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Meeting the needs of newcomers : a study of the feelings of Central European newcomers to Vancouver concerning… Hromadka, Vaclav 1954

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MEETING THE NEEDS OF NEWCOMERS A study of the feelings of Central European newcomers to Vancouver concerning their adjustment problems and resources.  by VACLAV HROMADKA  Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work  School of Social Work 1954 The University of British Columbia  ABSTRACT  This study deals with problems of a group of Central European newcomers who have taken up residence i n Vancouver* The study examines the existing f a c i l i t i e s for aiding newcomers, and i t attempts to interpret their adequacy i n the light of the emotional and physical needs of immigrants. The thesis begins with the background material concerning the European immigration to Canada with a special reference to immigrants from Central European countries. The next chapter reports on feelings of Central European newcomers concerning their adjustment problems, and i t i s followed up by a study of a sample group i n order to reinforce and supplement the previous findings. The reader w i l l note that most of the needs of a Cent r a l European newcomer are common needs which affect him as much as they do any Canadian citizen. However, there are a number of complicating factors which make the situation of a newcomer more d i f f i c u l t . It has been found i n this study that, rather than material help, a Central European newcomer needs a shortening of his cultural distance and help with his psychological adjustment. The f i n a l chapter deals with meeting of the needs of newcomers i n this community. There i s seme evidence that an expansion of information and orientation services i s needed. Also, i t became evident that a more individualized approach should be applied i n order to help the newcomer i n his-cultural transition. Finally, there i s an outline of functions of a suggested "Centre for New Canadians".  - iii -  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  The study of culture adds v a l i d i t y and depth to case work philosophy, helps to recognize the common humanity of a l l peoples, and increases sympathy and understanding between them. Keeping t h i s i n mind, the w r i t e r decided to study c u l t u r a l differences of a Central European immigrant and how they complicate h i s process of becoming a Canadian. I t i s hard to be objective about one's own feelings and opinions, since he i s d i r e c t l y involved i n the problem. However, as a s o c i a l worker, the writer believes that he i s able to watch h i s emotional involvement and stand back and l i s t e n "with h i s t h i r d ear". The w r i t e r ' s indebtedness to the newcomers i n connection with t h i s study i s very great and cannot be e n t i r e l y acknowledged. However, he would l i k e to express h i s sincere thanks to those who helped with translations, and to those who through t h e i r introductions enabled him to contact the newcomers. The w r i t e r would also l i k e to express h i s appreciati o n to the Department of Citizenship and Immigration i n Ottawa f o r t h e i r grant which made i t possible to complete t h i s research. The i n t e r e s t of the Department i n t h i s study was most encouraging. To the professors of the U.B.C. School of Social Work, Dr. Leonard C. Marsh and Mr. William G. Dixon, who both gave generously of t h e i r already crowded time, the w r i t e r i s grateful f o r t h e i r careful c r i t i c i s m and encouraging counsel. The w r i t e r would also l i k e to thank Dr. W.G. Black, the Regional L i a i s o n O f f i c e r of the Citizenship Branch, Vancouver, B.C. f o r h i s discriminating evaluation of the data obtained i n t h i s study.  - i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I  Immigration - Canada's Problem of Today and Tomorrow  Arguments f o r larger population. T e r r i t o r i a l expansion and immigration policy. Post-war trends - encouragement of immigration. Growth of Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia due to immigration. Can preference to immigrants of certain race or nationality be j u s t i f i e d ? Is Central European immigrant s t i l l "less desirable"? Purpose and method of the study. Chapter I I  The Central European Immigrant and h i s New Home  P o l i t i c a l and cultural background. Displaced persons and p o l i t i c a l refugees. Newcomers' f i r s t impressions of Canada concerning: housing and family; health and welfare; educational and vocational training; employment; recreation and social l i f e ; community and citizenship. Immediate needs and long term problems concerning: housing and family; health and welfare; educational and vocational training; employment; recreation and social l i f e ; community and citizenship Chapter I I I  19  Becoming a Canadian  A study of adjustment problems of a sample group (background; a r r i v a l and making a new home; making a l i v i n g ; making new friends; help received and required; overall adjustment). Psychol o g i c a l processes - a complicating factor i n adjustment period. Cultural transition i n view of attitudes towards newcomers Chapter IV  1  38  Immigrant vs. Community  Area where help i s required. Evaluation of existing f a c i l i t i e s i n this community: Immigration Branch and National Employment Office; Citizenship Branch; Welfare agencies; Voluntary organizations. The social worker's role. Does casework require specialization i n working with immigrants? Outline of a new project. Appendices: A  Tables and charts related to growth of Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia due to immigration.  B  Questionnaires and a l e t t e r of introduction used in the study of a sample group.  C  Bibliography.  67  - i i -  LIST OF TABLES AND CHARTS IN APPENDIX "A" Tables  Page  Table I Table I I Table I I I  Immigration t o Canada from 1910 t o 1953 Average Immigration t o Canada and B.C. the f i s c a l y e a r s 1910-19U9 Percentage o f Immigrants t o t h e T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n  o f Canada 1926-19U9 T a b l e 17 Table 7  89  90 91  Percentage o f Immigrants t o t h e T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1926-19U9 Presumed Permanent Movement o f P o p u l a t i o n between Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : Years Ended  June 30, 1939-1*8  92  93  Charts Fig.  1  Immigrant A r r i v a l s f o r f i s c a l y e a r s  1910-50  Fig.  2  Fig.  3  Average Immigration t o Canada and B.C. f o r t h e f i s c a l y e a r s 1910-lt9 Percentage o f Immigrants t o t o t a l P o p u l a t i o n o f  Fig.  k  Canada and B.C. 1926-19U9  Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table  71 711 Till 7111a IX X XI XII XIII XI7 X7 X7I X7II X7III XIX XX XXI XXII XXIII XXI7 XX7  Movement o f P o p u l a t i o n between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s - F i s c a l y e a r s 1939-lt9 LIST OF TABLES IN TEXT M a r i t a l S t a t u s and Age Group E d u c a t i o n a l Background 7 o c a t i o n a l Background Composition o f P r o f e s s i o n a l Group Residence L a s t Residence P r i o r t o Immigration Ways o f Coming t o Canada Present Accommodation o f Immigrants Time needed f o r l o c a t i n g the f i r s t j o b A s s i s t a n c e r e c e i v e d i n l o c a t i n g the f i r s t j o b 7 o c a t i o n a l Placements o f Immigrants P r e s e n t Job o f Immigrants i n Terms o f P r e s t i g e Newcomers E x p e r i e n c e w i t h Canadian Immigration O f f i c e s . Newcomers' E x p e r i e n c e w i t h Canadians Newcomers? A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Canadians P r e v i o u s Knowledge o f E n g l i s h Language P r e s e n t Knowledge o f E n g l i s h Language Use o f E n g l i s h C l a s s e s b y Newcomers O r i e n t a t i o n on Canadian Way o f L i v i n g Comparing Canada w i t h Home Country o f Immigrant O v e r a l l Adjustment 1  9k 95 96 97  39 ' I4.0 Ijl kZ It3 k3  lj.lt k$ lt° U6 It7 k9 5 0 5 0 5 1 5 2 5 2 53 51t 56 57  - iv -  MEETING THE NEEDS OF NEWCOMERS  "Only understanding for our neighbours, justice i n our dealings and willingness to help our fellow men can give human society permanence and assure security for the individual. Neither intelligence nor inventions nor institutions can serve as substitutes for these most v i t a l parts of education". (1) Albert Einstein  (1) Albert Einstein: "Out of My Later Years" ; New York; Philosophical Library; 1950; p. 2$k.  CHAPTER I IMMIGRATION - CANADA'S PROBLEM OF TODAY AND TOMORROW Canada i s geographically a very large country.  Including the  northern archipelago her total area i s larger than that of a l l Europe. However, the population ratio for Canada of 1.0 per square kilometre compares with 82.81 per km for Europe.  Contemplating this wide differentiation i t  would seem only f a i r that the heavily populated areas of Europe should be relieved and that their surplus peoples should find new homes i n the sparsely settled regions of Canada. However, not area alone governs settlement. are also factors of a great importance.  Soil and climate  There are only about 500,000 square  miles of f e r t i l e land i n the whole territory, and although there are large areas of Canada which produce great wealth in minerals, timber or fur, they do not support large settlement because of unpleasant climate.' Roughly speaking, most Canadians l i v e on a strip of land not more than 200 miles wide along the international boundary line. Nevertheless the population of Canada i s relatively small and there are many more people needed in order to develop her resources and i n dustries.  Many problems that are peculiarly Canadian find their roots i n this  contrast between the size of the country and the size of i t s population. From the economic point of view a larger Canadian population would offset the heavy overhead costs that characterize the Canadian economy and i t would provide a cushion of domestic purchasing power to lessen Canada's economic dependence upon the vagaries of staple export markets"^. Also many social and cultural problems are inevitably raised 1) Cartwrigiat, Steven; "Population - Canada's Problem", Contemporary Affairs, pamphlets, No. 11,. The Ryerson Press, Toronto, I9I4I.  - 2 -  b y the sparse s e t t l e m e n t .  There a r e fewer s o c i a l c o n t a c t s i n Canada, and  s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s are more d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n .  For  the same reason, f o r example, the s c h o o l s v a r y from p r o v i n c e t o p r o v i n c e and even from town t o town.  A sparse p o p u l a t i o n and l a r g e d i s t a n c e s d i l u t e  the f o r c e s o f c o h e s i o n and u n i t y and encourage  sectionalism.  The  immigrants  then t e n d t o be f o r c e d back upon the s o c i a l bonds and customs brought t h e i r c o u n t r i e s o f o r i g i n r a t h e r t h a n t o be absorbed i n t o t h e i r new The Canadian's  also  from  environment.  sense o f h i s European p a s t i s unique i n North America."^  While  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s the emphasis seems t o be on b e i n g "an American",in Canada the e t h n i c o r i g i n remains more p r e s e r v e d .  I t i s f a i r to say t h a t t h e cause o f  t h i s f a c t can be p a r t l y found i n the d i s p r o p o r t i o n o f the a r e a and the s i z e o f Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . A l s o r a i l w a y s and o t h e r means o f communication  s u f f e r , on the  one hand from t h e heavy overhead i n c u r r e d by l i n k i n g s c a t t e r e d areas o f p o p u l a t i o n and, on t h e o t h e r from d i s p a r a t e l y few customers f o r t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . A l l t h e s e arguments speak i n f a v o u r o f a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n from t h e i n t e r n a l p o i n t o f view. international considerations. a g a i n s t enemies' a t t a c k s .  Canadian  However, t h e r e are a l s o  A l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n means a b e t t e r prepareness  A l s o , t h e r e have been continuous demands t h a t the  doors s h o u l d be opened t o the o p p r e s s e d and l a n d l e s s o f a l l n a t i o n s . ing  By p r o v i d -  t h e chance f o r i m m i g r a t i o n , Canada i s a l s o f u l f i l l i n g some o f i t s i n t e r -  n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and i s a c t i n g i n the i n t e r e s t o f w o r l d Fre-War Immigration  Policy  peace.  2)  The e a r l y phase o f the t e r r i t o r i a l  T) 2)  important  MacLennan, Hugh; Cross-Country, Toronto, 19U9, World War I  expansion o f Canada was  C h . I I I , p.A4J4.  - 3 completed i n 1871.  The four original provinces could not be expected to provide  sufficient settlers for the lands -which vigorous Canadian statesmanship had saved from absorption by the United States. Yet fehese lands could not be held permanently unless Canada could demonstrate both an ability' to colonize them and an intention of doing so.  The expansionist policy would, therefore, have  been senseless unless there had been an expectation that immigrants could be attracted from the British Isles and from Continental Europe. population was of l i t t l e value.  Territory without  Prosperity depended on settlement of the new  lands which were to provide a market for the industries of the older provinces. The immediate outlook was discouraging.  From 1861 to 1871 there had been a net  emigration from Canada of over 250,000 "which meant that about one third of the natural increase for that period had been lost'!"' The next quarter of a century 1  may, without much exaggeration, be said to have been devoted to patient preparation for a flow of immigration which would bring prosperity to Canada. Canad2) ian immigration policy became aggressive from I896 onwards. Land grants to railways were superseded by a homestead policy. simplified.  Homestead regulations were  An immigration service was organized.  Propaganda to secure settlers  was instituted i n Europe and the United States. Then came the Immigration Act of 1910 which set the policy and defined inadmissibles, admissibles, and regulated transportation companies insofar, as they were affected by immigration.  It set up Boards' of Enquiry at ports  of entry to determine who should be allowed to enter and who turned back, and the deporation regulations were tightened up. 1) Report of Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations, Vol.1, p. 28; Ottawa, 191*0. 2) England, R.: The Colonization of Western Canada; London, 1936.  -  hI  There was, of course, l i t t l e immigration during World War I, though a peak of almost h a l f a m i l l i o n (Table I, F i g . l ) had been reached j u s t the  year before, i n 1913.  population.  This figure was almost s i x per cent of the 1911  At war's end i n 1919, i n order to protect the Canadian labour,  s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d workers were not allowed to enter as immigrants.  In 1921  each immigrant was required to have a minimum of $2$0 i n h i s possession except those going to assured farm work or domestic service.  As economic conditions  improved, more immigrants were desired and the Empire Settlement Agreement of the  B r i t i s h Government i n 1922 was a p a r t i a l answer.  and children were allowed to t r a v e l free.  Adult fares were lowered  In 1927 a special agreement was made  to get immigrants f o r New Brunswick, whereby they were assisted by the B r i t i s h and Canadian Governments as w e l l as the New Brunswick p r o v i n c i a l government. In 1928 the ocean voyage f o r immigrants was reduced from U . 8 . 1 5 . 0 to L10. 0. 0, with land s e t t l e r s s t i l l paying only L2. 0. 0.  Children under 19 were s t i l l  t r a v e l l i n g free. In 1929, a f t e r the "crash", immigrant labour entering under contract was prohibited except f o r farmers, farm labourers and household workers.  Then  i n August 1930 immigration from continental Europe was e n t i r e l y suspended with two exceptions: 1) p r a c t i c a l farmers with s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l to establish and maintain themselves immediately; and 2) the wives and children (under eighteen) of family heads already established i n Canada.  S o l i c i t a t i o n was stopped i n  B r i t a i n and the United States, and a l l farmers with c a p i t a l had to have enough money to keep themselves u n t i l they were able to work.  In 1931 immigration was  further r e s t r i c t e d to the following: 1) found.  B r i t i s h subjects with enough money to l a s t t i l l employment was  - 5 2)  Americans with enough money to last t i l l employment was  3)  The wife and unmarried children under 16 of any person  found.  legally admitted to Canada, resident there and able to support them. h)  Farmers with sufficient capital to establish themselves.  These severe limitations lasted through the "Hungry Thirties", but since 19U7 the situation has eased. Post-War Trends Since the end of Yforld War II Canada has again taken the initiative i n seeking immigrants. ion:  In 19h7 there were two main plans of immigrat-  the Close Relatives Plan and the Group Movement Plan. According to the  Close Relatives Plan, any Canadian citizen or resident could bring i n any of the following:  husband or wife; father or mother; son, daughter, brother or  sister, together with husband or wife and unmarried children, i f any; orphan, nephew or niece under 21 years of age.  In addition to the above relatives, he  could bring i n : agriculturists intending to farm; miners and woodworkers proceeding to assured employment i n such industries; fiance or fiancee. The Close Relatives Plan i s useful for both Displaced Persons and others. Movement Plan i s for the former.  The Group  Six teams, four i n Germany and two i n Austria,  with headquarters at Karlsruhe, went to D.P. camps selecting people with skills capable of meeting the manpower needs of Canada. During 1950-51 several important steps were taken, both legislative and administrative, to stimulate the flow of European immigration. Order-in-Council of June 2 , 1950 revoked the one of June 2, 191&.** 1  T)  P.C. 2856 of June 9 , 1950;  P.C. 27U3 of June 2 , 19U9.  An  The new  - 6 measure widened the scope of the countries from which immigrants could be drawn. In addition to certain British subjects, citizens of France, citizens of the United States, and non-immigrants who had served in the Canadian Armed Forces and who had been previously excluded could now be admitted to the country.  In  addition, other peoples were considered admissible i f they could satisfy the Minister i n regard to their social, educational, industrial, labour or other conditions or requirements of Canada. An Order-in-Council of September lit, 1950 revoked the one of March 28, 1950, prohibiting the entry of enemy aliens ^ 1  Under the new Order, Germans were placed on the same basis as other Europeans. This widening of regulations did not prove sufficient i n i t self to increase the flow of immigration.  Several obstacles remained to be  overcome, the more important being the shortage and high cost of ocean transportation, restrictions on the export of capital, and the devaluation of foreign currencies.  Measures were taken by the adoption of the A i r Transportation Scheme,  and the Assisted Passage Loan Scheme to help overcome the transportation problems.  In addition to these measures, the Department of Citizenship and Immigrat-  ion made a determined effort to have more shipping made available, increased the s ize of i t s overseas staff, added to i t s overseas offices, and made a large supply of information material available to prospective immigrants. The success of these efforts to stimulate immigration i s evidenced by the number of 211,220 immigrants admitted during 1952.  A decline  of 31 per cent for the following year was mostly due to the discontinuation of the activities of the International Refugee Organization shortly before the commencement of the f i s c a l year, and to the planned curtailment of the movement  T)  P.C. U36h of September lit, 1950;  P.C. 1606 of March 28,  1950.  - 7 of unsponsored immigrant workers during the winter months. As conditions i n 1  Canada indicated that there would be a lessened demand for immigrant workers, certain labour was not processes for movement to Canada unless i t could arrive in this country before the end of October.  let, the ]Mk,692  total was the sec-  ond largest recorded during the past 23 years. It i s obvious that the present policy of the Federal Government i s to foster the growth of the population of Canada by the encouragement of immigration and, by necessary legislation and vigorous administration, to ensure the careful selection and permanent settlement of such numbers of immig1) rants as can be absorbed advantageously i n the national economy. However, "absorptive capacity", as defined, must obviously somewhat vary from year to year i n response to economic conditions. Growth of Canada and British Columbia due to Immigration The pattern of immigration to British Columbia follows a ratio similar to the one of a l l Canada with the exception that, the percentage of immigrants coming to British Columbia as compared with total Canadian immigration reached a maximum during the years following World War I (TableIi).  From  1919 to 1929, 28 per cent of a l l immigrants entering Canada came to British Columbia.  The trend of immigration to Canada and British Columbia during the  period 1910 to 19U8 indicates that the average immigration to British Columbia during the years 1910 to 1918 and 19U6 to 19U8 exceeds the average immigration to Canada during 1939 to 19k5 (Fig. 2).  There were approximately 16 immigrants  per 1000 residents i n Canada during the immediate pre-depression era.  In 1936,  during the depression, the immigration rate decreased to approximately one l l See statement by Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King i n Canada House of Commons Debates, May 1, 19ii7, pp. 2673-75.  - 8immigrant per 1 0 0 0 population i n a l l Canada.  Over the entire period 1 9 2 6 to  19h9 there were only two years, 1 9 2 7 and 1 9 3 0 , when there were more immigran  per 1 0 0 0 population i n a l l Canada than immigrants per 1 0 0 0 population i n Briti Columbia.  Thus i t appears that since 1 9 2 5 British Columbia has been getting  more than i t s proportionate share of immigrants (TablesIIIand !y,Fig. 3). It has been shown that since 1 9 1 0 there had been wide variations in Canada's immigration.  Many factors have contributed to the ebb and flow  since i t s heyday i n 1 9 1 2 - 1 3 when the arrivals of one year totalled 382,81jl, of which almost 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 were British, 9 2 , 0 0 0 were United States citizens, and the remaining 1 3 0 , 0 0 0 came from a l l other parts of the world.  At the other end of  the scale i s the record of 1 9 U 2 - U 3 when immigration f e l l to the lowest point since Confederation. In order to obtain a true picture of the growth of Canadian population from immigration, the emigration from Canada also has to be considered. Although Canada has received millions of immigrants at the same time there has been a continuous movement of people from this country to the United States. A large proportion of them were young people, born in Canada and others who had benefited by education or training received i n this country.  There appears to  be a reciprocal movement of population between Canada and the United States (Table 'V). The net loss to Canada as a result of this movement has quadrupled in a period of ten years (1939-U8). At the rate at which people emigrated to Canada during the postwar (second) period, this loss of Canadians i s quite a threat to the success of the Canadian immigration policy.  For example, in the f i s c a l year 19h2-U3 total  immigration was 7 , W + 5 , but the number of Canadians who migrated to the United  -  States was lk,5hl.  9  -  During the following decade the migration from Canada to  the U. S. has shown a rapidly increasing tendency.  For 1952' the figures obtained  from the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the U.S. Department of Justice reveal a total of 37,709. It i s obvious that a successful immigration' policy alone would not be of much value to Canada unless she i s able to keep the newcomers and help them to "put down their roots".  To a European the United States has always been  the country "of plenty and opportunity for everybody", and when he experiences a feeling of not being desirable here, sooner or later he w i l l start looking for "his  chance" on the other side of the border.  Immigrants have to feel accepted  and understood as to both their material and emotional needs.  