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Social work components of the United Nations technical assistance programmes : a comparative analysis… Balla-Legrady, Brigitta Eva 1954

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SOCIAL WORE COMPONENTS.OF THE UNITED NATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMMES A Comparative A n a l y s i s of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e and S o c i a l Work P r i n c i p l e s and Methods  by BRIGITTA EVA BALLA-LEGRADY  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORE i n the School o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work  School o f S o c i a l Work  A p r i l , 1954 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  Abstract SOCIAL WORK COMPONENTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME  In 1946, the United Nations inaugurated the Technical Assistance Programme, a new and international application of "mutual aid" and "self-help" p r i n c i p l e s . There are many aspects to these programmes, which focus p a r t i c u l a r l y on r a i s i n g standards of l i v i n g through increased productivity i n the "under-developed" countries. The present study singles out the s o c i a l welfare act i v i t i e s only, starting i n the Advisory Social Welfare Services (1946), and the Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance which followed. The method adopted i s twofold: ( l ) An examination of the major principles of Technical Assistance, (a) as enunciated i n o f f i c i a l statements of policy, and (b) as indicated i n operat i o n a l practice. The significance of the use of experts, U.N. fellowships, seminars, and demonstration projects i s explored i n this light. (2) The principles of Technical Assistance are compared, i n broad terms, with the basic principles of s o c i a l work. One of the important by-products of "-Technical Assistance Administration, an international survey of professional s o c i a l work, and a d e f i n i t i v e statement of the nature of s o c i a l work s k i l l s , Is referred to i n t h i s connection. As a means of highlighting the principles and methods of the advisory s o c i a l welfare services, two countries are r e f e r red to as examples of a receiving country (Guatemala) and a contributing country (Canada). They serve i n conclusion to i l l u s trate the interrelatedness of welfare programmes with l o c a l needs, with education f o r s o c i a l work, and with overall national p o l i c i e s . A major part of the material used f o r t h i s study i s derived-from United Nations documents, available from l i b r a r y sources. I t i s supplemented by essential data from the United Nations Headquarters and from Canadian Government agencies concerned with p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these programmes. Interviews with Canadian s o c i a l welfare personnel who have participated i n several of the programmes helped considerably to compensate f o r the need of first-hand material i n the role of advisers, and the problems and procedures of fellowship and scholarship programmes. A number of points were also c l a r i f i e d by correspondence. c  The study reveals positive achievements i n p r a c t i c a l methods of promoting peace, which deserve greater p u b l i c i t y . Much more remains to be done; of most relevance f o r s o c i a l work, however, i s perhaps the need for increased professional writing on the f i e l d experience of s o c i a l worker participants, and further research directed to analysis of methods, process, and results.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I t i s with great pleasure t h a t I express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to the F a c u l t y Members o f the School o f S o c i a l Work whose t e a c h i n g made i t p o s s i b l e t o w r i t e this thesis. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l t o Dr. Leonard C. Marsh f o r h i s encouragement, c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i cism and v a l u a b l e advice. I a l s o f e e l indebted to Miss M a r j o r i e J . Smith, D i r e c t o r of the School o f S o c i a l Work f o r her h e l p f u l comments, suggestions and guidance. I a l s o wish to thank P r o f e s s o r Geoffrey Davies, who has given me the b e n e f i t o f h i s knowledge about the United Nations; the o f f i c i a l s o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l Co-operation D i v i s i o n o f the Department o f Trade and Commerce o f Canada, and the o f f i c i a l s of the United Nations who k i n d l y s u p p l i e d e s s e n t i a l Information. F i n a l l y , I wish t o thank t h e S t a f f o f the Reference D i v i s i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y f o r t h e i r generous co-operation i n making so r e a d i l y a v a i l able the r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l which was so e s s e n t i a l f o r t h i s study.  TABLE OP CONTENTS Page Chapter I .  Development and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes  Forerunners of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e : the League of Red Cross S o c i e t i e s ; the Save the C h i l d r e n Fund; the League of Nations. The United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s tance Programme. General p r i n c i p l e s and methods. The United Nations machinery. Government p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Method and focus Chapter I I .  S o c i a l Work and T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e : Comparison of P r i n c i p l e s and Methods  a  S o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s . T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e , the s c i e n t i f i c process. A n a l y s i s , planning, implementation of the programme: experts, t r a i n i n g , t e c h n i c a l p u b l i c a tions, evaluation. S o c i a l work methods i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e : casework, group work, community o r g a n i z a t i o n , research, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o b j e c t i v e s Chapter I I I . Advisory n i n g and From gramme. trainees, porting. others.  S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s : Experts  Seminars, Conferences and Projects  R e c e i v i n g and C o n t r i b u t i n g Two Examples  Countries:  N e c e s s i t y f o r comprehensive and i n t e g r a t e d n a t i o n a l planning. The T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme i n Guatemala. Canadian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare services. The r e l a t i o n of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to s o c i a l work. New needs i n s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g to-day. The general c o n t r i b u t i o n s of s o c i a l work to n a t i o n a l develop02 6 XI "t •  •••  •••  •••  68  Demonstration  Seminars and Conferences. European Exchange. - P l a n . Demonstration and p i l o t p r o j e c t s . Technical information. Surveys: the new concept o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l welfare and s o c i a l work Chapter V.  32  Trai-  UNRRA to UNTAA: the development o f the proF e l l o w s h i p s and s c h o l a r s h i p s ; s e l e c t i o n of planning f o r programme. O r i e n t a t i o n and r e S o c i a l welfare experts; survey missions and I n t e g r a t i o n of the programme. ... -  Chapter IV.  1  105  The Charter of the Rights of the  Child  Text o f R e s o l u t i o n 58(1) Adopted by the General Assembly on December 14, 1946. R e s o l u t i o n 200(111) - T e c h n i c a l A s s i s tance f o r Economic Development. ... R e s o l u t i o n s on the Expanded Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r Economic Development of Under-Developed Coun"fc n © s • ••• ••• ••• UN R e s o l u t i o n 316(IV) - Advisory Welfare S e r v i c e s . . . . UN R e s o l u t i o n 418(V) - Advisory Welfare S e r v i c e s .  Social Social  S t a t i s t i c a l Appendix : Table I . . F e l l o w s h i p Awards According to F i e l d s of Study. 1947-1951 Table I I *  P r o j e c t Areas i n Which Welf a r e Experts Worked. 194719 51 • •»* •• •  Table I I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n of F e l l o w s h i p Awards by R e c i p i e n t C o u n t r i e s . T o t a l s f o r 1947-1951- ' ... Table IV.  F e l l o w s h i p Awards According to Countries of Operation i n F i v e Regions. 1947-1951.  Table V.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Experts Acc o r d i n g to Regions. 19471951 * •• • •••  Table VI.  Countries from Which Experts Were R e c r u i t e d . 1947-1951.  Table V I I . Subjects and Scope of United Nations Seminars and Related P r o j e c t s Under the A d v i s o r y S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s . 19473_951 * ••• ••* ••• •*•  Appendices  Page  H  O u t l i n e of Report - United Nations S o c i a l Welfare F e l l o w s h i p s . ...  162  I  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economic and T e c h n i c a l Coo p e r a t i o n D i v i s i o n - Department of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, Canada: a Copy of Expert's A p p l i c a t i o n Forms ... .... ...  164  Bibliography.  168  J  ...  CHAPTER I DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OP UNITED NATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMMES  Technical and  assistance  - the  knowledge t o l e s s d e v e l o p e d  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  countries  - has  probably  known s i n c e t i m e i m m e m o r i a l .  The  still  of C e n t r a l Europe:  t o be  s e e n i n some p a r t s  mute e v i d e n c e o f t h e tried  past  dependent n a t i o n s . a f t e r the have not  fall  o f the  contributed  to  remnants o f t h i s  to l o c a l  New  ancient  cultures.  The  which  civilization, sites  t e c h n o l o g i c a l knowledge was  r e i n f o r c e the  which tech-  l a t e r h i s t o r y of  shows some s i m i l a r introduced  s o c i e t i e s t o c o u n t r i e s i n A s i a , m a i n l y with, t h e  aim  by  industrial  of using  m a t e r i a l and  labour to  power.  m o t i v e s f o r s u c h economic e x p a n s i o n have V a r i e d ,  The  s h e e r e x p l o i t a t i o n " t o an  enlightened  Colonizing a c t i v i t i e s , s u r p l u s m a t e r i a l , a l l too economic n e e d s o f the the ist. nial  i n t e r e s t of the The and  as  a r e a s w h i c h have s i n c e become i n -  d e v e l o p m e n t i s more v a r i e d , but  trends.  Roman E m p i r e  f u r t h e r development because these  adapted  are  they remain  o f the E m p i r e , became mere h i s t o r i c a l  n i q u e s were n o t colonial  • The  been  r u i n s o f Roman s t r u c t u r e s  existence  t o keep u n d e r c o n t r o l v a s t  experience  economy o f the  imperialist  i n t e r e s t i n "subject  albeit  r e l e a s i n g and  frequently neglected  "conquered" c o u n t r i e s  and  the  focused  social levels  from  peoples".  utilizing  social  c o n q u e r o r o r donor, i n v e s t o r o r  d i f f e r e n c e s i n economic and  cheap  and  rather  on  industrialbetween c o l o -  i m p e r i a l c o u n t r i e s have grown even w i d e r , e s p e c i a l l y  2  s i n c e the f o r e i g n methods were not accepted and made part of the native  economic and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . C o l o n i a l development reached a new peak i n the n i n e t e e n t h  century, transforming the r e l a t i o n s h i p s p a r t i c u l a r l y of western Europe with the other parts o f the globe.  Not u n t i l the l a t e r  years o f the century did a new phase develop - the r e c o g n i t i o n o f c o l o n i a l possession as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the development of human i t a r i a n codes, the f i r s t  i n t e r n a t i o n a l conventions l i m i t i n g abuses  or agreeing to reform programmes to help c o u n t r i e s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r indigenous needs. International development.  r e l i e f a c t i v i t i e s per se were a f u r t h e r  Such a c t i v i t i e s f i r s t developed from a sense of  s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r people damaged by d i s a s t e r , f o r whom r e l i e f meant an immediate answer to meet hunger, s u f f e r i n g and d i sease.  R e l i e f - g i v i n g required  t e r n a t i o n a l " because i t i n v o l v e d The  a c t i o n which was considered " i n c r o s s i n g n a t i o n a l boundaries.  present century i s now w i t n e s s i n g the most  signifi-  cant e v o l u t i o n away from mere r e l i e f - g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g - the c a r r y i n g i n t o a c t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to m o b i l i z e the resources o f r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s , operation  on t h e i r part as w e l l .  thus enabling  a c t i v e co-  They c o n s t i t u t e a new  recogni-  t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e that a country's resources should be used for  the b e n e f i t of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s .  And i t a p p l i e s  especially to  under-developed and p r i m i t i v e c o u n t r i e s which have never had the "know-how" t o t r a n s l a t e modern technology i n t o p o l i c i e s which enhance the welfare o f the people.  The development o f s e r v i c e , as  3 a r e s u l t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-operation process. was  has  been a slow and  I t began with r e l i e f a c t i o n transcending  followed  by a number of v o l u n t a r y  welfare p r o j e c t s .  The  war  l u s to i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-operation  f r o n t i e r s , and  agencies promoting  devastation  and  gradual  various  the subsequent stimu-  among the A l l i e d Powers brought  about i n t e r n a t i o n a l governmental a c t i o n based on i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreements on a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d , world-wide b a s i s .  Forerunners o f T e c h n i c a l  Assistance  Probably the o l d e s t , and organizations  s t i l l one  of the most important  f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i d i s the Red  Cross.  I t s foun-  dations were l a i d by H e n r i Dunant, a Geneva businessman.  Moved  by the misery attendant on the b a t t l e o f S o l f e r i n o , i n 1864, formed a committee to approach the governments  of major  he  countries  and urge them to provide p r o t e c t i o n f o r a l l wounded combatants on the b a t t l e f i e l d .  Out  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Red ganization. the  of t h i s group of p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s grew the  Cross Committee.  I t s a c t i v i t i e s are concerned with the  s i c k of the armies"~ 2  p r i s o n e r s of war".  L  Cross s o c i e t i e s .  These n a t i o n a l bodies  Cross S o c i e t i e s i n 1929-  headquarters i n Geneva, Switzerland,  the furtherance  and  and, more r e c e n t l y , "the treatment of  i n the League of Red  a n e u t r a l intermediary  "wounded  The i n t e r n a t i o n a l committee encourages the  formation of n a t i o n a l Red federated  I t i s today a world-wide o r -  the League now  between governments i n war  of c h a r i t a b l e and  With i t s  functions  and  humanitarian work.  as  peace f o r The  1  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Red  Cross Convention,  1864.  2  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Red  Cross Convention,  1929.  Inter-  4 n a t i o n a l Red Cross Committee expanded i t s a c t i v i t i e s at the b e g i n ning o f the second World War and opened an agency f o r p r i s o n e r s of war.  T h i s was an i n f o r m a t i o n  p r i s o n e r s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  and communication centre  between  The Committee a l s o assumed the  task of r e l i e f - g i v i n g to p r i s o n e r s o f war, undertaking the d i s t r i b u t i o n of food, medicines and other goods which were v o l u n t a r i l y c o n t r i b u t e d by other n a t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s .  During the war i n  Spain (1936-1938) the Committee e s t a b l i s h e d a s e c t i o n to a i d c i v i l i a n s i n order to promote personal non-military  communication between separated  i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s .  The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Red Cross Committee has a l s o performed other humanitarian s e r v i c e s such as the rescue of enemy a l i e n s i n several countries.  Numerous s p e c i a l tasks were focused i n an  e f f o r t to s o l v e i n d i v i d u a l problems which accompanied the worldwide c o n f l a g r a t i o n . ^ The League of Red Cross S o c i e t i e s , which  co-ordinates  the a c t i v i t i e s of the n a t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , i s mainly concerned with the "improvement of h e a l t h , the prevention 2 m i t i g a t i o n of human s u f f e r i n g . " governmental and non-sectarian  and the  I t i s a n o n - p o l i t i c a l , nonorganization,  moting, s t i m u l a t i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i n g national calamities  o f disease,  which, through pro-  r e l i e f work i n cases of  (such as earthquakes, famines, f l o o d s ,  promotes the i d e a of i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-operation  disease),  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  good-will. 1 Ringwood, O.K.D. & E.S. Hediger, "The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Red Cross Committee". F o r e i g n P o l i c y Reports. . XIX (May 1943), p.46. 2 "The League's A r t i c l e s o f A s s o c i a t i o n " , paragraph 2. The Red Cross, I t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n . Geneva, 1930.  5  The objective of both organizations, the International Red Cross Committee and the league of Red Cross Societies, i s to provide quick and e f f i c i e n t "international f i r s t a i d " when national disasters occur, and t h e i r value l i e s i n the readiness and e f f i cient organization of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s which are provided to a l l peoples i n immediate need. Voluntary agencies which narrowed t h e i r a c t i v i t y to part i c u l a r problems of r e l i e f and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n have also played important roles i n international welfare.  For over t h i r t y years,  the Save the Children Fund has pooled international resources to act  f o r the welfare of children a l l over the world, but especially  where standards have been lacking or low. established i n London, i n 1919,  The organization was  and gave impetus to the setting  up of a world-wide organization.  I t was the f i r s t World War that  brought to.the fore the unmet needs of children.  In order to  meet these, the Fund focused upon establishing a permanent structure of s o c i a l services i n devastated areas. governed by A r t i c l e (V) of i t s Charter:  The programmes are  "The Child must be the  f i r s t to receive r e l i e f i n times of distress." In addition to r e l i e f work, the operations of the Fund encompass a l l aspects of c h i l d welfare and the protection of c h i l dren.  At the Declaration of Geneva, the Fund presented the  "Charter of the Rights of the Child" which was accepted by a l l members of the Union of Child Welfare.''"  Ever since, i t has been  governing national and international child welfare a c t i v i t i e s .  1  Appendix A.  6 The Fund i s and  represented  i n Europe and  co-operates w i t h the  1945,  it  has  had a  International tary  agency,  rise  to  consultative  financed  other  international remained  agencies,  the  international the  first  co-operation the  need  Allied  states,  o f peace and t h e Accompanying the  made t o  study  social  welfare  for  by the  League  problems  measures.  over the  development political  conventions  other  countries. Social  were the  i n 1920  t a s k was  League  an  the  amongst  assumed  w h i c h p r o v i s i o n was  national  and  there  collaboration the  of  welfare  economic, studied  health  through  League p r o v i d e d  e x e c u t i o n o f agreements w h i c h were  2  to  governments.  "social questions",  and  to  beginning  and the  general  arrived  conventions.  lowed by n a t i o n a l  fare  of  gave  1  Whereas  Its  volun-  and i t  established  task,  The p r o b l e m s  The League was a l s o  handled  the  of Nations.  pertaining  a strong  of private  powers  Since  Nations  welfare.  scale.  " t e c h n i c a l work" under  means o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  at  the  is  War m a r k e d  activities  and a s s o c i a t e d  United  in child  on a b r o a d e r  maintenance  responsibility  World  f o r the  It  Commonwealth,  available.  contributions,  movements  of  supervision  where  the  p o s i t i o n i n the  from v o l u n t a r y  association  nations.  bodies  C h i l d r e n ' s Emergency Fund.  The end o f  still  national  throughout  problems Some s t e p s  co-ordinate  The S o c i a l U n i t  such as  nutrition,  b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r the toward  standards  "technical  to  of the  housing, great  be  League child  majority  co-operation"  fol-  were  welof also  1 Freeman, K a t h l e e n , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o - o p e r a t i o n i n Work". The W o r l d ' s C h i l d r e n . XXXI, No.11. pp.343-349.  2 The L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s , E s s e n t i a l F a c t s a b o u t t h e League o f N a t i o n s , Geneva. Information Section, 1935. Passim.  7  taken by the League, although such a c t i v i t y was confined to s h o r t term i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of d e f i n i t e problems which were " e x c l u s i v e l y technical" i n character. t u a l request  Such s e r v i c e was provided  upon the a c -  of governments who implemented a c t i o n on the b a s i s  of the r e p o r t s submitted to them by the d i f f e r e n t  organizations  of the League. The  " t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i t y " o f the League had been v a l u a b l e ,  e s p e c i a l l y as t h i s was the f i r s t attempt t o b r i n g together  member  nations and s e t such standards i n a l l areas of l i f e , which would promote h e a l t h and welfare  and human r i g h t s .  I t s s o c i a l , humani-  t a r i a n and other, n o n - p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s s u r v i v e d even the tempest of the second World War. The r e c o g n i t i o n o f the n e c e s s i t y of i n t e r n a t i o n a l coo p e r a t i o n was taken over from the League by the United  Nations.  A f t e r the l e s s o n of the second World War, i t was g e n e r a l l y accepted that peace "can only be ensured by i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-operation broadly on the l i n e s agreed to i n 1920". The  fundamental p r i n c i p l e s o f the two o r g a n i z a t i o n s  are the same i n c h a r a c t e r .  I n February 1946, the General Assem-  b l y of the United Nations adopted the r e s o l u t i o n t o take over the League's f u n c t i o n s which were of two main c a t e g o r i e s : t i c a l and (2) t e c h n i c a l and n o n - p o l i t i c a l .  