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The community information service of the Community Chest and Council, Vancouver :a study of the process… McRae, Donalda Elizabeth 1954

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THE COMMUNITY INFORMATION SERVICE  OF THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL, VANCOUVER A Study of the Process of Community Organization in the Development of the Community Information Service and a Description and Evaluation of its Operations during an eight month period, 1953 - 1954 by DONALDA ELIZABETH McRAE Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Wosfe-School of Social Work The University of British Columbia ' 1954 - v i -ABSTRACT The widespread use of modern media of mass communica-tion, the growth of the profession of social work and the direct impact of voluntary and government welfare programs on individual and family l i f e have made the ordinary citizen aware of the existence of health and welfare services in his community. This awareness, however, is often generalized and may not prove sufficient to enable a person, at the point of human need, to communicate with that agency best fitted to serve him. To overcome these barriers i n communication and to provide a continuing demonstration of the existence of and the co-operation between social agencies, governmental and voluntary, many communities have developed central information and referral services. This study seeks f i r s t to trace the development of central information services on the North American continent and in Great Britain. The process of community organizations leading to the inauguration of a "Community Information Service" in Vancouver, Bri t i s h Columbia, is described and evaluated, as is the pattern of administration and practice in the Vancouver Information-referral office during the f i r s t year of operation on an experimental basis. To evaluate the role of the Community Information Ser-vice, Vancouver, a compilation of inquiries according to source, nature and disposal during an eight month period is presented and analysed. The program of the Community Information Service is studied against six developed c r i t e r i a . Prom this basis and from the replies received from eight organizations in response to a questionnaire, reasons for and against the continuation of the service beyond the agreed period of experimentation are pres-ented and equated. Some modifications and simplification of agency structure may be anticipated. Schools of Social Work may lay greater emphasis on generalized preparation for practice. These factors may minimize the need for referral between agen-cies and with i t the need for central referral services. But until the movements described above become more visib l e , the ordinary man l i v i n g in a metropolitan area may s t i l l benefit from the existence of central information-referral offices. APPRECIATIONS Appreciation is expressed to the Directors of eight organizations who made material available for this study. The consistent support of the Executive Director, staff and voluntary workers of the Community Chest and Council, Vancouver, i s acknowledged with gratitude. The writer wishes to thank the Director and faculty members of the School of Social Work, University of Brit i s h Columbia for continued guidance and encouragement. The skilled, patient and kindly supervision afforded by Mr. William Dixon has made the presentation of this study possible. - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS The H i s t o r i c a l Background of Information-Referral Services Chapter 1. The Development of Central Information and Referral ' Services on the North American Continent and i n  Great B r i t a i n . Factors influencing development of central information -r e f e r r a l services. E a r l y information services i n Councils of s o c i a l work. Influence of war on movement. Veterans' informa-t i o n centres. Re-tooling to meet peace time demands. Problems i n Agency r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Description of thirty-one centres, North America, 1 9 5 1 . Movement i n Great B r i t a i n originates i n voluntary agencies. Pre-war planning. Inauguration C i t i z e n s ' Advice Bureaux. Description of c i v i l i a n s i t u a t i o n and bureaux programs. Government a c t i v i t y and support. Value of Bureaux. Chapter 2. The Process of Community Organization leading to the  Inauguration of the Community Information Service. Information - r e f e r r a l services given p r i o r i t y Vancouver Chest and Council, 1947. Background i n early experiment, 1940. Study by Employed Executives Committee. Work of Rehabilitation Council. Two l e t t e r s from c i t i z e n s . S o c i a l Planning committee sets up group to study need. Function, personnel and e a r l y work of t h i s sub-committee. Report presented June 1 9 5 1 ) Board of Directors approves i n p r i n c i p l e . Review and evaluation f i r s t per-iod, personnel, focus, agency involvement. E f f o r t s to f i n d spon-sorship, consultation with f i e l d worker, Family Services Associa-t i o n . Process of involving agencies. Reactions of agencies at series of meetings. C o n f l i c t i n g projects before Social Planning Committee. Support gained from Junior League and Rotary Club. Selection of personnel. Early p o l i c i e s established. Centre opened, June 1953* Review of second period, personnel, focus, agency involvement. Chapter 3. The Administrative Setting, the P o l i c y and the Pro-cess of r e f e r r a l and d i r e c t i o n . Physical setting of project. O f f i c e procedure based on s p e c i f i c purpose and tentative p o l i c y . Routine of inquiry. S t a t i s t i c a l and case recording. Development of resource f i l e s . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between two types of i n q u i r i e s . Focus i n gener-a l information c a l l s . Focus i n c a l l s concerning i d e n t i f i e d persons, and t h e i r problems. Time factor i n service. Importance of high c a l i b r e professional s t a f f . /continued - i i i -Chapter 4. The Bole of the Community Information Service as  Indicated by the Source, Nature and Disposal of  Inquiries (Ocotber 1, 1953 to Mav 31. 1954)." Comparison of s t a t i s t i c a l method. Vancouver Information Service and Community Chest and Council Incorporated. Total i n -quiries on population basis. Comparison Bri t i s h figures. Five types of organizations compared as sources of inquiry. Individual as source of inquiry. Nature of inquiries. General, or in regard to specific persons. Health, employment, family and personal. Problems, financial assistance. Disposal of inquiries by three methods," referral, direction, giving of information from f i l e s . Where service could not assist. Comparison of types of agencies as points of disposal. Comparisons of agency involvement between inquiring and offering services. Importance of follow-up. Chapter 5* Conclusion. Questionnaire to agencies described. Six c r i t e r i a outlined. Personnel standards. Need for two workers. Statement re three areas of poor practice. Highest personnel standards recommended. Recording evaluated. Resource f i l e s evaluated. Barometer function evaluated. Public relations program evaluated; a l l with recommendations. Co-operation with agencies evaluated. Four situations which hamper relationships described, with suggestions for change. Per capita cost high. Project requires review on own merits and on community priority basis. Suggestions for reducing cost. Agency viewpoint re con-tinuation of service. Planning Committee's statement on need of services. Individual use of anonymous setting of service. Trends in social work l i k e l y to affect service. Need in present situa-tion reiterated. Appendices; A. Minutes, reports, statements and samples of s t a t i s t i c a l , case and resource f i l e s , samples of publicity materials, Community Information Service, Vancouver. B. Tables indicating source, nature and disposal of inquir-ies, Community Information Service, Vancouver. C. Letter, questionnaire and compilation of replies re-ceived from agencies, September 1954, in regard to effectiveness of Community Information Service, Vancou-ver. D. Bibliography. /continued - i v -TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) Tables Table ( a l l included under Appendix B). 1 Unidentified "Citizens' Advice Bureau", Great Britain, Twelve Month period - 1946-1947. Summary of inquiries, according to "Nature of Inquiries." 2 Community Information Service, Vancouver. Individuals and organizations as "sources of inquiry". October 1 , 1 9 5 3 to May 3 1 , 1 9 5 4 - . 3 Community Information Service, Vancouver, Inquiries of organizational source by type of organization. October 1st, 1953 to May 31j 1954. 4 Community Information Service, Vancouver, Inquiries of individual source by cl a s s i f i c a -tions, October 1st, 1953 to May 31st, 1954. 5 Community Information Service,Vancouver, Nature of Inquiries, October 1, 1953 to May 31> 1954. 6 Community Information Service, Vancouver, Disposal of Inquiries by Referral and Direction to five types of organizations, and individuals October 1, 1953 to May 31, 1954. 7 Community Information Service, Vancouver, Five types of organizations as sources of inquiry, and points of disposal. October 1, 1953 to May 3 1 , 1954. V LIST OF DOCUMENTS Included in Appendix "AM. Document cited on number page Report of a committee set up by the Social Planning Committee to investigate the need for a Central Information-Referral. 3 5 Statement of Policy. Community Information Ser-vice, Vancouver. Presented but not endorsed by the Committee on the Community Information Service. Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, March, 1954. 68 Form; desk record of individual inquiries. Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. 69 Form; face sheet used for inquiries regarding financial assistance, Community Information Service, Community Chest and Council of Vancouver. 70 Samples of Resource Listings, Rotary F i l e , Community Information Service, Community Chest and Council, Vancouver. 82 Monthly Report; Form M-5 ( 1 9 5 1 ) for Community Information and Referral Centres, Community Chests and Councils of America, Incorporated. I l l St a t i s t i c a l Report; Ap r i l , 1954. Community Infor-mation Service, Vancouver, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. 114 CHAPTER I THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF INFORMATION-REFERRAL SERVICES INTRODUCTION In 1 9 3 3 ? the Welfare Federation of Vancouver adopted as i t s slogan for i t s second annual campaign, the phrase "Someone in Need Awaits Your Deed." In 194-8, the Community Chest and Council of Greater Van-couver, which united the former Welfare Federation and Welfare Council, appealed for community support under the slogan "Everybody Benefits, Everybody Gives." The contrast between the phraseology of these two slogans is indicative of the changing philosophy of social work over the short span of fifteen years. In the earlier period an application for agency services implied a failure in l i v i n g . In 194-8, there was not only an acknowledgment of the i n d i v i s i b i l i t y of the modern community in terms of individual health and security, but also a recognition that every citizen is a potential client of community health and welfare services. One of the many devices utilized i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the meeting of social agencies and this broader group of potential con-sumers of agency services has been the development of community wide Information and Referral Bureaux. In June 1 9 5 3 > such a bureau under the t i t l e "Community Information Service" was inaugurated, on an experimental basis, as part of the central administrative program of the Community Chest - 2 -and Council of Greater Vancouver. It is the purpose of this study to examine the program of this project during i t s f i r s t year of operation. THE DEMAND FOR COMMUNITY INFORMATION A casual review of the processes which led to the es-tablishment of this new service would lead one to assume that i t had been developed almost entirely i n response to needs uniquely evident in Vancouver, with l i t t l e reference to similar projects in other parts of the continent or the world. Yet even a cursory study of professional social work literature indicates that community wide information and referral services were developed in the decade 1939-194-9 because of certain factors operative i n varying degrees i n many communities in Great Britain and North America. Some of these factors were -(1) The growing acceptance of social work as a profession offering needed and acceptable services to individuals in a l l community groupings. (2) The Increasing breadth and complexity of tax supported and voluntary services and benefits in the f i e l d of health and welfare. (3) The demand from organized labour and from industrial and business management for a more intelligent inter-pretation and a broader u t i l i z a t i o n of the social services which these groupings are called upon to sup-port through taxation and voluntary contribution. (4) The need, during the period of war, 1939-194-6, and i n the post-war period, to meet the emergent welfare needs of service men, veterans and their dependents, and of citizens in certain war-disrupted communities. - 3 -As far as can be ascertained there has not been any basic or ; definitive studies made regarding the development of informa-tion and referral centres in Canada and the United States of America. Short articles i n social work periodicals indicate that, i n the North American continent, information bureaus were developed at f i r s t with a minimum consideration of the needs of the ordinary citizen. They were set up to serve the armed forces, veterans and their dependants and workers i n industries related to the war effort. Welfare Councils are a relatively new feature in the North American Community. On the whole the general public has not accepted their welfare planning function. But the repeated impact of the annual financial appeals made through Community Chest led citizens to anticipate that they might obtain from the offices of Community Chests and Welfare Councils information re-garding available health and welfare services. Even before the outbreak of World War II there are indi-cations that Community Chests and Welfare Councils recognized this demand for general and particular information and, because of i t , published Directories of local welfare agencies. Some Councils used the services of the professional social workers already on their staffs to maintain a simple service of direction and refer-r a l i n response to citizen inquiries. Information was given to those who discovered this re-source, but no attempt was made, for the obvious reason of staff limitations, to publicize this Chest and Council function. - 4 -As early as May, 1 9 2 5 the Welfare Council of New York initiated a study of f a c i l i t i e s provided by social agencies for directing people to sources of help. As an outcome of this study, which pointed up the need for a general information service, a central Information Bureau was established, as a separate unit within the Welfare Council. It was staffed by professional work-ers and i t s purpose was to bring people and needed services together quickly. Although l i t t l e information is available regarding the inauguration of similar information units in other cities we know that some were established before the Second World War and that they showed "a rather haphazard growth without too much conscious attention as to the how, what or why of the service and without 1 enough regard for community need." WARTIME DEVELOPMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES The upsurge of industry at the outbreak of the Second World War, and i n 1941 the declaration of war by the United. States of America led to a more formalized organization of Information and Referral Services. From the social work literature of the time one gathers that these bureaux, like war time nurseries, teen canteens and service men's centres were set up "overnight" in answer to demands for immediate action. Study and research were limited. 1 Buckley, Irene G. "Information and Referral - What do We Mean?" Information and Referral - A Report of Two Conferences (mimeographed) Welfare and Health Council of New York City, Octo-ber, 1 9 5 2 . - 5 -A le t t e r t i t l e d "Close up on War Time Community Planning" issued by the Community Chest and Council Incorporated in November 194-2 states "Rapid change is becoming the rule rather than the exception in' the everyday l i v i n g of everyday Americans. Profound changes are occurring in the trouble areas of peoples lives which concern social and health agencies. Relief pressures are off. 'Service' i s at a premium. Swift, smart, statesman-like interpre-tation i s needed to consolidate this position. Practical proced-ures for systematic case finding and referral, long needed w i l l develop — Central Information and Referral Bureaux are a device 1 now being tried and well worthy of experimentation." Within American communities the established social agencies weakened, and yet somewhat enriched by the "reality" demands of the 1 9 3 0 ' s , stood ready to meet the diverse human needs accentuated by war time. But the people who needed their services, i n this most mobile nation, often did not recognize the basic roots of their personal,problems, or simply did not know where to turn in confusing new surroundings to find "The Welfare" familiar to them in their own home towns. Some, on the basis of depression exper-iences, could not visualize social agencies as being concerned about or helpful in solving such non-economic problems as obtaining day-care for children, budgetting a suddenly increased income, or coping with heightened family tension and teen-age delinquency. 1 Buell, Bradley; Robinson, Reginald, "Close up on War Time Community Planning." Reprint Community, November 194-2, Vol. 18, p. 4, Community Chests and Councils, New York. - 6 -To meet the needs of Its citizens, the Welfare Council of Los Angeles established in 1942, as part of i t s central services, a Community Information Bureau. By 1944 at least six cities had similar services and the Community Chest and Council Inc., had set up a special ad hoc committee to study how community Informa-tion Services could be u t i l i z e d , in getting people and services together. By 1945» before i t was possible to evaluate properly this new device i n social work, American communities were faced with the problems of serving the returning veteran - a welcome, but demanding task. Despite timely warnings from the Community Chest and Council of America in regard to establishing any categorical approach in the services of information and referral, many commu-nities , stimulated by Federal authority had established Veterans' Information Services by 1945. The Federal Government i t s e l f did not finance these bureaux. They were developed and supported locally by such groups as City and County Councils, American Red Cross, Chambers of Commerce, American Legions, individual social agencies, and Community Chest and Councils. Within these veterans' centres, as in any other service which is set up to meet personal problems, the determining factor was qualified personnel. Apparently too often i t was presumed that directors must be veterans but not necessarily social workers. The few cities which employed personnel qualified in counselling or social work and equipped with a knowledge of community resour-ces conducted the most outstanding programs. - 7 -The problem of personnel plus the necessity of meeting the demands of the people who wished to "do something" for re-turned service men, and for returned service men only, are probable reasons why, i n the United States, unlike Great Britain, Community Information Bureaux did not survive i n any large numbers i n the post war period. In 194-6 under the t e l l i n g t i t l e "Something for the Civilians'" the Community Chest and Council Inc. announced that as part of i t s Veterans Information Service, Chicago had opened a Community Referral Service to direct civilians to social agen-cies. This was apparently most newsworthy. Evidently several c i t i e s , Chicago, Milwaukee, and Cincin-a t t i among them worked through the d i f f i c u l t process of retooling their various information services to meet general citizen needs. In 1947 there were s t i l l sufficient information services in New York to warrant the Welfare Council sponsoring an institute for information and referral centre workers. In 1948 the Community Chest and Councils of America established a standing committee on Information and Referral Services, and in the same year a session on Information Referral Service was included in the programme of the National Conference of Social Work. EMERGENCE OF ISSUES; A paper presented by Alfred A. Katz at the New York Insti-tute 1947 indicates that, while central Information Referral Ser T vices were generally accepted by industry, management and community planning bodies, these services were not without c r i t i c s within the established agencies and the profession of social work. 1 Mr. Katz i n his presentation was seeking to defend the right of the Central Information Service to u t i l i z e the personal interview and the case work approach to the extent of having more than one planned contact with inquirers, i f deemed necessary. Working i n a centre set up to serve trade unions, he stated that the personal problems of the working people were not being met to any considerable degree by existing social agencies, and attributed this i n part to the resistance of working men and women to such concepts as "charity" and " r e l i e f . " He also mentioned some objections raised in regard to the function of information and referral bureaux. F i r s t , some work-ers "view a referral agency as dangerous" because i t somehow gets over inevitably into the "service" function. Family agencies in particular have expressed the view that referral agencies encroach on their function of "general" counselling. There is also an opinion among some professional workers that the "relationship" established between the inquirer and the information worker w i l l make i t more d i f f i c u l t for the client to establish and maintain a good "relationship" i n the service agency. Lastly, there i s a feeling that this is not an always needed service, but sometimes an extra step for a client, which results in his becoming resent-f u l . Mr. Katz answered each of these criticisms to his own 1 Katz, Alfred. Case Work Methods in a Referral Centre (mimeo graphed) Welfare Council of New York, 194?. - 9 -satisfaction, but the inclusion of these comments in a paper given at such a conference indicates f a i r l y clearly that a l l i n -formation services did not arise or continue with complete support from the existing social work agencies or the social work profes-sion. Some, i f not a l l of the problems of professional and i n -ter-agency were s t i l l apparent in 1 9 5 3 * At the session on infor-mation services at the 1953 American Conference of Social Workers the following statements add to the problems presented by Mr. Katz in 1947. Professionally staffed referral services have not always been used by workers in operating agencies. Referrals from central referral bureaux have not always been given the same degree of status as those coming from a "sister" continued service agency. Special barriers have been unnecessarily created i n serving clients for want of enough mutual understanding and respect between the continued service agency and the referral service. Despite these problems, of the several hundred information referral services which sprang up during the second World War, there were in 1953 citizen information services operative i n 3 2 different American Communities, and at least 35 i n the City of New York. Twenty of these centres are in the 3 5 largest cities of the United States, and the remaining 12 i n cities of popula-tions varying from 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 to 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 . Almost a l l centres ascribed to a similar purpose, though worded differently. They existed "to provide information about social resources, to assist people, to comprehend the complexity 1 Buckley, Irene G. What are the Special Sk i l l s Required for the Brief Contact or Referral Interview, National Conference of Social Work, Cleveland, Ohio. June 2, 1953. - 1 0 -of community programs." Without exception the purposes of a l l centres included three auxiliary aims. ( 1 ) To build and maintain a comprehensive resource f i l e . (2) To act as a community barometer in evaluating the extent to which resources are meeting human need. ( 3 ) To interpret health and welfare services to the community. FUNCTION OF UNITED STATES CENTRES. The majority of centres operate through an advisory com-mittee or board, and many are responsible to a parent body, usually the local council for welfare services. Relating the Information Services to the amounts raised i n 1 9 5 2 i n Community Chest Campaigns, i t was found that 24 are i n cities where over a million dollars was raised. In 6 3 per cent of the total contacts of the 3 1 centres reporting, inquirers were given names, address and/or telephone number and description of the function of the agency most approp-riate to their needs. For the remaining 3 7 per cent a specific agency was contacted to request exploration of the inquirer's problem. The majority of Information Services did selective clear-ing in the Social Service exchange. Several centres reported the closing of local social service exchanges. Most of the professional social workers employed i n the Information Centres had other responsibilities within the setting of Welfare Councils. These included Social Service Exchange, Volunteer Bureau, Research, Family and Child Welfare Division, - 1 1 -Council Executive and professional consultation with special committees. Approximately one half of the thirty-one centres had assumed other responsibilities than those f a l l i n g normally within the pursuit of their common purpose. These included Christmas bureau, holiday bureau, camp referral, speakers' bureau, nursery and day school referrals, employment service for professional workers and Chest complaints. The largest staff reporting had seven regular members and about half of the centres had more than one professional work-er. External factors which were reported as problems of many centres include lack of resources, or gaps in programs such as case work services, childrens services, psychiatric and medical resources, inadequate housing and limited social assistance pro-grams. The most pressing internal problem which hampered the effectiveness of Information and Referral operations was the lack of enough c l e r i c a l and professional staff members to carry out an effective public relations program. The day to day demands were so heavy that time was not available for interpretation to agencies, 1 community groups and public bodies. In a later chapter there w i l l be a discussion of the current' movement towards a generic base of social work practice, 1 National Conference of Social Work, Summary of Information  Centre Questionnaire,1' Information Centre Workshop, Chicago, 1 9 5 2 . - 12 -which when achieved, would greatly minimize the need for informa-tion referral bureaux. But such movements develop through long and d i f f i c u l t process in professional and community organization. It is sufficient i n summarizing the historical development of community information services in the United States of American to affirm that they provided, at a c r i t i c a l point in the history of the nation, one answer to arising citizen protest against the growing complexity and categorical approach of American social agencies. The 32 centres which have been maintained after the per-iod of immediate resettlement may do much because of their "barom-eter" function to point up the absurdity of the present inadequate Tower of Babel of Welfare Organizations, ^IWithin i t they at least stand as "guarantors that every person shall have access to those health and welfare services which the community affords and accepts."^ DEVELOPMENT IN GREAT BRITAIN The history of the development of Information Services in Great Britain has been described by such writers as Beveridge and Titmus and can be outlined more briefly. Although, as in America, Information Services in welfare were formally organized at the time of Britain's declaration of 1 Hewlett, Virginia, What are the Special Sk i l l s Required for  the Brief Contact or Referral Interview," (mimeographed, symposium) Introduction, National Conference of Social Work, Cleveland, Ohio, June 2, 1953. - 1 3 -war i n 1 9 3 9» the need for such services was recognized many years before. It was met partially and spasmodically by local coun-c i l s of social agencies, personal service societies, guilds of service and other voluntary welfare organization. As the Br i t i s h nation after World War I moved slowly but decisively from poor law concepts towards a widening social security program, the need for centralized sources of welfare information was recognized even by governmental bodies. The Report of the Interdepartmental Committee cn Public Assistance Administration presented to Parliament in 1924 noted the general ignorance of large groups of British citizens in re-gard to available forms of assistance and deplored the discontent and bitterness resulting from actual hardship or fancied injustice. The Report recommended that The best safeguard against the growth of such feelings probably l i e s in the provision of better f a c i l i t i e s for giving advice to persons i n need of i t as to the general circumstances in which assistance is available from the various authorities. For this purpose, i t would be des-irable that there should be in every large centre of population — some officer i n a position to give reliable i nformation— his function to be confined to the giving of information and advice to applicants for help, of put-ting them i n touch with the appropriate authority and of advising any agency as to the procedure to be followed in dealing with d i f f i c u l t cases outside i t s scope but possibly eligible for some form of assistance.^ Even before the threat of war was generally recognized the idea of establishing welfare information centres was mooted in the 1 9 3 6 Annual Report of the British Council of Social Services, a national 1 National Council of Social Services, Incorporated, Advising  the Citizen, ! ; Chapter 1 , p. 1 0 , London, 1 9 5 0 . - 14 -co-ordinating body which includes in i t s membership most of the voluntary welfare organizations in Great Britain. Two years later, at the time of the Munich c r i s i s , this same organization, at a conference of voluntary agencies called to discuss plans for the mobilization of welfare services in the event of war, drew up a plan for the development of advice ser-vices in a number of British Centres and particularly i n potential target areas. These centres, to be developed under voluntary auspices and with the co-operation of diverse public and private organizations were to be called Citizens' Advice Bureaux. In London, the Charity Organizations Society was prepared to sponsor such new centres, while i n other cities responsibili-ties would be carried by a Council of Social Agencies or a family service agency. Since such Advice Bureaux would be needed in places where there was l i t t l e formal organization of social ser-vices, the National Council of Social Agencies agreed to take res-ponsibility for organizing and maintaining Advice Bureaux adminis-tered by ad hoc committees representative of the varying interests and organizations i n an area. Such centres were to be organized by citizens for citizens and should recognize no differences of class, race or creed. Their stated aims were To make available for the individual accurate information and skilled advice on many of the personal problems that arise daily, and to interpret legislation; to help the citizen to benefit from and use wisely the services provided for him by the state.* 1 National Council of Social Services, Incorporated, Voluntary  Social Services, a Hand Book of Information and Directory of Organizations, London, 1948. - 15 -The universality of this purpose in terms of i t s application to either war or peacetime circumstances i s worthy of note. The bureaux were to be dissociated from patronage, easy of access and open at convenient times. They would not give material aid. However unprepared Great Britain may have appeared in 1939? the new conflict was an "expected war" for which governmental bodies had been preparing (on paper) since the late twenties. It was recognized that there would be an attack by air; directed, not at opposing military forces, but at the c i v i l i a n communities of Great Britain. The planners were prepared to meet the problems of physical casualties and material damage. They knew that social distress comes with war but they saw this distress, not i n terms of the discomfort and suffering of individuals, but as a possible cause of lowered morale and ineffective defense. It was the vol-untary agencies, with their long experience in dealing with people, one by one, which affirmed that while the people of Great Britain might not need a l l the coffins, mental hospitals and special m i l i -tary "morale building" forces planned by a benevolent government, they would demand endless cups of tea, help i n finding lost rela-tives - and pets - and someone to l i s t e n to their story of "how i t happened." By September 1940 i t became very evident that, although the authorities had planned for almost every physical exigency from blankets to bomb shelters, each set of planners had proceeded as i f none other existed. Yet i t was estimated that the resettle-ment of one London family after a bombing usually involved at least six different public authorities. Public o f f i c i a l s as well -16 -as distressed citizens were ignorant of the location and policies of these myriad sister authorities and misdirection often led to additional hardship and frustration among air-raid victims. By 194-2 the voluntary Citizens Advice Bureaux, increased to over 600 were, with limited resources, trying to prevent such incidents as the following: The 16 year old daughter of a widow bombed out on Nov. 17? 1940, spent the whole of Nov. 18 trying to get a few pounds ' for some clothes. She f i r s t went to the town h a l l , White-chapel, thence she was directed to 71 Park Lane, thence to Wobrun Road, thence to 166 London Road, Norbury and at the end of the day had achieved nothing.^ The public authorities were faced with many gigantic tasks, the settlement of residence responsibility i n a mobile community, the evacuation problems, manpower demands and shortages. But when the bombs continued they realized they had to find the answer to two much less impressive but i r r i t a t i n g problems: (a) How to convey quickly and clearly to those who needed them the facts about social help. (b) How to provide these facts, not in a dozen or more different places, of indeterminate address but in one place, centrally located and well known.2 The method f i n a l l y adopted late in 194-0 was the development of governmental administrative centres and information bureaux under the Minister of Health. , In the administrative centres o f f i -cers of various central and local governments were assembled under 1 Titmus, Richard M., Problems of Social Policy, His Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Chap. XII, p.279, PP»2. 