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Meeting the needs of newcomers : a study of the feelings of Central European newcomers to Vancouver concerning… Hromadka, Vaclav 1954

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MEETING THE NEEDS OF NEWCOMERS A study of the feelings of Central European newcomers to Vancouver concerning their adjustment problems and resources. by VACLAV HROMADKA Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1954 The University of British Columbia ABSTRACT This study deals with problems of a group of Central European newcomers who have taken up residence in Vancouver* The study examines the existing facilities for aiding new-comers, and i t attempts to interpret their adequacy in the light of the emotional and physical needs of immigrants. The thesis begins with the background material con-cerning the European immigration to Canada with a special reference to immigrants from Central European countries. The next chapter reports on feelings of Central European newcomers concerning their adjustment problems, and i t is followed up by a study of a sample group in order to rein-force and supplement the previous findings. The reader will note that most of the needs of a Cen-tr a l European newcomer are common needs which affect him as much as they do any Canadian citizen. However, there are a number of complicating factors which make the situation of a newcomer more difficult. It has been found in this study that, rather than material help, a Central European newcomer needs a shortening of his cultural distance and help with his psycho-logical adjustment. The final chapter deals with meeting of the needs of newcomers in this community. There is seme evidence that an expansion of information and orientation services is needed. Also, i t became evident that a more individualized approach should be applied in order to help the newcomer in his-cul-tural transition. Finally, there is an outline of functions of a suggested "Centre for New Canadians". - i i i -ACKNOWLEDGMENT The study of culture adds va l i d i t y and depth to case work philosophy, helps to recognize the common humanity of a l l peoples, and increases sympathy and understanding between them. Keeping this i n mind, the writer decided to study cultural differences of a Central European immigrant and how they complicate his process of bec-oming a Canadian. It i s hard to be objective about one's own feelings and opinions, since he i s directly involved i n the problem. However, as a social worker, the writer believes that he i s able to watch his emotional involve-ment and stand back and lis t e n "with his third ear". The writer's indebtedness to the newcomers i n connection with this study i s very great and cannot be entirely acknowledged. However, he would like to express his sincere thanks to those who helped with translations, and to those who through their introductions enabled him to contact the newcomers. The writer would also l i k e to express his appreciat-ion to the Department of Citizenship and Immigration i n Ottawa for their grant which made i t possible to complete this research. The interest of the Department i n this study was most encouraging. To the professors of the U.B.C. School of Social Work, Dr. Leonard C. Marsh and Mr. William G. Dixon, who both gave generously of their already crowded time, the writer i s grateful for their careful criticism and encour-aging counsel. The writer would also li k e to thank Dr. W.G. Black, the Regional Liaison Officer of the Citizenship Branch, Vancouver, B.C. for his discriminating evaluation of the data obtained i n this study. - i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I Immigration - Canada's Problem of Today and Tomorrow Arguments for larger population. Territorial expansion and immigration policy. Post-war trends - encouragement of immigration. Growth of Canada and British Columbia due to immigr-ation. Can preference to immigrants of certain race or nationality be j u s t i f i e d ? Is Central European immigrant s t i l l "less desirable"? Purpose and method of the study. 1 Chapter II The Central European Immigrant and his New Home P o l i t i c a l and cultural background. Displaced persons and p o l i t i c a l refugees. Newcomers' f i r s t impressions of Canada concerning: housing and family; health and welfare; educational and vocational training; employment; recreation and social l i f e ; community and citizenship. Immediate needs and long term problems concerning: housing and family; health and welfare; educational and vocational training; employment; recreation and social l i f e ; community and citizenship 19 Chapter I I I Becoming a Canadian A study of adjustment problems of a sample group (back-ground; arrival and making a new home; making a l i v i n g ; making new friends; help received and required; overall adjustment). Psycho-logical processes - a complicating factor i n adjustment period. Cultural transition i n view of attitudes towards newcomers 38 Chapter IV Immigrant vs. Community Area where help i s required. Evaluation of existing f a c i l i t i e s i n this community: Immigration Branch and National Employment Office; Citizenship Branch; Welfare agencies; Voluntary organizations. The social worker's role. Does casework require specialization i n working with immigrants? Outline of a new project. 67 Appendices: A Tables and charts related to growth of Canada and British Columbia due to immigration. B Questionnaires and a letter of introduction used in the study of a sample group. C Bibliography. - i i -LIST OF TABLES AND CHARTS  IN APPENDIX "A" Tables Page Table I Immigration to Canada from 1910 to 1953 89 Table I I Average Immigration to Canada and B.C. the f i s c a l years 1910-19U9 90 Table I I I Percentage of Immigrants to the Total Population of Canada 1926-19U9 91 Table 17 Percentage of Immigrants to the Tot a l Population of B r i t i s h Columbia 1926-19U9 92 Table 7 Presumed Permanent Movement of Population between Canada and the United States: Years Ended June 30, 1939-1*8 93 Charts F i g . 1 Immigrant A r r i v a l s f o r f i s c a l years 1910-50 9k F i g . 2 Average Immigration to Canada and B.C. f o r the f i s c a l years 1910-lt9 95 F i g . 3 Percentage of Immigrants to t o t a l Population of Canada and B.C. 1926-19U9 96 F i g . k Movement of Population between Canada and the United States - F i s c a l years 1939-lt9 97 LIST OF TABLES IN TEXT Table 71 M a r i t a l Status and Age Group 39 Table 711 Educational Background ' I4.0 Table T i l l 7ocational Background Ijl Table 7111a Composition of Professional Group kZ Table IX Residence It3 Table X Last Residence P r i o r to Immigration k3 Table XI Ways of Coming to Canada lj.lt Table XII Present Accommodation of Immigrants k$ Table XIII Time needed f o r l o c a t i n g the f i r s t job lt° Table XI7 Assistance received i n l o c a t i n g the f i r s t job U6 Table X7 7ocational Placements of Immigrants It7 Table X7I Present Job of Immigrants i n Terms of Prestige k9 Table X7II Newcomers1 Experience with Canadian Immigration O f f i c e s . 5 0 Table X7III Newcomers' Experience with Canadians 5 0 Table XIX Newcomers? Asso c i a t i o n with Canadians 5 1 Table XX Previous Knowledge of Engli s h Language 5 2 Table XXI Present Knowledge of Engli s h Language 5 2 Table XXII Use of English Classes by Newcomers 53 Table XXIII Orientation on Canadian Way of L i v i n g 51t Table XXI7 Comparing Canada with Home Country of Immigrant 56 Table XX7 Ove r a l l Adjustment 57 - iv -MEETING THE NEEDS OF NEWCOMERS "Only understanding for our neighbours, justice in our dealings and willingness to help our fellow men can give human society permanence and assure security for the individual. Neither intelligence nor inventions nor institutions can serve as substitutes for these most vital parts of education". (1) Albert Einstein (1) Albert Einstein: "Out of My Later Years" ; New York; Philosophical Library; 1950; p. 2$k. CHAPTER I IMMIGRATION - CANADA'S PROBLEM OF TODAY AND TOMORROW Canada is geographically a very large country. Including the northern archipelago her total area is larger than that of a l l Europe. How-ever, the population ratio for Canada of 1.0 per square kilometre compares with 82.81 per km for Europe. Contemplating this wide differentiation i t would seem only fair that the heavily populated areas of Europe should be re-lieved and that their surplus peoples should find new homes in the sparsely settled regions of Canada. However, not area alone governs settlement. Soil and climate are also factors of a great importance. There are only about 500,000 square miles of fertile land in the whole territory, and although there are large areas of Canada which produce great wealth in minerals, timber or fur, they do not support large settlement because of unpleasant climate.' Roughly speaking, most Canadians live on a strip of land not more than 200 miles wide along the international boundary line. Nevertheless the population of Canada is relatively small and there are many more people needed in order to develop her resources and in-dustries. Many problems that are peculiarly Canadian find their roots in this contrast between the size of the country and the size of its population. From the economic point of view a larger Canadian population would offset the heavy overhead costs that characterize the Canadian economy and i t would provide a cushion of domestic purchasing power to lessen Canada's economic dependence upon the vagaries of staple export markets"^. Also many social and cultural problems are inevitably raised 1) Cartwrigiat, Steven; "Population - Canada's Problem", Contemporary Affairs, pamphlets, No. 11,. The Ryerson Press, Toronto, I9I4I. - 2 -by the sparse settlement. There are fewer s o c i a l contacts i n Canada, and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and organizations are more d i f f i c u l t to maintain. For the same reason, f o r example, the schools vary from province to province and even from town to town. A sparse population and large distances d i l u t e also the forces of cohesion and u n i t y and encourage sectionalism. The immigrants then tend to be for c e d back upon the s o c i a l bonds and customs brought from t h e i r countries of o r i g i n rather than to be absorbed into t h e i r new environment. The Canadian's sense of h i s European past i s unique i n North America."^ While i n the United States the emphasis seems to be on being "an American",in Canada the ethnic o r i g i n remains more preserved. I t i s f a i r to say that the cause of t h i s f a c t can be p a r t l y found i n the disproportion of the area and the s i z e of Canadian population. Also railways and other means of communication s u f f e r , on the one hand from the heavy overhead incurred by l i n k i n g scattered areas of popul-a t i o n and, on the other from d i s p a r a t e l y few customers f o r t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . A l l these arguments speak i n favour of a l a r g e r Canadian population from the i n t e r n a l point of view. However, there are also important i n t e r n a t i o n a l considerations. A l a r g e r population means a better prepareness against enemies' attacks. Also, there have been continuous demands that the doors should be opened to the oppressed and landless of a l l nations. By provid-in g the chance f o r immigration, Canada i s also f u l f i l l i n g some of i t s i n t e r -n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and i s ac t i n g i n the i n t e r e s t of world peace. 2) Fre-War Immigration P o l i c y The e a r l y phase of the t e r r i t o r i a l expansion of Canada was T) MacLennan, Hugh; Cross-Country, Toronto, 19U9, Ch.III, p.A4J4. 2) World War I - 3 -completed in 1871. The four original provinces could not be expected to provide sufficient settlers for the lands -which vigorous Canadian statesmanship had saved from absorption by the United States. Yet fehese lands could not be held permanently unless Canada could demonstrate both an ability' to colonize them and an intention of doing so. The expansionist policy would, therefore, have been senseless unless there had been an expectation that immigrants could be attracted from the British Isles and from Continental Europe. Territory without population was of l i t t l e value. Prosperity depended on settlement of the new lands which were to provide a market for the industries of the older provinces. The immediate outlook was discouraging. From 1861 to 1871 there had been a net emigration from Canada of over 250,000 "which meant that about one third of the natural increase for that period had been lost'!"'1 The next quarter of a century may, without much exaggeration, be said to have been devoted to patient prepar-ation for a flow of immigration which would bring prosperity to Canada. Canad-2) ian immigration policy became aggressive from I896 onwards. Land grants to railways were superseded by a homestead policy. Homestead regulations were simplified. An immigration service was organized. Propaganda to secure settlers was instituted in Europe and the United States. Then came the Immigration Act of 1910 which set the policy and defined inadmissibles, admissibles, and regulated transportation companies inso-far, as they were affected by immigration. It set up Boards' of Enquiry at ports of entry to determine who should be allowed to enter and who turned back, and the deporation regulations were tightened up. 1) Report of Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations, Vol.1, p. 28; Ottawa, 191*0. 2) England, R.: The Colonization of Western Canada; London, 1936. - h-I There was, of course, l i t t l e immigration during World War I, though a peak of almost half a million (Table I, Fig.l) had been reached just the year before, i n 1913. This figure was almost six per cent of the 1911 population. At war's end i n 1919, i n order to protect the Canadian labour, ski l l e d and unskilled workers were not allowed to enter as immigrants. In 1921 each immigrant was required to have a minimum of $2$0 i n his possession except those going to assured farm work or domestic service. As economic conditions improved, more immigrants were desired and the Empire Settlement Agreement of the B r i t i s h Government i n 1922 was a part i a l answer. Adult fares were lowered and children were allowed to travel free. In 1927 a special agreement was made to get immigrants for New Brunswick, whereby they were assisted by the British and Canadian Governments as well as the New Brunswick provincial government. In 1928 the ocean voyage for immigrants was reduced from U.8.15.0 to L10. 0. 0, with land settlers s t i l l paying only L2. 0. 0. Children under 19 were s t i l l travelling free. In 1929, after the "crash", immigrant labour entering under contract was prohibited except for farmers, farm labourers and household workers. Then in August 1930 immigration from continental Europe was entirely suspended with two exceptions: 1) practical farmers with sufficient capital to establish and maintain themselves immediately; and 2) the wives and children (under eighteen) of family heads already established i n Canada. Solicitation was stopped i n Britain and the United States, and a l l farmers with capital had to have enough money to keep themselves u n t i l they were able to work. In 1931 immigration was further restricted to the following: 1) B r i t i s h subjects with enough money to last t i l l employment was found. - 5 -2) Americans with enough money to last t i l l employment was found. 3) The wife and unmarried children under 16 of any person legally admitted to Canada, resident there and able to support them. h) Farmers with sufficient capital to establish themselves. These severe limitations lasted through the "Hungry Thirties", but since 19U7 the situation has eased. Post-War Trends Since the end of Yforld War II Canada has again taken the initiative in seeking immigrants. In 19h7 there were two main plans of immigrat-ion: the Close Relatives Plan and the Group Movement Plan. According to the Close Relatives Plan, any Canadian citizen or resident could bring in any of the following: husband or wife; father or mother; son, daughter, brother or sister, together with husband or wife and unmarried children, i f any; orphan, nephew or niece under 21 years of age. In addition to the above relatives, he could bring in: agriculturists intending to farm; miners and woodworkers pro-ceeding to assured employment in such industries; fiance or fiancee. The Close Relatives Plan is useful for both Displaced Persons and others. The Group Movement Plan is for the former. Six teams, four in Germany and two in Austria, with headquarters at Karlsruhe, went to D.P. camps selecting people with skills capable of meeting the manpower needs of Canada. During 1950-51 several important steps were taken, both legis-lative and administrative, to stimulate the flow of European immigration. An Order-in-Council of June 2 , 1950 revoked the one of June 2, 191&.1** The new T) P.C. 2856 of June 9 , 1950; P.C. 27U3 of June 2 , 19U9. - 6 -measure widened the scope of the countries from which immigrants could be drawn. In addition to certain British subjects, citizens of France, citizens of the United States, and non-immigrants who had served in the Canadian Armed Forces and who had been previously excluded could now be admitted to the country. In addition, other peoples were considered admissible i f they could satisfy the Minister in regard to their social, educational, industrial, labour or other conditions or requirements of Canada. An Order-in-Council of September lit, 1950 revoked the one of March 28, 1950, prohibiting the entry of enemy aliens 1^ Under the new Order, Germans were placed on the same basis as other Europeans. This widening of regulations did not prove sufficient in i t -self to increase the flow of immigration. Several obstacles remained to be overcome, the more important being the shortage and high cost of ocean transport-ation, restrictions on the export of capital, and the devaluation of foreign currencies. Measures were taken by the adoption of the Air Transportation Scheme, and the Assisted Passage Loan Scheme to help overcome the transportation pro-blems. In addition to these measures, the Department of Citizenship and Immigrat-ion made a determined effort to have more shipping made available, increased the s ize of its overseas staff, added to its overseas offices, and made a large supply of information material available to prospective immigrants. The success of these efforts to stimulate immigration is evidenced by the number of 211,220 immigrants admitted during 1952. A decline of 31 per cent for the following year was mostly due to the discontinuation of the activities of the International Refugee Organization shortly before the commencement of the fiscal year, and to the planned curtailment of the movement T) P.C. U36h of September lit, 1950; P.C. 1606 of March 28, 1950. - 7 -of unsponsored immigrant workers during the winter months. 1 As conditions in Canada indicated that there would be a lessened demand for immigrant workers, certain labour was not processes for movement to Canada unless i t could arrive in this country before the end of October. let, the ]Mk,692 total was the sec-ond largest recorded during the past 23 years. It is obvious that the present policy of the Federal Govern-ment is to foster the growth of the population of Canada by the encouragement of immigration and, by necessary legislation and vigorous administration, to ensure the careful selection and permanent settlement of such numbers of immig-1) rants as can be absorbed advantageously in the national economy. However, "absorptive capacity", as defined, must obviously somewhat vary from year to year in response to economic conditions. Growth of Canada and British Columbia due to Immigration The pattern of immigration to British Columbia follows a ratio similar to the one of a l l Canada with the exception that, the percentage of immigrants coming to British Columbia as compared with total Canadian immigrat-ion reached a maximum during the years following World War I (TableIi). From 1919 to 1929, 28 per cent of a l l immigrants entering Canada came to British Columbia. The trend of immigration to Canada and British Columbia during the period 1910 to 19U8 indicates that the average immigration to British Columbia during the years 1910 to 1918 and 19U6 to 19U8 exceeds the average immigration to Canada during 1939 to 19k5 (Fig. 2). There were approximately 16 immigrants per 1000 residents in Canada during the immediate pre-depression era. In 1936, during the depression, the immigration rate decreased to approximately one l l See statement by Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King in Canada House of Commons Debates, May 1, 19ii7, pp. 2673-75. - 8 -immigrant per 1 0 0 0 population in a l l Canada. Over the entire period 1 9 2 6 to 19h9 there were only two years, 1 9 2 7 and 1 9 3 0 , when there were more immigrants per 1 0 0 0 population in a l l Canada than immigrants per 1 0 0 0 population in British Columbia. Thus i t appears that since 1 9 2 5 British Columbia has been getting more than its proportionate share of immigrants (TablesIIIand !y,Fig. 3). It has been shown that since 1 9 1 0 there had been wide variations in Canada's immigration. Many factors have contributed to the ebb and flow since its heyday in 1 9 1 2 - 1 3 when the arrivals of one year totalled 382,81jl, of which almost 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 were British, 9 2 , 0 0 0 were United States citizens, and the remaining 1 3 0 , 0 0 0 came from a l l other parts of the world. At the other end of the scale is the record of 19U2-U3 when immigration f e l l to the lowest point since Confederation. In order to obtain a true picture of the growth of Canadian population from immigration, the emigration from Canada also has to be considered. Although Canada has received millions of immigrants at the same time there has been a continuous movement of people from this country to the United States. A large proportion of them were young people, born in Canada and others who had benefited by education or training received in this country. There appears to be a reciprocal movement of population between Canada and the United States (Table 'V). The net loss to Canada as a result of this movement has quadrupled in a period of ten years (1939-U8). At the rate at which people emigrated to Canada during the post-war (second) period, this loss of Canadians is quite a threat to the success of the Canadian immigration policy. For example, in the fiscal year 19h2-U3 total immigration was 7 , W + 5 , but the number of Canadians who migrated to the United - 9 -States was lk,5hl. During the following decade the migration from Canada to the U. S. has shown a rapidly increasing tendency. For 1952' the figures obtained from the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the U.S. Department of Justice reveal a total of 37,709. It is obvious that a successful immigration' policy alone would not be of much value to Canada unless she is able to keep the newcomers and help them to "put down their roots". To a European the United States has always been the country "of plenty and opportunity for everybody", and when he experiences a feeling of not being desirable here, sooner or later he will start looking for "his chance" on the other side of the border. Immigrants have to feel accepted and understood as to both their material and emotional needs. This can only be achieved by a wisely planned integration programme directed to both the newcomers and the native Canadians. European Immigrants - More and Less Desirable A certain proportion of immigrants f a i l in their adjustment to the new l i f e in the new country. Some of these "more serious failures" have been detected and deported, but