The League's non-  p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s have been expanded and continued prehensive  (l) poli-  i n the com-  programmes of the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l and other  1 league of Nations, The League Hands Over. of Nations, Geneva, 1946. p.46.  League  8  committees w h i c h a r e d i r e c t  The  United Nations  The ted Nations  successors  Technical Assistance  and  Programme  C h a r t e r w h i c h gave r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the co-operation  p r o b l e m s o f an e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , and  organs.  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme i s b a s e d  for achieving international  ter,  o f t h e League  f o r the  resources  f o r the f u l f i l m e n t  o f the  Organization  and  humanitarian*charac-  concentration of s o c i a l tasks,  accompany-  technical co-operation.  the r e s u l t  emphasis l a i d upon the r i g h t s o f a l l p e o p l e  " h e a l t h and  d e c e n c y " and  The  efforts  ing international of the  Uni-  i n solving international  cultural  ensurance of e f f e c t i v e  on the  programme i s a l s o to  independence.  S e v e r a l t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s were u n d e r t a k e n by  the U n i t e d  a separate Charter  Nations,  before  organization.  o f June 1945,  But  progress  employment and  and  development." purpose of  and  institutions  contributes to r i s i n g  c o n d i t i o n s of  of t h e U n i t e d "the  se became Nations  d i r e c t means by standards  economic and  of  social  1  the  communicate t h e i d e a s and people  55  s e e k s t o promote h i g h e r  full  The  Article  s e t f o r t h a p o l i c y as  w h i c h the U n i t e d N a t i o n s living,  T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e per  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme i s t o  methods o f the a d v a n c e d c o u n t r i e s t o  of under-developed areas.  standards  of l i v i n g  The  programme  t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d  1 T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S e r v i c e s of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e and How t o O b t a i n Them. United Nations Document ST/TAA/3p.iii.  by  9 narrowing the s o c i a l and the  country's  economic gap between c o u n t r i e s , or w i t h i n  d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l s .  promotes economic, s o c i a l and  Technical  c u l t u r a l development by  s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, t e c h n o l o g i c a l s k i l l and how"  assistance communicating  o p e r a t i o n a l "know-  to c o u n t r i e s that need them."*" Mr.  Nations,  Trygve L i e , the  first  Secretary-General  of the  United  r e f e r r e d to the u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r of the t e c h n i c a l as-  s i s t a n c e programme i n h i s opening speech to the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s tance Conference at Lake Success on 12 June, 1950:  "...It i s a  true United Nations programme, founded on the p r i n c i p l e s of u n i versality;  u n i v e r s a l i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , of c o n t r i b u t i o n s and  benefit."  The  cy, and  of  programme f o l l o w s the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of democra-  i t s success  depends more on the methods, a r i s i n g from  these p r i n c i p l e s , than upon any  other s i n g l e f a c t o r .  mental f a c t o r s i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the programme can be  The  funda-  summarized  under the f o l l o w i n g headings: 1. Respect f o r N a t i o n a l Sovereignty  and I n t e g r i t y .  s i s t a n c e i s given to c o u n t r i e s without i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e i r t i o n a l or f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s . to develop t h e i r own achieve  resources  The  Asna-  aim i s to enable these c o u n t r i e s  without f e a r of e x p l o i t a t i o n ;  t h e i r economic independence and  to  to provide decent s t a n -  dards of l i v i n g f o r t h e i r people. 2. The  programme i s based on co-operation.  The  wisdom  1 United Nations, United Nations Programmes f o r Techn i c a l Assistance. ( I t a l i c s added by w r i t e r . ) United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , October 1952, 3rd E d i t i o n . Chapter 1, p . l  10 and  experience  ordinated and  of d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s are pooled, administered  carefully  to meet the e x i s t i n g needs.  co-  This i s  perhaps the most important element i n the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n the programme, which could not be achieved  without the c l o s e  operation and understanding of governments and  of  co-  organizations  con-  cerned. 3- The  p r i n c i p l e s o f freedom and v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n  are followed i n every aspect  of the programme.  To request  n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s w i t h i n the r i g h t s of every country. more, t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e of any kind i s considered i s a d e f i n i t e request.  tech-  Further-  only i f there  The r e q u e s t i n g governments are by  this  token e s p e c i a l l y concerned with meeting the needs of economic s o c i a l development w i t h i n t h e i r boundaries. the programme ( f i n a n c i a l pledges, are a l s o v o l u n t a r y and  Contributions  and  to  provisions f o r f a c i l i t i e s ,  etc.)  are based on the a b i l i t y of member govern-  ments. These concepts are not new mic,  s o c i a l and medical s c i e n c e s .  to p r o f e s s i o n s i n the  econo-  But h e r e t o f o r e they have only  been a p p l i e d on the l o c a l a ri;d n a t i o n a l l e v e l .  For the  first  time, an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n has based i t s a c t i v i t i e s such p r i n c i p l e s .  Freedom and  acquired broader meaning:  respect f o r i n d i v i d u a l s has  on  thereby  on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l , between a l l  c o u n t r i e s of the world, with the r e c o g n i t i o n that " a l l peoples of the world share the same d e s i r e f o r s e l f - r e s p e c t , s e l f - h e l p and self-determination. 1 Carnegie Endowment, " T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r Economic Development - Programme of the United Nations and i t s Special i z e d Agencies." I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n c i l i a t i o n , No. 4 5 7 , p.11 (January 1 9 5 0 ) . Carnegie Endowment f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Peace, New York, 1 9 5 0 .  11 Methods of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e The t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme i s implemented by the United Nations and i t s agencies by p r a c t i c a l methods which f a l l w i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g broad  areas:  1  1. F e l l o w s h i p s , enabling l o c a l experts to observe  and  study methods and techniques used by more advanced c o u n t r i e s . 2. S c h o l a r s h i p s , p r o v i d i n g formal t r a i n i n g to experts, but e s p e c i a l l y to j u n i o r personnel e n t e r i n g a f i e l d i n which the r e q u e s t i n g country l a c k s f a c i l i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g . 3. L o c a l t r a i n i n g , arranged  through  f o r e i g n experts  who  come to the r e c i p i e n t country i n order to t e a c h and demonstrate techniques. 4. C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h f o r e i g n experts (expert a d v i s o r s ) or w i t h a group of experts (expert m i s s i o n s ) whereby l o c a l  experts  o b t a i n expert advice on t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and on e x i s t i n g t e c h n i c a l problems. 5. Seminars and  conferences where working groups of  one  or s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s meet with experts from other p a r t s of the world;  or, groups of neighbouring areas meet i n order to exchange  t h e i r experiences and 6. of how  e x p l a i n methods used i n t h e i r  fields.  Demonstration or " p i l o t p r o j e c t s " , which are examples  a p a r t i c u l a r task should be performed by a c t u a l l y p e r f o r -  ming i t on a small s c a l e , or f o r a l i m i t e d p e r i o d of time;  and  1 United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : Methods of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e . ST/TAA/3. United Nations, New York.  12  7. Exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n , s e c u r i n g t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , books, f i l m s and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g t o the a r e a o f knowledge e s s e n t i a l t o supplement t r a i n i n g and experience. which may  practical  These l a t t e r items come under " t e c h n i c a l equipment"  a l s o i n c l u d e machinery or o t h e r t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be u t i l i z e d i n the a n a l y s i s o f  the programme which i s undertaken i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s .  I t should  be noted here, however, t h a t these methods, important as they a r e , a r e not expected  to a c c o m p l i s h the f u l l t a s k o f r a i s i n g a coun-  t r y ' s economic and s o c i a l development.  They a r e to serve  prin-  c i p a l l y as an a i d t o governments to supplement and s t i m u l a t e t h e i r own n a t i o n a l programmes.  They are t o enable r e c i p i e n t s to  adapt t e c h n i q u e s which are a v a i l a b l e t o them and which would ena b l e f u r t h e r development to b r i n g standards t o a d e s i r e d l e v e l w i t h i n a few y e a r s , but which, w i t h o u t h e l p , could o n l y be  achieved  through the t r i a l and e r r o r o f a whole g e n e r a t i o n . Administration.  T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e o f course ope-  r a t e s through t h e s e v e r a l organs o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s ;  and i t  i s c l e a r l y one o f the a c t i v i t i e s making the most demands on cient co-ordination.  effi-  I t i s n e c e s s a r y t h e r e f o r e to s k e t c h b r i e f -  l y the main UN framework i n t o which i t f i t s . There are s i x p r i n c i p a l organs w i t h i n the U n i t e d N a t i o n s . These are the f o l l o w i n g :  the G e n e r a l Assembly, the S e c u r i t y Coun-  c i l , the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , the T r u s t e e s h i p C o u n c i l , the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Court and the S e c r e t a r i a t .  For the purpose o f  t h i s study, the f u n c t i o n s o f the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l are o f g r e a t e s t importance because t h i s body was  g i v e n the r e s p o n s i -  1 3  b i l i t y of studying and implementing t e c h n i c a l , a s s i s t a n c e t o those c o u n t r i e s which p a r t i c i p a t e i n the programme. mic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l provides organs i n the f i e l d  Whereas the Econo-  s e r v i c e s through i t s s u b s i d i a r y  (the country), i t i s the task of the S e c r e t a -  r i a t to provide a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c l e r i c a l s t a f f through i t s r e l e v a n t departments t o the C o u n c i l (and to a l l other United organs).  Nations  In t h i s r e s p e c t , the r o l e o f the Secretary-General  is  purely administrative. The Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l c o n s i s t s of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of eighteen member-nations f o r terms o f three years.  e l e c t e d by the General Assembly  I t s s u b s i d i a r y organs r e p o r t to the  C o u n c i l . • I n the s e l e c t i o n of i t s members, geography and economic systems of nations are taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l f u n c t i o n s through f i v e s u b s i d i a r y organs: Commissions; (  5  (  ) Special  3  ( l ) F u n c t i o n a l Commissions; ) Standing  Committees;  (  4  ( 2 ) Regional ) Ad-hoc Committees;  Bodies.  The F u n c t i o n a l Commissions d e a l with economics, unemployment, t r a n s p o r t and communication, human r i g h t s , s t a t u s o f women, n a r c o t i c s , f i s c a l and s o c i a l ( i n c l u d i n g population) lems and p o l i c i e s .  The Regional  Commissions represent  prob-  the Coun-  c i l i n the three regions i n t o which the world i s d i v i d e d f o r UN purposes.  The f i r s t r e g i o n a l economic commission was sent to  Europe i n 1 9 4 7 .  l a t e r , two other r e g i o n a l economic commissions  were e s t a b l i s h e d , one f o r L a t i n America and one f o r A s i a and the Far E a s t .  These commissions perform s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d to major  problems of economic development and co-operate with  governments  14 i n t h e i r r e g i o n s , h e l p i n g them with b a s i c tasks such as r e g i o n a l conferences, prepare  requests f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , e t c .  They a l s o  surveys f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e purposes and provide i n -  formation t o governments on t e c h n i c a l i t i e s of the programme. cording to the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s  o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , these  commissions cannot take any a c t i o n without expressed  Ac-  agreement o r request  d i r e c t l y t o them, by the host o r r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s ,  as the case may be. Standing Committees were e s t a b l i s h e d under the C o u n c i l f o r the purpose o f c o n s u l t a t i o n with non-government agencies and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f agenda and programmes o f a c t i o n .  One o f the  standing committees, the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Committee (TAC) was set up as a policy-making  body.  I t exercises overall supervision  on a h i g h p o l i t i c a l l e v e l on b e h a l f of the Economic and S o c i a l Council.  The T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Committee, composed.of t h e  eighteen governments represented i n the ECOSOC, r e c e i v e s annual proposals and recommendations from the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board (TAB)  and, a f t e r t h e i r c a r e f u l examination,  transmits them with  i t s own recommendations t o the ECOSOC f o r a c t i o n through the f u n c t i o n a l commissions.  The Committee a l s o r e c e i v e s p e r i o d i c  progress r e p o r t s on t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s , and on funds received f o r t h i s purpose.  The p o l i c i e s of the Committee w i l l  then determine how these should be spent.  Such recommendations  are a l s o forwarded t o the ECOSOC f o r approval. Another important  standing committee o f the ECOSOC i s  the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board.  This i s a separate  executive  s e c r e t a r i a t w i t h i n the ECOSOC, devised to undertake the task o f  15 the o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes.  The Board c o n s i s t s o f the UN Secretary-General and  of the executive heads of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  1  Its  major o b j e c t i v e s are the f o l l o w i n g : 1. C o - o r d i n a t i o n particular  of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s o f  agencies; 2. Recommendation to TAC concerning  the a l l o c a t i o n o f  funds; 3. Submission o f progress  r e p o r t s t o ECOSOC through  TAC. Since the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board i s i n d i r e c t cont a c t with governments r e q u e s t i n g t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , and with agencies p r o v i d i n g i t , i n order t o achieve  the above o b j e c t i v e s  2 the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s were r e q u i r e d : (i)  To s e t up procedures f o r a c h i e v i n g e f f e c t i v e c o n s u l t a t i o n between the p a r t i c i p a t i n g organ i z a t i o n s regarding requests f o r a s s i s t a n c e r e c e i v e d by them;  (ii)  To work out common a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f i n a n cial policies;  (,-iii) To devise methods which, while not unduly d e l a y i n g the implementation o f requests, would permit the Board to c o n s i d e r important requests i n v o l v i n g the- r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; '(iv)  To consider r e p o r t s from o r g a n i z a t i o n s on the progress o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e rendered o r p r o j e c t e d by them;  1 Report o f the Secretary-General, United Nations Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e . E/220/21 ( A p r i l 1952). Passim. 2 Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , Report o f the Adminis t r a t i v e Committee on C o - o r d i n a t i o n . E/2161 (13 December, 1951) Passim.  16 (v)  To co-ordinate j o i n t p r o j e c t s of s p e c i a l i z e d agencies;  (vi)  To improve c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f f i e l d ties;  (vii)  To e s t a b l i s h l i a i s o n with governmental agencies engaged i n c a r r y i n g out t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes on a r e g i o n a l o r b i l a t e r a l b a s i s , and to render ad hoc a s s i s tance t o governments i n s p e c i f i c f i e l d s on hand;  activi-  ( v i i i ) To help governments to make comprehensive long-term plans and t o i n i t i a t e long-term projects. T h i s planning and s u p e r v i s o r y f u n c t i o n , which i s c a r r i e d out by the TAB with c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l aspects of the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s tance programmes, a l l o c a t e s tasks to the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , avoids r e p e t i t i o n s and ensures the i n t e g r a t e d implementat i o n o f the a c t i v i t i e s . In order t o improve the a c t i v i t i e s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a f u l l - t i m e executive chairman of TAB was appoin-  1  ted i n 1951.  2  H i s r o l e i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g :  1. To execute Board;  the p o l i c i e s l a i d down by the  2. To co-ordinate and i n t e g r a t e the programmes of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies; and 3. To c o n t r o l the o p e r a t i o n o f the TAB Secret a r i a t through the Executive S e c r e t a r y . The Ad hoc Committees of the Economic and S o c i a l Coun-  1 David Owen, who has been A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y i n charge of the Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s o f the S e c r e t a r i a t , was appointed as Executive Chairman.  2  ECOSOC Document E/2161.  p.7.  17 c i l d e a l with matters  concerning genocide,  appeal f o r c h i l d r e n and  r e l a t e d problems, when they occur. The S p e c i a l Bodies of the C o u n c i l are the Permanent Opium Board, the High Commissioner f o r Refugees, and under t h i s category belong the S p e c i a l i z e d Agencies.  The United  Nations  C h i l d r e n ' s Emergency Fund (UNICEP), the World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n (WHO), the United Nations Education, S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l  Or-  g a n i z a t i o n (UNESCO), the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n (ILO), the United Nations R e l i e f and Works Agency f o r P a l e s t i n e Refugees i n the Near East (UNRWAPRNE),^ the Pood and A g r i c u l t u r a l t i o n (PAO)  Organiza-  and other o r g a n i z a t i o n s are t e c h n i c a l i n nature.  These  bodies are e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r o v i d i n g expert s e r v i c e s and m a t e r i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes. are i n t e r n a t i o n a l bodies, created by inter-governmental  They  agreements,  brought by the Charter under the g e n e r a l aegis of the C o u n c i l . They are designated as " s p e c i a l i z e d agencies" because of the t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s they p r o v i d e . T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e has been provided to some extent by the United Nations  s i n c e December 1946.  At t h i s time,  the  General Assembly " r e c o g n i z i n g that the Members ( c o u n t r i e s ) of the United Nations are not yet a l l e q u a l l y developed",  asked the Eco-  nomic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l to "study the q u e s t i o n of p r o v i d i n g e f f e c t i v e ways and means f o r f u r n i s h i n g , i n co-operation with the s p e c i a l i z e d agencies, expert advice i n the economic, s o c i a l  and  1 UNRWAPRNE, o r i g i n a l l y a r e l i e f agency, has become a f i e l d o f f i c e , c o - o r d i n a t i n g programmes and s e r v i n g as a l i a i s o n between the TAB and the governmental agencies.  18 c u l t u r a l f i e l d s to Member n a t i o n s who d e s i r e a s s i s t a n c e . " A c c o r d i n g l y , the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s o f the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l were provided presented  i n t h e United Nations.  from the r e g u l a r United Nations  only to c o u n t r i e s r e -  T h i s programme was f i n a n c e d funds.  The Department of S o c i a l  A f f a i r s o f the S e c r e t a r i a t was made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t a f f i n g ECOSGC when i t d e a l t with problems of human r i g h t s , s t a t u s o f women, h e a l t h , refugees,  education, c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l  activi-  t i e s , and the S o c i a l Welfare D i v i s i o n under the Department has been f u n c t i o n i n g with regard to p o l i c y which the Secretary-General advocates to ECOSOC. In 1948, the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l demanded expansion  o f the programme and President Truman took the i n i t i a t i v e  i n t h i s expansion on b e h a l f o f the United S t a t e s .  At t h i s time,  a l l under-developed c o u n t r i e s were made e l i g i b l e f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r a s s i s t a n c e provided i n the form o f a 2 team of experts.  T h i s programme was supported  by t h e General  Assembly which proceeded to ask the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l and i t s s p e c i a l i z e d agencies  "to g i v e f u r t h e r and urgent  conside-  r a t i o n t o the whole problem o f economic development i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s i n a l l i t s aspects, i n c l u d i n g measures a l r e a d y designed  to r a i s e the standards  o f l i v i n g o f these  areas."  F o l l o w i n g t h i s request, the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , 1 R e s o l u t i o n 52 (I) o f the United Nations General Assembly. (December 1946) U.N. Document, Expanded Programme o f T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r Economic Development. Appendix. UN. I ST/TAB/1. United Nations, New York. 2  R e s o l u t i o n 200(111), December 4, 1948.  