2 Ibid., Chap. XIII, p. 291, PP 1. - 17 -one roof. Information centres were less ambitious, and their function was to answer the questions of homeless people and direct them to resources in the community. Often because of the wealth of experience already resident in the voluntary Citizens Advice Bureaux their premises and their personnel were co-opted by govern-ment bodies. In time, the provision of these two types of centres became the duty of a l l borough and d i s t r i c t councils. Even after tax-supported information centres were estab-lished the Citizens Advice Bureaux found their work increasing. The strain of f u l l mobilization created more and more problems of relationships and adaptation. The bearing of some new war-time regulation on a citizen's personal l i f e , questions re compassionate leave, quarrels between tenant and landlord, grumbling regarding rationing, were some of the 8,000,000 problems presented. By 194-2 there were 1074- information bureaux, and the government, i n recog-nition of services rendered, gave them grants-in-aid amounting to between 1/4 and 1/2 of the actual cost of Advice Bureau operations. As usual, governmental bodies had come to accept slowly, and only on the basis of a d i f f i c u l t experience, the concept which the small band of professional social workers had sought to inter-pret through the work of voluntary welfare agencies that "the indi-vidual i s the focal point of a l l services." Officials learned that finding Mrs. Smith's aunt and Mr. Jones' dentures were in themselves aggressive steps toward victory. Beyond the actual services rendered to Individuals, the Information Centres and advice bureaux served to bring the people - 18 -of Great Britain a new appreciation and awareness of the whole fabric of human services available to them. Through the day-by-day involvement of the voluntary and statutory bodies rendering these services came a new sense of a shared basis of community concern with a resulting breaking down of the bogies of "red tape" and "vested interests". Another ancillary contribution of the Information Centres and Bureaux came through their use of volunteers. Citizen volun-teers made up from 70 to 9 0 per cent of bureau office staffs. Direction was always in the hands of skilled social workers and a constantly broadening program of in-service training was combined with opportunities for participation in national conferences and institutes. This emphasis on volunteerism was of course not peculiar to the Citizen Advice Bureaux (in London alone i t is estimated that between over 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 citizen volunteers engaged in some form of war service). But undoubtedly the Advice Bureau volunteers found new opportunities to lead and serve and were recognized as useful members of society. Such service brought to the individual volunteer a sense of purpose and helped to bring to discredit the pre-war prophesies of impending national neuroses. Appendix Bl indicates the nature of the inquiries for a x twelve month period, 1946-194-7, immediately after the war, at one typical urban advice Bureau. It is of interest that over three-quarters of the inquiries were i n regard to situations common to war or peace. - 19 -However, i t must be recognized that, in Great Britain as well as America, Advice Bureaux were considered as "emergency" units. If that had not been so, i t is doubtful whether there would have been a decrease i n the number of Bureaux from over one thousand to six hundred immediately following the cessation of hos-t i l i t i e s in Europe. The f i r s t National Conference of Citizens Advice Bureaux was held in May, 194-5. Here delegates affirmed their belief i n the basic need for advice bureaux and resolved to continue the movement. This decision was based on such factors as: (a) The probability of a lengthy and d i f f i c u l t period of "resettlement" in Br i t i s h communities. (b) The complexities inherent in the practical administration of an expanded program of social security. (c) The possibility that families and individuals, lacking the sense of urgency and inspiration present in a time of national emergency, would no longer be able to "carry on" in the face of personal d i f f i c u l t i e s . At this conference i t was decided that Citizen Advice Bureaux should seek to maintain their status as a voluntary service. They would preserve their right to advise the citizen in his best interests, and the freedom to raise issues with any body, statu-tory or private. Such freedom pre-supposed the removal of grants in aid and the development of independent voluntary units under the Council of Social Services. In keeping with this declaration, national government grants in aid were withdrawn in 1951» although some two-thirds of the Citizens Advice Bureaux are given token financial support by local authorities. The remainder of their budgets are supplied - 20 -from voluntary contributions. In comparing the development of American and British Information, i t i s apparent that they were both stimulated by the current situations outlined on page 2; the growing influence of professional social work, the development of social security programs, the need for general interpretation of welfare services to important, unrelated key groups of citizens, and the impact of war. Basic differences in their development and philosophy and practice were: (a) Pattern of Planning The American services were developed, one by one, on the basis of local need, with l i t t l e or no reference to national social work planning, and without state or federal recognition. There is not much evidence to point to local agency involvement in their early development. The Bri t i s h Information Services were one facet of a total program of mobilization, and were set up with the support of the National Council of Social Services, with the co-' operation of key social work organizations, and with recognition from local and national public authorities. (b) National Organization Up to 1949, there was only a minimum effort to co-ordinate or standardize the local community information services in the United States; British Advice Bureaux were autonomous bodies local-l y but were from their beginning a f f i l i a t e d with each other through a central committee of the National Council of Social Services. - 2fl» -(c) Recognition by Public Authorities In America, only that part of the function of information centres which related to services to veterans was ever recognized o f f i c i a l l y by governmental bodies. The Bri t i s h Advice Bureaux voluntary agencies were the pattern on which public information services were founded and, i n some cases, these Bureaux were used as the base for a public-private information service. Recognition of the value of Citizens Advice Bureaux was shoxm through generous grants in aid to the parent body, the National Council of Social Services. (d) Use of Volunteers There is l i t t l e evidence of volunteers playing any crucial part in the actual operation of American Information Services; and some warnings against such practices i s found in current literature. In Great Britain the majority of Citizens Advice Bureaux workers were volunteers. (e) Training America did: not appear to offer any special training for Information workers. This i s to be understood i f one accepts that, In theory, i f not in practice, a l l information service work-ers were graduates of schools of social work. Moreover, there was apparently no movement within American schools of social work to define and develop new techniques in short term counselling — the type of professional service usually demanded in information bureaux. In Britain, where training is dependent on fields of professional service, i t was easier to develop local and national programs of in-service training, conference and institutes. In - 22 -addition, several training manuals were developed. The most com-prehensive was "Advising the Citizen" a text book which included descriptions of community resources, a review of the historical background of Br i t i s h social work, and papers on administration, interviewing techniques, s t a t i s t i c a l compilation, and relation-ships to other community services. (f) the right to give "authoritative" answers. Both public and private social agencies in North America had been unanimous in claiming that the direct service agency alone is in a position to decide through an "intake" process the e l i g i b i l i t y or su i t a b i l i t y of an individual client. Therefore, referral workers in central information services were limited to indicating to the inquirer that a certain agency was willing to o explore his problem. Since social services i n Canada and the United States are administered on three levels — municipal, state or province, and federal — and since programs and policies are different in each municipality and each state and province, i t i s virt u a l l y impossi-ble for a central information service to give authoritative infor-mation to an exceedingly mobile citizenry. In Great Britain, where there are only two levels of govern-ment and where most services and benefits are rendered on the basis of recently re-defined statutory rights, Citizens Advice Bureaux have quick recourse to legislation and regulations. The basic text book of the British movement illustrates this in the chapter subheadings, e.g. "The Ministry of Fuel and Power, the Ministry of Pensions, The Ministry of Health, Local Authorities." To outline - 23 -i n a similar concise manner the basic legislation and regulations within the three-level pattern of the American and Canadian Public Welfare Services would be an impossible undertaking. REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENTS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES Information and Referral Services are comparative new-comers in the Welfare pattern of Great Britain and America. To gain needed acceptance they must be evaluated from two viewpoints: (1) To what degree are they recognized and used effectively by the general public? (2) To what degree are they accepted as a proper setting for the practice of social work, by social agencies, and by the professions? The answer to the f i r s t question appears on the basis of statis t i c s to be an affirmative one. The second question i s s t i l l unanswered. To gain professional recognition i t must be proved that "brief interviewing techniques^ may be used to the advantage of inquirers. And this proof must be related to the fact that social work i s somewhat of a competitive arena where at present, with Inadequate budgets and insufficient staff, there is not in any community enough direct services to meet acknowledged human needs. Can "Everybody" really benefit? CHAPTER II A REVIEW OF THE PROCESS OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COMMUNITY INFORMATION SERVICE WITHIN THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL OF GREATER VANCOUVER, 195.3 THE SETTING, THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL The process of community organization within a Council of Social Work i s seldom well recorded. Because such Councils are usually the most comprehensive social planning body in a city there are, at any given time, many projects at different stages of planning and achievement. It is d i f f i c u l t to abstract from the whole interwoven program the history of one development. This i s certainly true in regard to the early history of the growth of the idea of an information and referral service within the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. In 1930:the Council of Social Agencies was established a l -most concurrently with the fund raising body, the Welfare Federa-tion. These two bodies which were la t t e r l y known as the Welfare Council and the Community Chest amalgamated under the t i t l e "Community Chest and Council" on July 21, 1946. In the f i r s t report of the Social Planning section of the amalgamated organization the idea of a Referral Centre was mooted. The Vice Chairman of the Social Planning Section, Mrs. Gordon Selman, reports This year we must seriously consider the establishment of a Referral Centre in Vancouver, a downtown, central, ground floor information bureau to which any citizen may apply and from which he may be referred to the - 25 -proper agency for his particular need. The Social Planning Committee has made some study of the question, but the cost seemed prohibitive at the time; however, we must not give up u n t i l a l l possibilities are explored for the:.establishment, of this centre, which would be of great benefit to the city." The cost of such a centre seemed to be a real problem. In the introduction to the 194-6 Annual Report the proposal to estab-l i s h "a referral centre as a public service" i s not listed as one of the "Plans for 194-7" but in a less possible grouping, tit l e d "Looking Forward". The Annual Report of 1947 indicates that this X project was s t i l l definitely on the planning board with no indica-tions of i t s inauguration."The referral bureau mentioned last 2 year has not yet materialized." In 1948 there is once again the pessimistic note "So far we have failed to establish a referral centre.""^ This rather definite admission of failure seems to indicate that in the years before 1948 the need for an information referral centre had been affirmed within the Council and the project approved in principle, i f not in financial backing, by the Community Chest. It may be advisable to review the earlier developments and ascertain the degree of consideration afforded this project. DEVELOPMENT OF A REFERRAL CENTRE, VANCOUVER, 1940 The records of the Council of Social Agencies indicate, 1 The Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, 1st Annual  Report, 1946, Vancouver, February, 1947. 2 Ibid., 2nd Annual Report, 1947, Vancouver, February, 1948. 3 Ibid., 3rd Annual Report, 1948, Vancouver, February, 1949. - 26 -surprisingly, that not only had the Council considered setting up such a service, but that in 1940 an Information centre was actually operated in the Dominion Bank Building, Hastings and Cambie Streets, under the direction of a social case worker. It has been stated that- unlike the planned efforts to devel-op Citizens Advice Bureaux in Great Britain, American Information Referral Services "just grew." In contrast the f i r s t Vancouver project l i t e r a l l y "burst" into being. In February, 1940 the Council of Social Agencies received a. letter from the Vancouver Branch of the Canadian Red Cross Society complaining that c i v i l i a n requests for material assistance at i t s office were so heavy that the efforts of the society were being diverted from i t s primary function of war service. Within two short weeks several committees had met and in March, 1940 a plan for the development of a Referral Centre i n the downtown area, on a temporary basis, was completed. A secretary was employed, f a c i l i t i e s set up, policies decided upon and finan-c i a l backing arranged. The Committee regretted i t had not been able to complete the last detail, '''volunteer workers to man the office during the secretary's lunch hour." The City Social Service Department carried the major costs of the project assisted by the Council of Social Agencies. The function of the Centre was totally referral. Each of the 286 cases dealt with i n the six months of operation were listed as "referred from Agency 'X' to Agency 'Y'." The service was used by case work agencies, organizations with non-social work staff, - 27 -hostels and churches. A l l cases, while undoubtedly presenting personal, medical and psychiatric problems, had within them some element of financial need. Some of the problems studied and later brought to the attention of the Council of Social Agencies were lack of case work service for single men, hardships accentua-ted by residence and responsibility legislation, effects of the depression on morale, need for better inter-agency referral pro-cedures, need for mutuality between churches and social agencies. The Centre was closed in August, 194-0. In his summary report, the secretary appears very complacent about this closing, presuming that the six months operation had greatly improved refer-ra l procedure, and citing the establishment of a Men's Service Bureau and the decentralization of the City Social Service Depart-ment as other factors making unnecessary further operation of the service. The distribution among committee members of a short article by Linton Swift of the Family Service Association of America, which states that some information bureaux assume the role of auth-oritative "intake" for agencies, seems to indicate that private agencies were, as in America, fearful of the Bureau becoming another "agency". Actually, i t did in some degree, for the Men's Service Bureau embraced similar work with the same personnel and to some degree, the same sponsorship. OTHER WARTIME DEVELOPMENTS There seems to have been l i t t l e , interest i n information services u n t i l 1944-1945 when several letters were directed from the Welfare Council to other councils inquiring about Information Services in American c i t i e s . Neither Board of Directors nor - 28 -Executive minutes show the reason for this revival of interest. However, there was at that time an advisory group to the Council called the "Executives Conference" with a membership made up of the employed directors of many of the larger and more influential agencies. In 194-4, the executive Director of the Welfare Council brought to this group the suggestion that a referral agency, infor-mation desk, or centre was needed, particularly to assist returning veterans In using community resources. A small committee was set up to c l a r i f y the possible functions of such a centre and to obtain background information. In 194-5 the small committee reported that there was a need for a central information bureau, primarily set up to serve.veter-ans but extending i t s work to include civilians i f necessary;. this bureau to be under the auspices of one of the following bodies — The Rehabilitation Council, The Welfare Council, or an existing social agency. Eventually this Bureau was set up i n the old Hotel Vancou-ver and existed for three years under skilled social work direction, with the sponsorship of the Citizens Rehabilitation Council. Its work was limited to services for returning service men, women, and their families. In 1945) after the closing of this centre, the chairman of the Social Planning Committee reported that she had met with c i t i -zens prominent i n the work of the Rehabilitation Centre to discuss the possibility of establishing an Information Centre in Vancouver. The general opinion of the Social Planning Committee was that such a centre was needed. Another covey of letters was directed to American centres, to the Toronto Council of Social Agencies, and / 29 -to the Canadian Welfare Council, but the crucial problem of f i n -ancing the Centre was not approached directly. Nothing further came of this endeavour except the refer-ences to an Information Referral Centre included (as cited before) i n the Annual Reports of the Community Chest and Council for 194-6, 194-7, and 1948. COMMUNITY DEMANDS FOR AN INFORMATION REFERRAL CENTRE In October, 1949 the Social Planning Committee authorized the appointment of a small committee to bring in a report on the need for a referral centre, i t s function and i t s personnel. No action was apparently taken, but in September, 1950 The Institute on School, Health and Social Services, a group of school adminis-trators and social workers, proposed in a report to the Social Planning Committee that some method of guaranteeing authoritative referral of school children to proper agencies be investigated. In 1948-1949-1950 there were also several reports that Division Secretaries, and i n some cases the Executive Directors of 'the Com-munity Chest and Council, were spending as much as 50 per cent of their time interviewing persons coming to the Community Chest and Council office for referral and advice. In 1950 a private citizen, apparently not known within Community Chest and Council "circles", wrote to the Executive Secretary of the Welfare Section enclosing an outline of a proposed National network of Information Services throughout Canada. The writer stated he had been referred to the Community Chest and Coun-c i l and the Department of Health and Welfare, Province of British - 30 -o Columbia. The enclosed outline emphasized the following points: (1) That the proposed Information office should be very-broad i n i t s function - not limited to health and welfare but i n a position to give accurate information regarding "a variety of subjects, not presently available in Canada, in -cluding educational services, scholarships and bursaries, general taxation, income tax, new legislation.^ (2) That while the service w i l l concern i t s e l f ONLY with direction, for the inquirers who "expect the world to adjust to them*' a LITTLE experienced advice would go along with the required information. (3) That such a service would ease "congestion, f r i c t i o n and loss of time" in direct service agencies. (4) That an Information Service would, i f established nationally, be helpful i n wartime or other national emergency. ( 5 ) That such a service should be established under the "umbrella of the Canadian Welfare Council or Department of C i v i l Defense." (6) The local Information centres would be practically autonomous, workinguunder the management of a "Local Manage-ment Committee" representing a l l key groupings i n the commun-it y . (7) Each centre would include in i t s employ, volunteer worker-teams drawn from the professions, industry, trades and businesses. While the student may be curious as to motives, i t i s inter-esting to note that the citizen proposing this project states "I take a particular interest i n such a plan because I had the p r i v i -lege of organizing such a scheme on a national scale i n France and 2 Germany." In reply to this letter, the Executive Secretary told of the consideration of such a project i n Vancouver but stated firmly 1 Watkins, G. C , Letter to F. I i . Jackson, Executive Secretary, Council Section, Community Chest and Council. Undated. Acknow-ledged April 19, 1940. 2 Ibid. - 31 -that committees within the Community Chest and Council were i n -clined to emphasize the social work function of such a centre and the necessity, therefore, of staffing the centre with professional workers. On February 2 1 , 1 9 5 1 , the matter of an Information Centre was once again brought to the attention of the Chairman of the Social Planning Committee by lett e r . This time, the writer while defining his status as "an interested individual" was a person very active in community planning, a board member of a financially participating member agency of the Community Chest and Council, and above a l l , a person known to work quietly, doggedly but with success' on behalf of "causes" whose financial demands often appeared over-ambitious to public o f f i c i a l s and budget committees. This letter reiterated the need for such a service, men-tioned the development of the f i r s t Canadian Referral Service in Toronto, and cited from personal observation the permanency and the value of the British Movement of Citizens Advice Bureaux. Two suggestions in this letter probably account for the serious consideration given i t by the Social Planning Committee. (a) " i f because of budgetary limitations (within the Community Chest and Council) the necessary funds cannot be made available from normal sources, steps (should) be taken to raise additional funds from other sources."^ (b) "Since the services of the Information Centre would be available to a l l citizens and since i t would relieve City Departments of a number of inquiries, application might be made to the City Council for a grant." 2 1 Stratton, P. R. U., lett e r to Dr. E. Murray Blair, Chairman, Social Planning Committee, Community Chest and Council, Feb. 2 1 , 1 9 5 1 . 2 Ibid.. - 3 2 -ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMITTEE TO STUDY NEED FOR INFORMATION CENTRE Somehow this letter produced action. The Social Planning Committee "remembered" i t s previous authorization of a study of the need for an Information Centre, and asked for a report as soon as possible. To quote the minutes of the Social Planning Commit-tee, A letter dated February 2 1 s t , 1 9 5 1 ? suggesting the estab-lishment of an Information Advisory Centre by the Community Chest and Council was read. It was recalled that at a pre-vious meeting a committee had been authorized to consider the question of establishing a referral bureau, but this Committee had not been convened. It was decided to set up this committee and give consideration to the original sugges-tions and to those contained in Mr. Stratton's letter, the committee to report back as soon as possible.^ Once again, after endless postponements, on May 1 9 ? 1 9 5 1 > the process of community organization as i t concerns an information referral centre was revived. The Executive Secretary in issuing the c a l l to this commit-tee defines i t s terms of reference as "to report back to the Social Planning Committee on need for an Information-Referral Centre, i t s function and personnel." COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP A Committee of six was set up. It was chaired by a c i t i -zen volunteer who had served in an executive capacity with the Canadian Red Cross Society, and the Community Arts Council. Her committee of five was made up to two lay members, the citizen who 1 Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, Minutes, Social Planning Committee, May 1 9 , 1 9 5 1 . - 33 -had brought the matter of an information referral service to the attention of the Social Planning Committee, and a gentleman who had served as both a volunteer and employed staff member in organ-izations concerned with the problems of housing and treatment of alcoholism. This second volunteer was also very active in church circles. The three other members were professional social workers, one from the faculty of the School of Social Work, University of Bri t i s h Columbia, one from the Department of Veterans' Affairs, and one from the City Social Service Department. In addition, the Community Chest and Council staff was represented by the Executive Director, the Secretary of the Social Planning Committee, the Public Relations Director and the Secretary, Family and Child Welfare Division. While the President of the Community Chest and Council and the Chairman of the Social Planning Committee were ex o f f i c i o members of this committee, their activity belied their tradition-a l l y "dormant" role. They were f u l l working committee members and lent great s t a b i l i t y and status to the group. One of the obvious weaknesses of the original committee was the absence of persons representing the key financially-parti-cipating agencies of the Community Chest and Council — family, childrens'and groups work agencies. They would normally provide the most important referral resources for the proposed centre and without their co-operation the project could quite easily become another "emergency r e l i e f " centre. It i s generally conceded that this was a serious mistake, which though remedied, had some detrimental effects. - 34 -Fir s t Committee Meeting In preparation for the f i r s t meeting, the Executive Secretary distributed a statement as to the function of the com-mittee. "The f i r s t business of the committee w i l l be to deter-mine whether there is a need for an Information Referral Centre in Vancouver. If the establishment of a Centre is warranted the committee w i l l be expected to report on such matters as the auspices — the personnel required, the location and accommodation of an office, budget requirements. In addition the Executive Secretary had written for information regarding similar centres established in Toronto, Ontario; Boston, Mass.; Colugbus, Ohio; and Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. A summary of the replies received was forwarded to committee members with the notice of the meeting. •:> At i t s f i r s t meeting, eleven of the twelve members were present. Background material, as circulated, was reviewed. There was unanimous agreement that an Information Centre was a desirable development. The whole committee were of the opinion that: (a) the projected Information Centre should be so f i n -anced that " i t be not so deprived as to be self defeating. (b) that i t should be inaugurated on a definitely ex-perimental basis and (c) that i t should be administered by a widely repres-entative Advisory Board or Committee. Suggestions were made but not finalized i n regard to the need for ground floor premises, "top quality" employed person-nel, the possibility of evening hours and the exclusion of the - 35 -word "referral" from the t i t l e , but not from the function. There was a definite difference of opinion regarding the administrative setting, some seeing the new Centre as a part of the Community Chest and Council, others as an Independent agency. On the basis of the progress made at the f i r s t meeting each committee member agreed to work alone or with others i n preparing statements to be studied at the next meeting on such aspects of the Information Centre as services, financing, personnel, advisory committee and public relations. The minutes of the second meeting are not available but apparently the proposed reports were received and from them a report to the Social Planning Committee was compiled. In the interval between the f i r s t meeting and the meeting of the Social Planning Committee the Chairman interviewed the Executive Director of the Family Welfare Bureau, the Assistant Director of Health and Welfare Services, Province of Brit i s h Columbia, the Administrator City Social Service Department and a leading business man and ser-vice club member. Report of the Committee, to Social Planning Committee On June 1 9 , 1953> exactly three months after i t s author-ization, the Committee on the Information Referral Service, through i t s chairman presented a report to the Social Planning Committee (see Appendix). It i s apparent that the Committee had, in two ful l meet-ings and other consultations strengthened their original conclusions and worked out, to their own satisfaction, most of the questions - 36 -upon which there had been, at the f i r s t meeting, some difference of opinion. There remained, however, some few points on which a choice of solutions was given. The f i r s t part of the report sets forth the need for such a centre and refers to the place such a service holds i n the welfare setting i n certain Br i t i s h and American c i t i e s . The second part of the report i s made up of recommendations and "suggestions". In some cases i t is d i f f i c u l t to differentiate between these two ways of presenting desirable procedures. Principal Recommendation The most definite recommendation i s "that an Informa-tion Referral Centre be established under the sponsorship of the Community Chest and Council" (with a brief delineation of i t s pur-pose and function). Auxiliary recommendations and suggestions are: Administration (1) That the centre be administered through an advisory committee of twelve to fifteen persons appointed by the Social Planning Committee. In this regard there is a "suggestion" that eventually i t might be deemed advisable to make the Information Referral Ser-vice a "department" functioning as the Public Relations Department does, directly under the Board of Directors, Community Chest and Council. In order to point up the necessity of this committee being widely representative of the community, the report suggests the names of fourteen persons as potential committee members. According to Community Chest and Council practice these persons - 3 7 -would serve as individuals, not as o f f i c i a l representatives of organizations. But i t is of interest that the l i s t included persons active i n the following agencies and community organiza-tions: trade unions (both C.C.L. and T.L.C.), the Junior League, the Town Planning Commission, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the School of Social Work, University of British Columbia, and the Family Welfare Bureau, the Metropolitan Health Committee, the Alcohol Research Committee, the City and Provincial Welfare Depart-ment, the City Council and the Y. M. C. A. Quarters (2) That the Information Referral Centre be housed in a downtown office, in or near the Community Chest and Council building, on ground floor level. Finances (37 That outside sources of funds be explored in setting up the centre, and that such approaches for sponsorship be limited to persons and individuals "where contributions to the Community Chest Campaign would not be prejudiced." (4) That the centre should be started on an annual budget of $ 7 , 8 0 0 . 0 0 Staff (5) That while a staff of three persons, Director, Assistant Director and secretary-stenographer were f e l t to be needed, that operations might begin with only a Director and c l e r i c a l assistant. Desirable qualifications for the Director were outlined, the committee stating that f i r s t choice should be given to'a social worker, with at least two years experience, holding a degree of Master of Social V/ork. Failing this, the committee would con-sider a Bachelor of Social Work with four years experience, or a - 3 8 -social worker without a degree but eligible for membership i n the Canadian Association of Social Work, with five years pro-fessional experience. A description of the qualifications of the secretary-receptionist indicated requirements equal to a private secretary. Motion, Social Planning Committee The Social Planning Committee received the report and acted on i t through the following resolution: That Mrs. Eastwood, and the Committee on Information Referral Centre be congratulated for an excellent and extremely expeditious undertaking and, i f the recommenda-tion of this Committee is approved by the Executive Commit-tee of the Social Planning Committee, that the Board of Directors be requested to authorize the setting up of an Information Referral Centre according to the terms and bud-get recommended by this Committee. Social Planning Committee Action on Report The minutes do not record any discussion in the report. The Executive Committee, meeting on June 25) approved the recom-mendation that an Information Referral Service be established and moved that the report of the Information Referral Committee be presented to the Board of Directors, Community Chest and Council, "without reference to budgetary problems." It was further sug-gested that the proposed centre be t i t l e d not Information-Referral but Information Centre. This action was taken at the f i r s t meet-ing of the newly authorized Executive Committee, a group which had not formerly considered Social Planning business. It is i n -teresting that such an important decision should be forwarded to the Board of Directors without further study at this level. - 3 9 -PRESENTATION OF REPORT TO BOARD OF DIRECTORS On June 2 6 , 1 9 5 1 the Social Planning Committee presented the report on the Community Information Service to the Board of Directors, Community Chest and Council. The Chairman of the So-c i a l Planning Committee summarizing the lengthy report, emphasized three factors: (1) The usefulness of such a centre to the citizens of Vancouver. (2) The r e l i e f which such a centre would afford the professional staff of the Community Chest and Council. (3) The public relations value of such a centre to the Community Chest and Council. The Chairman of the Social Planning Committee explained that: " i t was proposed to set up such a centre on a one-year exper-imental basis, the estimated cost of $7,800.00 i t was hoped could be raised from interested service clubs, and i f i t proved as use-f u l as anticipated, the cost of operation would be included i n the 1953 budget for Chest administration." The Board approved the proposal for setting up an Infor-mation Centre i n accordance with the suggested plan and authorized the special Referral Centre Committee to raise the necessary funds within the limits outlined i n the plan. SITUATION, JUNE, 1951.' In the f i r s t period, the committee on Information Refer-r a l Services f i n a l l y succeeded, after long and sometimes quite questionable delay by other persons, i n putting before the Social Planning Committee and the Board of Directors a picture of the - 40 -potentialities of a Community Information Referral Service. In acfreiving this i n three brief months they were not able to u t i l i z e the f u l l strength of community planning as much as might have been desired. While recognizing their achievement we cannot say that i t was "a continuous process of social planning in which agency interests join i n finding the facts of human need, in establish-ing priorities regarding such and delivering the most effective 1 way to organize the services involved." With the Board of Directors meeting on June 2 6 , 1 9 5 1 the f i r s t period of community organization ends. The Board had approved in principle the idea of organizing an Information Refer-ral Service under Community Chest and Council auspices i f funds were made available from non-chest sources. As far as one can ascertain no one had been authorized to find out whether and where such funds were available i n the community. The Board i t s e l f assumed no responsibility. SUBSEQUENT SOCIAL PLANNING ACTION ON REPORT In September, 1 9 5 1 the Chairman of the Social Planning Committee reported to that body that no definite progress had been made in obtaining funds to finance the Centre. She pointed out that approaches to individuals at this time of year might be mis-construed and affect adversely the 1 9 5 2 campaign opening on Octo-ber 1 s t . 1 Association Press, "Towards Improved Chest-Council Agency Re-lations," Pamphlet, p. 2 7 , New York, 1 9 5 1 . - 41 -No further mention of the proposed Centre is found in Social Planning records until January, 1952 when, in discussing a memorandum from the chair, circulated before the meeting and discussed f u l l y , the following statement was made: The Chairman said that to the best of her knowledge the Social Planning Committee had not had the opportunity to decide whether top priority should be given by Council staff to the interviewing and referral service now being given to people who drop into the office - the information and referral service recommended by the Social Planning Committee and agreed to by the Board of Directors had not been set up - no adequate method of financing. The Commit-tee on an Information Referral Centre has recently re-convened as a ways and means comittee - exploring possible means of raising the necessary money. In this connection the Board of Directors had approved the appointment of a case worker to assist in the Family and Child Welfare Divi-sion - with primary responsibility for interviewing a l l applicants for assistance.! In February, 1952 the retiring chairman, in her last summary statement, urged the Social Planning Committee to continue to press for an Information Referral Service. On March 17, 1952 the Social Planning Committee appoin-ted a woman as a member to the Information Referral Committee (where she had previously sat i n an ex-officio capacity), and gave the Chairman power to appoint such other members as the com-mittee might deem advisable. DEVELOPMENTS AT COMMITTEE LEVEL Meanwhile, there is some point i n explaining what was happening to the project on committee le v e l . Any activity would be surprising since to a l l intents and purposes the committee as 1 Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, Minutes, Social Planning Committee, January, 1952. - 42 -a study group would normally disband when i t s report was presented. But, as indicated above, i t had become more than a study committee and i t s members were not satisfied to "retire" u n t i l they had at least explored the possibilities of finding financial backing for the project now approved in principle by the Board of Directors. In September a letter was written by the Chairman of the Social Planning Committee to the President of the Junior League enclosing twenty copies of the report to the Social Planning Com-mittee. Between then and November 12, the Chairman of the Commit-tee on the Information Referral Centre, addressed the Board of the Junior League. On November 12, another letter from the Chairman of the Social Planning Committee to the League, gave certain de-t a i l s regarding the project. It may therefore be assumed that although there was no formal request for funds, the Junior League was considering sponsorship of the project. The League officers had apparently asked for answers to certain specific questions (1) Was the total budget of,$7,800.00 necessary? (2) Could the services of the Information Referral Office and the Volunteer Bureau be merged? ( 3 ) Could Junior League volunteers be used in the Centre? (4) How long would the Junior League be committed to financial support of the proposed centre? The Chairman, in reply, indicated that (1) Certain economies were possible i f f a c i l i t i e s for the centre could be obtained i n the Community Chest and Conncil office. (2) Any combination of the resources of Volunteer Bureau and proposed centre were not advisable. - 43 -(3) A "limited number" of Junior League volunteers could be used depending on the capacities of the director and the space available. (4) It was understood and accepted by the Board of Direc-tors, Community Chest and Council, that the f u l l cost of the Information Centre should become part of central administrative charges of the Community Chest and Council within two years from i t s incep-tion at the latest, provided i t proved i t s value and usefulness. In the December, 1 9 5 1» copy of News & Views, the o f f i c i a l magazine of the Junior League of Vancouver, a report on Board ac-tion states "agreed that the Referral Centre should not be taken on as a major project and that a token donation i s not advisable at this time." Once again the Committee appears to have "gone under-ground" for a few months. There are indications "off the record" that the refusal of the Junior League, while disheartening, was not acknowledged as f i n a l . There are also indications that agencies previously not involved in the Information Referral Committee had some concern lest projects already "on the books" for Junior League consideration might run into competition with this new In-formation project which to date had not reached the ears of agen-cies directly. VISIT OF NATIONAL SECRETARY, FAMILY WELFARE ASSOCIATION, AMERICA The next meeting of the Committee i n March, 1 9 5 2 centred on the purpose and function of the proposed centre. A f i e l d rep-resentative of the Family Welfare Association of America was i n Vancouver for an agency v i s i t and arrangements were made for her - 44 -and the executive of the Family Agency to meet with the Informa-tion Referral Committee and advise the member's on the success or d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by similar organizations in the United States. Five members of the original committee of six], .? plus, two representatives of the Community Chest and Council staff, were present at this discussion on March 12, 1952. The f i e l d consultant brought forth the following points: (1) There i s danger of such a centre becoming another case work agency. (2) This danger i s minimized i f i t i s a part of the central resources of Community Chest and Council. (3) Kept within limits i t might be useful to the commun-it y . (4) The centre should be considered f i r s t i n terms of i t s value to citizens; the public relations value accruing to the Community Chest and Council, because of this service is a secondary consideration. (5) The centre should not be set up "on crutches" but should be properly staffed by a faully qualified person and have adequate f a c i l i t i e s and equipment. (6) If the agencies i n the community are convinced of the need of such a service, the money needed would be forth-coming . After the committee had shared i t s report with the guest the meeting focussed i t s attention on the problem of fund raising, discussing i n particular the matter of further interpretation to the Junior League. Recognizing that any approaches to community groups for financial sponsorship must be made with authority i t recommended that the Social Planning Committee be requested to re-instate the group as "The Committee on the Information-Referral Centre." - 4 5 -The remarks of the vi s i t i n g authority in regard to agency involvement in the planning of such a service had apparently struck home for two plans relating to member agencies of the Commun-i t y Chest and Council were approved: (1) That the report of the Committee on the Information Referral Services should be presented in as palatable form as possible to the only two bodies where agency representatives, as such met within the Community Chest and Council, (a) at functional divisions of the Council Section (formal voting representation from member agencies) (b) at the president's Coffee Parties (informal fact-sharing, semi-social gatherings attended by exec-utive directors and presidents). (2) That each member of the committee should approach several executives of the larger Chest agencies informing them of the proposed project and the inten-tion of the committee to discuss this at Divisional meetings. Equally significant was the decision to invite the execu-tive directors of the Family Welfare Association and the Y. M. C. A. to join the group and to assign to two committee members the respon-s i b i l i t y for recruiting other members who would be representative of key community interests. EFFORTS IN INTERPRETATION TO AGENCIES The Social Planning Committee reinstated the Information Referral Committee In March, 1952, giving i t s chairman power to add members as needed. The Committee met again immediately this auth-ority was given. Five new members had been added, the senior." administrator i n the Nursing Services of the Metropolitan Health - 46 -Committee, the newly appointed President of the Community Chest and Council (ex o f f i c i o ) , the executive directors of the Children's Aid Society, the Family Welfare Bureau, and of the Young Men's Christian Association. The committee (1) advanced the plans for presentation at divisions and presidents' coffee party, and sought (2) to c l a r i f y the relationships i f any, between the proposed Informa-tion Referral Centre and an Information Centre on alcoholism then under consideration by the Health and Auxiliary Division. Work on these two problems was continued at the April meeting. In planning for the presentation at the coffee party two of the newly appointed private agencies' representatives brought forward the following new ideas i n regard to the proposed centre. (1) The suggestion that the agencies require a clearer delineation of the total services of the Council to i t s mem-bers (in other words, why try to serve us in a new way when you have not perhaps given even the traditionally anticipated leadership?) (2) The suggestion that such a centre might well be set up i n an agency which had already great experience in referral. (3) The suggestion that i f the centre were set up within the Community Chest and Council, agency staff might be "borrowed". One of the highlights of the whole committee process came when a member who had previously been much concerned that private agencies be consulted by the committee asked what informa-tion Community Chest and Council member agencies might want presen-ted at the proposed coffee party. The answer (quote) from a member of a private agency - 4 7 -staff was: A statement of safeguards to be adopted i n seeing that the project was carried out properly -- there was a fear lest some agencies would shirk responsibilities and "shunt" people elsewhere. Further queries were: Would contacts with agencies be by telephone? and would the centre be open at night? As the committee made plans for both the coffee party and the Division meetings i t faced the questions "Why have these gatherings of agencies? What can these groups do about the Infor-mation Referral Centre?" While recognizing that to establish a centre the support and acceptance of the financially participating agencies was v i t a l the committee was faced with the fact that the project had been approved by the Board of Directors. The report was f i n a l and i t was being presented to the agencies not for appro-val, but for further suggestions as to i t s implementation. JUNIOR LEAGE DEVELOPMENTS At the close of the meeting the Chairman stated that the Junior League was setting up a Project Committee to evaluate, i n light of community need, a l l projects brought forward for League sponsorship. The Project Committee wished to confer with the In-formation Referral Committee. The Junior League President had , suggested the name of a member who might represent the League in the Information Referral Committee. The chairman was authorized to follow up this suggestion. - 48 -PRESIDENT'S COFFEE PARTY The proposed coffee party was held on April 2 5 , and the committee members summarized the report under the following head-ings: ( 1 ) Need for the service ( 2 ) History of the project ( 3 ) Function (4) Personnel ( 5 ) Review of type and number of requests for referral services received in October and November, 1 9 5 1 * Questions and comments from agency representatives included: ( 1 ) Need for accurate recording and reporting i n proposed centre. ( 2 ) Can agencies already working under extreme financial limitations r e a l i s t i c a l l y accept more referrals? (estimate that each of cases cited i n ( 5 ) above, would cost some agency, even on an emergency basis about $ 3 0 . 