This can only be  achieved by a wisely planned integration programme directed to both the newcomers and the native Canadians. European Immigrants - More and Less Desirable A certain proportion of immigrants f a i l i n their adjustment to the new l i f e i n the new country.  Some of these "more serious failures" have been  detected and deported, but many others remain maladjusted and unhappy and quite often they become a permanent burden on the community. what i s behind these failures.  I t i s reasonable to ask  Is i t that some races or nationalities have more  capacity for adjustment than the others, or i s i t rather social status, educational and vocational background, opportunity and uprooting experience which have to be considered?  Is i t the immigrant himself or i s i t the attitude of the  native population toward him? Many claims and counter-claims have been made about this subject, which need not be discussed here. In certain respects a l l human beings are more alike than they  - 10 are different.  Some of the similarities i n early childhood experiences, which  prevail i n every cultural group, transcend the more spectacular cultural d i f f erences between groups. This does not mean there are no differences between groups of people.  However, most of these differences are not inherited physically, but  are of social or cultural origin. what the child i s taught — group —  It means that they are due to the content of  the customs and traditions of his family and his  and here again, what the mother teaches depends on how ignorant or well-  informed, how s k i l f u l and well-adjusted she i s .  Every child has to make an  adjustment between his own impulses and wishes and the demands of his parent; so, too, every adult has to make an adjustment between his individual wishes and the demands of his culture. In social work, the task of a case worker i s to help the client 1  make his adjustment to his social situation according to his capacity. That the cultural background i s a part of this reality of social l i f e i s no new idea to him.  Therefore, i n social work we do not speak of certain races as being more  or less adjustable but we acknowledge the cultural background of individuals as a "slowing down" or "speeding up" component i n any adjustment situation.  Thus  we caisnnot reject certain races or nationalities and prefer others. However, i t has to be acknowledged that the general public and even some o f f i c i a l representatives often use concepts of race rather loosely. This can be illustrated by the following passage expressing Canadian opinion on the choice of immigrants i n the 'twenties':  "When any considerable immigration  into a democratic country occurs, the racial and linguistic composition of that immigration becomes of paramount importance. Canadians generally prefer that settlers should be of a readily assimilable type, already identified by race or language with one or other of the two great races now inhabiting this country and thus prepared for the assumption of the duties of democratic Canadian citizenship. Since the French are  -  11  -  not to any great extent an immigrating people, t h i s means i n practice that the great bulk of the preferred s e t t l e r s are those who speak the English language — those coming from the United Kingdom or the United States. Next i n the order of readiness of assimilation are the Scandinavians and the Dutch, who r e a d i l y learn English, and are acquainted with the working of free democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s . Settlers from Southern and Eastern Europe, however,desirable from the purely economic point of view, are l e s s r e a d i l y assimilated, and the Canadianizing of the people from these regions who came to Canada i n the f i r s t fourteen years of this century i s a problem both i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l provinces and i n the c i t i e s of the E a s t " . l ) Although the present p o l i c y of the Federal Government takes account of the differences of the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l background of the immigrant, of h i s attachment to the t r a d i t i o n s and customs of h i s ancestors, and gives him time to go without pressure through a natural process of integration, the attitude of the general public towards Central European newcomers s t i l l bears deep marks of the o l d p o l i c y . Any immigration p o l i c y based on p r i n c i p l e s that some nations or races are l e s s desirable as immigrants than others must inevitably influence public opinion and the attitudes of peoples of that p a r t i c u l a r country towards newcomers.  In s o c i a l work i t i s recognized that anxiety develops various types  of defence-mechanisms.  A f e e l i n g of r e j e c t i o n , experienced by an immigrant,  may  therefore develop defences which w i l l slow down h i s process of integration considerably.  Therefore, i t i s necessary to see the problem of immigration not  i n selecting the "adjustable stock" but i n d u a l i t y of the job —  helping with  d i f f i c u l t i e s of immigrants on one hand, and working with attitudes of Canadians on the other.  IT Canada Year Book, 1 9 2 7 j p . 1 9 1 ( I t i s necessary to keep i n mind that Central European immigrants are included i n the Eastern European group)  - 12 Before dealing with problems of Central European newcomers of present time, i t seems reasonable to compare roughly the experiences i n adjusting t o the Canadian way of living as they may be between the "most desirable" and the "undesirable". It i s true that the British immigrant enters Canada with certain advantages; he speaks the English language, he i s a British subject and is usually welcomed as a neighbour.  However, i s i t hot also true that he often  feels himself a stranger i n Canada? As described by L. G. Reynolds'^, he i s definitely not a Canadian i n outward appearance, habits, and attitudes and encounters most of the problems of any other European immigrant.  He speaks  English, but his English language i s not the one which i s spoken i n Canada, and sometimes i t makes him feel as uneasy as a Central European immigrant with his foreign accent. Immigrants from rural Scotland or Yfeles, and districts of England which have a distinctive dialect, find i t particularly d i f f i c u l t to abandon their former habits of speech and to adopt Canadian terminology.  It i s  true that the British immigrant i s moving from one country of the Empire to another, but the culture of Canada i n reality differs widely from that of Britain and the British immigrant feels that he has come t o a strange country. He i s homesick and experiences the difficulties of establishing a home and entering into Canadian social l i f e and i s probably more i l l at ease than most Canadians suspect. It appears that i n many instances the difficulties which a British newcomer experiences i n his adjustment to Canada are similar to those of 1) Reynolds, Lloyd G. et a l , "The British Immigrant", Oxford University Press, Toronto, 1935; (source used as a basis for comparison)  i  - 13 a Central European immigrant, and he feels sometimes not less foreign i n Canada than his fellow immigrant from Central Europe.  Their difference in adjustment  does not l i e so much i n frequency of new experiences as i n the degree of these. Therefore a capacity to adjust should be the criterion.  This capacity i s i n -  fluenced by two main factors: f i r s t , the social background and attitudes of an immigrant, and second, society's attitude toward him. The statistics from 1921 reveal that the concentration of Central European immigrants i s found i n rural areas, while the British immigrants are found established i n cities.  These statistics also reveal a slightly higher  percentage of i l l i t e r a t e s among rural foreign born population i n comparison with British and Canadians; as to the urban population, the difference i s really great.  I t indicates that the educational background of immigrants coming from  Britain was much wider than of those from Central Europe.  However, i t should  not be forgotten that from Central Europe the "admissibles" were farm labourers and domestics, while the British immigrant of any educational or vocational background wasvelcomed. Moreover, British clerks, businessmen and members of professions sometimes received a preference over the natives for some positions i n Canada. On the whole, Central Europeans put a great value on education, and the Universities of Vienna and Prague, schools with an old tradition, have produced some of the best physicians, psychologists, philosophers and musicians in the world.  Nevertheless, the Central European immigrants of the past were  people of very l i t t l e education.  Central Europe i s a vast and highly divided  community where within any one nation one w i l l find peasant cultures, only slightl y changed from what they have always been, side by side with the highest degree  / of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ,  -litThe Central European farmer and peasant has a strong  sentimental attachment to h i s land and he would never leave i t .  Those who  came to the Canadian shores i n the past were landless peasants who were victims of e x p l o i t a t i o n by b i g landowners.  They were a group of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o l e t a r i a t  to whom emigration was the only possible course. Much has also been said about "tendencies" of Central European immigrants to s e t t l e i n blocks or colonies.  There i s no doubt that  segregation i s , i f i t occurs, a retarding factor i n the process of integration. However, i s i t reasonable to t a l k about "tendencies" without looking at the f a c t u a l circumstances? The immigrant's r e s i d e n t i a l choice i s frequently related to the manner of h i s migration.  I f he i s induced to come to the new land by  friends or r e l a t i v e s already resident there, he w i l l tend naturally to s e t t l e near them.  I f he comes under a scheme of assisted immigration, he w i l l probably  have h i s destination selected f o r him by the sponsors of the scheme.  I f the  immigrant has no f r i e n d s i n the new land, no assurance of employment, does not speak the language, i s of a low s o c i a l status and educational background and i s overwhelmed by h o s t i l e attitudes of the new environment, he w i l l naturally tend to go to those communities i n which previous immigrants from h i s homeland are already located.  I t i s true that t h i s was a tendency of Central European  immigrants of the past.  But i t i s not correct to t a l k about t h e i r " c u l t u r a l  tendencies" since t h i s was an inevitable component of s u r v i v a l .  Moreover, i t  should be borne i n mind that r u r a l segregation which l e d to the formation of the numerous block settlements was not e n t i r e l y of the immigrant's making but to a large degree i t was the r e s u l t of Canadian early immigration p o l i c y . I t seems that t h e i r former s o c i a l status and t h e i r educati o n a l background were the factors that l a b e l l e d Central European immigrants as  - 15 -  "undesirable".  I t i s reasonable to ask how far this social background differs  from the one of the post-war"""^ newcomers. Purpose and Method of the Study The average Canadian may be familiar with the peasant immigrant of the past but not with the Central European newcomer with an international reputation as a scholar, scientist, writer or artist; or the immigrant experienced i n business and industry.  He i s also not likely to be familiar with the  immigrant arriving penniless and i n a state of high nervous tension, bearing the scars of persecution and of concentration camp brutality. Due to his higher education and social status, and wider scale of experiences, the emotional l i f e of the present immigrant i s much fuller and his mind i s broader i n comparison with the immigrant of the old days.  His con-  fusion about differences i n ideas, ideals, standards, methods and sets of values affects his adjustment considerably. It i s the purpose of this study to bring up the problems of Central European immigrants i n their cultural transition, and to examine whether the tangible part of the process i s i n balance with the intangible one. Another aim of this study i s to examine what resources are available or needed i n this community that could offer concrete help to immigrants in meeting their needs. Since a social worker i s equipped for helping with problems of adjustment, there i s another purpose of this study, and that i s to find out to what extent his services are made available to immigrants and how much they are needed. T) World War. II"'  •  ~-  •  - 16 -  The study i s limited to the area of Greater Vancouver and immigrants studied consist of those Austrians, Czechoslovaks, Hungarians and Poles, who have lived i n Canada not longer than four years.  Despite four  different ethnic origins, these people have much i n common because of similarities i n p o l i t i c a l and socio-economic development and happenings i n their countries. Throughout the study, the following criteria of this process are kept i n mind: housing and family health and welfare educational and vocational training employment recreation and social l i f e community and citizenship. Although i t would seem that these criteria are suitable for measurement of the practical part of adjustment only, the reader w i l l notice that the material compiled under each heading brings up a large number of feelings and attitudes which are quite typical of a post-war immigrant. As adjustment to a new culture i s such a complex process, this study uses several different methods which reinforce each other. Life histories. These were considered as undesirable, as the recent Central European newcomers who are mostly of the refugee group, seem reluctant to divulge information concerning their pasts.  They are afraid that the information might  come to the attention of the Russians and bring hardships on relatives i n their country of origin. The Interview. Throughout this study two kinds of interviews were used. With government o f f i c i a l s and representatives of different agencies and organiz1 ) This study; Chapter II; p.  - 17 ations, the direct interview was used. was given direct answers.  The writer asked direct questions and  There were hZ such interviews.  When contacting  immigrants, however, a relatively indirect type of interview was used, where the topics of discussion were l e f t up to the newcomer.  These interviews took  place i n the homes of the newcomers, at different meetings, i n restaurants, stores and other public places.  Each of these interviews was an informal one  and the newcomer did not know of i t s purpose.  No notes were taken but i n order  to minimize errors due to the faulty memory of the writer, f u l l notes were written soon after the interview.  By belonging to one of their groups and being  able to speak some of their languages, this writer established and maintained Sixty people were interviewed, 1$ of each national  rapport i n each interview. group.  They included men, women and children of different ages, education and  vocation. Field Observation. Field observations used i n this study were, for the most part, of the "participant observer" type.  The writer attended several regular  meetings for newcomers at the Y.W.C.A., Y.M.C.A., meetings of the Vancouver Coordinating Council on Citizenship, the Canadian Folk•Society, rehearsals of the International Choir, parties at International House, and several meetings and dances of the ethnic groups.  He took part i n a l l activities and talked with the  various members of particular groups during the course of the evening.  On  several occasions the purpose of the writer's v i s i t was known. There was a total of 20 v i s i t s . The  Questionnaire.  The questionnaire was used i n this study i n order to supplement material obtained through interviews and f i e l d observations.  The  - 18 questions covered the problems which the newcomers had mentioned most frequentl y during interviews and which, through f i e l d observations, seemed important to the adjustment of the newcomers to l i f e i n Canada.  Since a demand for more i n -  formation to newcomers was steadily voiced during the course of interviews, another feature of this questionnaire was to get the opinion of immigrants as to whether they would be i n favour of establishing an "Information Centre for New Canadians", and i f they would co-operate with such a Centre. The questionnaire, translated into their native tongue, was introduced to a group of two hundred and forty newcomers, 60 of each national group.  It was planned that the sample be as representative as possible and com-  pounded of the same elements as are present i n the whole "universe" of Greater Vancouver. ^ 1  1) Universe means the total area or group from which the sample i s to be selected. In this study, i t is understood to be a group of Central European immigrants residing in Greater Vancouver and having lived i n Canada not longer than four years. As there are no o f f i c i a l records available, this universe i s hypothetical and i s based on information obtained from the Department of Citizenship and Immigration, the National Employment Service and ethnic groups.  CHAPTER II THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN IMMIGRANT (AND, HIS,; NEW HOME "Central Europe" means the Middle Danube plain, bounded by the Alps, the Carpathians and the Serb mountains, and consfeting of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. Except for a part of Austria, Central Europe i s today politicall y and economically behind the "Iron Curtain" and i t belongs therefore to the socalled Eastern Bloc. of the west.  Culturally, however, Central Europe has always been a part  It was once included within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and shared  in the common culture whose centre was Vienna.  The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy  with i t s central system of government and common administration and schools was the p o l i t i c a l , economic and cultural backbone of a l l Central European republics which were proclaimed i n 1918.  Twenty years of a prosperous l i f e of these demo-  cracies was followed by Hitler's occupation and after World War II the Russians took over.  Inevitably, these happenings have to be considered when speaking of  immigrants from Central Europe. According to evidence obtained from the Annual Report of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration, the post-war Central European newcomers contrast sharply with earlier immigrants.  In the days of mass immigration,  the unattached male of the unskilled labourer, peasant or servant class was typical.  Recent immigrants show a more even distribution of the sexes.  There  i s a larger proportion of persons over U5 years of age; a larger proportion of married persons and hence of family groups; there i s a large proportion of professional and business people, white collar and skilled workers, and of persons with no occupation. This group with no occupation comprises housewives, children and old people who are retired.  Most of the adults had more than eight years of  - 20 school education and nearly half of them had attended college or a professional school.  They were primarily a city group with a cosmopolitan outlook. A con-  siderable number of them had travelled widely and knew languages other than their own.  They are essentially a group of people who normally would not have  emigrated but who l e f t their homelands because of actual or anticipated persecution.  They are mostly p o l i t i c a l refugees. Some people call them D.P.»s without much knowing what this  term implies.  In many cases, to these people i t i s , a substitute for "undesirable".  The history of Canadian immigration shows plenty of examples of immigrants wearing this label.  Some of the colonial immigrants were p o l i t i c a l refugees i n the  cause of religion; post-revolutionary immigrants, exiles i n the cause of politi c a l conservatism; nineteenth-century immigrants, exiles i n the cause of p o l i t i c al liberalism and racial intransigence. has produced refugees "en masse".  The stormy twentieth century, however,  They are exiles on the basis of p o l i t i c a l  reaction, p o l i t i c a l radicalism, religion, nationality and race. The terms "political refugees" and "displaced persons" are not always properly used and may cause misunderstanding.  I t could be said that  while nearly a l l p o l i t i c a l refugees of the Central European group are displaced persons, a displaced person i s not necessarily a p o l i t i c a l refugee. The criterion i s the one of activity or passivity i n p o l i t i c a l happenings.  A good number  of Central European immigrants of the refugee group cannot be called "political refugees" in a s t r i c t sense, yet they are displaced persons, as they were expelled, "in absentia", from their countries by the present Communist rulers. They are often only passive victims of the huge historical processes, like sufferers from a flood or an earthquake which annihilated their means of existence.  - 21 Even the greatest section of the remnants of the defeated armies cannot properly be c a l l e d p o l i t i c a l refugees, as i n most cases they were enrolled by the m i l i t a r y commands without inquiry about t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s .  Aside from t h i s .  group, there i s a comparatively small one which could be c a l l e d " p o l i t i c a l r e fugees" i n a s t r i c t sense, that i s that part of the uprooted masses which were conscious participants i n the c r i s i s , f i g h t i n g f o r t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . A good number of Czechoslovaks belong to t h i s group.  A f u r t h e r sub-division i n  both groups just mentioned may be c a l l e d "border refugees", i . e . people  who,  f l e e i n g from the v i n d i c t i v e arms of the new government, have gone into contiguous countries whose governments were more or l e s s f r i e n d l y toward them.  A great mass  of such border refugees was created by the new f r o n t i e r s , either as l e g a l optants f r e e l y choosing between two p o l i t i c a l allegiances or because they were endangered i n t h e i r l i v e s by the new governments.  This difference between active and  passive p o l i t i c a l refugees i s not purely abstract d i s t i n c t i o n f o r methodological reasons.  I t i s something c l e a r l y f e l t by the respective categories themselves,  and that i s why t h i s writer i s bringing i t to the reader's attention. I t i s reasonable to ask whether the l i f e and s o c i a l function of the present-day p o l i t i c a l refugees compare with those of p o l i t i c a l emigrants of previous periods.  Oscar J a s z i , i n h i s paper " P o l i t i c a l Refugees", says: " I t cannot be doubted that the contribution of many e x i l e s has been s i g n i f i c a n t i n shaping the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l thought of the world. I t seems that some of the most important chapters i n p o l i t i c a l thought have been the work of persecuted men who t r a n s i t o r i l y or f o r a longer period were compelled to l i v e i n a foreign society. I t i s enough to r e c a l l such names as Plato, Zeno, Dante, Marsiglio, Machiavelli, Calvin, Grotius, Spinoza, Locke, Rousseau, V o l t a i r e , Mazzini, Marx, Engels, Bakunin, Hugo and Kropotkin to show how much we are indebted to those men who worked under the hardship of t h e i r exiled l i f e . And there i s nothing strange i n t h i s phenomenon, because the c r i s i s  - 22 of t h e i r personal l i f e and the experiences i n new surroundings concentrated t h e i r attention upon essential things and made them more sensitive towards new solutions. I t cannot be doubted that some men i n the new emigration w i l l some day be included i n t h i s r o l l of honour because they have given a new approach to the problems of our time".l) Of course, these are exceptional cases performed by men of genius.  The rank and f i l e presents quite a d i f f e r e n t situation.  Former Europ-  ean immigrants have been gladly received i n North America because they were considered promising participants i n the development of the national economy. The s i t u a t i o n considerably changed.  With some exception the new manual or  professional worker i s often regarded as a dangerous competitor.  Furthermore,  the structure of our society has become f a r more r i g i d and the danger of p o l i t i c a l f r i c t i o n f a r more acute.  Therefore, many of the present refugees  face great uncertainty, continuous p r i v a t i o n , and the danger of expulsion. Often they are even regarded as vagabonds, having not even papers of i d e n t i f i c ation. However, they are not criminals, nor are they the dregs of European society.  