19 at i t s meeting i n February 1949, asked the Secretary-General to prepare f o r the next s e s s i o n o f the C o u n c i l ( l ) a plan f o r an expanded programme of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , paying due a t t e n t i o n to questions o f a s o c i a l nature which d i r e c t l y c o n d i t i o n economic development, (2) methods o f f i n a n c i n g such a programme, and (3) ways of c o - o r d i n a t i n g the p l a n n i n g and execution of the programme Simultaneously with t h i s p r e p a r a t o r y work, t e c h n i c a l as s i s t a n c e programmes were c a r r i e d out on an i n c r e a s i n g s c a l e , f o r which f i f t y governments pledged  twenty m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , over and  above t h e i r r e g u l a r United Nations c o n t r i b u t i o n .  As a r e s u l t o f  the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s and the i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r a s s i s t a n c e , the Secretary-General i n h i s c i r c u l a r o f J u l y 31, 2 1950,  e s t a b l i s h e d the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n to  serve as the "operations arm" of the S e c r e t a r i a t .  Upon i t s foun  d a t i o n , the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was g i v e n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes f o r which funds are provided from the United Nations r e g u l a r budget, whereas p r o j e c t s financed from v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s of governments remained under the Expanded Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s tance, administered by the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l .  The im-  plementation o f r e g u l a r United Nations programmes i n c l u d e the f o l lowing areas of a c t i v i t y :  ( l ) Advisory S o c i a l Welfare' S e r v i c e s ,  (2) Economic Development o f Under-developed Areas, and (3) A s s i s 3  tance and T r a i n i n g i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 1  ECOSOC R e s o l u t i o n 180(VIII), March 4, 1949.  2  Document ST/AFS/SGB/32/Rev.7.  3 The United Nations Yearbook, 1951. New York, 1952. pp.110-111.  United  Nations  20  S E C R E T A R I A T  DIRECTOR - GENERAL  CO-ORDINATION, PLANS  Expert Missions  OPERATIONS  Training  Pig. 1  The  1  Social Activities  Reports  S t r u c t u r e of the T e c h n i c a l Assistance Administration.  T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s headed by a  Director-General and  Regional Conferences  PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION  1  who r e p o r t s d i r e c t to the UN  i s a s s i s t e d by a Deputy D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l .  Secretary-General, The C o - o r d i n a t i o n  and Planning D i v i s i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p o l i c y advocated by ECOSOC, or the General Assembly and by the S o c i a l Welfare D i v i s i o n of the S e c r e t a r i a t .  The C o - o r d i n a t i n g and Planning D i v i s i o n  c o n s u l t s these bodies on a l l questions economic and s o c i a l development.  o f p o l i c y , r e l a t i n g to  I n a d d i t i o n , the T e c h n i c a l  A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n makes f u l l use o f the s e r v i c e s o f the Regional Representatives  and, through i t s own l i a i s o n s with the  Regional Economic Commissions, i s c o n c u r r e n t l y informed o f the 2 day-to-day o p e r a t i o n o f the programmes. 1 Dr. Hugh L. Keenleyside (a Canadian and graduate of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia; formerly a Deputy M i n i s t e r i n the F e d e r a l Department o f Resources and Development; a l s o w e l l known f o r h i s work i n a d u l t education^and the YMCA). 2 Report o f the Secretary-General, United Nations Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e . E/1893 (January 1951). Passim.  21 The  Operations D i v i s i o n of TAA  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  implementation of the d i f f e r e n t methods of a s s i s t a n c e s i o n s , f e l l o w s h i p s and  Director-General  mis-  s c h o l a r s h i p s , r e g i o n a l conferences, semi-  nars and t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ) . d i v i s i o n provides  (i.e.,  The  Reports S e c t i o n under t h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n about these programmes through the to the S e c r e t a r i a t and  to the other United  Nations  Agencies. The D i v i s i o n of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s to provide  "new  f a c i l i t i e s and  was  established  improve e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s  the t r a i n i n g of government o f f i c i a l s  for  i n public administration, i n -  c l u d i n g such phases as p u b l i c f i n a n c e , p u b l i c personnel matters, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e management and  planning  i s a l s o concerned w i t h substantive and  development.  aspects of awarding f e l l o w s h i p s  scholarships i n public administration,  of p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and  The D i v i s i o n  t r a i n i n g of  teachers  with the sending of experts  and  pert missions to advise governments on p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  exmat-  1 ters." has  Through t h i s d i v i s i o n , economic and  s o c i a l development  been g r e a t l y strengthened s i n c e sound a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  struc-  t u r e s are e s s e n t i a l t o the implementation of long-term development  planning.  The Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s The  United Nations General Assembly, at i t s f i r s t  s i o n (1946) recognized  the need f o r h e l p i n g peoples throughout  the world towards the development of t h e i r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s  1  ses-  UN Document ST/TAA/SER.B/14.  p.8.  and  22 . for  the a m e l i o r a t i o n of t h e i r s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s .  The Depart-  ment of S o c i a l A f f a i r s under the S e c r e t a r i a t was t h e r e f o r e est a b l i s h e d t o provide s e r v i c e s i n two broad areas:  (l) social  p o l i c y making, by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and advice to a l l organs and branches of the United Nations i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare and development, human r i g h t s , demography and n a r c o t i c drugs, and by a d v i s i n g the Secretary-General on a l l matters r e l a t i n g t o p o l i c i e s i n s o c i a l welfare;  and, (2) s t a f f i n g , by a s s i s t i n g  govern-  ments i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a programme o f p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n in- the s o c i a l welfare f i e l d , by p r o v i d i n g advice and a s s i s t a n c e through appointing q u a l i f i e d  experts.  The Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l , c o n s i s t s of f o u r main d i v i s i o n s : The D i v i s i o n o f Human Rights i s concerned upon the democratic  with problems  r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s throughout  i n c l u d i n g the handicapped and m i n o r i t i e s .  (l)  impinging  the world,  Its responsibility i s  to study the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the B i l l o f Rights which provides b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s f o r f u r t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n , on the one hand, and personnel to the r e l e v a n t Commissions o f the Economic and Soc i a l C o u n c i l , on the other.  (2) The D i v i s i o n of N a r c o t i c s and  Drugs i s studying the use and t r a f f i c  o f n a r c o t i c s and e s p e c i a l l y  those problems which a r i s e from i l l e g a l manipulation of these devices.  Through i t s f i n d i n g s the D i v i s i o n enables r e l a t e d agen-  c i e s o f the United Nations to develop p r e v e n t i v e and c o n t r o l l i n g measures i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y .  (3) The P o p u l a t i o n D i v i s i o n i s con-  cerned with problems of m i g r a t i o n , a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n and unemployment i n over- and under-populated informs other United Nations organs,  areas.  The D i v i s i o n  such as the P o p u l a t i o n  23 Commission o f the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , the Pood and A g r i c u l t u r a l Organization and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour (4)  Organization.  The D i v i s i o n of S o c i a l Welfare c o n s i s t s o f f i v e  sections  which are concerned with the development o f s o c i a l p o l i c i e s . a l s o provides  experts  It  f o r the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f the T e c h n i c a l  A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and o f the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l . I t s b a s i c a c t i v i t y , however, i s research i n s o c i a l f i e l d s , which as an a i d to p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n l e a d s to i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n . The  D i v i s i o n o f S o c i a l Welfare, which has s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r  the present  study, to-day has f o u r s e c t i o n s :  (a) The S o c i a l P o l i c y and Development S e c t i o n surveys standards of l i v i n g , s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and popular a t t i t u d e s o f areas throughout the world which a f f e c t economic and s o c i a l development and n e c e s s i t a t e community o r g a n i z a t i o n . (b) The Housing and Town Planning  S e c t i o n prepares sur-  veys and plans r e l a t e d to needs i n the areas o f community development, town and country planning,  and housing.  The S e c t i o n  func-  t i o n s a l s o as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e centre p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and p u b l i s h i n g a b u l l e t i n o f standards and programmes r e l a t e d to economic and s o c i a l development. (c) The S o c i a l S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n centres i t s a t t e n t i o n upon o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , o p e r a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g a s pects of s o c i a l welfare  services.  I t sets i n t e r n a t i o n a l stan-  dards f o r the t r a i n i n g of p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel,  and i s p a r t i c u -  l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n programmes r e l a t e d to f a m i l y and youth welfare and  the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped.  Further-  more, the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n , through the S o c i a l Welfare  24 D i v i s i o n , enables other United Nations o r g a n i z a t i o n s to a s s i s t governments i n s e t t i n g up adequate programmes and s e r v i c e s and i n r e c r u i t i n g personnel  f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes.  (d) The S o c i a l Defence S e c t i o n s t u d i e s i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g to the prevention o f f e n d e r s , t o the suppression e x p l o i t a t i o n of people.  of crime and the treatment o f  o f t r a f f i c i n persons and to the  T h i s S e c t i o n a l s o assumes the f u n c t i o n s  of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Penal and P e n i t e n t i a r y Commission. (e) The S o c i a l Reference Centre of the S o c i a l Welfare D i v i s i o n provides t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s to a l l United Nations agencies,  to governments, to schools of s o c i a l work and  to p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s .  1  I t has become an i n t e r -  n a t i o n a l c l e a r i n g house f o r t e c h n i c a l information  r e l a t i n g to  s o c i a l a f f a i r s , and i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has been t o analyse able reference m a t e r i a l i n connection  avail-  with r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s .  T h i s s e r v i c e has promoted s i g n i f i c a n t developments i n i n t e r n a t i o 2 n a l standards f o r t r a i n i n g i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work. The Advisory  S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s were o r i g i n a l l y  introduced and conducted by the Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s . Even though these a c t i v i t i e s have become a part of the t o t a l United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme and have t h e r e f o r e been t r a n s f e r r e d to the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , w i t h i n the l i m i t s of i t s competence, has continued  to conduct research, prepare p o l i c i e s and r e c r u i t  1 b l y i n 1946.  Set up under R e s o l u t i o n  vey. York.  5 l ( l ) of the General Assem-  2 See T r a i n i n g f o r S o c i a l Work, an I n t e r n a t i o n a l SurE/CN.5/196/Rev.l (October 23, 1950). United Nations, New  25 personnel f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes.  As a r e s u l t of  the recommendations of the S o c i a l Commission of the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , i t was  decided  s e r v i c e s , while forming one a s s i s t a n c e programme, should t e r i s t i c s i n the new  that the a d v i s o r y  social  welfare  of the elements of the whole t e c h n i c a l preserve t h e i r own  s p e c i a l charac-  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h a t  f i e l d s of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e should  i n c l u d e the  following:  (i)  S o c i a l development p o l i c i e s ;  (ii)  Research i n s o c i a l f i e l d s as an a i d i n p o l i c y formulation;  (iii)  S o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s - o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t r a i n i n g of s t a f f ;  (iv)  P o p u l a t i o n and m i g r a t i o n r e l a t i o n to economic and lopment ;  (v)  Housing, town and  (vi)  O r g a n i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of community, f a m i l y and c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g r u r a l welfare s e r v i c e s ;  (vii)  Measures f o r " s o c i a l defence", i . e . , care and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of j u v e n i l e delinquents and a d u l t o f f e n d e r s .  country  the 1  questions i n s o c i a l deveplanning;  There i s an e s s e n t i a l u n i t y i n the s o c i a l welfare  field  based on the f a c t that a l l i t s v a r i o u s areas are interdependent. Consequently, i t would be d i f f i c u l t  to give p r i o r i t y to any o f  above mentioned f i e l d s because such p r i o r i t y would l e a d to f i c i a l r e s u l t s and field  discrepancies.  of s o c i a l welfare  How  be systematized?  the  arti-  then could a c t i o n i n the The United  Nations  t r i e d to answer t h i s question by r e c o g n i z i n g that while community,  1 United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Expanded Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e . UN Document ST/TAA/ 3. p.5.  26  f a m i l y and  e h i l d welfare present the core of welfare measures,  planning, o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s  are  e s s e n t i a l to the promotion of s o c i a l progress and development. In the implementation  of a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s , the  T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n "based i t s d e c i s i o n f o r p r i o r i t i e s on the urgency of the needs, on the one hand, and on weight i n n a t i o n a l s o c i a l welfare developments, on the  their  other.  Government P a r t i c i p a t i o n The Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l of the United attached great importance to three main f e a t u r e s of the a s s i s t a n c e programme:  (l) i t s universality,  Nations technical  (2) the f a c t that i t  d e r i v e s support from the r e g u l a r budget of the United Nations, and  (3)  the permanent c h a r a c t e r of the s e r v i c e s that are provided. In the e a r l y days of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , requests f o r  a s s i s t a n c e w e r e u s u a l l y submitted by i n d i v i d u a l m i n i s t r i e s or governmental departments, e i t h e r d i r e c t to the United Nations, to the a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i a l i z e d agency, or again through a l o o s e l y formed n o n - t e c h n i c a l committee e s t a b l i s h e d by the r e q u e s t i n g government.  Under such arrangements, t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e was  o f t e n concentrated i n one s i n g l e f i e l d , with necessary and developments l a g g i n g and hampering e f f e c t i v e work.  related  In order t h a t  i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n might be co-ordinated with n a t i o n a l planning, the United Nations requested  the p a r t i c i p a t i n g governments (bene-  f i c i a r y and host c o u n t r i e s ) to strengthen t h e i r i n t e r n a l machinery so as to render more e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s to the a c t i v i t i e s of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and,to f a c i l i t a t e the c o - o r d i n a t i n g  27 work of t h e T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board and o f i t s r e s i d e n t r e p r e sentatives.  Governments were a l s o asked t o give s p e c i a l c o n s i -  d e r a t i o n to ensuring that the p r o j e c t s , which are c a r r i e d out, are c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d with the r e c i p i e n t government's own e f f o r t s and plans f o r development.  I n t h i s r e s p e c t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r deve-  lopment, planning and i n t e g r a t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o j e c t s was  placed with r e c i p i e n t governments.  Advice and other means o f  a s s i s t a n c e are t h e r e f o r e given only a t t h e request of governments, which, on t h e i r p a r t , make use of a s s i s t a n c e t o meet the needs e x i s t i n g on the c o u n t r y - l e v e l .  The United Nations, i n t u r n ,  a s s i s t s and advises governments r e g a r d i n g methods which should be used i n a c h i e v i n g t h e i r p o l i c i e s and o b j e c t i v e s . Governments were a l s o asked t o e s t a b l i s h a c o - o r d i n a t i n g machinery i n t h e i r country.  These n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s co-  operate with the United Nations  on the n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l and  i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l , a s s u r i n g that t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes are c a r r i e d out to t h e i r maximum e f f i c i e n c y .  To t h i s end, govern-  ments a r e now p r o v i d i n g the f o l l o w i n g s e r v i c e s : 1. C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l requests f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n a l l areas o f economic and s o c i a l development; 2. C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e proj e c t s w i t h i n the country and a l l o c a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the a p p r o p r i a t e governmental department; 3. S e l e c t i o n of a p p l i c a n t s f o r f e l l o w s h i p s and scholarships; 4. Recruitment of experts upon the request o f the United Nations; 5. C o - o r d i n a t i o n of the use o f expert advice, a v a i l a b l e under the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme;  28 6. D i r e c t communication and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the United Rations and i t s s p e c i a l i z e d agencies. 7. B r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r committees o f represent a t i v e s of d i f f e r e n t m i n i s t r i e s , on the nat i o n a l l e v e l , to make necessary p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes and to i n t e r p r e t the same to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . Method and Focus of the T h e s i s P r i o r to the second World War, centred on r e l i e f measures which met out of n a t i o n a l d i s a s t e r s .  international assistance  c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c needs a r i s i n g  These programmes were focused upon  m a t e r i a l a i d and took the form of donations g i v e n by c o u n t r i e s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s which were equipped  f o r such programmes.  These  a c t i v i t i e s , however, d i d not aim d i r e c t l y at the causes u n d e r l y i n g these problems. Although migration, s t i l l  c o n t i n g e n c i e s , such as famine, f l o o d and f o r c e d  s t r i k e c e r t a i n areas of the world, a new  sophy of i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-operation developed World War.  This new  trend was  philo-  a f t e r the second  the outcome of spreading democra-  t i c p r i n c i p l e s , accompanied by p o l i t i c a l events.  A c l o s e r ana-  l y s i s of the causes of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s revealed the f a c t that some c o u n t r i e s , even though p o l i t i c a l l y independent, are  un-  able to f u n c t i o n independently because o f the l a g i n t h e i r economic development.  The more advanced c o u n t r i e s t h e r e f o r e pooled  t h e i r resources to help under-developed areas through  technical  a s s i s t a n c e programmes. The was  o r i g i n a l i d e a of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes  "help f o r s e l f - h e l p " whereby t e c h n i c a l s k i l l  (instead of  29 m a t e r i a l a i d ) r e l a t i n g to p r o d u c t i o n was t o be shared i n order to enable the r e c i p i e n t country to undertake long-term development planning.  The s e l f - h e l p aspect of the programme i s perhaps t h e  b a s i c and most dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c because i t i n v o l v e s the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s i n developing t h e i r n a t u r a l a n d . p r o f e s s i o n a l resources towards becoming equal partners i n the world economy. Economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, however, i n v o l v e s many complicated hazards which deny a s t a t e o f w e l l - b e i n g to people.  Evidence o f t h i s i s found i n the h i s t o r y of indus-  t r i a l development o f Germany, Great B r i t a i n and other c o u n t r i e s . I f i t l e d to a modern economy, i t was a l s o accompanied by s o c i a l changes and by problems of re-adjustment.  S h i f t s i n the methods  of work changed the s t a t u s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n the family and i n the community,  and changed h i s c u l t u r a l v a l u e s .  Slums accompanied a developing i n d u s t r y , as d i d l a c k o f adequate housing consequent upon a trend from r u r a l to urban l i v i n g , and disease grew out of changed working and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  In  order that yesterday's e r r o r s should not be repeated to-day, i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-operation and a s s i s t a n c e had to assume the respons i b i l i t y o f c o n s i d e r i n g the s o c i a l consequences accompanying t e c h n o l o g i c a l change.  