UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The development of the children's program within the Community Arts Council : a study of services offered… Ryniak, Irene Lucille 1954

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILDREN'S PROGRAM  WITHIN THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL A Study of Services offered by the Community Arts Council i n the Development of Children 1s Art Programs. by IRENE LUCILLE RYNIAK Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 195^ The University of Br i t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT This study considers the development of the children's services within the Community Arts Council in relation to arts programs for children in the City of Vancouver. The changing emphasis of the program from 19^7 to 1 9 5 ^ is examined through the records of sponsored classes, the minutes of meetings and inter-views with class leaders, agency directors and class participants. The changing philosophy of the artist in the practice of his profession and the increased interest in the development of art programs for children in leisure-time settings has brought the artists and the recreation leaders together. Within the recreation f i e l d , the use of the social work method and the demand for the fulfilment of the social agencies' objectives through pro-gram have strained relationships between the artist and program staff. As the community agency establishes i t s role in the sponsorship of arts programs the agency adopts a responsibility for understanding the objectives and methods of the a r t i s t , who in turn must accept the philosophy and objectives of the agency. The Community Arts Council has .demonstrated the need for mutual effort i f the objectives of both are to be realized for the benefit of the child. The Children's Program project c l a r i f i e s the factors which have disturbed the effective use of art specialists in the agencies. It also indicates the possibility of future develop-ment within the Community Arts Council to further co-operative planning to ensure sufficient skilled leadership and standards for cultural services. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. The Organization and Program of the Community Page Arts Council Formation of the Community Arts Council. Func-tions of the Council. Administrative functionsj planning, program development and trends, services to Individuals, services to member groups, Summary • 1. Chapter 2. Organization and Functioning of the Children. 1M  Program within the Community Arte Council Beginnings of the Children's program. The Vancouver Children's Theatre. : Re-definition of policy. Children's concerts. Classes for children. The f i r s t year. Second year of continued service; administration, evalua-tion, toward project termination, plans for 1953-5^, method, proceedings in 1953-5***, conclusion of the project, Summary 11 Chapter 3. Characteristics of the Programs in Vancouver Introduction. Art programs in Vancouver schools; music in the schools, graphic art in the schools, drama in the schools, dance in the schools. The Art Gallery. The Art School. University Extension Art Classes. Community Center and Neighbourhood House. Other Vancouver participant programs and services; private instruction, MacMlllan Fine Arts Club, Children's Theatre groups, Parent Teacher Associations, instrumental groups, symphony concerts, Summary b6 Chapter 4. The Relationship Between the Community Arts  Council and Existing Agencies Sponsorship of children's services. Agency function. Established cultural services. Standards in relation to children's services. Common problems. Rela-tionship of the art i s t to the Community Arts Council. Organization of the Community Arts Council. Summary ....... 78 Chapter 5. Conclusion The cultural arts. The child's place in Art. Elements of the city-wide program. A place for the arts in Community Center and leisure-timesetting. The role of the Community Arts Council. Summary .. •• 93 Appendices: > A. Sample Questionnaire. B. Standards for Sponsored Classes. G. Interview Summaries. ©. Selected Bibliography. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILDREN'S PROGRAM  WITHIN THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL A Study of Services offered by the Community Arts Council i n the Development of Children 1s Art Programs. Chapter 1 THE ORGANIZATION AND PROGRAM OF THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL Formation of the Community Arts Council -The organization of the Community Arts Council followed a series of exploratory moves by citizens of Vancouver interested in cultural a c t i v i t i e s and a survey of cultural organizations to determine the need for co-ordination among the various cultural services. The extra pressure exerted on the existing recreation, f a c i l i t i e s during and just following the recent war by the many citizens who sought recreation outside the home pointed up the need for organization of leisure-time services i f f a c i l i t i e s were to be expanded, services co-ordinated but duplication eliminated. At this time the Welfare Council had called upon the ser-vices of L. E. Norrie to make a survey of recreation in the Greater Vancouver area. At the request, and under the sponsorship of the Junior League, Mr. Norrie was commissioned to complete a study of Art ac t i v i t i e s at the same time. The Junior League had already demonstrated i t s Interest in the spare-time activities of the Vancouver people by sponsoring the course in group work specializa-tion at the School of S o c l a l Work of the University of British Columbia and by the organization of the Volunteer Bureau. Now i t - 2 -called for a survey to explore the need for an organization to co-ordinate Vancouver's cultural a c t i v i t i e s . In July 1 9 ^ 5 the "Community Arts Survey Committee" was set up to assist in the study of cultural groups and a c t i v i t i e s in the city. Following the completion of the survey, and after much con-tinuous work on the part of the Committee, "The Arts and Our Town" was presented to the city on May 3 1 , 1 9 ^ 6 . This document outlined the services and organization available to Vancouver citizens, and some objectives which might be realized through establishment ofa co-ordinating body. The recommendations of the survey are extensive and bear repeating here, as they are reflected in the program of the Community Arts Council up to the present time. The survey recommended: -"activity on the part of schools,-^social agencies, and churches to enl arge opportunities for a r t i s t i c participa-tion in drama, dance, drawing and painting, modelling, pottery, record playing, play reading, music appreciation -toward Increasing art appreciation and to give opportunities for learning the art of discussion techniques — " -"use of concern for family l i f e education as a means of ra i s -ing cultural standards" -"concern with community centre development as a focal point of cultural as well as recreational and athletic a c t i v i t i e s " -"need to bring the practice of taxing non-profit educational agencies to public notice" -"special study of art teaching in the schools" -"an advisory committee of specialists in the cultural arts toward upgrading and increasing work in the f i e l d " -"University Department or Conservatory of Music for high standards of training and appreciation" -"action towards securing large public audltoria to spread activity community wide" - 3 . --"formation of a cultural arts council to co-ordinate the efforts of spontaneous, unrelated groups; for increase in the number of cultural publications; and as a medium for evaluation of arts programs." The request for a cultural arts council by the survey was given f u l l consideration by the Community Arts Survey Committee, which then appointed an Interim Committee whose job i t was to study and formulate beginning policy and draw up plans for establishing the Council. The committee prepared for an open meeting. This session, attended by a l l groups Interested in an Arts Council, was called in order to determine public demand and to establish the Council with an administrative board on the basis of group interest and demand. The Committee therefore prepared a slate of officers which could be voted upon at this time and expanded by nominations from the floor. In October 19^ 6" the open meeting was held and the Community Arts Council was voted into existence by 350 people representing seventy-one groups. A Board of Trustees was elected and the work of the Council began. Functions of the Council -The Constitution of the Community Arts Council came into existence after much study of similar organizations. After taking into consideration local differences and peculiar circumstances relating to the cultural l i f e of Vancouver, a Constitution was - i n -drawn up which was thought to meet the demands of the community; "The Community Arts Council of Vancouver i s a co-ordinating body established to increase and broaden the opportunities for Vancouver citizens to participate in cultural a c t i v i t i e s and as a clearing house and centre of reference for groups working in social, recreational and a r t i s t i c fields of endeavor. (It is) made up of groups and individuals interested in the arts. It does not overlap the activities of any existing organization (but) exists merely to assist, stimulate and co-ordinate." 1 In addition to this general statement of the Council's function the Constitution seta forth the following objectives: 1) To help co-ordinate the work and programs of cultural groups in the city. 2) To stimulate and encourage the development of cultural projects and a c t i v i t i e s . 3) To render service to a l l participating groups. k) To act as a clearing house for information on cultural projects and a c t i v i t i e s . 5) To foster interest and pride in the cultural heritage of Vancouver. 6) To interpret the work of cultural groups to the community, enlist public interest, and promote public understanding. 7) To bring to the attention of Civie and Provincial authorities the cultural needs of the community. Historically i t has been the intent of the Community Arts Council to provide services to i t s memberenip in tnat a centralized operation would be more economical and efficient. By offering research and public relations services i t was thought that no vested 1: Community Arts Council F l i e r - 5 -interest would develop within the Council which would detract from i t s effectiveness as a co-ordinating body. In order that the Council could adhere to a policy of co-ordinating services only, a very close liaison between the member groups and the Board of the Council was antlcip gted. As Miss;Sweeny indicates in her study of "The Community Arts Council of Vancouver," this close tie was not maintained perhaps for the reason tha t the groups themselves were not sure what they wanted when they voted the Council into existence and therefore, in effect, they later asked the Community Arts Council to prove i t s worth. This was evident when one year after voting the council into existence only twenty per cent of the groups present at the inaugural meeting held membership in the Council. Administrative Functions Planning -It was the opinion of the Interim Committee that the Board of the Community Arts Council, which would carry legislative and administrative functions, should be broadly representative of the community as a whole. The Board i s therefore composed of both lay and professional members and members-at-large, members who can reflect the thinking of the community as a whole and those who have a more intimate knowledge of the various cultural activities i n the city. In order that the decision-making process within this body should not be too cumbersome and a bro ad view of the issues maintained, the Board was not selected on an entirely representative basis from membership. The direct representation consists of the section chairmen, a member of the City Council and representatives from other agencies not directly a f f i l i a t e d with the Community Arts Council. The remainder of the Board consists of elected members who have special knowledge of the community. In many ways the growth of the Arts Council is represented in the growth of the Board and in the expansion of the Executive Committee. Constitutionally, the Executive i s composed of seven officers - the past president, chairmen of standing committees and sections, and the chairmen of special committees. Since the inception of the Council the Executive has grown from nine to eigh-teen members. This very growth put a strain on the membership of the Council, and particularly on the staff and the Cinance Committee. The result was that the Nominating Committee had some d i f f i c u l t y in getting officers, the staff^bo prd-relationships were strained, and the Finance Committee seriously examined the financial basis of the Council structure. The major burden for the financial support of the Com-munity Arts Council came from the Junior League, through i t s demonstration grant. Membership fees were collected, but the gre ater percentage' of funds raised in this manner financed the - 7 -publication of the Calendar, a schedule of events publicized by the Council. As with most voluntary organizations, various methods of financing were considered by the Committee. Program Development and Trends -The program developed by the Community Arts Council through the planning of membership and administrative groups re-flects an attempt to give service to the group and individual members of the organization and to meet the objectives set forth in the Constitution. 1 The program comprises projects and general services. After five years of operation the Council set up a Program Committee to assure the continuity of these regular services and develop special projects in a manner that would assure equal benefit to the various fields of art and emphasize the demonstration function of the Community Arts Council in mustering support. A Council pro-ject i s "an undertaking for which the Council assumes f u l l respon-s i b i l i t y for organization and presentation.' It i s presented to the public as "a project of the Community Arts Council of Vancouver".2 "The Arts and Our Town", "Design for Living", The One Act Play Festival", "The Symposium of Canadian Music" and the "Panorama of Music" are included in this category. On the other hand, a Council "sponsored" project i s "an 1 D. Moira Sweeny, Thesis, U.B.C. 1951, Part II. 2 Comer, Virginia Lee, Report of Consultation V i s i t to the  Community Arts Council of Vancouver. June 19^9. d e f i n i t i o n of Terms) - 8 -undertaking, the idea for which may originate within the Council or be presented by the Council, but which i s carried out under the responsibility of another group. The Council may give financial and/or other forms of aid in accordance with an agreement between the Council and the other responsible body. The project i s presented to the public in the name of the responsible body as 'sponsored by the Community Arts Council of Vancouver' ."The Vancouver Children's Theatre (now Community Children's Theatre) and the introductory Chamber Music Concert (now Friends of Chamber Music) were examples of this type of project. The earliest on-going service offered by the Council to i t s membership was the News Calendar, a monthly publication offer-ing Information on current topics of interest, and a complete monthly survey of coming events. Services to Individuals -The Council has been able to be of service to the individual in many ways. Information on current events in a l l forms of the arts, dates, times, places, program details and ticket information are available. Publicity for concerts by new artists is given through Council channels. Council and Group Membership introduc-tions for new members are f a c i l i t a t e d through Section meetings. Instruments, pianists, scores, advice on original musical composi-tions, help to town-planners, contacts with crafts outlets and - 9 -addresses of furniture designers, and provision of l i b r e t t i s t s services are some of the functional services that have been pro-vided. Services to Member Groups -The Community Arts Council has established group resources to encourage the membership in community programs. Some of the f a c i l i t i e s they provide include meeting and rehersal space, use of typewriters, addressograph and other secretarial services, costumes, scores, films, skilled arts leadership and teachers, and resource material on which constitutions of new graips can be based. The Council also provides speakers on various subjects in the arts f i e l d . The News Calendar, press and radio releases, entertainment parties, loan on rental of fine pictures, and advice on publica-tions complete t h e l i s t of group resources. Summary -The description of the Community Arts Council of Vancouver indicates the extent of che requests placed upon i t by the commun-ity . 1 These requests have been met through t h e combined resources of the Section Membership. The projects h&ve been sponsored by the Council, the most successful being the "One Act Play Festival" produced jointly by the Drama and Literary Sections in conjunction with tne Department of Education. The lack of regular participation by the professional in the sections has limited their effectiveness. 1 D.M.Sweeny, The Community Arts Council of Vancouver. Thesis, June 1951, The University of Br i t i s h Columbia. 10 This was demonstrated in the "Panorama of Music", an amateur pro-duction produced by the Music Section the "Symposium of Canadian Music", a professional production, rather than being presented by the Music Section was organized through the Council's executive channels. This indicates the division of interest between the pro-fessional and amateur ar t i s t s , which complicates the Council's administration. The Children's Program, sponsored by the Community Arts Council, drew upon i t s sections and i t s a f f i l i a t i o n with amateur art i s t s , professional artists and the Council's relationship with community leisure-time agencies. Chapter 2 ORGANIZATION AN1 FUNCTIONING OF THE CHILDREN'S PROGRAM WITHIN THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL The services to children developed through the Community Arts Council from 1950 to 195^ reflect the changing focus of program policies mentioned in the previous chapter, while the various phases of the Children's Program demonstrate the f l e x i b i l i t y of the Community Arts Council in meeting the demands of community groups as i t attempts to f u l f i l the objectives set forth in the constitution. The bases from which the Vancouver Arts Council assumed i t s interest in children's services are many. As recommended in a con-sultation report by Miss Comer, the Council planned i n i t i a l l y to have an educational program which would build "towards the one point of understanding the psychological importance of aesthetic experience to mental health and personality development." ^ Such a program was to include many specific functions in relation to community groups such as the development of demonstration projects, assistance in seeking talent, help in finding volunteers with special s k i l l s , and assistance in planning, a l l of which would further this stated objec-tive. While these functions were outlined in principle by the woman who had directed the f i r s t arts council on this continent, the r e a l i s -t i c fact was that from the time the Arts Council was established 1 V. L. Comer, Report of Consultation Visit to the Community  Arts Council of Vancouver, submitted June 1 , 19^9. 1 2 community groups asked for these services for their Individual organizations though perhaps few were aware of Miss Comer's stated . objective in offering such services. In fact, the pressure of ser-vices and projects, as described by Miss Sweeny, precluded any de-tailed analysis of the psychological importance of the various group activ i t i e s to the individual members. 1 The social and recre ational agencies were among those which constantly requested the assistance of the Community Arts Council in locating people skilled in a particular art form and willing to offer group leadership. The requests from the greater number of agencies were for voluntary service, while a few, recognizing the demand and value in payment for leadership, offered an honorarium for specialists 1 services. At no time was the Council able to f i l l a l l the requests made of i t , although appeals were made through volunteers and staff to skilled persons in contact with the Council throughi.the office or the Sections. The Sections, where representatives of groups in each of the Arts came together, were the chief channels to the amateur, and in some cases to the professional members, of each of the art fields. As this situation continued, some problems became more appar-ent. There were never sufficient artists with the time, a b i l i t y and interest to offer their services to community groups. Many persons, whose s k i l l was their only source of income, could not afford to work voluntarily. This pointed in part to the dilemma of the Arts Council. On the one hand the Council was to assist groups in obtaining 1 D. Moira Sweeny, Thesis, U.B.C. 1 9 5 1 . P.121. 