They are, a large part of them, the men and women who  first  dared to oppose dictatorship and f l e d t h e i r homes rather than submit to i t . They are the men and women who precious than security.  found r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l freedom more  They are those who have had the f o r t i t u d e , the physical  strength and the mental stamina to withstand the years of persecution to which they have been subjected.  They represent, i n more than one sense, the survival  of the f i t t e s t .  1 ) J a s z i , Oscar: P o l i t i c a l Refugees; The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Science, May 1 9 3 9 j p. 8 3 .  - 23 -  They cannot go home because they have grounds to fear religious or p o l i t i c a l persecution; or to fear that i f they do return, they -will lose their liberties —  perhaps their lives.  In a very real sense, they gave up  their right to a familiar homeland when they chose the hope of freedom. If they return today, even that home may be forfeit. they do not go back.  There i s another reason why  That reason i s psychological —  the fear of physical persecution.  no less compulsive than  The villages and farmland which they l e f t  are the scenes where their families and friends were tortured and killed, sometimes before their eyes.  They cannot forget this and return to the terror and  grief their old homes represent. The Newcomer Compares with his Homeland During his early days i n Canada, a Central European immigrant may easily become confused and lose his self-confidence.  His self-confidence was  based for the most part on his good sense and rational judgment i n daily affairs. But, i n what i s to him a totally different world, he can no longer trust his common sense, as the most ordinary objects seem to play tricks on him.  Doors  close when he wants to open them, and open when he wants to close them. Windows do not open inwards or outwards but upwards.  Of the two taps which he finds i n  the bathroom, one opens to the right, the other to the l e f t . measures mean l i t t l e to him.  Weights and  Temperatures are not expresses i n Centigrade but  i n degrees Fahrenheit. He has to learn quite different numbers for the size of his shoes, shirts, gloves, hat, etc. Even the measurements of time and money vary somewhat. He must also learn to master a completely new form of conduct. A casual remark which he thinks amusing, can cause anger.  His shyness can be  taken for coldness, his friendly ouvertures for forwardness, his politeness for  - 21* oddity.  He has to learn that whistling i s not an expression of the strongest  dislike, as i t i s i n his country, but one of approval. His f i r s t impressions about Canada play an important part i n the later adjustment process of an immigrant.  They are a combination of both  his learning about Canada prior to his coming here, and his early experiences in this country.  As his vision may be coloured by feelings of happiness or  bitterness, these impressions are often far from reality.  Nevertheless, they  do give a "true" picture to him as long as he does not learn otherwise. The following i s the picture of Canada as seen by the group of Central European immigrants interviewed by the writer during the course of this study.  At this point i t seems necessary to mention once again that there  were 60 people interviewed, 1$ of each national group, both men and women of different ages, education and vocation.  It seems also reasonable to make i t  clear that throughout the following paragraphs of this Chapter the writer i s purely reporting on the findings of the interviews without making comments of his own. Housing and family Perhaps the f i r s t and most obvious difference evident to the newcomer i s the scenery.  The countryside i n his home country i s notable for  having been largely formed and shaped by man:  this type of countryside, as far  as he i s concerned, seems hardly to exist i n Canada. Nature does not seem to have been conquered here.  In spite of skyscrapers i n some cities, i n spite of  gigantic dams, nature's role seems less confined. The elements go on the rampage more often, the newcomer claims, there are more catastrophes — drought, etc.  f i r e , water,  There are more natural forces over which man has no control.  - 25 According to a Central European immigrant, Canadian cities are large i n terms of area but they are "small towns" i n terms of population and social l i f e .  The majority of urban population i n Europe live i n apartments  while here, at least i n the west, the majority live i n family houses.  Not only  public buildings but also a l l apartment and family houses i n Central European cities are built of bricks, stone and concrete and only poor people i n the country have wooden houses.  The Canadian home i s equipped with modem house-  hold appliancesand i s mostly centrally heated, while i n Central Europe a bathtub i s often considered a luxury, as i t i s d i f f i c u l t to instal one i n houses which may be decades or hundreds of years old.  After World War II, the  immigrant says, the housing situation became poor i n Central Europe, as many houses were destroyed; i n contrast to the Canadian situation, however, the tenants there are protected by the law, so that no one can be forced to vacate the premises; also rent i s controlled by the law. In the opinion of those interviewed, the family unit i s more stable i n Central Europe than i n Canada and family l i f e i s valued more highly. The functions of individual members within a Central European family are clearly defined, and generally more rigid.  Although the right of women to equal status  with men i s now recognized i n Central Europe, the man i s s t i l l the f i n a l authority i n his family. The newcomer finds Canadian foods different from those i n Central Europe. quality.  He finds them processed and packaged differently, and of a different The grading system i s also not known i n Central Europe.  Although each  of the Central European nations has some typical meals, on the whole, they are a l l different from Canadian cooking. In comparison with Central Europe,  - 26 -  recipes are given in Canada i n measurements (e.g., tablespoons) more often than by weight. The Central European woman claims that she was accustomed to deal with small shopkeepers with whom she was personally acquainted, and each of whom was selling only one sort of merchandise.  In Canada she has to adjust  herself to the impersonal relationships and the departmentalized character of the big store. An "instalment plan" and a "charge account" i s something entirely new to her.  To Central European immigrants there seems to be more  uniformity of taste i n Canada.  It was stated that here everyone i s well-dressed  in the same manner, while i n Central European countries people like showing their individual taste. An example was given that a Central European salesgirl would say: "Take this one, you w i l l be the only one wearing i t " ; while in Canada she says: "Take that one, I have already sold forty of them this morning". Health and Welfare It was stated that i n a l l Central European countries health and medical services are partly or f u l l y socialized and nobody can get ruined financially i f he becomes i l l .  It seems to a Central European newcomer that i n  Canada adequate medical treatment i s the privilege of rich people.  He i s also  astonished to find that i n order to gain admission to a hospital, he must f i r s t make a deposit. On the other hand, the preventive work and rehabilitation programme in Canada was stated to be far ahead i n comparison with Central European countries.  Most of those immigrants who were studied, showed no understand-  ing of social work as i t i s known here and claimed that i n their home countries social work i s confined to public relief and institutions, where the quality of  - 27 social service i s s t i l l embryonic.  In their countries, the concept of social  casework and groupwork seems to be very different from that i n Canada. Educational and Vocational Training The writer learned that a Central European immigrant finds i n Canada more opportunity for education.  A man i s never too old i n  Canada to broaden his knowledge or to start training for another job, while i n Central European countries this i s a privilege of a certain age group only. The adult education, night and correspondence classes, as well as the information desk i n Public Libraries seems to be something quite new to the majority of Central European immigrants.  As to the quality of school studies, they find  that schools i n their countries are less utilitarian, less exclusively technical, but more designed to broaden the mind and to teach people to think for themselves. It was f e l t by some Polish and Hungarian immigrants that i n their home countries the Catholic priests have an influence in matters of education; nearly a l l of those interviewed thought that their schools were influenced by the pernicious spirit of romantic nationalism. They a l l complained of commercialized radio programmes i n Canada and found most of the Canadian newspapers to be of a low standard.  They  remarked that in their home countries both the press and the radio are directed much more towards educating the broad masses of the population. Employment The Central European craftsman seems to find work in Canada faster. Having been trained to do any sort of work which may arise within his trade, he thinks of his Canadian fellow worker that he knows only one section  - 28 -  of the trade.  According to a Central European craftsman, solidity, permanence  and finesse of workmanship, demanding a greater unit expenditure of working time, are more highly esteemed i n Central Europe than i n Canada.  In this country,  speed rather than craftsmanship appears to him to be the major aim. A general labourer from Central Europe claims to find i t much easier i n Canada to transfer to a skilled trade which i n his home country was impossible because of trade union apprenticeship regulations.  The work i t -  self was stated to be easier because of technical equipment, and he finds wages here much higher than i n his home country. It appeared that a Central European intellectual worker has some feeling of separateness from and superiority to the manual worker and that i n Canada he finds l i t t l e or no class distinction as he understands i t . To a Central European worker an employer-employee relationship seems to be more personal i n Canada although he finds himself to be subject to being l a i d off more often here than i n any country of Central Europe. He claims that vocational restlessness as i t i s known in Canada i s entirely new to him.  According to Central European^tandards, he expects to stay i n one job for  the rest of his l i f e .  By some immigrants this was explained in terms of their  sentimental attitude toward their work, some made a comment that money means less to them than to Canadian workers. As to the unemployment insurance benefits, i t was f e l t by a l l those interviewed that there are much higher i n Canada than in any of the Central European countries. Recreation and Social Life Although mostly of a muscular type, an average Central European seems to be less sportsminded than an average Canadian.  Instead he  -  29  -  c l a i m s t o be v e r y f o n d o f music and d a n c i n g .  A l a r g e number o f t h e s e s t u d i e d  immigrants spoke o f t h e i r g r e a t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the f i n e a r t s , drama, b a l l e t , and opera, and a good number o f them c l a i m e d t o be a r t i s t s themselves.  They  s t a t e d , they were a s t o n i s h e d t o f i n d t h a t w h i l e they can use the p u b l i c t e n n i s c o u r t s o r i c e r i n k s f o r n o t h i n g , they have t o pay a v e r y h i g h p r i c e i n o r d e r to see a b a l l e t , c o n c e r t , o r opera. A l l those i n t e r v i e w e d f i n d the r e g u l a t i o n about " c l o s e d Sundays" v e r y s t r a n g e , s i n c e i n t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s on t h a t day man  can e n j o y a l l k i n d s o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t " ,  and a t h a l f p r i c e .  "even the  A c c o r d i n g t o them,  people i n C e n t r a l European c o u n t r i e s enjoy much more g o i n g out than each o t h e r i n t h e i r own  homes.  little  entertaining  They a l l seemed t o be a s t o n i s h e d by the h i g h  r a t e o f a l c o h o l i s m i n Canada a l t h o u g h many o f them were used t o t a k i n g a l c o h o l i c beverages w i t h t h e i r d a i l y meals. Community and  Citizenship  Community work as i t i s understood r a t h e r new  t o the C e n t r a l European immigrant.  i n Canada, seems t o be  A c c o r d i n g t o him, v o l u n t a r y groups  mean n o t h i n g more than o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t , and he does n o t seem t o understand  t h a t t h e y can be media by which t h i n g s a r e accomplished which, i n h i s  home c o u n t r y , a r e g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the s t a t e .  He d i d  n o t g i v e any evidence t h a t he would t h i n k o f v o l u n t a r y groups i n the community as a p o s s i b l e means o f i n f o r m a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n f o r h i s use, and i t appeared t h a t even i f i n t r o d u c e d t o them, he would l i k e l y q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y o f such information*  He  seems t o be overwhelmed by the b u r e a u c r a c y  which i n v o l v e s obscure  from h i s home c o u n t r y  and c o m p l i c a t e d f o r m a l i t i e s and documentation.  I t was  l e a r n e d t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n h i s home c o u n t r y i s c e n t r a l i z e d and, above a l l ,  the  - 30  -  local o f f i c i a l dreads responsibility.  It was stated that i t i s a new experience  for a Central European immigrant that i n Canada the authority of the state i s less obvious and groups of citizens assume more responsibility for local affairs. The concept of citizenship i s another area which some of the studied immigrants found different. patriotism.  They seemed to confuse citizenship with  They found i t surprising that i n Canada the military service i s  voluntary, since i n their home countries i t i s obligatory.  For some i t was hard  to understand that a good citizen may be one who has had no military service. While i n Canada "good neighbourliness" i s emphasized, i n their home countries "action against the enemy" seems to be the aim of citizenship. Needs and Problems The problems and needs of a Central European newcomer are too numerous to be l i s t e d even i n outline form, and yet most of them are perfectly common, obvious, and simple.  They are disturbing to him only because they a l l  present themselves simultaneously, immediately upon entry, and because he i s culturally underequipped to handle them. The following are situations which the immigrants brought up for discussion most frequently during the course of an interview. Immediate needs The majority of this group of newcomers agreed that good care was taken of them after their immediate arrival in Canada.  They were given  proper temporary accommodation, good food and even some clothing. Only a small number of them found assistance for mothers with large families insufficient, and provisions for the temporary care of children quite inadequate. A l l of them complained that there was a great lack of  - 31 -  information i n eastern ports of landing.  Although they admitted .that they  received pamphlets containing general information about Canada and the Canadian way of l i f e , they claimed that the Canadian Immigration officers were unprepared to answer questions concerning their immediate problems, such as the size of the place of their destination, some description of their prospective work, when under contract, who w i l l take care of their children i f they became i l l , etc. Some complained that they received conflicting information from several sources; some believed that they would have benefited from foreign language interpreters. Long term problems Housing and Family A good number of immigrants interviewed during the course of this study complained that their accommodation i s both of poor quality and expensive.  This was especially voiced by families with children who claim to be  forced to take low-standard accommodation i n a cheap district.  As a result, some  got the impression that children are not wanted i n Canada and that the family as such i s less valued here than i n their home countries.  There was also a complaint  that immigrants are not wanted by some landlords on account of their foreign origin. Immigrants with children expressed their concern about Canadian parents not having enough control over their children.  They seemed to  find i t d i f f i c u l t to understand that affection can exert a measure of control and that independence develops self-reliance. Because of this cultural difference, some of them have already found themselves i n conflict with their children.  Some women suggested that they would benefit from a course i n Canadian housekeeping where they could learn how to provide adequate but inexpensive meals without f u l l housekeeping f a c i l i t i e s , how to use the food markets and their labour-saving devices, how to market advantageously and how to u t i l i z e and clean standard domestic equipment and household machinery. Health and Welfare Although a l l newcomers interviewed during the course of this study f e l t that such services as medical care and hospital services should be covered by a health insurance programme as they are stated to be i n their home countries ] only a fraction of them claimed to experience serious d i f f i c u l t 1  ies when they were unable to pay for such services.  These difficulties arose as  a result of financial distress within the f i r s t year of arrival i n Canada. A comparatively small number of these immigrants claimed that they did not know where to turn for help, some said they had been turned down by welfare agencies because they could not f u l f i l residence requirements.  It appeared that the real  or imagined fear of deportation prevented a great number of these people even from making application for help. On the whole, those interviewed complained of not having sufficient protection.  They find i t d i f f i c u l t to understand that they are not  entitled to Family Allowances during the f i r s t year although they claim that this i s the time when such assistance would be most needed.  Those who showed  some knowledge of social legislation i n British Columbia, complained that mothers' allowances are not available for non-British subjects and both Old Age Pensions have a twenty years residence requirement. 1) A l l of them showed ignorance about "Assistance and Hospitalization for Indigent Immigrants" the cost of which i s shared equally by the provincial and federal governments.  - 33 A l l but one of those interviewed showed ignorance i n the area of casework services. They expressed the wish to be introduced to Canadian social work; and claimed that there was nothing in their former l i f e which would suggest to them that a social worker might have a special interest i n dealing with the strains and stresses of their culture conflict.  One newcomer i n this  group had a short-term contact with the Family Welfare Agency, to which he was referred by his Canadian friend. Educational and Vocational Training In this area the lack of information was voiced by those interviewed.  It was learned that i n their countries of origin adult education  is not available to such a degree as i n Canada, and they claimed to be confused with the wide range of educational opportunities i n this country.  They seemed  to be eager to learn but knew l i t t l e about their opportunities for re-training, on-the-job training, supplemental training, etc. There was 8 of 6 0 interviewed who did not know about the English classes for New Canadians.  Some of those who did attend such classes  claimed that they very soon discontinued attending, as they found them directed toward beginners only.  The time element and long distances from home were  stated to be other factors which prevented some newcomers from attending the English classes. Although most of these immigrants were interviewed i n their own languages, they a l l claimed to have a sufficient knowledge of English. However, i t was stated by some that they are not happy about using the every-day English and that they are anxious to master the Queen's English.  They admitted  that i t leaves them somewhat uneasy and insecure i n their contact with Canadians.  - 3k-  Employment Approximately  one  h a l f o f immigrants i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g  the course o f t h i s study s t a t e d t h e y were not engaged i n those o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada f o r which t h e y had been t r a i n e d i n t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s . c u l a r l y v o i c e d by Czechoslovaks  and P o l e s who  p r o f e s s i o n a l group i n t h i s community.  T h i s was  parti-  seem t o be r e p r e s e n t e d by a l a r g e  Although  t h e r e was  a good number o f  Hungarians o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s i n t h i s group, t h e r e were a l s o some a g r i c u l t u r i s t s whose presence  decreased  p r e s e n t v o c a t i o n a l placement.  the d i s p a r i t y between the f o r m e r and  the  A u s t r i a n s were m a i n l y o f the s k i l l e d - l a b o u r  group,  and t h e y d i d n o t seem t o have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g e t t i n g a j o b i n t h e i r l i n e o f work.  There was  those who  some f e e l i n g o f not b e i n g wanted as f o r e i g n e r s v e n t i l a t e d  do n o t f o l l o w the same l i n e o f work i n Canada, b u t t h e r e was  number o f those who  were a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r language handicap  a j o b i n t h e i r f o r m e r l i n e o f work. the e d u c a t i o n a l f i e l d .  T h i s was  by  also a  i n not g e t t i n g  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f people  Among d o c t o r s , d e n t i s t s and e n g i n e e r s t h e r e was  from  some  f e e l i n g o f b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e c o m p e t i t o r s o f the Canadian c o l l e a g u e s . A s l i g h t m a j o r i t y o f the s t u d i e d group f e l t t h a t t h e i r p r e s e n t employment i s f a r below t h e i r home c o u n t r y standard., s p e a k i n g i n terms o f s o c i a l p r e s t i g e , and some o f them sound q u i t e b i t t e r about i t . was  found more among men  a t p r e s e n t as domestic  than women a l t h o u g h i t was  help.  This f e e l i n g  v o i c e d by a l l women working  These women c l a i m e d m o s t l y t h e y had t h e i r  own  s e r v a n t s i n t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s and p r i o r to t h e i r coming t o Canada they  had  been engaged i n n o n - g a i n f u l employment. Among u n s k i l l e d workers t h e r e was reasons  o c c u p a t i o n s as w e l l as among b r a i n -  n o t i c e d some f e e l i n g o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n Canadian work,  g i v e n m o s t l y b e i n g low wages and g e n e r a l working c o n d i t i o n s .  whole, the C e n t r a l European immigrants complained  of job i n s e c u r i t y .  On  the  There  was  - 35  -  some feeling of dissatisfaction with the fact that although the immigration of agricultural workers and domestics i s much encouraged by the Canadian Government, these two occupations are not included i n the Unemployment Insurance programme. Some of those who came to Canada under a Governmental labour contract stated that this contract gave them security; those with an independent personality f e l t restricted.  Some complained that i t was unfair  that highly•educated people had to do hard labour i n the mines, forests and farms; on the other hand, some were quite definite about their staying i n work of a low social status because of good earnings. Recreation and Social Life Many of those interviewed showed a noticeable ignorance about community resources for spending leisure time or for associating with native Canadians. Although they seemed eager to meet Canadians and associated with them, only five of them stated that they belong to a Canadian club or organization. It seems, however, that they do not find i t hard to get acquainted. friends.  A majority of them claimed to have more than ten Canadian  On the other hand, some of them stated that although they find Canad-  ians friendly enough, they do not feel at home with them.  