UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The American Friends Service Committee : background, administration, social work contributions Brinks, Phyllis Henrika 1954

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THE AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE Background, Administration, S o c i a l Work Contributions  by PHYLLIS HENRIKA BRINKS  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work  School of S o c i a l Work  1954 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis i s twofold* There i s an attempt to discover the contributions which the Society of Friends has made to s o c i a l work through the study of the background of the 'Society, and the current a c t i v i t i e s of i t s s o c i a l work d i v i s i o n , the American Friends Service Committee. A second objective has been the intensive study and analysis of one section of the AFSC, so as to contribute a modest piece of research to this organization. The material was gathered from interviews and correspondence with Friends, workers with the AFSC, s o c i a l workers; analysis of a questionnaire; personal observation through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a S t . Paul work camp and available publications on this subject. Chapter 1 defines s o c i a l work, i t s concepts, p r i n c i p l e s , and methods. I t also gives a b r i e f description of the o r i g i n and growth of the Society of Friends as i t pertains to the profession of s o c i a l work. Chapter 2 describes the current a c t i v i t i e s of the AFSC—the largest s o c i a l work organ of this religious sect. The strengths and weaknesses of the AFSC administration as compared with other s o c i a l work agencies are portrayed i n Chapter 3. Chapter 4 provides an analysis of the Mexico v o l unteer work camp projects. A questionnaire was sent to 300 volunteer work campers with the AFSC from 1951 through 1953. F i f t y four percent were returned i n the a l l o t t e d time. This study revealed that work campers are a p o t e n t i a l source of supply f o r the profession of s o c i a l w o r k — p a r t i c u l a r l y s o c i a l group work, community organization, and s o c i a l action, though in addition, a goodly number engage i n case work. There was individual resistance to writing down the techniques and a greater emphasis on t h e i r p r a c t i c a l application; something which proved to be true of the organization as a whole, as was demonstrated i n the study of AFSC administration i n Chapter 3. Chapter 5 I an attempt to analyze the theory and practice of s o c i a l work by the AFSC. s  - V -  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The writer wishes to express her appreciation of the help and interest given by the many friends and Friends who have contributed i n so many ways to t h i s study. (See persons interviewed i n the Appendix).  She p a r t i c u l a r l y  wishes to thank the Reverand Harold Slocum and Harry Burke, Don  I r i s h , and Monica Brown. In addition, a l l members of the f a c u l t y of the  University of B r i t i s h Columbia have contributed i n one way or another.  A s p e c i a l debt of gratitude i s owing to Dr.  Leonard Marsh, Mrs. Helen McCrae, Mr. Marriage, and Mr. W. G. Dixon.  Without their help and d i r e c t i o n , the necessary  information could not have been obtained, and the study would not have been made.  - i i" Chapter 1.  TABLE OF CONTENTS P a g e O r i g i n . Evolution, and Theory of Social Work  D e f i n i t i o n , difference from other professions, concepts, p r i n c i p l e s , o r i g i n , development, and methods of s o c i a l work. Focus, method and purpose of this study. Background of the American Friends Service Committee and i t s o r i g i n i n the Society of Friends. Contributions to the development of Social W o r k — p r i n c i p l e s , p r a c t i c e s , penal reform movement, organizational development, techniques , mental hospitals Chapter 2.  Development of the American Friends Service Committee  Beginnings, r e l i e f i n World War I, post war years, World War II work with refugees, conscientious objectors, and r e l i e f i n Europe and Asia. Educational progress. Current a c t i v i t i e s i n more than twelve c o u n t r i e s — 6 4 proj e c t s , outside United States, Technical assistance. Work within the United States Chapter 3 .  ~ 86  Theory and Practice of S o c i a l Work by the American Friends Service Committee  Reason for" the study, contributions made by the Friends,—concepts, p r i n c i p l e s , methods, general philosophy Appendices:  40  Mexico Volunteer Work Camps  History of work camps, current U.S. camps, general description of Mexico camps. Questionnaire a n a l y s i s — l i s t of camps, 1 9 5 1 - 5 3 ; analysis of tables and charts. Conclusion including Reicken's pertinent findings of work camp experiences. Chapter 5 .  19  Administration of the American Friends Service Committee  Dynamics, executive functions, relationships with s t a f f , o f f i c i a l s , and boards. Planning and organizing, operating authority, flow of work, policy making. Personnel administration, conditions of service, s t a f f development, use of volunteers, reporting and public r e l a t i o n s , Conclusions . Chapter 4.  1  A. B. C. D. E. F.  By-Laws . Application . . . . . Total Pattern of Purposes Expressed . . . Copies of Letters from Workers . . . . . Bibliography Persons Interviewed  117 .135 140 141 142 1|0 160  - iii  -  TABLES AND FIGURES IN THE TEXT (a) T a b l e 1.  Tables  Page  T o t a l P a t t e r n o f Purposes Expressed, C l a s s i f i e d According to A c t i v i t i e s  1G0A  Opinion o f P r o j e c t Members as t o Extent t o which Purposes were R e a l i z e d on P r o j e c t s . . . . .  103A  T a b l e 3. and 4.  E x t e n t P r o j e c t Members Attempted t o L i v e on the same L e v e l as the People w i t h Whom They Worked  105A  Table  I n d i v i d u a l Techniques P r o j e c t Members  108A  T a b l e 2.  T a b l e 6. T a b l e 7.  Group Techniques Members  Used by  Used by P r o j e c t -  108B  O p i n i o n o f P r o j e c t Members as t o E x t e n t the V i l l a g e People Would C a r r y on the Work a f t e r Members L e f t  109A  (b) F i g u r e s F i g . 1.  D i v i s i o n o f American Quakerism  16A  F i g . 2.  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Chart  46A  F i g . 3.  Committees o f the E x e c u t i v e Board, January, 1 9 5 4 .  F i g . 4. F i g . 5.  .  .  Committees o f the American S e c t i o n , January, 1 9 5 4  58A 60A  Committee of the F o r e i g n S e r v i c e S e c t i o n , January,  1954  61A  F i g . 6.  R e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l Chart  61B  F i g . 7.  Flow Chart  61C  F i g . 8.  I n t e r p r e t i n g the Work o f the Agency  . . . .  77A  Fig.  9.  Summary of Funds  82A  F i g . 10.  Consolidated Budgets  82B  F i g . 11.  T o t a l Pattern of Purposes, Expressed, C l a s s i f i e d According to A c t i v i t i e s . . . .  103B  Opinion of Project Members as to Extent to which Purposes were Realized on Project  103C  F i g . 12.  vi DEFINITIONS  AFSC:  abbreviation commonly used for American  Friends Service Committee, a s o c i a l work branch of the Quakers i n the United 'States. Concept:  the essence of a general and  relatively  abstract idea. Concerns  an a l t r u i s t i c , p o s i t i v e , active orien-  t a t i o n toward one's fellow man,  e s p e c i a l l y i f he i s i n  trouble, disadvantaged, or i n any way Inner Light:  i n need of assistance.  the conviction that God  d i r e c t l y to any man who w i l l l i s t e n .  speaks  (Reader's Digest,  August, 1954). Method:  a way  by means of s p e c i f i c Principle:  of accomplishing  techniques. a doctrine; tenet; a s e t t l e d law or  rule of action (evolved from a Quaker:  the desired goal  now  concept).  synonymous with Friend; a member of  the Society of Friends. Sense of the Meeting:  unanimity of opinion of  those i n the group; consensus; unanimous decision.  THE AMERICAN FRIENDS 'SERVICE COMMITTEE  CHAPTER 1. ORIGIN, EVOLUTION, AND  THEORY OF SOCIAL WORK  To understand the work of the American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee and  i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i a l work, a  d e f i n i t i o n o f s o c i a l work such as t h a t given by the  United  Nations i s h e l p f u l . S o c i a l work as i t i s a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d on has c e r t a i n very g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a l l c o u n t r i e s . 1. I t i s a h e l p i n g a c t i v i t y , designed t o give a s s i s t a n c e i n r e s p e c t t o problems t h a t prevent i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and groups from a c h i e v i n g a minimum d e s i r a b l e standard of s o c i a l and economic w e l l - b e i n g . 2. I t i s a s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , c a r r i e d on not f o r p e r s o n a l p r o f i t by p r i v a t e p r a c t i t i o n e r s but under the auspices o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , governmental or non-governmental or b o t h , e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the b e n e f i t o f members o f the community regarded as r e q u i r i n g a s s i s t a n c e . 3. I t i s a ' l i a i s o n ' a c t i v i t y , through which disadvantaged i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and groups may tap a l l the resources i n the community a v a i l a b l e t o meet t h e i r u n s a t i s f i e d needs.... S o c i a l work d i f f e r s from other p r o f e s s i o n s i n i t s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the f a m i l y and community resources  to  provide  the f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e development of the c l i e n t ' s p o t e n t i a l growth and  adjustment i n h i s s o c i e t y .  "The  members o f  other  p r o f e s s i o n s d e f i n e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as p e r t a i n i n g s o l e l y t o the c l i e n t or p a t i e n t , l e a v i n g w i t h the l a t t e r the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a d j u s t i n g h i m s e l f to the 'mores'."  1 Bruno, Frank J . , Trends i n S o c i a l Work, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948, New York, pp. 289-290.  Dr.  Bruno comments, "In s o c i a l work i t i s i m p l i c i t  i n the word ' s o c i a l * that the dual obligation:  p r a c t i t i o n e r must m a i n t a i n a  to s o c i e t y — t h e body of o p i n i o n r o u g h l y  e n t i t l e d , 'mores'—and to the  individual  r e c o g n i z e d types of s o c i a l work are?  served." *  Present  casework, group work,  community o r g a n i z a t i o n , s o c i a l a c t i o n ,  and  research.  Concepts The  practice  f o l l o w i n g concepts and s a l and  of s o c i a l work has principles:  arisen  from  the  " A l l people have u n i v e r -  b a s i c human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , ways of r e a c t i n g ,  needs."  These needs Include p h y s i c a l ,  satisfactions.  As  they grow, they are  from w i t h i n as w e l l as  h e r e d i t y and  s u b j e c t to p r e s s u r e s  Each person has  e x p e r i e n c e , and  a different  family.  environment, everyone has  i n most phases of h i s  social  o u t s i d e themselves, which cause changes  in their personalities. ground of c u l t u r e ,  emotional and  and  As  back-  a r e s u l t of  some i n n e r c o n f l i c t s  life.  Principles Each c l i e n t has s e l f - h e l p , and the worker; the  1  the  r i g h t to  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of the r i g h t to be d i f f e r e n t  0p_. c i t . , p.  self-determination, i n f o r m a t i o n he and  gives  be accepted as  289.  2 Casework S y l l a b u s f o r S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work, Vancouver, Canada.  a  his  person o f worth. of  3  -  D i a g n o s i s of the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses  the person or group, treatment  by means o f r e l a t i o n s h i p  through the use of f a m i l y and community r e s o u r c e s , and  and  eval-  u a t i o n from time t o time are the p r i n c i p l e methods used. Origins From the e a r l i e s t r e c o r d s of the E g y p t i a n and Hebrew c u l t u r e s , i n the B i b l e , the w r i t i n g s of C o n f u c i o u s , and C i c e r o , we  f i n d r e f e r e n c e s t o s o c i a l work b e g i n n i n g s .  T h i s young  p r o f e s s i o n w i t h i t s age-old background has a double One was was  the c h a r i t a b l e and p h i l a n t h r o p i c approach.  the p o l i t i c a l  expediency  concepts.  (1)  The  other  of c a r i n g f o r the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d  when s o c i a l p r e s s u r e demanded. f i r s t approach.  parentage.  The F r i e n d s have f o l l o w e d the  From t h i s h e r i t a g e came two  philosophical  the g i v i n g o f r e l i e f as a s a l v a t i o n f o r the  s o u l o f the g i v e r and  (2)  t h e theory that g i v i n g o f  without h e l p i n g the cause, i s b a s i c a l l y immoral. have taken the second  relief  The F r i e n d s  view.  Development The  i d e a of the Common Chest which had been  p r a c t i c e d by the a p o s t l e s of the New by M a r t i n Luther i n 1523 t h i s method was t h e i r own  Testament, was  revived  and i n the middle seventeenth  century  used by the S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s t o care f o r  people and, l a t e r , f o r others i n need.  - 4  -  S o c i a l work a l s o p r o f i t e d from the work o f V i v e s and S t . V i n c e n t de P a u l i n the 16th century who  stressed  h e l p i n g others t o help themselves and organized community groups t o a i d those i n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s .  S t . Vincent  taught the worth o f the i n d i v i d u a l through the h e l p i n g of c h i l d r e n of unwed mothers and e s t a b l i s h i n g convalescent homes where the p a t i e n t s were s u p e r v i s e d i n mind, s p i r i t and body. T h i s i d e a o f growth through s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance c a r r i e d over by the F r i e n d s t o the f i r s t  improvement i n  p r i s o n s - the P h i l a d e l p h i a system - i n e a r l y The E n g l i s h Poor Law  of 1601,  was  Pennsylvania.  l i m i t e d as i t was,  climaxed c e n t u r i e s o f e f f o r t s by governments to d e a l w i t h s o c i a l problems and helped t o p u b l i c i z e and o r g a n i z e the work of  g i v i n g r e l i e f and a i d i n g the unemployed.  Many s o c i a l  a c t i o n and p u b l i c w e l f a r e movements r e s u l t e d from the impetus. George Fox and the work of the S o c i e t y of F r i e n d s which began i n 1662  added much t o the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l work  which Is d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter  5«  At the beginning of the 19th c e n t u r y Thomas Chalmers' statement to  t h a t every i n d i v i d u a l has w i t h i n h i m s e l f the s t r e n g t h  s o l v e h i s own  s o c i a l work.  Out  problem was  a f o r m u l a t i o n of a p r i n c i p l e o f  of t h i s t h i n k i n g evolved the  "indirect"  method which i s i l l u s t r a t e d by some of the work camp t e c h niques mentioned i n Chapter  4.  Chalmers " i s best known f o r  - 5 h i s theory o f l o c a l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p a r o c h i a l relief."  1  Training Professional training i n 1898  by the New  s i x weeks  begun  York C h a r i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n S o c i e t y w i t h a  course.  8  f o r s o c i a l casework was  T r a i n i n g f o r s o c i a l group workers d i d not  come u n t i l years l a t e r .  The F r i e n d s evolved  t h e i r own  train-  i n g o f workers f o r s o c i a l group work, community o r g a n i z a t i o n , and  s o c i a l a c t i o n , through the American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e  Committee, o r g a n i z e d  in  1917.  Throughout t h i s e v o l u t i o n of s o c i a l work, p r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y and u a l endeavors. pressure  s o c i a l agencies were the r e s u l t o f As  the s m a l l groups educated and  individ-  exerted  on the l a r g e r community, the government was  i n to o r g a n i z e efficiency.  brought  the work on a l a r g e r s c a l e — o f t e n w i t h improved  The  p l a c e of the p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s has  that of p i o n e e r i n g , of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ,  and  been  of s o c i a l a c t i o n .  The AFSC i s c o n t i n u i n g t h i s i n v a r i o u s types of " p i l o t p r o j e c t s " as d e s c r i b e d i n chapters Not workers.  D.C.  2 and  4.  a l l people i n s o c i a l work agencies  Employed a l s o a r e the business  and  are  clerical  social staff.  1 M i l e s , A r t h u r P.. I n t r o d u c t i o n to P u b l i c W e l f a r e . Heath & Co., Boston, Mass. 1949.  -  6  -  S o c i a l workers a r e employed i n other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , u l a r l y s o c i a l s e r v i c e , such as v i s i t i n g teachers or m e d i c a l s o e i a l workers i n h o s p i t a l s . cludes  partic-  i n the schools,  Helen Witmer con-  that "the a c t i v i t i e s that a r e s o c i a l work are c h i e f l y  i n the f i e l d s o f s o c i a l case work and group work", and t h a t "They a l s o i n c l u d e those o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e a p a r t o f s o c i a l case work and 1 s o c i a l group work." Focus. Method* and Purpose o f T h i s Study T h i s study d e s c r i b e s  the v a r i o u s phases o f the work  o f the American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee. question: and  I t poses the  A r e there c o n t r i b u t i o n s which the AFSC has made  can make t o s o c i a l work and v i c e v e r s a ? In order  spelling  t o answer these questions  there i s a  out o f the background and c u r r e n t a c t i v i t i e s o f the  AFSC and i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the e v o l u t i o n o f the p r o f e s s i o n o f s o c i a l work.  To evaluate  t i c a l a n a l y s i s was completed.  the c u r r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , a s t a t i s A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the AFSC  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i t s comparison t o other more c l e a r l y  s o c i a l work agencies  i d e n t i f i e s t h e i r mutual c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  To  a c c o m p l i s h t h i s end, m a t e r i a l was gathered from American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee p u b l i c a t i o n s , from the S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s , and from other  r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s such as the  1 Witmer, Helen L e l a n d , S o c i a l Work: An A n a l y s i s o f a S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n . R i n e h a r t & Company, New York, 1942.  - 7 U n i v e r s i t y Commission on the Doukhobors, through the a n a l y s i s o f r e p l i e s t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and espondence and  interviews.  The  general philosophy,  p r i n c i p l e s , and methods of the AFSC and the  through c o r r concepts,  s o c i a l work concludes  study.  Background of the American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee The  American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee i s the  l a r g e s t s o c i a l work branch of the r e l i g i o u s s e c t , the S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s , commonly c a l l e d "Quakers".  Other groups  and  i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s are a c t i v e i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l a c t i o n , but they are  not  connected w i t h the American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee, although they may and  collaborate.  The E n g l i s h F r i e n d s S e r v i c e  Council  the Canadian F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee are such o r g a n i z -  ations.  The  initiator  of the p r o j e c t , "Houses f o r Hiroshima",  F l o y d Schmoe, i s an example o f a concerned i n d i v i d u a l who s t a r t e d a movement w i t h i n the S o c i e t y of F r i e n d s and  i s re-  sponsible f o r i t . Though there are many r e l i g i o u s s e c t s and many s o c i a l work and  s o c i a l s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the American  F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee i s unique, as i t combines the i o u s and  humanitarian aspects  group work and  relig-  i n i t s community o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  social action a c t i v i t i e s .  Today the Quakers  are known throughout the world f o r t h e i r w o r k — e s p e c i a l l y times o f c r i s i s as i n the World W a r s , — b u t t h i s was  in  not always  - 8 true.  I t i s the outcome of a g r a d u a l development from the  s p i r i t u a l concept of C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g . movement goes back t h r e e hundred  The h i s t o r y of t h i s  years.  Religious Origin of Society of Friends George Fox, the founder o f the R e l i g i o u s S o c i e t y of  F r i e n d s , surveyed the churches o f the middle  c e n t u r y and f e l t was  seventeenth  s t r o n g l y that the dynamic C h r i s t i a n message  b u r i e d beneath e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l i t u r g y , form, and ceremony.  This c r y s t a l l i z e d  i n 1652  i n t o a c o n v i c t i o n that C h r i s t c o u l d  speak t o him d i r e c t l y , and t o every other person, without ward forms. to  Though Fox and other e a r l y Quakers d i d not  s t a r t a new  s e c t , t h i s movement became the f i r s t  out-  intend  o f the  P r o t e s t a n t p e r f e c t i o n i s t groups, the Methodists beginning shortly after. thousands  The unexpressed  s p i r i t u a l l i f e o f hundreds o f  o f people i n England was  c h a l l e n g e d and  by t h i s p o w e r f u l , moving preacher who was  necessary.  "Quiet meetings"  taught that no  came i n t o b e i n g .  spoke o n l y when they were i n s p i r e d t o do so. q u i e t meeting to  Quakerism  inspired ritual  People  Even an a l l -  c o u l d be so dynamic that people were converted by the e x p e r i e n c e .  a p p l i e d t o them by observers who  The name "Quaker", was noted that the  impassioned  f o r c e w i t h which some spoke caused them t o tremble or "quake". By 1660 the movement had spread so t h a t t h e r e were F r i e n d s i n America, A n t i g u a , Barbados, France, Germany, I r e l a n d ,  Italy,  Jamaica, Newfoundland, Norway, P a l e s t i n e , S c o t l a n d , Surinam,  S w i t z e r l a n d , Turkey, and Wales. movement spread and i s s t i l l  The m i s s i o n a r y z e a l o f the  evident i n the s o c i a l  service  program. P l a i n n e s s i n dress and speech outwardly  expressed  the Quaker's b e l i e f i n the n e c e s s i t y f o r h u m i l i t y and the equal worth o f a l l men.  They were not as concerned  i n which one became h o l y as about In t h i s they d i f f e r e d  about the  way  the f a c t t h a t one became so.  from the o r i e n t a l mystics and the f o l l o w 2  ers  of I g n a t i u s L o y o l a .  Quaker  Defences Though a t f i r s t George Fox b e l i e v e d i n c a p i t a l  punishment, e v e n t u a l l y he and the Quakers were l e d by d o c t r i n e s t o the c o n c l u s i o n that t h i s was war.  their  wrong, as was a l l  Three hundred years l a t e r , s o c i a l workers and others  know that minds a r e not changed by v i o l e n c e or  annihilation.  The F r i e n d s s t a t e d that they would support t h e i r knowledge, but not w i t h " c a r n a l " w e a p o n s — r a t h e r w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s p i r i t u a l weapons—as t h e i r purpose was the enemy.  t o change the mind of  A g a i n , they were i n agreement w i t h modern s o c i a l  work p r i n c i p l e s  i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t they should not take away  defenses u n t i l others can be used.  When questioned by  W i l l i a m Penn, George Fox t o l d him t o "wear a sword as l o n g as  1 C a n t e r , Bernard, comp., The Quaker Bedside Book. H u l t o n Press L t d . , London, 1 9 5 2 , pp. 2 , 2 3 . 2  Hinshaw, C e c i l ,  Speech, Jan. 24, See Appendix.  - 10 he f e l t he c o u l d . " for  These p r i n c i p l e s were l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e  the peaceable r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Indians i n New  Jersey  and P e n n s y l v a n i a when, having r e c e i v e d Perm's grant from Crown, l a r g e numbers o f F r i e n d s s e t t l e d t h e r e .  the  I t has been  s a i d that more Quaker l i v e s were l o s t through p e r s e c u t i o n by the P u r i t a n s than by the Indians I * Code o f E t h i c s The F r i e n d s  1  a t t i t u d e toward money a l s o helped i n  d e a l i n g w i t h the I n d i a n s .  They p a i d the Indians f o r the l a n d  they occupied and d i d not t r y t o cheat them as d i d other settlers. ing,  From the f i r s t , Quakers d i d not b e l i e v e i n b a r g a i n -  but s e t what they considered f a i r p r i c e s f o r items i n  t h e i r business.  T h e i r i n t e g r i t y , t h r i f t , and f r u g a l i t y  many t o become w e l l - t o - d o .  T h i s l e d to a temptation t o improve  t h e i r standard o f l i v i n g , which was Meeting.  censured by the F r i e n d s  They d e s i r e d t o apply t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s i n s o c i a l  a c t i o n as i n every other a r e a i n t h e i r Concern  caused  lives.  of the Meeting - S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n Emphasis on study, a c t i o n , and worship l e d t o the  development of a method which was almost t o t a l i t a r i a n i n n a t u r e . concern of the meeting". man  h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c yet  T h i s i s the d o c t r i n e of "the  George Fox was  and e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t anyone who  speak; i f n o t , i t was  1  Ibid  a shrewd b u s i n e s s  had "a concern" was  assumed that he agreed t o the  to  procedure  - 11 being recommended.  (Perhaps t h i s accounts f o r some o f the  f o r t h r i g h t n e s s w i t h which F r i e n d s a r e blessed.) However, i f a l l members, a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n , d i d not e v e n t u a l l y agree, the matter was l e f t proposed.  u n t i l another time, or another s o l u t i o n was  Obvious  as t h i s may seem, t h i s r i g h t of s e l f -  d e t e r m i n a t i o n and the attempt new i d e a s .  t o prevent " r a i l r o a d i n " were  S t r o n g emphasis on b r o t h e r l y l o v e made f o r  harmony among themselves; i t a l s o l e d t o concern f o r o t h e r s . Because the e a r l y Quakers were p e r f e c t i o n i s t s and had a s t r o n g m i s s i o n a r y z e a l , they f e l t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own government and people, and dared t e l l them where t h e y were wrong.  N a t u r a l l y , they made enemies.  They d i d not  f l e e t o another c o u n t r y f o r refuge when t h e i r ideas were cons i d e r e d i l l e g a l , but d e s i r e d that the t r u t h should be known to  r i c h and poor.  P e n a l Reform Movement Thousands o f F r i e n d s were thrown i n t o p r i s o n , t h e i r houses burned, and v a r i o u s k i n d s o f c o e r c i o n were attempted to  r e p r e s s t h i s new, dynamic s e c t .  Indeed, because  o f the  number i n p r i s o n s , s o c i e t i e s were s t a r t e d i n England and America  f o r the r e l i e f of t h e i r f e l l o w s ; a l l o f t h i s made them  more k e e n l y aware of the p l i g h t o f those c a s t i n t o p r i s o n f o r other misdeeds.  George Fox p r o t e s t e d t o the judges from the  p r i s o n a t Derby, "What a h u r t f u l t h i n g i t was that the p r i s o n e r s would l i e so l o n g i n j a i l ,  showing how that they  - 12 l e a r n e d badness one o f another  i n t a l k i n g o f t h e i r bad deeds,  and t h e r e f o r e , speedy j u s t i c e should be done."  Here, a g a i n ,  t h i s p r o p o s a l o f p e n a l reform i n 1650 s t i l l has a modern r i n g , and the church continues t o urge reforms because o f the corrupting influence of prison associates. As fewer F r i e n d s were imprisoned, the work turned t o h e l p i n g those l e s s f o r t u n a t e .  John Howard worked i n c l o s e  contact w i t h F r i e n d s l i k e Dr. John F o t h e r g i l l and C a t h e r i n e P h i l l i p s ; the l a t t e r v i s i t e d American p r i s o n s (1744-1745), and put i n t o e f f e c t the p r i n c i p l e s o f John Howard. E l i z a b e t h F r y , one o f the most w e l l known Quakers because o f h e r s o c i a l a c t i o n i n the f i e l d o f p r i s o n reform, began her work a t the age o f seventeen when Stephen G r e l l e t , came t o Europe i n 1812-  a French Quaker l i v i n g i n America,  1813, and i n t e r e s t e d E l i z a b e t h i n the t e r r i b l e conditions.  prevailing  By 1816 she was a b l e t o o r g a n i z e a s m a l l s c h o o l  f o r the c h i l d r e n i n the p r i s o n s .  By the next year the  " A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Improvement o f Women P r i s o n e r s " was formed.  She appeared before the House o f Commons t o plead  f o r separate q u a r t e r s f o r men and women, and f o r s e p a r a t i o n o f debtors from those who had committed s e r i o u s crimes.  She  and other Quakers j o i n e d w i t h the a s s o c i a t i o n f o r the a b o l i s h ment o f c a p i t a l punishment.  By an Act o f Parliament i n 1830,  c a p i t a l punishment f o r f o r g e r s was ended and the number o f crimes p u n i s h a b l e by death decreased b e g i n n i n g of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .  from 150 t o t e n by the  - 13  -  A " S o c i e t y f o r Lessening Delinquency" was  organized  the Causes o f  Juvenile  by F r i e n d s whose i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  found thousands o f London c h i l d r e n l i v i n g by  robbery.  W i l l i a m A l l e n , a w e l l known p h i l a n t h r o p i s t and  scientist,  and  "Hunger, slum-  P e t e r B r a d f o r d were a c t i v e i n t h i s group.  l i v i n g , l a c k o f work, and a minimum o f education were the causes o f crime and the f i e l d of c h i l d  delinquency. '  T h i s was  1  welfare.  Quakers b e l i e v e t h a t the man as a human being In the man  and  pioneer work i n  and  i n p r i s o n has  rights'  that t o c o r r e c t the cause o f the crime,  i n s o c i e t y , should  treatment o f p r i s o n e r s .  be the o b j e c t i v e of s o c i e t y ' s  As a r e s u l t of t h e i r endeavors, the  Howard League f o r Penal Reform was  organized  Perm i n s t i t u t e d p r i s o n reforms i n h i s colony  i n 1866.  William  i n America,  l i m i t i n g c a p i t a l punishment to t r e a s o n and murder, and  allow-  i n g b a i l except f o r c a p i t a l o f f e n s e s  lodging  for prisoners.  "The  f r e e food and  Philadelphia Society for Relieving  Distressed Prisoners", an  a s s o c i a t i o n of F r i e n d s  o f the Walnut S t r e e t P r i s o n i n 1790, ments, p r o v i d e d  and  i n charge  abandoned c r u e l p u n i s h -  work, garden walks, and  sanitary f a c i l i t i e s .  S o l i t a r y confinement f o r p r i s o n e r s ' meditations  was  abandoned because of the c o r r u p t i o n o f i d l e n e s s and  eventually increase  1 Van E t t e n , Henry, " P r i s o n and P r i s o n e r s " . Quaker Approach. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1953> pp. 143-160.  The  - 14 o f mental i l l n e s s .  A new p e n i t e n t i a r y i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , Cherry  H i l l , i n t r o d u c e d work but kept the s o l i t a r y confinement. R e l i e f o f s u f f e r i n g o f F r i e n d s i n p r i s o n was r e v i v e d i n 1917 i n the United S t a t e s when there were at l e a s t f o u r thousand " u n w i l l i n g t o serve i n the armed f o r c e s f o r reasons o f c o n s c i e n c e . "  Though the law supposedly made a l l o w -  ance f o r Quakers, Mennonites and a few other groups, the c l a u s e was seldom a p p l i e d . g e n e r a l l y allowed they requested, 1943,  In World War I I , though they were not  t o do the work o f c o n s t r u c t i v e n a t u r e which  some were put i n s p e c i a l camps.  In J u l y ,  o f the 6000 F r i e n d s who were "C.O.'s", 594 were i n  prison.  The " P r i s o n S e r v i c e Committee"  o f the AFSC was  1  set-up t o help them. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Development A c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f the movement o f the S o c i e t y o f Friends  i s given through Howard B r i n t o n ' s  four periods of  Quaker h i s t o r y : "1.  The s y n t h e s i s or balance o f mysticism e v a n g e l i c a l i s m , about 1?00 t o 1800.  and  2.  The p e r i o d o f g r e a t e r m y s t i c a l inwardness, about 1700 t o 1800.  3.  The c o n f l i c t o f mysticism about 1800 t o 1900.  4.  The r i s e o f a paramount i n t e r e s t i n r a t i o n a l i s m and the s o c i a l g o s p e l , about 1900 ." 2  1  and e v a n g e l i c a l i s m ,  0p_. c i t . , Van E t t e n , pp. 159-160  2 B r i n t o n , Howard, F r i e n d s f o r 300 Y e a r s , Harper & B r o s . 1952, p. 176.  A f t e r the f i r s t p e r i o d o f deep c o n v i c t i o n and i n tense m i s s i o n a r y man.  z e a l , came t h a t o f t h e growth o f the i n n e r  Emphasis was given t o o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e  Society of Friends.  Each group o f F r i e n d s i s a Meeting.  T h e i r business meetings, u s u a l l y h e l d once a month, are c a l l e d Monthly Meetings.  Two o r more groups u n i t e f o r Q u a r t e r l y  Meetings, and t h e l a r g e s t g a t h e r i n g i s the Y e a r l y Meeting. An important  group, from the p o i n t o f view o f t h i s study, i s  that designated  as the Meetings f o r S u f f e r i n g s , a r e p r e s e n -  t a t i v e body formed i n England i n 1675 from the Y e a r l y Meetings t o d e a l w i t h the r e l i e f o f F r i e n d s under p e r s e c u t i o n , and p e r haps the f i r s t b i g s t e p toward the formation F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee.  A still  o f the American  l a r g e r group, the F i v e  Years Meeting, was formed i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , l a t e r , and a Uniform D i s c i p l i n e o r d e c l a r a t i o n o f f a i t h was drawn up i n 1887  but t h i s d i d not c o n t r i b u t e t o u n i t y . John Woolman (1720-1772) was an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the  s e n s i t i v e Quaker s p i r i t — s e n s i t i v e t o the power o f l o v e and w e l l - b e i n g o f man.  He was a c t i v e i n s o c i a l a c t i o n , a preacher  and w r i t e r o f c o n s i d e r a b l e a b i l i t y , who used methods s i m i l a r to those used today i n v i s i t i n g homes and having  intimate t a l k s  to help the l a b o r i n g man, t h e I n d i a n , o r the s l a v e .  I t was  he who l e d the F r i e n d s t o d e c l a r e t h a t h o l d i n g any man i n s e r v i t u d e , without  pay and a g a i n s t h i s w i l l , was d i s o b e y i n g the  w i l l o f God. The f i r s t o f f i c i a l statement was that o f 1758, a p i o n e e r step towards the a b o l i t i o n o f s l a v e r y i n the United S t a t e s .  I n England, t h e movement l e d by W l l b e r f o r c e  - 16 and  Joseph S t u r g e f i n a l l y accomplished the passage of the Act  o f 1833  which e n f r a n c h i s e d  between seven or e i g h t m i l l i o n  s l a v e s i n the B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s , and l e a s e d the negro a p p r e n t i c e s "In b u s i n e s s ,  of a f u r t h e r Act which r e -  i n the West I n d i e s . " *  too, Woolman l e d i n the i d e a o f  s e r v i c e as a b a s i s of s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s ,  and  the  efficient  salesmanship e s t a b l i s h e d f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h customer or client."  2  The i n t r o v e r t and in splits  t h i r d p e r i o d brought a c o n f l i c t between the e x t r o v e r t elements i n the F r i e n d s , which r e s u l t e d  i n t o e v a n g e l i c a l and more orthodox groups.  a f t e r the R e v o l u t i o n a r y War, o f any saw  Until  Quakers were the most numerous  r e l i g i o u s group i n N o r t h America, but t h i s t h i r d  period  a decrease i n numbers i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the p o p u l a t i o n ,  t o the i n c r e a s e d  emphasis on r e s t r i c t i o n s , as there was  contact w i t h the o u t s i d e w o r l d .  The  more  P h i l a d e l p h i a branch, out  o f which the American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee evolved, midway between the e v a n g e l i c a l , a u t h o r i t a r i a n , and a l l y conservative  branch, and  non-creedal branch. ^  The  due  the more m y s t i c a l ,  diagram on page 16A  stood  theologic-  liberal,  shows the  divisions. Mental H o s p i t a l s Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i s the a c t i v i t y  j Canter,  1  PJB.» cit*  2  0j>. c i t . , Woodman, p.  28,  3  0p_. c i t . , Brinton, p.  193  p. 200  - 16A Fig* 1.  Divisions i n American Quakerism as Related to Mystical and Evangelical Trends  1 7 5 0  The diagram indicates only the beginning of separations, sometimes taking place over a period of time.  MYSTICAL  I / A P U A S i S-E V A N G E L I C A  Brinton, Howard, FRIENDS FOR 3 0 0 YEARS, N.Y., Harpers and Brothers, 1 9 5 2 , Page 1 9 7 ,  - 17 of Friends  toward treatment o f mental i l l n e s s .  Previously,  t h e r e had been mention o f a need f o r a home f o r t h e demented so that they would not be out on the s t r e e t s , but i t was over 10G  y e a r s before W i l l i a m Tuke brought the i d e a b e f o r e the  F r i e n d s Y e a r l y Meeting i n 1792.  