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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The development of the children's program within the Community Arts Council : a study of services offered… Ryniak, Irene Lucille 1954

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILDREN'S PROGRAM WITHIN THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL A Study of Services offered by the Community A r t s Council i n the Development of C h i l d r e n s Art Programs. 1  by IRENE LUCILLE RYNIAK  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work  School of S o c i a l Work  195^  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  ABSTRACT This study considers the development of the children's services within the Community Arts Council i n r e l a t i o n to arts programs f o r children i n the City of Vancouver. The changing emphasis of the program from 19^7 to 1 9 5 ^ i s examined through the records of sponsored classes, the minutes of meetings and i n t e r views with class leaders, agency directors and class p a r t i c i p a n t s . The changing philosophy of the a r t i s t i n the practice of his profession and the increased interest i n the development of art programs for children i n leisure-time settings has brought the a r t i s t s and the recreation leaders together. Within the recreation f i e l d , the use of the s o c i a l work method and the demand for the fulfilment of the s o c i a l agencies' objectives through program have strained relationships between the a r t i s t and program staff. As the community agency establishes i t s r o l e i n the sponsorship of a r t s programs the agency adopts a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r understanding the objectives and methods of the a r t i s t , who i n turn must accept the philosophy and objectives of the agency. The Community Arts Council has .demonstrated the need for mutual e f f o r t i f the objectives of both are to be r e a l i z e d f o r the benefit of the c h i l d . The Children's Program project c l a r i f i e s the factors which have disturbed the e f f e c t i v e use of art s p e c i a l i s t s i n the agencies. It also indicates the p o s s i b i l i t y of future development within the Community Arts Council to further co-operative planning to ensure s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l e d leadership and standards f o r c u l t u r a l services.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1.  The Organization and Program of the Community A r t s Council  Formation of the Community Arts Council. Functions of the Council. Administrative functionsj planning, program development and trends, services to Individuals, services to member groups, Summary • Chapter 2.  1  78  Conclusion  The c u l t u r a l a r t s . The child's place i n A r t . Elements of the city-wide program. A place f o r the a r t s i n Community Center and leisure-timesetting. The role of the Community Arts Council. Summary .. •• Appendices: > A. B. G. ©.  b6  The Relationship Between the Community Arts Council and E x i s t i n g Agencies  Sponsorship of children's services. Agency function. Established c u l t u r a l services. Standards i n r e l a t i o n to children's services. Common problems. Relationship of the a r t i s t to the Community A r t s Council. Organization of the Community Arts Council. Summary ....... Chapter 5.  11  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Programs i n Vancouver  Introduction. A r t programs i n Vancouver schools; music i n the schools, graphic art i n the schools, drama i n the schools, dance i n the schools. The Art Gallery. The Art School. University Extension Art Classes. Community Center and Neighbourhood House. Other Vancouver p a r t i c i p a n t programs and services; private i n s t r u c t i o n , MacMlllan Fine A r t s Club, Children's Theatre groups, Parent Teacher Associations, instrumental groups, symphony concerts, Summary Chapter 4.  1.  Organization and Functioning of the Children. M Program within the Community Arte Council  Beginnings of the Children's program. The Vancouver Children's Theatre. : Re-definition of p o l i c y . Children's concerts. Classes f o r children. The f i r s t year. Second year of continued service; administration, evaluation, toward project termination, plans f o r 1953-5^, method, proceedings i n 1953-5***, conclusion of the project, Summary Chapter 3.  Page  Sample Questionnaire. Standards f o r Sponsored Classes. Interview Summaries. Selected Bibliography.  93  THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILDREN'S PROGRAM WITHIN THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL A Study o f S e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the Community A r t s C o u n c i l i n the Development o f C h i l d r e n s A r t Programs. 1  Chapter 1 THE ORGANIZATION AND PROGRAM OF THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL Formation of the Community A r t s Council The organization of the Community Arts Council followed a series of exploratory moves by c i t i z e n s of Vancouver interested i n c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and a survey of c u l t u r a l organizations to determine the need f o r co-ordination among the various c u l t u r a l services.  The extra pressure exerted on the existing recreation,  f a c i l i t i e s during and just following the recent war by the many c i t i z e n s who sought recreation outside the home pointed up the need f o r organization of leisure-time services i f f a c i l i t i e s were to be expanded, services co-ordinated but duplication eliminated. At this time the Welfare Council had called upon the services of L. E. Norrie to make a survey of recreation i n the Greater Vancouver area.  At the request, and under the sponsorship  of the  Junior League, Mr. Norrie was commissioned to complete a study of Art a c t i v i t i e s at the same time.  The Junior League had already  demonstrated i t s Interest i n the spare-time a c t i v i t i e s of the Vancouver people by sponsoring the course i n group work s p e c i a l i z a t i o n at the School of S o c l l Work of the University of B r i t i s h a  Columbia and by the organization of the Volunteer Bureau.  Now i t  - 2 c a l l e d f o r a survey to explore the need f o r an organization to coordinate Vancouver's c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . In July 1 9 ^ 5 the "Community Arts Survey Committee" was  set  up to assist i n the study of c u l t u r a l groups and a c t i v i t i e s i n the city.  Following the completion of the survey, and a f t e r much con-  tinuous work on the part of the Committee, "The Arts and Our Town" was presented to the c i t y on May  31, 19^6.  This document outlined  the services and organization available to Vancouver c i t i z e n s , some objectives which might be r e a l i z e d through establishment  and ofa  co-ordinating body. The recommendations of the survey are extensive and bear repeating here, as they are r e f l e c t e d i n the program of the Community Arts Council up to the present  time.  The  survey recommended:  - " a c t i v i t y on the part of schools,-^social agencies, and churches to enl rge opportunities f o r a r t i s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n drama, dance, drawing and painting, modelling, pottery, record playing, play reading, music appreciation toward Increasing art appreciation and to give opportunities for learning the art of discussion techniques — " -"use of concern f o r family l i f e education as a means of r a i s ing c u l t u r a l standards" -"concern with community centre development as a f o c a l point of c u l t u r a l as well as recreational and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s " -"need to bring the practice of taxing non-profit educational agencies to public notice" -"special study of art teaching i n the schools" -"an advisory committee of s p e c i a l i s t s i n the c u l t u r a l arts toward upgrading and increasing work i n the f i e l d " -"University Department or Conservatory of Music f o r high standards of t r a i n i n g and appreciation" -"action towards securing large public audltoria to spread a c t i v i t y community wide" a  -  3.-  -"formation of a c u l t u r a l a r t s council to co-ordinate the e f f o r t s of spontaneous, unrelated groups; f o r increase i n the number of c u l t u r a l publications; and as a medium f o r evaluation of a r t s programs." The request f o r a c u l t u r a l a r t s council by the survey was given f u l l consideration by the Community Arts Survey Committee, which then appointed an Interim Committee whose job i t was to study and formulate  beginning p o l i c y and draw up plans f o r establishing  the Council.  The committee prepared f o r an open meeting.  This  session, attended by a l l groups Interested i n an Arts Council, was c a l l e d i n order to determine public demand and to e s t a b l i s h the Council with an administrative board on the basis of group i n t e r e s t and demand.  The Committee therefore prepared a slate of o f f i c e r s  which could be voted upon at t h i s time and expanded by nominations from the f l o o r . In October 19^6" the open meeting was held and the Community Arts Council was voted into existence by 350 people representing seventy-one groups.  A Board of Trustees was elected and the work  of the Council began. Functions of the Council The Constitution of the Community Arts Council came into existence a f t e r much study of similar organizations.  After taking  into consideration l o c a l differences and p e c u l i a r circumstances r e l a t i n g to the c u l t u r a l l i f e of Vancouver, a Constitution was  -in-  drawn up which was thought to meet the demands of the community; "The Community Arts Council of Vancouver i s a coordinating body established to increase and broaden the opportunities for Vancouver c i t i z e n s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and as a clearing house and centre of reference f o r groups working i n s o c i a l , recreational and a r t i s t i c f i e l d s of endeavor. ( I t i s ) made up of groups and individuals interested i n the a r t s . It does not overlap the a c t i v i t i e s of any existing organization (but) e x i s t s merely to a s s i s t , stimulate and co-ordinate." 1 In addition to t h i s general statement of the Council's function the Constitution seta f o r t h the following objectives: 1)  To help co-ordinate the work and programs of c u l t u r a l groups i n the c i t y .  2)  To stimulate and encourage the development of c u l t u r a l projects and a c t i v i t i e s .  3)  To render service to a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups.  k)  To act as a clearing house f o r information on c u l t u r a l projects and a c t i v i t i e s .  5)  To foster interest and pride i n the c u l t u r a l heritage of Vancouver.  6)  To interpret the work of c u l t u r a l groups to the community, e n l i s t public i n t e r e s t , and promote public understanding.  7)  To bring to the attention of Civie and P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s the c u l t u r a l needs of the community. H i s t o r i c a l l y i t has been the intent of the Community Arts  Council to provide services to i t s memberenip i n tnat a centralized operation would be more economical and e f f i c i e n t .  By offering  research and public r e l a t i o n s services i t was thought that no vested  1: Community Arts Council F l i e r  - 5interest would develop within the Council which would detract from i t s effectiveness as a co-ordinating body. In order that the Council could adhere to a policy of coordinating services only, a very close l i a i s o n between the member groups and the Board of the Council was a n t l c i p t e d . As Miss Sweeny ;  g  indicates i n her study of "The Community Arts Council of Vancouver," t h i s close t i e was not maintained perhaps f o r the reason tha t the groups themselves were not sure what they wanted when they voted the Council into existence and therefore, i n e f f e c t , they l a t e r asked the Community Arts Council to prove i t s worth.  This was evident when one  year a f t e r voting the council into existence only twenty per cent of the groups present at the inaugural meeting held membership i n the Council. Administrative  Functions  Planning It was the opinion of the Interim Committee that the Board of the Community A r t s Council, which would carry l e g i s l a t i v e and administrative functions, should be broadly representative of the community as a whole.  The Board i s therefore composed of both lay  and professional members and members-at-large, members who can r e f l e c t the thinking of the community as a whole and those who have a more intimate knowledge of the various c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the c i t y . In order that the decision-making process within t h i s body should  not be too cumbersome and a b r o d view of the issues maintained, a  the Board was not selected on an e n t i r e l y representative basis from membership.  The direct representation consists of the section  chairmen, a member of the C i t y Council and representatives from other agencies not d i r e c t l y a f f i l i a t e d with the Community Arts Council. who  The remainder of the Board consists of elected members  have special knowledge of the community. In many ways the growth of the Arts Council i s represented  i n the growth of the Board and i n the expansion of the Committee.  Executive  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y , the Executive i s composed of seven  o f f i c e r s - the past president, ch irmen of standing committees a  and sections, and the chairmen of special committees.  Since the  inception of the Council the Executive has grown from nine to eighteen members.  This very growth put a s t r a i n on the membership of  the Council, and p a r t i c u l a r l y on the staff and the Cinance Committee. The r e s u l t was  that the Nominating Committee had some d i f f i c u l t y  i n getting o f f i c e r s , the s t a f f ^ b o r d - r e l a t i o n s h i p s were strained, p  and the Finance Committee seriously examined the f i n a n c i a l basis of the Council structure. The major burden f o r the f i n a n c i a l support of the Community Arts Council came from the Junior League, through i t s demonstration grant.  Membership fees were collected, but the  g r e t e r percentage' of funds raised i n t h i s manner financed the a  - 7 publication of the Calendar, a schedule of events p u b l i c i z e d by the Council.  As with most voluntary organizations, various methods  of financing were considered by the Committee. Program Development and Trends The program developed by the Community Arts Council through the planning of membership and administrative groups ref l e c t s an attempt to give service to the group and i n d i v i d u a l members of the organization and to meet the objectives set f o r t h i n the Constitution. 1 The program comprises projects and general services. A f t e r f i v e years of operation the Council set up a Program Committee to assure the continuity of these regular services and develop special projects i n a manner that would assure equal benefit to the various f i e l d s of art and emphasize the demonstration function of the Community Arts Council i n mustering support. ject i s "an undertaking  A Council pro-  f o r which the Council assumes f u l l respon-  s i b i l i t y f o r organization and presentation.'  It i s presented  to  the public as "a project of the Community Arts Council of Vancouver".2 "The Arts and Our Town", "Design f o r Living", The One Act Play F e s t i v a l " , "The Symposium of Canadian Music" and the "Panorama of Music" are included i n t h i s  category.  On the other hand, a Council "sponsored" project i s "an 1  D. Moira Sweeny, Thesis, U.B.C. 1951,  Part I I .  2 Comer, V i r g i n i a Lee, Report of Consultation V i s i t to the Community Arts Council of Vancouver. June 19^9. d e f i n i t i o n of Terms)  - 8 -  undertaking,  the idea f o r which may originate within the Council  or be presented by the Council, but which i s carried out under the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of another group.  The Council may give f i n a n c i a l  and/or other forms of a i d i n accordance with an agreement between the Council and the other responsible body.  The project i s presented  to the public i n the name of the responsible body as 'sponsored by the Community Arts Council of Vancouver' ."The Vancouver Children's Theatre (now Community Children's Theatre) and the introductory Chamber Music Concert (now Friends of Chamber Music) were examples of t h i s type of project. The e a r l i e s t on-going service offered by the Council to i t s membership was the News Calendar, a monthly p u b l i c a t i o n o f f e r ing Information  on current topics of interest, and a complete  monthly survey of coming events. Services to Individuals -  The Council has been able to be of service to the i n d i v i d u a l i n many ways.  Information  on current events i n a l l forms of the  a r t s , dates, times, places, program d e t a i l s and t i c k e t are a v a i l a b l e .  information  P u b l i c i t y f o r concerts by new a r t i s t s i s given  through Council channels.  Council and Group Membership introduc-  tions f o r new members are f a c i l i t a t e d through Section meetings. Instruments, p i a n i s t s , scores, advice on o r i g i n a l musical composit i o n s , help to town-planners, contacts with c r a f t s outlets and  - 9 addresses of furniture designers, and provision of l i b r e t t i s t s services are some of the functional services that have been provided. Services to Member Groups The Community Arts Council has established group resources to encourage the membership i n community programs.  Some of the  f a c i l i t i e s they provide include meeting and rehersal space, use of typewriters, addressograph and other s e c r e t a r i a l services, costumes, scores, f i l m s , s k i l l e d arts leadership and teachers, and resource material on which constitutions of new  graips can be based.  The  Council also provides speakers on various subjects i n the arts field.  The News Calendar, press and radio releases, entertainment  p a r t i e s , loan on r e n t a l of f i n e pictures, and advice on publications complete t h e  l i s t of group  resources.  Summary The description of the Community Arts Council of Vancouver indicates the extent of che requests placed upon i t by the community. 1  These requests have been met  of the Section Membership.  through t h e  combined resources  The projects h&ve been sponsored by the  Council, the most successful being the "One  Act Play F e s t i v a l "  produced j o i n t l y by the Drama and L i t e r a r y Sections i n conjunction with tne Department of Education.  The lack of regular p a r t i c i p a t i o n  by the professional i n the sections has l i m i t e d t h e i r effectiveness. 1 D.M.Sweeny, The Community Arts Council of Vancouver. Thesis, June 1951, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  10 This was demonstrated i n the "Panorama of Music", an amateur production produced by the Music Section the "Symposium of Canadian Music", a professional production, rather than being presented by the Music Section was organized through the Council's executive channels.  This indicates the d i v i s i o n of interest between the pro-  f e s s i o n a l and amateur a r t i s t s , which complicates the Council's administration. The Children's Program, sponsored by the Community Arts Council, drew upon i t s sections and i t s a f f i l i a t i o n with amateur a r t i s t s , professional a r t i s t s and the Council's relationship with community leisure-time agencies.  Chapter 2 ORGANIZATION AN1  FUNCTIONING OF THE CHILDREN'S  PROGRAM WITHIN THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL The  services to children developed through the Community  Arts Council from 1950 to 195^ r e f l e c t the changing focus of program p o l i c i e s mentioned i n the previous chapter, while the various phases of the Children's Program demonstrate the f l e x i b i l i t y  of the Community  Arts Council i n meeting the demands of community groups as i t attempts to f u l f i l the objectives set f o r t h i n the constitution. The bases from which the Vancouver Arts Council assumed i t s interest i n children's services are many.  As recommended i n a con-  s u l t a t i o n report by Miss Comer, the Council planned i n i t i a l l y to have an educational program which would b u i l d "towards the one point of understanding the psychological importance of aesthetic experience to mental health and personality development." ^  Such a program  was  to include many s p e c i f i c functions i n r e l a t i o n to community groups such as the development of demonstration projects, assistance i n seeking t a l e n t , help i n f i n d i n g volunteers with s p e c i a l s k i l l s ,  and  assistance i n planning, a l l of which would further t h i s stated objective. While these functions were outlined i n p r i n c i p l e by the woman who  had directed the f i r s t arts council on t h i s continent, the r e a l i s -  t i c fact was  that from the time the Arts Council was  established  1 V. L. Comer, Report of Consultation V i s i t to the Community Arts Council of Vancouver, submitted June 1, 19^9.  12  community groups asked f o r these services f o r t h e i r Individual organizations though perhaps few were aware of Miss Comer's stated . objective i n offering such services.  In f a c t , the pressure of ser-  vices and projects, as described by Miss Sweeny, precluded any d e t a i l e d analysis of the psychological importance of the various group a c t i v i t i e s to the i n d i v i d u a l members.  1  The s o c i a l and r e c r e t i o n a l agencies were among those which a  constantly requested the assistance of the Community Arts Council i n locating people s k i l l e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r t form and w i l l i n g to o f f e r group leadership. The requests from the greater number of agencies were f o r voluntary service, while a few, recognizing the demand and value i n payment f o r leadership, offered an honorarium f o r s p e c i a l i s t s services.  1  At no time was the Council able to f i l l a l l the requests  made of i t , although appeals were made through volunteers and s t a f f to s k i l l e d persons i n contact with the Council throughi.the o f f i c e or the Sections.  The Sections, where representatives of groups i n each  of the Arts came together, were the chief channels to the amateur, and i n some cases to the professional members, of each of the a r t f i e l d s . As t h i s situation continued, ent.  some problems became more appar-  There were never s u f f i c i e n t a r t i s t s with the time, a b i l i t y and  interest to o f f e r t h e i r services to community groups.  Many persons,  whose s k i l l was t h e i r only source of income, could not a f f o r d to work voluntarily.  This pointed i n part to the dilemma of the Arts Council.  On the one hand the Council was to a s s i s t groups i n obtaining 1  D. Moira Sweeny, Thesis, U.B.C.  1951.  P.121.  13 voluntary leadership from a r t i s t s , while at the same time the Council was  somewhat obliged to make a stand f o r the professional a r t i s t  and  interpret to the community the reasons f o r payment of the a r t i s t .  Fur-  ther, the standard r a i s i n g function of the Council i n r e l a t i o n to the Arts could only be maintained i f those who  were to do community work  were well trained and therefore q u a l i f i e d i n t h e i r work. Meantime, the community organizations seeking the help of the Arts Council recognized different standards and factors i n program leadership which were not apparent to the Arts Council.  