many others remain maladjusted and unhappy and quite often they become a permanent burden on the community. It is reasonable to ask what is behind these failures. Is i t that some races or nationalities have more capacity for adjustment than the others, or is i t rather social status, educat-ional and vocational background, opportunity and uprooting experience which have to be considered? Is i t the immigrant himself or is i t the attitude of the native population toward him? Many claims and counter-claims have been made about this subject, which need not be discussed here. In certain respects a l l human beings are more alike than they - 10 -are different. Some of the similarities in early childhood experiences, which prevail in every cultural group, transcend the more spectacular cultural diff-erences between groups. This does not mean there are no differences between groups of people. However, most of these differences are not inherited physically, but are of social or cultural origin. It means that they are due to the content of what the child is taught — the customs and traditions of his family and his group — and here again, what the mother teaches depends on how ignorant or well-informed, how skilful and well-adjusted she is. Every child has to make an adjustment between his own impulses and wishes and the demands of his parent; so, too, every adult has to make an adjustment between his individual wishes and the demands of his culture. In social work, the task of a case worker1 is to help the client make his adjustment to his social situation according to his capacity. That the cultural background is a part of this reality of social l i f e is no new idea to him. Therefore, in social work we do not speak of certain races as being more or less adjustable but we acknowledge the cultural background of individuals as a "slowing down" or "speeding up" component in any adjustment situation. Thus we caisnnot reject certain races or nationalities and prefer others. However, i t has to be acknowledged that the general public and even some official representatives often use concepts of race rather loosely. This can be illustrated by the following passage expressing Canadian opinion on the choice of immigrants in the 'twenties': "When any considerable immigration into a democratic country occurs, the racial and linguistic composition of that immigration becomes of paramount importance. Canadians generally prefer that settlers should be of a readily assimilable type, already identified by race or language with one or other of the two great races now inhabiting this country and thus prepared for the assumption of the duties of democratic Canadian citizenship. Since the French are - 1 1 -not to any great extent an immigrating people, this means in practice that the great bulk of the preferred settlers are those who speak the English language — those coming from the United Kingdom or the United States. Next i n the order of readiness of assimilation are the Scandinavians and the Dutch, who readily learn English, and are acquainted with the working of free democratic institutions. Settlers from Southern and Eastern Europe, however,desirable from the purely economic point of view, are less readily assimilated, and the Canadianizing of the people from these regions who came to Canada i n the f i r s t fourteen years of this century i s a problem both i n the agricultural provinces and i n the cit i e s of the East".l) Although the present policy of the Federal Government takes account of the differences of the historical and cultural background of the immigrant, of his attachment to the traditions and customs of his ancestors, and gives him time to go without pressure through a natural process of integr-ation, the attitude of the general public towards Central European newcomers s t i l l bears deep marks of the old policy. Any immigration policy based on principles that some nations or races are less desirable as immigrants than others must inevitably influence public opinion and the attitudes of peoples of that particular country towards newcomers. In social work i t i s recognized that anxiety develops various types of defence-mechanisms. A feeling of rejection, experienced by an immigrant, may therefore develop defences which w i l l slow down his process of integration con-siderably. Therefore, i t i s necessary to see the problem of immigration not i n selecting the "adjustable stock" but i n duality of the job — helping with d i f f i c u l t i e s of immigrants on one hand, and working with attitudes of Canadians on the other. IT Canada Year Book, 1 9 2 7 j p.1 9 1 (It i s necessary to keep i n mind that Central European immigrants are included i n the Eastern European group) - 12 -Before dealing with problems of Central European newcomers of present time, i t seems reasonable to compare roughly the experiences in adjusting t o the Canadian way of living as they may be between the "most desir-able" and the "undesirable". It is true that the British immigrant enters Canada with certain advantages; he speaks the English language, he is a British subject and is usually welcomed as a neighbour. However, is i t hot also true that he often feels himself a stranger in Canada? As described by L. G. Reynolds'^, he is definitely not a Canadian in outward appearance, habits, and attitudes and en-counters most of the problems of any other European immigrant. He speaks English, but his English language is not the one which is spoken in Canada, and sometimes i t makes him feel as uneasy as a Central European immigrant with his foreign accent. Immigrants from rural Scotland or Yfeles, and districts of England which have a distinctive dialect, find i t particularly difficult to abandon their former habits of speech and to adopt Canadian terminology. It is true that the British immigrant is moving from one country of the Empire to another, but the culture of Canada in reality differs widely from that of Britain and the British immigrant feels that he has come to a strange country. He is homesick and experiences the difficulties of establishing a home and entering into Canadian social l i f e and is probably more i l l at ease than most Canadians suspect. It appears that in many instances the difficulties which a British newcomer experiences in his adjustment to Canada are similar to those of 1) Reynolds, Lloyd G. et al, "The British Immigrant", Oxford University Press, Toronto, 1935; (source used as a basis for comparison) - 13 -i a Central European immigrant, and he feels sometimes not less foreign in Canada than his fellow immigrant from Central Europe. Their difference in adjustment does not l i e so much in frequency of new experiences as in the degree of these. Therefore a capacity to adjust should be the criterion. This capacity is in-fluenced by two main factors: fi r s t , the social background and attitudes of an immigrant, and second, society's attitude toward him. The statistics from 1921 reveal that the concentration of Central European immigrants is found in rural areas, while the British immigrants are found established in cities. These statistics also reveal a slightly higher percentage of illiterates among rural foreign born population in comparison with British and Canadians; as to the urban population, the difference is really great. It indicates that the educational background of immigrants coming from Britain was much wider than of those from Central Europe. However, i t should not be forgotten that from Central Europe the "admissibles" were farm labourers and domestics, while the British immigrant of any educational or vocational back-ground wasvelcomed. Moreover, British clerks, businessmen and members of profess-ions sometimes received a preference over the natives for some positions in Canada. On the whole, Central Europeans put a great value on education, and the Universities of Vienna and Prague, schools with an old tradition, have produced some of the best physicians, psychologists, philosophers and musicians in the world. Nevertheless, the Central European immigrants of the past were people of very l i t t l e education. Central Europe is a vast and highly divided community where within any one nation one will find peasant cultures, only slight-ly changed from what they have always been, side by side with the highest degree / - l i t -of industrialization, The Central European farmer and peasant has a strong sentimental attachment to his land and he would never leave i t . Those who came to the Canadian shores i n the past were landless peasants who were victims of exploitation by big landowners. They were a group of agricultural proletariat to whom emigration was the only possible course. Much has also been said about "tendencies" of Central European immigrants to settle i n blocks or colonies. There i s no doubt that segregation i s , i f i t occurs, a retarding factor i n the process of integration. However, i s i t reasonable to talk about "tendencies" without looking at the factual circumstances? The immigrant's residential choice i s frequently related to the manner of his migration. If he i s induced to come to the new land by friends or relatives already resident there, he w i l l tend naturally to settle near them. If he comes under a scheme of assisted immigration, he w i l l probably have his destination selected for him by the sponsors of the scheme. If the immigrant has no friends i n the new land, no assurance of employment, does not speak the language, i s of a low social status and educational background and i s overwhelmed by hostile attitudes of the new environment, he w i l l naturally tend to go to those communities i n which previous immigrants from his homeland are already located. I t i s true that this was a tendency of Central European immigrants of the past. But i t i s not correct to talk about their "cultural tendencies" since this was an inevitable component of survival. Moreover, i t should be borne i n mind that rural segregation which led to the formation of the numerous block settlements was not entirely of the immigrant's making but to a large degree i t was the result of Canadian early immigration policy. It seems that their former social status and their educat-ional background were the factors that labelled Central European immigrants as - 1 5 -"undesirable". It is reasonable to ask how far this social background differs from the one of the post-war"""^  newcomers. Purpose and Method of the Study The average Canadian may be familiar with the peasant immigrant of the past but not with the Central European newcomer with an international reputation as a scholar, scientist, writer or artist; or the immigrant experienc-ed in business and industry. He is also not likely to be familiar with the immigrant arriving penniless and in a state of high nervous tension, bearing the scars of persecution and of concentration camp brutality. Due to his higher education and social status, and wider scale of experiences, the emotional l i f e of the present immigrant is much fuller and his mind is broader in comparison with the immigrant of the old days. His con-fusion about differences in ideas, ideals, standards, methods and sets of values affects his adjustment considerably. It is the purpose of this study to bring up the problems of Central European immigrants in their cultural transition, and to examine whether the tangible part of the process is in balance with the intangible one. Another aim of this study is to examine what resources are available or needed in this community that could offer concrete help to immigrants in meeting their needs. Since a social worker is equipped for helping with problems of adjustment, there is another purpose of this study, and that is to find out to what extent his services are made available to immigrants and how much they are needed. T) World War. II"' • ~- • - 1 6 -The study is limited to the area of Greater Vancouver and immigrants studied consist of those Austrians, Czechoslovaks, Hungarians and Poles, who have lived in Canada not longer than four years. Despite four different ethnic origins, these people have much in common because of similari-ties in political and socio-economic development and happenings in their countries. Throughout the study, the following criteria of this process are kept in mind: housing and family health and welfare educational and vocational training employment recreation and social l i f e community and citizenship. Although i t would seem that these criteria are suitable for measurement of the practical part of adjustment only, the reader will notice that the material com-piled under each heading brings up a large number of feelings and attitudes which are quite typical of a post-war immigrant. As adjustment to a new culture is such a complex process, this study uses several different methods which reinforce each other. Life histories. These were considered as undesirable, as the recent Central European newcomers who are mostly of the refugee group, seem reluctant to divulge information concerning their pasts. They are afraid that the information might come to the attention of the Russians and bring hardships on relatives in their country of origin. The Interview. Throughout this study two kinds of interviews were used. With government officials and representatives of different agencies and organiz-1) This study; Chapter II; p. - 17 -ations, the direct interview was used. The writer asked direct questions and was given direct answers. There were hZ such interviews. When contacting immigrants, however, a relatively indirect type of interview was used, where the topics of discussion were left up to the newcomer. These interviews took place in the homes of the newcomers, at different meetings, in restaurants, stores and other public places. Each of these interviews was an informal one and the newcomer did not know of its purpose. No notes were taken but in order to minimize errors due to the faulty memory of the writer, f u l l notes were written soon after the interview. By belonging to one of their groups and being able to speak some of their languages, this writer established and maintained rapport in each interview. Sixty people were interviewed, 1$ of each national group. They included men, women and children of different ages, education and vocation. Field Observation. Field observations used in this study were, for the most part, of the "participant observer" type. The writer attended several regular meetings for newcomers at the Y.W.C.A., Y.M.C.A., meetings of the Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on Citizenship, the Canadian Folk•Society, rehearsals of the International Choir, parties at International House, and several meetings and dances of the ethnic groups. He took part in a l l activities and talked with the various members of particular groups during the course of the evening. On several occasions the purpose of the writer's visit was known. There was a total of 20 visits. The Questionnaire. The questionnaire was used in this study in order to supplement material obtained through interviews and field observations. The - 18 -questions covered the problems which the newcomers had mentioned most frequent-ly during interviews and which, through field observations, seemed important to the adjustment of the newcomers to l i f e in Canada. Since a demand for more in-formation to newcomers was steadily voiced during the course of interviews, another feature of this questionnaire was to get the opinion of immigrants as to whether they would be in favour of establishing an "Information Centre for New Canadians", and i f they would co-operate with such a Centre. The questionnaire, translated into their native tongue, was introduced to a group of two hundred and forty newcomers, 60 of each national group. It was planned that the sample be as representative as possible and com-pounded of the same elements as are present in the whole "universe" of Greater Vancouver.1^ 1) Universe means the total area or group from which the sample is to be selected. In this study, i t is understood to be a group of Central Europ-ean immigrants residing in Greater Vancouver and having lived in Canada not longer than four years. As there are no official records available, this universe is hypothetical and is based on information obtained from the Department of Citizenship and Immigration, the National Employment Service and ethnic groups. CHAPTER II THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN IMMIGRANT (AND, HIS,; NEW HOME "Central Europe" means the Middle Danube plain, bounded by the Alps, the Carpathians and the Serb mountains, and consfeting of Austria, Czecho-slovakia, Hungary and Poland. Except for a part of Austria, Central Europe is today political-ly and economically behind the "Iron Curtain" and i t belongs therefore to the so-called Eastern Bloc. Culturally, however, Central Europe has always been a part of the west. It was once included within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and shared in the common culture whose centre was Vienna. The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy with its central system of government and common administration and schools was the political, economic and cultural backbone of a l l Central European republics which were proclaimed in 1918. Twenty years of a prosperous l i f e of these demo-cracies was followed by Hitler's occupation and after World War II the Russians took over. Inevitably, these happenings have to be considered when speaking of immigrants from Central Europe. According to evidence obtained from the Annual Report of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration, the post-war Central European new-comers contrast sharply with earlier immigrants. In the days of mass immigration, the unattached male of the unskilled labourer, peasant or servant class was typical. Recent immigrants show a more even distribution of the sexes. There is a larger proportion of persons over U5 years of age; a larger proportion of married persons and hence of family groups; there is a large proportion of prof-essional and business people, white collar and skilled workers, and of persons with no occupation. This group with no occupation comprises housewives, children and old people who are retired. Most of the adults had more than eight years of - 20 -school education and nearly half of them had attended college or a professional school. They were primarily a city group with a cosmopolitan outlook. A con-siderable number of them had travelled widely and knew languages other than their own. They are essentially a group of people who normally would not have emigrated but who left their homelands because of actual or anticipated persecut-ion. They are mostly political refugees. Some people call them D.P.»s without much knowing what this term implies. In many cases, to these people i t is,a substitute for "undesirable". The history of Canadian immigration shows plenty of examples of immigrants wearing this label. Some of the colonial immigrants were political refugees in the cause of religion; post-revolutionary immigrants, exiles in the cause of polit-ical conservatism; nineteenth-century immigrants, exiles in the cause of politic-al liberalism and racial intransigence. The stormy twentieth century, however, has produced refugees "en masse". They are exiles on the basis of political reaction, political radicalism, religion, nationality and race. The terms "political refugees" and "displaced persons" are not always properly used and may cause misunderstanding. It could be said that while nearly a l l political refugees of the Central European group are displaced persons, a displaced person is not necessarily a political refugee. The criter-ion is the one of activity or passivity in political happenings. A good number of Central European immigrants of the refugee group cannot be called "political refugees" in a strict sense, yet they are displaced persons, as they were ex-pelled, "in absentia", from their countries by the present Communist rulers. They are often only passive victims of the huge historical processes, like suff-erers from a flood or an earthquake which annihilated their means of existence. - 21 -Even the greatest section of the remnants of the defeated armies cannot properly be called p o l i t i c a l refugees, as i n most cases they were enrolled by the military commands without inquiry about their p o l i t i c a l principles. Aside from this . group, there i s a comparatively small one which could be called " p o l i t i c a l re-fugees" i n a s t r i c t sense, that i s that part of the uprooted masses which were conscious participants i n the c r i s i s , fighting for their own p o l i t i c a l principles. A good number of Czechoslovaks belong to this group. A further sub-division i n both groups just mentioned may be called "border refugees", i.e. people who, fleeing from the vindictive arms of the new government, have gone into contiguous countries whose governments were more or less friendly toward them. A great mass of such border refugees was created by the new frontiers, either as legal optants freely choosing between two p o l i t i c a l allegiances or because they were endangered in their lives by the new governments. This difference between active and passive p o l i t i c a l refugees i s not purely abstract distinction for methodological reasons. It i s something clearly f e l t by the respective categories themselves, and that i s why this writer i s bringing i t to the reader's attention. It i s reasonable to ask whether the l i f e and social function of the present-day p o l i t i c a l refugees compare with those of p o l i t i c a l emigrants of previous periods. Oscar Jaszi, i n his paper " P o l i t i c a l Refugees", says: "It cannot be doubted that the contribution of many exiles has been significant i n shaping the p o l i t i c a l and social thought of the world. It seems that some of the most important chapters i n p o l i t i c a l thought have been the work of persecuted men who transitorily or for a longer period were compelled to l i v e i n a foreign society. It i s enough to r e c a l l such names as Plato, Zeno, Dante, Marsiglio, Machiavelli, Calvin, Grotius, Spinoza, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire, Mazzini, Marx, Engels, Bakunin, Hugo and Kropotkin to show how much we are indebted to those men who worked under the hardship of their exiled l i f e . And there i s nothing strange in this phenomenon, because the c r i s i s - 22 -of their personal l i f e and the experiences i n new surroundings concentrated their attention upon essential things and made them more sensitive towards new solutions. It cannot be doubted that some men i n the new emigration w i l l some day be included i n this r o l l of honour because they have given a new approach to the problems of our time".l) Of course, these are exceptional cases performed by men of genius. The rank and f i l e presents quite a different situation. Former Europ-ean immigrants have been gladly received i n North America because they were considered promising participants i n the development of the national economy. The situation considerably changed. With some exception the new manual or professional worker i s often regarded as a dangerous competitor. Furthermore, the structure of our society has become far more r i g i d and the danger of p o l i t i c a l f r i c t i o n far more acute. Therefore, many of the present refugees face great uncertainty, continuous privation, and the danger of expulsion. Often they are even regarded as vagabonds, having not even papers of ide n t i f i c -ation. However, they are not criminals, nor are they the dregs of European society. They are, a large part of them, the men and women who f i r s t dared to oppose dictatorship and f l e d their homes rather than submit to i t . They are the men and women who found religious and p o l i t i c a l freedom more precious than security. They are those who have had the fortitude, the physical strength and the mental stamina to withstand the years of persecution to which they have been subjected. They represent, in more than one sense, the survival of the f i t t e s t . 