I t i s t h e r e f o r e important t h a t t e c h n i c a l a s -  s i s t a n c e programmes should i n c l u d e s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and make s o c i a l p o l i c i e s an i n t e g r a l part of a country's economic p o l i c y . I f a comprehensive programme f o r economic development i s undertaken, i t has to i n c o r p o r a t e methods whereby s o c i a l problems can be foreseen and prevented and p r e v a i l i n g inadequate con-  30 d i t i o n s remedied.  I t i s i n working towards t h i s g o a l t h a t the  p r o f e s s i o n o f s o c i a l work has become a p a r t n e r i n the i n t e r n a t i o nal  p r o f e s s i o n a l team. There are of course many i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the T e c h n i c a l  A s s i s t a n c e Programmes besides s o c i a l w e l f a r e o r s o c i a l work: i n deed, these are probably s t i l l of  the l e a s t f a m i l i a r .  Some aspects  T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e are p r i m a r i l y economic, some p r i m a r i l y  political:  they may be examined as examples of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l c o - o p e r a t i o n ;  as case-  h i s t o r i e s o f co-operation between people of d i f f e r e n t backgrounds but with common needs; productivity;  as experiments  cultural  as techniques f o r r a i s i n g  i n mutual a i d or a new k i n d o f i n -  t e r n a t i o n a l " l e a s e - l e n d " c o n t r a s t e d with the commercial  exploi-  t a t i o n of n i n e t e e n t h century i m p e r i a l i s m .  thesis  is  concerned  with a much l e s s f a m i l i a r - and, i n some ways at  l e a s t , a much l e s s ambitious - approach. ly  The present  What are the s p e c i a l -  s o c i a l welfare p a r t s o f these combined o p e r a t i o n s ?  What  p r i n c i p l e s are being a p p l i e d , o r being developed i n t h i s and i n r e l a t e d branches is  o f the programmes?  • More s p e c i f i c a l l y  still,  the spread o r development o f T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes  (which almost i n e v i t a b l y emphasize s o c i a l w e l f a r e because they must take i n t i m a t e account of  the under-developed  of human r e s o u r c e s , i . e . , the people  country) a l s o g i v i n g f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n t o  s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n and as a group o f s p e c i a l  skills?  What p r i n c i p l e s i n T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes can be r e l a ted  to those g e n e r a l l y acknowledged i n the s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n ;  and how f a r are these common  elements?  31  Obviously, f i e l d studies.  a f u l l e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h i s theme would r e q u i r e  D e t a i l e d evidence  and a n a l y s i s could o n l y be  de-  r i v e d from d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n at l e a s t some of the programmes, while e va luations would a l s o demand the co-operation of governments and i n h a b i t a n t s concerned.  The  present  more of an e x p l o r a t o r y or reconnaissance  study i s , however,  survey,  to g a i n as much  i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e from published documents, and at  to h i g h l i g h t  l e a s t the main p r i n c i p l e s which have been stated by or which  can be discerned from a v a i l a b l e r e p o r t s .  The a n a l y s i s of the  A d v i s o r y S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s i s based almost e n t i r e l y on o f f i c i a l documents published by the United Nations and c i e s i n s o f a r as they are a v a i l a b l e i n main l i b r a r i e s . was  the  i t s agenAn  attempt  made throughout the study to examine the extent to which b a s i c  s o c i a l work concepts appear i n the programme, even though these are p r e c i s e l y the areas regarding which there i s l i t t l e t i o n i n the o f f i c i a l m a t e r i a l .  informa-  CHAPTER I I SOCIAL WORK AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE: . A'COMPARISON OP PRINCIPLES AND METHODS '  The u l t i m a t e goal of United Nations T e c h n i c a l  Assistance  Programmes i s to h e l p n a t i o n s to develop t h e i r own resources i n order to achieve of t h e i r peoples.  economic and s o c i a l improvement f o r the welfare T h i s a c t i v i t y , which i n the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s -  tance documents as i n the f i r s t UNRRA p r o j e c t s , i s d e f i n e d as " h e l p i n g people to help themselves", i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r i n c i p l e s and methods which appear to have a great d e a l i n common w i t h s o c i a l work.  In t h i s chapter,  i t i s proposed t o compare the  u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s and methods of these two h e l p i n g a c t i v i t i e s , to examine how f a r s o c i a l work and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e have analogous f e a t u r e s . S o c i a l Work P r i n c i p l e s .  S o c i a l work has been defined  by a well-known w r i t e r on the subject as "a p r o f e s s i o n which i n t e g r a t e s and implements complementary p r i n c i p l e s of human r i g h t s and human needs i n the growing science o f welfare.""'" standard  I n another  t e x t , the object o f s o c i a l work i s summed up " t o e f f e c t  such an o r g a n i z a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l s w i t h i n the community and the i n d i v i d u a l that (people) without resources sources,  and with l i m i t e d r e -  as w e l l as those i n e f f e c t i v e l y u s i n g what resources  they  1 Hamilton, Gordon, "Helping People - The Growth of a P r o f e s s i o n " , S o c i a l Work and Human R e l a t i o n s , 1949. Anniversary Papers of the New York School of S o c i a l Work and t h e Commun i t y S e r v i c e S o c i e t y , New York, 1949.  33  have, might he helped to achieve a more adequate way The  p a r a l l e l s are remarkably c l o s e .  of  life."  1  Technical a s s i s -  tance programmes are d i r e c t e d toward s h a r i n g the s k i l l s of developed  countries with the people of under-developed areas i n order  to help the l a t t e r d i s c o v e r and use advantage, and  t h e i r resources  for their  to develop s k i l l s whereby the resources  own  already  a v a i l a b l e can be u t i l i z e d more e f f e c t i v e l y , and to a t t a i n higher l e v e l s of economic and s o c i a l well-being The  f o r the e n t i r e  population.  r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r mutual help and  r a t i o n i s not new.  co-ope-  In the b a s i c e t h i c s of a l l great r e l i g i o n s  there have been p r o v i s i o n s that the b e t t e r endowed must help those who  are l e s s f o r t u n a t e .  S o c i a l work, i n a d d i t i o n , c a r r i e s w i t h  i t a c o n v i c t i o n that "order i n the world evolves i n s p i r a t i o n and  out of  spiritual  f a i t h , a p p r e c i a t i o n of the value of each human i n 2  d i v i d u a l , and b e l i e f i n the e q u a l i t y and  brotherhood of  man."  T h i s b e l i e f , which u n d e r l i e s democratic l i v i n g , has been i n c o r porated  i n the United Nations Charter  of every human being. the b a s i c philosophy  I t has  s e t t i n g out the b a s i c r i g h t s  a l s o been accepted, t h e r e f o r e ,  of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , the b e n e f i t s of  which are open on "a b a s i s of e q u a l i t y to a l l peoples,  regardless  of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l opinions, t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , or other d i f f e r e n c e s among them."  Co.,  New  as  any  3  1 Pink, A.E., The F i e l d of S o c i a l Work. York, 1942. p.2.  2 H o l l y , Jane M., " S o c i a l Work: R e l a t i o n to other F i e l d s " , S o c i a l Casework. pp.339-410.  H. H o l t  &  I t s Base, S k i l l s and XXXI, No. 10 (195°),  3 From the speech of UN Secretary-General T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Conference, June, 1950.  Trygve L i e ,  34 Consequently, no d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between c o u n t r i e s other t h e i r need f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e .  The  c h a r i t y c o n s i s t e n t with v o l u n t a r y help and thus developed a new taken by governments.  concept: The  deep impulse of human personal  giving,  has  the concept o f mutual a i d under-  aim of a l l n a t i o n s , assembled i n the  United Nations, i s higher standards of l i v i n g and But  than  t o achieve t h i s , the o b s t a c l e s i n the way  g r e a t e s t of which are disease, ignorance and  social  progress.  of development, the poverty, have to  be  alleviated. " E q u a l i t y of a l l peoples" makes p r o v i s i o n not the b a s i c needs of peoples to be met,  only f o r  but a l s o f o r t h e i r r i g h t to  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , whereby people through t h e i r governments, make t h e i r own what form and dered.  d e c i s i o n s to request  a s s i s t a n c e and  to decide i n  f o r what purpose they wish a s s i s t a n c e to be  ren-  Just as the s o c i a l worker does not f o r c e h i s s e r v i c e s  upon people i n need, but respects t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and the opportunity  provides  to meet the need, so " T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r  economic development of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s i s to be  ren-  dered by the United Nations only i n agreement with governments concerned, and  on the b a s i s of requests  In t h i s process,  r e c e i v e d from them."  a t t e n t i o n i s paid to n a t i o n a l sovereignty,  1  and  a s s i s t a n c e does not become a means o f f o r e i g n i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of the c o u n t r i e s concerned, nor i s i t accompan i e d by any  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a p o l i t i c a l nature.  On the  con-  t r a r y , governments take d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r improving t h e i r own  n a t i o n a l economic and  s o c i a l conditions.  These p r i n c i p l e s  of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e are o f such e s s e n t i a l importance that 1 United Nations, T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r Economic Development - General Principles"] ST/TAA/3 . p.7 . United Nations, New York.  35  they are r e i t e r a t e d at every stage and  i n every d e s c r i p t i o n of  methods of the programme, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the phrase "upon the request  of the Government."  1  In a d d i t i o n to the emphasis s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s place upon the e q u a l i t y of people (as f a r as t h e i r r i g h t s are concerned), they i n c l u d e respect f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , which demand d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment w i t h i n the methods of s o c i a l work.  Such d i f -  f e r e n t i a l treatment a l s o a p p l i e s to t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e given countries.  to  C o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n to the unique needs and  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , resources  and  of d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s .  While the method of a s s i s t a n c e has  developed p a t t e r n , i t has  to be a p p l i e d i n a way  p a r t i c u l a r circumstances, and  problems, background and t r a d i t i o n s a  that meets the  i s determined by the c u l t u r a l  values  of the p a r t i c u l a r socio-economic s e t t i n g i n which i t operates. In the adaptation  and  d e r a t i o n must be given  s e l e c t i o n of methods and  techniques,  consi-  to the f a c t t h a t , while c e r t a i n b a s i c p r i n -  c i p l e s are u n i v e r s a l and  a p p l i c a b l e to a l l humanity, many of t h e i r  s o c i a l problems are r e g i o n a l and  stem from l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , r i -  t u a l codes of behaviour, l o c a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and  organization.  Imported methods, t h e r e f o r e , must not be b l i n d l y adopted and t h i n k i n g l y a p p l i e d but and  should be adapted to the unique impact  incidence o f l o c a l problems and s o c i a l The  conditions.  s o c i a l worker's a c t i v i t i e s are governed by  f a i t h that the people he grow.  un-  the  serves have the a b i l i t y to change and  to  T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s a l s o based on the assumption t h a t ,  1 "Upon the request of the Government" a l s o . i m p l i e s l e g a l r a t i f i c a t i o n o f b i l a t e r a l conventions and agreements concerning the nature and extent- of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e .  36 g i v e n the opportunity to a c q u i r e new  techniques and  to develop  re-  sources, b e n e f i c i a l change can be brought about which w i l l ensure the attainment  of h i g h e r l e v e l s of economic and s o c i a l w e l f a r e .  S o c i a l work i s based on co-operation: p l e and not doing t h i n g s f o r them.  working w i t h peo-  In t h i s dynamic a c t i v i t y  phasis i s placed on s e l f - h e l p and p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  em-  Consequently,  " h e l p i n g " broadens from a r e l i e f - g i v i n g a c t i v i t y and a p a s s i v e r e c e i v i n g to an enabling process which preserves the of people.  self-respect  I t i s reasonable to assume a d e s i r e i n every  dual, group o r n a t i o n to develop t h e i r resources, and  indivi-  technical  a s s i s t a n c e i s based on the p r i n c i p l e s of co-operation to achieve t h i s end.  I f new  s k i l l s are introduced by t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , the i n t e n t i o n i s t h a t they should be shared  with,  and t r a n s f e r r e d t o , the country where they w i l l be used by the people and t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r the purpose of g e n e r a l  im-  provement, employing, as f a r as p o s s i b l e , l o c a l resources and i n itiative.  Without t h i s component of co-operation, t e c h n i c a l as-  s i s t a n c e cannot be e f f e c t i v e and i t s achievements w i l l only be temporary s i n c e the people w i l l not f e e l that they have been a part of the developmental  process.  Technical assistance advi-  s e r s , t h e r e f o r e , must have the a b i l i t y to c o n s u l t with or advise with people, r a t h e r than to dominate them; ' to organize and to operate.  They should help i n a s s e s s i n g p o t e n t i a l  not  resources  and i n e n a b l i n g others to u t i l i z e and develop them. T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t y , s i m i l a r l y to s o c i a l work, i s an i n t e r - p e r s o n a l process, which must be based on mutual r e s pect, understanding  and  confidence between t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e  37 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and those of the r e c i p i e n t country.  A positive  working r e l a t i o n s h i p i s an e s s e n t i a l element of a s u c c e s s f u l t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme.  The establishment of rapport between  t e c h n i c a l a d v i s e r and advisee i s j u s t as important as i t i s i n soc i a l work.  To t h i s end, the a d v i s e r must become thoroughly ac-  quainted with the c u l t u r e of the community before s t a r t i n g h i s work.  He should understand  the people, how  and sense what the'problems mean to  they f e e l about necessary changes, how  should compromise with l o c a l values and  f a r he  institutions.  He  should  f i t h i s suggestions and o b j e c t i v e s i n t o the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n , even i f he h i m s e l f cannot agree with them f u l l y , i n order that h i s sugg e s t i o n s should be those of the people and t h e i r government, h i s aims should be common aims, whereby t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e w i l l b r i n g about t e c h n i c a l change which Is f u l l y understood, u t i l i z e d by the r e c i p i e n t s .  accepted  He must c o n t r o l h i s n a t i o n a l ,  and racial,  and r e l i g i o u s p r e j u d i c e s , and must have a c a p a c i t y to work w i t h people who  are o f t e n on a lower l e v e l of t r a i n i n g . The matter o f communication and knowledge of language  i s an important  component of the h e l p i n g a c t i v i t y .  understanding of the language,  v a l u a b l e as i t may  However, the be, i s a secon-  dary c o n s i d e r a t i o n when compared with an understanding of the people and t h e i r needs. There are emotional aspects t h a t have t o be assessed i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . that  carefully  I t i s not s u f f i c i e n t to say  with improved t e c h n i c a l , medical, e d u c a t i o n a l and  s e r v i c e s the country's s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n w i l l improve. food w i l l be provided and d i s e a s e c o n t r o l l e d , i t i s a l s o  social Although essential  38 to help the people of under-developed areas to a d j u s t to new  situa-  t i o n s and to channel the improvement of s o c i a l processes i n such d i r e c t i o n s that they w i l l BDt create new community, r e g i o n or n a t i o n wide.  s o c i a l problems, whether  To t h i s e f f e c t not only t e c h -  n i c a l a d v i c e , but a l s o s o c i a l and  c u l t u r a l advice have to be i n -  corporated i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes i n order to help a l l e v i a t e p a i n f u l readjustments  aroused by r a p i d economic progress,  and to help people to decide whether they are w i l l i n g to pay p r i c e of economic progress by s a c r i f i c i n g s o c i a l ancient p h i l o s o p h i e s and t r a d i t i o n s that may  the  institutions,  impede development.  As a r e s u l t of t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , "requests f o r t e c h n i c a l ass i s t a n c e may account  be approved which w i l l help governments to take  of the probable consequences of proposed p r o j e c t s f o r  economic development i n terms of the welfare of the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole,...and a l s o to take account  of those s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s ,  customs and values i n a given area which would d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e the kinds of economic development t h a t may rable.  S i m i l a r l y , requests may  be f e a s i b l e and  desi-  a l s o be approved f o r t e c h n i c a l  a s s i s t a n c e to governments d e s i r i n g to undertake the  specific  development and to m i t i g a t e s o c i a l problems - p a r t i c u l a r l y blems of d i s l o c a t i o n of f a m i l y and a r i s e as a concomitant  community l i f e - t h a t  pro-  may  of economic change.""'"  S o c i a l workers b e l i e v e t h a t the c l i e n t ' s l e v e l be the key to a l l h e l p i n g processes.  should  T h i s i m p l i e s not o n l y  1 UN S e c r e t a r i a t , "Progress Made by the United Nations i n the F i e l d of S o c i a l A c t i v i t i e s i n 1952", (January-December, 1952) Part I I , Advisory S o c i a l Welfare Services and Relevant Ass i s t a n c e Provided Under the Expanded Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s tance f o r the Economic Development of Under-Developed C o u n t r i e s . E/CN.5/289/Add.5. (12 February, 1953) • Passim.  39 h e l p i n g with those problems which are the most important to c l i e n t , but a l s o that the h e l p i n g process should c l i e n t ' s a b i l i t y to meet the s i t u a t i o n .  the  be geared to the  Similarly, technical  a s s i s t a n c e has to be on the l e v e l of the r e c i p i e n t country.  Im-  mediate a t t e n t i o n should be paid to the most p r e s s i n g problems, but the techniques introduced  should  not n e c e s s a r i l y be  ted from the t e c h n i c a l l y most advanced country, but c u l t u r a l and  transplan-  from one  where  economic c o n d i t i o n s are not so s u p e r i o r that l a r g e  gaps have to be f i l l e d before  c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n can be  Working towards optimum goals must be a gradual  taken.  process i n v o l v i n g  the minimum amount o f f r u s t r a t i o n f o r the r e c i p i e n t country. Meeting emergency needs by p r o v i d i n g r e l i e f i s j u s t as important i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e as i t i s i n s o c i a l work. as the s o c i a l problems of a maladjusted f a m i l y cannot be with before i t s members are f e d , c l o t h e d and so mental h e a l t h s e r v i c e s introduced be implemented s u c c e s s f u l l y .  Just  dealt  adequately housed,  to s t a r v i n g people could  not  P a r a l l e l to s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , i n  s o c i a l work, t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e e n l i s t e d emergency s e r v i c e s which provided a s s i s t a n c e i n kind ( n u t r i t i o n , medical s e r v i c e s , etc.) before the country could be i n v o l v e d i n plans f o r long-term development. The and  f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g the welfare  they r e i n f o r c e each other.  leads to economic problems; poverty breeds i l l n e s s , and s o c i a l worker's focus and  of people are  multiple  l a c k of t e c h n i c a l knowledge  unemployment r e s u l t s i n poverty, i l l n e s s lowers morale.  Just as  the  i s upon the i n d i v i d u a l as a whole person,  an attempt i s made to co-ordinate  vocational, financial,  40 medical,  s o c i a l and  emotional  treatment, the main o b j e c t i v e o f  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e Is to help -under-developed areas i n t o t o , a t t a c k i n g a l l those i n t e r r e l a t e d f i e l d s which are thwarting mic and  p o l i t i c a l growth.  Therefore, t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e pro-  grammes must be as i n t e g r a t e d and i n s u c c e s s i v e stages and  econo-  systematic as p o s s i b l e , developing  seeking to provide a permanent c h a r a c t e r  to the s e r v i c e concerned. S o c i a l work i s considered  a " c a t a l y t i c agent" f o c u s i n g  the a t t e n t i o n o f many p r o f e s s i o n s and  occupations  i n t h e i r specia-  l i z e d c a p a c i t y i n a team approach, i n order t o meet the needs of the t o t a l human person, group or community.  Similarly, technical  a s s i s t a n c e m o b i l i z e s a l l those p r o f e s s i o n s whose c o n t r i b u t i o n s can be u t i l i z e d f o r economic and country.  