He became superintendent o f  such a home and emphasized k i n d n e s s , as l i t t l e r e s t r a i n t as p o s s i b l e , and p l e a s a n t  and r e s t f u l s u r r o u n d i n g s .  another such home was e s t a b l i s h e d i n D u b l i n ,  By 1811,  Ireland.  More  r e c e n t l y , a t A s f u r i y e h i n The Lebanon, the o n l y l a r g e mental h o s p i t a l i n t h e M i d d l e East was founded by a F r i e n d , T h e o p h i l u s Waldmeier.^ The  f o u r t h and l a s t p e r i o d brought an i n c r e a s i n g  emphasis on t h e r e t u r n t o the " p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y " — t h e o r i g i n a l p r i n c i p l e s founded on the Inward L i g h t and on the New Testament. E d u c a t i o n f o r Women B e f o r e l e a v i n g the h i s t o r y o f the S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s , e a r l i e r c a l l e d the " S o c i e t y f o r T r u t h " , mention should be made o f t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h e s t a t u s o f women and t o education. George Fox thought t h a t education f o r both boys and g i r l s . was  should  U s u a l l y , wherever a meeting house  b u i l t , a s c h o o l was c o n s t r u c t e d  beside  i t . W i l l i a m Perm  wrote t h a t n o t o n l y grammar and languages should but  s c i e n c e and mechanics.  1  be provided  be taught,  Boarding schools were s t a r t e d ,  Op. c i t . . Canter, pp. 122-123  - 18 p a r t l y t o p r o v i d e enough teachers t o supply the elementary schools.  C o l l e g e s were b u i l t l a t e r i n America, A f r i c a , A s i a ,  A u s t r a l i a , and Great B r i t a i n .  One o r i g i n a l f e a t u r e i n  s e v e r a l o f them i s the emphasis on nature study. Marriage s i m i l a r t o Doukhobors E a r l y Quaker women shared equal s t a t u s w i t h the men i n r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s , and some o f them s u f f e r e d much i n t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s o f those pioneer Quakers who p u b l i c l y proclaimed their faith.  S i n c e t h e r e i s no Quaker p r i e s t h o o d , marriages  are conducted by the couple i n the meeting-house a t a Meeting f o r Worship, where i n s i l e n c e and p r a y e r they r i s e and say t h e i r vows t o each o t h e r .  I f a F r i e n d m a r r i e s some one not' a  F r i e n d , p e r m i s s i o n Is asked o f the Meeting t o do so, and a committee looks i n t o the matter.  A t the present time, t h i s i s  more a form than a s t e r n r e s t r i c t i o n .  Some o f these customs  are s i m i l a r t o those o f the Canadian Doukhobors. c  S i n c e t h e Quakers were not i n f a v o r o f the m i l i t a r y  or church p r o f e s s i o n s , many have gone i n t o s c i e n c e and h e a l t h professions.  George Fox h i m s e l f . h a d s p e c i a l a b i l i t y i n  h e a l i n g both body and s p i r i t and John B e l l e r s , John  Hunter,  and D r . Jenner have gained d i s t i n c t i o n i n the f i e l d o f medicine.  CHAPTER 2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE  AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE  In the previous work and  chapter  i t s development was  a b r i e f explanation of  f o l l o w e d by a summary of  social  the  h i s t o r y o f the S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s as i t s growth p e r t a i n e d the e v o l u t i o n o f the s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n .  Besides  p h i l o s o p h i c a l concepts and methods which the S o c i e t y buted to s o c i a l work, a separate  o r g a n i z a t i o n was  to  the contri-  set up  to  g i v e a d d i t i o n a l and more e f f i c i e n t o u t l e t s f o r the American F r i e n d s ' emphasis on community o r g a n i z a t i o n through group work and s o c i a l a c t i o n .  T h i s became the American F r i e n d s  S e r v i c e Committee. Development o f the American F r i e n d s Committees before  Service  E n g l i s h F r i e n d s were i n v o l v e d i n World War  the United S t a t e s , and,  I  f e e l i n g unable t o j o i n the con-  f l i c t w i t h the use o f f o r c e , they asked f o r v o l u n t e e r s  for  ambulance work, refugee r e l i e f , a s s i s t a n c e t o a l i e n s and scientious objectors. war,  con-  F r i e n d s have always b e l i e v e d that i n  as i n any disagreement, the purpose i s to change the mind  o f the enemy, not  to a n n i h i l a t e him.  V i o l e n c e does not change  the mind, but l o v e does; t h e r e f o r e , they use weapons of brotherly love.  F r i e n d s i n the United S t a t e s sympathized  those i n England, and sent c o n t r i b u t i o n s and When the United S t a t e s n e u t r a l i t y pledges,  entered  many young men  with  some workers.  the war,  i n spite of  f e l t they c o u l d not go  to  - 20 b a t t l e but wanted j u s t as u r g e n t l y t o give t h e i r l i v e s " f o r the u n i t y o f men i n the f a m i l y o f God."  1  Twenty-four days  a f t e r war was d e c l a r e d , a group o f f o u r t e e n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f Y e a r l y Meetings i n the United S t a t e s , met i n Philadelphia.  Under the l e a d e r s h i p o f Rufus Jones, the Amer-  i c a n F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee was formed, d e c l a r i n g t h i s statement o f purposes  "We a r e u n i t e d i n e x p r e s s i n g our l o v e  f o r our country and our d e s i r e t o serve her l o y a l l y .  We o f f e r  o u r s e l v e s t o the Government o f the United S t a t e s i n any cons t r u c t i v e work i n which we can c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y serve humanity. R e l i e f i n World War I t The f i r s t step i n the r e l i e f programme o f World War I was c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the government and  the Red C r o s s .  One hundred men, chosen from many  a p p l i c a n t s , were s e l e c t e d t o take the short t r a i n i n g at Haverford  course  C o l l e g e and were sent t o France where they  j o i n e d the M i s s i o n i n i t i a t e d two years b e f o r e by E n g l i s h Friends.  Soon, almost six-hundred  men and women from AFSC  were working t h e r e , h e l p i n g the French d i s t r i b u t e  medical  s u p p l i e s , f o o d , and c l o t h i n g i n more than 1600 v i l l a g e s , r e b u i l d i n g homes, r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r i e s , and  caring f o r children.  "From 1917-1919 S e r v i c e Committee  teams went i n t o A u s t r i a , Germany, Poland, R u s s i a , and Serbia.'?  1 AFSC, The S t o r y o f the American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee. 1917-1952, P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1952, passim. 2  I b i d . Passim.  3 P i c k e t t , C.E., For More Than Bread. Boston, L i t t l e , Brown & Company, p. 85, 1953.  At ren  the i n v i t a t i o n o f Herbert Hoover, about one m i l l i o n  child-  were f e d each day during the worst p e r i o d s o f 1920 to  1922 i n Germany.  Many s t o r i e s are t o l d of the d e v o t i o n t o  assignments and unique and r e s o u r c e f u l methods used t o f i t the  need. Because o f the p e c u l i a r d i f f i c u l t i e s  relief  i n Russian  i n 1918, the Quakers were the only o u t s i d e  commission i n that country.  In A u s t r i a , i n t h e e a r l y 1920's,  a f r e s h m i l k d i s t r i b u t i o n p l a n was Committee  relief  e f f e c t e d which caused the  t o be the l a r g e s t d i s t r i b u t o r of m i l k i n Vienna. R e a l i z i n g that the seeds o f another war would grow  from the r e v i v a l o f n a t i o n a l i s m i n Germany, the Committee  felt  that a great e f f o r t should be made t o help them and t o promote understanding and f r i e n d s h i p .  The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Centers formed  i n s i x d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s i n 1922-1923, s t a f f e d by permanent r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from England and America, served to forward t h i s aim. Post-War Y e a r s : (World War  I)  A f t e r the war, hundreds o f young  people o f f e r e d t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o the Committee.  The emphasis  seemed to be more on work i n the United S t a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the coming o f the d e p r e s s i o n .  "Work i n the c o a l mines,  beginnings o f s e l f - h e l p housing, the f i r s t work camp, peace caravans, the f i r s t  p a r t of the race r e l a t i o n s program, and  work i n Mexico began at t h i s p o i n t .  Back of a l l t h i s work  was of  a r e a c t i o n t o what was relief — a  d e s c r i b e d as the ' b a s i c immorality  r e c o g n i t i o n o f the urgent needs, o f which r e -  l i e f needs were o n l y a symptom, to do something  which would  h e l p e l i m i n a t e c o n d i t i o n s that made r e l i e f n e c e s s a r y . " * T h i s meant the development of programs concerned w i t h economic j u s t i c e , race r e l a t i o n s , and peace e d u c a t i o n . Meanwhile, i n 1937> the need f o r help i n S p a i n caused  the F r i e n d s of AFSC t o send workers t o j o i n the Mennon-  i t e s and B r e t h r e n i n b o t h N a t i o n a l i s t and L o y a l i s t S p a i n . When the refugees poured s e t t i n g up canteens  Into F r a n c e , Quakers went w i t h them,  along the way,  and m i n i s t e r i n g t o t h e i r ,  needs when i n France. A y e a r l a t e r , World War  I I broke out, and  refugees  from H o l l a n d , Belgium, and Luxembourg, f i l l e d the roads going south.  AFSC workers i n P a r i s u t i l i z e d  a l a r g e swimming p o o l  as a h o s t e l f o r 3000 people who  a r r i v e d a t n i g h t and l e f t i n  the morning, moving southward.  During the war,  the Committee spread around  the work o f  the globe from the United S t a t e s  to A u s t r i a , C h i n a , F i n l a n d , F r a n c e , Germany, Hungary, I n d i a , I t a l y , Japan, and Poland.  "By the end of 1946,  the Committee's  budget f o r the next f i s c a l year c a l l e d f o r seven m i l l i o n d o l l a r s f o r r e l i e f programs a l o n e .  C l o t h i n g shipments  that  year t o t a l l e d c l o s e t o seven hundred t o n s . "  1  AFSC, Handbook f o r P r o j e c t Leaders. P h i l a d e l p h i a  2  0p_. c i t . p. 5  1953, P. 5  -  23  -  The Committee administered some o f the C i v i l i a n P u b l i c S e r v i c e Camps f o r c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s as w e l l as " s p e c i a l s e r v i c e u n i t s through which men camps t o work i n mental h o s p i t a l s and  were r e l e a s e d from  to serve as  p i g s ' i n the s e a r c h f o r ways to c o n t r o l or cure j a u n d i c e , v i r u s pneumonia, and m a l a r i a , and  'guinea  typhus,  i n experiments  w i t h s t a r v a t i o n d i e t s and h i g h a l t i t u d e c o n d i t i o n s . 3,400 men  Some  were i n the camps and s p e c i a l u n i t s administered  the S e r v i c e Committee."  1  A f t e r the second World War, were i n t e n s i f i e d . elementary  by  e d u c a t i o n a l programs  A S c h o o l A f f i l i a t i o n S e r v i c e matched  and h i g h schools i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h s c h o o l s  i n Germany, the Netherlands, France,  I t a l y and Japan, f o r the  purpose o f exchanging needed s u p p l i e s f o r l e t t e r s , poems, p a i n t i n g s , and  by 1949,  teachers and s t u d e n t s .  The  Committee  of Educational Materials f o r C h i l d r e n published l e t t e r s f o r parents and t e a c h e r s as w e l l as f o r c h i l d r e n , and was  set up  t o encourage f r i e n d s h i p s between c h i l d r e n i n the United S t a t e s and those i n other c o u n t r i e s . Though i t was  necessary  to give r e l i e f many times,  Quakers b e l i e v e that the c o n t r a s t between p l e n t y i n one and want i n another ship.  do not s t i m u l a t e understanding  Other means of g e t t i n g c o u n t r i e s and peoples  themselves are used wherever i t seems p o s s i b l e .  1  Ibid  and  country friend-  to help  For example,  -  i n 1947  t h e r e was  24  -  a need i n F i n l a n d f o r an expert  on s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s t o help develop and Committee was  f i n d markets.  The  a b l e t o do t h i s , which meant f u r n i s h i n g a t o o l  f o r them t o be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t .  T h i s i s the type of work which  the S e r v i c e Committee attempts to do. c h a r a c t e r were f u r n i s h e d to I n d i a and I t a l y , and  authority  Tools  of s i m i l a r  Pakistan, China, I s r a e l ,  Mexico.  Current  Activities:  B e s i d e s the r e g u l a r AFSC a c t i v i t i e s , s o c i a l t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s being countries.  E l Salvador,  given to p r o j e c t s i n s i x  I n d i a , I s r a e l , I t a l y , Mexico,  J o r d a n have v a r y i n g degrees o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , and  propaganda  provided.  I n d i a and  Pakistan:  In I n d i a are two The  and  publicity  major programs at the present  time.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Center at Decca w i l l be mentioned under  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Centers.  The  other program i s that of S o c i a l  and  Technical Assistance.  one  i n Madhya P r a s e s h , were undertaken i n December,  Two  p r o j e c t s , one  i n Orissa  - a f t e r a survey team of t w o — a n a g r i c u l t u r i s t and was  and  sent t o v i s i t  an  decided  economist,—  p r o j e c t , and  that the purpose would be  IV  private  They t a l k e d w i t h government o f f i c i a l s who  knowledge or concern about a i t was  1951»  e x i s t i n g p r o j e c t s o f the TJ.N., of Point  of the Food Program, of the Indian Government, and organizations.  and  had  after discussion,  to share t e c h n i c a l  and  s o c i a l s k i l l s and  25  -  experiences.  Through j o i n t  efforts,  improved standards o f food, h e a l t h , s h e l t e r , and would be planned and of t e n s i o n and philosophy  education  p r o v i d e d — a b a s i c a t t a c k on the causes  insecurity.  T h i s i s i n l i n e w i t h the Quaker  that such methods can a v e r t war  i f used on a l a r g e  enough s c a l e , and w i l l d i v e r t a t t e n t i o n from the mounting Communist and  anti-Communist war  hysteria.  It i s also a w e l l -  known p r i n c i p l e o f s o c i a l work that when b a s i c needs are people do not have the mounting h o s t i l i t y and  met,  aggression  which  would otherwise be used to a c q u i r e these n e c e s s i t i e s of For vided  the f i r s t  two  y e a r s , p r o j e c t funds were p r o -  i n p a r t by the T e c h n i c a l C o o p e r a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  the United S t a t e s Department of S t a t e , though AFSC independent d i r e c t i o n . ten y e a r s , and The  the one  The  p r o j e c t i n O r i s s a i s planned f o r  i n Madya Pradesh f o r f i v e  years.  O r i s s a p i l o t p r o j e c t i s l o c a t e d i n twenty  t e c h n i c i a n s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t i m u l a t i n g  public health,  cooperatives,  ten  and  v i l l a g e industry.  t r a i n t e n v i l l a g e workers who  The  and  local  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e , education,  and  crafts,  technicians  work "at the v i l l a g e  level,"  e v e n t u a l l y w i l l c a r r y on the p r o j e c t when the western  t e c h n i c i a n s withdraw. In Madhya Pradesh the B r i t i s h F r i e n d s C o u n c i l has  of  has  v i l l a g e s surrounding the town of B a r p a l i where Western Indian  life.  been sponsoring,  Service  w i t h the l o c a l government, an  - 26 85-bed h o s p i t a l , a 40-acre farm, an elementary s c h o o l , a consumer c o o p e r a t i v e .  With the help of AFSC, they are  expanding the o u t r e a c h to t w e n t y - f i v e doubling  and now  nearby v i l l a g e s ,  the s i z e of the demonstration farm and  model d a i r y to a i d development of a m i l k  adding a  cooperative.  The work i n I n d i a d i f f e r s from most AFSC p r o j e c t s i n t h a t expert  t e c h n i c i a n s are sent t o share t h e i r knowledge,  i n s t e a d of u n t r a i n e d  but w i l l i n g workers.  They d i f f e r from  P o i n t IV t e c h n i c i a n s i n that t h e i r a t t i t u d e s are so screened beforehand t h a t i t w i l l be c e r t a i n they have a b e l i e f i n the b a s i c AFSC p r i n c i p l e s and r a t h e r than one who  have the h u m i l i t y o f one who  c o n t r o l s the s i t u a t i o n .  they must have some a b i l i t y to l o v e and  shares,  In other words,  get along w i t h people  as w e l l as t e c h n i c a l knowledge. Israels From 1948  to 1953  a team was  sent t o  distribute!U?N.  s u p p l i e s i n the Gaza s t r i p i n southern P a l e s t i n e . 200,000 Arab refugees r e c e i v e d s u p p l i e s . i n l a r g e t e n t s , u s i n g refugee teachers By A p r i l , 1950,  there. U.N.  The  S c h o o l s were s t a r t e d  to supplement the  the program was  turned  t r a i n e d workers on the team had  c a r r y on the work wherever p o s s i b l e .  Over  The  over to  few  the  t r a i n e d Arabs t o U.N.  planned to  change the program from r e l i e f to p u b l i c works and  local  action. B e f o r e t h i s ended, three other programs were planned. "In February, 1950,  an a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t i n the Arab v i l l a g e  of  Tur'an, near Nazareth, was  begun; i n October o f the sane  y e a r , work commenced i n the Community Center i n the o l d c i t y of A c r e . 1952  An i n t e r n a t i o n a l work camp has been h e l d d u r i n g  and 1953,  and seven young Arabs were t r a i n e d i n mechanical  s k i l l s by the end of the year 1953  t o a i d i n the program."  On the s t a f f i n Tur'an were two members, and A l l were t r a i n e d  1  two were i n A c r e .  specialists.  The purpose of the work i n P a l e s t i n e was good w i l l t o both Arab and Jew  t o show  i n h e l p i n g the p l a n of r e -  s e t t l e m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the Arabs f e l t that the United S t a t e s was  s i d i n g w i t h the Jews i n the  conflict.  Jordan: A f t e r a two-man survey of the Middle E a s t , p l a n n i n g a r e s e t t l e m e n t p r o j e c t f o r Arab r e f u g e e s , i t was  decided,  i n s t e a d , t o have a community development p r o j e c t s i m i l a r t o the p a t t e r n o f the one  i n Orissa, India, with trained tech-  n i c i a n s t r a i n i n g l o c a l people. others are to f o l l o w . of  Two  have begun the work, and  The Ford Foundation  i s p r o v i d i n g most  the money f o r the f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s , beginning i n  1953.  Italy: In I t a l y , t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s emphasized more than s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  AFSC has one s t a f f member working  a l o n g s i d e f o u r or f i v e other s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g  1  0p_. c i t . F i n a n c i a l Manual, p.  67  28 * the Union f o r the S t r u g g l e a g a i n s t I l l i t e r a c y . m a t e r i a l a i d a r e being given.  AFSC has shared  F i n a n c i a l and i nbuilding  about e i g h t community centers w i t h the purpose o f r a i s i n g the l e v e l o f l i v i n g , and has helped w i t h t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g courses, a g r i c u l t u r a l experiments, h a n d i c r a f t s , and economic r e h a b i l itation. Mexico and E l S a l v a d o r : An e x t e n s i v e work camp program i s c a r r i e d on i n Mexico, which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s .  In  E l S a l v a d o r , a t the i n v i t a t i o n o f the M i n i s t r y o f P u b l i c Health, an AFSC U n i t j o i n e d the United Nations  I n t e g r a l Demonstration  A r e a f o r H e a l t h and E d u c a t i o n , and s t a r t e d settlement o f l a n d l e s s a g r i c u l t u r a l workers on the c o o p e r a t i v e farms i n 1952. The men o f the u n i t a r e b u i l d i n g houses, w h i l e the women help i n the equipping o f p u b l i c h e a l t h c l i n i c s and d i s p e n s a r i e s , a s s i s t t e a c h e r s , and c a r r y on a manual a r t s and c r a f t s program. Some a r e doing beginning s o c i a l work under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the government s o c i a l workers, h e l p i n g the people a d j u s t t o new ideas and h a b i t s o f l i v i n g .  The E l S a l v a d o r program a l s o  comes under s o c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , but the Mexican work i s t h a t o f AFSC w i t h o n l y the propaganda and p u b l i c i t y s u p p l i e d by TCA. Japan: Pre-war contacts w i t h the Japan Y e a r l y Meeting l e d  - 29 to AFSC j o i n i n g w i t h LARA and l a t e r opening Center of  i n J u l y , 194-9.  a Neighborhood  The government r e c o g n i z e d AFSC as one  the three v o l u n t a r y agencies s u p p l y i n g r e l i e f  goods.  (Church World S e r v i c e and the N a t i o n a l C a t h o l i c Welfare Conf e r e n c e a r e t h e other two.) The p l a n f o r 1953-54 i s t o send 150,000 gross pounds i n m a t e r i a l a i d . c o s t s connected  NCSW pays f o r a l l  with i t .  A neighborhood c e n t e r and a day n u r s e r y a r e l o c a t e d i n Tokyo, and a k i n d e r g a r t e n and neighborhood center i n Setagaya.  Another c e n t e r I n M i t o , about seventy m i l e s from  Tokyo i s i n the O l d F r i e n d s Meeting House and i s sponsored i n p a r t by t h a t L o c a l Meeting.  There a r e s i x s t a f f members i n  Japan. Chinas In 1951 the F r i e n d s withdrew from China a f t e r and a h a l f years o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , m e d i c a l s e r v i c e , and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n through the F r i e n d s S e r v i c e U n i t .  five  relief, Pre-  v i o u s l y , the F r i e n d s Ambulance U n i t was a c t i v e i n World War I I . Korea: A h o s p i t a l and a s e r v i c e c e n t e r a r e being  provided  by a team o f s i x d o c t o r s , three nurses, a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n expert and h i s w i f e who i s the s e c r e t a r y . coast o f Korea i n Kunsan.  T h i s i s on the west  People w i t h s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g  are a l s o being sent t o t h i s new p r o j e c t .  Tons o f c l o t h i n g have  been s e n t , but many other s u p p l i e s a r e needed.  - 30 F l o y d Schmoe's program o f "Houses f o r Korea" i s being sponsored  by the U.N. i n Kyonggi-do p r o v i n c e , south o f  Seoul. Elmer Brown was sent t o make a survey tour o f the s i t u a t i o n b e f o r e the U n i t was e s t a b l i s h e d , and other a i d i s being  planned. Austria: As a p a r t o f the Germany-Austria Refugee S e r v i c e s  Program, AFSC has s e t up s e v e r a l refugee p r o j e c t s . l o a n p r o j e c t w i t h a r e v o l v i n g fund serves  A farm  Upper-Austria,  S a l z b u r g , and Kaernten, where i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e made b e f o r e a p p r o v a l i s g i v e n , w i t h the g o a l o f s t i m u l a t i n g p r o g r e s s i v e and  s k i l l e d farmers.  T h i s p i l o t p r o j e c t suggested  a similar  p r o j e c t t o the A u s t r i a n Government. A student employment program on a s e l f - h e l p b a s i s has  funds p r o v i d e d by AFSC from Ford-U.N. funds'.  s i t i e s o f Innsbruck, ion.  The u n i v e r -  Graz, and Vienna help i n student  select-  T h i s a l s o a i d s the s o c i a l w e l f a r e programs, such as  camps f o r refugee c h i l d r e n f o r day c a r e , t o improve the q u a l i t y of t h e i r  services.  A l o a n fund f o r refugee tradesmen and i n t e l l e c t u a l s has been s e t up s i m i l a r t o the Farm Loan p r o j e c t , g i v i n g about t h i r t y loans i n 1953.  Language t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s a r e  g i v e n f o r p r o s p e c t i v e emigrants.  Quakerhaus i s shared  with  B r i t i s h and Swedish F r i e n d s t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r young and o l d .  -  31  -  A summer work camp has been arranged w i t h Quaker I n t e r n a t i o n a l V o l u n t e e r S e r v i c e , and an i n t e r n a t i o n a l student seminar has been h e l d i n Graz.  Supply d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n c l u d e  student d o c t o r s , TB c h i l d r e n , the b l i n d , d e l i n q u e n t g i r l s * home, t r a i n i n g s c h o o l f o r c r i p p l e d persons, and o l d people's homes.  Approximately  $ 1 5 4 , 2 3 0 i n s u p p l i e s was  distributed.  The AFSC s t a f f i n A u s t r i a c o n s i s t s of two v o l u n t e e r appointees. France: The refugee program and the work w i t h students i s being c a r r i e d on under the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Centers Program. (See below) Germany: A neighborhood  center i n B e r l i n has a v a r i e d  gram i n c l u d i n g week-end seminars  pro-  and work camps, a k i n d e r -  g a r t e n and summer day-care camp f o r c h i l d r e n , w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s f o r r e f u g e e s , and  s p e c i a l conferences f o r community l e a d e r s  i n e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l work, and r e l i g i o u s a f f a i r s . neighborhood  Other  c e n t e r s w i t h some o f the same a c t i v i t i e s are i n  Cologne, Darmstadt, F r a n k f o r t , and Wuppertal. a l s o has a c h i l d - g u i d a n c e c l i n i c .  The l a s t named  These c e n t e r s , German-  American run w i t h a f f i l i a t i o n i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t s , are c o o p e r a t i v e , w i t h an average  of h a l f  self-  supporting. Student  c e n t e r s are l o c a t e d i n Munich and F r e i b u r g ,  which are being turned over t o the u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r management,  - 32 the l a t t e r under the s t u d e n t s .  The m a t e r i a l a i d s program  shipped $525,059 worth o f s u p p l i e s i n 1952-53 t o r e f u g e e s , dependents of m i s s i n g or dead e x - s o l d i e r s , and r e t u r n i n g p r i s o n e r s of The  war. refugees s e r v i c e s program i n Germany i s a r e s u l t  of a s p e c i a l study i n 1951-52, and  i s a part of a  six-agency  program of the United Nations High Commissioner f o r Refugees. AFSC-operated p r o j e c t s ares  (1)  Oldenburg, where the u n i t  c o n c e n t r a t e s on r e s e t t l e m e n t o f refugees i n camps. DP  (2)  Munich  camp, where a s m a l l k i n d e r g a r t e n and an a d u l t l i b r a r y h e l p  t o b r i n g Germans and DP's  together.  Indigenous p r o j e c t s where a i d i s given l o c a l groups are b e l i e v e d t o encourage s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  They ares  (1)  student employment, (2)  (3)  v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and placement of refugee youth.  from the Ford Foundation  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f refugee homes, Money  i s used i n a l l these p r o j e c t s , though  AFSC pays f o r most o f the p e r s o n n e l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s . There are s i x t e e n AFSC s t a f f members i n Germany. The Doukhobor P r o j e c t s The American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee, c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h the F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee, was  asked  by the Canadian  Government to a i d i n s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t w i t h the Sons of F r e e d o m — a Doukhobor s e c t — i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. The F r i e n d s had a s s i s t e d the Doukhobors i n t h e i r move to western Canada from R u s s i a i n 1899.  In t h e i r p a c i f i s t  and  - 33 r e l i g i o u s views the two groups had much i n common, but, i n addition, the Sons of Freedom have been unable to accept the idea of c i t i z e n s h i p , and have come i n c o n f l i c t with the l o c a l community.  The o r i g i n a l resistance stemmed from t h e i r r e -  f r a i n i n g to support anything pertaining to war. Emmett Gulley and his wife,'Zoe, have worked since 1950 with the Consultative Committee made up of representatives from the three Doukhobor sects, the Friends, the churches, the boards of trade, and scholars and s c i e n t i s t s of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Though the Committee i s  no longer operative the Gulleys have continued the government.  to work with  The p r o v i n c i a l government of B r i t i s h Columbia  assumes the major cost of the work. Community Relations This program arose from the concern i n race r e l a t i o n s i n 194-4.  I t now includes Community  P r o j e c t f i l l e d Counseling,  Counseling,  the Washington D.C. Community  Relations Program to eliminate segregation, and the North Richmond, C a l i f o r n i a , Neighborhood House, a community center for an i n t e r r a c i a l area of inadequate housing, sanitation and jobs.  Each of these a c t i v i t i e s attempts to resolve tension  between the AFSC work and the community. Community relations also includes a Job Opportuni t i e s Program for minority groups* a Housing Opportunities Program for r a c i a l integration, including cooperation with the  - 34 C a t h o l i c I n t e r r a c i a l C o u n c i l o f Chicago  on a p r o j e c t i n C i c e r o ,  I l l i n o i s ; and a V i s i t i n g L e c t u r e s h i p t o make a v a i l a b l e t o c o l l e g e s and h i g h schools negro l e c t u r e r s who a r e recognized authorities. Economic R e l a t i o n s S i n c e 1947 t h i s program has worked toward l a b o r management understanding, Seminars i n Chicago  has h e l d I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s  from 1947-49, and arranged  a conference  of Quaker economists i n 1950 which put f o r t h a statement o f Quaker b e l i e f s on i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s . Surpluses  A r e p o r t on "American  i n a Hungry World" evolved from a 1950 a g r i c u l t u r a l  seminar. American I n d i a n Program V o l u n t a r y work camps have been h e l d s i n c e 195 i n 2  A r i z o n a , New Mexico and C a l i f o r n i a and s h o r t v i s i t s were arranged  f o r Southwest Indian C h i l d r e n t o p r i v a t e homes i n  Los Angeles, where there i s a l s o an I n d i a n Center f o r i n f o r mation on community r e s o u r c e s . In Rapid C i t y , South Dakota, there i s a community p r o j e c t t o a i d i n food, s h e l t e r , and r e c r e a t i o n problems, and to i n c r e a s e understanding  between Indians and non-Indians.  Here, too, AFSC emphasizes the development o f i n i t i a t i v e and l e a d e r s h i p among the Indians. ,  -  35  -  Friends International Centers: The  I n t e r n a t i o n a l C e n t e r s , s t a f f e d by  n a t i o n a l groups o f a l l n a t i o n a l i t i e s , r e l i g i o u s  interbeliefs,  s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic c o n v i c t i o n s , "are l o c a t e d i n areas of t e n s i o n . . . . At the h e a r t of each c e n t e r i s the Quaker meeting f o r worship."  1  The program p r o v i d e s  activity—dis-  c u s s i o n groups " t o s e a r c h f o r b a s i c t r u t h s which r e c o n c i l e 2 differences,"  p r o j e c t s of d i r e c t r e l i e f or s e r v i c e s to  r e f u g e e s , or a p i l o t p r o j e c t such as the o p e r a t i o n of a s c h o o l i n the slum s e c t i o n of C a l c u t t a .  An i n t e r v i s i t a t i o n program  p r o v i d e s s p e c i a l i z e d p r o f e s s o r s and others f o r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  good w i l l  purposes.  "An  i n t e r n a t i o n a l team of F r i e n d s r e c r u i t e d  England, Mexico, Sweden, and i n New  the United S t a t e s met  from  together  York and worked together w i t h some o f the d e l e g a t i o n s  on the questions  of major concern  t o F r i e n d s which were being  c o n s i d e r e d by the General Assembly.  T h i s e f f o r t of the  Committee to r e l a t e moral v a l u e s and  experience  of F r i e n d s t o  p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s has been w e l l r e c e i v e d by the v a r i o u s delegations."  J  Meetings are h e l d i n Quaker House i n New  near the U.N.  building.  Some AFSC help i s given Centers 1  §p_» c i t . F i n a n c i a l Manual p.  2  Ibid.  3  Ibid.  U.N. York  i n D e l h i , the Dutch 85  - 36 Center i n Amsterdam, and i n Peking, i n cooperation with the B r i t i s h Friends. A Center i s supported by AFSC i n Kingston, Jamaica, i n conjunction with the American Friends Board of Missions.  The Geneva Center i s working with the Paris and New  York Centers on several international problems including EastWest tensions and the refugee problem.  The Center i n Dacca,  East Pakistan, has as i t s core r e c o n c i l i a t i o n work between India and Pakistan.  In Dacca, as i n the Center i n Shanghai,  an open forum i s maintained f o r widely divergent views. Shanghai also has a receiving home f o r orphans and a univers i t y student program, as do most of the Centers. International Student House i n Washington, D.C. also sponsored by AFSC, accomodates t h i r t y - f i v e foreign students, besides providing "a f u l l educational and entertainment program f o r four hundred resident and non-resident members. room ( i s ) open to a l l , regardless of race."  The dining  1  Other International Centers are located i n Mexico C i t y , Copenhagen, and Davis House i n Washington, D.C. International Seminars t In order that representatives from a l l countries may learn to study, work, l i v e , and play together to develop warm personal relationships, and thereby develop a desire to s e t t l e international problems, peacefully, International Service Seminars were arranged i n 194-3.  They have been held i n India,  Japan, and Europe. 1  0£. c i t .  F i n a n c i a l Manual, p. 85-3  - 37 Two diplomat seminars were h e l d i n S w i t z e r l a n d , August, 1953» attended by j u n i o r diplomats and c i v i l s e r v a n t s from Europe, North America, and A s i a .  Co-chairmen were Ralph  Bunche o f the U n i t e d Nations and G i l b e r t White, P r e s i d e n t o f Haverford C o l l e g e .  The f i r s t meeting i n 1952 was c a l l e d "an  experiment i n a d u l t s e l f - e d u c a t i o n . " In  1  1952, seminars f o r p u b l i c s c h o o l teachers and  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were i n i t i a t e d , and f o u r were h e l d i n 1953 i n Washington,  D . C , w i t h about t h i r t y members each.  The purpose  was t o h e l p the D i s t r i c t educators i n the change from a segregated t o an i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l system.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student  Seminars w i t h students from many c o u n t r i e s were h e l d i n seven S t a t e s and f i v e a d d i t i o n a l i n Europe and A s i a .  Seminars on  I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s have been h e l d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . M a t e r i a l A i d s Program: The shipment  of used c l o t h i n g which was begun i n  1917 has expanded t o i n c l u d e s u r p l u s f o o d s t u f f s made a v a i l a b l e by the U.S. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e .  G i f t s and d i s -  cards were s o l i c i t e d from the t e x t i l e , l e a t h e r , shoe, h o t e l , soap, and paper i n d u s t r i e s , w i t h m e d i c a l s u p p l i e s donated by manufacturers and s e n t overseas t o A u s t r i a , E l S a l v a d o r , France, Germany, Greece, I n d i a , I t a l y , Japan, Korea, Mexico, the M i d d l e E a s t , and P a k i s t a n .  A s m a l l amount went t o the U.S.A.  1 AFSC, American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee B u l l e t i n , P h i l a d e l p h i a , October, 1953* passim.  - 38 programs. was  The budget f o r s h i p p i n g and s t o r i n g i n 1952-53  $203,250 f o r about 1,425,000 pounds. S i n c e the emphasis of t h i s study i s p r i m a r i l y on  work o u t s i d e the United S t a t e s by AFSC, a b r i e f mention o f other s o c i a l s e r v i c e programs w i t h i n the S t a t e s w i l l be g i v e n . A few are g i v e n which are both i n the S t a t e s and abroad. The S c h o o l A f f i l i a t i o n S e r v i c e sponsors  an  inter-  n a t i o n a l teachers' conference and exchange of p u p i l s and t e a c h e r s among 113  American schools and 131  f o r e i g n schools  i n France, Germany, H o l l a n d , I t a l y , Japan, and Jordan. Committee on E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s f o r C h i l d r e n helps  The children  from s i x to twelve f i n d ways of s h a r i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l , r e l i g i o u s , r a c i a l , and economic groups - a t o t a l o f $83» 82, 2  g i f t s - i n - k i n d and cash d u r i n g 1952-53. has  e l e v e n c o l l e g e s e c r e t a r i e s who  The C o l l e g e Program  i n t e r p r e t AFSC t o a l l  l e v e l s of c o l l e g e l i f e . S e r v i c e s to C o n s c i e n t i o u s Objectors Is i n connection w i t h the c i v i l i a n work program w i t h seven thousand cons c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s assigned i n 1953  or s u b j e c t t o assignment.  F r i e n d s Peace S e r v i c e works d i r e c t l y w i t h F r i e n d s Meetings and Churches.  