1 ) Jaszi, Oscar: P o l i t i c a l Refugees; The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and Social Science, May 1939 j p. 8 3 . - 2 3 -They cannot go home because they have grounds to fear religious or political persecution; or to fear that i f they do return, they -will lose their liberties — perhaps their lives. In a very real sense, they gave up their right to a familiar homeland when they chose the hope of freedom. If they return today, even that home may be forfeit. There is another reason why they do not go back. That reason is psychological — no less compulsive than the fear of physical persecution. The villages and farmland which they left are the scenes where their families and friends were tortured and killed, some-times before their eyes. They cannot forget this and return to the terror and grief their old homes represent. The Newcomer Compares with his Homeland During his early days in Canada, a Central European immigrant may easily become confused and lose his self-confidence. His self-confidence was based for the most part on his good sense and rational judgment in daily affairs. But, in what is to him a totally different world, he can no longer trust his common sense, as the most ordinary objects seem to play tricks on him. Doors close when he wants to open them, and open when he wants to close them. Windows do not open inwards or outwards but upwards. Of the two taps which he finds in the bathroom, one opens to the right, the other to the left. Weights and measures mean l i t t l e to him. Temperatures are not expresses in Centigrade but in degrees Fahrenheit. He has to learn quite different numbers for the size of his shoes, shirts, gloves, hat, etc. Even the measurements of time and money vary somewhat. He must also learn to master a completely new form of conduct. A casual remark which he thinks amusing, can cause anger. His shyness can be taken for coldness, his friendly ouvertures for forwardness, his politeness for - 21* -oddity. He has to learn that whistling is not an expression of the strongest dislike, as i t is in his country, but one of approval. His f i r s t impressions about Canada play an important part in the later adjustment process of an immigrant. They are a combination of both his learning about Canada prior to his coming here, and his early experiences in this country. As his vision may be coloured by feelings of happiness or bitterness, these impressions are often far from reality. Nevertheless, they do give a "true" picture to him as long as he does not learn otherwise. The following is the picture of Canada as seen by the group of Central European immigrants interviewed by the writer during the course of this study. At this point i t seems necessary to mention once again that there were 60 people interviewed, 1$ of each national group, both men and women of different ages, education and vocation. It seems also reasonable to make i t clear that throughout the following paragraphs of this Chapter the writer is purely reporting on the findings of the interviews without making comments of his own. Housing and family Perhaps the fi r s t and most obvious difference evident to the newcomer is the scenery. The countryside in his home country is notable for having been largely formed and shaped by man: this type of countryside, as far as he is concerned, seems hardly to exist in Canada. Nature does not seem to have been conquered here. In spite of skyscrapers in some cities, in spite of gigantic dams, nature's role seems less confined. The elements go on the rampage more often, the newcomer claims, there are more catastrophes — fire, water, drought, etc. There are more natural forces over which man has no control. - 25 -According to a Central European immigrant, Canadian cities are large in terms of area but they are "small towns" in terms of population and social l i f e . The majority of urban population in Europe live in apartments while here, at least in the west, the majority live in family houses. Not only public buildings but also a l l apartment and family houses in Central European cities are built of bricks, stone and concrete and only poor people in the country have wooden houses. The Canadian home is equipped with modem house-hold appliancesand is mostly centrally heated, while in Central Europe a bath-tub is often considered a luxury, as i t is difficult to instal one in houses which may be decades or hundreds of years old. After World War II, the immigrant says, the housing situation became poor in Central Europe, as many houses were destroyed; in contrast to the Canadian situation, however, the tenants there are protected by the law, so that no one can be forced to vacate the premises; also rent is controlled by the law. In the opinion of those interviewed, the family unit is more stable in Central Europe than in Canada and family l i f e is valued more highly. The functions of individual members within a Central European family are clearly defined, and generally more rigid. Although the right of women to equal status with men is now recognized in Central Europe, the man is s t i l l the final authority in his family. The newcomer finds Canadian foods different from those in Central Europe. He finds them processed and packaged differently, and of a different quality. The grading system is also not known in Central Europe. Although each of the Central European nations has some typical meals, on the whole, they are a l l different from Canadian cooking. In comparison with Central Europe, - 2 6 -recipes are given in Canada in measurements (e.g., tablespoons) more often than by weight. The Central European woman claims that she was accustomed to deal with small shopkeepers with whom she was personally acquainted, and each of whom was selling only one sort of merchandise. In Canada she has to adjust herself to the impersonal relationships and the departmentalized character of the big store. An "instalment plan" and a "charge account" is something entirely new to her. To Central European immigrants there seems to be more uniformity of taste in Canada. It was stated that here everyone is well-dressed in the same manner, while in Central European countries people like showing their individual taste. An example was given that a Central European salesgirl would say: "Take this one, you will be the only one wearing i t " ; while in Canada she says: "Take that one, I have already sold forty of them this morning". Health and Welfare It was stated that in a l l Central European countries health and medical services are partly or fully socialized and nobody can get ruined financially i f he becomes i l l . It seems to a Central European newcomer that in Canada adequate medical treatment is the privilege of rich people. He is also astonished to find that in order to gain admission to a hospital, he must first make a deposit. On the other hand, the preventive work and rehabilitation programme in Canada was stated to be far ahead in comparison with Central Europ-ean countries. Most of those immigrants who were studied, showed no understand-ing of social work as i t is known here and claimed that in their home countries social work is confined to public relief and institutions, where the quality of - 27 -social service is s t i l l embryonic. In their countries, the concept of social casework and groupwork seems to be very different from that in Canada. Educational and Vocational Training The writer learned that a Central European immigrant finds in Canada more opportunity for education. A man is never too old in Canada to broaden his knowledge or to start training for another job, while in Central European countries this is a privilege of a certain age group only. The adult education, night and correspondence classes, as well as the informat-ion desk in Public Libraries seems to be something quite new to the majority of Central European immigrants. As to the quality of school studies, they find that schools in their countries are less utilitarian, less exclusively technical, but more designed to broaden the mind and to teach people to think for themselves. It was felt by some Polish and Hungarian immigrants that in their home countries the Catholic priests have an influence in matters of education; nearly a l l of those interviewed thought that their schools were influenced by the pernicious spirit of romantic nationalism. They a l l complained of commercialized radio programmes in Canada and found most of the Canadian newspapers to be of a low standard. They remarked that in their home countries both the press and the radio are directed much more towards educating the broad masses of the population. Employment The Central European craftsman seems to find work in Canada faster. Having been trained to do any sort of work which may arise within his trade, he thinks of his Canadian fellow worker that he knows only one section - 28 -of the trade. According to a Central European craftsman, solidity, permanence and finesse of workmanship, demanding a greater unit expenditure of working time, are more highly esteemed in Central Europe than in Canada. In this country, speed rather than craftsmanship appears to him to be the major aim. A general labourer from Central Europe claims to find i t much easier in Canada to transfer to a skilled trade which in his home country was impossible because of trade union apprenticeship regulations. The work i t -self was stated to be easier because of technical equipment, and he finds wages here much higher than in his home country. It appeared that a Central European intellectual worker has some feeling of separateness from and superiority to the manual worker and that in Canada he finds l i t t l e or no class distinction as he understands i t . To a Central European worker an employer-employee relation-ship seems to be more personal in Canada although he finds himself to be subject to being laid off more often here than in any country of Central Europe. He claims that vocational restlessness as i t is known in Canada is entirely new to him. According to Central European^tandards, he expects to stay in one job for the rest of his l i f e . By some immigrants this was explained in terms of their sentimental attitude toward their work, some made a comment that money means less to them than to Canadian workers. As to the unemployment insurance benefits, i t was felt by a l l those interviewed that there are much higher in Canada than in any of the Central European countries. Recreation and Social Life Although mostly of a muscular type, an average Central European seems to be less sportsminded than an average Canadian. Instead he - 2 9 -claims to be very fond of music and dancing. A large number of these studied immigrants spoke of t h e i r great appreciation of the f i n e a r t s , drama, b a l l e t , and opera, and a good number of them claimed to be a r t i s t s themselves. They stated, they were astonished to f i n d that while they can use the p u b l i c tennis courts or i c e r i n k s f o r nothing, they have to pay a very high p r i c e i n order to see a b a l l e t , concert, or opera. A l l those interviewed f i n d the regulation about "closed Sundays" very strange, since i n t h e i r home countries on that day "even the l i t t l e man can enjoy a l l kinds of entertainment", and at h a l f p r i c e . According to them, people i n Central European countries enjoy much more going out than entertaining each other i n t h e i r own homes. They a l l seemed to be astonished by the high rate of alcoholism i n Canada although many of them were used to taking a l c o h o l i c beverages with t h e i r d a i l y meals. Community and C i t i z e n s h i p Community work as i t i s understood i n Canada, seems to be rather new to the Central European immigrant. According to him, voluntary groups mean nothing more than opportunities f o r s o c i a l contact, and he does not seem to understand that they can be media by which things are accomplished which, i n h i s home country, are generally regarded as the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the state. He d i d not give any evidence that he would think of voluntary groups i n the community as a p o s s i b l e means of information and o r i e n t a t i o n f o r h i s use, and i t appeared that even i f introduced to them, he would l i k e l y question the v a l i d i t y of such information* He seems to be overwhelmed by the bureaucracy from h i s home country which involves obscure and complicated f o r m a l i t i e s and documentation. I t was learned that everything i n h i s home country i s c e n t r a l i z e d and, above a l l , the - 30 -local official dreads responsibility. It was stated that i t is a new experience for a Central European immigrant that in Canada the authority of the state is less obvious and groups of citizens assume more responsibility for local affairs. The concept of citizenship is another area which some of the studied immigrants found different. They seemed to confuse citizenship with patriotism. They found i t surprising that in Canada the military service is voluntary, since in their home countries i t is obligatory. For some i t was hard to understand that a good citizen may be one who has had no military service. While in Canada "good neighbourliness" is emphasized, in their home countries "action against the enemy" seems to be the aim of citizenship. Needs and Problems The problems and needs of a Central European newcomer are too numerous to be listed even in outline form, and yet most of them are perfectly common, obvious, and simple. They are disturbing to him only because they a l l present themselves simultaneously, immediately upon entry, and because he is culturally underequipped to handle them. The following are situations which the immigrants brought up for discussion most frequently during the course of an interview. Immediate needs The majority of this group of newcomers agreed that good care was taken of them after their immediate arrival in Canada. They were given proper temporary accommodation, good food and even some clothing. Only a small number of them found assistance for mothers with large families insufficient, and provisions for the temporary care of children quite inadequate. All of them complained that there was a great lack of - 31 -information in eastern ports of landing. Although they admitted .that they received pamphlets containing general information about Canada and the Canadian way of l i f e , they claimed that the Canadian Immigration officers were unprepared to answer questions concerning their immediate problems, such as the size of the place of their destination, some description of their prospective work, when under contract, who will take care of their children i f they became i l l , etc. Some complained that they received conflicting information from several sources; some believed that they would have benefited from foreign language interpreters. Long term problems Housing and Family A good number of immigrants interviewed during the course of this study complained that their accommodation is both of poor quality and expensive. This was especially voiced by families with children who claim to be forced to take low-standard accommodation in a cheap district. As a result, some got the impression that children are not wanted in Canada and that the family as such is less valued here than in their home countries. There was also a complaint that immigrants are not wanted by some landlords on account of their foreign origin. Immigrants with children expressed their concern about Canadian parents not having enough control over their children. They seemed to find i t difficult to understand that affection can exert a measure of control and that independence develops self-reliance. Because of this cultural difference, some of them have already found themselves in conflict with their children. Some women suggested that they would benefit from a course in Canadian housekeeping where they could learn how to provide adequate but inexpensive meals without f u l l housekeeping facilities, how to use the food markets and their labour-saving devices, how to market advantageously and how to utilize and clean standard domestic equipment and household machinery. Health and Welfare Although a l l newcomers interviewed during the course of this study felt that such services as medical care and hospital services should be covered by a health insurance programme as they are stated to be in their home countries1] only a fraction of them claimed to experience serious difficult-ies when they were unable to pay for such services. These difficulties arose as a result of financial distress within the first year of arrival in Canada. A comparatively small number of these immigrants claimed that they did not know where to turn for help, some said they had been turned down by welfare agencies because they could not f u l f i l residence requirements. It appeared that the real or imagined fear of deportation prevented a great number of these people even from making application for help. On the whole, those interviewed complained of not having sufficient protection. They find i t difficult to understand that they are not entitled to Family Allowances during the first year although they claim that this is the time when such assistance would be most needed. Those who showed some knowledge of social legislation in British Columbia, complained that mothers' allowances are not available for non-British subjects and both Old Age Pensions have a twenty years residence requirement. 1) All of them showed ignorance about "Assistance and Hospitalization for Indigent Immigrants" the cost of which is shared equally by the provincial and federal governments. - 33 -Al l but one of those interviewed showed ignorance in the area of casework services. They expressed the wish to be introduced to Canadian social work; and claimed that there was nothing in their former l i f e which would suggest to them that a social worker might have a special interest in dealing with the strains and stresses of their culture conflict. One newcomer in this group had a short-term contact with the Family Welfare Agency, to which he was referred by his Canadian friend. Educational and Vocational Training In this area the lack of information was voiced by those interviewed. It was learned that in their countries of origin adult education is not available to such a degree as in Canada, and they claimed to be confused with the wide range of educational opportunities in this country. They seemed to be eager to learn but knew l i t t l e about their opportunities for re-training, on-the-job training, supplemental training, etc. There was 8 of 6 0 interviewed who did not know about the English classes for New Canadians. Some of those who did attend such classes claimed that they very soon discontinued attending, as they found them directed toward beginners only. The time element and long distances from home were stated to be other factors which prevented some newcomers from attending the English classes. Although most of these immigrants were interviewed in their own languages, they a l l claimed to have a sufficient knowledge of English. However, i t was stated by some that they are not happy about using the every-day English and that they are anxious to master the Queen's English. They admitted that i t leaves them somewhat uneasy and insecure in their contact with Canadians. - 3 k -Employment Approximately one h a l f of immigrants interviewed during the course of t h i s study stated they were not engaged i n those occupations i n Canada f o r which they had been t r a i n e d i n t h e i r home countries. This was p a r t i -c u l a r l y voiced by Czechoslovaks and Poles who seem to be represented by a large p r o f e s s i o n a l group i n t h i s community. Although there was a good number o f Hungarians of a p r o f e s s i o n a l status i n t h i s group, there were also some a g r i -c u l t u r i s t s whose presence decreased the d i s p a r i t y between the former and the present vocational placement. Austrians were mainly of the s k i l l e d - l a b o u r group, and they d i d not seem to have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n getting a job i n t h e i r l i n e of work. There was some f e e l i n g of not being wanted as foreigners v e n t i l a t e d by those who do not follow the same l i n e of work i n Canada, but there was also a number of those who were able to recognize t h e i r language handicap i n not getting a job i n t h e i r former l i n e of work. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true of people from the educational f i e l d . Among doctors, d e n t i s t s and engineers there was some f e e l i n g of being considered undesirable competitors of the Canadian colleagues. A s l i g h t majority of the studied group f e l t that t h e i r present employment i s f a r below t h e i r home country standard., speaking i n terms of s o c i a l p r e s t i g e , and some of them sound quite b i t t e r about i t . This f e e l i n g was found more among men than women although i t was voiced by a l l women working at present as domestic help. These women claimed mostly they had t h e i r own servants i n t h e i r home countries and p r i o r to t h e i r coming to Canada they had been engaged i n non-gainful employment. Among u n s k i l l e d occupations as w e l l as among b r a i n -workers there was noticed some f e e l i n g of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n Canadian work, reasons given mostly being low wages and general working conditions. On the whole, the Central European immigrants complained of job i n s e c u r i t y . There was - 35 -some feeling of dissatisfaction with the fact that although the immigration of agricultural workers and domestics is much encouraged by the Canadian Government, these two occupations are not included in the Unemployment Insurance programme. Some of those who came to Canada under a Governmental labour contract stated that this contract gave them security; those with an independent personality felt restricted. Some complained that i t was unfair that highly•educated people had to do hard labour in the mines, forests and farms; on the other hand, some were quite definite about their staying in work of a low social status because of good earnings. Recreation and Social Life Many of those interviewed showed a noticeable ignorance about community resources for spending leisure time or for associating with native Canadians. Although they seemed eager to meet Canadians and associated with them, only five of them stated that they belong to a Canadian club or organization. It seems, however, that they do not find i t hard to get acquainted. A majority of them claimed to have more than ten Canadian friends. On the other hand, some of them stated that although they find Canad-ians friendly enough, they do not feel at home with them. They thought that i t was not only the language barrier which makes them feel that way, but also the feeling of insecurity about intonations, inflections and misinterpreted gestures which may create difficulties or become a cause of friction. Canadian table manners were mentioned as another hazard. - 3 6 -I t was l e a r n e d from many immigrants i n t e r v i e w e d t h a t they f i n d Canadians s t r a n g e l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n p o l i t i c s and philosophy. They o f t e n r e f e r r e d to Canadians as being i n d i f f e r e n t t o fundamental i s s u e s of l i f e and they seemed to have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n understanding t h a t s i n c e some of these i s s u e s cannot be d e f i n i t e l y decided and are beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , some people do f i n d i t more p r o f i t a b l e to t a l k about t h i n g s they can do something about. Although the above two paragraphs would i n d i c a t e t h a t the C e n t r a l European immigrants tend t o g r a v i t a t e toward t h e i r e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i -ions as the most pleasant source f o r spending l e i s u r e time, t h i s w r i t e r ' s experience gained from the i n t e r v i e w s i s to the contrary. I t was l e a r n e d t h a t the new C e n t r a l European immigrants f i n d v e r y l i t t l e i n common w i t h the o l d -timers of t h e i r r a c i a l o r i g i n . A good number of them f e l t t h a t the language i s the o n l y t i e which binds them together. I t was l e a r n e d t h a t the newcomers f i n d the o l d t i m e r s of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and educational background and not understanding the s i t u a t i o n s and changes which took p l a c e i n t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s . R i v a l r y between the newcomers and o l d t i m e r s was r e p o r t e d by members of a l l f o u r e t h n i c groups. I t was s t a t e d by many of those i n t e r v i e w e d t h a t f o r new C e n t r a l European immigrants t h e i r e t h n i c s o c i e t i e s have only sentimental s i g n i -f i c a n c e and are not an a c t u a l n e c e s s i t y . Community and C i t i z e n s h i p Only f i v e immigrants of t h i s group i n t e r v i e w e d were found to be engaged i n some community work, and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were s t a t e d to be motivated mainly by the d e s i r e to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own c u l t u r e to Canadians. They claimed the concept of a Canadian community to be e n t i r e l y new to them. Some of them s t a t e d t h a t coming from c o u n t r i e s w i t h h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d systems - 37 -of government, they are having difficulties in understanding the important part a local community may play in nation-wide affairs. A noticeable lack of knowledge about community resources which could provide them with informat-ion was proved by a l l of them. As to the attitude of native Canadians toward new-comers, complaints were voiced that in every-day l i f e Central European immigr-ants are s t i l l meeting a good deal of hostility and feelings of superiority among their fellow-workers and neighbours. There was no evidence given that the immigrants would recognize their own superiority feelings. However, in three interviews there was some indication that the interviewee suffered from a persecution complex. Although a very small number of newcomers of this group expressed their desire to return home i f the situation in their home country changed for the better and they were free to return, there was only a tiny fraction of those who signed a declaration of intention to become a Canadian citizen. It was learned that the feelings of insecurity of one who belongs nowhere play an important part in this matter. Many of those inter-viewed were namely under the impression that when the newcomer signs his declaration of intention, he must at the same time renounce his former nationa-l i t y . CHAPTER 111  BECOMING A CANADIAN To obtain information about the area in which adjustment to new situations i s most important, and about the attitudes and reactions of newcomers, 1) a questionnaire was drawn up and sent out to a group of newcomers who have not lived in Canada longer than four years. The group, composed of an equal number of Austrians, Czechoslovakians, Hungarians, and Poles, included both men and women ranging from 18 - 50 years of age, and coming from a variety of occupational stata in their home countries. The questionnaires, translated into the mother 2) tongues of these newcomers , were accompanied by letters explaining the purpose 3) of the enquiry . The remarkably high proportion of questionnaires completed and 4) returned may be due to the effect of this letter and to the sources used as 5) i n i t i a l contacts for the enquiry . For the convenience of round numbers, the f i r s t 200 of these question-naires were tabulated, and the information sought was considered under six main headings: 1) What kind of person i s the post-war Central European immigrant? 2) His problems (or reactions) on arrival and in making a new home. 3) Making a living (his job experience) 4) Making new friends, 5) Kinds of help received and required, 6) The overall adjustment.of the newcomer. l) App. Bi 2) App. B.2 3) App. B.3 4) 210 of 240 5) Executives of the ethnic organizations. - 39 -What kind of person i s the post-war Central European  immigrant? Table VI M a r i t a l Status and Age Group (Four N a t i o n a l i t i e s ) Age and M a r i t a l Status Austrians Czechoslovaks Hungarians Poles Total Married Men 84 Under 20 - - -2 0 - 3 0 8 5 . ' 2 -30 - 40 10 13 20 14 Over 40 " 3 3 • 5 1 Married Women 31 Under 20 -' 1 - 1 20 - 30 6 4 4 1 30 - 40 1 1 5 3 Over 40 1 2 1 Single Men 64 Under 20 1 2 - 3 2 0 - 3 0 12 8 6 4 3 0 - 4 0 2 8 10 5 Over 40 - 2 - 1 Single Women 21 Under 20 2 1 1 20 - 30 7 2 2 2 3 0 - 4 0 - 2 - 2 Over 40 — — — — T o t a l 53 52 57 38 200 Of the 200 Central European newcomers who responded to these questionnaires 28.5 per cent, were of Hungarians, 26.5 per cent, of Austrians, 26.0 per cent, of Czechoslovakians, and 19.0 per cent, of Poles. Among the Austrians, the most t y p i c a l immigrant was.a s i n g l e man - 40 -between 20 and 30, a married man 10 years older, both s i n g l e and married women aged 20 - 30. While the group of Czechoslovak!ans gives a rather s i m i l a r p i c t u r e , except f o r the Hungarian s i n g l e woman the t y p i c a l immigrant of the Hungarian and P o l i s h group was found to be 10 years older. '. There are, of course, no comparative s t a t i s t i c s to enable to say these f i g u r e s are completely representative of the t o t a l body of immigrants who have come to Canada since the war. In any case, i t i s use f u l to know the kind of group from whom the responses described below, have come. Table VII Educational Background (Pour N a t i o n a l i t i e s ) Number of Years of Schooling Austrians Czechoslovaks Hungarians PolessTotal Men 148 Less than 8 - - 7 2 8 - 1 2 33 15 21 13 13 - 16 2 5 3 11 More than 16 1 21 12 2 Women 52 Less than 8 - - - -8 - 1 2 17 8 7 8 1 3 - 16 - 2 3 2 More than 16 — 1 4 — T o t a l 53 52 57. 38 200 The o v e r a l l l e v e l of educational attainment was high. Only 4.5 per cent, had l e s s than 8 years school education, while 20.5 per cent, went to school for more than 16 years. Men were better educated than women and i t was found that the typical Czechoslovakian immigrant was of the highest educated group. Forty-two per cent, of immigrants had some knowledge of English, 56 of them recorded their present knowledge as very high"""^ . Table VIII Vocational Background (Four Nationalities) Occupation at Home Austrians Czechoslovaks Hungarians Poles Total Men 148 Manual - 2 17 2 Skilled 16 6 1 2 White Collar 7 3 9 3 Professional 4 22 15 19 Business 9 8 1 2 Women 52 Skilled 5 3 - 1 White Collar 8 2 4 3 Professional - 5 4 2 Business - - 1 -Housewife 4. 1 5 4 Total 53 52 57 38 200 l) See p. 53. Table XXII. - 42 -Table Villa Composition of Professional Group (Four Nationalities) Profession at Home Austrians Czechoslovaks Hungarians Poles Total Men 148 Officers (Army, etc.) 3 4 9 Lawyers - 2 7 2 Teachers - 3 - 3 Doctors 1 2 - -Artists 1 1 — 1 Students 2 11 4 4 Women 52 Teachers - 2 - 1 Lawyers - - 2 -Artists - 2 — -Students - 1 2 1 Total 53 52 57 38 200 A l l jobs recorded by the newcomers were classified under one of six headings: manual, skilled, white collar, professional, business, and housewife. Farmers were included among manual work, high school students among white collar. The professional group consisted of physicians, lawyers, military officers, teachers (including professors), artists, and university students. The largest number of newcomers, 35.5 per cent., were of the profession-al status, while there were only 10.5 per cent, of those who recorded their occupat-ion as manual work. White collar, 19.5 per cent., was the second largest group; the smallest one, housewives, 7.0 per cent. Nearly of the skilled workers came from Austria and about 4% of the manual workers were represented by Hungarians. The professional group was headed by Czechoslovakians, 22, and Poles, 19. Of these, university students and professors form the largest group among Czechoslovakians, military officers among Poles. - 43 -His problems (or reactions) on a r r i v a l and i n making a new home. Table IX Residence (Pour Nationalities) Length of Residence Austrians Czechoslovaks Hungarians Poles Total In Canada 0 - 1 15 - - '. -1 - 2 - - - -2 - 3 18 17 28 10 3 - 4 20 35 29 28 In B. C. 0 - 1 15 4 8 -1 - 2 - 8 19 14 . 2 - 3 20 15 11 14 3 - 4 18 25 19 -Total 200 Of the 200 Central European newcomers who completed t h i s questionnaire, 56iO per cent, had been i n Canada 3 - 4 years, and 36.5 per cent. 2 - 3 years. Nobody recorded his residence i n Canada as 1 - 2 years although there were 15 Austrians (7.5 per cent.), who had been i n Canada less than one year, none of them came under a governmental labour contract, so that most of t h e i r work experience was similar to that of those who were l e f t on the i r own a f t e r f i n i s h i n g t h e i r contract. Table X Last Residence P r i o r to Immigration Last Place Austrians Czechoslovaks Hungarians Poles Total Home Country 52 - - - 52 D.P. Camp - 35 10 19 64 Other Country 1 17 47 19 84 Total 53 52 57 38 200 A l l but one of the Austrians l e f t t h e i r home country as voluntary emigrants, while a l l three other ethnic groups were composed of refugees. Of the - 44 -total group 32.0 per cent, of newcomers came from camps for displaced persons, and 42.0 per cent, were seeking political protection in some other countries prior to their coming to Canada. In the six countries noted Germany was mentioned most often (35), England taking second place with 20, then followed by Austria (19), Italy (7), and Switzerland (3) . Table XI Ways of Coming to Canada (Four Nationalities) Immigration Scheme Austrians Czechoslovaks Hungarians Poles Total Contract 11 17 10 19 57 Relatives • 24 4 5 19 52 Friends 6 16 38 - 60 Organization 10 7 17 On their own 2 8 4 - 1 4 Total 53 52 57 38 200 Although 83 newcomers recorded that they had close relatives in Canada, only 52 (26.0 per cent.) of them used their sponsorship for coming to this country. The largest number was sponsored by friends (30.0 per cent.), the smallest one (7.0 per cent.) came on their own. 28.5 per cent of the 200 newcomers came under governmental labour contracts, and 8.5 per cent, were sponsored by some organizations. Of the 200 newcomers there were only 33 who did not leave any close relatives behind i n their home countries. The rest of 167 immigrants recorded that they left behind a total of 214 close relatives, nearly 10 per cent of whom were husbands or wifes and children. The immigrants of this sample group did not seem to have difficulties i n deciding where they wanted to settle down in Canada. Of the 200 only 59 lived in some other Province prior to their coming to British Columbia, and - 45 -they a l l had been in Canada for two years and moxe^\ The only migration that took place was from the East to the West. Table XII Present Accommodation of Immigrants Family Status Apartments or Suites House • 1 Room 2 Rooms More than 2 Rented Owned Total Single a ) 91 7 » - - 98 Unit of two 10 32 15 - - 57 Unit of three 1 17 10 1 29 Unit of four 1 1 1 1 4 More than four - - 7 5 12 Total 102 57 26 8 7 200 a) including married immigrants whose marital parhers are not in Canada. Except for 18 farmers and 3 miners working outside of Vancouver a l l immigrants of this group live in the city area. Of the 200 newcomers 27.5 per cent are not satisfied with their present accommodation. Of those unsatisfied 10 are married couples living in one room type of accommodation, and the rest are families with children. The complaints are what might be expected: children "are not wanted in better homes", families with children are forced to live in poor districts, rents are too high in relation to one's earnings, rents are too high "for what we get for this money", etc. Making a living (his .job experience) It i s rather remarkable that the majority of immigrants of this sample group did not seem to have difficulties in locating their f i r s t jobs in Canada after they finished governmental labour contracts, i f any. 1) See P. 43, Table IX. - 46 - • Table XIII Time needed for locating the f i r s t job Length of Time in Weeks Austrians Czechoslovaks Hungarians Poles Total Men 0 - 1 1.-2 2 - 4 4 - 1 2 12 - 24 20 1 6 5 4 29 3 6 3 22 7 7 7 21 7 148 Women 0 - - 1 1 - 2 2 - 4 8a) 3 6 11 8 a ) 6 ?a) 2 1 52 Total 53 52 57 38 200 a) including housewives not seeking employment (2 Austrians, 2 Hungarians, 1 Pole) 60.5 per cent, of newcomers found work in less than one week's time. Nevertheless 16 per cent, lost 2-4 weeks and 13.0 per cent. 1-6 months by looking for employment. Women were more successful than men and as to nationality Czechoslovakians seemed to have least difficulties in locating a job. Table XIV Assistance received in locating the f i r s t job. Work Obtained Through Austrians Czechoslovaks Hungarians Poles Total Employment Office Immigration Office Advertisement Friends Some Other Way 14 4 7 ga) 6 6 6 26 8 7 7 30 l 3a) 7 12 l 9a) 34 10 20 87 49 Total 53 52 57 38 200 a)including housewives not seeking employment (2 Austrians, 2 Hungarians, 1 Pole) In locating their jobs the largest number of newcomers was assisted by friends, 43.5 per cent. The second largest group, 32.0 per cent, found work independently either through advertisements in newspapers or through some other way. 34 immigrants were assisted by an employment office and 10 by the Department of Immigration. Of those assisted by an employment office there were 14 tradesmen of Austrian origin. Table XV Vocational Placement of Immigrants Vocational Engaged in the same Not engaged because of Total Background line of work English Money Not wanted Doctor 1 - — 2 3 Lawyer M l - 13 13 Officer - - - 16 16 Student 15 4 6 - 25 Teacher 4 4 - 1 9 Artist 1 2 - 2 5 Total Profes-sional Group 21 10 6 34 71 White Collar 9 11 - 19 39 Business 11 4 6 - 21 Skilled 31 - - 3 34 Manual 21 - - - 21 Housewife 5 - 9 - 14 Total 98 25 21 56 200 At the time of the study 50.1 per cent of newcomers were not engaged in those occupations for which they had been trained, or in which they had been engaged before they left their home countries. This is particularly true in the professional group. Although there were four teachers, one doctor and one artist recorded as being engaged in the profession in which they were trained (or quali-fied) there were 40 professional people who could not follow the same line of work in Canada. 6 of them fel t that their English was not sufficient and 34 recorded as being not wanted either as foreigners or competitors. Among them there were 13 lawyers and 16 military officers, who, of course, are subject to special - 48 -regulations. Of the 25 university students 15 were continuing in their studies while 6 could not afford i t on account of money and 4 on account of not sufficient English. Of the 21 business people 11 opened their own business in Canada or are gainfully employed in the similar type of business as in their home countries, 4 of them found their English s t i l l poor and 6 were engaged in some other type of work in order to make money quicker and establish their own business soon. Of the 34 tradesmen only 3 did not find work in their lines because their trades are not known or practiced in Canada. At the time of the study all newcomers of the manual work group were engaged in Canada in the same or similar kind of work they had been doing in their countries of origin. Of the 14 housewifes only 5 remained in the not-gainfully working group, the rest being employed as domestic help or as dishwashers in restaurants. Of those who are not engaged in Canada in the same kind of work they were engaged or trained for in their home-countries 85.0 per cent had never done such work before. The remaining 15.0 per cent had done similar work in their early beginnings of their clerical or professional career. Of the 85 brainworkers 67 are engaged in manual work in Canada and only 3 of the re-maining 18 are doing other than mechanical clerical work. - 49 -Table XVI Present Job of Immigrants in Terms of Prestige Immigrants not engaged in their Fairly high Medium Fairly low Very low Total line of work Professional 3 30 9 8 50 White Collar 10 13 7 30 Business - *- . - 10 10 Skilled Labour - 3 - - 3 Housewife - - - 9 9 Not classified group of immigrants en- 98 gaged in their line of work Total 200 The newcomers were asked to evaluate their present jobs in terms of prestige in their home countries. Of the 102 immigrants engaged in Canada in some other work than being trained for, 3 recorded their present jobs as fairly high, 43 as medium, 22 as fairly low, and 34 as very low. Although noone evaluated his present job as very high, the newcomers were given a chance to list things they like or dislike about their present jobs, only 8.0 per cent of the 200 did so0 Reasons given for dissatisfaction with work included job insecurity, limited chance for individuality, low wages (in clerical group), and general working conditions. Those who found themselves happier working in Canada than in Europe were of manual and skilled labour group, and they gave as reasons such factors as good wages, and respect for manual work. Making New Friends As the first contact of newcomers in Canada is with immigration officers, there was a question in the questionnaire as to the attitude of these officials toward immigrants. - 50 -Table XVII Newcomers' Experience with Canadian Immigration Officers Attitude Austrians Czechoslovakians Hungarians Poles Total Very friendly 34 34 42 19 129 Fairly friendly 19 18 5 19 61 Somewhat unfriendly - - - -Very unfriendly - - 10 - 10 Total 53 52 57 38 200 It is interesting to note that there is a remarkable difference between the feeling or experience of Austrians and Czechoslovakians on one hand, and of Hungarians and Poles on the other hand. While among Austrians, Czecho-slovakians and Hungarians there was a majority of those who found the immigration officers very friendly, there were only 50.0 per cent of Poles who had such ex-perience. Moreover there were. 10 Hungarians who considered the Canadian Im-migration Officers as very unfriendly. Table XVIII Newcomers' Experience with Canadians Attitude Austrians Czechoslovakians Hungarians Poles Total Very friendly 26 39 20 85 Fairly friendly 27 13 28 27 95 Somewhat unfriendly - - 9 11 20 Very unfriendly - - - - - • Total 53 52 57 38 200 Surprisingly enough there was a similar result obtained when the next question was tabulated. Canadians as a whole are found very friendly by 26 Austrians, 39 Czechoslovakians, 20 Hungarians and by no Poles; fairly friendly by 27 Austrians, 13,Czechoslovakians, 28 Hungarians and 27 Poles; somewhat unfriendly by 9 Hungarians and 11 Poles. There was not anyone who would consider Canadians as very unfriendly. Table XIX Newcomers' Association with Canadians Number of Canadian homes visited by Austrians Czechoslovaks Hungarians Poles Total immigrants None 1-5 14 - 19 11 44 6-10 13 - 10 - 23 More than 10 26 52. 28 27 133: Total 53 52 57 38 200 The following figures reveal the fact that newcomers do associate with native Canadians in their private lives. Of the 200 immigrants there were only 95 of those who visit their recently arrived co-patriots^, and 89 who visit the oldtimers of their ethnic origin. However, all of them visit some native Canadians, and more than 60.0 per cent of the total group have visited more than 10 Canadian homes. Except for 43 all newcomers here studied stated that they feel at home with native Canadians, while there were only 70 of those who feel the same way with the oldtimers of their ethnic origin. Nevertheless, there were only 7 Austrians, JO Czechoslovakians, 8 Hungarians and 15 Poles, who belong to an organization other than an ethnic club or activity. Help Received and Required It has come out in this study that most of the newcomers found some housing accommodation and a job fairly quickly, and that these were obtained primarily through their own efforts. Their knowledge of English played certainly an important part in doing so. - 52 --Table XX Previous Knowledge of English Language Knowledge Austrians Czechoslovakians Hungarians Poles Total Men 148 Some 3 29 14 16 None 33 12 29 12 Women 52 Some 6 4 10 2 None 11 7 4 8 Total 53 52 57 38 200 Of the 200 newcomers there were 32.5 per cent of those who speak English very well, and 48.5 per cent of those who speak i t well. There were only 18.0 per cent of newcomers with a poor knowledge of English, and 1 per cent with none. Table XXI Present Knowledge of English Language Knowledge Austrians Czechoslovakians Hungarians Poles Total Men 148 Very good 6 27 12 7 Good 24 12 14 14 Poor 6 2 17 7 Women 52 Very good 9 2 - 2 Good 3 9 14 7 Poor 3 - — 1 None 2 - - - -Total 53 52 57 38 200 Table XXII Use of English. Classes by Newcomers (Non) Attendance Austrians CzechoslovakLans Hungarians Poles Total Men 148 Did attend 18 12 13 21 Was not interested 3 27 11 4 Did not know about them - - . 2 1 Did not have time 8 - - -Distantly located 7 2 17 2 Women 52 Did attend 6 4 - 3 Was not interested 3 2 4 2 Did not know about them - 3 - -Did not have time 8 2 10 4 Distantly located - - - 1 Total 53 52 57 38 200 The English Classes in Canada were attended by 77 immigrants of this group. Of the rest, 56 newcomers were not interested due to their previous knowledge of English. Here i t seems reasonable to mention that a comment that English courses should be directed towards advanced students as much as towards be-ginners appeared on several questionnaires. 3.0 per cent of immigrants of this studied group stated they did not know about English classes at^aH, and the re-maining 30.5 per cent were unable to attend because of a distance or time element. While the former reason applies mainly to men employed outside the city, the latter applies mainly to women with children, or employed in restaurants or households of other people. There were several explanatory remarks connected with this answer such ass "changing shift", "night shift", "no baby-sitter", etc., which indicate that some arrangements should be made for immigrants working at night and in i r -- 54 -regular hours. Table XXIII Orientation on Canadian Way of Living Information Austrians Czechoslovakians Hungarians Poles Total received from: Immigration Office 8 13 5 6 32 Public Library 2 3 - 1 6 Welfare Agency - - - - -Policeman - - - - -Countryman 31 26 14 20 91 Other source 4 7 10 3 24 Nowhere a'' 8 3 28 8 47 Total 53 52 57 38 200 Immigrants did not know where to ask From the Table XXIII i t would appear that the newcomers of this group in their early days in Canada were more or less left on their own as far as orientation on Canadian way of living is concerned. Of the 200, only 16.0 per cent stated they were given necessary information by the immigration officers. The remaining 81.0 per cent obtained some information through their own efforts. 