13 voluntary leadership from art i s t s , while at the same time the Council was somewhat obliged to make a stand for the professional artist and interpret to the community the reasons for payment of the a r t i s t . Fur-ther, the standard raising function of the Council in relation to the Arts could only be maintained i f those who were to do community work were well trained and therefore qualified in their work. Meantime, the community organizations seeking the help of the Arts Council recognized different standards and factors in program leadership which were not apparent to the Arts Council. The various objectives included: the provision of a recreational experience for the public, an opportunity to meet others, and a group experience which would assist the members in their personal development. The degree of emphasis upon the achieving of s k i l l as compared to personal development was not always clear to the agencies, Council and special-ists involved. Beginnings of Children's Program -The channels of Community Arts Council service to the com-munity were becoming established through the development of the Sections and the projects planned and sponsored by Council. O utside of refer-ring leadership to child serving agencies, the Community Arts Council had developed no recognized channel for co-ordinating and promoting children's cultural services u n t i l 19^7. At this time a group of community people interested in advancing the Interest of children in the arts came to the Community Arts Council and asked their co-operation in developing a project to expand opportunities for children. It was in this way that the Vancouver Arts Oouneil f i r s t became active In children's services. The Vancouver Children's Theatre -The Vancouver Children's Theatre, established in 19^7, was organized by an independent group of citizens with an advtisory board. The project was assisted by the Community Arts Council for one year and was therefore a council sponsored project for that period. The objective of the theatre was to assist in the "development of cultural instincts through a sound program of basic training in the arts of speech, dancing and music". This was achieved by providing a minimum of eight lessons each month and making preparations for the production of a show. Production and a chance to perform the s k i l l s acquired during the training period were an integral part of the Theatre Group's program. During the f i r s t year of operation four hundred Vancouver children in four different d i s t r i c t s received an Introduction to speech, dancing and music as they met and trained in various community buildings. Seven thousand children attended a production by a Trained Children's Theatre group brought to Vancouver Schools under the auspices of the Vancouver Children's Theatre. 2 This f i r s t project was not continued as a community-centered program, and the theatre's directors redirected i t s interests to a commercial, rather than 1 "What i s Vancouver Children's Theatre?", program statement from the Bluebird. Ap r i l 19^8. 2 Clare Tree Major Children's Theatre of New York, production of "Hans Brinker and the Silver Skates". 15 participant emphasis, on which basis the Community Arts Council had offered sponsorship. Following this experiment in sponsorship the directors of the Council considered the factors which would more readily assure success of community-centered projects sponsored for children. It seemed that there must be some definite community structure which would provide continuity in administration and leadership to develop and maintain parent and community interest. The necessity of suitable f a c i l i t i e s for dramatic work was recognized and brought to the attention of the Drama Section of Community Arts Council, which joined with Community Children's Theatre towards obtaining the use of schools for Saturday morning ac t i v i t i e s . To date the schools have not been made available because of administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s and the need for a clear definition of policy on the use of schools for recreation pur-poses. Redefinition of Policy -The objective of the Community Arts Council in stimulating the arts went hand-in-hand with the second undertaking of a program for children. The Board had the intention of an'bn-going" children's program to include a l l forms of the arts. It planned to work with and through the existing organizations serving children in realizing i t s program. This policy was formulated in the spring of 1951 . At this time the work of various community organizations serving the Interests 16 of children was formally recognized hy the Community Arts Council. Moreover the act i v i t i e s and the projects of the Council were attract-ing Increased attention from the community, and this attention was a very powerful force in bringing the resources of these organizations and the Community Arts Council together. Through the co-operation of the Group Work Division of the Community Chest and Council, a meeting was held at the Community Arts Council offices in March 1 9 5 1 . At this meeting the objectives of the Council in relation to Chindren's services were outlined. Their i n -tention of accomplishing what they could by working with leisure-time agencies to expand arts programs for children was explained. ^ The question was: Could the Council render any service in providing skilled leadership for art courses, i f this were hot available, or could i t assist in interesting sponsoring groups in such projects? A wide variety of po s s i b i l i t i e s were presented by agency representatives. These Included a Community Arts Council plan to sponsor creative act i v i t i e s in various fields according to the supply of qualified teachers, and a plan to set up a pilot study in an area where activity was already under way. The hope for the future was that service groups and clubs might be willing to help sponsor such act i v i t i e s , as the cost of leadership was beyond the reach of social and recreational agencies. Interest in developing the arts as a hobby for agency members, and in concerts and similar spectator projects 1 D. Moira Sweeny, Thesis, U.B.C., 1951 , P. 108. 17 was indicated. It was thought that summer training courses and dance displays by students in community centres would partially realize this demand. Some concern was expressed for those whose s k i l l had been recognized. Several representatives showed interest in a l l of these services as well as in leadership for camp programs. These topics indicated the wide range of program where more development was desir-ed; but specific information was necessary before a basis for further planning could be established. A very extensive survey was carried out by the Community Arts Council at the request of the representatives at this meeting. ^-Its objective was to compile specific Information which would indic-ate the present use of specialists and the development of arts programs In community agencies, as well as available resources. This informa-tion would Indicate, the development potential in different centres, based upon information concerning community f a c i l i t i e s in the metropolitan area, a l l groups associated with these f a c i l i t i e s , adult groups which might consider sponsoring a scheme, programs being under-taken at the moment, programs that groups might be interested in furthering, and known teachers whose names could be recommended. This survey, now. completed, provides a source of information on the attitudes of various leisure^time leaders on program objectives and arel of Interest. 1 Appendix A 18 Children 1s Concerts -A second outcome of the meeting was a direct service to children in the form of two symphony concerts. These concerts were presented as pilot studies to test the response of children from five to fifteen years of age to this type of experience. The concerts were attended by eight hundred children. Although the response was enthusiastic, many agency representatives thought the experiment show-ed the need of musical training and experience for the children. This project demonstrated the need for additional introductory training in community centres to give children basic understanding and knowledge. The Musicians Union, A.F.of M., Local 1^5, presented these concerts upon request from the Community Arts Council, through the Music Performance Trust Fund of the recording industry, as a commun-ity service. In this undertaking the Community Arts Council provided the leadership in community organization which permitted several agencies to benefit from a service they desired but previously lacked the channels for obtaining. Community Arts for Children -The third step in the Community Arts Council's children's' program evolved from the i n i t i a l experiment. The representatives who a-ccended %he spring concerts wiohthe children from their agencies were asked to say whether they thought the concerts were beneficial. The strongest reaction was that the children needed much preparatory 19 work before concerts of such dimension could be appreciated suffic- . iently to have an effect upon the permanent development of child Interest. The agencies indicated that the concerts would be valuable i f they culminated a year's training. Lack of leadership was known to be the main d i f f i c u l t y in realizing this proposed plan. Leadership was certainly not available within the agencies. Also It was the policy of the Arts Council to include a l l forms of the arts in a com- . prehensive children's program. A delegation of agency and Community Arts Council representa-tives met again to determine the best method of approaching the prob-lem. A plan for the use of specialized leadership in four areas of program was discussed. As leaders in graphic arts and music were available immediately, the problem rested to determine the best method of employing these persons to most readily satisfy the community agencies' demand. The decision reached provided that five Vancouver East agencies would co-operate in arranging for f a c i l i t i e s which could be used by the combined membership of the five agencies. Each agency would limit i t s delegates to assure that the classes would not be too unwieldy. Classes for Children -The intention of the Community Arts Council in sponsoring classes was to stimulate the development of the arts among the children of Vancouver, and particularly the 'creative' arts. Moreover, i t f 20 wished to demonstrate to the agencies who had shown interest in the arts the value of using qualified persons in this work. The planning of the children's program was on a co-operative basis between the Community Arts Council and the agencies a f f i l i a t e d with the Group Work Division of the Community Chest and Council. It did co-ordinate agency planning in relation to this project. However, i t did not affect the children's services offered by the schools and other community groups. In so far as the plans were a novel move to demonstrate the value of skilled leadership i t did stimulate consideration of the role of the specialist in the community setting. The First Year -The f i r s t group of sponsored classes was organized with the intention of establishing a permanent structure for on-going service to children. At the same time as this principle received some attention, i t was hoped that the administrative structure would alter as interes-ted groups would assume some financial responsibility for the. program. At this point the Council was to pay specialists a fee of ten dollars per hour for a one hour weekly session, while the agencies provided the necessary staff, agency time and f a c i l i t l e s , and membership for the groups. Also, every effort was to be made by the participating agencies to spread.information regarding the groups and their sponsor-ship throughout the community. 21 Two of the four classes in graphic art, music, drama, and dance began in early October, while the remaining two were started shortly after Christmas when leaders were available. The professional qualifications of those active in setting the framework for the classes affected the emphasis sought in sponsoring the classes. Six agencies participated directly in this scheme, while nine staff rep-resentatives were concerned directly with the program. Of this number, six were trained social workers and three were practising social workers. Further, the Executive Director of the Community Arts Council was a social worker, arid she acted as staff co-ordinator and liaison person with the agencies. Emphasis was placed upon participation in planning, relationship of the individual members to the leaders, the enjoyment of the group experience, and participation on a creative basis. It was emphasized that the children were not attending the classes to learn a sklllalone, but to h ave an opportun-ity to meet other children with whom they could plan and have a pleasant learning experience. The agency representatives met three times during the year. The f i n a l meeting was designed to evaluate the total project at i t s termination. The specialists directing the classes met with one another twice to discuss common reactions, administrative problems, and to evaluate the program as i t appeared to them. 22 The classes continued on a regular basis with a consistent enrollment and 68.6. per cent average attendance. The records made by the writer as an observer at the classes pointed out many advant-ages which the specialist-led classes demonstrated. These records show that the knowledge of the specialist allows a logical develop-ment of class growth in s k i l l and understanding. They also demonstrate the difference between teaching a cre ative art and developing creative thinking. At the conclusion of the f i r s t year principles previously accepted as self-evident were questioned. The calibre of leadership had been high, but some discrepancies as to the effectiveness of this leadership in the agency setting were noticeable. Very skilled specialists did not always work well with children In the recreation setting. A great deal of agency staff time was needed in some cases to make the leadership effective. Some agencies did not spend staff time in assuring the integration of the art class into, the agency total program. The agency f a c i l i t i e s and setting, and often the objectives, were not conducive to class atmosphere expected by the specialist, and this resulted in frustration to them. Parental interest and general community Interest was not in evidence, and enrollment was small enough in some centres to raise the question as to the validity of offering such classes. Finally', the fee offered by the Community Arts Council was Judged, even by the specialists, to be ex .orbitant. 23 Advantages were not lacking. First of a l l , the agencies recognized that the calibre of leadership available through this program was superior to any that the agencies could obtain because of limited, financial resources and recruiting a b i l i t y . Secondly, the specialist, agency and individual supervisory staff-specialist meeting proved helpful in increasing knowledge and appreciation of the objectives, methods and problems. Further, the specialists' contact with the Arts Council provided a channel for discussion and recognition of common obstacles and objectives. The instructors, three of whom had background experience in formal education, main-tained that only by retaining the executive power of such a project in the hands of a private organization such as the Arts Council could the standards established in this project be maintained. To this end they strongly supported the continuation of the classes. Second Year of Continued Service The Community Arts Council continued the sponsorship of the children's classes for the second year to complete the demonstra-tion objective. The uncertain sponsorship interest in the classes through the community agencies and the lack of a clearly defined policy relating to sponsorship and administration pointed out the need for continuation. The development of service club sponsor-ship appeared unlikely and the agencies were not willing to assume this responsibility. Satisfactory administrative procedures between Zk the agencies and the Council had yet to evolve and mutually accept-able objectives had not been reached. The Community Arts Council hoped to solve these problems through the continuation of the pro-ject. Prom the beginning of the f a l l planning in 1952 the Child-ren 1 s Program was looked upon as a demonstration project. It was considered that i f the project was really worth while, and i f the agencies who had benefited from the resources of the Community Arts Council over the past years had recognized Its worth, they would in the future be willing to incorporate into their budgets sufficient funds to carry the project in the future. The experience of the previous year necessitated putting into effect a rather str i c t administrative policy by the Community Arts Council. The Council continued to pay the specialist's fee, which was now set at seven dollars for an hour and a half session once a week for a period of twenty weeks. This fee, suggested by the specialists, was s t i l l far above that offered on an honorarium basis by the agencies to class leaders. The specific responsibilities for artists and agency s t g f f supervisors were outlined and distributed to each. This was done to ensure a closer co-ordination between the agencies and the specialist, the specialists and the Community Arts Council, and the Community Arts Council with the agencies who had not always notified the Council in regard to attendance and limited 25 enrollment in sufficient time to make alternate plans. Some refinements were effected in the 1952-1953 season. The extensiveness of the Arts Gallery Children's Classes and the Art School Program were considered sufficient to warrant withdrawal of this class from the Community Arts Council grouping. Further, regularly submitted stat i s t i c s were required of each agency to keep the Community Arts Council well informed as to registration and attendance. The classes were sponsored in a gre ater variety of centres which reflected different residential, family and community patterns. Sunset and Marpole Community Centres, Alexandra Neighbourhood House, Gordon House, Pender Y.W.C.A., Klwassa Girls Club were added to the participating agencies, while Central Y.W.C.A., the Vancouver Boys Clubs and the Vancouver East Y.M.-Y.W. withdrew. Administration The pattern of large general meetings of agencies interested in participation in the Community Arts Council Children's Program changed to one of concentrated meetings of those directly associated with the program, during the second and third year. Three meetings of agency and Community Arts Council repre-sentatives were held during the 1952-1953 season. The f i r s t , held in November after contracting for the placement of instructorswas completed and classes begun, solidified the administration structure 26 for the current year. Representatives agreed on responsibility of agency, specialist and the Community Arts Council. Two evaluations were requested -one at mid-term and another at the completion of the program. The mid-term meeting evaluated the program within the following structure: Method and effectiveness of recruiting; Average attendance in relation to other agency program; The class content, appeal to children; Method of Instruction; Relation of class to other agency program; Leadership effectiveness in relation to agency policy; Supervision - degree feasible or otherwise; Community interest in the program. Evaluation -The methods of recruiting in each of the different centres were comparable. The application form printed by the Community Arts Council was distributed to schools and children known to their agencies were contacted personally or by mail to determine interest. However, the effectiveness in relation to these methods varied widely in determining enrollment and interest on the part of the parents. Unlike most agency children 1s programs, at least one parent was required to sign the application blank. The pattern of recruiting v a r i e d with each agency. The 27 KIwassa Girls Club utilized the Community Arts Council material with success, both in the enrollment and the development of interest and support in the dance class sponsored there. The Sunset Community Centre in sponsoring a group v o i l l n class, achieved, sufficient child response and parental interest to provide an enrollment of 18, Parental co-operation was enlisted in the payment of a weekly fee for the voillns. The Pender Y.W.C.A. also used the Community Arts Council f l i e r s as i t s chief source of i n i t i a l interest in recruiting, while members of junior clubs were also circularized through the agency. . Here the effectiveness was primarily in relation to arousing interest in the children, with some parental interest being demonstra-ted on the occasion of Christmas and Spring Presentation. The two Neighbourhood Houses, Alex pndra and Gordon, each demonstrated an obvious lack of effectiveness through the use of the Community Arts Council f l i e r s . They found that the most effective method of recruiting members was in personal contact with members of the proper age group already within the agency program. At Gordon Neighbourhood House the core of the total enroll-ment provided an average attendance of eleven rather regular members. The enrollment at the Music Appreciation Class offered at Alexandra Neighbourhood House was never higher than ten, and the average attend-ance for the ten sessbns was only two. .This class was discontinued and the instructor transferred to another centre where community 28 interest was more in line with the demands of the program. It may-he added that the program was far more successful in the Vancouver East Y.W.