The  various  objectives included: the provision of a recreational experience the public, an opportunity to meet others, and a group  for  experience  which would a s s i s t the members i n t h e i r personal development.  The  degree of emphasis upon the achieving of s k i l l as compared to personal development was not always clear to the agencies, Council and  special-  i s t s involved. Beginnings of Children's Program The channels of Community Arts Council service to the community were becoming established through the development of the and the projects planned and sponsored by Council.  Sections  O tside of r e f e r u  ring leadership to c h i l d serving agencies, the Community Arts Council had developed no recognized channel for co-ordinating and promoting children's c u l t u r a l services u n t i l 19^7.  At t h i s time a group of  community people interested i n advancing the Interest of children i n the a r t s came to the Community Arts Council and asked t h e i r  co-operation i n developing a project to expand opportunities f o r children.  It was  i n t h i s way  that the Vancouver Arts Oouneil  first  became active In children's services. The Vancouver Children's Theatre The Vancouver Children's Theatre, established i n 19^7,  was  organized by an independent group of c i t i z e n s with an advtisory board. The project was a s s i s t e d by the Community Arts Council f o r one year and was therefore a council sponsored project f o r that period.  The  objective of the theatre was to a s s i s t i n the "development of cultural i n s t i n c t s through a sound program of basic t r a i n i n g i n the a r t s of speech, dancing and music". This was  achieved by providing a minimum of eight lessons  each month and making preparations f o r the production of a show. Production and a chance to perform the s k i l l s acquired during the t r a i n i n g period were an i n t e g r a l part of the Theatre Group's program. During the f i r s t year of operation four hundred Vancouver children i n four d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s received an Introduction to speech, dancing and music as they met and trained i n various community buildings.  Seven thousand children attended a production by a Trained  Children's Theatre group brought to Vancouver Schools under the auspices of the Vancouver Children's Theatre. 2 was  This f i r s t project  not continued as a community-centered program, and the theatre's  d i r e c t o r s redirected i t s i n t e r e s t s to a commercial, rather than 1 "What i s Vancouver Children's Theatre?", program statement from the Bluebird. A p r i l 19^8. 2 Clare Tree Major Children's Theatre of New York, production of "Hans Brinker and the S i l v e r Skates".  15  participant emphasis, on which basis the Community Arts Council had offered  sponsorship. Following t h i s experiment i n sponsorship  the directors of  the Council considered the factors which would more r e a d i l y assure success of community-centered projects sponsored f o r children.  It  seemed that there must be some d e f i n i t e community structure which would provide continuity i n administration and leadership to develop and maintain parent and community interest. f a c i l i t i e s f o r dramatic work was  The necessity of suitable  recognized and brought to the attention  of the Drama Section of Community Arts Council, which joined with Community Children's Theatre towards obtaining the use of schools f o r Saturday morning a c t i v i t i e s .  To date the schools have not been made  available because of administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s and the need f o r a clear d e f i n i t i o n of p o l i c y on the use of schools f o r recreation purposes. Redefinition of P o l i c y The objective of the Community Arts Council i n stimulating the a r t s went hand-in-hand with the second undertaking for children.  of a program  The Board had the intention of an'bn-going" children's  program to include a l l forms of the a r t s .  It planned to work with and  through the e x i s t i n g organizations serving children i n r e a l i z i n g i t s program.  This p o l i c y was formulated  i n the spring of 1 9 5 1 .  At t h i s  time the work of various community organizations serving the Interests  16  of children was  formally recognized hy the Community Arts Council.  Moreover the a c t i v i t i e s and the projects of the Council were a t t r a c t ing Increased attention from the community, and t h i s attention was  a  very powerful force i n bringing the resources of these organizations and the Community Arts Council together. Through the co-operation of the Group Work D i v i s i o n of the Community Chest and Council, a meeting was held at the Community Arts Council o f f i c e s i n March 1 9 5 1 .  At t h i s meeting the objectives of the  Council i n r e l a t i o n to Chindren's services were outlined. tention of accomplishing  what they could by working with leisure-time  agencies to expand a r t s programs f o r children was question was:  Their i n -  explained. ^  The  Could the Council render any service i n providing  s k i l l e d leadership f o r art courses, i f t h i s were hot available, or could i t a s s i s t i n i n t e r e s t i n g sponsoring groups i n such projects? A wide variety of p o s s i b i l i t i e s were presented by agency representatives.  These Included a Community Arts Council plan to  sponsor creative a c t i v i t i e s i n various f i e l d s according to the  supply  of q u a l i f i e d teachers, and a plan to set up a p i l o t study i n an area where a c t i v i t y was already under way.  The hope f o r the future  was  that service groups and clubs might be w i l l i n g to help sponsor such a c t i v i t i e s , as the cost of leadership was beyond the reach of s o c i a l and recreational agencies.  Interest i n developing the a r t s as a hobby  f o r agency members, and i n concerts and similar spectator projects 1  D. Moira Sweeny, Thesis, U.B.C., 1 9 5 1 ,  P.  108.  17 was indicated.  It was thought that summer training courses and dance  displays by students i n community centres would p a r t i a l l y r e a l i z e t h i s demand. Some concern was expressed f o r those whose s k i l l had recognized.  been  Several representatives showed interest i n a l l of these  services as w e l l as i n leadership f o r camp programs.  These topics  indicated the wide range of program where more development was d e s i r ed; but s p e c i f i c information was necessary before a basis f o r further planning could be established. A very extensive survey was carried out by the Community Arts Council at the request of the representatives at t h i s meeting. ^Its objective was to compile s p e c i f i c Information which would i n d i c ate the present use of s p e c i a l i s t s and the development of arts programs In community agencies, as w e l l as available resources.  This informa-  t i o n would Indicate, the development p o t e n t i a l i n d i f f e r e n t centres, based upon information concerning community f a c i l i t i e s i n the metropolitan area, a l l groups associated with these f a c i l i t i e s , adult groups which might consider sponsoring a scheme, programs being undertaken at the moment, programs that groups might be interested i n furthering, and known teachers whose names could be recommended. This survey, now. completed, provides a source of information on the attitudes of various leisure^time leaders on program objectives and a r e l of Interest. 1  Appendix A  18  C h i l d r e n s Concerts 1  A second outcome of the meeting was a direct service to children i n the form of two symphony concerts.  These concerts were  presented as p i l o t studies to test the response of children from f i v e to f i f t e e n years of age to t h i s type of experience. were attended by eight hundred children.  The concerts  Although the response was  enthusiastic, many agency representatives thought the experiment showed the need of musical t r a i n i n g and experience  f o r the children.  This  project demonstrated the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l introductory t r a i n i n g i n community centres to give children basic understanding and knowledge. The Musicians Union, A.F.of M., Local 1^5, presented  these  concerts upon request from the Community Arts Council, through the Music Performance Trust Fund of the recording industry, as a communi t y service.  In t h i s undertaking  the Community Arts Council provided  the leadership i n community organization which permitted  several  agencies to benefit from a service they desired but previously lacked the channels f o r obtaining. Community Arts f o r Children The t h i r d step i n the Community Arts Council's children's' program evolved from the i n i t i a l experiment.  The representatives  who a-ccended %he spring concerts wiohthe children from t h e i r agencies were asked to say whether t h e y thought the concerts were b e n e f i c i a l . The  strongest reaction was that the children needed much preparatory  19 work before concerts of such dimension could be appreciated s u f f i c - . i e n t l y to have an effect upon the permanent development of c h i l d Interest.  The agencies indicated that the concerts would be valuable  i f they culminated a year's t r a i n i n g .  Lack of leadership was known to  be the main d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a l i z i n g t h i s proposed plan. was  certainly not available within the agencies.  Leadership  Also It was  the  p o l i c y of the A r t s Council to include a l l forms of the a r t s i n a com- . prehensive  children's program.  A delegation of agency and Community Arts Council representat i v e s met again to determine the best method of approaching the problem.  A plan f o r the use of specialized leadership i n four areas of  program was discussed.  As leaders i n graphic a r t s and music were  available immediately, the problem rested to determine the best method of employing these persons to most r e a d i l y s a t i s f y the community agencies' demand.  The decision reached provided that f i v e Vancouver  East agencies would co-operate i n arranging f o r f a c i l i t i e s which could be used by the combined membership of the f i v e agencies.  Each agency  would l i m i t i t s delegates to assure that the classes would not be too unwieldy. Classes f o r Children The intention of the Community Arts Council i n sponsoring classes was to stimulate the development of the arts among the children of Vancouver, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the 'creative' arts.  Moreover, i t  f  20 wished to demonstrate to the agencies who had shown interest i n the a r t s the value of using q u a l i f i e d persons i n t h i s work. of the children's program was on a co-operative  The planning  basis between the  Community Arts Council and the agencies a f f i l i a t e d with the Group Work D i v i s i o n of the Community Chest and Council. planning i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s project.  It d i d co-ordinate agency  However, i t did not affect the  children's services offered by the schools and other community groups. In so f a r as the plans were a novel move to demonstrate the value of s k i l l e d leadership i t d i d stimulate consideration of the role of the s p e c i a l i s t i n the community setting. The F i r s t Year The f i r s t group of sponsored classes was organized with the intention of establishing a permanent structure f o r on-going service to children.  At the same time as t h i s p r i n c i p l e received some attention,  i t was hoped that the administrative structure would a l t e r as i n t e r e s ted groups would assume some f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the. program. At t h i s point the Council was to pay s p e c i a l i s t s a fee of ten d o l l a r s per hour f o r a one hour weekly session, while the agencies provided the necessary s t a f f , agency time and f c i l i t l e s , and membership f o r a  the groups.  Also, every e f f o r t was to be made by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g  agencies to spread.information ship throughout the community.  regarding the groups and their sponsor-  21 Two of the four classes i n graphic a r t , music, drama, and dance began i n early October, while the remaining two were started shortly a f t e r Christmas when leaders were available.  The professional  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of those active i n setting the framework f o r the classes affected the emphasis sought i n sponsoring the classes. Six agencies participated d i r e c t l y i n t h i s scheme, while nine staff representatives were concerned d i r e c t l y with the program.  Of t h i s  number, six were trained s o c i a l workers and three were p r a c t i s i n g s o c i a l workers.  Further, the Executive Director of the Community  Arts Council was a s o c i a l worker, arid she acted as s t a f f co-ordinator and l i a i s o n person with the agencies.  Emphasis was placed upon  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning, relationship of the i n d i v i d u a l members to the leaders, the enjoyment of the group experience, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a creative basis.  I t was emphasized that the children were not  attending the classes to learn a s k l l l a l o n e , but to h ve an opportuna  i t y to meet other children with whom they could plan and have a pleasant learning experience. The agency representatives met three times during the year. The f i n a l meeting was designed to evaluate the t o t a l project at i t s termination. The s p e c i a l i s t s d i r e c t i n g the classes met with one another twice to discuss common reactions, administrative problems, and to evaluate the program as i t appeared to them.  22 The classes continued  on a regular basis with a consistent  enrollment and 68.6. per cent average attendance.  The records made  by the writer as an observer at the classes pointed out many advantages which the s p e c i a l i s t - l e d classes demonstrated.  These records  show that the knowledge of the s p e c i a l i s t allows a l o g i c a l development of class growth i n s k i l l and understanding.  They also  demonstrate the difference between teaching a c r e t i v e art and a  developing  creative thinking.  At the conclusion of the f i r s t year p r i n c i p l e s previously accepted as self-evident were questioned.  The calibre of leadership  had been high, but some discrepancies as to the effectiveness of t h i s leadership i n the agency setting were noticeable.  Very s k i l l e d  s p e c i a l i s t s did not always work well with children In the recreation setting.  A great deal of agency staff time was needed i n some cases  to make the leadership e f f e c t i v e .  Some agencies did not spend s t a f f  time i n assuring the integration of the art class into, the agency t o t a l program.  The agency f a c i l i t i e s and setting, and often the  objectives, were not conducive to class atmosphere expected by the s p e c i a l i s t , and t h i s resulted i n f r u s t r a t i o n to them.  Parental  interest and general community Interest was not i n evidence, and enrollment was small enough i n some centres to raise the question as to the v a l i d i t y of o f f e r i n g such classes.  Finally', the fee offered  by the Community Arts Council was Judged, even by the s p e c i a l i s t s , to be ex .orbitant.  23 Advantages were not lacking.  F i r s t of a l l , the agencies  recognized that the calibre of leadership available through t h i s program was  superior to any that the agencies could obtain because  of limited, f i n a n c i a l resources and r e c r u i t i n g a b i l i t y . the s p e c i a l i s t , agency and i n d i v i d u a l supervisory  Secondly,  staff-specialist  meeting proved h e l p f u l i n increasing knowledge and appreciation of the objectives, methods and problems.  Further, the s p e c i a l i s t s '  contact with the Arts Council provided a channel f o r discussion and recognition of common obstacles and objectives. three of whom had background experience  The instructors,  i n formal education, main-  tained that only by retaining the executive power of such a project i n the hands of a private organization such as the Arts Council could the standards established i n t h i s project be maintained.  To t h i s  end they strongly supported the continuation of the classes. Second Year of Continued Service The Community Arts Council continued the sponsorship  of  the children's classes f o r the second year to complete the demonstrat i o n objective.  The uncertain sponsorship  interest i n the classes  through the community agencies and the lack of a c l e a r l y defined p o l i c y r e l a t i n g to sponsorship need for continuation.  and administration pointed out the  The development of service club sponsor-  ship appeared unlikely and the agencies were not w i l l i n g to assume this responsibility.  Satisfactory administrative procedures between  Zk the agencies and the Council had yet to evolve and mutually able objectives had not been reached.  accept-  The Community Arts Council  hoped to solve these problems through the continuation of the project. Prom the beginning of the f a l l planning i n 1952 the C h i l d ren s Program was looked upon as a demonstration project. 1  It was  considered that i f the project was r e a l l y worth while, and i f the agencies who had benefited from the resources of the Community A r t s Council over the past years had recognized I t s worth, they would i n the future be w i l l i n g to incorporate into t h e i r budgets s u f f i c i e n t funds to carry the project i n the future. The experience  of the previous year necessitated putting  into effect a rather s t r i c t administrative p o l i c y by the Community Arts Council.  The Council continued to pay the s p e c i a l i s t ' s fee,  which was now set at seven d o l l a r s f o r an hour and a half session once a week f o r a period of twenty weeks.  This fee, suggested by  the s p e c i a l i s t s , was s t i l l f a r above that offered on an honorarium basis by the agencies to class leaders.  The specific r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  for a r t i s t s and agency s t f f supervisors were outlined and d i s t r i b u t e d g  to each.  This was done to ensure a closer co-ordination between the  agencies and the s p e c i a l i s t , the s p e c i a l i s t s and the Community A r t s Council, and the Community Arts Council with the agencies who had not always n o t i f i e d the Council i n regard to attendance and l i m i t e d  25  enrollment  i n s u f f i c i e n t time to make alternate plans.  Some refinements were effected i n the 1952-1953 season. The extensiveness  of the Arts Gallery Children's Classes and the  Art School Program were considered  s u f f i c i e n t to warrant withdrawal  of t h i s class from the Community Arts Council grouping.  Further,  regularly submitted s t a t i s t i c s were required of each agency to keep the Community Arts Council well informed as to r e g i s t r a t i o n and attendance. The classes were sponsored i n a g r e t e r v a r i e t y of centres a  which r e f l e c t e d d i f f e r e n t r e s i d e n t i a l , family and community patterns. Sunset and Marpole Community Centres, Alexandra Neighbourhood House, Gordon House, Pender Y.W.C.A., Klwassa G i r l s Club were added to the p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies, while Central Y.W.C.A., the Vancouver Boys Clubs and the Vancouver East Y.M.-Y.W. withdrew. Administration The pattern of large general meetings of agencies interested i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Community Arts Council Children's Program changed to one of concentrated meetings of those d i r e c t l y associated with the program, during the second and t h i r d year. Three meetings of agency and Community Arts Council representatives were held during the 1952-1953 season.  The f i r s t , held  i n November a f t e r contracting f o r the placement of instructorswas completed and classes begun, s o l i d i f i e d the administration structure  26 f o r the current year.  Representatives agreed on r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  agency, s p e c i a l i s t and the Community Arts Council.  Two evaluations  were requested -one at mid-term and another at the completion of the program. following  The mid-term meeting evaluated the program within the structure:  Method and effectiveness  of r e c r u i t i n g ;  Average attendance i n r e l a t i o n to other agency program; The class content, appeal to children; Method of Instruction; Relation of class to other agency program; Leadership effectiveness  i n r e l a t i o n to agency policy;  Supervision - degree feasible or otherwise; Community interest i n the program. Evaluation The methods of r e c r u i t i n g i n each of the d i f f e r e n t centres were comparable.  The application form printed by the Community A r t s  Council was distributed to schools and children known to t h e i r agencies were contacted personally or by mail to determine i n t e r e s t . However, the effectiveness  i n r e l a t i o n to these methods varied widely  in determining enrollment and interest on the part of the parents. Unlike most agency c h i l d r e n s 1  programs, at least one parent was  required to sign the application blank. The pattern of r e c r u i t i n g v r i e d with each agency. a  The  27 KIwassa G i r l s Club u t i l i z e d the Community Arts Council material with success, both i n the enrollment support  and the development of interest and  i n the dance class sponsored there.  The Sunset Community  Centre i n sponsoring a group v o i l l n class, achieved, s u f f i c i e n t c h i l d response and parental interest to provide an enrollment  of 18,  Parental co-operation was e n l i s t e d i n the payment of a weekly fee for the v o i l l n s .  The Pender Y.W.C.A. also used the Community Arts  Council f l i e r s as i t s chief source of i n i t i a l interest i n r e c r u i t i n g , while members of junior clubs were also c i r c u l a r i z e d through the agency. . Here the effectiveness was primarily i n r e l a t i o n to arousing interest i n the children, with some parental interest being demonstrated on the occasion of Christmas and Spring Presentation.  The  two  Neighbourhood Houses, Alex ndra and Gordon, each demonstrated an p  obvious lack of effectiveness through the use of the Community Arts Council f l i e r s .  They found that the most  r e c r u i t i n g members was  effective method of  i n personal contact with members of the proper  age group already within the agency program. At Gordon Neighbourhood House the core of the t o t a l e n r o l l ment provided an average attendance of eleven rather regular members. The enrollment  at the Music Appreciation Class offered at Alexandra  Neighbourhood House was never higher than ten, and the average attendance f o r the ten sessbns was  only two.  .This class was  discontinued  and the i n s t r u c t o r transferred to another centre where community  28 interest was more i n l i n e with the demands of the program.  It may-  he added that the program was f a r more successful i n the Vancouver East Y.W.-Y.M., where i t had been given the previous year by the same instructor. The average attendance at these c u l t u r a l arts classes was considered i n r e l a t i o n to the general agency membership.  Usually  the two figures were comparable with the exception of the Alexandra Neighbourhood House class, which was less by twenty-two per cent. Exact s t a t i s t i c s were not available i n many cases. hood House provided considerable opportunities membership.  Gordon Neighbour-  i n the arts f o r the  They compared arts and less specialized group programs  to discover that enrollment and attendance patterns were similar. The content and method of i n s t r u c t i o n varied greatly with instructors, while administratively creative emphasis.  