They thought that i t  was not only the language barrier which makes them feel that way, but also the feeling of insecurity about intonations, inflections and misinterpreted gestures which may create d i f f i c u l t i e s or become a cause of friction. manners were mentioned as another hazard.  Canadian table  - 36 -  I t was  l e a r n e d f r o m many immigrants i n t e r v i e w e d t h a t t h e y  f i n d Canadians s t r a n g e l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n p o l i t i c s and p h i l o s o p h y .  They o f t e n  r e f e r r e d t o Canadians as b e i n g i n d i f f e r e n t t o fundamental i s s u e s o f l i f e t h e y seemed t o have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and  t h a t s i n c e some o f these  i s s u e s cannot be d e f i n i t e l y d e c i d e d and a r e beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , some p e o p l e do f i n d i t more p r o f i t a b l e t o t a l k about t h i n g s t h e y can do something about. A l t h o u g h t h e above two p a r a g r a p h s w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t the C e n t r a l European i m m i g r a n t s t e n d t o g r a v i t a t e t o w a r d t h e i r e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i i o n s as the most p l e a s a n t s o u r c e f o r s p e n d i n g l e i s u r e t i m e , t h i s w r i t e r ' s experience the new  g a i n e d from t h e i n t e r v i e w s i s t o the c o n t r a r y .  I t was  learned that  C e n t r a l European i m m i g r a n t s f i n d v e r y l i t t l e i n common w i t h the o l d -  timers of t h e i r r a c i a l o r i g i n .  A good number o f them f e l t t h a t t h e language  i s t h e o n l y t i e w h i c h b i n d s them t o g e t h e r .  I t was  l e a r n e d t h a t the newcomers  f i n d the o l d t i m e r s o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l background and understanding  not  the s i t u a t i o n s and changes w h i c h took p l a c e i n t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s .  R i v a l r y between the newcomers and o l d t i m e r s was f o u r e t h n i c groups.  I t was  r e p o r t e d by members o f a l l  s t a t e d by many o f t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d t h a t f o r  C e n t r a l European immigrants t h e i r e t h n i c s o c i e t i e s have o n l y s e n t i m e n t a l  new signi-  f i c a n c e and are n o t an a c t u a l n e c e s s i t y .  Community and C i t i z e n s h i p Only f i v e i m m i g r a n t s of t h i s group i n t e r v i e w e d were f o u n d t o be engaged i n some community work, and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were s t a t e d t o be m o t i v a t e d m a i n l y by t h e d e s i r e t o i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own  c u l t u r e to Canadians.  They c l a i m e d the concept o f a Canadian community t o be e n t i r e l y new  t o them.  Some o f them s t a t e d t h a t coming from c o u n t r i e s w i t h h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d systems  - 37  -  of government, they are having d i f f i c u l t i e s in understanding the important part a local community may play i n nation-wide affairs.  A noticeable lack  of knowledge about community resources which could provide them with information was proved by a l l of them. As to the attitude of native Canadians toward newcomers, complaints were voiced that i n every-day l i f e Central European immigrants are s t i l l meeting a good deal of hostility and feelings of superiority among their fellow-workers and neighbours.  There was no evidence given that  the immigrants would recognize their own superiority feelings.  However, i n  three interviews there was some indication that the interviewee suffered from a persecution complex. Although a very small number of newcomers of this group expressed their desire to return home i f the situation i n their home country changed for the better and they were free to return, there was only a tiny fraction of those who signed a declaration of intention to become a Canadian citizen.  It was learned that the feelings of insecurity of one who  belongs nowhere play an important part in this matter.  Many of those inter-  viewed were namely under the impression that when the newcomer signs his declaration of intention, he must at the same time renounce his former nationality.  CHAPTER 111 BECOMING A CANADIAN To obtain information about the area i n which adjustment to new situations i s most important, and about the attitudes and reactions of newcomers, 1) a questionnaire was drawn up  and sent out to a group of newcomers who have not  lived i n Canada longer than four years. The group, composed of an equal number of Austrians, Czechoslovakians, Hungarians, and Poles, included both men and women ranging from 18 - 50 years of age, and coming from a variety of occupational stata i n their home countries. The questionnaires, translated into the mother 2) tongues of these newcomers , were accompanied by letters explaining the purpose 3)  of the enquiry . The remarkably high proportion of questionnaires completed and 4) returned may be due to the effect of this letter and to the sources used as 5) i n i t i a l contacts for the enquiry  .  For the convenience of round numbers, the f i r s t 200 of these questionnaires were tabulated, and the information sought was considered under six main headings: 1) What kind of person i s the post-war Central European immigrant? 2) His problems (or reactions) on arrival and i n making a new home. 3) Making a l i v i n g (his job experience) 4) Making new friends, 5) Kinds of help received and required, l ) App. B i 6) The overall adjustment.of the newcomer. 2) App. B. 3) App. B. 4) 210 of 240 5) Executives of the ethnic organizations. 2  3  - 39 -  What k i n d o f person i s t h e post-war C e n t r a l European immigrant? Table V I M a r i t a l S t a t u s and Age Group (Four N a t i o n a l i t i e s )  Age and M a r i t a l Status M a r r i e d Men Under 20 20-30 30 - 40 Over 40 "  -8 10 3  M a r r i e d Women Under 20 20 - 30 30 - 40 Over 40 S i n g l e Men Under 20 20-30 30-40 Over 40 S i n g l e Women Under 20 20 - 30 30-40 Over 40 Total  Austrians  -' 6 1 1  1 12 2  -  Czechoslovaks  5 13 3  Hungarians  -  •  . ' 2 20 5  1 4 1  -4  2 8 8 2  -6  5 2  10  -  Poles  -  Total 84  -  14 1  31 1 1 3 1 64 3 4 5 1 21  2 7  1 2 2  —  —  53  52  -  1 2  —  57  2 2 —  38  200  Of t h e 200 C e n t r a l European newcomers who responded t o these q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 28.5 p e r cent, were o f Hungarians, 26.5 p e r cent, o f A u s t r i a n s , 26.0 p e r c e n t , o f Czechoslovakians, and 19.0 p e r cent, o f P o l e s . Among the A u s t r i a n s , the most t y p i c a l immigrant was.a s i n g l e man  - 40 -  between 20 and 30, a married man 10 years o l d e r , both s i n g l e and married women aged 20 - 30. While the group o f Czechoslovak!ans g i v e s a r a t h e r s i m i l a r p i c t u r e , except f o r the Hungarian s i n g l e woman the t y p i c a l immigrant o f the Hungarian and P o l i s h group was found t o be 10 years older.  '. There a r e , o f course, no comparative s t a t i s t i c s t o enable t o  say these f i g u r e s a r e completely r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t o t a l body o f immigrants who have come t o Canada s i n c e the war. I n any case, i t i s u s e f u l t o know the k i n d o f group from whom the responses d e s c r i b e d below, have come. Table V I I E d u c a t i o n a l Background (Pour N a t i o n a l i t i e s )  Number o f Years of Schooling Men Less than 8 8-12 13 - 16 More than 16  Austrians  Czechoslovaks  Hungarians  PolessTotal 148  -  33 2 1  Women Less than 8 8-12 1 3 - 16 More than 16  17  Total  53  —  -  15 5 21  -  7 21 3 12  -  2 13 11 2 52  -  8 2 1  7 3 4  8 2  52  57.  38  The o v e r a l l l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a l attainment was h i g h .  —  200  Only  4.5 p e r c e n t , had l e s s than 8 years s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , w h i l e 20.5 p e r c e n t , went  to school f o r more than 16 years.  Men were better educated than women  and i t was found that the typical Czechoslovakian immigrant was of the highest educated group. Forty-two per cent, of immigrants had some knowledge of English, 56 of them recorded their present knowledge as very high"""^. Table VIII Vocational Background (Four Nationalities)  Occupation at Home Men Manual Skilled White Collar Professional Business Women Skilled White Collar Professional Business Housewife Total  Austrians  Czechoslovaks  Poles  Total 148  16 7 4  9 5 8  4. 53  l ) See p. 53.  Hungarians  Table XXII.  2 6 3 22 8  17 1  3 2 5  -4  9 15 1  2 2 3 19 2 52 1 3 2  -  1  4 1 5  52  57  38  -  4 200  - 42 -  Table V i l l a Composition of Professional Group (Four Nationalities)  Profession at Home  Austrians  Men Officers (Army, etc.) Lawyers Teachers Doctors Artists Students Women Teachers Lawyers Artists Students Total  Czechoslovaks  Hungarians  Poles  Total 148  1 1 2  3 2 3 2 1 11  53  2  2 1  52  4 7  —  4  -  9 2 3  -  1 4 52 1  —  -  2  1  57  38  2  200  A l l jobs recorded by the newcomers were c l a s s i f i e d under one of s i x headings:  manual, s k i l l e d , white collar, professional, business, and housewife.  Farmers were included among manual work, high school students among white collar. The professional group consisted of physicians, lawyers, military officers, teachers (including professors), a r t i s t s , and university students. The largest number of newcomers, 35.5 per cent., were of the professiona l status, while there were only 10.5 per cent, of those who recorded their occupation as manual work. White collar, 19.5 per cent., was the second largest group; the smallest one, housewives, 7.0 per cent.  Nearly  of the s k i l l e d workers came from  Austria and about 4% of the manual workers were represented by Hungarians. The professional group was headed by Czechoslovakians, 22, and Poles, 19. Of these, university students and professors form the largest group among Czechoslovakians, military officers among Poles.  - 43 -  H i s problems ( o r r e a c t i o n s ) on a r r i v a l and i n making a new home.  Table IX Residence  Length o f Residence  Austrians  (Pour N a t i o n a l i t i e s )  Czechoslovaks  Hungarians  Poles  Total  In Canada 0-1 1-2  15  2-3 3-4  18 20  In B. C. 0-1 1-2  15  -  20-  2-3 3-4  18  17  28-  '. -  35  29  28  4 8 15 25  8 19 11 19  -  10  -  14 . 14  -  Total  200 Of the 200 C e n t r a l European newcomers who completed t h i s questionnaire,  56iO per cent, had been i n Canada 3 - 4 years, and 36.5 p e r cent. 2 - 3 years. Nobody recorded h i s residence i n Canada as 1 - 2 years although there were 15 A u s t r i a n s (7.5 p e r c e n t . ) , who had been i n Canada l e s s than one year, none of them came under a governmental labour c o n t r a c t , so that most o f t h e i r work experience was s i m i l a r to t h a t of those who were l e f t on t h e i r own a f t e r f i n i s h i n g t h e i r c o n t r a c t . Table X Last Residence P r i o r t o Immigration  Last Place  Austrians  Home Country D.P. Camp Other Country  52  Total  Czechoslovaks  Hungarians  -  10  -  Poles  -  -1  35 17  47  19 19  53  52  57  38  Total 52 64 84 200  A l l but one of the A u s t r i a n s l e f t t h e i r home country as voluntary emigrants, w h i l e a l l three other ethnic groups were composed o f refugees.  Of the  - 44 -  t o t a l group 32.0 per cent, of newcomers came from camps f o r displaced persons, and 42.0 per cent, were seeking p o l i t i c a l protection i n some other countries prior to their coming to Canada.  In the six countries noted Germany was mentioned most  often (35), England taking second place with 20, then followed by Austria (19), Italy (7), and Switzerland ( 3 ) . Table XI Ways of Coming to Canada (Four Nationalities)  Immigration Scheme  Austrians  Czechoslovaks  Hungarians  Poles  Total  19 19 -  57 52 60 17 4  Contract Relatives • Friends Organization On their own  11 24 6 10 2  17 4 16 7 8  10 5 38  Total  53  52  57  4  -  1  38  200  Although 83 newcomers recorded that they had close relatives i n Canada, only 52 (26.0 per cent.) of them used their sponsorship f o r coming to this country.  The largest number was sponsored by friends (30.0 per cent.), the smallest  one (7.0 per cent.) came on their own.  28.5 per cent of the 200 newcomers came  under governmental labour contracts, and 8.5 per cent, were sponsored by some organizations. Of the 200 newcomers there were only 33 who did not leave any close relatives behind i n their home countries. The rest of 167 immigrants recorded that they l e f t behind a total of 214 close relatives, nearly 10 per cent of whom were husbands or wifes and children. The immigrants of this sample group did not seem to have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n deciding where they wanted to settle down i n Canada.  Of the 200 only 59  lived i n some other Province prior to their coming to B r i t i s h Columbia, and  - 45 they a l l had been i n Canada f o r two years and moxe^\ The only migration that took place was from the East to the West. Table XII Present Accommodation of Immigrants  Family Status  Single Unit Unit Unit More  a  Apartments or Suites 1 Room 2 Rooms More than 2 91  )  of two of three of four than four  Total  10 1  7  »  32 17 1  15 10 1 -  -  26  8  102  House • Rented Owned  57  -  1 7  1  Total 98  5  57 29 4 12  7  200  1  a) including married immigrants whose marital parhers are not i n Canada. Except f o r 18 farmers and 3 miners working outside of Vancouver a l l immigrants of this group l i v e i n the c i t y area.  Of the 200 newcomers 27.5 per  cent are not s a t i s f i e d with their present accommodation.  Of those unsatisfied  10 are married couples l i v i n g i n one room type of accommodation, and the rest are families with children.  The complaints are what might be expected: children  "are not wanted i n better homes", families with children are forced to l i v e i n poor d i s t r i c t s , rents are too high i n relation to one's earnings, rents are too high " f o r what we get f o r this money", etc. Making a l i v i n g (his .job experience) It i s rather remarkable that the majority of immigrants of this sample group did not seem to have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n locating their f i r s t jobs i n Canada after they finished governmental labour contracts, i f any.  1) See P. 43, Table IX.  - 46 - • Table XIII Time needed for locating the f i r s t job  Length of Time i n Weeks Men 0 - 1 1.-2 2 - 4 4-12 12 - 24  Austrians 20 1 6 5 4  Women 0- - 1 1 - 2 2 - 4 Total  8  a)  Czechoslovaks  Hungarians  29 3 6 3  22 7  11  8  3 6  Poles 21  Total 148  7  7 7 a)  6  52 57 53 a) including housewives not seeking employment (2 Austrians, 2 Hungarians, 1 Pole)  ?  a)  52  2 1 38  200  60.5 per cent, of newcomers found work i n less than one week's time. Nevertheless 16 per cent, lost 2 - 4 weeks and 13.0 per cent. 1 - 6 months by looking for employment. Women were more successful than men and as to nationality Czechoslovakians seemed to have least difficulties i n locating a job. Table XIV Assistance received i n locating the f i r s t job. Work Obtained Through Employment Office Immigration Office Advertisement Friends Some Other Way Total  Austrians 14 4 7 ga)  Czechoslovaks 6 6 6 26 8  Hungarians 7  Poles 7  7 30 l a)  12 l a)  3  52 57 53 a)including housewives not seeking employment (2 Austrians, 2 Hungarians, 1 Pole)  9  38  Total 34 10 20 87 49 200  In locating their jobs the largest number of newcomers was assisted by friends, 43.5 per cent. The second largest group, 32.0 per cent,  found work independently either through advertisements i n newspapers or through some other way.  34 immigrants were assisted by an employment office and 10 by  the Department of Immigration.  Of those assisted by an employment office there  were 14 tradesmen of Austrian origin. Table XV Vocational Placement of Immigrants  Engaged i n the same l i n e of work  Vocational Background  Not engaged because of English Money Not wanted  Doctor Lawyer Officer Student Teacher Artist  -  -  15 4 1  4 4 2  Total Professional Group White Collar Business Skilled Manual Housewife  21 9 11 31 21 5  10 11 4  Total  98  25  1 Ml  -  Total  6 -  2 13 16  6  34 19  9  3 -  71 39 21 34 21 14  21  56  200  —  6 -  -  1 2  3 13 16 25 9 5  At the time of the study 50.1 per cent of newcomers were not engaged i n those occupations f o r which they had been trained, or i n which they had been engaged before they l e f t their home countries. This i s particularly true i n the professional group. recorded  Although there were four teachers, one doctor and one a r t i s t  as being engaged i n the profession i n which they were trained (or quali-  fied) there were 40 professional people who could not follow the same line of work i n Canada.  6 of them f e l t that their English was not sufficient and 34 recorded  as being not wanted either as foreigners or competitors.  Among them there were  13 lawyers and 16 military officers, who, of course, are subject to special  - 48 regulations. Of the 25 university students 15 were continuing in their studies while 6 could not afford i t on account of money and 4 on account of not sufficient English. Of the 21 business people 11 opened their own business in Canada or are gainfully employed in the similar type of business as i n their home countries, 4 of them found their English s t i l l poor and 6 were engaged i n some other type of work in order to make money quicker and establish their own business soon. Of the 34 tradesmen only 3 did not find work in their lines because their trades are not known or practiced in Canada. At the time of the study a l l newcomers of the manual work group were engaged in Canada in the same or similar kind of work they had been doing in their countries of origin.  Of the 14 housewifes only 5  remained in the not-gainfully working group, the rest being employed as domestic help or as dishwashers in restaurants. Of those who are not engaged in Canada in the same kind of work they were engaged or trained for in their home-countries 85.0 per cent had never done such work before. The remaining 15.0 per cent had done similar work in their early beginnings of their clerical or professional career. Of the 85 brainworkers 67 are engaged i n manual work in Canada and only 3 of the remaining 18 are doing other than mechanical clerical work.  - 49 Table XVI Present Job of Immigrants in Terms of Prestige  Immigrants not engaged in their line of work  Fairly high  Medium  Fairly low  Very low  3  30 10 *3 -  9 13 -  8 7 10 9  Professional White Collar Business Skilled Labour Housewife  -  .  Total 50 30 10 3 9  Not classified group of immigrants engaged in their line of work  98  Total  200 The newcomers were asked to evaluate their present jobs in terms of  prestige i n their home countries. Of the 102 immigrants engaged in Canada in some other work than being trained for, 3 recorded their present jobs as fairly high, 43 as medium, 22 as fairly low, and 34 as very low.  Although noone evaluated his  present job as very high, the newcomers were given a chance to l i s t things they like or dislike about their present jobs, only 8.0 per cent of the 200 did so  0  Reasons given for dissatisfaction with work included job insecurity, limited chance for individuality, low wages (in clerical group), and general working conditions. Those who found themselves happier working in Canada than in Europe were of manual and skilled labour group, and they gave as reasons such factors as good wages, and respect for manual work. Making New Friends As the first contact of newcomers in Canada i s with immigration officers, there was a question in the questionnaire as to the attitude of these officials toward immigrants.  - 50 Table XVII Newcomers' Experience with Canadian Immigration Officers  Austrians  Attitude Very friendly Fairly friendly Somewhat unfriendly Very unfriendly  34 19  Total  53  Czechoslovakians  Hungarians  Poles  Total  34 18  42 5  19 19  -  10  -  129 61  52  57  38  -  -  -  10 200  It i s interesting to note that there i s a remarkable difference between the feeling or experience of Austrians and Czechoslovakians on one hand, and of Hungarians and Poles on the other hand. While among Austrians, Czechoslovakians and Hungarians there was a majority of those who found the immigration officers very friendly, there were only 50.0 per cent of Poles who had such experience. Moreover there were. 10 Hungarians who considered the Canadian Immigration Officers as very unfriendly. Table XVIII Newcomers' Experience with Canadians  Attitude  Austrians  Very friendly Fairly friendly Somewhat unfriendly Very unfriendly  26 27  Total  53  -  Czechoslovakians  Hungarians  Poles  39 13  20 28 9  27 11  85 95 20  57  38  200  -  52  -  -  Total  - •  Surprisingly enough there was a similar result obtained when the next question was tabulated. Canadians as a whole are found very friendly by 26 Austrians, 39 Czechoslovakians, 20 Hungarians and by no Poles; fairly friendly by 27 Austrians, 13,Czechoslovakians, 28 Hungarians and 27 Poles; somewhat unfriendly  by 9 Hungarians and 11 Poles.  There was not anyone who would consider Canadians  as very unfriendly. Table XIX Newcomers' Association with Canadians  Number of Canadian homes visited by immigrants  Austrians  Czechoslovaks  Hungarians  Poles  Total  11  -  27  44 23 133:  38  200  None 1-5 6-10 More than 10  14 13 26  52.  19 10 28  Total  53  52  57  -  The following figures reveal the fact that newcomers do associate with native Canadians in their private lives. Of the 200 immigrants there were only 95 of those who visit their recently arrived co-patriots^, and 89 who visit the oldtimers of their ethnic origin. However, a l l of them visit some native Canadians, and more than 60.0 per cent of the total group have visited more than 10 Canadian homes. Except for 43 a l l newcomers here studied stated that they feel at home with native Canadians, while there were only 70 of those who feel the same way with the oldtimers of their ethnic origin. Nevertheless, there were only 7 Austrians, JO Czechoslovakians, 8 Hungarians and 15 Poles, who belong to an organization other than an ethnic club or activity. Help Received and Required It has come out in this study that most of the newcomers found some housing accommodation and a job fairly quickly, and that these were obtained primarily through their own efforts. Their knowledge of English played certainly an important part in doing so.  - 52 -  -Table XX Previous Knowledge of English Language  Knowledge  Austrians  Czechoslovakians  Hungarians  Poles  Total 148  Men Some None  3 33  Women Some None Total  29 12  14 29  16 12  6 11  4 7  10 4  2 8  53  52  57  38  52  200  Of the 200 newcomers there were 32.5 per cent of those who speak English very well, and 48.5 per cent of those who speak i t well.  There were only  18.0 per cent of newcomers with a poor knowledge of English, and 1 per cent with none. Table XXI Present Knowledge of English Language  Knowledge  Austrians  Czechoslovakians  Hungarians  Poles  12 14 17  7 14 7  2 7 1  38  Men Very good Good Poor  6 24 6  27 12 2  Women Very good Good Poor None  9 3 3 2  2 9  -  14  -  -  53  52  57  Total  Total 148  —  52  -  -  200  Table XXII Use of English. Classes by Newcomers  (Non) Attendance Men Did attend  Austrians  CzechoslovakLans  Hungarians  Poles  148 18  12  13  21  Was not interested 3 Did not know about them Did not have time 8 Distantly located 7  27  11 2  4 1  -. -  -  -  2  17  2  6  4  -  3  Was not interested 3 Did not know about them Did not have time 8 Distantly located -  2 3 2  4  -  -  -  10  -  4 1  52  57  38  Women Did attend  Total  Total  53  52 2  200  The English Classes in Canada were attended by 77 immigrants of this group. Of the rest, 56 newcomers were not interested due to their previous knowledge of English. Here i t seems reasonable to mention that a comment that English courses should be directed towards advanced students as much as towards beginners appeared on several questionnaires.  3.0 per cent of immigrants of this  studied group stated they did not know about English classes at^aH, and the remaining 30.5 per cent were unable to attend because of a distance or time element. While the former reason applies mainly to men employed outside the city, the latter applies mainly to women with children, or employed in restaurants or households of other people. There were several explanatory remarks connected with this answer such ass "changing shift", "night shift", "no baby-sitter", etc., which indicate that some arrangements should be made for immigrants working at night and in i r -  - 54 -  regular hours. Table XXIII Orientation on Canadian Way of Living  Information Austrians received from:  Czechoslovakians  Hungarians  Poles  Total  Immigration Office Public Library Welfare Agency Policeman Countryman Other source Nowhere ''  8 2 31 4 8  13 3 26 7 3  5 14 10 28  6 1 20 3 8  32 6 91 24 47  Total  53  52  57  38  200  a  Immigrants did not know where to ask From the Table XXIII i t would appear that the newcomers of this group in their early days i n Canada were more or less left on their own as far as orientation on Canadian way of living i s concerned.  