s o c i a l development of a p a r t i c u l a r  Applied sciences are drawn upon f o r the improvement of  production, medicine f o r the a l l e v i a t i o n of i l l n e s s ; is utilized  to f i g h t ignorance  science to improve and  and teach new  skills,  education political  strengthen the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f govern-  ments, and the s o c i a l sciences to study the causes of s o c i a l and b r i n g preventive and improving tions.  measures i n t o the s o c i a l  ills situa-  Whereas s o c i a l work has a s p e c i f i c network of s k i l l s  a body of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge which c o n s t i t u t e i t s i d e n t i t y which d i s t i n g u i s h i t s p r a c t i c e from other p r o f e s s i o n s and p a t i o n s , t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , as a h e l p i n g process, administered  by a s i n g l e p r o f e s s i o n .  and  occu-  cannot  I t has to m o b i l i z e  and  be  dif-  f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s w i t h i n the frame of reference o f i t s p r i n c i p l e s and b a s i c methods, p r i n c i p l e s which u l t i m a t e l y a l l f i t i n t o the o v e r a l l process of b r i n g i n g about economic and  social  progress.  41  Because these p r o f e s s i o n a l people are p r i m a r i l y experts and  only  s e c o n d a r i l y do they represent  un-  these p r i n c i p l e s , i t would he  r e a l i s t i c to assume t h a t a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s demonstrate an understanding and a c c e p t i n g a t t i t u d e , which i s b a s i c i n the p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l work. Technical Assistance. tance and The  The  process o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s -  s o c i a l work are analogous i n t h e i r approach to problems.  t o o l s f o r p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e are p r i m a r i l y e d u c a t i o n a l  nature and  comprise expert  seminars and  f e l l o w s h i p s and  conferences, demonstration and  dissemination t i c and  advice,  p i l o t projects  and  T h e i r systema-  a p p l i c a t i o n , however, can only be e f f e c t e d i f  the s c i e n t i f i c process of a n a l y s i s , planning, plans and  scholarships, -  of t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l .  concerted  in  implementation of  e v a l u a t i o n of the programmes i s f o l l o w e d .  Stage I :  Analysis In order that requests  f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e may  be  w e l l d e f i n e d and f u l l y documented, governments are requested to undertake a study o f n a t u r a l and  s o c i a l resources  e s t a b l i s h the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r development.  i n order  to  Completing com-  prehensive reconnaissance surveys i s an i n v o l v e d process,  but i t  i s the e s s e n t i a l b a s i s of development-planning. In c o u n t r i e s where survey machinery i s not a v a i l a b l e , exploratory government.  or survey missions are sent upon the request The use  of f o r e i g n experts  i n such cases proved  u s e f u l because they are l i k e l y to be unbiased and stamp of United Nations a u t h o r i t y .  of the  also carry  Their a c t i v i t y i s also  the  42  e d u c a t i o n a l i n the sense t h a t they are working i n c o - o p e r a t i o n with l o c a l o f f i c i a l s .  The members of missions are experts r e p r e -  s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s , each working i n t h e i r own  field,  but f o c u s i n g upon the t o t a l development. The  reconnaissance  survey i s " d i a g n o s t i c " , and,  i n ad-  d i t i o n to r e v e a l i n g resources, i t b r i n g s the problems to the foreground.  Through such a team approach, which i s a l s o a p p l i e d  i n s o c i a l work, an i n t e g r a t e d plan f o r economic and s o c i a l ment can be e f f e c t i v e l y  develop-  formulated.  Based on such a n a l y s i s , a request f o r d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e i s presented by the government to the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board. Governments may  use recommendations g i v e n by a d v i s o r y m i s s i o n s ,  f o l l o w i n g , or sometimes s u b s t i t u t i n g survey m i s s i o n s .  When  requested, the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board assumes a f u n c t i o n s i m i l a r to a s o c i a l s e r v i c e index.  The Board informs a l l p a r t i -  c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the request and i n f o r m i n g each o f the other's a c t i o n , avoids d u p l i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e . In cases where the r e c i p i e n t government has  specifical-  l y requested a s s i s t a n c e i n a v a r i e t y of f i e l d s , the e x p l o r a t o r y m i s s i o n may  recommend the appointment of a r e s i d e n t r e p r e s e n t a -  t i v e i n agreement with the government, and the p a r t i c i p a t i n g organizations.  The r e s i d e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s i n s t r u c t e d to  help the government to d e f i n e i t s needs w i t h p r e c i s i o n , to harmonize the work of the d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the country, to act as a l i a i s o n o f the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board between the government and the United Nations, to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  43 the e n t i r e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme i n the country,  and  to  report to the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board on b e h a l f of the team of organizations.  His f u n c t i o n s vary from country to country,  but  such s e r v i c e s are e s p e c i a l l y valuable where t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a f f e c t s a group of neighbouring  countries ( i . e . , regions).  comprehensive planning, i t i s of primary importance to a l l f i e l d s t h a t are a f f e c t e d by economic change and  In  consider  which  may  i n v o l v e changes i n c o u n t r i e s of a r e g i o n where the same c o n d i t i o n s exist.  Under the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of a r e s i d e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ,  s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s may assistance.  Regional  j o i n i n p l a n n i n g and  i n making requests  for  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n can be harmonious-  l y u t i l i z e d only i f these c o u n t r i e s organize themselves i n groups, based on t h e i r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , decide experiences,  to pool t h e i r  previous  make a combined a n a l y s i s of t h e i r techniques,  and  co-operate i n u s i n g such i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i d as they deem necessary to improve t h e i r The  techniques.  r e s i d e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e may  of p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y , and  a l s o minimize e f f e c t s  e s t a b l i s h c o n t i n u i t y and  integra-  t i o n i n a l l f a c e t s of working r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The  p l a n f o r development, i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the  f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , must set out o b j e c t i v e s and priorities.  request  determine  I t should be long-term planning i n which every  phase i s a part of the major g o a l .  T h i s i s to ensure that a l l  secondary plans w i t h i n the programme are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  each  other and with, the t o t a l resources a v a i l a b l e . Stage II :  Planning  When the p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s has been completed,  the  44 s o c i a l work treatment process i s o u t l i n e d i n a t e n t a t i v e plan, which i s based on the p o t e n t i a l s of c l i e n t s and upon the a v a i l a b l e i n the environment.  resources  S i m i l a r l y , a f t e r the request  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e has been submitted  for  to the United Nations,  the  agencies undertake the j o i n t examination of the proposed plan  and  e s t a b l i s h the extent to which t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e can be o f f e r e d . I f the United Nations  i s not i n a p o s i t i o n to provide the  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , the governments are informed  about  requested other  f a c i l i t i e s that are a v a i l a b l e from other resources such as  the  s p e c i a l i z e d agencies, member c o u n t r i e s , or non-governmental o r g a n i zations.  Stage I I I :  Implementation of the Programme  On the b a s i s of the treatment p l a n , the s o c i a l worker aims to help h i s c l i e n t , through t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , to change and grow and  to make the b e s t • p o s s i b l e adjustment i n the  situation.  particular  In t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e the "treatment process" i s  the implementation of plans:  p u t t i n g resources i n t o o p e r a t i o n In  the r e q u i r e d d i r e c t i o n . Requesting governments c a r r y f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and far  the g r e a t e r part of the m a t e r i a l and  programme.  Therefore,  f i n a n c i a l burden of the  a s s i s t a n c e can only be e f f e c t i v e i f i t i s  an i n t e g r a l part of the national, p l a n . plans may  be by o p e r a t i n g missions,  The means of implementing  assuming operating r e s p o n s i b i -  l i t y f o r the plan mainly on the l e v e l of economic and s o c i a l But  by  the primary aim of a c t i o n i s to supply t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g  expert i n f o r m a t i o n i n s p e c i f i c f i e l d s .  T h i s i s done through  reforms. and  45  expert rences,  advice,  f e l l o w s h i p s and  demonstration and (a) Experts.  s c h o l a r s h i p s , seminars and  p i l o t p r o j e c t s and  technical  The major p o r t i o n of requests  confe-  information. received  under t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e has been f o r the appointment of T h e i r task i s twofold: to introduce  first,  p r o j e c t s , and,  to use t h e i r knowledge and  second, to introduce new  r o l e which i s mainly an educational r e q u i r e d to work with n a t i v e experts s e r v i c e s can be g r a d u a l l y withdrawn. man  one.  The  experts. experience  skills,  a  t e c h n i c a l expert  of the same f i e l d so that h i s H i s h i g h t e c h n i c a l and  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are, t h e r e f o r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y important.  f e s s i o n a l competence must be i n g of the  s p e c i f i c needs of the  His methods must be adapted to l o c a l  Although expert  huPro-  coupled with sympathetic understand-  c u l t u r a l backgrounds and  pient country.  is  reci-  conditions.  advice i s used i n any area of economic and  social  development where t e c h n i c a l s k i l l i s r e q u i r e d , such a c o n t r i b u t i o n i s a l s o v a l u a b l e i n connection  with seminars and  conferences as  w e l l as demonstration p r o j e c t s where i t i s used f o r more formal education. Expert advice veying and  to governments may  e v a l u a t i n g resources,  formulating  needs and  a l s o extend to  existing services;  p o l i c i e s , r e o r g a n i z i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , planning  t r a i n i n g o f s e l e c t e d personnel at the t e c h n i c a l or l e v e l , thus i n t r o d u c i n g new (b) T r a i n i n g . to the  sur-  expert  techniques to one  and  supervisory  or s e v e r a l  fields.  T r a i n i n g programmes are complementary  s e r v i c e s on the l o c a l l e v e l .  Three types of  faci-  l i t i e s are a f f o r d e d f o r t r a i n i n g under the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme:  l o c a l , r e g i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l .  46  Where l o c a l counterpart personnel i s attached to I n t e r n a t i o n a l experts i n the normal course of t h e i r assignment, t h e i r s e r v i c e s are not only more economical p e r t s , but they a l s o ensure  than those of f o r e i g n  ex-  c o n t i n u i t y of work a f t e r the experts  have gone, and they can-apply the newly a c q u i r e d t e c h n i c a l knowledge to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s on a permanent b a s i s . may  Local training  a l s o be done through i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g which has the most  immediate r e s u l t s with the l e a s t c o s t . T r a i n i n g programmes i n more developed worked out through three means: seminars.  c o u n t r i e s are  f e l l o w s h i p s , s c h o l a r s h i p s and  ( l ) F e l l o w s h i p s are awarded t o i n d i v i d u a l s , groups or  teams to observe and acquaint themselves  with the experience  p r a c t i c e o f other c o u n t r i e s i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s .  and  They  are o f t e n more u s e f u l i f spent i n a country where the l e v e l of development does not diverge too s h a r p l y from that of the  reci-  pient country, and where s i m i l a r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s prevail.  The p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r f e l l o w s h i p s i s t h a t the c a n d i -  dates s e l e c t e d should be of a c a l i b r e of t r a i n i n g and  experience  that w i l l enable them to take f u l l advantage of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s offered.  F e l l o w s h i p programmes are designed to meet the needs  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , policy-making, s u p e r v i s o r y , executive and t e c h n i c a l personnel.  Upon t h e i r r e t u r n , the Fellows may  assume  t r a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s and share t h e i r acquired knowledge with t h e i r co-workers, o r they may  continue as p r a c t i t i o n e r s u s i n g and adap-  t i n g t h e i r experiences to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . As d i s t i n c t from f e l l o w s h i p s , (2) s c h o l a r s h i p s provide t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s to persons who  cannot  r e c e i v e adequate f o r -  47 mal t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r own  c o u n t r i e s , and are, as a r u l e ,  f o r the purpose of h i g h e r education.  designed  I t Is the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  the government and that of the United Nations to ensure that nominations should be based on a b i l i t y , and the candidates'  employ-  ment upon t h e i r r e t u r n should be secured i n the c a p a c i t y f o r which t h i s t r a i n i n g best f i t t e d them. S p e c i f i c problems, important of c o u n t r i e s , may  to one country or a group  be s u b j e c t s of (3) t e c h n i c a l seminars and  ferences f o c u s i n g on indigenous needs of a r e g i o n .  con-  They serve  as a means of f a m i l i a r i z i n g l o c a l personnel w i t h the l a t e s t knowledge and techniques.  The b a s i s of such a c t i o n "must be i n  most cases a demonstrated need, r a t h e r than request from a l l possible participants."  1  However, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such  inter-  governmental t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes depends upon the d e c i s i o n o f each government i t s e l f .  Seminars are u s u a l l y orga-  n i z e d by governments, but the United Nations makes experts a v a i l a b l e who  present new  t e c h n i c a l developments i n a s p e c i f i c  field.  While seminars are u s u a l l y planned on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , conferences are, as a r u l e , organized on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l where teams  of experts i n one p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d  purpose of f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y on matters  come t o g e t h e r f o r the  of common i n t e r e s t .  There i s , however, a f l e x i b l e approach w i t h regard to p a r t i c i p a t i o n by d i f f e r e n t governments. (4) Demonstration p r o j e c t s are g i v e n on a n a t i o n a l or 1 Report by the Secretary-General, United Nations Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Under General Assembly Resolut i o n 58(1). 200(11), 2 4 6 U I I K E/1893 (9 January, 1951), p.8. United Nations, New York.  48 a. r e g i o n a l b a s i s w i t h the help of expert a s s i s t a n c e i n order to develop modern s e r v i c e s which are s u i t a b l e , to develop  requisite  m a t e r i a l s and  United  to serve as n a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s .  Nations' a s s i s t a n c e i n c l u d e s (a) advice on the p r e p a r a t i o n of the projects,  (b) sending small numbers of experts to set up and i n -  troduce the p r o j e c t , (c) p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i c a l equipment, (d) prov i d i n g t e c h n i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , and  (3) where necessary,  awarding  f e l l o w s h i p s a l l o w i n g the h o l d e r s to p r o f i t by such t r a i n i n g as centres may  be able t o p r o v i d e .  The  the  1  p r i n c i p l e s governing p r o v i s i o n s f o r  demonstration  centres are as f o l l o w s : (i)  Centres, i n respect of which a s s i s t a n c e should be granted, should be e x i s t i n g national centres, established f o r t h i s purpose and should be at the d i s p o s a l of c o u n t r i e s with s i m i l a r problems;  (ii)  The centres should form a p a r t of the n a t i onal plans;  (iii)  They should be used f o r and t r a i n i n g . 2  demonstration  In order, t h e r e f o r e , to ensure t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , the demonstration  and p i l o t p r o j e c t s should be a c c e s s i b l e by  Immediate b e n e f i c i a r i e s .  their  Care must a l s o be taken to keep these  p r o j e c t s from becoming i s o l a t e d and being used as e x h i b i t s by government.  the  Seminars are u s e f u l to review and compare the r e -  s u l t s of d i f f e r e n t centres and other c o u n t r i e s , and,  to make t h e i r methods a v a i l a b l e to  i n some cases, to r e i n f o r c e b a s i c r e s e a r c h  1 Report by the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l , The Programme Under R e s o l u t i o n 5 8 ( 1 ) As Amended. A d v i s o r y S o c i a l Welfare Services. Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l . E/CN.5/239 ( 5 February, 1 9 5 1 ) , p.10. United Nations, New York. 2  Ibid.  49 f a c i l i t i e s whose f i n d i n g s can be used f o r f u r t h e r development. In connection w i t h these p r o j e c t s , p r o v i s i o n of equipment i s an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of the programme, but i t i s not a l lowed to become a programme f o r the supply of goods and Therefore, United ing  materials.  no request f o r equipment alone i s e n t e r t a i n e d  Nations, r e g a r d l e s s  governments.  o f how  Equipment and  s u p p l i e s are given  for-demon-  integrated  Since equipment w i t h i n the p r o j e c t s are  s p e c i a l i z e d , t h e i r supply may technical assistance  highly  i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  V i s u a l and  audio-visual  s e r v i c e s are i n c r e a s i n g l y u t i l i z e d i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e are provided  by the United  s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s , educational  Nations f o r use  i n s t i t u t e s and  pro-  i n demon-  libraries.  enables s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s to exchange i n f o r m a t i o n The  the  projects.  (5) T e c h n i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s .  grammes and  the  u s e f u l i t might be to request-  s t r a t i o n purposes only, and must be a part of the programme.-  by  and  This  experience.  c h i e f media f o r the communication of t e c h n i c a l m a t e r i a l  (i) technical literature; special studies; published,  ( i i ) films;  (v) p e r i o d i c r e p o r t s .  l i s t e d and  The  United  Nations disse-  p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the d i f f e r e n t  This m a t e r i a l i s made a c c e s s i b l e to the l a r g e s t  number of people and has of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e .  possible  been a u s e f u l supplement to a l l methods I t has been e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e  f i e l d of s o c i a l development i n both under-developed and countries.  (iv)  purchased t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and  minated mimeographed l i s t s of recent fields.  ( i i i ) equipment;  are  i n the  advanced  50 Stage IV :  Evaluation  In order to assess change and growth brought about by the s o c i a l work treatment  process, i t i s important  extent to which the goals have been achieved.  to evaluate the  I n a d d i t i o n to  r e v e a l i n g accomplishment, such an e v a l u a t i o n p o i n t s a t steps t h a t should be taken f o r f u r t h e r improvement. While the United Rations assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to prov i d e f a c i l i t i e s to share t e c h n i c a l knowledge i n d i f f e r e n t it  fields,  i s the governments' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to make use o f the a s s i s t a n c e  and i n t e g r a t e i t i n t o the country's o v e r a l l economic and s o c i a l development.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e should t h e r e f o r e be used  to expand a c t i v i t i e s on the country l e v e l and to make a s s i s t a n c e the b a s i s of long-term  n a t i o n a l programmes.  I n order t h a t t h e  value and achievements, as w e l l as t h e methods of t e c h n i c a l tance, may be f u r t h e r developed  assis-  and, i f necessary, m o d i f i e d , there  i s a continuous need f o r e v a l u a t i o n and f o r review o f a c t i v i t i e s . Since, however, d i f f e r e n c e s between c o u n t r i e s are great, and the programme has been i n o p e r a t i o n only f o r a short time, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o assess i t s permanent v a l u e .  Nevertheless, e v a l u a t i o n  should accompany every phase o f the process.  To t h i s end, the  Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l r e c e i v e s once a year a comprehensive account  of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by the  United Nations S e c r e t a r i a t . Board submits reviews  S i m i l a r l y , the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e  to the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Committee i n  r e l a t i o n to the a s s i s t a n c e rendered by the s p e c i a l i z e d agencies Jn each country.  51 Regular r e p o r t i n g l i e s w i t h i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of r e s i dent r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who working  are a s s i s t i n g governments and agencies i n  out s a t i s f a c t o r y programmes.  