0 0 ) . ( 3 ) Possibility of meeting needs of newly arrived c i t i -zens. (4) Question as to the effectiveness of Information Re-ferral services in other communities. (5) Had consideration been given to making funds avail-able to one of the large case work agencies to rent ground floor f a c i l i t i e s and enlarge staff to do this service? (6) One representative of group-serving agency said that such a centre would not help them. How w i l l we educate pub-l i c to the worth of this extra expenditure? (7) One representative hoped expenses would be kept very low. (8) One representative referred to a current "advice" program on the air and said he had no doubt of need of such information service or of the av a i l a b i l i t y of funds to support i t . - 4 9 -The President agreed to have reports sent to a l l agencies and at the May 1 9 meeting of the Social Planning Committee, the following resolution was passed That representatives of agencies present at Division meet-ings (when Information Referral Service was discussed) report to their Board of Directors; and after further discussion submit the decision of the Board directly to the Information and Referral Centre Committee as well as reporting their decision at the next meeting of the Division; the represen-tatives of public departments to do likewise after discussion with the heads of their departments. DISCUSSIONS AT DIVISIONS Between May 1 3 , 1 9 5 3 and June 1 6 , 1 9 5 2 , members of the Information Referral Committee presented their project by panel discussion to the functional Divisions. A summary of the ques-tions and comments at these meetings showed the following reactions from representatives of member agencies in the Family and Child Welfare Division, the Group Work Division and the Ex Service Divi-sions, the Health and Auxiliary Division. The Family and Child Welfare, the Ex Service and the Group Work division went on record as approving, as a. group, the establishment of such a centre according to the terms outlined in the report. The Health and Auxiliary Division did not record a vote. As far as can be ascertained from correspondence f i l e s , only two letters were received giving formal approval to the i n -/ auguration of the Centre, these being from two very small agencies, the Volunteer Bureau and the Housing Association. - 50 -PRO 1. Centre would save time and 1. create better feeling. 2. Would be valuable to employers. 3. School administrators might be interested. 2. 4. Possibilities of research -Pointing up unmet social need. 3. 5. Possibility of good use of volunteers. 4. 6. Encourage agencies to sharpen intake policies. 7. Would be of good use to veter- 5. ans. 8. Would relieve Division Secret- 6. aries of interviewing work which diverted them from their proper function. 7. 9. Would be i n a position to bring matters of social need directly to social planning 8. committee. 10. Might lead people to recrea-tional services at a point 9. where i t is not too late to involve them in meaningful group l i f e . 10. 11. Would give particular ser-vices to business, industry and trade unions. 11. 12. Would reach groups reluctant to explore the welfare ser-vices . 12. CON (including doubtful) Has need for Information Refer-ra l Centre been evaluated in comparison with other social agencies. Would the Information Referral Centre give better service to the community? Why create a new agency instead of expanding existing agencies? Would people with recreation and art questions be referred to Community Arts Council? Why would people know about Centre more than an agency? Would i t prevent social agencies from making their own referrals? How would centre staff learn ramifications of veterans leg-islation? Should not such a centre be at a heavy t r a f f i c point - Gran-v i l l e and Georgia? Would centre give specialized services already available in " established agencies? Would require very clear pic-ture of function. Information centre could report on recreation, might be equally well given by any agency with well equipped leadership. Could recreation agencies, on limited budget and staff accept large numbers of referrals? - 51 -TWO INFORMATION CENTRES: RELATIONSHIPS At the next meeting of the Information Referral Commit-tee, the second problem regarding the apparent similarity between the two Information Centres was discussed with representatives of the Committee on Alcoholism, and i t was decided that the two Cen-tres were in no way similar and that they should be presented to the agencies as separate projects. In June 1952 the Committee reconvened to review the sup-port received to date. It was agreed that approval had been gained from the coffee party, the division, and from a few agen-cies, as well as in a. public opinion poll conducted by the Public Relations Department in which the project had f i f t h place (27.7$) i n citizen support. A circular was prepared to be sent to agen-cies. NEW PLANS FOR FINANCING In looking for financial support for the project the following ideas were brought forward. (1) Approach the Chest for funds (2) Start project on a smaller scale (3) Have Chest assign a worker to do interviewing in Chest and Council setting. It was f i n a l l y decided to re-approach the Junior League and then circularize the agencies giving information (1) re financing, (2) re formation of Centre. - 52 -At this point, a proposal instigated by the Health League was brought forward by the public relations director, namely that the Information Referral Committee should operate a t r i a l Information Centre Booth at the Pacific National Exhibition. A great deal of work went into investigating this proposal which was deemed unpolitic at the time. In August, 1952 requests for financial sponsorship were made to the Vancouver Rotary Club and the Junior League. There are indications that the President of the Community Chest and Council made personal representation to both groups. The committee as such did not reconvene until January 5j 1953) at which time i t was announced that the Rotary Club would make $2,500.00 available to the Information Referral Centre, but. that i t must be started by March, 1953. A personal donation of $200.00 was reported. 0 The Junior League had been asked to donate funds cover-ing the salary of the Director of the Centre. Since even with Junior League support there apparently would only be $6,000.00 instead of $7)800.00 available, economy measures were discussed. NEW PLANS FOR FACILITIES In regard to f a c i l i t i e s , two suggestions were made: (1) That the offices i n the Community Chest and Council now rented by the Corps of Commissionaires might be made avail-able, and (2) that i t might be possible to acquire quarters in the building occupied by Health Unit 1, Metropolitan Health Com-mittee. This was a particularly interesting suggestion as i t - 53 -might have led to City involvement in the project. However, since these quarters are located on the "skidroad", the office in-take would have been materially affected. It was the general opinion that the Community and the Junior League would favour a Chest centred office. EMPLOYMENT OF STAFF In regard to personnel there were suggestions that a director,might be obtained on loan from an agency or department, or that skilled volunteers might be interested in giving their services. It was agreed that a person should be employed on a full-time basis by the Community Chest and Council and paid from funds collected and that this person, man or woman, should be in -terested in community-wide services. Two resolutions were passed (1) That the Committee proceed at once with the estab-lishment of an Information Referral Centre and that ( 2 ) Whatever offices which would be made available by Community Chest and Council should be ut i l i z e d . In regard to the choice of a director and the supervis-ion of the person employed, a slight disagreement arose. One member f e l t that the Director of the new Centre should work under the supervision of the Social Planning Committee. Since this is contrary to the administrative policies of the Community Chest and Council i t was agreed that, while the Information Referral Commit-tee through the Social Planning Committee might recommend the names of possible staff members, a f i n a l decision regarding the employment of a social worker and the subsequent relationships of that worker to the Community Chest and Council, was the - 54 -responsibility of the Executive Director under authority from the Board of Directors. It was therefore agreed that one pro-fessional member of the Committee would receive names of prospec-tive Centre Directors. TWO PROJECTS BEFORE JUNIOR LEAGUE To date there had not been a project in direct competi-tion with the proposed Centre. But now, when almost half the funds needed were available, a proposal in regard to another need-ed service was made to the Junior League and the Social Planning Committee. A group of case workers representing the Community Chest and Council and the family agency and group worker from two neighbourhood houses had been meeting for several months discussing how case work services could be made more readily available to fam-i l i e s primarily related to the neighbourhood houses and frequently unwilling or unable to u t i l i z e needed referral to a family agency. The proposal was that some additional staff be added to the family agency in order to provide case work services within the neighbour-hood house structure, and in consultation with social group workers on the staff of the neighbourhood houses. This project had not been "aired" at the Group Work Di-visions, but had been discussed at the Family and Child Welfare Division. It was unfortunately presented late i n the meeting and the professional workers speaking of i t were not given adequate hearing. However, the Social Planning Committee went on record as congratulating the Committee and suggesting that i f the Junior - 55 -League did not give i t support, these agencies find some other way to finance i t . At the same meeting i t was reported that the Information Referral Committee was approaching the Junior League for funds, and that with Rotary Club support guaranteed, definite plans for establishing the Centre were under way. JUNIOR LEAGUE SPONSORSHIP. GRANTED On March 3» at a meeting of the Information Referral Committee, the Chairman announced the Junior League had agreed to pay the salary of the Director of the projected Information Refer-ra l Centre for a twelve month experimental period and that a sum of $6,100.00 was now available. The President of the Community Chest and Council had been instrumental in interpreting this ser-vice to the League. ADMINISTRATION FACILITIES, PERSONNEL It was decided that, since the Centre would operate as a direct service of the Council Section, an Advisory Committee should be authorized by the Social Planning Committee, and the Centre staff, l i k e the Social Service Index staff, would be super-vised by senior officers in the Community Chest and Council. The offices then occupied by the Corps of Commissionaires on the second floor of the building, but outside the general Community Chest and Council office had been made available for the Information Refer-ra l Centre. The question of personnel was discussed at length. It was reported that four names had been brought forward for - 56 -consideration. In discussion the following points were raised: (1) That a male director might achieve better relation-ships with business, industry and trade unions. (2) That community experience was- a major consideration. (3) That the position should be advertised in the daily press and in notices to the member agencies, Community Chest and Council. (4) That the Canadian Association of Social Workers Placement Service might be consulted. In regard to committee personnel i t was recommended that the present committee should be enlarged to include one rep-resentative each from the Rotary"Club, Junior League and the two trade union councils. At the next meeting the selections commit-tee reported that a total of five applications had been received and that the committee recommended that the application of the present Group Work Secretary of the Community Chest and Council who held a Bachelor of Social Work degree, and who had worked for six years in Vancouver, be accepted. The decision was not unani-mous, one member suggesting that in view of the fact that a new Executive Director of the Community Chest and Council was to come into office i n two months, the appointment be delayed. Records are not available regarding further discussion but i t was f i n a l l y moved, seconded and carried that the report of the Selections Committee be accepted. PLANNING COMMITTEE BECOMES ADVISORY BODY A l l members of the original committee agreed to act, i f requested by the Social Planning Committee in the Advisory Committee - 5 7 -of the new Centre. Subsequent to the o f f i c i a l opening of the Centre, in June, the following matters of policy were established. ( 1 ) That the name of the Centre should be "The Community Information Service." ( 2 ) That a l l Health and Welfare agencies public or p r i -vate be given formal notice of the opening of the Centre. ( 3 ) That the secretary should make appointments to inter-view as soon as possible the executive officers of key health and welfare organizations. (4) That a sub-committee to establish a statement of policy be set up. ( 5 ) That the question of using volunteers from the Jun-ior League be explored. The Centre was opened for services on June 9? 1 9 5 3 ? and opened formally on June 1 7 , 1 9 5 3 * SUMMARY: COMMITTEE PROCESS TO JUNE, 1951 In summarizing the process of community organization i n the f i r s t period, March 1 9 , 1 9 5 1 to June 2 6 , 1 9 5 1 the following factors merit comment: Urgency of Producing Report The Committee on the Community Information Service was set up with some degree of h o s t i l i t y and certainly i t s members were made aware that they must act quickly and decisively. Several key volunteers in the Community Chest and Council were distressed that this project, which had been given priority on paper, had not, despite Social Planning authorization, ever received serious con-sideration by a sub-committee. ' - 58 -Strength of Committee This urge to bring forth a definite report as soon as possible explains to some degree why some very necessary elements of community planning were missing i n the process of the f i r s t study committee. Despite this, the fact that the group of twelve persons representing very diverse professional and personal inter-ests could produce such a report indicates to some degree the v a l i d i t y of their cause and the leadership inherent in the group. Lack of Agency Involvement The "missing link" in this f i r s t period of study i s the involvement of the member agencies of Community Chest and Council. Except for interviews between the Chairman and representatives of four key groups, no effort was made to ascertain i f the member agencies saw the need for this service ot would give i t the co-operation so v i t a l to i t s success. One senses that the twelve members of the committee be-came so convinced of the value of the projected centre that, in-stead of presenting a basic report for study by divisions and agen-cies, they instead became an action group, interested chiefly i n obtaining the financial support of the Board of Directors in inaugurating a centre immediately:.* Since, from the beginning, consistently limited Chest funds indicated that financing such a centre might affect adversely the budget of member agencies, i t is d i f f i c u l t to understand why no financially participating agency was represented even informally on the i n i t i a l committee. While recognizing that such a centre - 59 -.would u t i l i z e a l l community resources and c a l l for close co-opera-tion with public agencies, i t does not appear r e a l i s t i c to put planning responsibilities into the hands of persons professionally related only to such organizations as the City Social Service De-partment, Department of Veterans Affairs, School of Social Work and Community Chest and Council. Why were not the Family Welfare Bureau, the Children's Aid Societies and the Christian Associations regarded equally as sources of recruitment for membership on this Committee? Did the originators of the idea fear vested interests in the private agencies, or were they over-anxious to relate the project to non-chest agencies, some of which were at that time not too adequately involved in the social planning function of the Community Chest and Council? If i t were not possible to recruit professional people i t might have been feasible to have board members from financially participating agencies on the i n i t i a l committee. Evaluation of Committee Recruitment The ratio of volunteers to professionals in the original committee of eight members is f a i r ; five to three. But the addition of four members of the staff of the Community Chest and Council puts the balance in favour of the employed group. While one can understand that such a project is of v i t a l importance to (a) The Board of Directors, (b) The Social Planning Committee, (c) The Family arid Child Welfare Division, and (d) The Public Re-lations Department, i t s t i l l does not seem an economic use of staff to have four employed persons representative of three group-ings on such a sub-committee. One person, sharing reports on the - 60 -progress of the committee with other staff members, should have been adequate. More important, this multiple staff representa-tion might have weighed decisions heavily and whether they did or not, their committee activities would, one would think, preju-dice the opinions of financially participating member agencies not represented on the committee. Emphases in Presentation to Social Planning Committee and Board of Directors It is apparent that there Is some change in emphasis between the report of the Study Committee to the Social Planning Committee and the Social Planning Committee report to the Board of Directors Community Chest and Council. The.Study Committee in i t s report to the Social Planning Committee emphasizes the general need for such a service. No mention is made of the fact that for many years the professional staff of the Community Chest and Council had been rendering ser-vices similar to those offered in an Information Referral Service. In the report to the Board of Directors this fact is given f i r s t emphasis. The public relations value of the Centre is mentioned briefly i n the original report but stressed in the presentation to the Board of Directors. ACTION AT SOCIAL PLANNING LEVEL One would also question whether a matter of such impor-tance as the inauguration of a new central service should not have been held over u n t i l a further meeting of the Social Planning Committee, rather than be sent forward for Board consideration - 6 1 -" i f approved by the Executive Committee, Social Planning Commit-tee." Campaign budget deadline was no doubt the reason for this treatment, but the immediate approval of such a service after only a three month study period now appears over-optimistic and premature. Certainly the Study Committee was originally asked only to "study and recommend." SUMMARY OF PROCESS, SECOND PERIOD In summarizing the second period of activity of the Information Referral Committee from March, . 1 9 5 1 to March, 1 9 5 3 ? the following factors appear important particularly in light of the f i r s t year's experience in the Community Information Centre. As in the f i r s t period, the strength of the original committee and the a b i l i t y of the lay and professional members of that committee to work together as a group was remarkable. Faced with failure and considerable opposition, the Committee seemed to "fade out" on several occasions only to appear at crucial moments to renew their efforts. There were apparently strong bonds es-tablished. One notes that the Committee frequently met outside the Community Chest and Council in most comfortable surroundings and that food was served! Since the Board of Directors did not assume or o f f i c i a l l y delegate responsibility for exploring community resources for financing the project when i t gave i t approval in principle, the project would not have developed i f members of the original com-mittee had not assumed responsibility for raising funds to support - 6 2 -i t . By their enthusiasm they had persuaded the Chairman of the Board of Directors to be their most powerful spokesman in this regard. Because the Social Planning Committee had not, i n 1951? any policy on priorities for proposed services, there arose a rather unfortunate situation i n which two, i f not more, Chest and Council related projects were seeking Junior League financial sponsorship. This must have been very uncomfortable for the Junior League. More serious, the eventual acceptance by the League of partial responsibility for the financing of the Centre has undoubtedly prejudiced certain personnel against the Centre. It is d i f f i c u l t to understand why the Social Planning Committee faced with the Information that two Chest and Council related projects were before the League, could not, as the most compre-hensive planning body, establish priorities and prevent two groups of citizens competing seriously for League backing. It should have been possible to decide whether the Case Work Q Group Work project, or the Information Centre, was most needed. The selec-tion was aggravated by the fact that the Executive Director who was to present the Neighbourhood House Plan to the Social Planning Committee was not permitted to present the report until nearly midnight. The Committee on the Information Referral Service seemed to realize after their report reached the Board of Directors that they had not involved Chest Agencies enough i n their preliminary study. At each meeting after this.some steps were made to remedy - 63 -this situation. A visi t i n g national fi e l d worker was consulted, interviews with key agencies were planned, written material was sent to agencies, and then the project was presented to member agencies at a President's Coffee Party and meetings of the four functional divisions of the Community Chest and Council. Most important of a l l , the committee gradually (and as far as can be ascertained, s k i l f u l l y ) co-opted persons who represented key financially participating agencies, and the Junior League. Some of the representatives on the committee and some of the agency representatives attending the five large meetings were negative or at least doubtful in regard to the proposed cen-tre, although recommendations of support were given in each i n -stance by the group as a whole. But since the project had Board support " i n principle" the expressions of opinion were not consid-ered, one would gather, too seriously. Gut of forty-four agencies i t i s significant that letters of endorsement were received only from two agencies. This might well have occasioned a pause i n planning. It is unfortunate that the agencies which did not approve "in principle" did not write to differentiate their opinion from the other silent agencies who probably only feared further sharing of the shrinking Chest dollars. The idea of placing the Information Service within an operating agency was brought up; frequently, but the lay members would not consider i t . Apparently they were of the opinion that, since the reason for projecting this Centre was in part because - 64 -the general public did not always turn to the operating agencies, to place the Centre in such an agency would defeat the original idea. The method of choosing the Secretary for the Centre is not considered in detail but there is sufficient evidence that, while the choice made was satisfactory to some members of the Committee, Social Planning Committee and Board of Directors, there was definite hesitation on the part of some of the professional workers in key agencies and the Community Chest and Council. A different choice might have related the Information Service more closely to the highly specialized agencies. Statistics show that the present centre is more closely linked to the community and to organizations with non-social work staff than to profes-sionally-manned agencies. In summary, the second period of organization was ex-tremely satisfactory in comparison with the f i r s t period, both in terms, of committee activity, financing and involvement of agencies. Had not the process of decision been weighted by the "approval in principle" of the Board of Directors, the Centre might have achieved the acceptance described by Miss Parsons of the Family Service Association to the Information Referral Committee. "If the agencies are convinced of the need of a service the money and the service w i l l both appear.1W CHAPTER III THE ADMINISTRATIVE SETTING OF THE COMMUNITY INFORMATION SERVICE It is proposed i n this chapter to describe the admin-istrative setting of the Community Information Service, i t s f a c i l i t i e s , i t s intake and recording procedure, i t s resource f i l e s . In addition, there w i l l be an elaboration on the use of volunteers, the public relations program, the role of the advisory committee and the relationship of the Community Infor-mation Service to i t s parent body, the Community Chest and Coun-c i l . PHYSICAL SETTING For the greater part of the f i r s t year of operation, the Community Information Service was housed in two small offices on the second floor of the Community Chest and Council building, thirty-two steps up from street level. These two rooms were adequate in terms of privacy /for interviews and were cheerfully decorated. However, two factors limited the usefulness of the original premises; f i r s t , the long climb to the office, and sec-ond, i t s limitations as a setting for volunteer service. Here the volunteer and the receptionist-stenographer, whom she was supposed to relieve, occupied adjacent desks in one small room. Certainly there were advantages in this propinquity, but the sec-retary-receptionist was not free to work uninterrupted at pressing - 67 -c l e r i c a l tasks, and the volunteer did not have to assume any real responsibility in answering telephone c a l l s , handling re-source f i l e s or receiving persons coming to the office. In May, 1954, at the request of the Advisory Committee, the Community Chest and Council granted the Community Information Service the use of the front portion of the mezzanine floor, with reception room, interviewing and typists' offices, eleven steps from street level i n premises formerly rented to the Department of Justice (Western Remissions Service). Other offices on this floor were set aside for the Volunteer Bureau, the Library, and the Division for the Guidance of the Handicapped. Two signs on street level and door lettering enable the public to find their way to the office. As in the temporary quarters upstairs, the new headquarters are tastefully and comfortably furnished. Telephone service is an important factor in an informa-tion-i-referral office. The Community Information Service tele-phone number i s the same as the Community Chest and Council, but the Community Information Service w i l l be listed twicei once under i t s own name (with note "see Community Chest and Council") and once under Community Chest and Council. There is one line from the switchboard, Community Chest and Council, with two instruments, one in the reception room and one i n the interviewing office. In addition, there is an unlisted number which is used only for out-going c a l l s . This is particularly helpful as i t enables the worker to c a l l agencies or the Social Service Index without block-ing incoming c a l l s . As outgoing calls outnumber incoming call s , - 68 -this extra telephone also relieves pressure on the overloaded switchboard of the Community Chest and Council. OFFICE PROCEDURE AND PRACTICE: POLICY Shortly after the Community Information Service was inaugurated a small Sub-Committee on Policy was set up. It has presented to the Advisory Committee a tentative report. This report was based on a similar statement received from the Seattle Referral Centre. There are indications that this statement of policy, which was not wholly acceptable to the Advisory Committee, w i l l require alteration and extension before i t w i l l be a useful guide in professional practice and administration. An outline of the procedures followed i n the Community Information Service office with reference to this tentative policy may be helpful. Aims of Community Information Service The five stated aims of the Community Information Ser-vice, as set forth in the f i r s t report of the original study com-mittee, and s t i l l i n force,.are: (1) To give accurate information to any individual or organization on the health and welfare and related services in the Greater Vancouver area. (2) To refer persons to the proper source of service. (3) To direct people who wish to offer their services in the health and welfare f i e l d to the proper agency. (4) To accumulate data, which, w i l l show where needed ser-vices are lacking or inadequate. (5) To prepare and maintain a directory of health, wel-fare and other community services for distribution i n the - 6 9 -1 community. Reception of Inquiries Inquiries are made at the Community Information Ser-vice by three media, by telephone ( 5 7 * 7 $ ) ? i n person ( 3 5 * 7 $ ) > by correspondence (8.7%)• Inquiry Memo Pads Each inquiry when received is noted on a small mimeo-graphed memo sheet (appended), with headings for the date, the i n i t i a l s of worker or volunteer, the type of inquiry (telephone, interview, l e t t e r ) , the name, address and telephone number of the inquirer and, i f applicable, the name of the person on behalf of whom the inquirer i s calling. Space is l e f t for a brief des-cription of the nature of the inquiry, the disposal of the inquiry and for any follow-up required. "Follow-up" may mean another telephone c a l l , an appointment, a check of resource f i l e s , or a ca l l to an agency or the social service index. When the inquiry i s not one that can be answered from resource information availa-ble, or where there are indications that an interview or telephone conversation with the social worker might be helpful, the memo is given to her immediately, the c a l l transferred and/or the person introduced. Ordinarily, as few as possible questions are asked the client by the receptionist or volunteer. 1 Community Chest and Council, Vancouver. ^Report on An Infor-mation Referral Centre," June 1 8 , 1 9 5 1 . - 70 -Experimental Face Sheet During the f i r s t few months of operation, the social worker did not use a "face sheet" form in interviews. In the f a l l of 1 9 5 3j because of the increase of requests for direction in situations involving emergency financial assistance, a special form was worked out. This form, which is appended, proved so useful that although the heading has not been changed, as i t should be, the basic information is generally found necessary in almost a l l interviews and many telephone c a l l s . In addition, long-hand notes are often needed to complete the description of the inqury. These notes, plus the information obtained on the face sheet, are the basis for the compilation of short card rec-ords. Records are fi l e d on a l l inquiries where individual prob-lems of health, family and personal relations, employment and financial need are indicated. Short Records in Card Index The completed records indicate the name, address, tele-phone, date of birth, legal residence, religious a f f i l i a t i o n , family pattern, occupation and unemployment insurance status, regi-mental number i f any, for each inquirer with a specific social welfare problem. An analysis of the situation as seen by the worker is given; Social Service Index registration is noted, but not itemized. Direction and referral is indicated and any agency report-back included. In the eight months under study card records were filed.on approximately 900 cases. In the case of persons presenting problems suggesting the necessity of referral, a check of this card f i l e is made i n - 71 -order to d i s c o v e r i f t n e inquirer has used Community Information Service services before, and i f so, what resources were used. Inquiries directed to the Community Information Service may be divided into two categories (a) requests for general Infor-mation and (b) requests involving specific direction or referral of a person to a social work agency or other community service on the basis of the problem presented by that particular individual, or by someone on his behalf. General Information Services In regard to the f i r s t type of inquiry, listed as "Gen-eral Community Information" by tentative policy and in practice, the following principles are followed: Choice of Possible Resources (1) Direction in regard to general inquiries i s given in such a way as to provide every possible choice of commun-ity resources without endorsation or criticism of any partic-ular service. A beginning has been made in compiling, frequently on a geographic or social area basis, l i s t s of various resources according to function, e.g. camps, pre-school centres, organizationally sponsored accommodation for elderly people, service clubs, recreation and group work services, parks and playgrounds. These are not generally distributed widely to individuals but names, contacts and telephone number of several may be given from them i f re-quested. They are forwarded to agencies, on request. - 72 -Contacts with Non-Social Work Organizations (2) Since i t i s not possible for the Community Informa-tion Service to keep abreast of a l l the various welfare and money-raising projects of fraternal, civic and service groups, inquiries regarding the authenticity of such projects are referred to the group i t s e l f by giving the name of the con-tact person known to the Community Information Service. Since such groups change officers at different periods of the year, i t i s customary to answer such calls with a reply such as "The latest information we have is that Mr. — is the per-son to contact regarding this project. He may be able to advise you further." Queries re Organizational Standards of Service (3) When faced with a common question "Which is the better service?" the person handling the c a l l gives a l l the information available from the source and suggests that the inquirer follow up by telephone c a l l or v i s i t to the resource i t s e l f . In some cases where licensing is involved, they are referred to provincial or city licensing departments. Motivation of Inquirer (4) Although i t i s not always possible, an attempt i s made, by good telephone technique, to discover why the in -quirer needs the information he asks. This is important for two reasons (1) possibly the request is not as simple as i t appears and the inquirer may be asking for help on a. larger issue, e. g. day care for children or placement of - 73 -o l d p e r s o n s (2) t h e C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e r e s e r v e s t h e u s e o f i t s f i l e s t o s e r v i n g t h e h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l n e e d s o f c i t i z e n s , o r a i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n -t e r e s t e d i n g i v i n g o r p r o m o t i n g l e g i t i m a t e h e a l t h and w e l -f a r e s e r v i c e s . I t c a n n o t become i n v o l v e d i n c o m m e r c i a l i s s u e s o r u n r e c o g n i z e d f u n d r a i s i n g , o r g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n t o p e r s o n s who may n o t u s e i t t o t h e common g o o d . Q u e s t i o n P r e s e n t e d and A c t u a l P r o b l e m (5) W h e n , a s i n (4), a g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n c a l l i n d i -c a t e s m o r e d e e p l y r o o t e d p r o b l e m s a n d t h e i n q u i r e r seems w i l l i n g t o e x p l o r e t h e s i t u a t i o n f u r t h e r , h e i s e i t h e r t r a n s -f e r r e d t o t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r , a s k e d t o l e a v e h i s n u m b e r , o r a n a p p o i n t m e n t i s made f o r h i m . Q u e s t i o n s R e g a r d i n g P a r e n t A g e n c y (6) I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e p o l i c y o f t h e C o m m u n i t y C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l i s g i v e n o n l y a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e E x e c u -t i v e D i r e c t o r , a n d a l l c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g a g e n c y s e r v i c e a r e r e f e r r e d t o h i m or t h e A s s i s t a n t E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , a f t e r i t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t o t h e p e r s o n c a l l i n g t h a t he s h o u l d f i r s t d i s c u s s h i s c o m p l a i n t w i t h t h e p r o p e r o f f i c i a l a t t h e a g e n c y c o n c e r n e d . S p e c i a l i z e d I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e s S i n c e t h e r e a r e many o t h e r a g e n c i e s w i t h s p e c i a l a u t h o r -i t y o r f a c i l i t i e s f o r a n s w e r i n g s p e c i a l i z e d i n q u i r i e s , t h e Commun-i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e e n d e a v o u r s t o r e f e r q u e s t i o n s i n s p e c i a l i z e d - 74 -areas to these organizations. Thus, questions regarding volun-teer service go to the Volunteer Bureau, while a l l questions of a reference nature are directed to the Vancouver Public Library. In a similar way, questions regarding professional social work issues, standards, community planning, and social action on cur-rent issues are brought to the attention of the appropriate com-munity organization worker in the Community Chest and Council. The services of professional and labour groups are utilized for such questions as "How do I qualify as an electric-ian i n British Columbia?" "Where can I locate a German speaking obstetrician?" "Can you recommend a psychiatrist?" "Is an Idaho divorce legal in British Columbia?" Gaps i n Resource Files Acknowledged gaps i n welfare services, as well as the i n a b i l i t y of the office to meet the needs of inquirers, are admit-ted frankly to clients. In the second area, the receptionist - " volunteer may take a telephone number and agree to recall i f she is able to find resources to match the inquirer's need. A good part of the resource f i l e of the Community Information Service has developed from "hind sight" gained from seeking answers to such questions as "Where can I place my three week old baby while we move into a new house?" "Is there a Negro group which would provide a v i s i t o r for a lonely American seaman in hospital?" "How can I get impartial advice in purchasing a hearing aid?" Goals i n Giving General Information In answering general information the most important - 75 -factors i n procedure are: (1) To give accurate information which w i l l enable the inquirer to reach the needed resource quickly. (2) To listen with courtesy to the whole story the client wishes to t e l l the office worker, being particularly careful not to interrupt with inappropriate suggestions which may have already been explored and rejected by the inquirer. ( 3 ) To accept and respond to the fact that "to inquire" is actually to put oneself in a dependency situation, some-thing not easy for most normal people. This situation is min-imized by a quiet, assured, unhurried and thoughtful reply. Inquiries regarding Individual Problems The second type of inquiry coming to the Community In-formation Service includes the individuals who indicate by the nature of their request and/or the problem they actually present, that they need more than factual information or brief direction. For these persons '"The services of the Community Informa-tion Service are directed towards determining the nature of their problem and, i f necessary, making a referral to the appropriate agency or service, giving the client, whenever possible, a choice „1 of services." Actually, there i s very l i t t l e choice of services, except possibly in cases of emergency financial assistance, and then, i f the client has a pattern of seeking such assistance, he is often limited by his previous use of these services. The Community Information Service workers try at the point of inquiry to interpret to the inquirer that the Information Service does not do continuing case work. It i s usually explained to inquirer that any identifying information requested is only 1 Community Chest and Council, Vancouver, Minutes, Advisory Committee to the Community Information Service, March 10, 1954. - 76 -recorded in order to ascertain where best he may turn for help in the particular situation he presents. Sometimes this inter-pretation i s extremely d i f f i c u l t and the inquirer, having tested his courage i n presenting his problem, is reluctant to accept0 the fact that the services he needs are not available here and now. Yet, where the function of the Community Information Service has not been explained, or where the client assumes the worker w i l l , as he often puts i t "see him through" referral is doubly d i f f i c u l t . Financial Assistance in Emergencies By policy and in general practice the Community Informa-tion Service does not give financial assistance, nor w i l l i t meet the request of agencies to give a token sum un t i l an interview i s possible. However, the Committee has made available a small petty cash fund. To date, monthly expenditures have never reached the $ 1 0 . 