lyric Pope,  was  measure i n the  forsaken  adopted  pastoral  by  Spenser  by  Spenser  i s not,  tradition. when h e  according  Conciseness,  chose  his  he  stanza  says,  forms: 51  Spenser  would  Cn  the  thoughts  have  other  and  been wiser hand,  Pope  characters,  had  he  chosen  declares  Spenser  the  that' i n  approaches  But  in dialect,  Spenser  i s the  two:"...  old  E n g l i s h and  country  phrases  Pope  manners,  Theocritus  excellence. the  couplet.  inferior of  in  of  the  Spenser,"  writes, were e i t h e r e n t i r e l y o b s o l e t e , o r s p o k e n o n l y by p e o p l e o f the lowest c o n d i t i o n . As there i s a d i f f e r e n c e betwixt simplicity a n d r u s t i c i t y , so t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f simple t h o u g h t s s h o u l d be p l a i n , b u t n o t clownish. ^ 5  Finally, months not  Is  Interesting  and  the  that  nature" gil,  of  and  of  i t as  of  the  year  1709  a' p r e l u d e  to  13,  Horace  and  Pope,  52  Ibid., vol. "Preface" 107.  i n  the  to  was  to  1,  p.  his  omit  them  little  by  I  do  descriptions  that  the  Theocritus,  however,  but,  repeat  fear,  "true Vir-  "...made the  use  innocency  inviting."  same y e a r ,  1,  months  altogether.  writes  Spenser,  poetry:  c i t . ,vol.  calendar  successive  h i t upon  Spenser using  51 53 p.  op.  i t so  of  f o r c e d , t h e r e f o r e , to  Philips  and  epic  make  was  Ambrose  Virgil  makes  to  times,  poetry  Matthew P r i o r , between  at  use  reservation that  changes  Spenser.  subject  Spenser's  the  Spenser  or,  pastoral  that  with  sufficient  descriptions In  says  brilliant,  afford  his  Pope  terms pp.  makes of  a  comparison  highest  praise,  262-263.  263. P a s t o r a l s , i n Chalmer's  Poets,  vol.  -53-  He  writes, My t w o g r e a t e x a m p l e s , H o r a c e a n d S p e n s e r , i n many t h i n g s r e s e m b l e e a c h o t h e r : b o t h h a v e a h e i g h t o f i m a g i n a t i o n , and a m a j e s t y o f expression i n d e s c r i b i n g the sublime; and b o t h know t o t e m p e r t h o s e t a l e n t s , a n d s w e e t e n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n , s o a s t o make I t l o v e l y a s w e l l a s pompous: b o t h have e q u a l l y t h a t a g r e e a b l e manner of m i x i n g m o r a l i t y with t h e i r s t o r y , and t h a t c u r i o s a f e l l c i t a s i n the choice o f t h e i r d i c t i o n , w h i c h e v e r y w r i t e r a i m s a t , a n d so v e r y few have r e a c h e d : b o t h a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n e i n t h e i r images, and knowing i n t h e i r numbers. L e a v i n g , t h e r e f o r e , o u r two m a s t e r s t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d s t u d y o f t h o s e who design to excel i n poetry....54 I  n  The T a t l e r  "Transprbsed," the  Tenth  to modify  Canto  benefit  o f Book  o f many  letters,  desired  of  virtuous  their  prosed"  of July  version  me  6,  1710, S i r R i c h a r d S t e e l e  a term  he b o r r o w e d  IV o f the F a e r i e  English  Lovers,  t o l a y d o w n some  amours..."55  Steele  who  from  Queene have,  rules  Bayes, f o r  the  by f r e q u e n t  f o r the conduct  A t t h e end o f the  "trans-  writes,  T h i s a l l e g o r y i s so n a t u r a l , that i t explains itself. The p e r s o n s i n i t a r e v e r y a r t f u l l y d e s c r i b e d , and d i s p o s e d i n p r o p e r places. The p o s t s a s s i g n e d t o Doubt, D e l a y , and Danger, a r e a d m i r a b l e . The g a t e o f Good Desert has something noble and i n s t r u c t i v e i n it. B u t a b o v e a l l I am m o s t p l e a s e d w i t h t h e , b e a u t i f u l group o f f i g u r e s i n the c o r n e r o f t h e . temple. Among t h e s e , W o m a n h o o d i s d r a w n l i k e what t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s c a l l a n U n i v e r s a l N a t u r e , and i s a t t e n d e d w i t h b e a u t i f u l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a l l those v i r t u e s that are the ornaments of the female sex, c o n s i d e r e d i n i t s n a t u r a l p e r f e c t i o n and innocence.56 54 / 1 7 0 9 7 , " P r e f a c e " t o "An O d e . . . . w r i t t e n i n I m i t a t i o n o f S p e n s e r ' s S t i l e , " i n C h a l m e r ' s P o e t s , v o l . 10, p . 1 7 8 . S e e a l s o s e c o n d s t a n z a o f t h e Ode f o r p r a i s e o f S p e n s e r . 55 others, 56  No. 1 9 4 , i n T h e B r i t i s h E s s a y i s t s , R o b t . L y n a m a n d e d s . , L o n d o n , J . F . D o v e , 1 8 2 7 , v o l . 5, p . 1 3 8 . Ibid.,  p . 142.  -54No s i g n o f  the n e o - c l a s s i c a l  be d e t e c t e d signs in  of  i n t h e s e words o f  the romanticism t h a t  Steele.  Indeed,  "rules" they  was a l r e a d y b e c o m i n g  can  show evident  the l i t e r a t u r e o f E n g l a n d . Two y e a r s  the  r e l i a n c e upon the  subject  says t h a t a full  later  S t e e l e a g a i n u s e d t h e F a e r i e Queene  f o r an a r t i c l e ,  this  time i n the  Spectator.  by u s i n g f a i r y - l a n d t h e k n i g h t s - e r r a n t a r e  scope which they  as He  given  c o u l d n o t have i n the r e a l w o r l d  57 without Of  becoming i n c r e d i b l e . Spenser's  poetical;  style,  Steele reports that  no p u n s , a f f e c t a t i o n s  of wit,  it  forced  is  "...very  antithesis,  o r any o f t h a t l o w t r i b e . " 5 8 And he u p h o l d s S p e n s e r ' s u s e of a r c h a i c language H i s o l d words a r e a l l t r u e E n g l i s h , a n d n u m b e r s , e x q u i s i t e ; and s i n c e o f words t h e r e i s t h e m u l t a renascentur. since they are a l l p r o p e r , such a poem s h o u l d n o t ( a n y more t h a n M i l t o n ' s ) s u b s i s t a l l o f i t o f common o r d i n a r y w o r d s . 5 9 Steele approach to classical  i s u n d o u b t e d l y t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f a new c r i t i c a l Spenser.59a Yet  c r i t i c t o be h e a r d f r o m -  we t u r n t o h i m , a n d t h u s should,  t h e r e was  bring this  Samuel J o h n s o n , chapter  neoBut  to a c l o s e ,  before we  i n p a s s i n g , mention John Gay.  I n 1714t  Gay,  i n "The Proeme t o t h e C o u r t e o u s R e a d e r "  which prefaced h i s  S h e p h e r d ' s Week,  first  to w r i t e  p.  s t i l l one g r e a t  E n g l i s h poet  57 N o . 54©, 265. 58 I b i d . , 59 L o c .  Nov. 19, p.  eclogues  1712,  stated i n the  that  he was  style  London, Berwick,  the  of 1807,  vol.  266.  cit..  59a E x c e p t f o r a few p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e s , S t e e l e ' s c o l league. A d d i s o n d i d not t r e a t o f Spenser i n the S p e c t a t o r .  7.  -55-  Theocritus used  notwithstanding  Spenser  as  a model.  the Of  fact  that  Spenser's  i n some w a y s  w o r k he  he  says,  Y e t h a t h h i s s h e p h e r d ' s h o y a t some t i m e s r a i s e d h i s r u s t i c n e e d t o rhymes more r u m b l i n g than r u r a l . D i v e r s e g r a v e p o i n t s a l s o h a t h he h a n d l e d o f c h u r c h l y m a t t e r , and d o u b t s i n r e l i g i o n daily a r i s i n g , to great clerks only appertaining. What' l i k e t h me b e s t a r e h i s n a m e s , i n d e e d r i g h t s i m p l e and m e e t f o r t h e c o u n t r y , s u c h as L o b b i n , Cuddy, H o b b i n o l , D i g g e n , and o t h e r s , some o f w h i c h I h a v e made b o l d t o borrow. M o r e o v e r , a s he c a l l e d h i s e c l o g u e s , t h e S h e p h e r d ' s C a l e n d a r , a n d d i v i d e d t h e same i n t o twelve months, I have chosen (peradventure n o t o v e r - r a s h l y ) t o name m i n e b y t h e d a y s o f t h e week, o m i t t i n g S u n d a y o r t h e S a b b a t h , o u r s b e i n g s u p p o s e d t o be C h r i s t i a n s h e p h e r d s , a n d t o b e then at church-worship. Y e t f u r t h e r o f many o f m a i s t e r S p e n s e r ' s e c l o g u e s i t may b e observed; t h o u g h months t h e y be c a l l e d , o f the s a i d months t h e r e i n n o t h i n g i s s p e c i f i e d ; wherein I have a l s o esteemed him w o r t h y mine i m i t a t i o n . ^ 0 This  last Dr.  statement Johnson,  neo-classicists, has  said,  and  should  sometimes barely  has  said  peroration  to  study.  his article  appeared  In  Spenser  i n The  be  compared  referred  touched  to  Rambler  "The  i n the  Dangers  i n 1751,  as  that of the  upon Spenser,  e m p h a t i c a l l y , we criticism  with  he  of  can age  last and  Pope-*^ of  yet  the what  c o n s i d e r as we  have  had  he  a under  Imitation". which  wrote,  To I m i t a t e the f i c t i o n s and s e n t i m e n t s o f S p e n s e r c a n i n c u r no r e p r o a c h , f o r a l l e g o r y i s p e r h a p s one t h e m o s t p l e a s i n g v e h i c l e s o f i n struction. B u t I am v e r y f a r f r o m e x t e n d i n g t h e same r e s p e c t t o h i s d i c t i o n o r h i s s t a n z a . H i s s t y l e was I n h i s own t i m e a l l o w e d t o be v i c i o u s . . .darkened w i t h o l d words and p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f p h r a s e , a n d . . . r e m o t e f r o m c ommon u s e . . . , H i s s t a n z a i s a t once d i f f i c u l t and u n p l e a s i n g ; t i r e s o m e t o the e a r by i t s u n i f o r m i t y , and t o t h e a t t e n t i o n by i t s l e n g t h . I t was a t f i r s t f o r m e d  60  In Chalmer's  Poets,  v o l . 10,  p.  444.  -56-  i n I m i t a t i o n o f the I t a l i a n p o e t s , w i t h o u t due r e g a r d t o the g e n i u s o f our l a n g u a g e . The I t a l i a n s have l i t t l e v a r i e t y of t e r m i n a t i o n , and were f o r c e d t o c o n t r i v e s u c h a s t a n z a as m i g h t a d m i t the g r e a t e s t number o f s i m i l a r r h y m e s ; b u t o u r w o r d s e n d w i t h - no s u c h d i v e r s i t y , t h a t i t i s seldom c o n v e n i e n t f o r us t o b r i n g m o r e t h a n t w o • o f t h e same s o u n d t o - . gether. I f i t be j u s t l y o b s e r v e d by M i l t o n , t h a t a rhyme o b l i g e s t h e p o e t s t o e x p r e s s their thoughts i n improper terms, these i m p r o p r i e t i e s must a l w a y s be m u l t i p l i e d , as t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f rhyme i s i n c r e a s e d by l o n g c o n c a t e n a t i o n s . 1  He  then,  continued, P e r h a p s , however, the s t y l e o f S p e n c e r m i g h t b y l o n g l a b o u r be j u s t l y c o p i e d ; b u t l i £ e i s s u r e l y g i v e n us f o r h i g h e r p u r p o s e s than t o g a t h e r what o u r a n c e s t o r s h a v e w i s e l y t h r o w n away a n d t o l e a r n what i s o f n o v a l u e , b u t b e c a u s e i t has b e e n f o r g o t t e n . 2 r  g  The many we  critical  can  which the  hundred  note  a  the  years,  the  note  period,  the  verse  of  the  details  the  interest  the  also,  we  find  allusions  years  61  In  62  Ibid.,  The  are as  at  a  the  to  the  end  have  as  soon  Steele this  creeping  afterwards, In  which,  this  although  factual,  Illustrates  artists.  f o l l o w i n g 1650  Essayists,  period  spontaneity  During  lightness.  well  the  revealed  rationalism of  we  and,  o f t e n f a r from as  of  lightness  i n biography  men  have  Elizabethen  certain  Spenser,  immediately  97.  chapter  pre-romantics.  to  interest  British p.  the  r e p l a c i n g the  i n poets  the  and  of  presented  In  this  the, b e g i n n i n g  from  praise  a greater  i n  Restoration -  period;  obscenity  the  At  change-over  neo-classical  hundred  surveyed  differences.  survived i n  heralding  into  years  v o l . Io,  p.  there  96.  is  a  -  -57-  distinct had  t r e n d o f l o o k i n g backwards a t  gone b e f o r e  and  of attempting  Elizabethan writers s t a g e , however, do  into not  rather reveal a fear removed f r o m is  a tendency  great  age  like  their  t h i n g s s a i d by  the  advent  Biography as we  illustrious  one  factual  n a t u r e ; and,  o r two  the w r i t e r ' s  not  a few  the  r a t h e r than  critical  t h e s e works a r e r a t h e r  Notwithstanding  readers their  temper o f the t i m e  come t o Rymer and D r y d e n we  occupation.  r i s i n g tide  note  -  in  written.  have f o u n d men  secondary  dates; b i r t h . a n d death  As a c l a s s ,  the  biography  brief,  b e c a u s e o f t h e i r r e v e l a t i o n o f what  w h i c h t h e y were  i s as  of Dryden.  I t Is not  of a f i c t i o n a l  inaccuracies, they i l l u s t r a t e  £hat we  Criticism  more e s p e c i a l l y ,  sometimes, a t h i n l y  works.  Others .  with i l l u s t r a t i o n s of !  I t consists, u s u a l l y , of  anecdotes  their  show s i g n s o f m a t u r i t y  wanted t o know, t h a n i m p o r t a n t .  When we  predecessors.  t h e i r predecessors.  concerning a writer;  interesting,  they are showing  statements  will  There  to l a u g h o f f the  Is i n i t s infancy also.  peaces;  about  laughing,  o f Rymer and,  know i t t o d a y .  jottings  c o n c l u s i o n s ; they  these w r i t e r s  their  i n i t s i n f a n c y and  until  early  t h e y a r e n o t y e t f a r enough  to c o r r o b o r a t e t h e i r  similar  t h e mass o f  W r i t e r s at t h i s  reach d e f i n i t e  i n some o f  over  that  subject to d e a l p r o p e r l y with I t .  as i f , b y  superiority  yet  their  to put  some o r d e r .  that  the g r e a t age  who We  approach also  a t once  realize  c r i t i c i s m as more t h a n  realize  t h a t we  have  o f n e o - c l a s s i c i s m w i t h i t s emphasis  met upon  a  -58-  the  rules  and o t h e r  During attacks and by  this  made  remarks had  like  writings  reader  consult  fault  to that  can understand an a n t i q u a r y .  Spenser's  have  language  more  a  says  writer to  i s quite  that  before  he has t o  critics  finds  i s that  n o t make h i s  meaning  o f these  i s D r . J o h n s o n who  view  of Atterbury  true  Fuller  saleable  according  i t does  Atterbury  Spenser's  matter,  i s raised  and that  language,  The o p i n i o n  The l a s t  been  Culpepper's  because  o f Dryden.  h i s subject  use of language,  changing  Spenser's  ever-increasing  use o f the p a s t o r a l .  would  i s always  a minor  are  f o rcensure  on Spenser's  unintelligible.  opposite  Spenser's  t o modern E n g l i s h .  dress,  i s only  reason  Queene  keep up t o d a t e .  Dryden,  a  a n d G-ay;  i t conformed  should  A fourth  the Faerie  there  use o f language,  i n the attack  that  language,  the  form.  Philips  First,  a n d demands.  hundred-year period  on Spenser's  h i s stanza Pope,  conventions  t o censure  i t "remote  from  common u s e . " A however of did  different - finds  subject  group fault  matter.  n o t have  length  design,  no s i n g l e  the  Faerie  hot  as s u i t a b l e  with  Rymer  "a t r u e  greater  of critics  states  Temple  to poetry  result  o f Spenser's  design  and a  using  "bare" moral.  includes  choice  forcefully  Dryden  that  action,  Queene.  Spenser's  idea."  and f o u n d  - which  studied  there  as pagan  and  handling  that  Spenser  the matter at  was n o u n i f o r m i t y  and no o b e d i e n c e claimed  Dryden,  that  to the rules i n  Christianity  religion,  i t the Faerie Backmore  of  and as a  Queene  attacked  was  had a  poor  Spenser's  -59-  allegory found be  because  the r e l i g i o u s  reprehensible.  thought were  that  worthy The  .-.stanza. stanza  stanza  Johnson,  and Johnson  unsuitable  judged  Spenser's  language,  only  to English.  a minor  credit  f o r making attack  h i s stanza  on Spenser's  strongly  couplet.  Gay, a f t e r  imitating  h i s The Shepherd's  In larity a  was  period  Week,  he h i m s e l f  general  was  i n the s t y l e  a t a low-ebb  Chaucer).  Dryden h i s choice  Spenser  to t h e  pastoral  handling  f o rt h e i r  Is  given  rules. was made  Pope  found  o f t h e f o r m . ' . He length,  content,  Shapheardes  unabashedly  the f i r s t  trans-  the use o f the  Spenser's  stated  English  Calender  i n his writer to  of Theocritus.  during  h i s works  a n d was  the S p e n s e r i a n  by Philips.  He a d v i s e d  i t c a n be s e e n ,  i n which  the I t a l i a n  to be, like  u s e .of-the  the eclogues o f Spenser  pastorals  the S p e n s e r i a n  conform  to praise- i n Spenser's  that  from  against  I n the Soame-Dryden  form  forms.  write  expect,  the Spenserian  (In truth,  fa,ult.  and stanza  "proem"  from  of stanza  lyricism,  in  one m i g h t  against  A r t o f P o e t r y , however,  Gay, and l e s s  little  adapted  m i l choice  o f Boileau's  censured  Calender to  levelled  attacked  probably developed  lation  very  t o what  Gay  s e n t i m e n t s , and. a l l e g o r y  particularly  i t had been  was m o r e  Pope,  contrary  fictions,  forms,  Rymer  stanza  by  i n the Shepheardes  s e t o f c o m p l a i n t s were  because  The  the "sober" rules.  of Imitation.  Both  therefore  matter  Spenser's  third  Spenser's  of  i td i d not follow  then,  that  Spenser's  the neo-classical  were m e a s u r e d  popu-  period,  by the r u l e s .  -60-  With  S t e e l e , however, came a f o r e t a s t e o f t h e  p r a i s e which l a v i s h on  t h e p r e - r o m a n t i c s and  Spenser.  anticipation  We  turn,  unqualified  t h e r o m a n t i c s were t o  t h e r e f o r e , w i t h some  t o t h o s e e a r l y p r e - r o m a n t i c s , W a r t o n and  Y e t i t was  A d d i s o n who,  Henry S a c h e v e r a l l ,  spoke  i n h i s verse l e t t e r  Hurd.  to  f o r a l l the n e o - c l a s s i e i s t s  -  O l d S p e n s e r n e x t , warmed w i t h p o e t i c r a g e , I n a n c i e n t t a l e s amused a b a r b a r o u s a g e ; An age t h a t y e t u n c u l t i v a t e and r u d e , where'er the p o e t s ' f a n c y l e d , pursued T h r o u g h p a t h l e s s f i e l d s , and u n f r e q u e n t e d f l o o d s , To dens o f d r a g o n s and e n c h a n t e d woods. B u t now t h e m y s t i c t a l e , t h a t p l e a s e d no more; The l o n g - s p u n a l l e g o r i e s f u l s o m e grow, While the d u l l moral l i e s tod p l a i n below. We v i e w w e l l - p l e a s e d a t d i s t a n c e a l l t h e s i g h t s Of arms and p a l f r e y s , b a t t l e s , f i e l d s , and f i g h t s , And d a m s e l s i n d i s t r e s s , and c o u r t e o u s k n i g h t s ; B u t when we l o o k t o o n e a r , t h e shades d e c a y . And a l l t h e p l e a s i n g l a n d s c a p e f a d e s a w a y . "  63 "An A c c o u n t o f t h e G r e a t e s t E n g l i s h P o e t s , " [1694], The Works o f J o s e p h A d d i s o n . R. H u r d , e d . , L o n d o n , G. B e l l , v o l . I , p . 23.  -61-  . .-CHAPTER FOUR. . .  THE  .With on  the  the  Fairy on  Spenser  and  world.  Their  or  not  we  publication Queen  Letters  new  acknowledge but  also  when  the  supremacy  questioned, none  added  that  more It  to  value  of  are  not  the  new  Wartoh  that  we  can  neo-classicism  one  same  time,  Hurd,- o n  the  perhaps,  a  s t i l l . at  He  other  touch was,  of  be  studied  by  the  to  rules the the  rules  f o r what  we  was  at  must criti-  a  time  first  being  pre-romantic. romantics  to  best  see  critic  themselves  this  romanticism  that  makes  adverse, and  i t was,  him  while  demanding from  critical  f o r he  i s , at  pre-romantic.  i s purely pre-romantic  not  whether  Spenserian Coming  to  the  say,  neo-classicist'and•a  something  however,  the'criticism  Queene  hand,  approach  and,  to  Kurd's  impulse.  from  a  to  greatest of  critical  new given  have  i n general.  change-over the  was  only  neo-classical the  a  Observations  Richard  importance  camejafter them, u n t i l  i s with  and  i n 1762  extreme  criticism  they  and  e v e r y t h i n g they  i t s great to  Romance  i s of  with  cism  for  and  i n 1754  trend i n criticism  work  agree  o f Thomas War-ton's  of.Spenser  Chivalry a  PRE-ROMANTICS'  -  with,  more  modern  slashing  away  that  Faerie  setting  the up  another  -62-  critical  method  The the  when  study  toils  the  of  some  Gothic of  results as  a  by  when  taste  of  improving  i n writing  soil  and,  says  that  Spenser's  sounds  Tasso another  There  (Prince of  He  constitute  Thus, the  more  finds  Arthur.) and  action.  more  he  be  an  books  that  show  Is  any  speaking  sprang  from  growth.  i n following and  romantic  found  unfortunate  the  barbarity,  even  Queene  He  Ariosto  decorum"  seen  of  Warton  F a e r i e - Queene  of design but  reasons,  various  from  -  1  which  note.  i n the  unity  d i d not  Faerie  "conduct  to  find  restored '  and  Warton  rules.  surveyed  d e v e l o p i n g , the  e r r o r , was  neo-classical  i s s t i l l  classicist.  great  had  released  -.Warton, h e r e ,  i t was  new  to  were  ignorance  learning  Spenser's  t o Warton,  who  surprised  established."  criticism.  neo-classicist.  