the i d e a l s t i l l remained to give  The most formal of the f i v e classes were the  v i o l i n and the dance courses.  Here formal exercises,  instructions  and demonstration periods composed the class program, where emphasis was placed upon a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s demonstrated by the instructor. The Music Appreciation  Glass was directed on a rather formal  basis, i n that the content of the class material was d e f i n i t e l y established by the instructor.  However, the instructor's methods  required each participant to provide h i s own answers and reasons f o r musical appreciation and the analysis of exercises.  29 While material i n the dance and group v i o l i n classes was  given and handled e n t i r e l y within the framework established  by the i n s t r u c t o r , the music appreciation class provided f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' use.of personal suggestion i n the  some scope formal  training. The creative drama groups were directed i n similar fashion. The  s p e c i a l i s t suggested a number of plays that would be within the  a b i l i t y of the children, but the f i n a l decision was The  l e f t to them.  subject f o r exercises i n mime and dialogue were often given by  the instructor, but the words and expressions varied according to the mood of the children.  In t h i s class framework the l i m i t a t i o n s  to creative a b i l i t y of the children became apparent.  The scope was  almost l i m i t l e s s , and boundaries were set only by the membership. As attendance varied from week to week, i t was  noted that the most  creative atmosphere between class members and i n s t r u c t o r prevailed when the number was  not too large.  Twelve was  thought to be the  most effective number i n the case of drama, dance and the music appreciation group i f c r e a t i v i t y was  to be emphasized.  The classes were incorporated Into the regular agency program on a variety of bases.  The f i r s t point tobe considered was  that  they were the only s p e c i a l i s t group program offered by the agencies which recognized  the f u l l professional fee of an instructor.  point to be considered was the agency.  that i t was  not always a "new"  Another  program i n  For instance, at Gordon House the dance and drama classes  30 were extensions  of an already established program of special i n t e r -  est groups for members of the nine to twelve age group. program served as a "pace-setter" i n leadership.  Here the  On the other hand,  the groups at the Vancouver East, Pender and Central "Y" were the only ones of t h e i r kind offered. K  In Kiwassa Girls'Club, where other  c u l t u r a l classes had been given, the dance class demonstrated the breadth of program possible.  The instructor at the Sunset Community  Centre indicated that the physical program emphasis had been broadened to give a more balanced community service.  The enrollment i n the  music appreciation classes showed a l i m i t e d development p o t e n t i a l f o r t h i s subject. The degree to wnich the classes were an i n t e g r a l part of agency programs was  often r e f l e c t e d i n the manner i n wnich the  groups were presented to the public.  Over the two year period, only  two class groups were presented with others at time of annual concerts and public demonstrations. The effectiveness of s p e c i a l i s t leadership i n these Community Arts Council classes was  Judged by the agency s t a f f , Community Arts  Council representatives and s p e c i a l i s t s a l i k e , who  sought Jointly to  e s t a b l i s h a c r i t e r i a f o r t h i s s p e c i f i c type of leadership i n the s o c i a l recreation f i e l d .  In the two y e r s much concern was a  over the apparent lack of mutual standards. agency staff recognized  Without  shown  exception,  the leadership supplied by the Community  31 Arts Council as superior i n the technical t r a i n i n g i t could o f f e r to the children.  Only i n unusual cases were agencies able to u t i l i z e  such s k i l l e d persons, as the budgets would not allow t h i s , and volunteers were limited.  skilled  In centers where the agency objective  was  to give an additional recreational experience and t r a i n i n g , there  was  l i t t l e discontent over the leadership offered and no i n d i c a t i o n that changes i n co-operation between s p e c i a l i s t and agency could be required to better the program i n terms of agency objective. Two was  incidents indicated that a high degree of s k i l l only  not s u f f i c i e n t to produce e f f e c t i v e a r t s leaders i n other agency  settings.  Two p a r t i c i p a t i n g organizations, with emphasis on dramatic  group procedures, were d i s s a t i s f i e d with the leadership.  One  cl ss a  would have demanded too much staff time through supervision to make the group e f f e c t i v e . The other organization, recognizing a very  un-  creative appro ch and d i c t a t o r i a l i n s t r u c t i v e method, was unable to a  deal with the s i t u a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y .  The  s p e c i a l i s t was  to give time f o r consultation with the s t a f f person.  not w i l l i n g  He lacked an  appreciation of a democratic and creative approach i n dance i n s t r u c t i o n which  was  the gency's objective i n the program. a  It became apparent that the use of supervision as a means of achieving the conjunction of the s o c i a l worker's and s k i l l s was  not completely successful.  artist's  As interviews with agency  directors indicated, supervision of paid and voluntary staff was  not  carried on i n the same s t r i c t fashion as student and staff supervision. Through interviews held with directors of nine agencies,  including  32 three neighbourhood houses, three community centers, Central Y.W.C.A., one Y.W.C.A. branch and a Joint Y.M.-Y.W.C.A., i t was shown that one hour per month was estimated as the  supervision  time given to volunteers and s p e c i a l l y assigned workers not on s t a f f . It was indicated that " r e a l " s p e c i a l i s t s were not given  supervision.  In each case supervision was on an informal basis and was not required i n most agencies. The interviews indicated certain factors which determined the worker's interest and a b i l i t y to undertake supervision. the  First, a  pertinent knowledge of p r t l c i p a n t s on/part of the staff person was a  sought or used w e l l by the i n s t r u c t o r i f i t permitted in the class setting.  i t s adaptation  Secondly, pertinent knowledge of other agency  functions induced interest upon the part of the specialist,who i n turn became better prepared to p a r t i c i p a t e i n supervision r e l a t i n g to h i s club program.  Questions concerning  d i s c i p l i n e and use of  building frequently formed the basis f o r interest i n supervision. Three directors interviewed expressed concern and acceptance of the fact that " s p e c i a l i s t g " r e s i s t or reject supervision. The experience of the two years i n Community Arts Council program indicated varied procedure of agency and s p e c i a l i s t p a r t i c ipation i n supervision.  In the nine p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies only  four offered personalized supervision. d i f f e r e n t reactions to i t . enthusiastic p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  The agencies involved received  These ranged from complete r e j e c t i o n to  33 The community interest i n the program was  l i m i t e d to the  parents of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g children.Plans f o r a joint demonstration of the f i r s t year classes were not r e a l i z e d .  The decision not to  hold the program r e f l e c t e d the concern of the s p e c i a l i s t s over the forced nature of staged production.  The  class pressure required  to produce them and the bad e f f e c t upon the children were the main reasons f o r the cancellation.  It. also r e f l e c t e d concern over the  l i m i t e d reaction to the a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l shown by the children. This fact had considerable  influence on objectives established by  Community Arts Council project i n the second year.  the  Those involved  c a r e f u l l y examined the program and public relations values of the program and thus f t e r two years the emphasis upon developing general a  community Interest was withdrawn. The difference i n effectiveness of the various phases of administration indicated the q u a l i f i e d value of s p e c i a l i s t - l e a d classes i n d i f f e r e n t settings and d i s t r i c t s .  The  sample was  not complete  enough to compare the reactions of children i n a l l d i s t r i c t s to the same content and methods of i n s t r u c t i o n , but some conclusions were indicated.  Children i n d i s t r i c t s with a high degree of transiency  and family problems respond more readily to a personalized method of r e c r u i t i n g and program, with l e s s formal class content.  Lack of agency  contact with the adults of the community and limited parental interest characterized programs where personalized were i n demand.  services i n small groups  Communities where parents were active i n agency  3^ administration were more receptive to a formal c l a s s method of i n s t r u c t i o n and recruited classes more r e a d i l y .  One  f a c t o r was  evident i n both groups - Bramatics and dancing were d e f i n i t e l y the most popular and music appreciation the least i n a l l groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Children's Program. The agency p o l i c i e s on leadership and program became c l a r i f ied In r e l a t i o n to the Council. These Indicated a demand f o r leadership t r a i n i n g , where increased emphasis was placed on personal development and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t consideration of membership and agency objectives. The f i n a l evaluation of the classes a f t e r the second year produced a set of administrative requirements which would more r e a d i l y assure the integration of the Social Worker's and a r t i s t ' s s k i l l s .  1  The a p p l i c a t i o n assured the Community Arts Council of data on the classes.  It also bound the agency and s p e c i a l i s t s to procedures  designed to f a c i l i t a t e administration and f u l f i l class objectives. The preferables l i s t e d i n t h i s outline indicated f i r s t new  objective i n program sponsorship.  This w s 0  the  to a s s i s t agencies  toward i n c l u s i o n of professionally led classes under t h e i r d i r e c t sponsorship as opposed to extra agency sponsorship.  Secondly, the  attainment of community interest as a secondary rather than primary objective, acknowledged the agencies' interest i n a l l cases. 1.  Appendix B.  lack of a b i l i t y to f o s t e r such  F i n a l l y , i t was recognized that most agency  35 s t a f f were not trained s o c i a l workers and further that agencies where s o c i a l workers were concentrated were not always the most suitable centres f o r s p e c i a l i s t lead programs. .Towards Project Termination The outline describing agency and Community Arts Council r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was drawn together by the Children's Program Committee, which anticipated continuation of the project f o r another year. Shortly a f t e r t h i s the Council had elected a new executive, upon whose shoulders f e l l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of examining projects In view of expense and appropriatness.  As was mentioned i n Chapter 1, during  the few years of the Council's existence, the pressure of projects, change of focus i n programming, and d i f f i c u l t i e s of the Finance Committee hadplaced a heavy t o l l on the active members and staff.  changing  Once again pressure of projects and f i n a n c i a l adjustments  made f u l l re-evaluation necessary. In the l i g h t of t h i s evaluation, i t was decided that the Children's Program would be continued i n a manner that would allow a reduction of expenses and provision of leadership where needed and requested.  The requests of agencies by late June numbered four.  They were from agencies which offered s o c i a l work supervision. requests were f o r dramatics, one for modern dance.  Three  In each of the  former cases the second choice was f o r dance, while i n the l a t t e r , the second choice was f o r painting and  puppetry.  36 The major change i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the program came w i t h the withdrawal of the extensive hacking which had been a v a i l a b l e i n the p r e v i o u s two years.  T h i s change came c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the  p l a n s of the C h i l d r e n ' s Program Committee f o r r a t h e r complex administ r a t i o n of the c l a s s e s .  T h i s committee was not reconvened i n the e a r l y  f a l l to c l a r i f y 1953-195^ arrangements. t i o n of the s t r o n g f i n a n c i a l backing  With the sudden d i s c o n t i n u a -  f o r the s e r i e s of c l a s s e s  sponsored by the Community A r t s C o u n c i l , a major change i n the p r o gram emphasis was  forthcoming.  Plans f o r 1953-195VThe demands f o r l e a d e r s h i p p l a c e d on the C o u n c i l since i t s i n c e p t i o n were s t i l l t o be met but the sponsored p r o j e c t ended. c o n c l u d i n g year was t o evolve  In two f a c e t s .  First,  the o v e r - a l l  d i r e c t i o n f o r s p e c i a l i s t s p l a c e d i n agency s e t t i n g s would through the C h i l d r e n ' s Program Committee. i n recruitment  The  continue  The S e c t i o n s would a s s i s t  of such s p e c i a l i s t s and perhaps i n t h e i r  sponsorship.  They, i n t u r n , would be p a r t o f a program of o r i e n t a t i o n t o agency work.  They could r e c e i v e c o n s u l t a t i o n when i t was needed w i t h  experienced  those  i n the agency s e t t i n g , and c o u l d a l s o work w i t h a  p s y c h i a t r i s t who would o f f e r p r o f e s s i o n a l advice i f c a l l e d upon. Secondly, the Community A r t s C o u n c i l would continue of two c l a s s e s w i t h f u l l f i n a n c i a l backing. be on r e s e a r c h .  direct  sponsorship  The emphasis here was to  37 For two years there had been many questions about the v a l i d i t y of Community Arts Council sponsorship of classes.  There were  queries about the value of a r t s p e c i a l i s t s i n a recreation setting, the Interest of the a r t i s t i n working i n these settings, the v a l i d i t y of the rate of pay, and above a l l , the special benefit to the children attending the classes.  Since agreement could not be reached between  the Community A r t s Council, s p e c i a l i s t s and agency representatives, a plan was drawn up to make a searching examination ing group success.  of factors a f f e c t -  By concentrating e f f o r t i n two agencies where the  staff were both sympathetic  to the program and interested i n examining  closely i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and p o t e n t i a l s , i t was hoped that some l i g h t could be cast on the benefits of s p e c i a l i s t - l e d groups to children i n s o c i a l agency setting. Method Factual Information was needed most.  Previous to t h i s time,  no agency had kept records of leadership method and personal reactions of children and leaders In the group setting.  The writer, as an  observer, had been able to record observations i n the f i r s t year f o r the majority of sessions.  These records provided Information on sur-  face response and technique, but could describe l i t t l e or none of the personal development of membership within t h i s framework.  Therefore,  i t was decided t h t the instructors, p a r t i c i p a n t s and staff would a  each show t h e i r intention, response, methcl of work and Interpretation  38 of the class situation as i t related to the personal development of the members of the class.  The s p e c i a l i s t s were to keep records  of the classes, describing method of instruction, and providing pertinent data r e l a t i n g to the members' growth.  The s t a f f person  was also asked to describe i n d e t a i l her observation of classes. Recordings of the members' behaviour and growth i n other agency program were to be made so as to provide a f u l l account of the c h i l d ' s behaviour i n group a c t i v i t y .  Comparison was to be made  between lndividualgrowth i n the art s p e c i a l i s t led group and general play group. In recognition of the s p e c i a l i s t s ' d i f f i c u l t y i n adapting to the agency setting,.the plan was to include meetings of the s p e c i a l i s t s with a Community A r t s Council l i a i s o n worker to assure t h e i r recognition of the c l a s s objectives, and to provide a channel f o r t h e i r own personal reactions and ideas to be recognized i n carrying out the program.  Those working with the program i n previous  years r e a l i z e d that s p e c i a l i s t s had much to teach agency s t a f f s about the learning process i n an art class setting.  However, the  i n a b i l i t y of s t a f f and s p e c i a l i s t s to discuss handicaps f r e e l y with one another led to the demands f o r a separ te meeting f o r each group a  as well as a joint meeting of staff and s p e c i a l i s t s .  In scheduled  meetings i t was hoped that the Community Arts Council's support an.-d understanding of both groups would provide the necessary climate to  39  encourage a very objective consideration of the program. It was planned to have weekly consultation between staff and s p e c i a l i s t when mutual planning on behalf of the children could be undertaken.  Secondly, a f t e r s u f f i c i e n t material on i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d -  ren was c o l l e c t e d , i t was to be submitted to a p s y c h i a t r i s t experienced i n agency group consultive work who, i n turn, would advise upon behaviour and progress i n r e l a t i o n to the two types of a c t i v i t y . research plan was complete. 1.  Thus the  In summary, i t involved -  Records from two art groups, dance and drama. (Each had children of the same age.)  2.  Records on the s me children i n two d i f f e r e n t group p  settings (friendship and interest groups). 3.  Committee meetings at various l e v e l s ; (a)  agency  (b)  specialist  (c)  Joint committees.  Attendance and noted behaviour at a demonstration project (play or dance display) by two groups within the agency (a)  from trained groups (drama and dance)  (b)  from untrained groups (children not benefiting from agency a r t t r a i n i n g ) .  The objective of the Community Arts Council i n requesting such detailed analysis was to produce a document r e l a t i n g to the technique of sponsorship and administration of a sound Arts Program f o r Children.  Proceedings In 19 53-195** The plan devised f o r the 1953-195^ season was  only  p a r t i a l l y completed. The f i r s t part of the plan materialized i n so f a r as leaders were referred to the requesting agencies through the assistance of a drama leader associated with both the program and the Drama section. Tne second part of the program did not f u l f i l i t s research objective so that a document o u t l i n i n g the program values and administ r a t i v e methods of a sound Arts Program was not produced.  The adminis-  t r a t i v e tasks demanded of the agencies were beyond agency resources. However, these factors pointed out the l i m i t a t i o n s surrounding  an  intensive group service program i n the a r t s offered through community agencies  1  auspices Beginning with the f i r s t general meeting of the Children's  Program Committee, there was ing  confusion about the method of conduct-  the class to produce f a c t u a l material.  Questions centered on the  l i m i t a t i o n of the sample, lack of knowledge, and f a i l u r e to define the objective.  Here the f i r s t l i m i t a t i o n s were put to the plan.  The  s p e c i a l i s t s , agency s t a f f , and representatives of agency boards d i s cussed the proposed year's program.  No representative of the Commun-  i t y Arts Council was able to t t e n d . a  Following t h i s meeting the s t a f f advisors met with a consultant to c l a r i f y the appro ch i n the research scheme. a  The sample  was  narrowed to involve three or four i n each class, as only with t h i s  4i l i m i t a t i o n could the psychiatrist  hope to offer some conclusions.  The hypothesis was outlined as follows: "There are unique values i n o f f e r i n g a class under s p e c i a l i s t leadership i n a recreation agency." A f t e r t h i s consultation the classes began.  The staff pre-  pared to a s s i s t the s p e c i a l i s t s i n providing the required information.  I n i t i a l s t a f f - s p e c i a l i s t consultations were held.  interviews were n o t encouraging, especially  The f i r s t  i n the case of the dance  group at Vancouver G i r l s Club.' In this case a s p e c i a l i s t , new to ihe agency group, found i t d i f f i c u l t to follow a class d i s c i p l i n e method catered on a personalized approach of instructor interest i n the members.  The lack of such an approach had been evident i n the  experience of the previous two years. This pattern continued  following the planned consultation  periods which were held regularly f o r four weeks.  During this time  the staff members v i s i t e d both the groups while i n session.  Resis-  tance to consultation showed when time was not allowed by the s p e c i a l i s t f o r supervision.  As the s t a f f v i s i t e d classes, natural  d i s c i p l i n e problems caused s p e c i a l i s t s to f e e l 111 at e se i n c l a s s a  leadership.  Of course the very presence of i t s staff at the time  was d i s t r a c t i n g to the group.  Thus one of the methods devised to  produce an objective evaluation of the class sabotaged the process  ^2 by disturbing the relationship balance.  The competence of the  experienced and inexperienced s p e c i a l i s t was evident as the former completed records on her group and the l a t t e r d i d not complete one record.  The courses covered a twenty week period.  Attendance  and  response varied l i t t l e from the previous year, providing an average attendance figure of sixty per cent i n creative dramatics at the Pender Y.W.C.A, and seventy six decimal s i x per cent i n the dance group at the Vancouver Klwassa G i r l s ' Club. Conclusion of the Project The f i n a l conclusions r e l a t i n g to t h i s work undertaken  by  the Community Arts Council and a g e n c i e s . a f f i l i a t e d with the Group Work D i v i s i o n were made by three groups.  The s p e c i a l i s t s i n con-  Junction with s t a f f and Community Arts Council representatives, board members associated with p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies i n the last year, and a group of agency representatives  '• drew up a f i n a l statement about  the program. These groups were unanimous i n t h e i r opinion that the highly s k i l l e d person was best suited to give leadership to children i n the a r t s i n a community centre setting.  He must have s k i l l i n h i s own  profession, but also must be w e l l acquainted with methods of working with children i n order to assure sound personal development of those taking part.  Without the a b i l i t y to recognize the needs of children ,  the leader might be damaging to the group and i t s members.  i+3 This conclusion r a i s e d the major question as to how where such leaders might best be recruited and placed.  and  There was  a shortage of a r t i s t s , and therefore the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of using the amateur a r t i s t or students were recognized.  