0 0 l i m i t . There are, however, occasions when an inquirer may be given cash for a meal or a bed because referral is seriously delayed, a week-end intervenes, or as in one case, weather condi-tions did not permit a mother with a baby making antrip to a rural agency, before returning home. The advisory committee has agreed that bus tickets may be given to elderly, i l l , or handicapped per-sons or to mothers with children when the referral agency is at a distance. Approximately $ 3 . 0 0 a month is used on these tickets. E l i g i b i l i t y : Agency Responsibility At no point does the Community Information Service act as a. central intake office as was feared. "The actual determina-tion of e l i g i b i l i t y for assistance or suit a b i l i t y as a recipient - 77 -of agency services remains the.prerogative of the individual agency."1 The client i s told that a certain agency or depart-ment w i l l explore his problem i f he wishes to go to their head-quarters, or to have the C. I. S. worker make a specific appoints ment for him. Calls on Behalf of Others Frequently calls are received on behalf of other per-sons. The person contacting the Community Information Service is asked to give his name and telephone number and t e l l his rela-tionship to the one on whose behalf he has called. If possible, contact is made by telephone with the person concerned. In a l l cases the original inquirer is asked i f the object of his inquiry is aware that this c a l l is being made. Use of Social Service Index "The resources of the Social Service Index are used in a l l cases where referral to specific health, welfare or allied professional service is indicated and/or where the use of the 2 Index may f a c i l i t a t e professional consideration of the request." Despite the fact that the use of the Index has been reduced and that the local public assistance body has withdrawn from Index membership - a poor referral usually results when the C.I.S. neg-lects to use the S.S.I. In some cases the client i s informed 1 Community Chest and Council of Vancouver, Minutes, Advisory Committee, Community Information Service, March 10, 1954. 2 Ibid. - 78 -that t h i s step i s being taken. When t h i s can be done i t i s usually related to the information i n the face sheet regarding the use of l o c a l agency services. Occasionally i t i s not deemed wise to report to the c l i e n t that a check has been made at the Soci a l Service Index. After an inquiry has been made at the S.S.I, a l l agencies active i n the preceding three years i n the  area of problem now presented by the c l i e n t are called before the c l i e n t i s directed to another service. I f aft e r t h i s con-s u l t a t i o n the services of yet another agency are indicated, work-ers i n the "new" agency are informed what other agencies are, or have been recently, active i n t h i s case. Known Clients of Agencies When, i n an interview a c l i e n t states or admits that he i s already receiving services from an agency i t i s usually sugges-ted, i f that agency gives case work services, that he discuss his problem with his own worker. I f he does not wish to do so the worker may explain that he getting the best and only service a v a i l -able, or that, i n the case of certain services such as emergency food, clothing or shelter that she would l i k e to discuss his s i t u -ation with his worker. The transiency and s c a r c i t y of workers i n public agencies makes t h i s problem p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t with some s o c i a l assistance cases, and old people on pension or as s i s -tance. With ex-prisoners and former patients of mental hospitals and; c l i n i c s , the inquirer i s often reluctant to contact the only agency equipped to meet his problem. Usually the c l i e n t can be led to see that such consultation i s to his benefit. The agency - 79 -workers have generally been most understanding of clients who have gone elsewhere for help. If the client does not wish the agency to be called his request is respected. However, i t is then v i r -tually impossible to find him service except in a few limited areas. Preparation for Referral Before directing a client to an agency on a referral bas-i s , the Community Information Service worker discusses with him the general problem he presents, tries to discover what he has done already to meet this situation, and seeks to help him understand what kind of service he may receive from a certain agency, i f accepted by them as a client. When he has heard of the services available at this agency, the Community Information Service worker tries to determine whether he really wants to explore the resources. If he seems to think he could benefit from the services, he is helped to decide whether, he w i l l make his own contact or i f he wish-es an appointment made for him by the Community Information Service. A telephone c a l l is made to an agency before any client is referred to that agency and always before he leaves the C. I. S. office. > . . Occasionally when the client is fearful or hostile this c a l l is made in his presence; more frequently he is asked to wait in the reception office while the agency is telephoned. Reporting from Agencies to Information Service An effort has been made to interpret to a l l agencies the value of reporting back to the C.I.S. on each referral. The results - 80 -i n Vancouver, as in other centres, have not been encouraging. The Family agency and one veteran's service, however, being most cooperative in this regard. Since the Community Information Service has no reason to record the active treatment or services these calls are limited to such statements as "accepted for ser-vice", "Not a suitable referral", "Proved unwilling to accept agency resources", "Did not appear for appointment". Ideally, the Community Information Service would, i f no report is received, check on each definite referral. Limited staff has not permitted this. Gaps in Services Available in Specific Areas As in the case of general information calls there are many problems presented for which there are not at present social work or health resources available. The Community Information Service worker in such situations acknowledges these gaps in ser-vices to the client and occasionally seeks to help him plan how he may himself minimize his problem by the use of his own personal resource, or non-social work resources, such as churches, private professional services, newspapers, business concerns. Repeated galls to Information Office On the whole, few clients return to the Community Infor-mation Service and these few are for the most part elderly persons or single men who do not have social workers readily available to lis t e n to their troubles. The repeaters, though few, are fre-quent and the relationships must sometimes be terminated by a re-iteration of the function of the project. It is a reflection on - 81 -the structure of our metropolitan society as well as an indica-tion of the client's social inadequacy that persons should want to return to an office which has nothing to offer in direct services or group activity. Perhaps also i t i s a reflection on the calibre of professional services rendered there. Inquirers with a Pattern of Inadequacy The Community Information Service has of course no solution to offer for the "hard core" of families and single individuals who move from one unsolveable situation to another, using agency services b r i e f l y and ineffectively, unable ever to take hold of a productive relationship. Many of these people have come to the C. I. S. as another place to "shop" and ina b i l -i t y to help them,particularly i n view of the Chest relationship, often creates negative and sometimes hostile reactions. Focus in Situations Indicating Need for Referral In dealing with individual problems or situations in which referrals are indicated, the focus of the interview or the telephone c a l l i s three-fold: (1) to gain a useful understanding of the inquirer's situation ( 2 ) to assist him in understanding and wishing to take positive steps in dealing with the situation. (3) to consider with him a l l possible measures, those of his own suggestion and those which he might not have known. (4) on the basis of the above, to effect a constructive referral by which the client i s enabled to move comfortably and with some confidence towards a solution of his problem. - 82 -Importance of Skilled Work In the Brief Interview The fact that we do not have a second chance makes the use of time have a different connotation. This sense of time urgency, while natural, can he i n i t s e l f defeating. One i s i n -clined to feel that an "air tight" case must be presented to the seemingly appropriate community agency. Only i n a relaxed atmos-phere is the client best served. A referral should not be a demand or an appeal but an opportunity for two mutually respected professional people to talk over a situation, make use of each others understanding and knowledge and work out a plan of refer-ra l suited to one individual client. Qualifications of Workers It i s therefore apparent that for this area of the work of an information centre one requires experienced staff, who, because they are long familiar with travelling the long road with clients, can safely take the short cuts. Any shortcomings i n the direct referral program of the Vancouver Community Information " Centre may be attributed to the lack of a worker with a background of supervisory experience in several kinds of agencies giving social case work services. RESOURCE FILES The Community Information Service in Vancouver opened i t s doors on June 9th, 1953? with three shiny and empty f i l e cabi-nets. Any resource f i l e ever maintained i n the Welfare Council had been "lost" in the process of many movings. The only direc-tory of welfare services was a very generalized and already - 83 -out-dated "Manual of Resources" published in 1952 for the use of junior high school teachers. The staff member, through reading and after consultation with the director of similar services in Seattle, had been made aware of the dangers of any over-dependency on mechanical card indices. At the same time, there was evidence that in the agencies in Vancouver the trend towards a more psycho-logically oriented type Of social work had led workers to lose some interest in the client who presented a direct question, re-quiring a direct and accurate answer. It appeared that agency resource f i l e s , once a familiar part of agency equipment, were not well maintained except in one or two cases. Hence so many calls to the Community Chest and Council prior to the establishment of the Community Information Centre. The Community Information Ser-vice has tried i n the short period of operation to steer a course between relying on mechanical listings and giving understanding but inaccurate direction. RESOURCE FILES DEVELOPED ON BASIS OF INQUIRIES Quite frankly, as has been stated before, once having developed a simple method of f i l i n g , the process of developing resource f i l e s was done largely from "hind-sight". The nature of the inquiries coming to the Community Information Service in the f i r s t few months indicated the type of information required and pointed up areas about which one might anticipate questions. Following suggestions received from other centres, the Community Information Service hopes eventually to develop three - 84 -types of master f i l e s . (1) an organizational f i l e , with services listed under auspices, (2) an alphabetical f i l e where auspices, subject and names of personnel are listed A to Z, (3) a subject f i l e , where, under the t i t l e of problems or type of needed services, agency and organization resources giving these services or meeting these problems are l i s t e d . To date the f i r s t two f i l e s have been set up. The major routine task of the Community Information Service i n the F a l l of 1954 is to establish the third and "subject" f i l e . This is a professional assignment but w i l l provide a year-long volun-teer assignment i n checking present f i l e s , transferring informa-tion, and cross referencing. ORGANIZATION FILE The organizational or "auspices" f i l e is and w i l l contin-ue to be the most comprehensive f i l e resource. It was divided originally into five sections: 1 . Resources of the Community Information Service Operation. 2. Resources of the Community Chest and Council of Vancouver. 3. Resources of the City of Vancouver. 4. Resources of the Province of Bri t i s h Columbia. 5. Resources of Canada. Under these headings, f i l e folders are placed alphabeti-cally. In some cases similar resources are grouped in one f i l i n g folder and there either listed on single sheets or i n some cases - 85 -in folders devoting one page to each of the individual organiza-tions, f a l l i n g under such headings as Service clubs, Camps, Pre-school centres. A l l formally organized agencies and departments, however, have an individual folder. The contents of each folder vary depending on the amount of written material available in the Community Chest and Council; the direct contacts made by Community Information Service with the organization, the degree to which the organization forwards material to the Community Information Service. The amount of material also depends on the frequency and nature of i t s use. A single-purpose agency has a less extensive resource f i l e than a multi-function agency. The Community Information Ser-vice seeks to record in each f i l e folder such specific information as the nature of the service, specific characteristics of e l i g i b i l -i t y such as age, residence, geographic coverage, financial arrange-* ments and the method of referral preferred by the agency. Some of the resource f i l e s which are important to Commun-i t y Information Service operation and more complex than those listed above are the Resource Manual of the Department of Welfare, Province of British Columbia, and local, national and American agency directories, including the Womens' Directory of Vancouver Service groups. HEED FOR CONSTANT REVIEW OF AGENCY FILES The f i l e s have been reviewed twice during the twelve months operation. This is not adequate. Were there sufficient staff time i t should be possible to develop abstracts for each f i l e folder and eliminate the bulky assortment of material now collected - 8 6 -which may include annual reports, brochures, staff l i s t s , press clippings, summaries of interviews with agency staff members, and policy statements. Until there is a professional worker with enough:, time available to give constant and consistent supervision to the maintenance of up-to-date, pertinent information, recource to the f i l e s i s not as speedy and accurate as could beo desired. ALPHABETICAL FILE One of the f i r s t mechanical tools which the Advisory Committee planned to acquire was a large rotary f i l e , similar to those used i n the Community Chest and Council. The cost of this equipment being prohibitive, a small but effective substitute was found, in two miniature rotary card reels holding a total of 20G0 cards. These cards, too small for convenient typing, are printed by the volunteer staff and show the names of contact and organiz-ation, addresses, telephone numbers and in some cases indicate areas of service. There is considerable cross reference. In a few cases, they also include "subject" cards, e.g. "Sight-saving Classes" —"Hearing Aids"—"Marriage Counselling". Often such "subject" cards direct the telephonist to a particular folder in the organizational f i l e . MAPS For quick reference in both the reception room and the interviewing office there are street maps of Greater Vancouver, transportation guides, a map of the Province of British Columbia, and specialized maps showing soeial areas, schools, parks, public - 87 -welfare and public health centres and boundaries. LIBRARY The library of the Community Chest and "Council is situ-ated i n a room adjacent to the Community Information Service. The professional staff of the Community Chest and Council is at present engaged in reorganizing the library. Under a new and very simple system, necessary until a staff librarian is acquired, material requested of the Community Information Service, such as legislative documents, annual and conference reports, reports of Community Chest and Council committees w i l l be speedily available. IMPORTANCE OF WELL DOCUMENTED RESOURCE FILES The valid i t y of resource f i l e s can be tested only when we know the outcome of their application — a d i f f i c u l t matter i n a project such as the Community Information Service. Resource f i l e s are not merely "tools". They may, i f used properly, be as much a part of the total process of brief services as were those earlier components of social work practice, the case record, agency policy statements, or financial assistance. The development of resource f i l e s through direct con-tact at the source, with organizations, is one method by which an information service may demonstrate to these agencies that i t s primary function is not direct service; that i t can, i f provided with accurate information, be a means of aiding the agencies in each achieving their particular goal of community service. It has been the aim of the Community Information Service - 88 -in i t s f i r s t year to develop a resource f i l e which i s : (1) easily familiar to and usable by a l l members of staff, professional, c l e r i c a l and volunteer. (2) as simple as possible (3) accurate and quickly accessible (4) well cross-referenced (5) including only material useful in achieving the fulfilment of the aims of the Community Information Service (6) related to frequency of use (7) useful to both the general public and to profession-al social workers. The finest case work s k i l l s are of no avail i f clients are "reassured" that they w i l l find help i n an agency no longer active in this area or one for which, because of residence, r e l i g -ion or other factor, they are no longer e l i g i b l e . The process of securing and u t i l i z i n g resource material is one which demands professional s k i l l , knowledge and experience. In i t s e l f a resource f i l e may be only a tool. Used dynamically, " i t is a channel for mutual sharing of agency program information, for the sharpening of information and referral s k i l l s and for administrative planning.""*" VOLUNTEERS The aim of the Community Information Service in regard to each person bringing an inquiry to i t s attention sounds simple but is d i f f i c u l t in attainment. When the inquirer hangs up his 1 Rummel, Kathryn C , "The Resource Pile", Information and Referral, A Report of Two Conferences, p. 32, Welfare and Health Council, New York, 1952. - 89 -telephone or leaves the office he should be assured (1) that his real problem was understood; (2) that he has obtained accurate information regarding community services open to him; (3) that he has been helped to make his own decision regarding the next step towards finding an answer to his inquiry, a solution to his problem. In order to achieve this condition, ideally, every i n -quirer should be handled, from his f i r s t introduction, by profes-sional social workers. STUDY COMMITTEE EMPHASIS ON PROFESSIONAL SERVICES  IN PROJECTED CENTRE The committee planning the Vancouver Information Ser-vice were well aware of the professional demands of every aspect of the new project. Their plan to employ two social workers would have enabled them to limit the services of the secretary-c l e r i c a l worker to the complex and demanding task of f i l i n g , recording, and correspondence. It was probably this committee acceptance of the s k i l l s required for every part of the operation which led the group to minimize, in their discussions with the Junior League, the possibilities of u t i l i z i n g League members as volunteers i n the Community Information Service. STAFF LIMITED BY OPERATING BUDGET However, the f i r s t budget limited staff to one social worker. Since a single worker cannot possibly be personally in-volved with every inquiry i t soon became apparent that the cl e r i c a l - 9 0 -worker must carry the majority of i n i t i a l telephone calls and f i r s t contacts with persons coming to the office. At the same time she was responsible for a heavy cl e r i c a l assignment in correspondence, f i l i n g , recording and administrative detail rela-ted to the advisory committee. With 927 calls in the f i r s t three months of operation, a natural priority on services to inquirers resulted in an alarming delay i n recording, reporting and f i l i n g . DECISION TO EXPLORE POSSIBILITIES OF VOLUNTEER SERVICE The question of using volunteers in the office was raised at the f i r s t meeting after the opening of the service. Respecting the earlier opinion of the committee, the secretary was of the opinion that the staff were not yet in a position to give volun-teers the required supervision. A request was made to the Junior League to assist the Community Information Service through the services of two home volunteers who would work on the "service clubs" section of the resource f i l e . In October i t was decided to request the Junior League for four volunteers to work in the office one afternoon or morning each week. A letter was forward-ed to the placement offices of the Junior League enclosing a job description for the two types of volunteer workers required, the telephone-receptionist and the auxiliary interviewer. As a result of this request during the period October, 1 9 5 3 to May 31, 1954, seven Junior League members joined the vol-unteer staff of the Community Information Service; two home-based, four as receptionist volunteers, and one (an ex-social worker) as an interviewer. These Junior League volunteers were a l l home-- 91 -makers who were professionally employed before their marriages. Three of them were formerly in social work practice, one of these three having worked in the intake department in a public welfare department. Three of these volunteers l e f t after four months and two months duty because of family responsibilities and were replaced. The two home-based workers did not receive enough supervision and requested other placements. Another reception-i s t telephonist took permanent employment in her own profession. The remaining three have worked in the Community Information Ser-vice for eleven months and wish to continue their placements. ORIENTATION OF VOLUNTEERS Each volunteer is interviewed before placement and the job description reviewed in detail. It had been hoped that some method of regular supervision could be worked out. On the whole the volunteers and worker have both been so occupied during the 0 three-hour weekly period that this has not been achieved on a regular basis. Actually there is a continuous process of consul-tation around most interviews and whenever i t is apparent that the volunteer wishes to discuss her role in the Community Information Service time has been found for an appointment. VOLUNTEER ASSIGNMENTS The degree to which these volunteers have enabled the employed staff to maintain recording up-to-date has been one very positive effect of their service. They have a l l worked in the mechanics of the resource f i l e s , each assuming at some point, - 9 2 -major responsibility for certain parts of these f i l e s . A l l public relation material has been sent out through their efforts. In working on these humdrum tasks they have often introduced new ideas which promote the efficiency of office procedure. CONTRIBUTION TO MORALE: JUNIOR LEAGUE VOLUNTEERS Most important of a l l they have added to the "atmosphere" of the Community Information Service office. While this may sound sentimental i t has bearing on the type of service rendered by the Community Information Service. Because of often rich home or educational background and their acceptance of the basic philos-ophy of volunteer service inherent in the organization of the Junior League they are skilled in developing good contacts with the public and show a warmth, interest, and patience in their re-lationships with inquirers. They are careful and courteous in their use of the telephone. None of them have ever "assumed" they knew the answers. None of them have been outwardly disturbed by the negative attitudes and sometimes bizarre behaviour of the people who come to the Community Information Service office. To date there has not been a single indication that they have failed to respect the confidential nature of their assignment. While the office has failed to develop a regular pat-tern of supervision, the experiment of using Junior League volun-teers may otherwise be termed a successful and happy one both from the viewpoint of the Community Information Service and the Junior League whose placement officer reported in May, 1954- that a l l volunteers were enthusiastic and wished to continue their ser-vice in the f a l l of 1954. - 93 -OTHER VOLUNTEERS Two other volunteers have worked in the Community Infor-mation Service since the opening. One is a young woman who be-cause of home responsibilities acts as "emergency" volunteer. She is particularly valuable in the office because of previous Community Chest and Council contacts. The other volunteer served in a like capacity in the Rehabilitation Centre. She is an older person with outstanding secretarial s k i l l s . She is particularly effective as a receptionist, and has, because of long residence in the city, remarkably wide contacts with many community groups. In the whole staff this one volunteer has become the "answer" man because of her continued work in the development of the resource o f i l e s . o EVALUATION OF USE OF VOLUNTEERS While the committee planning the Community Information Service did not anticipate the advantages of u t i l i z i n g volunteers, the necessity may be regarded instead as an opportunity. Quite apart from actual humdrum services often rendered, the volunteer staff of the Community Information Service has done much to devel-op better public relations, to open new channels of communication and above a l l to prevent a small office with two employed staff members from becoming isolated and static in i t s methodology. Volunteers are not-super cargo, but needed, welcomed, and one hopes self-accepted members of the staff of Community Information Service. The low rate of absenteeism and tardiness on the part of the volun-teers seems to indicate that this acceptance i s valid. Reports - 94 -from the Junior League Placement Offices indicate that the Board of the Junior League recognize the Community Information Service Office as a preferred placement. PUBLICITY "The ultimate foundation of good publicity must be good work; a bureau doing good work ultimately and slowly becomes known, but without publicity probably not as widely as i t should be."2 The public relations program of the Community Informa-tion Service has not been well developed. A summary of the types of publicity utilized by American Information Services indicates that extensive use has been made of the following media; news-papers, radio, flyers, news board, television, professional and trade journals, pamphlets, posters, calendars, blotters, listings on Chest Pledge cards, and special telephone l i s t i n g s . To date in one year, the Vancouver Community Information Service through a small sub-committee on publicity has brought the fact of i t s existence to the public in the following ways. ( 1 ) Letters to a l l doctors, lawyers and ministers, ( 2 ) Large and attractive posters for placement in staff rooms in business and industry during 1953 Chest Campaign. ( 3 ) Limited coverage in a few trade journals, one ethnic group paper, and two service club journals. (4) One mention by a columnist in a local paper. ( 5 ) An excellent article on the Transportation Company's bus bulletin "The Buzzer." ( 6 ) Two press statements and one picture. (7) A descriptive brochure forwarded to a selected mailing l i s t of 4000 individuals and organizations. 1 National Council of Social Services, "Advising the Citizen , p. 1 0 0 , par. 4, London, England, 1 9 5 0 . - 95 -(8) An article i n each of the 27 weekly neighbourhood papers in Greater Vancouver. (9) A billboard at the Forum, Exhibition Park. Most of this publicity with the exception of the brochures was utilized in the f i r s t six months of the project's history. The Information Service has found, as is reported in the United States, that each "wave" of publicity has brought an increased number of inquirers to the office. While i t might be anticipated that agencies would object to extensive Community In-formation Service publicity, apparently to date even the "waves" of increased inquiries have not stimulated a demand for services beyond the agency's a b i l i t y to supply them. PROBLEMS OF PRIORITY IN PUBLICITY PLANS; COMMUNITY  CHEST AND COUNCIL o Because the Community Information Service is a part of the Community Chest and Council the problem of obtaining publicity is a d i f f i c u l t one. The papers and radio stations give excellent coverage during the annual financial campaign. It is extremely d i f f i c u l t to ask them to extend this courtesy on a twelve months basis for another Community Chest and Council project. Consulta-tion with the public relations authorities in the Community Chest and Council has led the publicity committee to admit that to some degree the Community Information Service is not considered a particularly newsworthy project. SERVICE IS NOT PARTICULARLY NEWSWORTHY In a modern community citizens accustomed to c a l l so many sources of information regarding transportation, weather, - 96 -sports results, and other topics find nothing unique i n the fact that there is an office giving similar direction to health and welfare services. An information centre i s a channel; the human interest stories emanating from i t are seldom concluded decisively. The Community Information Service may be able to help an unemployed waiter achieve self-dependency by directing him to an agency where he may obtain a white coat - but i t is the agency who gives the coat, and possibly other non-material support with i t that is in a "newsworthy1*11 position. VALUE OF AVAILABLE PUBLICITY. Moreover as has been stated before, a modern Council in social welfare i s engaged in so many endeavours meriting pub-l i c interpretation that priorities must be established. On the other hand, if. the Community Information Service is to f u l f i l i t s purpose i t must be known to the general public. The media used to date have been, i n each case, effective in this regard and many persons have stated they came to the office because of this — a newspaper clipping or a copy of the Buzzer which they show the worker. Churches, business organizations and agencies have asked for many additional copies of the brochure. One unsolicited a r t i c l e in a German language paper brought over twenty letters to the Community Information Service, revealing the need of new citizens for varied types of health and welfare and educational information. - 97 -PUBLICITY — A PROBLEM FOR THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE The problem of publicity has been discussed at almost every meeting of the advisory committee. It is now generally accepted that unless ne\* and inexpensive means of publicity can be devised that the Community Information Service as a part of the Community Chest and Council must accept a relatively low priority on publicity, through the generally accepted media, daily press and radio. It was recommended at one Advisory Com-mittee meeting that the sub-committee on publicity work out with the Public Relations department of the Community Chest and Coun-c i l a sound and reasonable twelve month public relations program. After the completion of one year's operation this plan w i l l be easier to achieve since the Community Information Service now has some basis for estimating the effectiveness and timeliness of different forms of public interpretation. SERVICES, BEST PUBLICITY The quality of services rendered remains the greatest interpretive factor. Many inquirers state that they heard from a ffiend that he received helpful direction on referral at the Community Information Service office. RESULTS OF A MINIMUM PUBLICITY PROGRAM "One whole phase of the work of a Bureau (Information Service) is in fact, public relations. A primary activity is to interpret to the citizens the activities of government and voluntary organizations. The publicizing of this work is the f i n a l thread in a long chain which links the individ-ual citizen to the social administrative organization of the - 98 -country, with i t s complex pattern of statutory, voluntary and mixed a c t i v i t i e s . If the end link i n this chain, the link between the bureau and the citizen breaks down, then a great deal of the value of the administrative work which has gone before, in this rich, complex organization, is lost."^ ADVISORY COMMITTEE The development of the advisory committee from a study group to a standing committee of the Soeial Planning Committee, Community Chest and Council has been described in Chapter II of this study. In June 1 9 5 3 ? when the Centre opened, the advisory committee consisted of fourteen persons, of whom thirteen had been active prior to the opening of the Centre. Since then two additional members have been added to the Committee, one a former school teacher and prominent organiz-ational leader, the other the Chairman of the local co-ordinating committee concerned with the welfare of new Canadians. One char-ter member representing informally the School of Social Work, University of Brit i s h Columbia, resigned, but i t is hoped w i l l be replaced by the appointment of another faculty member. The strength of the Committee has therefore been sixteen. At the eleven meetings held between June 1 s t , 1 9 5 3 and May 3 1 s t , 1 9 5 4 , the average attendance has been eleven. In addition two staff members of the Community Chest and Council have usually attended these meetings making the total attendance including the Community Information Service secretary usually thirteen or four-teen. 1 National council of Social Services, Advising the Citizen, p. 1 0 0 , par. 3 5 London, England, 1 9 5 0 . - 99 -COMMUNITY INTEREST REPRESENTED IN COMMITTEE In items of interest and community activity the commit-tee members represent informally the following groups (gainfully employed professional workers, marked X). (1) Homemaker, particularly interested in money raising and administrative practices in welfare agencies. (2) Homemaker, ex social worker, active in Community Chest and Council a c t i v i t i e s , over a period of years in Div-ision, Social Planning Committee, Board of Directors. (3) Homemaker, Chairman Co-ordinating Committee on Citizenship. (4) Homemaker, active in church, women's service work, and youth leadership. X ( 5 ) Executive Director Child Protection Agency. X (6) Executive Director, Alcohol Research Committee, and church. X ( 7 ) Executive Director Metropolitan Youth Organization. X (8) Acting Executive Director Family Agency. X (9) Supervisor of Welfare Services, Public Welfare Agency. X £10) Director, Nursing Services, Public Health Agency. (11) Business man, Service Club officer. (12) Homemaker, ex-social worker, Junior League member, Agency Board member. (13) Homemaker, former presswoman, Junior League member. (14) Homemaker, former President Community Chest and • Council, now also active i n Mental Health Co-ordinating Agency. X ( 15) Supervisor Social Services, Veterans' Affairs. (16) Business man, active in town planning^ housing, Agency Board Member. - 100 -In looking ahead to the rounding out of the Advisory Committee i t might be considered to have achieved the "broad rep-resentation" visualized by the planning committee i f additional members were recruited from the following areas; (1) the clergy, ( 2 ) organized labour, ( 3 ) The School of Social Work (re-selection), (4) the agencies giving emergency financial assistance, and ( 5 ) the professional group of personnel workers. As i t stands, however, i t appears to be a f a i r l y strong and representative group. As the early l i s t i n g of the project shows, the members are a l l persons recognized as community leaders, each contributing constructively to the total endeavours of the group. The proportion of laymen to employed staff remains in a seemingly appropriate ratio. CONTENT OF COMMITTEE MEETINGS A hasty review of the concerns of the committee during the f i r s t year of the Centre's operation indicates that the follow-ing topics were given consideration at the eleven Advisory Commit-tee Meetings in order of frequency of discussion. The Public Relations program of the Community Information Service was dis-cussed at nine advisory committee meetings, the use of volunteers at eight, and the matter of financial support at seven. Other matters on the agenda given consideration at more than one commit-tee meeting were: (1) Recruitment of committee members. ( 2 ) Unemployed employable persons - temporary assistance. ( 3 ) Interpretation of the Community Information Service to specific community groups. - 101 -(4) Development of Community Information Service Policy. ( 5 ) Consideration of requests from Community Chest and Council for Community Information Service to undertake projects additional to their function. (6) Camp Referral project (carried by Community Infor-mation Service in 1953)• (7) Development of furnishings and office equipment. (8) Encouraging reports from agencies on referrals. (9) Camp Information - co-operation with British Columbia Camping Association. (10) Resource Li s t s . (11) Appointment to other committees, Community Chest and Council. Business considered at one meeting only included: complaints regarding project, value of knowing source of referral, Community Chest and Council, Constitution, responsibilities in regard to giving Service Club Information, service of interpreters, handling of requests for domestic services without salary, resources for - marital counselling, petty cash, car tickets. Four factors are noteworthy in discussing the develop-ment of the Advisory Committee during the f i r s t twelve months operation of the Centre. 