Of the 200, only 16.0 per  cent stated they were given necessary information by the immigration officers. The remaining 81.0 per cent obtained some information through their own efforts.  3.0  per cent of them were university students who used the Public Library as a source of information; 45.5 per cent of immigrants were assisted by other New Canadians of their ethnic origin.  Of the 12.0 per cent of information classified as "from  some other source" the majority i s stated to be information given to newcomers in D.P. camps on their leaving for Canada. In this studied group there were 23.5 per cent of newcomers who said they were not assisted with information at a l l and did not know where to turn for help. At this point a few explanatory comments seem necessary.  A l l im-  migrants interviewed in this study showed a noticeable ignorance as to division  - 55 of functions between the two branches of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration. They spoke of the "immigration man" whenever they were referring to the Citizenship Officer, and i n several cases the Citizenship Branch was viewed by them as an office for granting the Canadian citizenship. In order to avoid confusion i n the questionnaire the alternative "immigration office" was chosen for information received from both the Citizenship and Immigration Branch. Perhaps, i f the writer had mentioned this on the questionnaire the percentage of information received from "immigration office" would be higher. However, as information given by the Citizenship officer i s passed on the newcomer through so many different channels, i t seems doubtful that a total picture of the situationswould have been any clearer. For instance, i t i s l i k e l y that 45.5 per cent of immigrants who claimed to be assisted by other new Canadians were i n fact indirectly assisted by the Citizenship branch. Also, the source of information received i n D.P. camps was l i k e l y the Department of Citizenship and Immigration. However, ho matter what the true situation i s , the fact remains that more, or perhaps more, complete information would be appreciated by a l l newcomers of this group. Of the 2 0 0 immigrants 9 9 . 0 per cent thought that they would benefit from an "information centre for New Canadians" and f u l l 1 0 0 . 0 per cent would gladly cooperate with such centre. Overall Adjustment A slight majority of newcomers found Canada very different from what they expected. The immigrants were asked to compare Canada with their home countries of the pre-war ^ time. World War Two  - 56 -  Table XXIV Comparing Canada with Home Country of Immigrant  Canada  Austrians  Far ahead Advanced in some respects About the same In some respects advanced and i n some behind Behind in some respects Far behind Total  Czechoslovakians  Hungarians  Poles  Total 19  5  2  14  -  32  -  16 17  14  27  -  89 17  18  8  20  11  57  -  -  .. -  9  -  18  53  52  57  9  -  —  -  38  200  Although the impression of Canada varies with each nationality represented in this group, 44.5 per cent of newcomers find Canada advanced in some respects. 28.5 per cent of immigrants stated that Canada i s in some respects advanced and in some behind comparing with their homelands. 9.0 per cent of newcomers found Canada behind i n some respects, but there was not anyone who would think of Canada as being far behind his home country. 17 Czechoslovakians, (8.5 per cent), did not find Canada much different from the pre-war Czechoslovakia. They were the only ones of the total group who expressed this opinion. When i t came down to specifics, the immigrants seemed to be mostly of the same opinion regardless of their ethnic origins. A l l agreed that there i s more personal freedom and comfort in Canada. There was not a hundred per cent response to the following questions as some immigrants did not pay much attention to the situation at home in this respect. Of those who replied, a l l agreed that there was better social security, and less class distinction in Canada. However, t'\7  they believed that cultural activities and social l i f e were of a higher standard in their home lands. As to racial discrimination, the Czechoslovakians found the situation the same as at home, while the other nationalities agreed that i t is better in Canada. As for education, the response was less than 50.0 per cent. Of those who replied, the Austrians and Czechoslovakians did not find much difference i n the system of education, while the majority of Hungarians and.Poles found i t better in Canada. On several questionnaires the quality of Canadian education was queried. Table XXVI Overall Adjustment  Does the immigrant Austrians Czechoslovakians wish to return?  -  Hungarians  Poles  Total  .Yes Undecided No  5 22 26  40 12  9 10 38  9 10 19  23 82 95  Total  53  52  57  38  200  Taking into consideration their comparatively short time in Canada, i t seems that a large number of the newcomers of this sample group are well adjusted and quite happy in this country. Of the 200 only 11.5 per cent of them would return to their home countries i f the situation there changed, and there were 47.5 per cent of those who expressed their wish to stay in Canada. Nevertheless, there i s s t i l l a large proportion of the undecided, 41.0 per cent, whose further experience i n Canada will help to make up their minds.  - 58 -  Conclusions based on the Foregoing  Information  Many of the Central European immigrants, according to the findings of this study, find their l i v i n g conditions as good as or better than those they enjoyed i n their home countries.  This i s particularly true of the s k i l l e d  and manual workers, the younger persons, and those who have lived i n Canada several years.  On the other hand, among the professional and c l e r i c a l people,  the older age groups, and those who have been i n Canada a comparatively  short  time, the majority report their l i v i n g conditions as being the same or worse. Women find i t easier to get jobs. with more composure than the men, and frustration.  They probably accept i n f e r i o r types of work to whom this means a greater sense of loss  They may also encounter less prejudice i n the labour and  business f i e l d s because they are less l i k e l y to be considered as permanent competitors.  On the whole, the great majority of immigrants f e e l that their social  position i s lower than i t was i n Europe.  Thus, i t would seem that most of the  Central European newcomers have lost more i n social than i n economic standing. Although i t appears that the Central European newcomers have acquired a knowledge of English with great rapidity, they frequently stated that language has been one of their greatest d i f f i c u l t i e s i n adjusting to Canadian life.  This may be due to their discontent with a superficial knowledge of the  language. They seem to be very anxious to master i t and use i t l i k e an edu-* cated native Canadians In contrast to the Central European immigrants of previous periods the newcomers show a tendency to associate much more frequently with native Canadians.  This i s unusual i n view of the fact that they have been i n Canada  - 59 -  a short time, and i t may be explained partly by their relatively small numbers and wide distribution, partly by their superior educational and social background, but particularly by their desire to become part of the community. Especially to the refugees, most of whom have been deprived of their f u l l rights as citizens i n t h e i r home countries, and many of whom had been rendered stateless, the becoming a Canadian i s a matter of great importance. Having lived under authoritarian regimes for the last number of years, they seem to be impressed with the freedom and security they have found. They are l i k e l y amazed to discover that government officials are public servants instead of petty tyrants to be feared and distrusted. The educational opportunities available aroused their admiration, though they do not think highly of Canadian cultural and social l i f e .  Although the majority of newcomers gave  Canada credit for having less racial discrimination than their home countries, there were also some complaints on racial and religious prejudice, and comments indicating surprise that such intolerance exists i n Canada. In the eyes of the Centrall European newcomers of this group the Canadian people are distinguished by certain t r a i t s , of which friendliness and helpfulness are outstanding.  At the same time there appeared several comments  on the questionnaires stating that Canadians are somewhat hypocritical and narrowminded. The Central European newcomers, on the whole, have sought to identify themselves completely with Canada. A large number of them state that they have no intention of returning to their home countries. The proportion varies with the nationality and occupation.  Although practically no Czechoslovakian wants  to return the Czechoslovakian proportion i s the largest one among those who are  - 60  -  not decided as t o whether they would s t a y i n Canada o r not i f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n changed. T h i s group of undecided newcomers i n d i c a t e s how f a r they.are from b e i n g w e l l a d j u s t e d t o becoming Canadians.  A newcomer may s e t t l e down s u c c e s s f u l l y ,  he may get a s a t i s f a c t o r y home, and even a good j o b , he may surround h i m s e l f w i t h new f r i e n d s and be comfortable among h i s neighbours, but he s t i l l has a l o n g way t o go to d i g e s t the c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f f e e l i n g s , t h i n k i n g , and doing i n h i s every day l i f e , before he f i n d s h i m s e l f t o belong more here than anywhere e l s e . In o r d e r to g a i n a b e t t e r understanding o f t h i s c u l t u r a l d i s t a n c e o f a C e n t r a l European newcomer of the post-war p e r i o d i t seems reasonable to d i s c u s s h i s adjustment process from the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Processes A C e n t r a l European newcomer i n h i s d a i l y l i v i n g , f a c e s a world o f d i f f e r e n c e s , r a n g i n g from u n f a m i l i a r gadgets and seemingly unimportant  table  manners to momentous p o l i t i c a l concepts and standards of moral conduct.  Even  though b a s i c human problems may be the same and c e r t a i n folkways and mores spread e a s i l y from country t o country i n the " S m a l l " world o f today, the divergences are s t i l l tremendous. Because of h i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l background, the C e n t r a l European newcomer f e e l s t h e . f u l l impact o f these d i f f e r e n c e s .  His  adjustment t o Canadian s o c i e t y and p a t t e r n s of l i v i n g may not be too d i f f i c u l t i n the a r e a o f s o c i a l customs —  though even these r e q u i r e q u i t e a b i t of a t t e n t i o n  but he i s o f t e n thoroughly bewildered and confused about d i f f e r e n c e s i n i d e a s , i d e a l s , standards, methods, s e t s of v a l u e s .  He may be taken aback by obvious  d i s c r e p a n c i e s between e t h i c a l t e n e t s and precepts on the one hand, and some questionable p r a c t i c e s i n p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l l i f e on the o t h e r .  He  —  - 61 may be perplexed about impalpable d i f f e r e n c e s i n the q u a l i t y o f human relations.  He cannot e a s i l y r e c o n c i l e h i s own concepts about pleasant and  unpleasant manners, r i g h t o r wrong, good o r bad, w i t h Canadian i d e a s . goes through a constant process o f weighing, comparing, c o n t r a s t i n g . begins t o f e e l i n s e c u r e i n many areas of h i s l i f e .  He He  Comparisons between the  h a b i t u a l and the new i n e v i t a b l y l e a d t o p e r p l e x i t y and c o n f l i c t .  I t i s true  t h a t many t r y i n g s i t u a t i o n s can be handled w i t h a l i g h t touch and a sense o f humour, and t h a t c e r t a i n experiences w i l l seem funny a f t e r they have been l i v e d through.  Yet many others w i l l evoke s t r o n g emotional r e a c t i o n s . In a n t i c i p a t i n g these r e a c t i o n s i t must be remembered t h a t  i n s e c u r i t y generates a n x i e t y , and a n x i e t y l e a d s to d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n s .  What  form they take i n a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e depends on the person. P s y c h o l o g i c a l processes do not f o l l o w convenient formulas. occur, however.  C e r t a i n t y p i c a l responses do  They may spread between two extremes of u n c r i t i c a l a d m i r a t i o n  and u n q u e s t i o n i n g acceptance of a l l Canadian t h i n g s at one end, and n e g a t i v i s t i c f a u l t f i n d i n g and t o t a l r e j e c t i o n at the o t h e r . The C e n t r a l European newcomer may f e e l o b l i g a t e d to be d u t i f u l l y g r a t e f u l , and experience g u i l t i f he s t i l l uses h i s c r i t i c a l judgment.  He  may  become o v e r d e f e n s i v e o f h i s own c u l t u r e , and out o f p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l n o s t a l gia,  i d e a l i z e the concepts and p r a c t i c e s of h i s home country,  t h a t at home he d i d not a p p r e c i a t e so much.  i n c l u d i n g those  He o f t e n v a c i l l a t e s between f e e l i n g s  of i n f e r i o r i t y and s u p e r i o r i t y , sometimes t r y i n g t o repress them, sometimes v e n t i n g them i n u n f o r t u n a t e ways.  Thus he may appear t o be both submissive and  arrogant. The a t t i t u d e of a C e n t r a l European newcomer may be c o n d i t i o n e d by p r e j u d i c e s a g a i n s t Canada, sometimes p r e c i p i t a t e d o r exaggerated by the r o l e Canadian m i l i t a r y f o r c e s have played e i t h e r i n f i g h t i n g and d e f e a t i n g , o r even  i n l i b e r a t i n g o r b e n e f i t i n g h i s country.  I n the i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n t h e f a c t  i s accepted, t h a t t h e r e c i p i e n t o f a s s i s t a n c e o f t e n resents t h e need t o be helped, and then p r o j e c t s h i s resentment onto t h e h e l p e r . t r u e , t o an e x t e n t , on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . p o l i c i e s , and unfortunate occasions  f o r indignation.  T h i s may a l s o be  I n a d d i t i o n , some •  Canadian  speeches o f some r e s p e c t i v e c i t i z e n s may give r e a l They may c r e a t e negative f e e l i n g s and sometimes  r e i n f o r c e d d i s t o r t e d ideas about Canada.  I f a C e n t r a l European newcomer becomes  i n f l u e n c e d by them, he can e a s i l y f i n d c o r r o b o r a t i n g evidence. . Cultural Transition  .  Since becoming a Canadian i s a process i n which both t h e immigrants and t h e n a t i v e Canadians play an important p a r t , i t seems reasonable t o mention at t h i s p o i n t the a t t i t u d e t h e Canadians have towards C e n t r a l European newcomers, as i t was observed and learned d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . ^ The general r e a c t i o n o f Canadians toward t h e C e n t r a l European newcomers has been one o f compassion f o r the v i c t i m s o f p e r s e c u t i o n on one hand, but there has been a c e r t a i n amount o f antagonism on the o t h e r hand. European newcomers have been looked upon as s e r i o u s competitors,  Central  e s p e c i a l l y by  c e r t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and wage earning groups. Some complaint concerning C e n t r a l European newcomers r e l a t e s t o c e r t a i n o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and a t t i t u d e s .  I t has f r e q u e n t l y been  complained, f o r example, that many o f them have been arrogant, demanding, ungrateful.  The a i r o f s u p e r i o r i t y o f some, t h e h a b i t o f c o n t r a s t i n g unfavorably  their  c o n d i t i o n here w i t h t h e i r former s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s i n t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s , have i r r i t a t e d many Canadians. There i s no doubt t h a t these t r a i t s c h a r a c t e r i z e c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s , as i t i s t r u e o f any l a r g e group.  ' •  I n many i n s t a n c e s , however, what i s i n t e r p r e t e d  l ) There were 42 i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Government o f f i c i a l s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f d i f f e r e n t agencies and o r g a n i z a t i o n s who a r e i n d i r e c t contact w i t h newcomers.  - 63 as arrogance i s r e a l l y compensation f o r t h e l o s s o f s t a t u s and f o r the i n d i g n i t i e s t h a t many o f C e n t r a l European immigrants have s u f f e r e d .  Some o f i t i s merely  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e behavior and a t t i t u d e s i n t h e c o u n t r i e s from which they come, which a p p l i e s e s p e c i a l l y t o Hungarians and P o l e s . " C u l t u r e embraces a l l those t h i n g s which determine how people t h i n k , a c t , and l i v e t h e i r l i v e s .  One f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n a c u l t u r e , i s p a r t o f i t , and  every phase o f h i s l i f e and thought r e f l e c t s that c u l t u r e . way he looks a t t h i n g s , and t h e way he reasons.  I t conditions the  I t forms t h e frame o f reference  w i t h i n which he makes h i s c h o i c e s , and a f f e c t s t h e way i n which he seeks t o s a t i s f y h i s b a s i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs.  To every person h i s own c u l t u r e i s o f  paramount importance t o him and he i s u s u a l l y comfortable w i t h i n i t ...  People  are brought up w i t h i n a c e r t a i n set o f t r a d i t i o n s , b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s and ways of a c t i n g .  Having grown under the i n f l u e n c e o f these c u l t u r a l determinants they  become p a r t o f t h e person, and d i r e c t h i s a c t i v i t y t o a l a r g e extent."""^ Coming from a .very d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e t h e C e n t r a l European immigrant must, t h e r e f o r e , g i v e up much that i s p a r t o f him t o escape d e r i s i o n and contempt* achieve s t a t u s i n h i s new surroundings,  and adjust t o Canadian ways.  This  puts  a great s t r a i n upon him as h i s p a t t e r n s o f behavior, a t t i t u d e s , and h a b i t s have been l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d .  H i s own ways seem proper t o him.  t o shock, r e s i s t a n c e , and emotional upset. achieve a complete change.  He i s , t h e r e f o r e , s u b j e c t  I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t anyone could  The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s :  what degree o f change i s  d e s i r a b l e f o r a C e n t r a l European immigrant t o become a Canadian? There a r e s t i l l many who a r e l i k e l y t o say t h a t a C e n t r a l European newcomer, i n r e t u r n f o r the p r i v i l e g e s of l i v i n g i n Canada, should l e a r n Canadian  l ) K l e i n , A l a n P.; S o c i e t y , Democracy P r e s s ; New. York; 1953; p.28  — and t h e Group; Womens  - 64 ways and a c t as Canadians do.  T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t the Canadian ways are p e r f e c t  and s t a t i c , t h a t the ways of a C e n t r a l European immigrant have no value t o Canadians, and t h a t he r e c e i v e s the best by t a k i n g what Canada g i v e s t o him.  To  these, people i t should be reminded t h a t Canada has always been a country of newcomers and t h a t the Canadian c u l t u r e i s a f u s i o n of many d i f f e r e n t backgrounds. There i s no doubt t h a t a C e n t r a l European newcomer b r i n g s much w i t h him t h a t can enhance the Canadian way  of l i v i n g .  He does not b r i n g o n l y h i s f o l k music and  dances, h i s mechanical s k i l l and a r t , but he o f t e n b r i n g s a l s o a s t r o n g f a m i l y sense, a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d sense of law and order, e t c . t h a t w e l l may  serve more  e f f i c i e n t l y than t h a t one e s t a b l i s h e d i n Canada. Although " I n t e g r a t i o n " i s now  an o f f i c i a l Canadian o b j e c t i v e i n the  f i e l d of c i t i z e n s h i p , among the g e n e r a l ' p u b l i c the o l d viewpoint  t h a t a newcomer  should be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the Canadian s o c i e t y " ^ i s s t i l l much a l i v e . A s s i m i l a t i o n as i t i s understood today i s a process by which i n d i v i d u a l s l o s e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s by a c h i e v i n g u n i t y i n respect of common ways of doing t h i n g s . individuality.  As a person becomes a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o s o c i e t y he l o s e s h i s T o t a l i t a r i a n i s m demands a s s i m i l a t i o n f o r i t cannot stand d i f f e r e n c e .  I t presumes and demands t h a t a l l a t t e s t t o i t s s u p e r i o r i t y . A C e n t r a l European newcomer went through t h i s experience s e v e r a l times i n h i s recent past, and i n many cases t h i s was h i s reason f o r l e a v i n g h i s home country.  He now has a s t r o n g d e s i r e to be h i m s e l f and l i v e h i s own  B e s i d e s , a t t i t u d e s of s u p e r i o r i t y d r i v e any newcomer i n t o i s o l a t i o n .  life.  He  develops a p e r s e c u t i o n complex which d r i v e s him c l o s e r t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r newcomers and back upon h i s own c u l t u r a l v a l u e s .  l ) see Chapter 1,  p.  - 65  -  Democracy, on the o t h e r hand, r e s p e c t s i n d i v i d u a l i s m . on d i f f e r e n c e and v a r i e t y .  I t s strength l i e s i n i t s  I t thrives  i n t e g r a t i v e power.  As  Canada accepts democracy, she cannot approve o f a s s i m i l a t i o n by imposing Canadian ways upon a newcomer. the  A c c u l t u r a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n i s the answer t o  problem of becoming a Canadian.  T h i s i n v o l v e s change i n c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s  p l u s mutual understanding through i n t e r a c t i o n .  Through such process a newcomer  does modify h i s own c u l t u r e by a d o p t i n g Canadian ways necessary to h i s e x i s t e n c e but he s t i l l r e t a i n s much of h i s n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r .  I n t u r n he c o l o r s some o f  Canadian c u l t u r e , and t h a t makes democracy tough and f l e x i b l e . I n t e g r a t i o n i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , r a t h e r than homogeneity.  I t means  t h a t persons and groups are organized t o achieve common g o a l s and purposes. A l l members i d e n t i f y themselves w i t h the whole group, f e e l they b e l o n g t o i t , are accepted as b e l o n g i n g by the o t h e r s , have a p l a c e i n i t and f o l l o w customs which f i t and do not c o n f l i c t w i t h the t o t a l c u l t u r e and agree upon g o a l s . sameness but complementary  function.  T h i s i s not  There i s l o y a l t y t o common g o a l , and morale.  I t i s obvious that t h i s i s a two-way process and t h a t i t i s not an easy one f o r b o t h the Canadians and the newcomers, e s p e c i a l l y those who come from a v e r y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e .  I n the Canadian community the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l i e s  on those who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what c u l t u r a l t r a i t s w i l l a newcomer p i c k up, and what Canadians he w i l l become l i k e .  There i s s t i l l a g r e a t d e a l of t h i n k i n g  t h a t a newcomer should be taught a l l about the Canadian Government and p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y i n o r d e r t o make him a good c i t i z e n .  At t h i s p o i n t i t should be kept  i n mind t h a t one has " t o become" a c i t i z e n , and not " t o be made".  T h i s process  cannot be e n t i r e l y taught on a v e r b a l i z e d l e v e l f o r i t i s a way of l i f e and not an i n t e l l e c t u a l concept.  I t i s a process o f d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n when people meet  and work t o g e t h e r and not the one through i n t e r m e d i a r i e s .  A friendly interaction,  - 66 when the Canadian accepts the newcomer, and he i n t u r n approaches h i s neighbor, with friendly feelings.  