-Y.M., where i t had been given the previous year by the same instructor. The average attendance at these cultural arts classes was considered in relation to the general agency membership. Usually the two figures were comparable with the exception of the Alexandra Neighbourhood House class, which was less by twenty-two per cent. Exact statistics were not available in many cases. Gordon Neighbour-hood House provided considerable opportunities in the arts for the membership. They compared arts and less specialized group programs to discover that enrollment and attendance patterns were similar. The content and method of instruction varied greatly with instructors, while administratively the ideal s t i l l remained to give creative emphasis. The most formal of the five classes were the v i o l i n and the dance courses. Here formal exercises, instructions and demonstration periods composed the class program, where emphasis was placed upon acquisition of s k i l l s demonstrated by the instructor. The Music Appreciation Glass was directed on a rather formal basis, in that the content of the class material was definitely established by the instructor. However, the instructor's methods required each participant to provide his own answers and reasons for musical appreciation and the analysis of exercises. 29 While material in the dance and group v i o l i n classes was given and handled entirely within the framework established by the instructor, the music appreciation class provided some scope for the participants' use.of personal suggestion in the formal training. The creative drama groups were directed in similar fashion. The specialist suggested a number of plays that would be within the a b i l i t y of the children, but the f i n a l decision was l e f t to them. The subject for exercises in mime and dialogue were often given by the instructor, but the words and expressions varied according to the mood of the children. In this class framework the limitations to creative a b i l i t y of the children became apparent. The scope was almost limitless, and boundaries were set only by the membership. As attendance varied from week to week, i t was noted that the most creative atmosphere between class members and instructor prevailed when the number was not too large. Twelve was thought to be the most effective number in the case of drama, dance and the music appreciation group i f creativity was to be emphasized. The classes were incorporated Into the regular agency pro-gram on a variety of bases. The f i r s t point tobe considered was that they were the only specialist group program offered by the agencies which recognized the f u l l professional fee of an instructor. Another point to be considered was that i t was not always a "new" program in the agency. For instance, at Gordon House the dance and drama classes 30 were extensions of an already established program of special inter-est groups for members of the nine to twelve age group. Here the program served as a "pace-setter" in leadership. On the other hand, the groups at the Vancouver East, Pender and Central "Y" were the only ones of their kind offered. In Kiwassa Girls'Club, where other K cultural classes had been given, the dance class demonstrated the breadth of program possible. The instructor at the Sunset Community Centre indicated that the physical program emphasis had been broadened to give a more balanced community service. The enrollment in the music appreciation classes showed a limited development potential for this subject. The degree to wnich the classes were an integral part of agency programs was often reflected in the manner i n wnich the groups were presented to the public. Over the two year period, only two class groups were presented with others at time of annual concerts and public demonstrations. The effectiveness of specialist leadership in these Community Arts Council classes was Judged by the agency staff, Community Arts Council representatives and specialists alike, who sought Jointly to establish a c r i t e r i a for this specific type of leadership in the social recreation f i e l d . In the two ye ars much concern was shown over the apparent lack of mutual standards. Without exception, agency staff recognized the leadership supplied by the Community 31 Arts Council as superior in the technical training i t could offer to the children. Only in unusual cases were agencies able to u t i l i z e such skilled persons, as the budgets would not allow this, and skilled volunteers were limited. In centers where the agency objective was to give an additional recreational experience and training, there was l i t t l e discontent over the leadership offered and no indication that changes in co-operation between specialist and agency could be re-quired to better the program in terms of agency objective. Two incidents indicated that a high degree of s k i l l only was not sufficient to produce effective arts leaders in other agency settings. Two participating organizations, with emphasis on dramatic group procedures, were dissatisfied with the leadership. One c l a s s would have demanded too much staff time through supervision to make the group effective. The other organization, recognizing a very un-creative appro ach and dictatorial instructive method, was unable to deal with the situation effectively. The specialist was not willing to give time for consultation with the staff person. He lacked an appreciation of a democratic and creative approach in dance instruction which was the agency's objective in the program. It became apparent that the use of supervision as a means of achieving the conjunction of the social worker's and artist's s k i l l s was not completely successful. As interviews with agency directors indicated, supervision of paid and voluntary staff was not carried on in the same strict fashion as student and staff supervision. Through interviews held with directors of nine agencies, including 32 three neighbourhood houses, three community centers, Central Y.W.C.A., one Y.W.C.A. branch and a Joint Y.M.-Y.W.C.A., i t was shown that one hour per month was estimated as the supervision time given to volunteers and specially assigned workers not on staff. It was indicated that "real" specialists were not given supervision. In each case supervision was on an informal basis and was not required i n most agencies. The interviews indicated certain factors which determined the worker's interest and a b i l i t y to undertake supervision. First, a the pertinent knowledge of p artlcipants on/part of the staff person was sought or used well by the instructor i f i t permitted i t s adaptation in the class setting. Secondly, pertinent knowledge of other agency functions induced interest upon the part of the specialist,who in turn became better prepared to participate in supervision relating to his club program. Questions concerning discipline and use of building frequently formed the basis for interest in supervision. Three directors interviewed expressed concern and acceptance of the fact that "specialistg"resist or reject supervision. The experience of the two years in Community Arts Council program indicated varied procedure of agency and specialist partic-ipation in supervision. In the nine participating agencies only four offered personalized supervision. The agencies involved received different reactions to i t . These ranged from complete rejection to enthusiastic participation. 33 The community interest in the program was limited to the parents of the participating children.Plans for a joint demonstration of the f i r s t year classes were not realized. The decision not to hold the program reflected the concern of the specialists over the forced nature of staged production. The class pressure required to produce them and the bad effect upon the children were the main reasons for the cancellation. It. also reflected concern over the limited reaction to the acquisition of s k i l l shown by the children. This fact had considerable influence on objectives established by the Community Arts Council project in the second year. Those involved carefully examined the program and public relations values of the program and thus a f t e r two years the emphasis upon developing general community Interest was withdrawn. The difference in effectiveness of the various phases of administration indicated the qualified value of specialist-lead classes in different settings and d i s t r i c t s . The sample was not complete enough to compare the reactions of children i n a l l d i s t r i c t s to the same content and methods of instruction, but some conclusions were indicated. Children in d i s t r i c t s with a high degree of transiency and family problems respond more readily to a personalized method of recruiting and program, with less formal class content. Lack of agency contact with the adults of the community and limited parental interest characterized programs where personalized services in small groups were in demand. Communities where parents were active in agency 3^ administration were more receptive to a formal class method of instruction and recruited classes more readily. One factor was evident in both groups - Bramatics and dancing were definitely the most popular and music appreciation the least in a l l groups participating i n the Children's Program. The agency policies on leadership and program became c l a r i f -ied In relation to the Council. These Indicated a demand for leader-ship training, where increased emphasis was placed on personal develop-ment and staff specialist consideration of membership and agency objectives. The f i n a l evaluation of the classes after the second year produced a set of administrative requirements which would more readily assure the integration of the Social Worker's and art i s t ' s s k i l l s . 1 The application assured the Community Arts Council of data on the classes. It also bound the agency and specialists to procedures designed to f a c i l i t a t e administration and f u l f i l class objectives. The preferables l i s t e d in this outline indicated f i r s t the new objective in program sponsorship. This w0s to assist agencies toward inclusion of professionally led classes under their direct sponsorship as opposed to extra agency sponsorship. Secondly, the attainment of community interest as a secondary rather than primary objective, acknowledged the agencies' lack of a b i l i t y to foster such interest in a l l cases. Finally, i t was recognized that most agency 1. Appendix B. 35 staff were not trained social workers and further that agencies where social workers were concentrated were not always the most suitable centres for specialist lead programs. .Towards Project Termination -The outline describing agency and Community Arts Council responsibilities was drawn together by the Children's Program Commi-ttee, which anticipated continuation of the project for another year. Shortly after this the Council had elected a new executive, upon whose shoulders f e l l the responsibility of examining projects In view of expense and appropriatness. As was mentioned in Chapter 1, during the few years of the Council's existence, the pressure of projects, change of focus in programming, and d i f f i c u l t i e s of the Finance Committee hadplaced a heavy t o l l on the active members and changing staff. Once again pressure of projects and financial adjustments made f u l l re-evaluation necessary. In the light of this evaluation, i t was decided that the Children's Program would be continued in a manner that would allow a reduction of expenses and provision of leadership where needed and requested. The requests of agencies by late June numbered four. They were from agencies which offered social work supervision. Three requests were for dramatics, one for modern dance. In each of the former cases the second choice was for dance, while in the latter, the second choice was for painting and puppetry. 36 The major change i n the organization of the program came with the withdrawal of the extensive hacking which had been available in the previous two years. This change came concurrently with the plans of the Children's Program Committee f o r rather complex adminis-t r a t i o n of the classes. This committee was not reconvened i n the early f a l l to c l a r i f y 1953-195^ arrangements. With the sudden discontinua-t i o n of the strong f i n a n c i a l backing f o r the series of classes sponsored by the Community Arts Council, a major change i n the pro-gram emphasis was forthcoming. Plans f o r 1953-195V-The demands f o r leadership placed on the Council since i t s inception were s t i l l to be met but the sponsored project ended. The concluding year was to evolve In two facets. F i r s t , the o v e r - a l l d i r e c t i o n f o r s p e c i a l i s t s placed i n agency settings would continue through the Children's Program Committee. The Sections would a s s i s t i n recruitment of such s p e c i a l i s t s and perhaps i n t h e i r sponsorship. They, i n turn, would be part of a program of orientation to agency work. They could receive consultation when i t was needed with those experienced i n the agency setting, and could also work with a p s y c h i a t r i s t who would o f f e r professional advice i f c a l l e d upon. Secondly, the Community Arts Council would continue d i r e c t sponsorship of two classes with f u l l f i n a n c i a l backing. The emphasis here was to be on research. 37 For two years there had been many questions about the valid-ity of Community Arts Council sponsorship of classes. There were queries about the value of art specialists in a recreation setting, the Interest of the artist in working in these settings, the validity of the rate of pay, and above a l l , the special benefit to the children attending the classes. Since agreement could not be reached between the Community Arts Council, specialists and agency representatives, a plan was drawn up to make a searching examination of factors affect-ing group success. By concentrating effort in two agencies where the staff were both sympathetic to the program and interested in examining closely i t s limitations and potentials, i t was hoped that some light could be cast on the benefits of specialist-le d groups to children in social agency setting. Method -Factual Information was needed most. Previous to this time, no agency had kept records of leadership method and personal reactions of children and leaders In the group setting. The writer, as an observer, had been able to record observations in the f i r s t year for the majority of sessions. These records provided Information on sur-face response and technique, but could describe l i t t l e or none of the personal development of membership within this framework. Therefore, i t was decided t h a t the instructors, participants and staff would each show their intention, response, methcl of work and Interpretation 38 of the class situation as i t related to the personal development of the members of the class. The specialists were to keep records of the classes, describing method of instruction, and providing pertinent data relating to the members' growth. The staff person was also asked to describe in detail her observation of classes. Recordings of the members' behaviour and growth in other agency program were to be made so as to provide a f u l l account of the child's behaviour in group activity. Comparison was to be made between lndividualgrowth i n the art specialist led group and general play group. In recognition of the specialists' d i f f i c u l t y in adapting to the agency setting,.the plan was to include meetings of the specialists with a Community Arts Council liaison worker to assure their recognition of the class objectives, and to provide a channel for their own personal reactions and ideas to be recognized in carrying out the program. Those working with the program in previous years realized that specialists had much to teach agency staffs about the learning process in an art class setting. However, the inabi l i t y of staff and specialists to discuss handicaps freely with one another led to the demands for a separ ate meeting for each group as well as a joint meeting of staff and specialists. In scheduled meetings i t was hoped that the Community Arts Council's support an.-d understanding of both groups would provide the necessary climate to 39 encourage a very objective consideration of the program. It was planned to have weekly consultation between staff and specialist when mutual planning on behalf of the children could be undertaken. Secondly, after sufficient material on individual child-ren was collected, i t was to be submitted to a psychiatrist experienced in agency group consultive work who, in turn, would advise upon behav-iour and progress in relation to the two types of activity. Thus the research plan was complete. In summary, i t involved -1. Records from two art groups, dance and drama. (Each had children of the same age.) 2. Records on the spme children in two different group settings (friendship and interest groups). 3. Committee meetings at various levels; (a) agency (b) specialist (c) Joint committees. Attendance and noted behaviour at a demonstration project (play or dance display) by two groups within the agency -(a) from trained groups (drama and dance) (b) from untrained groups (children not benefiting from agency art training). The objective of the Community Arts Council in requesting such detailed analysis was to produce a document relating to the technique of sponsorship and administration of a sound Arts Program for Children. Proceedings In 19 53-195** -The plan devised for the 1953-195^ season was only partially completed. The f i r s t part of the plan materialized in so far as leaders were referred to the requesting agencies through the assistance of a drama leader associated with both the program and the Drama section. Tne second part of the program did not f u l f i l i t s research objective so that a document outlining the program values and adminis-trative methods of a sound Arts Program was not produced. The adminis-trative tasks demanded of the agencies were beyond agency resources. However, these factors pointed out the limitations surrounding an intensive group service program in the arts offered through community agencies 1 auspices Beginning with the f i r s t general meeting of the Children's Program Committee, there was confusion about the method of conduct-ing the class to produce factual material. Questions centered on the limitation of the sample, lack of knowledge, and failure to define the objective. Here the f i r s t limitations were put to the plan. The specialists, agency staff, and representatives of agency boards dis-cussed the proposed year's program. No representative of the Commun-ity Arts Council was able to attend. Following this meeting the staff advisors met with a consul-tant to clarify the appro ach in the research scheme. The sample was narrowed to involve three or four in each class, as only with this 4 i limitation could the psychiatrist hope to offer some conclusions. The hypothesis was outlined as follows: "There are unique values in offering a class under specialist leadership in a recreation agency." After this consultation the classes began. The staff pre-pared to assist the specialists in providing the required informa-tion. I n i t i a l staff-specialist consultations were held. The f i r s t interviews were not encouraging, especially in the case of the dance group at Vancouver Girls Club.' In this case a specialist, new to ihe agency group, found i t d i f f i c u l t to follow a class discipline method catered on a personalized approach of instructor interest in the members. The lack of such an approach had been evident in the experience of the previous two years. This pattern continued following the planned consultation periods which were held regularly for four weeks. During this time the staff members visited both the groups while in session. Resis-tance to consultation showed when time was not allowed by the specialist for supervision. As the staff visited classes, natural discipline problems caused specialists to feel 111 at e ase in class leadership. Of course the very presence of i t s staff at the time was distracting to the group. Thus one of the methods devised to produce an objective evaluation of the class sabotaged the process ^2 by disturbing the relationship balance. The competence of the experienced and inexperienced specialist was evident as the former completed records on her group and the latter did not complete one record. The courses covered a twenty week period. Attendance and response varied l i t t l e from the previous year, providing an average attendance figure of sixty per cent in creative dramatics at the Pender Y.W.C.A, and seventy six decimal six per cent in the dance group at the Vancouver Klwassa Girls' Club. Conclusion of the Project -The f i n a l conclusions relating to this work undertaken by the Community Arts Council and