3.0 per cent of them were university students who used the Public Library as a source of information; 45.5 per cent of immigrants were assisted by other New Canadians of their ethnic origin. Of the 12.0 per cent of information classified as "from some other source" the majority is stated to be information given to newcomers in D.P. camps on their leaving for Canada. In this studied group there were 23.5 per cent of newcomers who said they were not assisted with information at al l and did not know where to turn for help. At this point a few explanatory comments seem necessary. All im-migrants interviewed in this study showed a noticeable ignorance as to division - 55 -of functions between the two branches of the Department of Citizenship and Im-migration. They spoke of the "immigration man" whenever they were referring to the Citizenship Officer, and in several cases the Citizenship Branch was viewed by them as an office for granting the Canadian citizenship. In order to avoid confusion in the questionnaire the alternative "immigration office" was chosen for information received from both the Citizenship and Immigration Branch. Perhaps, i f the writer had mentioned this on the questionnaire the percentage of information received from "immigration office" would be higher. However, as information given by the Citizenship officer i s passed on the newcomer through so many different channels, i t seems doubtful that a total picture of the situationswould have been any clearer. For instance, i t is likely that 45.5 per cent of immigrants who claimed to be assisted by other new Canadians were in fact indirectly assisted by the Citizenship branch. Also, the source of information received in D.P. camps was likely the Department of Citizenship and Immigration. However, ho matter what the true situation i s , the fact remains that more, or perhaps more, complete information would be appreciated by a l l newcomers of this group. Of the 2 0 0 immigrants 9 9 . 0 per cent thought that they would benefit from an "information centre for New Canadians" and f u l l 1 0 0 . 0 per cent would gladly cooperate with such centre. Overall Adjustment A slight majority of newcomers found Canada very different from what they expected. The immigrants were asked to compare Canada with their home countries of the pre-war ^  time. World War Two - 56 -Table XXIV Comparing Canada with Home Country of Immigrant Canada Austrians Czechoslovakians Hungarians Poles Total Far ahead 5 2 14 - 19 Advanced in some respects 32 16 14 27 89 About the same - 17 - - 17 In some respects advanced and in some behind 18 8 20 11 57 Behind in some respects 9 9 - 18 Far behind - - .. - — -Total 53 52 57 38 200 Although the impression of Canada varies with each nationality rep-resented in this group, 44.5 per cent of newcomers find Canada advanced in some re-spects. 28.5 per cent of immigrants stated that Canada is in some respects advanced and in some behind comparing with their homelands. 9.0 per cent of newcomers found Canada behind in some respects, but there was not anyone who would think of Canada as being far behind his home country. 17 Czechoslovakians, (8.5 per cent), did not find Canada much different from the pre-war Czechoslovakia. They were the only ones of the total group who expressed this opinion. When i t came down to specifics, the immigrants seemed to be mostly of the same opinion regardless of their ethnic origins. All agreed that there is more personal freedom and comfort in Canada. There was not a hundred per cent re-sponse to the following questions as some immigrants did not pay much attention to the situation at home in this respect. Of those who replied, all agreed that there was better social security, and less class distinction in Canada. However, t'\7 they believed that cultural activities and social life were of a higher standard in their home lands. As to racial discrimination, the Czechoslovakians found the situ-ation the same as at home, while the other nationalities agreed that i t is better in Canada. As for education, the response was less than 50.0 per cent. Of those who replied, the Austrians and Czechoslovakians did not find much difference in the system of education, while the majority of Hungarians and.Poles found i t better in Canada. On several questionnaires the quality of Canadian education was queried. Table XXVI Overall Adjustment Does the immigrant wish to return? Austrians Czechoslovakians Hungarians Poles Total .Yes 5 - 9 9 23 Undecided 22 40 10 10 82 No 26 12 38 19 95 Total 53 52 57 38 200 Taking into consideration their comparatively short time in Canada, i t seems that a large number of the newcomers of this sample group are well adjusted and quite happy in this country. Of the 200 only 11.5 per cent of them would re-turn to their home countries i f the situation there changed, and there were 47.5 per cent of those who expressed their wish to stay in Canada. Nevertheless, there is s t i l l a large proportion of the undecided, 41.0 per cent, whose further experience in Canada will help to make up their minds. - 58 -Conclusions based on the Foregoing Information Many of the Central European immigrants, according to the findings of this study, find their living conditions as good as or better than those they enjoyed in their home countries. This is particularly true of the skilled and manual workers, the younger persons, and those who have lived in Canada several years. On the other hand, among the professional and clerical people, the older age groups, and those who have been in Canada a comparatively short time, the majority report their living conditions as being the same or worse. Women find i t easier to get jobs. They probably accept inferior types of work with more composure than the men, to whom this means a greater sense of loss and frustration. They may also encounter less prejudice i n the labour and business fields because they are less likely to be considered as permanent com-petitors. On the whole, the great majority of immigrants feel that their social position i s lower than i t was in Europe. Thus, i t would seem that most of the Central European newcomers have lost more in social than in economic standing. Although i t appears that the Central European newcomers have acquired a knowledge of English with great rapidity, they frequently stated that language has been one of their greatest difficulties in adjusting to Canadian l i f e . This may be due to their discontent with a superficial knowledge of the language. They seem to be very anxious to master i t and use i t like an edu-* cated native Canadians In contrast to the Central European immigrants of previous periods the newcomers show a tendency to associate much more frequently with native Canadians. This is unusual in view of the fact that they have been in Canada - 59 -a short time, and i t may be explained partly by their relatively small numbers and wide distribution, partly by their superior educational and social back-ground, but particularly by their desire to become part of the community. Es-pecially to the refugees, most of whom have been deprived of their f u l l rights as citizens in their home countries, and many of whom had been rendered stateless, the becoming a Canadian i s a matter of great importance. Having lived under authoritarian regimes for the last number of years, they seem to be impressed with the freedom and security they have found. They are likely amazed to discover that government officials are public servants instead of petty tyrants to be feared and distrusted. The educational opportu-nities available aroused their admiration, though they do not think highly of Canadian cultural and social l i f e . Although the majority of newcomers gave Canada credit for having less racial discrimination than their home countries, there were also some complaints on racial and religious prejudice, and comments indicating surprise that such intolerance exists in Canada. In the eyes of the Centrall European newcomers of this group the Canadian people are distinguished by certain traits, of which friendliness and helpfulness are outstanding. At the same time there appeared several comments on the questionnaires stating that Canadians are somewhat hypocritical and narrowminded. The Central European newcomers, on the whole, have sought to identify themselves completely with Canada. A large number of them state that they have no intention of returning to their home countries. The proportion varies with the nationality and occupation. Although practically no Czechoslovakian wants to return the Czechoslovakian proportion i s the largest one among those who are - 60 -not decided as to whether they would stay i n Canada or not i f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n changed. This group of undecided newcomers indicates how f a r they.are from being w e l l adjusted to becoming Canadians. A newcomer may s e t t l e down suc c e s s f u l l y , he may get a s a t i s f a c t o r y home, and even a good job, he may surround himself with new f r i e n d s and be comfortable among h i s neighbours, but he s t i l l has a long way to go to digest the c u l t u r a l differences of f e e l i n g s , t h i n k i n g , and doing i n h i s every day l i f e , before he f i n d s himself to belong more here than anywhere e l s e . In order to gain a b e t t e r understanding of t h i s c u l t u r a l distance of a Central European newcomer of the post-war period i t seems reasonable to discuss h i s adjustment process from the psychological point of view. Psychological Processes A Central European newcomer i n h i s d a i l y l i v i n g , faces a world of dif f e r e n c e s , ranging from u n f a m i l i a r gadgets and seemingly unimportant table manners to momentous p o l i t i c a l concepts and standards of moral conduct. Even though basic human problems may be the same and c e r t a i n folkways and mores spread e a s i l y from country to country i n the "Small" world of today, the divergences are s t i l l tremendous. Because of h i s considerably high s o c i a l and educational background, the Central European newcomer f e e l s t h e . f u l l impact of these diffe r e n c e s . His adjustment to Canadian society and patterns of l i v i n g may not be too d i f f i c u l t i n the area of s o c i a l customs — though even these require quite a b i t of attention — but he i s often thoroughly bewildered and confused about differences i n ideas, i d e a l s , standards, methods, sets of values. He may be taken aback by obvious discrepancies between e t h i c a l tenets and precepts on the one hand, and some questionable pra c t i c e s i n p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l l i f e on the other. He - 61 -may be perplexed about impalpable differences i n the q u a l i t y of human r e l a t i o n s . He cannot e a s i l y reconcile h i s own concepts about pleasant and unpleasant manners, r i g h t or wrong, good or bad, with Canadian ideas. He goes through a constant process of weighing, comparing, contrasting. He begins to f e e l insecure i n many areas of h i s l i f e . Comparisons between the habitual and the new i n e v i t a b l y lead to p e r p l e x i t y and c o n f l i c t . I t i s true that many t r y i n g s i t u a t i o n s can be handled with a l i g h t touch and a sense of humour, and that c e r t a i n experiences w i l l seem funny a f t e r they have been l i v e d through. Yet many others w i l l evoke strong emotional r e a c t i o n s . In a n t i c i p a t i n g these reactions i t must be remembered that i n s e c u r i t y generates anxiety, and anxiety leads to defensive reactions. What form they take i n a p a r t i c u l a r instance depends on the person. Psychological processes do not f o l l o w convenient formulas. Certain t y p i c a l responses do occur, however. They may spread between two extremes of u n c r i t i c a l admiration and unquestioning acceptance of a l l Canadian things at one end, and n e g a t i v i s t i c f a u l t f i n d i n g and t o t a l r e j e c t i o n at the other. The Central European newcomer may f e e l obligated to be d u t i f u l l y g r a t e f u l , and experience g u i l t i f he s t i l l uses h i s c r i t i c a l judgment. He may become overdefensive of h i s own c u l t u r e , and out of personal and c u l t u r a l n o s t a l -g i a , i d e a l i z e the concepts and prac t i c e s of h i s home country, i n c l u d i n g those that at home he d i d not appreciate so much. He often v a c i l l a t e s between f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y and s u p e r i o r i t y , sometimes t r y i n g to repress them, sometimes venting them i n unfortunate ways. Thus he may appear to be both submissive and arrogant. The a t t i t u d e of a Central European newcomer may be conditioned by prejudices against Canada, sometimes p r e c i p i t a t e d or exaggerated by the r o l e Canadian m i l i t a r y forces have played e i t h e r i n f i g h t i n g and defeating, or even i n l i b e r a t i n g or b e n e f i t i n g h i s country. In the i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n the fa c t i s accepted, that the re c i p i e n t of assistance often resents the need to be helped, and then projects h i s resentment onto the helper. This may also be true, to an extent, on the natio n a l l e v e l . In add i t i o n , some • Canadian p o l i c i e s , and unfortunate speeches of some respective c i t i z e n s may give r e a l occasions f o r indignation. They may create negative f e e l i n g s and sometimes reinforced d i s t o r t e d ideas about Canada. I f a Central European newcomer becomes influenced by them, he can e a s i l y f i n d corroborating evidence. . C u l t u r a l T r a n s i t i o n . Since becoming a Canadian i s a process i n which both the immigrants and the native Canadians play an important part, i t seems reasonable to mention at t h i s point the a t t i t u d e the Canadians have towards Central European newcomers, as i t was observed and learned during t h i s s t u d y . ^ The general reaction of Canadians toward the Central European newcomers has been one of compassion f o r the victims of persecution on one hand, but there has been a c e r t a i n amount of antagonism on the other hand. Central European newcomers have been looked upon as serious competitors, e s p e c i a l l y by ce r t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and wage earning groups. Some complaint concerning Central European newcomers r e l a t e s to c e r t a i n of t h e i r personality t r a i t s and a t t i t u d e s . I t has frequently been complained, f o r example, that many of them have been arrogant, demanding, ungrate-f u l . The a i r of s u p e r i o r i t y of some, the habit of contrasting unfavorably t h e i r condition here with t h e i r former s o c i a l and economic status i n t h e i r home countries, have i r r i t a t e d many Canadians. There i s no doubt that these t r a i t s characterize c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s , as i t i s true of any large group. In many instances, however, what i s interpreted l ) There were 42 interviews with Government o f f i c i a l s and ' • representatives of d i f f e r e n t agencies and organizations who are i n d i r e c t contact with newcomers. - 63 -as arrogance i s r e a l l y compensation f o r the l o s s of status and f o r the i n d i g n i t i e s that many of Central European immigrants have suffered. Some of i t i s merely c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the behavior and a t t i t u d e s i n the countries from which they come, which applies e s p e c i a l l y to Hungarians and Poles. "Culture embraces a l l those things which determine how people think, a c t , and l i v e t h e i r l i v e s . One functions w i t h i n a c u l t u r e , i s part of i t , and every phase of h i s l i f e and thought r e f l e c t s that c u l t u r e . I t conditions the way he looks at things, and the way he reasons. I t forms the frame of reference w i t h i n which he makes h i s choices, and a f f e c t s the way i n which he seeks to s a t i s f y h i s b a s i c psychological needs. To every person h i s own culture i s of paramount importance to him and he i s u s u a l l y comfortable w i t h i n i t ... People are brought up w i t h i n a c e r t a i n set of t r a d i t i o n s , b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s and ways of a c t i n g . Having grown under the influence of these c u l t u r a l determinants they become part of the person, and d i r e c t h i s a c t i v i t y to a large extent."""^ Coming from a .very d i f f e r e n t culture the Central European immigrant must, therefore, give up much that i s part of him to escape d e r i s i o n and contempt* achieve status i n h i s new surroundings, and adjust to Canadian ways. This puts a great s t r a i n upon him as h i s patterns of behavior, a t t i t u d e s , and habits have been long established. His own ways seem proper to him. He i s , therefore, subject to shock, resistance, and emotional upset. I t i s doubtful that anyone could achieve a complete change. The question a r i s e s : what degree of change i s desirable f o r a Central European immigrant to become a Canadian? There are s t i l l many who are l i k e l y to say that a Central European newcomer, i n return f o r the p r i v i l e g e s of l i v i n g i n Canada, should learn Canadian l ) K l e i n , Alan P.; Society, Democracy — Press; New. York; 1953; p.28 and the Group; Womens - 64 -ways and act as Canadians do. This implies that the Canadian ways are perfect and s t a t i c , that the ways of a Central European immigrant have no value to Canadians, and that he receives the best by t a k i n g what Canada gives to him. To these, people i t should be reminded that Canada has always been a country of new-comers and that the Canadian culture i s a fusion of many d i f f e r e n t backgrounds. There i s no doubt that a Central European newcomer brings much with him that can enhance the Canadian way of l i v i n g . He does not b r i n g only h i s f o l k music and dances, h i s mechanical s k i l l and a r t , but he often brings also a strong family sense, a w e l l established sense of law and order, etc. that w e l l may serve more e f f i c i e n t l y than that one established i n Canada. Although "Integration" i s now an o f f i c i a l Canadian objective i n the f i e l d of c i t i z e n s h i p , among the general'public the o l d viewpoint that a newcomer should be assimilated i n t o the Canadian so c i e t y " ^ i s s t i l l much a l i v e . A s s i m i l a t i o n as i t i s understood today i s a process by which i n d i v i d u a l s lose t h e i r differences by achieving u n i t y i n respect of common ways of doing things. As a person becomes assimilated i n t o society he loses h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . T o t a l i t a r i a n i s m demands a s s i m i l a t i o n f o r i t cannot stand d i f f e r e n c e . I t presumes and demands that a l l a t t e s t to i t s s u p e r i o r i t y . A Central European newcomer went through t h i s experience several times i n h i s recent past, and i n many cases t h i s was h i s reason f o r leaving h i s home country. He now has a strong desire to be himself and l i v e h i s own l i f e . Besides, a t t i t u d e s of s u p e r i o r i t y drive any newcomer i n t o i s o l a t i o n . He develops a persecution complex which drives him c l o s e r together with other new-comers and back upon h i s own c u l t u r a l values. l ) see Chapter 1, p. - 65 -Democracy, on the other hand, respects i n d i v i d u a l i s m . I t t h r i v e s on difference and v a r i e t y . I t s strength l i e s i n i t s i n t e g r a t i v e power. As Canada accepts democracy, she cannot approve of a s s i m i l a t i o n by imposing Canadian ways upon a newcomer. Ac c u l t u r a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n i s the answer to the problem of becoming a Canadian. This involves change i n c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s plus mutual understanding through i n t e r a c t i o n . Through such process a newcomer does modify h i s own culture by adopting Canadian ways necessary to h i s existence but he s t i l l r e t a i n s much of h i s n a t i o n a l character. In turn he colors some of Canadian c u l t u r e , and that makes democracy tough and f l e x i b l e . I ntegration i s organization, rather than homogeneity. I t means that persons and groups are organized to achieve common goals and purposes. A l l members i d e n t i f y themselves with the whole group, f e e l they belong to i t , are accepted as belonging by the others, have a place i n i t and follow customs which f i t and do not c o n f l i c t w i t h the t o t a l c u l t u r e and agree upon goals. This i s not sameness but complementary function. There i s l o y a l t y to common goal, and morale. I t i s obvious that t h i s i s a two-way process and that i t i s not an easy one f o r both the Canadians and the newcomers, e s p e c i a l l y those who come from a very d i f f e r e n t c u l ture. In the Canadian community the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l i e s on those who are responsible f o r what c u l t u r a l t r a i t s w i l l a newcomer pick up, and what Canadians he w i l l become l i k e . There i s s t i l l a great deal of t h i n k i n g that a newcomer should be taught a l l about the Canadian Government and p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y i n order to make him a good c i t i z e n . At t h i s point i t should be kept i n mind that one has "to become" a c i t i z e n , and not "to be made". This process cannot be e n t i r e l y taught on a verbalized l e v e l f o r i t i s a way of l i f e and not an i n t e l l e c t u a l concept. I t i s a process of d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n when people meet and work together and not the one through intermediaries. A f r i e n d l y i n t e r a c t i o n , - 66 -when the Canadian accepts the newcomer, and he i n turn approaches h i s neighbor, with f r i e n d l y f e e l i n g s . The process of becoming a Canadian i s to place emphasis upon the l o c a l and community scene rather than on the c i v i c s type, and i t requires true sharing and intermingling i n a l l aspects of community l i f e , with no ascribed statuses* CHAPTER IV IMMIGRANT VS. COMMUNITY Area Tfoere Help is Required Throughout the previous chapters an attempt has been made to illustrate problems of Central European newcomers in Canada from their f i r s t impressions up to the stage when they feel more or less settled. This may be called an adjusting process, which is the first step toward one's becoming a part of the Canadian community. The problem of integration has also been discussed. It seems reasonable now to go into the specific needs of a new-comer of this group, shown by the survey; and into the facilities available for meeting them in Greater Vancouver. It has been found that most of the needsof a Central European newcomer are common needs, which affect him as much as they do any Canadian citizen. The housing situation, job insecurity, wages and working conditions, high medical costs and a l l social security situations may be as serious a problem to native Canadians as i t is to Central European immigrants. However, there are a number of complicating factors, which make the situation of a newcomer more difficult. Although knowledge of the language itself is not the answer to his problem, i t is a very important factor, as there is no frustration like the fear of not being able to make oneself under-stood when the necessity arises. Another factor is the immigrant's entirely new environment, which produces a tremendous feeling of insecurity. He is overwhelmed by the impact of a mass of strangeness and is utterly unable to analyze and dissect the strangeness itself in order to find channels and opport-unities which would provide meaningful clarification for his immediate and pressing purpose's. In contrast to the native Canadian, he does not know the useful and