These suggestions were  q u a l i f i e d by the proven advantage of an experienced the prospect  i n s t r u c t o r and  of basis f o r payment.. The budgets of agencies were not  equipped with resources to s a t i s f y a professional fee, and yet to o f f e r l e s s was to deny the professional a r t i s t h i s recognition and means of l i v e l i h o o d . The r i g i d interpretation of fees followed i n the e a r l i e r days of t h i s experiment was now two way:  clarified.  The process needed was  The Community ArtsCouncil must interpret community ser-  vices to a r t i s t s so  that an honorarium would be f u l l y  acceptable  to them; the agency boards must on t h e i r part understand the need f o r t h i s honorarium, i f appropriate leadership was  to be  had.  In view of the need f o r s k i l l , and the a d d i t i o n a l demand f o r understanding of setting and p a r t i c i p a n t s , the p o s s i b i l i t y of t r a i n i n g amateur and professionals a l i k e to work i n the community agency setting was resources was  considered.  This method of increasing leadership  deemed most p r a c t i c l . a  Summary The method of work adopted by the Community Arts Council i n r e l a t i o n to children underwent major changes from the time of  *J4  the Vancouver .Children's Theatre to the conclusion of the Children's Program Project.  Following the Council's p a r t i -  c i p a t i o n i n the "Theatre" project, the need of an established structure f o r administering community center classes was recognized. The Children's Program was begun a f t e r the sponsorship of concerts which demonstrated to agencies and the Council the need f o r increased c h i l d t r a i n i n g before advanced concerts could be appreciated.  This program supplied training to a  l i m i t e d number of children and the l o c a l community agencies which would provide- the structure to administer these programs. Administration, i n conjunction with the agencies, opened the question of C.A.C. sponsored s p e c i a l i s t s acknowledging agency objectives when giving leadership within t h e i r auspices.  The  varying emphases of the public and the private agencies' and the demand's of the membership i n d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s indicated the d i f f e r i n g development p o t e n t i a l f o r such programs.  This  project did f u l f i l l the objective of the Council i n encouraging p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l forms of the arts and demonstrated to the community agencies a variety of ways i n which such leadership enriched the effectiveness of their program. The project changed from a demonstration to an experiment because of the lack of a mutual objective between the C.A.C. and  the agencies.  This change i n emphasis was made possible because  ©f the f l e x a b i l i t y of the C.A.C. administration and the continued interest of the agencies i n develpp&ng a permanent source of s k i l l e d leadership.  The program c l a r i f i e d many problems re-  l a t i n g to the use of s p e c i a l i s t s  and t h e i r place i n the agency.  Chapter 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF ART PROG-RAMS IN VANCOUVER Introduction Programs i n graphic a r t , music, dance and drama sponsored i n Vancouver compare r e a d i l y with those of other communities on the North American continent.  Since education, and more recently  recreation, have been taken from the auspices of the home and placed In the public and community domain of sponsorship, many organizations have developed to meet the demand f o r a r t i s t i c experience. While the many organizations and associations of people interested i n the arts have been active i n teaching, experimenting and developing standards, a variety of approaches have been f o r mulated.  There w i l l be reference to these as the function of  school, community center, art gallery and other organizations are reviewed i n respect to the various art forms.  The kinds of  experience they o f f e r to the c h i l d , and the organizational and leadership f a c i l i t i e s needed f o r t h e i r successful development w i l l also be discussed. Arts Programs i n Vancouver Schools. The status of the a r t s generally has changed markedly over the l a s t century.  This i s indicated by the fact that one  hundred years ago a l l music i n the schools was a f t e r hours.  46 Today, school music and graphic art programs are a part of the required curriculum f o r the elementary grades.  Since music he-  came a recognized part of the school curriculum i n 1923, many schools have developed highly s p e c i a l i z e d art and music courses which' are available i n both Junior and Senior High Schools, and may  be had at the student's option. Dance and drama as "arts" occupy a different status i n  the educational system.  Dance i s recognized i n the school cur-  riculum as a part of the p h y s i c a l education program and i s thus i administered under the Department of Health and Physical Education i n Vancouver.  Drama has recently found i t s way  into the school  system but aB yet i s not part of the curriculum i n the  elementary  school. Music i n the Schools, The music program i n Vancouver schools r e f l e c t s the common pattern developed across the country.  Within the ele-  mentary •schools a general scheme of voice training and c u l t i v a t i o n , of careful attention toward musical sound and rythmn are provided "to give every c h i l d enjoyment of music as something heard as well as something expressed".  1  i n addition, there are six years  of t r a i n i n g so that ear t r a i n i n g , sight-singing and s p e c i f i c 1  Programme of Studies f o r the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, Grades I to VI, V i c t o r i a , B. C.  4  7  learning i n mode and form are gradually introduced as well as part singing. The junior high school, recognizing as i t does the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the student, provides elective subjects f o r the student.  This system permits students with an interest i n music  to carry on more intensive study.  There may be more advanced  theory courses, which continue and advance the t r a i n i n g of r u d i ments given i n the lower grades.  Harmony, counterpoint, and  form are also taught, with some emphasis being placed upon creative work of various sorts.  To complete the music oppor-  t u n i t i e s , appreciation classes f o r organized l i s t e n i n g should be recognized so that students unfamiliar with the technical aspects of music can learn with others to understand and appreciate i t s contribution. P a r t i c u l a r Interests are emphasized as the student enters Senior High School.  Here the approach d i f f e r s i n that  specla l i z a t i o n s are introduced so that choral work may only one among other classes available.  be  Orchestra, music  appreciation, history and some advanced theory are now  given  i n a few schools where leadership i s available.  In the future^  harmony w i l l be given.to grade twelve students.  The program of  a good high school might have such refinements as a glee club  48 for both boys and g i r l s , a s p e c i a l chorus of mixed voices, instrumental music, beginning  classes i n wood-wind, band,  orchestra f o r t h i r t y to eighty players, string quartette, woodwind quintet, brass sextet, and other small ensembles. Another special feature of the music program i n many high schools i s the production of an operetta.  This requires  cooperation from as many as three departments such as and drama, when they exist. to students who  music,art,  For ten years credit has been given  have completed music t r a i n i n g outside the school  and have reached required standards i n t r a i n i n g and attainment. The quality of work i n any f i e l d i s d i r e c t l y related to the leadership a v a i l a b l e .  The leadership standards for music  teachers i n the school are established by each community, and are determined by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of q u a l i f i e d teachers  and  the amount of money provided to attract those w e l l - q u a l i f i e d . The Vancouver School Board prefers that the elementary teacher works as a grade teacher. Teachers of Grades One to Three have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l subjects, taught.  This provides continuity of leadership f o r  young children. Special summer courses are offered to teachers to enable them to deal more adequately with specialized subjects, such as music.  Upon completion,  the teacher receives a s p e c i a l i s t s  49  c e r t i f i c a t e which provides an increase i n salary. of the elementary ations. who  F i f t y percent  school music teachers now have such q u a l i f i c -  However, a great deal of music i s taught by teachers  had no experience i n music u n t i l the beginning of their  teaching career. The teacher i n junior or senior high schools i s often a s p e c i a l i s t or professional musician.  The professional standard  i s receiving wide recognition i n the high schools.  Today, a  q u a l i f i e d music supervisor must have four years of t r a i n i n g In addition to h i s teaching c e r t i f i c a t e before assuming h i s p o s i t i o n . This Includes general psychology, pedagogy, concentration on music methods, and t r a i n i n g i n instrumental and vocal work.  The r e l a t i o n -  ship of program strength to the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the instructors has been made evident i n Vancouver where highly developed programs have flourished only where s k i l l e d leadership has been maintained. The f a c i l i t i e s and resources are improving as an i n creasing number of music rooms and auditoriums are added to the school structure. the elementary portunities.  The number of pianos and record players i n  and high schools indicates the expansion of opThe high schools are more completely equipped,  Gladstone, John O l i v e r and Lord Byng having the most complete facilities.  with  50 A large record l i b r a r y of several thousand recordings i s available f o r a l l school l e v e l s .  The School Board also owns  instruments f o r use i n the high school, valued at three thousand dollars.  This i s a recent development and therefore limited.  However, i t has special value i n supplying instruments whose cost i s beyond the individual's a b i l i t y to pay. One indication of the work done i n the schools i n vocal t r a i n i n g i s the great number of classes taking part i n the  B.C.  Musical F e s t i v a l , and the general high standards attained. Some schools enter as many as six classes.  Four schools have  contributed choral presentations to the C.B..C. International Service which exchanges recordings with other nations. Outside resources made available to the schools include free orchestral concerts given i n the high schools by the Vancouver Symphony Society.  These were successful, yet a gradual f a l l i n g  off i n attendance was noted. Graphic Art i n the  Schools  The objectives of the art class within the curriculum of the Department of Education are to develop habits of observation, memory and s k i l l i n the use of art materials.  Thus,  basic p r i n c i p l e s of selection and arrangement of colour, form and decoration are established, and good taste and Judgment are developed as objectives of the program.  51 The methods involved are those of applied art and art appreciation.  In the former, each c h i l d manipulates the materials  at hand while, i n the l a t t e r , productions are compared with accepted standards of "beauty and design, form and colour, and l a t e r with professional interpretations.  As the c h i l d reaches the  higher elementary grades, formal class c r i t i c i s m i s used' as ft method of Improving various aspects of a r t .  The children may  also be encouraged to share i n arrangements and decorations f o r the room. Materials used are more d i v e r s i f i e d as the grade advances, so that from use of only soft pencils, crayons, and coloured paper the c h i l d proeeeds to the use of materials such as water colours, poster colours, and blackboards.  In the high  school, much the same aims and methods are followed with the introduction of new materials such as leather and mural painting. This i s very often carried out i n cooperation with the music department f o r operetta productions. The requirements  f o r leadership and the method of  selection i n the elementary schools i s very similar to that i n the music department.  The majority of teachers are primarily  grade teachers, with only a few teaching because of specialized experience and t r a i n i n g .  Likewise, i n the high school the  strength of the art department depends largely upon the Individual  52 preference of the art teacher and h i s or her attitude towards method. Within the last two years, meetings of teachers of d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s have helped greatly to bring together the combined talents of the various l e v e l s .  These meetings have  encouraged development of standards and encouraged i n d i v i d u a l talent. Another feature i s the introduction of in-service t r a i n i n g courses i n the art school and art teachers' classes which are regarded as powerful elements i n strengthening the o v e r - a l l program.  A further development i s an art appreciation  course f o r schools equipped with v i s u a l education f a c i l i t i e s . This course was completed by the high school art teachers. Again as i n other f i e l d s , f a c i l i t i e s and equipment vary. The greater number of high schools have a special art room, whereas the elementary  schools depend exclusively upon the re-  sources of the i n d i v i d u a l classrooms. Both the music and the art programs, as well as drama classes where they are offered, are thought to be greatly l i m i t e d i n the senior high school by the demands of the university entrance curriculum.  For students taking these courses there i s  no time f o r a r t , and thus a large percentage  of the school  papulation i s denied such experience within school hours.  53  Jrama i n the Schools Dramatic training has not been recognized by many schools to the same extent as music and graphic a r t .  However,  i n some schools on t h i s continent drama has been made a part of the curriculum. In the school curriculum, drama promotes and u t i l i z e s c h i l d a c t i v i t y , an important  phase of a l l educational method.  Here the natural dramatic a b i l i t y and interest of the c h i l d can receive d i r e c t i o n . urge dramatic experience  A f a c t o r recognized by educator8 who t  i n the school, i s that the process and  method of the experience i s the Important thing, not the result i n terms of good drama productions.  They suggest that i f there  i s a need within the c h i l d which drama s a t i s f i e s , then drama i s a legitimate part of school curriculum.^  This i s i n keeping  with the teaching of the "progressive" educationist who raises the question of a child's a b i l i t y to be creative and participate i n an educational and a r t i s t i c experience.  The emphasis i s not  on the disemination of knowledge but upon the personal s a t i s factions of the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s . a b i l i t y to take part i n 2 creative a c t i v i t y . Drama, as other a r t forms, i s struggling to f i n d a permanent place i n the l i f e of the people through the schools. 1 2  L.P. C o l l i n s , L i t t l e Theatre i n the Schools, Dodd, Mead & Co.., N.Y. 1 9 3 0 Creative Expression, Edited f o r the Progressive Education Association by G-ertrude Hartman and Ann Shumacher, The John Day Co., N.Y., 1 9 3 1  5^ It i s l i k e music, i n that formal experience i s usually available outside of school time i n other community agencies such as the church, neighborhood house and more recently the community centre. With a change i n emphasis from formal drama to a more informal variety which seeks to take advantage of the individual's creative powers, some thought has been directed to the place of drama i n the l i f e of the c h i l d . Drama i s not an established part of the curriculum i n the elementary  schools In Vancouver.  It i s , however, recognized  as a medium of expression to be employed as other media such as graphic arts, music, and language i n integrating the school material.  Drama i n the schools i s administered through a branch  of the Department of Education, the Division of School and Community Drama, with headquarters Seven elementary  i n Victoria,  schools entered the "Greater Vancouver  Drama F e s t i v a l " f o r the f i r s t  time i n 1952.  This is l i k e l y the  outcome of a course i n creative dramatics offered to Vancouver Normal School students i n the previous year and to summer school students at V i c t o r i a .  The productions offered were scenes from  the l i t e r a t u r e f i t t e d to the age of the children, such as "Alice i n Wonderland". Dramatics courses are given credit i n the senior high schools.  Two courses are now offered which give students  55 background and experience i n make-up, history, and development of drama, and staging.  The teachers responsible f o r such courses  depend upon t h e i r own p r a c t i c a l experience i n the f i e l d of dramatics, and reference books, f o r t h e i r course material.  While many have  had no formal training,they have had p r a c t i c a l experience on a professional l e v e l . The casting of plays i s done i n two ways i n the schools today.  Tryouts may be talsen before each play, or i n some cases,  casting and rehearsing i s conducted i n such a way as to give every c h i l d a chance.  This method may  cover lead parts or a l l  parts. Eech high school may,  f o r the purposes of the Greater  Vancouver Drama F e s t i v a l , have a drama sponsor who works with the d i r e c t o r of the department.  This sponsor i s not an o f f i c i a l  authority within the school's administration. The drama sponsor works i n close cooperation with the music and art department i n production of operettas.  Some  schools produce three-act plays, and some do both, as i n the case of John O l i v e r High School.  However, where play-production  i s not fostered, the drama club may  take an active part i n  operettas, leaving formal play production aside.  56 The f e s t i v a l awards the winning hoy and g i r l a scholarship of f i f t y d o l l a r s to enable them to take the U.B.C. summer drama course.  Students in drama classes also take part i n an  essay contest each year.  This encourages writing and research  i n the f i e l d of drama. The Interest i n drama and standards of dramatic t r a i n i n g i n the school i s very much dependent upon the leadership available.  The demand f o r such t r a i n i n g i s evidenced by  the fact that i n one high school the formal classes offered, w i l l be increased to include f i v e presentations i n t h i s coming year. ' Dance i n the Schools Dance i n the elementary  and high schools i s a component  of a more i n c l u s i v e p h y s i c a l education program i n many communities. Program developments in Vancouver Include folk, country, modern, and s o c i a l dances. In Vancouver schools the class room teacher, in the f i r s t three grades, c a r r i e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a general program including dance.  A f t e r t h i s , one teacher i s often responsible  for the program of a l l grades, a male teacher f o r the boys and a female worker f o r the g i r l s . have special c e r t i f i c a t e s .  These teachers may  or may  not  The emphasis i s intended to be on  the whole c h i l d , and to t h i s end the supervisor does not encourage a high standard of development to the exclusion of a more generalized and well-balanced program.  57 The program i n the high echool i s usually led by special instructors who have a degree i n physical education and a teacher's certificate.  However, academic standing i s not uniform.  In some  cases the Introduction of special features such as modern dance are expanded i n recreation program.  However, as t h i s i s a recent addi-  t i o n to the physical education teacher t r a i n i n g program i t i s not extensively carried out. Clubs under sponsorship of a teacher may u t i l i z e leadership or outside leadership on a voluntary basis.  student  Special  resources are used to a s s i s t with special productions-. The dance program i s thus a part of the broader physical education program with an emphasis, not upon dance as an a r t , but on dance as a part of the student's development program.  The  emphasis throughout the general public school system i s to provide each c h i l d with some basic formal learning i n music, graphic art and experience i n simple forms of dance through physical education programs.  Drama as an art form i s demanding growing consideration  i n curriculum developments p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the United States. While the Vancouver schools offer t r a i n i n g i n the Arts through the established curriculum, some schools i n the United States extend the use of t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s to allow a d d i t i o n a l art t r a i n i n g outside of school hours.-  Milwaukee Schools  becomeesocial  centres a f t e r 3 : 3 9 p.m., with a f u l l and varied program of recreational activities.  A s o c i a l centre director, full-€ime recreation  leaders, and part-time s p e c i a l i s t s take over the schools u n t i l 5 : 3 0 p.m.  The a c t i v i t i e s include a r t , drama, games and music.  The  58  evening brings such programs to adults and high school students.  1  Such a program provides the use of expensive community f a c i l i t i e s , l i m i t s the t r a v e l l i n g distance f o r participants as schools are community centred and gives continuity to childrens programs. This development, u t i l i z i n g school buildings but trained recreation leadership has been r e f l e c t e d p a r t i a l l y i n other communities, including V i c t o r i a , B.C. where the schools were opened on Saturday mornings f o r graphic a r t classes under s k i l l e d leadership.  In one Instance where the school f a c i l i t i e s were to  be used, the regulations stipulated that the regular teacher i n the p a r t i c u l a r subject be hired.  However such a development does  not acknowledge the future development of a f u l l recreation program as the Wisconsin experiment relates. The A r t Gallery Additional educational and a r t i s t i c experience has been provided f o r children of many communities through the development of Saturday morning classes.  Since the early  1920's,  programs i n  various communities have been expanded to include children from two to fourteen years of age. In such programs, paintings, murals, puppet shows, clay modelling and construction work provide the basis while emphasis i s placed on creative a c t i v i t i e s .  In large centers a r t g a l l e r i e s  1 D.B. Byer "Our Art Recreation Program", The Art Education Magazine. V o l . 5 0 , No. 7 , A p r i l 1 9 5 1 .  59 o f f e r after-school classes f o r school children. The Vancouver Art Gallery Saturday morning classes are administered tion.  under a special grant by the Department of Educa-  The course i s given over a twenty-four week period. During  t h i s time f i v e classes are given.. These classes are divided according to age groupings - eight and nine, ten, eleven, twelve and over f i f t e e n . Five trained a r t i s t s lead the classes while a student from the a r t school a s s i s t s .  As the program advances, the classes  rotate so that each c h i l d has a chance to work with each of the instructors.  