agencies.affiliated with the Group Work Division were made by three groups. The specialists in con-Junction with staff and Community Arts Council representatives, board members associated with participating agencies in the last year, and a group of agency representatives '• drew up a f i n a l statement about the program. These groups were unanimous in their opinion that the highly skilled person was best suited to give leadership to children in the arts in a community centre setting. He must have s k i l l in his own profession, but also must be well acquainted with methods of working with children in order to assure sound personal development of those taking part. Without the a b i l i t y to recognize the needs of children , the leader might be damaging to the group and i t s members. i+3 This conclusion raised the major question as to how and where such leaders might best be recruited and placed. There was a shortage of ar t i s t s , and therefore the possibilities of using the amateur artist or students were recognized. These suggestions were qualified by the proven advantage of an experienced instructor and the prospect of basis for payment.. The budgets of agencies were not equipped with resources to satisfy a professional fee, and yet to offer less was to deny the professional ar t i s t his recognition and means of livelihood. The r i g i d interpretation of fees followed in the earlier days of this experiment was now c l a r i f i e d . The process needed was two way: The Community ArtsCouncil must interpret community ser-vices to artists so that an honorarium would be f u l l y acceptable to them; the agency boards must on their part understand the need for this honorarium, i f appropriate leadership was to be had. In view of the need for s k i l l , and the additional demand for understanding of setting and participants, the possibility of training amateur and professionals alike to work in the community agency setting was considered. This method of increasing leadership resources was deemed most p r a c t i c a l . Summary -The method of work adopted by the Community Arts Council in relation to children underwent major changes from the time of *J4 the Vancouver .Children's Theatre to the conclusion of the Children's Program Project. Following the Council's parti-cipation in the "Theatre" project, the need of an established structure for administering community center classes was recognized. The Children's Program was begun after the sponsorship of concerts which demonstrated to agencies and the Council the need for increased child training before advanced concerts could be appreciated. This program supplied training to a limited number of children and the local community agencies which would provide- the structure to administer these programs. Administration, in conjunction with the agencies, opened the question of C.A.C. sponsored specialists acknowledging agency objectives when giving leadership within their auspices. The varying emphases of the public and the private agencies' and the demand's of the membership in different districts indicated the differing development potential for such programs. This project did f u l f i l l the objective of the Council in encouraging participation in a l l forms of the arts and demonstrated to the community agencies a variety of ways in which such leadership enriched the effectiveness of their program. The project changed from a demonstration to an experiment because of the lack of a mutual objective between the C.A.C. and the agencies. This change in emphasis was made possible because ©f the fl e x a b i l i t y of the C.A.C. administration and the continued interest of the agencies in develpp&ng a permanent source of skilled leadership. The program c l a r i f i e d many problems re-lating to the use of specialists and their place in the agency. Chapter 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF ART PROG-RAMS IN VANCOUVER Introduction Programs in graphic art, music, dance and drama sponsored in Vancouver compare readily with those of other communities on the North American continent. Since education, and more recently recreation, have been taken from the auspices of the home and placed In the public and community domain of sponsorship, many organizations have developed to meet the demand for a r t i s t i c experience. While the many organizations and associations of people interested in the arts have been active i n teaching, experimenting and developing standards, a variety of approaches have been for-mulated. There w i l l be reference to these as the function of school, community center, art gallery and other organizations are reviewed in respect to the various art forms. The kinds of experience they offer to the child, and the organizational and leadership f a c i l i t i e s needed for their successful development w i l l also be discussed. Arts Programs in Vancouver Schools. The status of the arts generally has changed markedly over the last century. This i s indicated by the fact that one hundred years ago a l l music in the schools was after hours. 46 Today, school music and graphic art programs are a part of the required curriculum for the elementary grades. Since music he-came a recognized part of the school curriculum in 1923, many schools have developed highly specialized art and music courses which' are available in both Junior and Senior High Schools, and may be had at the student's option. Dance and drama as "arts" occupy a different status in the educational system. Dance is recognized in the school cur-riculum as a part of the physical education program and i s thus i administered under the Department of Health and Physical Education in Vancouver. Drama has recently found i t s way into the school system but aB yet i s not part of the curriculum in the elementary school. Music in the Schools, The music program in Vancouver schools reflects the common pattern developed across the country. Within the ele-mentary •schools a general scheme of voice training and cultivation, of careful attention toward musical sound and rythmn are provided "to give every child enjoyment of music as something heard as well as something expressed". 1 in addition, there are six years of training so that ear training, sight-singing and specific 1 Programme of Studies for the Elementary Schools of British Columbia, Grades I to VI, Victoria, B. C. 4 7 learning in mode and form are gradually introduced as well as part singing. The junior high school, recognizing as i t does the i n -dividuality of the student, provides elective subjects for the student. This system permits students with an interest in music to carry on more intensive study. There may be more advanced theory courses, which continue and advance the training of rudi-ments given in the lower grades. Harmony, counterpoint, and form are also taught, with some emphasis being placed upon creative work of various sorts. To complete the music oppor-tunities, appreciation classes for organized listening should be recognized so that students unfamiliar with the technical aspects of music can learn with others to understand and ap-preciate i t s contribution. Particular Interests are emphasized as the student enters Senior High School. Here the approach differs in that specla lizations are introduced so that choral work may be only one among other classes available. Orchestra, music appreciation, history and some advanced theory are now given in a few schools where leadership i s available. In the future^ harmony w i l l be given.to grade twelve students. The program of a good high school might have such refinements as a glee club 48 for both boys and g i r l s , a special chorus of mixed voices, instrumental music, beginning classes in wood-wind, band, orchestra for thirty to eighty players, string quartette, wood-wind quintet, brass sextet, and other small ensembles. Another special feature of the music program in many high schools i s the production of an operetta. This requires cooperation from as many as three departments such as music,art, and drama, when they exist. For ten years credit has been given to students who have completed music training outside the school and have reached required standards in training and attainment. The quality of work in any f i e l d is directly related to the leadership available. The leadership standards for music teachers in the school are established by each community, and are determined by the availability of qualified teachers and the amount of money provided to attract those well-qualified. The Vancouver School Board prefers that the elementary teacher works as a grade teacher. Teachers of Grades One to Three have responsibility for a l l subjects, taught. This provides continuity of leadership for young children. Special summer courses are offered to teachers to enable them to deal more adequately with specialized subjects, such as music. Upon completion, the teacher receives a specialists 49 certificate which provides an increase in salary. Fifty percent of the elementary school music teachers now have such qualific-ations. However, a great deal of music i s taught by teachers who had no experience in music until the beginning of their teaching career. The teacher in junior or senior high schools i s often a specialist or professional musician. The professional standard i s receiving wide recognition in the high schools. Today, a qualified music supervisor must have four years of training In addition to his teaching certificate before assuming his position. This Includes general psychology, pedagogy, concentration on music methods, and training in instrumental and vocal work. The relation-ship of program strength to the qualifications of the instructors has been made evident in Vancouver where highly developed programs have flourished only where skilled leadership has been maintained. The f a c i l i t i e s and resources are improving as an i n -creasing number of music rooms and auditoriums are added to the school structure. The number of pianos and record players in the elementary and high schools indicates the expansion of op-portunities. The high schools are more completely equipped, with Gladstone, John Oliver and Lord Byng having the most complete f a c i l i t i e s . 50 A large record library of several thousand recordings is available for a l l school levels. The School Board also owns instruments for use in the high school, valued at three thousand dollars. This i s a recent development and therefore limited. However, i t has special value in supplying instruments whose cost i s beyond the individual's ab i l i t y to pay. One indication of the work done in the schools in vocal training i s the great number of classes taking part in the B.C. Musical Festival, and the general high standards attained. Some schools enter as many as six classes. Four schools have contributed choral presentations to the C.B..C. International Service which exchanges recordings with other nations. Outside resources made available to the schools include free orchestral concerts given in the high schools by the Vancouver Symphony Society. These were successful, yet a gradual f a l l i n g off in attendance was noted. Graphic Art in the Schools The objectives of the art class within the curriculum of the Department of Education are to develop habits of ob-servation, memory and s k i l l in the use of art materials. Thus, basic principles of selection and arrangement of colour, form and decoration are established, and good taste and Judgment are developed as objectives of the program. 51 The methods involved are those of applied art and art appreciation. In the former, each child manipulates the materials at hand while, in the latter, productions are compared with ac-cepted standards of "beauty and design, form and colour, and later with professional interpretations. As the child reaches the higher elementary grades, formal class criticism i s used' as ft method of Improving various aspects of art. The children may also be encouraged to share in arrangements and decorations for the room. Materials used are more diversified as the grade ad-vances, so that from use of only soft pencils, crayons, and coloured paper the child proeeeds to the use of materials such as water colours, poster colours, and blackboards. In the high school, much the same aims and methods are followed with the introduction of new materials such as leather and mural painting. This i s very often carried out in cooperation with the music department for operetta productions. The requirements for leadership and the method of selection in the elementary schools i s very similar to that in the music department. The majority of teachers are primarily grade teachers, with only a few teaching because of specialized experience and training. Likewise, in the high school the strength of the art department depends largely upon the Individual 52 preference of the art teacher and his or her attitude towards method. Within the last two years, meetings of teachers of different grade levels have helped greatly to bring together the combined talents of the various levels. These meetings have encouraged development of standards and encouraged individual talent. Another feature i s the introduction of in-service training courses in the art school and art teachers' classes which are regarded as powerful elements in strengthening the over-all program. A further development i s an art appreciation course for schools equipped with visual education f a c i l i t i e s . This course was completed by the high school art teachers. Again as in other fields, f a c i l i t i e s and equipment vary. The greater number of high schools have a special art room, whereas the elementary schools depend exclusively upon the re-sources of the individual classrooms. Both the music and the art programs, as well as drama classes where they are offered, are thought to be greatly limited in the senior high school by the demands of the university en-trance curriculum. For students taking these courses there i s no time for art, and thus a large percentage of the school papulation i s denied such experience within school hours. 53 Jrama in the Schools Dramatic training has not been recognized by many schools to the same extent as music and graphic art. However, in some schools on this continent drama has been made a part of the curriculum. In the school curriculum, drama promotes and ut i l i z e s child activity, an important phase of a l l educational method. Here the natural dramatic a b i l i t y and interest of the child can receive direction. A factor recognized by educator8twho urge dramatic experience in the school, i s that the process and method of the experience i s the Important thing, not the result in terms of good drama productions. They suggest that i f there is a need within the child which drama satisfies, then drama i s a legitimate part of school curriculum.^ This i s in keeping with the teaching of the "progressive" educationist who raises the question of a child's a b i l i t y to be creative and participate in an educational and a r t i s t i c experience. The emphasis i s not on the disemination of knowledge but upon the personal satis-factions of the individual and his . ability to take part in 2 creative activity. Drama, as other art forms, i s struggling to find a permanent place in the l i f e of the people through the schools. 1 L.P. Collins, L i t t l e Theatre in the Schools, Dodd, Mead & Co.., N.Y. 1 9 3 0 2 Creative Expression, Edited for the Progressive Education Association by G-ertrude Hartman and Ann Shumacher, The John Day Co., N.Y., 1 9 3 1 5^ It i s like music, in that formal experience i s usually available outside of school time in other community agencies such as the church, neighborhood house and more recently the community centre. With a change in emphasis from formal drama to a more informal variety which seeks to take advantage of the individual's creative powers, some thought has been directed to the place of drama in the l i f e of the child. Drama i s not an established part of the curriculum in the elementary schools In Vancouver. It i s , however, recognized as a medium of expression to be employed as other media such as graphic arts, music, and language in integrating the school material. Drama in the schools i s administered through a branch of the Department of Education, the Division of School and Community Drama, with headquarters in Victoria, Seven elementary schools entered the "Greater Vancouver Drama Festival" for the f i r s t time in 1952. This is l ikely the outcome of a course in creative dramatics offered to Vancouver Normal School students in the previous year and to summer school students at Victoria. The productions offered were scenes from the literature f i t t e d to the age of the children, such as "Alice in Wonderland". Dramatics courses are given credit in the senior high schools. Two courses are now offered which give students 55 background and experience in make-up, history, and development of drama, and staging. The teachers responsible for such courses depend upon their own practical experience in the f i e l d of dramatics, and reference books, for their course material. While many have had no formal training,they have had practical experience on a professional level. The casting of plays i s done in two ways in the schools today. Tryouts may be talsen before each play, or in some cases, casting and rehearsing i s conducted in such a way as to give every child a chance. This method may cover lead parts or a l l parts. Eech high school may, for the purposes of the Greater Vancouver Drama Festival, have a drama sponsor who works with the director of the department. This sponsor i s not an o f f i c i a l authority within the school's administration. The drama sponsor works in close cooperation with the music and art department in production of operettas. Some schools produce three-act plays, and some do both, as in the case of John Oliver High School. However, where play-production i s not fostered, the drama club may take an active part in operettas, leaving formal play production aside. 56 The fe s t i v a l awards the winning hoy and g i r l a scholar-ship of f i f t y dollars to enable them to take the U.B.C. summer drama course. Students in drama classes also take part in an essay contest each year. This encourages writing and research in the f i e l d of drama. The Interest in drama and standards of dramatic training in the school i s very much dependent upon the leader-ship available. The demand for such training i s evidenced by the fact that in one high school the formal classes offered, w i l l be increased to include five presentations in this coming year. ' Dance in the Schools Dance in the elementary and high schools i s a component of a more inclusive physical education program in many communities. Program developments in Vancouver Include folk, country, modern, and social dances. In Vancouver schools the class room teacher, in the f i r s t three grades, carries responsibility for a general program including dance. After this, one teacher i s often responsible for the program of a l l grades, a male teacher for the boys and a female worker for the g i r l s . These teachers may or may not have special certificates. The emphasis is intended to be on the whole child, and to this end the supervisor does not encourage a high standard of development to the exclusion of a more generalized and well-balanced program. 57 The program in the high echool i s usually led by special instructors who have a degree in physical education and a teacher's certificate. However, academic standing is not uniform. In some cases the Introduction of special features such as modern dance are expanded in recreation program. However, as this i s a recent addi-tion to the physical education teacher training program i t i s not extensively carried out. Clubs under sponsorship of a teacher may u t i l i z e student leadership or outside leadership on a voluntary basis. Special resources are used to assist with special productions-. The dance program i s thus a part of the broader physical education program with an emphasis, not upon dance as an art, but on dance as a part of the student's development program. The emphasis throughout the general public school system i s to provide each child with some basic formal learning in music, graphic art and experience in simple forms of dance through physical education programs. Drama as an art form is demanding growing consideration in curriculum developments particularly in the United States. While the Vancouver schools offer training in the Arts through the established curriculum, some schools in the United States extend the use of their f a c i l i t i e s to allow additional art training outside of school hours.- Milwaukee Schools becomeesocial centres after 3 : 3 9 p.m., with a f u l l and varied program of recrea-tional a c t i v i t i e s . A social centre director, full-€ime recreation leaders, and part-time specialists take over the schools until 5 : 3 0 p.m. The act i v i t i e s include art, drama, games and music. The 5 8 evening brings such programs to adults and high school students. 