inexpensive short-cuts to general orientation; he does not know how-to study every page and section of the daily papers and magazines, how to inter-pret the meaning of classified advertisements, how to use the public libraries and the radio with selective s k i l l , how to understand the language of commercial advertising, etc. Another factor is his ignorance of the role which communities play in this country and of the many common resources they offer. In Central Europe, for example, the public library is the quiet retreat for scholars and persons engaged in research entirely unrelated to peoples' immediate problems, and an "information desk" is not known. The police officer is not the public's friend and informal counsellor, but rather an authority to be carefully avoided. Another area making the newcomers' position more difficult is the one of differences in the quality of certain human relations in Canada as in contrast to Central European countries. There is a significant difference in the quality of a l l casual relations. A Central European newcomer has to learn a great deal about confronting the Canadian employer, the waitress in the coffee shop,- the teacher of his"children, the police officer and the fellow worker. He does not understand•the respective roles of many of the'agents of Canadian society with its highly specialized division of functions.' He does not know that he can bring to them his problems with ease and frankness, without holding back essentials, volunteering complete information from the very start. Another area is the one of social values. It is not easy for the Central European parent to accept the different form of family l i f e in Canada, and i t is even harder for him to understand i t . For him, who comes from a culture in which parental authority is more marked, i t is hard to see that developing self-reliance in children and a co-operative spirit in family l i f e can be the expression of a family affection as strong as the one known in his home country. Also the attitude to law, and to its representatives, to the Government and to voluntary organizations in Canada represents a different expression of individual freedom and responsibility. The complicated pattern of voluntary organizations is not understood by the Central European newcomer. He thinks of them more as cultural activities than as assumptions of responsib-i l i t y by individual citizens. The above-mentioned are just a few of the whole complex of complicating factors which make any situation for a newcomer more difficult than for a native Canadian. Also, one has to bear in mind that most of the Central European newcomers arrive here without means and with the idea that they have no one here to turn to for help and friendly advice, that they suffer from fear of deportation in case of indigency, that in many cases they worry about members of their family which they had to leave behind, and that they feel extremely lonely, especially since they often face antagonism from neighbours and fellow-workers. This loneliness and insecurity sometimes finds expression in exclusiveness or a defensive attitude of superiority. It has been established in this study that only a small proportion of Central European newcomers were finding difficulties relating to their housing, jobs and health as differing from those which are subjects of complaints in Canada generally. It has also been found that many immigrants here studied were not finding problems in this field at a l l . Their attitude has been found independent rather than dependent and they were found to be prepared for the fact that for the most part they must rely upon themselves as they build up their lives here. It has been found that they can adapt themselves easily and that material help is seldom required. What they need more is a shortening of their cultural distance and help with their psychological adjustment. They enter this country eager to make good, with intelligence sharpened by a constant i workout through mobility, with aggressive resourcefulness above the level of those'who never had to fight for survival against great odds. However, they also enter with a good deal of unspoken fear, impatience, and with much ignorance about a l l aspects of the very substantial distance of the Canadian from any Central European community. The Central European newcomer can be helped to function on his highest level in a short time, i f there is a sufficient effort to shorten his cultural distance through orientation, information, clarification, interpret-ation, support and encouragement. He needs help which must be extended very promptly and through the earliest contacts. His need to understand the Canadian community is practically overwhelming. It grows from a feeble beginning, through many and sad misunderstandings, to sizeable proportions within a very short period after arrival. If i t is not met, i t may resolve itself into a protective shell of aggression, bitterness, hostility, rejection of Canada and Canadians. It may lead to hurt withdrawal into silent and negative suffering, cutting deep into the effectiveness and balance of the sufferer and his family unit. It may eventually perpetuate itself in affecting, through cynical and destructive generalizations, relatives and friends. Entering a new cultural community requires quick and ready learning of innumerable matters wholly familiar to the person who has grown up - «r 71-. •* in that setting. There are no formal methods provided for such learning. Even i f he has a place to live, has a good job and has no language difficulties, he s t i l l may f a i l in grasping the significant differences and similarities between his traditional set of values, his traditional behaviour, and the accept-ed behaviour of the community into which he has entered. 1 It has been found that in the process of cultural transition, the immigrant of this studied group is having difficulties 1 rather in the intang-ible than in the practical field, and that he needs help in connection with his feelings rather than material aid. By pointing out and interpreting traditional tenets of the Canadian way of l i f e as applied to entirely concrete realityisituat-ions, directly related to his immediate and early experiences, this help could be provided quite effectively. The question arises i f and to what extent this is made available to a newcomer in this community. Evaluation of Existing Facilities Immigration Branch and National Employment Office If Vancouver is his port of landing or place of destination in Canada, an immigrant receives an official welcome and his immediate welfare is taken care of by the local Immigration Officers. He is also supplied with l i t e r -ature on the Canadian way of living and with circulars giving information on some community resources where the immigrant could seek possible help, i f necess-ary. The immigrant also receives counselling on his immediate problems i f he brings them to the Immigration Officer, and i f he has means and intends to buy land or other property he may be also assisted and advised by the Settlement Officer. Then on the assumption that employment is his basic need, the immigrant is assisted in getting him a job. This is either done through the Employment Officer of the Immigration Branch i f there is a suitable employment available, or the immigrant is directed to the National Employment Office. Since that moment, the Immigration Branch has no further contact with the immigr-ant unless he becomes deportable. When referred to the National Employment Office, the immigrant may feel rejected especially i f a referral is made after several unsuccessful efforts of the Employment Officer of the Immigration Branch to find him a job. Also the feeling of being left alone when overwhelmed with strangeness may inten-sify the anxiety of an immigrant which may then severely handicap his chance for employment. ' When an immigrant lands in some eastern Canadian port and comes to Vancouver on his own, as applies to many Central European newcomers, he is deprived of this i n i t i a l contact with the Immigration Branch. His insecurity is even greater and he has no opportunity of expressing and discussing his needs. It is a social worker's experience that the expression of the need for a job is often merely an outlet for the expression of the need for help, for counsel, for a chance to talk over many other problems. Some people might argue that the newcomer can bring his problems to the officer of the National Employment Office since the' latter is a public servant. There is no doubt that he would not get turned down. However, there are two factors which should not be omitted at this point. First, the feeling of a newcomer about public servants, a feeling which he brings with him from his own country and which is one of distrust. Second, the effectiveness of possible help offered, - since i t is doubtful that employment officers are equipped with a .- 73 sufficient knowledge of community resources and since they have not enough time to spend with the problems of newcomers. Besides, they are not trained to under-stand confused, emotionally upset individuals. As a newcomer has to readjust himself to a strange environ-ment, which is frequently hostile, and since the prejudices against him have been widespread, careful individual attention and casework service by trained workers who understand the treatment of emotional and mental disturbances, seems required at this early start of immigrants making a living in this country. Unfortunately, there are no professional social workers employed by either the Department of Immigration and Citizenship or the National Employment Service. Citizenship Branch The function of the Regional Liaison Officer lies in assist-ing and advising local organizations and agencies engaged in facilitating the integration of newcomers. He provides such organizations and agencies with inf-ormation on a wide range of subjects relating to newcomers and their problems and distributes material useful in the integration process. The following are the figures obtained from his office: the average number of letters of inquiry is about 50 a month, of visitors approximately 100 a month. The literature distrib-uted amounts to 200 a month for booklets on Canada, and 300 a month for circulars "Information for Immigrants". The Regional Liaison Officer also influences attitude^ by public addresses and informal meetings designed to encourage acceptance of new-comers, and co-ordinates the existing programmes. He promotes Canadian citizen-ship and co-operates with national and local organizations in relation to some aspects of their programmes in the field of adult education. Except for his close contact with the representatives of - 74 -ethnic groups the work of the Regional Liaison Officer with newcomers is more on an indirect than a direct level. Although he endeavours to give individual counselling, with his heavy schedule this is not always possible. Welfare Agencies In this group are found the social service and the recreat-ional agencies. The City of Vancouver has relatively well-established welfare services and i t seems to an outside observer that the difficulties in the cult-ural adjustment of a newcomer could be fully met from this' source. Yet only a small number of newcomers have been assisted by a welfare agency. One cannot assume because newcomers do not seek aid that they do not greatly need i t . It has been mentioned before that a Central European newcomer has no previous ex-perience with professional help of this kind. He needs to be carefully intro-duced to i t ; and since the social work profession is often' a mystery to a native Canadian as well, this is not an easy job, and i t should be done by social workers themselves. Besides, the division of welfare services into public and private agencies and the further division of private agencies by religion and type of service is so confusing that even an individual who has lived a l l his l i f e in a large Canadian city finds i t often complex and difficult to understand where to seek help. A further fact is that some casework services are not available to newcomers at a l l . The City Social Service Department, for example, which administers Social Allowances, Mother's Allowances and Old Age Pensions, does not offer casework services to anybody who is not in need and eligible for one of these financial assistances. As a newcomer in his f i r s t year in Canada - 75 -is not even eligible for Social Allowance, he is not entitled to any counselling or other casework service. At other times, when a local agency is asked to take on an apparent case situation not at the newcomer's request, but at the request of some official who feels the immigrant needs help, i t often happens that such a request is not "within the agency function". By the number of referrals and suggestions that may be made to him by persons not adequately informed regarding available services, a newcomer may easily get discouraged from any further effort to seek help. Another situation may arise when an agency writes a routine letter to the newcomer inviting him to call for an interview. As in his home country such a letter could only mean a summons by an official authority and would not indicate a desire to give friendly help on a personal problem, the newcomer finds i t difficult to' understand that there is a social worker who has a special interest in dealing with the strains and stresses of culture conflict, and the ability for helping him to handle them. These few examples are intended to illustrate the need for further exploring the problem of how to supply needed casework services to new-comers in this community. The Community Chest and Council took an i n i t i a l step by establishing the "Community Information Service". This office was opened in June 195h with the aim to become a safe guide in the confusing network of community welfare services. It is purely a direction and referral service and there is no counselling or casework offered. The effectiveness of this office is hard to evaluate at present, for its short existence. However, i t seems sound to make one comment here, that without enough publicity the office will not meet its purpose. * 76 -Voluntary Organizations Since the early days of post-war immigration, many individuals, representatives of church and community organizations, have been engaged in an abundance of activities designed to welcome the newcomer and to make him feel at home in a strange country. Some organizations have set up "Citizenship Committees to study the problems of immigrants and carry out programmes to give some kind of assistance. Independently of these, councils and committees have been set up to promote understanding and goodwill among a l l peoples, and more recently the Co-ordinating Council on Citizenship has been established to co-ordinate services and to see that the total resources of the community were made available to the newcomer. These programmes certainly represent an incalculable number of hours of devoted services, prompted by a generous spirit of understanding and goodwill. Unquestionably, they have done much to smooth the way for the immigrant through the trying period of transition. There is no doubt that a l l these programmes indirectly help the newcomer to feel more at home, as they are directed towards better understanding and to his acceptance by native Canadians. However, there is one danger in welcoming ceremonies and similar social functions. They may miss the purpose completely and cause, instead, the deepest hurts and misunder-standings despite the best intentions. In planning such programmes, there should be always remembered that a newcomer needs to feel that things are done with him and not for him. This spirit has been, perhaps, more effectively achieved in the recreational field. Recreation is no longer considered a separate and re-latively unimportant unit in the total citizenship programme. It has been re-cognized that recreation and leisure time activities bring together the new and native Canadians more satisfactorily than anything else. - 77 -The Community Chest and Council co-ordinates the many parts of the network of recreational organizations in Greater Vancouver. These include national youth organizations, neighbourhood houses and boys1 and girls' clubs. Churches are a part of the network through the medium of the weekday activities they provide to supplement their religious education programmes. Sports commiss-ions, sports councils and sports clubs are other parts, offering newcomers a chance to belong to a team and play with other teams. Through the Community Arts Council many organizations interested in music, art, drama and literature provide opportunities to stimulate the cultural l i f e of this community. Service clubs are vitally interested in the citizenship values found in recreational programmes and have donated generously toward their maintenance. The immigrants' lack of understanding of community functions and organizations has been recognized and mentioned before. In the recreational field, too, there is a strong evidence that newcomers need to be more or better introduced to a l l those various organizations, each of which could be not only a recreational retreat but also a source of information. Until this is done, an increase in membership of New Canadians is not likely to be expected. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. are the only two organizations where a steady enrolment of newcomers has been noticed. This could be explained by the fact that these are world-wide organizations familiar to immigrants from their home countries. Special groups local of newcomers have been established within the/l.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A. with both educational and social programmes. English classes at the Y.W.C.A. also attract many New Canadians. The Canadian Folk Society is another voluntary organization whose object is to .stimulate inter-racial and cultural participation in order to en-rich Canadian culture and promote friendship and peace among peoples and nations. - 78 «• Working closely with the ethnic groups, i t serves as a means of introducing New Canadians to groups in the community. The ethnic societies, although part of the community, have not been given merited attention. Although they contribute to the perpetuation of European customs, language and interests and therefore prolong the period of integration, they also diminish frustration accompanying acculturation, elimin-ate the feeling of insecurity, and teach the immigrant new ways of l i f e . By associating with his compatriots, the newcomer's psychological strain is mitig-ated. It helps to retain the equilibrium of the individual and his human dignity. Within his group a newcomer regains his old values and standing and his nostalgic longings are satisfied. However, i t has been learned in this study that the inclusion of newcomers within the older ethnic societies has not been smooth, because of differences between the "new" and "old" (already "Canadianized") members, disinterested in European political divisions of that particular ethnic group. Such friction reached an acute form among Hungarians and Poles and the newcomers formed their own societies. A new society of this type does not help the immigrant to overcome acculturation difficulties but i t helps to overcome frustration caused by isolation. Generally, i t is the opinion of this writer that the ethnic societies should be drawn into the activities of a wider community l i f e . They are part of i t and i f their beneficial influence is to be strengthened, they cannot be kept beyond the pail. The Social Worker's Role As to the needs and problems of post-war immigrants in Canada, i t should be kept in mind that these vary with individuals and that these variations are dependent not only on background and l i f e experiences of each individual but on whether he is being assisted by the Department of Labour, spons-» 79 * ored by r e l a t i v e s or a r r i v i n g on h i s own, and also on h i s e a r l y experiences i n t h i s country. I t has become evident i n t h i s study that more d i f f i c u l t i e s are encountered i n h i s c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l adjustment than i n the economic one. Knowledge of the language represents a means to achieve an end but i t i s not the end i n i t s e l f . There i s no doubt that good housing, a good job with s e c u r i t y , and health insurance would make adjustment of an immigrant smoother but i t would not n e c e s s a r i l y make him a good Canadian c i t i z e n . He w i l l l i k e l y become one i f he i s c a r e f u l l y introduced to the Canadian community and s k i l f u l l y shown a new set of values, so that he understands them and can use them as a means towards the betterment of h i s s i t u a t i o n . More i s needed than a p i l e of pamphlets; a warm understanding which surpasses language and c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s , and a f r i e n d l y acceptance of h i s differences to help him overcome the fear of the unknown. I t should be kept i n mind that "Canadianism" i s not a newcomer's p r i c e of admission to Canada and that i t should not be imposed on him u n t i l he i s ready — that i s , when he s t a r t s to f e e l that he "belongs". Whatever the s i t u a t i o n , a h e l p f u l deed should incorporate an i n t a n g i b l e component which makes i t e f f e c t i v e rather than merely desirable. Such an ingredient i s the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach provided through s o c i a l casework. A s o c i a l worker i s aware of the psychological meaning to the i n d i v i d u a l who needs help and he i s able to accept and understand t h i s f e e l i n g . Since the d i f f i c u l t -i e s of the immigrants l i e mainly i n the area of t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n conjunction with t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n , the s o c i a l worker i s able to give e f f e c t i v e help. Moreover, he i s able to a i d the newcomer by using that help constructively, both i n h i s own s e l f - i n t e r e s t and i n the i n t e r e s t of the community. As to the f a c i l i t i e s f o r meeting the needs of a newcomer i n - 80 -this community, there seems to be enough evidence of an urgent need for ex-pansion of information and orientation services and the need for more effective co-ordinating and referral services. Since the social worker is also expected to be well acquainted with the existence and function of community resources, i t seems that the present situation could be much improved i f the social work prof-ession was drawn into the field of citizenship not only on a local but on a national scene. This would also enable to make casework services available to a l l newcomers and not only to those who are in desperate circumstances. Does Casework Require Specialization ? It seems reasonable to ask what differences or similarities there are between immigrants and native clients, and to what extent the needs and methods of treatment of newcomers differ in comparison to the Canadian clients. In considering the studied group of Central European immigrants i t can be stated that while their problems and needs differ, as they do with a l l human beings, a l l of them have two vital factors in common: a comparable immediate background and their vocational problem. Each individual's background is different, varying with the environment in which he has grown up, the use he has made of i t and his adjustment to i t . Nevertheless, a l l these newcomers did have one factor in common, namely, that they had recently gone through an overwhelming and uprooting experience and had been forced to break accustomed ties and enter a new and unknown land. This is perhaps