done i n the l i g h t  Review of.the programmes i s  of recommendations concerning ( i ) the  suitabili-  t y of any p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t In connection with the programme, ( i i ) the extent to which the country's programme c o n t r i b u t e s to planning and implementation  of i n t e g r a t e d development, and ( i i i )  the o v e r a l l balance of the programme w i t h respect to g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of e f f o r t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies. These are v e r y c l o s e i n method t o s o c i a l agency review committees.  The United Nations e s t a b l i s h e d "working  whose f i n d i n g s are  'used to evaluate the UN machinery and the  s e r v i c e s a l r e a d y rendered t o i n t e r p r e t United Nations and f u n c t i o n s ;  parties"  and to assess, evaluate and improve  policies  procedures  and techniques of t e c h n i c a l ' a s s i s t a n c e programmes. Thus, i n summary, j u s t as s o c i a l work treatment begins with a n a l y s i s and  process  ends with e v a l u a t i o n , t e c h n i c a l a s s i s -  tance has to s t a r t with f a c t - f i n d i n g and continues with e v a l u a t i o n a f t e r the f i n a l stages of the programme.  S o c i a l Work Methods i n T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes Prom the preceding a n a l y s i s i t can be seen that  prin-  c i p l e s , concepts and processes i n s o c i a l work and In t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e are s i m i l a r i n numerous programmes. i s to ask how  The next q u e s t i o n  f a r s o c i a l work methods as such are part of the  52 technical assistance projects. P r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work has developed s p e c i f i c methods whereby i t s body o f knowledge of human r e l a t i o n s i s put i n t o action.  In g e n e r a l , the aim of the s o c i a l worker i s to b r i n g  v a r i o u s resources  "to bear on i n d i v i d u a l , group and  community  needs by the a p p l i c a t i o n of a s c i e n t i f i c method of h e l p i n g people to help themselves":"'" recognized and  but three d i s t i n c t methods are u s u a l l y  i n the performance of t h i s task:  community o r g a n i z a t i o n .  casework, group work  B a s i c to these methods are the  s i s t i n g elements of s o c i a l r e s e a r c h and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . p r a c t i c e , of course,  these are apt to be interdependent  c e r t a i n l y u n i t e d i n procedure and and m a i n t a i n i n g  as-  In and  are  in. the o b j e c t i v e of i n c r e a s i n g  the welfare o f human beings.  In the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes i t i s p o s s i b l e also to d i s t i n g u i s h three broad areas: relations;  (2) formal education;  and  ( l ) day-to-day working (3) demonstration;  a l l of these i t i s p o s s i b l e to pursue the present amining the extent  and  a n a l y s i s by  in ex-  to which s o c i a l work methods are prevalent i n  the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s i n g e n e r a l , and sory s o c i a l welfare  i n the a d v i -  services i n particular.  1. Casework i s the method which has been developed to help i n d i v i d u a l s "on a person-by-person b a s i s to a t t a i n the f u l p  l e s t degree of p e r s o n a l i t y development."  Field.  Such person-to-person  1 Stroup, H.H., S o c i a l Work, an I n t r o d u c t i o n to the American Book Company, New York, U.S.A., 1948. p.l. 2  Ibid.,  p.2.  53  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a l s o prevalent i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n respect to the work of experts and a d v i s e r s who  without  exception are working c l o s e l y w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , l o c a l experts personnel.  and  The p h i l o s o p h i c a l outlook of the expert i s l a i d down  i n the concepts and p r i n c i p l e s of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , and i t has been agreed  that s h a r i n g s k i l l s can be s u c c e s s f u l l y  out only through a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , u t i l i z i n g experience and understanding  carried  the  experts  support i n h e l p i n g locals experts or  government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to u t i l i z e t h e i r own  and t h e i r coun-  t r y ' s resources to the maximal c a p a c i t y . In a broad sense, the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e expert i s the "caseworker" i n the programme.  In h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s ad-  v i s e e s there i s a d e f i n i t e place f o r emotional, c u l t u r a l and c i a l considerations.  The  so-  primary aim of h i s m i s s i o n i s not to  b r i n g about a change i n the p e r s o n a l i t y , a t t i t u d e s and  adjustment  of h i s advisee, but to teach s k i l l s f o r i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n and better service.  Nevertheless, i n a p o s i t i v e working r e l a t i o n -  ship i n which the expert i s u s i n g h i m s e l f i n the h e l p i n g process, i n d i r e c t i n d i v i d u a l changes i n outlook, and,  i n the l o n g run, i n  a b e t t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l adjustment w i l l indeed come about. D i r e c t t e a c h i n g of casework techniques i s an  important  element i n the a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s whichis the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme i n the f i e l d o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e . though every c u l t u r e has developed r e l a t i o n s h i p , the s c i e n t i f i c  an optimum  Al-  person-to-person  and p u r p o s e f u l l e a r n i n g of casework  s k i l l s i s achieved through i n - s e r v i c e - t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t s , f e l l o w ships and s c h o l a r s h i p s and i n the seminar s e t t i n g .  54 Demonstration  o f casework method i s done by experts o r  Fellows r e t u r n i n g to the r e c i p i e n t country i n a t e a c h i n g c a p a c i t y . In  some cases f i l m s have been used to show the flow of casework  interviews p a r a l l e l t o t h e o r e t i c a l teaching u t i l i z i n g in  case-records  class discussion. 2. Group Work.  The f u n c t i o n and purpose of groups have  been d e f i n e d by s e v e r a l well-known a u t h o r i t i e s . work have emphasized t h e i r importance  Authors i n s o c i a l  because'of  the awareness that  human f u n c t i o n s and development are, i n every way of l i f e ,  related  and i n f l u e n c e d by a s s o c i a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l with other i n d i v i duals.  Groups have been found t o be the media through which i n -  d i v i d u a l s achieve personal and s o c i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s and g o a l s ; i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l norms a r e changed;  s o c i a l controls are  maintained and s o c i e t y passes on i t s customs, norms and v a l u e s through  groups.  1  Whatever the composite  o f the i n t e r e s t which b r i n g s  people together i n t o a group, the p a t t e r n s thus formed may be placed i n two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , f a m i l y , and (b) formed groups.  (a) n a t u r a l groups,  such as the  Formed groups r e s u l t when people  are r e c r u i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an organized e f f o r t .  F o r the  purpose o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes, i t i s the l a t t e r k i n d of  group with which t h i s study i s concerned.  group" i n f l u e n c i n g the l i f e  The 'representative  of other groups plays an important  part i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s , as compared with the  1 Wilson, Gertrude and Gladys Ryland, S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . The C r e a t i v e Use of the S o c i a l Process. Houghton M i f f l i n Co., The R i v e r s i d e Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1949. p. 36.  55 "primary groups" which focus p r i m a r i l y on t h e i r own group l i f e . Representative  groups are evident  i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , as  they a r e i n most t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  I t has been found i n many  instances t h a t l o c a l s p e c i a l i s t s , gathered under the l e a d e r s h i p o f a t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e expert  i n seminars o r group conferences,  have used t h i s s e t t i n g e f f e c t i v e l y to exchange opinions, mutual experiences and study d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s .  discuss  I n t h i s way  they have gained a b e t t e r understanding o f the common problems and  a r r i v e d at p o l i c i e s and d e c i s i o n s which were h e l p f u l i n t h e i r  particular f i e l d .  The group method a l s o appears i n governmental  conferences and has proved to be valuable Formal group work education s o c i a l welfare  i n many i n s t a n c e s .  i s a part of the a d v i s o r y  s e r v i c e s , and i s done by awarding f e l l o w s h i p s and  s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r the study o f group methods and agencies i n other countries.  These programmes a l s o i n c l u d e camping and other r e -  c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , i n a d d i t i o n to the t h e r a p e u t i c use o f group work methods. Demonstration o f group methods i s done by s o c i a l work experts, who, when assigned the welfare  to t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o j e c t s i n  f i e l d , share t h i s s k i l l with l o c a l workers.  Since t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes manifest thems e l v e s mainly i n t e a c h i n g ,  the group method and awareness o f group  dynamics have been used p u r p o s e f u l l y  throughout the programme to  develop processes which encourage i n i t i a t i v e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f l o c a l experts under the l e a d e r s h i p of expert 3.  advisers.  Community o r g a n i z a t i o n as a s o c i a l work method,  56 concentrates  not  r a t h e r upon the  so much on t h e larger  and more  whole  community.  has  a  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y not  ciety  i n w h i c h he l i v e s .  ker to  encourages their  to  assist  the  i n the  for  only to I n the  individual  self-improvement is  being areas.  society"  sense that  i n the  loped  areas  their  problems  their  reach..  of  their  organize ces,  as  problems  aim of  the  themselves well  as  to  The f i r s t to help ther  and  rural to  to  but  programmes  of social  and  1  These they  also  the  are  isolated  rural  workers  a  efforts.  "refugees  from the  more  comparison  Nations  is  to  do  local  t h e i r maximum s t r e n g t h technical  deve-  aware  of  within  something  development  stimulate  of  of  no  have  United  activities, people and  resour-  community o r g a n i z a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s  needs,  which are  to  assistance.  f o r m a l l y and i n f o r m a l l y t o  their  is  conditions,  they  way f o r  wor-  aim  b e made  other  the  so-  citizen.  to  in  recognize  a  They need  same a s  communities  the  i n s m a l l communities  is. the  and u t i l i z e  the  contribution  as  economic  of  social  general  p r i n c i p l e i n h e l p i n g them t o  step i n  the  but  community  towards  make a  communities are  countries.  prepare  of the  and by g u i d i n g them i n t h e i r  particularly since  The b a s i c  and the  a person  i n c r e a s i n g l y used  under-developed  the  helping process  b y s t i m u l a t i n g among v i l l a g e r s and  This approach  about  also  group,  problems  a member  (and g r o u p s )  o n l y as  improvement  who i s  h i m s e l f but  technical assistance  particularly desire  inclusive welfare  The i n d i v i d u a l ,  community, not  In  I n d i v i d u a l o r on the  think  m a i n l y i n the  is  togearea  of  1 R e s o l u t i o n 390 D ( X I I I ) o f t h e E c o n o m i c a n d S o c i a l C o u n c i l a u t h o r i z e d the "use o f community w e l f a r e c e n t r e s as e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t s t o promote economic and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s throughout the w o r l d . "  57 s a n i t a t i o n , education, water-supply, r e c r e a t i o n and roads.  Next,  the group of people accepts r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p o o l t h e i r resources and a t t a c k problems o f common i n t e r e s t .  T h i r d l y , they must be  helped to recognize that t h e r e i s a need f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and/or m a t e r i a l a i d , and, f i n a l l y , s i b i l i t y and p r i d e to a t t a c k these In  t o develop a degree of responproblems.  1  order to f u l f i l t h i s t a s k , the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n made p r o v i s i o n , upon governments' request, f o r send i n g community o r g a n i z e r s to under-developed  r u r a l areas.  The s p e c i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r such a c o u n s e l l o r are two-fold.  He must not only possess p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s but must be  aware o f group dynamics as w e l l . of,  He must have an understanding  and respect f o r , people as w e l l as an awareness o f c u l t u r a l  i n f l u e n c e s on the h a b i t s , a t t i t u d e s , and viewpoints of r u r a l families.  He must have confidence i n the a b i l i t y  of people i n  the community and e s t a b l i s h a p o s i t i v e working r e l a t i o n s h i p to t r a i n and h e l p indigenous l e a d e r s .  H i s task i s t o h e l p i n the  a n a l y s i s of p r e v a l e n t needs and reassure the community t h a t i t i s capable of doing something to meet these needs.  To t h i s end,  the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s developed which are v a l i d i n a l l cases of community education and development : "1.  Maximum s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t must be developed i n a l l cases and f o r t h i s development spec i a l i s t s are r e q u i r e d .  1 Dr. Ahmed Hussein and Dr. C a r l C. T a y l o r , Report o f the M i s s i o n on Rural Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and Development i n the Caribbean Area and Mexico. Report prepared f o r the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the United N a t i o n s . ST/TAA/Ser.D/7 (March 1 9 5 3 ) p p . 3 3 .  58  2 . I f such a person must work a l o n e , he must f i r s t of a l l be a group o r g a n i z e r o r s p e c i a l i s t , and s e c o n d l y , must be t h o r o u g h l y aware of where the community can go t o o b t a i n v a r i o u s k i n d s of technical assistance required. I f a s m a l l team can be p r o v i d e d , each member of the team should be q u a l i f i e d i n more than one f i e l d . 3 . The person, o r persons, working w i t h a commun i t y must r e s i d e and work i n t h a t community f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l period of time. 4. L o c a l l y r e c r u i t e d t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n t s must be t r a i n e d to assume some of t h e f u n c t i o n s e x e r c i s e d by t e c h n i c a l agents. 5. R e g a r d l e s s of the adequacy t h a t w e l f a r e c e n t r e s and t h e i r s e r v i c e s may a c h i e v e , t h e y should, never be l e f t w i t h o u t a t l e a s t one p a i d community spec i a l i s t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t these c e n t r e s i n t h e i r s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t and to a c t as a b r i d g e between them and the s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s which the communities w i l l be p r o g r e s s i v e l y more ready to use.". I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t "these programmes f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n and development are our b e s t hope f o r s o c i a l p r o g r e s s i n l i g h t o f the s h o r t a g e , i n f a c t , n o n - e x i s t e n c e ,  of  p  s i g n i f i c a n t o u t s i d e c a p i t a l f o r development".  T h e r e f o r e , the  U n i t e d N a t i o n s p r o v i d e s f o r m a l t r a i n i n g through f e l l o w s h i p s and s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r members o f r u r a l communities, and has sent  ex-  p e r t s to a d v i s e and work w i t h indigenous l e a d e r s i n o r d e r to promote such development. 4. Research.  Study of the concepts u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l  work s k i l l s i s one o f the major t a s k s of s o c i a l work r e s e a r c h . I t a l s o i n v o l v e s study o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s o c i a l workers w i t h  1  Ibid., p . 3 9 .  2 Henderson, J u l i a , "New F r o n t i e r s f o r S o c i a l Welfare C e n t r e s " , S o c i a l Work J o u r n a l . XXXIV, N o . l (January 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 6 .  59 i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s , groups o r communities on v a r i o u s l e v e l s of i n t e r a c t i o n , as w e l l as t h e i r mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p s and w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of s o c i a l a g e n c i e s .  functioning Research  1  i s a l s o b a s i c to the development and  e v a l u a t i o n o f methods i n the  l i g h t of accomplishments, and  formulation  to the  of s o c i a l p o l i c y .  Research i s a l s o b a s i c to t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e  programmes  because comprehensive data are p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o long-term which has  taken the place o f emergency and  Technical Assistance Administration, ted agencies,  r e l i e f projects.  The  with the help of i t s a f f i l i a -  has undertaken wide research a c t i v i t i e s i n order  promote economic and sources may  planning  s o c i a l development and  that the l i m i t e d r e -  be used to t h e i r f u l l e s t c a p a c i t y .  a s s i s t a n c e planning  to  For t e c h n i c a l  i t i s important to know :  (i)  What are the most urgent problems In the area, and what i s t h e i r importance i n the r e g i o n ;  (ii)  What are the major o b s t a c l e s f o r improvement ;  (iii)  Which problems can be r e s o l v e d through i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n , or must be r e s o l ved before e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n can be taken.^  In a d d i t i o n , as t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n , r e l i a b l e and changes i n standards o f production  p e r i o d i c assessment of  and  of l i v i n g becomes neces-  sary to determine the a c t u a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the programme. 1 Hochwald, H.L., "The F u n c t i o n of S o c i a l Research", S o c i a l Casework. XXXIV, No.l (January 1953), p.29. 2 Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , Programme of Concerted P r a c t i c a l A c t i o n i n the S o c i a l F i e l d s ; Parts which r e l a t e to Population. E/CN.9/102 (12 January, 1953) p.3.  60 Information  f o r research i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s ob-  t a i n e d from published sources,  such as government r e p o r t s , o f f i c i a l  g a z e t t e s , t e x t s of l e g i s l a t i o n s , books, newspapers and p e r i o d i c a l s . A u x i l i a r y resources  are the n a t i o n a l commissions of member govern-  ments, n a t i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s and correspondents,  and research ex-  p e r t s of p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s engaged f o r s p e c i a l s t u d i e s .  Pri-  mary i n f o r m a t i o n i s obtained through e n q u i r i e s c a r r i e d out by i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e i r r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s , missions o r i n d i v i d u a l and group surveys.  The questionnaire method has a l s o  been used, but the f i n d i n g s obtained i n t h i s way are not y e t comprehensive.  These are used only as general i n f o r m a t i o n , mainly  because s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s d i f f e r to such a great extent i n the d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s t h a t they cannot be obtained through standardized  questionnaires.  1  u  Economic and t e c h n i c a l r e s e a r c h i n g e n e r a l , and s o c i a l research i n p a r t i c u l a r , has been one of the most important butions o f the United R a t i o n s . 2 World S o c i a l S i t u a t i o n n u t r i t i o n , education,  contri-  A remarkable account o f the  f o r example, covers p o p u l a t i o n , h e a l t h ,  c o n d i t i o n s o f work, income, welfare and  s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of need i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s .  This  study  has been used to a s s i s t member governments, the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l and the S o c i a l Commission i n f o r m u l a t i n g  social  p o l i c y and In the planning and o r g a n i z i n g of e f f e c t i v e I n t e r 1 Report by the Secretary-General, Programme o f Conc e r t e d P r a c t i c a l A c t i o n i n the S o c i a l F i e l d o f the United Nations and the S p e c i a l i z e d Agencies. Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l . E/CN.5/291 (2 March, 1953) pp.272-310. 2 E/CN.5/267/Rev.l. P u b l i c a t i o n , 1952.  Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l  61 national action. ducted i n 1954 to s o c i a l and  A s i m i l a r survey has been planned to be  to d e a l with p o p u l a t i o n trends and economic problems and  changes.  con-  their relation  A survey  evaluating  the e f f e c t s of a s s i s t a n c e i n under-developed areas i s a w a i t i n g publication i n  1954.  Research conducted by the S o c i a l Commission d e a l t w i t h the e v a l u a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g methods : (a) Review of programmes of a s s i s t a n c e to i n d i v i d u a l c o u n t r i e s ;  furnished  (b) A n a l y s i s of r e p o r t s submitted by experts and Fellows and programmes recommended to governments; (c) P r e p a r a t i o n of b r i e f s on outstanding s o c i a l problems i n c o u n t r i e s r e q u e s t i n g a s s i s t a n c e ; (d) A n a l y s i s of f e l l o w s h i p and cations; (e) B r i e f i n g of missions, The  etc.  scholarship  appli-  1  f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s have been undertaken  f o r the 1953-55 budgetary p e r i o d In the f i e l d  of s o c i a l welfare  :  (a) Surveys of country needs to develop w e l l balanced programmes f o r maternal and c h i l d welfare i n s e l e c t e d areas; (b) N o n - r e s i d e n t i a l care of c h i l d r e n of working mothers (1953-54); (c) Home-help f o r working mothers (1955); (d) Methods of a d m i n i s t e r i n g a s s i s t a n c e t o the needy i n under-developed c o u n t r i e s and t e r r i t o r i e s (1954-55); (e) T r a i n i n g f o r s o c i a l welfare personnel i n under-developed areas, i n c l u d i n g t r a i n i n g of a u x i l i a r i e s (1953-54); ( f ) Welfare of the deaf ( 1 9 5 4 - 5 5 ) . 