The process of becoming a Canadian i s t o place  emphasis upon the l o c a l and community scene r a t h e r than on the c i v i c s type, and i t r e q u i r e s t r u e s h a r i n g and i n t e r m i n g l i n g i n a l l aspects of community l i f e , w i t h no a s c r i b e d s t a t u s e s *  CHAPTER IV IMMIGRANT VS. COMMUNITY Area Tfoere Help i s Required Throughout the previous chapters an attempt has been made to illustrate problems of Central European newcomers i n Canada from their f i r s t impressions up to the stage when they feel more or less settled.  This may be  called an adjusting process, which i s the f i r s t step toward one's becoming a part of the Canadian community. discussed.  The problem of integration has also been  I t seems reasonable now to go into the specific needs of a new-  comer of this group, shown by the survey; and into the f a c i l i t i e s available for meeting them i n Greater Vancouver. It has been found that most of the needsof a Central European newcomer are common needs, which affect him as much as they do any Canadian citizen.  The housing situation, job insecurity, wages and working conditions,  high medical costs and a l l social security situations may be as serious a problem to native Canadians as i t i s to Central European immigrants. However, there are a number of complicating factors, which make the situation of a newcomer more d i f f i c u l t .  Although knowledge of the language  i t s e l f i s not the answer to his problem, i t i s a very important factor, as there i s no frustration like the fear of not being able to make oneself understood when the necessity arises.  Another factor i s the immigrant's entirely  new environment, which produces a tremendous feeling of insecurity.  He i s  overwhelmed by the impact of a mass of strangeness and i s utterly unable to analyze and dissect the strangeness i t s e l f i n order to find channels and opportunities which would provide meaningful clarification for his immediate and  pressing purpose's.  In contrast to the native Canadian, he does not know the  useful and inexpensive short-cuts to general orientation; he does not know howto study every page and section of the daily papers and magazines, how to interpret the meaning of classified advertisements, how to use the public libraries and the radio with selective s k i l l , how to understand the language of commercial advertising, etc. Another factor i s his ignorance of the role which communities play i n this country and of the many common resources they offer.  In Central  Europe, for example, the public library i s the quiet retreat for scholars and persons engaged i n research entirely unrelated to peoples' immediate problems, and an "information desk" i s not known. The police officer i s not the public's friend and informal counsellor, but rather an authority to be carefully avoided. Another area making the newcomers' position more d i f f i c u l t i s the one of differences i n the quality of certain human relations i n Canada as in contrast to Central European countries.  There i s a significant difference  in the quality of a l l casual relations. A Central European newcomer has to learn a great deal about confronting the Canadian employer, the waitress i n the coffee shop,- the teacher of his"children, the police officer and the fellow worker. He does not understand•the respective roles of many of the'agents of Canadian society with i t s highly specialized division of functions.' He does not know that he can bring to them his problems with ease and frankness, without holding back essentials, volunteering complete information from the very start. Another area i s the one of social values.  It i s not easy for  the Central European parent to accept the different form of family l i f e i n Canada, and i t i s even harder for him to understand i t .  For him, who comes from  a culture in which parental authority i s more marked, i t i s hard to see that developing self-reliance i n children and a co-operative spirit i n family l i f e can be the expression of a family affection as strong as the one known i n his home country.  Also the attitude to law, and to i t s representatives, to the  Government and to voluntary organizations i n Canada represents a different expression of individual freedom and responsibility.  The complicated pattern  of voluntary organizations i s not understood by the Central European newcomer. He thinks of them more as cultural activities than as assumptions of responsibi l i t y by individual citizens. The above-mentioned are just a few of the whole complex of complicating factors which make any situation for a newcomer more d i f f i c u l t than for a native Canadian.  Also, one has to bear i n mind that most of the  Central European newcomers arrive here without means and with the idea that they have no one here to turn to for help and friendly advice, that they suffer from fear of deportation i n case of indigency, that i n many cases they worry about members of their family which they had to leave behind, and that they feel extremely lonely, especially since they often face antagonism from neighbours and fellow-workers.  This loneliness and insecurity sometimes finds expression  in exclusiveness or a defensive attitude of superiority. It has been established in this study that only a small proportion of Central European newcomers were finding d i f f i c u l t i e s relating to their housing, jobs and health as differing from those which are subjects of complaints i n Canada generally.  It has also  been found that many immigrants here studied were not finding problems i n this f i e l d at a l l .  Their attitude has been found independent rather than dependent  and they were found to be prepared for the fact that for the most part they must  rely upon themselves as they build up their lives here. It has been found that they can adapt themselves easily and that material help i s seldom required.  What they need more i s a shortening of  their cultural distance and help with their psychological adjustment.  They  enter this country eager to make good, with intelligence sharpened by a constant i  workout through mobility, with aggressive resourcefulness above the level of those'who never had to fight for survival against great odds.  However, they  also enter with a good deal of unspoken fear, impatience, and with much ignorance about a l l aspects of the very substantial distance of the Canadian from any Central European community. The Central European newcomer can be helped to function on his highest level i n a short time, i f there i s a sufficient effort to shorten his cultural distance through orientation, information, clarification, interpretation, support and encouragement.  He needs help which must be extended very  promptly and through the earliest contacts. His need to understand the Canadian community i s practically overwhelming.  I t grows from a feeble beginning, through  many and sad misunderstandings, to sizeable proportions within a very short period after arrival. If i t i s not met, i t may resolve i t s e l f into a protective shell of aggression, bitterness, hostility, rejection of Canada and Canadians. It may lead to hurt withdrawal into silent and negative suffering, cutting deep into the effectiveness and balance of the sufferer and his family unit.  It may  eventually perpetuate i t s e l f i n affecting, through cynical and destructive generalizations, relatives and friends. Entering a new cultural community requires quick and ready learning of innumerable matters wholly familiar to the person who has grown up  - «r  71-. •*  i n that setting. There are no formal methods provided for such learning. Even i f he has a place to l i v e , has a good job and has no language d i f f i c u l t i e s , he s t i l l may f a i l i n grasping the significant differences and similarities between his traditional set of values, his traditional behaviour, and the accepted behaviour of the community into which he has entered. 1  I t has been found that i n the process of cultural transition,  the immigrant of this studied group i s having difficulties rather in the intang1  ible than in the practical f i e l d , and that he needs help i n connection with his feelings rather than material aid. By pointing out and interpreting traditional tenets of the Canadian way of l i f e as applied to entirely concrete realityisituations, directly related to his immediate and early experiences, this help could be provided quite effectively.  The question arises i f and to what extent this i s  made available to a newcomer i n this community. Evaluation of Existing F a c i l i t i e s Immigration Branch and National Employment Office If Vancouver i s his port of landing or place of destination i n Canada, an immigrant receives an o f f i c i a l welcome and his immediate welfare i s taken care of by the local Immigration Officers.  He i s also supplied with l i t e r -  ature on the Canadian way of l i v i n g and with circulars giving information on some community resources where the immigrant could seek possible help, i f necessary.  The immigrant also receives counselling on his immediate problems i f he  brings them to the Immigration Officer, and i f he has means and intends to buy land or other property he may be also assisted and advised by the Settlement Officer. Then on the assumption that employment i s his basic need, the  immigrant i s assisted i n getting him a job.  This i s either done through the  Employment Officer of the Immigration Branch i f there i s a suitable employment available, or the immigrant i s directed to the National Employment Office. Since that moment, the Immigration Branch has no further contact with the immigrant unless he becomes deportable. When referred to the National Employment Office, the immigrant may feel rejected especially i f a referral i s made after several unsuccessful efforts of the Employment Officer of the Immigration Branch to find him a job. Also the feeling of being l e f t alone when overwhelmed with strangeness may intensify the anxiety of an immigrant which may then severely handicap his chance for employment. ' When an immigrant lands i n some eastern Canadian port and comes to Vancouver on his own, as applies to many Central European newcomers, he i s deprived of this i n i t i a l contact with the Immigration Branch.  His insecurity i s  even greater and he has no opportunity of expressing and discussing his needs. It i s a social worker's experience that the expression of the need for a job i s often merely an outlet for the expression of the need for help, for counsel, for a chance to talk over many other problems. Some people might argue that the newcomer can bring his problems to the officer of the National Employment Office since the' latter i s a public servant.  There i s no doubt that he would not get turned down. However, there  are two factors which should not be omitted at this point.  First, the feeling  of a newcomer about public servants, a feeling which he brings with him from his own country and which i s one of distrust.  Second, the effectiveness of possible  help offered, - since i t i s doubtful that employment officers are equipped with a  .- 73 sufficient knowledge of community resources and since they have not enough time to spend with the problems of newcomers. Besides, they are not trained to understand confused, emotionally upset individuals. As a newcomer has to readjust himself to a strange environment, which i s frequently hostile, and since the prejudices against him have been widespread, careful individual attention and casework service by trained workers who understand the treatment of emotional and mental disturbances, seems required at this early start of immigrants making a living i n this country.  Unfortunately,  there are no professional social workers employed by either the Department of Immigration and Citizenship or the National Employment Service. Citizenship Branch The function of the Regional Liaison Officer l i e s i n assisting and advising local organizations and agencies engaged i n facilitating the integration of newcomers. He provides such organizations and agencies with information on a wide range of subjects relating to newcomers and their problems and distributes material useful i n the integration process.  The following are the  figures obtained from his office: the average number of letters of inquiry i s about 50 a month, of visitors approximately 100 a month. The literature distributed amounts to 200 a month for booklets on Canada, and 300 a month for circulars "Information for Immigrants". The Regional Liaison Officer also influences attitude^ by public addresses and informal meetings designed to encourage acceptance of newcomers, and co-ordinates the existing programmes.  He promotes Canadian citizen-  ship and co-operates with national and local organizations i n relation to some aspects of their programmes i n the f i e l d of adult education. Except for his close contact with the representatives of  - 74 ethnic groups the work of the Regional Liaison Officer with newcomers i s more on an indirect than a direct level.  Although he endeavours to give individual  counselling, with his heavy schedule this i s not always possible. Welfare Agencies In this group are found the social service and the recreational agencies.  The City of Vancouver has relatively well-established welfare  services and i t seems to an outside observer that the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the cultural adjustment of a newcomer could be f u l l y met from this' source. small number of newcomers have been assisted by a welfare agency.  Yet only a One cannot  assume because newcomers do not seek aid that they do not greatly need i t . It has been mentioned before that a Central European newcomer has no previous experience with professional help of this kind.  He needs to be carefully intro-  duced to i t ; and since the social work profession i s often' a mystery to a native Canadian as well, this i s not an easy job, and i t should be done by social workers themselves. Besides, the division of welfare services into public and private agencies and the further division of private agencies by religion and type of service is so confusing that even an individual who has lived a l l his l i f e i n a large Canadian city finds i t often complex and d i f f i c u l t to understand where to seek help. A further fact i s that some casework services are not available to newcomers at a l l .  The City Social Service Department, for example,  which administers Social Allowances, Mother's Allowances and Old Age Pensions, does not offer casework services to anybody who i s not i n need and eligible for one of these financial assistances.  As a newcomer i n his f i r s t year i n Canada  - 75 i s not even eligible for Social Allowance, he i s not entitled to any counselling or other casework service. At other times, when a local agency i s asked to take on an apparent case situation not at the newcomer's request, but at the request of some o f f i c i a l who feels the immigrant needs help, i t often happens that such a request i s not "within the agency function".  By the number of referrals and  suggestions  that may be made to him by persons not adequately informed regarding available services, a newcomer may easily get discouraged from any further effort to seek help. Another situation may arise when an agency writes a routine letter to the newcomer inviting him to c a l l for an interview.  As i n his home  country such a letter could only mean a summons by an o f f i c i a l authority and would not indicate a desire to give friendly help on a personal problem, the newcomer finds i t d i f f i c u l t to' understand that there i s a social worker who has a special interest i n dealing with the strains and stresses of culture conflict, and the a b i l i t y for helping him to handle them. These few examples are intended to illustrate the need for further exploring the problem of how to supply needed casework services to newcomers i n this community. The Community Chest and Council took an i n i t i a l step by establishing the "Community Information Service".  This office was opened i n June  195h with the aim to become a safe guide i n the confusing network of community welfare services.  It i s purely a direction and referral service and there i s no  counselling or casework offered. The effectiveness of this office i s hard to evaluate at present, for i t s short existence.  However, i t seems sound to make one comment  here, that without enough publicity the office w i l l not meet i t s purpose.  * 76 Voluntary Organizations Since the early days of post-war immigration, many individuals, representatives of church and community organizations, have been engaged i n an abundance of activities designed to welcome the newcomer and to make him feel at home i n a strange country.  Some organizations have set up "Citizenship Committees  to study the problems of immigrants and carry out programmes to give some kind of assistance.  Independently of these, councils and committees have been set up to  promote understanding and goodwill among a l l peoples, and more recently the Coordinating Council on Citizenship has been established to co-ordinate services and to see that the total resources of the community were made available to the newcomer. These programmes certainly represent an incalculable number of hours of devoted services, prompted by a generous s p i r i t of understanding and goodwill. Unquestionably, they have done much to smooth the way for the immigrant through the trying period of transition.  There i s no doubt that a l l these programmes  indirectly help the newcomer to feel more at home, as they are directed towards better understanding and to his acceptance by native Canadians.  However, there  i s one danger i n welcoming ceremonies and similar social functions. They may miss the purpose completely and cause, instead, the deepest hurts and misunderstandings despite the best intentions.  In planning such programmes, there should  be always remembered that a newcomer needs to feel that things are done with him and not for him. This s p i r i t has been, perhaps, more effectively achieved i n the recreational f i e l d .  Recreation i s no longer considered a separate and re-  latively unimportant unit i n the total citizenship programme.  It has been re-  cognized that recreation and leisure time activities bring together the new and native Canadians more satisfactorily than anything else.  - 77 The Community Chest and Council co-ordinates the many parts of the network of recreational organizations i n Greater Vancouver.  These include  national youth organizations, neighbourhood houses and boys and girls' clubs. 1  Churches are a part of the network through the medium of the weekday activities they provide to supplement their religious education programmes.  Sports commiss-  ions, sports councils and sports clubs are other parts, offering newcomers a chance to belong to a team and play with other teams.  Through the Community  Arts Council many organizations interested i n music, art, drama and literature provide opportunities to stimulate the cultural l i f e of this community.  Service  clubs are v i t a l l y interested i n the citizenship values found i n recreational programmes and have donated generously toward their maintenance. The immigrants' lack of understanding of community functions and organizations has been recognized and mentioned before.  In the recreational  f i e l d , too, there i s a strong evidence that newcomers need to be more or better introduced to a l l those various organizations, each of which could be not only a recreational retreat but also a source of information.  Until this i s done, an  increase i n membership of New Canadians i s not l i k e l y to be expected. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. are the only two organizations where a steady enrolment of newcomers has been noticed.  This could be explained by the fact that these are world-wide  organizations familiar to immigrants from their home countries. local  Special groups  of newcomers have been established within the/l.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A. with both educational and social programmes.  English classes at the Y.W.C.A. also  attract many New Canadians. The Canadian Folk Society i s another voluntary organization whose object i s to .stimulate inter-racial and cultural participation i n order to enrich Canadian culture and promote friendship and peace among peoples and nations.  - 78 «• Working closely with the ethnic groups, i t serves as a means of introducing New Canadians to groups i n the community. The ethnic societies, although part of the community, have not been given merited attention.  Although they contribute to the perpetuation  of European customs, language and interests and therefore prolong the period of integration, they also diminish frustration accompanying acculturation, eliminate the feeling of insecurity, and teach the immigrant new ways of l i f e .  By  associating with his compatriots, the newcomer's psychological strain i s mitigated.  It helps to retain the equilibrium of the individual and his human  dignity.  Within his group a newcomer regains his old values and standing and  his nostalgic longings are satisfied.  However, i t has been learned i n this study  that the inclusion of newcomers within the older ethnic societies has not been smooth, because of differences between the "new" and "old" (already "Canadianized") members, disinterested i n European p o l i t i c a l divisions of that particular ethnic group.  Such friction reached an acute form among Hungarians and Poles and the  newcomers formed their own societies.  A new society of this type does not help  the immigrant to overcome acculturation difficulties but i t helps to overcome frustration caused by isolation.  Generally, i t i s the opinion of this writer  that the ethnic societies should be drawn into the activities of a wider community life.  They are part of i t and i f their beneficial influence i s to be strengthened,  they cannot be kept beyond the p a i l . The Social Worker's Role As to the needs and problems of post-war immigrants i n Canada, i t should be kept i n mind that these vary with individuals and that these variations are dependent not only on background and l i f e experiences of each individual but on whether he i s being assisted by the Department of Labour, spons-  » 79 * o r e d by r e l a t i v e s o r a r r i v i n g on h i s own, t h i s country. encountered  and a l s o on h i s e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s i n  I t has become e v i d e n t i n t h i s study t h a t more d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n h i s c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l adjustment  than i n the economic  are  one.  Knowledge o f the language r e p r e s e n t s a means t o a c h i e v e an end b u t i t i s not the end i n i t s e l f .  There i s no doubt t h a t good h o u s i n g , a good j o b w i t h  and h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e would make adjustment  security,  o f an immigrant smoother b u t i t would  n o t n e c e s s a r i l y make him a good Canadian c i t i z e n .  He w i l l l i k e l y become one i f  he i s c a r e f u l l y i n t r o d u c e d t o the Canadian community and s k i l f u l l y shown a s e t o f v a l u e s , so t h a t he understands the betterment  of h i s s i t u a t i o n .  new  them and can use them as a means towards  More i s needed than a p i l e o f pamphlets; a  warm u n d e r s t a n d i n g which s u r p a s s e s language and c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s , and a f r i e n d l y acceptance  o f h i s d i f f e r e n c e s t o h e l p him overcome the f e a r o f the unknown.  It  s h o u l d be k e p t i n mind t h a t "Canadianism" i s not a newcomer's p r i c e o f  admission  t o Canada and t h a t i t s h o u l d not be imposed on him u n t i l he i s ready —  that i s ,  when he s t a r t s t o f e e l t h a t he  "belongs".  Whatever t h e s i t u a t i o n , a h e l p f u l deed s h o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e an i n t a n g i b l e component which makes i t e f f e c t i v e r a t h e r than merely d e s i r a b l e .  Such  an i n g r e d i e n t i s the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach p r o v i d e d through s o c i a l casework. A s o c i a l worker i s aware o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaning t o the i n d i v i d u a l who h e l p and he i s a b l e t o a c c e p t and understand  this feeling.  Since the  needs  difficult-  i e s o f the immigrants l i e m a i n l y i n the a r e a o f t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n , the s o c i a l worker i s a b l e t o g i v e e f f e c t i v e h e l p . Moreover, he i s a b l e t o a i d the newcomer by u s i n g t h a t h e l p c o n s t r u c t i v e l y , i n h i s own  both  s e l f - i n t e r e s t and i n the i n t e r e s t o f the community.  