0 Concern of Committee Regarding Publicity (1) The subject most discussed was publicity. Through-out the year there has been pressure coming from the Advisory Com-mittee on the Public Relations Department, Community Chest and Council regarding obtaining a wider programme of interpretation. It is d i f f i c u l t for the committee and the employed secretary to - 102 -accept the limitations of working out publicity plans with the Public Relations Department within the structure of the total Public Relations plan of the Community Chest and Council. Limitation of Program to Original Purpose and Function (2) There has appeared to be some pressure from the Community Chest and Council towards using the Community Informa-tion Service as a "dumping ground" for (a) several kinds of Central co-ordinating services, and (b) physically, as a sub-office for campaign. The committee,guarding the experimental element of the project has resisted this pressure at each point. This has not tended to develop consistently good relationships between the Advisory Committee and Community Chest and Council o f f i c i a l s . "Barometer" Function of Committee (3) The Community Information Service has, as one of i t s special aims "to accumulate data which w i l l show where needed services are lacking or inadequate." As a sub-committee of the Social Planning Committee the Community Information Service Com-mittee is privileged to report, on the basis of i t s operation such gaps in services, to the regular meetings of the Social Planning Committee. To date, only one problem has been presented. Bet-ween June 9 and September 26, twenty-eight persons, or an average of nine persons a month requesting emergency assistance in food, shelter, or clothing, were unemployed employables or their depend-ants. In October the number had increased to twenty-seven, and in November to forty-nine. At this point, the Community Informa-tion Service referred to the Social Planning Committee for - 103 -direction regarding the problem of financial assistance for un-employed employable persons. The Social Planning Committee, in turn referred the problem tp the Board of Directors, which set up a special committee with wide and strong community representation. It is hoped that, while some helpful measures to meet the situa-tion were instigated on a temporary basis in 1953? that the com-mittee and the other bodies subsequently interested in the situa-tion may have gained governmental support at the appropriate level for basic reforms in this area before the winter of 1 9 5 4 . Although the Community Information Service has cited to the Social Planning Committee examples of other gaps in welfare services, i t has not been able to substantiate qualitatively the very apparent needs for extended nursery school mental health and case work services. A careful evaluation of individual requests and good process on committee level, is required before thoughtful, well based recommendations for study can be made to the Social Planning Committee. Summary of Committee Development In summary, the Advisory Committee to the Community Information Service is well constituted, and has held regular meetings with a f a i r l y good attendance. It is relatively well focussed on i t s purpose, and i t s meetings have included important content. It has held the interest of the members who originally planned the centre and has recruited new members. Some further recruitment of members from unrepresented and key areas is sug-gested. The subject most discussed was publicity, followed - 104 -closely by "volunteer services" and financing. L i t t l e or no progress has been made i n the development of written terms of references or statements of policy. The Committee has not u t i l -ized as much as could be desired i t s prerogative to present unmet needs and problems to the Social Planning Committee although the results i n regard to the one problem so presented, , the plight of unemployed employable persons, received attention and action. As was stated in Chapter two, this Committee for three years fought for the inauguration of the Community Information Service. Now this office is in operation with employed staff and volunteers carrying i t s day by day duties. It i s apparent that measures to maintain the active participation of the commit-tee must be taken or i t w i l l become merely a receptacle for pro-fessional reports, a fate i t s members i l l deserve. •This situation has been minimized by the necessity dur-ing 1954- of holding firm against evident pressure from the Commun-i t y Chest and Council to widen the function of the Community In-formation Service to include Chest and Council operations not basically related to the purpose of the Centre. One can only hope this pressure or some other continues to demand the watchful consideration of the committee un t i l new areas of committee inter-est and action may be explored. The Advisory Committee has many functions which can be profitably developed; determination of policies, development of good public relations program, recruitment of volunteers and com-mittee members, strengthening of relationships with Community - 105 -Chest and Council and community groups, support of good profess-ional practice, extension of staff and f a c i l i t i e s with increased intake. Perhaps, however, the leaders of the British Advice Bureau have pointed up i t s most pertinent function in the follow-ing statement: If the Citizens 1 Advice Bureau is to remain a perma-nent and developing feature of our social l i f e , i t must be regarded as an entity of i t s own and protected as such. Transitoriness and change are as inevitable in this f i e l d of work as in a l l human endeavour. The workers and in-quirers of today vary from those of tomorrow. The Bureau belongs not only to them but also to the citizens of the future who should inherit i t as a special centre where com-mon resources can be mobilized to meet common need. One function of a local committee is to provide a permanent and continuous form of action. To f u l f i l i t s functions ind i -vidual committee members must have i t s cause at heart and be so involved that they w i l l want to give to the Centre time, thought, and effort. RELATIONSHIP TO THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL As has been indicated earlier i n this chapter, the Ad-visory Committee of the Community Information Service, Vancouver, has on several occasions sought to c l a r i f y , in certain specific situations, i t s function and i t s responsibilities within the total framework of the Community Chest and Council, i t s parent adminis-trative body. The Advisory Committee, consisting largely of individ-uals who were members of the original study committee, made possible the inauguration of the Community Information Service. They 1 National Council of Social Services, Advising the Citizen, page 72, p.2, London, England, 1950. - 106 -defined i t s general purpose and function, interpreted i t s poten-t i a l i t y at a l l levels of the Community Chest and Council, took responsibility for finding financial sponsorship for i t outside the Community Chest and Council. They have a natural propriet-ary interest in i t that cannot now be recognized i n its adminis-trative setting. In that administrative setting the Community Information Service i s one facet of the central services of the Community Chest and Council. The Committee has an advisory func-tion in relation to the Social Planning Executive, but cannot make policy. The workers both professional and cl e r i c a l are employees of the Community Chest and Council and as such are responsible to the Executive Director Community Chest and Council, or to another staff member designated by him. These workers may be dismissed or replaced, their salaries raised or lowered, their sick leave and holidays regulated without reference to the Advisory Committee. Additional duties may, according to constitution, be assigned to them without reference to the Advisory Committee. This i s actually good administrative practice, made d i f f i c u l t by the historical background of this particular commit- ' tee. The d i f f i c u l t i e s to date have arisen when the Advisory Committee has questioned quite logically whether assignments made administratively by the Community Chest and Council jeopardize the development of the Community Information Service according to i t s agreed purpose or function or where such assignments, while not onerous, might confuse any evaluation of the project made at the conclusion of i t s operation as an experimental service. In - 107 -this regard the committee advised the Social Planning Committee that i t did not wish to accept responsibility for the Camp Refer-ral project, 1954. It has asked through the Executive Director that i t s secretary be relieved of certain committee responsibili-ties and has suggested that Community Information Service premises should not be utilized as sub-campaign offices, where money would be handled in front of persons seeking and denied, by policy, emergency assistance. On the other hand some Committee members have questioned the wisdom of the Administration Community Chest and Council; granting to the Community Information Service worker the usual annual increments made according to Community Chest and Council personnel policy. This query, i t is believed, was not made with any implied reflection on the staff but was based on a recognition of a responsibility to the outside groups financing the project. The fact that the Community Information Service paid rent for i t s premises and was billed for stationery, publicity material and office supplies, usually accepted as part of administrative expen-ses, made this situation even more d i f f i c u l t . NEED FOR WRITTEN TERMS OF REFERENCE The Committee and the administrative officers of the Community Chest and Council are beginning to acknowledge that these differences are not basic and that a clear written state-ment of the terms of reference of the Community Information Ser-vice could be used to profit. Such terms of reference are to be worked out in the f a l l of 1954, and are to include reference to: - 108 -(1) The method of recruiting members of the Community-Information Advisory Committee. ( 2 ) The terms of office of the members. (3) The function of the Committee in relationship to the Community Chest and Council. (4) The relationship of the staff of the Community Information Service to (a) The Advisory Committee (b) The Administrative Staff structure Community Chest and Council. (c) To other divisions and groupings, Community Chest and Council. COMMUNITY INFORMATION PERSONNEL IN COMMUNITY  CHEST AND COUNCIL STRUCTURE Within the Community Chest and Council, the profession-al staff member is supervised on a regular basis by the Assistant Director, Community Chest and Council. This supervision i s not particularly related to professional practice but is administra-tively focussed. The Chairman and secretary of the Community Information Service sit on the Social Planning Committee (now Executive Committee of the Welfare Section). They are not inclu-ded on the sub-executive where a l l divisions and important stand-ing committees are represented. LACK QF COMMUNICATION The most important d i f f i c u l t y for the Secretary, Com-munity Information Service, i s the lack of direct communication with the various groups of Community Chest and Council. While the highlights of the activities of the groups are usually repor-ted to staff or circulated in written reports, the secretary, to f u l f i l her role must be particularly aware of the current - 109 -developments in community organization. Divisional meetings where total services in certain areas are discussed can provide her with more information in less time than five or six telephone calls or v i s i t s to executive directors of agencies. On several occasions when certain gaps in services have been presented by the Community Information Service worker to staff or to committee i t has been discovered ;that certain action, unknown to the Commun-it y Information Service worker is already under way to meet these needs. Such information is invaluable to Community Information Service operation. While i t is certainly undesirable for the secretary of the Community Information Service to be absent from her office more than necessary, involvement in Division meetings might aid in the general interpretation of the Community Informa-tion Service as. a community service. This lack of communication may be as much due to the professional limitations of the secret-ary, Community Information Service, as to the policies of Community Chest and Council. Despite this, one would covet for the secret-ary the situation enjoyed by an American social worker i n a similar position, who reports: One of the elements of the special environment i n which a central referral service operates is a unique exposure to, and involvement with, community planning. In the past year this office has been invited to participate in Committees on Problems of the Chronically 111, Public Assistance, Camp Pro-gramme, Community Xmas, Public Relations, and others. These were i n addition to regular participation with the Case Work * Council and i t s Committees. The service i s pleased to be called upon in these ways for i t s opinions and experiences from i t s special vantage point in the community. We are aware, moreover, that these activities are important in more than a community planning sense. They are an index too, as to whether our service is - 110 -integrated into our welfare structure. They indicate whether the manner in which the Service operates is com-plementary to the agencies, or "going i t alone." We are constantly aware of the possible hazard in a Community Information Service becoming an appendage, fastening onbo the body of welfare services but seeking to move in direc-tions of i t s own, forgetting that without the community agencies, a referral service has lost i t s "raison d'etre." It i s , to the Community Information Service, a source of reassurance that this is not happening when i t is invited and looked to for i t s viewpoints on community-wide welfare problems.. Because the Community Information Service is in constant communication with the directors, supervisors, and workers in agencies, isolation on these relationships is not a danger; but in i t s relationships to „the whole community of health and welfare interests as represented in the most comprehensive planning group, the Community Chest and Council. The Community Information Ser-vice, unless i t s communications are strengthened seems in danger of becoming as the worker quotes — an appendage. 1 Welfare Federation of Cleveland and Cleveland Community Chest Annual Report, 1953-1954, Community Information Service, Cleveland, Ohio, 1 9 5 4 . CHAPTER IV THE ROLE OF THE COMMUNITY INFORMATION SERVICE, COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL, VANCOUVER, AS REFLECTED IN A SUMMARY OF INQUIRIES MADE BETWEEN OCTOBER 1 , 1 9 5 3 AND MAY 31, 1954, IN TERMS OF SOURCE, NATURE AND DISPOSAL It i s proposed in this section of the study to examine the programme of the Community Information Service as reflected in inquiries made at the Information Service office during the period October 1953 to May 31, 1954. Because of the experimen-t a l character of the project i t is important to know who uses the service, what is the nature of the inquiries presented and to what community services these inquiries are referred or direc-ted . The Community Chests and Councils Incorporated of America, through i t s department of Statistics and Recordings, published in 1 9 5 1 a printed form for the compilation of statistics by information centres. This form is t i t l e d "Community Informa-tion and Referral Centres, Form M-5" and is appended. This form was used as a basis for establishing a system of s t a t i s t i c a l recording in Vancouver. It was deemed wise in the f i r s t year to include under the headings "Source of Inquiry" and "Disposal of Inquiry" more detail indicating the use made of the centre by member agencies of Community Chest and Council, other social work and health agencies and government departments. These same types of agencies were listed under similar headings to indicate their u t i l i z a t i o n as a "point of disposal." As is illustrated in the sample report to the (April, 1 9 5 4 ) advisory committee (appendixAl) the "nature of inquiries" - 112 -was given in more detail. This was done partially to provide material for a proposed evaluation of the project at the close of i t s f i r s t twelve months service, partially as a device to pro-mote committee discussion and interest. The system used in recording the nature of inquiries i n the Community Information Service, Vancouver, differs in three specific instances from the "3 c's" method. (1) Inquiries for addresses, phone numbers and contacts with specified agencies are included under "general community information." In the c x 3 c's system of recording these calls are not included in the total count of inquiries, being considered in the nature of cour-tesy services. Since these courtesy services had in the past involved* the expenditure of considerable staff time in Vancouver, answering such inquiries was regarded by the planning committee as an important part of the work of the Community Information Ser-vice. (2) The total count of "Source of Inquiries" is in terms of individuals, and i f for some reason the same individual re-turns to the office during one month and is identified he is counted only once. (3) If» because of his situation, referral or direction of a person to more than one service is indicated, e.g. a deserted mother seeking (a) employment (b) day care for child, the names of each agency approached for services is recor-ded and included in the s t a t i s t i c a l count "disposal of inquiries." As has been stated before, inquiries come to the Com-munity Ih£ormatio°n Service through three types of contact: (1) By personal interview (35%) (2) By telephone (57%) (3) By letter (8%) - 1 1 4 -In a study of Information Centres made by the Community Chest and Council, Incorporated, in December 195l>*of ten cities with a population less than 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 the types of contacts showed 5 9 « 1 # by telephone, 3 5 . 1 $ by personal interview and 5 » 8 # by letter. It may therefore be assumed that the Vancouver centre's proportion of intake, according to type of contact, is normal. In larger cities the proportion of telephone inquiries is greater. In smaller c i t i e s , more people appear to come "in person" to informa-tion centres. Any marked increase in the percentage of inquiries coming to the centre by personal interview might indicate that the centre i s becoming recognized, unadvisedly, as a direct service agency. However, with the removal of the intake department of the public assistance agency and the veterans' emergency service to Fairview, the Community Information Service, located only three blocks from the "skidroad" may anticipate more calls in person in the winter of 1954; particularly i f the unemployment situation remains grave. Therefore a check in the "type of contact" is warranted. During the period October 1 to May 3 1 , 1954 ( 1 6 7 working days), the Community Information Service received a total of 2 0 5 3 inquiries, or an average of 2 5 6 . 6 calls a month, 1 2 . 3 calls a day. In terms of the total population of Greater Vancouver, 5 3 2 , 0 6 5 (Metropolitan Health Area and Metropolitan Health Committee stati s t i c s , April 1954), this i s a monthly average of 48.2 calls per 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 population. In December, 1951? twenty-one Informa-tion Centres in North American cities with a population varying from 245,000 to 8 , 5 7 5 , 0 0 0 showed a monthly average of 2 5 . 3 inquir-ies per 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 population. - 1 1 5 -The advisory committee i s not impressed by the public response to this new service, having anticipated an intake at least as heavy as that reported by one British Advice Bureau in 194-6/47 which showed over 1 3 , 0 0 0 inquiries in a twelve-month per-iod (Appendix). This particular example had been used in present-ing the plan for the Information Bureau to the Social Planning Committee and Board of Directors. The Community Information Service could accept many more general information calls but i t is d i f f i c u l t to visualize one worker dealing annually, as i s indicated i n the British report, with over 3 » 0 0 0 family and person-al problems. SOURCE OF INQUIRIES During the eight-month period under study, inquiries were received from 1 0 3 organizations or types of organizations, Yand from 1452 individuals. Organizations The organizations included (a) 3 1 financially participa-ting member agencies of Community Chest and Council; (b) the Com-munity Chest and Council i t s e l f ; (c) 24 voluntary health, welfare and recreational agencies (not financed through the Community Chest); (4) 2 1 Government departments and services, and (e) 2 6 other community organizations. The term "type of organization" is added because in group "e" "other community organizations" individual units of the following types or organizations are not identified; churches, service clubs, business and industrial firms, ethnic societies, fraternal organizations, college fraternities and sororities, parent teacher associations, Canadian Legion branches, p o l i t i c a l clubs, private schools, and trade unions. - While there are not comparable figures available to test this organizational intake, i t would appear that there is a f a i r l y wide-spread use of the Community Information Service by different types of organizations. While wide community inter-est is important, i t may prove valuable to indicate some organiz-ations which have not used the services of the Community Informa-tion Services. Among the Community Chest and Council agencies such bodies as the Columbia Coast Mission, the Last Post Fund, The League for the Hard of Hearing, suburban V. G. N's, and Hospital auxiliaries might have no need for the services. Agencies deal-ing with individuals and families and staffed by non-social work staff might be expected to require occasional counsel regarding resources. In this group 'there are three seamen's agencies, one children's health institution and two suburban community centres. With two exceptions, none of these groups have participated extensively i n the Community Chest and Council, and do not appear to have been able to relate themselves to their fellow agencies to any degree. The Community Information Service has been u t i l -ized by a l l anticipated government departments on the local level. On the provincial level i t has not had the privilege of serving the Adult Probation Service, the Child Welfare Branch, the Hospi-t a l Insurance Service, nor, on the Federal level, the Department of Indian Affairs. Noticeably absent as a source of inquiry - 1 1 7 -the voluntary agencies not participating in the Community Chest campaign are Alcoholics Anonymous, the British Columbia Cancer Institute, and the Children's Hospital. It is d i f f i c u l t because of the multiplicity of organizations in a. metropolitan area to point out strategic non-social work organizations which may- not have utilized the Community Information Service. One might reasonably covet inquiries from the Native Brotherhood, the Board of Trade, the foreign consulates and the local Council of Women. Having ascertained which community organizations have brought inquiries to the Community Information Service we may pro-ceed to examine the frequency of inquiries; f i r s t in terms of the five established divisions as Source of Inquiry, and later in terms of individual opinion and organizations within these categories. Of a total of 6 0 1 inquiries, originating from organizations (as distinct from calls of individual citizens): ( 1 ) 1 7 8 or 29.6% came from financially participating agencies, Community Chest and Council. ( 2 ) 7 0 or 1 1 . 6 $ came from the office of the Community Chest and Council. ( 3 ) 1 3 1 or 2 1 . 6 $ came from governmental departments. ( 4 ) 7 4 or 12.4$ from voluntary health, welfare and recreational groups not financed through Community Chest and Council. (5) 14-8 or 24 .6$ from organizations not financed through Community by Community Chest and Council, and not having a primary health, welfare or recreational function. In view of the fact that most member agencies of the Community Chest and Council might be expected to have developed over the year their own resource f i l e s the fact that this group was the largest source of inquiry may be an indication of over-- 118 -lapping of. function. Considering, however, that the Community Information Service was not unanimously accepted by the member agencies as a project which would be of use to them, this per-centage, i f not the actual number of inquiries, indicates some acceptance of the Community Information Service by the member agencies of the Community Chest and Council. Here again, the factor of "specific" information or so-called courtesy calls must be considered. It appears that in some American cities such calls would be handled by the switchboard, Community Chest and Council. The fact that there has not been a welfare direct-ory published for two years may also account for the number of inquiries from Community Chest and Council agencies. The second largest number of inquiries came from com-munity organizations not participating in Chest Campaign, whose welfare function, i f any, is secondary to a major function. These groups should, i f the Community Information is producing good publicity 5material, provide the largest source of organiza-tional inquiries. It i s certainly the grouping which, in terms of i t s lack of direct involvement with welfare agencies, can perhaps be best served by an information project. In terms of frequency of inquiry i t is interesting to note that among the financially participating member agencies the greatest number of calls came from (1) the Y. W. C. A., (2) the Y. M. C. A., (3) the Vancouver Boys Club and (4) the Returned Soldiers Club. The governmental bodies on a l l three levels making most use of the Community Information Service during this period were - 119 -(1) the City Social Service Department; ( 2 ) the Provincial Psychiatric Services and (3) the Social Welfare Branches. From health, welfare and Recreation agencies not sup-ported through Chest campaign, the greatest number of inquiries came from St. Paul's Hospital, Social Services, the British Col-umbia. Camping Association, and the Canadian Red Cross Society. Under "other agencies" we find the largest number of calls coming from business and industrial firms, churches, and service clubs. In summarizing these facts i t might be well to explore why the Y. W. C. A. with a counselling department should u t i l i z e the Community Information Service. The Y. M. C. A. referrals appear quite normal because that agency does not have case work services, and moreover i t s top professional staff were involved in the promotion of the information service. The Returned Sol-diers Club is one of the principal resources used by the Community Information Service; this involvement plus the fact that i t has a very small non-social-work staff makes the number of calls appear normal. The greatest number of calls have come, as might be anticipated, from the most comprehensive public welfare bodies, the City Social Service Department and the Social Welfare Branches; the Provincial Psychiatric Services has the third highest number of inquiries. Normally one would anticipate that either the large multi-functional Metropolitan Health Services and the school system would rate high among the public bodies inquiring. This may be explained by the scope of services offered by the public - 120 -health nurses in the schools of Vancouver. In the non-Chest group of health and welfare and recrea-tion agencies there is some va l i d i t y for the frequency of inquir-ies from the three leading agencies. The head worker at St. Paul's had a student placement in the Community Chest and Council; since the staff of the Community Information' Service had adminis-tered the Camp Referral project and helped compile the Camp Direct-ory in 1953 the inquiries from the Camping Association might be anticipated. A high percentage of Red Cross referrals might be expected in view of the public's assumption that the Red Cross distributes voluntarily raised funds in emergencies. Apparently the situation of 1940 which prompted the Red Cross Society to press for a referral centre s t i l l exists. In the last grouping, those organizations least closely related by function to the direct health and welfare services — business firms, churches and service clubs — made the most inquir-ies and referrals. This appears appropriate. Had the Community Information Service directed i t s program towards the interpretation of welfare services to organized labour as many other centres have done, i t might be anticipated that direct trade union referrals would be more frequent. This lack of o f f i c i a l union inquiries would appear to be one of the most disappointing elements in the picture of intake at the Community Information Service. Individuals as "Sources of Inquiry" In examining the sources of inquiries we find that 1452 persons, not stating that they represented any organizational grouping, utilized the services of the Community Information Service o f f i c e . - 121 -Of these, the largest number, 878 or 53.6$ were not classified. We may assume that the majority of these individuals were persons making inquiries recorded as "General Information Ser-vice." While the Community Information Service tries to identify by name and address or telephone number as many inquirers as pos-sible, this information does not in i t s e l f warrant a cla s s i f i c a -tion unless a study of inquiries i n terms of residence in a social area, were considered. To meet this situation i t is planned in future to subdivide this classification - "unclassified" into "identified" and "unidentified". Apart from "unclassified", a rough system of cl a s s i f i c a -tion has been developed and is indicated in Table B4, where 22 types of individuals are listed with the incidence of inquiry for the eight months under study. One very basic limitation of accuracy in such a compila-tion is the fact that one person might be included in several cat-egories; e. g. New Canadian, Unemployed employable, minister -an actual "source of inquiry". In such cases, in compiling the monthly report, the secretary, to avoid duplication, must make a judgment as to where such a source of inquiry should be l i s t e d . On the whole, because of a current local and national situation around the problem of employment, this category has been maintained most f u l l y and accurately. Frequently the monthly report has foot-notes to show that a certain number of "veterans" or "New Canadians" are listed in the total number of unemployed employa-bles. The largest grouping excluding "unclassified" is - 122 -"unemployed employables" with 285 individuals listed under "source of inquiry" or 12.7$ of the total.individuals. The third largest grouping is Old Age Assistance and Security Recip-ients (76 or 5»2%) and the fourth largest, New Canadians (less than 5 years in Canada) with 53 inquiries or 3.9$. A l l the re-maining categories have less than 20 persons listed as "Source of Inquiry". While an analysis of social need among certain groups of the population should be made on the basis of two fac-tors, (a) the groups of individuals seeking information, referral or direction, and (b) the degree to which community resources meet the problems presented by these inquiries, the figures above would appear to indicate tentatively that there is a demand for increased health and welfare services, or at least a wider inter-pretation of these services to (1) Unemployed employable men and women; (2) older persons; (3) newcomers to Canada. Aside from the actual quantitative evaluation, the Com-munity Information Service appears, in reviewing the types of i n -dividuals list e d as "source of referral", to have served people in many settings, of different ages, family situations and economic levels. This whole grouping of "Individuals" i s strategic, for i t represents the people whom the original committee desired to serve and which they described as "the man in the street". These people come to the Community Information Service on their own i n i t i a t i v e , without social work or organizational guidance, see-ing in this new service a resource i n planning some "next" step in human activity, t r i v i a l or serious, but to them currently im-portant. - 123 -NATURE OF INQUIRIES The British Citizens Advice Bureaux in the periods for which literature is available, seemed to emphasize their services as information centres, prepared to assist citizens in finding the factual answers to a multiplicity of types of inquiries rang-ing from supplies and rationing to income tax and social insurance regulations. On the other hand, the American Information and Referral Services have operated from a social work base, using in their classification of problems such terms as "placement of the aged", "home maker services", "counselling with family problems" and excluding from s t a t i s t i c a l reports such inquiries as location, personnel and appropriate contacts with welfare agencies and ser-vices . The Vancouver Community Information Service has tried to find a. mean position in classifying inquiries.. Undoubtedly the five simple classifications of the nature of inquiries are inadequate, not too well defined, and must in the future be re-examined and modified. But for the present, inquiries are class-i f i e d under these broad headings: General Community Information (l) This includes a l l inquiries about health, welfare and recreational needs or services or other community resources when these inquiries are not made in regard to the problems of a speci-o fied individual or family. In the Community Information Service monthly reports this section i s subdivided under the following head-ings: - 124 -A. Information and direction to specific agencies. B. Requests for written material; suggestions regard-ing speakers or resource persons; help with speeches and papers. C. Requests for volunteer services and offers from clubs and individuals of sponsorship; volunteer work; gifts i n kind. D. Direction regarding specific, named housing projects (a current problem). E. Questions regarding agency function or available services in certain areas where the inquiry does not relate to the problems of an identified individual. F. Miscellaneous, e. g. translation services, explana-tions regarding publicity, how to respond to "panhandling". The other four classifications of the nature of inquiry are in contrast to classification I, used where the inquiry is in regard to a problem of a specific individual or family. They are Health ( I I ) This does not include mental health problems or questions regarding hospitals, or nursing home care for older people. Employment (III) This includes requests for direction to sources of employ-ment and vocation counselling and information regarding opportuni-ties for social work employment, as well as inquiries from potential employers. Family and Personal (IV) This includes inquiries regarding services available for problems of individual and family relationships. It also covers mental health, housing, a l l forms of child placement and institu-tional care of a l l kinds of elderly people. - 125 -F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ( V ) T h i s i n c l u d e s a l l i n q u i r i e s ' r e g a r d i n g a s s i s t a n c e p r o -g r a m s , o l d a g e s e c u r i t y , and f a m i l y a s s i s t a n c e and m o t h e r s a l l o w -a n c e and v e t e r a n s b e n e f i t s , a s w e l l a s r e q u e s t s f o r e m e r g e n c y a s s i s t a n c e o f a l l k i n d s . T h e t o t a l s l i s t e d e a c h m o n t h u n d e r " N a t u r e o f I n q u i r i e s " a r e a l w a y s i n e x c e s s o f t o t a l i n q u i r i e s r e c e i v e d a t t h e C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e b e c a u s e some s i n g l e i n q u i r i e s w i l l n e e d t o be c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r .two h e a d i n g s , e . g . d e s e r t e d m o t h e r s e e k i n g s u p -p o r t and d a i l y p l a c e m e n t f o r c h i l d . T h e r e f o r e w h i l e t o t a l i n q u i r i e s f o r t h e p e r i o d a r e e s t i m a t e d as 2053, t h e i n q u i r i e s l i s t e d u n d e r " N a t u r e o f I n q u i r y " i s 2 2 6 2 . NATURE OF I N Q U I R I E S : S T A T I S T I C S I n a s s e s s i n g t h e n a t u r e o f i n q u i r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e f i v e g r o u p i n g s i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s o f t h e C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e a r e u t i l i z e d more t h a n i t s p o t e n -t i a l f o r r e f e r r a l and d i r e c t i o n , g e n e r a l c o m m u n i t y i n f o r m a t i o n c o m p r i s i n g 1158 o r 51 .2$ o f t h e t o t a l n a t u r e o f i n q u i r i e s a s c o m -p a r e d t o i n q u i r i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e s p e c i f i e d n e e d s and p r o b l e m s o f i n d i v i d u a l s , 1 1 0 4 o r 48 .8$. A t e i g h t e e n A m e r i c a n I n f o r m a t i o n and R e f e r r a l B u r e a u x r e p o r t i n g t o t h e C o m m u n i t y C h e s t and C o u n c i l o f A m e r i c a I n c . i n D e c e m b e r 1951, 60.0$ o f t h e c a l l s w e r e i n q u i r i e s f o r h e l p w i t h s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s . H o w e v e r , we m us t a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e i n a l l i t s p u b l i c i t y s t r e s s e s i t s i n f o r m a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , t h e p e r -c e n t a g e s I n f o r m a t i o n 51.5$ a n d i n q u i r i e s r e g a r d i n g s p e c i f i c - 1 2 6 -problems, 48.8$ do not appear questionable. Examining each specific classification we find that the nature of inquiries in order of frequency i s : ( 1 ) General Community Information 5 1 . 2 $ ( 2 ) Financial assistance 2 0 . 1 $ ( 3 ) Family and Personal - 1*5.2$ X (4) Employment 8.4$ ( 5 ) Health - 5 . 1 $ The fact that "financial need" occupies second place in the inquiries presented appears to indicate that the Community Information Service is reverting to the position of i t s predeces-sor organization of 1940. However, i t is interesting to note that in the much more social care work centred units in the United States, the eighteen centres cited above reported in December 1 9 5 1 that inquiries in regard to financial need totalled 2 6 . 