1 Such a program provides the use of expensive community f a c i l i t i e s , limits the travelling distance for participants as schools are community centred and gives continuity to childrens programs. This development, u t i l i z i n g school buildings but trained recreation leadership has been reflected partially in other communities, including Victoria, B.C. where the schools were opened on Saturday mornings for graphic art classes under skilled leadership. In one Instance where the school f a c i l i t i e s were to be used, the regulations stipulated that the regular teacher in the particular subject be hired. However such a development does not acknowledge the future development of a f u l l recreation pro-gram as the Wisconsin experiment relates. The Art Gallery Additional educational and a r t i s t i c experience has been provided for children of many communities through the development of Saturday morning classes. Since the early 1 9 2 0 ' s , programs in various communities have been expanded to include children from two to fourteen years of age. In such programs, paintings, murals, puppet shows, clay modelling and construction work provide the basis while emphasis is placed on creative a c t i v i t i e s . In large centers art galleries 1 D.B. Byer "Our Art Recreation Program", The Art Education  Magazine. V o l . 5 0 , No. 7 , A p r i l 1 9 5 1 . 59 offer after-school classes for school children. The Vancouver Art Gallery Saturday morning classes are administered under a special grant by the Department of Educa-tion. The course is given over a twenty-four week period. During this time five classes are given.. These classes are divided according to age groupings - eight and nine, ten, eleven, twelve and over fifteen. Five trained artists lead the classes while a student from the art school assists. As the program advances, the classes rotate so that each child has a chance to work with each of the instructors. Also, as two of the classes are specialized, one in sculpturing and another in mask design, this system allows each student to have a chance at these special forms of expression. The instructors for these classes are chosen primarily for their interest in children as i t i s the belief of the adminis-trator that only sincere interest in children can insure a sound approach in teaching. As the individual instructors' methods vary and any particular child might respond more readily to one than another, the rotation system i s of special benefit. For example, one instructor believes in demonstrating subject matter and use of materials. Another believes in discussing contents just enough to help members formulate and c l a r i f y ideas. Another may be more con-cerned with f i n a l results than the subject matter and w i l l there-fore encourage complete freedom in choice of subject. The administrators of the Art Gallery classes thought these differences in approach were of value and the essential variety has acceptance among the individual Instructors themselves The efficient handling of these classes i s made possible by the considerate eo-operation given by each instructor to the other and the mutual respect for the others 1 methods. Glasses are given free of eharge and,children attend from a l l over the city. Also, an exhibition i s given at the end of the year where the most effective work i s displayed. The average attendance i s sixty-nine deeimal seven percent. The painting and drawing classes each enroll approximate-ly forty children while only twenty-five are permitted in the sculptoring class at one time. The present enrollment of two hundred children i s as many as can be handled in the art gallery basement. This enrolment does not satisfy the demand, as there has been a waiting l i s t of between forty-five and eighty persons each year since 1946, when the program was started. The Art School Another source of art instruction for children under the department of Education or i t s equivalent in other communities i s the School of Art. In Vancouver the Art School program i s available to a l l city children and i s publicized through the schools and special bulletins. The junior elasses, held on Saturday mornings, continue through October until the end of March. Each child i s charged seven dollars and f i f t y cents. The number of children attending these classes has increased from one hundred and seventy-seven to two hundred in one season^ «1 The School of Art sponsors a t r a v e l l i n g show which has v i s i t e d a l l the high schools i n the c i t y . At the Sohool, advanced classes are offered to f u l l - t i m e and part-time day and night stu-dents. A special feature, which commenced l a s t year, was the design workshop, s p e c i a l i z i n g i n the t r a i n i n g of students i n three dimensional designs. However, the Junior students use water colours, chalks and clay-modelling as mediums of expression; The leadership at the School of Art i s given by teachers s p e c i a l l y trained i n art and, i n the more advanced classes, by professional a r t i s t s with p r a c t i c a l experience. This i n s t i t u t i o n gives the most q u a l i f i e d leadership i n v i s u a l a r t . The emphasis i s upon learning advanced s k i l l s , based upon acquired and natural a r t i s t i c perception. University Extension Art Glasses The classes administered by the University Extension ©epartment i n Vancouver began i n 1951 upon the i n i t i a t i v e of the Parent Teacher Associations of Queen Mary, Queen El i z a b e t h and University H i l l Schools. The objective of the parents i n urging these classes was to provide t h e i r children with an opportunity f o r creative expression through the a r t s . The most highly q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s were engaged to lead the children. Each of the s p e c i a l i s t s was a leader i n h i s own f i e l d and, i n the case of puppetry and creative dramatics, the only q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s i n Vancouver. The four elasses, two i n drawing and painting and one 62 eaeh i n puppetry and creative dramatics, began i n Oetober and were continued u n t i l March, at whieh time a demonstration was held. The fee f o r the twenty lessons VPs ten d o l l a r s . This provided f a c i l i t i e s and materials with the exception of some miscellaneous supplies, brushes, and mixing t i n s . Each of the classes lasted two hours, from 10:00 to 12:00 a.m. The drawing, painting, and puppetry classes were given f o r childr e n of grades III to VI i n c l u s i v e . The creative dramatics class was offered to eight and nine year olds. The f i r s t plan was that each c l a s s be li m i t e d to twenty-f i v e members and be open only to the ohildren of the Point Grey area. However, the classes were opened to children of a l l areas i f the parents found i t convenient to send them. The r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r the classes i n order of presentation was t h i r t y , twenty-two and nineteen. As the enthusiasm, seemed high at the season's end a l e t t e r was c i r c u l a t e d asking i f the children would l i k e to continue. The response to t h i s request was extremely l i m i t e d and did not i n -dicate a need f o r extension. One i n t e r e s t i n g feature about these classes i s thehlgh average attendance. Over the twenty week period the maximum num-ber of days missed i n each class was four, and eaeh other class registered only two. This compares very favourably with the Art Gallery classes, sixty-nine decimal seven peroent, and the four Community Arts Council classes which averaged sixty-three percent. 63 The Extension Bepartments of U n i v e r s i t i e s have been quick to respond to community interest i n other l o c a l i t i e s where si m i l a r projects have been developed. Oommunity Center and Neighborhood House The programs available f o r children i n community agencies i n Vancouver are greatly affected by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of voluntary leaders. As the community centres have increased the f a c i l i t i e s f o r group p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n various a c t i v i t i e s , there i s more opportunity than there was f i v e years ago. Gordon Neighborhood House has advanced a very strong program i n the art f i e l d i n comparison with other established centres. However, the i n d i c a t i o n i s that i f leadership were available i n each of the areas, dance, music, drama and v i s u a l a r t , programs would be offered i n every centre. The l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n each case i s the lack of finances to make leadership available and the shortage of s k i l l e d a r t i s t s Interested i n such work. Two out of eight recreation agencies are also hindered by the lack of program f a c i l i t i e s . However, even here leadership f o r s p e c i a l art courses could not be paid i f spaee W e r e a v a i l a b l e . The standard of leadership whether i t be professional a r t i s t s , amateur, s k i l l e d volunteer, orgcoup worker with a special programs s k i l l , varies as broadly as can be1 imagined. The pro-f e s s i o n a l artistssre reeognized to be of greatest value because of t h e i r s k i l l . Such people are not frequently available, as they cannot be remunerated on an appropriate basis. 6k One advantage which a group work agency program spe-c i a l i s t would he expeoted to have i s a degree of supervision. This would assist the special program leader in understanding the children and thus maximizing, the chances of their benefiting from the class experience. However, the degree to which this i s possible i s not uniform. Supervision, as a professional group worker understands the term, involves regular meetings with an ageney staff person. This person can, because of her extensive •knowledge about^agency and group work methods, and her a b i l i t y to diagnose behaviour symptoms, enable the worker to do a more effective Job. As supervision exists within many leisure time ageneies today, i t i s a very Informal process. Largely i t i s concerned with discipline problems, as this i s one area where many volun-teers have d i f f i c u l t y when working within the flexible setup of the group work ageney. The average time alloted to supervision "of sorts" i s one hour a month. In only one instance does there seem to be an attempt at regular bi-weekly meetings with i n d i v i -dual program leaders. This i s often not possible because of the program specialist's own crowded schedule. Leaders are recruited for programs from varied sources. Most frequently, general agency contacts provide the volunteer leaders upon whom the major part of program rests. Following this, recruiting i s done through membership, the Volunteer Bureau, the high sehools and other organizations. 65 Within the last year, in the area of arts programs, the Community Arts Council has become the main resource for leader-ship. In this period the Council placed ten leaders, eight of whom worked on a completely voluntary basis. When a l l arts pro-grams of the recreation agencies are considered, this appears as a very high proportion of total agency leadership in the arts. Two of the ten leaders served two and three agencies, therefore increasing the ratio of leadership recruiting done by the C.A.C, The great need for leaders is exemplified by the faet that one ageney, wishing the services of a voluntary but highly trained ballet instructor, provided taxi fare to enable the vol-unteer to lead program in the particular agency after completing a program i n another agency. The programs of Community Centres and Neighborhood Houses as well as National Associations vary greatly in emphasis, program content and quality of leadership. 1 Within nine agencies serving Vancouver children, goups active in music number six. This includes the C.A.C. elass at the Vancouver East Community Y, a choral group of forty at Sunset Memorial Centre, a musie appre-ciation group at Marpole Community Centre, a choral group at Hey-wood Community Centre, and two classes for young children at Gor-don House. Children six to nine are given rhythm band and music appreciation, while nine to twelve year olds are given some theory. The leaders of the two programs at Gordon House and the Choral Group at Heywood were recruited through the C.A.C; 1 Appendix G , 66 Drama programs are earried on at Marpole Community Centre for older teenagers and children eight to twelve years of age. The. other two dramatic programs include the C.A.C, program given at the Central Y.W.C.A,, and a program at Sunset Memorial Centre, ©ance classes were offered in six agencies and were enjoyed hy eight groups. A kindergarten class at the Vancouver East "Y" received training in ballet. This class wes given to twelve children who paid a fee directly to the leader who gave the class through cooperation with the agency supplying the f a c i -l i t i e s . Thee remaining elasses were given by two leaders recrui-ted through C.A.C. One class was described in detail in the f i r s t chapter. Two groups of children, six to nine and nine to twelve year olds, totalling twelve, received instruction at Alexandra House. Also two classes at Sunset Memorial Centre, for children six to nine and nine to thirteen, were given in ballet. The same leader gave a program for g i r l s fifteen to eighteen at ©ordon House. A tap dance class for thirty members was given at K i t s i -lano Memorial Centre. Three classes in art, each with approximately seventeen children, were offered at ©ordon House. These elasses were for nine to twelve and six to nine year olds. Twenty "Tiny Tots" at Sunset Memorial Centre enjoyed painting and drawing classes while at Heywood Community Centre twelve children of nine to twelve took part i n drawing classes. A similar number took the same 67 i n s t r u c t i o n at Alexandra House. The other two classes i n art Include the C.A.C. class at the Vancouver East Y and a program at the central Y.M.C.A, f o r hoys nine to twelve, i n which twenty-four children were registered. Other programs offered children include a c l a s s i n puppetry and one i n pottery given nine to twelve year old children at Gordon House. A craft class of f i f t e e n members, ages eight to twelve years, was given at Marpole Community Centre. This outline indicates to some extent the services of the Vancouver Community Leisuretime Agencies i n the art f i e l d . Through the years the emphasis upon arts i n Vancouver and other communities has changed. This i s demonstrated by a report on the Germantown Settlement i n Philadelphia. 1 Here the emphasis a l t e r e d from conducting a very active Art program to abandonment of t h i s s p e c i a l i z e d serviee, to the f i n a l inclusion of an art pro-gram as an i n t e g r a l part of the agency's projeet. Thus art lead-ers recognize the need f o r assistance i n greater understanding of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n art programs and the s o c i a l work ageney recog-nizes the need f o r special s k i l l i n planning programs i n keeping with needs of children. The community center i n Vancouver i s the source of gen-e r a l recreation f o r the pu b l i c . Within t h i s framework art elasses i n recent years have been the means of broadening the recreation experience to include not only physical a c t i v i t i e s but a whole new f i e l d of a r t s programs f o r children and adults a l i k e as part 1 "The Germantown Art Centre" , P.M. Collington, Round Table National Federation of Settlements and Neighbourhood Centres, Volume 14, Number 8, December 1950, 68 of a well-rounded recreation program. A new development aimed at bringing art into the l i v e s of the people of the community through the a i d of s k i l l e d leader-ship i s the project sponsored by the Federation of Canadian A r t i s t s . This project provided leadership f o r c r a f t s programs i n one community center and arranged classes f o r the summer h o l i -days through cooperation with the Parks Board, Ten instructors lead elasses i n f i v e parks f o r a f i v e week period at a eost of ten d o l l a r s f o r twenty lessons. The d i s t r i c t s served included K i t s i l a n o , Fairvlew and Stanley Park, The Federation r e a l i z e s that the main d i f f i c u l t y i s a reasonable fee f o r instructors who necessarily charge f o r services as a means of l i v e l i h o o d . It i s t h e i r hope that the government might see f i t to sponsor such programs under the leadership of professional a r t i s t s on a continuing basis i n co-operation with the Community Centers, The project, begun i n 1952, has met with great success since over 400 children p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the summer program of 195**-• The success of t h i s project to the many others providing graphic art f o r children i n Vancouver and other communities i n d i -cates the i n t e r e s t of children, parents, and educators i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r art form. Other Vancouver Participant Programs and Services  Private Instruction The i n d i v i d u a l has the opportunity to receive group and i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n various art forms through the auspices of private instructors. The K e l l y Kirby Classes o f f e r musical 69 i n s t r u c t i o n to young children. As i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a kinder-garten method the age of the children ranges from f i v e to eight or nine. The aim of the teacher i s to bring' the young c h i l d some elementary appreciation of musie through experience i n rhythm, l i s t e n i n g and singing while i n groups of -eight. This i n s t r u c t i o n i s only an introduction to be followed by formal i n s t r u c t i o n i n instrumental playing. The teachers work i n co-operation with the Sehool Board as a l l classes are offered on school premises. However some teachers give Instruction i n public f a c i l i t i e s on a comm-e r c i a l basis. Within the l a s t four years the program has developed very r a p i d l y u n t i l seventeen schools now have classes given by a K e l l y Kirby Instructor, Offering goup i n s t r u c t i o n enables the teacher to charge a lower rate than she can charge f o r a private lesson. Each c h i l d pays t h i r t y - f i v e cents a lesson. The older children take piano lessons. However, i n the Maple Ridge School, where seven classes are given, some are instructed i n v i o l i n . The chief aim of the Kelly Kirby School i s to introduce the c h i l d to music so that he w i l l have some conception of the medium and t h i s concept w i l l be based upon appreciation of fundamentals and enjoy-ment. Private i n s t r u c t i o n provides i n d i v i d u a l t r a i n i n g i n music and dance i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s c i t y . Art i n s t r u c t i o n i s mainly the perogative of public i n s t i t u t i o n s where class f a c i l i -t i e s are available at a set charge. 70 Bramatics are given i n the studios and through special night courses offered to older children i n the schools. Exper-ience f o r young children i s limited, perhaps due to the small demand. While t r a i n i n g i s thus made avail a b l e , the experience fo r the teen-age c h i l d and adults comes through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community drama groups. Bance too i s taught i n groups and some of the larger studios, with a s t a f f of two to - s i x instructors,have enrolments ranging from f i f t y to three hundred and f i f t y . Here children and adults receive i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l forms of the dance. The dance teachers have not yet formed a l o c a l association to act as a co-ordinating body and l o c a l representative organ f o r national dance associations. Thus standards vary and c e r t i f i c a t i o n can-not be required. This i n turn makes i t very d i f f i c u l t to determine the number of students taking lessons. The dance teachers l i s t e d by the. G.A.,0. number f i f t y but from t h i s figure only an extremely subjective judgement can be. made as to the children taking lessons. One large studio estimates the number of children receiving i n s t r u c -t i o n at one i n eight but there are no figures to v e r i f y t h i s . Music, outside of the choirs, instrumental, and K e l l y Kirby groups, i s largely taught on an i n d i v i d u a l basis. The l o c a l branch of the B r i t i s h Columbia Registered Music Teachers Association have only one hundred and f i f t y l i s t e d members. These teachers give vocal, piano and instrument lessons. The numbers associated with each teacher vary greatly, some i n s t r u c t -ing only f i v e and others as many as sixty. 71 The greater number of teachers giving lessons are not registered with the Federation, and again a subjective statement i s the only indication of numbers giving private lessons. One guess i s seven hundred. This outline serves only to give some indication of the private instruction available i n music and dance. No attempt i s made to present standards, as they vary greatly. There i s no standard-setting body and no compulsory system of licensing which would be necessary before high standards could be assured. The music teachers who are members of the Federation must have a degree from a recognized conservatory or college of music. This at least insures that the teacher has the formal body of know-ledge related to his or her f i e l d of Instruction, The MacMillan Fine Arts Club The MacMillan Fine Arts Clubs function throughout the city schools by coordinating the activity of students interested i n the arts generally. These clubs operate upon a purely volun-tary basis, each club working with a teacher sponsor in the school. The club provides sufficient activities connected with the arts for a l l types of students, the talented as well as those willing to learn something about the arts, 1 Programs offered by the clubs include variety programs by student members.or guest ar t i s t s , good motion picture programs, national arts programs, dramatic presentations and art lectures. These programs are arranged voluntarily through sponsors and hon-1 Sir Ernest MacMillan Fine Arts Clubs,"Objective and P_u£po_se_." 