As t o the f a c i l i t i e s f o r meeting the needs o f a newcomer i n  - 80 -  this community, there seems to be enough evidence of an urgent need for expansion of information and orientation services and the need for more effective co-ordinating and referral services.  Since the social worker i s also expected  to be well acquainted with the existence and function of community resources, i t seems that the present situation could be much improved i f the social work profession was drawn into the f i e l d of citizenship not only on a local but on a national scene.  This would also enable to make casework services available to  a l l newcomers and not only to those who are i n desperate circumstances. Does Casework Require Specialization ? It seems reasonable to ask what differences or similarities there are between immigrants and native clients, and to what extent the needs and methods of treatment of newcomers differ i n comparison to the Canadian clients. In considering the studied group of Central European immigrants i t can be stated that while their problems and needs differ, as they do with a l l human beings, a l l of them have two v i t a l factors i n common: a comparable immediate background and their vocational problem.  Each individual's  background i s different, varying with the environment i n which he has grown up, the use he has made of i t and his adjustment to i t .  Nevertheless, a l l these  newcomers did have one factor i n common, namely, that they had recently gone through an overwhelming and uprooting experience and had been forced to break accustomed ties and enter a new and unknown land.  This i s perhaps the f i r s t  point that has to be recognized when working with this group.  But i n dealing  with any group or with an individual, his background — the soeial order from which that individual emanates, the customs of his country, the kind of society he has been accustomed to and, above a l l , his personal background and experience —  - 81 is one of the major factors to be taken into consideration.  It i s a tenet of  casework practice that an understanding of these factors i s essential to any helpful or thoughtful work with him. The second characteristic common to this whole group i s the need for employment.  To put i t i n reverse, they are unemployed.  In the great  majority of cases, unemployment i s to them a totally new experience. Most of them come to Canada with records of long and stable employment ranging from the highest professions to simple jobs of a clerical and technical nature.  They  arrive i n this country quite unoriented about the conditions which they w i l l find here, no matter how much they may have read about them.  It i s not within  the compass of human emotion to truly experience something that has not happened to one's self.  For the most part, they come viewing Canada as the land of prom-  ise and expecting to be able to obtain a job of some sort.  Now, on top of their  recent shattering experiences, they find themselves facing another new and unexpected hardship.  This i s the f i r s t point where help i s needed as far as the  immigrant i s concerned.  He i s unprepared to face unemployment. However, has i t  not been one of the major jobs tackled by social agency workers i n Canada i n the past 2 5 years to meet and handle with a l l their s k i l l persons i n just such a situation ?  Today, unemployment i n this country i s more or less accepted as  something that i s with us.  But back i n the early days of the depression, the  major'group of the clients of a private social agency was one i n very much the same shoes as the immigrant clients are today.  It was just as hard, back i n  1 9 3 0 - as i t i s for the immigrant today - for a man who was regularly employed and supported his family to suddently realize that his job was gone and to accept the fact that no other immediate job awaited him.  It i s a new experience for  the immigrant but to the trained social worker i t i s a situation which he has  - 82 been equipped to meet and handle. It i s not necessary to assume that the newcomer's problem i s exactly the same as that of an unemployed Canadian worker, but  only that the difference i s one of degree, and does not revolve around the  fact of unemployment i t s e l f .  Rather, i t centres around the factors that may  make re-employment d i f f i c u l t , such as language handicap, trade training differ- . ences, emphasis on different s k i l l s , differences i n social values, and so on. It i s important that the social worker assigned to meet the needs of the newcomer be unusually resourceful i n practical matters as well as well-qualified i n other respects. He must have as wide a knowledge as possible of the community i n which he i s working; i t s economic and social organization, i t s educational opportunities, its prejudices, and the forces he can c a l l upon to aid the immigrant.  He needs to understand European backgrounds i f he i s going  to be' able to help the newcomer with emotional and personality problems which may be interfering with his adjustment. A first-hand knowledge of the cultural background of the immigrant i s , of course, an asset, as well as a knowledge of foreign languages - especially German and Russian - which has the advantage of permitting many of the immigrants to use their native tongue.  The voicing of  feelings and the expression of hostility i n a foreign language are very d i f f i c u l t , and there i s always the danger of misunderstanding.  There are also a number of  technicalities connected with immigration with which the caseworker i s apt to be unfamiliar and which would take considerable time to master. However, on the whole, casework with immigrants does not need specialization.  What i s needed i s the caseworker's awareness of cultural con-  f l i c t s and their emotional counterparts, his understanding of the immigrant's feelings about them and his ability to work out his own attitudes so that he can discuss them objectively and sympathetically with the immigrant.  In order to  « 83 understand these cultural and emotional conflicts he has f i r s t to recognize the common human experiences and to develop a sensitive capacity for, and a wise balance i n , identifying with the immigrants. This capacity i s based on a xvarm interest i n each immigrant as an individual, a recognition that he has reasons for 'feeling and behaving the way he does, and a genuine regard for the immigrant's 'feelings and the values which l i f e has for him.  A wise use of  identification demands a disciplined capacity to defer judgment until the worker, through his sympathetic attitude, has given the immigrant a chance to t e l l his story i n his own way and to reveal what he i s really like. To identify means to use perception and sympathy, to "feel along with" the immigrant rather than projecting oneself upon him or assuming that he has the same feelings as the worker, or rejecting him because his feelings are different from the worker's own.  This does not mean that the worker  "sides with" him or accepts his point of view and feelings to such an extent that he overlooks the social reality and f a i l s to see him objectively.  To attain  this balance, the worker needs to be aware of and clarify his own attitudes so that he i s not caught by his aversions or preferences for certain appearances, kinds'of behaviour, or membership i n a certain social or racial group.  In other  words, he must learn to cultivate a capacity to understand and accept each client as an' individual and to maintain an open mind to discover vrtiat he i s like. The above i s generally accepted as being essential i n casework and most of the workers assume they are able to use i t i n every case.  But  i t needs special consideration i n dealing with immigrants because i n this connection professional attitudes often give way to the worker's unconscious, cultural attitudes.  The outward symbols of racial differences, such as language, personal  appearance and standard of education often have a profound significance for the worker, of which he i s unaware and which i s so deepseated that much discussion and effort are required to counteract i t .  It is hard to be objective about his  own feelings and opinions, since his attitudes and prejudices as regards nationa l i t i e s and races were conditioned by his social group and the teachings of his parents and the frequent, stereotyped generalizations about immigrants. New Project A'-decentralized Canadian community appears to be much confusing to a Central European newcomer and, being overwhelmed by strangeness, he finds i t d i f f i c u l t to get oriented and locate available resources which might provide him with help in the process of integration. It seems that he would feel more secure i f he knew that somewhere i n the community there was a single organized agency to which he could, from time to time, appeal for information, counselling or the necessary aid to tide him over the inevitable difficulties and emergencies of daily l i f e , - a place to which he could come with confidence, knowing that he w i l l be understood and wanted and where he could feel free to discuss a l l his problems. There i s , of course, the Citizenship Branch, which has functioned as an "information centre" for the last four years, and where the Regional Liaison Officer endeavours also some individual counselling within the limits of his time.  However, this would require expansion i n both the programme and the  qualified staff i f the problem should be met effectively from this office. There i s also the newly established "Community Information Service" of the Community Chest and Council, which i s , of course, a purely direction and referral service to the welfare agencies i n the community. Although  «. 85 staffed by social workers, this office does not offer counselling or casework as it' i s understood i n a strict sense. To avoid possible overlapping and duplicating of functions and to satisfy immigrants' need for a centralized source of information and counselling, the fusion of these two offices would seem desirable. However, as administratively this would be a d i f f i c u l t task, i t seems much easier to diminish functions of one office and to expand functions and the staff of the other one. Since there are so many various functions integrated already in the office of the Regional Liaison Officer, any further expansion does not seem to be sound.  On the other hand, since work with adjustment problems of  immigrants i s i n the scope of social work profession, and since i t i s i n the interest of the whole community, i t would seem only f a i r that the Community Chest and Council takes responsibility for improvement of the present programme concerning new Canadians. It seems that a "Centre for New Canadians", as so many times suggested by immigrants interviewed i n this study, could be a real challenge to the present problem and that i t could be easily developed from the "Community Information Service".  In the writer's opinion, such a Centre could integrate  "prevention, treatment and rehabilitation", and a l l three groups of services which are ill-represented at present: information and orientation; co-ordination and referrals; counselling and casework.  The following i s an outline of possible  functions of such a Centre. Housing and Family The Centre would assist the immigrant i n finding temporary or permanent housing, and advise him on matters pertaining to rentals, mortgages, and similar problems.  For that purpose, the Centre would maintain a l i s t of places  -  86 -  where newly a r r i v e d immigrants c o u l d be t e m p o r a r i l y accommodated i n an emergency, u n t i l such time as more permanent h o u s i n g became a v a i l a b l e .  Assistance i n l o c a t -  i n g s u i t a b l e permanent h o u s i n g would be extended o n l y t o immigrants w i t h  children  where t h e need i s u r g e n t , o r t o any immigrant who may become s u b j e c t t o e x p l o i t a t i o n b y l a n d l o r d s o r r e a l e s t a t e agents. I n view o f t h e m a r g i n a l income o f most o f t h e immigrants, t h e y would be h e l p e d a l s o w i t h budget problems and g i v e n o r i e n t a t i o n about p u r chasing. H e a l t h and W e l f a r e The C e n t r e would a r r a n g e f o r a g e n e r a l m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f any newcomer who h a d n o t been examined b e f o r e o r a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n Canada. P r o p e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o a v a i l a b l e h e a l t h and h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s would be g i v e n and immigrants a s s i s t e d i n s e c u r i n g t h e s e s e r v i c e s as needed.  I n an emerg-  ency, immigrant p a t i e n t s would be t r a n s p o r t e d t o h o s p i t a l and a s s i s t e d w i t h the admission procedure.  R e f e r r a l t o t h e h o s p i t a l ' s S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department would  be made where a v a i l a b l e ; o t h e r w i s e , arrangements made f o r p a t i e n t s t o be v i s i t e d by a Centre caseworker.  I n s t r u c t i o n s about d i e t s s u i t e d t o Canadian l i v i n g would  a l s o be made a v a i l a b l e . The C e n t r e would p r o v i d e i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g o r casework s e r v i c e s f o r immigrants who may be e x p e r i e n c i n g s e r i o u s e m o t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n a l adjustment t o t h e Canadian way o f l i f e . Cases' i n d i c a t i n g a need f o r s p e c i a l i z e d a g e n c i e s would be r e f e r r e d t o them. A l l immigrants would be p r o p e r l y i n f o r m e d about t h e e x i s t e n c e and f u n c t i o n o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s i n t h i s community be e x p l a i n e d t o them.  and t h e s o c i a l workers' r o l e would  Immigrants would be a s s i s t e d i n s e c u r i n g casework o r group-  work s e r v i c e s i n t h e community  as r e q u i r e d .  Educational and Vocational Training The Centre would give information relating to available educational and vocational programmes and would assist with arrangements for immigrants to take part i n such programmes.  It would also keep the community informed  as to what other programmes are needed i n this area and would make a l l efforts to have these needs met.  Classes i n English and Citizenship could also be held  at the Centre. Employment During their f i r s t year i n Canada, immigrants who may be unable to secure suitable employment through the Department of Immigration and Citizenship or the National Employment Service and are not sponsored by individuals or organizations, would be assisted i n securing employment i n line with their needs, s k i l l s and general education.  Immigrants also would be assisted i n secur-  ing unemployment Insurance benefits and, i f eligible, referred to the City Social Service Department, for Social Assistance.  In emergency situations, loans could  be extended to those unemployed immigrants who are not entitled to any other benefits. Recreation and Social Life The Centre would give information relating to available recreational programmes i n the community and assist with the arrangements for immigrants to take part i n these programmes.  Immigrants would be encouraged and  assisted i n the organization of their own concerts and parties at the Centre, thereby being afforded an opportunity to interpret their culture to native Canadians.  The Centre would remain open on Sunday afternoons for social gatherings. Community and Citizenship Immigrants would be introduced to the common resources of the  Canadian community i n order to acquire understanding and learn how to help them-  .«• 88 » selves.  This introduction would take place i n both theory and practice.  Immigrants would be taught useful and inexpensive short-cuts to general orientation and would be given technical guidance toward certain community f a c i l i t i e s which would provide them with materials for the continuation of intensive selfstudy of Canadian culture.  The Centre would also assist with the application  for Canadian citizenship.  - -  00  - -  This outline i s merely an interpretation of what remains to be done in this community to help lessen the immigrants' difficulties on their entering Canadian culture; and an indication that provided i t i s carefully planned and staffed with qualified personnel, including both native and  New  Canadians, in the opinion of the writer one single agency could successfully integrate a l l the proposed services to immigrants. The outline could be employed as a starting point for the further exploration of this problem and i f an adequate organizational framework were to be set up with a well-developed operational plan, perhaps i t could be introduced to the authorities in the f i e l d as a workable proposition and not merely as a hypothesis.  A P P E N D I X  "A"  - 89 «• Table I  Tear  Immigration to Canada from 1910 to 1953  British 1910 1911 1912 1913 191U 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 192k 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1931* 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 191*0 191*1 191*2 191*3 191*1* 191*5 191*6 191*7 191*8 191*9 1950 1951 1952 1953  From U.S.A.  From Overseas  63,757 126,170 11*1,501* 152,373 11*1*, 513 1*1*, 117 9,032 9,980 1*,879 10,701 60,657 75,783 39,606 36,360 78,71*0 5U,9U3 37,569 50,378 51,552 59,1*97 61*, 962 28,11*1* 7,332 3,283 2,1*51* 2,1*08 2,261* 2,521 3,351 3,831 3,962 3,1*28 2,353 2,521* 1*,519 10,561* 21,1*63 51*, 036 1*7,009 1*2,830 20,062 15,1*29 36,000 1*0,152  Grand Totals  Totals (1) 10U,996 189,633 220,527 263,1*23 277,31*8 85,010 11,600 13,985 7,760 16,987 67,680 100,1*18 60,651* 50,880 128,039 9$ $kh 77,286 122,961* 126,593 137,163 132,561 63,91*3 11,1*55 6,586 6,163 6,176 5,982 t  6,910  10,112 11,1*65 10,1*57 l*,o53 2,551* 2,618 1*,599 10,682 23,627 55,580 70,160 118,297 78,762 77,31*8 203,1*50 131*, 71*8  91,01*8 101*, 881* 111*, 326 119,1*18 89,892 1*1,768 25,813 51,11*3 58,185 31,955 1*0,728 38,310 21,760 16,566 17,211 15,818 18,778 21,025 25,007 30,560 30,727 21*, 280 11*, 297 13,196 7,71*0 5,960 5,121 5,113 5,61*3 5,663 5,71*8 7,1*1*3 6,311 U, 827 l*,8hl 1*,62U 7,1*51* 11,1*10 9,031* 7,306 7,660 8,008 7,770 9,91*1*  196,01*1* 291*, 517 331*, 853 382,8kl 367,21*0 126,778 37,1*53 65,128 65,91*5 1*8,91*2 108,1*08 138,728 82,321* 67,1*1*6 11*5,250 111,362 96,061* 11*3,989 151,600 167,723 163,288 88,223 25,752 19,782 13,903 12,136 11,103 12,023 15,61*5 17,128 16,205 11,1*96 8,865 7,1*1*5 9,01*0 15,306 31,081 66,990 79,191* 125,603 86,1*22 85,356 211,220 11*1*, 692  (!) "Totals" consists of "British" plus the category "Other" Sources: The Canada Yearbook  - 90 Table LT  Average Immigration to Canada and British Columbia the f i s c a l years 1910-191*9  Years  Average No. of Immigrants to Canada  Average No. of Immigrants to British Columbia  1910-1913  314*, 862  1*7,205  13  191U-1918  69,01*9  11,709  17  1919-1930  31*, 19 8  9,599  28  1931-1939  23,71*1  2,951*  12  19i*0-19l*5  12,61*9  1,521  12  191*6-191*9  93,573  10,086  11  Sources:  P.C. of Immigrants coming to British Columbia  The Report of the Department of Mines and Resources, (Immigration Branch) "  -91 •  TableUI  Tear  1926 1927 1928 1929 1930  Percentage of Immigrants to the Total Population of Canada 1926-19U9  Population of Canada (000,0)  Immigrants to Canada  P.C. of Immigrants to Population of Canada  9,268 9,390 9,519 9,658 9,796  96,061* 11*3,989 151,600 167,723 163,288  1.32 1.53 1.59 1.76 1.67  9,93k  1931 1932 1933 1931* 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939  10,363 10,1*96 10,619 10,727 10,828 10,93k 11,029 11,136  88,223 25,752 19,782 13,903 12,136 11,103 12,023 15,61*5 17,128  .89 .25 .19 .13 .11 .10 .11 .lit .16  191*0 19ltl 191*2 191*3 191*1* 19i*5  11,250 ll,361t 11,1*89 11,637 11,795 11,985  16,205 11,1*96 8,865 7,1*1*5 9,01*0 15,306  .lit .10 .078 .06k .077 .13  191*6 191*7 191*8 191*9  12,102 12,307 12,582 12,883  31,081 66,990 79,191* 125,603  Sources:  .21 .53 .72 . 99  The Canada Yearbook; The Report of the Department of Mines and Resources, (Immigration Branch) '  ~- 92; ~ Table W  Year  Percentage o f Immigrants t o t h e T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1926-191*9  Population o f B r i t i s h Columbia (000,0)  Immigrants t o B r i t i s h Columbia  1926 1927 1928 1929 1930  560 568 575 583 591  1 9 3 1 1 9 3 2 1 9 3 3 1 9 3 U 1 9 3 5 1 9 3 6 1937 1 9 3 8 1 9 3 9 191*0  5 9 69k 7 0 7 1 7 2 7 3 7 U 7 5 7 7 792  19lil 191*2 191*3 191*1* 191*5  805 818 870 900 932  1,653 1,61*7 91*7 760 1,186  191*6 19U7 191*8 191*9  91*9 1,003 1,01*1* 1,082  2,261* 8,639 9,701 11,918  Sources:  P.C. o f Immigrants t o Population o f B r i t i s h Columbia  9,253 8,212 10,10-0 9,891 8,652 7 7 7 7 6 5 9 5  9 , 3 3 3 5 , 2,1*30 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 2,109  1.6k 1.1*5 1.82  1.69  1.1*6  5  5  1  1  . .  8 5 3 3 6 5  5 0 1 6 6 5  6 6 5 6 7 7  . . . . . .  5 7  6 9 .31* 2 6 2 1 1 8 1 8 2 2 2 0 .30 .21 .21 .11 .081 .13  .21* .81* .91+ l . l l  The Canada Yearbook; The Report o f t h e Department o f Mines and Resources, ( I m m i g r a t i o n Branch)  •» 93 •» Table V  Year  Presumed Permanent Movement o f P o p u l a t i o n between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s : Y e a r s Ended June 3 0 , 1939-1*8  From U n i t e d S t a t e s to Canada  1939 19U0 191*1 191*2 191*3 191*1* 191*5 191*6 191*7 191*8 191*9  (1)  9,1(17 8,91*8 7,576 6,826 5,306 6,898 5,901, S^l*^ ) 10,801(») 8,822('') 7,600(») 1  From Canada t o United States  11*, 887 15,183 11*, 931 15,282 11*, 5U1 11*, 633 16,1*05 27,617 29,059 30,21*6 31,368  •  Net L o s s t o Canada a s R e s u l t o f Movement  5,1*70 6,235 7,355 8,1*56 9,235 7,735 10,50k 18,776 18,258 21,1*21* 23,768  Estimated  Sources:  Canada Year Book, 1951, p.152 (compiled from f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d by the Immigration and N a t u r a l i z a t i o n S e r v i c e o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f J u s t i c e ) .  Figure 1  IMMIGRANT ARRIVALS for f i s c a l years 1 9 1 0 - 5 0 280  1LLL1LLLII LL11 iJ Iii-  -9 Figure 2 AVERAGE IMMIGRATION TO CANADA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA f o r f i s c a l years 1910-^9 £_ 3 6 0  Immigrants t o Canada  - 3^0  Immigrants to B r i t i s h Columbia 300  - 260  r- 220.  c  CO  w B  - 180  - 1^+0 vO 00  5 -r=t O  O CM  O  ON  oo ON  ON \0  ro  ON ON UN »» ON  r>. CM  Ov J vO  H  ro  ON  ir-v  lr\  CM  CM  H  CM  ro  ON  NO  CO  O  O rH  _ 100  _  60  _  20 0  1910-13  '191^-18 ' 1 9 1 9 - 3 0 1 9 3 1 - 3 9 1 9 + 0 - + 5 19 +6-H-9 ,  T  1  l  ,  1  o  i  -97-  Figure h MOVEMENT OF POPULATION BETWEEN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES F i s c a l years 1939-^+9  fla n a rla  >  The  TTnl t.eri  TJo-r  1 r\ o e  t.he  TTnl+.or  ,t.a -hoc  Stntoe narls  t  1 1  •  c CO cn o  1  21  C n  /  CO  /  i f  /  M  1 I  CD  15  •*  •  /  /  1C _  /  s  _  5  1939  l f l  1^5  19^9  A P P E N D I X  »B»  .Q.JJ a 3 'J .1 ilale j?emale ft  -980 I\ ±i  P [_J  Single Carried  A  I  3^y age  a E i s s under 20 20 - 30  B  30 - 40 over 40  • 1 I  W h i c h o f the l i v i n g members o f y o u r f a m i l y are n o t i n Canada? husband or wife children How many? one p a r e n t both parents "brothers Hov; many?_ sisters HOT/ m a n y ? "  How many y e a r s  How l o n g h a v e Years  D i d y o u move a r o u n d i n C a n a d a he f o r e you settled i n your prosent location? y • •  y o u "been i n Months  Canada? n  y o u "been i n B . C . ? Months  Q Do y o u h a v e a n y c l o s e r e l a t i v e s i n C a nada, others than your husband or wife and y o u r c h i l d r e n ? Yeo[_J l o Q  W h e r e d i d y o u come f r o m ? d i r e c t f r o m my home c o u n t r y f r o m a D . P . camp from other country  C a n y o u f o l l o w t h e same here? Yes • . H o  line Q  o  now?  have?  Which ? A r e y o u s a t i s f i e d w i t h y o u r p r e s e n t accomodation? yes no I j I f n o t s t a t e whys _ D i d y o u t a k e U n g l i s h c l a s s e s f o r new> comers i n Canada? Yes • Ho • I f n o t s t a t e whys interested mr I w a s n o t I d i d n o t know o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e I d i d not have time They were l o c a t e d t o o f a r from n y home  you j  of xinglish  I n y o u r home c o u n t r y . / e r e y o u s skilled laborer semi-skilled lahorer farmer clerk student m i l i t a r y serviceman businessman professional other Which?  n  w h a t k i n d o f a c c o m o d a t i o n do y o u one r o o m two rooms more t h a n two rooms r e n t e d house own h o u s e  D i d y o u k n o w a n y i i i n g l i s h he f o r e came t o C a n a d a ? Yes Q Ho ( What i s y o u r k n o w l e d g e V e r y good Good Poor Hone  S  W h e r e do y o u l i v e I n the o i t y f_ Outside c i t y On a f a r m  How d i d y o u c o m e . t o C a n a d a ? under contract s p o n s o r e d "by r e l a t i v e s s p o n s o r e d "by f r i e n d s sponsored by an o r g a n i z a t i o n o n my o w n  school?  