3 $ of the total inquiries, while i n nine centres with a population under 700,000 (a grouping comparable to Vancouver) the percentage was 3 0 . 9 $ . The office of the Community Information Service is loca-ted close to the "skidroad", one section of the city most frequen-ted by single men, and particularly popular as winter headquarters for workers i n the seasonal trades most affected by increases in unemployment. Actually, the Community Information Service office is nearer this area than any of the three recognized agencies giving emergency financial assistance: The Salvation Army, the Fi r s t United Church, and the Returned Soldier's Club (Poppy Fund). - 1 2 7 -The percentage of inquiries regarding family and per-sonal services i s disappointing to the advisory committee. It must be remembered that a much higher percentage of the persons coming to the Community Information Service than is indicated by these figures, may need services in this area. Under "Nature of Inquiries" there is recorded only those problems which inquirers present themselves; that is, the situations for which they appear to be ready to seek help. As far as single men and the families of unemployed employable persons are concerned, there has been no emphasis by Community Information Service workers in seeking to explore family and personal problems, since exploration would be unprofitable without resources i n professional services to which thses people may be directed. The inquiries regarding employment are d i f f i c u l t of eval-uation since the Community Information Service provides no direct service in this area and has only one resource - the National Employment Service. Better interpretation of the resources of the public employment agency might minimize these cal l s . A good percentage of these inquiries are not from persons seeking employ-ment but from potential employers of domestic workers, labouring under the historic delusion that the welfare agencies constitute a good source of cheap labour. The last category, Health, ( 5 « 1 $ ) i s significantly small. The scanty inquiries in this rea, which unlike "finan-c i a l assistance" or "employment" varies l i t t l e with the season, indicate certain positive gains i n the development of community services. Resources for health problems are apparently known to - 128 -most citizens. The use of an Information Centre in regard to problems of health is insignificant, because people know about the services of the public health nurse, have used the bedside nursing service of the Victorian Order of Nurses and have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n applying for such treatment as i s available at pro-vi n c i a l , municipal and general hospital c l i n i c s . Since this study cannot possibly point up to any extent the actual kinds of people, questions and problems coming to the Community Information Service, i t may be well under this heading "the Nature of Inquiries" to cite without s t a t i s t i c a l analysis some sample inquiries listed under the subheadings used in monthly reports. Examples under each heading w i l l be drawn from the April 1954 report, which is appended. HEALTH A hotel manager reports that an elderly guest, very i l l , w i l l not c a l l a doctor. The Community Information Service worker inquires regarding the guest's relatives and finding that gentle* man's son is known to hotel manager asksi: that the hotel manager have the son, i f he wishes, c a l l the Community Information Service directly. On the basis of information given in this c a l l , the case i s referred to the medical department, City Social Service Department. City workers agree to interview either of these per-sons ^ and explore the need for nursing home or hospital care. A man on unemployment insurance previously able to pay for private medical services inquires regarding low cost treatment for a skin condition which he fears w i l l prevent him from obtain-ing employment. He is referred, after evaluation of his - 129 -f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n t o t h e o u t - p a t i e n t s d e p a r t m e n t o f a g e n e r a l h o s p i t a l . FAMILY AND P E R S O N A L (1) A n e m p l o y e r c a l l s o n b e h a l f o f woman e m p l o y e e , and w i t h h e r p e r m i s s i o n . She l i v e s i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y and h e r a l c o h o l i c h u s b a n d i s h o s t i l e and a b u s i v e t o t h e i r two t e e n a g e c h i l d r e n . W o r k e r r e f e r s m a t t e r t o S o c i a l W e l f a r e b r a n c h i n a r e a , who a g r e e t o v i s i t . (2) Y o u n g b u s i n e s s man s u p p o r t i n g a w i f e , i n f a n t , and h i s m o t h e r , o n l o w i n c o m e i n f o u r r oomed a p a r t m e n t a s k s f o r c o u n -s e l b e c a u s e h i s s i s t e r and h e r two p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , d e s e r t e d b y h u s b a n d i n a n e a s t e r n c i t y h a v e a r r i v e d u n e x p e c t e d l y , w i t h o u t f u n d s , and p l a n t o " s e t t l e i n " a t h i s a p a r t m e n t . He i s r e f e r r e d t o f a m i l y a g e n c y and a g r e e s t o make h i s own a p p o i n t m e n t . ( 3 ) A n u n e m p l o y e d y o u n g man a s k s f o r r e f e r r a l t o m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s b e c a u s e o f t h e r e - d e v e l o p m e n t o f symptoms o f m e n t a l i l l -n e s s . He i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e m e d i c a l d e p a r t m e n t , G i t y S o e i a l S e r -v i c e D e p a r t m e n t b e c a u s e o f m a i n t e n a n c e f a c t o r s and t h e w o r k e r ' s j u d g e m e n t t h a t he i s a l r e a d y u n e m p l o y a b l e . F I N A N C I A L A S S I S T A N C E (1) A y o u n g g i r l , c o m i n g f r o m e a s t e r n C a n a d a b y b u s , h a v i n g o b t a i n e d a. p o s i t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , l o s e s p u r s e . B u s s t a t i o n e m p l o y e e b r i n g s h e r t o C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e . S h e i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e C o u n s e l l o r , Y . W. C . A . f o r T r a v e l l e r s ' A i d S e r v i c e . - 1 3 0 -(2) A ward of the Superintendent of Child V/elfare, an adolescent boy, hitchhiking from the interior, asks for shelter and work. He is referred to the local child protection agency. ( 3 ) A neighbour calls regarding a woman whose husband has deserted her and whose children are hungry. Her name is given to the City Social Service Department1" for exploration. DISPOSAL OF INQUIRIES This "phrase" used by the Community Chest and Council of America, Inc., may seem to social, work practitioners an unfor-tunate one. The Community Information Service office in Vancou-ver has tried to find better phraseology, but not succeeding has adopted the American heading to describe action taken at the Community Information Service office in regard to a l l inquiries received there. Five classifications have been used to describe disposal of inquiries: 1 . Given Information Files This category describes the answers, based on resource f i l e s , given in a l l cases where the inquirer, not giving a. reason for his inquiry or presenting a specific health or welfare prob-lem, asks for information regarding a named community resource or for direction to an organization or a group of organizations giving service in a certain area, e.g. Question (i) does the Y.W.C.A. provide swimming for girls under 1 0 years of age? Answer "No, this service is provided by the Water Safety Council at on . - 131 -Q u e s t i o n ( i i ) W h a t g r o u p s o f f e r s w i m m i n g l e s s o n s t o g i r l s u n d e r 12 y e a r s o f a g e ? A n s w e r T h e W a t e r S a f e t y C o u n c i l , w i t h l e s s o n s a t o n . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a l s o , p r o b a b l y e r r o n e o u s l y b e c a u s e t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t d e b a r s s u c h s e r v i c e , a r e t h e i n q u i r i e s w h e r e - t o q u o t e t h e C o m m u n i t y C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s t a t -i s t i c a l f o r m - " i n q u i r e r s a r e g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n o r g u i d a n c e i n o f f i c e - r e f e r r a l n o t n e c e s s a r y . " Q u i t e o f t e n t h e s i t u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i s s u c h t h a t t h e r e a r e no r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e a l t h o u g h r e f e r r a l may a c t u a l l y a p p e a r t o be n e c e s s a r y . W h i l e t h e Commun-i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e d o e s n o t g i v e c o n t i n u e d c a s e w o r k s e r v i c e i n s u c h c a s e s t h e i n q u i r e r s may be g i v e n b r i e f c o u n s e l o n h a n d l i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d a s w e l l a s p o s s i b l e , no r e s o u r c e b e i n g as y e t a v a i l a b l e . W h i l e t h i s i s n o t a c t u a l l y " i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n f r o m f i l e s " i t i s i n c l u d e d p r a g m a t i c a l l y , u n d e r t h e a b o v e h e a d i n g . 2. R e f e r r a l T h e t e r m " r e f e r r a l " i s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y w h e n t h e p r o b -l e m p r e s e n t e d b y a n i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e d a t e l e p h o n e c a l l o r l e t t e r o r " c h i t " t o a n a g e n c y o r d e p a r t m e n t . 3. D i r e c t i o n T h e t e r m " D i r e c t i o n " i s u s e d w h e n a n i n q u i r e r i s t o l d how he may h i m s e l f c o n t a c t t h e s e r v i c e s he a p p e a r s t o r e q u i r e . 4 . D i d n o t A s s i s t T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s g i v e n i n c a s e s w h e r e one o f two s i t u a t i o n s p r e v a i l : J i ) T h e r e a r e t o t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e C o m m u n i t y I n f o r -m a t i o n S e r v i c e no r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o meet t h e s p e c i f i c i n q u i r y , o r t h e C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n o f f i c e d o e s n o t h a v e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d o n f i l e . - 1 3 2 -( i i ) T h e C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e w o r k e r i s u n a b l e t o a s s i s t ( a ) B e c a u s e o f l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l , d i a g n o s t i c s e r v i c e s ( b ) B e c a u s e t h e i n q u i r e r c a n n o t o r w i l l n o t a c c e p t r e f e r r a l o r d i r e c t i o n ( c ) R e f e r r a l i s n o t c o m p l e t e d i n t h e m o n t h r e p o r t e d . I n t h e p e r i o d O c t o b e r 1 , 1 9 5 3 t o M a y 3 1 , 1 9 5 4 , 7 5 7 i n q u i r i e s w e r e a n s w e r e d b y g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m f i l e s , 6 6 5 i n -q u i r i e s w e r e r e f e r r e d t o a g e n c i e s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , 7 8 2 p e r s o n s w e r e d i r e c t e d t o r e s o u r c e s . I n 1 1 6 c a s e s t h e C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e d i d n o t a s s i s t t h e i n q u i r e r i n f i n d i n g t h e e x a c t r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t o t a l d i s p o s a l s e x c e e d t o t a l i n q u i r i e s s i n c e some i n q u i r i e s r e q u i r e d i r e c t i o n t o more t h a n one a g e n c y . A s h a s b e e n s t a t e d b e f o r e , c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n A m e r i c a n I n f o r m a t i o n and R e f e r r a l C e n t r e s u s i n g t h e C o m m u n i t y C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s t a t i s t i c a l f o r m a r e n o t a c c u r a t e , s i n c e t h e b a s i s o f c l a s -s i f i c a t i o n v a r i e s i n some d e t a i l s . H o w e v e r , a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f r e f e r r a l s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l i s t e d a b o v e and s i m i l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s may be 0 o f i n t e r e s t . T h e Commun-i t y C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l ' s f i g u r e s a r e b a s e d o n " t h e d i s p o s a l o f i n -q u i r i e s i n e i g h t e e n A m e r i c a n C e n t r e s i n t h e m o n t h o f D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 1 • " E v e n o n s u c h a n u n e v e n b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n , i t i s e v i -d e n t t h a t t h e V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e i s o p e r a t i n g more s p e c i f i c a l l y a s a n I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e t h a n i t s A m e r i c a n c o u n -t e r p a r t s . - 1 3 3 -Percentage of inquiries disposed of by four methods in 18 American Referral and Information Centres, December, 1 9 5 1 Percentage of inquiries dis-posed of by three methods i n Community Information Service Vancouver, Oct. 1, 1 9 5 3 to May 31, 1954 Referred or directed Information or guidance Service not available, or Withdrawn request Other Percentage 7 2 . 3 18.5 4.0 4.0 Percentage 6 2 . 5 Referred or Directed 3 2 . 5 given information f i l e s 5.0 Did not assist Turning to a consideration of the community resources utilized by the Vancouver Information Service we may follow the same type of organizational classification used in the considera-tion of "source of inquiry." The number and the percentages of inquiries referred and directed to the five types of organizations were 1 . Financially participating agencies, Commun- % it y Chest and Council 218 29.7 2 . The offices of the Community Chest and Council 53 7.2 3 « Governmental services and departments .... 246 3 8 . 3 4. Health, Welfare and Recreational organ-izations not financed through the Commun-i t y Chest 8 2 1 2 . 3 5 . Other organizations 66 11.8 1447 (In addition ten persons were referred or directed to the homes or businesses of private citizens.) - 134 -From the viewpoint of a total u t i l i z a t i o n of community-resources the percentages appear quite normal. One would presume that the greatest demand would be made on the public agencies whose function is to serve a l l citizens found eligible for their broad programme of benefits and services. It also appears logical that the second largest percentage of disposals should be to the finan-c i a l l y participating agencies of the Community Chest and Council, as these generally include the more well established and special-ized programmes of family and child welfare, group work and spec-i a l health services in the private agency f i e l d . A co-relation of the percentage figures in both "source of inquiries" and "disposition of inquiries" should indicate to what degree these five different types of agencies are involved in the programme of the Community Information Service and the dir-ection of their involvement as a source of inquiry or as a service resource (see Appendix). This examination of the relationship between the i n c i -dence of inquiry at and u t i l i z a t i o n as a resource by the Community Information Service seems to indicate: (a) That Red Feather agencies used the Community Infor-mation Service to almost the same extent that the Information Service directed inquiries to them. (b) That Governmental services were used as resources by the Community Information Service to a greater degree than their departments utilized the Information Service as a source of information and direction. (c) That nonsocial work agencies used the Community In-formation Service to a much greater degree than the Community Information Service used them as resources to meet inquiries. - 1 3 5 -T h e l a s t two s t a t e m e n t s a p p e a r n o r m a l and l o g i c a l i n v i e w o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e , a n d t h e s c o p e a n d s e r v i c e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e s e g r o u p i n g s . T h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e R e d F e a t h e r A g e n c i e s h a v e made i n q u i r i e s a t t h e C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e was n o t a n t i c i p a -t e d b y t h e a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e . I n i t s t e n t a t i v e s t a t e m e n t o f p o l i c y i t a f f i r m s " i t s h o u l d n o t be n e c e s s a r y f o r a g e n c i e s s t a f f e d b y p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s t o r e f e r i n d i v i d u a l s t o t h e Commun-i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e e x c e p t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n a r e a s o t h e r t h a n s o c i a l w o r k — i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t e a c h a g e n c y h a s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n i t s own r e s o u r c e f i l e . " - ' -One mus t t h e r e f o r e p r e s u m e one o f f o u r s i t u a t i o n s : £ l ) T h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f n o n - s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n Red F e a t h e r A g e n c i e s . (2) T h a t Red F e a t h e r A g e n c i e s a r e u s i n g t h e C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e l a r g e l y i n r e g a r d t o n o n - s o c i a l w o r k p r o b l e m s . ( 3 ) T h a t Red F e a t h e r a g e n c i e s a r e n o t d e v e l o p i n g a d e -q u a t e r e s o u r c e f i l e s . (4) T h a t t h e C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e i s a n e e d e d a r m o f s o c i a l w o r k . A s i n o u r s t u d y o f " S o u r c e s o f i n q u i r y " i t may be i n t e r -e s t i n g t o n o t e w h i c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n e a c h o f t h e s e f i v e g r o u p i n g s w e r e u t i l i z e d m o s t f r e q u e n t l y a s p o i n t s o f d i s p o s a l b y t h e Commun-i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e . Among t h e f i n a n c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s C o m m u n i t y C h e s t and C o u n c i l t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e r o f i n q u i r i e s w e r e r e f e r r e d 1 C o m m u n i t y C h e s t and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , M i n u t e s A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e o f t h e C o m m u n i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e , M a r c h 10, 1954. - 136 -o r d i r e c t e d t o (1) T h e S a l v a t i o n A r m y ; (2) T h e R e t u r n e d S o l d i e r s C l u b ; and (3) T h e F a m i l y W e l f a r e B u r e a u . T h e p u b l i c d e p a r t m e n t s u s e d m o s t e x t e n s i v e l y a s r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f i n q u i r i e s w e r e (1) T h e C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e . D e p a r t m e n t , V a n c o u v e r ; (2) T h e N a t i o n a l E m p l o y m e n t S e r v i c e ; and (3) T h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h e s . W i t h i n H e a l t h , W e l f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s n o t f i n -a n c e d t h r o u g h t h e C o m m u n i t y C h e s t and C o u n c i l we f i n d t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e r o f i n q u i r i e s d i s p o s e d o f b y r e f e r r a l o r d i r e c t i o n t o (1) T h e B . C . C a m p i n g A s s o c i a t i o n ; (2) S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t , V a n c o u v e r G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l ; and (3) T h e F i r s t U n i t e d C h u r c h ( W e l -f a r e D e p a r t m e n t ) . T h e C i t i z e n g r o u p s , t o whom t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e r o f i n q u i r -i e s w e r e r e f e r r e d o r d i r e c t e d w e r e (1) C h u r c h e s ; (2) B u s i n e s s ; and (3) S e r v i c e C l u b s . R E P O R T I N G I n a n a l y z i n g t h e t o t a l p r o g r a m o f t h i r t y - o n e I n f o r m a t i o n a n d R e f e r r a l C e n t r e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1951? M a r g a r e t W i l s o n s t a t e s " I n m o s t c e n t r e s we h a v e n o t d e v e l o p e d a d e v i c e f o r l e a r n -i n g t h e o u t c o m e o f o u r r e f e r r a l s . Some c e n t r e s i n d i c a t e t h e y a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g s u c h a p l a n ; a f e w do r e c e i v e o c c a s i o n a l r e p o r t s . I n o n e i n s t a n c e , w h e r e t h i s h a s b e e n g e n e r a l 1 p r a c t i c e i t h a s b e e n d i s c o n t i n u e d . " 1 N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f S o c i a l W o r k - Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n  C e n t r e , Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e W o r k s h o p , C h i c a g o , 1952. ( R e a d b y M i s s W i l s o n . ) - 137 -Without reporting, there cannot be any true evaluation of the working of an information centre. In Vancouver the Community Information Service i n regard to reports from agencies has had a sim i l a r experience to that reported by the American Centres. The Committee has suggested that the s t a f f assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c a l l i n g agencies a f t e r each d e f i n i t e r e f e r r a l but both lack of time and some question as to the public relations connotation of such a procedure have made t h i s appear unfeasible. One agency, The Family Welfare Bureau, has reported on each of the cases referred to i t during the period of study. But, i n a t o t a l of 665 d i r e c t r e f e r r a l s there has been i n the period only 259 reports from a l l agencies and organizations, and i n some cases unsol i c i t e d reports from inquirers themselves have been included i n these reports. The fact that some agencies are l e g a l l y de-barred from reporting i s recognized and respected. Perhaps at th i s point the Community Information Service might pursue a p o l i c y of encouraging agencies to report to them only as to whether (1) The inquirer arrived at the agency, ( 2 ) the r e f e r r a l was or was not appropriate, (3) the agency i s or i s not exploring the p o s s i b i l i -t i e s of giving services or benefits to the inquirer. CHAPTER V C O N C L U S I O N It w i l l have been recognized that any opinions ex-pressed i n this study are put forward by the professional social worker i n the Community Information Service, Vancouver. They are therefore, to an unavoidable degree, subjective. In order to gain a more objective evaluation of the Community Information Service, twelve key organizations related to the Community Infor-mation Service i n 1 9 5 3 - 5 4 - , by inquiry, referral or direction were asked to reply to a five point questionnaire (see Appendix C). The answers submitted to these five questions by eight agencies w i l l be used at the appropriate points of reference in this chap-ter. The questions asked concerned: 1 . The degree to which referrals from the Community Information Service had been appropriate. 2. The professional services rendered by the Community Information Service staff in the process of referral. 3 . The accuracy of information given to agencies by the Community Information Service. 4. The degree to which the Community Information Service is referring or directing to service agencies, persons who would not reach such services on their own i n i t i a -tive. 5. The continuing need for a central information referral service in Vancouver. It is hoped that this very minimum consultation w i l l to some extent limit the undesirable element of subjectivity apparent-i n this study. - 139 -To date, as far as can be ascertained, basic c r i t e r i a for the evaluation of information and referral services have not been developed. Irene Buckley i n a paper entitled "Information and Referral" i n New York, 1951 > discusses at length but does not formulate specifically, certain c r i t e r i a applicable to the opera-tion of an information service in health and welfare. She describes six "essentials i n a good information centre." These "essentials" may be paraphrased to constitute rough c r i t e r i a for this evaluation. They are: 1. The degree to which the centre is staffed by experienced, professional social workers, skilled in short contact and telephone interviews. 2. The degree to which adequate and well documented resource f i l e s are maintained. 3. The degree to which a recording procedure, adapted to the function of the service i s established. 4. The degree to which the centre provides an adequate interpretation of health and welfare services, including i t s own, to the community. 5» The degree to which the centre interprets, to groups capable of acting on this information, i t s appraisal of unmet community needs and i t s concern for the extension and maintenance of certain health and welfare and recrea-tion services. 6. The degree to which the centre demonstrates i t s a b i l i t y to function in co-operation with voluntary agencies and departments of government offering direct services in health, welfare and recreation. In addition to an examination of the work of the Commun-it y Information Service according to these c r i t e r i a , i t is planned at the close of this chapter to examine the per capita cost of the centre and, f i n a l l y , to evaluate the need for a continuation of this service i n the city of Vancouver. - 140 -APPLICATION OF PROPOSED CRITERIA  1 . Personnel Professional literature suggests and experience i n the Community Information Service, Vancouver, seems to emphasize the importance of employing within central information-referral offices social workers who meet certain minimum standards of pro-fessional education, experience and personal qualifications. Certain desirable minimum standards were indicated in the original report, 1 9 5 1 , on The Need for a Community Information Referral Service i n Vancouver. They included (a) graduation from a school of social work or at a minimum level e l i g i b i l i t y as concerns the professional organization the Canadian Association of Social Workers; (b) two to five years experience i n social work depending on degree of professional preparation; (c) s k i l l in public relations; (d) administrative a b i l i t y ; (e) personal maturity; and (f) 'preference to a Vancouver resident. On the basis of the f i r s t year of experimentation i t would appear that while these recommendations are basically sound certain areas of training and competency should be stressed. The following basic standards for the employment of a Director of the Community Information Service, Vancouver, are therefore suggested as minimum. (a) Graduation from a recognized School of Social Work. (b) A working experience at supervisory level and a working or student experience in two types of agency settings (e.g. family service agency and social service department, hospital or family service agency and public welfare depart-ment ). - 141 -(C:) " S k i l l i n public relations, (dj Administrative a b i l i t y . (e) Personal maturity, particularly as evidenced i n colleague relationship. (f) Familiarity with the history, sociological pattern and organizational network of the local community. In the original plan for the establishment of an informa< tion referral centre two social workers were proposed as minimum professional staff. If this plan had been financially feasible i t might have been possible to obtain collectively the s k i l l s and experience described above. However, i t would seem unrealistic to demand professional service from persons of this calibre at an annual salary of $3,600.00. While intake stat i s t i c s do not appear at present to war-rant the employment of two social workers in this establishment, the recommendation of the original committee i s , on the basis of this study, souftd and worthy of exploration. With two workers every inquiry might be handled on a professional level f i r s t . C l erical assistants and volunteers could be called in on resource finding when the presenting problem is one requiring only factual Information. Recording would be improved, the burden of adminis-tration and public relations shared and most important of a l l , the vagueness of the service given to unidentified or unclassified inquirers seeking general information would be brought into proper professional focus. In the questionnaire forwarded to twelve key organiza-tions only one question related specifically to professional - 142 -performance. It was: Has their experience at or with the Community Infor-mation Service aided or impeded persons referred in u t i l i z -ing to advantage the services of your agency? There appeared to be a general agreement that, on the whole, persons referred to direct service agencies had been aided i n this process (see Appendix C). The degree of interpretation and support given inquirers within the function of this project is the principal c r i t e r i a of professional adequacy. It may be that some of the persons answering this question were not aware of the dangers of developing neurotic or negative relationships at the point of referral. These dangers are minimized when the referral worker has a long and rich experience in extended case work services under supervision. The present incumbent of the position of secretary, Community Information Service has, through experience and residence, developed a good working knowledge of the Community, f a i r adminis-trative s k i l l s and some a b i l i t y i n dealing with the general public and volunteers. There i s , however, evidence i n this study that her lack of case work experience i s reflected i n the professional services of the centre and in the relationship of the centre to those case work and group work agencies employing largely profes-sional social workers. There are very visible limitations appar-ent in her acceptance within the professional grouping of the parent agency. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the Community - 143 -Chest and Council should in future seek to employ in the Commun-i t y Information Service two f u l l y qualified social workers with a broad experience in case work, preferably at the supervising le v e l . 2. Recording A. S t a t i s t i c a l . It would appear that the somewhat primitive methods of s t a t i s t i c a l recording evolved in the early months of the project have proved relatively effective i n compil-ations and evaluation. Two suggestions appear warranted: (i) That a l l terms, e. g. "business", "volunteer", "marital problem", be defined i n order to promote accuracy and continuity i n recording. ( i i ) That the Community Information Service forego the extended documentation of inquiries and u t i l i z e the forms and methods recommended by the Community Chest and Councils of America, Inc., reporting to that body annually and using the materials available as a result of this connection in evaluating the work of the Vancouver Information Referral Service. B. Client Records. With the type of staff described in an earlier part of this chapter there is a likelihood that more detailed case records w i l l be maintained. The present short records have proved accurate and adequate on agency inquiry. Since many American centres report their concern regarding the seemingly over-verbose records maintained in information referral centres i t is suggested that records should remain brief and focussed on the short contact function of the project. 3. Resource Files The v a l i d i t y of resource f i l e s can, as has been stated before, only be tested properly from the angle of the person or - 144 -organization inquiring. To ascertain roughly the quality of Community Information Service in this regard the following ques-tion was included i n the questionnaire sent to the twelve agencies and provided the following answers: "Has your agency found the information resources of the Community Information Service useful? Has the infor-mation given been accurate and focussed on your inquiry?" Affirmative, and, i n most cases appreciative, replies were received from agencies i n answer to this question (see Appen-dix C). It i s presumed that i f information given to agencies was accurate that the larger group of individual inquirers was similarly served. However, the following suggestions regarding the future development of resource f i l e s are presented. (i) That priority be given to the development of the third f i l e "Subjects" e. g. "Marriage Counselling" Resources for. "Victims of Fire", agency responsibility. ( i i ) That the Community Information Service having devel oped three basic f i l e s (a) Alphabetical Index; (b) Organizational Listing; (c) Subject Index, should make known to the Social Plan-ning Body i t s readiness po participate with the Divisions and the Public Relations Department of the Community Chest and Council, and with agencies in the compilation of a comprehensive "Resource Manual and Directory." On the basis of experience within the Com-munity Chest and Council i t would appear advisable to publish this manual in such a form as to be easily revisable. The use-fulness of such a Manual i s limited to the timelJJiess of i t s i n -formation. - 145 -( i i i ) That, u n t i l such time as the Manual described above is available, the Community Information Service should keep agencies aware of i t s special resource listings (e. g. Eth-nic groups, service clubs, l i v i n g accommodation, older people), and on agency request develop other special l i s t i n g s . 4. Service X During the period under study the Community Information Service did not make any significant contribution to social plan-ning except i n drawing to the attention of the Planning Committee the increasing number of inquiries for financial assistance from unemployed employable men and their dependants. Careful records had been kept on each inquiry from this group of citizens and in the monthly reports they were sublisted under the following head-ings: (1) Residents 1 A. Families^ 4 B. Single men 2 (2) Transients A. Families B. Single men Definitions, Community Information Service, Vancouver. 1. Residents. Persons having resided in Vancouver or an adjoining municipality for a continuous period of twelve months or more im-mediately preceding date of inquiry. 2. Transients. Persons hav-ing resided in Vancouver or an adjoining municipality for less than twelve continuous months in the period immediately preceding date of inquiry. 3. Families. Persons residing with spouses, or spouses and children. 4. Single men or women. Self dependent men or women; single, married, divorced, widowed, or separated, not residing with spouse or children (includes inquirers residing i n homes of parents, or other relatives without spouses or c h i l -dren. 1 - 146 -It i s significant that although the same situation had existed i n the previous winter (1953)» because the Community In-formation Service was able as early as November, 1953» to d i s t i n -guish a rise in such inquiries, the request for the consideration of this problem went before the Board of Directors, Community Chest and Council, two months earlier than in the previous year. The ability, of the Community Information Service to act i n this area of social action i s related to the matter of person-nel. The secretary, to bring unmet needs to the advisory commit-tee must have the opportunity and the a b i l i t y to relate to the groups within the Community Chest and Council where gaps in ser-vice and needed extensions in existing agencies are discussed. It is not sufficient to point up numerically the number of inquir-ies regarding certain types of services, "housing for older people", Kpre-school centres","recreation for young adults i n industry", etc. The workers i n a community information service should be able to define what types of people, under what situation, l i v -ing i n which d i s t r i c t s are inquiring for such services and to indicate also which agencies currently give these services, to whom, and how. In such an evaluation there should be a warm understanding and acceptance of the limitations of staff and funds available to agencies. After discussion with groups of agencies, i f possible, or f a i l i n g that, consultation with indi-r vidual agencies, the worker would be in a better position to bring the "unmet need" under discussion to the Community Informa-tion Service advisory committee, and through i t to the planning bodjr, with agency and committee backing. Unless this i s done - 147 -i n a well organized process, broad suggestions of "unmet needs" may precipitate unwise and hasty recommendations from laymen or antagonize agencies by inferences that they are not meeting their avowed obligations to give a certain type of service to the com-munity. The process of pointing up unmet needs requires, there-fore, not only careful s t a t i s t i c a l evaluation but differentiation, preliminary consultation, careful presentation to the advisory committee and planning body, and eventually data sufficient to support action by the Board of Directors. It calls for high 0 s k i l l s in community organization. Since the function of pointing up unmet needs is one of the defined responsibilities of the Community Information Service i t is suggested that i t be given higher priority in the total pro-gram of the project and that careful processes of community organ-ization undergird each request for exploration and action brought through the advisory committee to the proper authorities. 5. Interpretation The situation regarding the public relations program or the interpretation of the Community Information Service has been described i n detail i n an earlier part of this study. The lack of an adequate public relations program is so serious that i t may eventually lead to the dissolution of this service. People must know the Community Information Service exists. Many have stated their surprise that, the Community Chest and Council offers such a useful service. Public response to each publicity venture has - 148 -been good. People are basically interested i n the work of the centre. Somehow, the Community Information Service Commit-tee should seek to gain representation in the Public Relations Section of the Community Chest and Council, and there interpret to the Executive group of that section the value of the Community Information Service i f only from a contributor's angle. Once the Public Relations Committee i s brought to a point where i t no longer judges the work of the Community Information Service to be un-newsworthy, i t should not be too d i f f i c u l t for repres-entatives of both groups to plan cooperatively a twelve month publicity program. This program need not be press centred. It is the daily papers which are reported in being unwilling to publicize the Community Information Service. Experience i n the United States indicates that radio and public transport posters provide the best media for informing the public of the resources of information referral centres. If joint consultation and planning with the Public Re-lations Section does not produce an adequate program of publicity the Advisory Committee, Community Information Service, may be forced to seek permission from the Board of Directors to develop independently i t s own progress. 6 . Co-operative Relationships with Agencies As outlined in Chapter 3» the Community Information Service has received inquiries from 103 organizations and referred or directed persons to 120 organizations. This is a f a i r com-munity coverage for a f i r s t year of operation. - 149 -Agencies have a right to anticipate that referrals from an information-referral centre w i l l reflect a knowledge of and a respect for the service that agency, as distinct from a l l other agencies, i s able to render to people who meet i t s require-ments, or are able to use i t s services. That is the problem posed in the following question. "In terms of the purpose and function of your agency, have the individuals referred from the Community Informa-tion Service been persons whom your intake department would accept normally for exploration of their situation or for services?" From the answers received from expert agencies i t would appear that referrals have, on the whole, been appropriate (see Appendix C). Experience in other centres and in Vancouver has indi-cated three situations or attitudes which hamper the development of good relationships between referral and direct service agencies. While the content of this study has not permitted discussion of these factors to any degree, they are so fundamental as to warrant inclusion in this concluding chapter. In each instance the situ-ation is amplified by quotations from the writings of Miss Ruths Chastel, one of the few social workers to produce definitive material on the social work aspects of Information Referral serv-ices . To aid i n the development of referral service - direct service agency relationships there is a need to (a) Accept the Limitations of the Referral Process There has not been within the Community Information Service or the agencies i n Vancouver, an acceptance of the fundamental limitations inherent in the reference pro-cess. - 150 -"The referral agency prepares the ^client for the new experience, but beyond that the establishment of an ingoing relationship i s the responsibility of the direct service agency. In the last resort, anyone - however s k i l l f u l -who refers a client to a new resource cannot go beyond estab lishing that the request made f a l l s within.the agency!s. function. Each referral has an unavoidably experimental quality to i t u n t i l the applicant and the agency get acquainted." (b) Accept Respect and Ut i l i z e Agency Differences There has not been always a recognition of the value of agency differences. "One of the fundamental concepts of social work is the recognition of the values of differences." 