Also, as two of the classes are specialized, one i n  sculpturing and another i n mask design, t h i s system allows each student to have a chance at these special forms of expression. The instructors for these classes are chosen primarily for t h e i r interest i n children as i t i s the b e l i e f of the administ r a t o r that only sincere interest i n children can insure a sound approach i n teaching.  As the i n d i v i d u a l instructors' methods vary  and any p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d might respond more readily to one than another, the rotation system i s of special benefit.  For example,  one instructor believes i n demonstrating subject matter and use of materials.  Another believes i n discussing contents just enough to  help members formulate and c l a r i f y ideas.  Another may be more con-  cerned with f i n a l r e s u l t s than the subject matter and w i l l therefore encourage complete freedom i n choice of subject. The administrators  of the Art Gallery classes thought  these differences i n approach were of value and the e s s e n t i a l v a r i e t y has acceptance among the i n d i v i d u a l Instructors themselves The e f f i c i e n t handling of these classes i s made possible by the considerate eo-operation given by each instructor to the other and the mutual respect f o r the others  1  methods.  Glasses are given free of eharge and,children attend from a l l over the c i t y .  Also, an exhibition i s given at the end of the  year where the most e f f e c t i v e work i s displayed. attendance  The average  i s sixty-nine deeimal seven percent.  The painting and drawing classes each e n r o l l approximatel y f o r t y children while only twenty-five are permitted i n the sculptoring class at one time.  The present enrollment of two  hundred children i s as many as can be handled i n the art gallery basement.  This enrolment does not s a t i s f y the demand, as there  has been a waiting l i s t of between f o r t y - f i v e and eighty persons each year since 1946, when the program was  started.  The Art School Another source of art instruction f o r children under the department of Education or i t s equivalent i n other communities i s the School of A r t .  In Vancouver the A r t School program i s  available to a l l c i t y children and i s p u b l i c i z e d through the schools and special b u l l e t i n s .  The junior elasses, held on  Saturday mornings, continue through October u n t i l the end of March.  Each c h i l d i s charged seven d o l l a r s and f i f t y cents. The  number of children attending these classes has increased from one hundred and seventy-seven  to two hundred i n one  season^  «1 The  School of A r t sponsors a t r a v e l l i n g show which has  v i s i t e d a l l the h i g h s c h o o l s i n the c i t y .  At the Sohool, advanced  c l a s s e s are o f f e r e d to f u l l - t i m e and p a r t - t i m e day and n i g h t dents.  A s p e c i a l f e a t u r e , which commenced l a s t year, was  stu-  the  d e s i g n workshop, s p e c i a l i z i n g i n the t r a i n i n g of students i n three d i m e n s i o n a l designs.  However, the J u n i o r students  use  water c o l o u r s , c h a l k s and c l a y - m o d e l l i n g as mediums of e x p r e s s i o n ; The l e a d e r s h i p at the School of A r t i s g i v e n by s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d i n a r t and,  teachers  i n the more advanced c l a s s e s , by  p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s w i t h p r a c t i c a l experience.  This i n s t i t u t i o n  g i v e s the most q u a l i f i e d l e a d e r s h i p i n v i s u a l a r t .  The  emphasis  i s upon l e a r n i n g advanced s k i l l s , based upon a c q u i r e d and n a t u r a l a r t i s t i c perception. U n i v e r s i t y Extension A r t Glasses The  c l a s s e s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n  ©epartment i n Vancouver began i n 1951  upon the i n i t i a t i v e of the  Parent Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n s of Queen Mary, Queen E l i z a b e t h and U n i v e r s i t y H i l l Schools. these c l a s s e s was for  The  o b j e c t i v e of the parents i n u r g i n g  to p r o v i d e t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y  c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n through the a r t s . The most h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s were engaged to  l e a d the c h i l d r e n . own  f i e l d and,  Each o f the s p e c i a l i s t s was  i n the case of puppetry  a leader i n h i s  and c r e a t i v e dramatics,  the only q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s i n Vancouver. The f o u r e l a s s e s , two  i n drawing and p a i n t i n g and  one  62 eaeh i n puppetry  and c r e a t i v e dramatics, began i n Oetober and  were continued u n t i l March, a t whieh time a demonstration was held.  The f e e f o r the twenty l e s s o n s VPs t e n d o l l a r s .  This  p r o v i d e d f a c i l i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f some m i s c e l l a n e o u s s u p p l i e s , brushes, and mixing  tins.  Each o f the c l a s s e s l a s t e d two hours, from 10:00 t o 12:00  a.m.  The drawing, p a i n t i n g , and puppetry  c l a s s e s were  g i v e n f o r c h i l d r e n o f grades I I I t o VI i n c l u s i v e .  The c r e a t i v e  dramatics c l a s s was o f f e r e d t o e i g h t and nine year o l d s . The f i r s t p l a n was t h a t each c l a s s be l i m i t e d t o twentyf i v e members and be open o n l y t o the o h i l d r e n o f the P o i n t Grey area.  However, t h e c l a s s e s were opened t o c h i l d r e n of a l l areas  i f the p a r e n t s found i t convenient t o send them.  The r e g i s t r a t i o n  f o r the c l a s s e s i n order o f p r e s e n t a t i o n was t h i r t y , twenty-two and  nineteen. As the enthusiasm, seemed h i g h a t the season's  end a  l e t t e r was c i r c u l a t e d a s k i n g i f the c h i l d r e n would l i k e t o c o n t i n u e . The response t o t h i s request was extremely l i m i t e d and d i d not i n d i c a t e a need f o r e x t e n s i o n . One i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e about these c l a s s e s i s t h e h l g h average  attendance.  Over the twenty week p e r i o d the maximum num-  b e r o f days missed i n each c l a s s was f o u r , and eaeh o t h e r c l a s s r e g i s t e r e d o n l y two.  T h i s compares very f a v o u r a b l y w i t h the A r t  G a l l e r y c l a s s e s , s i x t y - n i n e decimal seven peroent, and the f o u r Community A r t s C o u n c i l c l a s s e s which averaged  sixty-three percent.  63 The E x t e n s i o n Bepartments of U n i v e r s i t i e s have been q u i c k t o respond  t o community i n t e r e s t i n other l o c a l i t i e s where  s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s have been  developed.  Oommunity Center and Neighborhood House The programs a v a i l a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n i n community a g e n c i e s i n Vancouver are g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  voluntary leaders.  As the community c e n t r e s have i n c r e a s e d  the f a c i l i t i e s f o r group p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e i s more o p p o r t u n i t y than there was  f i v e years ago.  Gordon  Neighborhood House has advanced a very s t r o n g program i n the a r t f i e l d i n comparison w i t h o t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t r e s .  However, the  i n d i c a t i o n i s t h a t i f l e a d e r s h i p were a v a i l a b l e i n each of the a r e a s , dance, music, drama and v i s u a l a r t , programs would be o f f e r e d i n every c e n t r e . The to  l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n each case i s the l a c k of f i n a n c e s  make l e a d e r s h i p a v a i l a b l e and the shortage of s k i l l e d  I n t e r e s t e d i n such work.  Two  artists  out of e i g h t r e c r e a t i o n agencies  are a l s o h i n d e r e d by the l a c k of program f a c i l i t i e s .  However,  even here l e a d e r s h i p f o r s p e c i a l a r t courses c o u l d not be p a i d i f spaee W e r e  available.  The  standard of l e a d e r s h i p whether i t be p r o f e s s i o n a l  a r t i s t s , amateur, s k i l l e d v o l u n t e e r , orgcoup worker w i t h a  special  programs s k i l l ,  pro-  v a r i e s as b r o a d l y as can be imagined. 1  The  f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s s r e r e e o g n i z e d to be of g r e a t e s t value because of their skill.  Such people are not f r e q u e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , as they  cannot be remunerated on an a p p r o p r i a t e b a s i s .  6k One advantage which a group work agency program spec i a l i s t would he expeoted to have i s a degree of supervision. This would a s s i s t the special program leader i n understanding the children and thus maximizing, the chances of t h e i r benefiting from the class experience. possible i s not uniform.  However, the degree to which t h i s i s Supervision, as a professional group  worker understands the term, involves regular meetings with an ageney s t a f f person.  This person can, because of her extensive  •knowledge about^agency and group work methods, and her a b i l i t y to diagnose behaviour symptoms, enable the worker to do a more e f f e c t i v e Job. As supervision e x i s t s within many leisure time ageneies today, i t i s a very Informal process.  Largely i t i s concerned  with d i s c i p l i n e problems, as t h i s i s one area where many volunteers have d i f f i c u l t y when working within the f l e x i b l e setup of the group work ageney.  The average time a l l o t e d to supervision  "of sorts" i s one hour a month.  In only one instance does there  seem to be an attempt at regular bi-weekly meetings with i n d i v i dual program leaders.  This i s often not possible because of the  program s p e c i a l i s t ' s own crowded schedule. Leaders are recruited f o r programs from varied sources. Most frequently, general agency contacts provide the volunteer leaders upon whom the major part of program rests.  Following  t h i s , r e c r u i t i n g i s done through membership, the Volunteer Bureau, the high sehools and other organizations.  65 Within the l a s t year, i n the area of arts programs, the Community Arts Council has become the main resource f o r leadership.  In t h i s period the Council placed ten leaders, eight of  whom worked on a completely voluntary basis.  When a l l arts pro-  grams of the recreation agencies are considered, t h i s appears as a very high proportion of t o t a l agency leadership i n the arts. Two of the ten leaders served two and three agencies, therefore increasing the r a t i o of leadership r e c r u i t i n g done by the C.A.C, The great need f o r leaders i s exemplified by the faet that one ageney, wishing the services of a voluntary but highly trained b a l l e t instructor, provided t a x i fare to enable the v o l unteer to lead program i n the p a r t i c u l a r agency a f t e r completing a program i n another agency. The programs of Community Centres and Neighborhood Houses as well as National Associations vary greatly i n emphasis, program content and quality of leadership. Within nine agencies 1  serving Vancouver children, goups active i n music number s i x . This includes the C.A.C. elass at the Vancouver East Community Y, a choral group of forty at Sunset Memorial Centre, a musie apprec i a t i o n group at Marpole Community Centre, a choral group at Heywood Community Centre, and two classes f o r young children at Gordon House.  Children six to nine are given rhythm band and music  appreciation, while nine to twelve year olds are given some theory. The leaders of the two programs at Gordon House and the Choral Group at Heywood were recruited through the C.A.C;  1  Appendix G ,  66 Drama programs are earried on at Marpole Community Centre f o r older teenagers and children eight to twelve years of age.  The. other two dramatic programs include the C.A.C, program  given at the Central Y.W.C.A,, and a program at Sunset  Memorial  Centre, ©ance classes were offered i n s i x agencies and were enjoyed hy eight groups.  A kindergarten class at the Vancouver  East "Y" received t r a i n i n g i n b a l l e t .  This class wes given to  twelve children who paid a fee d i r e c t l y to the leader who gave the class through cooperation with the agency supplying the f a c i lities. ted  Thee remaining elasses were given by two leaders r e c r u i -  through C.A.C.  chapter.  One class was described i n d e t a i l i n the f i r s t  Two groups of children, six to nine and nine to twelve  year olds, t o t a l l i n g twelve, received i n s t r u c t i o n at Alexandra House. six  Also two classes at Sunset Memorial Centre, f o r children  to nine and nine to thirteen, were given i n b a l l e t .  The same  leader gave a program f o r g i r l s f i f t e e n to eighteen at ©ordon House.  A tap dance class f o r t h i r t y members was given at K i t s i -  lano Memorial Centre. Three classes i n a r t , each with approximately seventeen children, were offered at ©ordon House. nine to twelve and six to nine year olds.  These elasses were f o r Twenty "Tiny Tots" at  Sunset Memorial Centre enjoyed painting and drawing classes while at Heywood Community Centre twelve children of nine to twelve took part i n drawing classes.  A similar number took the same  67 i n s t r u c t i o n at A l e x a n d r a House.  The o t h e r two c l a s s e s i n a r t  I n c l u d e the C.A.C. c l a s s a t the Vancouver East Y and a program at the c e n t r a l Y.M.C.A, f o r hoys nine t o twelve, i n which twentyf o u r c h i l d r e n were r e g i s t e r e d . Other programs o f f e r e d c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e a c l a s s i n puppetry and one i n p o t t e r y g i v e n nine t o twelve year o l d c h i l d r e n at Gordon House.  A c r a f t c l a s s of f i f t e e n members, ages e i g h t t o  twelve years, was g i v e n at Marpole Community Centre. T h i s o u t l i n e i n d i c a t e s t o some extent the s e r v i c e s of the Vancouver Community L e i s u r e t i m e A g e n c i e s i n the a r t f i e l d . Through the years the emphasis upon a r t s i n Vancouver and o t h e r communities has changed.  T h i s i s demonstrated by a r e p o r t  on the Germantown Settlement i n P h i l a d e l p h i a .  1  Here the emphasis  a l t e r e d from conducting a v e r y a c t i v e A r t program t o abandonment of t h i s s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i e e , t o the f i n a l  i n c l u s i o n o f an a r t p r o -  gram as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the agency's p r o j e e t . e r s r e c o g n i z e the need f o r a s s i s t a n c e  Thus a r t l e a d -  i n g r e a t e r understanding of  the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a r t programs and the s o c i a l work ageney r e c o g n i z e s the need f o r s p e c i a l s k i l l i n p l a n n i n g programs i n keeping w i t h needs of c h i l d r e n . The community  c e n t e r i n Vancouver i s the source of gen-  e r a l r e c r e a t i o n f o r the p u b l i c . i n recent  W i t h i n t h i s framework a r t e l a s s e s  y e a r s have been the means o f broadening the r e c r e a t i o n  experience t o i n c l u d e not only p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s but a whole new f i e l d of a r t s programs f o r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s a l i k e as p a r t 1  "The Germantown A r t C e n t r e " , P.M. C o l l i n g t o n , Round T a b l e N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of Settlements and Neighbourhood C e n t r e s , Volume 14, Number 8, December 1950,  68 o f a well-rounded r e c r e a t i o n program. A new development aimed a t b r i n g i n g a r t i n t o the l i v e s of the people o f the community through t h e a i d o f s k i l l e d  leader-  s h i p i s the p r o j e c t sponsored by the F e d e r a t i o n o f Canadian Artists.  This project provided  l e a d e r s h i p f o r c r a f t s programs  i n one community center and arranged c l a s s e s f o r the summer h o l i days through c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Parks Board,  Ten i n s t r u c t o r s  l e a d e l a s s e s i n f i v e parks f o r a f i v e week p e r i o d a t a eost o f t e n d o l l a r s f o r twenty l e s s o n s .  The d i s t r i c t s served  included  K i t s i l a n o , F a i r v l e w and S t a n l e y Park, The F e d e r a t i o n r e a l i z e s t h a t the main d i f f i c u l t y i s a reasonable  f e e f o r i n s t r u c t o r s who n e c e s s a r i l y charge f o r s e r v i c e s  as a means o f l i v e l i h o o d .  I t i s t h e i r hope t h a t the government  might see f i t t o sponsor such programs under the l e a d e r s h i p o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s i n c o - o p e r a t i o n the Community Centers, great  success  with  The p r o j e c t , begun i n 1952, has met w i t h  s i n c e over 400 c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the summer  program o f 195**-• The  success  o f t h i s p r o j e c t t o the many others  providing  g r a p h i c a r t f o r c h i l d r e n i n Vancouver and other communities c a t e s the i n t e r e s t of c h i l d r e n , parents,  indi-  and educators i n t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r a r t form. Other Vancouver P a r t i c i p a n t Programs and S e r v i c e s Private Instruction The  i n d i v i d u a l has t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  t o r e c e i v e group and  i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n v a r i o u s a r t forms through the a u s p i c e s of p r i v a t e i n s t r u c t o r s .  The K e l l y K i r b y C l a s s e s o f f e r  musical  69 i n s t r u c t i o n to young c h i l d r e n .  As i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a k i n d e r -  g a r t e n method the age of the c h i l d r e n ranges from f i v e to e i g h t or nine.  The aim of the t e a c h e r i s to bring' the young c h i l d  some elementary  a p p r e c i a t i o n of musie through  rhythm, l i s t e n i n g and  experience i n  s i n g i n g while i n groups of -eight.  i n s t r u c t i o n i s o n l y an i n t r o d u c t i o n to be f o l l o w e d by  This  formal  i n s t r u c t i o n i n instrumental playing. The t e a c h e r s work i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Board as a l l c l a s s e s are o f f e r e d on s c h o o l premises.  Sehool However  some t e a c h e r s g i v e I n s t r u c t i o n i n p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s on a comme r c i a l basis. W i t h i n the l a s t f o u r y e a r s the program has v e r y r a p i d l y u n t i l seventeen Kelly Kirby Instructor,  schools now  developed  have c l a s s e s g i v e n by a  O f f e r i n g goup i n s t r u c t i o n enables  the  t e a c h e r t o charge a lower r a t e than she can charge f o r a p r i v a t e lesson.  Each c h i l d pays t h i r t y - f i v e c e n t s a l e s s o n .  c h i l d r e n take piano l e s s o n s .  The  older  However, i n the Maple Ridge School,  where seven c l a s s e s are g i v e n , some are i n s t r u c t e d i n v i o l i n .  The  c h i e f aim o f the K e l l y K i r b y School i s t o i n t r o d u c e the c h i l d t o music so t h a t he w i l l have some conception of the medium and  this  concept w i l l be based upon a p p r e c i a t i o n of fundamentals and  enjoy-  ment. Private i n s t r u c t i o n provides i n d i v i d u a l t r a i n i n g i n music and dance i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s c i t y .  Art instruction i s  mainly the p e r o g a t i v e of p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s where c l a s s t i e s are a v a i l a b l e at a set  charge.  facili-  70 Bramatics a r e g i v e n i n the s t u d i o s and through s p e c i a l n i g h t courses o f f e r e d t o o l d e r c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l s .  Exper-  ience f o r young c h i l d r e n i s l i m i t e d , perhaps due t o the small demand. for  While t r a i n i n g i s thus made a v a i l a b l e , the experience  t h e teen-age c h i l d and a d u l t s comes through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  community drama groups. Bance t o o i s taught i n groups and some o f the l a r g e r s t u d i o s , w i t h a s t a f f o f two t o - s i x i n s t r u c t o r s , h a v e ranging from f i f t y and  t o three hundred and f i f t y .  enrolments  Here c h i l d r e n  a d u l t s r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l forms o f the dance.  The  dance teachers have not y e t formed a l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n t o a c t as a c o - o r d i n a t i n g body and l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e organ f o r n a t i o n a l dance a s s o c i a t i o n s . not be r e q u i r e d .  Thus standards vary and c e r t i f i c a t i o n can-  T h i s i n t u r n makes i t very d i f f i c u l t  the number o f students  taking lessons.  t o determine  The dance teachers  listed  by the. G.A.,0. number f i f t y but from t h i s f i g u r e only an extremely s u b j e c t i v e judgement can be. made as t o the c h i l d r e n t a k i n g l e s s o n s . One l a r g e s t u d i o estimates  the number of c h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c -  t i o n a t one i n e i g h t but there are no f i g u r e s t o v e r i f y  this.  Music, outside o f the c h o i r s , i n s t r u m e n t a l , and K e l l y K i r b y groups, i s l a r g e l y taught on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s .  The  l o c a l branch o f the B r i t i s h Columbia R e g i s t e r e d Music Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n have only one hundred and f i f t y These teachers  listed  members.  g i v e v o c a l , piano and instrument l e s s o n s .  The  numbers a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each teacher vary g r e a t l y , some i n s t r u c t ing  only f i v e and others a s many as s i x t y .  71 The greater number of teachers giving lessons are not registered with the Federation, and again a subjective statement i s the only i n d i c a t i o n of numbers giving private lessons.  One  guess i s seven hundred. This outline serves only to give some indication of the private i n s t r u c t i o n available i n music and dance. i s made to present standards, as they vary greatly.  No attempt There i s no  standard-setting body and no compulsory system of l i c e n s i n g which would be necessary before high standards could be assured.  The  music teachers who are members of the Federation must have a degree from a recognized conservatory or college of music.  This  at least insures that the teacher has the formal body of knowledge related to h i s or her f i e l d of Instruction, The MacMillan Fine Arts Club The MacMillan Fine Arts Clubs function throughout the c i t y schools by coordinating the a c t i v i t y of students interested i n the a r t s generally.  These clubs operate upon a purely volun-  tary basis, each club working with a teacher sponsor i n the school. The club provides s u f f i c i e n t a c t i v i t i e s connected with the arts f o r a l l types of students, the talented as well as those w i l l i n g to learn something about the arts,  1  Programs offered by the clubs include variety programs by student members.or guest a r t i s t s , good motion picture programs, national a r t s programs, dramatic presentations and art lectures. These programs are arranged v o l u n t a r i l y through sponsors and hon1 S i r Ernest MacMillan Fine Arts Clubs,"Objective and P_u£po_se_."  72 o r a r y members.  Proceeds from c o n c e r t s where admission i s charged  are used toward  s c h o l a r s h i p funds.  