1 Economic- and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , Proposals Concerning Changes i n the Work Programmes f o r the Years 1955-54. Proposed Work Programme f o r the Year 1955- E/CN.5/272 (24 March 1952) p.4. 2 . Ibid. 2  62 The present  c h i e f value of such surveys l i e s i n the f a c t that they  a background and a p p r a i s a l of current c o n d i t i o n s throughout  the world, which can be used by governments as a reference and as a base f o r formulating  s p e c i f i c proposals.  a t o o l i n the o r i e n t a t i o n of experts,  as w e l l as i n the assessment  of c o u n t r i e s where f e l l o w s h i p s could be 5. Adminis1ration,  They are a l s o h e l p f u l as  assigned.  as a s o c i a l work method, i s a c l e a r -  l y defined f u n c t i o n d i r e c t e d towards the welfare  of the  community.  I t s b a s i c purpose i s to t r a n s l a t e agency p o l i c y i n t o s e r v i c e . way  of method, s o c i a l agency a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s d i r e c t i n g and  l i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e , and  By enab-  c r e a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t improve the  q u a l i t y of agency s e r v i c e s , I t s c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the community to the p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d .  I t encompasses the d i f f e r e n t  and  concepts  of r e l a t e d s o c i a l work methods (casework, group work, community o r g a n i z a t i o n and cedures, and  r e s e a r c h ) , coupled  with a u x i l i a r y business  pro-  operates on the s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s of a n a l y s i s , planning,  implementation and Summary:  evaluation. Administrative Objectives.  Serving  the  world community through t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes, the United Nations assumed l e a d e r s h i p , d i r e c t i o n and t h i s programme through concerted  s u p e r v i s i o n of  international action.  As a  means of summarizing and u n d e r l i n i n g the comparisons made so f a r , it  i s very i n s t r u c t i v e to consider a standard  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s of s o c i a l (a) The and  determination  and  agencies.  statement of the 1  c l a r i f i c a t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s ,  policies. This task has been accomplished through the 1 Dunham, Arthur, " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of S o c i a l Agencies", S o c i a l Work Yearbook, 1947. A D e s c r i p t i o n of Organized A c t i v i t i e s i n S o c i a l Work and i n Related F i e l d s . Russel H. K u r t z , E d i t o r . R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, New York, 1947. pp.15-16.  S3 r e s o l u t i o n s of the United Nations General Assembly and the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l .  I t has been implemented by the United  Nations  T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the a f f i l i a t e d agencies and the r e c i p i e n t governments i n p a r a l l e l a c t i o n . (b) The m o b i l i z a t i o n and maintenance o f resources  - per-  sonal, f i n a n c i a l , m a t e r i a l , even p s y c h o l o g i c a l , - to the end t h a t the agency may c a r r y out i t s purposes and f u l f i l i t s f u n c t i o n s e f fectively.  I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the T e c h n i c a l  Assistance  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the S e c r e t a r i a t on the one hand, and the o b l i g a t i o n of the r e c i p i e n t government, on the other, to r e c r u i t sonnel.  per-  Funds and equipment f o r an e f f e c t i v e programme o f deve-  lopment are c o n t r i b u t e d by member n a t i o n s , i n a d d i t i o n t o the r e g u l a r UN funds. (c) The development of programme.  Technical assistance  programmes have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n terms of b a s i c procedures by the United Nations.  T h e i r implementation i s f l e x i b l e and i s subor-  dinated to t h e s p e c i f i c needs o f r e c i p i e n t  countries.  (d) O r g a n i z a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n .  The United  Nations  e s t a b l i s h e d the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o organize a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s and i t i s the task of the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board o f the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l to co-ordinate and planning.  programmes  This i s e s p e c i a l l y important i n order to avoid  d u p l i c a t i o n s and over-lapping a c t i v i t i e s . r e c i p i e n t country,  a s s i s t a n c e i s organized  On the l e v e l of the and co-ordinated  by a  s p e c i a l machinery s e t up by governments f o r t h i s purpose. (e) Leadership,  d i r e c t i o n , and s u p e r v i s i o n .  These r e s -  6 4  p o n s i b i l i t i e s l i e e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the Economic S o c i a l C o u n c i l the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  and  are only In part d e l e -  gated to r e s i d e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and a s s i s t a n c e agents, who, t h e i r t u r n are r e s p o n s i b l e t o give r e g u l a r accounts of the  in  activi-  t i e s to the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s . ( f ) Planning,  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , and  evaluation.  T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , together with other  The United  Nations organs and the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i s working i n co-operation with the r e q u e s t i n g governments i n planning S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and  programmes.  e v a l u a t i o n of procedures and methods, however,  are d e a l t with e n t i r e l y by the United Nations Working P a r t i e s which were set up f o r t h i s purpose. (g) Recording, accounting United Nations machinery has  and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s .  e s t a b l i s h e d a c e n t r a l r e g i s t e r at  headquarters where r e p o r t s o f a c t i v i t i e s are compiled. and  The  Accounting  r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s are a l s o w i t h i n the United Nations,  done by  f i s c a l commissions a d m i n i s t e r i n g the funds a l l o t t e d f o r the purpose of the programme. (h) Processing,  or r o u t i n e procedures.  T h i s task  has  n e c e s s a r i l y developed w i t h i n the p r a c t i c e of p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i c a l assistance.  Information  about procedures was  made a v a i l a b l e by  the United Nations S e c r e t a r i a t and has been d i s t r i b u t e d to  par-  t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and to a l l governments. (i) Public Relations.  Within the frame-work of t e c h n i -  c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s i t seemed necessary t o e s t a b l i s h a governmental body i n every country  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the programme, through  65  which i n f o r m a t i o n i s made a v a i l a b l e to the general p u b l i c . United Rations  The  headquarters pays s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to t h i s  aspect  because the necessary funds are subject to the p r e s e n t a t i o n needs and achievements.  P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and p u b l i c  of  information  i n r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s , however, formed a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e , because some governments found i t more advantageous i f development programmes were implemented without s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to United Rations  assistance.  I t may  have been f o r t h i s reason t h a t  the  p u b l i c a t i o n of the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n F o r t n i g h t l y B u l l e t i n , accounting  f o r new  developments i n the programme, has  been d i s c o n t i n u e d a f t e r one year of  existence.  Since t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d out i n a p a r a l l e l way  by the United Rations  and by the r e c i p i e n t  governments, t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s have had t o be  bilate-  ral . In c o n c l u s i o n i t i s thus p o s s i b l e to say that i n t h e i r b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s and methods, t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes show a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y to s o c i a l work.  The u n i v e r s a l i t y o f the  programme has been l a i d down on the assumption t h a t a l l c o u n t r i e s are e n t i t l e d to take advantage of the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d .  This  corresponds t o the b e l i e f of s o c i a l workers t h a t every i n d i v i d u a l i n the community and n a t i o n has the r i g h t to a t t a i n a f u l l of h e a l t h and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  life  Technical assistance o f f e r s  the means to f u l l e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the world community on a s e l f - h e l p base. The and  focus of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s on the economic  s o c i a l development of c o u n t r i e s , w i t h s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n  66 of t h e i r indigenous and unique needs.  S i m i l a r l y , s o c i a l workers  consider t h e i r c l i e n t s as each having t h e i r own rent  unique and  diffe-  features. In p r i n c i p l e , a l s o , t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s provided  on  the assumption, not uncommon to s o c i a l work, that a l l areas of a nation's,  region's  or a community's l i f e are i n t e r - r e l a t e d , and,  t h e r e f o r e , change i n one others.  Technological  i n the way  area w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y i n f l u e n c e  change n e c e s s i t a t e s change i n the economy,  of l i v i n g of the people, and  about problems which are s o c i a l and The  the  these changes may  bring  p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n nature.  emphasis upon such an o v e r a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n put the  Advisory  S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s i n an e s s e n t i a l p o s i t i o n i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes, e s p e c i a l l y as i n under-developed areas there i s a more s e r i o u s l a c k of p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work personnel  than i n the more advanced areas.  provide  I n c i d e n t a l to h e l p i n g  adequate s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g i n under-developed  areas,  the United Nations gave s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the study d e f i n i t i o n of the s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n . portance and  By t h i s move i t s im-  p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to s o c i a l development have  been c l a r i f i e d .  Even i n the United Nations' d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l  work there i s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p • t o t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e vities  and  themselves.  acti-  1  1 S o c i a l Commission, T r a i n i n g f o r S o c i a l Work:, an Int e r n a t i o n a l Survey. ( T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r S o c i a l Progress No. 3.) Prepared by the S e c r e t a r i a t . Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l . E/CN.5/196 (10 February, 1950) pp.18-20. Other quotations from the same source.  which f o l l o w i n t h i s paragraph are  67 " ( l ) I t i s a h e l p i n g a c t i v i t y , designed to give a s s i s t a n c e i n respect to problems that prevent i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s and groups from a c h i e v i n g a minimum d e s i r a b l e standard of s o c i a l and economic w e l l - b e i n g . (2) I t i s a " s o c i a l " a c t i v i t y , c a r r i e d on not f o r personal p r o f i t by p r i v a t e p r a c t i t i o n e r s but under the auspices of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , governmental or non-governmental or both, e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the b e n e f i t of members o f the community regarded as r e q u i r i n g a s s i s t a n c e . (3)  I t i s a " l i a i s o n " a c t i v i t y , through which d i s advantaged i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and groups may tap a l l the resources i n the community a v a i l a b l e to meet t h e i r u n s a t i s f i e d needs."  The  Advisory S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s  assistance  technical  t o improve the welfare standards by promoting s o c i a l  work t r a i n i n g .  S o c i a l work and  technical assistance,  a t t e n t i o n on s p e c i f i c s o c i a l i l l s and a p p r o p r i a t e remedial and  well-being."  by " f i x i n g  p o i n t i n g to the need f o r  preventive s e r v i c e , seek to maximize  the resources a v a i l a b l e i n the  community f o r promoting s o c i a l  S o c i a l workers i n under-developed areas are  abled, through t r a i n i n g , to " i d e n t i f y c l a s s e s r i n g o r d e r l y s o l u t i o n by the  of persons  economic f u n c t i o n i n g  c r e a t i o n of s p e c i a l community r e s o u r c e s .  worker here performs a p r i m a r i l y t e c h n i c a l and  en-  of problems r e q u i -  community, or c l a s s e s  can be brought to normal s o c i a l and through the  provide  who  only  The  social  i n s t r u m e n t a l func-  t i o n c a l c u l a t e d to make more r a t i o n a l , more i n t e l l i g e n t , and more e f f e c t i v e (a) the  e f f o r t s of the  s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g , and  (b) the  e f f o r t s of i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s ,  and groups to overcome obstacles living."  community i n promoting  to p r o d u c t i v e and  satisfying  CHAPTER I I I ADVISORY SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES  Advisory S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s , as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y found t h e i r f i r s t  r e a l i z a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s o f the  United Nations R e l e i f and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  (UNRRA).  T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n to supplying m a t e r i a l r e l i e f on a l a r g e s c a l e during the years immediately a f t e r the second World War, soon encountered the l a c k o f l o c a l s o c i a l welfare and t o meet t h i s , UNRRA e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t s o c i a l welfare  f e l l o w s h i p s to w a r - s t r i c k e n  UNRRA programme had. to concentrate  personnel;  programmes f o r  countries.  While the  on emergency needs, i t was  evident t h a t even immediate programmes had t o be connected sooner or l a t e r with r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  UNRRA a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  also  recog-  n i z e d that changes i n s o c i a l welfare needs would accompany peacetime economic.and s o c i a l development i n these c o u n t r i e s ;  and i t  was not i n UNRRA's c h a r t e r t o develop programmes o f t h i s  nature.  In 1946, when the a c t i v i t i e s of UNRRA were terminated, for  the need  the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l welfare was  Some of the f u n c t i o n s o f UNRRA were t r a n s f e r r e d t o WHO, FAO, some remained with o r g a n i z a t i o n s which were s t i l l as short-term Organization  evident. some to regarded  and emergency, such as the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Refugee (IRO) and ( l a t e r ) the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h i l d r e n ' s  Emergency Fund.  E v e n t u a l l y , the welfare  tasks were  recognized  as United Nations r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and became a part of the programme o f the D i v i s i o n of S o c i a l Welfare i n the a d v i s o r y  69 s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s . As e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1946,  the a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare  v i c e s were to apply to a l l c o u n t r i e s i n need, but p r i o r i t y  ser-  was  given to under-developed and war-damaged c o u n t r i e s where the need was  the g r e a t e s t and  tion.  T h i s was  developed country war  and  where some problems r e q u i r e d immediate a t t e n -  among the f i r s t  statements r e c o g n i z i n g the under-  per se, and marked the e v o l u t i o n from the  emergency or " r e l i e f " program to the present  post-  concept.  In order to e s t a b l i s h a programme, adequate to improve s o c i a l welfare measures i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , the S o c i a l Commission of the Economic and  S o c i a l C o u n c i l prepared a r e p o r t i n which the  b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s and methods of the advisory s o c i a l welfare 2 v i c e s were c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .  ser-  The most pervasive p r i n c i p l e s of  the programme are t h a t a s s i s t a n c e should be g i v e n only upon the request  of governments;  the extent  p r o p o r t i o n to the needs and  should  of a s s i s t a n c e should be i n cover those areas which could  not be a s s i s t e d from l o c a l resources.  I t was  a l s o recommended  that : 1. S o c i a l Welfare t r a i n i n g programme should i n c l u d e s c h o l a r s h i p s and f e l l o w s h i p s as well; 2. The p o s s i b i l i t y of c r e a t i n g demonstration centres and p i l o t p r o j e c t s should be provided f o r : a l s o f e l l o w s h i p and s c h o l a r s h i p holders should be permitted to p a r t i c i p a t e i n such p r o j e c t s ;  1  General Assembly R e s o l u t i o n 58(1)  of December  1946.  2 ECOSOC R e s o l u t i o n 312(IX) S e c t i o n I. Suggestions of the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l to the General Assembly. Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l Report 1949-50.  70 3. P r o v i s i o n should be made f o r planning and conducting seminars; 4. The f u r n i s h i n g o f f i l m s should be authorized; 5. The a u t h o r i z a t i o n to f u r n i s h t e c h n i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s should be expanded t o i n c l u d e a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g governments, i n s t e a d of the war-devastated c o u n t r i e s o n l y . ^ As a r e s u l t o f these recommendations t h e General Assembly  r e s o l v e d that the f o l l o w i n g areas should c o n s t i t u t e t h e ad-  v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare services. :  '  1. S o c i a l welfare experts, to provide a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s and to put i n p r a c t i c e over an a p p r o p r i a t e p e r i o d new t e c h n i c a l methods i n any branch o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e ; 2. F e l l o w s h i p s , to enable  q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l welfare  o f f i c i a l s to observe and f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with the experience of  other c o u n t r i e s a d m i n i s t e r i n g s i m i l a r programmes; 3. Advice and demonstration  for  equipment, to be provided  the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f the p h y s i c a l l y  handicapped; 4- T e c h n i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , to be f u r n i s h e d i n the f i e l d 2 of s o c i a l w e l f a r e . According to t h i s r e s o l u t i o n , the United Nations undertook the task of improving n a t i o n a l s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s which 1  I b i d . , Chap. I , p.78.  2 I t may be noted t h a t at the beginning o f the pro-, gramme ( 1 9 4 6 ) t e c h n i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s were provided only t o "Member c o u n t r i e s which have been devastated d u r i n g the war", and were not extended to a l l c o u n t r i e s u n t i l 1951-  71 were based on long-term planning. based on the request  The  of governments, and  extent of a s s i s t a n c e  on the extent to which  the s e r v i c e would improve the welfare of the t o t a l At the beginning, year p l a n .  T h i s was  the programme was  mainly due  was  population.  based on a y e a r - t o -  to the l i m i t a t i o n s of a y e a r - t o -  year budget the funds f o r which were c o n t r i b u t e d by member countries.  Since, however, i n many cases, the programme could not  terminated  by the end of a budgetary year, and,  be  because newly deve-  loped s e r v i c e s showed the need f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l welfare measures, the need f o r long-range planning by the Nations  United  i n co-operation with governments soon became apparent.  To t h i s end,  i t was  decided  i n 1948  to e n l i s t the f i n a n c i a l  c i p a t i o n of r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s as w e l l , and i n 1949  the  s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s were placed on a c o n t i n u i n g and  parti-  advisory permanent  basis. There was  a l s o a need f o r expansion w i t h i n the programme.  For example, the f e l l o w s h i p programmes could not be f u l l y  utilized  i n some cases because p a r t i c i p a n t s , where the need proved to be great, lacked q u a l i f i e d o f f i c i a l s who lowship  programmes.  ships was enabled  Therefore,  i n 1950  i n t h e i r own  fel-  the p r o v i s i o n of s c h o l a r -  added to the a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s .  young students who  t u n i t y was  could take part i n the  This  could not o b t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g  c o u n t r i e s to study abroad.  In t h i s way,  g i v e n to governments to nominate candidates  an opporf o r ad-  vanced study, as an a l t e r n a t i v e to the f e l l o w s h i p programme. In a d d i t i o n , i t was  r e a l i z e d that v i s u a l education  could  72 be p r o f i t a b l y used, and seminars provided a u s e f u l d e v i c e f o r group t r a i n i n g and  exchange of experience.  Therefore,  these  methods have a l s o been added i n order to improve f u r t h e r the  social  welfare s e r v i c e s . Another important and  i t s s p e c i a l i z e d agencies  Non-Self-Governing  step was  taken by the United  i n 1951-  Nations  At t h i s time the T r u s t - and  T e r r i t o r i e s were i n c l u d e d i n the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s -  tance programme. The field  development of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the welfare  shows a process of e v o l u t i o n .  The  expansion  of a c t i v i t i e s  and the i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r a s s i s t a n c e l e d the United to g i v e broader need.  