Peace Education programs d e a l w i t h other  church  groups, on the community l e v e l , farm and l a b o r groups, and works w i t h n a t i o n a l peace o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  S i n c e 1948  the  P r i s o n Work program has been a c t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n C a l i f ornia. S e v e r a l p i l o t p r o j e c t s i n s e l f - h e l p housing r e s u l t e d  - 39 i n the S e l f - H e l p c o u n s e l i n g S e r v i c e to make t h i s  experience  a v a i l a b l e t o other groups. A S e c r e t a r y f o r E d u c a t i o n works as l i a i s o n between e d u c a t i o n and AFSC and becomes aware of s i g n i f i c a n t  trends.  In the f i e l d of human r e l a t i o n s , S o c i a l S c i e n c e Seminars w i t h persons i n c u r r e n t h i s t o r y , s o c i a l psychology, p u b l i c o p i n i o n , and  anthropology,  i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , have been meeting  i n Davis House, Washington, D.C.  at r e g u l a r monthly i n t e r v a l s .  Another group of d i r e c t o r s of personnel of f e d e r a l agencies a l s o meets at Davis House.  Many I n s t i t u t e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l  R e l a t i o n s f o r c o l l e g e students students  and some f o r h i g h s c h o o l  are being h e l d y e a r l y . Work Camps i n the United S t a t e s are u s u a l l y i n slum  a r e a s , Indian R e s e r v a t i o n s , or w i t h migrant r u r a l workers, and  s i n c e 1934  about 193 p r o j e c t s w i t h over 3»000 people  been c a r r i e d on.  have  F u r t h e r word about work camps i n other  c o u n t r i e s i s g i v e n i n Chapter 2. i n - C o o p e r a t i v e s , and  Interne-in Industry,  Interne-  I n t e r n e - i n - A g r i c u l t u r e p r o j e c t s are  unique ways to g i v e young people  f i r s t hand knowledge o f  these  1 areas. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l workers are the I n s t i t u t i o n a l S e r v i c e U n i t s o f t e n to f i f t e e n members each, which work as r e g u l a r p e r s o n n e l w i t h i n mental h o s p i t a l s from three months to a year-round as attendants and  basis.  and not only help but  r e s u l t s of mental  They are p a i d the same  g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the causes  illness.  1 F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on any o f these a c t i v i t i e s be obtained from AFSC o f f i c e s .  may  CHAPTER 3 ADMINISTRATION OF THE AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE  To understand the i n d i v i d u a l projects of the AFSC and why  they continue to make a contribution to s o c i a l work,  i t i s necessary to have some conception of the administrative aspects of t h i s organization.  Almost no^written material  was  available for this study except a s t a f f handbook from the Philadelphia headquarters, and minutes of a few meetings of executive s e c r e t a r i e s . For a d d i t i o n a l f a c t s , the writer t r a v e l l e d to the S e a t t l e , Portland, and San Francisco Offices and was  able to discuss the administration of the Mexico pro-  gram with the d i r e c t o r of these projects on his v i s i t to San Francisco.  Correspondence with the Philadelphia headquarters  brought out a d d i t i o n a l facts which were not otherwise a v a i l able nor i n an organized form. This s o c i a l group work agency (See Chapter V p.130) i s an example of s o c i a l work administration with exceptional strengths i n some instances but with weaknesses, too.  The  AFSC i s unique i n i t s extensive and unusual use of volunteers and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n of techniques  for community planning  and  s o c i a l action. I . - Dynamics of AFSC Organization The development of this administrative framework  goes back t o the beginnings o f the S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s and t h e i r f i r s t l e a d e r , George Fox.  According  t o Roger W i l s o n ,  he showed something l i k e genius f o r d e v i s i n g methods o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which, i n the language o f the F r i e n d s , " l e f t the spirit  f r e e " and y e t maintained order w i t h i n the group and  between the Quakers and t h e i r o f t e n h o s t i l e F r i e n d s t r i e d t o accept  surroundings.  The  t h i s h o s t i l i t y without r e c r i m i n a t i o n ,  but o u t s i d e r s were not always sympathetic.  The American  F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee has c a r r i e d on t h i s method and t r a d i t i o n o f the F r i e n d s .  They do not b e l i e v e i n a h i e r a r c h y  o f a u t h o r i t y but have a form o f c i r c u l a r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f and boards ( v o l u n t e e r policy-making who, w i t h the s t a f f , formulate  the l a t t e r * s o f f i c i a l  The  members action)  a r e not there t o t e l l the others but t o serve a needed f u n c t i o n w i t h the a p p r o v a l  o f the o t h e r s .  In the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s , o f which there a r e t h i r t e e n , the e x e c u t i v e  s e c r e t a r y o f each a c t s as the team c o o r d i n a t o r .  He does not l a y out h i s program and show h i s s t a f f the job and h i s way o f doing  i t , s u p e r v i s i n g them i n d e t a i l as i s done i n  some s o c i a l work agencies, w i t h some e x p r e s s i o n  but p o i n t s out the work t o be done  o f h i s own i d e a s , l e a v i n g the job f o r the  s t a f f member t o do i n h i s own way.  The executive  t u r n s e t s the p o l i c y framework f o r the e x e c u t i v e The  program i s f i t t e d t o the person,  i n the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s , because o f the g e n e r a l  board i n secretary.  particularly abilities  ( r a t h e r than s p e c i a l i z e d ) and i n t e r e s t s o f the s t a f f member.  - 42  -  In other.words, s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and  s e l f - h e l p are greatly-  encouraged on the p a r t o f s t a f f members as w e l l as the people w i t h whom they work.  There i s not always a chance f o r c l o s e  s u p e r v i s i o n but a great  opportunity  f o r the development o f  >  initiative. new  Some apportionment of work i s made so that  member w i l l not be l i k e l y  the  t o attempt t o handle too much.  In some ways t h i s S e r v i c e Committee resembles a f a m i l y or a town where the people seem r e l a t e d to each other i n one way and  or another and  there  l o v i n g support f o r each o t h e r .  u t i v e s e c r e t a r y has  AFSC.  A r e g i o n a l o f f i c e exec-  s a i d that "weak s i s t e r s " who  work i n some o r g a n i z a t i o n s  not  Because of the s t r e n g t h of c h a r a c t e r necessary to hold  the  the c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y needed  job, most of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f are reputed to  possess a s t r o n g e r  than average p e r s o n a l i t y .  "Sibling rivalry"—more  frequent  average i n d i v i d u a l i s m and  There Is  i n work c a m p s — o r more than  f o r t h r i g h t n e s s , but  used or changed to proper p e r s p e c t i v e ing  could  can become q u i t e important i n the  t o the Quaker p o i n t of view and for  i s a s t r o n g f e e l i n g of u n i t y  these q u a l i t i e s  are a s s e t s when p i o n e e r -  ventures or courage i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the success of  the  work. Though r e l i e f work i s not  the primary purpose of  the  F r i e n d s , there are times when t h i s i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary i n order  t o keep the r e c i p i e n t s a l i v e and w e l l enough t o accept  other  help.  Other than i n war-torn areas,  g e n e r a l l y the f i r s t  r e l i e f i s not  emphasis as t h i s i s considered  secondary  - 43  -  to h e l p i n g people e s t a b l i s h emotional s t a b i l i t y and p h y s i c a l standards so t h a t they can take care of themselves. As volunteers according  i n most s o c i a l work a g e n c i e s ,  both the s t a f f  and  are c a r e f u l l y chosen f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n , to t h e i r motives and  personality qualities.  some s i t u a t i o n s , such as w i t h demoralized Aegean I s l a n d , i t was  refugees  on  In an  found t h a t workers from s e c u l a r agencies  were l e s s able to stand up to the sheer misery of the  sit-  uation.  and  The new  s e t t l e r s were as d i r t y , quarrelsome,  l a c k i n g i n i n t e g r i t y as could be found, and work w i t h them was  hot  rewarding as r e s u l t s were not It  noticeable.  i s to the c r e d i t of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  of  the  APSG t h a t they have been s e n s i t i v e t o both the needs of workers i n the f i e l d and and  the E x e c u t i v e  backing  to the d e s i r e s o f the  Board, and  to f i e l d workers and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to p o l i c y makers.  than i s t r u e of most s o c i a l work o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  each worker f e e l s that h i s l o y a l t y and  d e f i n i t i o n s , p. v i ) come from God, for  him  Precedence i n  i s g i v e n t o need r a t h e r than t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  tidiness—more As  Corporation  t h a t they are a b l e to g i v e  T h i s i s important i n a l l s o c i a l work agencies. the f i e l d  the  i t may  inspiration  (see  be more d i f f i c u l t  t o b e l i e v e that the " L i g h t w i t h i n " i s burning more  b r i g h t l y i n the o f f i c e at home than abroad. the worker abroad who  In other words,  w i l l n a t u r a l l y f e e l t h a t he has as  a knowledge of what needs to be done i n the emergency as a d m i n i s t r a t o r at home who  i s g i v i n g the o r d e r s .  He does  great the  - 44 r e a l i z e , however, that unprecedented needs, leading t o new t a c t i c s , may throw the Service Committee's plans out of gear and the person i n charge at the home o f f i c e w i l l be i n c l i n e d to s e l e c t purposes which w i l l s u i t the smooth running of the whole machinery.  A common f a u l t of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t o be  avoided i n s o c i a l work or i n business, i s t o assume more power than i s necessary f o r accomplishing the purpose.  Because  h u m i l i t y i s considered an e s s e n t i a l v i r t u e of a s t a f f member, Friends are p a r t i c u l a r l y wary of a p p l i c a n t s showing an excessive d e s i r e t o dominate.  '  "Moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s found through the 'sense of the Meeting' by the Friends.  Administrative responsibility  i s t r a n s l a t i n g the sense of the Meeting i n t o a c t i o n , being guided a l l along by the moral o b l i g a t i o n t o remain true t o the sense of the Meeting." *  Because of the moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  of a l l members, there i s more than average i n s i s t e n c e on carrying r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  The main d i f f i c u l t y seems t o be  determining i n advance who i s i n t e r e s t e d i n power, and who i s able to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but can be detached about i t . This i s one^reason f o r such a thorough i n q u i r y before s t a f f i s hired.  Perhaps some such t e n s i o n can be e x h i l a r a t i n g i f i t i s  recognized by the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned that there i s an appropriate r o l e f o r each and that no one i s p e r f e c t .  The  " r a t i o n a l " use of a u t h o r i t y i s needed i n a l l s o c i a l work agencies as w e l l as the encouragement of i n d i v i d u a l responsibility. 1 W i l s o n , Roger, A u t h o r i t y , Leadership and Concern London, 1949, p. 45. 1  - 45 The AFSC endeavors to be f l e x i b l e and able to move q u i c k l y when n e c e s s i t y demands.  Perhaps there i s l e s s l e t h a r g y  i n the American Friends S e r v i c e Committee than i n some Y e a r l y Meetings composed of people from many d i f f e r e n t Meetings, but the t r a d i t i o n s of the Friends a l s o operate to prevent a c t i o n upon the  impulse. The work of the AFSC has been described as "second  grade work by t h i r d grade people", meaning that the t o t a l product of the group was b e t t e r than that of i n d i v i d u a l s , s e p a r a t e l y , and that many are ordinary i n d i v i d u a l s who would not be outstandingly s u c c e s s f u l i n themselves, i n that area of endeavor, which i s often not t h e i r own  profession.  They  do not consider t h e i r work as " f i r s t grade" as the organiza t i o n i s not l a r g e enough to do work such as the UNRRA or the UN are able to do. One value of smaller committees, of which there are many i n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , i s that they have a knowledge of each other's backgrounds, business, and ways of t h i n k i n g so that they can be e f f e c t i v e c r i t i c s of each other, should concerns expressed seem biased.  The e f f i c i e n c y and  the  flex-  i b i l i t y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n are p o s s i b l e through t h i s method of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n through small groups. The Executive  Functions  The Executive Secretary o f  the American Friends.  S e r v i c e Committee i s g e n e r a l l y responsible f o r the AFSC and  - 46 i s himself responsible to the Executive Board.  His business  manager and consultant, the Associate Executive Secretary, helps him i n implementing p o l i c y , as well as the Advisory Committee and the Executive Board who determine major p o l i c i e s . Under the previous set-up, about eight s t a f f members were r e porting d i r e c t l y to him about a c t i v i t i e s , though under the reorganization plan the I n t e r o f f i c e Coordinator handles most of the program and regional o f f i c e administration with cons u l t a t i o n with the Executive Secretary.  (See Organizational  Chart on following page). The c h i e f function of the Executive Secretary i s i n interpretation and public r e l a t i o n s — s p e a k i n g , w r i t i n g , v i s i t ing regional o f f i c e s and giving recent data to Friends Monthly and Yearly Meetings.  The-Executive i s also responsible f o r  the o v e r a l l budget planning, and he consults with fund raiser's and has considerable f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l , though this i s usually done a f t e r consultation with the various Advisory Committees or Executive Board or Executive Committee. The eight s t a f f members mentioned above include the head of the American Section, the Foreign Service Section, Public Relations, Finance, Personnel, General Administration, and the Regional O f f i c e Secretary.  They compose the chief  Advisory Committee to the Executive, with perhaps the exception of the small Executive Committee discussed under "Organization".  - 46A ORGANIZATIONAL CHART  American Friends Service Committee Corporation  BOARD  1 Executive  Secretary i  Assoc. Executive Secy  Personnel  Public Relations  General Adminis t r a t i o n  AMERICAN SECTION  I  Secretary  Sec'y f o r Education Sec'y f o r Regional Offices  Assoc. Sec'y  Accounting  Finance  FOREIGN SERVICE SECTION  I Secretary Assoc. Sec'y  Community Relations Self-Help Counseling CO. Services R.O. Peace Education Peace Education with S p e c i a l Groups - Labor, Farm, Church Friends Peace Service Service i n Mexico and E l Salvador Work Camps - U.S. International Student Program I n s t i t u t i o n a l Service Units Interne Program College Program  REGIONAL OFFICES  A u s t r i a and Germany I t a l y and France Japan Israel International Centers Work Camps - Overseas (QIVS) Displaced Persons Services S o c i a l and Technical Assistance School A f f i l i a t i o n Service Shipping and Purchasing Material Aids and Warehouse  OVERSEAS STAFF  American Section functions through these o f f i c e s . They also represent l o c a l l y the i n t e r e s t of the Foreign Service Section.  —American Friends Service Committee, S t a f f Handbook, Philadelphia, 1953j page 2.  Through t h i s A d v i s o r y Committee the E x e c u t i v e j u s t how  the v a r i o u s u n i t s are o p e r a t i n g and  i n t u r n can  them by g i v i n g the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e and pass on the or suggestions  of the E x e c u t i v e Board.  learns help  policies  Another f u n c t i o n of  the E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y i s to keep the AFSC up-to-date on changes i n program as w e l l as i n p o l i c y .  T h i s i s l a r g e l y done  through mimeographed memoranda which are mailed board, and  to each u n i t ,  committee. As was  S e c r e t a r y , who  mentioned under dynamics, the  a c t s as the A d m i n i s t r a t o r  Executive  i n AFSC, i s concerned  w i t h the smooth flow of work, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and organization.  I t i s easy f o r him  and  remote from the work done abroad and p a r t s o f the United S t a t e s . v i s i t o r s , and  The  order i n the  the s t a f f at home t o be in activities  i n various  A d v i s o r y Committee, the  the d i r e c t communication through copies  field  of  correspondence (mentioned i n "Flow of Work") are f o r the purpose of c o u n t e r a c t i n g t h i s tendency. The sibility  E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y has  o f any  the g r e a t e s t respon-  of the AFSC p o s i t i o n s and probably  gives more  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the agency f u n c t i o n s f o r a longer p e r i o d o f time than any  other persons on the s t a f f .  Though he  i n i t i a t e s p o l i c y and must make d e c i s i o n s , he i s somewhat p r o t e c t e d and has executives.  l e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s regard than some  Much of the p o l i c y i s suggested by board or  committee members or comes from Meetings and  then i s examined  c a r e f u l l y by the E x e c u t i v e Board or A d v i s o r y Committee a f t e r  - 48  -  being I n i t i a t e d by the Executive Secretary.  Some decisions,  of course, c a l l f o r speed and must be made at the d i s c r e t i o n of the executive. Another q u a l i f i c a t i o n of the Executive Secretary includes a sense of timing, which not only comes through training and experience with the AFSC, but appears to be an innate quality to some extent.  In a s o c i a l work agency a  knowledge of s o c i a l movements i s valuable f o r correct timing of s o c i a l action and major changes.  To c o r r e c t l y estimate  c u l t u r a l lags and p r o f i t , thereby, i n t e l l i g e n c e , s k i l l , and knowledge are necessary.  In the Service Committee, as i n other  agencies, the long view i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n reference to prolonged projects such as s o c i a l and technical assistance. The executive and his advisors must decide whether the project w i l l be worth the time and money i n r e l a t i o n to the a b i l i t y of the l o c a l people or governments to carry on the work after the project i s completed  or turned over to the people.  The Executive Secretary of the AFSC, as described by a regional o f f i c e secretary, when f i r s t chosen should be young enough to grow with the job, and from a s o l i d and conservative r e l i g i o u s background, even though many of the board and committee members are l i b e r a l or r a d i c a l Friends i n t h e i r own viewpoints.  They have found through experience that one  from a conservative background would be less inclined to s p l i t hairs over theological semantics and would get along with both the r a d i c a l and conservative groups, whereas a r a d i c a l would  - 49 not be a b l e t o have a good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h v a t i v e element.  the  conser-  As a g e n e r a l p o l i c y , the e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y  embodies the F r i e n d s ' approach but need not have been s p e c t a c u l a r i n h i s past achievements as h i s p o t e n t i a l i s more important.  The  present  e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y , Lewis  Hoskins,  had had  experience w i t h the F r i e n d s as head of the China U n i t ,  and was  head of the P o r t l a n d R e g i o n a l O f f i c e f o r a few months  b e f o r e becoming personnel O f f i c e when he was  s e c r e t a r y i n the P h i l a d e l p h i a  chosen f o r the e x e c u t i v e  position.  Though most AFSC s t a f f members are employed w i t h a term of not-more than t h r e e t o f i v e years i n mind, the Execu t i v e S e c r e t a r y i s appointed w i t h exceeding  c a r e as he  remain i n the o f f i c e f o r almost a l i f e t i m e o f s e r v i c e .  may His  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are s t u d i e d f o r a t t i t u d e s , a b i l i t y , and  exper-  i e n c e , p o t e n t i a l f o r growth, and r e l i g i o u s background.  The  appointment i s made a f t e r about three years of s e a r c h i n g f o r the r i g h t man way,  and  observation of h i s a c t i v i t i e s , i n a general  by the s t a f f , E x e c u t i v e Board, and l a y F r i e n d s . (This i s  not a p o l i c y but an  occurrence.)  Relationships with S t a f f In most l a r g e s o c i a l work o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i t i s not u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a d v i s a b l e f o r the executive to form c l o s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the s t a f f as p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s then come so s t r o n g l y i n t o the p i c t u r e t h a t e f f i c i e n c y on the job may  not be given proper p e r s p e c t i v e .  S o c i e t y of F r i e n d s and  W i t h the  the AFSC, the s i t u a t i o n i s somewhat  -  50  -  d i f f e r e n t because of the group support,  frankness, and e a r l y  t r a i n i n g i n o b j e c t i v i t y and  lack of prejudice with  as w e l l as those people met  i n d a i l y contacts.  kindness,  and  Informality,  c o u r t e s y are expected from a l l s t a f f members,  i n c l u d i n g the e x e c u t i v e .  A s p e c i a l e f f o r t i s made t o e l i m -  inate status d i s t i n c t i o n s . h i s or her f i r s t name. t o g e t h e r , and  Friends  Everyone c a l l s everyone e l s e by  In the s m a l l e r o f f i c e s , the s t a f f  eat  i n the P h i l a d e l p h i a O f f i c e there i s a lunchroom  where f r i e n d l y s o c i a b i l i t y i s encouraged.  At s t a f f meetings  everyone i s encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e and most o f them do. Other s t a f f requirements i n c l u d e s  patience,  i n t e l l i g e n c e f o r jobs a s s i g n e d , a b i l i t y t o cooperate w i t h  the  group or other workers, honesty, u s u a l l y a v a r i e t y of  skills  r a t h e r than too s p e c i a l i z e d a b i l i t i e s , h e a l t h f o r the  job  a s s i g n e d , courage and a b i l i t y t o work under s t r a i n , industry.  The  and  l a s t quality i s stressed.  The S t a f f Handbook s t a t e s t h a t no smoking i s to be done i n the P h i l a d e l p h i a O f f i c e as i t i s o b j e c t i o n a b l e to other workers.  In a s o c i a l work o f f i c e where many smoke a  great d e a l , smoking i s o f t e n banned d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s the c l i e n t a l s o smokes.  unless  However, w i t h the F r i e n d s , smoking  i s uncommon. Because of the h i g h degree o f moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y assumed by p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f members, there Is no hard  and  f a s t r u l e about the r e g u l a r i t y o f hours, should an emergency or unexpected appointment be' necessary.  T h i s can be made up  -  51  -  at other times, but no check i s made.  In the S e a t t l e o f f i c e ,  as i n many o t h e r s , regular hours f o r c l e r i c a l s t a f f are maintained. In some of the o f f i c e s a r e a l e f f o r t i s made f o r s t a f f members to meet eath o t h e r s i n a s o c i a l way.  1  f a m i l i e s and get acquainted  This i s not done i n a l l o f f i c e s s i n c e  commuting distances may make i t impossible as i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , Chicago, or Pasadena.  This i s considered a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r  i n developing rapport, which i s so necessary i n t h i s organi z a t i o n where s a l a r i e s are not adequate f o r the amount and q u a l i t y of work t o be done and the overtime necessary.  Some  attempt to become s o c i a l l y acquainted i s a l s o made w i t h boards, committees, and volunteers. Though, there i s a s t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s the unwritten r u l e that any s t a f f member may contact any other s t a f f member when he wishes.  There are no hard f e e l i n g s when  one s t a f f member goes "over the head" i n l i n e o p e r a t i o n , and an attempt i s made to avoid confusion.  I t may be somewhat  responsible f o r the enormous amount of copies of correspondence.  (See the "paper snow") The biggest problem i n s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s the  coordination of the r e g i o n a l work.  Therefore, the executive  receives carbons of a l l correspondence  between the r e g i o n a l  or n a t i o n a l o f f i c e and i n t h i s way can help at times by having the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e when the correspondents have only t h e i r own l e t t e r s .  As i s described i n Chapter 3, q u a l i t i e s which are more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the AFSC than of most agencies ares  (1)  lack of r e l i g i o u s , race, or national prejudices; (2) sympathy with or b e l i e f i n pacifism; (3)  willingness to work with  people and to l i v e on or near t h e i r standard when necessary. Relationships with O f f i c i a l s and Boards Since so many problems i n s o c i a l welfare  are  settled by committee action, the wise executive trains his s o c i a l workers to p a r t i c i p a t e i n this a c t i v i t y .  1  The  various  committees and boards i n AFSC are p a r t i c u l a r l y well suited to t r a i n the s t a f f , as a l l s t a f f members are expected to v i s i t meetings and p a r t i c i p a t e whenever possible.  The Quiet Meetings  held at least once a week i n every o f f i c e are h e l p f u l ; i n s p i r ation (see d e f i n i t i o n s ) i s received, not only from the meditation I t s e l f , but from l i s t e n i n g to those who ed to speak.  have been impell-  It i s stimulating to i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e to  r e a l i z e that anyone who  receives i n s p i r a t i o n and can formulate  i t v e r b a l l y i s free to speak, and i n a sense, i s obligated to speak i f he has a concern.  However, there have been occasions  when someone has spoken often and long and without the q u a l i t y of s p i r i t which the others f e l t was ment was reproof.  given by another who  true guidance.  Chastise-  was moved to mention this i n  These instances are rare as the right of s e l f - d e t e r -  mination i s recognized  i n this matter as well  as-others.  1 Atwater, Pierce, Problems of Administration i n S o c i a l Work. Minneapolis, Minnesota, University of Minnesota Press, 1940, p. 42.  - 53 T h i s f e e l i n g that each has a r i g h t and  obligation  t o c o n t r i b u t e , r e g a r d l e s s o f the amount o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y assumed, i s c a r r i e d through i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o f f i c i a l s and boards and the c o r p o r a t i o n .  The atmosphere  of f r i e n d l y  I n f o r m a l i t y and c a l l i n g each o t h e r by f i r s t names i s t r u e here, also.  Respect f o r each other and i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s as a person  i s s t r o n g enough t o a c t as s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e when, i n another group where t h i s does not a p p l y , i t might mean anarchy. As both s t a f f and boards are concerned w i t h the program, the E x e c u t i v e Board does not l a y down r u l e s ; the s t a f f i s consulted at a l l points.  At times the s t a f f i s expected  t o b r i n g matters to the Board, and i n some i n s t a n c e s , the Board w i l l express a d e s i r e d p o l i c y .  A s t a f f member i s con-  s i d e r e d a p a r t i c i p a t i n g member even i f he i s e x - o f f i c i o . Because o f the s i z e of the room or the group and the p r e s s u r e o f time, the number o f those not members i s sometimes l i m i t e d or r o t a t e d .  I f the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e i s l a r g e w i t h many o t h e r s  on the s t a f f , the r o t a t i o n system i s used f o r t h e i r own  board  meetings. As i n more s p e c i a l i z e d s o c i a l work a g e n c i e s , the E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y a c t s as the i n t e r p r e t e r and conveyor o f i n f o r m a t i o n among the s t a f f , the committees, the C o r p o r a t i o n . About  the boards, and  s i x hundred people are on  i n the n a t i o n a l o f f i c e , a l o n e .  committees  One t a s k of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r  i s t o make use of these a d v i s o r y and working committees,  and  - 54 s t i l l not spend more time w i t h them than i s necessary. judgment of t i m i n g , balance d i s c u s s i o n and  of schedule,  One  preplanning, c l e a r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e the e s s e n t i a l s f o r smooth  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the e x e c u t i v e and boards.  Good  the o f f i c i a l s  and  of h i s jobs i s to encourage the a d v i s o r y boards  t o formulate  p o l i c y r a t h e r than to l e a v e i t a l l f o r him,  at the same time t o keep them informed  of c u r r e n t p o l i c y ,  problems, and programs f o r which they are f o r m u l a t i n g There i s a strong t r a d i t i o n and  policy.  i n s i s t e n c e from  the E x e c u t i v e Board t h a t use be made of the l a y people form the committees. S e c r e t a r y can add  The A d v i s o r y Committee t o the  who  Executive  c o n t i n u i t y t o the program when there i s a  change of executives policy.  and  as w e l l as be a help i n p l a n n i n g  and  In p r a c t i c e , some o f the making of p o l i c y w i t h  the  a d v i c e of the f u l l A d v i s o r y Committee breaks down somewhat because ofs (1) the n e c e s s i t y f o r speed i n some s i t u a t i o n s ; (2) l a c k of d e c i s i o n i n i n s t a n c e s where there are two trends o f thought; (3) l a c k o f time and  opposing  i n t e r e s t enough t o  a t t e n d the committee meetings r e g u l a r l y because o f o u t s i d e pressures.  Precedence and  t r a d i t i o n p l a y a major p a r t i n  f o r m u l a t i n g the program and a t t i t u d e s among s t a f f , board, committee members. II.  Planning  P r i n c i p l e s of O r g a n i z a t i o n and The  and  Organizing  Structures  concept of the AFSC t h a t i t s r o l e i s both  and  -  55  -  education and service has led them to the question, "Are  we  giving clear expression to our method of truth?" rather than, "Are we operating e f f e c t i v e l y on this problem?" i s given to programs which work at t h i s l e v e l .  Priority  1  Each year,  the whole Committee i s evaluated to see whether the organization i s functioning at the highest l e v e l i t can operate, whether part or a l l of i t should be scrapped.  or  It i s a grass  roots movement with a great deal of coordination i n program, finances, and •  publicity.  It has been pointed out that the Society of Friends  has evolved various ideas of organization.  "The e a r l y Friends  ibelieved i n leaders, but not a system; the Friends of the second period i n leaders and i n a system; the Friends of a l a t e r period were content to have a system without leaders; but the Separationists believed neither i n leaders nor a system."  (See Chapter 1, Background).  2  From this the AFSC  has evolved a system of organization which looks on paper l i k e a l i n e organization but i n r e a l i t y i s more of a c i r c u l a r operation as i t meets their requirements more e f f i c i e n t l y . t h i s way,  In  too, there i s less danger that any one or a small  group of individuals can control the whole organization.  It  i s representative of a more healthy type of organization than one i n which authoritation sanctions are evident.  1 Pasadena Conference of Secretaries, Summary of Proceedings and Minutes Adopted. AFSC, Inc., Jan 4-8, 1954. 2  Wilson, Roger, Op. c i t . p. 57  The  56 -  F r i e n d s R e l i e f S e r v i c e o f England used the i d e a  o f any member o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n being a b l e t o challenge any other member, though t h i s member be i n a u t h o r i t y over him. T h i s was based on the o l d Quaker d o c t r i n e o f equal r i g h t s f o r individuals.  The AFSC has a l s o used t h i s p r i n c i p l e ,  partic-  u l a r l y through b r i n g i n g out the challenge w i t h i n a group so that the d e c i s i o n may be weighed more c a r e f u l l y . leaves at  This  also  t h e s u p e r i o r o f f i c i a l f r e e t o make n e c e s s a r y d e c i s i o n s  the time.  T h i s i d e a has c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n f l u e n c e over the  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , workings, and p o l i c y making.  The  two b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f the AFSC a r e (1) e f f i c i e n c y , and (2) f l e x i b i l i t y ,  though not i n the u s u a l sense.  They may seem  i n e f f i c i e n t by some standards but e f f i c i e n c y i s attempted i n the p e r s o n a l i t y - p r e s e r v a t i o n - s t i m u l a t i o n sense, though t h e time consumed be great  t o get a "sense o f the Meeting".  Also,  AFSC endeavors t o c l o s e out or l a y down a program when i t s f u n c t i o n ( o f t e n one i n s o c i a l p i o n e e r i n g ) Programs a r e not continued  has been performed.  by h a b i t o r t r a d i t i o n .  F o r examples  the S e a t t l e Region I n t e r - r a c i a l C h i l d r e n ' s Camps and S e a t t l e I n s t i t u t e s were terminated on such a b a s i s . purpose i t i s f e l t  To serve the  b e t t e r t o work on a s m a l l s c a l e or w i t h  s m a l l u n i t s , r a t h e r than on a l a r g e s c a l e such as the UN S o c i a l Welfare D i v i s i o n .  AFSC t r i e s t o be a channel f o r concerned  i n d i v i d u a l s t o work on problems growing out o f the experience of Friends. for  The business end o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n e x i s t s s o l e l y  t h e purpose o f e n a b l i n g  the r e s t o f the program t o f u n c t i o n .  - 57 The A u t h o r i t y under which the Agency Operates The answer o f a r e g i o n a l s e c r e t a r y t o the w r i t e r ' s q u e s t i o n , "Under what a u t h o r i t y does the AFSC o p e r a t e ? " was, "God".  He s a i d that t h i s i s more d i r e c t l y t r u e than most  r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s because o f the Quaker b e l i e f that man  i s possessed o f the " i n n e r l i g h t " and i f he w i l l  each  listen  and a c t a c c o r d i n g l y , t e s t i n g out h i s "guidance" w i t h o t h e r s i n the group, he w i l l be f u l f i l l i n g the w i l l of God.  (Harry  Burke). Of the t h r e e types of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e which a r e most common—Administrative  Board, P o l i c y Making Board,  and S i n g l e E x e c u t i v e — t h e AFSC has elements of a l l t h r e e . The American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee i s headed by the AFSC C o r p o r a t i o n , l e g a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the s t a t e of Delaware, and composed o f two hundred members chosen from Y e a r l y Meetings i n Canada and the United S t a t e s .  The By-Laws which are a  s o r t o f c o n s t i t u t i o n , are i n the appendix o f t h i s study.  The  AFSC s t a n d i n g Nominating Committee nominates o f f i c e r s of the C o r p o r a t i o n , the E x e c u t i v e B o a r d — e x c e p t r e g i o n a l members— and Board Committees  (mentioned below.)  E x e c u t i v e Board  members are chosen from the C o r p o r a t i o n , which i s composed o f Friends.  T h i s E x e c u t i v e Board makes the p o l i c y which i s  u s u a l l y i n i t i a t e d by the E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y , who,  more than  any o t h e r person or group, d i r e c t s the a c t i v i t i e s of the AFSC. T h e r e f o r e , i t would seem that the agency operates under the a u t h o r i t y of the S t a t e of Delaware through the C o r p o r a t i o n  -  58  -  whose acting body i s the Executive Board, but the greater authority i s delegated  to the Executive Secretary.  The organ-  i z a t i o n a l "well-spring" of the whole American Friends Service Committee, Incorporated, example:  i s the Society of Friends.  For  when there i s doubt about a p o l i c y which may possibly  r e f l e c t adverse c r i t i c i s m on the Society, i t i s submitted to the Monthly and Yearly Meetings.  The "Affirmation of F a i t h "  which was recently adopted regarding the signing of l o y a l t y oaths to reinforce the C a l i f o r n i a Regional O f f i c e s , was put before the Society as a whole and approved. Internal Organization There i s a national AFSC Office i n Philadelphia with about 150 s t a f f members employed.  Regional Offices are located  i n Austin, Texas; Cambridge, Mass.; Chicago, 111.; Ohio; Des Moines, Iowa; Greensboro, N.C.;  Columbus,  New York C i t y ,  Pasadena, C a l i f . ; Portland, Oregon; Richmond, Ind.,; San Franc i s c o , C a l i f . ; S e a t t l e , Wn.;  and Wichita, Kansas.  The s t a f f  i n most regional o f f i c e s i s about four or f i v e , not counting volunteers, but Cambridge, Chicago, Pasadena, and San Francisco have between 15 and 20 s t a f f people. The Corporation of about 200 members i s nominated by the Yearly Meetings of the Society of Friends.  The  Executive  Board i s chosen by the standing Nominating Committees as are the Board Committees.  