the f i r s t point that has to be recognized when working with this group. But in dealing with any group or with an individual, his background — the soeial order from which that individual emanates, the customs of his country, the kind of society he has been accustomed to and, above a l l , his personal background and experience — - 81 -is one of the major factors to be taken into consideration. It is a tenet of casework practice that an understanding of these factors is essential to any helpful or thoughtful work with him. The second characteristic common to this whole group is the need for employment. To put i t in reverse, they are unemployed. In the great majority of cases, unemployment is to them a totally new experience. Most of them come to Canada with records of long and stable employment ranging from the highest professions to simple jobs of a clerical and technical nature. They arrive in this country quite unoriented about the conditions which they will find here, no matter how much they may have read about them. It is not within the compass of human emotion to truly experience something that has not happened to one's self. For the most part, they come viewing Canada as the land of prom-ise and expecting to be able to obtain a job of some sort. Now, on top of their recent shattering experiences, they find themselves facing another new and un-expected hardship. This is the fi r s t point where help is needed as far as the immigrant is concerned. He is unprepared to face unemployment. However, has i t not been one of the major jobs tackled by social agency workers in Canada in the past 2 5 years to meet and handle with a l l their s k i l l persons in just such a situation ? Today, unemployment in this country is more or less accepted as something that is with us. But back in the early days of the depression, the major'group of the clients of a private social agency was one in very much the same shoes as the immigrant clients are today. It was just as hard, back in 1 9 3 0 - as i t is for the immigrant today - for a man who was regularly employed and supported his family to suddently realize that his job was gone and to accept the fact that no other immediate job awaited him. It is a new experience for the immigrant but to the trained social worker i t is a situation which he has - 82 -been equipped to meet and handle. It is not necessary to assume that the new-comer's problem is exactly the same as that of an unemployed Canadian worker, but only that the difference is one of degree, and does not revolve around the fact of unemployment itself. Rather, i t centres around the factors that may make re-employment difficult, such as language handicap, trade training differ- . ences, emphasis on different skills, differences in social values, and so on. It is important that the social worker assigned to meet the needs of the newcomer be unusually resourceful in practical matters as well as well-qualified in other respects. He must have as wide a knowledge as possible of the community in which he is working; its economic and social organization, its educational opportunities, its prejudices, and the forces he can call upon to aid the immigrant. He needs to understand European backgrounds i f he is going to be' able to help the newcomer with emotional and personality problems which may be interfering with his adjustment. A first-hand knowledge of the cultural background of the immigrant i s , of course, an asset, as well as a knowledge of foreign languages - especially German and Russian - which has the advantage of permitting many of the immigrants to use their native tongue. The voicing of feelings and the expression of hostility in a foreign language are very difficult, and there is always the danger of misunderstanding. There are also a number of technicalities connected with immigration with which the caseworker is apt to be unfamiliar and which would take considerable time to master. However, on the whole, casework with immigrants does not need specialization. What is needed is the caseworker's awareness of cultural con-fli c t s and their emotional counterparts, his understanding of the immigrant's feelings about them and his ability to work out his own attitudes so that he can discuss them objectively and sympathetically with the immigrant. In order to « 83 understand these cultural and emotional conflicts he has f i r s t to recognize the common human experiences and to develop a sensitive capacity for, and a wise balance in, identifying with the immigrants. This capacity is based on a xvarm interest in each immigrant as an individual, a recognition that he has reasons for 'feeling and behaving the way he does, and a genuine regard for the immigrant's 'feelings and the values which l i f e has for him. A wise use of identification demands a disciplined capacity to defer judgment until the worker, through his sympathetic attitude, has given the immigrant a chance to t e l l his story in his own way and to reveal what he is really like. To identify means to use perception and sympathy, to "feel along with" the immigrant rather than projecting oneself upon him or assuming that he has the same feelings as the worker, or rejecting him because his feel-ings are different from the worker's own. This does not mean that the worker "sides with" him or accepts his point of view and feelings to such an extent that he overlooks the social reality and fails to see him objectively. To attain this balance, the worker needs to be aware of and clarify his own attitudes so that he is not caught by his aversions or preferences for certain appearances, kinds'of behaviour, or membership in a certain social or racial group. In other words, he must learn to cultivate a capacity to understand and accept each client as an' individual and to maintain an open mind to discover vrtiat he is like. The above is generally accepted as being essential in case-work and most of the workers assume they are able to use i t in every case. But i t needs special consideration in dealing with immigrants because in this connect-ion professional attitudes often give way to the worker's unconscious, cultural attitudes. The outward symbols of racial differences, such as language, personal appearance and standard of education often have a profound significance for the worker, of which he is unaware and which is so deepseated that much discussion and effort are required to counteract i t . It is hard to be objective about his own feelings and opinions, since his attitudes and prejudices as regards nation-alities and races were conditioned by his social group and the teachings of his parents and the frequent, stereotyped generalizations about immigrants. New Project A'-decentralized Canadian community appears to be much con-fusing to a Central European newcomer and, being overwhelmed by strangeness, he finds i t difficult to get oriented and locate available resources which might provide him with help in the process of integration. It seems that he would feel more secure i f he knew that somewhere in the community there was a single organized agency to which he could, from time to time, appeal for information, counselling or the necessary aid to tide him over the inevitable difficulties and emergencies of daily l i f e , - a place to which he could come with confidence, knowing that he will be understood and wanted and where he could feel free to discuss a l l his problems. There i s , of course, the Citizenship Branch, which has funct-ioned as an "information centre" for the last four years, and where the Regional Liaison Officer endeavours also some individual counselling within the limits of his time. However, this would require expansion in both the programme and the qualified staff i f the problem should be met effectively from this office. There is also the newly established "Community Information Service" of the Community Chest and Council, which i s , of course, a purely direct-ion and referral service to the welfare agencies in the community. Although «. 85 -staffed by social workers, this office does not offer counselling or casework as it' is understood in a strict sense. To avoid possible overlapping and duplicating of functions and to satisfy immigrants' need for a centralized source of information and counselling, the fusion of these two offices would seem desirable. However, as administratively this would be a difficult task, i t seems much easier to diminish functions of one office and to expand functions and the staff of the other one. Since there are so many various functions integrated already in the office of the Regional Liaison Officer, any further expansion does not seem to be sound. On the other hand, since work with adjustment problems of immigrants is in the scope of social work profession, and since i t is in the int-erest of the whole community, i t would seem only fair that the Community Chest and Council takes responsibility for improvement of the present programme concerning new Canadians. It seems that a "Centre for New Canadians", as so many times suggested by immigrants interviewed in this study, could be a real challenge to the present problem and that i t could be easily developed from the "Community In-formation Service". In the writer's opinion, such a Centre could integrate "prevention, treatment and rehabilitation", and a l l three groups of services which are ill-represented at present: information and orientation; co-ordination and referrals; counselling and casework. The following is an outline of possible functions of such a Centre. Housing and Family The Centre would assist the immigrant in finding temporary or permanent housing, and advise him on matters pertaining to rentals, mortgages, and similar problems. For that purpose, the Centre would maintain a l i s t of places - 8 6 -where newly a r r i v e d immigrants could be temporarily accommodated i n an emergency, u n t i l such time as more permanent housing became a v a i l a b l e . Assistance i n l o c a t -ing s u i t a b l e permanent housing would be extended only to immigrants with c h i l d r e n where the need i s urgent, or to any immigrant who may become subject to e x p l o i t -a t i o n by landlords or r e a l estate agents. In view of the marginal income of most of the immigrants, they would be helped also with budget problems and given o r i e n t a t i o n about pur-chasing. Health and Welfare The Centre would arrange f o r a general medical examination of any newcomer who had not been examined before or a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n Canada. Proper information r e l a t i n g to av a i l a b l e health and h o s p i t a l services would be given and immigrants a s s i s t e d i n securing these services as needed. In an emerg-ency, immigrant patients would be transported to h o s p i t a l and a s s i s t e d with the admission procedure. R e f e r r a l to the h o s p i t a l ' s S o c i a l Service Department would be made where a v a i l a b l e ; otherwise, arrangements made f o r patients to be v i s i t e d by a Centre caseworker. Instructions about d i e t s s u i t e d to Canadian l i v i n g would also be made a v a i l a b l e . The Centre would provide i n d i v i d u a l counselling or casework services f o r immigrants who may be experiencing serious emotional and psycholog-i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n a l adjustment to the Canadian way of l i f e . Cases' i n d i c a t i n g a need f o r s p e c i a l i z e d agencies would be re f e r r e d to them. A l l immigrants would be properly informed about the existence and function of pr i v a t e and public welfare agencies i n t h i s community and the s o c i a l workers' r o l e would be explained to them. Immigrants would be a s s i s t e d i n securing casework or group-work services i n the community as required. Educational and Vocational Training The Centre would give information relating to available educ-ational and vocational programmes and would assist with arrangements for immigr-ants to take part in such programmes. It would also keep the community informed as to what other programmes are needed in this area and would make a l l efforts to have these needs met. Classes in English and Citizenship could also be held at the Centre. Employment During their f i r s t year in Canada, immigrants who may be un-able to secure suitable employment through the Department of Immigration and Citizenship or the National Employment Service and are not sponsored by individ-uals or organizations, would be assisted in securing employment in line with their needs, skills and general education. Immigrants also would be assisted in secur-ing unemployment Insurance benefits and, i f eligible, referred to the City Social Service Department, for Social Assistance. In emergency situations, loans could be extended to those unemployed immigrants who are not entitled to any other benefits. Recreation and Social Life The Centre would give information relating to available re-creational programmes in the community and assist with the arrangements for immigrants to take part in these programmes. Immigrants would be encouraged and assisted in the organization of their own concerts and parties at the Centre, thereby being afforded an opportunity to interpret their culture to native Canad-ians. The Centre would remain open on Sunday afternoons for social gatherings. Community and Citizenship Immigrants would be introduced to the common resources of the Canadian community in order to acquire understanding and learn how to help them-.«• 88 » selves. This introduction would take place in both theory and practice. Immigrants would be taught useful and inexpensive short-cuts to general orient-ation and would be given technical guidance toward certain community facilities which would provide them with materials for the continuation of intensive self-study of Canadian culture. The Centre would also assist with the application for Canadian citizenship. - - 00 - -This outline is merely an interpretation of what remains to be done in this community to help lessen the immigrants' difficulties on their entering Canadian culture; and an indication that provided i t is carefully planned and staffed with qualified personnel, including both native and New Canadians, in the opinion of the writer one single agency could successfully int-egrate a l l the proposed services to immigrants. The outline could be employed as a starting point for the further exploration of this problem and i f an adequate organizational framework were to be set up with a well-developed operational plan, perhaps i t could be introduced to the authorities in the field as a workable proposition and not merely as a hypothesis. A P P E N D I X "A" - 89 «• Table I Immigration to Canada from 1910 to 1953 Tear From Overseas From U.S.A. Grand Totals British Totals (1) 1910 1911 1912 1913 191U 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 192k 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1931* 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 191*0 191*1 191*2 191*3 191*1* 191*5 191*6 191*7 191*8 191*9 1950 1951 1952 1953 6 3 , 7 5 7 126,170 11*1,501* 152,373 11*1*, 513 1*1*, 117 9,032 9,980 1*,879 1 0 , 7 0 1 60,657 75,783 3 9 , 6 0 6 3 6 , 3 6 0 78,71*0 5U,9U3 3 7 , 5 6 9 5 0 , 3 7 8 51,552 59,1*97 61*, 962 28,11*1* 7,332 3 , 2 8 3 2,1*51* 2,1*08 2,261* 2,521 3 , 3 5 1 3 , 8 3 1 3 ,962 3,1*28 2,353 2,521* 1*,519 10,561* 21,1*63 51*, 036 1*7,009 1*2,830 2 0 , 0 6 2 15,1*29 3 6 , 0 0 0 1*0,152 10U,996 189,633 220,527 263,1*23 277,31*8 8 5 , 0 1 0 1 1 , 6 0 0 1 3 , 9 8 5 7 ,760 1 6 , 9 8 7 6 7 , 6 8 0 100,1*18 60,651* 50,880 128 ,039 9$t$kh 77,286 122,961* 126,593 137,163 132,561 63,91*3 11,1*55 6 , 5 8 6 6 ,163 6 ,176 5,982 6,910 10,112 11,1*65 10,1*57 l*,o53 2,551* 2,618 1*,599 10,682 23 ,627 5 5 , 5 8 0 70,160 118 ,297 78,762 77,31*8 203,1*50 131*, 71*8 91,01*8 101*, 881* 111*, 326 119,1*18 89,892 1*1,768 25,813 51,11*3 5 8 , 1 8 5 3 1 , 9 5 5 1*0,728 38 ,310 2 1 , 7 6 0 1 6 , 5 6 6 17,211 15,818 1 8 , 7 7 8 21,025 25 ,007 3 0 , 5 6 0 30 ,727 21*, 280 11*, 297 13,196 7,71*0 5 , 9 6 0 5 , 1 2 1 5,113 5,61*3 5 , 6 6 3 5,71*8 7,1*1*3 6 , 3 1 1 U, 827 l * , 8 h l 1*,62U 7,1*51* 11,1*10 9,031* 7,306 7,660 8 , 0 0 8 7,770 9,91*1* 196,01*1* 291*, 517 331*, 853 3 8 2 , 8 k l 367,21*0 126,778 37,1*53 6 5 , 1 2 8 65,91*5 1*8,91*2 108,1*08 1 3 8 , 7 2 8 82,321* 67,1*1*6 11*5,250 111,362 96,061* 11*3,989 151,600 167,723 1 6 3 , 2 8 8 88,223 25,752 19,782 13,903 12,136 11,103 1 2 , 0 2 3 15,61*5 17 ,128 1 6 , 2 0 5 11,1*96 8 , 8 6 5 7,1*1*5 9,01*0 1 5 , 3 0 6 3 1 , 0 8 1 66 ,990 79,191* 125,603 86,1*22 85,356 211,220 11*1*, 692 (!) "Totals" consists of "British" plus the category "Other" Sources: The Canada Yearbook - 90 -Table LT Average Immigration to Canada and British Columbia the fiscal years 1910-191*9 Average No. of Average No. of P.C. of Immigrants Years Immigrants to Immigrants to coming to Canada British Columbia British Columbia 1910-1913 314*, 862 1*7,205 13 191U-1918 69,01*9 11,709 17 1919-1930 31*, 19 8 9,599 28 1931-1939 23,71*1 2,951* 12 19i*0-19l*5 12,61*9 1,521 12 191*6-191*9 93,573 10,086 11 Sources: The Report of the Department of Mines and Resources, (Immigration Branch) " -91 • TableUI Percentage of Immigrants to the Total Population of Canada 1926-19U9 Tear Population of Immigrants to P.C. of Immigrants to Canada (000,0) Canada Population of Canada 1926 9,268 96,061* 1.32 1927 9,390 11*3,989 1.53 1928 9,519 151,600 1.59 1929 9,658 167,723 1.76 1930 9,796 163,288 1.67 1931 9,93k 88,223 .89 1932 10,363 25,752 .25 1933 10,1*96 19,782 .19 1931* 10,619 13,903 .13 1935 10,727 12,136 .11 1936 10,828 11,103 .10 1937 10,93k 12,023 .11 1938 11,029 15,61*5 . l i t 1939 11,136 17,128 .16 191*0 11,250 16,205 . l i t 19 l t l l l , 3 6 1 t 11,1*96 .10 191*2 11,1*89 8,865 .078 191*3 11 ,637 7,1*1*5 .06k 191*1* 11 ,795 9,01*0 .077 19i*5 11 ,985 15,306 .13 191*6 12,102 31,081 .21 191*7 12,307 66 ,990 .53 191*8 12,582 79,191* .72 191*9 12,883 125,603 . 99 Sources: The Canada Yearbook; The Report of the Department of Mines and  Resources, (Immigration Branch) ' ~- 92; ~ Table W Percentage of Immigrants to the Total Population of B r i t i s h Columbia 1926-191*9 Year Population of Immigrants to P.C. of Immigrants to B r i t i s h Columbia B r i t i s h Columbia Population of B r i t i s h (000,0) Columbia 1926 560 9,253 1.6k 1927 568 8,212 1.1*5 1928 575 10,10-0 1.82 1929 583 9,891 1.69 1930 591 8,652 1.1*6 1 9 3 1 5 9 7 9 , 3 3 3 1 . 5 6 1 9 3 2 69k 5 , 5 5 1 . 7 9 1 9 3 3 7 0 7 2 , 1 * 3 0 .31* 1 9 3 U 7 1 7 1 , 8 5 6 . 2 6 1 9 3 5 7 2 7 1 , 5 0 6 . 2 1 1 9 3 6 7 3 6 1 , 3 1 5 . 1 8 1937 7 U 5 1 , 3 6 6 . 1 8 1 9 3 8 7 5 9 1 , 6 6 7 . 2 2 1 9 3 9 7 7 5 1 , 5 5 7 . 2 0 191*0 792 2,109 .30 19lil 805 1,653 .21 191*2 818 1,61*7 .21 191*3 870 91*7 .11 191*1* 900 760 .081 191*5 932 1,186 .13 191*6 91*9 2,261* .21* 19U7 1,003 8,639 .81* 191*8 1,01*1* 9,701 .91+ 191*9 1,082 11,918 l . l l Sources: The Canada Yearbook; The Report of the Department of Mines and  Resources, (Immigration Branch) •» 93 •» Table V Presumed Permanent Movement of Population between Canada and the United States: Years Ended June 30, 1939-1*8 Year From United States From Canada to Net Loss to Canada as to Canada United States Result of Movement 1939 9,1(17 19U0 8,91*8 191*1 7,576 191*2 6,826 191*3 5,306 191*1* 6,898 191*5 5 ,901 , 191*6 S ^ l * ^ 1 ) 191*7 1 0 , 8 0 1 ( » ) 191*8 8,822( ' ' ) 191*9 7,600(») 11*, 887 5,1*70 15,183 • 6,235 11*, 931 7,355 15,282 8,1*56 11*, 5U1 9,235 11*, 633 7,735 16,1*05 10,50k 27,617 18,776 29,059 18,258 30,21*6 21,1*21* 31,368 23,768 (1) Estimated Sources: Canada Year Book, 1951, p.152 (compiled from f i g u r e s supplied by the Immigration and N a t u r a l i z a t i o n Service of the United States Department of J u s t i c e ) . Figure 1 IMMIGRANT ARRIVALS for f i s c a l years 1 9 1 0 - 5 0 280 1LLL1LLLII LL11 iJ Iii-Figure 2 - 9 AVERAGE IMMIGRATION TO CANADA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA for f i s c a l years 1910-^9 £_ 360 vO 00 5 -=t r O Immigrants to Canada Immigrants to B r i t i s h Columbia - 260 O CM O O N ON \ 0 oo O N ro ON O N U N »» O N r>. ON CM CM O v J -v O CM H ro N O CM CO ir - v l r \ O H ro O ON rH 1910-13 '191^-18 ' 1919-30 , 1931-39 T 19 1 +0- l +5 ,191+6-H-9 - 3^0 300 r- 220. - 180 - 1^ +0 c CO w B o i _ 100 _ 60 _ 20 0 - 9 7 -Figure h MOVEMENT OF POPULATION BETWEEN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES Fiscal years 1939-^+9 5 fla n a rla > t . h e TTnl+.or S t n t o e The TTnl t.eri ,t.a -hoc t n a r l s TJo-r 1 r\ o e 1 1 • c CO cn 1 o 21 C / / n i •* f CO / M 1 CD I 1 5 • / / s 1C _ / _ 1 9 3 9 l f l 1 ^ 5 1 9 ^ 9 A P P E N D I X »B» ilale j?emale ft -98-.Q.JJ a 3 'J .1 0 I\ ±i A I a E S i n g l e P C a r r i e d [_J 3^y age i s s u n d e r 2 0 2 0 - 3 0 B 3 0 - 4 0 • o v e r 4 0 1 I W h i c h o f t h e l i v i n g m e m b e r s o f y o u r f a m i l y a r e n o t i n C a n a d a ? h u s b a n d o r w i f e c h i l d r e n one p a r e n t b o t h p a r e n t s " b r o t h e r s s i s t e r s How m a n y ? Hov; many?_ HOT/ many?" How many y e a r s d i d y o u go t o s c h o o l ? I f y o u h a v e any_ c h i l d r e n i n C a n a d a , how many? One I J Two Q H o r e t h a n two-Q Do y o u h a v e a n y c l o s e r e l a t i v e s i n C a -n a d a , o t h e r s t h a n y o u r h u s b a n d o r w i f e a n d y o u r c h i l d r e n ? Y e o [ _ J l o Q How l o n g h a v e y o u "been i n C a n a d a ? Y e a r s M o n t h s n  H o w l o n g h a v e y o u "been i n B . C . ? Y e a r s •  M o n t h s D i d y o u move a r o u n d i n C a n a d a he f o r e y o u s e t t l e d i n y o u r p r o s e n t l o c a t i o n ? y Q S • n o • W h e r e do y o u l i v e now? How d i d y o u c o m e . t o C a n a d a ? u n d e r c o n t r a c t s p o n s o r e d "by r e l a t i v e s s p o n s o r e d "by f r i e n d s s p o n s o r e d b y a n o r g a n i z a t i o n o n my own W h e r e d i d y o u come f r o m ? d i r e c t f r o m my home c o u n t r y f r o m a D . P . camp f r o m o t h e r c o u n t r y I n t h e o i t y f_ O u t s i d e c i t y O n a f a r m w h a t k i n d o f a c c o m o d a t i o n do y o u h a v e ? one r o o m t w o r o o m s more t h a n t w o r o o m s r e n t e d h o u s e own h o u s e D i d y o u k n o w a n y i i i n g l i s h he f o r e y o u came t o C a n a d a ? Y e s Q Ho ( j What i s y o u r k n o w l e d g e o f x i n g l i s h mr V e r y g o o d W h i c h ? A r e y o u s a t i s f i e d w i t h y o u r p r e s e n t a c c o m o d a t i o n ? y e s no I j I f n o t s t a t e whys _ G o o d P o o r Hone D i d y o u t a k e U n g l i s h c l a s s e s f o r new> c o m e r s i n C a n a d a ? Y e s • Ho • I f n o t s t a t e whys I w a s n o t i n t e r e s t e d I d i d n o t k n o w o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e I d i d n o t h a v e t i m e T h e y w e r e l o c a t e d t o o f a r f r o m n y home I n y o u r home c o u n t r y s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s e m i - s k i l l e d l a h o r e r f a r m e r c l e r k s t u d e n t m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e m a n b u s i n e s s m a n p r o f e s s i o n a l o t h e r . / e r e y o u s I f n o t w h a t i s t h e r o . a s o n ? I do n o t k n o w e n o u g h E n g l i s h I do n o t h a v e e n o u g h m o n e y I am n o t w a n t e d a s a f o r e i g n e r Ho n e e d f o r s u c h w o r k e r s O t h e r •ifhich? W h i c h ? C a n y o u f o l l o w t h e same l i n e o f w o r k h e r e ? Y e s • . H o Q How l o n g d i d . . i t t a k e y o u t o g e t y o u r f i r s t j o b i n C a n a d a ? , How d i d y o u g e t i t ? T h r o u g h t h e X i a p l o y m o - n t O f f i c e T h r o u g h t h e I m m i g r a t i o n O f f i c e T h r o u g h a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t T h r o u g h my f r i e n d s T h r o u g h some o t h e r w a y -98a-What i s your pro sent line of work? List things y:»u like least about your ... . . P r o sent j obs _ Have you ever do no this before? Yes • Ho • How would you rank your present job Li3t things you like boat about your in terms of prestige in your homeland? Very high ~" i'cirly high_ liediua Pairly low Very low present jobs „ In your early days in Canada,where did you get the necessary information or counseling? Prom the Immigration Office Prom the Public Library Proa a welfare agency Prom a policeman Prom my countrymen Prom some other source Howhere,! did not know where to ask How did you find the Immigration Officers? Very friendly Pairly friendly 8 ome what unfriandly Very unfriendly How do you find Canadians as a whole? Very friendly P.airly friendly Somewhat unfriendly Very unfriendly Kcw many Canadians homes have you been i n since_you arrived? If one 1 - 5 6 - 10 more than 10 Do you feel there at home? Yes Q HoQ~| Do you v i s i t any newcomers from your homo country regularly? Yes {~J lib Q Do you v i s i t any oldimera from your_ hone country regularly? Yes f~\ lib • j Do you feel there at home? Yes[_JHoLJ •Is" Canada very different from what you Indicate whore i s the situation bet-te expected? Yes Q So P] comparing Canada with your homelands Comparing with your home country, do Personal freedom you find Canada: Personal comfort *) Home country far ahead advanced i n some respects about the same behind i n some respects far behind If the international situation changed would you return home, for good? Y e s Q I am not sure Q Ho • Social Security Class distinction Racial discrimination .educational system Cultural l i f e Social l i f e C anada I f there was established a Centre for Would you like to keep a regular con Hew Canadians where you could get i n - tact with such a Centre so that your formation and counseling to your prob- experience could be us3d to help ot-lemsi, do you think you could make a hers who come after you? good use of i t ? Yes Q Ho £j Yes Q H o Q 'J M ..A G la B 0 G V* iV untor 2.0 O 30-40 C L 20-30 • liber 40 U Wie viele Schuljehre haben Sie? Geschlechts i^annlich Q WeiblLoh • Kein A l t e r .1st* ^ .  