not  was  on  Warton  Aristotle  poetry  ancient  this  and  was  (meaning m e d i e v a l )  a new  restoration  and  o f - Homer a n d  and  based  digression-loving  manner, o f w r i t i n g ' b e c a m e the  e x t e n t was  literature  works  i n Italy  of  instead  to  l o q u a c i o u s and  development  that to  that  the do  make  a  unity  cannot  various  not  as  of  find  adventures up'one  neohero any  '• unity,  which  legitimate  As t h e h e r o i c poem i s r e q u i r e d t o be one w h o l e , compounded o f many v a r i o u s parts, r e l a t i v e and d e p e n d e n t , i t i s e x p e d i e n t t h a t n o t one o f t h o s e p a r t s s h o u l d b e so r e g u l a r l y c o n t r i v e d , a n d so c o m p l e t e l y f i n i s h e d , as t o b e c o m e a w h o l e o f itself. F o r the mind once s a t i s f i e d i n a r r i v i n g at the consummation of an o r d e r l y s e r i e s of events,, a c q u i e s c e s I n t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n . 2  1 Thomas W a r t o n , O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e F a i r y Queene S p e n s e r , L o n d o n , R. D u t t o n , 1807, v o l . . 1, p . 5. 2  Ibid.,  v o l . 1,  p.  12.  .  of  poem.  -63-  It  would  made of  h a v e b e e n b e t t e r , he  each book a  trying  to  "either  Arthur,  or  vating  Arthur  position,  one  various  because  adventures  Gloriana So  an  i n the f a r we  w h i c h demands  suddenly  side  of  his  twelve  "The  poet  might,"  e s t a b l i s h e d twelve  Knights  without  his  twelve  of  cantos  Knights."  to Warton,  activity  does n o t  only  justify  his  had  instead he without As  3  i s not  a  an  i t i s ,  very  capti-  assisting  in  reward  gaining  of  the  end. seen  taste,  and  them.  according  have  c r i t e r i a . . But us  have  poem  Spenser  of  correlate  writes,  Arthur's  separate  believes,.if  there  one  side  decorum, u n i t y i s  without  critical  only  the  and  other' side  warning,  approach.  and He  of  Warton:  other  one  neo-classical  w h i c h he  i s the  the  most  reveals  to  important  writes,  But i t i s absurd to t h i n k of j u d g i n g e i t h e r A r i o s t o or Spenser by p r e c e p t s which they d i d not attend to. We who l i v e i n the days of w r i t i n g b y r u l e , a r e a p t t o t r y e v e r y compos i t i o n b y t h o s e la.ws w h i c h we h a v e b e e n t a u g h t to think-the s o l e " c r i t e r i o n of e x c e l l e n c e . Critical taste i s universally diffused, and we r e q u i r e t h e same o r d e r a n d d e s i g n w h i c h every modern performance i s expected to have, i n poems where t h e y n e v e r w e r e r e q u i r e d o r intended. S p e n s e r , a n d t h e same may be said o f A r i o s t o , d i d n o t l i v e i n an age o f p l a n n i n g . H i s p o e t r y i s t h e c a r e l e s s e x u b e r a n c e o f a warm i m a g i n a t i o n and a s t r o n g s e n s i b i l i t y . It was h i s b u s i n e s s t o engage the . f a n c y , and t o i n t e r e s t the a t t e n t i o n by b o l d , and striking images, i n the f o r m a t i o n , and the d i s p o s i t i o n o f w h i c h , l i t t l e l a b o u r o r a r t was a p p l i e d . The v a r i o u s and t h e m a r v e l l o u s were t h e c h i e f sources of d e l i g h t . H e n c e we f i n d o n e author r a n s a c k i n g a l i k e the r e g i o n s of r e a l i t y and  '  3  Warton,  op.  c i t . , v o l . 1,  p.  14.  -64-  r o m a n c e , o f t r u t h a n d f i c t i o n , t o f i n d the•• proper decorations and f u r n i t u r e f o r h i s f a i r y Structure. Born i n such an age, S p e n s e r wroter a p i d l y f r o m h i s own f e e l i n g s , w h i c h a t the . same t i m e w e r e n a t u r a l l y n o b l e .  , .  4  This  i s , indeed,  previous all  a  new  approach  when v i e w e d  neo-classical criticism.  Warton  says,  for  example,  w h e n he  .labour  or  doing  more  than  wedge  into  neo-classical criticism  detonates •• I f the he  a r t " being  We  with  applied,'but  i n s e r t i n g the  a  far-reaching  the. r e a d e r  of  was  more  surprised  thin  the  still  not  speaks must  admit  of  -  fact,  In  "•  agree w i t h  of  edge  of-  •  "little that  he  is  a pre-romantic the  '.-.'  passage.  explosion.  W a r t o n was  i n t r o d u c t o r y , pages, o f  we  need  in light  .surprised,  Observations',  when  he  read  after by  that  reading passage,  -  I f the F a i r y Queen.be d e s t i t u t e o f t h a t a r r a n g e m e n t a n d oeconomy w h i c h e p i c s e v e r i t y ; r e q u i r e d , y e t we s c a r c e l y r e g r e t t h e l o s s , o f t h e s e , w h i l e t h e i r p l a c e i s so amply s u p p l i e d by s o m e t h i n g w h i c h more p o w e r f u l l y attracts us; something which engages the a f f e c t i o n s , the f e e l i n g s o f the h e a r t , r a t h e r than the c o l d a p p r o b a t i o n o f the head. I f there be any poem whose g r a c e s p l e a s e , b e c a u s e t h e y are s i t u a t e d beyond the r e a c h of a r t , and where t h e f o r c e and f a c u l t i e s o f c r e a t i v e imagination d e l i g h t , because they are unas•  -  ,' . This, for  s i s t e d and u n r e s t r a i n e d b y t h o s e o f d e l i b e r a t e , judgment, i t i s t h i s . ' 'In r e a d i n g S p e n s e r , ' " i f the c r i t i c i s n o t s a t i s f i e d , y e t t h e reader' . is transported. '  then,  5  i s W a r t on'.'s a p p r o a c h : . t r y , t o  what'it.is.  rules  [  He  is  not  of-neo-classicism  4  Warton,  5  Ibid.,  op.  but  throwing  i s , rather,  cit. , vol.  v o l / 2,  pp.  away  1,  25-24  pp..  criticize his  belief  putting  21-22.  the  poem'  in  i t aside  the in  I  -65-  order  to approach  influence The is  a  of  textual  with  of  study  the  and  '.imitations  many d i g r e s s i o n s  nected  A number  a  detailed  of Chaucer to  study  t o Warton,  but'- r a t h e r  on  eight-line  arise  from  follow this  the  new  forces  Tasso. the  Italians  Spenser  circumlocutions; words;' and images  that  has  prolixity, The  leads  the honour  of  to  main  redundancy  the use,  at  improper"  however,  by  the rima  both  problem  seems  attempted Warton  means and  times,  finds  of out  that i t  many  repetition  discovers  responsible,  of  to  to  difficulties:  to f i l l -  Warton  of  "words the that  because  of and  lines. the of, i t s  magnificent descriptions.  the  rime  to.use  certain  innovations  6  Warton,  gp.  cit.,  scheme.  three  of being  f o r Spenser's  this  h i s thought by  i t leads  slightly  rime  to  con-  and  ottava  form used  Spenser  dilate  strigency  stanza  says, that  in their  as  the- l i k e  mythology  Chaucer's  he  Despite, these i m p e r f e c t i o n s , stanza  on  on  i t encourages are  A  subjects  development  conjecture  form to  not based  part,  study.  His  fact,  stanza  the  such t o p i c s and  allied  Milton,  Spenser's  was  the  of  of h i s scattered, observations,  stanza  and  under  of Arios'to,  scarcely  Chaucer,  Spenserian  Ariosto  written  analysis  and  i m p o r t a n t enough f o r f u r t h e r According  not  O b s e r v a t i o n s , f o r ' the most  w i t h , f o r example,  chivalry.  was  rules.  remainder  Spenser's  are  the  a poem t h a t  pattern  also  forces  i n spelling  such  as.the.  v o l . 1,  pp.  157-158.  Spenser  -66-  use  o f denay  points at  o u t , were  times,  spelling that  accept  of certain  We  today,  were  commonly that  exercise  these  and ease."  so. f a r a s t o s a y , " . . . h a s  facility." One  o f the main  reasons  practice  of h i s contemporaries  forced the  Warton  why  language,  with borrowings  Italian.  But even  because  same  with  reason  Spenser  obsolete diction  7 Warton, 8  Ibid.,  says,  we  spelling we  which Warton  Warton  cites  expresses and rime style,  perspicuity  Spenser was  should Warton  and  who  were  Spanish,  this  idea  t o use  op. c i t . ,  vol..1,  v o l . 1, p . 1 7 0 .  French,  rime  that  Latin  Spenser  some f o r e i g n  and h a z a r d r i e . finds  use of  adulterating  i n mind,  c o i n e d new  Warton  made  t o c o u n t e r a c t the  from  o f h i s rime  d a m n i f y 'd., u n r u l i m e n t , the  spelled i t  the s e t forms  Spenser's  great  i t i s  care before  by stanza  1 7  the  3  obsolete  English  into  time.  so r e s t r i c t e d  Thus  delight  variations  i n Spenser's  "spirit  only.  some  appears,  altered  be r e m e m b e r e d ,  had n o t y e t j e l l e d  a poem  s o much  with  f o r , i t must  and, indeed, used  bite  Warton  Spenser  t o have  f o r eye a p p e a l  to rime  thesis  time  have  goes  words  changes,  of the rime.  i s interesting,  s h o u l d , however,  Spenser's  reveal  because  i n order  Warton's  surprise  made  But not a l l these  and the p o i n t  Spenser  bight.  at  f o r deny.  words  and was  words. such  For  as  Notwithstanding " F o r many  p. 169.  stanzas  -al-  together as  we  we  can  may  the  frequently same n u m b e r  Spenser, carried he  was  what  exclaims  read, h i m of  Warton,  away h y  an  impetuous  careless  in  his  wrote.  His  he  dictions,  lines  with in  was  a  inconsistencies  rapid  and  therefore, and  much  facility  Shakespeare."^  Imagination,  construction  work,  as  is  writer,  easily  and,  as  a  failed  to  filled  with  result,  revise contra-  repetitions.  ...he not only f a i l s i n the c o n n e x i o n of s i n g l e words, but of c i r c u m s t a n c e s : not o n l y v i o l a t e s the r u l e s of grammar b u t of p r o b a b i l i t y , t r u t h , and propriety.1° The  four  fused  main f a u l t s  construction, When  Ariosto,  speaking Warton  that  Warton  tautology, of  lists  and  Spenser's  are  ellipsis,  con-  contradiction.  imitations  of  Chaucer  and  writes,  Spenser i s u n i v e r s a l l y acknowledged t o have been an a t t e n t i v e r e a d e r , a n d a professed admirer of both_these poets. His imitations f r o m . . .^/Chaucer/ a r e most commonly l i t e r a l , couched i n the e x p r e s s i o n s of the original. What he h a s d r a w n f r o m A r i o s t o a r e artificial f i c t i o n s , w h i c h c o n s i s t i n g o f u n n a t u r a l com. b i n a t i o n s , c o u l d n o t , on a c c o u n t o f t h e i r s i n g u l a r i t y , be f a l l e n u p o n b o t h p o e t s acc i d e n t a l l y , as n a t u r a l a p p e a r a n c e s m i g h t be, w h i c h l i e e x p o s e d and o b v i o u s t o a l l , a t a l l times.11 Yet,  when W a r t o n  Spenser's with  compares  representations  their absurdities,  poetry  9  bear  no  Warton,  and  Ariosto  he  are  beautiful  and  while  Ariosto's  "strokes  proportion  op.  Spenser  to  c i t . , vol.  10  Ibid.,  vol.  1,  p.  11  Ibid.,  vol.  1,  pp.  his  1,  sallies  p.  312. 188-189.  185.  of  finds  sublime, of  merely  that  even true  romantic  -68-  imagination. Before briefly  U X l t  we p a s s  on t o a  a t Warton's  examination  Warton  says  that  mantic  poet  and t h e o t h e r  that  Spenser,  much m a k i n g  he  gives  the  and  animated  about  may  him; they  courtly  be were  spectacles  Warton not  why  the manners  their  life  that  actually  derived from  rather  to religious  He  remarks i s just  as i s Homer are only  are so  .  when  copying  from  life  Elizabethan Purioso.  Spenser's  thought.  distinct  e x i s t e d i n the  the Orlando  that  allegory.  times.  personages  they  glance  of. c h i v a l r y ,  Spenser's  i s not certain  be d a n g e r o u s  of real  must  - one i s t h e r o -  i s the a l l e g o r i s t .  during  than  we  o f Spenser's  descriptions, f o rboth  existing  reason  o f Hurd  a r e two S p e n s e r s  an i m i t a t i o n  us p l a i n  manners The  there  i n copying  as  study  He  allegory writes  might that  . . . S p e n s e r h a s m i n g l e d d i v i n e m y s t e r y -with' human a l l e g o r y . S u c h a p r a c t i c e as t h i s tends not only t o confound sacred and profane subjects, but to place the l i c e n t i o u s sallies of i m a g i n a t i o n upon.a l e v e l w i t h the d i c t a t e s of d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n ; t o debase t h e t r u t h and d i g n i t y o f h e a v e n l y things by making C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r y s u b s e r v i e n t t o the purposes of Romantic f i c t i o n . 1  For  a l l this,  Warton  s t i l l  5  finds  allegorical  d e s c r i p t i o n s and says  is  other  the only  12  Warton,  15  Ibid.,  allegorical  op. c i t . , v o l . vol.  2, p p .  great that  richness  Siackvi l i e ' s  poem i n E n g l i s h ' t o  1, p . 5 0 5 .  86-87.  i n Sjpenser's Induction  approach  -69-  the  Faerie  Queene  on  I n many ways of  Warton's.  Warton, trying  heroic  is  romantic  be  influenced  with  throughout  attempting  by  what  are  in  they  be  and  not  built  his  theories  Queene the  by  w h e n he  he  the  heroic  heroic  whole  one  breath,  those  and  is  turned  the  than  of  next in  false a  tore  half  Gothic  the  to  his his  are,  early  time Hurd  time  i s , he  the  Gothic.  Hurd  two  pieces that  heroic  and  light  of  facade  of  facing  writes  Judge o f the F a e r y Queen by m o d e l s , and y o u a r e - s h o c k e d disorder; consider i t with  are  struc-  that  Gothic  require-  Hurd  general of  method. how  is  fails.  Gothic  o f f and  proving  he  i t s own  study  to  of d i f f e r e n t  urge  literature.  not  great  social  breath,  he  repeats  a  critical  is  classic  Romance,  specific the  in  There  i s here  that  the  and  of  It  of  who  a pre-romantic:  before.  heroic'  a  is  of  romantic  tenets  too  and  a  s o c i e t i e s whose  only  of  unconsciously  more  in in  into  he  c l o t h out  arose  structural faults  spending  Thus  as  the  Chivalry  studied  ments  then  form,  gone  on  s i m i l a r , and,  literature:can  and  has  development  himself,  d i f f e r e n t colour.'  say,  tures  some  is a  n e o - c l a s s i c a l leanings  reveals  Letters  t o make  because  the  Gothic.  between  alike  thesis  t e m p e r a m e n t , -but  his  and  cannot  the  in  resemblance  You  Hurd  count.  of  reconcile, i n  or  material  Kurd's  In-place  however, to  this  criticism  the  Faerie  revealed When,  after '  much a l i k e  the classic with i t s an eye to  the  -70-  i t ' s /sic. and e l s e w h e r e / G o t h i c original, and y o u f i n d i t r e g u l a r . The u n i t y and s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e f o r m e r a r e more c o m p l e t e * but the l a t t e r has that s o r t o f u n i t y and s i m p l i c i t y , which r e s u l t s from i t ' s n a t u r e . The  reader  can only  be a s t o u n d e d  •pushed  o f f the path  down  Having  pointed  the reader  tinues  to j o l t  him.  which  f o r he h a s s u d d e n l y  Hurd  had been  leading  i n a new d i r e c t i o n H u r d  The u n i t y  o f t h e poem, he  1 4  been him.  con-  writes,  . . . c o n s i s t s i n the r e l a t i o n o f i t ' s s e v e r a l a d v e n t u r e s t o o n e common o r i g i n a l , t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f t h e P a e r y Queen; a n d t o one common e n d , t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e F a e r y Queen's i n j u n c t i o n s . 1 5  W h i c h i s t o s a y , he design,  continues,  that  "...it  i s an u n i t y  of  a n d n o t . o f a c t i o n . "1®  There according  i s another to Hurd,  after-thought,  shock  i n store  the adventure  forced, upon  for. the r e a d e r ,  of Prince  Arthur  Spenser by c l a s s i c a l  was  since, an  prejudice,  and  I used  as a b l i n d  this  way S p e n s e r  and  narrative,  to conceal created  t h e poem's G o t h i c  a poem  and, Hurd  that  was  disorder. '  In  1  both  allegorical  says,  ...as a n a l l e g o r i c a l poem, t h e m e t h o d o f t h e P a e r y Queen .is g o v e r n e d b y t h e j u s t n e s s o f t h e m o r a l : As a n a r r a t i v e poem, i t i s c o n d u c t e d on the i d e a s and u s a g e s o f c h i v a l r y . In e i t h e r view, i f taken by i t s e l f , , the p l a n i s d e f e n s i b l e , B u t f r o m t h e u n i o n o f t h e two d e s i g n s t h e r e a r i s e s a p e r p l e x i t y , and c o n f u s i o n , which i s the proper, and only considerable, defect of this extraordinary poem. ® 1  14 London,  L e t t e r s on C h i v a l r y and Romance, E d i t h H e n r y F r o w d e , 1 9 1 1 , pp.' 1 1 8 - 1 1 9 .  15  I b i d . , p. 121.  .16  I b i d . , p . 122.  17  I b i d . , p . 124.  18  I b i d . , pp.  •  126-127.  .  J . Morley,. e d . ,  . •:*  -71-  This  statement  should Hurd  study  the  suddenly  quirements, ventions.  ground,  to  the  ends  into  as  reason,  Queene  that  finds set he  Hurd  why  made t o  believe  ever  existed.^ The  rules. more  In  between  both  saw  unencumbered  this  Faerie  of  as  the  of by  neo-classical Hurd,  he  ideal  found  that  combat  s e t up  a  we  19  Hurd,  20  Ibid.,  the  neo-classical  similar  end,  system  was  equally  as  poetry.  proceed  further  of poetry  Before  fallen  readers,  cannot  be  op. p.  c i t . , p. 149.  128.  Hurd  the  neo-classical  than  Hurd,  attempt  what  he  was to  was  set doing.  romanticism,  system  under  the  restrictive  i n the  Warton and  d i d not  of  criticism  of  the  i n s e a r c h i n g f o r some f o r m  i n the  adapted  has  approaching  Hurd,  which,  Gothic  need  of  justify  to  or  works  to  had  another  poem p o r t r a y s ,  rules  he  re-  con-  Queene  chivalry,  critically  for, unlike  romantic  to  Gothic  i s better  generality  the  the  W a r t o n , more  successful  any  "  poetry.  substituting  Gothic  we  0  They  Queene  age  the  that  classic.1®  such manners,  similarities  obvious.  Faerie  that  the  only  i s  the  the  i t is -  i t s classical  the  i s the  says,  about  he  that  general neglect i s that little  with  rules  than  admonition  f o r what  fault  of  Hurd's  i t fulfil  says,  of poetry  so  up  Faerie  one  knowing  are  f a r c r y from  he  For  the  a  demands  and  on  The  Is  of  term to t h e  eighteenth  criticism Gothic • free  century  -72-  we  must  minor  retrace  critics  Warton  and  In stone, wrote  a  who  steps  wrote  and  prior  look "briefly  at  one  or  to, o r contemporary  two  with,  Hurd. letter  an to  our  early  dated  December  romantic  a friend,  poet  24,  and  1741,  William  Spenserian  Richard Graves,  that  Shen-  imitator,  Spenser's  . . . s u b j e c t i s c e r t a i n l y b a d , and h i s a c t i o n I n e x p r e s s i b l y c o n f u s e d ; b u t t h e r e a r e some p a r t i c u l a r s i n him t h a t charm one. Those which a f f o r d the g r e a t e s t scope f o r a l u d i c r o u s i m i t a t i o n are h i s s i m p l i c i t y and o b s o l e t e p h r a s e ; and y e t t h e s e a r e what g i v e one a v e r y s i n g u l a r p l e a s u r e i n t h e p e r u s a l . The b u r l e s q u e w h i c h t h e y o c c a s i o n i s o f a quite d i f f e r e n t kind to that of P h i l i p ' s S h i l l i n g , Cotton's Travestie, Hudibras, or S w i f t ' s works....21 In  aa o t h e r  the  same  letter,  friend,  dated  January  Shenstone  19,  repeats  1 7 4 1 - 2 fTJ,  the  same  idea  written  to  -  The t r u e b u r l e s q u e o f S p e n s e r (whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s . s i m p l i c i t y ) seems t o c o n s i s t i n a simple r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of such things a s one l a u g h s t o s e e o r t o o b s e r v e o n e ' s s e l f , r a t h e r t h a n i n any m o n s t r o u s c o n t r a s t b e t w i x t the thoughts and words.^ •The m a t t e r verse  by  which  had  nell  Robert as  Spenserian  imitation  L l o y d , a member  of  the  members W i l l i a m C o w p e r ,  Thornton,  noisseur.  of  and  attacked i n  Nonsense  George  which p u b l i s h e d the  L l o y d , i n 1755,  was  Club,  Colman  unsiiccessful  aid  Bon-  Con-  wrote:  O t h e r s , who a i m a t f a n c y , c h o o s e T o woo t h e g e n t l e S p e n s e r ' s M u s e . T h i s p o e t f i x e s f o r h i s theme 21 versity 22  The L e t t e r s o f W i l l i a m S h e n s t o n e , o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1959, p . 30. Ibid.,  p.  32.  Minneapolis,  Unip  -75-  On a l l e g o r y , o r a d r e a m : •_ F i c t i o n and T r u t h t o g e t h e r j o i n s Through a l o n g waste o f f l i m s y lines; Fondly b e l i e v e s h i s fancy glows, And image u p o n image grows; T h i n k s h i s s t r o n g musfe t a k e s w o n d ' r o u s f l i g h t s , Whene'er she s i n g s o f p e e r l e s s w i g h t s , .. • Of d e n s , o f p a l f r e y s , s p e l l s , a n d k n i g h t s : T i l l a l l e g o r y , Spenser's veil T' i n s t r u c t and p l e a s e i n m o r a l t a l e , W i t h him's no v e i l t h e t r u t h t o s h r o u d , B u t one i m p e n e t r a b l e c l o u d . ^ Criticism  such  number  Spenser  of  of  various In,  writes  that  a l l our  in  the  any  was  not  imitations  destined,  that  "Preface" to h i s /"As  Spenser  English  following  effort  this  were  however,  flowing  to s t o p  from  the  the  pens  poets.  the  of  as  .  