Some s c h o o l s have weekly noon  hour programs, w h i l e c l u b s i n other s c h o o l s a r e v e r y f r e e l y o r g a n i z e d and may not sponsor a r e g u l a r program. of  The d i r e c t o r s  the c l u b s , nominated by the sponsor i n each s c h o o l , meet  approximately f o u r times y e a r l y .  Four p r o j e c t s sponsored  e i t y - w i d e c o - o p e r a t i o n a r e the annual p a r t y , the Waltz Art  through  Festival,  Show (sponsored i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h Eaton's Bepartment Store)  and the R a l l y h e l d i n the l a t e  spring.  A major work o f t h e members and graduates i s u s h e r i n g a t community c o n c e r t s . for  The c o o r d i n a t o r o f t h e e l u b s arranges ushers  every p r e s e n t a t i o n at the Benman Auditorium, Avon Theatre,  Symphony Goncerts, Theatre Under The S t a r s , and many o t h e r p r o ductions.  T h i s s e r v i c e p r o v i d e s l i s t e n i n g and audience  opportun-  i t i e s f o r many students and other persons i n t e r e s t e d i n the a r t s . Another  i n t e r e s t i n g p r o j e c t i s t h e "Panel", composed o f  the best students i n each f i e l d o f the a r t s , and appointed by the sponsors. arts.  These students meet t o d i s c u s s s u b j e c t s r e l a t e d t o the  They have a l r e a d y prepared one p a n e l f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n over  G.B.G. The c l u b s f u n c t i o n under the g o o d w i l l and c o - o p e r a t i o n of  the School Board o f f i c i a l s  who g i v e t h e c o - o r d i n a t o r s and  sponsors t h e utmost i n encouragement.• These e l u b s , nation-wide i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r o v i d e many h i g h school students not o n l y w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e but t o l e a r n o f n a t i o n wide o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e r v i n g the a r t i s t s and the p u b l i c i n organ-  73 i z a t i o n and programs. C h i l d r e n s Theatre Groups 1  C h i l d r e n ' s Theatre i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n of dramatic a r t i s t s who  aim t o produce p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a y s at the l e v e l of the  c h i l d ' s understanding.  To t h i s end the Community C h i l d r e n ' s  Theatre i n Vancouver has sponsored p l a y s such as R u m p l e s t i l t s k i n , Samuel With the Wrinkled Knees, and K i n g Midas a t the Everyman Theatre. of B.C.  The f o r m a t i o n of The H o l i d a y Theatre on the U n i v e r s i t y campus i n 1953,  through the impetus of the U n i v e r s i t y  E x t e n s i o n Department, has Increased the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n t o experience l i v e drama.  Here p l a y s a r e produced weekly f o r  c h i l d r e n from a l l over the  eity;  The audlenees f o r C h i l d r e n ' s Theatre grew y e a r by year. One  s t r o n g f a c t o r i n t h i s movement was  the p r o d u c t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s  p l a y s f o r f i v e y e a r s at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia the summer months.  These p l a y s d i d much t o b u i l d up  during  audiences.  P r e s e n t l y the H o l i d a y Theatre a r t i s t s , i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Community C h i l d r e n ' s Theatre p l a n to t o u r elementary Vancouver where requested.  schools i n  During the w i n t e r months the company  w i l l t o u r o t h e r p a r t s of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  Parent Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n s The Parent Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n s o r as they a r e known a c r o s s Canada, the Home and School A s s o c i a t i o n s , have been a c t i v e i n promoting  the a r t s i n a number of a r e a s .  As p r e v i o u s l y mention-  ed, the P o i n t Grey A s s o c i a t i o n s were a c t i v e i n promoting  Saturday  .7* morning c l a s s e s f o r c h i l d r e n .  The West Vancouver a s s o c i a t i o n s  continued a p r o j e c t whieh, begun i n 1951,  now  b r i n g s symphony  c o n c e r t s t o the West Vancouver High School every s i x months. In 1952 "How  the same group co-operated  the A r t i s t  by a r t i s t s who  Boes H i s Work."  i n sponsoring a s e r i e s on  T h i s s e r i e s was  made up of t a l k s  are o u t s t a n d i n g i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s .  two weeks a speaker was  heard by students who  torium of the h i g h s c h o o l .  Every  crowded the a u d i -  T h i s experiment was  through the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the C.A.G. and the  accomplished artists.  The d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n t i n u i n g t h i s w e l l - r e c e i v e d program i s t h a t sponsoring groups cannot f i n a n c e i t . upon which a r t i s t s co-operated  The v o l u n t a r y b a s i s  f o r the i n i t i a l experiment c o u l d  not be continued, e s p e c i a l l y i f i t were t o be extended to o t h e r schools. The C h i l d r e n * s Reading Club sponsored Parent to ing  Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n was  e s t a b l i s h e d t o eneourage c h i l d r e n  r e a d and to make use of l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s .  The r u l e s  govern-  the elub r e q u i r e that no reward be g i v e n f o r the number of  books read. ficate. of  by the P r o v i n c i a l  The  c h i l d t h a t reads one book.is e n t i t l e d t o a c e r t i -  A l s o no t e s t s or essays are p e r m i t t e d .  c l u b s are:  The three types  V a c a t i o n Reading Glub, L e i s u r e t i m e Reading Glub,  Book of the Month Glubs.  The l a t t e r f u n c t i o n w i t h a group of  twelve c h i l d r e n who exchange books f o r a twelve month p e r i o d . Books f o r the members might be obtained from the P u b l i c L i b r a r y , Union L i b r a r i e s , o r by m a l l from the P u b l i c L i b r a r y Commission.  F i c t i o n books from the School L i b r a r i e s may  a l s o be  75 used.  Thus the Parent Teaeher Association i s active i n many  areas encouraging  the appreciation of a r t .  Instrumental Groups Other participant resources f o r young people of Vancouver are the Vancouver Junior Symphony and the Vancouver Ladies Orchest r a , both of which o f f e r membership on a city-wide basis.  The  ranks of both of these organizations are heavily weighted with junior members, who  are twelve years and older.  Young students may  also receive expert guidance and take  part i n small Instrumental groups under the leadership of Jean de Rimanoczy.  A group of thirty-two talented young a r t i s t s who  a membership fee of f i v e d o l l a r s , meet weekly.  pay  This group i s  divided into smaller units, permitting the members to form quart e t s , t r i o s , and small s t r i n g orchestras.  This of course, i s a  highly specialized organization, open to students with some degree of instrumental s k i l l , ffymphony Concerta In addition to the music reaching children through the schools and community agencies, symphony concerts have been given to children of f i f t h to ninth grades and senior high school students through the sponsorship of thes: Women's Committee of the Vancouver Symphony Society, These concerts have been enjoyed annually by approximatel y fourteen hundred ohildren from a l l parts of Greater Vancouver. The children were given free transportation to the Denman Auditor-  7<S ium, where the concerts were held.  The admission f o r each c h i l d  was twenty-five cents and t i c k e t s were available through,School . i \  Music Teachers.  Each School received a quota of t i c k e t s .  Summary The program of a r t s i n the schools provides children i n • Vancouver with elementary  t r a i n i n g and opportunity f o r experience  i n dance, music, and graphic a r t , duced i n the elementary  Irama i s recently being i n t r o -  school but does not yet claim a place i n  the formal curriculum. Children are receiving Increased opportunity f o r t r a i n i n g through the' Community Centre and l e i sure-time agency programs. Here the emphasis i s upon meeting the needs of the c h i l d art program p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  through  In addition to the educational and  recreational apportunities offered children, specialized,programs and i n d i v i d u a l instruction are available.  These give the c h i l d  technical s k i l l and a chance to participate i n group media. Many sponsoring organizations are developing programs to bring f i n i s h e d productions of music, drama and graphic art to the ehild,  Bance programs, s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r children, are not  sponsored as .frequently. The general educative channels f o r the arts are well defined but the extent to which the recreation ageney provides art programs f o r children i s limited.  The community of Vancouver  does provide the resources needed f o r children to obtain t r a i n i n g i n the arts beyond the introductory standards set by the school.  77 For t h i s t r a i n i n g a f i n a n c i a l Investment  i s usually necessary;  This would seem to bar some children from further study hut no f a c t s are available to substantiate  this*  Chapter 4 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL ANB  EXISTING AGENCIES  The Community A r t s Council anticipated work with children at i t s inception i n 1946.  Beginning with the survey which out-  l i n e d s p e c i f i c needs i n r e l a t i o n to the advancement of the arts i n Vancouver, and the role of a co-ordinating council, the Community Arts Council has experimented with the co-sponsorship C h i l d r e n s Services. 1  of  Through d i r e c t a f f i l i a t i o n with member  agencies of the Community Chest and Council i n the sponsorship art  of  classes, the Arts Council has opened the question of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of such classes to those sponsored by other community organizations and i n d i v i d u a l s . In turn, t h i s stimulated consideration of the A r t s Council's Role i n r e l a t i o n to a l l organizations i n enlarging opportunities f o r a r t i s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and as a medium f o r evaluation of a r t s programs. Before examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these groups which have been described i n the second and t h i r d chapters, further reference may be made to the o r i g i n a l intention of the Children's Program sponsorship within the C.A.C.  79 Sponsorship of C h i l d r e n s 1  The  Services  recommendations of the N o r r i e Survey i n c l u d e : " a c t i v i t y oh the p a r t of schools and s o c i a l agencies and churches to enlarge o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a r t i s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n drama, dance, drawing, e t c . "  also:  "need of concern w i t h community centre development as a f o c a l p o i n t of c u l t u r a l as w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n a l activities"  further:  "need f o r an a d v i s o r y committee of s p e c i a l i s t s i n the c u l t u r a l a r t s towards upgrading and i n c r e a s i n g work i n the f i e l d " . While these f a c t o r s p l a y an important p a r t i n the  total  r o l e of the Community A r t s C o u n c i l i n r e l a t i o n to c h i l d r e n ' s a r t s e r v i c e s , the i n t e n t i o n of the C.A.C, was  a l s o a f f e c t e d by a  de-  c i s i o n to sponsor p r o j e c t s f i r s t and t o l e t C o u n c i l f u n c t i o n  and  s t r u c t u r e grow out of them.  Thus, when c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  given  t o the method whereby c h i l d r e n ' s s e r v i c e s might be expanded, the r e s u l t s were tempered by a C o u n c i l need t o arouse p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and  financial  support.  Miss Sweeny's T h e s i s p o i n t s out t h a t  "gearing of  C h i l d r e n ' s Program welfare wise should a l s o Increase many to g i v e " .  the  readiness  I f the C h i l d r e n ' s Program had been i n e f f e c t  Community demonstration p r o j e c t r a t h e r than an agency  of a  centered  program, the p u b l i c I n t e r e s t i n the C o u n c i l might have been expanded.  As the c l a s s e s continued  s/ted, g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t was ness was  extended.  and the p r o j e c t was  termin-  not f o s t e r e d but agency aware-  The most d i r e c t b e n e f i t from the p r o j e c t came  i n a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of ageney f u n c t i o n and  o b j e c t i v e s i n program as  they are r e l a t e d t o the Community A r t s C o u n c i l ;  80 Ageney F u n c t i o n A l l agencies which worked w i t h the Community A r t s C o u n c i l i n the t h r e e years of the C h i l d r e n ' s Program were concerned w i t h r e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e time s e r v i c e s through p u b l i c and vate a u s p i c e s .  pri-  Those agencies which were s t i l l a c t i v e i n the  p r o j e c t at the c o n c l u s i o n were p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h work method i n these  settings.  social  Over the f i r s t two y e a r s of p r o -  gram the v a r i o u s agency o b j e c t i v e s and f u n c t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o an  " a r t s " program became  clarified.  The most obvious v a l u e o f the C o u n c i l sponsored c l a s s e s was  i n the a r t s l e a d e r s h i p g i v e n to groups.  Thus the  for  s p e c i a l i s t s by many agencies were answered.  requests  In v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s the C o u n c i l sponsored p r o j e c t accepted p u r e l y as an e x t e n s i o n to program a l r e a d y T h i s was  was  developed.  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n community c e n t r e s where much s t r e s s  had been l a i d on s o c i a l r e c r e a t i o n and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n programs. While the " a r t " c l a s s e s i n a l l cases p e r m i t t e d an a c t u a l e x t e n s i o n to program content, the v a l u e s were extended beyond t h i s . t h e r e was  Where  s t a f f c o n t i n u i t y and a b e l i e f i n the i n c l u s i o n of a r t s  programs i n a w e l l rounded agency program schedule, the c l a s s e s p r o v i d e d an example whereby t h e i r v a l u e s might be demonstrated to  boards and committees.  These groups depend upon knowledge  about program p l a n n i n g from s t a f f sourees  i n many cases t o ensure  t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f w e l l balanced s e r v i c e s . C o u n c i l sponsored c l a s s e s p r o v i d e d an a d d i t i o n a l dimens i o n f o r p o l i c y makers and  s t a f f to consider.  Not o n l y was  a class  81  i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r t form b e i n g sponsored but t h e membership a l s o had  the advantage o f a w e l l - t r a i n e d l e a d e r .  These l e a d e r s were  the only s p e c i a l i s t s t o o f f e r program i n community while  r e c e i v i n g "fti f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l f e e .  organizations  Once again the ageney  s t a f f and p o l i c y makers were given an o p p o r t u n i t y  t o decide  upon  the p o s i t i o n o f a t r a i n e d , p a i d s p e c i a l i s t i n the a s s o c i a t i o n . The a g e n c i e s c o n t i n u i n g the p r o j e c t chose t o c o n s i d e r a f u r t h e r f u n c t i o n when an attempt was made t o evaluate  the hypoth-  e s i s t h a t there was a p a r t i c u l a r advantage i n o f f e r i n g a r t c l a s s e s under s p e c i a l i z e d l e a d e r s h i p i n the l e i s u r e - t i m e s e t t i n g .  This  was the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s o e i a l work method i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e program,. The h y p o t h e s i s  concerning  the use o f s p e c i a l i s t s '  leader-  s h i p i n the l e i s u r e time s e t t i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s o e i a l work, was not s u b s t a n t i a t e d by s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s .  While t h e C o u n c i l ' s  f i n a l y e a r o f c h i l d r e n ' s program sponsorship  was e s t a b l i s h e d t o  demonstrate t h i s , the experiment was not completed.  The c o n c l u -  s i o n o f the p r o j e c t , however, witnessed the formal request two  agencies i n v o l v e d f o r Increased  by the  grants from the Community  Chest and C o u n c i l t o enable them t o o f f e r s p e c i a l i s t l e a d c l a s s e s . T h i s step i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Community A r t s C o u n c i l P r o j e c t d i d demonstrate t o a t l e a s t two agencies the v a l u e o f s p e c i a l i s t l e d programs.  Oordon Neighbourhood House was the only  ageney i n Vancouver which had, p r e v i o u s  t o the Community A r t s  C o u n c i l p r o j e c t , budgeted f o r s p e c i a l i s t s ' f e e s as an important p a r t o f agency f i n a n c e s and program  planning.  82 The f i n a l program year demonstrated the i n a b i l i t y of s p e c i a l i s t s to participate i n a program with respect to f u l f i l l ing the objectives of s o c i a l work method, without t r a i n i n g . This demonstrated to the Community Arts Council the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l orientation of s p e c i a l i s t s i f they were to function productively i n dealing with people i n the s o c i a l agency setting. The agencies i n t h e i r turn recognized certain l i m i t a t i o n s to t h e i r function i n program.  A research program cannot be carried  on i n an agency with l i m i t e d s t a f f or i n one carrying out a regular annual group service load.  Should the object of the research be  to u t i l i z e already e x i s t i n g data' found i n the agency the problem might be met.  However, the Pender Y.W.C.A. and the Kiwassa ©iris  1  Club attempted t o produce above the normal quota f o r t h e i r program and d i d not succeed. Why was the study of a few members i n two agency groups beyond the resources of the ageneles?  This question i s answered  best i n studying the e x i s t i n g agency programs.  I t was mentioned  previously that these two agencies practiced s o c i a l work method. This implies that p a r t i c u l a r emphasis was placed upon the personal development of the membership through group service.  Knowledge  r e l a t i n g to i n d i v i d u a l members and groups can be studied i f kept on record.  As the staff members are the only s o c i a l workers, and  most d i r e c t program i s l e d by volunteers, the only way staff and v#olunteers can evaluate group development i s through the keeping of reeords by the one d i r e c t l y i n charge.  These records i n turn  need to be considered by the s o c i a l worker and conclusions as to  83 good programing drawn up by the two.  Thus the person i n direct  contact with membership, and the trained worker, complement each others resources f o r the benefit of the membership. As t h i s process was not carried out i n the general pract i c e of these agencies the s o c i a l work function may be questioned. As i t happens, each of these s o c i a l agencies, l i k e many others i n the leisure t i m e . f i e l d , do not function i n a defined way to a public recreation service.  Therefore, included i n t h e i r function  i s community service of a recreation nature f o r the benefit of those demanding i t .  At the same time, because of the needs of certain  groups within membership^ s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g f o r staff and methods are required*  For these reasons few s o c i a l work agencies i n the  l e i s u r e time f i e l d can provide intensive group experience f o r membership where special resources such as those of recordings and psychiatric consultation are available.  The demands of a  s o e i a l agency upon the s p e c i a l i s t would be great i f the membership and p o l i c y required these p a r t i c u l a r refinements.  The stage of  community giving, the lack of a comprehensive public recreation system, the status of the s o c i a l worker i n the group work setting, and agency research programs are a l l factors which have affected the Ohildrens Program of the Community A r t s Council. The functions of agencies vary from those which stress recreational philosophy to those which apply s o c i a l work methods. The role of each of these has been demonstrated to the Community A r t s Council.  i n some measure  While some t r a i n i n g i n work with  people i s now recognized as a requisite f o r s p e c i a l i s t s serving i n community agencies, the degree of understanding required varies with the agency which i n turn r e f l e c t s i t s membership and community  84 philosophy  regarding  reereation.  In a l l cases, where the Community A r t s C o u n e i l i s a c t i v e i n r e l a t i o n to agency program, the f u n c t i o n and philosophy agency must he r e s p e c t e d .  of  the  In such cases the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  the Community A r t s C o u n c i l person i s to take on the f u n c t i o n of r  the agency to which he goes.  In t u r n , the agency must  provide  c o n s i s t a n t and h e l p f u l s u p e r v i s i o n to a s s i s t the Community A r t s Council representative,  the  specialist.  The p r o j e c t  by r e c o g n i z i n g these p r i n c i p l e s , A e a r e s u l t o f the  concluded  Children's  Program, a g e n c i e s are more aware of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b l i t y i n r e l a t i o n to the  s p e c i a l i s t and  the Community A r t s C o u n c i l has  esta-  b l i s h e d an o b j e c t i v e to t r a i n s p e c i a l i s t s i n regard to agency function. Established C u l t u r a l Services The and  c o o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n of the Community A r t s . C o u n c i l  the needs d e s c r i b e d i n chapter one  n e c e s s i t a t e some c o n s i d e r -  a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n of the C o u n c i l to other groups o f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s to c h i l d r e n i n Vancouver^ The t h a t there and  survey mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s study i n d i c a t e d  need be a c t i v i t y on the p a r t o f schools,  churches to enlarge  To date the  s c h o o l s and  social  agencies,  opportunities f o r a r t i s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . s o c i a l agencies have been more a c t i v e than  churches i n Vancouver a l t h o u g h the l a t t e r have i n d i c a t e d they are desirous music and so  long.  of sponsoring  c l a s s e s i n the v a r i o u s a r t forms other  than  c h o r a l work which have been f o s t e r e d by the churches f o r  85 At p r e s e n t ,  a member o f the Vancouver Sehool Board  s u p e r v i s i n g a r t i n the s c h o o l s  i s a c t i v e on the Board o f the  Community A r t s C o u n c i l as an i n d i v i d u a l . .the P r o t e s t a n t  Clergy  s i t s i n the Board o f the C o u n c i l .  r e c r e a t i o n people have been represented, present.  A l s o , a member o f While  none a r e members a t  Each o f these community groups a c t i v e i n the a r t s a r e  v a r i o u s l y respresented C o u n c i l but,  by persons s e r v i n g as i n d i v i d u a l s on the  i n keeping w i t h the p r i n c i p l e o f board composition  o u t l i n e d i n Chapter one, none aet as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s particular field.  