These committees are: Bequests, Con-  s u l t a t i v e Committee on Foreign A f f a i r s , Evaluation, Executive Committee of the Executive Board (to a s s i s t the Executive i n  -  58A -  COMMITTEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BOARD, January 19$h  EXECUTIVE BOARD — Executive Committee  I  Standing Committees  Standing Committees  (concerned with General Administration  (concerned primarily with Programs)  1. Finance  1. Quaker House Committee  2. Investments  2 . Consultative Committee on Foreign Affairs  3. Retirement lw Requests 5 . Personnel 6. Public Relations 7. Mutual Savings Fund 8 . Hospitality  3. Evaluation Committee  Ad Hoc Committees  1. Committee on C i v i l Liberties 2 . Committee on Education on National Issues  k. Committee on Educational 3. Committee on Review Relationship with Materials for Children CARE (Subcommittee of Public Relations Committee) U. Friends House Committee (joint Committee with Philadelphia Yearly Meetings) >  9c Nominations (appointed by AFSC Corporation)  —Hoskins, Lewis M., Memorandum, American Friends Service Committee, Inc., Jan. 2 5 , 195U  -  59 -  emergencies), Finance, H o s p i t a l i t y , Investments, Mutual Savings fund, Personnel, Public Relations, Quaker House, Retirement, Committee on Educational Material f o r Children, Committee of Public Relations. Further information about nominating committees, terms of o f f i c e of boards and committees, and how other committees are chosen i s described i n the Oct. 1 Memorandum of Eleanor S. Clarke, Assistant to the Executive Secretary, who stated i n a l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , March 29, 1 9 5 4 , that i n the national o f f i c e there were almost 6 0 0 individuals on committees, some on more than one, and more than 8 0 0 committee places.  To  give some idea of the committee organization, a chart of the Committees of the Executive Board i s on Page 5 8 A .  The work  i s l a r g e l y run by these committees which also make policy decisions and often help carry out the decisions.  Under the  Executive Board are Standing Committees concerned with General Administration, Standing Committees concerned with Programs, and Ad Hoc Committees. Each unit has i t s own committees and each regional o f f i c e has i t s own set-up based on the plan of the national o f f i c e — a l m o s t autonomous and becoming more so.  An example  of the committees i n a unit i s the chart on the Committees of the American Section which includes those on the d i f f e r e n t programs.  Mexico and E l Salvador are included i n the American  because the head of this work i s i n the American Section. i s an example of how the program i s b u i l t around the person when i t i s best suited that way.  This  - 60 In some cases, a program may  be responsible to both  the American and the Foreign Sections because of the nature of the work.  This applies to the International Students  Program, which has programs i n both the United States and seas.  over-  Non-Friends are permitted on a l l boards and committees  below the national Executive Board which was  composed of  50  members but i s reduced i n the new organization set-up. . The work of AFSC covers not only the United States, but at present there are over 64 countries.  projects i n 12  different  The four general service departments with head-  quarters i n Philadelphia ares Personnel, Public Relations, Finance, and Accounting.  As was mentioned before, the head  of each of these service departments and of the General Admini s t r a t i o n and American and Foreign Service Sections, compose the chief Advisory Committee to the Executive Secretary. On the old chart, the Associate Executive Secretary was  shown d i r e c t l y under the Executive Secretary.  he was  In r e a l i t y ,  the Executive Assistant i n charge of business manage-  ment and i n t e r n a l administration with some consultation with the Executive Secretary i n matters of p o l i c y . The regional o f f i c e s did carry out the programs under the American Section, and the overseas s t a f f those under the Foreign Section.  The regional o f f i c e executive secretaries  decided at t h e i r January conference, 1954,  that a Represen-  t a t i v e Council was needed, to be composed of representatives of both s t a f f and committee members of each regional o f f i c e  - 60A COMMITTEES OF THE AMERICAN SECTION —  January 19$k  S p e c i a l American Section Committees having f i n a l authority, and not i n chart of committee AMERICAN SECTION EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE structure: Committee of Award Central Reserve Fund Com. L i t t l e River Farm Com.  t i i  i i i  Youth Program Committees (Reporting d i r e c t l y to Executive Committee)  Regional Offices Advisory Committee  Adult Program Committee (Reporting d i r e c t l y to Executive Committee)  1. Work Camp Committee  1. Community Relations Committee 2. Self-Help Counseling Commit tee " ' >H:  3. Friends Peace Service Council  2. Interne Program Committee 3. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Service Units Committee (inactive)  Adult Peace Education (projected) Peace Education - Farm Subcommittee (process of formation)  1*. International Student Program Committee  Peace Education - Church Subcommittee** " -  Peace Education Subcommittee  Eduoational Advisory Committee*  5. Mexico and E l Salvador Committee  Labor  Economic Relations Committee  6.  C O . Service Committee  Regional Offices Executive Committees Program Committees An advisory committee concerned with educational philosophy and trends i n higher education. Provides broad guidance to College Program and Education Secretary.  Key Consultative relationship D i r e c t responsibility  Membership i s same as that of Board of Friends Service, Inc. ->BB<- An advisory group meeting on an ad hoc basis.  — H o s k i n s , Lewis M., Memorandum, American Friends Service Committee, Inc., Jan. 2$, 195h  - 61 and the Philadelphia Office and the Executive Board.  The pur-  pose would be to act as an advisory council to the regional o f f i c e s and to the Executive Board.  It would not take the  place of the Executive Board but would advise which organs are best to deal with p a r t i c u l a r projects and with international relations.  Another reason f o r this Council was  regional committee chairmen.  to draw i n the  The regional representatives  then on the Executive Board became, instead, a member of the Representative Council.  (For further information on the re-  organization see the Reorganization Chart, Page 6 l A , and the Summary of Proceedings and Minutes Adopted at the Pasadena Conference  of Secretaries . January 1954).  besides the Representative Council was Inter-Office Coordinator who  The major change  the addition of an  relieved the Executive Secretary  of some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the units not already handled by the Business Management. Communication and Flow of Work A flow chart which indicates the flow of work, should i d e a l l y not duplicate o f f i c e s or services.  In the Service  Committee, to eliminate possible duplication of e f f o r t and to l e t the Executive Secretary know what i s happening, a copy of correspondence  between a l l o f f i c e s and programs i s sent to the  Executive Secretary. "paper snow".  This i s facetiously referred to as the  - 61A COMMITTEES OF THE FOREIGN SERVICE SECTION — January 19$h  FOREIGN SERVICE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE  1. Africa Subcommittee  5 . Japan Subcommittee  2. Germany-Austria Subcommittee  6. Korea Subcommittee  3. International Centers Subcommittee  7. Material Aids Subcommittee  (a) Advisory Committee on France (b) Davis House Committee (c) International Student House Committee Iw Italy Subcommittee  8. Oversea Work Camps Subcommittee 9o School A f f i l i a t i o n Subcommittee 1 0 . Social and Technical Assistance Subcommittee  —Hoskins, Lewis M., Memorandum, American Friends Service Committee, Inc., Jan. 2 5 , 195U  F(G, G>.  (^ORGANIZATIONAL -  Am^.t'-ican  July  19*54-  CMAR.T  -  hrteod*? Service CommiHee C O R P O R A T I O N  Executive j^epi-eseni"dt i v e  *  Oo^fd Council  E / e c Secy  ASSoc. £K<2C. Secy  A s s o c . C v e c ^ecy Cr^ef. Office Co©4t**'h?«')  A  Relates  .  I  _  FIG. 7.  FLOV)/ CM ART  OF  AT.S.C. W O R K C A M P  APPLICATIONS  Office  O  C o ll es»e  G  -file  c o p y  I  t  \ o  \  rH  E v a , * u a 4 i o "v.  vO I  Ca^v^pcv of dec'sl'o^  ( y nuns, le-t-*e^" '^o" ^ (  1 tvalua+i'oK.  / / /  v4 o m e  <£-  -  - 62 Programs are i n i t i a t e d by the E x e c u t i v e Board then g i v e n to the E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y who,  and  i n turn, delegates  them t o the p a r t i c u l a r u n i t or u n i t s which would implement them.  I f the program i s f o r the Business Management, then  t h a t u n i t would implement i t . is  In the present set-up, i f i t  r e l a t e d t o the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s , i t goes through  i n t e r - o f f i c e c o o r d i n a t o r who  the  w i l l i f the o c c a s i o n demands,  send the i n f o r m a t i o n to the e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y of the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e i n v o l v e d i n the p a r t i c u l a r program. A program c o u l d o r i g i n a t e at a i d e a would be sent t o the c o o r d i n a t o r who to  the E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y .  p r o j e c t , and  the  would t u r n i t over  A l s o , i t c o u l d flow from the  r e g i o n a l o f f i c e E x e c u t i v e Committee t o the E x e c u t i v e Board. The A d v i s o r y Committee c o u l d channel t h e i r work through p a r t i c u l a r program d i r e c t o r , or c o u l d have t h e i r  the  represen-  t a t i v e on the E x e c u t i v e Board present i t . The p r e v i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t i n d i c a t e s an e r r o r i n p i c t u r i n g the flow o f a l l the work going f i r s t  to  the A s s o c i a t e E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y b e f o r e the E x e c u t i v e S e c retary.  I n s t e a d , o n l y the F i n a n c e , A c c o u n t i n g , and P u b l i c  R e l a t i o n s u n i t s go through the A s s o c i a t e S e c r e t a r y .  The  chart  on page 6 l C shows the flow of work when an a p p l i c a t i o n i s filled  out f o r a work camp.  As the camper seldom goes to the  n a t i o n a l o f f i c e , though each a p p l i c a t i o n does, the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e has been l o c a t e d i n the c e n t e r of the c h a r t and n a t i o n a l o f f i c e i s a t the r i g h t .  the  There i s some d u p l i c a t i o n ,  -63  -  but most of i t i s merely copies which are sent back to  the  r e g i o n a l o f f i c e to keep i t informed. P o l i c y Making P o l i c y i s made at a l l l e v e l s i n the AFSC, and l e v e l s h o u l d be s e n s i t i v e to the need f o r c l e a r a n c e way  up and  each  a l l the  down the l i n e — e s p e c i a l l y where the Committee,  Inc.,  should speak w i t h a unanimous v o i c e on a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e . I t i s i d e a l l y the  "sense of the meeting" which determines  p o l i c y r a t h e r than the m i n o r i t y - m a j o r i t y t h i s slows up more.  The  the making of d e c i s i o n s  decision.  i s autonomous. the organization An  times,  f o r s e v e r a l months or  E x e c u t i v e Board i n P h i l a d e l p h i a has  nomy i n i t s d e c i s i o n s , and  At  the  complete auto-  i n many ways each r e g i o n a l board  I t i s the s p i r i t  and  the f r i e n d s h i p which h o l d  together.  example o f p o l i c y making i s the a c t i o n of  Pasadena Conference of S e c r e t a r i e s who the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C o u n c i l .  i n i t i a t e d the i d e a o f  Some things  are c l e a r e d w i t h  P h i l a d e l p h i a Board f o r the sake of expediency. when a d e c i s i o n i s r e q u i r e d  i n regard  the  For  the  example,  to S e l e c t i v e S e r v i c e  which must be made s p e e d i l y , the E x e c u t i v e Board i n P h i l a d e l p h i a makes i t r a t h e r  than c o n s u l t i n g w i t h a l l t h i r t e e n r e g i o n a l  boards f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n .  For an even speedier  decision,  the E x e c u t i v e Board Committee o f f o u r or f i v e members can f o r the Board.  act  - 64 Friends, and the AFSC included, do not attempt to d i r e c t l y influence l e g i s l a t i o n as an organization.  Rather,  there i s the Friends Committee on National L e g i s l a t i o n which performs such research, education, and "lobbying" a c t i v i t i e s . In projects overseas or at home, nothing i s done on the basis of p o l i t i c a l views, but on the basis of need.  This would  include r e l i e f supplies as w e l l as service rendered, which accounts for success i n some cases where the Red  Cross,  Community Chest, or some r e l i g i o u s organizations have f a i l e d , as i n Spain during World War  II.  In a l l matters of basic p o l i c y the Executive Board i n Philadelphia makes the f i n a l decision, though matters pertaining to the l o c a l o f f i c e s may utive boards.  The new  be made by their own  Representative  able r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f f the shoulders  exec-  Council takes considerof the  Executive  Secretary, and at the same time gives the regional o f f i c e s more equal voice i n the decisions of p o l i c y . When a question of p o l i c y i s raised which concerns the Society of Friends and t h e i r connection with the AFSC, advice and assistance i s asked for and received from the Monthly and Yearly Meetings of Friends. III.  Personnel  Administration  Practices (Outline adapted from Personnel Practices i n S o c i a l Work) 1 S t a f f s e l e c t i o n i s made by the Personnel-Department 1 Personnel Practices i n S o c i a l Work, Canadian Assn. of S o c i a l Workers, Ottawa, 1 9 5 3 .  -  65  -  which interviews a l l applicants or recommends q u a l i f i e d people already known to them to f i l l jobs.  The work campers do not  necessarily have interviews as do the paid s t a f f or longterm overseas volunteer s t a f f .  This does not include regional  o f f i c e s t a f f on the c l e r i c a l or volunteer l e v e l .  The  Per-  sonnel Department coordinates the r e v i s i o n , administration and study of personnel procedures, and decides where a p p l i c ants can best be placed and transferred. Graduation from a course i n S o c i a l Work i s not a prerequisite f o r workers with the AFSC, though a large percentage of the volunteer work campers go into S o c i a l Work a f t e r having been to camp.  (See Chapter 3)«  As they are  usually undergraduates or recent graduates, they have gained additional insight into the helping professions.  Graduate  s o c i a l group workers are used on the professional teams as part of the s t a f f or on a self-maintenance basis overseas as s p e c i a l i s t s i n their f i e l d . workers may  Either caseworkers or group-  be directors of work camps, of neighborhood  centers, or leaders of overseas teams. 2.  In s t a f f selection, an all-round background of  experience, s k i l l , college t r a i n i n g , and personal s u i t a b i l i t y are necessary, but foremost  i s the emphasis on attitudes and  interest i n the work and goals of the AFSC.  Lack of d i s -  crimination on the basis of race or national o r i g i n i s an accepted policy of employment as w e l l as of candidate's attitudes.  Members of the National AFSC Executive Board and  - 66 of the Corporation must be Friends, but about 6% of the s t a f f and regional Executive Boards and work campers or volunteers are not.  They come from many r e l i g i o u s groups,  not necessarily C h r i s t i a n . In h i r i n g a s t a f f member, the committee looks primarily f o r an approach-attitudes, relationships to s t a f f , board, the project, etc.  There i s also some f e e l i n g on the  part of AFSC that "the l e t t e r k i l l e t h the s p i r i t " which r e sults i n greater emphasis on attitudes than oh a p a r t i c u l a r achievement.  A broad background and general maturity are  important, e s p e c i a l l y f o r positions above the c l e r i c a l l e v e l in responsibility.  An example of s t a f f members hired i s a  former vice-president of a large corporation who took an AFSC p o s i t i o n at considerably less salary f o r the short term.  He  then went back to h i s old job, but the appeal of the AFSC was so strong that he came back to work with them. 3.  The S t a f f Handbook gives an up-to-date statement of  personnel and employment practices f o r those who are i n t e r ested i n making application. 4.  Provision f o r s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n agency policy  i s perhaps as great with the AFSC i n any other s o c i a l work organization, as they have the opportunity of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n board, s t a f f , and committee meetings.  - 67  5.  -  Though there i s no set rule about c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ,  the moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s c l e a r l y indicated.  Where i t would  be harmful to another, information i s not repeated.  This i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y applicable i n time of war or labor disputes with management.  The personnel f i l e s are kept c o n f i d e n t i a l ,  as i n any s o c i a l work agency. 6.  The a c t i v i t i e s of employees and volunteers are  limited by AFSC only when they interfere with their professional a c t i v i t i e s .  But the job to be done may be absorb-  ing and time consuming.  His personal attitudes and actions,  i f he i s on a project, are also a subject of c u r i o s i t y , even i n his free time, and may r e f l e c t on the work as well as his effectiveness. 7.  Union p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as such, has not been a problem,  but a s t a f f organization called the C l e r i c a l S t a f f Council was formed some years ago i n the national o f f i c e . s i x months this was disbanded.  After about  The purpose had been to give  suggestions f o r bettering the organization to the executives. Later, another such organization was suggestions to the Personnel O f f i c e .  formed which now gives Unless this i s c a r e f u l l y  and t a c t f u l l y done, i t might be a l i m i t i n g factor, as the ' Personnel Office does the h i r i n g and f i r i n g of employees, and might, i n i n d i v i d u a l cases, f e e l the suggestions stemmed from a basic i n a b i l i t y to adjust.  - 68 8.  Equal pay Is given to men and women except i n cases  of dependents when an agreement s a t i s f a c t o r y to both couple and Committee i s reached. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Plans At the time of appointment,  new s t a f f members are  sent a l e t t e r giving i n outline the duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the job.  Annual reviews are made of s t a f f positions and  t h e i r effectiveness, whether they should be altered or continued.  This includes salary, future plans, and present  placement.  This i s considered good p o l i c y by both s o c i a l  casework and s o c i a l groupwork agencies. Salary Schedules A review i s made each year of the salary schedules and annual increases between 3$ and 6% have been given i n the l a s t few years.  The cost of l i v i n g i s kept i n mind i n salary  administration.  S a l a r i e s are roughly comparable to those i n  other organizations; they are not intended to attract persons to the Committee but to make i t possible for q u a l i f i e d , interested individuals to serve with the Committee. Volunteers and overseas s t a f f on a self-maintenance basis must have a d e f i n i t e desire to work with the Committee and w i l l be less apt to treat the p o s i t i o n l i g h t l y because of t h e i r stake i n the r e s u l t s .  I t does mean, however,  that only those with access to savings or s u f f i c i e n t funds can take part unless a scholarship i s awarded.  Preference i s  - 69 given people of minority groups as fewer minority members take part.  I f a s t a f f member's work requires transportation  and expense f o r special meetings or conferences, or i f there i s added expense f o r o f f i c i a l meals or overtime,  reimburse-  ment i s given. Insurance Arrangements are made f o r each s t a f f member to j o i n hospital and medical insurance plans.  The AFSC contributes  a similar amount which cannot be withdrawn u n t i l after three years' service. A cooperative credit union with an entrance fee of 25£ i s available f o r loans and savings with i t s own board of directors and special committees elected at the January Annual Meeting of AFSERCO.  I t i s controlled and man-  aged by members of the credit union.  A retirement plan i s  provided and a trained counselor i s available f o r the s t a f f for personal or vocational confidential interviews or r e f e r r a l s to other agencies or s p e c i a l i s t s .  This l a t t e r plan i s being  considered by some s o c i a l work a g e n c i e s — a counselor f o r personal problems (besides the s u p e r v i s o r ) — b u t the AFSC i s a leader i n t h i s plan. Selection and Appointment of Personnel Advertisements  f o r job openings are not posted as i n  some s o c i a l work organizations.  They are n o t i f i e d i n the  semi-annual l e t t e r s to former s t a f f .  Applicants are well i n -  formed of the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the job through correspondence  -  and interviews.  70  -  Friends are e s p e c i a l l y frank i n discussing  the terms of the p o s i t i o n and the requirements and assume t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for carrying out the agreement, expecting the applicant to do the same.  The application form i s quite  comprehensive, as i t i s very necessary when a volunteer for a work camp, f o r example, l i v e s i n a remote area or another country, and a personal interview i s not possible because of t r a v e l expense. implies support  (See Appendix B).  Acceptance of the p o s i t i o n  of the philosophy, function, and p o l i c y of the  AFSC, though entire agreement of every d e t a i l i s not required as the p o l i c y of self-determination applies here, also. Probationary periods, such as the 6 months' term i n public assistance agencies, are not used i n AFSC.  The  evaluations  take t h e i r place. Conditions of Service Because the type of a c t i v i t y i n the AFSC i s varied, the conditions also vary. "In refugee camps i n Europe, for example, f a c i l i t i e s would be less adequate than i n the national or regional o f f i c e s .  However, s a n i t a t i o n and necessary heat,  l i g h t , r e s t , and v e n t i l a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s are provided as f a r as possible, and are c e r t a i n l y provided i n the home o f f i c e s .  Care  with s a n i t a t i o n and cooking of food and water i s e s p e c i a l l y essential abroad.  Telephone and c l e r i c a l s t a f f and supplies  are somewhat l i m i t e d , and volunteers are called for extra Jobs. The usual five-day work week d i f f e r s on projects depending on the l o c a l community habits. (See Chapter 3).  Vacations  are  - 71 longer than i n many s o c i a l work agencies.  Four weeks with pay  and added allowance f o r sick leave i s provided.  Statutory  and r e l i g i o u s holidays are observed i n the o f f i c e s . Tenure or Change of Status The l e t t e r of acceptance states the length of the job, but there i s no assured tenure or s e c u r i t y other than the above mentioned evaluation. the understanding  As the s t a f f are employed with  that i t i s only f o r a three to f i v e year  period, i t might be expected that the s t a f f turnover would be high.  This topic i s open f o r further research, but compared  to other s o c i a l work agencies, the paid s t a f f i s f a i r l y stable. S t a f f Development Orientation of the h i s t o r y , purposes, and a c t i v i t i e s of the AFSC i s given by mail to the new s t a f f member before a r r i v i n g on the job. camp preparations.  Chapter 3 describes i n d e t a i l the work I f the new s t a f f member i s to work i n one  of'the o f f i c e s , he i s shown the plant and workers.  introduced to the  In the national o f f i c e he may only meet immediate  co-workers because of the large number of s t a f f employed there.  At noon i n the lunchroom, members of other departments  or executives present are introduced.  When the program i s  rapidly expanding so that about a dozen new workers are taken on at once, a regular orientation program i s planned so that the new people can meet the Executive Board and gain a rounded  picture of the whole program.  In the work camps or projects,  orientation programs may l a s t from two to four days, as i n CARE, the Alaska project, or Mexico work camps.  The  new  Representative Council has planned a rotating set-up for v i s i t s of s t a f f members. In the national o f f i c e are located the o f f i c e s of the Accounting, Finance, P u b l i c i t y , Personnel, Public Relations Committees and the executive secretaries for the American and Foreign Service Sections.  Of course, the Executive Secretary  and his assistants and the Associate Executive Secretary are located at Philadelphia. There i s a stenographic pool with an o f f i c e manager on the Clerk I I I l e v e l who  acts as supervisor  for the accountants. A l l the s t a f f are invited to the Monday morning business meeting which lasts an hour, and to the Wednesday morning meditation or Quiet Meeting.  With the AFSC, periods  of quiet meditation are considered most helpful i n promoting group harmony as well as inner harmony.  S t a f f members are  expected to be working i f they do not attend s i l e n t  worship.  This period i s used on a l l programs and projects. One d i f f i c u l t y i n continuing s t a f f development is that there are always emergencies.  Too often the every day  essentials are not done well enough or are by-passed.  The  whole s t a f f are pushed beyond t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s and patience, too often, and this results i n a greater turnover i n s t a f f than there would be, otherwise.  Economy of the budget may have  - 73 something to do with providing enough s t a f f to care for emergencies.  A high esprit de corps i s necessary i n such s i t -  uations to complete the work. In-service t r a i n i n g i n the o f f i c e s i s l e f t to the i n d i v i d u a l supervisor of the new member, usually the person next i n the l i n e organization.  Much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s placed  on the i n d i v i d u a l s t a f f member i n the f i e l d who to grow with his job.  i s expected  Emphasis i s not placed on c r i t i c i s m ,  but help i s given when asked for and the yearly evaluations also include a l e t t e r o u t l i n i n g the terms of the appointment— the yearly plans, whether the present placement i s r i g h t , salary, and future plans. Supervision i s necessary i n most s o c i a l work agencies, and even desirable for trained personnel u n t i l considerable experience  proves otherwise, but i n the AFSC, close super-  v i s i o n seems almost impossible and i s not always desirable. However, according to Stevenson  1  the committees and boards  would seem to act i n a sort of supervisory capacity as well as for consultation.  Each regional o f f i c e secretary acts as  supervisor for his o f f i c e and the head of each unit serves this capacity i n the national o f f i c e .  (For further information  see S t a f f Development. Volumes I and II i n b i b l i o g r a p h y — • primarily for Public Assistance Agencies.)  N.Y.  1 Stevenson, Marietta, Public Welfare Administration MacMillan Company, 1938, p. 80  - 74 The  Volunteer The executive secretary for the Seattle o f f i c e ,  Harry Burks, has said that i f there were no volunteer workers for AFSC, the work camps and warehouses would be closed immediately, and the o f f i c e would close within a week.  Not  only are work campers and t h e i r directors volunteers, but also they are on a self-maintenance  basis.  overseas s t a f f and some personnel who other concerns or i n their own  This includes the have been employed with  professions who  to serve with the AFSC on a short term basis. t h e i r own way  take^time out They pay:  5  and transportation, though occasionally scholar-  ships are offered for those unable to pay.  These s t a f f  members and campers have the same ultimate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and the same s p i r i t i s expected as from other s t a f f . Volunteers  are used at the warehouses for each  o f f i c e where about f i f t y to seventy-five people a week ( i n S e a t t l e ) contribute r e g u l a r l y , and about two hundred others contribute i r r e g u l a r l y i n time, money, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n In clothing drives.  For s p e c i a l jobs i n the o f f i c e such as a  large mailing, extra typing or f i l i n g , volunteers are used. In S e a t t l e , a half-time volunteer i s used to manage the clothing drives and the warehouse where i t i s stored.  A half-  time volunteer i s i n charge of the s p e c i a l program i n education—the  Youth Service Projects—and.the  i a t i o n Program i s run by a volunteer.  School A f f i l -  There are two paid  s t a f f persons, another half-time, and two c l e r i c a l persons.  - 75 A janitor i s paid for two hours a week.  Larger regional  o f f i c e s have something l i k e the same percentage of volunteers. As was  previously stated, the members of the Cor-  poration and the National Executive Board are lay Friends  and  volunteers.  are  used.  In almost every phase of the work volunteers  One drawback i s that though they are a v a i l a b l e , the  s t a f f does not always know how  to use them e f f e c t i v e l y .  This  i s true i n most s o c i a l work agencies where the percentage of volunteers used i s much l e s s . individuals who  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of  have s p e c i f i c talents and Interests and place  of residence and can't be used where they are needed.  Also,  there are various types of volunteers of which the AFSC has at least i t s share.  These vary from rugged i n d i v i d u a l i s t s to  "fuzzy minded do-gooders" whose desire to help may a need to control or to patronize.  spring from  This i s one reason why  orientation and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are so necessary. Reporting and Public Relations Agency s t a t i s t i c s and reports:  Daily s t a t i s t i c a l  reports of the number of people contacted, kinds of problems, status  of cases, l e t t e r s , phone c a l l s , and conferences are  not made i n the AFSC, as a r u l e .  The d a i l y reports are  considered a waste of time and money i n this type of agency where a small s t a f f i s doing a large work with constantly changing a c t i v i t i e s .  Even the trained group workers do not  usually keep lengthy f i l e s because of the constantly changing  - 76 loads and many contacts.  However, f i l e s of each applicant  are kept, whether s t a f f member or work camper.  The front  page of the application serves as a face sheet to give pertinent f a c t s . (See Appendix B). Money given to the AFSC i s spent on the basis of how much interest there i s i n the project on the part of the recipients of the program as well as the s t a f f and volunteers, except f o r ear-marked funds from foundations, etc.  Technical  assistance i s h e l p f u l i n this respect as money i s given for need and over a c e r t a i n period of time.  In these programs,  monthly reports are sent i n as i n other U.N. s o c i a l work programs. For short term work camps, reports of each camper and of the whole camp experience are sent i n at the end of the project.  In longer term projects, a report i s usually sent  every three or four months, and t h i s may be done by l e t t e r rather than through forms.  Information of interest to others  i s published i n the Newsletters.  In the case of foundation  money, such as the Ford Foundation, f u l l reports are required. In s o c i a l work agencies where case loads are constant and intensive casework i s the r u l e , d a i l y and monthly s t a t i s t i c s are e s s e n t i a l for public interpretation and the worker's awareness of what i s being  accomplished.  An accurate record Is kept of each of the many Wetings through minutes which are widely c i r c u l a t e d .  This i s a  - 77 method of giving reports as well as interpretation and i s a means of s t a f f development.  The executive secretary for each  o f f i c e compiles the s t a t i s t i c s of each o f f i c e , as does each section secretary for his section.  The AFSC, at  considerable  expense to i t s e l f , pays an auditing company to audit a l l accounts each year and report on them. Interpretation Rarely do figures enter into interpretation of the AFSC except i n terms of need.  Numbers are not the important  item as AFSC serves the purpose of pioneering i n s o c i a l serv i c e or group work and i n d i s t r i b u t i n g r e l i e f i n areas of c o n f l i c t where high i n t e g r i t y without p o l i t i c a l side-taking i s desired, and few i f any other groups would be trusted to go.  A high quality of public relations i s e s s e n t i a l , but i s  accomplished through the group media. Public Relations coordinates  The Department of  and controls p u b l i c i t y and pub-  l i c a t i o n s of the AFSC which includes servicing of a l l mass mailings, v i s u a l aids and press releases.  It i s responsible  for correcting misinterpretations or misconceptions which appear i n the press or elsewhere and for informing  the  AFSC of public attitudes toward i t s program. The c i r c l e diagram on page 77A, i l l u s t r a t e s the types of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n given. f i r s t interpreters.  The s t a f f , C i r c l e I, are the  They are not only proud of i t but have  an inner conviction that i t i s the best known way  of carrying  - 77k INTERPRETING THE WORK OF THE AGENCY  •Adapted from Baker, Helen Cody and Routzahn, Mary Swain, "The Social Agency and Its Publics", How to Interpret Social Welfare, New York, Russell Sage, 19k7, page 10.  - 78 out the job.  The S t a f f Handbook, and numerous types of  written material are written by the s t a f f and volunteers to t e l l others about the organization.  However, as modesty i s  a part of the Quaker creed, a conscious e f f o r t to l e t the public know the good work they are doing i s not made unless i t i s to p u b l i c i z e the need for a p a r t i c u l a r project.  Inter-  pretation i s given to s t a f f through the Memoranda and copies of minutes which are c i r c u l a t e d . C i r c l e I also includes boards and committees made up l a r g e l y of volunteers. C i r c l e I I includes those who use or receive agency services.  Such interpretation i s l a r g e l y through word of  mouth—especially  i n work camps—as the campers work or play  with the community.  Occasionally, written p u b l i c i t y i s given  as when school children take home pamphlets to l e t their parents know of a c t i v i t i e s — e s p e c i a l l y i n r u r a l settings. At one time, planes dropped l e a f l e t s to crowds to inform them of food and clothing d i s t r i b u t i o n at a c e r t a i n place, during a time of c r i s i s . C i r c l e III includes the many cooperators with AFSC. Some of these are the U.N., churches, s o c i a l service and s o c i a l work agencies, schools, professional groups.  Inter-  pretation i s given through speeches or the leading of d i s cussions, when requested. C i r c l e IV Includes the c o n t r i b u t o r s , — l a r g e or small amounts are considered important, even though the  - 79 l i t e r a t u r e he receives i s sometimes worth more than his contribution.  It i s f e l t increasingly important that contribu-  tors become a c t i v e i n the organization, wherever possible. C i r c l e V includes the government and community o f f i c i a l s whose sanction i s secured before any project i s begun and who probably learned about the organization through Friends whom they contacted.  Key persons i n the U.N. are  informed through contact with the AFSC people there, or through v i s i t s to Davis House or International House, Washington, D.C.  Hereare the leaders i n education who  cooperate  i n the school exchange plans, and heads of schools of s o c i a l work who are informed of suitable openings for graduates with specific qualifications.  Labour people are important as they  are given a further understanding of the work through the Internes i n Industry Program.  Those i n a l l i e d f i e l d s of  r e l i g i o n are often co-workers and sponsors of the AFSC program, as when several agencies combine for more e f f i c i e n t organization i n overseas programs such as i n Korea. The general public i n C i r c l e VI i s given l i t t l e interpretation except through occasional magazine or newspaper a r t i c l e s and a small l i b r a r y which i s available i n each office.  The telephone and radio are frequently used.  As  s t a f f members and a l l other interested persons are invited to attend board and committee meetings, this i s a valuable means of explaining the agency's services. (Also see Public Rel a t i o n s Department, below).  - 80 -  Publicity This department comes under Public Relations and i s responsible f o r publishing a l l material through personal contacts with e d i t o r s , commentators, magazine w r i t e r s , radio personnel, etc.  This i s also considered public education and  includes radio programs, audiovisual aids, and publication of s p e c i a l pamphlets. One purpose of p u b l i c i t y i s to confront the American people with the relevance of moral p r i n c i p l e s to everyday p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l decisions and actions. V.  Budgeting and F i n a n c i a l Control  Fund r a i s i n g i s done through a small group of dedicated people who t e l l others what the Service Committee i s doing and why.  