i s the most  writers,  poem."24  to imitate  "Hymn t o M a y , "  I  William  descriptive  attempted  florid  imitate  h i s manner  Thompson, however, does  not.betray  Spenser's  Thompson c o n t i n u e s , i n the  to  and  Thompson  diction. "Preface" -  Shakespeare i s the poet of Nature, i n a d a p t i n g the a f f e c t a t i o n s and p a s s i o n s t o h i s c h a r a c t e r s ; and S p e n s e r i n d e s c r i b i n g h e r de, l i g h t f u l s c e n e s and r u r a l b e a u t i e s . ' H i s l i n e s are most m u s i c a l l y sweet; and h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s most d e l i c a t e l y abundant, even t o a wantonness of p a i n t i n g : b u t s t i l l i t I s t h e m u s i c and painting of Nature. We f i n d n o a m b i t i o u s ornaments, or epigrammatlcal turns, i n his writings, but a b e a u t i f u l s i m p l i c i t y : which p l e a s e s f a r above the g l i t t e r o f p o i n t e d wit.25 The review  Critical  of  the  Review  Church  of  edition  23 T h e C o n n o i s s e u r , No. E s s a y i s t s , 1827, v o l . 18, p . 24  /I7577,  E5  Loc. c i t .  i n Chalmer's  1759  carried  Oliver  of Spenser's  6 7 , May 280. . Poets,  8,  works.  1755,  1810,  Goldsmith's  i n  Goldsmith's  British  v o l . 15,  p.  32.  tribute  i s no  less  florid  than  that  of  Thompson.  He  writes,  There i s a p l e a s i n g t r a n q u i l i t y o f mind which ever attends the r e a d i n g of t h i s ancient poet. We l e a v e t h e w a y s o f t h e p r e s e n t w o r l d , and a l l the ages o f p r i m e v a l i n n o c e n c e and h a p p i n e s s r i s e t o our view. V i r g i l , and e v e n Homer, seem t o be modern, upon the comparison. The imagination of h i s reader leaves reason behind, pursues the t a l e , w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g the a l i e g o r y , and upon the w h o l e , i s charmed w i t h o u t i n struction. ^ 2  ,The  last  and  statement  'delight"  justify'.this  is interesting  theory  of  statement  i n light  poetry,  and  w h e n he  writes,  of  Goldsmith  the  "teach  attempts  to  . . . t h e p l e a s u r e we r e c e i v e f r o m . . , though n e v e r so f i n e l y b a l a n c e d between t r u t h and f i c t i o n , i s b u t o f a s u b o r d i n a t e n a t u r e , a s we h a v e a l w a y s two p a s s i o n s opposing each otherj a love of r e a l i t y which r e p r e s s e s the f l i g h t s o f f a n c y , and a p a s s i o n f o r the m a r v e l l o u s , which would l e a v e r e f l e c t i o n behind.27 Goldsmith,  i t would a p p e a r , makes  between poetry's  power  He  the  stresses  and  the  stronger.  Spenser's full  work  do  the  be  comfortably  i s the that  when  one  Loc. c i t .  the  .reads  teach. important  bulk to  f o r i t s story  alone.  w h e n he  that  But  can  of  see  how  "without  i t is possible to a  S p e n s e r meant  26 " S p e n s e r ' s F a e r i e Queene," i n the G o l d s m i t h , P e t e r Cunningham, ed.,.London, v o l . 4, p . 203. 27  to  more  i t is difficult  True,  knows  separation  i t s power  considers  gained  allegory."  and  to delight  is allegorical,  F a e r i e Queene so  power  When o n e  a p p r e c i a t i o n can  considering the  that  to d e l i g h t  a complete  read  reader i t for  Works o f O l i v e r John Murray, 1878,  -75-  s o much more? poem w i t h o u t allegory In  Indeed,  concerning  i t be  possible  g a i n i n g some i n s t r u c t i o n  (the most the  would  obvious  review  allegory  Goldsmith  imitation.  He  also  says  from  of  the  gives  to the  read  the  moral  three)?  a word  of  warning  that  . . . t h e v e r s e s o f S p e n s e r may, perhaps, one day be c o n s i d e r e d t h e s t a n d a r d o f E n g l i s h poetry. I t were h a p p y i n d e e d , i f h i s b e a u t i e s were the o n l y o b j e c t s o f m o d e r n i m i t a t i o n ; b u t many o f h i s w o r d s , j u s t l y f a l l e n i n t o d i s u s e among h i s s u c c e s s o r s , have been o f l a t e r e v i v e d , and a language, a l r e a d y too c o p i o u s , has been augmented by an u n n e c e s s a r y reinforcement.^8 Our  critic  seems  speaks  o f had  to  great  any  fact,  one Of  of  of  that  any  our  been  the  one  have  by  main  history, gives  poet  might  other."29  besides  the  reason  Returning  This  the  and  i n h i s ;"preface" to  writing  that  translation  28  Goldsmith,  29  Ibid.,  p.  op. 204.  cit.,  not  remarks  as  an  used  were,  "...the  variation  that,  aesthetic,  the  and  i n  work.  that  activity  sociology,  he  been  against his  statement  the  In  for  view  of  which study  of  biology,  think.  language  Fawkes,  the  is a  of  had  words  with...little  criticism  study  pause  raised  serve  these  s u c c e s s o r s , and  Goldsmith  psychology,  to  to  Spenser,  arguments  biography,  biography,  one  by  the poet's  modern c o n c e p t i o n of  includes,  fobgotten that  revived  extent  Spenser's  history of  to  the  of•Spenser  we  find  Francis  Idylliums of Theocritus,  o f T h e o c r i t u s s h o u l d be  p.  205.  done  -76-  in  Spenser's  language  John  of  or  of  the  Castle  of  of  wrote His His  most most  t o be  Spenser  his  famous  and  for  was  of  Theo-  Spenser  poems  on  Spenser  written  is  Art  deals  at  Dr.  medical  w o r k i s The  i n s e r t e d i n the  the  of  also request  latter's  Spenserian  5 1  Imitator  Minstrel, imitated simplicity,  of  i m i t a t i o n of  flesh  Indolence.  "harmony,  proper  peculiar imitators  the  Thomson  Another The  who  Health.  ills  James  most  disease.  Preserving with  the  Armstrong,  matters  i t was  idiom."^O  c r i t u s ' "Doric One  because  not and  was'James  only  the  B e a t t i e who,  in  m e a s u r e , cut a l s o  v a r i e t y " ^ of  Spenser's  5  the  compo-  sition. Beattie detractors.  also He  defends  writes,  the  and  Spenserian  somewhat  stanza  astutely,  from i t s that  I t allows the s e n t e n t l o u s n e s s of the couplet, a s w e l l as t h e more c o m p l e x m o d u l a t i o n o f blank verse. What some c r i t i c s h a v e r e m a r k e d , of i t s u n i f o r m i t y growing a t l a s t tiresome t o the e a r , w i l l be f o u n d t o h o l d t r u e , o n l y when t h e p o e t r y i s f a u l t y i n o t h e r respects. r  r  5 3  We  said  it  can  that be  however, the  his  statement  applied answer  Faerie  to most  the  Queene  i s somewhat of  charge,  stanza  the  astute  imitations.  generally pointed  tends  to  become  only  because  I t does out,  soporific  that in  5 0 ,/l767/, i n C h a l m e r ' s  P o e t s , v o l . 20,  p.  156.  51  Poets,  p.  545.  /I7707,  i n Chalmer's  vol.  16,  32 " p r e f a c e , " / 1 7 7 1 7 , i n T h e P o e t i c a l W o r k s B e a t t i e , L o n d o n , B e l l and D a l d y , n.d., p. 5. 33  I b i d . , p.  4.  of  not,  a  James  -77-  long But  poem  because  Spenser, In  his  Warton, out  h o w e v e r , may History  whose  that  i t permits  of  not  passages  of  change  desired  Poetry  have the  little  have  English  Observations  many  very  been  of  speed.  speed.  (1778-1781), reviewed  F a e r i e Queene  Thomas  above,  were  points  s u g g e s t e d .•  34 to  Spenser  by  Wartonj Spenser He  to  Sackville's i n a  later  task f o r his  sourly,  but  Induction.  section  of  h i s weighty  dedicatory verses  correctly,  writes  to  tome,  the  takes  Faerie  Queene.  that  ...Spenser i n compliance with a disgraceful c u s t o m , o r r a t h e r i n o b e d i e n c e t o the' e s • t a b l i s h e d tyranny of patronage, prefixed to t h e F A I R Y QUEENE f i f t e e n o f t h e s e a d u l t o r y p i e c e s , which i n every r e s p e c t are to be n u m b e r e d among t h e m e a n e s t o f h i s comp o s i t i o n s . 55 Warton's in  his  lowing mens  of  attempt  Observations, Ariosto the  to  justify  that' t h e y  were  i s r e p u d i a t e d by  Early  English  Spenser's the  George  Poets.  defects  result Ellis  Ellis  of  by  his f o l - .  i n his  writes  saying,  Speci-  that  ...the "Orlando F u r i o s o , " though absurd and extravagant, i s u n i f o r m l y amusing. We are e n a b l e d to t r a v e l t o the c o n c l u s i o n o f our journey without f a t i g u e , though o f t e n bew i l d e r e d by the windings o f the r o a d , and s u r p r i s e d by the abrupt change of our trav e l l i n g companions; whereas i t i s s c a r c e l y p o s s i b l e t o accompany Spenser's allegorical he'roes t o t h e e n d o f t h e i r e x c u r s i o n s . They want f l e s h and b l o o d ; a want f o r w h i c h n o t h i n g can compensate.... P e r s o n i f i c a t i o n p r o t r a c t e d i n t o a l l e g o r y a f f e c t s a modern r e a d e r almost as d i s a g r e e a b l y as i n s p i r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o •madness. 36  vol.  34  Ward,  Lock  35  Ibid.,  36 2,  L o n d o n , Longman, p. 233.  p.  &  Co.,  n.d.,  p.  777.  914. ;  Hurst,  Rees,  Orme, a n d  Brown-,  1811,  -78-  These and no  defects,  Spenser, more  fancy,  therefore,  than  what h e  and  the  first  very  pany  of  the  fact  Spenser's  In  command  sweetness rank  Ellis,  were  caused  for a l l his genius,  did.  h i s unbounded  facility  spite  according to  fact, of  says  language.,  that  i t i s  allegorical  and  "scarcely  heroes  end  done  glowing  astonishing  this  possible  to the  age.,  p l a c e d him  And  3  "His  his  have  poets." '''  the  c o u l d have  Ellis,  of v e r s i f i c a t i o n ,  of E n g l i s h  by  i s i n  to  of  i n  accom-  their  ex-  cursions. " In should  this not;e  away f r o m the  s t i l l  of  the  these  writers  future, better  than  said 'to 1  Hurd,  of  can  37  we  must might  be,  the  i n the wrote  of  expect.  op.  take  more  they  than  achieve  . Warton,  final  analysis,  f o r the after  c i t . , p.  lessening  neo-classical the  end,  the  place  they  are  trying  tenets  of  those of  writing  foreshadow  the  their  much  ends he  believed  unfortunate,  f o r the  In  endeavouring  a pre-romantic: but  of  a g a i n s t Spenser.  although  was  head,  233.  the  wev,  breaking  condemn e i t h e r  things -  romanticism  o t h e r hand,  Ellis,  not  some  cannot  critics  decisive  i s , in to  we  these do  of  that  rules  admit,  not  the  directed  see,  But  can  development  Spenser on  we  find  new  because  when t h e y  and,  the  that  can  Hurd,.we  series  trends:  criticism  c o u r s e , we  a  with pre-romantic  n e o - c l a s s i c i s m ; and  neo-classicists.  a time  that  of  adverse  remain:  s e t up  interesting  rules  of  of  to  at  two  the  amount  Warton,  chapter dealing  he  can  thought  heart.  unsuccessfully  be  to  -79-  reconcile Gothic,  is  In  analyze  setting  to  the  up  shed  the  a new  judged,  and  heroic  Faerie  Queene  set  rules.  of  with  the  .with  the  freedom  Hurd,  i s a pre-romantic,  completely  term  being  "pre-romantic"  surveyed  as  a  and  like  but  one  who  n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s * demand  made  of  the  great  deal  of  i t s force.  writers  who  to what  extent  surveyed not  any  Goldsmith,  by  of  Hurd  and  their  i s no  found  i n the  adverse  language; his  are  and  who  have  list  of  chapters under  of  i t ;his  we  must  ion.  The  three  of  these  study  of  his use.of  now  pre-romantics heads  romantic.  the  and  are  a  group  of  indicate critics  Spenser,  do  more  like  romantic,  Warton,  criticism  to  offer.  romanticism  to  be  concluded  forms;  the  with  last;  a  Spenser's  review  use  h i s use -  Spenser they  of  of  of  his allegory)  fifth'problem  attacked  pastoral.  a  period.  stanza  on  of  (including  have  are  others  headings:  add  loses a  The  i s  romanticism.  adverse  flow  I have  the  survey  not  opinions of of  literature  term  I t does  Beattie,  some  widening  the  a  i t designates  their  h i s subject matter  handling this  best  Fawkes  criticism  criticism  writer  development  constant,  In previous  At  praise, than  Shenstone  There  one  i n  when  When, h o w e v e r ,  of  writers  marked  chosen  romantics.  chapter,  Thompson, reason  the  these  i n this  reveal  critics  preceded  i s well  whole.  being  To  classical  order. The  is  to  when f i n a l l y  unable  for  tenets of  tries  succeeds Warton,  the  and  pastoral.  his constructunder  have  the  omitted  first any  -80-  On  the  remarks  problem  i n passing  of that  fallen  into disuse."  should  even  in  f o r various  unity  of  •unity do  and  of  of. a c t i o n a n d  not  the  design  make  up  blending  because things  a  of  by  of  not  the  find  out  Prince  that  afterthought  of  for  the  union  a l l e g o r y and  the  defect  in  reasons, is  that  confused.  poem.  And  i s more  because  Spenser's  with  Is  Spenser's  "justly  or  adverse  He  of  the  is  dignity of  c h i v a l r y , Is Shenstone  easily  the  subject Ellis  followed  characters only  stanza  one  says  form.  the  states  that  Like  so  Spenser's the  giving  that the  Faerie and  critics many  an  Faerie  without  "flesh  poem as  "considerable"  and  these  the  the  point  governed by  only  the  does  because  that  i s bad  than  the  turn,  the  first  writes,  lack of  into  concealing  n a r r a t i v e , the  lastly,  in his  heavenly to  does,.nevertheless,  also  books  dangerous  He  He  no  stipulates that  a c t i o n important  of  finds  finds  various  subjects  incorporated  he  Queene,  also  Hurd,  i t comes  although  Faerie  we  criticism.  handling  says,  not  of  purpose  Spenser's  Purloso  Warton  was  disorder.  second by the  unity  Arthur  Gothic  moral,  his  t r u t h and  fiction".  of d e s i g n .  Queene's of  he  profane  the  be  Goldsmith  C h r i s t i a n allegory subservient  lack  unity  and  "debase  Romantic  poem has  i n the  has  whether  Warton,  l e g i t i m a t e poem.  making  purposes  to  and  therefore,  language  language  attacks. hero  sacred  i t will  remark  matter  critical  of  i s doubtful  this  subject  use  Spenser's  It  consider  Spenser's  Spenser's  his  action  Orlando Queene  blood." to  others  find he  fault  -Sl-  at t r i b u t e s  the  stanza,  complains,  to  he  redundancy  "words does,  and  Spenserian  and  leads  that  he  are  to  an  Italian  t o many d i l a t e d  repetition  images  however,  stanza  of  words,  slightly  concedes,  lend  and  model.  circumlocutions, to  the  improper."  itself  to  This  use  The  of form  magnificent  descriptions. Warton  also  construction sistencies, tural  takes  f i l l s and  faults:  Spenser  his  work  task because  his  with c o n t r a ^ t i o n - s ,  repetitions. ellipsis,  to  Warton f i n d s  confusion,  careless incon-  f o u r main  tautology,  and  struc-  contra-  diction. On  the  whole,  show n e i t h e r t h e neo-classicists  i t may  Warton  at  this  The  nor  the  should  of  also  great to  be  of  same  of  these  two two  importance  criticism  as  a  not  only  whole.  of  Indeed,  criticism genuine except  i t is -  literary  that free  as  i n the  the  case  Spenser  the  Spenser. Faerie  from  conventions  Spenserian  the  p r a i s e as  following  writers,  to  pre-romantics  w r i t t e n about  periods  s t u d i e d f o r what  of post-Spenserian  the  adverse  i s less  i n the  that  amount  writers. there  than  however,  restrictions is  Hurd,  period  view,  Queene  and  said  same a m o u n t  Elizabethan-Jacobean of  be  the -  criticism  but  -82-  ... C H A P T E R F I V E . .-.  THE  Many Faerie  Queene  fortunate study  allusions  Robert  Spenser.  Qnaeene a s perience  are  to Spenser  t o be  found  Southey, Southey  a young as  ROMANTICS  man,  the  had and  and  characters  i n the p o e t r y first  been he  to  true  the  romantic  introduced  carefully  of  i n the  to  the  unto Faerie  recorded his  ex-  follows:  No y o u n g l a d y o f t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n f a l l s t o a new n o v e l o f S i r W a l t e r S c o t t ' s w i t h keener r e l i s h than I d i d . . . t o the F a e r y Queen. I f I had b e e n asked wherefore i t g a v e me s o m u c h m o r e p l e a a a r e t h a n e v e r A r i o s t o had done, I c o u l d not have answered the question. I now k n o w t h a t i t was v e r y much owing t o the m a g i c o f i t s v e r s e ; the c o n t r a s t between the f l a t c o u p l e t s of a r h y m s t e r l i k e H o o l e , and t h e f u l l e s t and f i n e s t o f a l l s t a n z a s w r i t t e n b y one who was p e r f e c t master o f h i s a r t . B u t t h i s was not a l l , A r i o s t o too o f t e n p l a y s w i t h h i s •subject; Spenser i s always i n e a r n e s t . The d e l i c i o u s l a n d s c a p e s w h i c h he l u x u r i a t e s i n d e s c r i b i n g , b r o u g h t e v e r y t h i n g b e f o r e my eyes. I c o u l d f a n c y such scenes as h i s l a k e s and f o r e s t s , g a r d e n s and f o u n t a i n s p r e s e n t e d ; and I f e l t t h o u g h I d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d , t h e t r u t h and p u r i t y o f h i s f e e l i n g s , a i d t h a t l o v e o f the b e a u t i f u l and the good which prevades h i s p o e t r y . 1  Southey's  acceptance  of  Spenser  was  wholehearted  The L i f e and (Correspondence o f the L a t e S o u t h e y , R e v . C h a r l e s C. S o u t h e y , e d . , L o n d o n , B r o w n , G r e e n & L o n g m a n s , 1 8 4 9 , v o l . 1, p . 8 5 . 1  -  Robert Longman,  -83-  unmarr^ed guage  by  or  any  the  difficulties  versification.  arising He  from  either  the  lan&  writes,  ...I, who'had l e a r n e d , a l l I t h e n knew o f the h i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d f r o m S h a k e s p e a r e , and who h a d m o r e o v e r r e a d B e a u m o n t a n d F l e t c h e r , f o u n d no d i f f i c u l t y i n S p e n s e r ' s E n g l i s h , and f e l t i n the b e a u t y o f h i s v e r s i f i c a t i o n a charm i n p o e t r y o f which I had n e v e r been f u l l y sensible before. From t h a t time I t o o k S p e n s e r f o r my master, 2  Strange "master" Walter  as  as the  Savage  reveals,  I t may  greatest  Landor  succinctly,  opinion  of  indeed,  a  the  seem,  state  shrewd  Southey  English  dated  didnot  poet.  January  11,  h i s preferences of of'English  critical  In  rank  his  a letter  1811,  to  Southey  the poets  and  poetry at h i s time.  his It i s ,  evaluation.  Y o u r a b h o r r e n c e o f S p e n s e r /Ke writes/ is a strange heresy. I admit that.he i s i n f e r i o r t o C h a u c e r (who f o r v a r i e t y o f p o w e r h a s no c o m p e t i t o r e x c e p t S h a k e s p e a r e ) , b u t he i s t h e g r e a t m a s t e r o f E n g l i s h v e r s i f i c a t i o n , incomparably the g r e a t e s t m a s t e r i n our l a n g u a g e . . . . C h a u c e r i s as m u c h a p o e t a s i t was p o s s i b l e f o r h i m t o b e w h e n t h e l a n g u a g e was i n s o r u d e a s t a t e . T h e r e s e e m s t o be t h i s m a t e r i a l p o i n t o f d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n u s , - y o u t h i n k we have l i t t l e p o e t r y w h i c h was g o o d f o r anything before Milton; I , t h a t we h a v e little s i n c e , e x c e p t i n o u r own i m m e d i a t e d a y s . I d o n o t s a y t h e r e was m u c h b e f o r e , b u t w h a t t h e r e w a s , was s t e r l i n g v e r s e i n s t e r l i n g English. I t had thought and f e e l i n g , i n i t . A t p r e s e n t , t h e s u r e s t way t o b e c o m e p o p u l a r i s t o have as l i t t l e of e i t h e r .ingredient as p o s s i b l e . 5  Years  later  i n his'amazing  catch-all,  The  2 The P o e t i c a l Works o f R o b e r t S o u t h e y , Orme, B r o w n , G r e e n & L o n g m a n s , 1 8 3 8 , v o l . . 1 , 3  Life  and  Correspondence,  v o l . 3,  p.  Doctor,  London, Longman, p. v i i i .  295.  -34-  Southey should  castigates prune  the  ears  the  spelling  As  of  f o r the  think  the  Faerie  young  ever  worth  his  to  hold  Queene  he  the  idea  down u n t i l  He  does not  modernized  had  Another poet  "Preface"  be  language,  and  who  maidens.  could  anyone  Spenser  editors  i t is  that  trouble  reading  the  whose w o r k s  contain  many  the  he  Faerie  i s William  Wordsworth.  1815  e d i t i o n of  Lyrical  metre.  does  not  Queene.  allusions  works  the  that  ruining  states  they  f i t for  believe  without  forcefully  that  In  4  to  his  Ballads,  Words-  writes, The g r a n d s t o r e - h o u s e s o f e n t h u s i a s t i c and meditative I m a g i n a t i o n , o f p o e t i c a l , as c o n t r a d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m human a n d d r a m a t i c I m a g i n a t i o n , are the p r o p h e t i c and lyrical p a r t s o f the H o l y S c r i p t u r e s , and the works o f M i l t o n , to which I cannot f o r b e a r to add those of S p e n s e r . 5  In turns and  a  supplementary  questioning  finds  Spenser be  the  is  i t none  by  i t would  have  him  too  to  "he  was  trie  has  been  4 1848,  at  at  a  the  a l l , and even  considered  great awarded  The D o c t o r , L o n d o n , pp. 382-584.  "Preface"  Outside  attention be  to  Spenser's  secure.  known  the  concludes, laurel  glance  scarcely  determined  essay  power; to  i f his  him."  small.  bears  position he  rank  the. E n g l i s h  and  Longman,  literary England,  very  Wordsworth  a  remarks, were  paid  to  "But," high  to  he  name;  6  Brown, G r e e n  &  Longmans,  5 The P o e t i c a l W o r k s o f W i l l i a m W o r d s w o r t h , W i l l i a m K n i g h t , e d . , E d i n b u r g h , Wm. P a t t e r s o n , 1883, v o l . 4, p . 523. 6  I b i d . , p.  338.  -85-  It  i s appropriate  criticism  of  Hazlitt  (but- s c a r c e l y ten  by  S.  the  plan  grandest  stitution  for  of  and  of  most  the  of  to  the  look  noble How  thinks  greater  at  Review  Queene'," Gilman that  ever  hard  it•is  some  absolute  F a e r i e . Queene  North American  'Faery  a poem."8  1817..?  writes,  entered to  of  into  condone  .of' H o m e r ' s - e p i c s  writ- '  or  of  "is  the  con-  this Milton's  Lost.  ' Acco'rding of  Coleridge,  the  the  -statement, when'one Paradise  and  approaching,the  critical), praise  Gilman  "The  before  length,  to  Gilman,  obsolete  style"  readers  diction,  pr  forego  the hot  Spenser  "antique  not  because  simplicity  of  allegory.9  but  because  they  do  like  Comparing  Spenser  with  Shakespeare', • G i l m a n  writes,  I n some r e s p e c t s S p e n s e r i s s u p e r i o r t o Shakespeare. He w i e l d s t h e r o d o f e n c h a n t ment w i t h a more s o o t h i n g and i n s i n u a t i n g e f f e c t - a n d he t h r o w s o n t h e colourings o f h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , a h i g h e r f l o o d of. l i g h t , as w e l l , as a s o f t e r b o d y o f s h a d e . It i s t r u e he' h a s a s m a l l e r n u m b e r o f b r i l l i a n t p a s s a g e s ; b u t t h e n he r e d e e m s t h i s c o m p a r a t i v e d e f e c t by a much l e s s abundance o f t r a s h . - He w r o t e a t . l e i s u r e a n d . d e l i b e r a t e l y w a i t e d ' . for inspiration; Shakespeare - s c r i b b l e d a g a i n s t t i m e - c h a s e d t h e muse - won g l o r i o u s l y i n deed - but sometimes abused her A° The  essay  meaningless,  flight  The  .7  "The  concludes  Faery  Faerie  8  I b i d . , pp.  9  I b i d . , p.  10  I b i d . , pp.  of  with  a  fanciful  Queen' i s a  Queene 502-505.  505. 507.-508.  of  highly  p o e t i c a l , but  rather  criticism.. repository  Spenser,"  of a l l  v o l . 5,  pp.  501-509.  -' . .  .  -86-  the minor b e a u t i e s o f p o e t r y . - Unbounded variety i n i t s d e s c r i p t i o n s - exact fidelity I n i t s copies of nature - inimitable p l a y f u l ness i n i t s s a l l i e s of fancy - i r r e s i s t i b l e severity i n i t s satire - a ravishing transport I n i t s f l i g h t s o f passion - an unsparing c o p i o u s n e s s , f e r t i l i t y , and r i c h n e s s o f imageryin short, there i s not a flower o f Parnassus, w h i c h i s n o t t o be g a t h e r e d t h e r e . 1 1 :  Yes,  a l l this  may  be t r u e  ¥irord i n t h e l e x i c a l writer There  mean b y a r e no  delightful, roam w i t h  freedom.  accept  To  have  of  passions  forms,  human  life.  league does  does  virtues,  b u t the very  with  cannot  can attempt  11  Gilman,  human  n o t have. o f good fact  that  playful  no.  the spells  op. c i t . ,  them  Irre-  A n d how c a n of passion"?  does  these  i n various  shapes  are personifications them i n t o  life,  n o t f o r s a k e Una and In h i s character.  spells.  A s we  know,  cast by the d e v i l or later  p . 309.  i n the  personifications  fired  of a flaw  o f Archimago's  to prevent  they  have  Knight  might  characters, and  I t has  that  a new,  "inimitable  severity"?  and e v i l  would  F i d e s s a because  overrule  nature"?  created  by  i f ever,  but severity,  have  The R e d c r o s s  so because  of  h i s characters  i s intended  each  does the  transport i n i t s flights  we m u s t  out the spark  Spenser  wherein  i s seldom,  pernaps,  what  i n i t s copies  i s "irresistible  "ravishing  the various  snuffs  he  What  F a e r i e Queene  and  God  a  world  And what  Spenser  i t out and weigh  F o r example,  fidelity  phantasmal  satire,  we  the  "exact  Queene.  sistible  balance.  sort  " c o p i e s " t o be f o u n d .  playfulness"? Faerie  - i f we  repair  even  although  t h e damage  He  -87-  they  have All  done,. this  as  that, of  we  have  or  belaboured  We  pointed  Spenser  out  a l l that  varied fore,  was  latter  large group  the  that  was  rules.  The led  to  his  favour.  Spenser  and  would be  had  hardly  in  England.  of  the  "new  sound  The  This  the  But  and  although as  i t the  pre-romantics  criticism  replaced  That  and  and,  by  the  cherished  elements  by  in  after  there-  the  generally  discovered  a l l the  rules  criticism  neo-classicists  Warton,  although  early  romantics  The  kindred i s not a  true. outside the  poetry"  'rules'.  revaluation.  Their  romantics  found  the  c r i t i c i s m - of  needed  adverse  and  condemned  importance  the  As '  Spenser  the  of  fall  romantlsme  name.  engendered  known  the  themselves  also  Hurd  a  of  away  they  their  f a r from  was  of  approach.  they  When  on  criticism,  great  be done, b y  praise.  work o f  Spenser  of  such  i t s dangers.  based  such  evaluated  that  wiped  They  them  this  to  from  freedom  gave  that  not  i t had  amount  Indiscriminate that-same  was  out  praise  neo-classical critics  somewhat u n f o r t u n a t e .  basically a  the  time  critical  to p o i n t  effects.'  ' r e v a l i d a t i n g had  romantics  of  that  lasting  condemn  with.arguments  damaging,  have  collapsed  at  to  rather  seen p r e v i o u s l y ,  not  this  meant  Gilman but  temporarily did  i s not  to  say  general As  their  and  that  realized  thus they  interest  great  read new  and him  poetry.  that  in  in  resurrected i n h i s works.  little and  value,  were b i a s e d  Wordsworth p o i n t e d  England  poets -  spirit  of  known  found And  out,  That  Spenser  even  i n him besides  a  voice  this,  -88-  the  poets,  on  the  prefaces,  their  up  a body  of  of  the  high  and,  -  as  a l l this,  Wordsworth,  to  and  that,  were  I f he  attempted  with  the  to  then, t h e i r ' m o s t flaws  realize  If  the  lavish  the  advent  change.  Romanticism  accepted  and  it  i s that  in  h i s essay  the  first  of  Milton,  elevation;  he  continues, are;  they  would In  nature,  Chaucer  be;  and  as  as  we  find  12 I n L e c t u r e s o n W r i t e r s , W.C. Hazlitt, 13  Loc.cit.  later  are  not  praise Spenser.  except  not  being  i t was  read,  time  that  necessarily l i e  with  the  cover  reader  the  flaw  romantics  firmly  we  can  or  entrenched  see and  able  to  write  criticism  dawning  of  a new  movement,  with and  acute  that  "The  of. S p e n s e r ,  them they  Hazlitt i t ,but  says as  that  is  Thus  char-  everything."12  t o be; ought that we  is  remoteness;  frequently describes  wish  a  perception, writes,  Milton,"  Shakespeare,  M i l t o n as  ahotheroessay not  we  was  said,  could not  Become  "Chaucer most  Spenser,  built  called  failed,  that.must  i s intensity; of  they  their  work.  Shakespeare  of  they  the  has  acteristic  they  fault  William Hazlitt, "On  as  i n  unqualified  Spenser  fault,lay  i t s writers  c o l o u r e d by  essays,  romantics  praise  of  and  affectionately  great the  critics,  whole,  that  inherent i n Spenser's With  not  the  early  as  the their  Southey  find  reader.  and  on  the  for  they  were  letters,  "master"  For  whole,  to  things  Shakespeare, be."l  Spenser  expected  t h e E n g l i s h P o e t s and e d . , L o n d o n , G. B e l l ,  to  And, as as  3  "...paints find  i t  and  the E n g l i s h Comic 1899, p. 61.  -89-  fulfils  the  goes  -  on  delightful  promise  of our  y o u t h . .  And,  he  T h e two w o r l d s o f r e a l i t y a n d o f f i c t i o n a r e p o i s e d on the wings o f h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . His ideas-, i n d e e d , seem more d i s t i n c t .than h i s perceptions. He i s a p a i n t e r o f a b s t r a c t i o n s , and d e s c r i b e s them w i t h d a z z l i n g m i n u t e n e s s . 1 5 To or  Hazlitt  between  terest Both  Chaucer  o r whose  Chaucer  poetry  cannot  c a r e s and  Hazlitt is  states  the most Par  "Beauty  poets  SSpenser  Spenser, were  be by  and  no  that  genius merited a  and  "...inspired the  t h e r e were  called the  of  business of simply  Chaucer  general i n -  comparison  with either  in life,  I t was,  1  before  of  ease-, a n d  l i f e . "  that  were  active  active.  love  either  Spenser,  Spenser's  Hazlitt,  relaxation  As  6  says  yet  one.  a final  from  a l l '  evaluation,  "of a l l the  poets,...  poetical."l^.  from  the  i s truth,  dictum  that  Keats  truth i s beauty,"  was Is  to  popularize,  Hazlitt's  statement  that The l o v e o f b e a u t y , h o w e v e r , a n d n o t o f t r u t h , i s t h e m o v i n g p r i n c i p l e o f h i s m i n d ; a n d he i s g u i d e d i n h i s f a n t a s t i c d e l i n e a t i o n s by - no r u l e b u t t h e i m p u l s e o f an i n e x h a u s t i b l e imagination. He l u x u r i a t e s e q u a l l y i n s c e n e s of e a s t e r n m a g n i f i c e n c e on the s t i l l s o l i t u d e of a h e r m i t ' s c e i l , i n the e x t r e m e s . o f sensur a l i t y or refinement.18  14  "On  Chaucer  15  Loc. c i t .  16  Ibid.,  17  Loc. c i t .  18  Ibid.,  p.  p.  and  45.  47.  Spenser,"  i n Lectures,  p.  46.  ^\ ^  -90-  In Hazlitt which  Spenser's finds  almost  m y t h o l o g y . "19 the  world  fairy  of  allegorical  an  "...originality,  vie with  as  we  have  to  comprehend  the  Unliike  of  follows  seen,  do  the  Spenser  who  i n the not  of  the  and  variety...  his  readers  into  his into  a world  of  beings."20  f o o t s t e p s of  believe  allegory.  fictions  ancient  carries  carries  "ideal  and  richness,  splendour  Ariosto,  romance,  land, a world Hazlitt  personages  He  that  those  i t i s of  writes  that  critics any  some  who,.  importance people  . . . a r e a f r a i d o f t h e a l l e g o r y , as i f t h e y thought i t would b i t e them: they l o o k a t i t as a c h i l d l o o k s a t a p a i n t e d d r a g o n , and t h i n k i t w i l l s t r a n g l e them i n i t s s h i n i n g folds. This i s very idle. I f t h e y do n o t m e d d l e with'.the a l l e g o r y , the a l l e g o r y w i l l n o t m e d d l e w i t h them. Without minding i t a t a l l , the whole i s as p l a i n as a p i k e staff. I t m i g h t a s w e l l be p r e t e n d e d t h a t we c a n n o t s e e P o u s s i n ' s p i c t u r e s f o r t h e a l l e g o r y , as t h a t t h e a l l e g o r y p r e v e n t us from understanding Spenser.21 In and  answering  the  strength, Hazlitt  19  Hazlitt,  20  Loc. c i t .  op.  charge replies  c i t . , p.  that that  Spenser he  has  lacks  both  passion  a g r e a t amount  of  .46.  21 I b i d . , p . 4 9 . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e e w h a t Mr. T u c k e r Brooke has to s a y of S p e n s e r ' s a l l e g o r y . He w r i t e s , "Allegory, forsoothi I f t h e F a e r i e Queene i s a l l e g o r i c a l , s o i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t , w a y s a r e H a m l e t a n d Tom J o n e s a n d t h e B o o k o f J o b ; so i s a l l g r e a t f i c t i o n and m o s t p o e t r y . S p e n s e r ' s f a i r y l a n d i s no m y s t i c f a n t a s y , b u t a t r u e p i c t u r e of the democracy of l i f e . H i s men a n d women p u r s u e their c a r e e r s t h r o u g h e v e r f r e s h and a p p a r e n t l y u n p r e m e d i t a t e d i n c i d e n t s , resisting' or y i e l d i n g to the n a t u r a l temptations t h e y e n c o u n t e r , p e r f o r m i n g t h e i r h e r o i s m s a n d t h e i r meann e s s e s ; l o s t sometimes f o r l o n g s e r i e s of cantos t o the . r e a d e r , but always r e a p p e a r i n g i n the n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s of  -91-  both. He h a s n o t i n d e e d ^/he w r i t e s / t h e p a t h o s o f • i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n o r s u f f e r i n g , w h i c h i s more p r o p e r l y t h e d r a m a t i c ; b u t he h a s a l l t h e p a t h o s o f s e n t i m e n t and romance - a l l t h a t belongs to d i s t a n t objects of t e r r o r , and uncertain, imaginary d i s t r e s s . His strength, i n l i k e manner, i s not s t r e n g t h of w i l l o r a c t i o n , o f bone and m u s c l e , n o r i s i t c o a r s e and p a l p a b l e - b u t i t a s s u m e s a c h a r a c t e r o f v a s t n e s s a n d s u b l i m i t y s e e n t h r o u g h t h e same v i s i o n a r y m e d i u m , and b l e n d e d w i t h t h e app a l l i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s of p r e t e r n a t u r a l agency.22 According between  Spenser  pare- t h e  Faerie  Pilgrim's be  to  Hazlitt,  and  Shakespeare.  Qiueene  Progress.  unfavourable  to  comparisons  with  The  I t would be  Milton's  comparison  Spenser."23  should'not  But,  Comus with  be  made  better to  com-  or. w i t h - B u n y a n ' s  Comus  Hazlitt  would  "not  b e l i e v e s , the -  e v e n t s , n e v e r h u r r i e d on t o f o r c e d c o n c l u s i o n s , a l w a y s a d v a n c i n g f r o m t a s k t o t a s k i n t h e s i m p l e h u m a n way. While life l a s t s , i n t e r e s t c o n t i n u e s and d u t y d r i v e s . " ( p . 4 9 9 ) . Later Mr. B r o o k e a d d s t h a t " . ; . t h e p o e m m o v e s , one o f t h e t r u e s t Human C o m e d i e s a n d one o f t h e m o s t b e a u t i f u l . S t i l l beginn i n g , n e v e r ending, c h a r a c t e r i s added t o c h a r a c t e r , i n c i d e n t t o i n c i d e n t , as o u r m o t l e y l i f e f l o w s p a s t t h e w i n d o w s o f K i l colman C a s t l e . Here, i f ever, i s a r t concealed i n a r t ; every e p i s o d e seems t o grow t o i t s p e r f e c t i o n as i n c o n s p i c u o u s l y as i f . t h e s u n a n d r a i n o f h e a v e n f o s t e r e d i t , - , and o n e c a u g h t b y t h e w i t c h e r y o f t h i s n a r r a t i v e may. a t t i m e s b e t e m p t e d t o b l a s pheme a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r g o d s o f P a r n a s s u s . Even Chaucer's a r t may l o o k p u e r i l e , and b e s i d e s t h e t i d a l f l o w o f S p e n s e r e v e n the great d r a m a t i s t ' s /sicT/method, with i t s s p o t l i g h t s and o v e r h a s t e , may s o m e t i m e s seem l i k e t i n s e l a g a i n s t moonlight." ( 1 1 . 5 0 0 - 5 0 1 ) . " F r o m "The R e n a i s s a n c e , " i n "A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d , A l b e r t C . Baug'h, e d . , New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n , 1948. •It i s , i n d e e d , d a n g e r o u s g r o u n d u p o n w h i c h t o t r e a d . I f , as a c c o r d i n g t o Mr. B r o o k e , t h e r e i s no a l l e g o r y , t h e n we have n o t h i n g to. w o r r y u s . I f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e i s a l l e g o r y , as S p e n s e r and most w r i t e r s s a y , . t h e n I s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e t h a t i n o r d e r t o g e t t h e m o s t f r o m t h e F a e r i e Q u e e n e we m u s t attempt t o comprehend i t to the best of our ability. 22  Hazlitt,  23: L o c . c i t .  op.  c i t . , p.  54.  .  -92  Pilgrim's  P r o g r e s s has  more  interest  but  less  imagination  24 than  the F a e r i e Hazlitt  stanza  and  borrowed though  Queene.  speaks  i n more  versification.  from  fitted  the to  Italians their  t o - E n g l i s h because  The  of  was  "...seduced  certain  praise.  Spenser's He  he  not  remarks,  this  point)  2 5  To  "sing-song" stanza,  versification  was and a l suited  unaccomodating  endings...."  license  language,  particularly  "...stubborn,  complicated riming  For  was  consonant  a  Spenser's  (a c o n t r o v e r s i a l  the  into  about  stanza,  language  of the  resistance.../of"its/  detail  f i l l  out  Spenser  of e x p r e s s i o n . . . . " ^ 6  Hazlitt  has  the  highest  writes,-  / i t / . . . i s a t once t h e m o s t s m o o t h and t h e most s o u n d i n g i n the language. I t i s as. l a b y r i n t h o f sweat s o u n d s . . . t h a t would cloy by t h e i r v e r y sweetness, b u t t h a t the e a r i s c o n s t a n t l y r e l i e v e d and e n c h a n t e d by t h e i r continued variety or modulation, dwellingon the p a u s e s o f t h e a c t i o n , o r f l o w i n g on i n a f u l l e r t i d e o f harmony w i t h the movement o f the s e n t i m e n t a l . I t has not the b o l d d r a m a t i c t r a n s i t i o n s of Shakespeare's b l a n k verse, nor t h e h i g h - r a i s e d t o n e :of M i l t o n ' s : b u t i t i s the p e r f e c t i o n of m e l t i n g harmony, d i s s o l v i n g the s o u l i n p l e a s u r e , or h o l d i n g i t c a p t i v e i n the c h a i n s o f suspense. S p e n s e r was t h e p o e t o f o u r w a k i n g d r e a m s ; a n d he h a s i n v e n t e d n o t o n l y a l a n g u a g e , b u t a m u s i c o f h i s own f o r them. The u n d u l a t i o n s a r e i n f i n i t e > l i k e t h o s e o f the waves o f the s e a ; b u t t h e e f f e c t . i s s t i l l t h e same, l u l l i n g t h e s e n s e s i n t o a d e e p o b l i v i o n o f the j a r r i n g n o i s e s o f the w o r l d , f r o m w h i c h we h a v e n o w i s h t o b e e v e r r e c a l l e d . ^  24  Hazlitt,  25  Ibid.,  26  Loc. c i t .  27  Ibid.,  op.  p.  pp.  cit.,  56.  56-57.  p.  55.  like  Hazlitt, agrees A Irving of  nearly  studied  supremacy o f S p e n s e r ' s  short  after Hazlitt  two y e a r s  versification.  wrote, Washington  the E n g l i s h language.  The p o i n t  he makes i n h i s " S k e t c h -  Crayon" i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  be remembered, a t t e m p t e d  European c u l t u r e s  into  well  to blend  an A m e r i c a n  taken.  culture.  s u c h works as h i s H o m e r i c - C e r v a n t e s q u e  Winkle  He s u c c e e d e d  H i s t o r y o f New  and The L e g e n d o f S l e e p y - H o l l o w .  difficult, wrote  therefore, t o understand  Irving,  the c l a s s i c a l  Y o r k and t h e e l e m e n t a l b u r g e r , o r o l d w i v e s ' , t a l e s Van  so f a r ,  commented b r i e f l y u p o n t h e " p u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y "  i t . should  in  we have  on t h e a b s o l u t e  book of G e o f f r e y  and  a l l the c r i t i c s  of Rip  I t i s not  t h e m i n d o f a man who  that E v e n now many t a l k o f S p e n s e r ' s ' w e l l o f p u r e E n g l i s h u n d e f i l e d , ' a s i f the language e v e r s p r a n g f r o m a w e l l o r f o u n t a i n - h e a d , a n d was n o t r a t h e r a mere c o n f l u e n c e o f v a r i o u s tongues, p e r p e t u a l l y s u b j e c t t o changes and intermixtures. I t i s t h i s w h i c h h a s made E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e s o e x t r e m e l y m u t a b l e , and the r e p u t a t i o n b u i l t u p o n i t so f l e e t i n g . 2 8 It  opinions his  i s unfortunate concerning  keen l i t e r a r y  valuable Spenser  that  I r v i n g has n o t g i v e n  the F a e r i e sensibility  Queene.  us h i s  I t i s probable  would have a d d e d  although not deeply penetrating,  that  something  to our store o f  scholarship.  .A r a t h e r  s u r p r i s i n g a n d welcome a t t a c k  on S p e n s e r ' s "  m i n o r poems, w r i t t e n b y a n anonymous a u t h o r , the  Retrospective  not  i n that  R e v i e w o f 1825.  i t was j u s t i f i e d ,  The a t t a c k  but i n that  appeared i n was welcome,  i t offered  a needed  28 /I8207, i n The Works o f W a s h i n g t o n I r v i n g , New Y o r k , G.P. Putnam, 1860, v o l . 2, p . 164.  -94-  relief  from  the  qualified. stagnates such  a  forced  writer  troversy writer  Steady the  to  under when  or  two  not  taken  was,  that  momentary Our writes  unruffled Pew  to  more  water,  soon  readers  that  other  and  they hand  trouble  a  sudden  turned  and  to  the  a  read.  appearance  use  them  The  stone  of  effect,  the  the  Retrospective  to  for  stone the  into  surface  critic,  and  will  tne  conof  the  criticism, stimulating,  to memorize  about that  critical  works the  he  a has  Retrospective  complacency  lack  a pebble  be  works  i s not  total  un-  approach  critical  approach  calm.waters  r i p p l e s broke  will  also  indiscriminating reader  however, without  justification  the  more  U n j u s t i f i e d adverse  i t turns  into  feel  readers  discussion.  an  growing  writer.  On  i t makes  was like  they  stimulate  mot  threw  a  him.  i t excites  Review  of  because  unless  the  that  praise,  works  praise will  however,  praise  and  of only  calm. the  adjective  is  Ironic,  that I n the e u l o g i u m s h e a p e d u p o n S p e n s e r ' s m i n o r poems, l i t t l e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n has, i n o u r o p i n i o n , b e e n e x e r c i s e d ; the judgment o f the c r i t i c seems t o h a v e b e e n h o o d - w i n k e d , and his t a s t e d e p r i v e d of the f a c u l t y of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the good f r o m the b a d , the soule. and s p i r i t f r o m mere c o r p o r a l s u b s t a n c e , , w h i c h i s m o r t a l a n d o u g h t t o be i n h u m e d . ^ 9  This  i s , i t must  m i n o r poems a r e by  critics  29  as  be of  admitted, little  examples  "Spenser's  of  i n part but  true:  value  -  great  poetry.  M i n o r Poems," v o l .  they  12,  c e r t a i n of are  Our  p.  seldom  anonymous  i43.  Spenser's held  up  - 9 5 -  critic,  t h e r e f o r e , i s h e a t i n g a dead, horse.  