of t h e i r  F o r t h e Community A r t s C o u n c i l t h e r e i s no  d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o these community groups a c t i v e i n the sponsorship o f a r t s f o r c h i l d r e n * Outside o f the g e n e r a l and s p e c i a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n , t h e p r i v a t e i n s t r u c t o r i s perhaps the next most w i d e l y f e l t i n f l u e n c e . the b u l k o f i n s t r u m e n t a l  P r i v a t e teachers who handle  music and dance t r a i n i n g have been very  l o o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o u n c i l .  To date, the B. C. R e g i s t e r -  ed Music Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n s i s an a f f i l i a t e d member through the music s e c t i o n , but the a s s o c i a t i o n s contact w i t h the p o l i c y 1  makers i s r e l a t i v e l y remote due t o the method o f s e c t i o n s e n t a t i o n on the Board.  Banee teachers  repre-  a r e not organized and  t h e r e f o r e a r e not a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the C o u n c i l .  Bue t o t h e  h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d and competative nature of dancing s t u d i o s , and  the f a c t t h a t a l l l o c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l dancers a r e a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h s t u d i o s , t h e r e has never been a d e s i r e on t h e i r p a r t t o unite.  The competition  here i s r e f l e c t e d i n the l a c k of a dance  86 s e e t i o n i n the Community A r t e C o u n c i l . organized  The  only dance group  on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l i s b a l l e t . Other p a r t i c i p a n t groups such as o r c h e s t r a s are  affil-  i a t e d w i t h the C o u n c i l through s e c t i o n s , or as i n the case o f Parent Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n s , MacMillan Clubs, e r a t i o n of A r t i s t s through group and only e s t a b l i s h e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  the  and Canadian Fed-  i n d i v i d u a l memberships.  channel f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s  The  holding  such memberships i s the annual meeting where nominations can  be  made, The  r e l a t i o n of the Vancouver A r t s C o u n c i l t o the  c h i l d serving organizations  i s thus not very meaningful i n p r o v i -  d i n g each o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h a f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o C o u n c i l and  other c u l t u r a l  various  the  organizations.  Standards I n R e l a t i o n t o Children's  Services  As the v a r i o u s a r t forms and  sponsoring  reviewed, common problems are apparent to a l l .  a g e n c i e s are The  most  frequent-  l y l i s t e d problem i s the l a c k of w e l l t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p . l e a d e r s h i p i s g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n and various  standards are n e c e s s a r i l y Turning  to Mr,  Norrie'e  c a t e d "the need f o r an a d v i s o r y  i s q u a l i f i e d f o r the  Job,  recognized. survey, one  recommendation  indi-  committee o f s p e c i a l i s t s i n the  c u l t u r a l a r t s toward upgrading and  i n c r e a s i n g work i n the  Standards are not u n i v e r s a l but, extensive  Where  field,"  i n the graphic a r t s ,  o r g a n i z a t i o n , governmental sponsorship and  organizational  r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l sponsorship have l e d to i n t e r n a t i o n a l  87 recognition of standards.  1  Thus the International Seminar on A r t  Education concludes that the teacher needs to he  unobtrusive,no  l e s s a psychologist than an a r t i s t , and that he must take care to de^-aop the creative powers of h i s pupils. Before the turn of the century, sometimes even today, an apt phrase to describe musical experience was the "mechanical era". A person was not expected to enjoy music unless he had a knowledge of i t s structure, and an a b i l i t y to play an instrument.  Today the  emphasis i s increasingly being placed upon enjoyment i n hearing and producing musieal sound,in other words the "creative era," Brama too has responded to changing philosophy.  The  change of emphasis from the f i n i s h e d performance to the u t i l i z a t i o n of o r i g i n a l expression has affected the development of standards. The c l a s s i c era i s passing and making room f o r more indi-O vidualized expression i n dance as i n other art forms.  Formerly,  b a l l e t and tap dancing were alone i n the arena of Individual quidance and class i n s t r u c t i o n .  Today the modern dance, unknown half,  a century ago, and only recently receiving attention by large schools, i s becoming more important i n the family of c u l t u r a l a r t s . To consider sueh things as changing methods i n the various c u l t u r a l a r t s i s indeed the domain of a committee of s p e c i a l ists.  Only such a committee could e s t a b l i s h community standards.  However, there are many common concerns held by a l l groups whieh a  1 linesco Seminar on the V i s u a l A r t s i n ©eneral Education, B r i s t o l , United Kingdom, 7-27, July 1951, Information Bocument: ALE/Sam. l / l - l / l ?  88 c e n t r a l advisory committee could deal with e f f e c t i v e l y . Oommon Problems The need f o r more w e l l q u a l i f i e d staff i s the concern of every group of professional people. In the f i e l d of the a r t s . t r a i n i n g may  The demands are no l e s s heavy  The methods of advancing leadership  include conferences, workshops, public action toward  the establishment  of a Conservatory  i n the case of music, or  additional summer school and high school courses i n drama as the ease may  be. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of suitable f a c i l i t i e s has often been  deplored i n the case of the a r t s whether i t be f o r dramatic  pre-  sentation, creative dance a c t i v i t y or music l i s t e n i n g . Another demand which could be relieved i f educational and t r a i n i n g groups would work i n conjunction with professional a r t i s t s i s f o r increased spectator opportunities at the child's level. was  This f a c t , which helps to develop a consciousness  of a r t ,  recognized by the recreation agencies i n t h e i r f i r s t meeting  with the Community Arts Council and i s well recognized by educators who  believe that children need to experience an a r t i s t i c  piece of work, w e l l performed and executed. The Community Arts Council's experimental project with •agencies opened up a whole new groups f o r children.  area f o r sponsors of c u l t u r a l  The development of community centered pro-  grams through the cooperation of a r t i s t s and responsible authorit i e s would have many advantages. suggestion by Mr,  This i n turn reinforces the  Norrie that Community Centres be the f o c a l  point of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s .  Here the advantages of proximity  89 to home and p o t e n t i a l f o r integration of c u l t u r a l experience into the every day l i f e of the Individual and community are heightened.  This would only be made possible through close  cooperation  of various organizations.and  specialists.  Relationship of the A r t i s t to the Community Arts Council As the organizations which sponsor children's c u l t u r a l services are not related d i r e c t l y to the Council, neither are the a r t i s t s through t h e i r specialized groups related i n a funct i o n a l way. Artist.  The f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Council i s to the  To be able to give them an opportunity of working with  people, i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case with children, i s a productive function.  The Job of p l a c i n g community groups i n r e l a t i o n to  a r t i s t s on the basis of varying standards would require t i o n not foreseeable i n the near future.  organiza-  The resources of the  Community Arts Council i n suggesting possible leaders and i t s contacts with s p e c i a l i s t s , are much greater than any other community association.  However, the degree to which sueh re-  sources can be fostereldand developed f o r the mutual benefit of a r t i s t and community i s not c l e a r .  The a v a i l a b i l i t y of choice  of a r t i s t s f o r the Children's Program indicated some l i m i t a t i o n to the channels of communication between them and the Community Arts Council. tor  The interest on the part of the v i s u a l art inspec-  on extending community classes, coupled with the experience  of the Extension lepartment and development of the Community Program Branch of the Bepartment of Education,  indicates the  90  demand f o r community centered programs.  Par-sighted and author-  i t a t i v e leadership could do much to r e l i e v e tensions b u i l t up from lack of understanding of the various roles played by each group i n the area of children^ c u l t u r a l programs. Organization of the Community Arts Oouhcll As i n any organization, the extent to which objectives may be f u l f i l l e d  depends upon the stage of awareness..to readiness  in the community and the organization of the administering body. Since the establishing of the Community Arts Council a board of t h i r t y has been expanded to f i f t y .  G-roups that voted  the council into existance were not aware of i t s dependency upon them, and an awareness of close l i a s o n was not evident nor v i s i b l y developed over the ensuing years.  A p o l l e y requiring sponsorship  of attention-getting projects was adopted and out of t h i s grew the children's program.  This program developed at the time a trained  s o c i a l worker was the executive  secretary.  This p o s i t i o n had been  f i l l e d by various persons u n t i l the end of 1 9 5 3 when the only s t a f f available was an o f f i c e person. It i s suggested by Miss Gertrude Wilson that a program functioning almost e n t i r e l y under volunteer leadership must necessarily be l i m i t e d i n development p o t e n t i a l , and frequently must be a "canned" program.  The extent to which organizational  relationships among groups, now loosely associated with the Counc i l , can be developed i n r e l a t i o n to Improving children's c u l t u r a l programs w i l l depend greatly upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s u f f i c i e n t  91 staff. I f the Council does not serve as an effective channel f o r groups, and i f i t appears not to be representative of groups, but rather as an entity i n i t s e l f , the community w i l l not be encouraged to u t i l i z e i t .  In order to present the community with  a true version of a coordinating body, much interpretation through practice must be done.  The News Calendar, an,outstanding p u b l i -  cation of the Council, provides a r e a l answer to the question of whether the Council supplies information about various groups. However, continuing community and group interest has not developed markedly i n the l a s t eight years and t h i s factor may point up a s t r u c t u r a l error. The dangers of a representative board group were recognized by the "InterimsCommittee" which studied the structure of the contemplated Community A r t s Council.  Representation  could,  however, develop sustained community i n t e r e s t not now evidenced. As the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of various groups to the Community Arts Council.have been mentioned i n t h i s chapter, the lack of a responsible or semi-permanent r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Community Arts Council policy-making  group has been Indicated.  In the experience  of the Children's Program Committee the  Committee Chairman did not have a continuous r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Board to whom she was responsible through the l i a s o n of the Program Chairman,  This s p e c i f i c example of the lack of Council  growth might indicate some need f o r some basic changes i n administ r a t i o n at t h i s time when many organizations have been made aware  of Council function and benefits.  ,  Summary, The Children's Program of the Community Arts Council was not c a r r i e d out i n a manner which roused wide-spread community interest.  Operating the program through community agencies demon-  strated the necessity of a c l e a r understanding of ageney function i n r e l a t i o n to art program sponsorship,  before effective  cooperation  between agencies and the Council could be effected. The children's project c l a r i f i e d these r e l a t i v e functions of agencies and Council.  In so doing, i t raised questions con-  cerning other established a r t program resources, a f f e c t i n g the c h i l d , and t h e i r part i n the Council's plans f o r e f f e c t i n g i n creased c u l t u r a l opportunities. As the c h i l d receives h i s a r t i s t i c impressions  from so  many sources, the relationship of these sources to one another and t h e i r effectiveness in"providing a w e l l balanced program,for the c h i l d i s important. The successful coordination of the services now offered to children depends upon the channels provided between the agencies and other organizations or i n d i v i d u a l s active i n teaching,  sponsoring  and production. As the coordinating body f o r Vancouver c u l t u r a l services, the Community Arts Council i s placed i n a strategic p o s i t i o n between the a r t i s t , sponsors and children.  Chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS  The t r a i n i n g of the c h i l d i n a l l phases of i t s development i s a long term process.  Training i n the "arts" i s only a  part of t h i s process, and must be conducted i n a way  consistent  with the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to assimilate learning and thus contribute to h i s personal growth. The Cultural Arts The term c u l t u r a l arts distinguishes a more embracing development of s k i l l and interpretation of dance, music, drama and the graphic arts from a general body of knowledge.  Therefore,  there i s a seeking of something more than s k i l l i n proposing e h i l d t r a i n i n g i n the c u l t u r a l a r t s .  Art i n t h i s sense may  be  defined  as " s k i l l i n performance acquired by experience, or application of s k i l l and taste applied to production principles".  The word " c u l t u r a l " may  according to aesthetic  be defined as "conducive  to enlightenment and refinement of taste acquired by I n t e l l e c t u a l and aesthetic t r a i n i n g " .  "Aesthetic", i n turn, refers to the  beautiful. To include these factors i n a children's program i n the c u l t u r a l a r t s , the breadth of opportunity seems l i m i t l e s s .  and t r a i n i n g required  Standards of s k i l l , performance, and  teaching  hcve been developed f o r the c u l t u r a l arts but accompanying these developments, has been to determine the values of such t r a i n i n g for  children.  The Child's Place In Art A University of Toronto study r e l a t i n g to the development and t r a i n i n g of young children demonstrates that a f i v e year old c h i l d can make an " a r t i s t i c statement".  In t h i s he does not con-  f i n e himself to the v i s u a l and physical aspects such as the paint and the colors.  In seventy-five percent of the children's  paintings examined there were unmistakable elements of design. Rhythm, r e p e t i t i o n , balance and symmetry were evident also. E a r l i e r than t h i s the c h i l d ' s productions are of value to the psychologists i n t h e i r study of the children but not as a r t i s t i c productions.  1  A further d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of art produced by children •2 and adults i s drawn out by Arthur Lismer.  He emphasizes that  the art of children i s uninhibited and unconscious, while adult art i s mature and conscious.  This observation takes into account  a c h i l d ' s natural a b i l i t y as yet unaffected by c u l t u r a l habits and t r a i n i n g i n s k i l l development. It has been demonstrated i n other studies that response comes early from the senses developed f o r music and acting.  At  the ages of four and f i v e there i s a high interest irr dramatizing songs and experimenting with Instruments and t h e i r combination of notes.  The c h i l d may obtain pleasure from i d e n t i f y i n g melodies,  3 and often shows increased spontaneity i n rhythms. 1 H. McManus, "New Art Movement Originates In Canada", Saturday Night, May 28, 1932, Vol. 4?, No. 28. 2 A. Lismer, "What i s Child A r t " . Canadian Art, Vol. 2, No. 4 Spring and Summer, 19^8, Ottawa, pp. 178-180. 3 A. Gesell and F. I l g . Infant and C h i l d i n the Culture of Today. Harper and Bros. Publishers, N.Y. and London 19^3.  95 Thus the basic elements f o r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g are present i n the young c h i l d .  The degree of responsiveness.to musical tones,  rhythm and colour varies with the i n d i v i d u a l .  The children par-  t i c i p a t i n g i n the Community Arts Council project were of ages nine to twelve.  In programming f o r children of t h i s age group, i t Is  necessary to take individual differences into account.  Beeause  the child's ideas at t h i s stage are ahead of h i s technique, add i t i o n a l care must be exercised i n use of teaching materials and method.  Use of past history and fantasy as subjects take away  the challenge of r e a l i t y which demands a higher standard than the c h i l d can produce.  These studies i l l u s t r a t e the readiness of the  c h i l d f o r t r a i n i n g i n the a r t s .  They also demonstrate that  children have a latent a b i l i t y f o r c u l t u r a l development.  With  consideration of these f a c t o r s , and with reference to the t r a i n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n opportunities available to children of.the various ages mentioned e a r l i e r , the components of a good children's program can be considered.  This w i l l be accompanied by an assessment of  the role of the Community Arts Council i n considering i t s development, ftiftmantg, of the, City-Wide Program In recent years the public education eystem has increasingly fostered the a r t s i n the curriculum of every student, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the elementary schools.  Here the children have an opportunity  to develop t h e i r sense of colour, rhythm, and music, while, i n the _._  96 l a s t two years, an increasing number have been introduced to creative dramatics.  This indicates a recognition by the  school  a u t h o r i t i e s that the arts are not something to be i s o l a t e d from the t o t a l t r a i n i n g experience of the c h i l d .  As the studies mentioned  point out, aesthetic response i s basic to children i n varying degrees and therefore ought to receive encouragement i n the c h i l d ' s general education. The general t r a i n i n g program of the sehools cannot consider the p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y and interest of every i n d i v i d u a l . To provide children with an opportunity f o r more intensive development, the private teaeher, the orchestra, the art school, and the drama and dance studio e x i s t .  These organizations provide teaching f o r the  development of s k i l l , and depending upon quality of leadership, an aesthetic appreciation of a p a r t i c u l a r art form.  There i s  l i m i t e d subsidy f o r those wishing additional t r a i n i n g through scholarships offered and instrumental financing of sponsoring  groups.  On the whole, however, i n d i v i d u a l t r a i n i n g beyond the scope of the public school requires f i n a n c i a l investment f o r professional fees and equipment. Such groups as the MacMillan Fine Arts Clubs and groups sponsored by the Parent Teachers Association develop children's interest i n the a r t s and o f f e r a chance f o r everyone interested i n the projects to p a r t i c i p a t e .  These opportunities are available  97 through i n d i r e c t school sponsorship, supplied through the cooperation  along with symphony concerts  of the School Board and  the  Women s Committee of the Vancouver Symphony Society. 1  Outside of these sources, the leisure-time agencies have shown, over recent years, t h e i r interest i n expanding already i s t i n g programs and developing new  services.  ex-  The Community Arts  Council project just completed indicates that there i s a demand for  such group services.  I t also demonstrates that these programs  must he an i n t e g r a l part of the program of the agency. art  Graphic  groups have extended r a p i d l y perhaps due to the fact that  the a r t i s t s i n t h i s f i e l d are organized and can o f f e r t h e i r services to community groups without fear of competition among associates.  and  ill-feeling  Considering the opportunities f o r group i n -  struction i n graphic art and the comparable opportunities f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n dance and music, i t i s possible that there are even fewer receiving graphic art t r a i n i n g than other forms. Although l i m i t e d demand i s indicated In the attendance at the symphony concerts, the returns to the University  Extension  Department questionnaire and enrolment i n the Community Arts Council classes i s greater than the present can meet.  supply of leadership  It i s also greater than agencies are yet able to plan  for program organization, financing, and s t a f f i n g .  Has the l e i s u r e -  time agency a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to provide these services f o r children  98  i n the l i g h t of t h e i r community function and the place of such experience f o r the children they serve?  The answer i s p a r t l y  given i n the development of the community centres i n recent years, A Place f o r the Arts i n Community fientres and lieisure^Tlme,. ,S.e;ttlng  1  r 1  The goals of community agencies range from providing straight r e c r e a t i o n a l or educational a c t i v i t i e s to using a c t i v i t i e as a part of treatment. the a r t s .  1  Within t h i s range there i s a place f o r  As the method of group service i n leisure time settings  i s recognized and there i s greater development of staff training, more value w i l l be r e a l i z e d from the programs.  The Children's  Program q u a l i f i e d the type of leadership needed i n the various settings*  The conclusions reached here and the preference of  the agency program planners indicated i n interviews place the s p e c i a l i s t with advanced t r a i n i n g i n the a r t s on the preferred list.  , Staff t r a i n i n g may  agency s t a f f .  be applied to the s p e c i a l i s t or the  The council project demonstrated that s p e c i a l i s t s  need some t r a i n i n g and o r i e n t a t i o n i n methods of work with childre i n order to work e f f e c t i v e l y i n the recreation and s o c i a l work setting.  In turn staff must be able to work with the s p e c i a l i s t  on problems of r e l a t i n g the art form to the children's development needs.  Staff courses to orient unskilled workers who  must super-  vise a r t i s t s would help to ease the pressure and f e e l i n g of 1  Klein, Alan P., "Society. Bemocracy and the Group". Woman's Press Whiteside, Inc. and William Morrow and Co., New York, 1953.  99  f r u s t r a t i o n on the part of the s p e c i a l i s t as h i s objectives would be better understood by s t a f f oriented to the a r t media. As the G-erman-'Town s i t u a t i o n pointed out, workers have come to r e a l i z e that the process of group development cannot f l o u r i s h as long as there i s I n s u f f i c i e n t development of relationship p r i o r to the forming of the group, o r . s u f f i c i e n t Interest to act as a bond Within the formed group.  