72 orary members. Proceeds from concerts where admission i s charged are used toward scholarship funds. Some schools have weekly noon hour programs, while clubs i n other schools are very f r e e l y organized and may not sponsor a regular program. The directors of the clubs, nominated by the sponsor i n each school, meet approximately four times yearly. Four projects sponsored through eity-wide co-operation are the annual party, the Waltz F e s t i v a l , Art Show (sponsored i n co-operation with Eaton's Bepartment Store) and the Ral l y held i n the la t e spring. A major work of the members and graduates i s ushering at community concerts. The coordinator of the elubs arranges ushers f o r every presentation at the Benman Auditorium, Avon Theatre, Symphony Goncerts, Theatre Under The Stars, and many other pro-ductions. This service provides l i s t e n i n g and audience opportun-i t i e s f o r many students and other persons interested i n the ar t s . Another i n t e r e s t i n g project i s the "Panel", composed of the best students i n each f i e l d of the a r t s , and appointed by the sponsors. These students meet to discuss subjects related to the a r t s . They have already prepared one panel f o r presentation over G.B.G. The clubs function under the goodwill and co-operation of the School Board o f f i c i a l s who give the co-ordinators and sponsors the utmost i n encouragement.• These elubs, nation-wide i n t h e i r organization, provide many high school students not only with an opportunity to pa r t i c i p a t e but to learn of nation-wide organizations serving the a r t i s t s and the public i n organ-73 i z a t i o n and programs. C h i l d r e n 1 s Theatre Groups Children's Theatre i s an organization of dramatic a r t -i s t s who aim to produce professional plays at the l e v e l of the c h i l d ' s understanding. To t h i s end the Community Children's Theatre i n Vancouver has sponsored plays such as Rumplestiltskin, Samuel With the Wrinkled Knees, and King Midas at the Everyman Theatre. The formation of The Holiday Theatre on the University of B.C. campus i n 1953, through the impetus of the University Extension Department, has Increased the opportunities f o r children to experience l i v e drama. Here plays are produced weekly f o r childre n from a l l over the e i t y ; The audlenees f o r Children's Theatre grew year by year. One strong f a c t o r i n t h i s movement was the production of children's plays f o r f i v e years at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia during the summer months. These plays did much to b u i l d up audiences. Presently the Holiday Theatre a r t i s t s , i n cooperation with the Community Children's Theatre plan to tour elementary schools i n Vancouver where requested. During the winter months the company w i l l tour other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia, Parent Teacher Associations The Parent Teacher Associations or as they are known across Canada, the Home and School Associations, have been active i n promoting the art s i n a number of areas. As previously mention-ed, the Point Grey Associations were active i n promoting Saturday . 7* morning classes f o r children. The West Vancouver associations continued a project whieh, begun i n 1951, now brings symphony concerts to the West Vancouver High School every s i x months. In 1952 the same group co-operated i n sponsoring a series on "How the A r t i s t Boes His Work." This s e r i e s was made up of t a l k s by a r t i s t s who are outstanding i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s . Every two weeks a speaker was heard by students who crowded the audi-torium of the high school. This experiment was accomplished through the co-operation of the C.A.G. and the a r t i s t s . The d i f f i c u l t y i n continuing t h i s well-received program i s that sponsoring groups cannot finance i t . The voluntary basis upon which a r t i s t s co-operated f o r the i n i t i a l experiment could not be continued, e s p e c i a l l y i f i t were to be extended to other schools. The Children* s Reading Club sponsored by the P r o v i n c i a l Parent Teacher Association was established to eneourage children to read and to make use of l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . The rules govern-ing the elub require that no reward be given for the number of books read. The c h i l d that reads one book.is e n t i t l e d to a c e r t i -f i c a t e . Also no tests or essays are permitted. The three types of clubs are: Vacation Reading Glub, Leisuretime Reading Glub, Book of the Month Glubs. The l a t t e r function with a group of twelve children who exchange books f o r a twelve month period. Books f o r the members might be obtained from the Public Library, Union L i b r a r i e s , or by mall from the Public Library Commission. F i c t i o n books from the School L i b r a r i e s may also be 75 used. Thus the Parent Teaeher Association i s active in many areas encouraging the appreciation of art. Instrumental Groups Other participant resources for young people of Vancouver are the Vancouver Junior Symphony and the Vancouver Ladies Orches-tra, both of which offer membership on a city-wide basis. The ranks of both of these organizations are heavily weighted with junior members, who are twelve years and older. Young students may also receive expert guidance and take part in small Instrumental groups under the leadership of Jean de Rimanoczy. A group of thirty-two talented young arti s t s who pay a membership fee of five dollars, meet weekly. This group i s divided into smaller units, permitting the members to form quar-tets, trios, and small string orchestras. This of course, i s a highly specialized organization, open to students with some degree of instrumental s k i l l , ffymphony Concerta In addition to the music reaching children through the schools and community agencies, symphony concerts have been given to children of f i f t h to ninth grades and senior high school stu-dents through the sponsorship of thes: Women's Committee of the Vancouver Symphony Society, These concerts have been enjoyed annually by approximate-ly fourteen hundred ohildren from a l l parts of Greater Vancouver. The children were given free transportation to the Denman Auditor-7<S ium, where the concerts were held. The admission for each child was twenty-five cents and tickets were available through,School . i \ Music Teachers. Each School received a quota of tickets. Summary The program of arts in the schools provides children in • Vancouver with elementary training and opportunity for experience in dance, music, and graphic art, Irama i s recently being intro-duced in the elementary school but does not yet claim a place in the formal curriculum. Children are receiving Increased opportunity for training through the' Community Centre and l e i sure-time agency programs. Here the emphasis i s upon meeting the needs of the child through art program participation. In addition to the educational and recreational apportunities offered children, specialized,programs and individual instruction are available. These give the child technical s k i l l and a chance to participate in group media. Many sponsoring organizations are developing programs to bring finished productions of music, drama and graphic art to the ehild, Bance programs, specifically for children, are not sponsored as .frequently. The general educative channels for the arts are well defined but the extent to which the recreation ageney provides art programs for children i s limited. The community of Vancouver does provide the resources needed for children to obtain training in the arts beyond the introductory standards set by the school. 77 For this training a financial Investment i s usually necessary; This would seem to bar some children from further study hut no facts are available to substantiate this* Chapter 4 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL ANB EXISTING AGENCIES The Community Arts Council anticipated work with children at i t s inception in 1946. Beginning with the survey which out-lined specific needs in relation to the advancement of the arts in Vancouver, and the role of a co-ordinating council, the Comm-unity Arts Council has experimented with the co-sponsorship of Children 1s Services. Through direct a f f i l i a t i o n with member agencies of the Community Chest and Council in the sponsorship of art classes, the Arts Council has opened the question of the relationship of such classes to those sponsored by other community organizations and individuals. In turn, this stimulated consider-ation of the Arts Council's Role i n relation to a l l organizations i n enlarging opportunities for a r t i s t i c participation and as a medium for evaluation of arts programs. Before examining the relationship between these groups which have been described in the second and third chapters, further reference may be made to the original intention of the Children's Program sponsorship within the C.A.C. 79 Sponsorship of Children 1s Services The recommendations of the Norrie Survey include: " a c t i v i t y oh the part of schools and s o c i a l agencies and churches to enlarge opportunities f o r a r t i s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n drama, dance, drawing, etc. " also: "need of concern with community centre development as a f o c a l point of c u l t u r a l as well as recreational a c t i v i t i e s " further: "need f o r an advisory committee of s p e c i a l i s t s i n the c u l t u r a l a r t s towards upgrading and increasing work i n the f i e l d " . While these factors play an important part i n the t o t a l r o l e of the Community Arts Council i n r e l a t i o n to children's art services, the intention of the C.A.C, was also affected by a de-c i s i o n to sponsor projects f i r s t and to l e t Council function and structure grow out of them. Thus, when consideration was given to the method whereby children's services might be expanded, the r e s u l t s were tempered by a Council need to arouse public interest and f i n a n c i a l support. Miss Sweeny's Thesis points out that "gearing of the Children's Program welfare wise should also Increase readiness of many to give". I f the Children's Program had been i n e f f e c t a Community demonstration project rather than an agency centered program, the public Interest i n the Council might have been expanded. As the classes continued and the project was termin-s/ted, general public interest was not fostered but agency aware-ness was extended. The most di r e c t benefit from the project came i n a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of ageney function and objectives i n program as they are related to the Community Arts Council; 80 Ageney Function A l l agencies which worked with the Community Arts Council i n the three years of the Children's Program were concerned with recreation and l e i s u r e time services through public and p r i -vate auspices. Those agencies which were s t i l l active i n the project at the conclusion were primarily concerned with s o c i a l work method i n these settings. Over the f i r s t two years of pro-gram the various agency objectives and functions i n r e l a t i o n to an "arts" program became c l a r i f i e d . The most obvious value of the Council sponsored classes was i n the a r t s leadership given to groups. Thus the requests f o r s p e c i a l i s t s by many agencies were answered. In various settings the Council sponsored project was accepted purely as an extension to program already developed. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n community centres where much stress had been l a i d on s o c i a l recreation and physical recreation programs. While the "art" classes i n a l l cases permitted an actual extension to program content, the values were extended beyond t h i s . Where there was s t a f f continuity and a b e l i e f i n the inc l u s i o n of a r t s programs i n a w e l l rounded agency program schedule, the classes provided an example whereby t h e i r values might be demonstrated to boards and committees. These groups depend upon knowledge about program planning from s t a f f sourees i n many cases to ensure t h e i r consideration of w e l l balanced services. Council sponsored classes provided an a d d i t i o n a l dimen-sion f o r p o l i c y makers and s t a f f to consider. Not only was a c l a s s 8 1 i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r t form being sponsored but the membership also had the advantage of a well-trained leader. These leaders were the only s p e c i a l i s t s to o f f e r program i n community organizations while receiving "fti f u l l professional fee. Once again the ageney s t a f f and p o l i c y makers were given an opportunity to decide upon the p o s i t i o n of a trained, paid s p e c i a l i s t i n the association. The agencies continuing the project chose to consider a further function when an attempt was made to evaluate the hypoth-e s i s that there was a p a r t i c u l a r advantage i n o f f e r i n g art classes under spec i a l i z e d leadership i n the leisure-time setting. This was the consideration of the s o e i a l work method i n r e l a t i o n to the program,. The hypothesis concerning the use of s p e c i a l i s t s ' leader-ship i n the le i s u r e time setting i n conjunction with s o e i a l work, was not substantiated by s p e c i f i c findings. While the Council's f i n a l year of children's program sponsorship was established to demonstrate t h i s , the experiment was not completed. The conclu-sion of the project, however, witnessed the formal request by the two agencies involved f o r Increased grants from the Community Chest and Council to enable them to o f f e r s p e c i a l i s t lead classes. This step indicated that the Community Arts Council Project did demonstrate to at least two agencies the value of s p e c i a l i s t l e d programs. Oordon Neighbourhood House was the only ageney i n Vancouver which had, previous to the Community Arts Council project, budgeted f o r specialists' fees as an important part of agency finances and program planning. 82 The f i n a l program year demonstrated the inability of specialists to participate in a program with respect to f u l f i l l -ing the objectives of social work method, without training. This demonstrated to the Community Arts Council the need for additional orientation of specialists i f they were to function productively in dealing with people in the social agency setting. The agencies in their turn recognized certain limitations to their function in program. A research program cannot be carried on in an agency with limited staff or in one carrying out a regular annual group service load. Should the object of the research be to u t i l i z e already existing data' found in the agency the problem might be met. However, the Pender Y.W.C.A. and the Kiwassa ©iris1 Club attempted to produce above the normal quota for their program and did not succeed. Why was the study of a few members in two agency groups beyond the resources of the ageneles? This question i s answered best i n studying the existing agency programs. It was mentioned previously that these two agencies practiced social work method. This implies that particular emphasis was placed upon the personal development of the membership through group service. Knowledge relating to individual members and groups can be studied i f kept on record. As the staff members are the only social workers, and most direct program is led by volunteers, the only way staff and v#olunteers can evaluate group development i s through the keeping of reeords by the one directly in charge. These records in turn need to be considered by the social worker and conclusions as to 83 good programing drawn up by the two. Thus the person in direct contact with membership, and the trained worker, complement each others resources for the benefit of the membership. As this process was not carried out in the general prac-tice of these agencies the social work function may be questioned. As i t happens, each of these social agencies, like many others in the leisure time.field, do not function i n a defined way to a public recreation service. Therefore, included in their function i s community service of a recreation nature for the benefit of those demanding i t . At the same time, because of the needs of certain groups within membership^ social work training for staff and methods are required* For these reasons few social work agencies in the leisure time f i e l d can provide intensive group experience for membership where special resources such as those of recordings and psychiatric consultation are available. The demands of a soeial agency upon the specialist would be great i f the membership and policy required these particular refinements. The stage of community giving, the lack of a comprehensive public recreation system, the status of the social worker in the group work setting, and agency research programs are a l l factors which have affected the Ohildrens Program of the Community Arts Council. The functions of agencies vary from those which stress recreational philosophy to those which apply social work methods. The role of each of these has been demonstrated in some measure to the Community Arts Council. While some training in work with people i s now recognized as a requisite for specialists serving in community agencies, the degree of understanding required varies with the agency which in turn reflects i t s membership and community 84 philosophy regarding reereation. In a l l cases, where the Community Arts Couneil i s active i n r e l a t i o n to agency program, the function and philosophy of the agency must he respected. In such cases the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Community Arts Council person i s to take on the function of r the agency to which he goes. In turn, the agency must provide consistant and h e l p f u l supervision to a s s i s t the Community Arts Council representative, the s p e c i a l i s t . The project concluded by recognizing these principles,Ae a r e s u l t of the Children's Program, agencies are more aware of t h e i r responsiblity i n r e l a -t i o n to the s p e c i a l i s t and the Community Arts Council has esta-blished an objective to t r a i n s p e c i a l i s t s i n regard to agency function. Established C u l t u r a l Services The coordinating function of the Community Arts.Council and the needs described i n chapter one necessitate some consider-a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n of the Council to other groups o f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l experiences to chi l d r e n i n Vancouver^ The survey mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s study indicated that there need be a c t i v i t y on the part of schools, s o c i a l agencies, and churches to enlarge opportunities f o r a r t i s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . To date the schools and s o c i a l agencies have been more active than churches i n Vancouver although the l a t t e r have indicated they are desirous of sponsoring classes i n the various art forms other than music and choral work which have been fostered by the churches f o r so long. 85 At present, a member of the Vancouver Sehool Board supervising art i n the schools i s active on the Board of the Community Arts Council as an in d i v i d u a l . Also, a member of .the Protestant Clergy s i t s i n the Board of the Council. While recreation people have been represented, none are members at present. Each of these community groups active i n the arts are variously respresented by persons serving as individuals on the Council but, i n keeping with the p r i n c i p l e of board composition outlined i n Chapter one, none aet as representatives of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . For the Community A r t s Council there i s no di r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to these community groups active i n the sponsorship of a r t s f o r children* Outside of the general and specialized educational f a c i l i t i e s f o r children, the private i n s t r u c t o r i s perhaps the next most widely f e l t influence. Private teachers who handle the bulk of instrumental music and dance t r a i n i n g have been very loosely associated with the council. To date, the B. C. Register-ed Music Teachers Associations i s an a f f i l i a t e d member through the music section, but the a s s o c i a t i o n 1 s contact with the p o l i c y makers i s r e l a t i v e l y remote due to the method of section repre-sentation on the Board. Banee teachers are not organized and therefore are not a f f i l i a t e d with the Council. Bue to the highly s p e c i a l i z e d and competative nature of dancing studios, and the fac t that a l l l o c a l professional dancers are associated with studios, there has never been a desire on t h e i r part to unite. The competition here i s r e f l e c t e d i n the lack of a dance 86 seetion i n the Community Arte Council. The only dance group organized on the national l e v e l i s b a l l e t . Other participant groups such as orchestras are a f f i l -i a t e d with the Council through sections, or as i n the case of the Parent Teachers Associations, MacMillan Clubs, and Canadian Fed-eration of A r t i s t s through group and i n d i v i d u a l memberships. The only established administrative channel f o r organizations holding such memberships i s the annual meeting where nominations can be made, The r e l a t i o n of the Vancouver Arts Council to the various c h i l d serving organizations i s thus not very meaningful i n p r o v i -ding each organization with a functional relationship to the Council and other c u l t u r a l organizations. Standards In Relation to Children's Services As the various art forms and sponsoring agencies are reviewed, common problems are apparent to a l l . The most frequent-l y l i s t e d problem i s the lack of well trained leadership. Where leadership i s given consideration and i s q u a l i f i e d f o r the Job, various standards are necessarily recognized. Turning to Mr, Norrie'e survey, one recommendation i n d i -cated "the need f o r an advisory committee of s p e c i a l i s t s i n the c u l t u r a l a r t s toward upgrading and increasing work i n the f i e l d , " Standards are not universal but, in the graphic arts, extensive organization, governmental sponsorship and organizational rather than i n d i v i d u a l sponsorship have led to international 87 recognition of standards. 