Of the eclogues i n the Shepheardes C a l e n d e r t h i s t h i n k s that  "They contain...some,  q u a n t i t y of poetry..... "30  although hut a s m a l l  Such a statement  the C a l e n d e r i s not p o e t r y then v e r y l i t t l e i t i s poetry e i t h e r , f l u e n c e was  critic  i s absurd.  If  that followed  and, i t must be remembered, i t s i n -  immeasurable.  Another example of t h i s c r i t i c ' s on the A m o r e t t i .  He  bias i s his  statement  says,  A bad sonnet i s one of the d u l l e s t t h i n g s i n c r e a t i o n , and a s e r i e s of them a b s o l u t e l y intolerable. Those i n q u e s t i o n a r e , f o r the most p a r t , c o l d , p a s s i o n l e s s , and c o n c e i t e d ; indeed, we a c t u a l l y f e e l i t a t a s k to get through them.31 There etti  i s s i n c e r i t y i n Spenser's  In the Amor-  Spenser r e v e a l s an evenness of tone, s t y l e , and  e x h i b i t e d elsewhere his  every sonnet.  feeling  only by D a n i e l , but D a n i e l , w i t h a l l .  sweet p e r f e c t i o n , u n l i k e Spenser,  l a c k e d the  creative  spark. There was a voluptuous repose about him /the Review c o n t i n u e s / which prevented him from l e a v i n g the beaten t r a c k , which induced him to r e s t s a t i s f i e d with the s u b j e c t s on which, p o e t i c a l t a l e n t was o r d i n a r i l y e x e r c i s e d , and w i t h the forms o f composition i n which they were i n v e n t e d , models on which n a t u r a l sentiment, and the simple language of p a s s i o n , were s a c r i f i c e d t o absurd f i c t i o n s and c o l d I n g e n u i t y . His s m a l l e r p i e c e s a r e . . . f o r the most p a r t , a c t u a l l y d u l l . 3 2  30 R e t r o . Review, p. 31 Ibid.., pp. 32 I b i d . , p.  144  157-158. 164.  -96-  It  seems h a r d l y  except  to  wonder  i f the  were  the  ask  necessary  what  to  i s meant  writer  "subjects  comment u p o n by  "voluptuous  really'believed that  on  which  this  criticism  repose," "absurd  p o e t i c a l t a l e n t was  and  to  fictions"  ordinarily  exercised"? In  the  Quarterly just  same y e a r  Review  (1825)  which  described.  Whereas, t h e  "absurd  fictions,"  basically  Spenser  was  the  unknown  article  contrasts  Spenser's  writes  an  a  of  favourably  in  with  referred  the  finds  Quarterly  poet.  the  The  the  the  Retrospective  sacred  author  appeared  one to  that  Faerie  Queene,  article,  . . . i s a c o n t i n u a l , d e l i b e r a t e e n d e a v o u r to' e n l i s t the r e s t l e s s i n t e l l e c t and c h i v a l r o u s f e e l i n g , o f an i n q u i r i n g and r o m a n t i c age, on the s i d e o f g o o d n e s s and f a i t h , o f p u r i t y and justice.3o Although  this  passages  i n Spenser,  Spenser him, or  critic  i s never  however odious."  he  even  remarks  described,  that  Indeed, i s always  find  he  in  some these  says,  made  vulgar passages  "Vice  In  contemptible  3 4  writings  allusions  to  breathed,  i f we  fitter  be  for  to  "seductive."  truly  Spenser's  to  i s disappointed  quotation  the  sacred may  so  silently or  "Sacred  '34  I b i d . , pp.  55  Ibid'. , p.  writings  he  of  the  rather  considered,  Poetry,"  points  than  than  to  be  v o l . 52,  p.  1825,  with  - "...allusions  uttered,  These  3  out,  Bible  criticism." 5  225-226. 227'.  filled,  speak,  minute  33  are  and  dragged veiled  225.  much forward  allusions  -97-  result  from  the  fact  that  Spenser  ...would have s h r u n k more f r o m t h e chance o f d e b a s i n g a s a c r e d s u b j e c t by unhandsome t r e a t m e n t , t h a n o f I n c u r r i n g r i d i c u l e by what would be c a l l e d u n s e a s o n a b l e a t t e m p t s t o h a l low t h i n g s m e r e l y secular.36 It  i s no  sacred or  more  poet  a moral  more  - he  correct  than  is a  neither  critics  mentioned  cussion  of Coleridge  appears  Lectures a  Spenser; the  seven  three, p o i n t s In  as  a political  last  chapter,  until  upon  now  I have  because Spenser"  I t s comparison  i s much  Is  first  place  we  comparison,  which  i s most  a  the  end  between  have  i n some the  astute.  a  the dis-  importance.  short  The  of Spenser's  t a k e n up  the  reserved  passage  of h i s  appendix  has  Shakespeare  o f a l l e g o r y ; and  characteristics be  he  of his  Shakespeare....  i t s definition  should  and  a  writer  i n m e r i t nor c h r o n o l o g y o f  other.appendices at  Notes  essentially  Is a l l three;  "Appendix.on  with  him  as  story-teller.  i n this  three-fold, value:  and of  and  He  fanciful  Coleridge's  Spenser  i t i s to.view  philosopher.  Although  which  to view  Its  works.  enumeration These  detail.  Shakespeare-Spenser Coleridge  w r i t e s -r  T h e r e i s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , among m a n y o t h e r s , between S h a k e s p e r e and S p e n s e r ; - S h a k s p e r e i s n e v e r c o l o u r e d by the customs o f h i s age; what appears of contemporary c h a r a c t e r i n him i s merely negative; i t i s just not something else. He h a s n o n e o f t h e f i c t i t i o u s realities o f the c l a s s i c s , none o f t h e g r o t e s q u e n e s s o f c h i v a l r y , n o n e of- t h e a l l e g o r y o f t h e m i d d l e a g e s ; t h e r e i s no s e c t a r i a n i s m e i t h e r o f  36  Quarterly  Review,  p.  228.  -98-  p o l i t i c s - o r r e l i g i o n , no m i s e r , n o w i t c h , n o common w i t c h , - n o a s t r o l o g y - n o t h i n g impermanent o f however l o n g d u r a t i o n ; but h e s t a n d s l i k e t h e yew t r e e i n L o r t o n v a l e , . w h i c h h a s known so many a g e s t h a t i t b e l o n g s t o none i n p a r t i c u l a r ; a l i v i n g image o f endl e s s s e l f - r e p r o d u c t i o n , l i k e the immortal tree of Malabar. In Spenser the s p i r i t o f c h i v a l r y i s e n t i r e l y predominant, although w i t h a much g r e a t e r i n f u s i o n o f the p o e t ' s own i n d i v i d u a l s e l f i n t o i t t h a n i s f o u n d i n any other writer. He h a s t h e w i t o f t h e s o u t h e r n w i t h t h e d e e p e r i n w a r d n e s s o f the n o r t h e r n genius.57 Secondly, valuable.  I t not  but  also  the  necessary  only  i s extended  Coleridge's Qjaeene  Coleridge's definition  or  allegory  includes  to give  components.  definition  any  A  the  of  dictionary  a fuller student  i n mind  other allegorical  allegory  while  Is  definition  understanding would  do'well  studying  work.  extremely  the  of a l l to  keep  Faerie  C o l e r i d g e says  that  i s . . . t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f one s e t o f a g e n t s and images t o convey i n d i s g u i s e a moral meaning, w i t h a l i k e n e s s t o the i m a g i n a t i o n , b u t w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g , -those a g e n t s and i m a g e s b e i n g so c o m b i n e d as t o f o r m a homogeneous whole. This distinguishes i t from metaphor, which i s . p a r t o f an allegory. But a l l e g o r y i s not p r o p e r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m f a b l e , o t h e r w i s e t h a n as the f i r s t i n c l u d e s the second, as a genus i t s s p e c i e s : f o r i n a f a b l e t h e r e must be n o t h i n g b u t what i s u n i v e r s a l l y known and a c k n o w l e d g e d , b u t i n an a l l e g o r y t h e r e may be t h a t w h i c h i s new and not p r e v i o u s l y admitted.38  He  then  continues:  mythology  37 London, 38  as  "Harrative allegory  reality  from  symbol,  i s distinguished  I t i s , In  short,  L e c t u r e s and Motes upon Shakespeare..., G. B e l l , 1 9 0 0 , p p . 5 1 0 - 5 1 1 . Ibid.,  p.  511.  T.  from  the  Ashe,  ed.,  -99-  proper  intermedium between person  The to  seven  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  Coleridge, 1.  that  textural  2.  In  able  Is  a  can  or  corded  sweetness  be  to  be  found  of  the  construction  to  in his  and  fluency  distinguished  metre  alliteration  interesting  work,  according  from  in  the  in  the  the  more  works  of  verse  of  complicated either  Milton.  the  "scientific"  Spenser's  4  harmonies  Shakespeare  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . "39  are: ^  There  Spenser  and  that  Faerie  which  doubles  note  that  Table  Talk  on  Queene  can an  June  be  there  seen  image's 24,  in  is a  certain  Spenser's  impression.  1827,  Coleridge  It  is  re-  that  Spenser's Epithalamlon i s t r u l y sublime; and p r a y m a r k t h e s w a n - l i k e m o v e m e n t of. h i s exquisite Prothalamion. His a t t e n t i o n to metre and r h y t h m i s s o m e t i m e s so e x t r e m e l y m i n u t e a s t o b e p a i n f u l e v e n t o my e a r , and. y o u k n o w how h i g h l y . I p r i z e good v e r s i f i c a t i o n . 4 1 3. of the  Spenser  external epic  nature  In  a  the  G.  nor  of  Lectures,  40  I b i d . , pp.  p.  gift  descriptions  Queene  and  It  a  blending  with are  the  not  descriptions  allegory  and  picturesque  but  images.  there  space is  for  incident  dream-like  both  geography.  39  story  The  Faerie of  excellent  and  series  particularities history  an  activity.  constitute 4.  has  is a time.  true  wonderful There  Is  absence.of neither  f a i r y - l a n d , or,  a  land  511.  512-517.  41 The T a b l e T a l k a n d B e l l , 1925, pp. 45-46.  Omnlana,  T.  Ashe,  ed.,  London,  -100-  of  mental  you to  "The  i n a dream...and e n q u i r e where 5.  in  space.  There  you  you  neither  writes,  wish,  a r e , o r how  i s a basic  a l l Spenser's  Coleridge  poet," Coleridge  character  persons, but and  you  the  says, nor  got  have  of Christian  may  placed  the  there."  especially  point  "has  power,  42 chivalry  i n h i s women,  well  be  held  i n  doubt,  that The G r e e k s , e x c e p t , p e r h a p s , i n Homer, seem t o h a v e h a d n o way o f m a k i n g t h e i r women i n t e r e s t i n g , b u t b y u n s e x i n g them, as i n the i n s t a n c e s o f the t r a g i c Medea, E l e c t r a , &c. C o n t r a s t such c h a r a c t e r s w i t h Spenser's Una, who e x h i b i t s n o p r o m i n e n t f e a t u r e , h a s n o p a r t i c u l a r ! z a t i o n , b u t p r o d u c e s t h e same f e e l i n g t h a t a s t a t u e d o e s , when c o n t e m plated at a distance.45 To  this  writer  particularly "unsexed" position. Electra engulf of  at  least  than a  statue  Whereas,  them.  and  was  only  There  o f making or  to  the  characteristic  Lectures,  43  Ibid.,  p.  p.  514  515.  statue  the  is  a n y t h i n g more  everlasting sex  static  o f Medea  circumstances  human -  tragic  a  be  leveller,  remains  i s i n Spenser  42  tragic  femaleness  humanness  responses  o t h e r hand, the  as  cannot  i s i n an  i s a great  common, b u t  tance  that  the  Tragedy  where m a l e n e s s  6.  on  o f Una  There  which  away b y  sense  universal  image  inappropriate.  i s stripped  making  the  i s no  or  not  i n the  rather,  longer  of  with i t s general,  in  and  which sense the  imporperhaps,  stimuli.  the workings  of England's  of a  elder  nationalism  poets.  It is  -101-  the  glorification  n a m e s was of  known b y S p e n s e r  the B r i t i s h  Thames  kings  a n d Medway  Interest," Indian  of England.  writes,  Unknown  stop  a l l sympathy."44  list  o f t h e names  of  British  is  hardly  inside  the  colour,  Indian  name  greater true.  Is  mostly  intellect.  very  lower  power that  t h e name's  of  recall,  of  the f i r s t He  by i t s e l f i s  straight  taken  o f these  would that  conductive  Khan'  or  cited  of great  to the  of pieces  the l e s s  context  merchants  o r s t o r y may b e  One  list  out of a  adds  A  tone,  with  suppose  an that  I s known  power.  'Xanadu.'  with  'Zanadu'  and  East  about  Thus t h e be  infinitely  This  i s not  'Kubla  of  Khan', i t  imagination.  seventh  point  adequate  writes,  44 L e c t u r e s ,  a  they  'Queen E l i z a b e t h ' i t i s a m a t t e r  while  a matter  East  true?  'Queen E l i z a b e t h ' w o u l d  'Kubla  of  merchants  strangeness  say that  o f say  of the  to a l l  of native  so than  list  o f a poem  also  Coleridge's  reveals  less  the mystery.  I n the case  V. it  would  than  historical  Indian  and usually., i n the case  would  conductive  Yet a  a damper  ask, i s this  l i s t , o f names  their  background,  Coleridge a  Any  inspiring.  i n that  by h i s c h r o n i c l e  names a r e n o n - c o n d u c t o r s ;  B u t , we may  b u t n o t much  kings.  "What  " i sa l i s t  o f the East  the framework  interest  as i s i l l u s t r a t e d  (FQ. I V , 1 1 ) .  merchants J  use of n a t i o n a l  (FQj. I I , 1 0 ) a n d t h e m a r r i a g e  Coleridge  uninteresting  The m a g i c a l  p. 516.  i s of vital  and i n g e n i o u s  interest  view  as  of Spenser's  -102-  . . . t h e g r e a t and p r e v a i l i n g c h a r a c t e r o f Spenser's mind i s fancy under the c o n d i t i o n s of i m a g i n a t i o n , as a n e v e r p r e s e n t but n o t always a c t i v e power. He h a s a n i m a g i n a t i v e f a n c y , b u t he h a s n o t i m a g i n a t i o n , i n k i n d or d e g r e e , as S h a k s p e r e and M i l t o n have,.... . Add t o t h i s a f e m i n i n e t e n d e r n e s s and almost m a i d e n l y p u r i t y o r f e e l i n g , and above a l l , a deep m o r a l e a r n e s t n e s s which p r o d u c e s a ... b e l i e v i n g s y m p a t h y and a c q u i e s c e n c e i n t h e reader....45 If  we  then do  accept we  not  may  the  conclusions Whereas qualified torians a  that  his  reached the  great  we  have  a  with  find  Chaucer,  a l l he  the  the  critics  romantics i s the  that  we  value  i n that  previous brief  L e c t u r e s , pp.  can  and  chapters review  516-517.  of  is  the of  fact  a  he  says  clear we  same  comparisons  the  one  that and  but is  true,  between  brilliant.  must  adverse  of  need  little,,  The  M i l t o n are  Vic-  like  i t is  course  un-  subservience  the  turn  to  the  early  but  we  have  Spenser  Of  this  i f  same.  censure,  little.  whose b r i e f  Shakespeare  give  Review,  indeed,  the  idea  find  Spenser.  - but  be  and  Gone  says;  imagination'  i t stands;  ideas  would  C o l e r i d g e who  Hazlitt  usual  own  i s important  towards  much o f of  What  as  and  n e c e s s i t y , would  case  Retrospective  like  Spenser,  Unlike  45  i n the  critic  degree,  without  later  I t i s true  intellect  agree  a  the  of  romantic  'fancy  above  suit, our  i n either  importance.  unbiased  to  to  early  praise,  printed  can  statement  t h e o r i e s we,  statement  "master."  we  the  t h e o r i e s of  reveal restraint.  no  not  accept  accept  re-word  to  Coleridge's  end  criticism.  -103-  W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the R e t r o s p e c t i v e space a l r e a d y ) , i n c l u d e d here  the a u t h o r the  Hstzlitt i s  the o n l y one o f  who has made a d e f i n i t e that  I t a l i a n s , w h i c h , he s a y s ,  Queene,  f o r c e d Spenser  pression. . . . " s i g n that  the  critics  on  Spenser.  "sing-song" stanza  to use a " c e r t a i n l i c e n s e  of Spenser.  It  is  ex-  true that  the  early  of. S p e n s e r  because  in versification.  " m a s t e r , " and Wordsworth r a n k e d  h i m w i t h t h e H o l y S c r i p t u r e s a n d M i l t o n a s b e i n g one o f "grand store-houses  o f e n t h u s i a s t i c and m e d i t a t i v e  W o r d s w o r t h a l s o comments to  on t h e  little  Imagination.  He d o e s  been awarded  not,  he s i m p l y c o n c l u d e s  that  the l a u r e l had  Spenser.  From t h e p e n o f O i l m a n we have u n q u a l i f i e d p r a i s e i s most f a n c i f u l . some t r u t h .  that  Y e t he makes a r e m a r k t h a t may c o n t a i n  P e o p l e do n o t r e a d t h e F a e r i e Q u e e n e ,  b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t l i k e  not Wordsworth take simple:  paid  q u e s t i o n the i n c o n g r u i t y o f a h i g h l y p r a i s e d b u t  s c a r c e l y known p o e t ;  writes,  the  attention that i s  S p e n s e r b o t h i n s i d e and o u t s i d e E n g l a n d .  however,  a  f i l l e d 'with only un-  - especially  S o u t h e y c o n s i d e r e d h i m as h i s  of  c r i t i c i s m i s not  i n highest praise  he i n f l u e n c e d them g r e a t l y  of  Spenser adopted f o r h i s . F a e r i e  t h e r o m a n t i c c r i t i c s were  romantic c r i t i c s wrote  sufficient  the  attack  Row t h i s l a c k o f a d v e r s e  qualified praise  printed i n  Review (which has been g i v e n  T h i s he d i d when he w r o t e the  article  allegory.  time thus to speculate?  he  Why, we a s k , The a n s w e r  t h e r o m a n t i c c r i t i c s , o n the w h o l e , were  did is  t o o much  o c c u p i e d i n w r i t i n g on p o e t r y i n g e n e r a l a n d a s p e c t s o f  it  -104-  in  p a r t i c u l a r to  any p o e t . foregoes  devote  One c r i t i c makes any r e a s o n i n g f o r  supply a reason. answers, have  these  of  condition critic said  well knit  that  so  little  The  to say that  later  they  them.  were n o t  and S p e n s e r  allegory  is  i n agreement:  comprehend i t ; it  is  the  cation. " critical only  of the  a. l a c k o f  Coleridge  of  the  rules,  and,  biased  say p o s e s  of  lack  the  s a i d that  Each . he  a problem.  immediately  that  Of  course,  Shakespeare such a  that  reader need Is  a  Spenser,  Haz-li'tt s a i d  it  ro-  This i s  Spenser.  thought  the  of -  were  c o m p a r e d ; C o l e r i d g e makes  and t h a t  with  and C o l e r i d g e ,  than those  highly  Hazlitt  of  we  Spenser  a lack  rules.  Hazlitt  any i l l e f f e c t s :  not i m p o r t a n t  that  result  he d i d n o t  They thought  comparison without  that  evaluation d i f f i c u l t .  and l e s s  s h o u l d not be  and s a y  from a g r e e i n g  what he p l e a s e d  what  and  the n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s  romantic c r i t i c s ,  were more d e f i n i t e preceding  by  makes f i n a l  was f r e e  the  b y means  together  may  questions  questions)  Whereas  together  critic  together  W o r d s w o r t h may be f a r  i n allegory.  were  these  of  but  romantic c r i t i c i s m of  shown i n S p e n s e r i s  knit f a i r l y mantics  the  study  statement  and a n o t h e r  we c o u l d a s k d i r e c t  interest  interest  it,  of  a complete  a dogmatic  and r e a s o n s ,  picture  N o ; we may n o t . (if  to  But d a r e we weave  facts  a complete  Gilman  much time  important  not because  " p r o p e r i n t e r m e d i u m between p e r s o n and p e r s o n i f i Neither H a z l i t t nor Coleridge pitfall  as d i d the  of viewing  the  Faerie  anonymous w r i t e r i n t h e  fell Queene  Into  the  f r o m one  Quarterly  side  Review  -105-  who  saw  the  acute  that  the F a e r i e Queene critical  holds In  Macaulay, discover change  perception of both  them above  the next Wilson  their  chapter  we  that  shall  o f the  work  Hazlitt  contemporary  (North), Hallam  i n the c r i t i c i s m  from  as a r e l i g i o u s  study  romantics.  It i s  and C o l e r i d g e  critics. critics  and M o r l e y ,  o f the e a r l y  only.  such  and  Victorians  as  will an  abrupt  -106-  . . .CHAPTER  THE  Lord written poets  Macaulay  about  who  •which  "pervades We  can  estimate palling thel;  1830,  - the  estimate  few  Macaulay  readers says,  Progress,"  Spenser  i s one  but  that  even  c a n n o t make  of  he  unpardonable  whole  - more who  pilgrim's  that  of  s u r m i s e how  of readers  "The  says  "One  the  only  VICTORIANS  i n his essay  ever l i v e d  interesting  EARLY  SIX. . .  the  appalling  appear  Fairy  correct  the F a e r i e  to  fault,"  of  he  Queene.  approach  greatest  allegory  writes,  Queen.  Macaulay  s t i l l  the  Is In h i s  I t i s an  when  one  t h e poem  ap-  considers at •  all. .  We b e c o m e s i c k o f c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s and d e a d l y s i n s , and l o n g f o r t h e s o c i e t y o f p l a i n men a n d women. O f .the p e r s o n s who r e a d t h e f i r s t ' c a n t o , n o t one i n t e n r e a c h e s , t h e e n d o f t h e f i r s t b o o k , a n d n o t one i n a h u n d r e d p e r s e v e r e s t o t h e e n d o f t h e poem. V e r y f e w a n d v e r y w e a r y a r e t h o s e who § r e i n at the death o f the B l a t a n t Beast. I f the l a s t s i x books, w h i c h are s a i d t o have been d e s t r o y e d i n I r e l a n d h a d b e e n p r e s e r v e d , we d o u b t w h e t h e r any h e a r t l e s s s t o u t t h a n t h a t o f a commentator would have h e l d o u t t o the end. j 2  "She W o r k s o f L o r d M a c a u l a y , L a d y T r e v e l y a n , e d . , . L o n L o n g m a n s , G r e e n , a n d Co.,. 1 8 7 9 , v o l . 5, p . 4 4 7 . 1  don,  2  Loc. c i t .  -107-  Vlrginia kind  Woolf  when s h e  was wrote  never been  read  dise  i t is  Lost, The  Faerie It  story  Queene  i s highly  The  that the  of  the  the  books  rate  "The  said, a  of  one  word  now  the  between  the  -  wished  has  Para-  0  critics  books  more said,  s i x books  these  Kllcolman  way  i t is  ever  last  then i n  composition  in a  Queen, has  the  and that  idea  longer..."  