The r e s u l t has been increased  emphasis upon the development and use of the "Interest" group i n the general program of group service agencies.  It i s i n t h i s res-  pect that the Arts play such an important role as the advantages of serving the young c h i l d where h i s personal needs might be considered are e s p e c i a l l y great. In Vancouver interest has been demonstrated by i s o l a t e d groups i n developing  a community unit of service f o r t r a i n i n g and  art appreciation f o r children.  This has been stimulated by the  v i s i t s of the Children's Theatre and Symphony groups to the schools and agencies,  the School Board's Interest i n expanding the  Art Gallery Classes to communities, and the Arts Council.Bemonstration Program. The factors i n h i b i t i n g the development of such a program include the shortage of leadership presently available to undertake such work and the lack of coordinating f a c i l i t i e s to bring a r t i s t s and sponsoring  organizations together,  _^  The use of art s p e c i a l i s t s i n community agencies where trained s o c i a l workers are available could make possible the attainment of the leadership goal recognized by the International Seminar.  This was that the i n s t r u c t o r should be no less a  psychologist than an a r t i s t .  Through such coordination the c h i l d  may s a t i s f y both h i s need f o r s k i l l development and personality growth.  The present a b i l i t y of the agencies to meet t h i s goal i s  limited.  Likewise publie acceptance of sponsorship  services Is not great.  of Intensive  The development of personalized services  i s s t i l l l i m i t e d to agencies supported by p r i v a t e l y controlled funds. If there Is not to be c o n f l i c t between the private r e sources a v a i l a b l e to the c h i l d and the community agencies art  groups, the function of eaeh must be clear.  sponsoring  In children's  services the community agencies are not primarily concerned with the development of s k i l l .  At present, however, there i s l i t t l e  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of another objective i n the art groups offered except i n s o c i a l agencies o f f e r i n g a more intensive and personalized service. The many opportunities available to children and the competition of sponsoring ship indicates a problem.  organizations to obtain q u a l i f i e d leaderIn respect to leadership alone, there  i s a need f o r cooperative planning by these organizations to c l a r i f y needs and to consider ways of developing resources.  appropriate  ^_  101  The Role of the Oommunlty Arte Council The prime function of the Community Arts Council i s to coordinate the work and programs of c u l t u r a l groups.  As a  private agency, the Community Arts Council can experiment i n Its method of serving the community and indeed must experiment i n order to find-the best, method of service.  Over the seven  years of the Council's existence i t has demonstrated i t s a b i l i t y to give Joint services and to sponsor speelal projects, each of which has helped to f u l f i l l i t s stated function. Through the sponsorship of the children's services the Council has stimulated community centered a r t s programs.  There  i s a lack of w e l l functioning channels between the council and the a r t i s t s apparent throughout t h i s project.  Should the  Community Arts Council have a closer a f f i l i a t i o n with the a r t i s t In order to assure the achievement of i t s objectives?  This  question can be considered i n the l i g h t of the Children's Program experience which demanded resources from the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver as w e l l as the a r t i s t s . As indicated i n chapter three, there i s limited direct representation by a r t i s t s and professional groups on the Board of the Community Arts Council* was  evidenced as the Council was  The need of.a cio.ser l i a i s o n only able to draw upon a  l i m i t e d number i n choosing the s p e c i a l i s t s f o r the Children's Program.  The development of channels f o r the professional a r t i s t  102 to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Council's administration and representation from groups who have a major interest i n the Council, might serve to extend t h e i r active interest and support.  I f t h i s process was  extended further, the community of Interest fostered toy the Council would he expanded f o r the benefit of the public and a r t i s t a l i k e . The Canadian Federation of A r t i s t s ' f a i l u r e to contact the Community A r t s Council when inaugurating t h e i r community program to bring a r t i s t ' s services to the community i s a further i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s lack of channels. The services of the many organizations providing c u l t u r a l a r t s experience of oauslng  f o r the c h i l d are not yet c o n f l i c t i n g to the extent  serious overlapping and competition.  There are i n -  dications of expansion through the a r t i s t s ' associations, community agencies and the public programs.  This points to a need f o r co-  operative thinking about developing the s k i l l e d leadership needed to permit such expansion and to Improve  standards.  The Children's Program demonstrated the varying standards of agency programs..  In turn, because of d i f f e r e n t objectives, the  standards of the other organizations o f f e r i n g t r a i n i n g to the c h i l d differ.  As the Council i s the coordinating body f o r a r t s programs  in Vancouver, i t i s reasonable  to suggest that a coordinating com-  mittee be set up within i t to consider standards, analyze functions, and c l a r i f y relationships between the various groups.  103 Such a committee would have to include professional a r t i s t s who could set standards on the "basis of extensive knowledge and experience.  This committee would be able to consider  questions raised by Mr. Norrie.  These include the need f o r special  study of a r t teaching i n the schools and an advisory committee of s p e c i a l i s t s i n the c u l t u r a l arts towards upgrading and increasing work i n the f i e l d .  The establishment of a standards committee  within the Community Arts Council would serve the general program and would ensure effective consideration of the various groups active i n c h i l d r e n s programs. 1  The community objectives i n o f f e r i n g children's programs vary.  U n t i l there i s an integrated objective the services cannot  be coordinated.  In order to a s s i s t i n t h i s process, a great deal  of time must be spent by the Community Arts Council i n developing understanding preparatory to cooperative planning. Summary The t r a i n i n g of children i n the c u l t u r a l a r t s Is a multiple process requiring the services of many organizations equipped to give the e h i l d technical s k i l l and an opportunity f o r aesthetic and personal development. The community agency, with the dual resources of a r t i s t and trained s t a f f i s assuming a more active role i n the development of art programs at the present than f i v e years ago.  This nation-wide  trend r e f l e c t s the development of program planning i n s o c i a l  104 agencies over the last t h i r t y years.  Agencies have come to r e a l i z e  t h e i r dependence upon the a r t i s t i n program planning and the a r t i s t i n turn has recognized the part of the community agency i n bringing art  to the people. The Community Arts Council, through i t s development of  channels between a r t i s t s , organizations, and children, i s i n a p o s i t i o n to f o s t e r t h i s development.  With co-operative planning  mutual consideration of standards, opportunities can be  and  increased  and leadership developed to f u l f i l the demands which are at present beyond the available resources. The Children's Project did not succeed i n demonstrating the p a r t i c u l a r value of r t i s t s i n the l e i s u r e time agency. a  It did con-  clude that trained a r t i s t s had a contribution to make i n l e i s u r e time settings and the effectiveness of t h i s contribution depended on the a r t i s t ' s a b i l i t y to deal with the personal needs of the group as well as h i s a b i l i t y to o f f e r a  skill.  The degree of personal understanding needed varies with the agency objectives. ing  In order to provide q u a l i f i e d leadership, t r a i n -  must be offered s p e c i a l i s t s who wish to work i n l e i s u r e time  settings.  Likewise,  staff must understand the art form i n order to  provide meaningful orientation f o r s p e c i a l i s t s with whom they work. The interviews of the writer with agency directors indicated unanimous agreement i n that a lack of leadership i s the greatest b a r r i e r to the further development of art programs i n community g c i e s . e n  a  Second  to t h i s i s the lack of f i n a n c i a l resources needed to a t t r a c t the  105 s k i l l e d people who can o f f e r a quality program.  In supplying such  leadership f o r a limited period, the Community Arts Council demonstrated the p o t e n t i a l which rests within the community gency. a  The Children's Program project of the Community Arts Council has ended.  The experience derived from the project w i l l enable the  Council to supplement i t s concern f o r the development of children's services with action based upon new knowledge.  APPEHDIX A Sample questionnaire sent to Community Agencies by the Community Arts Council.  Name o f A g e n c y I  T o t a l Agency Membership  Administration A  Arts  Have y o u  an a r t s programme?  If  please  "Yes"  1.  I n what y e a r  2.  Who  answer t h e  d i d an  initiated  the  Programme: Yes following  No questions.  a r t s programme b e g i n  a r t s programme?  i n the  Community  S e r v i c e Club  University  Fine  Government  Arts Organization  How  (please give  i s the  agency?  Individual  Agency  Other 3.  of F i n e  details)  member's i n t e r e s t  i n the  Registration information Requests from o u t s i d e  a r t s programme  ' R e q u e s t s by  the a g e n c y  (other  determined?  Individuals  agencies,  service  clubs)  Others 4.  Who  finances  t h e a r t s programme?  Individual Participants  Agency  S e r v i c e Club  Community  Extension  Fine Arts Organization  programme o f a U n i v e r s i t y . . . .  Government P r o j e c t  Others... 5.  «  I n t e r m s o f an participants  6.  a r t s programme, how  i n t o age  w o u l d you  d i v i d e your p o t e n t i a l  ranges  Times-specify Day  Time  Age  range..;  Type o f Programme B  I f your first  answer  six  i s "No"  questions?  have y o u  any  sunr?estions i n r e p l y t o  the  77  F a c i l i t i e s . f o r Concerts, Plays, etc. A.  Auditorium, S  i  z  Normal S e a t i n g C a p a c i t y  e  can e n t  W n o  p  R  o r  Rental  Rate.  what P u r p o s e s  ,  I s the a u d i t o r i u m s l o p e d ? What i s i t s p r i m a r y p u r p o s e ? T h e a t r e Lecture H a l l B.  Stage  Concert  Hall.....  Gymnasium Is i t sloped  t  Size  Width  Depth  Wings  Width  Depth  C u r t a i n s - F r o n t drop  Back d r o p  Side c u r t a i n s  Other L i g h t i n g - Spot Colour C.  Flood  Footlights  screens  D r e s s i n g Rooms  E a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to G e n e r a l workshop  Costume s t o r a g e  D.  Piano-  space  Instrument  • storage  I s i t tuned r e g u l a r l y  Have y o u room f o r a G r a n d P i a n o on o c c a s i o n .  Props-  space.,  upright.........Make  A p p r o x . age  E.  stage?,  o r a Baby G r a n d  Other instruments  stairs  .doors  owned by A g e n c y  walls  furnishings  Other  F.  P. A.  System- K i n d of mike...  I s i t movable Speakers  I s P. A. o n  What r e a c h Where p l a c e d i n a u d i t o r i u m .  s t a g e o r i n c o n t r o l room  G.  P r o j e c t i o n Equipment How  placed  :  o r movable  Type c f machine  ,  Silent Typo  Record Player  Present  V.  m.m.  of r e c o r d s  (approximate)  S p e c i f y t'Tpes o f  classical  oostumos  condition  T r a i n i n g you  Hew  stock  semi - p o p u l a r  Costume S t c r o  and  16  size  Popular I.  Sound  Slide  Screen H.  8 ra.m.  consider necessary  A)  To p r o d u c e a good  B)  To  develop  C)  To  raise  "exposure"  a good a p p r e c i a t i o n programme,  the  much t r a i n i n g  standard  To  sharpen  E)  To  h e l p members e n j o y  What o t h e r  of  i n each f i e l d  D)  the  f c r l e a d e r s h i p of A r t s program  critical  performance.  i s necessary  f o r the  appraisal  activity  leader?  ,  /.  r a t h e r than,  r,r i n a d d i t i o n t o ,  above  t h i n g s would you  «  look  for i n selecting  personnel  for a  fine  P l e a s e l i s t names A. Present and p o t e n t i a l l3ade.'3 and teachers NAME Present  Potential  AEJRESS Teachers/Leaders  PHONE  ART FORM  Paid A r t s Sr e f t i a l i s t P r o f e s s i o n a l Am. Pre. U. W. Other  Teachers/loaders  B. Present and P o t e n t i a l Sponsors Present Sponsors i f any-  P o t e n t i a l Sponsors ' (Group or Individual,-  Remarks  Voluntary  Arts S p e c i a l i s t Trained Untrained  ARTS PROGRAMMES YOU WOULD LIKE TO DEVELOP  PRESENT PROGRAMME IN ARTS Art  Form  CD O C  as  bC tO 05  O bO-O m C 4)  > -t->  J  in  tioft  Skits P l a y reading Play w r i t i n g C h o r a l speaking Elocution Ac t i n g Dirocting/produc ing Lighting Scenery C o s tume s/Mak e-u p Other Graphic ;irts Finger painting Drawing & design Water Colours 0.11s Murals  P, o  rC H <0 OS  bO  a> -p •-c <:  Music Appreciation Gcncorts by members Concerts by v i s i tors Band Orchestra Vocal Chamber music Others Drama-play produc  I  s o  bO  c  C bO  03  CD  C.  a  al  <sS K  •  CD O J S3  es Nc Paidj Vol  cm to  CD bC|  Leadership No. per group  CD CD N X) CO  Pal  ca •Trained Untrained  FH O •H 3 03  a?  Arts Arts o Specia- Specialist ulist  Veil  Professional Group 'Other Work  Trained Arts Specia list  imt-.ai-y  Untrained Arts Specialist  PRESENT PROGRAMME IN ARTS Art  Form  be <D G 60 at  H«  <D O C a a) bO-d CD C  I  S o  u to  h  ftJ3 o .  d.«l 01  01  bp  K  al • O O O h  <D  ^es Nc Paidj Vol  Graphic A r t s ( C o n t ' d Art exhibits Others Dance Folk National Square Tap Interpretive ballet Crafts Pottery Modelling Woodwork Puppets Other  <D bO G  G  © • H P .  <D a) - P >  ARTS PROGRAMMES TOU WOULD LIKE TO DEVELOP Leadership No. per group  <D 14  .OC/3 a) • h D  Pai Trained •H 3 CO o Arts <D h Q O Specia list  Untrained Arts Specialist  Professional Group Other Work  Trained Arts Specia list  nnt.ary Untrained  Arts Specialist  5.  For  what  6.  What do y o u c o n s i d e r as t h e a i m s o f an a r t s programme i n a community c e n t r e - ( n e i g h b o u r h o o d h o u s e , s e t t l e m e n t h o u s e ) ?  REMARKS: ( p l e a s e  r e a s o n s do p e o p l e  come t o the a r t s  programme?  c o n t i n u e on b a c k o f page i f n e c e s s a r y )  # P l e a s e e n t e r s e p a r a t e l y o t h e r f i n e a r t 3 programmes t h a t a p p l y t o your a g e n c y , i . e . e n g r a v i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e , s c u l p t ' u r i n c and m o d e l l i n g , d e c o r a t i o n and o r n a m e n t .  Ill  Participation i n Arts  Programmes;  1.  S h o u l d an a r t s g r o u p meet b i w e e k l y , weekly , or a t other i n t e r v a l s ? How many m e e t i n g s add up t o a s e s s i o n ?  2.  W h i c h o f y o u r programmes e m p h a s i z e p r i m a r i l y d e v e l o p m e n t o f skills?  3.  W h i c h e m p h a s i z e e n j o y m e n t b a s e d on a measure  4.  I n t h e o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f y o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n how much e m p h a s i s i s on d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l and how much ei.-.phasis i s on d e v e l o p i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ? To what e x t e n t a r e t h e s e two a i m s c o m p a t i b l e ?  Please rate:  Development Development  of s k i l l of p e r s o n a l i t y  c f competence'  12345678910 12345678910  Appendix B MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL SPONSORED ART CLASSES Spring - 1953 1*  Application  a) the agency desiring to work i n cooperation with the Community Arts Council on a program for children w i l l submit an application by June the f i f t e e n t h of t h i s year. b) t h i s application w i l l include the following data: 1. art form f o r which leadership i s r e quested; f i r s t & second choice 2. approximate starting date f o r the class. Day of week preferred. Number of applicants anticipated. Age group to be served. F a c i l i t i e s available. 71 Name and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of s t a f f l i a i s o n ; his or her t r a i n i n g or f a m i l i a r i t y with art form.  2: 1:  2,  Recruiting  3.  Enrolment and Attendance  S t a t i s t i c s and Recording  a) The Community Arts Council will'provide a covering l e t t e r to be used by the ageney i n r e c r u i t i n g members. b) The agency w i l l prepare a r e g i s t r a t i o n form p a r t i c u l a r l y suited to the agency program and special a r t class. c) Other r e c r u i t i n g methods recommended to ensure community support Include: 1. newspaper p u b l i c i t y 2. home v i s i t s phoning s t a f f contact with agency members f o r t h i s s p e c i f i c purpose. a) A minimum enrolment of twenty must be completed before a f u l l length (l?hr) class commences. (For smaller enrolment, a s l i d i n g scale may be developed to permit shorter class periods at less cost.) b) The agency i s asked to contact the Community Arts Council immediately ifi the attendance drops below f i f t e e n . c) The i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be informed at the time of r e g i s t r a t i o n that he or she w i l l be dropped from the group a f t e r three consecutive absences. a) Upon completion of enrolment, the agency i s asked to send a eopy of the r e g i s t r a t i o n form to the Community Arts Council o f f i c e . Any changes w i l l be noted on the weekly attendance checks.  Minimum Standards Continued: 4.  S t a t i s t i c s and Recording, continued  5.  Conferences and Evaluation  6.  Agency Report  b) Weekly attendance checks w i l l be mailed from the agency by the s p e c i a l i s t on completion of the class each week, c) The s t a f f person working with the s p e c i a l i s t i s asked to attend two of the f i r s t s i x sessions. This person and the s p e c i a l i s t are asked to write records on these two sessions which w i l l provide objective evaluation mate r i a l " . These records w i l l be submitted to the Arts Council upon completion of the f i r s t six sessions. a) The agency director and s p e c i a l i s t w i l l meet p r i o r to the commencement of the classes to discuss the d e t a i l s of the art group and i t s r e l a t i o n to other agency program, b) The agency i s asked to make provision f o r a minimum of one hour per month f o r conferences between the agency s t a f f person and s p e c i a l i s t to discuss problems a r i s i n g , use of f a c i l i t i e s , stati s t i c s , class p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and commun i t y support. ^The time w i l l be designated within the f i r s t two weeks of the class. o.) Staff time f o r attendance at two Communi t y Arts Council meetings during the year i s requested. The f i r s t meeting w i l l be held approximately s i x weeks a f t e r the classes commence, at which time a progress report w i l l be submitted. A second meeting w i l l be c a l l e d at the termination of the program at which time each agency i s asked to submit a f i n a l evaluation. a) The agency i s asked to receive and. discuss a report on the Children's program once during the year, through t h e i r board and wherever possible through a committee responsible f o r program i n the agency.  PREFERABLES 1. That the agency use a l l means to regard t h i s as an experimental project through which they look forward to including t h i s type of service i n the agency program. 2. That the agency s t a f f use a l l media possible to attain community interest i n the project and involve parents i n the project. 3. That wherever possible the agency s t a f f person responsible f o r work with the s p e c i a l i s t be a trained Social Worker, as t h i s i s within the research focus of t h i s program.  Appendix C SUMMARY OF INTERVIEWS WITH DIRECTORS OF EIGHT VANCOUVER LEISURE-TIME AGENCIES Table 1. Number of Participants i n A r t Programs  tfusic!  Drama: Dance:  Art:  Choral Appreciation Rhythm Band Theory Study Creative Production Ballet Tap Creative Scotch Painting Sketching Draxving  Pottery: Crafts: Puppetry:  8 8  10 8 8 17 17 18 20 15  15  30 10  6  7  15  18  12  10  15  18  8  20  12 20  17  20  12  12  Alexandra Neighbourhood House  Vancouver East Y.M.-Y.W.  Central Y.W.C.A.  Pender Y.W.C.A.  Sunset Community Centre Heywood Community Centre  Marpole Community Centre  Gordon Neighbourhood House  Ages 8 - 1 8  10 10 9  Table 2.  No Attempt at Supervision  Alexandra Neighbourhood House  Vancouver East Y.M.-Y.W.  Central Y.W.C.A.  Pender Y.W.C.A.  Sunset Community Centre Heywood Community Centre  Gordon Neighbourhood House Marpole Community Centre  Supervision Policy and Time Involved i n Supervision with Art Program Leaders  X  S p e c i a l i s t refuses Supervision Agency requires Supervision  X  X  X  Worker asks f o r Supervision  X X  X  One hour per week One hour every two weeks  X  X  One hour per month Very informal  X X  X X  X  X  Table 3 .  Volunteer Bureau  4  Board Members  8  Membership  5  High School  7  University  6  General Agency Contacts  3  Art School  2  Community Arts Council  1  Normal School  4  5  2  1  3  3  1  4  Alexandra Neighbourhood House  Vancouver East Y.M.-Y.W.  Central Y.W.C.A.  Pender Y.W.C.A.  Gordon Neighbourhood House Marpole Community Centre Sunset Communitv Centre Heywood Community Centre  Sources of S p e c i a l i s t Leadership In Order of Importance.  4  1  1 2  3  6  1  2  1  2 3  2  4  3 2  1  5  Appendix D SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. '.  B. M. Sweeny, The Community A r t s Council of Vancouver. Thesis, June 1 9 5 1 . U.B.C.  2.  V.L.Comer, Report of Consultation V i s i t to the Community Arts Council of Vancouver, submitted June 1 . 1 9 4 9 .  3.  What i s Vancouver Children's Theatre, program from "Bluebird", A p r i l 1 9 4 0 .  4.  Program of Studies f o r the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, Grades I to VI, V i c t o r i a , B. C.  5.  L.F.COllins, L i t t l e Theatre i n the Schools, ©odd, Mead, Mead & Co., N.Y. 1 9 3 0 .  6.  Creative Expression. Progressive Education Association, Editor, Gertrude Hartman, and Ann. Schumaker, The John lay Co., N.Y., 1 9 3 1 .  7.  D.B.Dyer, "Our Art Recreation Program" The Art Education Magazine, V o l . 5 0 , No. 7 , A p r i l 1 9 5 1 .  8.  P. M. Colllngton. "The Germantown Art Centre" Round Table National Federation of Settlements and Neighbourhood Centres, V o l . 14, No. 8 , Dec. 1 9 5 0 .  9.  K. H i l l . "Manitoba School Children learn Art a New Sat. Night; July 1 2 , 1 9 4 7 , Vol. 62, No. 4 5 .  10.  UNESCO Seminar on the V i s u a l Arts i n General Education. B r i s t o l , United Kingdom, 7 - 2 7 , July 1 9 5 1 , Information Document ALE, Sem. l / l - 1 / 1 7 .  11.  H. McManus, "New Art Movement Originates i n Canada" Saturday Night, May 28, 1 9 3 2 . Vol. 4 7 . No. 28.  12.  A. Lismer. "What i s C h i l d A r t " Canadian Art, V o l . 2 . No. 4 . Spring and Summer, 1 9 4 8 .  13.  A. Gesell and P. I l g . Infant and C h i l d In the Culture of Tb-day. Harper Bros. Publishers N.Y. and London,  statement  Way"  19^3.  14.  K l e i n , Alan P. "Society. Democracy and the Group" Women's Press, Whiteside, Inc. and William Morrow & Co., New York, 1 9 5 3 .  

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