There i s a growing f e e l i n g that the people  from whom they raise funds should be involved i n the program and so share personally i n the dividends of s a t i s f a c t i o n from the work. The fund raisers do not consider themselves as a necessary e v i l .  One of them says that he never asks people  for money, but merely t e l l s them what the Service Committee i s trying to do. d o l l a r s a year.  He raises an average of about a m i l l i o n I f these people can reach those who are not  contacted by any other such program, i t w i l l help to integrate them as a part of the program. from t h i s class of people.  The bulk of the money comes  - 81 Small donations are considered important because of the number of contacts made, rather than the amount given. Information i s given a l l donors through pamphlets and l e t t e r s . Christmas and f a l l appeals f o r contributions are sent to those who  regularly contribute but need a reminder and some up-to-  date information. About one-third of the budget i s raised this  way.  F i n a n c i a l Planning The Executive Board approves the o v e r - a l l budget which i s planned i n May when the representatives, who represent three or four regions, each, bring t h e i r budgets for approval.  This i s c a l l e d the Budget Committee as they  pass the approved budget to the Executive Board, which almost Invariably approves i t . Finances are planned c a r e f u l l y as the t r a d i t i o n and practice of the Quakers i s to spend other people's money as wisely as can be done.  I f contributions are accepted, they  are keenly aware of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to spend i t as the donors wish.  In any s o c i a l work agency, budgeting i s an  important phase of the administration.  In the AFSC, the  Executive Board, the Executive Secretary, and the Associate Secretary are a l l concerned with the planning of the budget to balance proportionately with the available f u n d s — t o obtain the maximum return i n supplying the need.  The  Associate Executive Secretary acts as the budget o f f i c e r , but  -82  -  the E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y must understand up and do much i n the way  the f i n a n c i a l s e t -  o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to both the  E x e c u t i v e Board and the p u b l i c . In a p u b l i c w e l f a r e agency, though budget p l a n n i n g depends to some extent upon the money a l l o t t e d , the estimated need may  be presented so that the executives can o b t a i n  more money.  In a p r i v a t e agency such  appeal l e t t e r may  as the AFSC a s p r i n g  be sent out, but the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c a r e -  f u l not to spend over the budgeted amount as some p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies  are known t o do.  Though s t a f f s a l a r i e s a r e not h i g h , they must  still  be c o n s i d e r e d , as w e l l as c o s t s f o r m a t e r i a l s , s h i p p i n g , o f f i c e o p e r a t i o n , c l e r i c a l s u p p l i e s , and s p e c i a l expenses i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the programs. on page 82A  A summary of the budgets i s  and a more complete, d e t a i l e d t a b l e i s i n the  appendix. The  g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h y behind  f i n a n c i a l planning  i n the AFSC, as i s t r u e i n the p u b l i c w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s , i s t h a t m a t e r i a l s or r e l i e f are not s u p p l i e d where there i s any p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t resources i n the community can be The purpose i s to motivate community and  utilized.  the s e l f - h e l p c a p a c i t i e s of the  to give of themselves i n v o l u n t e e r l a b o r or  other a c t i v i t i e s , r a t h e r than g i v e the money. upon r e s p e c t f o r the i n d i v i d u a l , r a t h e r than  T h i s i s based patronage.  - 82A AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE Incorporated SUMMARY OF CURRENT FUND TRANSACTIONS AND BALANCES For the Year Ended, September 30, 1953 WE RECEIVED: G i f t s of Cash „ G i f t s of Materials Other Receipts  -  WE SPENT: For R e l i e f and Rehabiliation Programs i n Europe and Asia ... r e l i e f supplies, s o c i a l and technical assistance, neighborhood centers, refugees For Work and Study Programs ... work camps, internes, i n s t i t u t i o n a l service units  &3,315,139.71* l,96lt,859.07 303,563-98  $2,870,995-11  For Programs toward World and Domestic Understanding ... school a f f i l i a t i o n , seminars, international centers, peace education  288,712.29  l,ll*5,8lU.85  For Programs dealing with Domestic S o c i a l Problems ... Community r e l a t i o n s ( s e l f help housing, opportunities f o r minori t i e s , a i d to American Indians, etc.)  198,LU5.02  For Other Service A c t i v i t i e s  186,611.95  For Public Education as to Committee Concerns  6ii,l5l.2lt  For Employees' Retirement Plans ... transf e r to Trustee and Custodian of funds accumulated over a period of years and r e s t r i c t e d by the Committee f o r same  163,253-75  For General Administration, Personnel, Publ i c i t y , and Finance  560,235.11  BALANCE BALANCE at End of the Year This Part of the Balance i s Allocated as to Use: Reserved f o r Contingencies 0 Held f o r special purposes of the Committee Contributed f o r s p e c i a l uses : Undistributed r e l i e f clothing, etc. Required f o r working funds (advances, r e c e i v ables, etc.)  5,1*77,919-32 105,61*3.U7  $  1,U9U,226,53  BALANCE at Beginning of the Year  BALANCE Unallocated at End of the Year  £5,583,562.79  .'  $1,599,870.00  2U6,9U6.60 170,2l|2.27 5Wi,136.1*5 66,023.01 189,771.90  ' 1,217,120.23 §-  382,71*9.77  — " F a i t h f o r an Age of C r i s i s " , Annual Report, American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, 1953, page 32.  - 82B AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE Incorporated CENTRAL SERVICES 1953-54 CONSOLIDATED BUDGETS ....  PERSONNEL  $  ACCOUNTING  :  95,495. 65,465.  '.  30,365.  PUBLIC RELATIONS AMERICAN SECTION ADM MI STRATI ON  29,315.  GENERAL ADMINISTRATION  120,755.  REGIONAL OFFICE ADMINISTRATION  14,515.  FINANCE - PROMOTION  205.790.  TOTAL  $  561,700.  SUMMARY OF BUDGETS AMERICAN PROGRAMS FORFJ. GN PROGRAMS CENTRAL SERVICES  •  Si,263,82 5. 2, 506,421. 561.700. S4.331.846.  •"-Manual for Finance Secretaries, American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, 1953, page 6.  - 82B AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE Incorporated CENTRAL SERVICES 1953-54 CONSOLIDATED BUDGETS  PERSONNEL  $  95,495.  ACCOUNTING.:  65,465.  PUBLIC RELATIONS  30,365.  AMERICAN SECTION ADMINISTRATION  29,315.  GENERAL ADMINISTRATION.  120/755.  REGIONAL OFFICE ADMINISTRATION FINANCE - PROMOTION  14,515. '••  205.790. S  TOTAL  561.700.  SUMMARY OF BUDGETS AMERICAN PROGRAMS  §1,263,825.  FORFJ GN PROGRAMS  2, 506,421«.  CENTRAL SERVICES  '.  561.700. U. 331.846.  --Manual f o r Finance Secretaries, American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, 1953, page 6.  Spending The Finance Department, as stated above, does the promotion and planning, whereas the Accounting Department does the spending.  Though the regional o f f i c e s have their  own small systems of accounting and send t h e i r reports to the national o f f i c e , the Accounting Department i n Philadelphia i s responsible f o r the receipts and disbursements of the AFSC. Auditing of the accounts i s done yearly by an outside firm. Though not many forms or vouchers are needed, as this i s not primarily a r e l i e f giving agency, a l l vouchers must be signed by two of four authorized persons i n each o f f i c e . The F i n a n c i a l Manual which i s sent out to each o f f i c e contains a record of the spending of each o f f i c e and program, and describes i n d e t a i l the budget allotment  given.  Monthly reports are not given except i n s p e c i a l cases of Foundations or s o c i a l and technical assistance, but a c t i v i t y reports are sent i n at stated i n t e r v a l s to account f o r conventional receipts and disbursements. It i s possible that a form sent i n regularly with a record of general a c t i v i t i e s , expenses, and supplies needed, would be of help i n the o v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y of the AFSC. Conclusions The plan of c i r c u l a r administration  1  and the l o y a l t y  1 Wilson, Gertrude and Ryland, Gladys, S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . Houghton M i f f l i n Co. Riverside Press, N.Y.  1949, p. 590-593.  - 84 and commitment of the s t a f f , boards, and committees to the purposes of the AFSC are major factors i n the e f f i c i e n c y of the agency.  The f l e x i b i l i t y possible i n this set-up  enables  them to do pioneer group work which serves as p i l o t projects to other s o c i a l service or s o c i a l group work agencies. As the AFSC i s a unitary organization with a dominant o v e r - a l l goal of helping others to help themselves through certain d e f i n i t e channels of administrative planning and p o l i c y , as well as group work techniques, c o n f l i c t s are eliminated which would otherwise be present.  To accomplish  t h e i r goals, the Friends learned through the centuries that high pressure methods are not l a s t i n g i n s o c i a l change, but rather determine and mobilize the motivations of those with whom they work—the s t a f f and the c l i e n t s .  This includes  securing the sanction of the government and the l o c a l communi t y and their p a r t i c i p a t i o n In the planning.  To further under-  stand the motivations of the AFSC workers, see the questionnaire i n Chapter 4 and the charts of the purposes pages 100A " I f existing motivations can be lined up behind the planned behavior instead of the existing pattern, they w i l l serve as a strong influence toward compliance."  1  The two basic  administrative inducements to change are (1) through acceptance of the people while guiding and educating them and  1 Simon, Herbert; Smithburg, Donald; Thompson, V i c t o r ; Public Administration. Knopf, N.Y. 1 9 5 0 , p. 434  -  (2) rewards and penalties.  85 -  Though the f i r s t method takes more  time, to the AFSC i t i s the way to develop the self-help i n c l i n a t i o n s and maturity of those with whom they work.  The  administrators of s o c i a l work, generally, seem to follow t h i s same philosophy.  CHAPTER 4 MEXICO VOLUNTEER WORK CAMPS In Chapter 2 the writer examined a type of s o c i a l service administration—that of the American Friends Service Committee.  Volunteer work camps i n Mexico, presented i n  Chapter 3 , i s a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y representative of the work of the AFSC.  The volunteer work camp i s a movement which  began i n 1 9 2 0 with a camp i n northern France to build temporary housing and clear debris l e f t by World War I. The Society of Friends cooperated with the Fellowship of Reconciliation i n this work which has progressed  through the Service C i v i l  c-  International i n Europe as w e l l as with the AFSC.  The idea  was adopted by the AFSC i n 1 9 3 4 as suitable i n philosophy and service f o r their home and i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs. C a r l y l e , Ruskin, and William James provided  intell-  ectual precedents f o r the work-camp philosophy of s o c i a l service with i t s emphasis on pacifism, manual labor, "simple romantic naturalism", and i n t e r n a t i o n a l brotherhood.  William  James described the Society of Friends i n h i s lectures on "The V a r i e t i e s of Religious Experience" and spoke of work camps as the moral equivalent of war.  1  The f i r s t camp i n the United States, held i n the 1 James, William, The V a r i e t i e s of Religious Experience. Longmans, Green and Co. N.Y. 1 9 0 2 .  - 87 mining community of Greesburg, Pennsylvania, gave the following as i t s purposes To give young people an opportunity to acquire first-hand experience of p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , and i n d u s t r i a l problems i n areas of c o n f l i c t ; to combine this knowledge with and obtain i t through work for a community; and to explore the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n i t i a t i n g s o c i a l changes by non-violent techniques. The purpose has not b a s i c a l l y changed, but a c r i t i c a l examination of the purpose, from the point of view of the campers, w i l l be explored l a t e r i n the questionnaire analysis. Work camps were further developed the second World War  i n Europe after  under the Quaker International Voluntary  Service, with the idea that by going d i r e c t l y to war-torn countries and working with the people, a basic contribution would be made to help eliminate causes of war.  The Quaker  International Volunteer Service program has been combined into the Foreign Section of the AFSC, and this t i t l e for the work was  dropped.  (See Chapter 1 for further d e t a i l s on European  Work Camps). In the United States, volunteer work camps have been held i n many areas of r e a l c o n f l i c t or deprivation where other groups have not pioneered.  Camps i n 1954- are located at Pine  Ridge, South Dakota, a drouth stricken area of the Sioux Indian Reservation; and i n Humboldt County, C a l i f o r n i a , on the Hobpa Reservation where a v i t a l recreation program i s needed.  In  Indianapolis the campers w i l l a s s i s t i n a s e l f - h e l p housing project and various other programs organized by Flanner  Community Settlement House i n a negro section of the c i t y . A group of Displaced Persons of Buddhist Mongolian o r i g i n have formed a Kalmuck Society, and a camp project w i l l be to help them b u i l d a community and c u l t u r a l center i n t h e i r new home near Lakewood, New  Jersey.  Six Senior work camps are being held, including Nett Lake, Minnesota, and Brooklyn, New York.  Of special  interest to s o c i a l workers i s the emphasis on a c h i l d care program i n central Pennsylvania, developed with the cooperation of state and l o c a l agencies.  This camp i s helping to  improve housing and camp sites for migrant workers.  In a  highly transient area of Los Angeles which has an alarming incidence of juvenile delinquency, work campers w i l l a s s i s t Watts Community Center i n a summer recreation program and help with physical community improvements.  A work project i n  Crownpoint, New Mexico, consists of building a community meeting house of native stones and adobe just o f f the Navajo Indian Reservation.  Week-end work camps and other service  projects arise when the need appears, sometimes co-sponsored by other organizations who wish to help and want the "know how"  of the AFSC. To give a more detailed description and analysis of  a phase of the work of the AFSC, the volunteer work camps i n Mexico have been selected.  The program was begun i n 1939.  From that time u n t i l 1953» over two thousand young people took part i n the camps which included short term camps l a s t i n g  ' - 89 perhaps a summer, and long term camps which continue on a year round basis.  These camp units have functioned i n eleven  Mexico states.. Campers come from the United States and many other countries, paying their own expenses, with the exception of a few scholarships.  Most of them are college under-  graduates or graduates i n such professions as teaching, where they can give a summer or take a year o f f for the experience. The fee i n 1954- f o r a summer camp, l a s t i n g from June 30 to August 18, was $160. including Insurance, though some scholarships were a v a i l a b l e , usually on a p a r t i a l basis.  Partici-  pants who f e e l independent, rather than indebted to the organization, w i l l benefit more from the experience and the opportunity to share with others.  (These p r i n c i p l e s of s e l f -  help and self-determination are essential ingredients of s o c i a l work.)  The f i n a n c i a l requirement has resulted i n the  largest proportion coming from the upper and middle s o c i a l s t r a t a — w h i t e C h r i s t i a n and Jewish groups.  A r e a l effort i s  made to include those from other races, r e l i g i o u s and culture groups.  As the number of applicants'is greater than the camps  can accomodate, a selection can be made according to i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, quality of recommendations, i'  a b i l i t i e s , and ,  potential for emotional, i n t e l l e c t u a l , and s p i r i t u a l growth from the experience. Campers l i v e i n or close to the'project, pay no rent, and have simple, inexpensive meals, paid for from camp funds (some from project fees).  The l o c a l community or  - 90 sponsoring  group pay £or tools and equipment; sometimes an  AFSC truck or s t a t i o n wagon i s available for use.  Depending  on the s i z e of the job, f i v e or s i x days a week are for work and the other day or two devoted to special events, t r i p s , v i s i t o r s , or  worship.  A d a i l y schedule runs somewhat as follows:  After a  s i x or seven o'clock breakfast, campers clean up, and have f i f t e e n to t h i r t y minutes of s i l e n t worship.  Since many  women i n r u r a l communities i n Mexico a r i s e at about three i n the morning to make their t o r t i l l a s and do d a i l y chores, and the men  on the e a r l y ^ s h i f t s go to work at f o u r - t h i r t y , the  campers i n comparison have an easy schedule.  S i e s t a i s usually  observed according to'the v i l l a getcustom, i n the  afternoon,  and evenings are devoted.to discussions, lectures, v i s i t o r s , or free time for campers. Camp routine and,problems a r i s i n g therefrom are dealt with l a r g e l y In the "meeting for business" which i s led by the d i r e c t o r or one of the group, and often rotates to avoid autocratic authority, by one person.  Decisions are made ,  ;  by the clerk enunciating the "sense of the-meeting" or by unanimous opinion, rather than by majority vote. done prematurely, the other members may further.  I f this i s  carry the discussion  Though the director i s the representative of the  AFSC, the plan Is that the campers s h a l l have their own and the opportunity  ;  Ideas  to voice them i n democratic discussion  rather than that the director should be i n the position of a leader who  dominates the thinking and a c t i v i t i e s of the  - 91 campers.  In s o c i a l case work, this method compares with the  interview technique of l e t t i n g the c l i e n t talk to work out his own ideas.  I f the caseworker imposed her ideas on the  c l i e n t , he would not grow to eventual independence. Although the group has considerable control over interpersonal relationships, some effort i s necessary to prevent the pairing o f f of couples which impairs the possi b i l i t i e s of f u l l y sharing i n relationships with the rest of the group and the community.  Results of group experience  provide l a s t i n g friendships and not a few marriages.  This  idea of each member having the same opportunity to share i n relationships with others i s evident i n working with the l o c a l people. D i s c i p l i n e of the camp i s maintained by the director and by the group pressure through r e i t e r a t i n g Quaker p r i n c i p l e s , moral standards, practices of other camps, and by delegating a great deal of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to each i n d i v i d u a l . One who shirks h i s d a i l y chores finds h i s ideas i n the d i s cussion do not hold weight with the group.  Participants are -  agreeable to the group d i s c i p l i n e , as a r u l e . 1953 Mexico Work Camps To give a more s p e c i f i c idea of what i s being done i n the volunteer work camps i n Mexico, the following i s a b r i e f description of what was done i n 1953. Since the work-camp philosophy and pioneer experiments were f e l t by UNESCO to be a way of building f o r peace,  - 92 they cooperated with AFSC i n a p i l o t project i n 1947 and set up t h i r t y projects f o r 1948.  This was a help to the AFSC  Mexico projects as they aided i n assembling  l i b r a r i e s for work  camps, i n p u b l i c i t y , i n organization of a Coordination Commi t t e e f o r International Work Camps, and i n resolving problems i n regard to transportation and passports f o r those who were members of UNESCO. The p i l o t project i n the State of Nayarit i n the v a l l e y of Rio Santiago involved community planning or r e planning of v i l l a g e s , and a s s i s t i n g with road b u i l d i n g , schools, play equipment and sanitation.  The women helped  with sewing, n u t r i t i o n , handicraft and English classes. The plan of r u r a l education, begun by the government of Mexico, interested UNESCO to the extent of cooperating i n a project i n Fundamental Education, following the plan submitted to member nations.  The Ensayo P i l o t o worked with the 35»000  inhabitants of the v a l l e y , employing Mexican teachers, engineers, and s o c i a l workers, cooperating with the twenty-five to t h i r t y AFSC volunteers.  A t o t a l of 149 volunteers worked  i n the four years from 1949 to 1953. twenty of the twenty-eight  Schools were b u i l t i n  v i l l a g e s , and the general l e v e l of  l i v i n g was r a i s e d . As i n a l l work camps, what i s known i n s o c i a l work as "beginning where the c l i e n t i s " was demonstrated i n the state of T l a x c a l a , two of the larger towns, concentrating on tree planting, erosion control, h o s p i t a l and c l i n i c work,  - 93 and recreation.  -  Units have worked i n the v i l l a g e of Panotla  and i n the c i t y of Tlaxcala, where work i n 1953 the schools, c l i n i c s , and roads.  centered on  It i s necessary to help  them with the work they are already thinking of doing i n order that they w i l l not f e e l pushed into a project without recogn i z i n g the use of i t . This, again, Is the p r i n c i p l e used i n s o c i a l work of beginning where the c l i e n t i s rather than imposing ideas upon the c l i e n t . The  state director of Public Health i n Veracruz  sent repeated i n v i t a t i o n s to AFSC for units to work there. In 1942,  AFSC men  had helped dig a drainage d i t c h to free the  area from malaria, and i n Xico had l a i d sewer pipes.  1952,  In  a unit went to Jalacingo where the g i r l s worked i n recreat i o n , handicrafts, and kindergarten English classes.  i n the schools, and held  The boys helped with a sports program for  prisoners i n the l o c a l j a i l , b u i l t desks for schools,  painted  a c l i n i c building and improved the water system.  1953,  In  i n Tlapacoyan, i n addition to work i n the schools and  clinic,  a children's l i b r a r y and a handicraft program were organized. The boys helped with a f i l t e r i n g system for the town's water supply.  The Public Health Director arranged brigades for  spraying DDT  i n the early months of  1954.  Four units have worked i n the state of Mexico.  All  the projects involved recreation, handicraft programs, classes i n k n i t t i n g , cooking, dancing, sewing, and English.  Under the  d i r e c t i o n of Mexican nurses, house to house vaccinations  and  - 94 -  nurses' aid work i n the hospitals were undertaken by the girls.  In V a l l e de Bravo, a year-round project, they helped  the women of the community serve f i f t y children i n a breakfast program financed by concerned l o c a l people. tequexquinahuac,  In  the g i r l s helped not only with vaccinations  and diphtheria tests but to spray the school buildings, while the boys b u i l t two l a t r i n e s and worked on a sports program. In Ixtapan del Oro, the boys helped repair v i l l a g e streets, bridges, v i l l a g e plaza and dig the foundation f o r a new school.  In Donato Guerra, they helped cobblestone the court-  yard of a school and complete a school l a t r i n e made of brick. A unique project was  carried on i n Desemboque,  Sonora, where f o r two years seven North American and three Mexican men volunteers aided the school teacher of the S e r i Indians i n building a house for him.  The f i r s t school house  was b u i l t under d i f f i c u l t i e s , as the f i s h house where the volunteers stayed, burned down with most of the possessions of the teacher.  Former campers and AFSC people  donated  clothing and materials to replace the burned items. water supply was  A fresh  located, a s i x t y foot well was dug, and a  two mile road from the town to the w e l l was b u i l t .  To aid  the project, a new windmill was donated by the governor to aid  i n i r r i g a t i o n of the a r i d land. Pictures of the work i n some of the above projects,  which i l l u s t r a t e the a c t i v i t i e s of campers and Mexicans, are on the following pages.  Howard, Sam, (photographer) "Laying Water Pipe", San Nicholas, Mexico, 1952.  - 95 Questionnaire Analysis In order that f i r s t hand material might be obtained from AFSC work camp volunteers to discover t h e i r opinions about the techniques used and f i n a l r e s u l t s , a questionnaire 1 composed by the w r i t e r ,  consisting of ten questions was sent  to three hundred of the s i x hundred volunteers who worked i n Mexico between 1950 and 1953.  Every other name on the mailing  l i s t was chosen except where there was a choice between those at extreme distances and those near the west coast. were given preference. 1. ipate?  The l a t t e r  The questions asked were as follows:  In which Mexico project or projects did you p a r t i c Which year or years?  2.  Was this a summer project? Long Term?  3.  Check a c t i v i t i e s i n which you participated:  al-Health,—Manual  labor,—Sewing,—Cooking  Education  classes,—  R e c r e a t i o n , — O t h e r — (indicate) 4.  What do you f e e l was the primary purpose of your  work i n Mexico? 5.  To what extent was this purpose realized?  6.  To what extent did your project members attempt to  l i v e on the same l e v e l as the people with whom you worked? 7.  Do you think the technique followed was the most  e f f e c t i v e f o r this type of project? 8.  What were the techniques which you used i n d i v i d u a l l y ?  1. After consultation with Dr. Leonard Marsh, Harry Burke, and Edwin Duckies.  - 96 9. 10.  What techniques  d i d you use as a group?  To what extent do you f e e l the v i l l a g e people would  carry on the work a f t e r you l e f t ? A f u l l psychological evaluation of the work camps 1 i n Mexico i n 1948 was made by Henry Riecken.  The purpose of  this chapter i s not to attempt an elaborate s c i e n t i f i c analy s i s , but to examine from a s o c i a l work point of view the reasons why young people volunteer and the contribution of these camps to the f i e l d of s o c i a l work.  The questions were  selected to obtain a general picture of the camps and campers, including t h e i r motivations, placement, a c t i v i t i e s , r e l a t i o n ships, and opinions.  These questions were checked by the  director of the Mexico camps and others f o r their  usefulness  to the AFSC as well as f o r s o c i a l work research. The writer i s not a member of the Society of Friends or of the American Friends Service Committee, though sharing many of t h e i r b e l i e f s .  She has not v i s i t e d Mexico, but has  participated i n a volunteer work camp i n the United States for a short period, which resulted i n some understanding of procedures.  Personal interviews were held with eight former  Mexico volunteers and with s t a f f members of the S e a t t l e , Portland, San Francisco, and Mexico o f f i c e s .  Some reference  material was obtained from the Philadelphia o f f i c e . The projects from September 1950 to September 1953 1 Riecken, Henry W., The Volunteer Work Camp; A Psychological Evaluation, Addison-Wesley Press, Inc., Cambridge, 1952.  - 97 were as follows: September 1950 to September 1951 Summer Projects:  Year-round Projects:  Panotla, Tlaxcala Milpa A l t a , Mexico, D.F. Tetecala, Morelos La Encarnacion, Hidalgo Huexotla, Mexico Colorlnes (San Nicholas, Mexico  Santiago I x c , Nayarit (closed during the summer) Valle de Bravo, Mexico N a t i v i t a s , Mexico, D.F;  September 1951 to September 1952 Summer:  Huexotla, Mexico Year-round: Santiago Ixc. Jalaeingo, Veracruz Nayarit Donato Guerra, Mexico V a l l e de Bravo, Mex. Santa Catarina, Mexico, D.F. Cole-Tines, (San Tlapacoyan, Veracruz Nicholas) Mexico Panotla, Tlaxcala S e r i Indian Project (Desemboque, Sonora) N a t i v i t a s , Mex. D.F. (closed 2/52) September 1952 to September 1953  Summer:  Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala Huamantla, Tlaxcala Ixtapan d e l Oro, Mex. Donato Guerra, Mex. Tlapacoyan, Veracruz Tequexquinahuac, Mex.  Year-round: Jalaeingo, Veracruz Valle de Bravo, Mex. Santiago I x c , Naya r l t (closed during summer)  Though the E l Salvador Projects are c l o s e l y a l l i e d with the Mexico Projects, they have not been considered i n this study.  Campers who are chosen for E l Salvador have  previously had experience i n Mexico or European camps or the equivalent.  I t was thought best to send questionnaires to the  campers having t h e i r f i r s t experience, as nearly as could be determined.  F i f t y - f o u r percent of the questionnaires were r e turned and used.  Fourteen were returned because of wrong  address, and f i v e could not be used as they were incomplete. Many Campers expressed interest i n the study, asked for more information about i t or offered suggestions.  Many of the  questionnaires which came i n l a t e had notes attached to the effect that the writers had been involved i n school work and unable to answer sooner.  This factor doubtless prevented  others from answering. Some may have resisted answering as a general p o l i c y . A response of over 50% to the average questionnaire i s considered good.  Some may have had mixed feelings and so did not  reply, or may even have had negative reactions but did not want to bother to put them down.  In the form sent out, the  number of questions was limited to ten, but they were phrased as open-ended questions to obtain the maximum freedom of response.  There was some resistance to this i n Questions 8  and 9» where they were asked to give the techniques used. Campers were not to sign their names unless they desired to do so, but at least a t h i r d did so and l e f t t h e i r addresses for further contact, expressing t h e i r enthusiasm  for the  project. Though the AFSC has an unusually careful s i f t i n g of applicants and takes particular care to select good leaders, there are times when better leaders are needed.  "Directors  should have been married at least a year before becoming  - 99 leaders.  Strained relations between directors (man  have sent some camps down the wrong road," was  and wife)  one comment.  Training and orientation programs were evidently not as complete as could be desired.  However, the AFSC i s constantly  checking through written and o r a l reports of the camps for ways of improving leadership through better orientation, service t r a i n i n g , and leadership s e l e c t i o n . Relationships between campers and the Mexican people were commented upon by many.  One  g i r l said that though the  v i l l a g e r s i n Santa Catarina accepted the group "with smiles and outward friendship" and invited them into t h e i r homes and to f i e s t a s , many referred to the Quaker group derogatively behind t h e i r backs and laughed at the " f o o l i s h gringos trying to be l i k e us".  She did f e e l , though, that each volunteer  had made at l e a s t one f r i e n d there, which meant f i f t e e n friends of the group.  Another r e p l i e d , "We  made many friends. How-  ever, a f t e r a year we began making enemies, too-poor leadership and judgment." As was  mentioned i n Chapter 1, the volunteers  sent only upon the request ity.  are  of the l o c a l government or commun-  After they have arrived, the i n i t i a t i o n of personal  relationship usually must come from the project members rather than the Mexicans, the campers stated.  The campers were given  a b r i e f outline of Mexican history by Herberto Sein, professor at the University of Mexico.  The following summary was  from a camper's notes: (Sam Howard).  "Through  taken  centuries of  Howard, Sam, (photographer) "Making Bricks", Seri Indian Project, Desemboque, 1952.  - 100 changing dictatorships, the Mexican people have adjusted bywithdrawing natural human tendencies toward aggressive, dominating c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and have become more submissive.  Today,  t o u r i s t s are accepted as a necessary e v i l , and goods are produced for them, but the Mexicans do not make friends with them.  To make friends with strange newcomers whose mission  i s not clear to them, and whose predecessors were hated or barely tolerated t o u r i s t s i s a pattern of behavior which can change only through relationship with those whom they can learn to t r u s t , and by whom they are accepted.  The campers,  by d a i l y proof of their i n t e g r i t y and goodwill can help change the pattern.  In s o c i a l work, this would be known as  using acceptance, warmth, and understanding to promote a better r e l a t i o n s h i p . Analysis of tables and charts Table I i s an analysis of the questions 3 and 4 i n the appendix, page  .  Question 4 was an inquiry into the  primary purpose of the campers for going to Mexico.  The ans-  wers were grouped into four classes.  The f i r s t two purposes  expressed were a l t r u i s t i c i n nature.  The l a s t two were an  outcome of the f i r s t two.  As each person expressed from one  to f i v e purposes, the number of purposes i s considerably larger than the number of persons.  - 100A Table 1 .  -  T o t a l Pattern of Purposes Expressed, According to A c t i v i t i e s  PURPOSES (a) I. Sharing i n work and friendship ( 1 ) Mutual understanding— international ( 8 ) W o r k — s o c i a l contacts, removing b a r r i e r s (6) Brother love, Quaker techniques  tecreation Education (A) (F) P.C.(c)  52  Classified  Health  (B)  Total | Work (b) (C-D-E) Activities] No. P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  51  .51  52  351  52  20  23  1U7  22  2 0  18  128  19  51  7  I I . Helping them to help themselves ( 2 ) Material, physical aid, Mexican d i r e c t i o n ( 7 ) Education of Mexicans to meet f e l t needs  22  I I I . Learning from Mexicans about Mexico ( 3 ) Customs, culture, l a n guage, mutual exchange (U) S o c i a l awareness, l e a r n ing from Mexicans ( 5 ) Appreciation of Mexican problems  18  2 0  IV. Training i n work camp procedures (9)  Adjustment to work camp, group l i v i n g , s e l f awareness ( 1 0 ) AFSC in-service t r a i n i n g work  8  8  9  7  (d)  Grand Totals ... Source:  1 0 0  1 0 0  1 0 0  Questions 3 and h of the Questionnaire.  100  (See Appendix  677  1 0 0  C.)  (a) The numbers given to the answers i n the questionnaires are shown i n brackets.  Letters (F,A,B,C-D-E) also r e f e r to ansxrers given.  (b) Manual labor, sewing, and/or cooking, (c) Percentage  of a c t i v i t i e s .  For percentage  of purposes, see p.  (d) T o t a l of 1 5 0 questionnaires (or individuals reporting) but incorporating a number of multiple choices. See also Appendix C.  - 101  119  52$  Group I I . Helping them to help themselves  51  22$  Group I I I . Learning from Mexicans  42  19$  Group IV.  17  7%  229  100$  Group I.  Sharing i n work and friendship  Training i n work camps Totals  The campers seemed a l t r u i s t i c and outgoing i n t h e i r answers, considering that they could express any desires they wished and did not have to sign t h e i r names. tioned that the one purpose was  Only one men-  to see the country of Mexico,  though a l l of them accomplished this to some extent before leaving the country.  However, "people are not always, i f  ever, f u l l y aware of a l l t h e i r motives.  They tend to furnish  the answers expected or most acceptable." In Group I, the sharing was as mentioned above.  i n i t i a t e d by the campers,  They had a v a r i e t y of s k i l l s to o f f e r ,  but also had such s k i l l s as c r a f t s , v i s u a l aids, and physical education where i t was of value.  The majority (52$)  indicated  a desire for international friendship to remove barriers through s o c i a l contacts, and working with the Mexican people was given as a purpose for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the project.  Only  22% belong i n the next c a t e g o r y — t r y i n g to help the Mexicans to help themselves—19$  wanted to learn from Mexicans, and  only 7%o wanted training i n work camp procedures.  I t was  obvious that giving of material and physical aid under Mexican d i r e c t i o n was important.  The Participants believed this was  - 102 an Important purpose, but In the answers to Questions 8 and 9, this came out as one technique, not the chief purpose i n going.  The abstract values toward promoting peace and under-  standing came f i r s t .  The giving of material aid under Mexican  d i r e c t i o n was a tool with the ultimate aim of establishing international relationships. Group IV ranked only 7%.  At f i r s t glance, i t would  seem evident that this group of undergraduates or graduates, with ideas and ideals predisposed toward AFSC work, would be looking for a type of in-service t r a i n i n g i n work camp procedures and techniques.  This would equip them for further  and more i n t e n s i f i e d work i n s i m i l a r a l t r u i s t i c vocations. From the very small response, i t i s apparent that such motives were not foremost i n the minds of the volunteers. The exact number of responses to purposes and a c t i v i t i e s i s shown i n Table  i n the appendix.  ings were made to show the different motives.  The group-  Those whose  purposes were expressed only i n Group IV may have lacked the imagination of those i n Groups I and I I , but they learned more from the projects than from the people.  The f i r s t three  groups expressed a warm f e e l i n g for people and for s o c i a l service which was not d i r e c t l y evident i n the l a s t  group.  There are various reasons why people want to help others, and not a l l of them are desirable.  Therefore, the Group II i s  not on the a l t r u i s t i c plane of Group I, as the i n d i v i d u a l motivation i s not known.  - 103 Another consideration i s that the four groups represent d i f f e r e n t degrees o f " i n t e l l e c t u a l awareness of their motives. will.  