of  period  same  Faery  no  loss  and  of  the  end;  improbable  three  accredited  to  state  appears  shortness  second  to  the  reviews.  1  were  of  ever  written.  publication  fire  belies  considered  of  the  Spenser's  to be  slow  and  leisurely. An says of  anonymous  that  Book  that  Spenser  One,  to  "...the  reviewer i n  the  allowed  story,  lead  him  attempt  simplicity  of  degree,  consistency  in  of  part,  true.  "ingenuity" critic. it,  have  been  n^iii—closely.  3 "The London,.The 4  to  then  Vol.  from  and  of  first  as  Three they  however,  is  of  and  1830,  p.  487.  to  the  the  out  follow  great  too  much  part  of we  the have  consciously be  said  Other  to  to  method  conjecture.  and  the  statement i s ,  Ariosto's  critical  case  marred  poem, as  F o u r may  B^aery Q u e e n , " i n The. Moment H o g a r t h P r e s s , 1947, p. 25. 43,  This  1830  says  i t , 'in a  on  started  He  has  fault  judgment  I f Spenser  This,  the  i n the  moral.  deprived  composition  Books  his  coherence."^  poor  Review of  except  much i n g e n u i t y  attribute  be  certain.  written  too  and  to  method  Ariosto  away  allegory,  But  seems  The  i s not  follow  his  at  his  Quarterly  It  Essays,  does  -108-  seem p r o b a b l e , originally during  conceived  composition,  consistency poem  nevertheless,  coherence  by S p e n s e r , and l o s t ,  and coherence  of such  length  than  we  of composition  original  plan.  Spenser easily own or  writer sided  from  fancy. that  the  he  fault  This  ness  lacked  passion,  own  being  read,  life  he  with  w o r k was  Blackwood's purpose  task  remarks  keep  published from  the a r t i c l e s  (1830),  that  that  result  i n mind  487.  moralist,  the of a  that  lies  lack of cold-  views. North, set  Spenser  poems.  of seven  was o f the  The articles  1833 t o 1835. little  i n  basic  a narrative  the minor  the year  turned  the b r u t a l  that  series  although  C a n i t be  as C h r i s t o p h e r  as a  the  and  and h i s r e a d e r s  are of very  p.  because  a cold  of his Irish  from  or  or to indulge h i s  was  to construct  specimens  In a  a cold moralist  when, f e e l i n g  decided  Magazine  5 Quarterly,  also  Spenser  known  changes  necessarily alter  i s interesting.  must  as  consistency  exhibits  Is i t possible  better  a difficult  finished  our  One  many  the p l a n .  compliment  revealed, i n h i s expression  poet's  in  that  Queene,  some o f t h e  more  work i s t h e d i r e c t  i n himself?  himself  now  o f Spenser  character?  John Wilson,  not  Queene  that  by  expect  arise  point  i n Spenser's  warmth  cannot  v i r t u e he""was  key t o the problem  Spenser's  therefore,  h i s work t o pay a  5  underwent  i n the Q u a r t e r l y  with  the Paerie  suggested  the Paerie  problems  The  that  For  use; which i s  -109-  not  to  what  say  that  they are  Worth p l a n n e d  •life.  The  them  specimens  appreciation  rather  however,  bound  with  was  to  from  be  than a to  creep  North  reveals,  i n his  language  now  "...is  spoken  by  dangerous  one  for a  relegates  the  greater  position written the  of  same  An  on  the  North  of  that  t o any this  the  other  is a  i t immediately  other nations that  I mention  and  content.  a belief  because of  kind  t o be  such as  an  Criticism,  this  have  grounds  trips  Spenser's  superior  idea  literatures  of  exactly  constitute  article,  to hold  language.  article,  shall  second  man."  critic  right  we  are  analysis.  i n a l l things  inferiority  i n the  poems  into' a work  fragments  They  - a narrative  critical  critical  language  value.  the minor  these  English  in  of l i t t l e  to  they are  this  o v e r h i s own  a not  point  because,  statement.  He  writes, S h a l l o u r own S p e n s e r . . . b e n e g l e c t e d b y h i s own p e o p l e , a n d t h e F a e r y Q u e e n l i e u n r e a d , w h i l e - i n a y e a r we h a v e a s e c o n d e d i t i o n - . f o r b e h o o f o f t h o s e who h a v e n o G r e e k - o f S o t h e b y ' s Homer?7 ' There be  appears  t o -be  no  connected w i t h Sotheby's  making  i s unfortunately  of  the  statement  of  North's  "our  r e a s o n why  own"  time.  i s pretty  6  "Spenser,  7  Ibid.,  p.  Homer.  clear.  The  i s i t s revelation A plea  to  a neglected The  implication  only of  real  the  read Spenser  430.  I I , " V o l . 36,  p.  because  421.  should  North i s  significance  taste  shallow.  No.  Spenser  of readers he  Is  -110  Throughout discoveries ful  the  as:  t h a n any  articles  Spenser  had  other poet;  North  a g r e a t e r sense  h i s genius  Shakespeare's;  the  Spenserian  soul  of music;  the  Faerie  poem  ever  Spenser ton,  and  were  dedicated  that,  der.  He  half  was  be  as  the  linked  t o make  of  the  such  beauti-  profuse  as  conceived by  the  greatest  diameter  allegorical  Wordsworth can  North and  greatest  was  s t a n z a was  Queene  conceived within  i s the  i s content  poet;  of  and  the  allegorical  the  earth;  Spenser,  together because  Mil-  they  spirits.®  finds  only  one  surprisingly  major  enough,  fault  i n Spenser's, work  i s i n the  Shepheardes  Calen-  writes, But t o our minds the i r r e d e e m a b l e s i n o f t h e S h e p h e r d ' s C a l e n d a r - we w i s h we c o u l d u s e g e n t l e r w o r d s , b u t c a n n o t f i n d them - i s t h e , c o l d , u n c o m f o r t a b l e , and unhappy a i r t h a t hangs i n i t o v e r almost the whole o f . r u r a l life. We a r e a l w a y s w i s h i n g f o r t h e s u n , b u t no sun shews h i s f a c e . Nature i s s t a r v e d , and l i f e h u n g r y - and s l e e p seems b u t t h e r e l i e f from labour. T h e r e i s nowhere Joy.9  It  i s harsh,  "sin".  to say  that  Obviously North missed  In  his Lives  men  of  one  that  Faerie  indeed,  Great  of  Britain,  has  not  Queene  the most S.A.  b e e n made  "...has  the  the  the  tone  of  a  poem i s  a  point.  eminent  literary  and  scientific  Dunham makes  an  interesting  point  previously.  He  writes that  the  singular  distinction  of  -  having  8 I n o r d e r : "No. I , " v o l . 5 4 , p . 8 5 2 ; p . 8 4 6 ; "N o. I I , " v o l . 3 6 , p . 4 2 1 ; p . 4 1 5 ; p . 4 1 4 : a n d "No. I l l , " v o l . .36, p . 683. 9  "No.  I,",.vol.  34,  p.  832.  - I l l -  produced, a lished  a  without surely  vast  number  school."1° the  and  longer  who  have  lived  had  Spenser's  one,  influence  that  display  the  tongue."11  He  seems  Sidney  had  latent  riches. »  he  to  have  already  Hallam  in  the  fto  and  of  power, or  given  rather  an  that  impetus  even  greater  Marlowe  and  named  for  7  of  our  faults  than  Jonson  after  the  Review  Spensery  inflexible  forgotten  was  through  harmony  that,  post-Spenserlans  'school'  Quarterly  estab-  them.  centuries. of  1840  the  first  n a t i v e •, to  from  his  the  diction."1^  con-  This  Surrey,  Sjackville  and  to  "display  of...  this  • •  the  i n his  Introduction- to the  judgment  Spenser  writes,  a  like  also, a t t r i b u t e s Spenser's  writer  works*of  i n  riches  insufficient  turns  have  the  importance  poets  indebted  straint  Europe  and  having  however,  been d i f f u s e d  writer  latent  of  to  has  redundance  • Henry  added,  school,  that  "...wanton of  be  Spenser's  "...we a r e  of  a  honour  An'anonymous writes  of  than  the  imitators, without  I t may  creating  constitute  of  with  the  of  a  classical  Literature  scholar  upon  certain interesting results.  Shepheardes  of  the  Spenser,  Calender  ...gave a D o r i c rudeness t o h i s dialogue'/ which i s a l i t t l e r e p u l s i v e to our t a s t e . The d i a l e c t o f T h e o c r i t u s i s m u s i c a l to o u r e a r s , and f r e e f r o m v u l g a r i t y ; p r a i s e s w h i c h we c a n n o t b e s t o w o n t h e u n c o u t h p r o v i n c i a l r u s t i c i t y of Spenser.13  10  London,  11  Vol.  12  I b i d . , p.  13  /I839-407, L o n d o n , J o h n M u r r a y , 1 8 8 2 ,  1836,  55,  p.  vol.  1,  p.  348,  354. 355. vol.  2,  p..  222.  -  112  -  H a l l a m a l s o a t t a c k e d the poem b e c a u s e i t a l l u d e d to  po-  {  litical period. for,  h i s t o r y and  to the r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s o f the  He does not},: because of t h i s , condemn the poem,  as he says, "...mere p a s t o r a l must soon become i n -  s i p i d , u n l e s s i t borrows something from a c t i v e l i f e elevated philosophy."14 says, has,  The  i n many passages,  Shepheardes Calender, spirit  and beauty,  or Hallam  but,  he f i n d s , i t i s not much read or approved by the  critics.  Turning ,his a t t e n t i o n to Spenser's E p i t h a l a m i o n , H a l lam  says, b r i e f l y ,  ardent, noble, and  t h a t " I t i s an i n t o x i c a t i o n o f e c s t a s y , pure."15  L i k e Wordsworth, Hallam known o u t s i d e England  f i n d s t h a t Spenser i s l i t t l e  even i n an age when E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e  i s comparatively w e l l known on the c o n t i n e n t .  Ariosto's  fame, Hallam w r i t e s , i s spread through Europe, but, even so, "...we have l i t t l e  reason to b l u s h f o r our countryman."''"  Comparing Spenser and A r i o s t o , Hallam  says t h a t , i n  mind and p o e t i c c h a r a c t e r , they are complete o p p o s i t e s . "The  I t a l i a n i s gay...," he  bitually  says, while "Spenser i s ha-  serious...."l^  Hallam  devotes most o f h i s space to a study' of the  F a e r i e Queene.  H i s o p i n i o n of the work can best be summed  14 Hallam, op. c i t . . p. 222 15 I b i d . , p.  226.  16  I b i d . . p.  236.  17 I b i d . , p.  235.  -113-  up  i n h i s statement  than  some  complete little  have  that  imagined,  his original  hope  "There  that  we  i s , perhaps,  to regret  d e s i g n . "1®  a r e t o meet  that Such  with  less  Spenser a remark  any  reason  d i d not engenders'  practical  criticism. Of  the l a t t e r  comments  that  weariness, poetical quent ions  Spenser's  the imagery  description  may,  cantos  weariness,  nine less  "...muse  less  perhaps, be i s hardly  o f Spenser's  becomes  a n d v e r b o s e . "19  however, read  books  t o Spenser.  Who  or a less  poetical  description?  I t i s true  b o o k may  be c r i t i c i s e d  because  that  c e r t a i n l y not f o r any other  the  basis  when he w r i t e s  fre-  statement,  can possibly  rich  this  reason.  of  more  of the  o f i t s change  but  of  digress-  o f Book S i x and f i n d  imagery,  f o r h i s views  the v e i n  concerning  The r e s t  Hallam  signs  the digressions  justified.  to twelve  gradual  vivid,  The •statement  fair  vivid  gives  less  rich,  masterpiece,  signs  vein  of  of  particular of heroes  Hallam  -  betrays  that  I t i s f e l t . a l r e a d y i n Spenser, as i t i s p e r h a p s e v e n i n A r i o s t o , when we r e a d m u c h o f ' e i t h e r , t h a t t a l e s o f k n i g h t s and l a d i e s , g i a n t s a n d savage, e m e n , e n d i n a s a t i e t y which n o p o e t i c a l e x c e l l e n c e c a n overcome.^0 Even Hallam's he  t h e a l l e g o r i e s , do n o t p a s s m u s t e r requirements.  writes,  " i sthat  18  Hallam,  19  Loc. c i t .  20  Loc. c i t .  they  "One gave  of their birth  op. c i t . , p. 237.  according  greatest  t o some  to  offenses...,"  tedious  and  -114-  uninteresting Besides found  in  poetry the  the  of  the  defects  Faerie  same  of  Queene,  kind."  2 1  obsoleteness  and  Hallam  that  finds  redundancy Spenser  was  . . . s o m e t i m e s d e f i c i e n t i n one a t t r i b u t e o f a g r e a t p o e t , the c o n t i n u a l r e f e r e n c e t o the t r u t h o f n a t u r e , so t h a t h i s f i c t i o n s should be a l w a y s s u c h as m i g h t e x i s t on the given conditions. 2 2  What  kind  of  Spenser's within to  complex.  to a  His  moulds  chivalry;  -  and,  in and  of  not  al 1  the  that  the  poetic  We  -  of  exist the  pilgrim's  Progress  the  l o s e s much o f  story  21  Hallam,  22  I b i d . , pp.  to  op.  the  had  But the  they  had  one  i t  was  -  f i t into  medieval be  suitable  We  may  to  life.  even It  requisite for  that  achieved  and  forget  the  work  full such  always  evident  i t s impact  i f the  allegory i s  238-239.  238. .  for char-  a l l e g o r y Is  c i t . , p.  add  achievement  however, w i t h in a  three to  almost  Queene  exist, true  idealization difficult  of  or  to  perfect  one  life,  to  true  whereas  can  had  triple.  Faerie  (not,  poem),  they  Spenser  is  f i t into  conform  that•the The  to  simple  t o be  makes-it  read  a  place,  they  life.  can  allegories  enjoyment  had  It  characters  place,  allegory is  i s impossible.  result.  this?  had' t o  the  four  this  not  third  to  i s  his  the  commented u p o n  be. t r u e  was  they  be  to  that  first  an-allegorical, character acter  ask,  characters  in  fourth requirement  need  task  secondly,  allegory -  may  e x c e p t i o n a l l y true  Spenser's  fairyland;  we  achievements  fairyland,  nature.  separate a  many  his  highly  criticism,  -  as>  indeed, ignored.  -115-  Hallam when he  passes  writes  his  final  judgment  on  the  F a e r i e Queene  '  that  Time, however, has g r a d u a l l y wrought i t s . work; and, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the more i m a g i n a t i v e c a s t o f p o e t r y i n t h e p r e s e n t c e n t u r y , i t may be w e l l d o u b t e d w h e t h e r t h e F a e r y Q u e e n i s a s much r e a d o r as h i g h l y e s t e e m e d as i n t h e d a y s o f Anne. I t i s not perhaps very d i f f i c u l t t o a c c o u n t f o r t h i s : t h o s e who s e e k the d e l i g h t t h a t mere f i c t i o n p r e s e n t s t o the m i n d (and t h e y a r e the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f r e a d e r s ) have been s u p p l i e d t o the utmost l i m i t o f t h e i r c r a v i n g by s t o r i e s accommodated t o e v e r y temper, and f a r more s t i m u l a n t t h a n the legends of Faeryland.23 In by  H.K.  works.  1840,  To  of  Cleveland of  are  wealth,"  eternity  they  American  the the  Spenser's  M i l t o n which  "...their to  North  Cleveland,  sentative and  the  first Faerie  age  and  ageless,  Review  published  American  edition  Queene unlike  or,  their  the  review  of  Spenser's  completely works  of  Shakespeare  "was  an  fame.."24  eternity,  on  the  other  • Spenser...was remarkably the c h i l d of h i s a g e . . . . H e was t h e c r e a t u r e o f h i s times.., b e c a u s e the- t i m e s , w e r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d for-' t h e i r g r a n d e u r and n o b l e n e s s . I t was his high p r i v i l e g e , that the sure road to g r e a t n e s s was t o conform, t o the s p i r i t of h i s t i m e s ; t o r i s e up t o t h e s t a t u r e o f -. t h e i r r o b u s t manhood.25 "The  whole  poem o f  the  ' F a e r i e Q u e e n e ' , " he  writes,  . . . i s a f a i t h f u l m i r r o r o f the t i m e s . It i s f i l l e d w i t h the p r e v a i l i n g sentiments,  25  Hallam,  op.  24  Vol.  25  Loc. c i t .  50,  p.  c i t . , p . -.240. 187.  ...  repre-  w r i t t e n f o r a l l time  Cleveland writes,  entrusted  is  a  and hand,  -116  the l o y a l t y and the g a l l a n t r y , the b r a v e r y , the w i t , the l e a r n i n g , the p a t r i o t i s m , and the p i e t y , which d i s t i n g u i s h e d the reign of Elizabeth.26 This  sounds  hardly Age.  very  turn We  to  and  phlets, Faerie to  to  To that  be  be  to  and the  realistic There be  done  the  at  a  paid  to  should  remarks,  search a  for  of  not  "That  allegory,  poetical  -  the  second  the be  made  man  who  may  mind.. "27  a  binds  have We  the  An  to  the in  advises  first  to  1  and  without  the  his-  not  be  soon  to  he  follow  accompanied  extensive  allegory,  reading  study,  for,.as an  Cleve-  exclusive but  certainly  continues,  . . . t h a t the g r e a t o b j e c t o f the reader s h o u l d be t h e p o e t r y , the s t o r y , t h e w o r k a s a p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t ; he s h o u l d s t u d y t h e . t e x t f a r more t h a n the n o t e s and comments.28  26  Cleveland,  op.  27  Ibid.,  pp.  189-190.  28  Ibid.,  p.  190.  c i t . ,p.  188.  poem  Cleveland  should  remember,  the  times."  a philosophical,  must  pam-  the  or  himself  like  the  to  glossary  i t would  to  poets  of  The  allegory  reading  of  mirror  times.  turn  medieval  Spenser,  allegory.  to  hardly  the  would  Elizabethan  correctly,  but  aid of  We  the  Hakluyt,  of  i t ' is.'undertaken  explanation  however, land  When  of  three  attention being  first.  of  "faithful  the  little.  dramatists,  much  works  least  The  more  fictions  with  allusion.  and  other  i s too  very  p i c t u r e of  Voyages  called  fully read  a  probably,  only  by.an  not  the  enjoy  torical the  Ralegh,  i t means  to get  Jonson  i t to  they  should any  and  Queene.  enable  but  Sjpenser  would more  Shakespeare Sidney  fine  -117-  The  third  the  less The  reading  s h o u l d be  obvious  historical  plot  the  of  exceptionally  done and  with  text  classical  F a e r i e Qjueene,  simple  a  says  that  explains  allusions. Cleveland,  is  -  A B r i t i s h p r i n c e sees i n a v i s i o n the F a i r y Q u e e n ; he f a l l s i n l o v e , a n d g o e s i n s e a r c h of t h i s unknown f a i r , and a t l e n g t h f i n d s her. T h i s f a b l e has a b e g i n n i n g , a m i d d l e , and an e n d . 2 9 This be  i s remarkable  unfinished.  much  the  plot  really  the of its  so  which  Spenser's lined  simple? the  relates  "Essex  on  the  the  Spenser's  29  not  and  of  to  criticising i t .  And  which  the  of  Walter  criticism, and  much  by  i s not  the  Jews,  and  the  Kilcolman  any  fire  fable  out-  Landor and  interest.  means.  The than  Catholics. and  of  of  Savage  much more  the  beads  biography of  of  a plot  fulfilment  background  so  the  idea  the  to  not  i s  E a c h book has  a l l critical 3 0  F a e r i e Queene  Cleveland's  to  of value  Spenser"  Irish,  story  not.  simple  approach  is little are  behind  Conversations"  a unique  conversations  t o be  strung.  the  the  thread upon  important  "Imaginary  attack  simple  i s more  The  entitled  Indeed  are  Cleveland.  There  Idea  stories  by  fable.  considers  appears  the  I n t e n t i o n than  constitute  of  a r t as  i s only  Individual own  Cleveland  work o f  plot  w h e n one  the  The one  an  It  burning  child.  Cleveland,  op.  50 The Works and Chapman & H a l l , 1876,  cit.,  p.  194  L i f e o f W a i t e r Savage v o l . 5, p p . 90-96.  Landor,  London,  -118-  In says  the  c o n v e r s a t i o n , "Southey  o f Spenser,  is  scarcely  it  so  through  a poet  delightful The  "Milton  same and  of  to  idea,  and  the mouth  the  read  same  of  Porson," Porson,  eminence,  i n , or  so  The  that  tedious to  read  found  through." 3  i s repeated  c o n v e r s a t i o n goes  .  "There  whom I h a v e  elaborated slightly,  Marvel."  Landor  in  -  Milton. . . . I would r a t h e r have w r i t t e n two s u c h scenes / a s those i n Dante/ than twenty s u c h poems as t h e F a e r y Q u e e n . Marvel. A l l e g o r y grows t i r e s o m e : n e v e r t h e l e s s , y o u h a v e f o u n d , as I h a v e h e a r d y o u s a y , much t o p l e a s e y o u i n S p e n s e r . The h e a r t , I c o n f e s s i t , i s n e v e r - t o u c h t b y h i m ; a n d .he ' does not e x c i t e even a l i g h t emotion. Milton. He l e a d s u s i n t o n o w a l k s o f N a t u r e . A p o e t m u s t do t h a t , o r f o r f e i t h i s r i g h t t o a seat i n the upper house.32 7  Landor's that  i t s allegory  reveal until  Nature  He  few  to  i s us,  that  the  Faerie  " t i r e s o m e , " and may  be  true  Queene  that  - but  is  Spenser  l e t us  "tedious," does  reserve  not opinion  later. The  a  judgment,  opinion  lines  from  of  Landor  h i s poem  can  b e s t be  "Chaucer,  shown, p r o b a b l y ,  0 how  I wish  thou  by  wert."  writes, Ah,  surely  verse  was  never  meant  To r e n d e r m o r t a l s somnolent. I n S p e n s e r ' s l a b y r i n t h i n e , rhymes I throw'my arms o ' e r h e a d a t t i m e s , O p e n i n g s o n o r o u s m o u t h as w i d e . , ' . • ' As o y s t e r s h e l l s a t ebb o f t i d e . 3  The  a d v i c e g i v e n by  op.  H.  31  Landor,  cit.,  32  Ibid.,  v o l . 4,  pp.  33  I b i d . , v o l . 8,  p.-  Morley  v o l . 4,  i n an  pp.  150-151. 518.  5  article  74-75.  published  -119-  by  t h e Athenaeum makes  survey  o f more  About  an a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c l u s i o n t o  important  Spenser  the anriotators  this  criticism.  o f Sjpenser, M o r l e y  writes,  W i t h a l l human l e a r n i n g t h e y a p p e a r t o have been f e d , - b u t the p l a i n f a n c y which s h o u l d s u s t a i n t h o s e who f o l l o w Spenser's s t e p s s e e m s r a r e l y t o h a v e f o u n d i t s way i n t o t h e i r mind.34 How  true  this i s .  Spenser's "...acquired sion,  use of antique  / f o r these  and s c a t t e r e d  peculiar  delicacy."  Morley justly  makes  conclude:  words/  the l i g h t s 3 5  •  words,  Morley  remarks,  increased wealth and shades  of  expres-  o f language  with  .  