1 Thus the International Seminar on Art Education concludes that the teacher needs to he unobtrusive,no less a psychologist than an a r t i s t , and that he must take care to de^ -aop the creative powers of his pupils. Before the turn of the century, sometimes even today, an apt phrase to describe musical experience was the "mechanical era". A person was not expected to enjoy music unless he had a knowledge of i t s structure, and an a b i l i t y to play an instrument. Today the emphasis i s increasingly being placed upon enjoyment in hearing and producing musieal sound,in other words the "creative era," Brama too has responded to changing philosophy. The change of emphasis from the finished performance to the u t i l i z a -tion of original expression has affected the development of stan-dards. The classic era i s passing and making room for more indi-O vidualized expression in dance as in other art forms. Formerly, ballet and tap dancing were alone in the arena of Individual quid-ance and class instruction. Today the modern dance, unknown half, a century ago, and only recently receiving attention by large schools, i s becoming more important in the family of cultural arts. To consider sueh things as changing methods i n the var-ious cultural arts i s indeed the domain of a committee of special-i s t s . Only such a committee could establish community standards. However, there are many common concerns held by a l l groups whieh a 1 linesco Seminar on the Visual Arts in ©eneral Education, Bristol, United Kingdom, 7-27, July 1951, Information Bocument: ALE/Sam. l / l - l / l ? 88 central advisory committee could deal with effectively. Oommon Problems The need for more well qualified staff i s the concern of every group of professional people. The demands are no less heavy In the f i e l d of the arts. The methods of advancing leadership training may include conferences, workshops, public action toward the establishment of a Conservatory in the case of music, or additional summer school and high school courses in drama as the ease may be. The availability of suitable f a c i l i t i e s has often been deplored in the case of the arts whether i t be for dramatic pre-sentation, creative dance activity or music listening. Another demand which could be relieved i f educational and training groups would work in conjunction with professional a r t i s t s i s for increased spectator opportunities at the child's level. This fact, which helps to develop a consciousness of art, was recognized by the recreation agencies in their f i r s t meeting with the Community Arts Council and i s well recognized by educa-tors who believe that children need to experience an a r t i s t i c piece of work, well performed and executed. The Community Arts Council's experimental project with •agencies opened up a whole new area for sponsors of cultural groups for children. The development of community centered pro-grams through the cooperation of artists and responsible authori-ties would have many advantages. This in turn reinforces the suggestion by Mr, Norrie that Community Centres be the focal point of cultural a c t i v i t i e s . Here the advantages of proximity 89 to home and potential for integration of cultural experience into the every day l i f e of the Individual and community are heightened. This would only be made possible through close cooperation of various organizations.and specialists. Relationship of the Artist to the Community Arts Council As the organizations which sponsor children's cultural services are not related directly to the Council, neither are the artists through their specialized groups related in a func-tional way. The f i r s t responsibility of the Council i s to the Ar t i s t . To be able to give them an opportunity of working with people, in this particular case with children, i s a productive function. The Job of placing community groups in relation to artis t s on the basis of varying standards would require organiza-tion not foreseeable in the near future. The resources of the Community Arts Council in suggesting possible leaders and i t s contacts with specialists, are much greater than any other community association. However, the degree to which sueh re-sources can be fostereldand developed for the mutual benefit of art i s t and community i s not clear. The availability of choice of a r t i s t s for the Children's Program indicated some limitation to the channels of communication between them and the Community Arts Council. The interest on the part of the visual art inspec-tor on extending community classes, coupled with the experience of the Extension lepartment and development of the Community Program Branch of the Bepartment of Education, indicates the 9 0 demand for community centered programs. Par-sighted and author-itative leadership could do much to relieve tensions built up from lack of understanding of the various roles played by each group in the area of children^ cultural programs. Organization of the Community Arts Oouhcll As in any organization, the extent to which objectives may be f u l f i l l e d depends upon the stage of awareness..to readiness in the community and the organization of the administering body. Since the establishing of the Community Arts Council a board of thirty has been expanded to f i f t y . G-roups that voted the council into existance were not aware of i t s dependency upon them, and an awareness of close liason was not evident nor visibly developed over the ensuing years. A polley requiring sponsorship of attention-getting projects was adopted and out of this grew the children's program. This program developed at the time a trained social worker was the executive secretary. This position had been f i l l e d by various persons u n t i l the end of 1 9 5 3 when the only staff available was an office person. It i s suggested by Miss Gertrude Wilson that a program functioning almost entirely under volunteer leadership must necessarily be limited in development potential, and frequently must be a "canned" program. The extent to which organizational relationships among groups, now loosely associated with the Coun-c i l , can be developed in relation to Improving children's cultural programs w i l l depend greatly upon the availability of sufficient 91 staff. If the Council does not serve as an effective channel for groups, and i f i t appears not to be representative of groups, but rather as an entity in i t s e l f , the community w i l l not be encouraged to u t i l i z e i t . In order to present the community with a true version of a coordinating body, much interpretation through practice must be done. The News Calendar, an,outstanding publi-cation of the Council, provides a real answer to the question of whether the Council supplies information about various groups. However, continuing community and group interest has not develop-ed markedly in the last eight years and this factor may point up a structural error. The dangers of a representative board group were recog-nized by the "InterimsCommittee" which studied the structure of the contemplated Community Arts Council. Representation could, however, develop sustained community interest not now evidenced. As the relationships of various groups to the Community Arts Council.have been mentioned i n this chapter, the lack of a responsible or semi-permanent relationship to the Community Arts Council policy-making group has been Indicated. In the experience of the Children's Program Committee the Committee Chairman did not have a continuous relationship with the Board to whom she was responsible through the liason of the Program Chairman, This specific example of the lack of Council growth might indicate some need for some basic changes i n adminis-tration at this time when many organizations have been made aware of Council function and benefits. , Summary, The Children's Program of the Community Arts Council was not carried out in a manner which roused wide-spread community interest. Operating the program through community agencies demon-strated the necessity of a clear understanding of ageney function in relation to art program sponsorship, before effective cooperation between agencies and the Council could be effected. The children's project c l a r i f i e d these relative functions of agencies and Council. In so doing, i t raised questions con-cerning other established art program resources, affecting the child, and their part in the Council's plans for effecting i n -creased cultural opportunities. As the child receives his a r t i s t i c impressions from so many sources, the relationship of these sources to one another and their effectiveness in"providing a well balanced program,for the child i s important. The successful coordination of the services now offered to children depends upon the channels provided between the agencies and other organizations or individuals active in teaching, sponsoring and production. As the coordinating body for Vancouver cultural services, the Community Arts Council i s placed in a strategic position between the a r t i s t , sponsors and children. Chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS The training of the child in a l l phases of i t s develop-ment i s a long term process. Training in the "arts" i s only a part of this process, and must be conducted in a way consistent with the child's a b i l i t y to assimilate learning and thus contribute to his personal growth. The Cultural Arts The term cultural arts distinguishes a more embracing development of s k i l l and interpretation of dance, music, drama and the graphic arts from a general body of knowledge. Therefore, there i s a seeking of something more than s k i l l in proposing ehild training in the cultural arts. Art in this sense may be defined as " s k i l l in performance acquired by experience, or application of s k i l l and taste applied to production according to aesthetic principles". The word "cultural" may be defined as "conducive to enlightenment and refinement of taste acquired by Intellectual and aesthetic training". "Aesthetic", in turn, refers to the beautiful. To include these factors in a children's program in the cultural arts, the breadth of opportunity and training required seems limitless. Standards of s k i l l , performance, and teaching hcve been developed for the cultural arts but accompanying these developments, has been to determine the values of such training for children. The Child's Place In Art A University of Toronto study relating to the development and training of young children demonstrates that a five year old child can make an "ar t i s t i c statement". In this he does not con-fine himself to the visual and physical aspects such as the paint and the colors. In seventy-five percent of the children's paintings examined there were unmistakable elements of design. Rhythm, repetition, balance and symmetry were evident also. Earlier than this the child's productions are of value to the psychologists in their study of the children but not as a r t i s t i c productions. 1 A further differentiation of art produced by children • 2 and adults i s drawn out by Arthur Lismer. He emphasizes that the art of children i s uninhibited and unconscious, while adult art i s mature and conscious. This observation takes into account a child's natural a b i l i t y as yet unaffected by cultural habits and training in s k i l l development. It has been demonstrated in other studies that response comes early from the senses developed for music and acting. At the ages of four and five there i s a high interest irr dramatizing songs and experimenting with Instruments and their combination of notes. The child may obtain pleasure from identifying melodies, 3 and often shows increased spontaneity in rhythms. 1 H. McManus, "New Art Movement Originates In Canada", Saturday Night, May 28, 1932, Vol. 4?, No. 28. 2 A. Lismer, "What i s Child Art". Canadian Art, Vol. 2, No. 4 Spring and Summer, 19^8, Ottawa, pp. 178-180. 3 A. Gesell and F. Ilg. Infant and Child in the Culture of  Today. Harper and Bros. Publishers, N.Y. and London 19^3. 95 Thus the basic elements for cultural training are present in the young child. The degree of responsiveness.to musical tones, rhythm and colour varies with the individual. The children par-ticipating in the Community Arts Council project were of ages nine to twelve. In programming for children of this age group, i t Is necessary to take individual differences into account. Beeause the child's ideas at this stage are ahead of his technique, ad-ditional care must be exercised in use of teaching materials and method. Use of past history and fantasy as subjects take away the challenge of reality which demands a higher standard than the child can produce. These studies illust r a t e the readiness of the child for training in the arts. They also demonstrate that children have a latent a b i l i t y for cultural development. With consideration of these factors, and with reference to the training and participation opportunities available to children of.the various ages mentioned earlier, the components of a good children's program can be considered. This w i l l be accompanied by an assessment of the role of the Community Arts Council in considering i t s development, ftiftmantg, of the, City-Wide Program In recent years the public education eystem has increasingly fostered the arts in the curriculum of every student, particularly i n the elementary schools. Here the children have an opportunity to develop their sense of colour, rhythm, and music, while, in the _._ 96 last two years, an increasing number have been introduced to creative dramatics. This indicates a recognition by the school authorities that the arts are not something to be isolated from the total training experience of the child. As the studies mentioned point out, aesthetic response i s basic to children i n varying degrees and therefore ought to receive encouragement in the child's general education. The general training program of the sehools cannot consider the particular a b i l i t y and interest of every individual. To provide children with an opportunity for more intensive development, the private teaeher, the orchestra, the art school, and the drama and dance studio exist. These organizations provide teaching for the development of s k i l l , and depending upon quality of leadership, an aesthetic appreciation of a particular art form. There i s limited subsidy for those wishing additional training through scholarships offered and instrumental financing of sponsoring groups. On the whole, however, individual training beyond the scope of the public school requires financial investment for professional fees and equipment. Such groups as the MacMillan Fine Arts Clubs and groups sponsored by the Parent Teachers Association develop children's interest in the arts and offer a chance for everyone interested in the projects to participate. These opportunities are available 97 through indirect school sponsorship, along with symphony concerts supplied through the cooperation of the School Board and the Women1s Committee of the Vancouver Symphony Society. Outside of these sources, the leisure-time agencies have shown, over recent years, their interest in expanding already ex-isting programs and developing new services. The Community Arts Council project just completed indicates that there i s a demand for such group services. It also demonstrates that these programs must he an integral part of the program of the agency. Graphic art groups have extended rapidly perhaps due to the fact that the artists in this f i e l d are organized and can offer their services to community groups without fear of competition and i l l - f e e l i n g among associates. Considering the opportunities for group in-struction in graphic art and the comparable opportunities for individual instruction in dance and music, i t i s possible that there are even fewer receiving graphic art training than other forms. Although limited demand i s indicated In the attendance at the symphony concerts, the returns to the University Extension Department questionnaire and enrolment in the Community Arts Council classes i s greater than the present supply of leadership can meet. It i s also greater than agencies are yet able to plan for program organization, financing, and staffing. Has the leisure-time agency a responsibility to provide these services for children 9 8 in the light of their community function and the place of such experience for the children they serve? The answer i s partly given in the development of the community centres in recent years, A Place for the Arts in Community 1  fientres and lieisure^Tlme,. ,S.e;trt1lng The goals of community agencies range from providing straight recreational or educational a c t i v i t i e s to using a c t i v i t i e as a part of treatment. 1 Within this range there is a place for the arts. As the method of group service in leisure time settings i s recognized and there is greater development of staff training, more value w i l l be realized from the programs. The Children's Program qualified the type of leadership needed in the various settings* The conclusions reached here and the preference of the agency program planners indicated in interviews place the specialist with advanced training in the arts on the preferred l i s t . , Staff training may be applied to the specialist or the agency staff. The council project demonstrated that specialists need some training and orientation in methods of work with childre in order to work effectively in the recreation and social work setting. In turn staff must be able to work with the specialist on problems of relating the art form to the children's development needs. Staff courses to orient unskilled workers who must super-vise artists would help to ease the pressure and feeling of 1 Klein, Alan P., "Society. Bemocracy and the Group". Woman's Press Whiteside, Inc. and William Morrow and Co., New York, 1 9 5 3 . 99 frustration on the part of the specialist as his objectives would be better understood by staff oriented to the art media. As the G-erman-'Town situation pointed out, workers have come to realize that the process of group development cannot flourish as long as there i s Insufficient development of relationship prior to the forming of the group, or.sufficient Interest to act as a bond Within the formed group. The result has been increased emphasis upon the development and use of the "Interest" group in the general program of group service agencies. It i s in this res-pect that the Arts play such an important role as the advantages of serving the young child where his personal needs might be con-sidered are especially great. In Vancouver interest has been demonstrated by isolated groups in developing a community unit of service for training and art appreciation for children. This has been stimulated by the v i s i t s of the Children's Theatre and Symphony groups to the schools and agencies, the School Board's Interest in expanding the Art Gallery Classes to communities, and the Arts Council.Bemonstration Program. The factors inhibiting the development of such a program include the shortage of leadership presently available to undertake such work and the lack of coordinating f a c i l i t i e s to bring artists and sponsoring organizations together, _^ The use of art specialists in community agencies where trained social workers are available could make possible the attainment of the leadership goal recognized by the International Seminar. This was that the instructor should be no less a psychologist than an a r t i s t . Through such coordination the child may satisfy both his need for s k i l l development and personality growth. The present a b i l i t y of the agencies to meet this goal i s limited. Likewise publie acceptance of sponsorship of Intensive services Is not great. The development of personalized services i s s t i l l limited to agencies supported by privately controlled funds. If there Is not to be conflict between the private re-sources available to the child and the community agencies sponsoring art groups, the function of eaeh must be clear. In children's services the community agencies are not primarily concerned with the development of s k i l l . At present, however, there i s l i t t l e differentiation of another objective in the art groups offered except in social agencies offering a more intensive and personalized service. The many opportunities available to children and the competition of sponsoring organizations to obtain qualified leader-ship indicates a problem. In respect to leadership alone, there i s a need for cooperative planning by these organizations to _^ cl a r i f y needs and to consider ways of developing appropriate resources. 