Group I shows an undifferentiated f e e l i n g of good-  Group II expressed the need to help them help them-  selves.  Group III says that the purpose i s to learn from the  Mexicans themselves and share i n the process.  Group IV f e e l s  that the need for t r a i n i n g i s important to be more e f f e c t i v e i n helping. Recreation and work were given as a c t i v i t i e s i n which the campers most frequently participated.  It was  not  easy to d i f f e r e n t i a t e a c t i v i t i e s as recreation would include f i e s t a s , teaching games or physical education, and sometimes outings.  Work included cooking, sewing, and various types of  manual labor on the projects.  Education included work i n the  schools, teaching of English to individuals or classes of adults, and i n s t r u c t i o n i n s k i l l s . ion  It also included i n s t r u c t -  received from the Mexican people.  Health involved not  only provisions for sanitary f a c i l i t i e s , but a s s i s t i n g the l o c a l doctors and nurses or sanitary Inspectors  i n the hospitals,  c l i n i c s , or homes. The lowest percentage i n Table I was part i n work a c t i v i t i e s , who  %  who  took  had expressed Group IV (learning  from Mexicans) as their purpose. Riecken's observation was  that the campers with  highly " p e r f e c t i o n i s t " tendencies gained the least from t h e i r camping experience, and that those who  had a more romantic view  - 103A • Table 2  B  Opinion of Project Members as to Extent to Which Purposes were Realized on Projects ~  Volunteers who worked onj EXTENT  SHORT TERM Project  LONG TERM Project Mo,  P.C.  I. DECIDEDLY (Evaluated-approximately at 75$ and up) LT. MODERATE (Eva lua ted-approxima te l y at 50$ and up) III. LIMITED (Evaluated-approximately at 2% and up) IV. DOUBTFUL  Grand Totals .,  Source:  No.  TOTALS  P.C.  Mo.  P.C.  2h  h3  32  3h  56  37  13  23  30  32  U3  29  16  29  23  2h  39  26  3  5  9  10  12  8  100$  150  56  100$  Questions 2 and 5 of the Questionnaire.  9h  100$  - 103B Fig. 11. Total Pattern of Purposes Expressed, Classified. According to Activities  3 Recreation  $2%  rsf Education 3^;  SI  JP f Health !M|i;!ii!!M!|iji|i!!!!'' Mf|^^ tf H ? M/f urf'//If|f <lifh(if M taj iifU  5 1 5 2  fnr. Recreation.^  22  ^«^ucatxonwiiB^...^^v'.  21  II.  20 18 18 20  '.•^Education ••ryr*«~' <->>??x% :  III.  liWH^I[j|]i|(|l!|ii((f!J||||f  2 0  18  IV,  Recreation  8  Education  8  Health  9  Work  7  $5%  Percentage of Purposes Recreation Education Key  Health Work  Source:  Questions 3 and it of the Questionnaire.  i A  V  *  - 1G3C F i g . 12.  Opinion of Project Members as to Extent to Which Purposes were Realized on Projects ~"  Decidedly  I.  Moderate  II.  III. 2h%  17.  Limited  r  H I  Doubtful lOJg  -i  SOS  Projects Long Term Short Term  Source:  Questions 2 and 5 of the Questionnaire.  - 104 of what would be the outcome of the endeavor and were more r e laxed i n their relationships received more i n l a s t i n g values. Those " p e r f e c t i o n i s t s " who would use work as their chief purr pose, and who  are more interested i n t r a i n i n g i n camp pro-  cedures than i n establishing relationships with the l o c a l community are ultimately the least s a t i s f i e d with what has been  accomplished. Questions 2 and 5 of the Questionnaire:  Question 2  was  c l a s s i f i e d according to the time spent i n the camps.  who  had been i n more than one camp between 1950 and 1953 were  considered "long term".  Question 5 on the extent to which the  purposes were accomplished who  Those  was  evaluated according to those  had had short or long terms of camping.  grouped themselves into four degrees: moderate, (3) l i m i t e d , (4) doubtful.  (1)  The answers decidedly, (2)  Those who  had had long  term experience were more decided In their opinions about the accomplishment of their goals.  They were able to see more  results than those on short term projects.  Short term campers  were more cautious i n expressing their views about the extent of their accomplishments.  One-third more than those i n the  moderate group f e l t they had accomplished Question 6:  This was  t h e i r purpose.  a key question to obtain the  opinions of the volunteers as to the extent they were able to l i v e on the same l e v e l as the people with whom they worked. The varied answers were grouped into three degrees.  There was  some d i f f i c u l t y i n interpreting how much the opinions were  - 105 based on r e a l i t y , as some considered the difference negligi b l e when they had t o i l e t  f a c i l i t i e s and the l o c a l people did  not: or when they had radio or stove and the Mexicans did not. It was decided to take their own opinions rather than to determine the facts i n each case.  Those who had been there  on a long term basis were able to adjust to l i v i n g on the l o c a l l e v e l , as they had time to learn which foods were both sanitary and h e a l t h f u l , and could use the v i l l a g e sanitary facilities  i f some were provided.  4 8 $ of the long term  campers thought the difference was n e g l i g i b l e .  Only 3 6 $ of  the short term campers f e l t the difference was n e g l i g i b l e , but almost the same percentage as the majority of long term campers said they l i v e d above the l o c a l average l e v e l .  In  other words, the short term campers f e l t they were not able to adjust to the l e v e l of the l o c a l people, i n most instances, because of needed sanitary precautions and c u l t u r a l background. The percentage of those who f e l t that they l i v e d on a considerably higher l e v e l than the average Mexican was s l i g h t l y more f o r the short term than for the long term campers.  Many said that they l i v e d at the l e v e l of the l o c a l  doctor or p r i e s t .  One said that they l i v e d as "royalty"  i n comparison, as the l o c a l people did not have running water, toilet  f a c i l i t i e s , sanitary food, or American imported radios  which the project members had. Long term campers who had been i n several different camps found that conditions d i f f e r e d  - 1G5A Table 3» Extent Project Members Attempted to Live on the Same Level as the People With Whom They Worked LONG TERM Project  EXTENT  No. I. Negligible difference in living standard II. Above average — same except sanitation and culture III. As royalty — higher than Mexicans Totals ...  P.C.  SHORT TERM Project No.  TOTALS  P.C.  No.  P.C.  27  1*8  33  36  60  1*0  21  38  hh  hi  65  U3  8  lh  16  17  2k  17  93  100$  56  100%  lk9  100$  .  Source:  Question 6 of the Questionnaire.  Table 1*. Opinion of Project Members as to the Effectiveness of Work Camp Technique LONG TERM Project  OPINION  No.  I. Decidedly — yes  P.C  SHORT TERM Project No.  TOTALS  P.C.  No.  P.C. 58  31  60  51  55  82  8  15  11  12  19  7  1U  17  19  21*  17  5  11  13  11*  18  12  100$  92  100$  -  II. Satisfactory III. Varied on different projects — partially successful £7.  No Totals ...  51  . HO  100$  1  Source!  Question 7 of the Questionnaire.  - 106 with each camp, and that i n some cases the f a c i l i t i e s were much better.  In almost a l l cases the comments indicated that  the standards of l i v i n g were lower than t h e i r own, which meant a required adjustment to a new culture as well as to a lower standard of l i v i n g than that to which they were accustomed at home.  Eighty - three per cent did agree that they  l i v e d on almost the same l e v e l except for sanitation and c u l t u r a l differences.  One person did not answer t h i s question,  which made the t o t a l number of answers 14-9.  F i f t y s i x were  considered long term campers and 93 short term. Question 7$  The word "technique" was so puzzling  to seven campers that they did not reply to Question 7.  This  made a t o t a l of 143 r e p l i e s , 51 long term and 92 short term. More long term people had trouble with the word than short term people.  As questions 7, 8 and 9 dealt with techniques  used, the r e p l i e s indicated that volunteers do not l i k e to think i n terms of s p e c i f i c methods.  One s a i d , "There i s no  technique for being f r i e n d l y and cooperative." Perhaps the act of putting methods and techniques on paper meant subt r a c t i n g from t h e i r natural f e e l i n g of spontaneity and romantic idealism, or was  too confusing to the untrained s o c i a l worker.  There i s no doubt that the volunteers agreed that accomplishing t h e i r purpose through international friendship and understanding, and helping others to help themselves was the most effective. method."  Some q u a l i f i e d i t as "the most e f f e c t i v e known Out of the four groups 58$ of a l l campers responded,  "Decidedly".  - 107  -  Group I I I , the next highest, numbered 17$ who  felt  that the techniques were p a r t l y successful and their e f f e c t iveness varied according to d i f f e r e n t projects.  This means  that a t o t a l of 88$ agreed that the AFSC camps i n Mexico used e f f e c t i v e methods.  I f the question had been worded  d i f f e r e n t l y to make clear the idea that AFSC methods involved s p e c i f i c and unique techniques, the percentage of those replying i n the affirmative would have been almost 1 0 0 $ , but the subjective type of question gave opportunity f o r d i f f e r ent  expressions of opinion and ideas for improvement. A knowledge of Spanish would have made i t easier  for both campers and Mexicans.  The paramount t o o l i n estab-  l i s h i n g p o s i t i v e relationships i s communication coupled with individual attitude.  Five per cent more long term campers  than short term campers thought the technique (thought) was highly e f f e c t i v e . Question 8 :  L i s t i n g the techniques used proved  d i f f i c u l t f o r the campers.  Only 138 replied to t h i s , giving  a t o t a l of 389 d i f f e r e n t answers, with techniques each.  from one to seven  A c t i v i t i e s were considered objective and  attitudes as subjective.  Question 8 , on i n d i v i d u a l techniques,  as well as Question 9 , on group techniques was based on the concept of r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The subjective answers are r e a l l y  attitudes on which the objective techniques were based.  In  order to e s t a b l i s h rapport with the Mexicans, the campers had to have a warm approach with obvious s i n c e r i t y of purpose.  - 108 The Mexicans would give a warm response when they were sure that the campers were sincere and not l i k e the t o u r i s t s who were there to take the best without giving of themselves. S e n s i t i v i t y to t h e i r attitudes and feelings was very important to continuing r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Modesty and s i m p l i c i t y of  l i v i n g were ways of getting closer to the l e v e l of the people i n order to be accepted by them. It was d i f f i c u l t to separate the i n d i v i d u a l techniques (as given i n Question 8) from the group techniques. The group worked as a unit i n many ways. more apparent  I t became more and  that t h i s volunteer work camp movement i s a  type of group work using varying types of group techniques. Only occasionally was there just person-to-person  contact when  a camper worked giving English lessons to i n d i v i d u a l Mexicans or conversed with someone while i n the midst of group a c t i v i t y or shopping.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of their r e p l i e s was based on  the contacts of a group member with individuals or with small groups outside the AFSC. The "warm approach" was l i s t e d most frequently — 17% —  and " s e n s i t i v i t y to their a t t i t u d e s " and "use of  conversation" were each given 12$.  On the low end of the  percentages were the personal contacts through town functions and teaching of languages or c r a f t s .  Others considered t h i s  under group techniques, as they had fewer i n d i v i d u a l contacts. In Question 8, only two answers were l i s t e d as subj e c t i v e and ten as objective.  One was an a t t i t u d e — i n t e r e s t  - 108A -  Teble 5 . Individual Techniques Used by Project Members  Individual Techniques  .Objective Answers No.  P.C.  1. Conversation  L8  12  2. Playing with v i l l a g e r s t r i p s , parties, fiestas  hh  11  3. V i s i t i n g i n home or with teachers  38  10  k. Learning from Mexicans  37  9  5. Work (manual labor, etc.)  28  7  6. Playing with children  23  6  7. Teaching—English, Spanish, or crafts  15  k  8  2  8, Fersonal contacts through town functions  Subjective Answers 1. Warm approach  17  2. S e n s i t i v i t y to their attitudes  hQ  12  3. Modesty, simplicity of living  26  7  1*. Sincerity of purpose, "being oneself"  10  3  Totals ... Source:  (a) 389  100$  Question 8 of the Questionnaire,  (a) Total of 138 individuals reporting 389 multiple answers.  - 108B Table 6. Group Techniques Used by Project Members Objective Answers Group Techniques  Ho.  P.C.  1. Recreation, singing, folk dancing  Uo  15  2. Work (regular projects)  38  1U  3. "Cpen House" parties, retreats  27  10  U. Village activities fiestas, etc.  26  10  5. English classes  15  6  6. Crafts  11  k  7. Movies, slides  9  3  8o Health program  8  3  9, Inter-group outings  5  2  5  2  —  10. Library  Subjective Answers , 1. Interest in local customs 2. Conferences and discussion, weekly evaluation, daily meditation (a) Totals ... Source:  Ik  28  12  k  269 (b)  100%  Question 9 of the Questionnaire.  (a) Listed as subjective since i t pertains to internal affairs of the project unit. (b) Total of 138 individuals reporting 269 multiple answers.  - 109 i n l o c a l customs—which received 28$ of the answers, by f a r the highest number.  The other subjective answer pertained to  the methods used by the group for i t s own evaluation and i n s p i r a t i o n and was given only 4%. This, too, was a method used by a l l the campers, but evidently i t was not included i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the question. Of the ten techniques l i s t e d pertaining to working with people i n the community, "recreation" was mentioned as being used most often, (1%), whereas parties and r e t r e a t s , which could also be c l a s s i f i e d as recreation amounted to 10$ of the answers.  Work was l i s t e d next to recreation as a  method most often used.  This pertained  to regular projects,  and was l i s t e d elsewhere on the questionnaires  as an import-  ant t o o l i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p with the community. The least important techniques were the s k i l l s which the campers introduced  but which were usually discontinued by  Mexicans a f t e r they l e f t .  C r a f t s , l i b r a r i e s , movies, and  English classes are grouped here.  Inter-group outings were  l i s t e d by f i v e people as a group method.  The health program,  i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, was not l i s t e d as a group technique by more than 3$. Yet, according  to the a c t i v i t i e s checked i n  Question 3, 124 people participated i n some type of health activity.  Perhaps the everyday constant attention to s a n i -  tary precautions  and the inevitable " t o u r i s t a " (a type of  dysentery) caused them to think of health i n these terms  - 109A Table 7. Opinion of Project Members as to Extent the Village People Would Carry on the Work After Members Left  No. I. W i l l continue — chances very good  P.C.  23  16  II. Partially — depends on project  57  ia  III. Scarcely at a l l — limited — very l i t t l e  m  28  21  15  1U2  100$?  IV. No (physical labor)  Totals ...  Abstract values (a)  Source;  38  2h%  Question 10 of the Questionnaire.  (a) Some f e l t that the intangible aspects (such as friendship, good m i l , furthering international understanding, etc.) of the project would continue long after the physical aspects were forgotten.  -  110  -  rather than as the school health program, helping the v i s i t i n g nurses or the l o c a l doctors.  I f a l l the a c t i v i t i e s which  might i n any way be classed as recreation were l i s t e d together, i t would mean that 44$ used this means of accomplishing their purpose.  Under Question 3 , 31% l i s t e d recreation as an  a c t i v i t y i n which they participated.  This, then, was  the  leading technique used with work as the preferred second method.  Since the camps are c a l l e d "volunteer work camps",  i t i s interesting that recreation was  given greater emphasis.  This would also reinforce the findings i n Question 10 that abstract values have p r i o r i t y i n the goals of the campers. It t i e s i n with the purposes i n Question 4 where the ideals of removing barriers through international understanding i s given f i r s t place. The a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n Question 3 correspond with what many campers l i s t e d as techniques i n Questions 8 and  9.  The subjective answers were the p r i n c i p l e s upon which the s p e c i f i c techniques were based, except for the one on the techniques within the group i t s e l f . A volunteer from Washington, D.C. s a i d , "I firmly believe that the easiest and soundest way of c u l t i v a t i n g friendship between i n d i v i d u a l s , and hence perhaps a degree of tolerance or understanding between nations, i s through the c a l a l y s t of communal labor.  Endless talk and theorizing w i l l  not b u i l d understanding; a shared experience w i l l . " contrast to this i s the following remark?  In  "There should be  Howard, Sam,(photographer) "Building the House and School House", Seri Indian Project, Desemboque, l9$2» Mexico.  - Ill less emphasis on working; more on finding ways to enjoy each other—Mexicans  and Americans."  supported this idea.  A g i r l from Connecticut  "I found that the women were always ready  to talk about children, food, child-bearing, etc.  Never to  be i n a hurry was something very valuable to learn, and to have plenty of time just to s i t and t a l k . " Camp directors thought of techniques as those used within the group.  One s a i d , "In my role as camp director my  technique was non-directive—attempting to encourage i n d i v i d ual  and group r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r planning, decisions and  discipline.  A steering committee of three was responsible  each week to conduct any business discussions concerning group l i f e and team a c t i v i t i e s .  I think i t was a valuable  learning experience f o r a l l . " The highest percentage on Question 10 f e l t that whether their project would be carried on a f t e r they l e f t depended on i t s nature. had been accomplished.  Sometimes this was because the work In other cases, i f the work was i n the  hands of the l o c a l people, i t would be continued.  Crafts or  new s k i l l s did not continue i n the majority of cases.  The ~L%  who said that the work would not be c a r r i e d on at a l l referred s p e c i f i c a l l y to the physical labor.  About the same  number, 16$, referred to the chances being good that the work would continue.  Another c l a s s i f i c a t i o n — a b s t r a c t values—was  included, as so many mentioned that though the physical work was accomplished, or would not continue, friendships and  - 112 understanding would endure. Out of the 150, there were 142 answers to Question 10.  The following comments were representative of their  thinking.  One camper referred to material assistance when she  s a i d , "As a method for getting welfare work done, I believe summer work camps are rather unsuccessful, since neither adequate t r a i n i n g nor funds are a v a i l a b l e . for developing  But as a means  a s p i r i t of goodwill and understanding between  people they are tremendously successful." primary function was  Of course, the  not the giving of f i n a n c i a l assistance.  Regarding r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a boy from Boston wrote, ^The work was  probably carried on to a very small extent, but this i s  not a disturbing factor because the value of the summer was not i n the work accomplished or started but i n the human relationships."  One  g i r l thought that attitudes toward  Americans would d e f i n i t e l y have improved. s t r u c t i v e comment came from a young man "We  The following con-  from Milwaukee:  probably should have done more planning with the i n f l u e n t i a l  people of the community f o r some indications of future plans, plus getting greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the older members of the community.  In the areas of health, education,  and  recreation, we should have attempted to t r a i n i n d i v i d u a l s . believe that any r e a l benefits must be based on lengthy  and  continual contact with a greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the l o c a l people."  I  - 113 Conclusion It i s evident from the answers to the questionnaires that the volunteer work campers thought that the camps were a worthwhile undertaking i n promoting international friendships,.primarily through recreation and work with the l o c a l people, while l i v i n g as near their l e v e l of l i v i n g as possible.  The director of the Mexico program (Edwin  Duckies) has found that the i d e a l pattern i s to have a majority of Mexicans on the project with only a few members from the AFSC grbup.  Though the group acts as a stimulus to  the v i l l a g e , the project i s always some task the v i l l a g e wants to have done, anyway.  The r o l e of the group i s to integrate  the community resources.  For example, i f a farmer brings i n  a worm eating the crops, the group sends the worm to the College of Agriculture.  I f a sick c h i l d i s brought to them,  they w i l l send for the nearest public health doctor. Correspondingly, i n s o c i a l work, the worker's role i s to integrate community resources and to interpret to the c l i e n t what the resource i s able to do for him.  A follow-up i s made  i n both instances to see that the resources are being used i n the proper way, and to help people express t h e i r feelings about i t . Since the Mexican people do not f e e l that they are i n a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n , r e l i e f i n the way of clothing and food cannot be given or i t would be considered an i n s u l t .  When the  camps were f i r s t started, the national dictators refused to  - 114 l e t the Red Cross come i n , but would allow AFSC men to r e b u i l d houses i n the needed area. man  This happened because one  i n the government had had experience with AFSC and recog-  nized i t s contribution toward imparting knowledge with methods based on mutual understanding and respect f o r human dignity. However, i n recent years they have made progress;  there has  been an increase i n democracy and spread of the vote. Two campers wrote that the l o c a l physician at Valle de Bravo had requested that they accompany him to a Congress of Educators at the state c a p i t o l to explain the AFSC cooperative work with him and his s t a f f i n carrying a health program to the peoples of the surrounding mountain v i l l a g e s by means of f i l m s t r i p s , f i r s t aid programs, inocu l a t i o n , and general health information. This and other s i m i l a r comments indicate that both the Mexicans and the campers are interested i n additional such experiences whereever possible.  The campers interviewed by the writer were  eager to return to a camp i n Mexico and enthusiastic about getting other campers to go. A f i n a l comment should be made concerning how lack of technical t r a i n i n g for the p a r t i c u l a r jobs to be done can be used constructively.  I t was noticed that some Mexican  nurses when assisted by AFSC g i r l s were more e f f i c i e n t .  The  sincere praise and encouragement they receive from AFSC g i r l s supports t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y and increases their self-esteem. The assistants make mistakes i n learning, which makes the nurse  - 115 the teacher of the American whom she might otherwise f e e l looked down on her. (Edwin Duckies).  The lack of technical  t r a i n i n g means a more humble attitude on the part of the help and more confidence on the part of the Mexican workers.  Also  i n such a helping a c t i v i t y , the Mexican can share her higher s k i l l with an American.  How much more meaningful i s this  relationship than the humiliation Mexicans have experienced i n other settings J  Such a contact i s a "give-and-take"  proposition which w i l l undoubtedly promote better internati o n a l understanding. For a f u l l y detailed study of the Mexico work camps the reader i s directed to Dr. Riecken's The Volunteer Work Camp. This psychological evaluation gives eleven conclusions which are of pertinent i n t e r e s t .  It was found that "the  effects of spending a summer i n an AFSC work camp weret (1)  To reduce the amount of prejudice expressed toward  r a c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , and national minority groups. (2)  To increase the strength of b e l i e f i n democratic  group procedures. (3)  To reduce the extent of agreement with authorit-  arianism. (4)  To increase the extent of agreement with the non-  violent position toward war and other s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s . (5)  To a l t e r the choice of l i f e work i n the d i r e c t i o n  of a service-oriented vocation.  - 116 (6)  To increase the amount of "concern" or deter-  mination to help one's fellow men through a l i f e of s e r v i c e — oriented a c t i v i t y . (7)  To a l t e r the perception of how the "average man"  thinks, f e e l s , believes, i n the d i r e c t i o n of greater (8)  accuracy.  To improve the individual's general l e v e l of adjust-  ment, to reduce inner c o n f l i c t . (9)  To change the individual's political-economic  b e l i e f s i n the d i r e c t i o n of increased (10)  'liberalism.  v  To increase the personal maturity of the p a r t i c i -  pants and their a b i l i t y to deal constructively with problemr  a t i c and s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s . (11)  To reduce the individual's expressed  feelings of  f r u s t r a t i o n and r e s t r a i n t , and to increase his sense of personal autonomy.  1  Of importance to s o c i a l group work i s his conclusion and that of Kurt Lewin that  "attitudes can be more e a s i l y  and successfully changed i f a group rather than an isolated 2  i n d i v i d u a l i s the object of attempts to produce the change."  1 Riecken, Henry W., The Volunteer Work Camp. Addison-Wesley Press, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., 1952, pp. 149-155. 2  I b i d . , p. 161  CHAPTER 5 THE THEORY AND  0  PRACTICE OF SOCIAL WORK  BY THE AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE This study was  prompted by a b r i e f survey of the  UN technical assistance program which revealed the p i l o t projects of the American Friends Service Committee.  Further  inquiry brought to l i g h t the fact that s o c i a l workers were employed with t h i s organization i n various c a p a c i t i e s . After a study of Its administration and methods, i t was  found that  the work of the American Friends Service Committee came under the d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l work.  (See also Appendix F, l e t t e r  from Pat Lyon.) This agency not only used trained s o c i a l workers but i n addition had i t s own t r a i n i n g courses for their s o c i a l group work, s o c i a l action, and community organization workers. A questionnaire was  sent to determine whether the technique  could be classed as s o c i a l work and to discover the campers' motivations  i n volunteering for service.  Did the volunteer  work camps mean just a vacation or did they have some rel a t i o n to the reputation of the Friends and the AFSC for accomplishing situations?  what few, i f any, other groups could i n some Many conclusions remain to be drawn which w i l l  some day evolve from the research constantly being done on the work of the AFSC by Friends and non-Friends.  - 118 A study of the history of s o c i a l welfare  reveals  that a greater percentage of Friends i n proportion to i t s numbers contributed to the development of the profession of s o c i a l work than any one r e l i g i o u s group. question of whether the AFSC has continued  1  This led to the this  pioneer  work, as i t i s the s o c i a l work organ of the American Society of Friends.  The plan for t h i s study, after defining s o c i a l  work, was to inquire into the background, current a c t i v i t i e s , and administration of the American Friends Service Committee and then do more intensive research on a unit which seemed t y p i c a l of t h e i r work. From the beginning of the movement many of the tenets of the Friends were those which were l a t e r known as p r i n c i p l e s , concepts. and techniques, i n the profession of s o c i a l work.  (see d e f i n i t i o n s , p v i )  These included warmth,  understanding, and acceptance of enemies as well as friends and those with whom they worked; a r e a l i z a t i o n that defenses must not be broken down before feelings of security are b u i l t up, and a b e l i e f i n the equal worth of a l l men.  George Fox  taught them that minds are not changed by violence or a n n i h i l a t i o n , or by what we c a l l " r a i l r o a d i n g " , but through guidance and stimulation of s e l f - h e l p and self-determination. Two and a h a l f centuries before schools of s o c i a l work were started, the Friends stressed study as well as action and developed t h e i r system of group work and s o c i a l action.  1  Riecken, op_. c i t .  - 119 Prison improvements arose oat of the need to care for t h e i r own members i n prison, which led to helping other prisoners.  The John Howard and Elizabeth Fry societies carry  on some s o c i a l action even today. Child Welfare and programs for the prevention  of  juvenile delinquency were started nearly a century before the f i r s t juvenile court i n  1899.  Freedom of the slaves and the equal worth of a l l men  was  practiced and promoted through e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l action  over one hundred years before the United States C i v i l Equal status for women and men educational f i e l d s was Pioneering  War.  in intellectual  and  given from the beginning of the Society.  i n family counseling was  a result of the  desire of early Friends to promote stable marriages within  the  Society. The purpose of s o c i a l work and of the AFSC i s "to help toward a s a t i s f y i n g and contributing s o c i a l adjustment 1 for a l l . "  The AFSC, as a branch of a r e l i g i o u s organizat-  ion, would also add " s p i r i t u a l " adjustment, but t h e i r methods are not overtly a proclaiming example.  gospel type, but change through  The quiet meetings are the only outward sign and  are voluntary for the s t a f f , but are not imposed on the l o c a l community. 1  Casework Syllabus for School of S o c i a l Work, Vancouver, Canada.  - 120  -  Concepts One  of the f i r s t indications that the  Friends  treated a l l people as having basic needs and reactions  was  the formation of the "Society for the Prevention of Suffering".  Friends sent to prison for t h e i r b e l i e f s became  acquainted with other prisoners and interested i n t h e i r welfare.  The aim of the above group was  s o c i a l action.  The b e l i e f i n pacifism arises from the same concept— that a l l people have basic human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and ways of reacting.  If international friendship i s extended through  s o c i a l group work, community organization and s o c i a l action, and national h o s t i l i t y and need for aggression can be eased, the AFSC believes i t i s acting to prevent war.  A simple  reminder of the equality of persons i s the Friends' absence of t i t l e s when addressing  each other and non-Friends.  In addition to the physical and a f f e c t i o n a l needs, and the necessity for achievement and recognition, which are recognized  by the s o c i a l work profession, the Friends would  add s p i r i t u a l needs.  The command of the Nazarene to go into  a l l the world and preach the gospel has significance for the Friend who  i s going to other parts of the earth, as well as  for the people to whom he i s to minister. command was  Though t h i s  taken l i t e r a l l y by the early Friends, as was  shown  i n Chapter 1, today the emphasis appears to be more that of going into a l l the world and practicing the essential C h r i s t i a n teachings without verbally expressing  their beliefs  -  121  -  except as they are asked by i n d i v i d u a l s . the cooperation of many who  The AFSC accepts  are not Friends, asking only that  they believe i n "loving their neighbors", and doing good to those that hate them, otherwise they, too, would generate hate.  Some s o c i a l workers f e e l that this concept of s p i r i t -  ual needs i s also a basic part of s o c i a l w o r k — b e l i e f i n the brotherhood  of  man.  1  The AFSC provides for "physical, emotional, and s o c i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s " by sending teams of professionally trained and oriented workers when "experts" w i l l be acceptable to the culture i n the area of need.  These may  be:  a social  worker, a doctor, an a g r i c u l t u r a l s p e c i a l i s t , and an engineer. In some cultures, such as Mexico, they do not recognize t h e i r physical needs, and to send even humble experts to show them would be taken as an i n s u l t . are sent who  Instead, untrained volunteers  can learn from the l o c a l Mexican people, and as  they are accepted as individuals they can gradually exchange ideas.  The volunteers are given orientation i n the culture  differences and varying family and s o c i a l patterns before going to Mexico work camps.  In each country the c u l t u r a l  variations mean a different approach i n outward customs and inward s e n s i t i v i t y to attitudes.  S o c i a l work has profited  from this attitude of acceptance of other cultures, races, and  1 Holly, Jane M., "Social Work: Its Base, S k i l l s , and Relation to other F i e l d s " , S o c i a l Casework. XXXI, No. 1 0 , 1950,  pp.  339-410  - 122 r e l i g i o n s which the Friends have preached and practiced for three-and-a-half centuries.  Now,  s o c i a l workers, regardless  of t h e i r own personal b e l i e f s , are expected to be accepting of others and to be warm, understanding, and supportive. To be e f f e c t i v e , s o c i a l workers must recognize that ambivalent feelings are common to everyone i n most areas of thought.  As an i l l u s t r a t i o n , ambivalence between indepen-  dence and over-dependence must be met with some AFSC volunteers.  Though work camp directors do not apply personal  d i s c i p l i n e to slackers i n the group, they find that a camper who l e t s his d a i l y chores be taken care of by other campers does not have the necessary group status when i t comes to discussions of camp procedure or decisions to be made. This has a d i s c i p l i n a r y effect on the camper who has allowed his ambivalent feelings towards dependency on the group versus independence and leadership to v a c i l l a t e .  The group work  process has been found valuable i n helping to s t a b i l i z e the c o n f l i c t i n g ideas of i n d i v i d u a l s , not only i n work camps but i n board and committee meetings and o f f i c e s t a f f meetings of the AFSC. The importance of the family as the necessary medium for maximum growth and development and security f i r s t caused the Society to be over-protective of i t s young people, requiring permission from the Meeting to marry and s e t t l i n g discords between persons and f a m i l i e s . family and  This developed into  marriage counselling as they recognized the need  for self-determination i n this area.  - 123 As Friends did not believe i n swearing of any kind, they did not use the courts to s e t t l e d i s p u t e s — t h e oath on the Bible was  f e l t to be a s a c r i l e g e .  The Meeting and i t s  appointed committees took the place of the court.  If a  family was not paying i t s debts or properly taking care of i t s members, i t was admonished by the Meeting and the needed help given i f they were impoverished by persecution or unavoidable d i f f i c u l t i e s .  For single women there was  always enough  employment of r e l i g i o u s , business, or s o c i a l nature so that the stigma of being unmarried was not as much a hardship as i n society as a whole.  Children were taken care of by other  families when their own parents were forced to leave, - the beginnings of a foster home program. Even today, the Society looks a f t e r i t s members, though private a f f a i r s are handled by appointed committees. In the AFSC the atmosphere i s more that of a family than of a cold business concern, and s p e c i a l efforts are made for members of the s t a f f to know families of other members. the organization has become l a r g e r , i t may  As  be more impersonal,  but the p r i n c i p l e of helping each other and of close family relationships s t i l l applies. P r i n c i p l e s and Methods Right to be different The right to self-determination and to be d i f f e r e n t i s recognized by Quakers i n time of war.  They w i l l support  members and non-members who are conscientious objectors, though  - 124  -  not a l l Friends are p a c i f i s t s .  As a rule, the AFSC worker  would put his f i r s t l o y a l t y to God, plan meant furthering  the war  the enemy needed help and was  and  i f the s o c i a l work  or helping just one  side when  i n a position to receive i t ,  he would c a r e f u l l y examine the s i t u a t i o n and would express his i n a b i l i t y to cooperate i f he thought i t was AFSC has  published statements on t h e i r stand on  wrong.  The  controversial  issues and w i l l support their members. Confidentiality Personal information i n the applicants' f i l e s i s c a r e f u l l y protected.  This regard for c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s  i l l u s t r a t e d i n times of war  when AFSC workers have been cross  examined, or worse, to reveal information of opposing sides. Because of t h e i r firm stand and the respect of both f r i e n d l y and  i n t e g r i t y , they have earned opposing governments.  