I f y o u h a v e any_ c h i l d r e n i n C a n a d a , h o w m a n y ? One I J Two Q H o r e t h a n two-  Q  How l o n g h a v e Years ••  d i d y o u go t o  I f n o t what i s the ro.ason? I do n o t k n o w e n o u g h E n g l i s h I do n o t h a v e e n o u g h m o n e y I am n o t w a n t e d a s a f o r e i g n e r Ho n e e d f o r s u c h w o r k e r s Other How l o n g d i d . . i t t a k e y o u t o f i r s t j o b i n Canada?, o f w o r k How d i d Through Through Through Through Through  get  you get i t ? the Xiaploymo-nt O f f i c e the I m m i g r a t i o n O f f i c e an a d v e r t i s e m e n t my f r i e n d s some o t h e r w a y  •ifhich? your  -98aWhat i s your pro sent l i n e of work? L i s t things y:»u l i k e least about your ..... . . P sent j obs _ r o  Have you ever do no t h i s before? Yes • Ho •  How would you rank your present job L i 3 t things you l i k e boat about your i n terms of prestige i n your homeland? present jobs „ Very high ~" i ' c i r l y high_ liediua P a i r l y low Very low In your e a r l y days i n Canada,where d i d you get the necessary information or counseling? Prom the Immigration Office Prom the Public L i b r a r y Proa a welfare agency Prom a policeman Prom my countrymen Prom some other source Howhere,! did not know where to ask  Kcw many Canadians homes have you been i n since_you arrived? Ifone 1-5  How do you f i n d Canadians as a whole? Very f r i e n d l y P.airly f r i e n d l y Somewhat unfriendly Very unfriendly Do you v i s i t any newcomers from your homo country regularly? Yes {~J lib Q Do you v i s i t any oldimera from your_ hone country regularly? Yes f~\ lib • j Do you f e e l there at home? Yes[_JHoLJ  6 - 10  more than 10 Do you f e e l there at home? Yes Q  How did you f i n d the Immigration Officers? Very f r i e n d l y Pairly friendly 8 ome what unfriandly Very unfriendly  HoQ~|  •Is" Canada very d i f f e r e n t from what you Indicate whore i s the s i t u a t i o n bet-te expected? Yes Q So P ] comparing Canada with your homelands *) Home country C anada Comparing with your home country, do Personal freedom you f i n d Canada: Personal comfort far ahead S o c i a l Security advanced i n some respects Class d i s t i n c t i o n about the same R a c i a l discrimination behind i n some respects .educational system far behind Cultural l i f e Social l i f e I f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n changed would you return home, f o r good? Y e s Q I am not sure Q Ho • I f there was established a Centre f o r Hew Canadians where you could get i n formation and counseling to your problemsi, do you think you could make a good use of i t ? Yes Q H o Q  Would you l i k e to keep a regular con tact with such a Centre so that your experience could be u s 3 d to help others who come after you? Yes Q Ho £j  'J M  Geschlechts i^annlich Q  ...A G la B 0 G  WeiblLoh •  VerheiratetQ  Ledig  Q  V*  iV  Kein A l t e r .1st* unt^r O untor .2.0 2.0 O 20-30 •  30-40 CI CL liber 40 U  Wie v i e l e Schuljehre haben Sie? Welche lebenden Angehorlgen von Ihrer S'amilie s i n d j i i c h t i n Canada? Haben Sie nahe Verwandte i n Canada, Gatte oder G a t t i n j j ausser Ihrer Gatte,Gattin u. Kinder? Kinder Vie v i e l e ? Ja O SeinD Vater Gutter Haben 3ie Kinder i n CanadaTVie viele? Brude r Vie v i e l e ? ft i n D Zwei • Lehr den zwei O Schwe stern Wie viele?" Wie 'lango' sind Sie schon i n Canada? Jahre i.-ona'ce Wie lange sind Sie schon i n Jahre L-'onate^ Wie sind Sie nach Unter ICpntralct Unterstutzung von Unterstutzung bei Untorstlitzung bei B e i eigener Hand  B.C.?  Canada gekommen? Verwandten i'reunden einer Organisation  Von wo Icommen Sie? Dire let von Ihren Vaterlando Von einen D.P, Lager Von einen anderen Lande ch& n? ,  Sind Sie v i e l gewandert i n Canada,bsfor Sie s i c h gesottelt haben, auf Ihren j e t z i g e n Plata? Ja • ITein Q ¥p wohnen- Sie j c t z t ? I in, dor Stadt Aussor dor Stadt Auf dom Lando Was fur einen Wohxiort__haben Sie j e t z t ? l i i n Zimmer Zwei Zimmer Hehr den zwei Zimmer Gemietotes Haus '.-.iigenos Haus  Sind Sie zufrieden mit l h r o r jetzigen W'elafecnStellung? J a f j ITein Q Venn nicht, warurn?  •IConnten Sie e n g l i s c h sprechen,befor Sie nach Canada Teamen? J & L J I f e i n j J  Haben Sie englisch Stunden f u r Imi granten i n Canada besucht? JaQ ITein Q Wie sind j e t z t Ihro englische Kennt- Venn nicht, warum? • ni3se? Ich war nicht i n t e r r e s s i e r t Sehr gut Ich wucc'te nicht das ea sine gibt Gut Ich hatte Tseina Z e i t Die waren zu we i t ontfornt von Schle cht i Keine meinom Wohnort  H t  Was waren Sie i n Ihrem Vaterlando? Gelornter j?a»chmann Ange le rnte r Arbe i t e r Bauer Angesteliter Student Berufssoldat Ge s ch aft smann Proffesion Ande re Weiche? Konnten bie"d*ie*" selbe Arbeit h i e r £ortsetzen? J a • lie i n •  Venn nicht, was i a t der Grund? Ich Icann nicht genug E n g l i s c h Ich habe nicht genug Geld ' Ich b i n als Aualander nicht eio&aSifc bolche Arbe i t e r 'sind nichtbrsui±itar .'-cade re Welche? r  Wie lange dauorte ea bia Sie d i ji-rste Arbo-it hatten i n Canada?^ ~Wie haben Sie es bolcommen? '~ "Durch daa Arbeitsamt Durch die Jmigration Ste l i e Durch die Stellenvormittlung Durch moine ji'reuiide Auf einsn anderen Voge  Wca 1st Ihro gegenwartigo ivxbeit? — . ^ . ^ .  Senna n. Sio einige Punkte ,die Sic „ nicht besondera gem verrichten?  Haben 3i© dieaelbe aohon vorher gexnacht? Ja • HeinQ  _ 1 Z ^ Z 1 Z ^ ~ Z ^ ~ ~ 2 Z . —--^'-'"^ Wfo"Vtir d V T r f < f I G e T a ^ W g I h r er"~jofzTgen Arbeit i n Ihrem Vaterlande, gsaohatzt Honnen Sie e i n i g e Punlcte,w.elche Sie werden? £aa l i e b a t e n , i n Ihrer j e t z i g e n Arbeit, Sohr ho oh _ verrichten* _ _ Hoch z  z_~irzn *3.tteim&3aig  "Von xtem hatten Sie die notigsten Info rmationen i n Ihren eraten I'agen, h i e r i n Canada? Von der Iiaigrationa Ste l i e Von der o f f e n t l i c h e n B i b l i o t h e k Von einer ¥ohlfart S t e l l e Von der P o l i z e i Von meinen Landsleute Von einer anderen Quelle Von nirgends,ich wuaate nicht wo zu fragen  ¥ie v i e l e Canadiache Pamilien haben Sie beaucht^aeit Hirer. Ankunft? Keine  Hiedrig _ Sohr n i e d r i g L  ¥le fanden Sic die Iiaigrationa Offi< ziere? Sohr freundlich Gewohnlich f r e u n d l i c h tw ao unfre und 1 i ch Unfreundlioh ¥ie finden Sie-die Canadier im gro.' sen und ganzon? Sohr f r e u n d l i c h Gewohnlich f r e u n d l i c h Ii twaa unf re uuadl ich. Unfreundlioh Beauchen Sie Na uankoionlinge aua Ihrer Heimat, regelmaaaig? J c • He i n D •  1-5 6-10  Beauchen Sie Altauagewanderte aua Ihr» re r He imat, re go lma3 a i g? J aUi.'e i n CD • I'uhlen Sie cich da zu Hauoe? JaQ Hoin[j  1st Canada and©rot ala Sic oa aich v o r g e s t e l l t haben? J r . Q He i n Q  Geben Sie an wo i o t die S i t u a t i o n be'saer i n V e r g l e i c h mlt Candida und Ihrem Ee imat land? . and Cai Peraonliche Proihoit Peradnlich© IComfort S ozIale Ve raicherung IClaasen Unterachied Hasso Verfolgung Bildung System C u l t u r e l i e Loben Geoellachaft Leben  mehr den 10 _ tfuhlen Sie oich da zu Huuuo s Ja Q He i n Q  I m V e r g l e i c h mit Ihrer Heimat,finden Sie Canada* V i e l vorgeschritten Vorgeachritten i n Auanahmen Ungefahr g l e i c h Ruclcatandig i n einigen Auanahmen Sohr ruclcatandig  Y/enn die international© S i t u a t i o n wech.seIn ward©,warden Sie f u r imaor naoh Hauae fahren? Zu welchon Club oder Organisation,geJ a Q l c h b i n mir nicht aicherOHeinQhoren Sie h i a r an?_ vifenn h i e r e i n iiittelpurikt f u r Heue iiochten Sie gem© einen regelmaaaige-n Canadier gegrundet ware,wo Sie s i c h Kontalct i n oinen aolchen Liittolpunkt Inf ormationen u. Vorachldg© zu Ihrem halt an, so das aua Ihrar '.^rfahrung Sie Probleme holen Tsonnten, de rikan Sie,Sie don Heuankommlingen H l l f e bio ton konnten einen guten Gebrauch davon kdnnton? machen? Ja Q He i n [_J JaQ HeinQ  .JU.UZ  na  U  Svobodny(a) f j Zenaty (vdanaj ! !  ixoeri __ z vasich z i j i c i c h clenu rodiny nejsou v Kanadej?_ man&el(ka)  jeden z rodicu, oba rodi6e bratfi sestry  liuj vek jests pod 20 PI  30-40 _ _ [ !  20-30 L J pres 40 LZ[ K o l i k l e t jste chodil(a) do skoly?  Kolik?  J e s t l i z e mate d l t i v Kanade, k o l i k ? Jedno Q Dve • Vice nez dv5 L J  Kolik? Kolik?"  Hate nejake blizke pribuzne v Kanade krome man£ela(ky) a d l t i ? Ano • He EU  Jak j s t e dlouho v KanadS? Rokug& l&sicu J a k j s t e dlouho v Britske Columbii? Roku liesicfi o  Jak jste se dostal do Kanady? Ha contract t| Sponsorovan pfihuznymiP Sponsorovan znamymi Sponaorovan organisaci Ha vlastni* p§st 1  Odkud jste p r i j e l ( a ) do Kanady' rimo z rodne zeme j Z D.P. Campu pj Z jine zeme Itere?6  Stehoval jste se v Kanade 6aato nez jste se u s a d i l na nynejsji adrese? Ano • He Q Kde bydlite nyni? V mestS . " i iiimo m5st< Ha f arms' Jaky druh.ubytovani ma e? Jednu mistnoat DvS mistnoati Vice nez dve* mistnoati Pronajaty dfim V l a s t n i dum H e j s t e - l i spokojen a pritomnym bydle. nim, udejte duvods  Znal jate anglicky nez jste p r i l e l do Kanady? Ano Q He Q  Chodil jste do anglickych kurau pro. pf istehovalce v Kanade? Ano|~~j He P j  Jaka je va§e dnesni znalost a n g l i c t i n y Velmi dobra Dorozumim se dobre Slaba Zadna  J e s t l i z e ne,^udejte duvods Hemel jsem zajem HevSdel jsem o nich HemSl jsem cas P r i l i s daleko od meho bydliste  Jake* bylo vase zamestnanf ve vasi rodne zemi? Kvalifikovany delnik He kvalifikovany d£ln£k Rolnik Ufednik Student P r i s l u s n i k branne moci 0"bchodnik (2ivnostnik) Svobodne povolani Jine* Jakd?  J e s t l i z e ne, udejte duvods Slaba znalost anglictiny ; Hedostatek penSz do podnikani!'"* Heehteji cizince j" I'iuj obor zde neni znam f" J i n y dftvod L. Jaky?_  v  liuzete pokrac'ovati ve svem oboru v "Kanadl? Ano • He i.„l  /  v  v  1  f  J ak vam trvalo dlouho sehnat prvni zame'atnanf v Kanade"? Jak jste ho dostal(a)? Prostrednictvim rifadu prace : Prostrednictvim immigraSniho uradu f Ha inserat z novin j Prostrednictvim znamych \ Jinym zpusobem  -±uua~ uTake je vase nynejsi samestnani? .  ...  O'menujte co se vain n e l i b i na vasem nynejsim zamestnani:  D S l a l ( a ) jste nekdy pfed tim tento druh prace? Ano • lie f~J Jmenujte co se vam l i b i na vasem nynejsim zamestnanis "  ' ~ ^ I" " ""' " O'ake poataveni ve spolecnosfci byste zaujimal ve vasi rodne zemi s ohledem na praci kterou vylconavate? ~__ Velmi vysoke I \ Vyssi __ Prostfedni ITizsi '~ ' ' Velmi nizke r  Be hem vasich zacatku v Kanade, kde jste dostal potfebne informace nebo radu? Od immigracniho uradu Ve vefejne knihovne Od ufadu s o c i a l n i pece Od straze^bezpecnosti Od krajanu Z jineho pramene Hikde, neve del jsem kde se ptat |  Co 3e tyce chovani immigracnich ufedliiku k vajn,fekl(a) byste ze bylis Velmi prate 1st i || Prostfedne p f a t e l s t i Ponekud n e p f a t e l s t i Velmi n e p r a t e l s t i _^ Jak se chovaji Kanadane k vam? Velmi prate 1 sky Prostredne pratelsky Ponekud nepfatelsky i™ Velmi nepratelsky L_ •  ••  Havstevujete pravidelne nejake z nove p f i c h o z i c h krajanu? Ano j_j ITe Q •  K o l i k kanadskych domacnosti jste nav s t i v i l ( a ) od vaseho p f i j e z d u do Kail ady? Zadnou P" 1 5 ~ 6 "10 Z V i c e nez 10  Havstevujete pravidelne nektere k r a jany st arousedliky? Ano Q He CZ3 J e s t l i z e ano, c i t i t e se u nich jako doma? Ano £ j ITe Q O  K jakemu klubu neb organisaci n a l e z i te?  Je Kanada hodne odlisna od toho jak j s t e s i j i pfedstavoval? Ano Q He CD  Ve srovnani v a s i rodne zemi s^Kanadou kde je situace leps£ co se tyce? "^Rodna zem Kanada Osobni svobody Osobniho pohodli Socialniho zabezpeceni Pomeru mezi telesne a dusevne pracujicim Pomeru k jinym narodnostem a rasam P r i l e z i t o s t i ku vzdelani Kulturniho zivota bpolecenskeho zivota  C£t£te se tarn jako doma? Ano Q  He  Ve ^srovnahi s vasi rodnou zemi je ve vasich ocich Kanadas Hodne napfed Ponekud napfed P f i b l i z n e na stejnem stupni Ponekud pozadu ttodne pozadu I kdyby se mezinarodni situace zm&nila mate v umyslu z u s t a t i v Kanade? Ano Q He jsem s i j i s t ( a ) ITe "j | Jste pro z r i z e n i btrediska pro Hove lanaoTany, kde by se vam dostalo potfebnych rad a informaci? A«o Q He •  t  Byl byste ochoten b y t i v pravidelnem styku s takovym Strediskem, aby na zaklade vasich zkusenosti mohlo byt pomozono tern kdo p f i j d e po vas? Ano • He O  2 - Hungarian Perfi  Q  K E R-§°&~I  io  •  H6s Perjezett  rn [_J  y  Eletkoroms  20 e v a l a t t 20 - 30  30 - 4 0 40 f e l e t t  lifel y i k  c s a l a d t a g j a j a i n c s ELan a d a b a nH?a n y e v i g j - a r t i s k o l a b a ? Perj vagy Pelesegi Gyercaekek Heir/?' H a v a n gyermeke K a n a d a b a n , hany? Egy Sziilo E g y ;U K e t t o C) V a g y t o b b Q • Mindket Sziilo' Testverek f i v e r Hany? V a n - e k6zeli r o k o n a K a n a d a b a n , ferjen, Testverek; nbver Hany? felese'gen vagy gyermekein k i v u l ? I gen • Hem l ~ j t  (  ifennyi Ev  ideje van Ho'nap  Kanadaban?  Kennyi E v ___  i d e j e ^van B r i t i s h Honap  E l t - e kulonbozo he l y e ken Kanadaban mieloltt letelepedett jelenlegi tartozkodaai helyen? C o l u n b i a b a n ? I g e n !_J Hem Q Hoi e l jslenleg? Varoaban Kulvarosban Tany an  H o g y a n j^ott K a n ad aba? Szerzode'ssel I H o z z a t a r t o z o k reve'n B a r at ok r e v e n E g g y e s u l e t e k ve've n Omalloan  K i l y e n l a k a a - k o r u l n e n y e k kozott e l ? E g y szobaban Ke't szobaban T o b b m i n t k o t szobaban B e r e I t hazban Sajat hazaban y  Honnan j o t t ? Egyeneaen azulohazaj abol D.P. taborbql Idegen orazagbol (  ielyikbol?  Hog van elegedve j e l e n l e g i Igen Q Hem Q H a n o m , m i e r t nems • •  Beaze'lt a n g o l u l Ganadaba v a l o Joveteleelott? Igen • Hem Q  Vett Igan  Angol tudasa? Igen jc  H a nem m i e r t ? , Erdeklodes hianya  do  H e m -tudtar.1  Hi volt a foglalkozaaa Szalanunkaa ' Hunk as Poldmuvee Hiyatalnok Diak Katona Uzletember Hivatasos Egyeb £Z H i c a o d a ?  •  Kanadaban?  rola  Hem v o l t i d o m T u l meaaze v o l t  Gye n g e Semmi  Heg t u d o t t maradni i t t Kanadaban? Igen Q Hem Q  angol nyeIvleckoket L J Hem Q  lakasaval?  lakohelyemtol  l i a g y a r o r s z a g o n ? H a n e m , m i e r t nem? Angol tudaa h i a n y a Pe'nz h i a n y a Hem v a g y o k kivanato3 m i n t i d e g e n l!ino3 m u n k a l e h e t o s e g a szakmamban Egyob Ilicsoda?  oredeti  /  He n n y i i de i g t a r 1 o 1 1 k ap o 1 1 K a n a d a b a n ? f  ami g munk a t  h i v a t a s a b a n H o g y a n s z e r z e t t munk a t ? A m u n k a h l v a t a l lit j an A bevandorla3i h i v a t a d t j a n Uj ' s a g h i r d e te s e k u t j an B a r at ok ro'ven £gyob  I.& a j a l e n l e g i f oglallcozasa?  Hit  nam szeret j a l o n l e g i munlcaj d n ? ^  C sinc.lt a-c ozt a nultban? Igen • Q  J o l e n l e g l munl:ajat otthoni torulawiiyol: Hit szeret legjobban j a l e n l e g i munlca- leozott miltannalc tart ana? jdji? Igan j o „ Hegfelelo Kozepes fiyenge IVagyon gyenge Eanadaba orlcczoso utan honnan Irapott tanacsot vagy sogitseget? Bevandorlasi H i a y a t a l t o l Hyilyanos IConyvtartol l i e p j o l e t i inte'zmenytol ftgy r e n d o r t o l Ho nf i tars aimt 61 ftgyeb h a l y r o l Sehonnan inert nem tudtari TdLtol Trerjelc tanacsot t  IIany Icanadai csaladot latogatott meg Eliot a ICanadaba erlcezatt? 0 1-5 6.1 10  tobb mint 10  Otthon oreztc nagat naluk? I gen Hem  O  O  Ililyennelc t a l a l t a a Bevandorlasi I-Iivat al sHjalmazottait? iTagyon baratsagosnalc lioglehetosen bs,ratsagosnalc K i s se b ar at s ago al ann ale Hagyon baratsagtalannalc f  HilyenneTs t a l a l j a a Icanadaialcat? ilegyon baratsagosnak " Lieglahetosan baratsagosnaTs Kisse baratsagtalannalc Li'agyon baratsagtalannalc t7" 1  Latogat j a~e rendszaresan arlcczett h o n f i t a r s a i t ? I gen Hen  O  ujonnan  Q  Latogatja-e randszeresen regebben e'rlcezett honf i t a r s a i t ? I gen Hem Otthon a r z i magat nalul:? Igan Q Hem Q  O,  Q,  l i i l y e n # intezme'nyn3lc, IclubnaL: vagy mas t ar s as agn al; t gj a IC an ad ab an? Hagyon kulunbozonelc t a l a l t a Kanadat, mint ahogy ellcepzalte? Igan D Hem • Osszehasonlitva 3z6lohazajaval, ugy t a l a l j a hogy Kanadas Solclcal elorehaladottabb f e j l e t t e b b bizonyos szempontbol ugy an olyan elmaradot tabb bizonyos szempontbol s oleic al elmaradottabb  Osszehasoiilitva Kanadat szulohazajaval az alabbi -szampontolcat, hoi e l d nyo-sebbelc a viszony j aban Kana Szemalyes szabadsag Kenye lam iiapjolec tfaji a16itelet  Ha a nemzetlcozi viszonyolc megvaltpz- i L o z o l r t is nenal:,vi s s z ate rne vaglegesen szuloha- K u l t u r a l e t zaj aba? IgenQ tudom • Hem Q T ar s ad almi eIa t i;  rer:1  Ha lenne bayandorlolc rszere^egy f a l - Ii»gy i l y a n leozpontt'al randszarason v i l a g o s i t d e's tanacsado intazet, ugy osszelco'ttetisben yolna-e, hogy sajatt a p a s z t a l a t a i y a l a's 6 szrava to lelve 1 gondolja, hogy ezt sajat c d l j r / — mas bevandorlonal: segitsegere lohoselonyosen hasznalhatna? san? Igan O Ham £_f Igen O Hem I I  ii  ^zozyznj Kobieta  E S ! I 0  Wolny(wolna) Z onaty (z am| zm  M  Kto z zyjacych. czlonkow nie j e s t w Kanadzie? Haz(zona) He? Dzieoi Jeden z rodzioow? Dwoje? Bracia, -J Hu? lie?" Siostry Jak dlugo j e s t Pan(i) w Kanadzie? Lat Iiiesiecy_ Jalc dlugo j e s t Pan(i) w B.C.? Lat _ Miesiecy ¥ j a k i sposob znalazl. sie Pan(i) w Kanadzie? Ha podstawie kontraktu Sprowadzony przez krewnych Sprowadzony przez p r z y j a c i o l Sprowadzony przez organizacje Ha swoj wlaslny koszt Skad Pan(i) wyjeohalja)? Z kraju rodzinnegoll Z obozu D.P. Z innego k r a j u Jakiego?_  Czy Pan(i) 3nal(a) j^zyk a n g i e l s k i przed_przyj azdem do Kanady? Tak QHie Q 0"becnie,w jakim stopniu posiada Pan znajomosci jezyka angiel3kiego? Bardzo dobr^Bi r~j Dobrym Siabym Zadnyxi Zawod w krajus Robotnik wykwalifikowany Hobotnik niewykwalifikowanj Rolnik Urzednik Student ¥o j skowy Handlowie c (albo kup ie o ) ¥olny zawod Inne zawody Jaki? Czy Pan(i) pracujs w Kanadzie w •owoim zawodzie? Talc Hie •  jT  Ij  w'ielc!  JUSZ ponizej 20 20-30 _J  30-40 M ponad 40 Pj  H e l a t Pan(i) chodzil(a) do szkoly? l i e d z i e c l maja Pans two w KanlicazieT' Jednp Q DwojeQ ¥ie,cej Q Czy^ma Pan(i) krewnych w Kana-dzie oprocz nez a, zony i dzieci? Tak O Hie Q Czy Pan(i) zmienial(a) miejsce zamieszkania \v Kanadzie,zanim Pan(i) osiadl(a) w obeonyra nie j sou? Talc CI Hie • Gdzie^PanU) mieszka ¥ miescie Poza mi as ten Ha farmie  obecnie?  Jak Pen(i) mieszka w Kanadzie? ¥ jednym pokoju ¥ dwoch ¥ wiecej ¥ dom wynaje/fcym ¥ dom wlastnym Czy j e s t Pan(i) zadowdlony(a) z obec« nego osiedlenia? Tak • Hie Q J e s l i nie, dlaczego? Ucze,szozal(a). Pan(i) na leursy jezyka angielskiego w Kanadzie? Tak Q Hie Q J e s l i nie, zaznacz dlaczegoJ Hie mi alem(am) zainte re s ow ani a Hie wiedzialem(om) ze Takie i s t n i e j a Hie mialem(am) cza3u Odbywaly si<3 za daleko od mego domu  J e s l i n i e , dlaczego? Hieznam do state czcaie angie l 3 k i e go Brak mi potrzebnyoli fundu3zow Jeatem odtracony jako obcokrajowiec Brak zapotrzebowania na mdj zawod | Inne powody Ktore? H e Pan(i) czasu potrzebowal(a) na znalezienie pierwszego zatrudnienia w Kanadzie? _ ¥ j-aki sposob j e Pan (-i ) znalaz 1'(a)? Za czyim posrodnietwem Urz§du Pracy Ur ze du "limi gr aoy j ne go Ogloszen Przyjaciol  -102aOaka prace wykonuje Pan(i) obaonio? ¥yszczcgolh 60 c i r. nim dokucza naj-— ; wie,oeji , vi/ykonyv7al(a) Pan(i) t a prace, kiedykolvdek przedten? Tsk Q Hie Q  *'""*  "  '—~ * Jak obecne zatrudnienie Pan&(i) bylo tfyszczegoln pod j akim v/zgle,den l u b i s z cenione i sz"howane_ \i kraju? obecne z a t r u d n i e n i e s ^ ^ ^ ^ Y/ysoko './zgl^dnie v/jasoko P , „ Z Z m r I ITIT Z* _ Sredhio  ,.  ,, , ,  Z^1,.r_.7.r_....  ,  n  ^ v s  0  Bardzo nisko Kto Panu(i) u d z i e i i l i n f o r n a c j i i db- Jak odnlosly sie wladze erdgracyjne radzal v; pierwszych dniach w Kanadzie ? do Pana(i)? Urzad Snigracyjny Bardzo przychylnie G z y t e l n i a publiczna Dostatsozni© przychylnie Urzad Opieki Spolecznej H i e 0 0 nieprzychylnie Policja Zdecydov/anie nieprzychylnie Rodaoy I n n i ludzie albo urzedy Co Pan(i) sadzi 0 Kanadyjozykach,sat Hikt,nie wiedzialem gdzie i do Bardzo przychylni Dostatecznie przychylni kogo sie zwrocic Hieco nieprzychylni Zdecydov/anie nieprzychylni Wilu Kanadyj skich domach P a n ( i ) prze. byv/al(a)/od czasu przybycia tutaj/? V Aadnyn 1 -m 5 6-10 vif vrieoej n i z 10 Czuje sie Pen(i) u nich'dobrze? Tak • Hie • f  Odv/iedza Pan(i) nowoprzybylyoh rodakcv/ regularnie? Talc • Hie f ~ l Odwiedza Pan(i) starych enigrantow /rodakow/? Tak Q Hie j ~ | Czuje sie. Pan(i) dobrze v/sr6d nich? Tak • Hie • Do j a k i c h organizacji albo zwiazk6w Pan(i) nalezy v Kanadzie?  Czy Kanada bardzo sie r o z n i od t e j j a - Porovmujac Kanady z kraj an zaznaczny lcaPan(i) sobie j a wyobrazal(a)? Talc • Hie Q Kraj Kanada i/olnosoi osobistych Vygod zyciowyoh V porovmaniu z Icrajeia rodzinnyn czy Kanada* Ubezpieczeh spolecznych Roznic Iclasov/ych vvyprzedza go stanov/czo vjypr-zedze, go pod pexrayni v/zgledami Roznic rasov/ych i nacjoJest rnniejv/iecej taka sana jak kraj nalnych Pozcstaje Y/ t y l e pod pevmymi v/zglf da SzkolnictY/a mi ziycia kulturalnego Z y c i a towarzyskiego Pozostaje bardzo \? tyle v/rogie zmiany s y t u a c j i mi^dzynarodowej czy wrocil(a) by P a n l i ) do kraju? Tak O Hiewiem • Hie O Gdyby jalcis osrodek d l a nowych Kana- Czy byl(a) by Pan(i) goto7/(a) utrzydyjczykow z o s t a l zalozony w ktoryia mywao s t a l y kontakt z takim oerodkaon^ a6gl(a) by Pan(i) otrzymywac informac-tok aby vlasne doswiadczenia mogly bye je i porady w klopotach, czy korzyoddane na uzytek innych ktorzy zajrna. s t a l ( a ) by Pan(i) z jego uslug? iaiejsce Pcni(a)? Tak • l i e Q Tak U HieQ (  -105THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER, CANADA  Dear Sir, Dear Madam: Werking on a research on adjustment of Central European newcomers in Canada, I would a s s ^ p appreciate your kind cooperation. Please, complete the enclosed questionnaire and using the enclosed selfaddressed and stamped envelope return i t at ycur earliest convenience. I do not want you to sign the questionnaire as a l l your infermatien is strictly confidential* Yeurs, Va* zeny pane, vazena. panl: V. Hremadka, M.P.Sc.,B.SW Za ucelem vyzkumu procesu prizpusebeni se stredeevropskych pristehovalcu de kanadskehe zpusobu zivota, pr&sim Va's o laskave vyplneni prilozeneho dotaznfku, a • jeho vracenx pokud moznc obratem. Dotaznik nepodepisujte, a k jeh© edeslani peuzijte prilozene oznamkevane ebalky. Va§ich informaci nebude zneuzito, jezto budou slouziti vyhradne vedeck^m ucelum.  S uctou: Geehrter Herr, Geehrte Frau: V.Hromadka,M.P.Sc,B.S,W, Ich arbeite an einem Versuch der Einfugung von Zentral Europaischen Immigranten im Kanada und wlrde sehr dankbar sein fur Ihre freundliche Mitwirkung. Bitte, beantworten Sie die beigelegten Fragebogen und benutzen Sie, das eingeschlossene Kuvert samt Marke und schicken Sie es s» bald wie mSglich zuruck. Ich wunsche nicht das Sie auf diesen Fragebogen Ihre Unterschrift geben - denn alle Ihre Auskunfte werden sehr discret behandelt. Hochachtungsvoll: Kedves Uram, Kedves Asszonycm: V.Hromadka, M.P.Sc,B.S.W. Halas koszonettel vennem, ha kozremukode'sevel lehetove tenne tanulmanyomat, amelynek celja megallapitani, hogy milyen mertekben alkalmazkodnak kozep-europai bevandorlok a kanadai elethez. Kutatasom alapjan remenylem md'd lesz a mult tevedeseit kikuszobelni 4s felree'rteseit jovatenni clyan szolgalatok letesitesevel, amelyek ujjonnan bevandorolt honfitarsainknak segitsegere lehetnek. E celb6l nagyon kerem, hogy a melle'kelt kerdoivet kitolteni, es azt az ugyancsak mellekelt yalaszboritekben hozzam mielobb visszajuttatni sziveskedjek. A kerdoiv alairasatol kerem tartozkodjek, mert annak tartalma szigoruan bizalmas es az ird csak ilykepen vedheti meg a kozremukodok e'rdekeit. Segitseget nagyon keszonom. • Kivalo tisz telettel: Szanowny Panie, Szanowna Pani: V.Hromadka, .M.P-.Sc,B.S.W. W zwazku z badaniem precesu przystosc wywania sie imigrantyw z Centralnej Eurepy.d* zycia kanadyjskiego prcsze_ uprzejmie Pana (PaniaJ c laskawa wspblprace. • Prosze^ uprzejmie wypelnic zalaczony kwestionarjusz i wyslac go pcczta przy • Hajhllasejfeposobncsciw zalaczonej kopercie. Zalaczony kwestionarjusz jest poufny i nie musi bye podpisany. Z-powazaniem: V.Hromadka, M.P.Sc.B.S.W.  A P P E N D I X  "C"  -  IOU  -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Cartwright, Steven;  "Population -Canada's Problem", Contemporary A f f a i r s , pamphlets, No. 11, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 19U1.  MacLennan, Hugh;  Cross-Country, Toronto, 19h9, Report of Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations, Vol.1., Ottawa 191*0.  England, R.;  The Colonization o f Yfestern Canada; London, 1936.  Reynolds, Lloyd G. et a l  "The B r i t i s h Immigrant", Oxford University Press, Toronto, 1935.  J a s z i , Oscar;  " P o l i t i c a l Refugees"; The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and Social Science, May 1939.  Klein, Alan F.;  Society, Democracy - and the Group; Women's Fress; New lork; 1953.  Canada Year Book 1927, 1951, 1953  

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