101 The Role of the Oommunlty Arte Council The prime function of the Community Arts Council i s to coordinate the work and programs of cultural groups. As a private agency, the Community Arts Council can experiment in Its method of serving the community and indeed must experiment in order to find-the best, method of service. Over the seven years of the Council's existence i t has demonstrated i t s a b i l i t y to give Joint services and to sponsor speelal projects, each of which has helped to f u l f i l l i t s stated function. Through the sponsorship of the children's services the Council has stimulated community centered arts programs. There i s a lack of well functioning channels between the council and the ar t i s t s apparent throughout this project. Should the Community Arts Council have a closer a f f i l i a t i o n with the artist In order to assure the achievement of i t s objectives? This question can be considered in the light of the Children's Program experience which demanded resources from the citizens of Vancouver as well as the a r t i s t s . As indicated in chapter three, there i s limited direct representation by artists and professional groups on the Board of the Community Arts Council* The need of.a cio.ser liaison was evidenced as the Council was only able to draw upon a limited number in choosing the specialists for the Children's Program. The development of channels for the professional artist 102 to participate in the Council's administration and representation from groups who have a major interest in the Council, might serve to extend their active interest and support. If this process was extended further, the community of Interest fostered toy the Council would he expanded for the benefit of the public and a r t i s t alike. The Canadian Federation of Artists' failure to contact the Community Arts Council when inaugurating their community program to bring arti s t ' s services to the community i s a further indication of this lack of channels. The services of the many organizations providing cultural arts experience for the child are not yet conflicting to the extent of oauslng serious overlapping and competition. There are in -dications of expansion through the a r t i s t s ' associations, community agencies and the public programs. This points to a need for co-operative thinking about developing the skilled leadership needed to permit such expansion and to Improve standards. The Children's Program demonstrated the varying standards of agency programs.. In turn, because of different objectives, the standards of the other organizations offering training to the child d i f f e r . As the Council i s the coordinating body for arts programs in Vancouver, i t i s reasonable to suggest that a coordinating com-mittee be set up within i t to consider standards, analyze functions, and cl a r i f y relationships between the various groups. 103 Such a committee would have to include professional a r t i s t s who could set standards on the "basis of extensive know-ledge and experience. This committee would be able to consider questions raised by Mr. Norrie. These include the need for special study of art teaching in the schools and an advisory committee of specialists in the cultural arts towards upgrading and increasing work in the f i e l d . The establishment of a standards committee within the Community Arts Council would serve the general program and would ensure effective consideration of the various groups active in childrens 1 programs. The community objectives in offering children's programs vary. Until there i s an integrated objective the services cannot be coordinated. In order to assist in this process, a great deal of time must be spent by the Community Arts Council in developing understanding preparatory to cooperative planning. Summary -The training of children in the cultural arts Is a multiple process requiring the services of many organizations equipped to give the ehild technical s k i l l and an opportunity for aesthetic and personal development. The community agency, with the dual resources of art i s t and trained staff i s assuming a more active role in the development of art programs at the present than five years ago. This nation-wide trend reflects the development of program planning in social 104 agencies over the last thirty years. Agencies have come to realize their dependence upon the ar t i s t in program planning and the a r t i s t in turn has recognized the part of the community agency in bringing art to the people. The Community Arts Council, through i t s development of channels between artists, organizations, and children, i s in a posi-tion to foster this development. With co-operative planning and mutual consideration of standards, opportunities can be increased and leadership developed to f u l f i l the demands which are at present beyond the available resources. The Children's Project did not succeed in demonstrating the particular value of a r t i s t s in the leisure time agency. It did con-clude that trained artists had a contribution to make in leisure time settings and the effectiveness of this contribution depended on the arti s t ' s a b i l i t y to deal with the personal needs of the group as well as his a b i l i t y to offer a s k i l l . The degree of personal understanding needed varies with the agency objectives. In order to provide qualified leadership, train-ing must be offered specialists who wish to work in leisure time settings. Likewise, staff must understand the art form in order to provide meaningful orientation for specialists with whom they work. The interviews of the writer with agency directors indicated unanimous agreement i n that a lack of leadership i s the greatest barrier to the further development of art programs in community a g e n c i e s . Second to this i s the lack of financial resources needed to attract the 105 skilled people who can offer a quality program. In supplying such leadership for a limited period, the Community Arts Council demon-strated the potential which rests within the community agency. The Children's Program project of the Community Arts Council has ended. The experience derived from the project w i l l enable the Council to supplement i t s concern for the development of children's services with action based upon new knowledge. APPEHDIX A Sample questionnaire sent to Community Agencies by the Community Arts Council. Name of Agency T o t a l Agency Membership I A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of F i n e A r t s Programme: A Have you an a r t s programme? Yes No I f "Yes" p l e a s e answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . 1. In what year d i d an a r t s programme begin i n the agency? 2. Who i n i t i a t e d the a r t s programme? I n d i v i d u a l Agency Community S e r v i c e Club U n i v e r s i t y F i n e A r t s O r g a n i z a t i o n Government Other (please g i v e d e t a i l s ) 3. How i s the member's i n t e r e s t i n the a r t s programme determined? R e g i s t r a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n ' Requests by I n d i v i d u a l s Requests from o u t s i d e the agency (other agencies, s e r v i c e clubs) Others 4. Who f i n a n c e s the a r t s programme? I n d i v i d u a l P a r t i c i p a n t s Agency S e r v i c e Club Community E x t e n s i o n programme of a U n i v e r s i t y . . . . F i n e A r t s O r g a n i z a t i o n Government P r o j e c t Others... « 5. In terms of an a r t s programme, how would you d i v i d e your p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o age ranges 6. T i m e s - s p e c i f y Day Time Age range..; Type of Programme B I f your answer i s "No" have you any sunr?estions i n r e p l y to the f i r s t s i x q u e s t i o n s ? 77 F a c i l i t i e s . f o r C o n c e r t s , P l a y s , e t c . A. Auditorium, S i z e Normal S e a t i n g C a p a c i t y R e n t a l Rate. W n o can R e n t p o r what Purposes , I s the a u d i t o r i u m sloped? What i s i t s p r i m a r y purpose? Theatre Concert H a l l . . . . . L e c t u r e H a l l Gymnasium B. Stage I s i t s l o p e d t  S i z e Width Depth Wings Width Depth C u r t a i n s - F r o n t drop Back drop Side c u r t a i n s Other L i g h t i n g - Spot F l o o d F o o t l i g h t s C o l o u r s c r e e n s C. D r e s s i n g Rooms E a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to stage?, G e n e r a l workshop • Costume sto r a g e space Instrument s t o r a g e space., D. P i a n o - upright.........Make Approx. age I s i t tuned r e g u l a r l y Have you room f o r a Grand Piano or a Baby Grand on o c c a s i o n . Other i n s t r u m e n t s owned by Agency E. P r o p s - s t a i r s .doors w a l l s f u r n i s h i n g s Other F. P. A. System- K i n d of mike... I s i t movable What r e a c h Speakers Where p l a c e d i n a u d i t o r i u m . I s P. A. on stage or i n c o n t r o l room G. P r o j e c t i o n Equipment How p l a c e d : or movable 8 ra.m. Type cf machine , Sound 16 m.m. S i l e n t S l i d e Screen Typo s i z e H. Record P l a y e r Present stock of r e c o r d s (approximate) Popular semi -popular c l a s s i c a l I . Costume Stcro S p e c i f y t'Tpes of oostumos and c o n d i t i o n V. T r a i n i n g you c o n s i d e r necessary f c r l e a d e r s h i p of A r t s program A) To produce a good "exposure" B) To develop a good a p p r e c i a t i o n programme, C) To r a i s e the standard of performance. Hew much t r a i n i n g i n each f i e l d i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the l e a d e r ? , D) To sharpen c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l /. E) To h e l p members enjoy a c t i v i t y r a t h e r than, r,r i n a d d i t i o n t o , the above « What other t h i n g s would you l o o k f o r i n s e l e c t i n g p e r s o n n e l f o r a f i n e Please l i s t names A. Present and pote n t i a l l3ade . '3 and teachers NAME AEJRESS PHONE ART FORM Present Teachers/Leaders Potential Teachers/loaders B. Present and Potential Sponsors Present Sponsors i f any-Potential Sponsors ' (Group or Individual,-Paid Voluntary Arts Sr eftialist Professional Arts Specialist Am. Pre. U. W. Other Trained Untrained Remarks PRESENT PROGRAMME IN ARTS ARTS PROGRAMMES YOU WOULD LIKE TO DEVELOP Art Form bC tO 05 CD O C O as bO-O m C 4) a> -p > -t-> •-c <: I s o bO bO 03 C. es Nc P, o rH OS C <0 C a al • CD O J S3 Paidj Vol cm to CD bO c <sS K CD bC| CD CD N Leadership No. per group X) CO ca • FH O •H 3 03 o a? u Pal Trained Arts Specia-l i s t Untrained Arts Specia-l i s t Professional Group Work 'Other V e i l Trained Arts Specia l i s t imt-.ai-y Untrained Arts Specialist Music Appreciation Gcncorts by mem-bers Concerts by v i s i tors Band Orchestra Vocal Chamber music Others Drama-play produc J i n tioft Skits Play reading Play writing Choral speaking Elocution Ac ting Dirocting/produc ing Lighting Scenery C o s tume s/Mak e-u p Other Graphic ;irts Finger painting Drawing & design Water Colours 0.11s Murals PRESENT PROGRAMME IN ARTS ARTS PROGRAMMES TOU WOULD LIKE TO DEVELOP Art Form be <D G 60 at H « <D O C a a) bO-d CD C h <D a) - P > I S o u to bp 01 J3 ft o d.«l . 01 G © • H P . al • O O O h ^es Nc Paidj Vol <D bO G K <D <D 14 .OC/3 a) • h D • H 3 CO o <D h Q O Leadership No. per group Pai Trained Arts Specia l i s t Untrained Arts Specia-l i s t Professional Group Work Other Trained Arts Specia l i s t nnt.ary Untrained Arts Spec i a l i s t Graphic Arts(Cont'd A r t exhibits Others Dance Folk National Square Tap Interpretive b a l l e t Crafts Pottery Modelling Woodwork Puppets Other 5. For what reasons do people come to the a r t s programme? 6. What do you c o n s i d e r as the aims of an a r t s programme i n a community c e n t r e - (neighbourhood house, s e t t l e m e n t house)? REMARKS: (please continue on back of page i f necessary) # P l e a s e e n t e r s e p a r a t e l y o t h e r f i n e a r t 3 programmes t h a t a p p l y to your agency, i . e . e n g r a v i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e , s c u l p t ' u r i n c and m o d e l l i n g , decora-t i o n and ornament. I l l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A r t s Programmes; 1. Should an a r t s group meet b i w e e k l y , weekly , or a t ot h e r i n t e r v a l s ? How many meetings add up to a s e s s i o n ? 2. Which of your programmes emphasize p r i m a r i l y development of s k i l l s ? 3. Which emphasize enjoyment based on a measure c f competence' 4. I n the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of your o r g a n i z a t i o n how much emphasis i s on d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l and how much ei.-.phasis i s on d e v e l o p i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t ? To what e x t e n t are these two aims c o m p a t i b l e ? P l e a s e r a t e : Development of s k i l l 12345678910 Development of p e r s o n a l i t y 12345678910 Appendix B MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL SPONSORED ART CLASSES Spring - 1953 1* Application 2, Recruiting a) the agency desiring to work in cooperation with the Community Arts Council on a program for children w i l l submit an application by June the fifteenth of this year. b) this application w i l l include the following data: art form for which leadership i s re-quested; f i r s t & second choice approximate starting date for the class. Day of week preferred. Number of applicants anticipated. Age group to be served. F a c i l i t i e s available. 71 Name and qualifications of staff liaison; his or her training or familiarity with art form. 1. 2. 2: 1: a) The Community Arts Council will'provide a covering letter to be used by the ageney in recruiting members. b) The agency w i l l prepare a registration form particularly suited to the agency program and special art class. c) Other recruiting methods recommended to ensure community support Include: 1. newspaper publicity 2. home v i s i t s phoning staff contact with agency members for this specific purpose. 3. Enrolment and Attendance Statistics and Recording a) A minimum enrolment of twenty must be completed before a f u l l length (l?hr) class commences. (For smaller enrolment, a sliding scale may be developed to permit shorter class periods at less cost.) b) The agency i s asked to contact the Community Arts Council immediately ifi the attendance drops below fifteen. c) The individual w i l l be informed at the time of registration that he or she w i l l be dropped from the group after three consecutive absences. a) Upon completion of enrolment, the agency i s asked to send a eopy of the registration form to the Community Arts Council office. Any changes w i l l be noted on the weekly attendance checks. Minimum Standards Continued: 4. Statistics and Recording, continued b) Weekly attendance checks w i l l be mailed from the agency by the specialist on completion of the class each week, c) The staff person working with the specialist i s asked to attend two of the f i r s t six sessions. This person and the specialist are asked to write records on these two sessions which w i l l provide objective evaluation mat-erial". These records w i l l be submitted to the Arts Council upon completion of the f i r s t six sessions. 5. Conferences and Evaluation a) The agency director and specialist w i l l meet prior to the commencement of the classes to discuss the details of the art group and i t s relation to other agency program, b) The agency i s asked to make provision for a minimum of one hour per month for conferences between the agency staff person and specialist to discuss pro-blems arising, use of f a c i l i t i e s , stat-i s t i c s , class participation, and commu-nity support. ^The time w i l l be design-ated within the f i r s t two weeks of the class. o.) Staff time for attendance at two Commun-it y Arts Council meetings during the year i s requested. The f i r s t meeting w i l l be held approximately six weeks after the classes commence, at which time a progress report w i l l be submitted. A second meeting w i l l be called at the termination of the program at which time each agency i s asked to submit a f i n a l evaluation. 6. Agency Report a) The agency i s asked to receive and. discuss a report on the Children's pro-gram once during the year, through their board and wherever possible through a committee responsible for program in the agency. PREFERABLES 1. That the agency use a l l means to regard this as an experimental project through which they look forward to including this type of service in the agency program. 2. That the agency staff use a l l media possible to attain community interest in the project and involve parents in the project. 3. That wherever possible the agency staff person responsible for work with the specialist be a trained Social Worker, as this i s within the research focus of this program. Appendix C SUMMARY OF INTERVIEWS WITH DIRECTORS OF EIGHT VANCOUVER LEISURE-TIME AGENCIES Table 1. Number of Participants in Art Programs Ages 8 - 1 8 Gordon Neighbourhood House Marpole Community Centre Sunset Community Centre Heywood Community Centre Pender Y.W.C.A. Central Y.W.C.A. Vancouver East Y.M.-Y.W. Alexandra Neighbourhood House tfusic! Choral 30 Appreciation 15 10 6 7 Rhythm Band 8 Theory 8 Drama: Study Creative 15 18 12 10 Production 15 8 Dance: Ballet 10 Tap 20 12 10 Creative 8 18 10 Scotch 8 Art: Painting 17 20 Sketching 17 9 Draxving 18 Pottery: 20 Crafts: 17 20 12 12 Puppetry: 15 Table 2. Supervision Policy and Time Involved i n Supervision with Art Program Leaders Gordon Neighbourhood House Marpole Community Centre Sunset Community Centre Heywood Community Centre Pender Y.W.C.A. Central Y.W.C.A. Vancouver East Y.M.-Y.W. Alexandra Neighbourhood House No Attempt at Supervision X Specialist refuses Supervision Agency requires Supervision X X X X Worker asks for Supervision X X One hour per week One hour every two weeks X X One hour per month X X X Very informal X X X Table 3 . Sources of Specialist Leadership In Order of Importance. Gordon Neighbourhood House Marpole Community Centre Sunset Communitv Centre Heywood Community Centre Pender Y.W.C.A. Central Y.W.C.A. Vancouver East Y.M.-Y.W. Alexandra Neighbourhood House Volunteer Bureau 4 4 5 2 4 Board Members 8 1 Membership 5 1 3 3 High School 7 1 4 University 6 1 General Agency Contacts 3 2 3 6 1 1 2 Art School 2 2 Community Arts Council 1 3 2 4 3 Normal School 2 1 5 Appendix D SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 . B. M. Sweeny, The Community Arts Council of Vancouver. '. Thesis, June 1 9 5 1 . U.B.C. 2 . V.L.Comer, Report of Consultation V i s i t to the Community  Arts Council of Vancouver, submitted June 1 . 1 9 4 9 . 3 . What i s Vancouver Children's Theatre, program statement from "Bluebird", A p r i l 1 9 4 0 . 4. Program of Studies for the Elementary Schools of British Columbia, Grades I to VI, Victoria, B. C. 5 . L.F.COllins, L i t t l e Theatre in the Schools, ©odd, Mead, Mead & Co., N.Y. 1 9 3 0 . 6. Creative Expression. Progressive Education Association, Editor, Gertrude Hartman, and Ann. Schumaker, The John lay Co., N.Y., 1 9 3 1 . 7 . D.B.Dyer, "Our Art Recreation Program" The Art Education Magazine, Vol. 5 0 , No. 7 , A p r i l 1 9 5 1 . 8 . P. M. Colllngton. "The Germantown Art Centre" Round Table National Federation of Settlements and Neighbourhood Centres, Vol. 14, No. 8 , Dec. 1 9 5 0 . 9 . K. H i l l . "Manitoba School Children learn Art a New Way" Sat. Night; July 1 2 , 1 9 4 7 , Vol. 62, No. 4 5 . 1 0 . UNESCO Seminar on the Visual Arts in General Education. Bristol, United Kingdom, 7 - 2 7 , July 1 9 5 1 , Information Document ALE, Sem. l / l - 1 / 1 7 . 1 1 . H. McManus, "New Art Movement Originates in Canada" Saturday Night, May 28, 1 9 3 2 . Vol. 4 7 . No. 28. 1 2 . A. Lismer. "What i s Child Art" Canadian Art, Vol. 2 . No. 4 . Spring and Summer, 1 9 4 8 . 1 3 . A. Gesell and P. Ilg. Infant and Child In the Culture  of Tb-day. Harper Bros. Publishers N.Y. and London, 1 9 ^ 3 . 14. Klein, Alan P. "Society. Democracy and the Group" Women's Press, Whiteside, Inc. and William Morrow & Co., New York, 1 9 5 3 . 


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