Respect for Personality From the beginning of the movement, Friends accepted other prisoners as persons of worth and c i p l e into business and who  carried this p r i n -  social relations.  The  camp volunteers  worked with underprivileged groups found that t h e i r  attitude of accepting each individual as a person of worth the beginning of an understanding relationship.  was  Where p o l i -  t i c i a n s , t o u r i s t s , and wealthy businessmen have been i n c l i n e d to exploit people i n Mexico and  other countries, the AFSC  workers are a welcome change because of their f r i e n d l y acceptance.  - 125 Acceptance Friends are noted for their a b i l i t y to accept h o s t i l i t y and agression, which i s a quality needed by the s o c i a l worker.  For over three hundred years, Quakers have  practiced their f a i t h i n the brotherhood of man and have been p a c i f i s t s and peace makers i n both their public and private relationships.  I t i s this t r a i t , a l s o , which enables AFSC  s t a f f people to go to the leaders of enemy countries, asking to help i n areas of greatest need.  They are courageous  and  w i l l go where few others dare without arms or other weapons of coercion. Identification For true understanding of the i n d i v i d u a l or the group, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s necessary.  For this reason the  volunteer work campers t r y to l i v e as nearly as possible on the standard of the people with whom they work. Missouri wrote, "People  A g i r l from  i n our v i l l a g e had e l e c t r i c i t y ,  irons, l i g h t s , and radios, so we were on the l e v e l i n those things.  We did not keep our clothes much i f any cleaner  than the v i l l a g e r s d i d . " Long term campers are so accepted by members of the community that they have been asked to vote i n l o c a l elections. Self-help Allowing the c l i e n t or group to make t h e i r  own  decisions, a f t e r contributing ideas, i s a p r i n c i p l e common  - 126 to s o c i a l work and the AFSC. campers who  This i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the work  come i n at the i n v i t a t i o n of the Mexican govern-  ment and go where they want them to go, working under l o c a l Mexican a u t h o r i t i e s , to do what the community wants done and i n the way they want to do i t . themselves.  This i s helping them to help  For t h i s reason, AFSC does not go into an area  without i n v i t a t i o n . Self-determination Closely a l l i e d to self-help i s self-determination. Even the AFSC, an organization experienced i n these two methods,, learns by doing.  In one case, the AFSC people b u i l t  p r i v i e s for the l o c a l community, but they were not yet educated to the benefits of such a contraption-viz. the fact that the use of p r i v i e s would eliminate hookworm.  It was  necessary  for the l o c a l Mexican sanitary engineers and nurses to s t a r t an educational campaign, with AFSC g i r l s accompanying the nurse on v i s i t s to private homes, displaying bottles of formaldehyde with long hookworms for dramatic e f f e c t .  This helped  the community f o r a year or two, but unless the people themselves determined to do something about i t , i t i s a waste of energy i n the long run.  when the Mexican boss.: of the project  decides what i s to be done and how i t i s to be done i t i s expressing the w i l l of the people. purpose.  Motivation i s the primary  As the community i s encouraged  ideas, i t w i l l become more e f f i c i e n t .  to use i t s own  - 127 Diagnosis, Treatment. Evaluation When a request for aid comes to the AFSC, a diagnosis of the situation i s usually made by from one to three experts who  survey the scene of need.  to the intake process i n case work.  This corresponds  I f i t i s decided, after  consultation with the home o f f i c e , that t h i s need should be met by the AFSC rather than by a larger group, such as the present United Nations Technical Assistance Program, a team or group i s chosen.  The home o f f i c e executive secretaries  are the equivalent of s o c i a l work administrators. A f i e l d secretary or supervisor i s also provided i n most cases. Relationship Treatment i s begun through forming relationships with the people i n need.  They l i v e on much the same standard  as the people of the community except for necessary precautions.  As they are sensitive to the customs and feelings  of the people and have been asked to come, friendships are soon established. In terms of suffering people, as i n a physical disaster, where man man  has been inhumane to man  and  faith in 1  i s at a low l e v e l , or i n human conflict—between minority  and majority groups, i n race r e l a t i o n s , or ethnic g r o u p s — i t i s necessary to be impartial to both sides and yet i d e n t i f y with them.  The program has been c a r e f u l l y planned before-  hand so that the workers w i l l be trained to give the maximum  - 128 -  support i n the area of need.  For example:  experts sent to  Korea, w i l l t r a i n other doctors and nurses, there, to take their places; or untrained but i n t e l l i g e n t young people w i l l give confidence to the l o c a l people by their willingness to help, acceptance of the people, and attitude of respect f o r the basic potential or a b i l i t i e s of those under whom they work. Resources Integration of family and community resources i s attempted  i n a l l c a s e s — a major premise of s o c i a l work.  The  job i s finished when the people can carry on the work, themselves, or i t i s found that the need i s too chronic and i s terminated or handed to a larger group.  As was shown i n the  questionnaire, abstract values may be of more importance material a i d .  than  As i n most private s o c i a l work agencies,  material a i d i s given only when i t i s necessary to meet immediate needs.  I t i s better to give of themselves  their p o s s e s s i o n s — t o use themselves  than of  as tools i n the work. '  Evaluation i s made through written reports which are sent to the home o f f i c e by both directors and workers. Occasionally, the home o f f i c e secretary w i l l v i s i t the project to determine  i f a change of focus or termination of the pro-  ject i s necessary.  The f i n a l evaluation i s made when the  project director returns with the reports and estimates the degree of material and supportive help given.  Where possible,  conferences are held with the authorities who made the  -  129  -  o r i g i n a l request and s u g g e s t i o n s and comments a r e exchanged. Methods The accepted methods of s o c i a l work today i n c l u d e casework, group work, community o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s o c i a l a c t i o n , and r e s e a r c h . Committee,  In the American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e  casework i s used o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y on p r o j e c t s  where such a s p e c i f i c s k i l l i s needed. S o c i a l group work S o c i a l group work was  d e f i n e d by the E x e c u t i v e Board  of the American A s s o c i a t i o n of Group Workers f o l l o w i n g statements  i n 194-9 i n the  "The group worker enables v a r i o u s types  o f groups t o f u n c t i o n i n such a way  that both group  inter-  a c t i o n and program a c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e to the growth of the i n d i v i d u a l and the achievement of d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l g o a l s . " Quakers have been experimenting w i t h and p r a c t i c i n g work s i n c e the days o f E l i z a b e t h F r y . are an e x c e l l e n t example  1  group  The v o l u n t e e r work camps  of s o c i a l group work, as the l e a d e r  i s the e n a b l i n g figure.who, w i t h h i s knowledge  of i n d i v i d u a l  and group b e h a v i o r , s t i m u l a t e s the group to organize t h e i r own a c t i v i t y , develop l e a d e r s h i p and i n i t i a t i v e  through the  Meeting f o r B u s i n e s s , and d i r e c t the p r o j e c t toward d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l goals.  T h i s v o l u n t a r y group, through a democratic  process and the s e c u r i t y of the AFSC o r g a n i z a t i o n i s able to  1 C o y l e , Grace L., " S o c i a l Group Work" S o c i a l Work Year Book, 1951. R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, N.Y. p. 145  -  130  -  grow i n i t s relationships within the group and the community. It i s an educational and maturing medium for the individuals concerned* Pat Lyon, a psychiatric s o c i a l worker who, with her husband, Bob, led work camp projects i n Mexico i n the summers of 1949 and 1 9 5 0 , wrote that the strains and rewards of the AFSC work camps provide an intensive experience not e a s i l y available i n other settings.  They were given s o c i a l  group work concepts i n the leadership  training conference,  preceding the orientation conference, and evaluation  sessions  were held, l a t e r , from time to time.*" The Lyons f e e l that group evaluations and s e l f c r i t i c i s m at frequent intervals benefits the s p i r i t of the group and t h e i r relationships.  The quiet meditations are  also used i n other groups and young people's r e l i g i o u s work camps of a dozen d i f f e r e n t denominations.  They were  i n i t i a t e d by the Friends but found useful by other groups. Community  organization  Wayne McMillen has defined  community  organization  as, "the process of dealing with individuals or groups who are or may become concerned with s o c i a l welfare services or objectives, f o r the purpose of influencing the volume of such services, improving t h e i r quality or d i s t r i b u t i o n , or further-  1 See Appendix f o r l e t t e r from Pat Lyon of February 1 3 , 1 9 5 4 .  - 131 ing the attainment of such o b j e c t i v e s . "  1  The AFSC i s con-  cerned with community organization f o r s o c i a l welfare i n many phases of i t s work—work camps, projects overseas and at home, and i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l centers.  The team which l e f t  recently f o r Korea and was described i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter 2, not only organized f o r limited s o c i a l work services, which were also included, but most phases of s o c i a l welfare within the area of need.  These included (1) r e l i e f  i n food and clothing to 120,000 children who had l o s t their parents  (2) h o s p i t a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n (3) work i n refugee camps  (4) working i n v i l l a g e s with people needing help and v i s i o n to r e e s t a b l i s h themselves.  One of the greatest c o n t r i -  butions of the AFSC to community organization i s t h e i r a b i l i t y to begin where the community i s and be the motivating agent f o r building toward greater s o c i a l welfare. Administration The administration of the AFSC as a s o c i a l work agency i s unique i n i t s f l e x i b i l i t y and p i l o t project methods. The c i r c u l a r plan of administration corresponds with the democratic p r i n c i p l e s of the Society of Friends.  The high  percentage of volunteers used i s a unique factor of this organization.  1 McMillen, Wayne, Community Organization for S o c i a l Welfare, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1945, p. 39  - 132  -  S o c i a l action S o c i a l action i n the Society of Friends began with George Fox i n the middle of the seventeenth century and has been used as a method of bettering s o c i a l conditions since that time.  It has been defined as "A group e f f o r t  toward  s o c i a l l y desirable ends, or a l e g a l l y permissible action by the group for the purpose of furthering the objectives that are both l e g a l l y and s o c i a l l y desirable."  Occasionally i t  has been one person who has been the leading figure behind the movement, such as John Woolman i n his e f f o r t s to help the negro slaves obtain freedom.  Often i t has been primarily a  group movement, as when a concern i s expressed i n a Meeting, i s taken up by the group, brought to the leading body, such as the Yearly Meeting or the national executive board, and action i s taken through i n i t i a t i n g an AFSC project or setting up a s p e c i a l committee which takes measures to resolve the situation.  2  As Friends believe i n using no weapons but  "soul weapons" to take action, they have developed nonviolent techniques.  What i s c a l l e d "love for his fellow  by the Quaker i s described  man"  by caseworkers as "warmth,  acceptance, support and understanding".  Through group  action and therapy their purpose of reconciling differences toward the goal of world peace and understanding i s carried forward.  1 F i t c h , John A. "The Nature of S o c i a l Action" National Conference of S o c i a l Work,1940. Columbia Univ. Press, pp. 269-275. 2 See Chapter 1 for specifIc.,examples  - 133 Research The Society of Friends was known as the f i r s t of the p e r f e c t i o n i s t r e l i g i o u s groups i n England.  They have  carried this desire to perfect their methods to the present day.  Research into improving their techniques i s done by  i n d i v i d u a l Friends or those interested i n the movement i n various f i e l d s of scholarship such as s o c i a l work, psychology, economics, and international studies. Pendle H i l l has a graduate school f o r Quaker study, and Haverford College has a research and training program for workers i n technical assistance which includes some work with the AFSC.  When a  p a r t i c u l a r need f o r research i s presented, there i s always a Friend or interested student who w i l l undertake the project with the cooperation of the American Friends Service Committee. The cornerstone of s o c i a l work philosophy i s the dignity and worth of each i n d i v i d u a l .  It has previously been  mentioned i n connection with John Woolman's work with the negro slaves, the Quaker attitudes toward war, and their work with prisoners.  Closely akin to this i s "the value that  includes a l l other v a l u e s — r e s p e c t for  personality."  As  Victor Gollancz expressed I t , "There i s i n every human being something p a r t i c u l a r , concrete, i n d i v i d u a l , unique: something i n i t s own r i g h t . "  1  1 Gollancz, V i c t o r , Our Threatened Henry Regnery Co., Hinsdale, I l l i n o i s , 194?.  Values.  "Two  134 -  major premises of Quaker r e l i g i o u s philosophy-  must be understood as the foundation stones for the relevant s o c i a l ideology with which we are concerned.  The f i r s t i s  the statement made by George Fox: 'There i s that of God i n every man .  The second i s that the w i l l of God, i n any  1  given s i t u a t i o n , can become known to men through  'inward  contemplation', through s i l e n t meditation on the problem being 1 faced, through waiting for the i n s p i r a t i o n of the S p i r i t . " Herbert Bisno asserts, "At the present time, no general philosophy of s o c i a l work i s available i n e x p l i c i t form."  He does i n s i s t , with others, that "the p a r t i c u l a r  s k i l l s and processes of s o c i a l work take place within the 2  framework of an underlying philosophy."  In view of t h i s  statement, with which Witmer and Bruno also agree, i t i s not the aim of the w r i t e r to pursue the philosophy of s o c i a l work further.  Public and private agencies, unless they are  sponsored by some religious group, seem to disclaim or at least avoid mention of any s p i r i t u a l basis of s o c i a l work. However, this study has raised some question as to whether s o c i a l workers are not more than "do gooders" and whether the underlying philosophy might not have some o r i g i n i n the s p i r i t u a l motivations of human nature. 1  Riecken, Henry W.,  oju c i t . p. 5 2 .  2 Bisno, Herbert, The Philosophy of S o c i a l Work, Public A f f a i r s Press, Wash. D.C., 1 9 5 2 . p. 1.  134A The b a s i c r e s p e c t f o r p e r s o n a l i t y causes the members o f the S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s t o t r e a t those o f other r a c e s , c r e e d s , o r e t h n i c o r i g i n s as being o f equal worth. T h i s b e l i e f has caused  them t o enter the f i e l d o f i n t e r -  n a t i o n a l s o c i a l work as i t transcends n a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s . Human values a r e c o n s i d e r e d above n a t i o n a l v a l u e s , though every e f f o r t i s made t o a i d t h e i r own c o u n t r y to develop the maximum degree o f r e s p e c t f o r p e r s o n a l i t y , which they f e e l i s the b a s i s f o r democratic  government.  APPENDIX A  -  135 -  BY-LAWS OF AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE ARTICLE I. NAME Section 1. Name. FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE."  The name of the Corporation s h a l l be "AMERICAN  Section 2. Location. The general o f f i c e s of the Corporation be located i n the c i t y of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  shall  Section 3. Purpose and Object. The purpose and object of the Corporation s h a l l be to engage i n r e l i g i o u s , charitable, s o c i a l , philanthropic and r e l i e f work i n the United States and i n f o r e i g n countries on behalf of the several branches and d i v i s i o n s of the Religious Society of Friends i n America; and i n addition to the purposes and objects expressly enumerated above, to promote the general objects and purposes of the said several d i v i s i o n s and branches of the said Religious Society of Friends and to have and exercise a l l powers necessary, or convenient f o r the same, or incident thereto.  ARTICLE I I .  MEMBERSHIP  Section 1. Members. The members of the Corporation s h a l l be the subscribers to the c e r t i f i c a t e of incorporation and such persons as may from time to time be elected to membership i n accordance with the provisions of these by-laws. Section 2. E l e c t i o n of Members. Members of the Corporation s h a l l be elected at each annual meeting of the members of the Corporation by the members e n t i t l e d to vote who are present i n person or by proxy. Members s h a l l serve for one year or u n t i l t h e i r successors are duly elected. The number to be elected s h a l l be determined p r i o r to the e l e c t i o n by the members e n t i t l e d to vote who are present i n person or by proxy at the annual meeting but s h a l l not be less than f i f t y nor more than two hundred f i f t y . Section 3. Nominations. Each yearly meeting of the Religious Society of Friends i n America s h a l l be e n t i t l e d to submit nominations f o r membership i n the Corporation. A d d i t i o n a l nominations may be made as hereinafter provided i n A r t i c l e V. Section h- Associate Members. In addition to the members elected at the annual meeting i n accordance with Section 2 of this A r t i c l e , the members of the Corporation or the Executive Board may e l e c t such associate members of the Corporation as they s h a l l deem best. Associate members s h a l l have a l l the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s of members except the r i g h t to receive notices of and to vote at meetings of members of the Corporation.  ARTICLE I I I .  MEETINGS OF MEMBERS OF THE CORPORATION  Section 1, Place. Meetings of members of the Corporation s h a l l be held i n the c i t y of Philadelphia, Pennsylvanie, or i n such other place as the Executive Board s h a l l from time to time d i r e c t .  - 136 -  (2)  Section 2. Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of the members of the Corporation f o r the election of members, directors and Standing Nominating Committee and f o r the transaction of such other business as may come before the . meeting s h a l l be held on such day i n January i n each year and at such hour and place as the Executive Board s h a l l direct. Section 3. Special Meetings. Special meetings of the members may be called at any time by the President or Executive Secretary or by the Executive Board or by any ten members of the Corporation. Section IN Notice. Written notice of the annual meeting of the members shall be given to each member of record entitled to vote at the meeting at least t h i r t y days prior thereto. Similar notice of every special meeting of the members shall be given at least ten days prior thereto. Section $. Quorum. Twenty members of the Corporation entitled to vote and present i n person or by proxy s h a l l constitute a quorum at any meeting of the members. Section 6. Voting Rights. and may vote i n person or by proxy.  Each member s h a l l be entitled to one vote  Section 7. Elections. At the annual meeting the members s h a l l , as hereinafter provided, elect members of a Board of Directors, who s h a l l be designated as the Executive Board, and members of a Standing Nominating Committee. Any member of the Corporation represented i n person or by proxy may c a l l for an election by b a l l o t ; otherwise the election shall be as the Chairman of the meeting may prescribe. ARTICLE IV. THE EXECUTIVE BOARD Section 1. The Executive Board. The business and a f f a i r s of the Corporation s h a l l be managed by an Executive Board of seventeen directors. The directors s h a l l be divided by the Standing Nominating Committee into three classes, each consisting as nearly as may be of one-third of the number of directors. The terms of the f i r s t three classes s h a l l expire at thr annual meetings to be held i n 19U7, 191*8 and 19il9 respectively. At each annual meeting of the members of the Corporation the successors of the class of directors whose terms s h a l l expire i n that year s h a l l be elected for a term of three years. Section 2. Co-opted Directors. The members of the Corporation or the Executive Board may from time to time elect persons, not exceeding a t o t a l of twenty, as co-opted directors, to meet with "the Executive Board. Co-opted directors s h a l l be divided into three classes, each consisting as nearly as may be of one-third of the number of co-opted directors. Such co-opted directors s h a l l serve f o r terms of three years ending at the annual meeting of the Corporation and shall have a l l the rights and privileges of directors except that they • s h a l l not have the right to vote at meetings of the Executive Board. Section 3. Limitation of Service. After December 31* 19li-7, no person who s h a l l have served as a director or as a co-opted director f o r the immediately preceding s i x years s h a l l be e l i g i b l e for election as a director or co-opted director during the ensuing year. Section h- Vacancies. Vacancies i n the Executive Board shall be  - 137 -  (3)  f i l l e d by a majority of the remaining members of the Board, though less than a quorum, and each person so elected s h a l l be a d i r e c t o r u n t i l h i s successor i s elected by the members, who may make such e l e c t i o n at the next annual meeting of the members, or at any s p e c i a l meeting duly c a l l e d f o r that purpose and held p r i o r thereto. Section Time and Place of Meeting. The Executive Board s h a l l meet at such times and places as a majority of the directors may from time to time appoint or as may be designated i n the notice c a l l i n g the meeting: Section 6. Notice. Written notice of every meeting of the Executive Board s h a l l be given to each d i r e c t o r a t l e a s t f i v e days p r i o r to the date of the meeting. When a meeting i s adjourned i t s h a l l not be necessary to give any notice of the adjourned meeting or of the business to be transacted a t an adjourned meeting other than by announcement a t the meeting a t which such adjournment i s taken. Section 7. Quorum. Seven members of the Executive Board s h a l l cons t i t u t e a quorum f o r the transaction of business and the acts of a majority of the directors present a t a meeting at which a quorum i s present s h a l l be the acts of the Executive Board; provided, that i f a l l the directors s h a l l severally or c o l l e c t i v e l y consent i n writing to any action to be taken by the Corporation, such action s h a l l be as v a l i d corporate action as though i t had been authorized at a meeting of the Executive Board. Section 8. Executive Committee. The Executive Board may by resolut i o n adopted by a majority of the whole Board delegate two or more of i t s number to constitute an Executive Committee, which, to the extent provided i n such r e s o l u t i o n , s h a l l have and exercise the authority of the Executive Board i n the management of the business of the Corporation.  ARTICLE V.  THE STANDING NOMINATING COMMITTEE  Section 1. E l e c t i o n of Standing Nominating Committee. A Standing Nominating Committee s h a l l be-elected by the members of the Corporation at their annual meeting i n June, 1°U6. The Standing Nominating Committee s h a l l consist of nine members and s h a l l be divided into three classes of three members each. The terms of the f i r s t three classes s h a l l expire a t the annual meetings to be held i n 19lt7, 19^8, and 191+9 respectively. A t each annual meeting of the members commencing January, 19U7, the successors of the class whose term s h a l l expire i n that year s h a l l be elected f o r a term of three years. A t least one member of the Executive Board s h a l l be included i n each class. No member of the Standing Nominating Committee s h a l l be e l i g i b l e f o r r e e l e c t i o n a t the annual meeting at which h i s or her term expires. Section 2. Nominations. Nominations f o r members of the Corporation, other than those nominated by the Yearly Meetings, and f o r directors s h a l l be made by the Standing Nominating Committee. The Committee s h a l l place a written l i s t of a l l nominations i n the hands of the Executive Secretary, who s h a l l mail a copy thereof to each member of the Corporation not less than t h i r t y days p r i o r to the annual meeting. Section 3- Nominations f o r the Standing Nominating Committee. Nominations f o r the Standing Nominating Committee s h a l l be made by a committee of f i v e members of the Corporation. Unless otherwise directed by the members of  - 138 -  (h)  the Corporation, said committee of f i v e s h a l l be appointed by the Chairman of the Corporation on or before June 30 of each year. Nominations f o r the Standing Nominating Committee s h a l l be placed i n the hands of the Executive Secretary of the Corporation and s h a l l be included by him i n the l i s t of nominations mailed to each member of the Corporation p r i o r to the annual meeting. Section 1|. A d d i t i o n a l Nominations. A d d i t i o n a l nominations f o r members of the Corporation, f o r directors and f o r members of the Standing Nominating Committee may be made i n writing by not less than ten members of the Corporation, who s h a l l sign the same. Such additional nominations s h a l l be placed i n the hands of the Executive Secretary at l e a s t f i f t e e n days p r i o r to the annual meeting and s h a l l be mailed by him over the names of those making the same to each member of the Corporation not l e s s than ten days p r i o r to the annual meeting.  ARTICLE VI.  OFFICERS  Section 1. O f f i c e r s . The o f f i c e r s of the Corporation s h a l l be a President, who s h a l l be designated as "Chairman"; such number of V i c e Presidents, designated as "Vice-Chairmen", as the Executive Board may from time to time determine; and Executive Secretary; a Treasurer; and such other o f f i c e r s as the Board may from time to time e l e c t . The Chairman, Executive Secretary and Treasurer s h a l l be elected by the Executive Board a t i t s f i r s t meeting a f t e r the annual meeting of the members of the Corporation. They s h a l l hold o f f i c e f o r one year and u n t i l their successors are elected and q u a l i f y . The Chairman s h a l l not be e l i g i b l e f o r e l e c t i o n f o r more than f i v e successive terms, but this r e s t r i c t i o n may at any time be waived i n writing by three-fourths of the directors and co-opted directors then i n o f f i c e . Section 2. Chairman. The Chairman s h a l l preside a t a l l meetings of the members of the Corporation and a t a l l meetings of the Executive Board and s h a l l preform such other duties as may be incident to h i s o f f i c e . Section 3- Vice-Chairmen. Any one of the Vice Chairmen s h a l l have authority to perform the duties of the Chairman i n his absence. . Section h. Executive Secretary. The Executive Secretary s h a l l a t tend a l l meetings of the members of the Corporation and of the Executive Board and s h a l l keep accurate minutes of such meetings and s h a l l perform such other duties as may be incident to his o f f i c e or may be required of him by the members of the Corporation or by the Executive Board. Section 5. Treasurer. The Treasurer s h a l l c o l l e c t and receive a l l moneys paid to the Corporation and s h a l l keep an account of the same and s h a l l deposit the same i n the name of the Corporation i n such, depositories as s h a l l from time to time be designated by the Executive Board. He s h a l l make an annual report to the members of the Corporation and s h a l l perform such other duties as are incident to h i s o f f i c e . Section 6. Bonding. The Treasurer and such other o f f i c e r s and agents as the Executive Board s h a l l d i r e c t s h a l l give the Corporation a bond i n a sum and with corporate surety s a t i s f a c t o r y to the Executive Board f o r the f a i t h f u l performance of the duties of h i s o f f i c e .  - 139 ARTICLE VII.  (5;  SECTIONS AND SUBCOMMITTEES  Section 1. Sections. The Executive Board s h a l l determine the Sections into which the administrative work of the Corporation s h a l l be divided. The Chairman of each Section s h a l l be a member of the Executive Board and each member of the Executive Board s h a l l be a member of one or more Sections. The Executive Board may appoint such additional members of each Section as i t may deem best, whether or not such appointees are members of the Corporation, A l l appointments of o f f i c e r s and members of Sections s h a l l be f o r a term of one year. Section 2. P o l i c i e s . Each Section s h a l l carry out the p o l i c i e s determined f o r i t by the Executive Board, Section 3. Subcommittees. The Executive Board may appoint such other subcommittees as i t may from time to time deem best.  ARTICLE VIII.  SEAL  Section 1. The common or corporate seal of the Corporation s h a l l be round with the name of the Corporation and the date of incorporation as follows.  ARTICLE LX. AMENDMENTS Section 1. These by-laws may be amended by a majority of the members of the Corporation e n t i t l e d to vote at any regular or s p e c i a l meeting or by a two-thirds vote of the Executive Board at any regular or s p e c i a l meeting; provided i n either case that written notice of the meeting, containing a copy of the proposed amendment, i s given at l e a s t f i f t e e n days p r i o r thereto.  (Incorporated i n the State of Delaware)  APPENDIX B  - 140 PLEASE ATTACH PHOTOGRAPH OR SNAPSHOT TO THIS APPLICATION.  AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE, Inc. PERSONNEL PROJECTS  DEPARTMENT APPLICATION  This application is to be used for A L L Volunteer Projects. Please print in ink or type. Use Page 4 for detailed answers. With a philosophy based on a respect for the personality of each individual and a belief in the power of love rather than violence to overcome evil, the AFSC has gone into areas of tension throughout the world with both a sense of human fellowship and material aid. Project participants, by living and studying with people from many lands, of many races and religions, and by working together in city slums, in war-devastated lands, in rural areas, in factories, in mental and in correctional institutions, have pioneered with the methods of good will and fellowship to build peace, understanding, and a better world. Date1. Name_  (Middle)  (First)  (Last)  2. Present address-  (Month)  (Street)  *  (City)  (Zone) (State)  (Day)  (Year)  (Underline name most commonly used)  3. Telephone  4. How long will you be at your present address? (give dates) . 5. Permanent address7. Date of birth-  (City)  (Street)  (Month)  (Day)  (Year)  10. Height  9. Sex  (Zone) (State)  6. Telephone-  8. Birthplace 11. No. of brothers and sisters-  Weight-  12. Draft classification. 13. Father's name  14. Address.  L5. Mother's name.  16. Address.  17. Occupation of father.  18. Occupation of mother. 20. Is your husband or wife also applying for a project?.  19. Marital status  21. Person in the United States to be notified in case of need: Name  -Relationship-  Address.  Applicants who are not citizens of the United States should answer questions 22 through 27. 22. Country of present citizenship 23. Name you are using in the United States (if full name not given above). 24. How long have you been in the United States? 25. How long do you plan to remain in the United States?. 26. Are your passport and visa valid for the entire period of project for which you are 'applying?  :  27. Person in your home country to be notified in case of need: Name-  .  Address _  Relationship-  Since the AFSC believes it is important to have participants in its projects representing a wide variety of religions, races and nationalities, applicants are asked to supply the information requested in questions 28, 29 and 30. 28. Religion-  29. Race-  30. Nationality-  __  31. What previous contact have you had with the American Friends Service Committee, other Friends' activities, or similar service organizations?  __ .  _  ;  ;  ". .  )  32. To what extent are you familiar with the Religious Society of Friends and its testimonies which_ include simplicity, equality ^ and peace?  33. What is your philosophy on methods of resolving tension in personal, group, and international relations? (Use page four.) 34. Are you prepared to take your turn in tedious, commonplace duties in work and cooperative living? Can you do strenuous work?  .  .  35. Are there any reasons, physical or psychological, why special consideration should be used in your individual placement If so, explain on page four. Education 36. Name of high school  Location  Date of graduation  Subject of major study  37. College or university (or faculty, in the case of persons receiving education outside the United States) : Name of undergraduate institution  Location  Class year  Degree or diploma and date received  Subject of major study  38. Graduate (or professional) education: Name of graduate institution  Location  Dates attended  Degree and date received  Subject of major study  39. Fellowships or scholarships held (including ones currently held) : Source and sponsor  Period of tenure (dates)  Place of study  40. Professional societies, associations, publications, honorary societies:  41. Languages (check in appropriate space).  S=speak; R=read; W=write.  42. Indicate the extent of your travel in the United States  SPANISH S E W S  Studied—little  R W  S E W  FRENCH  GERMAN  ENGLISH  S  R W  S  R W  S  R W  S  R W  S  R W  S  R W  S  R W  S  R W  S  R W  S  R W  R W  S  R W  • •• • •• • •• • •• • •• • •• • •• • •• • •• • •• S  R W  S  R W  S  R W  S  • •• • •• • •• • •• • ••  In what other countries have you traveled? When ?  43. After the completion of the project will you be returning to (a) school or college? employment?  '  OTHER  If you do not check either of these, specify your future plans:  _ :  .  (b) a definite position of  Experience 44. Occupation experience (list major occupations in which you have been employed, including summer emplyoment): , Employer  , • ' Type of work done  Address  No. supervised (if any)  Dates of employment  45. Special skills: (Check those in which you have experience; double check those you can direct.) | ~ | Carpentry ,  |  |~^| Masonry |  |  | Electricity  |  | Child care  | j Mechanics  |  | Plumbing  |  | Life saving  |  | Cooking '  |  | Nursing  |  | Folk dancing  |"~~| Group singing  |  | Playground supervision  |  | Painting  |  | Licensed car driver  | j Gardening and farming  |  | Nature study  |  | General constr. and bldg.  |  | Musical instruments (in--  p~| Dramatics  | j Discussion groups  |  | Sewing  | Handicrafts  P~| Typing (words per minute:  | Cabinet making  |  )  dicntp whirh •  | Shorthand (words per minntp:  )  State experience in organizing and leading community groups:  46. List hobbies or avocations: 47. Specify the projects you prefer by indicating three choices in the order of your preference: — Friends Service Unit in Mexico and El Salvador — Institutional Service Unit (mental hospital; training school for mentally retarded; correctional institution) Student — International Seminar  — Interne Program (industry; agriculture; community service) OHMBOB g^gkKmrmna^ Overseas Work Camps — Work camps, United States  If you have a preference as to geographical location of project, indicate preferred location and reason for preference: 48. Give your reasons for wanting to participate in each of the projects of your choice. Include in your statement your interests and experience, especially as they relate to the project or projects for which you are applying. (Use page four.) 49. For how long a period would you be available? Give exact dates: (Participants are expected to remain with a summer project during its entire program; those in a year-round project are expected to remain for at least the minimum period.) 50. How much can you or your family contribute toward defraying the cost of your participation in the project? This is in addition to providing your own travel to and from projects within the United States or Mexico,, and in the case of QIVS, is in addition to paying travel costs within the United States and the expenses of necessary documentation.  51. Give the name and address of the person who suggested your applying to the American Friends Service Committee:  References.  (Applications cannot be considered by the Personnel Selection Committee until references are returned.)  52. Because we are .unable to interview each applicant personally, and therefore rely on written references, it is extremely important that they be chosen carefully. It would be well to ask permission of each person before submitting his name, and wherever possible to discuss briefly with him your interest in serving with the AFSC. We would suggest that you list such persons as dormitory supervisors, college deans, faculty and major advisers, employers, ministers, YM-YW secretaries and, others who are usually well qualified to write references. (We suggest you do not list near relatives, close personal friends such as roommates, or people you have not been associated with for the past two or three years.) FOUR REFERENCES MUST BE LISTED.  