a statement  with  which  this  chapter  may  ' •  The f o p p e r y w h i c h c o n s i d e r s t h e m e a n i n g o f S p e n s e r t o o p l a i n t o be t h o u g h t a b o u t , a n d the p e d a n t r y which would see i n him o n l y a d e a l e r i n the "marine s t o r e s " o f p e t t y h i s t o r y , h a v e a l i k e t e n d e d t o s c a r e away n a t u r a l and u n a f f e c t e d p e r c e p t i o n s from most p u b l i c e x p o s i t i o n s o f Spenser. The t r a i n o f thought from canto to canto I s n o t "too p l a i n " ; - i n d i v i d u a l a l l e g o r i e s a r e m a n i f e s t enough, b u t the exact d e s i g n which t h e y . a l l u n i t e to form, the l e a d i n g arguments I n which they a l l o c c u r , are s u f f i c i e n t l y r e c o n d i t e t o demand a s e a r c h a n d s u f f i c i e n t l y i n g e n i o u s t o be w o r t h d i s c o v e r y . To p o i n t these o u t would be t o i n c r e a s e t h e p o p u l a r i t y • o f S p e n s e r , - a n d a d d t o t h e d e l i g h t o f many r e a d e r s who d o n o t c a r e t o s t u d y p o e t r y , b u t seek i n i t only r e l a x a t i o n and amusement. 3 6  It  has been  necessary  t o omit  34 /I8487, v o l . 2 1 , p . 8 0 0 . 35  Loc. c i t .  36  Loc.c i t .  certain  writers  from  this  -120-  chapter  because  undertaken.  brief  burgh  Review  found  immense  early  in life,  an  long  add  Notable  contributed  the  they  among  praise  (vol. 7  and  these  of Spenser of  the  i n the a  study  we  i s S i r Walter  v o l . 17),  contributed  edition  to  i n h i s two  inspiration  line  annotated  nothing  articles and  John  works  short,  of  have  Scott,  to  the  Keats,  imitations,  and  Edinwho  Spenser.  insignificant later  the  Faerie  Queene  to  note  i n the  Spenserian  who  Keats, poem  to  presented  his  beloved  Fanny. The of  the  most  Early  praise  of  periods  i s the  romantic  critics.  the  and  i s no  criticism is  Victorians  i n which  decessor there  striking  fades  the  by  realizes the  the  of  and  the  language  "repulsive,"  interest  be  the the  of  so  Age  strange was  the transition  Victorian  romanticism  was  when  tempered religion,  Victorian  was  was  better  romanticism  the  romanticism  I f this  i s kept  of  more the  i n mind  understood.  Hallam,  who  Shepheard.es C a l e n d e r Early  to  follows,  i n science, p o l i t i c s ,  than  exception of  that  criticism  i t i s not  nineteenth century. can  i n i t s pre-  movement  the  the  previous  This lack  that  Victorian  the  from  foreshadowed  romantic  Yet  i n attitude  the of  the  Is  i n the  remembers  change  Unlike  Victorians.  morality.  abruptness With  Early  that  conventional  from  romantic.  Victorian  philosophy  turn  gradually  when.one  predominantly one  movement  transition  of  strange  one  abrupt  criticism  Victorians  attacked  and  limited  the  labelled their  i t  adverse  -121-  criticism Macaulay fault  o f Spenser found  that  to attacks a l l e g o r y was  i n the Paerie  Queene.  because  of its' allegories.  to  tedious  some  The  word  "tedious"  i s also  writer  Spenser's  a l l e g o r y was  coherence  because  from  deprived  o f t o o much  that  they  the poem  "gave  o f t h e same  birth kind."  t o them b y L a n d o r . Review  explains  ingenuity  An  that  of its. consistency  h i s story  most  Hallam.  Calender  and unhappy  contains  vehement  Besides  "repulsive"  and t h a t  and  Spenser,  t o l e a d h i m away  a i r . "  Spenser's because He  attack  he  does  on S p e n s e r  n o t completed.  show  signs  less  rich  than  do  Age.  books  and c o n t a i n  d e s c r i p t i o n s , and more books.  "end i n a  to  find,  Tales  from  the p e n  because  of i t s  because i t  When h e  that-Spenser's  The l a t e r  the e a r l i e r  "cold,  and t o t h e  i s e v e n more b i t t e r .  of weariness,  concludes,  came  condemns t h e poem  not regret  poems,  ata l l .  i n the E l i z a b e t h a n  Queene H a l l a m  writes,  of i t s  attacking' the Calender  language,  minor  i s unable  a l l u s i o n s to p o l i t i c a l ' h i s t o r y  differences  Hallam  reviewing  a n y j o y i n t h e poem  The  Paerie  North,  the Shepheardes  says,  was  attacked  h i s moral.  uncomfortable,  he  applied  matter.  unpardonable  also  He w r i t e s  i n B o o k One, a l l o w e d  attacks  of  Hallam  i n the Quarterly  Christopher  he  t h e one  and u n i n t e r e s t i n g p o e t r y  anonymous  except  on h i s s u b j e c t  frequent  which  t o the  He.for one, original  vivid  and  plan  he  remarks,  imagery,  verbose  of knights  satiety  turns  o f t h e poem, less  religious  digressions ladies,  no p o e t i c a l  -122-  excellence Of verse on  can  course,  - but  the  overcome."  that  whole,  that his  literary  will of and  be  made  Spenser to  see  which  was  Gone  f o r few  poets.  Spenser  a l l early  was.  versification, themselves  not  i s fading  p r o d u c e d by  i s the p r a i s e  of the  These  Victorian  critics  critical  into  to view  hundred  criticism what  two  surveyed In  trends  have  been  ad-  writers,  f o r Spenser's at  this may  the background the next  was  the major  attacks  popularity. • In the  criticism  and  chapter and  f i f t y  the p r e c e d i n g revealed.  time  were  be  sign •  a  i s an  losing attempt  years chapters  -123-  ... .CHAPTER  SEVEN, . .  CONCLUSION.  Spenser was  was  by n o means  i n the years  that  we  from  they  larity  of a writer  which  relation  in  matters  of  thought,  without  o f thought manners  being  tween for  There  popularity  measuring  read  be  fairly  i t a n d we  however, measure  things. by  The  the extent  i s best  and on readers A  writer  or important  i s , however,  and i m p o r t a n c e ;  little  writers  In  matters popular  being  t o be b o t h  popular. popular  correlation  nor i s there  t o .•  considered  may.be  without  f o r a writer  popu-  any  be-  rule  either.  T o d a y , when can  impor-  he h a s h a d o n o t h e r  or delight.  achievement  important.  and n o t w i t h  determined  or style,  important,  stress  h i s importance  to the i n f l u e n c e  i s a supreme  .and  whereas  I must  different  i s usually  i n 1850 a s he  t o 1650.  popularity  a r e two e n t i r e l y  he i s r e a d ,  in  .It  h i s death  are d e a l i n g with  tance*  as popular  a book  well  sells  assured  can i n f e r  i t exerts  over  that  that  while  over  we  over  copies  a million  i t i s popular.  an i n f l u e n c e  i t s importance  a million  we  people  have  Even i f ,  i t s readers  are contemporary  we  cannot  with i t .  -124-  Its  influence,  fad  of  thought,  When  we  when we  unable  to  because  Secondly,  fifty  our  cost  years of  the  The  of  readers  of  was  the  on  the  whole,  By large  of  Elizabethan  and  popularity.  He  them  to  i f at  tracts.  these  by  Jacobean  present. pub-  hundred was  "broadsides" third  had  Quadrlvium:  he  and  not  was  an  counter-  been He  was  soundly  i n theology,  in  received his  final  such  exception  i n m i n d , we  and  references  w r i t e r s how f o r men  his classical  and  or,  place,  h i s modern  writers with  writing  wider  Elizabethan literature,  things  allusions  comprehend  from  at  or  the  i n languages,  tour.'  produced  was  the In  a l l possible,  (Shakespeare  keeping  number  read  are then,  a  whom o u r  could not beyond  we  had  caused  exists  reader,  into  trouble  a book  three  Trivium': and  'grand  was  backgrounds  or  than  take  place,  E l i z a b e t h a n gentleman  classics,  p h i l o s o p h y , .and,  first  different  anything  grounded  passing  not  probably  books  person,  the  a  must  do  number  Elizabethan differed  i n the  that the  religious  educated  we  In  'impelled' i n t o  polish  factors  either  absorbing  as  age.  today, he  seen  style.  of p u b l i c a t i o n  ago:  educated  part.  of  own  average  with d i f f i c u l t y , the.  or  circulation  the  o n l y be  E l i z a b e t h a n Age  number  c a t e r to  capable  the  estimate  hand-to-hand  lishers  a  view  high  may  manners,  view  consideration us  indeed,  to  great whose  educational  to can  on  this). see  from  Spenser was  by  both  Spenser's  education  theological  the  enabled  allusions  -125  with  an  immediacy  thermore,  that  Spenser  was  ensured writing  tions  i n versification,  rime,  metre  Such  skilful  English, time, the  and  over-shadowed  Besides like  his  models,  looked  language  perhaps, the  except  from  temporaries With the  gothic  rules.  of The  language, forms,  and  which,  literature.  also  chivalry  As  and  a  result  '  i n '  near  Everything  contemporaries  advent  of  was  i n the  writers  neo-classicists found  his subject of  of  which  fault  matter, the  with  Italian wrote  copied a  the  mixture  tinged, spirit  drew  of  critical  Davenant  was  the  -  a l l con-  spontaneity of  replaced  their  by  the  reason and  with Spenser's  his allegories,  pastoral.  Spenser,  Spenser.  the.Restoration  Jacobean  and  and  renaissance classicism  B o l t o n and  h i s use  in  Spenser's  h i s w o r k was  Jonson,  critics  at  •  allegories,  Sidney,  the  before  for Inspiration,  diction  and  interest.  turned to L a t i n  antique  Elizabethan  sobriety  seen  the  or  the  been  innova-  handling of  Immediate  works,  political  with baroque.  times  attacks  and  of Chaucer.  medieval  when h i s  Innovations'.?- i n v e r s i f i c a t i o n ,  to medieval  moral  time  Fur-  a preoccupying interest  i n Italian  making  an  never  by  contemporaries,  religious,  of  had  i n Chaucer's  and  a  enjoyment,  when h i s m a s t e r f u l  versifying  classics  at  stanza created  except  were  their  their  archaic his  stanza  Rymer, D r y d e n ,  Pope,  - 126 -  Gay, a n d J o h n s o n - a l l c e n s u r e d S p e n s e r .  He was  widely  o f a l l u s i o n s shows,  but  read  i n this  period,  a s t h e number  h i s p r e s t i g e was a t a l o w ebb.  versification,  h o w e v e r , was  still  no l e s s e n i n g  o f t h e number  flowing  the pens o f w r i t e r s  It  never occured  Faerie not  from  His great strong,  certain  and, t h e r e  o f Spenser i m i t a t i o n s  to the n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s that  according  that  to the r u l e s .  the  great  critic,  or,  rather,  the reason the  conforming  The  that  i t was  like  Aristotle  law.  Thus  s t y m i e d by t h e i r  was  they  S p e n s e r and S h a k e s p e a r e f o r r  t o t h e r u l e s ; and t h e y t h e m s e l v e s  that,  and  and what he s a i d was l a w ,  what t h e y t h o u g h t he s a i d was  p r o c e e d e d t o condemn w r i t e r s  t o become  authors.  The n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s were  as c o r r o b o r a t i o n .  literature  were  t h e y were r i g h t , and t h e y c i t e d A r i s t o t l e  name, t h e g r e a t  on  was  that  - u s u a l l y minor  Horace, R a p i n and B o i l e a u  not  influence  Queene d i d n o t c o n f o r m t o t h e r u l e s was  written  still  own  wrote  regulations,  tended  stilted. literary  pendulum, however, i s n e v e r  still,  and  t h e n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s were s u p e r s e d e d by t h e p r e - r o m a n t i c s a p e c u l i a r g r o u p o f w r i t e r s who nor  romantic, but rather  tween t h e two s c h o o l s .  were n e i t h e r n e o - c l a s s i c a l  occupy a t r a n s i t i o n a l Warton and Hurd, e a r l y  were a u t h o r s o f t h e two most v a l u a b l e concerning by  this  Spenser t h a t  thesis.  and i m p o r t a n t  E a c h showed a c o n s i d e r a b l e  the F a e r i e  tracts covered  neo-classical  counter-balanced  Queene s h o u l d  i n be-  pre-romantics,  come o u t o f t h e w h o l e p e r i o d  i n f l u e n c e w h i c h , however, was demand t h a t  state  be s t u d i e d  by  their  f o r what i t  -127-  •J  is  and  not  In  the  post-Spenserian  light  of  literary  I h g e n e r a l , i t may  any  be  said,  adverse  criticism  and  than  earlier  writers.  And,  s t i l l and  were  concerned  t o be  seen,  allusions  to  Nevertheless, writers,  and  repeated. Hurd's  Letters  The on  Spenser  i n d e e d , few  and  of  criticism  romantic  found  i n h i s p o e t r y the  two  place  disturbing  the  trend  and,  little  known  s e c o n d l y , as either  appreciation  tirely pally  to by  poets the  Although  of who,  sweetness never  were  the  adverse  or  had  own  not and  praise.  and  achieve.  melody  But In  c e n t u r y , was  even  the  allegories,  become were  In  first  which strength-  revealed, Spenser  declined  had  heaped  romanticism;  o f word  elsewhere.  whole,  of his  was  Observations  apparent.  Spenser's  Wordsworth  h i s works on  to  seventeenth  general popularity  Jacobean  o t h e r hand,  their  wished  i n England  was  numerous.  and  unqualified  same m u s i c  of neglecting  ening;  the  and of  developments  e v i d e n t d u r i n g the  The  voice  themselves  became  Spenser's  on  wholehearted the  this  pallid.  writers,  they  they  was  i n  imitations,  s t i l l  the E l i z a b e t h a n  e x c e p t i o n of Warton's  i n Spenser  so,  were  Spenser  influence  some n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s ,  the most  that  writers  Spenserian  h i s muse  wrote,  of  that  found  verse  praise  Spenser's  i n many  They  of  genuine  of  the  hy  pre-romantics  fervour  the  early  the  w i t h him.  Spenser  even  With  less  however,  the  imposed  conventions.  less  period  restrictions  was  other  words,  considerably. limited  almost  influenced  en-  princi-  versification..  in their  criticism,  the  later  -128-  romantic ser.  critics  There  mantics idea  were  less  unqualified i n eulogizing  was, h o w e v e r , n o  transition  and the e a r l y V i c t o r i a n s .  between  these  two g r o u p s  The a b r u p t  i s surprising  after  a l l , t h e e a r l y V i c t o r i a n s were  There  c a n be  that  i s that  only  one e x p l a n a t i o n  the sudden  interest  religion,  philosophy  romantics  to hold  possessed  by the romantics  the r o -  change  conventional  themselves.  abruptness,  of science, induced  and  politics,  the V i c t o r i a n  a t t i t u d e than  a t the turn  of  because,  romantics  for this  and m o r a l i t y  a more  between  Spen-  of the  was  nineteenth  century. With  such  Victorians pletely  limited  to attacks  his  allegory.  and  with  to the  their  Theirs  eyes  made:  Spenser's  that almost  a moral they  o r the pleasures  p o p u l a r i t y was at a l l ,  were  p o p u l a r i t y appears  of  tales  not acknowledged. t o have  been  i n a  since  the p e r i o d  o f the n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s ,  course,  among  the poets,  but, according  reading  by Wordsworth, Macaulay  public.  Spenser's  B u t e v e n among  and o t h e r s , many  interesting;  general  not, of  to various  the poets  work were n o t c o n s i d e r e d  can be.  p o i n t , and  decline  m e n t s made  unable  richness,  observations  at i t s lowest was  com-  criticism,  and r e n a i s s a n c e  Two  the e a r l y  s u b j e c t m a t t e r and  of moralists  and l a d i e s .  influence, i f felt Spenser's  Spenser's  of medieval  delights of fairy-land, knights  criticism  was p r e d o m i n a n t l y  the jaundiced  with  i t i s no wonder  adverse  against  see t h e b e a u t i e s  dealing  his  a background  state-  among t h e aspects  of  indeed,  -129-  his  versification  holding  his  allegories  writings lost  cal .allegory, and or  the too  for  the  that  Too  was  many  pleasures  Spenser  generall  end  gentleman  or  he  matter or  esteem  was  attacked  i n his  therefore  of  person  may  for  on  to  moral  and  The  be  either  viewed  a l l the  to  Faerie  Ralegh,  i n vertuous  and  discovered),  religious  the  book i s  politi-  old-fashioned,  notwithstanding  letter  their  the  never  considered  i t afforded,  noble  reason  whatsoever.  admitted,  commentators  wrote,  main  i m p o r t a n c e . (the;-key  i t must  simple,  the  i n any  their  subject  grounds.  remained  to  the that  Queene fact "The  fashion  a  gentle  discipline...." In larity the of  order had  been  appendix Spenser  to  to  study  confirm steadily this and  my  opinion  decreasing,  thesis  to  that  I have  show t h e  scholarship.  Spenser's  popu-  attempted  present  state  i n  -130-  ... APPENDIX...  The  general  seventy-five determine day.  intent  leading North  the extent  At the time  received list  from  Since speare, poets,  to  Spenser  written replies  institutions the r e s u l t s  i s usually  the f o l l o w i n g  a course  Chaucer;  ranked  on C h a u c e r ,  universities  only  occasionally). study  offer  Spenser  show  with  a  tutions,  that  course  stressing  report that  see  are  interest-  only  one d o e s n o t  centres i n  o f some  the study their  Compared w i t h  these  figures  (this  sort;  Milton  way,  course  t h e amount  only twenty-six  a r e , i n some  and  of Milton  offer  that  Shake-  English  they  i s disappointing:  univer-  predominantly  figure  includes three  Canadian  ©jueen's U n i v e r s i t y ,  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  The U n i v e r s i t y The  been  surprising  Chaucer,  reporting,  o r a course  courses  courses  courses  had  ( f o r names  of the survey  a Shakespeare  offer  (two  Spenser  results  universities  a l l offer  but seven  sities  was  and s c h o l a r s h i p t o -  a n d M i l t o n as one o f t h e f o u r g r e a t e s t  offer  and  o f these  study  was t o  Spenser.  Of t h e s i x t y  of  thesis  On t h e w h o l e  ing.  all  American U n i v e r s i t i e s  of Spenser  this  sixty  at end).  indifference  o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent t o  insti-  Saskatchewan,  of Toronto).  work o f these  twenty-six  colleges  can be  broken  -131-  down as ten  follows;  offer  five  their  include  (Queen's almost  the  years,  study  to  of  one  a  two  in  these  versity The is  Milton  offers  although  three years,  (so f a r twice  and  interest.  The  to  enrolment  only  average  when  advanced  Three  courses enrolment  three  s e v e n t y - f i v e (Columbia  i n other  i n  alternate  Spenser  i s eighteen, varying from  some  courses  i n ten years).  insufficient  of Colorado)  devoted  i n  one  only-;  courses  with  their  i t s Course  their  classes  course  offer  f u l l ;  students  in.their  Honours  withdrawn  sory  the  sixty  literary  level,  and  include the  survey  from  greatly  Faerie  the  Wellesley, books  to  courses of  heard on  these  Spenser.  among  a l l or part  five  ( .') o f  universities  forty-two  readings  varies  two  and  i n  (Uni-  University).  English  courses  forty.  offer  der,  "An  have  average  Gf  of  of  as  Queene  to graduate  other writers  one  or  demands  other universities because  Faerie  poets."); three  seminar;  every  registration  of  Spenser  to minor  the  courses  i t s course  entirely  form  study  Spenser  the  lists  attention  twenty  Queene, thirteen  the one  The  extent  but,  eclogue from  E p i t h a i ami o n  and  both  colleges,  of  Advanced  the  Faerie  courses  on  the  of  only or  forty-nine  second  includes  following:  connets  women's  first  courses  colleges, of  a  from  of the  one the  the  compul-  this  reading  whole, to  year  they  three  cantos  Sihepheardes  Amorettl,  P r o t h a i ami on. include  the  and  Calenportions  Vassar  and  reading  of  Spenser  are  Queene.  that  include  a  study  of  -132-  • offered spent  by  on  to  eight  two  and  Spenser weeks one  Only students which  thirty-five  carry  there  "not  much," o r  five  any  Toronto  graduate  have  listed  "none  at  research  had  five  these's  w o r k on  that  the  generally."  to  work  is  do  "falling the  one  at of  scholarship).  the  Prom  of  Spenser,  other over  the  research  had  five  the  fifteen done,  of record  years,"  there  have  theses  two  Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s  thesis,  been done.  The  University  and  McGill  Of  Nebraska on  by  the  and  thirty  North  colleges  re-  they  have  of  Florida to  University graduate  that of  America's  says  undertake of  Washington  research  Spenser  years  University  University  graduates:  know e n o u g h "  of  of  had  not  off  In  have  University  o f f /of  are  Texas  The  the  thesis  (of  Only  Spenser:  or  universities  doctoral  falling the  the  have  one  Spenser, and  (During  was  .  lectures  however,  they  work on  amount;  carried  apiece.  lectured  institution  time  and  doctoral  candidates  proportionate  Spenser  w o r k on  that  thirteen doctoral  u n i v e r s i t i e s of  most  Padelford  theses  one  the  states  and  much" work has  "M.A.  of  two  time,  "considerable  amount  present).  had  amount from  average  recently."  the  graduate  p o r t i n g , the  graduate  varies  research the  e i t h e r been  master's  has  "not  The  The  weeks.  stated  preparation  that  lectures.  eighteen master's  claim  courses  on  has  have  which  says  these  twenty u n i v e r s i t i e s report  that  come  of  half  fifteen  which  in  universities.  