2 "As with individuals or groups, so with agencies, there must be developed:a.respect for the other agency's.integrity and a recognition of i t s right to make i t s own policy." "Fundamental to good referral or a co-operative rela-tionship i s respect for and appreciation of what the other agency has to give." (c) Refer in a Relaxed, Confident Way Referrals have sometimes been s t i f f and mechanical rather than relaxed and exploratory. "It i s well for agency personnel to have some sense of informality and f l e x i b i l i t y i n making referrals; i t is not necessary to prove an air tight case.'V 1 Chastel, Ruth,"What are the Special S k i l l s Required for the Brief Contact or Referral Interview," p. 5 . National Conference of Social Work, Cleveland, Ohio. 1 9 5 0 . 2 Chastel, Ruth, "The Referral Agency and the Community Re-source," p. 84. A report on two conferences, Information and Referral, Health and Welfare Council of New York, 1 9 5 2 . 3 Ibid. 4 Chastel, Ruth, "What are the Special S k i l l s Required," op. c i t . , p. 5» 5 Chastel, Ruth, The Referral Agency and the Community Re-source," op_. c i t . , p. 34-. - 151 -(d) Direct Service Agencies to Report the  General Outcome of Referral No consistent attempt has been made to encourage direct service agencies to "report back" to Community Information Service. "It i s always courteous to inquire whether the refer-r a l source worker wishes to be acquainted with the outcome of the intake interview, for many such agencies want this data to evaluate the effectiveness of their service."^ Relationships between the Vancouver Community Informa-tion Service and the direct service agencies would be more truly co-operative and helpful to inquiring citizens i f , as is sugges-ted, both parties would (a) accept the logical limitations of professional referral; (b) recognize and value agency d i f f e r -ences, and (c) develop relaxed and flexible attitudes when making or receiving referrals. In addition the referral agency (d) should be made aware whenever possible, of the general disposition of the case. 0 In summary, against the six c r i t e r i a developed for use in this study i t would appear that ( 1 ) the Community Information Service requires professional staff with different social work qualifications than are found in present personnel. ( 2 ) That a comprehensive three-part plan of resource f i l i n g is under develop-ment, and that generally resource f i l e s have proved adequate to agency demand ( 3 ) that recordings on individual inquiries are limited to brief card records; that s t a t i s t i c a l recording can be carried on more effectively in cooperation with the 1 Chastel, Ruth,"What are the Special S k i l l s Required for the Brief Contact in Referral Interview," p. 6 . National Conference of Social Work, Cleveland, Ohio, 1 9 5 3 . - 152 -S t a t i s t i c a l Department, Community Chests and Councils of America, Inc.; (4) that the publicity program requires the consideration of the Public Relations Section; (5) that the development of a process for pointing out unmet needs to be explored, i n coopera-tion with direct service agencies and (6) that while agency relationships appear to be good, through particular emphasis on certain positive elements of the referral process, they may be bettered. THE COST OF THE COMMUNITY INFORMATION SERVICE Before the Community Information Service was accepted part i a l l y as a Community Chest and Council central administrative service i t s total monthly expenses including overhead averaged $576.32, or with an average monthly inquiry of 256.6 persons, a per capita cost of $2.24. This per capita cost is relatively level with that reported in the referral centres of the city of New York where i n 1948 the per capita costs were $2 .25. Is this expenditure justified in Vancouver in terms of either individual need or priority of service? This sum ($2.24) may seem a high cost per person, but i t must be noted that in terms of professional service i t repres-ents a quarter hour of the time of the average professionally trained social worker (Grade II Provincial Welfare Services). Can more be bought with this money in any other setting? In terms of individual need, i t is d i f f i c u l t to make a judgment on the per capita cost of the service. It would not normally be justifiable for an organization maintained by citizen - 153 -contribution to expend $2.24 each time a citizen receives infor-mation as to where he may be vaccinated or dispose of used cloth-ing. The sum appears insignificant when we estimate what i t would have cost the community to maintain the elderly man who wanted and found a part time job, not " r e l i e f " ; or the husband who would have to "quit work" i f he did not have some respite, during his wife's illness, from household responsibilities. Even i n simple calls for information there may be unknown elem-ents of urgency which cannot be estimated in dollars and cents. From the viewpoint of priority i n service one must acknowledge that the financially participating agencies of the Community Chest and Council were not unanimous in wishing to share "the welfare dollar" with the Community Information Service. Certainly i n an evaluation of the Community Information Service planned for the f a l l of 1954 i t must be judged not only on the basis of i t s own services, but in relation to other projected plans, such as area'councils or a home for working adolescents, as well as against the needs of a l l agencies to expand their d i r -ect service programmes. To date the o f f i c i a l s of the Community Chest and Coun-c i l have not stated that the Community Information Service has relieved the professional staff of any onerous tasks. Until such a statement is made i t is only possible to suggest that with the burden of interviewing individuals and answering general information inquiries removed to a great degree from the responsi^-b i l i t i e s of the Divisional secretaries, the Community Chest and Council is now i n a position to use the s k i l l s of i t s professional - 154 -staff more effi c i e n t l y and therefore more economically. Four suggestions might be made as to how this relative-l y high per capita cost could be reduced to a more legitimate figure: 1. By the development of a better publicity program whereby more people would be made aware of the service, and use i t at point of need. 2. By the amalgamation, through a broad, democratic process of the central service units of Community Chest and Council; namely, Social Service Index, Camp Referral Project, Christmas Cheer Bureau. There i s also a suggestion that follow-ing the pattern of many other cities the function of recruiting, training and placing volunteers in health and welfare agencies on a community-wide basis might be transferred from a member agency to the Community Chest and Council. In such a "Services Department" overhead would be reduced, overlapping services minimized and resource f i l e s centralized. This plan, which is to be regarded as a long term development would require qualified social work supervision. It has proved effective in other com-munities. 3. By attaching the information service to a direct service agency, preferably one giving broad family services. This again would possibly cut down overhead but would in the opinion of the writer not be as acceptable to the public as the present somewhat "anonymous" setting of the Community Information Service. - 155 -4. By discontinuing the Community Information Ser-vice and through the offices of the functional Divisions, Com-munity Chest and Council, and the Public Relations department helping the several agencies to perfect their own referral pro-cesses at the same time providing them with well documented resource manuals as tools for inter-agency referral. There i s , according to the answers received from agen-cies some degree of conviction that the people who c a l l the Community Information Service would, eventually, without i t s ser-vices reach the proper source of help. If persons inquiring at the Community Information Ser-vice would, as the agencies' reply indicates, eventually reach, without Community Information Service intervention, the proper point of service, is there a continuing need for the service? This question was put to the twelve key agencies in the following form: The twelve month period of experiment in the Community Information Service being concluded, do you see a need for the continuation of this project as part of the central administrative structure of the Community Chest and Council? FROM THE AGENCY VIEW POINT Of the eight answers received, one agency declined to reply on the basis of the small number of referrals. The others were generally i n favour of the continuation of the service because: (a) Through consultation between agency workers and referral centre workers, the Community Information Service assisted their agency in planning with clients as to how they could reach and u t i l i z e community resources. - 156 -(b) Through i t s information function, the Community Information Service served the general public and organiza-tions not related closely to social welfare programs. (c) The Community Information Service relieved the Community Chest and Council staff of time-consuming duties and enabled thereby a richer program of community organiza-tion indirectly beneficial to the agencies as well as to the public weal. These answers indicate that the agencies on the whole are confident that the public understands and uses their services. Since-we have no way to estimate the feeling of the individuals as to the value of their use of the Community Information Service we must give due consideration to the implied, i f not declared, opinion that the Community Information Service i s not needed as a "channel" to agency services but merely brings the client to the agency earlier. In any evaluation of the Community Informa-tion Service carried through by the Community Chest and Council or other groups, i t might be well to include some study of the reaction of active inquirers to this question. The agencies' assurance of the client's a b i l i t y to reach needed services may not be tenable. In a community-wide program geared to the pre-vention of family breakdown, disease and privation, the term "eventual" may, in fact, be translated "too late". Undoubtedly the agencies stand ready to serve. The degree of ignorance about agency services and the negative attitudes towards welfare agenT cies among some sections of the public are factors worthy of in-vestigation. - 157 -THE VIEWPOINT OF THE STUDY COMMITTEE The committee commissioned in 1 9 5 1 to study whether Vancouver needed a central Information Referral Service brought to the Social Planning Committee an affirmative report based essentially on two conclusions: (1) There was a need to give individuals and organiza-tions immediate and accurate information as to where services could be found for assisting them with personal and other problems; one place, where people may go when faced with the overwhelming prbblem "which agency can help?" (2) There was a need to gain public acceptance of a l l welfare services through a continuing demonstration of the exist-ence of and the co-operation between social work services, public and private; and particularly to give to potential consumers and contributors tangible evidence of the phrase "Red Feather Service." THE VIEWPOINT OF THE PUBLIC A trade union paper published in Vancouver appended to i t s announcement of the opening of the Community Information Ser-vice, the following comment on the need for such a service: As B i l l has been te l l i n g us for a long time, when one man is unemployed, that constitutes a DEPRESSION for him — and by the same token, even i f there are 1 0 0 1 Welfare Agen-cies, when one man needs such help and doesn't know how or where to go about i t , none of them is any good to him.j 1 The Steel Worker, Vancouver Area Council, United Steelworkers of America, p. - 158 -There appears to be a remarkable potential in the use of such a service by individual citizens. This potential i s not limited to finding services for people, i t includes the inter-pretation of social work i n such a way that people gain a sense of pride and involvement in the health and welfare program of their city. Social work like many other professions, however humane itarian and democratic i n i t s modern approach cannot escape en-t i r e l y the weight of history. People find i t d i f f i c u l t to accept the premise "Everybody Benefits Everybody Gives," when they have vivid memories of soup kitchens, r e l i e f camps, prying welfare investigators, and dreary institutions. For varying components of reasons, these same people seem to find i t relatively simple to c a l l on information services, "where there is no stigma f e l t , no requirements to meet, and where the inquirers can remain anony-mous, and i f he wishes unseen." There is l i t t l e doubt that the Community Information Service, Vancouver, came into existence because social agencies had to some degree defaulted in the area of public relations. This service, like i t s predecessor i n 194-0 i s to be evaluated in the f a l l of 1954-. Should i t no longer be deemed a necessary part of the Community Chest and Council program i t i s to be hoped that the close of the experiment w i l l be the occasion for f u l l inter-agency dismission. It may not be too late for social work 1 "Information and Referral - What we Mean," Information and Referral - a report of two conferences, Health and Welfare Council of New York, New York, 1 9 5 2 . - 159 -agencies to accept the fact that despite soaring case loads there are hundreds of citizens who do not know how to reach or use the social work resources of the city of Vancouver, at a point where preventive work is possible. Family breakdown as well as tuberculosis and diphtheria can be reduced by public education and interpretation and with an equal i f not greater saving in money, manpower, and morale. If because of i t s eighteen short months of experience, and by i t s closing, the Community Information Ser-vice can convince the agencies, the Community Chest and the public welfare departments of the practical and humanitarian values of continuous, attractive, and accessible interpretation of their ser-vices, Its existence w i l l have been well warranted. Central information referral agencies exist only because of the complexity of the social work structure. Unlike most of the recently developed settings for social work practice, these projects were established through citizen rather than professional demand. The ordinary man believed he had devised for himself a guide through the maze of inter-related welfare structures. In-formation referral centres are, in the best connotation of the word, the result of a "people's" movement. While they have proved useful they afford only a partial, i f convenient resource for the citizen who wants to understand and on occasion use the services of the health and welfare agencies he supports through taxation or voluntary contribution. They should not, and by function cannot, relieve direct service agen-cies of their historically accepted responsibilities in developing - 160 -their own programs of public relations, resource identification and professional referral. It i s quite possible that some time in the future the citizens who prompted the establishment of information referral projects w i l l make more comprehensive and far reaching demands of welfare planning groups for basic changes i n the administrative structure of welfare services. To meet these demands, there may develop as a result of long, careful, and one might ant i c i -pate, painful process of community organization, a new type of welfare agency. These agencies, sometimes created through mer-ger, w i l l be capable of meeting from within one administrative structure, the health and social needs of whole individuals and whole families• There is evidence that the profession of social work i t s e l f is aware of the need for a basic professional approach to social problems. Some schools of social work are already seek-ing to focus their program of professional education on prepara-tion for generalized rather than specialist practice. Within the future welfare structure the need for inter-agency referral and with i t the need for central information o referral services w i l l diminish. Referral is at best a clumsy process denying to no small degree accepted concepts of the pro-fessional relationship between client and worker. Until these two related movements become more visible i n our communities there would appear to remain a need for central information referral services to hear and channel the ordinary man's age-old query "What shall I do?,f. - 1 6 1 -APPENDIX A I The Report of a Committee set up by the Social Planning Committee to investigate the need for a central information-refer-ra l centre. Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver June 1 9 , 1 9 5 1 . REFERRAL CENTRE June 18, 1951 It i s my pleasure as Chairman, to present the report of the Committee appointed by the Social Planning Committee to bring i n a report on the need for a Referral Centre, i t s function and personnel. To the members of this Committee, Mrs. Exner^ Mrs. Selman, Miss Gourlay, Miss Stanford and Messrs Stratton, Cowley,- Allan, Jones, Harvey and Jackson, I should like to express my sincere appreciation for the time and thought they have given to the preparation of this report. It has been a joy and privilege to work with them and I am indeed grateful to Mrs. Angus for this opportunity. My thanks go also to Miss McPhedran of the Family Welfare, Miss Amy Leigh of the.Prov.- Welfare, Mr. Chambers' of the City Social Service, and Mr. Maynard Joinor of Famous Players for granting me interviews and for very helpfyl advice and- encouragement. Upon coming to a unanimous decision at our f i r s t meeting that an Infor-mation and Referral Centre should be established in' Vancouver, the Committee divided into -small groups to study 'ohe various phases of organizing a Centre. We, therefore had available at our second meeting, well thought out written reports on Financing, Budgetting, Location^ Service's, Public Relations, Advisory Committee, Personnel, and the place of an Information Centre i n the Community Chest. These reports were the basis for further 'discussion and the drafting of this f i n a l report. REPORTS FROM MAJOR CITIES ; Reports from four c i t i e s - Toronto, Columbus, Boston, and Milwaukee - on the operation of Information Centres i n their respective areas were also studied by the Committee. A l l of these Centres are operated as a depart- -ment of the local Welfare Council of Social Agencies-, and two. of them, . Milwaukee and Columbus, grew out of a service for veterans. TORONTO; One function of the Toronto Information Centre i s to explain the Social Services to organized groups, and how best to use them. ' The referral of individuals i s also an important function and this Centre endeavours to keep i t s finger on the pulse of unmet needs* BOSTON: The Boston Referral Centre i s a Unit of the Public Relations Department of the United Community Services and aims to bo a "central point to which the public can turn with questions of all'kinds referring to social work". The staff do a good .deal of speaking to organized groups i n Industry. MILWAUKEE: The Milwaukee "Community and Veterans Information Service" was established on its' present basis i n June .1950 on the recommendation of the survey of Milwaukee County Health and Welfare Services. It is interesting to note that i n 1947 a committee had studied the matter and consulted with seven large c i t i e s but could not decide .on the need nor convince the majority Sheet 2 Milwaukee? (cont'd) of the local agencies of the need. The new Committee was appointed sixteen months before the Centre was opened* The staff consists of a stenographer, Veterans' Counsellor and the Director. They say the support of the local agencies is gratifying* Statistical reports were enclosed. COLIMBUS: The Columbus Ohio Centre was set up in January 1949 following the pre-sentation of a study Committee' to the Council of Social Agencies in the previous March. This study committee of seventeen members obtained in-formation from eleven cities and some national agencies. Of the eleven cities only two reported difficulty in establishing the project, and, in both cases, this was, according to the cities' own analysis, .due to person-ality factors and "the failure of the central information service to establish effective relationships with certain key agencies". The study corrmittee pointed out the necessity for a social diagnostic service at the Centre, in order that a proper referral^can be made. A statistical report for the year 1950 - and for March 1951, were enclosed; 5581 requests were received in 1950 and 5249 in 1949. The range of."subjeots of enquiry" is greater than in the Milwaukee report* Our next step was to determine where such an Information Centre would f i t into the needs of Vancouver - from various angles. The Committee is convinced that there is a great need in Vancouver for a central office, the specific function of whioh " ••would be to supply to groups and individuals immediate and adequate information as to where services could be found for assisting them in personal and other problems. In a considerable number of cases, the queries received will not involve any 'case work' and can be answered directly by the Centre from its broad background of accumulated knowledge and experience, a background not at present possessed by any single agency. In those cases where special advisory skills are required, there will exist in almost every case some agency capable of dealing with this problem, and whereas t .o often today the client tries one agency after another, be-fore he finds the right one, or gives up in despair, i t would be the functio of the Centre to put him in contact with the right agency from the start. Even where no specific assistance can be'given, the mere fact of receiving a sympathetic hearing and of knowing that every avenue of aid has been ex-plored is itself of considerable moral encouragement to a person in trouble. The Centre will be of value to other social agencies, not only in sifting queries before passing them on to one agency or another, but also in supply-ing information to the agencies themselves. The Centre through its direct relationship with the public would interpret to the citizens the services of both public and private agencies. Sheet 3 The role that can he played by an Information Centre in the building of good public relations is very clear. From the Community Chest and Council viewpoint, an Information Centre will provide tangible evidence of the phrase "Red Feather Service". Perhaps the greatest value lies in its simplicity. It is one place where people in need of service may"go for help. Those who heed services and those who are trying to help others locate services - are not faced with'the near overwhelming problem of "which agency can help". This applies equally well to- labour union officials, personnel managers in industry, service club members^  private agencies which are not Chest supported, police, lawyers, doctors and many others. From a long range viewpoint, an Information Centre will assist more than any othor factor, in gaining public acceptance of welfare services, for i t is a continuing demonstration of the existence of, and cooperation among, social work services, public and private. In a time of crisis, the Centre would be of great value in familiarizing citizens with emergency measures to be taken and in interpreting the numerous regulations which might have to be imposed on short notice at such a tim,o. The variety of questions will be legion, but the experience of an English Advisory Bureau handling over 1,000 queries a month -indicates the broad classifications into which they are likely to f a l l , (after eliminat-ing queries connected with war conditions). Miscellaneous question will include enquiries relating to education, em-ployment, recreation, - legal and financial matters and information about agencies and survey reports. For the purp.pse of organizing an Information-Centre in Vancouver, we re-commend that a Committee, consisting of a Chairman and twelve to fifteen members, be appointed by the Social Planning Committee. This organizing Committee will operate directly, under the Social Planning Committee. We recommend that, at a later date, further consideration be given to the question of the desirability of appointing a larger Advisory Committee and the possibility of the Information Centre being given the status of a department of the Community Chest and Council. We suggest that the Chairman- of the Committee be appointed by the Social Planning Committee and in order that as wide a representation as possible be achieved, the following nominees be asked to serve on the Committee -Family and personal problems Housing and rent queries Queries arising .out of illhealth Social insurance enquiries Miscellaneous Eng. 38 19 Amer. 23 12 10 •7 48 Sheet 4 Mr. Frank C a r l i s l e M iss Martha Moscrop * Mr. James Bury Mrs. Helen Exner Mr. P.R.U. S t r a t t o n Mr. Hodgson (Kinsmen Club) Mr. A r t h u r Cowley Mr. Maynard Joiner-Mrs. Dean M a n s e l l Miss L i l l i a n Carscadden . Miss Poggy S t a n f o r d Mr. Ray F a i r b a i r n Miss Mo Gourlay Mr. H a l f o r d W i l s o n Miss Trenna Hunter Mr. Kennedy We recommend t h a t t h i s Information Centre be housed i n a c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d ground f l o o r o f f i c e , i n or near the Community Chest, and we are s a t i s f i e d t h a t such a place would be a v a i l a b l e a t a r e n t a l not exceed-in g one hundred d o l l a r s a month. We suggest t h a t sources a v a i l a b l e f o r funds are o r g a n i z a t i o n s outside the Community Chest, such as s e r v i c e c l u b s , J u n i o r League and other s i m i l a r b o d i e s , a l s o c e r t a i n p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s whose c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s p r o j e c t would not p r e j u d i c e t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to Community Chest. We recognize t h a t i n seeking such funds, there must be a v a i l a b l e a c l e a r cu t statement of the need, f u n c t i o n s and estimated bedget requirements f o r the o p e r a t i o n of .the Centre f o r i t s f i r s t y e a r . We propose a minimum budget of $7,8000.00 as f o l l o w s : Rent and L i g h t $ 1,200 S a l a r i e s 3,600 " 1,800. Equipment 750 O f f i c e S u p p l i e s 200 Telephone 250 $ 7,800.00 I f the necessary funds are a v a i l a b l e , we suggest t h a t the Centre be operated by a s t a f f of throe - a D i r e c t o r , A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , and a Ste n o - R e c e p t i o n i s t . However, on the proposed minimum budget, i t would be necessary to e l i m i n a t e t e m p o r a r i l y the o f f i c e of A s s t . D i r e c t o r . The f o l l o w i n g personnel q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are suggested -D i r e c t o r (a) a q u a l i f i e d M.S.W. pl u s a minimum of two years experience i n s o c i a l work. or (b) a q u a l i f i e d B.S.W. plu s four years experience i n s o c i a l work or ( c ) a. person e l i g i b l e f o r membership' i n the C.A.S.W. p l u s f i v e years experience i n s o c i a l work. A mature person, male or female, s k i l l e d i n p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y - one who would merit the confidence of S o c i a l Agencies, business people and c l i e n t s . Preference should be given to a l o c a l person. Sheet 5 Asst. Director; Similar qualifications, with more emphasis on a b i l i t y to meet clients and less on administrative a b i l i t y . Several committee members registered the opinion that i t i s possible that a person of superior a b i l i t i e s and with broad related work experience,, but without the acadomic qualifications as stated .above, might be selected for the position of director or assistant director. Secretaryshould not only be experienced in office procedure but should excel i n meeting the public, have a warm telephone- manner and be-able to meet the pressures of people i n great need. Preference for person of mature appearance and manner. This Committee i s pleased to recommend to the Social Planning Committee that an Information and Referral Centre be established as soon as possible in the City of'Vancouver, under the sponsorship of the Community Chest and Council. The "statement of purpose" w i l l be -A. To give accurate information to any individual or organization on the health and welfare and related services in the Greater Vancouver area. B. To refer persons' to the proper source of services. (Great s k i l l w i l l be required i n the short contact interview to ensure that the real need of the client i s ascertained, and also-that the client does not look to the Information Centre for continuing service.) C. To direct people who wish to offer their services in the health and welfare f i e l d , to the proper agency (for example, the Volunteer Bureau). Do To accumulate data which w i l l show what needed services are lacking or inadequate. E. To prepare and maintain a directory of'health,, welfare, and other related services for distribution i n the community. Mrs. Alex Eastwood Chairman • • Information-Referral Centre. - 162 -APPENDIX A - 2 STATEMENT OF POLICY, Community Information Service, presented to but not endorsed i n f u l l by the Committee on the Community In-formation Service, March, 1954. CCMMJNITY CHEST.AND COUNCIL OF GREATER VANCOUVER : . COMMUNITY.INFORMATION SERVICE . STATEMENT OF POLICY DECEMBER, 1953. The Community Information Service i s an integral part of the Community Chest and Council of .Greater Vancouver and is by purpose: and practice related to the over-a l l planning for health and welfare services i n the City of Vancouver. '-: • The services of the Community Information office willy therefore, be based on the aims accepted by the Board of Directors of the Community Chest and Council when the inauguration of this service, was approved, namely: 1. To give accurate information to any'Individual or organization on the health and welfare and related-services -in the Greater Vancouver area. ; 2. To refer persons to the proper-source of service. 3 . To .direct people who wish to offer their services i n the health and welfare f i e l d to the proper agepcy. 4. To accumulate data which w i l l show:where needed services are lacking or •' inadequate. • f : ' • • 5. To prepare and maintain a directory of hea3«th, welfare and other community services for distribution i n the community. . ' :. ' > .'v.. I. In regard to function and method of referral mf individuals: A. The^services of the Community Information office are directed towards determining the nature of the problems and, i f necessary, making referrals to the appropriate agency or service, giving the client'; wherever possible, a choice of services. B. The function of the Community Information office i s to bring clients and services together and not to f f f e r either continuing case work or any financial assistance either direct or indirect,- •  C. Actual determination of e l i g i b i l i t y for assistance or service i s to remain the prerogative of the appropriate agency. D. Individuals calling the Community Information office on behalf of other persons w i l l be asked to identify themselves. If possible contact w i l l be made with the persons actually needing the services. E. The resources of the Social Service Index w i l l be used in a l l cases where referral to specific health and welfare or a l l i e d professional services i s indicated and/or where the use of the Index may f a c i l i t a t e professional con-sideration of the request. F. Any agency active in the area of problems presented by a client during the previous three year period w i l l be called before the client i s directed to another service, and i f , after this consultation, the services of another agency are indicated, workers in the new agency w i l l be informed what other agencies are, or have been, active in this case. G. The Community Information Service, before directing a client to an agency on a referral basis, w i l l discuss with him the general problem he presents, help him to see the reasons for directing him to a certain agency, determine whether he wishes to go to that agency, and i f so, offer to make an appointment for him. H. A telephone c a l l w i l l be made to an agency before any client i s referred t« that agency. I. The Community Information office w i l l seek to interpret to agencies the value of reporting back to the Community Information office on each referral. If re-ports are not received, the Community Information Service w i l l c a l l the agency to which the client was referred. .72. - 2 -J . When c a l l s are r e c e i v e d from one person on behalf of another person, the l a t t e r w i l l be asked whether he wishes the Community Information Service t o r e p o r t back to the r e f e r r i n g person or i f he'would-prefer'to contact them hi m s e l f . , K, I t i s assumed th a t each agency has a . r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o maintain t h e i r own resource'Tile" "and to acknowledge i n d i s c u s s i o n w i t h c l i e n t s , the gaps i n com- • . munity;health and welfare s e r v i c e s , In such cases where t h e c l i e n t needs - s e r v i c e s which are o b v i o u s l y not a v a i l a b l e i n our community, r e f e r r a l t o the Community Information Service i s not recommended (e.g. low cost r e n t a l housing, . o f f e r s of or requests f o r accomodation i n r e t u r n f o r room'and board). I t , ' In regard t o f u n c t i o n and method of handling general community i n q u i r i e s : A. D i r e c t i o n i n regard to general i n q u i r i e s should be given i n such a way as 'to give every p o s s i b l e choice i n community resources without endorsation or c r i t i c i s m of. any p a r t i c u l a r resource. In g e n e r a l , i t should not be necessary f o r agencies s t a f f e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers t o r e f e r i n d i v i d u a l s t o the Community Information Service except f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n areas other than s o c i a l work. B. General, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of health.and welfare 'programs i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Community Information S e r v i c e . I n q u i r i e s may be r e f e r r e d t o the i n d i -v i d u a l agencies f o r answers to s p e c i f i c questions about p o l i c y . • Information regarding the p o l i c y of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l should only be given at the request of the Executive D i r e c t o r . C. Complaints regarding a p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h an agency are f o l l o w e d up and r l f e r r e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l agency. D. Unmet h e a l t h and welfare needs, as shown by the absence of resources t o ' ; meet the c l i e n t ' s problems, are t» be brought t o the a t t e n t i o n of the S o c i a l Planning Committee. • ;,...' E. I t i s assumed that p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s o c i a l welfare agencies, maintaining . i n t a k e departments f o r the purpose of determining e l i g i b i l i t y of a p p l i c a n t s • • w i l l continue d i r e c t r e f e r r a l s of a p p l i c a n t s found e l i g i b l e f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e to the appropriate agency, ' . • - 163 -APPENDIX A - 3 FORM: Desk Record of Individual Inquiries Community Information Service Community Chest and Council, Vancouver. -COMMUNITY-INFORMATION • .SERVICE""' COMMUNITY CHEST & COUNCIL VANCOUVER Date........... NAME ' ADDRESS.', ..... PHONE . on b e h a l f o f NAME ADDRESS' ' PHONE . '.. REQUEST .' '. • • • I 4 UNDONE i INDEX . ; . . . Signed - 164 -APPENDIX A - 4 i FORM: Face Sheet, requests for financial assistance, Winter, 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 5 4 . Community Information Service Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver Family, Resident ... COMMUNITY INFORMATION S1RVICE Family, Transient... REQUESTS FOR FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Unattached, resident,,. Unattached • transient.....' Date Marital Status , (surh&mej';; (given), , • s . M . .. W... Sep... Div.... Spouse . . . . . . . . . . . ( M i a | n j . . . G h i l d r e n > . Age . . . . . . . Address ..... Referred by Place of Birth • Date of arrival' in Vancouver .....V....... Religious Affiliation ........ •/»••••'. B.C. ...... • «•......; .-• - c • *' '• ' r Canada • •* • •...«..... • Illness or Handicaps ................... • N^ B..... v >:....• v...... Family Situatibn-' 4 • .'. .' . . . • ' .*..• . i .* '. . .... . . Actual Request: Emergency Food Payment back rent ....... Emergency Shelter Payment advance rent .... Emerg. Food & Shelter.... Grocery Order .......... Clothing Transportation to Home ( ) Job(;•;..).• Furniture ................... • Other ...........• • Medical' Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agency Check General maintaihahce until Unemployment Insurance received ( ). eligibility Soc.'Assistance"proved (.)......; Workman's Compensation received ( ) D. V. A. benefits received ( ) ...................... General maintainance with no prospect other benefits ( ) Normal Trade or Profession ,. Last time worked at this Registered N.E.3. section N.E.S. number Date to Eligible Unemployment Ins. Benefits Date Registered ........ Receive Date last interviewed, N.E.S General prospects employment ....... (over) .. •., . . . - 2.7. . , Veterans: Regimental No. .......... .„'.... Location papers ' Service .".;.". r .'';*;. ...•' Length of-Service - Canada Overseas"* i . . . . . . . . Pension W.V.A. Monthly Amt. ............ Interviewed by'D.V.A. Liaspn, N.E.S.........;..•>;»".''.. .• Prospect employment . -,........... ..........•••••>••••• •'« • • •-..«' Community. ServiQe.s already used by client: Date - - Agency • Service . . . Date .Agency • Service • * • • • .... Salvatipn Army- ' . . . . . , ............ Canadian Legion ... C..; D..v' .' [' . .y.'.'i ' Army Benevolent Fund' ............. ... ..... Ret.. .Soldiers Club' V.'.y Red" Cross ' ' "' ........... ... Central pity M i s s i o n . . ...... St. Vincents Home • ................ ... First, United Church .... ....... .Church"' '. ' '....'..< •-.*!) • < • • m- «f. « • • • • • 4 •-«••,» • • • Referral Referred to ................ - 165 -APPENDIX A - 5 Monthly Report Form: M-5 (195D Suggested for use COMMUNITY INFORMATION AND REFERRAL CENTRES, Community Chests and Councils • V of America, Inc., (see reverse side). GGG Form M-5 (1951)—~ COMMUNITY INFORMATION AND REFERRAL CENTERS Agency Street - City... -Month Year.. A—SOURCE OF INQUIRY 1. Total inquiries (sum of items 2-11) 2. Health or welfare agencies, governmental and voluntary. 3. Business firms and organizations 4. Labor unions 5. Schools, public and private 6. Government departments, other than health, welfare and schools.. 7. Churches and religious organizations 8. Veterans" organizations 9. Civic, fraternal and other organizations • 10. Professional, other than agencies, schools and clergy. 11. General public (a plus b) a. On behalf of self b. On behalf of others B—TYPE OF CONTACT 12. Total inquiries (same as item 1; sum of items 13-15). 