Be sure that the addresses are legible.  Personal: (Give at least one person who is familiar with your experience in group living.) Name  Address  a.  Position  :  b.  :  :  :  Scholastic or business (current) : c. d. -  .  : Your signature  9-52 30M L.I.  .  .  -  =—:  _  APPENDIX C  - 141  -  Appendix C. T o t a l Pattern of Purposes Expressed, According to A c t i v i t i e s Recreation Education (F) (A)  PURPOSES (a) T  M  Qh  aT i TI p"  in  T-JOT\C  Classified  Health (B)  Total V/ork (b) (C-D-E) A c t i v i t i e s  and  No.  No.  No.  No,  110  96  63  82  351  ii7  39  25  36  Ihl  37  38  25  28  128  (9) Adjustment to work camp, group l i v i n g , s e l f awareness (10) AFSC in-service training work  15  111  11  11  51  Grand Totals ...  209  187  157  677  No.(c)  friendship (1) Mutual understanding— international (8) W o r k — s o c i a l contacts, removing b a r r i e r s (6) Brother love, Quaker techniques I I . Helping them to help themselves (2) M a t e r i a l , Mexican (7) Education to meet  physical aid, direction of Mexicans f e l t needs  I I I . Learning from Mexicans about Mexico (3) Customs, culture, l a n guage, mutual exchange (h) S o c i a l awareness, learning from Mexicans (5) Appreciation of Mexican problems 17. Training i n work camp procedures  (d)  Source:  -  121;  Questions 3 and h of the Questionnaire.  (a) The numbers given to the answers i n the questionnaires are shown i n brackets.  Letters (F,A,B,C-D-E) also r e f e r to answers given.  (b) Manual labor, sewing, and/or cooking. (c) Number of a c t i v i t i e s i n which p r o j e c t members p a r t i c i p a t e d , see also Table 1, p. (d) T o t a l of 150 questionnaires (or individuals reporting) but incorporating a number of multiple choices. For percentages, see Tsble 1,  APPENDIX D  -  142  HAVERFORD COLLEGE Haverford, Pa. Graduate Curriculum i n S o c i a l and Technical Assistance November 24,  1953  Dear Miss Brinks: In response to your l e t t e r of the 16th I am enclosing some material describing our graduate curriculum i n S o c i a l and Technical Assistance. This course i s not primarily designed for the needs of the AFSC abroad and they do not p a r t i c u l a r l y stress technical assistance. However, we do cooperate c l o s e l y with them and a number of our graduates are working with them now. One course i n which you may be interested which i s a part of t h i s program i s e n t i t l e d , "Seminar i n Community Development", given by various persons i n the o f f i c e of S o c i a l Welfare D i v i s i o n of the United Nations: "This course seeks to give the students some understanding of the p r a c t i c a l problems which face those who attempt to promote community development i n underdeveloped areas; to give insight into and understanding of methods of working with people and of r e l a t i n g programs to the c u l t u r a l values of community; to develop s e n s i t i v i t y to such values and to suggest methods by which people can be encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y . Community Case Records, describing the methods used and the obstacles that had to be overcome, are used as a basis for discussion.".... Perhaps by next year we w i l i have Haverford's "Case Studies of Technical Assistance Projects" ready for ' publication, but that i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y an AFSC project. Sincerely yours, Theodore B. Hetzel Chairman, Administrative Committee  - 143  -  American Friends Service Comm. P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pennsylvania January 14, 1954-. Dear Friend: J u l i a Branson has asked me to r e p l y to your r e cent request f o r a copy of the speech which she gave at the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Workers i n Madras. She suggested that I r e p l y to your l e t t e r because of the f a c t that I have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the work i n the f i e l d of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , i n c l u d i n g the p r o j e c t i n Tur'an, I s r a e l w i t h which she dealt i n her t a l k . Attached f o r your use i s a mimeographed p o r t i o n of J u l i a Branson's t a l k i n which she describes the project i n Tur'an. There have been a great many developments i n t h i s project during the past year. Seven of the young men have continued w i t h the t r a i n i n g program throughout the year and our s t a f f i s now t r y i n g to discover the most e f f e c t i v e way i n which t h e i r s k i l l s can be u t i l i z e d by the v i l l a g e . The matter of encouraging the development of a machinery cooperative i s presenting a number of problems as one might expect i n a c u l t u r e where there has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been l i t t l e a p p r e c i a t i o n of cooperation outside of the f a m i l y or c l a n . At the present time our s t a f f i n Tur'an c o n s i s t s of one a g r i c u l t u r i s t and a s o c i a l worker whose t r a i n i n g and experience has been i n the f i e l d of community o r g a n i z a t i o n . This combination of personnel seems to be j u s t what i s needed at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r stage i n the development of the p r o j e c t . I t may a l s o be of i n t e r e s t to you to know that the person who heads up our work i n I s r a e l and who a l s o d i r e c t s the Neighborhood Center i n Acre i s a s o c i a l worker w i t h long experience as the d i r e c t o r of one of the large settlement houses i n Chicago. The Community Center i n Acre i s an attempt to develop community leadership i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s to the Arab community i n the f o l l o w i n g f i e l d s : An i n f a n t welfare c l i n i c under the d i r e c t i o n of an Arab nurse, a Nursery School f o r 74 three and four year o l d c h i l d r e n under Arab nursery school teachers whom we are t r a i n i n g on the job; sewing groups f o r older g i r l s , play and c r a f t groups for boys and g i r l s , a sports program f o r older boys, a lending l i b r a r y w i t h books i n both Arabic and E n g l i s h , a t r a i n i n g program i n elementary carpentry f o r teen-age boys, and an evening educational and r e c r e a t i o n a l program f o r a d u l t s .  - 144  -  Except for the director of the Center, the s t a f f consists e n t i r e l y of l o c a l persons who are receiving superv i s i o n i n just the same way as the s t a f f of a community center i n this country. There i s emphasis upon developing leadership through the use of an advisory committee and i n encouraging the use of volunteers at a number of points i n the program. During the past year the community i s being encouraged to take increasing f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the operation of the Center by the payment of small fees for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the various groups. Although the AFSC was o r i g i n a l l y established as a channel through which r e l i g i o u s l y concerned persons might express their concern i n p r a c t i c a l action, and although i t has tended to emphasize the use of amateurs, there i s a r e a l appreciation of the contribution which can be made i n our project by trained, experienced s o c i a l workers who share the basic philosophy and approach of Friends....Among the s k i l l s which the Committee seeks are "group and community center leadership, including organization of educational, recreational, and self-help projects; administrative and welfare experience i n community centers and settlement houses, i n t e r r a c i a l projects, government r e h a b i l i t a t i o n proj e c t s , etc." We do have a number of trained s o c i a l workers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n our overseas program. In general, however, the need i s for persons who are trained i n group work and community organization rather than for persons whose entire t r a i n i n g and experience have been i n the f i e l d of case work. Experience at the administrative l e v e l i n s o c i a l work Is of p a r t i c u l a r importance. The American Friends Service Committee i s also undertaking work i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l and technical assistance i n India and i n Jordan. I am sorry that we do not have recent mimeographed reports.... Sincerely yours, Lorraine K. Cleveland Foreign Service Section.  - 145 From a work camp leader i n 1949 and 1951  i n Mexico projects.  Awbury Park, February 13,  1954  Dear P h y l l i s Brinks: I have been so taken with your thesis topics' p o s s i b i l i t i e s that I've been a b i t overawed. This i s my background. After working with the AFSC i n an I n s t i t u t i o n a l Service Unit, I went on to do my s i x years of casework i n mental hospitals, and received my graduate training psychiatric casework (Boston University). Basic courses i n the f i e l d s which are being considered by you have been bolstered only by avocational experience: work camp leadership with my husband i n Mexico i n the summers of 1949 and 1951» aad weekend workcamps i n Boston i n 1949-50. Thus, I am i n no position to speak with authori t y about workcamps or your topic. Any comments must be assumed to be limited by my own experience, and put f o r t h only as personal opinions. Without further ado, I believe that S o c i a l Work principles are used i n AFSC work as I have experienced i t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of group relationships, and I further believe that each might have much to learn from the other. Roughly, the relationships may be c l a s s i f i e d i n two ways: the leaders with the campers, and the administration, the leaders, and the campers with the community. Could these not be roughly compared with group work and community organization approaches? Let's take the group work angle f i r s t . This seems to me to be one of the most intensive of group experiences available, and so subject to the strains and rewards not so possible i n other settings. Among the strains to which both campers and leaders are subject, are the lack of privacy, almost complete interdependence about details of d a i l y l i v i n g , intimacy of some degree with persons of varying interests, backgrounds, and temperament, doing unfamiliar work, etc. Even the minimal which i t i s hoped campers w i l l have i n common, i . e . the desire to participate i n a work camp, may spring from motives as far apart as inexpensive t o u r i s t i n g and a hope for a d e f i n i t e r e l i g i o u s experience with a l l v a r i e t i e s i n between. Separation from family and accustomed  -'146 a c t i v i t i e s and surroundings o f f e r d i f f i c u l t y for many. In Mexico, there are additional sources of tension: f a i r l y primitive l i v i n g conditions, d i f f e r e n t d i e t , possible i l l n e s s either severe or annoying—and the multitude of pressures that come from l i v i n g i n a foreign culture with strange customs, and p a r t i c u l a r l y another language. When one adds to this the factor of age (18-25), which implies late adolescence and early adulthood with a l l the implications of e r r a t i c development of i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional, and s o c i a l viewpoints, this i s a formidable setting for group work, indeed. But then one sees the p o s i t i v e s . This i s a comparatively i n t e l l e c t u a l group who come with a f a i r l y welldefined understanding of project goals. Usually they have had experience i n group l i v i n g and are i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , at l e a s t , ready to share i n i t . Volunteering for such work auto matically indicates well developed c u r i o s i t y and energy. In general, work campers tend to be self-confident, f a i r l y matur interested i n s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l problems, and open to new experiences. They a l l have made some s a c r i f i c e s to. p a r t i c i p a t e , knowing that the experience w i l l be of short duration, and are determined to "get something out of i t . " A l l i n a l l , i t seems a golden opportunity f o r group work concepts, with problems to overcome and the wherewithal to do i t . Hopefully, leaders know something about young people, the p a r t i c u l a r project, Mexico, and Friends p r i n c i p l e and are ready to help the i n d i v i d u a l campers t o : 1. 2. 3. 4.  l i v e together happily and s a t i s f y i n g l y l i v e i n the community with mutual s a t i s f a c t i o n o f f e r productive labor to the community take home with them f a c t s , ideas, and feelings which w i l l help them lead more informed, aware, sensitive, and h e l p f u l l i v e s .  The leadership conference which precedes the orientation conference f o r campers d e f i n i t e l y stresses good group work p r i n c i p l e s as the method to achieve these goals, though I do not believe that they are so named. Evaluation sessions held at regular intervals are considered. So, too, i s a d a i l y period of quiet meditation. Achieving these i n i t s e l f i s often a delicate procedure. Leadership i s best exercised by suggestion on an informal basis, with campers taking much of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for planning and assigning home and project assignment, with consultation from the leaders. Often this method results i n delay and confusion, but i t does stress the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the campers, and lessens the p o s s i b i l i t y of resentment and r e b e l l i o n . It i s , however,  - 147 -  usually the leader's job to find out i n d i v i d u a l talents and i n t e r e s t s , and make sure that they are e f f e c t i v e l y and s a t i s f y i n g l y used for the benefit of the whole. Even here, enthusiastic and imaginative campers can often do a better job with only hints of encouragement. Another s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to make p r a c t i c a l suggestions on the basis of t r i p s , health precautions, etc. Usually the leaders are expected to take the primary respons i b i l i t y for community r e l a t i o n s , and the major project decisions, getting materials, though even this can often be delegated to competent campers. In Mexico, at l e a s t , there are two areas where the use of authority i s imperatives questions of health, and questions of l o c a l customs, which, i f v i o l a t e d , might jeopardize the reputation of the whole group. In general, i t i s f e l t that campers can make most decisions, and carry on most a c t i v i t i e s , i f a s e n s i t i v e job of leadership i s done. We have found (through b i t t e r experience) that everyone i s a l o t happier. Leaders must also seize the opportunity at the inevitable b u l l sessions t o suggest new ideas, stimulate discussion, c l a r i f y concepts, and take an i n d i r e c t l y educational r o l e . And leaders also function as parent, f r i e n d , and counselor. Personal problems always a r i s e , both i n the camp and at home, and the leader should be ready to serve as a confidant and counselor, on the basis of a previously established r e l a t i o n s h i p . This may mean going out to meet the problem, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i t affects group l i v i n g or p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . For example: a camper who learned that his mother had just been sent to a mental h o s p i t a l , and a camper bothered by the amorous intent of a v i l l a g e r . Other types were: the boys who i n s i s t e d on dating the school teacher and saw every b u l l f i g h t , and the boys who always "forgot" his chores. It Is not a f a i r l y t y p i c a l group work s i t u a t i o n , d i f f e r i n g i n i n t e n s i t y , purpose, and setting? I f e e l that the same methods must apply, as modified by these factors, and i t i s these methods that are suggested to leaders. Can you sort out of my description the things that you are looking f o r : i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , acceptance of differences i n talent and outlook, u t i l i z a t i o n of growth potentials, uses of manipulation and suggestion, the use of authority as i t affects health, safety, mores, the fostering of independence. I do not believe that insight i n appropriately used i n a group work s e t t i n g . However, one i s often aware of the presence of transference, and i t i s dealt with i n an appropriate manipulative fashion....  - 148 As to possible contributions to general group work methods, may I suggest the value of continuing, conscious evaluation of the group and i t s program i n a mutual s p i r i t of s e l f - c r i t i c i s m as a source of better and more honest group relations and a more e f f e c t i v e program? Probably the group meditation would not be generally applicable unless used as an additional technique i n this evaluation. Also, i t might be added that usually leaders t r y to become as much a part of the group as possible, p a r t i c i p a t i n g In chores and projects, and being open to group c r i t i c i s m as much as any other camper. This i s perhaps a peculiar leadership position as far as t r a d i t i o n a l group work i s concerned. Now the other angle—what happens when we set this peculiar l i t t l e group of foreigners down i n a t i n y r u r a l Mexican v i l l a g e ? I f they are a l l not down with t o u r i s t trouble, they have work to do. The AFSC operates on the p r i n c i p l e "to help people to help themselves", to take advantage of resources, personal and material, to improve their l o t i n l i f e . It i s f e l t that young, comparatively unskilled people can most h e l p f u l l y do this by offering manual labor. This also fosters that equally important aim of the development of international understanding and f r i e n d ship. Because of the time f a c t o r , some projects are set up p r i o r to the a r r i v a l of the camp, and others are developed i n the course of i t . I w i l l suggest a couple of other sources of information. Claude Littlepage, Literature Section, AFSC, might be able to recommend material. Also, Peter D e c i l i , Pendle H i l l , Wallingford, Pennsylvania. This i s a graduate school of Friends, o f f e r i n g i n d i v i d u a l study on s o c i a l and economic problems. Sincerely, Pat Lyon  - 149 -  Letter from a Friend and s o c i a l caseworkers i n a FSAA Agency  Edmonds, Washington. Dear P h y l l i s Brinks: The Friends concept of there being "that of God i n every man" coincides with the casework p r i n c i p l e of accepting each person as he i s , with the idea that " a l l people have universal and basic human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , and "respect for the c l i e n t as a person". Our f e e l i n g that each person must follow his own " l i g h t " coincides with the casework p r i n c i p l e , "to recognize and maintain his self-determination and right to choose....". Friends' " s o c i a l concerns" have stemmed from the basic p r i n c i p l e of the "brotherhood of man". However, I understand that the AFSC has done very l i t t l e actual casework, but mostly community organization, s o c i a l action, and group work.... Sincerely,  (Mrs) Lois S c h o l l  APPENDIX E  -  150  -  BIBLIOGRAPHY The following bibliography i s a l i s t of books which were quoted from or used as reference for this study: I.  AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE PUBLICATIONS  Annual Report, 1946, 1 9 5 0 , 1 9 5 2 , 1 9 5 3 , 1 9 5 4 , AFSC, P h i l a d e l phia Regional O f f i c e s , 20 South 1 2 t h , Philadelphia, Pa. Books Are Bridges. Educational Materials For Children, AFSC, 1 9 5 3 , Philadelphia, Pa. B r i e f Description by 'Seminar Students. AFSC, Chicago Regional O f f i c e , 19 South LaSalle Street, Chicago 3 , I l l i n o i s . Educational Role of AFSC. B u l l e t i n , March 3 , 1 9 5 1 , phia, Pa. Experiences i n Freedom. AFSC, B u l l e t i n , Oct. 1 0 ,  Philadel1953.  Four Projects For Service. " I n s t i t u t i o n a l Service Units", "Internes i n Industry", "Community Service Units i n Mexico and E l Salvadore", AFSC, D e c , 1 9 5 3 , Philadelphia, Pa. Friends Ambulance Unit, Post War AFSC, 1946.  Service, F i r s t Annual Report,  Friends International Centers. AFSC Inc., Jan 1, Philadelphia Pa.  1952,  Fry, Ruth A., History of World War I E f f o r t s of Friends Formation of AFSC i n 1917. i n A Quaker Adventure.  and  Helping Children Grow i n Friendly Ways. AFSC, June, 1952 Philadelphia, Pa. Highlights of AFSC Service. AFSC, Seattle 5> Washington, How You Can F i t Into Service i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , AFSC, No. Feb. 1 9 5 3 . "  466,  :  International Seminars. Summer 1 9 5 3 j AFSC Regional Offices International Student House, i n Washington D.6., Society of Friends, Philadelphia Pa.  AFSC,  -151  -  Internes i n Community Service!. AFSC, P h i l a d e l p h i a 1 9 5 3 , 1 9 5 4 New and Used C l o t h i n g . AFSC, C i r c u l a r 428,D, 1 9 5 3 . N e w s l e t t e r . AFSC, November, 1 9 5 3 , a l s o D e c , J a n . , Feb. Pasadena Conference o f S e c r e t a r i e s . Summary o f Proceedings and Minutes Adopted, AFSC, J a n . 1954. P i c k e t t , C l a r e n c e E . , F o r More Than Bread. L i t t l e , Brown & Company, Boston, 1 9 5 3 . (Autobiography and S t o r y of AFSC.) Quaker Approaches t o Human Brotherhood. AFSC, October Quaker S e r v i c e s Overseas. AFSC, B u l l e t i n ,  1953.  1951.  Quaker Work Among Arab Befugees, (undertaken f o r the U.N. i n Gaza d i s t r i c t ) , Dec., 1948-Apr. 1 9 5 0 . Seminar By Consent. A. I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , June Symonds and John Pearce, AFSC, 1 9 5 2 . S o c i a l and I n d u s t r i a l Peacemaking; a Quaker. Program. AFSC. S o c i a l and T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e i n I n d i a , AFSC, S e a t t l e R e g i o n a l O f f i c e , 3 9 5 9 - l 5 t h Avenue N.E. S e a t t l e , January 1 9 5 3 . S t a f f Handbook. AFSC N a t i o n a l O f f i c e , A p r i l 1 9 5 3 . Statement of Purpose-College Program, AFSC, June, 1 9 5 0 . S t o r y o f the American F r i e n d s S e r v i c e Committee 1 9 1 7 - 5 2 , AFSC R e g i o n a l O f f i c e s . Summer O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r High School Students. AFSC, 1951 T h i r t y Years o f Quaker S e r v i c e , AFSC, 1947 Time F o r Greatness, A., a Quaker View o f U.S. F o r e i g n P o l i c y AFSC, P o r t l a n d R e g i o n a l O f f i c e , 1108 S.E. Grand Ave., P o r t l a n d Oregon, 1953-54. Two-Day Forum on S t r u g g l e f o r Europe, AFSC, S e a t t l e 5 , Wash. 1953. Under the Red and B l a c k S t a r , A B r i e f Account o f the AFSC, N a t i o n a l O f f i c e , P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pa., Mar., 1949. U.N. and Washington Seminars f o r High S c h o o l 'Students, AFSC, 1952.  -  II.  152 -  AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE WORK CAMPS  AFSC, "Now...Week-end Opportunities", Work Camps. Seminars. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Units. AFSC, 1830 Sutter St., San Francisco, C a l . F a l l 1950-Spring 1951. AFSC Youth Projects. AFSC Supplementary Fact Sheet for Reference i n R e a l i t y , AFSC, Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 1951. Browin, Frances Williams, "New Ditches to Dig" C h r i s t i a n Century, Sept. 1937, Chicago, p. 1070. Sept. 1941, p. 1086, Nov. 1938, p. 1444-5. Chance, Waneta, Program i n Mexico. AFSC, 1939-1950 Duckies, Edwin, "Friends i n Mexico", Impetus. pub. UNESCO. Fairnbairn & LaCerda,'"Silence, Brothers at Work", i l Nations Business. May 1947, p. 43-54. Fisher, Glen H. American-Mexican Culture" Contacts i n a Mexican V i l l a g e , (Thesis), AFSC, Philadelphia, Pa. June, 1949. "Friendly Persuasion",  Time, Jan. 20, 1947, pp 75-76.  "Friendly Service i n Mexico, A"  AFSC Inc., Philadelphia.  "Friends Service Units-Mexico", Handbook for Volunteers, AFSC National O f f i c e , Philadelphia, Pa. International Work Camps, UNESCO, Reconstruction 19 Ave. Klebar, Paris-XVI, 1948.  Section,  Kimball, A l i c e May, "Work Camps", Independent Woman, 6/41. Mexico C i t y News, AFSC, July, 1953. Pfrommer, V i o l a , Report on E l Salvador Program, AFSC, 1952. Poitas, Edward, W., "Interne i n Industry", Becoming Aware, 1952.  P o s s i b i l i t i e s for Service, AFSC, Philadelphia, Pa. Quaker International Voluntary Service, Mar., 1953, What Is the QIVS? AFSC, National O f f i c e , Philadelphia, Pa, Oct. 10, 1948. "Reference i n R e a l i t y " , Youth Projects, AFSC, 1951  -  153  -  Reich, John F., "Pick and Shovel Holiday", Survey Graphic. V o l . . 2 6 , pp 2 3 2 - 2 3 3 , New York, A p r i l , 1 9 3 7 . Report on Youth Service Projects for 1953, AFSC Regional Office, Rlecken, Henry W., "Changes i n Attitudes and Personality Among Work Service Volunteers", Jan. 20, 1 9 5 0 , Philadelphia Pa. MSS. The Volunteer Work Camp; A Psychological Evaluation. Addison-Wesley Press, Inc., Cambridge 42, Mass, 1 9 5 2 . Roche, Mary, " A n t i b i o t i c for the Slum, An." Philadelphia Slum Clearance Project, Philadelphia Pa, 1 9 5 3 , pp. 1 4 - 1 5 . Sanford, Helen, Report on Mexico Projects, Jan-April, 1 9 5 3 AFSC, Philadelphia, Pa. Singleton, Rev. R. Claude, "Work Camps Recruit for 1954", The Pastor's Journal, May-June, 1954. Some Programs i n Social and Technical Assistance, Offices of AFSC, June, 1 9 5 2 .  Regional  Steere, Douglas V., What i s a R e l i g i o u s l y Centered Work Camp? Personnel O f f i c e , AFSC, Philadelphia, Oct., 1 9 5 1 . Through Their Eyes (Hopi Indian Project), AFSC Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. Wilcox, Mrs. Jean Mc G i l v r a , State Pres., Experiment i n Better Race Relations, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Minnesota Branch, 1940. (Community Project i n the Rondo D i s t r i c t of St. Paul, Minn, i n Summer of 1940). Whitney, Norman J . , Friends Service Units i n Mexico. Nayarit, Mexico, National Offices, Philadelphia Pa., 1949. Woolsey, B i l l "Hard Work, No Pay", Nashville Tennessean Magazine, Sept., 1 1 , 1949. Work Camps i n the U.S., AFSC Regional Offices, 1 9 5 2 . Kerschner, H.E., "We Starve Our Friends", C o l l i e r s , pp. 112-122, July 31, 1943. "Quaker International Voluntary Service (QIVS) Overseas Work Camp Program", March 1953. What Is the QIVS? National O f f i c e , Philadelphia, Pa. Oct. 1948.  - 154 DOUKHOBORS Hawthorn, Harry B., The Doukhobors of B r i t i s h Columbia. Report of the Doukhobor Research Comm. UBC, Canada, 1952. Hirabayashi, Gordon Kiyoshi, The Russian Doukhobors of B r i t i s h Columbia; A Study of S o c i a l Adjustments and Conf l i c t . (For Ph.D. University of Washington, 1951) Consultative Commission on Doukhobor Problems. "Summary of Recommendations", University of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l 1952. Minutes of Consultative Commission on Doukhobor Problems, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950, 1951, 1952. MISCELLANEOUS C h r i s t i a n Science Monitor, "An Adventure i n Friendship", Oct. 10, 1942, p. 14. Edgerton, Wm., Positive and Negative Pacifism, Warsaw, Poland, 1946, AFSC. / Emerson, Haven,M.D. professor of health administration, Columbia University, "Report Upon Health, Sickness, and Hunger Among German Children", International C o n c i l i a t i o n March 1924, Am. Ass'n. for International C o n c i l i a t i o n E d i t o r i a l O f f i c e , 407 W. 117th St. New York C i t y . Falshaw, Dr. Gladys, Lecturer, Kerala Balagram, (Boys School), American Comm. for Boys Town, 252 Fulton St., Brooklyn 1, New York. Gollancz, V i c t o r , Our Threatened Values, Henry Regnery Company, Hinsdale, I l l i n o i s , 1947. H i l t o n , Conrad N., The Battle for Peace. Beverly H i l l s , Cal. May 1952. Howard, Donald S., ed. Administration of R e l i e f Abroad, Series, "Recent R e l i e f Programs of the AFSC i n Spain and France", Russell Sage Foundation, pub., AFSC. Koinonia Foundation,- A Man to Remember. Projects Booklet, P i k e s v i l l e , Box #336, Baltimore 8, Maryland, 1953.  - 155 Nehru, E. Roosevelt, Bowles, Let's Build Friendship With India, Pamphlet Printed by Enduring Peace, Inc., 4 8 9 Ocean Ave., Wast Haven, Conn. Pfund, Harry"W., Haverford's 'Point Four' Training Program News B u l l e t i n of Institute of International Education, March, 1 9 5 3 . "Point IV Agreement Signed by AFSC i n India", U.S. Department of State B u l l e t i n 1 1 2 5 , July 9 , 1 9 5 1 . S o c i a l and Technical Assistance Curriculum, Haverford College, 1 9 5 3 - 5 4 . Spicer, Edward H., Human Problems i n Technological Change, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1 9 5 2 . Urban League on Merit, Questions and Answers about Employment , Urban League, 1 1 3 3 Broadway, New York 1 0 , Dec, 1 9 5 0 . War Resisters' International, Lansbury House, 8 8 Park Ave., Bush H i l l Park, E n f i e l d , Middlesex, England, 1 9 5 4 . Wells, Chas. A., The Wells Newsletter, Box # 2 6 9 , N.J.  9/52, 11/52,  12/52, 1/53.  Demarest,  Works Projects Administration, N.M., Spanish American Song and Game Book, Barnes & Co. 6 7 , W. 44th S t . New York, N.Y. V.  SOCIAL WORK  Bisho, Herbert, The Philosophy of S o c i a l Work, Public A f f a i r s Press, Washington, D.C, 1 9 5 2 .  ^  Bruno, Frank J . , Trends i n S o c i a l Work, Columbia University Press, N.Y., pp. 289-290, 1948. Comm. on Confidential Nature of Case Work Information, Family Service Ass'n of America, N.Y. Mar., 1943. Coyle, Grace L., "Social Group Work", S o c i a l Work Year Book Russell Sage Foundation, N.Y. 1 9 5 1 . Family Welfare Bureau Report, Vancouver, B.C. FWB,  1952.  Fredericksen, Hazel, The Child and His Welfare, W.H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, C a l i f . 1948. Freedom Into Action, AFSC, Inc., Dec. 1 9 5 1 .  - 156 -  Goodman, Mary E l l e n , Race Awareness In Young Children, Addison-Wesley Press Inc., Cambridge 42, Mass., Jan, 1 9 5 2 . Hamilton, Gordon, The Theory and Practice of S o c i a l Case Work Oxford University Press, London, Col. U. Press, 1940. Hayden, Audrey M., "Social Action", S o c i a l Work Year Book, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, New York, 1945, pp. 412-415 H i l l , John G. "The Philadelphia Time Cost Study", The S o c i a l Welfare Forum. O f f i c i a l Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work, Columbia University Press, 1 9 5 3 , pp. 205-222. Kurtz, Russell H. ed. S o c i a l Work Year Book, 1945. Russell Sage Foundation, New York. Lewin, Kurt, Resolving S o c i a l C o n f l i c t s , Harper & Brothers, Publishers, New York, 1948. McMillen, Wayne, Community Organization for S o c i a l Welfare, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 45, 111. p. 39. Simon, Herbert A., Smithburg, Donald'W., Thompson, Victor A., Public Administration, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1 9 5 0 . Witmer, Helen Leland, S o c i a l Work, An Analysis of a S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n . Rinehart & Co., Inc., N.Y. 1942. VI.  SOCIETY OF FRIENDS  Brayshaw, A. Neave, The Personality of George Fox, Allenson & Co. Ltd., 7 Racquet Court, 114 Fleet St., London, E.C. 4 , 1933.  Brinton, Howard, Friends for 300 Years, by Harper & Bros. 4 9 East 3 3 S t r e e t , New York 16, N.Y. 1 9 5 2 . Canter, Bernard, The Quaker Bedside Book, Hulton Press Ltd. London, E.C. 4 . , 1 9 5 2 . Capper-Johnson, Thought on the Current R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of Friends for Peace, The Mountain Press, Missoula, Mont. •May, 1 9 5 2 . Cooke, Morris Llewellyn, "The Quaker Way Wins New Adherents", New York Times Magazine, Reprinted from AFSC, Inc., June 1 9 5 1 Philadelphia, Pa.  -  157 -  Davis, Robert, Quaker Witness for Peace, Pub, Home Service Comm., London, England.  by The Friends  Faulkner, Hugh, -A V i s i t to Moscow, Report of B r i t i s h for Trip to Russia, Newsletter, 1 9 5 2 . Friends General Conference, An I n v i t a t i o n to Quakerism, 1515 Cherry St. Philadelphia, Pa. S o c i a l Service Committee, Handbook of Friends Agencies, 194-6, 43 pages, 25 cents. Hibbert, Gerald "Quaker Fundamentals, Friends Home Service, Comm. Friends House, Euston Road, London, N.W., 1941. Kavanaugh, John, The Quaker Approach to Contemporary Problems, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1 9 5 3 . Marriott, S i r John A.R., Commonwealth or Anarchy? A survey of projects of peace from the 16th to the 20th century, Morningside Heights, Columbia University Press, New York, 1 9 3 9 Maser, C l i f f o r d , After Seven Years, American Friends Service Committee, December 1952. " P a c i f i c Coast Yearly Friends Meeting Report", Friends B u l l e t i n , Aug. 1 9 5 3 , 2814 N.E. 2 7 t h Ave., Portland 12, Ore. Paine, Rev. Geo. L. Towards Understanding Russia 1. Report of the B r i t i s h Quaker Mission to Moscow, 1 9 5 1 . 2. Objective Thinking on Communism, Promoting Enduring Peace, 489 Ocean Ave., West Haven, Conn. Pointing, Horace B. The Society of Friends, (History, B e l i e f s , P r a c t i c e ) , The Society of Friends, Vancouver, B.C. London, 1946, 1948, 1 9 5 1 . P o s i t i o n of the Society of Friends ( i n regard to war) AFSC, Philadelphia, Pa., 1940. S t a r r , Dorothy S. ed. The Canadian Friend, July, 1 9 5 2 . Friends House, 60 Lowther Ave., Toronto, Ontario. Theobald, J.W. Harvey, Quakerism. A P l a i n Statement, Friends Home Service Comm., Friends House, Euston Road, London, N.W. no date given. Trends i n American and Canadian Quakerism, 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 5 0 , Friends World Comm. for Consultation, London, England. In U.S. by The Legal I n t e l l i g e n c e r , Philadelphia, Pa.  - 158  -  Reprint from The Friend. "The United 'States and the Soviet Union" by Richard Wood, the Quaker Report After 6 Mos, 1 9 5 0 . Van Etten, Henry, The Quaker Approach. G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1 9 5 3 , p. 145. Friends World Conf. Comm., The Vocation of Friends i n the Modern World. Friends House, Euston Road, London, N.W. 1 9 5 1 . Wilson, Roger, Authority. Leadership, and Concern. London, 1949. Walters, Ingeborg, Ed., The Friendly Way, no. 9, Friends Centre, 1 , Upper Wood St., Calcutta 16, India, A p r i l 1 9 5 1 . Woodman, Charles M., Quakers Find A Way, Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc., Indianapolis, New York, 1 9 5 0 . VII.  UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL  Clark, Herb D., General Welfare, Vancouver Council of S o c i a l Engineering, Vancouver, Canada. Clark, Herb. Friends Service Units i n Mexico, AFSC, Philadelphia, Pa. Few notes on a V i s i t to Mexico, A, l e t t e r s from work campers i n Mexico, AFSC, Philadelphia, Pa. Cleveland, Lorraine K., Point IV Program i n Letter January 1 9 5 4 , Foreign Service Section, AFSC. Davies, P h y l l i s , Letter from V a l l e de Bravo, Mexico, AFSC. Duckies, Ed and Jean, Newsletter from Mexico, Campeche 2 6 2 , Colonia Hipodromo, Mexico 1 1 , D.F. (Mrs.) Exner and Mrs. MeCrae, "Social Work", Casework Syllabus University of B r i t i s h Columbia School of S o c i a l Work, 1954,  p. 1 ,  501-502.  F a r r i s , Rev. Don. Sr., Sermon Dec. 6 , 1 9 5 3 > Canadian Memorial Chapel, United Church of Canada, UN Work i n Korea. February Report on 1 9 5 4 Youth Service Projects, Regional O f f i c e s , of AFSC. AFSC F i n a n c i a l Manual, 1 9 5 3 .  - 159 -  Handbook f o r Project Leaders, AFSC, Philadelphia, Pa, May, 1 9 5 3 . Hinshaw, C e c i l , "Religious Insights of the Society of Friends", Speeck delivered at Seminar, Vancouver, B.C. January 1 9 5 4 . I r i s h , Don., Peace Program of American Friends, of Colorado, Boulder, C o l . May, 1941.  University  McCrae, Helen, Casework Practice, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 1 9 5 4 . Overseas R e l i e f & Rehabilitation Work with the AFSC, AFSC, S e a t t l e , Washington, 1949. Pasadena Conference of Executive Secretaries, Jan 4-8, 1 9 5 4 , AFSC, Inc. School of S o c i a l Work Report, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, "The Group and the Scope and Functions of Group Work", Group Work Methods, Vancouver, Schrum, Louaine, ;.A Discussion of S o c i a l Action Emphasizing the Work of the AFSC, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l 1 9 5 3 j Seattle, Wash. S o c i a l & Technical Assistance Program, Foreign Service Sec. News Report I, 1 9 5 0 , I I , 1 9 5 2 , I I I , 1 9 5 3 , AFSC.  APPENDIX F  -  160 -  PERSONS INTERVIEWED 1 . Robert Barns, Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a — both long and short term projects.  camper i n Mexico on  2. Harry Burke, Executive Secretary of the Seattle Regional O f f i c e , Washington. 3. Edwin Duckies, Mexico C i t y , Mexico — Mexico AFSC projects.  director of the  4. Mildred Fahrni, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia — National Secretary of the Fellowship of Reconciliation of Canada. 5 . Donald F a r r i s , Director of United Nations projects i n Korea, — now i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. 6. C e c i l Hinshaw, former president of William Penn University, worker with AFSC, and lecturer for the Society of Friends. 7 . San Howard, Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a — Mexico work camps.  veteran of two  8. Don I r i s h , Professor of Sociology at" the University of Washington, and member of the Seattle Executive Board of AFSC, S e a t t l e , Washington. 9. Reginald Mawre, former chairman of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Committee on the Doukahobors, Vancouver, B.C. 10. Clarence Pickett, Executive Secretary of AFSC u n t i l 1 9 5 3 , now with UN under AFSC. 11. John Magraw, former Secretary for Conscientious Objectors i n Prison during World War II — Waldron Island, Washington 12. Bob McGinhis, College Secretary, San Francisco Regional Office, California. 13. Joan Salmon, Chicago, 111 — caught polio while there.  work camper i n Mexico who  14. Floyd Schmoe, i n i t i a t o r and director of "Houses for Hiroshima" and "Houses for Korea" projects, Seattle Washington. 15. Lois S c h o l l , former caseworker with Family Society i n S e a t t l e , Washington and member of the Society of Friends. 16. Art Solmon, group worker and director of Seattle Neighborhood House, S e a t t l e , Washington, 17.  Ross T i k i n o f f , member of the Doukhobor sect, Vancouver B.C.  

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