CI VerheiratetQ Ledig Q Welche lebenden Angehorlgen von Ihrer S'amilie sindjiicht in Canada? Haben Sie nahe Verwandte in Canada, Gatte oder G a t t i n j j ausser Ihrer Gatte,Gattin u. Kinder? Kinder Vater Gutter Brude r Schwe stern Vie viele? Vie viele? Wie viele?" J a O S e i n D Haben 3ie Kinder in CanadaTVie viele? ft in D Zwei • Lehr den zwei O Wie 'lango' sind Sie schon in Canada? Sind Sie v i e l gewandert in Canada,bs-Jahre i.-ona'ce Wie lange sind Sie schon in B.C.? Jahre L-'onate^ Wie sind Sie nach Canada gekommen? Unter ICpntralct Unterstutzung von Verwandten Unterstutzung bei i'reunden Untorstlitzung bei einer Orga-nisation Bei eigener Hand for Sie sich gesottelt haben, auf Ih-ren jetzigen Plata? Ja • ITein Q ¥p wohnen- Sie jctzt? I in, dor Stadt Aussor dor Stadt Auf dom Lando Von wo Icommen Sie? Dire let von Ihren Vaterlando Von einen D.P, Lager Von einen anderen Lande ch& n? , Was fur einen Wohxiort__haben Sie jetzt? l i i n Zimmer Zwei Zimmer Hehr den zwei Zimmer Gemietotes Haus '.-.iigenos Haus Sind Sie zufrieden mit lhror jetzigen W'elafecnStellung? Ja f j ITein Q Venn nicht, warurn? •IConnten Sie englisch sprechen,befor Haben Sie englisch Stunden fur Imi Sie nach Canada Teamen? J & L J IfeinjJ granten i n Canada besucht? J a Q ITein Q Wie sind jetzt Ihro englische Kennt- Venn nicht, warum? • Ich war nicht interressiert Ich wucc'te nicht das ea sine gibt Ich hatte Tseina Zeit Die waren zu we i t ontfornt von meinom Wohnort ni3se? Sehr gut Gut Schle cht Keine H i -t Was waren Gelornter Sie in Ihrem Vaterlando? j?a» chmann Ange le rnte r Arbe i t e r Bauer Angesteliter Student Berufssoldat Ge s ch aft smann Proffesion Ande re Weiche? Konnten bie"d*ie*" £ortsetzen? Ja selbe Arbeit hier • lie in • Venn nicht, was iat der Grund? Ich Icann nicht genug Englisch Ich habe nicht genug Geld ' r Ich bin als Aualander nicht eio&aSifc bolche Arbe i t e r 'sind nichtbrsui±itar .'-cade re Welche? Wie lange dauorte ea bia Sie di ji-rste Arbo-it hatten in Canada?^ ~Wie haben Sie es bolcommen? '~ "Durch daa Arbeitsamt Durch die Jmigration Ste l i e Durch die Stellenvormittlung Durch moine ji'reuiide Auf einsn anderen Voge Wca 1st Ihro gegenwartigo ivxbeit? Senna n. Sio einige Punkte ,die Sic — . ^ . ^ . „ nicht besondera gem verrichten? Haben 3i© dieaelbe aohon vorher ge- _ 1 Z ^ Z 1 Z ^ ~ Z ^ ~ ~ 2 Z . —--^'-'"^ xnacht? J a • H e i n Q Wfo"Vtir d V T r f < f I G e T a ^ W g I h r er"~jofzTgen Arbeit i n Ihrem Vaterlande, gsaohatzt Honnen Sie e i n i g e Punlcte,w.elche Sie werden? £aa l i e b a t e n , i n Ihrer j e t z i g e n Arbeit, Sohr ho oh _ v e r r i c h t e n * _ _ Hoch z z_~irzn *3.tteim&3aig Hiedrig _ Sohr n i e d r i g L "Von xtem hatten Sie die notigsten In-fo rmationen in Ihren eraten I'agen, hier i n Canada? Von der Iiaigrationa Ste l i e Von der offentlichen Bibliothek Von einer ¥ohlfart Stelle Von der P o l i z e i Von meinen Landsleute Von einer anderen Quelle Von nirgends,ich wuaate nicht wo zu fragen ¥le fanden Sic die Iiaigrationa Offi< ziere? Sohr freundlich Gewohnlich freundlich tw ao unfre und 1 i ch Unfreundlioh ¥ie finden Sie-die Canadier im gro.' sen und ganzon? Sohr freundlich Gewohnlich freundlich Ii twaa unf re uuadl ich. Unfreundlioh ¥ie viele Canadiache Pamilien haben Sie beaucht^aeit Hirer. Ankunft? Keine 1 - 5 6 - 1 0 mehr den 10 _ tfuhlen Sie oich da zu Huuuo s Ja Q He i n Q Beauchen Sie Na uankoionlinge aua Ihrer Heimat, regelmaaaig? Jc • He in D • Beauchen Sie Altauagewanderte aua Ihr» re r He imat, re go lma3 a i g? J aUi.'e in CD • I'uhlen Sie cich da zu Hauoe? JaQ Hoin[j 1st Canada and©rot ala Sic oa aich vorgestellt haben? J r . Q He in Q ImVergleich mit Ihrer Heimat,finden Sie Canada* V i e l vorgeschritten Vorgeachritten in Auanahmen Ungefahr gleich Ruclcatandig in einigen Auanahmen Sohr ruclcatandig Y/enn die international© Situation Geben Sie an wo iot die Situation be'saer in Vergleich mlt Candida und Ihrem Ee imat land? . Peraonliche Proihoit Peradnlich© IComfort S ozIale Ve raicherung IClaasen Unterachied Hasso Verfolgung Bildung System Culturelie Loben Geoellachaft Leben wech.seIn ward©,warden Sie fur imaor naoh Hauae fahren? Zu welchon Club oder J a Q l c h bin mir nicht aicherOHeinQhoren Sie hiar an?_ and Cai Organisation,ge-vifenn hier ein iiittelpurikt fur Heue iiochten Sie gem© einen regelmaaaige-n Canadier gegrundet ware,wo Sie sich Kontalct in oinen aolchen Liittolpunkt Inf ormationen u. Vorachldg© zu Ihrem halt an, so das aua Ihrar '.^rfahrung Sie Probleme holen Tsonnten, de rikan Sie,Sie don Heuankommlingen Hllfe bio ton konnten einen guten Gebrauch davon kdnnton? machen? Ja Q He in [_J J a Q H e i n Q .JU.UZ na U Svobodny(a) f j Zenaty (vdanaj ! ! ixoeri __ z vasich z i j i c i c h clenu rodiny nejsou v Kanadej?_ man&el(ka) jeden z rodicu, oba rodi6e b r a t f i sestry Kolik? Kolik? Kolik?" liuj vek jests pod 20 PI 30-40 _ _ [ ! 20-30 L J pres 40 LZ[ Kolik l e t jste chodil(a) do skoly? Jestlize mate d l t i v Kanade, kolik? Jedno Q Dve • Vice nez dv5 LJ Hate nejake blizke pribuzne v Kanade krome man£ela(ky) a dlti? Ano • He EU Jak jste dlouho v KanadS? Rokug& l&sicu Jak ojste dlouho v Britske Columbii? Roku liesicfi Jak jste se dostal do Kanady? Ha contract t | Sponsorovan pfihuznymiP Sponsorovan znamymi 1 Sponaorovan organisaci Ha vlastni* p§st Odkud jste p r i j e l ( a ) do Kanady' rimo z rodne zeme j Z D.P. Campu p j Z jine zeme Stehoval jste se v Kanade 6aato nez jste se usadil na nynejsji adrese? Ano • He Q Kde bydlite nyni? V mestS . " i iiimo m5st< Ha f arms' e? Itere?6 Jaky druh.ubytovani ma Jednu mistnoat DvS mistnoati Vice nez dve* mistnoati Pronajaty dfim Vlastni dum Hejste-li spokojen a pritomnym bydle. nim, udejte duvods Znal jate anglicky nez jste p r i l e l do Kanady? Ano Q He Q Chodil jste do anglickych kurau pro. pf istehovalce v Kanade? Ano|~~j He Pj Jaka je va§e dnesni Velmi dobra Dorozumim se dobre Slaba Zadna znalost anglictiny Jestlize ne,^udejte duvods Hemel jsem zajem HevSdel jsem o nich HemSl jsem cas / v P r i l i s daleko od meho bydliste Jake* bylo vase rodne zemi? v Kvalifikovany delnik He kvalifikovany d£ln£k Rolnik Ufednik Student Prislusnik branne moci 0"bchodnik (2ivnostnik) Svobodne povolani Jine* zamestnanf ve vasi Jestlize ne, udejtevduvods Slaba znalost anglictiny ; 1 Hedostatek penSz do podnikani!'"* Heehteji cizince f j" I'iuj obor zde neni znam f" Jiny dftvod L. Jaky?_ Jakd? J ak vam trvalo dlouho sehnat zame'atnanf v Kanade"? prvni liuzete pokrac'ovati ve svem oboru v "Kanadl? Ano • He i.„l Jak jste ho dostal(a)? Prostrednictvim rifadu prace : Prostrednictvim immigraSniho uradu f Ha inserat z novin j Prostrednictvim znamych \ Jinym zpusobem -±uua~ . . . uTake je vase nynejsi samestnani? O'menujte co se vain nelibi na vasem . nynejsim zamestnani: DSlal(a) jste nekdy pfed tim tento ' ~ ^ I" druh prace? Ano • lie f~J " r ""' " O'ake poataveni ve spolecnosfci byste Jmenujte co se vam l i b i na vasem zaujimal ve vasi rodne zemi s ohledem nynejsim zamestnanis na praci kterou vylconavate? ~__ Velmi vysoke I " \ Vyssi __ Prostfedni ITizsi '~ ' ' Velmi nizke Be hem vasich zacatku v Kanade, kde jste dostal potfebne informace nebo radu? Od immigracniho uradu Ve vefejne knihovne Od ufadu socialni pece Od straze^bezpecnosti Od krajanu Z jineho pramene Hikde, neve del jsem kde se ptat | Kolik kanadskych domacnosti jste na-v s t i v i l ( a ) od vaseho pfijezdu do Ka-il ady? Zadnou P" 1 - 5 ~ 6 " 1 0 Z Vice nez 10 C£t£te se tarn jako doma? Ano Q He O Co 3e tyce chovani immigracnich ufed-liiku k vajn,fekl(a) byste ze bylis Velmi prate 1st i | | Prostfedne p f a t e l s t i Ponekud nepfatelsti Velmi nepratelsti _^ Jak se chovaji Kanadane k vam? Velmi prate 1 sky Prostredne pratelsky Ponekud nepfatelsky i™ Velmi nepratelsky L_ • • • Havstevujete pravidelne nejake z nove pfichozich krajanu? Ano j_j ITe Q • Havstevujete pravidelne nektere kra-jany st arousedliky? Ano Q He CZ3 Jestlize ano, c i t i t e se u nich jako doma? Ano £ j ITe Q K jakemu klubu neb organisaci nalezi-te? Je Kanada hodne odlisna od toho jak jste s i j i pfedstavoval? Ano Q He CD Ve ^ srovnahi s vasi rodnou zemi vasich ocich Kanadas Hodne napfed Ponekud napfed Pfiblizne na stejnem stupni Ponekud pozadu ttodne pozadu je ve I kdyby se mezinarodni situace zm&nila mate v umyslu zustati v Kanade? Ano Q He jsem s i ji s t ( a ) ITe "j | Ve srovnani kde je situace vasi rodne zemi s^Kanadou leps£t co se tyce? "^Rodna zem Osobni svobody Osobniho pohodli Socialniho zabezpeceni Pomeru mezi telesne a dusevne pracujicim Pomeru k jinym narodnostem a rasam P r i l e z i t o s t i ku vzdelani Kulturniho zivota bpolecenskeho zivota Kanada Jste pro zrizeni btrediska pro Hove lanaoTany, kde by se vam dostalo po-tfebnych rad a informaci? A«o Q He • Byl byste ochoten byti v pravidelnem styku s takovym Strediskem, aby na zaklade vasich zkusenosti mohlo byt pomozono tern kdo pfijde po vas? Ano • He O 2 - Hungarian K E R - § ° & ~ I y P e r f i Q i o • H 6 s rn P e r j e z e t t [_J life l y i k c s a l a d t a g j a j a i n c s ELan ad aban? P e r j v a g y P e l e s e g i E l e t k o r o m s 2 0 e v a l a t t 2 0 - 3 0 30 - 4 0 4 0 f e l e t t Gye rcaekek E g y S z i i l o M i n d k e t S z i i l o ' t T e s t v e r e k f i v e r T e s t v e r e k ; n b v e r Heir/?' H a n y ? H a n y ? H a n y e v i g j - a r t i s k o l a b a ? H a v a n g y e r m e k e K a n a d a b a n , h a n y ? E g y ;U K e t t o C) V a g y t o b b Q • V a n - e (k6zeli r o k o n a K a n a d a b a n , f e r j e n , f e l e s e ' g e n v a g y g y e r m e k e i n k i v u l ? I g e n • Hem l ~ j i f e n n y i i d e j e v a n K a n a d a b a n ? E v Ho'nap K e n n y i i d e j e ^van B r i t i s h C o l u n b i a b a n ? E v ___ H o n a p E l t - e k u l o n b o z o h e l y e k e n K a n a d a b a n m i e l o l t t l e t e l e p e d e t t j e l e n l e g i t a r t o z k o d a a i h e l y e n ? H o g y a n j ^ o t t K a n ad aba? S z e r z o d e ' s s e l I H o z z a t a r t o z o k r e v e ' n B a r a t o k r e v e n E ggye s u l e t e k ve've n O m a l l o a n I g e n !_J Hem Q H o i e l j s l e n l e g ? V a r o a b a n K u l v a r o s b a n T a n y a n H o n n a n j o t t ? ( E g y e n e a e n a z u l o h a z a j a b o l D . P . t a b o r b q l I d e g e n o r a z a g b o l i e l y i k b o l ? K i l y e n l a k a a - k o r u l n e n y e k kozott el? E g y s z o b a b a n K e ' t s z o b a b a n y T o b b m i n t kot szobaban B e r e I t h a z b a n S a j a t h a z a b a n H o g v a n e l e g e d v e j e l e n l e g i l a k a s a v a l ? I g e n Q Hem Q H a n o m , m i e r t nems • • • B e a z e ' l t a n g o l u l G a n a d a b a v a l o J o v e t e l e e l o t t ? I g e n • Hem Q A n g o l t u d a s a ? I g e n j c do Gye nge Semmi V e t t a n g o l n y e I v l e c k o k e t K a n a d a b a n ? I g a n LJ Hem Q H a nem m i e r t ? , E r d e k l o d e s h i a n y a Hem -tudtar.1 r o l a Hem v o l t i d o m T u l m e a a z e v o l t l a k o h e l y e m t o l H i v o l t a f o g l a l k o z a a a l i a g y a r o r s z a g o n ? S z a l a n u n k a a ' H u n k a s P o l d m u v e e H i y a t a l n o k D i a k K a t o n a U z l e t e m b e r H i v a t a s o s E g y e b £Z H i c a o d a ? H a nem, m i e r t nem? A n g o l t u d a a h i a n y a P e ' n z h i a n y a / Hem v a g y o k kivanato3 m i n t i d e g e n l ! ino3 m u n k a l e h e t o s e g a s z a k m a m b a n E g y o b I l i c s o d a ? He n n y i i de i g f t a r 1 o 11 a m i g munk a t k ap o 11 K a n a d ab a n ? H e g t u d o t t m a r a d n i o r e d e t i h i v a t a s a b a n i t t K a n a d a b a n ? I g e n Q Hem Q H o g y a n s z e r z e t t munk a t ? A m u n k a h l v a t a l l i t j a n A bevandorla3i h i v a t a d t j a n U j ' s a g h i r d e t e s e k u t j an B a r a t ok r o ' v e n £ g y o b I.& a jalenlegi f oglallcozasa? Hit nam szeret jalonlegi munlcaj dn?^ C sinc.lt a-c ozt a nultban? Igen • Q Hit szeret legjobban jalenlegi munlca-jdji? Jolenlegl munl:ajat otthoni torulawiiyol: leozott miltannalc tart ana? Igan jo „ Hegfelelo Kozepes fiyenge IVagyon gyenge Eanadaba orlcczoso utan honnan Irapott tanacsot vagy sogitseget? Bevandorlasi Hiayataltol Hyilyanos IConyvtartol liepjoleti inte'zmenytol ftgy rendortol t Ho nf i tars aimt 61 ftgyeb halyrol Sehonnan inert nem tudtari TdLtol Trerjelc tanacsot Ililyennelc t a l a l t a a Bevandorlasi I-Iivat al sHjalmazottait? iTagyon baratsagosnalc lioglehetosen fbs,ratsagosnalc K i s se b ar at s ago al ann ale Hagyon baratsagtalannalc HilyenneTs t a l a l j a a Icanadaialcat? ilegyon baratsagosnak " Lieglahetosan baratsagosnaTs1 Kisse baratsagtalannalc Li'agyon baratsagtalannalc t7" IIany Icanadai csaladot latogatott meg Eliot a ICanadaba erlcezatt? 0 1 - 5 6.1 10 tobb mint 10 Otthon oreztc nagat naluk? I gen O Hem O Latogat j a~e rendszaresan ujonnan arlcczett honfitarsait? I gen O Hen Q Latogatja-e randszeresen regebben e'rlcezett honf itarsait? I gen O, Hem Q, Otthon arzi magat nalul:? Igan Q Hem Q liilyen #intezme'nyn3lc, IclubnaL: vagy mas t ar s as agn al; t g j a IC an ad ab an? Hagyon kulunbozonelc t a l a l t a Kanadat, mint ahogy ellcepzalte? Igan D Hem • Osszehasonlitva 3z6lohazajaval, ugy t a l a l j a hogy Kanadas Solclcal elorehaladottabb fejlettebb bizonyos szempontbol ugy an olyan elmaradot tabb bizonyos szempontbol s oleic al elmaradottabb Ha a nemzetlcozi viszonyolc megvaltpz-nenal:,vi s s z ate rne vaglegesen szuloha-zaj aba? IgenQ i ;- r e r : 1 tudom • Hem Q Osszehasoiilitva Kanadat szulohazaja-val az alabbi -szampontolcat, hoi eld-nyo-sebbelc a viszony Szemalyes szabadsag Kenye lam iiapjolec tfaji a16itelet i L o z o l r t is Kulturalet T ar s ad almi eIa t j aban Kana Ha lenne bayandorlolc rszere^egy f a l -vilagositd e's tanacsado intazet, ugy gondolja, hogy ezt sajat cdljr/ — elonyosen hasznalhatna? Igen O Hem I I Ii»gy ilyan leozpontt'al randszarason osszelco'ttetisben yolna-e, hogy sajat-tapasztalataiyal a's 6 szrava to lelve 1 mas bevandorlonal: segitsegere lohos-san? Igan O Ham £_f i i E S ! I 0 ^ z o z y z n j Kobieta Wolny(wolna) M Z onaty (z am| zm j T I j J U S Z w'ielc! ponizej 20 20-30 30-40 M _J ponad 40 Pj Kto z zyjacych. czlonkow nie jest w Kanadzie? Haz(zona) Dzieoi Jeden z rodzioow? Dwoje? Bracia, Siostry He? -J Hu? lie?" He lat Pan(i) chodzil(a) do szkoly? l i e dziecl maja Pans two w KanlicazieT' Jednp Q DwojeQ ¥ie,cej Q Czy^ma Pan(i) krewnych w Kana-dzie oprocz nez a, zony i dzieci? Tak O Hie Q Jak dlugo jest Pan(i) w Kanadzie? Lat I i i e s i e c y _ Jalc dlugo jest Pan(i) w B.C.? Lat _ Miesiecy ¥ jaki sposob znalazl. sie Pan(i) w Kanadzie? Ha podstawie kontraktu Sprowadzony przez krewnych Sprowadzony przez przyjaciol Sprowadzony przez organizacje Ha swoj wlaslny koszt Skad Pan(i) wyjeohalja)? Z kraju rodzinnegoll Z obozu D.P. Z innego kraju Jakiego?_ Czy Pan(i) zmienial(a) miejsce za-mieszkania \v Kanadzie,zanim Pan(i) osiadl(a) w obeonyra nie j sou? Talc CI Hie • Gdzie^PanU) ¥ miescie Poza mi as ten Ha farmie mieszka obecnie? Jak Pen(i) mieszka w Kanadzie? ¥ jednym pokoju ¥ dwoch ¥ wiecej ¥ dom wynaje/fcym ¥ dom wlastnym Czy jest Pan(i) zadowdlony(a) z obec« nego osiedlenia? Tak • Hie Q J e s l i nie, dlaczego? Czy Pan(i) 3nal(a) j^zyk angielski przed_przyj azdem do Kanady? Tak Q H i e Q 0"becnie,w jakim stopniu posiada Pan znajomosci jezyka angiel3kiego? Bardzo dobr^Bi r~j Dobrym Siabym Zadnyxi Ucze,szozal(a). Pan(i) na leursy jezyka angielskiego w Kanadzie? Tak Q Hie Q J e s l i nie, zaznacz dlaczegoJ Hie mi alem(am) zainte re s ow ani a Hie wiedzialem(om) ze Takie istni e j a Hie mialem(am) cza3u Odbywaly si<3 za daleko od mego domu Zawod w krajus Robotnik wykwalifikowany Hobotnik niewykwalifikowanj Rolnik Urzednik Student ¥o j skowy Handlowie c (albo kup ie o ) ¥olny zawod Inne zawody J e s l i nie, dlaczego? Hieznam do state czcaie angie l3kie go Brak mi potrzebnyoli fundu3zow Jeatem odtracony jako obcokrajowiec Brak zapotrzebowania na mdj zawod | Inne powody Ktore? Jaki? Czy Pan(i) pracujs w Kanadzie w •owoim zawodzie? Talc Hie • He Pan(i) czasu potrzebowal(a) na znalezienie pierwszego zatrudnienia w Kanadzie? _ ¥ j-aki sposob j e Pan (-i ) znalaz 1'(a)? Za czyim posrodnietwem Urz§du Pracy Ur ze du "limi gr aoy j ne go Ogloszen Przyjaciol -102a-Oaka prace wykonuje Pan(i) obaonio? ¥yszczcgolh 60 c i r. nim dokucza naj--— ; wie,oeji , vi/ykonyv7al(a) Pan(i) ta prace, kiedy- *'""* " kolvdek przedten? Tsk Q Hie Q ' — ~ * Jak obecne zatrudnienie Pan&(i) bylo tfyszczegoln pod j akim v/zgle,den lubisz cenione i sz"howane_ \i kraju? obecne zatrudnienies^^^ ^ Y/ysoko , . ,, , , Z^ 1,.r_.7.r_- './zgl^dnie v/jasoko P , „ Z Zmr I I TIT Z* _ Sredhio .... , n ^ s v 0 Bardzo nisko Kto Panu(i) u d z i e i i l infornacji i db-radzal v; pierwszych dniach w Kanadzie Urzad Snigracyjny Gzytelnia publiczna Urzad Opieki Spolecznej P o l i c j a Rodaoy Inni ludzie albo urzedy Hikt,nie wiedzialem gdzie i do kogo sie zwrocic Jak odnlosly sie wladze erdgracyjne ? do Pana(i)? Bardzo przychylnie Dostatsozni© przychylnie Hie0 0 nieprzychylnie Zdecydov/anie nieprzychylnie Co Pan(i) sadzi 0 Kanadyjozykach,sat Bardzo przychylni Dostatecznie przychylni Hieco nieprzychylni Zdecydov/anie nieprzychylni Wilu Kanadyj skich domach Pan(i) prze. byv/al(a)/od czasu przybycia tutaj/? V Aadnyn 1 -m 5 6-10 vif vrieoej niz 10 Czuje sie Pen(i) u nich'dobrze? Tak • Hie • f Odv/iedza Pan(i) nowoprzybylyoh roda-kcv/ regularnie? Talc • Hie f~l Odwiedza Pan(i) starych enigrantow /rodakow/? Tak Q Hie j ~ | Czuje sie. Pan(i) dobrze v/sr6d nich? Tak • Hie • Do jakich organizacji albo zwiazk6w Pan(i) nalezy v Kanadzie? Czy Kanada bardzo sie rozni od tej j a -lcaPan(i) sobie j a wyobrazal(a)? Talc • Hie Q V porovmaniu z Icrajeia rodzinnyn czy Kanada* vvyprzedza go stanov/czo vjypr-zedze, go pod pexrayni v/zgledami Jest rnniejv/iecej taka sana jak kraj Pozcstaje Y/ tyle pod pevmymi v/zglf da mi Pozostaje bardzo \? tyle Porovmujac Kanady z kraj an zaznaczny v/rogie zmiany sytuacji mi^dzynarodowej czy wrocil(a) by Panli) do kraju? Tak O Hiewiem • Hie O i/olnosoi osobistych Vygod zyciowyoh Ubezpieczeh spolecznych Roznic Iclasov/ych Roznic rasov/ych i nacjo-nalnych SzkolnictY/a ziycia kulturalnego Zycia towarzyskiego Kraj Kanada Gdyby jalcis osrodek dla nowych Kana- Czy byl(a) by Pan(i) goto7/(a) (utrzy-dyjczykow zostal zalozony w ktoryia mywao staly kontakt z takim oerodkaon^ a6gl(a) by Pan(i) otrzymywac informac-tok aby vlasne doswiadczenia mogly bye je i porady w klopotach, czy korzy- oddane na uzytek innych ktorzy zajrna. stal(a) by Pan(i) z jego uslug? iaiejsce Pcni(a)? Tak • l i e Q Tak U H i e Q -105-THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER, CANADA Dear Sir, Dear Madam: Werking on a research on adjustment of Central European newcomers in Canada, I would a s s ^ p appreciate your kind cooperation. Please, complete the enclosed questionnaire and using the enclosed selfad-dressed and stamped envelope return i t at ycur earliest convenience. I do not want you to sign the questionnaire as all your infermatien is strict-ly confidential* Yeurs, Va* zeny pane, vazena. panl: V. Hremadka, M.P.Sc.,B.SW Za ucelem vyzkumu procesu prizpusebeni se stredeevropskych pristehovalcu de kanadskehe zpusobu zivota, pr&sim Va's o laskave vyplneni prilozeneho dotaznfku, a • jeho vracenx pokud moznc obratem. Dotaznik nepodepisujte, a k jeh© edeslani peuzijte prilozene oznamkevane e-balky. Va§ich informaci nebude zneuzito, jezto budou slouziti vyhradne vedeck^ m uce-lum. S uctou: Geehrter Herr, Geehrte Frau: V.Hromadka,M.P.Sc,B.S,W, Ich arbeite an einem Versuch der Einfugung von Zentral Europaischen Immigran-ten im Kanada und wlrde sehr dankbar sein fur Ihre freundliche Mitwirkung. Bitte, beantworten Sie die beigelegten Fragebogen und benutzen Sie, das einge-schlossene Kuvert samt Marke und schicken Sie es s» bald wie mSglich zuruck. Ich wunsche nicht das Sie auf diesen Fragebogen Ihre Unterschrift geben - denn alle Ihre Auskunfte werden sehr discret behandelt. Hochachtungsvoll: Kedves Uram, Kedves Asszonycm: V.Hromadka, M.P.Sc,B.S.W. Halas koszonettel vennem, ha kozremukode'sevel lehetove tenne tanulmanyomat, amelynek celja megallapitani, hogy milyen mertekben alkalmazkodnak kozep-europai be-vandorlok a kanadai elethez. Kutatasom alapjan remenylem md'd lesz a mult tevedeseit kikuszobelni 4s felree'rteseit jovatenni clyan szolgalatok letesitesevel, amelyek ujjon-nan bevandorolt honfitarsainknak segitsegere lehetnek. E celb6l nagyon kerem, hogy a melle'kelt kerdoivet kitolteni, es azt az ugyan-csak mellekelt yalaszboritekben hozzam mielobb visszajuttatni sziveskedjek. A kerdoiv alairasatol kerem tartozkodjek, mert annak tartalma szigoruan bi-zalmas es az ird csak ilykepen vedheti meg a kozremukodok e'rdekeit. Segitseget nagyon keszonom. • Kivalo tisz telettel: Szanowny Panie, Szanowna Pani: V.Hromadka, .M.P-.Sc,B.S.W. W zwazku z badaniem precesu przystosc wywania sie imigrantyw z Centralnej Eurepy.d* zycia kanadyjskiego prcsze_ uprzejmie Pana (PaniaJ c laskawa wspblprace. • Prosze^  uprzejmie wypelnic zalaczony kwestionarjusz i wyslac go pcczta przy • Hajhllasej feposobncsci w zalaczonej kopercie. Zalaczony kwestionarjusz jest poufny i nie musi bye podpisany. Z-powazaniem: V.Hromadka, M.P.Sc.B.S.W. A P P E N D I X "C" - I O U -BIBLIOGRAPHY Cartwright, Steven; MacLennan, Hugh; England, R.; Reynolds, Lloyd G. et a l "Population -Canada's Problem", Contemporary Affairs, pamphlets, No. 11, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 19U1. Cross-Country, Toronto, 19h9, Report of Royal Commiss-ion on Dominion-Provincial Relations, Vol.1., Ottawa 191*0. The Colonization of Yfestern Canada; London, 1936. "The British Immigrant", Oxford University Press, Toronto, 1935. Jaszi, Oscar; Klein, Alan F.; Canada Year Book 1927, 1951, 1953 " P o l i t i c a l Refugees"; The Annals of the American Academy  of P o l i t i c a l and Social Science, May 1939. Society, Democracy - and the Group; Women's Fress; New lork; 1953. 

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