13. Inquiries by personal interview 14. Inquiries by telephone 15. Inquiries by letter '. C—TYPE OF INQUIRY 16. Total inquiries (same as item 1; sum of items 17-19).. 17. Inquiries for general community or agency information.. 18. Inquiries for help in offering facilities or services 19. Inquiries for help with specific problems (a plus b). a. Identifying information not recorded. b. Identifying information recorded ..... Number X X X X (l) Families or individuals not previously known (included in item 19b) (OVER) - 165 -APPENDIX A - 5 Monthly Report Form: M-5 (1951) Suggested for use COMMUNITY INFORMATION AND REFERRAL CENTRES., Community Chests and Councils , . of America, Inc.,. .(see reverse side). -Basket ffetta M«5 D—NATURE OF SPECIFIC PROBLEMS PRESENTED 20. Total problems presented by inquiries reported in item 19 (sum of items 21-36) -21. Placement of the aged 22. Child care (outside home) 23. Counseling with personal or family problems 24. Health, excluding mental health... 25. Mental health 26. Vocational problems, including employment 27. Financial need 28. Homemaker 29. Housing 30. Legal 31. Vacation facilities, including camping. 32. Recreation, other 33. Educational 34. Military service and veterans benefits 35. Government rights and benefits (other than veterans) 36. Other problems E—DISPOSITION OF SPECIFIC PROBLEMS 37. Total (same as item 20; sum of items 38-43) 3ft. Referred or directed to agency (a plus b) a. Definite referral b. Direction only 39. Referred ar directed to other resource. _ 40. Information and guidance given—referral unnecessary.. 41. Needed service not available. .... 42. Inquirer withdrew request or refused service. 43. Other disposition F—STAFF (part-time workers should be included at the fraction of Mil time devoted to the service) 44. Professional 45. Clerical 46. Volunteers . Number Reported and approved by.. Date.. Pitas* read carefully the instructions for filling out this form. - 166 -APPENDIX A - 6 Samples of Resource Listings, Rotary F i l e , Community Information Service, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver See Reverse side of Card: BLIND -1.Soc.Service -CNIB-1101 W.B'dway CH.3111 2. Recreation - as above. 3. Pension -"Application -see B.C. Manna-) , P. ^ 2. L — (over) CANADIAN NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE' 1BLIND - 1101 W.Broadway -Nat.Dir. Western Canada -' Capt.M.C.Robinson. CH.3111 ! CANADIAN NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE /* BLIND - 1101 W.Broadway j " QH»3111 , Miss E.Scott - Social A r k Suffer-. (see over) ROBINSON. Capt.M.C. CH.3111 National Director, Western Canada Can. Nat. Institute for the Blind ' 1101 West Broadway, Van.9. 7 SCOTT, Miss Eileen - CH.3111 ~^~s£cial Work Supervisor, C.N.I.B. 1101 West Broadway. I Vancouver 9* - 166 -APPENDIX A - 6 Samples of Resource Listings, Rotary F i l e , Community Information Service, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, See Reverse side of Card: School - B.C.Sohool for the Deaf & the Blind,4100 W.4th -AL.3211 Home - Queen Elizabeth Hall, i 5200 Main St.,Van. FR.7914 4j Sight-saving Classes - School Boarl Vocational_RejTabJJj.tatlqn -^ee"., ], '• y J CNIB filer. See cardex on "Blind" and following card. See cardex on "Blind" previous card. I - 167 -APPENDIX A - 7 Community Information Service S t a t i s t i c a l Report: April, 1954. Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. COMMUNITY CHEST AMD COUNCIL OF GREATER VANCOUVER COMMUNITY INFORMATION -SERVICE REPORT  April 1 - April ' 3 0 , 1954.. SOURCE OF INQUIRY A. ORGANIZATIONS - - .J85 calls. I . Financially Participating Agencies, Community Chest and Council - - - 32 calls. 1. Alexandra Neighbourhood House 2. Boy Scouts (Vancouver) - - -3. Can.Nat. Inst, for the Blind 4. Disabled Veterans Ass'n - - -5. Family Welfare Bureau - - - - - 3 6. Girl Guides Council (Van.) - - 1 7. Greater Van. Health League - - 1 8. Jewish Family Welfare'Bureau - 1 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Returned Soldiers Club - - 6 Salvation Army - - - - - - '2 Van. Boys Club Ass'n - - - ' 3 Vancouver Clothing Com.- - 1 Van. Housing Ass'n - - - - 1 Y. .M. C. A.- - - 5 Y. W. C. .A. - - - -•- 1 II. Community Chest and Council 6 calls. I l l .Other Health, Welfare & Recreation Agencies' 28 calls. 1. 2. 3 . 4 . 5. B.C.Camping Ass'n - - - - - -Cath.. Immigration Service - -City Soc. Service Dept. - - -Dept. of Veterans Affairs - -Juvenile & Family Court - - -6. Metropolitan Health Committee-7. Narcotic. Research Team - - -4 8. Pr'ov.. Psychiatric Services 2 1 9. Prov.. Soc. Welfare Br. - - 5 3• 10. St.Pauls Hospital S.S. . 1 -1 11. Unemployment Ins. Commis.- 1 • 1 12. Vancouver Foundation - - - 2> 4 13. Van.-General Hospital S.S. 1 1 14. Youth Counselling Service-JL IV. Community Groups Other "Than Health & Welfare 19 calls. 1. Business and Industry 2. Camps — - - - - -Churches - -Co-op. Play Groups -Service Clubs - - - -3 . 4 . 5. 7 2 3 1. 2 6; Schools - - - - - - - - - l 7. Trade Union —.. -•- - 1 8 . Van. Public Library - - - 1 9. Women's Directory - - -•- 1 B. INDIVIDUALS - - - - - - - - - - - -. ; 148 calls. 1. Board & Committee Members 2. Indian ( reservation) - -3. Lawyers - - - - - - - - -4. New Canadians - - - - - -5. Student - - - - - - - - -Unemployed.Employables: Families: Resident - -9 Transient - -4_ • - 13 4 6.-Social Assistance Recip. - 1" 1 7, Volunteers - - - - -:.2 2 8. Working mothers - - -' - '-'1 1 9. Unclassified - Identified 63 ) 1 • . - Unidentified " 4 4 ) 10. Unemployed Employables - 28 . Single men & women:Resident""- 6 Transient -__2 .... • ' 15 107. TOTAL INQUIRIES - 233 calls - 2 -SUMMARY OF'INQUIRIES i I . GENERAL COMMUNITY INFORMATION - - - - • 3 30 c a l l s A. D i r e c t i o n to s p e c i f i c Organizations & I n d i v i d u a l s ; 1. F i n a n c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies - C. £»&C- - - - - - - - 9 2. Voluntary Health-.Welf are-&- r e c r e a t i o n a l (not F.P.A.)- - - 10 3. P u b l i c Health Agencies- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - • 2 4. P u b l i c Welfare Agencies - - - - - - - - - - 4 5. Other Government.Departments- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 *" 6. P r o f e s s i o n a l , business, f r a t e r n a l & c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s - 12 7. Churches - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. , 3 8. Fund r a i s i n g campaigns -. - - - -. - — - - - - .- - 10 9. H o s p i t a l s - - -. - - --- - - - -.- - - - - _ - --10. E d u c a t i o n a l & C u l t u r a l - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 11. Out of Province Resources- - - -* '1. 12. Camps ( S p e c i f i c ) - , - 3 13. I n d i v i d u a l s - . - - - - - - - - — 7. B. Info'rmation re Obtaining; 1. W r i t t e n M a t e r i a l - - _ _ - _ _ _ _ n 2. Speakers, l e a d e r s , e t c . - - 5 3. Advice re speeches, essays,etc. - —--_'-'- _ - _ _ 4. Time and p l a c e - o f meetings- 2 C. Advice r e ; 1. F i n a n c i a l l y based p r o j e c t s and g i f t s i n k i n d - - - - - - -• 3 2. Seeking or o f f e r i n g , v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e s ' — 2' D. D i r e c t i o n re Housing P r o j e c t s , (named): 1. Old Age Pension, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 2. F a m i l i e s - 4 3. Agencies 1 .. B. Questions re Agency Function: 15 F. Camping Resources ( not s p e c i f i e d ) ; - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 9 G. Misc e l l a n e o u s ; 1. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Women's- I n s t i t u t e , F r a s e r - V a l l e y i n making s t u f f e d t o y s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 II". HEALTH.- 12 c a l l s 1. Agency.reporting man w i t h poisoned f o o t , w i l l not c a l l medical aid.. 2. Woman, husband i n h o s p i t a l , no funds. Firm does not co-operate h o s p i t a l insurance scheme. 3. Camping f o r g i r l w i t h rheumatic c o n d i t i o n . 4. Hotel Manager r e p o r t i n g e l d e r l y guest very i l l . 5. Son re n u r s i n g home care e l d e r l y f a t h e r . - 3 SUMMARY OF INQUIRIES, c o n t ' d . Health, c o n t ' d t 6. Woman on behalf s i c k f r i e n d needing home ca r e . 7. Woman re nursing homes, a v a i l a b l e f o r . e l d e r l y b l i n d man. 8. Re o b t a i n i n g wheel, c h a i r f o r p a r a l y z e d man. 9. H o s p i t a l Worker re o b t a i n i n g ' t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r s t a f f p a t i e n t to I n t e r i o r . 10. Man on unemployment insurance seeking low co s t treatment for- . s k i n c o n d i t i o n , 11. E l d e r l y employed man re low cost o p t o m e t r i s t s e r v i c e s , 12. O.A.P. re payment dentures. I I I . EMPLOYMENT: - 20 c a l l s Seeking Household A s s i s t a n c e ; 1. Family during i l l n e s s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - r 2. O.A.A.; O.A.P. - - - .- - -2 3. Working-mother - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -1 Advice re Employment; 1. S o c i a l Worker & r e c r e a t i o n a l worker- - - - - - - - - - - - -4 2. New Canadians- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 3. P h y s i c a l l y handicapped persons - - - - - - - - - - - --2 4. O.A.A.: O.A.P.- .- - — 5. S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 6. Nurses- - - - - - - • 7. Other _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ 4 IV. FAMILY AND PERSONAL . - - -36 c a l l s . A. M a r i t a l & I n t r a F a m i l y Problems^ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -11 c a l l s . 1. Young man re marriage c o u n s e l l i n g f o r f i a n c e e , 2. Wife seeking advice re problem of a l c o h o l i c abusive husband. 3. Young married man, 1 c h i l d , already supporting mother, has s i s t e r & 2 c h i l d r e n without funds, a r r i v e to share accommodation 1 bedroom ap t.' 4. Gas s t a t i o n p r o p r i e t o r , re customer - w i f e t e r m i n a l cancer, daughter 6 h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r h i p c o n d i t i o n . 5. Pre m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g f o r young brother & b r i d e . 6. Youn'g woman, employed-finds . r e l a t i o n s h i p p a r e n t s . i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t . . . .- • .... _ 7. E l d e r l y man, seeking daughter, who i s separated from husband, and " i n t r o u b l e " " •- . 8. Worker re l e g a l counsel i n m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , low income f a m i l i e s . 9. Business man re c o u n s e l l i n g resources f o r married, wonttn i n F r a s e r V a l l e y , a l c h c l i c , 2 teen age c h i l d r e n . . # 10. Woman re f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , husband formerly highly, p a i d executive unable t o maintain f a m i l y . 11. Pre m a r i t a l counsel f o r young P r o t e s t a n t couple. - 4 -IV. FAMILY & PERSONAL Cont'd.  B. MENTAL HEALTH: - - - -4 c a l l s . 1. Young woman, known t o Crease C l i n i c and c l i e n t V.G-.H.S.S. seeks educational guidance. 2. Man, l i m i t e d income seeks support i n committing w i f e , now i n p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l t o P.M.H. against f a m i l y o p p o s i t i o n . 3. Unemployed man, h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , seeking medical care and maintenance. 4. Woman, married 3 months, l i v i n g on her savings, husband v e r y r e l i g i o u s , refuses to work. G . CHILD PLACEMENT AND C A R E : . ' 9 c a l l s . 1. D a i l y : - 6 c a l l s 1. Kindergarten c h i l d of New Canadian parents S o c i a l Area 7. 2. Re f r i e n d , working mother o n . s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , has opportunity job i f day.care a v a i l a b l e . '• • 3. Working mother, husband e p i l e p t i c seeking day care 2 c h i l d r e n , 3 years and i n f a n t , 4. Pre school care, 2 year o l d S o c i a l Area 30(Joyee. & . Kingsway) 5. Day Placement, c ^ i l d of employed New Canadian S o c i a l area I,( West End) 6. Pre school centre f o r c h i l d 6, ( s o c i a l area 8) Nan. & • Broadway. 2, Adoption, F o s t e r Homes.-. - - - - - - - -3 c a l l s . 1. Mother, boarding home 12 year o l d son. 2. Shop steward i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t re services f o r 17 year o l d employee, cannot stay w i t h mother. 3. Husband, w i f e needs h o l i d a y , seeks placement 3. c h i l d r e n under-8 y e a r s . • ' •3. Homemaker s e r v i c e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - N i l D. HOUSING -•' 9 c a l l s 1. O . A . A . : Q . A . P T " _ _ - -3 c a l l s . (a) Rental Housing. 1. Low cost rooms, 2. O.A.P. e v i c t e d from f r i e n d s home, too n o i s y . 3. F r i e n d wants l i s t low' r e n t a l housing. (b) Board or I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care. 1. 78 year o l d mother, r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d , c i t y . 2. Business'man, board residence, mother.' HOUSING CONT'D. - 5 -(c) Homemaker S e r v i c e . • 1.. O.A.P..wishes to stay i n home. 2. Adults under 65 years. 1. Low r e n t a l housing f o r 60 year o l d widow. 2. Low r e n t a l housing i n North Vancouver. 3. Low cost r e n t a l housing a d u l t . . > E. MISCELLANEOUS: 1. C r i p p l e d man on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , seeks outside contacts.' 2. Recreation f o r 12 year o l d boy a t t e n d i n g C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , S o c i a l area 26 3. Camping f o r g i r l with physical handicap . V. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE . 51 c a l l s A. Information - re application..- - - - - - - - - — _ 7 c a l l s 1. O.A.A., O.A.P.- 4 2. S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e - - - - - - 3 B. Requesting F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . - - - - - - - - 44 c a l l . 1. O.A.A>0.A.P. 1. Dentures • -1. 2. Unemployed Employables- - - - 35 1. Loan, Gen,Maintenance- 14 2. C l o t h i n g & r e p a i r s 7 3 . Emergency Food & S h e l t e r 5 . 4 . Food . 3 . 5. S h e l t e r -6. Rent :• 2 7-. Baggage 1 3 . S o c i a l Assistance R e c i p i e n t s . - 3 -8. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 2 9. F u e l 10. Loggers B o o t s — 11. Medical appliance 1 1.. Widow, c h i l d to get food, cheque ready i n P.M 2. Family on s p e c i a l grant want grocery order. 3 . Present quarters being t o r n down, wants rent u n t i l s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cheque a r r i v e s . 4 . Miscellaneous- - 5 1. G i r l , job Campbell R i v e r no f a r e . 2. F r i e n d seeking f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r retarded g i r l (18) i n I n s t i t u t i o n . 3 . Ward - Supt of C h i l d Welfare, seeking s h e l t e r , johSc Maintenance. 4. "Bread Man" s e v e r a l people on route cannot pay. 5. Woman on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e to r e p o r t neighbour's c h i l d r e n hungry. - 6 -DISPOSITION OF INQUIRIES A. FINANCIALLY PARTICIPATING AGENCIES, C.C.& C. Total Referred Directed Reported Back L. Family & Child Welfare (Catholic) 2. Children's Aid Society 3. Family Welfare Bureau 4. Foster Day Care Association 5. Gordon Neighbourhood House 6. Rsturned Soldier's Club 7. Salvation Army 8. S. P. C. A. 9. Strathcona Day Nursery 10. Vancouver Boy Scouts Association 11. Vancouver Housing Association 12. Victorian Order of Nurses 13. Vol nteer Bureau 14. Vancouver Sailors Home 15. Y. H. C. A. 16. Y. C. A. B. COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL C. PUBLIC AGENCIES: 1. Vancouver; (a) City Social Service Dept. (b) Metropolitan Health Committee (c')" School Board (d) Public L i b r a r y 2. Province (Dept. of Health & Welfare): (a) . Old Age Pension Board (b) Prov. Psychiatric Service (c) Social Welfare Branches (d) Prov. Health Dept. Other Departments: (a) Extension Dept.,U.B.C. 3. Federal: (a) Citizenship & Immigration. (b) Employment Service (c) ....Dept. • of Veterans Affairs , (d) Dept. of Indian Affairs 1 - 1 -4 2 2 1 4 2 2 1 2 - 2 -' 1 - 1 -6 3 3 -2 5 • 1 4 1 .1 - -1 - 1 -1 - ! • • • -3 - 3- -2 1 1 2 - • ""2 -1 - 1 -- 3 1 2 -2 .1 . . . ^ 1 39 • 12 27 ' ... 12 4 8 — 23 . . 5 • • . 18 - 1 1 • - 1 -3 - 3 . • - '• 1 • 1 — 1 1 . 3 1 . 2 1 1 1 - 1 2 1'" 1 1 1 — 1. , • :• • l 3 1 2 -4 2 2 u 5 2 3 l 4 1 3 -1 Totals:52 16 36 DISPOSITION.OF INQUIRIES cont'd: D. OTHER COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS: - 7 -; t a l Referred D i r e c t e d Reported 1. A s s o c i a t i o n of Retarded C h i l d r e n 1 - . i -2. Board of Trade 1 1 - 1 3 . B e t t e r Business Bureau 1 - I • ' _. 4. B. C. Camping A s s o c i a t i o n 9 • ' 9 5. B. C. Cancer S o c i e t y 1 - 1 6, Business. 3 3 7. Canadian Red Cross S o c i e t y 3 1 2 1 8. Cedar Cottage Youth Club 1. 1 ' .-9. Canadian Folk S o c i e t y • 1 - 1 -- - - -1' 10.- Community A r t s C o u n c i l - 2 . 1 1 1 11. Churches 6 2 4- 2 12. C a t h o l i c Information Service 2 2 2 13. Co-op. P l a y Gi^jup A s s o c i a t i o n 1 - 1 ~ ... . ..-14. Cananian Ass'n S o c i a l Workers 1- • 1 - -15. C h i l d r e n ' s H o y ) i t a l Canadian Legion (Prov. Command) • 1 - 1 •1 16. 1 1 •-• 17. J r . League T h r i f t Shop 1 1 .7 •t 18. P r i v a t e P h y s i c i a n 2 . - . • 2 • •r 19. St.Paul's Hosp. S o c i a l S e r v i c e Dept. 2 2 - 1 2 0 . Vancouver Foundation- 1 - - 1 ' -21. Van. General H o s p i t a l (Soc. Service) 3 1 - 2 1 22. Venture Club •-.. •• • - 1 1 - 1 23. Women's Service Club 1 1 ' 1 24. Youth Salvage * 1 • " 1 -. • ¥? 15 32 ' .16 E. Given Informatign from F i l e s '• 96 ( S p e c i f i c Resources) F. Could Not A s s i s t 17 G. Not Completed '*' 7 8 SUMMARY I. SOURCE OF INQUIRY: A. From Organizations 1. F i n a n c i a l l y P a r t i c i p a t i n g Agen ies,C.C.& C. - -•- 32 c a l l s . -(15 agensies) 2. Community Chest & C o u n c i l (1 agencie) - - - - - - 6 " 3. Other Health, Welfare & Recreation Organizations- 28 " (14 o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) 4. Community Groups other than Health & Welfare - - 19. " ( 9 organizations)' 85 c a l l s . B. From I n d i v i d u a l s T o t a l ' 148. c a l l s .  .233 c = l l s I I . NATURE OF INQUIRIES: 1. General Information i. Health -. 3. Employment 13C _ _ . 12 2t 4. Family & personal- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 36 5... F i n a n c i a l Assistance-I l l . DISPOSITION OF INQUIRIES. 51 1. F i n a n c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g Agencies, C.C.&C. -(16 agencies) 2. Community Chest & C o u n c i l ( 1 ageney)- - - - - - - 12 3. P u b l i o Agencies ( t o 13 depts) - - 5 2 4. Other Community Oyganizatiens ( 24 o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) - 47 5. Given i n f o r m a t i o n from f i l e s - . - — _ - -96 6. Could not a s s i s t - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - — IT 7. Not completed- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - J 249 C a l l s T o t a l Number of Organizations i n q u i r i n g - - - - - - 39 T o t a l Number of Organizations t o whioh r e f e r r a l -or d i r e c t i o n g iven - - - - - - - - - - - — - - 5 4 T o t a l incoming telephone c a l l s - - - - - - - - - - 211 T o t a l number of l e t t e r s - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 T o t a l i n q u i r i e s i n person - - - - - - - - - - - - - 128 Average i n q u i r i e s per day - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14.9 - 168 -APPENDIX B TABLE I. UNIDENTIFIED CITIZENS ADVICE BUREAU * GREAT BRITAIN. TWELVE MONTH PERIOD 1946-1947 SUMMARY OF INQUIRIES According "to Nature of Inquiry" Family and personal problems 3»108 Housing and Rent queries 1»917 Supplies and Rationing, e. g. applications for dockets and permits for furniture and clothing lost through f i r e or burglary or by laundries and cleaners 1»647 Service Questions, e. g. enquiries by serving men and women or their families, including enquiries about allowances 963 Queries arising from i l l - h e a l t h 875 Matrimonial problems 790 Legal questions 774 Social Insurance enquiries 854 War damage questions 444 Miscellaneous questions relating to Income Tax, Education and Employment and requests for local information 1»787 13,159 * Cited Council of Social Services, Advising the Citizen, p. 38. London, 1950. - 1 6 9 -APPENDIX B TABLE 2 . COMMUNITY INFORMATION SERVICE, VANCOUVER INDIVIDUALS AND ORGANIZATIONS AS SOURCES OF INQUIRY. OCTOBER 1 , 1 9 5 3 to MAY 3 1 , 1 9 5 4 . Source Number Percentage of Total Individuals 1452 7 0 . 7 Organizations 6 0 1 2 9 . 3 TOTAL 2 0 5 3 1 0 0 . 0 - 170 -APPENDIX B TABLE 3. COMMUNITY INFORMATION SERVICE, VANCOUVER. INQUIRIES OF ORGANIZATIONAL SOURCE BY TYPE OF ORGANIZATION. OCTOBER 1, 1953 to MAY 31, 1954. Type of Organization Number Percentage of Total 1. Financially Participating Agency, Community Chest and Council. (1) 178 29.6 2. Community Chest and Coun-c i l 70 11.6 3. (2) Government Departments 131 21.6 4. Health Welfare and Re-creation Agencies, non-Chest members 74 12.5 5- Other Community Organiz-ations . (3) 148 24.7 mi 100 1 As of January 1, 1953« Not including 11 agencies joining United Appeal, Community Chest and Council, January, 1955. 2 Including departments other than Health and Welfare, e.g. Mining, Agriculture, Police. 3 Includes service clubs, business firms, trade unions, churches, etc. - 171 -APPENDIX B TABLE 4. COMMUNITY INFORMATION SERVICE, VANCOUVER. INDIVIDUALS CLASSIFIED IN ORDER OF INCIDENCE AS SOURCES OF INQUIRY. OCTOBER 1, 1953 to MAY 31j 1954 Total Classification Number 1453 Percentage of Total 100 Li Unclassified Unemployed employables Old Age Security and Pension Recipients New Canadians Social Assistance Recip-ients . Social Workers (non-agency) Ot b c d e f g h 1 J k 1 m n o P q r tiers * Board and Committee members Business persons Clergymen (non-parish) Deserted wives Doctors Ex prisoners European correspondents Indians (reserve) Landlords Lawyers Physically handicapped persons Students Teachers Tourists Unmarried Mothers Veterans ( per se) Volunteers Working mothers B7P 53.6 285 12.7 76- 5.2 53 3.9 17 1.2 15 1.0 129 22.4 100 * A l l classifications under "others" showed less than 15 inquiries or less than 1% of total. - 172 -APPENDIX B TABLE 5- COMMUNITY INFORMATION SERVICE, VANCOUVER NATURE OF INQUIRIES. OCTOBER 1, 1953 to MAY 31, 1954 Month Dct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apl. May Total % of Brtal % of Total Total 318 266 259 163 270 334 249 403 2262 100$ 100 C l a s s i f i -cation General Informa-tion L26 112 136 70 134 156 130 294 1158 51.2 51.2 Health 29 17 8 11 11 20 12 9 117 5.1 ) ) ) ) )48.8 ) ) ) ) ) ) Employ-ment Family Personal 26 70 47 38 10 24 15 25 32 39 31 47 20 36 20 53 201 332 8.^  15.2 Financial Assist-ance 67 52 81 42 54 80 51 27 454 20.3 - 173 -APPENDIX B TABLE 6. COMMUNITY INFORMATION SERVICE, VANCOUVER DISPOSAL OF INQUIRIES, BY REFERRAL AND DIRECTION TO FIVE TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS i Type of Organization Referred % of Total Direction % of) Total deferred and Directed % of Total 1, Fin. Part. Agencies Community Chest & Council 218 15.0 213 14.7 431 29.7 '2, Community Chest & Council 53 3.6 53 3.6 106 7.2 3. Government Services and departments 246 17.1 306 21.2 552 38.3 4, Non-chest health, recreation, welfare services 82 5.6 97 6.7 179 12.3 5. Other community organizations 66 7.6 103 7.2 169 11.8 6, Individuals 10 .7 10 .7 TOTAL 665 45.9 782 54.1 1147 100.% - 174 -APPENDIX B TABLE 7. COMMUNITY INFORMATION SERVICE, VANCOUVER FIVE TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS AS SOURCES OF INQUIRY AND POINTS OF DISPOSITION, OCTOBER 1953 to MAY 31? 1954. Types of Organ- Source of Inquiry Point of Disposal ozation Number Percentage Number . Percentage 1, F i n . Part. Agencies Com. Chest & Council 178 29.6 431 29.7 2. Community Chest & Council 70 11.6 106 7.2 3. Governmental services & departments 131 21.6 552 38.3 4. Non-Chest health, wel-fare, recrea-t i o n orgs. 74 12.5 179 12.3 5. Other commun-i t y organiza-tions 148 24.7 169 +10 11.8 TOTAL 601 100% 1447* 100$ * Ten persons were directed to the homes or businesses of i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s . - 175 -APPENDIX C Community Information Service, Vancouver. LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE  forwarded to twelve organizations and a compilation of replies to questionnaire received from eight* organizations, September, 1954. * City Social Service Department. Dunsmuir House, Salvation Army. Family Welfare Bureau. Metropolitan Health Committee. National Employment Service. Returned Soldiers Club. Social Welfare Branch, B. C. (Vancouver off i c e ) . Young Womens Christian Association. - 176 -September 9th, 1954. Mr. J. I. Chambers, Administrator, City Social Service Department, Dear Mr. Chambers: As a student in the 1954 Summer Session, School of Social Work, University of British Columbia, I am endeavouring to complete a thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work, on the subject "The Community Information Service, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, 1953 - 1954." After consulting with Professor William Dixon, and with his approval, I am writing to request the co-operation of the City Social Service Department of Vancouver i n this study. The concluding chapter i s to include an evaluation of the program of the Community Information Service for the period October 1, 1953, to May 3 1 ? 1954, the eight month period during which a record of each inquiry has been kept. The two c r i t e r i a to be applied i n this evaluation are: 1. the degree to which the Community Information Service has been utilized to advantage to the general public; and by organized groups in the community. 2. the degree to which the Community Information Service has merited acceptance as a legitimate setting for social work services by the organized health and welfare agencies and public departments in Greater Vancouver and the surround-ing area. During the eight month period cited above, the records of the Community Information Service indicate that 58 persons were referred and 87 persons directed to the City Social Service Depart-ment. During the same period, the City Social Service Department was the acknowledged source of 24 inquiries directed to the Com-munity Information Service office. - 177 -The term "Referral" i s used in this study when the problem presented by an individual involved a telephone c a l l or letter or "chit" to an agency or department. The term "Direction" i s used when an inquirer was told how he might himself contact the services he appeared to re-quire . When inquirers ask for the name, address or telephone number of a specific agency, department or community service, this is recorded as "Given Information F i l e s . " In reviewing the small body of professional literature available on the subject of Information Centres, i t would appear that the answers to the five questions listed on the appended sheet might be pertinent in any agency evaluation of the Com-munity Information Service. The questions are appended as suggestions only. They need not be used as the basis of agency replies. 0 If your agency would prefer to base their reply on an analysis of actual cases referred or directed from the Community Information Service, I would be glad to c a l l at your office and check these referrals with a member of your staff. Identical copies of this letter and the enclosed ques-tionnaire are being forwarded to the following agencies: Depart-ment of Health and Welfare (Social Welfare Branch), Catholic Family and Child Welfare Bureau, Returned Soldiers' Club, Family Welfare Bureau, Salvation Army (Dunsmuir House), Young Women's Christian Association, Young Men's Christian Association, Chil-dren's Aid Society, Department of Veterans' Affairs and the Metropolitan Health Committee. A similar letter without the enclosed questionnaire is being sent to the Vancouver office of the National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission. The l i s t of agencies replying to this request w i l l be appended to the study but the source of any particular comment w i l l not be acknowledged. This is a student assignment, unrelated to the proposed review of the program of the Community Information Service to be conducted i n the F a l l of 1954 under the Social Planning Com-mittee, Community Chest and Council: I am very much aware of the work involved in responding to such a request, and, only the need, under d i f f i c u l t circum-stances, to achieve some degree of objectivity prompts me to se&k your co-operation. - 178 -I would be most grateful for any help you or members ©f your staff may be able to give me i n completing this study. Yours sincerely, (signed) Donalda E. McRae. COPY OF LETTER - 179 -QUESTIONNAIRE In terms of the purpose and function of your agency, have the individuals referred from the Community Information Service been persons whom your intake department would accept normally for exploration of their situation or for services? Has this experience at or with the Community Information Service aided or impeded persons referred in u t i l i z i n g to advantage the services of your agency? To what extent are the individuals referred from the Community Information Service persons who probably would have sought the services of your agency directly, had the Community Infor-mation Service not been i n operation? Has your agency found the information resources of the Community Information Service useful? Has the information given been accurate and focussed on your inquiry? The twelve month period of experiment in the Community Information Service being concluded, do you see a need for the continuation of this project as part of the central administrative structure of the Community Chest and Council? If the answer is "yes or "no", please give reasons. If i t is "Yes, with certain modifications" please give reasons and describe suggested changes in admin-istration, procedure and professional practice. - 180 -QUESTION 1 In terms of the purpose and function of your agency, have the individuals referred from the Community Information Service been persons whom your intake department would accept normally for exploration of their situation or for services? Agency A. Agency B. Agency C. Agency E. Agency F. Agency G. Agency H. - Yes. - Yes. Agency D. They probably would have and because of the inquiry into the circumstances into each case we would say that a l l the cases referred would have been accepted by our agency for exploration. Yes; agreement that referrals were appropriate and very well done. - Yes. Yes. Yes, they have. This agency is the basic service of i t s kind in Vancouver, and would explore the possibility of offering services to persons such as those re-ferred to i t by the Community Information Service. QUESTION 2 Has this experience at or with the Community Information Service aided or impeded persons referred i n u t i l i z i n g to advantage the services of your agency? Agency A. - It i s d i f f i c u l t to answer this question. I expect eventually most of these people would have found their way to this agency. Possibly contacts with the Community Information Service aided their acceptance. Agency B. - In most cases i t gave them more confidence in using the services of - - -- 181 -Agency C. - Aided. When the people referred arrived at this agency they had an understanding of what to expect, as the situation had been cl a r i f i e d by the Community Information Service. Agency D. - Opinion was that appropriate referrals from Commun-i t y Information Service have aided people i n using the services of this agency. Agency E. - Most certainly i t has aided them. Agency F. - No doubt i t has aided them as i t put them i n touch quickly and directly with needed assistance. Agency G. - The experience with the Community Information Ser-vice has aided persons to use the services. Agency H. - The Community Information Service helped them find their way to this agency. It would appear that they did not have special d i f f i c u l t i e s , because of their experience at.the Community Information Ser-vice, i n using the services of this agency. QUESTION 3 To what extent are the individuals referred from the Com-munity Information Service persons who probably would have sought the services of your agency directly, had the Community Information Service not been In operation? Agency A. Agency B. Agency C, It is expected that eventually most of these people would have found their way to this agency. Although most individuals who recognize their need for general services would probably come to our ser-vice eventually. In regard to our special services, i t has been found that through exploration at the Community Information Service office, persons who : might profit from these services have been directed to them. I think that a f a i r proportion of them would have sought our services directly. As an international organization the - - - - - - i s well known. - 182 -Agency D. - The individuals would have undoubtedly found their way to our agency but as the Community Information Service was i n operation a great deal of needless time was eliminated and the individual did not have to travel from agency to agency, but came direct to us. Agency E. - Generally speaking most people would have found their way to the - - - - - but i t is noted that during the period of greatest unemployment several people did seem to know about the Community Infor-mation Service and went there f i r s t . Agency F. - To some extent, but certainly some of them would not have found us unless by way of the "grapevine" after a period of time. Agency G. - We think approximately 50% of people coming would not have come directly. Agency H. - This agency has operated in the community for years. Its function and services are well known. Persons wishing to use these services would have arrived at the agency on their own i n i t i a t i v e . QUESTION 4 Has your agency found the information resources of the Community Information Service useful? Has the information given been accurate and focussed on your inquiry? Agency A. - A check of the extent of use of the Community In-formation Service by members of this department is not maintained. Agency B. - Yes, very definitely - made our work easier. Agency C. - In situations where help was requested, informa-tion given has been accurate and appropriate (mentions responsibility of agency to develop and maintain own resource f i l e s and states inquiries from this agency have not been numerous). Agency D. - Yes, i t has been helpful to have this service available so we can refer people directly to the proper source from information provided by the Community Information Service. Agency E. - This particular branch (of a multiple service) has not called the Community Information Service for in_Tormation. - 183 -Agency F. Agency G. Agency H. Very useful. We consider the information given to us has been very accurate and focussed on our inquiry. Our agency has used the Community Information Ser-vice a great deal as we have many inquiries for this service and have benefited from the accurate information received from the Community Information Service. Because of the comprehensive nature of the services offered in this agency and the fact that i t is staffed by social workers:;.it should not generally be necessary to c a l l on the information services of another agency or project. However, when such calls have been made the information given has been accurate and helpful. QUESTION 5 The twelve month period of experiment in the Community Information Service being concluded, do you see a need for the continuation of this project as part of the central ad-ministrative structure of the Community Chest and Council? If the answer is "yes" or "no" please give reasons. If i t is "yes" with certain modifications please give reasons and describe suggested changes in administration, procedure and professional practice. Agency A. Agency B. Yes. The Community Information Service must be of help to a great many individuals in the city. I have never f e l t i t was designed to be of particular use to agencies but rather for groups and individuals in the community. Yes, the Community Information Service has f i l l e d a long f e l t need in Vancouver where people f e l t that in regard to welfare services they often got what they termed "the run around". In the case of a non-social work agency like ours, a poor direction, from one office to a social work agency, is frustra-ting to the person seeking the service. We believe that this is one of the most interesting develop-ments in the Community Chest and Council, but feel that i t could do with much more advertising. - 184 -Our organization has appreciated the Community-Information Service, and we sincerely hope i t w i l l be continued. While i t is f e l t the Community Information Ser-vice has been of value, the Directors did not feel competent, on the basis of the small number of referrals and requests for information to make any definite statements. Yes, the Community Information Service has been a most useful agency and i s serving a definite pur-pose in the community. I think the service of your project is of great value. In our city we have many fine social agencies but there must be a large number of people who have l i t t l e or no knowledge of services avail-able. At the Community Information Service the client is f u l l y advised of the resources in the community which can help him. Yes, as such a service enables our , , and departments to refer questions to Community Information Service for correct informa-tion and direction and thus helps them to better carry out the function for which they are set up. It would appear that the general information ser-vice available to the public through the Community Information Service office is of value, particu-l a r l y in maintaining a resource f i l e which gives accurate information regarding points of contact and l i s t s of resources in special f i e l d s . There would be only a minimum use of the service by agencies manned by professional social workers such as ours. In terms of efficiency and economy within the Community Chest and Council i t s e l f , such a service might well continue on the basis that the existence of the Community Information Service frees the members of the professional staff Community Chest and Council, from onerous and time-consuming interviews and telephone call s , and permits them to carry on their function as social workers in a community organization setting. - 185 -BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Hamilton, Gordon. The Theory and Practice of S o c i a l Case Work, New York, Columbia University Press, 1951. Titmuss, Richard Iff., Problems of Social Policy•> London, Longman Green and Co., 1950. Pamphlets and Reports Beveridge, William, "Social Insurance and A l l i e d Services", New York, McMillan Co., 1942. , "Voluntary Action, a Report on Methods of S o c i a l Advance," London, A l l e n and Unwin, 1948. Central Office of Information, Great B r i t a i n , "Social Work and the S o c i a l Worker i n B r i t a i n , " London, 1951. Community Chests and Councils of America, Inc., "Summary of Service S t a t i s t i c s , Community Information and Referral Centres," New York, 1952. Department of Labour, United States of America, "Your Community Advisory Centre f o r Veterans and Others," Washington, D. C , 1946. Katz, A l f r e d , "Case Work Methods i n a Referral Centre," Welfare Council of New York, 1947. (mimeographed) National Conference of S o c i a l Work, "What are the Special S k i l l s Required f o r the B r i e f Contact or Referral Interview," (Symposium), Cleveland, Ohio, 1953. , "Summation of Information Centre Questionnaire" Cleveland, Ohio, 1953. National Council of Social Services, Inc., Great B r i t a i n , "Advising the C i t i z e n , " London, 1950. , "Voluntary S o c i a l Services, Handbook of Information, Directory of Organizations," London, 1948. - 186 -National Social Work Council, "A Listing of Veterans Information Services in 218 Cities," New York, 194-5. Welfare and Health Council, New York, "Information and Referral A Report of Two Conferences", New York, 1952. Periodicals Buell, Bradley; Robinson, Reginald, "From Veteran to Ci v i l i a n , " Survey Mid-Monthly, November, 1 9 4 5 . , "A Veteran Returns to Dayton, Ohio," Survey Mid-Monthly," July, 1945. , "Close Up on Wartime", Community, November, 1942. Krughoff, M e r r i l l , "Community Organization, a Dynamic Process," Canadian Welfare, June, 194?. "Getting People and Services Together," Community October, 1944. , "Veterans Information Services," Community, 1945. Linderholm, Natali, "People and Their Troubles," Survey Mid-Month-l y , February, 1946. News Item (p. 34-4) "Welfare Information, Los Angeles," Survey Mid-Monthly, December, 1942. News Item (p. 75) "Something for Citizens," Community, April, 1946. 

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