work/  scholarship the  late  Washington leading  P.M. that  centres  of  is  -135-  Universities asked such the  whether  or not  a course  into  twenty-five  only The  University average  of  the  being  taken toward  Marion Carson  Spenser  course f a i l e d ,  fered),  and  course  by  The  by  Miss lack  i s pointed  be  at  the  lacks  Muriel  out by  course  that  time,  are professor  writes  f o r even  advanced  etc." o f New  the  of  first  J . Hughes  of  student "limited  University,  Nebraska  (their  y e a r i t was  of-  the U n i v e r s i t y  teachers  Professor  that  Spenser's Brunswick  University  competent  though  courses i s s i x .  attitudes  an  J.W.  Of  successful.  of Manitoba  Pacey  i n 1946,  be  Spenser  present  Chaucer  Mr.  a  of  question  even  English  t o why  were  successful. this  favourably  as  course  incorporation  answered  illuminate  of.the  of  the  would  i n advanced  of M i l t o n ,  by'Miss  Vermont.  replied  University  i s stressed  Spenser  that  which  comments  appeal"  a  Spenser, c o u r s e would  F a e r y Queen  meat  offer  thought  Spenser  of the  The  solid  a  successful  Wheeler  not  curriculum  of Alaska  n o t be  the  their  that  would  "Perhaps  they  enrolment  A number  A.L.  do  universities  s i x thought  their  which  for a  of  Spenser  Huggins  of  the  v University sity of  of Arizona,  o f G e o r g i a , and  Texas, which Some  Faulkner, ^Acting versity find  very  a  Miss Marie Dunvas T.P.  writes  on  of  of the  the  University  Mr.  Claude  English-Department of  that  "Most  Professor  Univer-  Spenser.  interesting.  Head' o f . t h e  dull."  Harrison  course  are most  of Arkansas  Spenser  Mr.  offers  comments  by  students  F.Y.  (and  St. C l a i r  W.  the Uni-. teachers) o f 'the  -134-  University would that  be  is  "No at  University  be  of  Pennsylsania  this  hard  eligible  obstacle."  that  than  a  3(2i.Sffi i s  m a d e by  expand  tics,  classical  criteria." a  of  theses  of  of  all  an  of  more  A  world  of  Goldman,  at  the  should  other  no  present  such  of  University needs"  of  the  well  as  Wyoming  for al  I,  and  importance  poli-  esthetic to  seems  of  it  that  Elizabethan  it  eri'fcd-  University  literature, alone,  over-  writers  rather surprising  me,  for a  better  literature.  Spenser  checking  Spenser  course  who  vital  Elizabethan  in  S h a a b & r of  "Undergraduates  history,  things  course  Illinois,  an  Pearce  literary  with  competition with  "apparent  k n o w , as  "You  course  is  many  the  Committee.  Spenser  too  Spenser.  according  students,  study  of  students  Spenser  that  are  appeal  students."  Graduate  intensive  Smith  these  Selden  w r i t t e n on  a  in  states  backgrounds,  Spenser  the  course  natural  either  P r o f e s s o r U.A.  P r o f e s s o r T.M.  However,  Marcus  University  of  of  Carolina,  offers  there  are  only into  understanding Mr.  L.  writes,  would  make  but  there  of  South  f o r intensive  study  who  part  enough  read;  Laurence  student  would  to  handicap;  Mexico  on of  "appealing  Spenser  have' f o r A m e r i c a n  twenty-five  offering."  come  New  of  a  amount  Chairman of  rich  Spenser  finds  would  interest  enrolment  that  f o r the  York University  find  equally  thinks  the U n i v e r s i t y  to  not  unusually  also  great  New  average  found  specialized  Edwin W h i t e s e l l ,  Although an  Dakota  subject matter  faculty"  to J .  North  "too  the  There  of  that  to  lecturer determine  university  at the was  the number  -135-  surprised sidering linois  to  find  that  total  H.S.V. J o n e s  before  his  Professor erary  the  trend.  was  than  he  Spenser  expected,  lecturer  con-  at I l -  death.  Goldman He  less  comments  on  a  newly  developing  l i t -  writes,  The t r e n d h e r e i n r e c e n t y e a r s seems t o h a v e b e e n away f r o m E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e t o A m e r i c a n l i t e r a t u r e , away f r o m p o e t r y to p r o s e f i c t i o n , a n d away f r o m t h e o l d e r p e r i ods t o t h e m o s t r e c e n t o n e s . Prom c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h men i n the f a c u l t i e s o f other universities, particularly universities in the M i d d l e West, I have the i m p r e s s i o n that the t r e n d i s n o t a l o c a l phenomenon b u t rather general. I t i s , of course, g r e a t l y t o be r e g r e t t e d , f o r a t l o n g l a s t , i t i s c e r t a i n t o make f o r b o t h n a r r o w n e s s a n d . superficiality in literary scholarship;. If  such  future  a  state  Spenser on  a  ducted among  of  which  appears  s i m i l a r to  the  in  by  B.  1949  William  Georgia,  sixty-six  upperclass on  -  colleges  Kentucky, Mr.  reporting  course  must  truly  scholarship  survey,  Tennessee.^  touched  we  and  to be  fear for  for  the  the  state  already  of  tottering  foundation.  a l l four-year  survey  then  literary  scholarship,  Florida,  the  exists  crumbling A  and  trend  with  Hunter colleges  three  level  to  only  Spenser with  one  I  have  Hunter, and  m a d e , was  Jr., of  Wofford  u n i v e r s i t i e s of  North Carolina, writes  that  s i x to  Carolina,  fifty-seven of  c l a s s hours  nineteen  College  Alabama,  South  included-Spenser six  con-  colleges  in a  sophomore  of  lectures.  had  courses  twenty-four hours  At that  devoted  1 " S p e n s e r and M i l t o n i n S o u t h e a s t , " i n S o u t h A t l a n t i c B u l l e t i n / ( M a r c h , 1 9 5 1 ) , . v o l . 1.6, No. 4., p. 1 and pp. 5-6.  -136-  to  his  study,  entirely class  to  the  hours)  the  whole,  my  own  are  there  colleges  study  the  of  Spenser  enrolments,  of  results  Mr.  of  similar,  with  was  graduate  more  than  About  fourteen colleges  with  On  that  and  I  found  Spenser  the  i n  and  the  had  courses  (twenty ten  to  to  exception  forty-five  twelve  Hunter's  devoted  students.  survey  that  he  and  of  found  research i n preparation at larger  smaller  institutions.  Milton scholarship,  Mr.  Hunter  writes: ...the most t e l l i n g judgment o f t h i s s u r v e y s h o u l d be a i m e d a t o u r g r a d u a t e s c h o o l s . O n l y h a l f o f them o f f e r a d v a n c e d s t u d y o f t h e s e two p o e t s , who a s s u r e d l y r a n k among our top f i v e . The c o l l e g e s a p p e a r t o be d o i n g t h e i r jobs b e t t e r than the u n i v e r s i t i e s , b u t i f the l a t t e r do not i n t e r e s t t h e i r g r a d u a t e s i n t h e w o r k o f t h e s e two p o e t s , t e a c h i n g o f them w i l l i n e v i t a b l y d e c l i n e i n the c o l l e g e s , whose f a c u l t i e s m u s t be t r a i n e d i n the l a r g e r s c h o o l s . 2  and,  he  s ays: S p e n s e r comes o f f b e t t e r p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y i n r e s e a r c h and t h e s e s , b u t f a r e s worse among t h e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s than Milton, who, i n t u r n , i s w i d e l y r e a d by a l l l e v e l s o f s t u d e n t s a l t h o u g h i n t e r e s t i n him does not appear to c a r r y over v e r y w e l l i n t o the graduate s c h o o l . 3  The up  to  intellectual  1850,  today,  and  shown by  is startling.  talking  of  our  make up  that  apathy  these  op.  5  Loc. c i t .  surveys  h e r i t a g e when t h e  h e r i t a g e are  Hunter,  two  Spenserian of  It i s hardly possible  literary  2  r e v e a l e d by  cit.,  being  p.  6.  Spenser  to  great  forgotten or  criticism study  continue. writers  overlooked.  who  -137-  Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t i n g were* U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a ( U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia) McGill University McMaster U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y of. Manitoba New Brunswick U n i v e r s i t y Queen's U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto American u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t i n g were; U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama U n i v e r s i ty of A l a s k a U n i v e r s i t y of A r i z o n a U n i v e r s i t y of Arkansas Bryn Mawr U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a U n i v e r s i t y of Colorado Columbia U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y of Connecticut U n i v e r s i t y of Delaware Duke U n i v e r s i t y University of Florida U n i v e r s i t y of Georgia Harvard U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa John Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas U n i v e r s i t y of Kentucky L o u i s i a n a State UniversityU n i v e r s i t y o f Maine U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s i s s i p p i University of Missouri Montana State U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska U n i v e r s i t y o f Nevada U n i v e r s i t y of New M e x i c o New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a U n i v e r s i t y of North Dakota Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y of ©klahoma U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania \ C o l l e g e of Puget Sound Purdue U n i v e r s i t y Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y  U n i v e r s i t y of South C a r o l i n a U n i v e r s i t y of South Dakota Stanford U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas U n i v e r s i t y of Utah Vassar C o l l e g e U n i v e r s i t y o f Vermont University of V i r g i n i a U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington Wellesley College U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n U n i v e r s i t y o f Wyoming Yale University  -137a-  APPMDIX TWO  The f o l l o w i n g b r i e f summary of the numbers of e d i t i o n s of S p e n s e r ' s F a e r i e Queene and h i s Works to the year 1850 i s i n t e r e s t i n g .  complete  Separate  e d i t i o n s of v a r i o u s minor works are not c o n s i d e r e d nor are c o l l e c t i o n s Spenser's  of poetry which i n c l u d e s e l e c t i o n s  from  poetry.  During S p e n s e r ' s  actual lifetime  o f the F a e r i e Queene (Bks. I to I I I , were p u b l i s h e d .  Before 1650,  o n l y the two  parts  and Bks, IV to VI)  however,  three e d i t i o n s of  h i s Works appeared. The F a e r i e Queene d i d not appear i n p r i n t by  itself  d u r i n g the N e o - C l a s s i c a l p e r i o d (1650-175°) but t h r e e new e d i t i o n s of the Works came from the  press.  The Pre-Romantic and Romantic p e r i o d s were p a r t i c u l a r l y r i c h - f o u r e d i t i o n s of the F a e r i e Queene and e l e v e n of Works.  S i x more e d i t i o n s of the l a t t e r ,  E a r l y V i c t o r i a n s , appeared before  p u b l i s h e d by the  1850.  I t would seem safe to say that these f i g u r e s the spread of l i t e r a c y and growth o f t e x t u a l r a t h e r than r e v e a l any i n f o r m a t i o n about popularity.  the  indicate  scholarship  Spenser's  -138-  ...BIBLIOGRAPHY...  The number enclosed i n brackets signifies  at the end of each  entry  the number of the chapter i n which the m a t e r i a l  may be f o u n d . A d d i s o n , Joseph, "An account of the G r e a t e s t E n g l i s h P o e t s , " [1694-], The Works of Joseph A d d i s o n , R. H u r d , e d . , London, G. B e l l , v o l . 1, p . 23. [33• Armstrong, D r . J o h n , I m i t a t i o n of Spenser, i n The Works of the E n g l i s h P o e t s . . . , Alexander Chalmers, e d . , London, J . Johnson a n d , O t h e r s , 1810, v o l . 16, p . 156. To be known h e r e a f t e r as Chalmer's P o e t s . (4)• Athenian Mercury. J u l y 11, 1691, v o l . 2, quoted i n C a r o l i n e F . E . Spurgeon, F i v e Hundred Years of Chaucer C r i t i c i s m and A l l u s i o n (1357-1900). Chaucer S o c i e t y , London, Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h , Triibner & C o . , L t d . , and Henry Frowde, 1914, s e r . 2, No. 48, P t . 1, p . 263. ( 3 ) . A t t e r b u r y , F r a n c i s , "Preface to the second p a r t o f Mr. W a l l e r * s Poems, p r i n t e d i n the year 1690," i n The Poems of Edmund W a l l e r . G. Thorne D r u r y , e d . , London, A . H . B u l l e n , 1901, p . x i x . (3). Aubrey, J o h n , B r i e f L i v e s . A . C l a r k , e d . , O x f o r d , O l a r e n deon, P r e s s , 1898, v o l . 2, pp. 232-233; p . 248. (3). A u s t i n , Samuel, "Naps upon P a r n a s s u s , " [ I 6 5 8 ] , quoted i n Shakspere A l l u s i o n Book, C M . I n g l e b y , and O t h e r s , e d s . , London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932, v o l . 2, p. 78. (3).  -139-  B a r n f i e l d . R i c h a r d , " i f music a n d sweet p o e t r y a g r e e , " and A r e m e m b r a n c e o f some E n g l i s h p o e t s , " , i n P o e t r y o f the E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e 1509-1660, J . Wm. H e b e l , a n d H o y t H. H u d s o n , e d s . , New York, A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1929. (2).  B e a t t i e , J a m e s , " P r e f a c e " t o "The M i n s t r e l , " i n The P o e t i c a l Works o f James B e a t t i e , B e l l and D a l d y , n.d. (4).  /I773/, London,  •Blackmore, S i r R i c h a r d , " P r e f a c e t o P r i n c e A r t h u r , an H e r o i c k Poem," _ 1 6 9 5 / , i n C r i t i c a l E s s a y s o f t h e Seventeenth Century, J.E. Spingarn, ed., Oxford, C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 0 8 - 9 , v o l . 3, p . 2 3 8 . (3).  B o l t o n , E d m u n d , " H y p e r c r i t i c a , " _1618_7, i n C r i t i c a l Essays of the Seventeenth Century, (see under B l a c k m o r e ) , v o l . 1, p . 1 0 9 . (1).  B r o o k e , T u c k e r , "The R e n a i s s a n c e , " i n A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d , A l b e r t C . B a u g h , e d . , New Y o r k . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1948, pp. 499-501. (5).  •Browne, W i l l i a m , T h e Poems o f W i l l i a m B r o w n e , A.H. e d . , L o n d o n , L a w r e n c e & B u l l e n , 1894, 2 v o l s .  .C ,  Bullen, (2).  R., "To t h e R e a d e r " o f W i l l i a m B o s w o r t h ' s "Arcadus a n d S e p h a , " /T65lf, i n M i n o r P o e t s o f t h e C a r o l i n e P e r i o d , George S a i n t s b u r y , ed., O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 0 6 , v o l . 2, p . 5 2 7 . (3).  •Camden, W i l l i a m , R e m a i n s C o n c e r n i n g B r i t a i n , / e d i t e d 1 6 7 4 / , L o n d o n , J o h n R u s s e l l S m i t h , 1 8 7 0 , p.,-344; p p . 427428. (1 and 2 ) .  •Carew, R i c h a r d , " T h e E x c e l l e n c y o f t h e E n g l i s h T o n g u e , " / T 5 9 5 - 1 5 9 6 7 , i n E l i z a b e t h a n C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , G. Gregory Smith, ed., London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1904, v o l . 2, p . 2 9 3 . (1).  • C h a l k h i l l , John, "Thealma and C l e a r c h u s , " i n Minor Poets o f t h e C_____ a r o l i n e P e r i o d , ( s e e u n d e r C ) , v o l . 2, p . _____  -140-  O l e v e l a n d , H.K., "Review," i n Worth 50, 1840, pp. 187-194. (6).  Cobb,  American  Review, v o l .  Samuel, "Poetae B r i t a n n i c i , " 1700/, q u o t e d i n F i v e Hundred Y e a r s of C h a u c e r ' C r i t i c i s m . . . , (see u n d e r A t h e n i a n M e r c u r y ) , v o l . 1, p p . 2 7 1 - 2 7 2 . (3).  C o l e r i d g e , S a m u e l T . , L e c t u r e s , a n d Wote-s u p o n S h a k e s p e a r e , T . A s h e , e d . , L o n d o n , G. B e l l , 1 9 0 0 . (5).  :  don,  , The T a b l e T a l k G. B e l l , 1 9 2 3 .  and Omnlana, T. [BT.  Ashe,  ed.,  Lon-  C u l p e p p e r , S i r T h o m a s , " E s s a y e s , " /1671 , quoted In Five Hundred Y e a r s of Chaucer C r i t i c i s m . . . , (see under A t h e n i a n M e r c u r y ) , v o l . I,pp. 247-248. (3). 7  Davenant, S i r W i l l i a m , "Preface to G o n d i b e r t , " /1650/, i n C h a l m e r ' s P o e t s , ( s e e U n d e r A r m s t r o n g ) , v o l . 6, p p . 250-251. (1).  D a v i e s , S i r J o h n , T h e C o m p l e t e Poems o f S i r J o h n A l e x a n d e r B. G r o s a r t , e d . , L o n d o n , C h a t t o & 1876, v o l . 1 . ( 2 ) .  D a v i s o n , F r a n c i s , P o e t i c a l R h a p s o d y , A.H. B u l l e n , London, George B e l l and S o n s , 1890, 2 v o l s .  Davies, ¥/indus,  ed. . (2)  D e n h a m , S i r J o h n , "On Mr. A b r a h a m C o w l e y ' s D e a t h , " /T6677, i n C h a l m e r ' s P o e t s , ( S e e u n d e r A r m s t r o n g ) , v o l . . 7, p . rTW. csy.  D r a y t o n , M i c h a e l , " T o My D e a r l y L o v e d F r i e n d , H e n r y Reyno l d s , E s q . , o f P o e t s and Poesy," i n The Works o f Michael Drayton, J . W i l l i a m Hebel, ed., Shakespeare H e a d P r e s s , 1932, v o l . 3. (2).  , ""To t h e R e a d e r o f H i s P a s t o r a l s , " P o e t s , ( s e e u n d e r A r m s t r o n g ) , v o l . 4,  Dryden, John, Essays of John C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1900.  Dryden, (3).  W.P.  i n Chalmer s p. 431. (T). 1  Ker,  ed.,  Oxford,  -141-  Guilpin, Everard, Skialetheia, M i l f o r d , 1931" ("2T"  _1598/ , r  London,  Humphrey  -  D u n h a m , S.A., Lives s c i e n t i f i c men, _ ____  o f t h e most e m i n e n t l i t e r a r y a n d o f G r e a t. B r i t a i n , L o n d o n , 1836, v o l .  E l l i s , ' G e o r g e , Specimens of the E a r l y E n g l i s h P o e t s , L o n d o n , L o n g m a n , H u r s t , R e e s , Orme, a n d B r o w n , 1811, v o l . 2. (4).  P a w k e s , F r a n c i s ^ " P r e f a c e " t o "The c r i t u s , " /176_7, i n C h a l m e r ' s A r m s t r o n g ) , v o l . 20, p . 1 5 6 .  I d y l l i u m s of TheoPoets, (see under (4). .  F l e t c h e r , G i l e s , T h e C o m p l e t e Poems o f G i l e s F l e t c h e r , A l e x a n d e r B. G r o s a r t , e d . , L o n d o n , C h a t t o & W i n d u s , 1876. ( 1 ) .  F u l l e r , Thomas, " C h u r c h H i s t o r y , " quoted i n F i v e Hundred Years of Chaucer C r i t i c i s m . . . , (see under A t h e n i a n " M e r c u r y ) , v o l . 1. p . 2 5 1 . (3).  , The P.A. (3).  Gay,  History  Nuttall,  of ed.,  the W o r t h i e s London,  T.  of England,  Tegg,  1840,  _T6627,  v o l . 2.  J o h n , " T h e P r o e m e t o t h e C o u r t e o u s R e a d e r " o f "The S h e p h e r d ' s Week," _T714/, i n C h a l m e r ' s P o e t s , ( s e e u n d e r A r m s t r o n g ) , v o l . 10, p. 444. (5). "~ i-  G a y t o n , Edmund, " P l e a s a n t N o t e s u p o n Don Q u i x o t " , " /I6d4t/, quoted i n Shakspere A l l u s i o n Book,.(see under A u s t i n ) , vol.  2,  p."~36T  [37-  G i l m a n , S., "The P a e r i e Q u e e n e o f S p e n s e r , " i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n R e v i e w , 1817, v o l . 5, p p . 301-3091 (TJ-.  G o l d s m i t h , O l i v e r , " S p e n s e r ' s P a e r i e Queene," i n The Works o f O l i v e r G o l d s m i t h , P e t e r Cunningham, e d . , L o n d o n , J o h n M u r r a y , 1878, v o l . 4. . (.4).  -  1J+2 -  Hacket, J o h n , "Verses on Spenser, 1883, v o l . 1, p . 247. (3).  c a . 1670," i n Athenaeum,  H a l l , J o s e p h , The C o l l e c t e d Poems of Joseph H a l l , Davenport, e d . , L i v e r p o o l , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , (2).  A. 1949.  H a l l a m , Henry, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the L i t e r a t u r e of Europe, London, John Murray, v o l . 2, 1882. (6). Harvey, G a b r i e l , M a r g i n a l i a , G . C . Moore Smith, e d . , S t r a t f o r d / - Upon-Avon, Shakespeare Head P r e s s , 1913, (1). H a z l i t t , W i l l i a m , L e c t u r e s on the E n g l i s h Poets and the E n g l i s h Comic W r i t e r s , W.C, H a z l i t t , e d . , London, G. B e l l , 1899. (5). Heylyn, Peter, Po Ko6Apj A L i t t l e D e s c r i p t i o n of the Great W o r l d , " / l 6 2 l 7 , quoted i n F i v e Hundred Years of Chaucer C r i t i c i s m . . . , (see under A t h e n i a n M e r c u r y ) , v o l . 1, p . 194. (1). f  Heywood, Edward, i n The Poems of W i l l i a m Browne, Browne), v o l . 1, p . 12. (2). ~~~  (see under  H o w e l l , James, " L o n d o n i o p o l i s , " / I 6 5 7 7 , c i t e d i n S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y , 1923, v o l . 20, p . 477. (3). Hurd, R i c h a r d , L e t t e r s on C h i v a l r y and Romance, /17627, E d i t h J . M o r l e y , e d . , London, Henry Frowde, 1911. (4) • I r v i n g , Washington, The Works of Washington I r v i n g , New Y o r k , G . P . Putnam, 1860, v o l . 2. (5). Johnson, E . . i n The Poems of W i l l i a m Browne, Browne), v o l . 2, pp. 81-82.. (2). ~  (see  under  Johnson, Samuel, "The Dangers of I m i t a t i o n , " The Rambler, No. 121, 1751, i n B r i t i s h E s s a y i s t s . Robt. Lynam and o t h e r s , e d s . , London, J . F . Dove, 1827, v o l . 13. (3).  -143  J o n s o n , Ben, The Works o f Ben J o n s o n . F r a n c i s Cunningham, e d . , L o n d o n , C h a t t o & Windus, 1903, v o l . 3. ( l and 2 ) . L a n d o r , W.S., The Works and L i f e o f W a l t e r S a v a g e L a n d o r . L o n d o n , Chapman and H a l l , 1879, v o l s . 2 , $ , 5 , a n d 8.  (6) .  L i s l e , W i l l i a m , " P r e f a c e t o E c l o g u e s o f V i r g i l , " [1628], q u o t e d i n t h e " I n t r o d u c t i o n " o f V. 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