Nations  c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the development of c o u n t r i e s i n  T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e was  s o c i a l welfare, and t h i s was  f i r s t given i n the f i e l d  of  followed by a s s i s t a n c e f o r economic  development and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  F i n a l l y , by the amalga-  mation of these separate programmes, the "Expanded Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e " provided a frame of reference w i t h i n which due c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n simultaneously to s o c i a l and needs and to t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t e d n e s s -  1  Recognizing  economic  the value  of  the a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s , t h e i r methods have been taken over and a p p l i e d i n a l l areas of t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g .  1 Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , Progress Made by the United Nations i n the F i e l d of S o c i a l A c t i v i t i e s i n 1950(January-December, 1950) E/CN.5/240 (17 January, 1951) p.16. United Nations, New York. See a l s o : Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , Report of the S o c i a l Commission to the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l . E/1982, E/CN.5/254 (14 A p r i l , 1951) p.5. United Nations, New York.  13 F e l l o w s h i p s and S c h o l a r s h i p s The  p r i n c i p a l aim of the f e l l o w s h i p programme i s to o f f e r  a s s i s t a n c e t o governments by enabling s u i t a b l y  qualified  social  welfare o f f i c i a l s to observe abroad and f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with the experience  and p r a c t i c e of other c o u n t r i e s i n branches o f s o c i a l  welfare most s u i t a b l e  to t h e i r n e e d s .  1  Observation  i s planned  s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r short periods o f time, and f o r experienced  indivi-  duals who could p r o f i t from such a programme much more than  junior  personnel.  The p e r i o d of o b s e r v a t i o n i s o f two t o s i x months'  d u r a t i o n , but In e x c e p t i o n a l cases i t may be extended. Experience  i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h i s programme r e v e a l e d the  f a c t t h a t some Fellows would b e n e f i t to a much g r e a t e r extent i f they were t o choose as the area of study a country where the economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n was s i m i l a r , r a t h e r than too advanced i n comparison with the r e c i p i e n t  country.'  T h i s en-  couraged the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of an i n c r e a s e d number o f c o u n t r i e s which provided  f a c i l i t i e s f o r observation.  c i p a t i n g governments Increased  The number o f p a r t i -  a f t e r 1 9 4 9 , when the s e r v i c e s were  extended beyond the war-devastated areas and i n c l u d e d the non2 self-governing t e r r i t o r i e s .  1951)  1 Report of the S e c r e t a r y General. pp.54-58. 2  See Appendix G, Tables I ' l l and IV.  E/1893  ( 9 January  74 Table 1.  Year  Development o f F e l l o w s h i p Programme, 1947-1951  Number of Host Countries  Number of Awards  Number of R e c i p i e n t Countries  1947  8  104  12  1948  10  120  17  1949  11  188  32  1950  18  183  35  1951  23  176  52  -  771  -  Total  Source:  United Nations Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , E v a l u a t i o n of the Programme of Advisory S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s . 1947-1951. United Nations, New York, 1953. pp.13-14.  A f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e of over 50$ was  shown i n 1952,  when  280 awards were made t o s o c i a l welfare Fellows and s c h o l a r s . During t h i s l a t t e r year, e f f o r t s continued t o Fellows from l e s s developed  1  enable  areas to spend at l e a s t a part of t h e i r  o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d i n c o u n t r i e s where development could be termed as "medium", but, which none the l e s s show v a l i d achievements,  and  which, above a l l , show the same c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and economic pattern. S c h o l a r s h i p s have been awarded t o graduates  from coun-  t r i e s having no a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s .  It  i s , however, r e q u i r e d that candidates should have had some experience  Add.5.  1 Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l Report. p.22.  E/CN.5/289/  75 i n s o c i a l welfare or i n r e l a t e d f i e l d s . i s to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the f i e l d countries.  1  T h e i r c u r r i c u l u m abroad  of s p e c i a l need i n t h e i r  S c h o l a r s h i p s normally provide t r a i n i n g f o r one  own  year,  but on the c o n d i t i o n of o b t a i n i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s during the first  year, they may  be extended  to an a d d i t i o n a l year.  p  Whereas the Fellow l e a r n s mainly from o b s e r v a t i o n , v i s i t i n g agencies, conferences, reading records, attendance  at s t a f f  meetings, board meetings, i n s t i t u t e s and r e g i o n a l conferences, where the o b j e c t i v e i s to g a i n understanding  of the welfare pro-  grammes j s c h o l a r s h i p holders acquire knowledge through academic t r a i n i n g and through a c t i v i t i e s connected w i t h t h i s  training.  Since f e l l o w s h i p and s c h o l a r s h i p awards are a part of the t o t a l programme, c o n s i d e r a t i o n can only be g i v e n t o r e c e i v e d from governments. of  nominations  I t i s important t o o u t l i n e the f i e l d s  study of the candidates and to c o n s i d e r i n what way  the  proposed  t r a i n i n g r e l a t e s to other s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s which have been requested by governments. Although the Fellows show c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i r f i e l d s of study, t h e i r i n t e r e s t s are e v i d e n t l y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to  the development of s o c i a l welfare i n t h e i r c o u n t r i e s .  beginning (1946-1949),  In the  the more b a s i c areas of welfare had been  emphasized, and there had been a steady i n c r e a s e backed by the deavour to meet these needs i n the d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s .  en-  During  1 United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Programme of F e l l o w s h i p s and S c h o l a r s h i p s f o r 1954 i n Economic Development, P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S o c i a l Welfare. (January  1953), p.4. 2  : E/CN.5/289/Add.5-  : p.25.  "  76 t h i s p e r i o d , community, f a m i l y and c h i l d welfare, s o c i a l welfare o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n carried' the g r e a t e s t weight. the years that followed, development i n the areas of s o c i a l  In defenc  p  housing and town and country planning became apparent. While the f e l l o w s h i p programme was  introduced i n order  to provide a two to s i x months' o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d f o r welfare per sonnel, i n some cases i t was  found t h a t a b r i e f v i s i t would  enable  some p a r t i c i p a n t s to widen t h e i r experience, yet r e t u r n to t h e i r employment a f t e r a short absence.  To achieve t h i s g o a l , the  European Regional O f f i c e of the S o c i a l Welfare D i v i s i o n an intra-European Exchange Programme i n 1950.  initiated  The European coun-  t r i e s took great advantage of t h i s scheme which gave opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n to s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of s o c i a l workers. kers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , d i r e c t o r s and  Worstaff  members of i n s t i t u t i o n s , f a c u l t y members and students of schools of s o c i a l work covered a wide v a r i e t y of t o p i c s , such as and f a m i l y welfare, p r e v e n t i o n and treatment  child  of delinquency, i n -  d u s t r i a l welfare, welfare labour l e g i s l a t i o n , housing, and t e a ching and s u p e r v i s i o n of s o c i a l casework.  The f i n a n c i n g of such  a programme by r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s was more e a s i l y  accomplished  by governments than programmes f o r study overseas, and wider oppor t u n i t y provided f o r n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n than would  otherwise  have been p o s s i b l e .  1 " S o c i a l defence" i s a term used i n United Nations documents i n s t e a d of " c o r r e c t i o n s " or "care and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of j u v e n i l e delinquents and a d u l t o f f e n d e r s " . 2  See Appendix G, Table I.  77 In determining  the a l l o c a t i o n of funds f o r f e l l o w s h i p s ,  account has to he taken not r e c e i v e d , but  only of the volume of a p p l i c a t i o n s  of the needs of.the v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s and  c i t y to u t i l i z e f e l l o w s h i p s .  t h e i r capa-  The United Nations p o l i c y i n c l u d e s  c o n d i t i o n s under which awards are made, and  i t i s the  responsibility  of the S e c r e t a r i a t to inform the governments about c o n d i t i o n s procedures.  and  This i s done by correspondence and by the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of a brochure d e s c r i b i n g the f e l l o w s h i p s programme under the Techn i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l The  welfare.  1  S o c i a l Commission o u t l i n e d the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s necesp  sary f o r a p p l i c a n t s . 55.  Age  l i m i t s were determined as between 25 -  This enables them to have some experience,  as w e l l as to be  able to make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e i r country f o r f u t u r e years come.  Good h e a l t h and  tant.  The  t r a i n i n g and  l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y a l s o seemed to be  to impor-  a p p l i c a n t f o r a f e l l o w s h i p i s expected to have s u i t a b l e experience  i n h i s f i e l d , and to be employed i n a  s e n i o r p o s i t i o n by h i s government or by a recognized  welfare  orga-  nization. To enable the r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s t o o u t l i n e a p l a n most s u i t a b l e to the candidate's  f i e l d of study, the submission of a  1 The l a t e s t p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s nature i s : United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Programme of Fellowships and S c h o l a r s h i p s f o r 1954 i n Economic Development, Administ r a t i o n and S o c i a l Welfare. January 1953. United Nations, New York. 2 United Nations Secretary-General, R e l a t i o n with and C o - o r d i n a t i o n of S p e c i a l i z e d Agencies. C o - o r d i n a t i o n of Fellowships Programmes. Appendix I, p.19. "Standards of S e l e c t i o n , f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Fellows of P a r t i c i p a t i n g Organizations." E/1734 (30 June, 1950). United Nations, New York.  500-word statement  i s r e q u i r e d , o u t l i n i n g the proposed f i e l d o f  study and i n d i c a t i n g i t s p r a c t i c a l use upon the Fellow's r e t u r n to h i s home country.  These measures were taken f o r two main reasons,  the f i r s t and most pervasive being that t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e should b r i n g the highest p o s s i b l e returns and b e n e f i t to the country, which can only be done i f a s u i t a b l e programme i s designed.  The  second was r e c o g n i t i o n of the danger t h a t u n q u a l i f i e d candidates, d e s p i t e t h e i r e f f o r t s and those of the host country, would be l i k e l y to r e t u r n home with a f e e l i n g of i n f e r i o r i t y and f r u s t r a t i o n , which, i n a d d i t i o n t o being d e t r i m e n t a l to the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme, would undermine the e f f o r t s being made towards b e t t e r international  understanding.  Some governments found i t u s e f u l t o e s t a b l i s h a s e l e c t i o n committee i n charge o f r e c r u i t i n g and s e l e c t i n g candidates. ever, others have encountered  How-  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n producing a w e l l  Integrated p l a n , simultaneously w i t h t h e i r requests.  In order t o  a s s i s t them, experts and r e s i d e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s working with the governments, have been s u c c e s s f u l l y u t i l i z e d t o a s s i s t governments i n f o r m u l a t i n g i n t e g r a t e d and p u r p o s e f u l p l a n s . was  no coincidence t h a t , i n 1951,  F o r example, i t  a f t e r the m i s s i o n of the United  Rations S o c i a l Welfare A d v i s e r to Japan was completed along with other l o c a l programmes, two o b s e r v a t i o n f e l l o w s h i p s were granted to two high-ranking Japanese welfare o f f i c i a l s , p e r m i t t i n g them to study c h i l d welfare i n Canada and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n the United Kingdom and Norway."'"  A d v i s e r s have a l s o a s s i s t e d  governments a t l a t e r steps,when a p p l i c a t i o n s had t o be sorted and 1 United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Fortnightly Bulletin. (June 1951), p.8, and ( J u l y 1951), p.11.  79 candidates s e l e c t e d f o r submission to the United Nations. nominations  are submitted  Such  i n t r i p l i c a t e to the Secretary-General,  on the United Nations forms sent to a l l governments. cable question i n the nominating  Every  form must be answered with  reference to the work and experience of the candidate. there i s no l i m i t to the number of nominations,  the  applispecial  Although  Secretary-Gene-  r a l reserves the f i n a l d e c i s i o n on the number of awards to be granted.  1  Governments were a l s o requested by the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s tance A d m i n i s t r a t i o n to s t a t e the p r i o r i t i e s among the welfare f i e l d s a c c o r d i n g to the p r e v a l e n t need of t h e i r c o u n t r i e s .  The  p r a c t i c e i n s e l e c t i n g has, however, become q u i t e f l e x i b l e because i n some c o u n t r i e s the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of welfare d i f f e r s g r e a t l y from others, and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n presented by the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was standards.  not s u i t a b l e f o r the p r e v a i l i n g  In view of these d i f f e r e n c e s , p r a c t i c a l r a t h e r than  t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were the b a s i s of d e c i s i o n s .  However,  preference Is given to those requests f o r f e l l o w s h i p s and s c h o l a r ships which are r e l a t e d to the work of experts or to other forms of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e provided i n the  country.  As was mentioned before, the n e c e s s i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a l i a i s o n between the r e c i p i e n t country and the United has become apparent.  Nations  There i s no set method of e s t a b l i s h i n g  these s u p e r v i s o r y and o r g a n i z i n g bodies.  However, i t i s neces-  sary i n a l l cases t h a t the f e l l o w s h i p s be w e l l i n t e g r a t e d and planned w i t h i n the t o t a l programme f o r development.  1  Secretary-General's Report.  E/1893, pp.54-58.  80 At the beginning stages of the programme, c o u n t r i e s s e l e c ted f o r o b s e r v a t i o n were the most developed showed that sometimes i t was  ones.  L a t e r experience  more b e n e f i c i a l i f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of  development were u t i l i z e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n .  1  Therefore, a l s o the  l e s s advanced c o u n t r i e s were p l a y i n g host to Fellows and s c h o l a r s . T h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n provided f o r a b e t t e r comparison and the  cul-  t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s enabled the Fellows to p r o f i t to a much g r e a t e r extent from the p e r i o d of o b s e r v a t i o n .  The United Nations pro-  vided a wide choice to the r e c i p i e n t governments, thereby enabling 2 them to s t a t e t h e i r preference f o r the country of o b s e r v a t i o n . In some cases, however, the United Nations found i t necessary to suggest an a l t e r n a t i v e .  These suggestions are p r a c t i c a l  and  reasonable, and would be acceptable to most candidates, although i t i s important t h a t the reason f o r such a change be explained and f u l l y understood  by the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The s e l e c t i o n of s u i t a b l e a p p l i c a n t s has been a  concern  o f the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and of the r e q u e s t i n g  1  Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l Report.  E/CN.5/238,  p.11. 2 The f o l l o w i n g governments have o f f e r e d f a c i l i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g and study f o r UN Fellows and s c h o l a r s : A u s t r a l i a , A u s t r i a , Belgium, B r a z i l , Canada, Ceylon, C h i l e , Colombia, Costa R i c a , Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, E l Salvador, I t a l y , Japan, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, P a k i s t a n , P h i l i p p i n e s , Sweden, S w i t z e r l a n d , Turkey, the United Kingdom ( i n c l u d i n g F i j i , Jamaica, Malta and the AngloEgyptian Sudan), the United States ( i n c l u d i n g Puerto R i c o ) , Uruguay and Venezuela. (UN TAA, Programme of F e l l o w s h i p s and S c h o l a r s h i p s f o r 1954. p.5.)  81 governments.  The problem a r i s i n g out o f s e l e c t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d  improvement i n the methods, i n order t o use the f a c i l i t i e s o f a s s i s t a n c e t o the g r e a t e s t advantage.  One problem, that of the  time element, o f t e n i n v o l v e d delay i n d e c i s i o n s and put the candidate i n t o a p o s i t i o n where he d i d not have s u f f i c i e n t time to prepare h i s leave, hand over d u t i e s and to acquire knowledge about the country o f observation.  sufficient  In some cases such  o b s t a c l e s l e d t o the r e f u s a l of the f e l l o w s h i p .  Consequently,  nominating governments have been approached to confirm the dates when candidates can be r e l e a s e d f o r study abroad, i n order t o keep postponement and c a n c e l l a t i o n at a minimum. The  s e l e c t i o n o f candidates by the r e c i p i e n t governments  has been done by d i f f e r e n t methods.  Some appointed Fellows from  t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and employed personnel,  e.g., a c h i l d  welfare  from the P h i l i p p i n e s who came to Canada i n 1953 t o  consultant  study c h i l d welfare programme.  s e r v i c e s , was appointed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  Others gave wide p u b l i c i t y t o the matter and I n v i t e d  a p p l i c a t i o n s throughout the welfare  field.  T h i s has been the  p r a c t i c e i n awarding s c h o l a r s h i p s where academic a b i l i t y as w e l l as s o c i a l work experience are determining f a c t o r s .  Selection  i n every case has been found to be based s o l e l y on the welfare needs, incorporated The  i n a p l a n f o r welfare  services.  g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s i n awarding a p p l i c a n t s are t h e i r  qualifications.  They are chosen on the b a s i s of merit and a c -  cording t o the c o n t r i b u t i o n they can make t o the development and improvement of t h e i r country's welfare  services.  An important f e l l o w s h i p s experiment was s t a r t e d i n  82 Yugoslavia, welfare  where the team approach was used i n awarding s o c i a l  fellowships.  I t was used i n connection  with a demonstra-  t i o n p r o j e c t where s o c i a l workers' a c t i v i t i e s were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to those of other p r o f e s s i o n s .  Through the j o i n t award, the mem-  bers of the team were enabled t o g a i n b e t t e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r own and the other p r o f e s s i o n s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n s and areas of respons i b i l i t y w i t h i n a s p e c i a l i z e d scheme.  I n 1951, upon the recom-  mendation o f Dr. Henry H. K e s s l e r , United Nations expert,  a "Re-  h a b i l i t a t i o n Team" of eight p r o f e s s i o n a l persons was composed: one doctor, a nurse, a s o c i a l worker, a v o c a t i o n a l guidance exp e r t , a p h y s i c a l t h e r a p i s t , a teacher, thetics technician.  a p s y c h o l o g i s t and a pros-  The f e l l o w s h i p s enabled them to t o u r and  observe s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n the United  States and t h e r e a f t e r i n  the United Kingdom, and upon t h e i r r e t u r n to Yugoslavia,  they have  become l e a d i n g members of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n demonstration where they combined and co-ordinated s e r i o u s l y handicapped t o a u s e f u l  centre  t h e i r e f f o r t s i n h e l p i n g the  life.  1  The method of f e l l o w s h i p s i n t h i s case d i f f e r e d from those mentioned p r e v i o u s l y .  Whereas o r d i n a r i l y f e l l o w s h i p s are  awarded t o experts who have already had experience of observation,  i n the f i e l d  the Yugoslav team was studying methods which they  were going to implement upon t h e i r r e t u r n to t h e i r country, l i z e d i n a pioneer welfare p r o j e c t .  In addition, t h i s  uti-  welfare  f e l l o w s h i p was provided not only to s o c i a l workers but a l s o to a l l i e d p r o f e s s i o n s , where the o v e r a l l welfare t i o n i n g team, r a t h e r than the s i n g l e aspect  aspect  o f the func-  of s o c i a l work was  1 United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Fortnightly Bulletin. (March 1951) pp.4-5, and (August 1951) p.11.  83 emphasized. S e l e c t i o n of Fellows by the United Nations was done i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the D i v i s i o n of S o c i a l Welfare, with due c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the needs o f the a p p l i c a n t and h i s country, and to the resources a v a i l a b l e i n host c o u n t r i e s . t i o n s o f candidates. postponed on account  There were only few r e j e c -  The awarding o f some f e l l o w s h i p s had t o be of t e c h n i c a l and budgetary  d i f f i c u l t i e s , but  these could be considered i n the subsequent year i f the government so d e s i r e d .  Reasons f o r r e j e c t i o n were l a c k o f experience and  t r a i n i n g , o r i f i t was found that the a p p l i c a n t ' s f i e l d was not c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to s o c i a l w e l f a r e . r e j e c t i o n , I t i s important  Regardless  of the reason f o r  t h a t i t should be made c l e a r by the  T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n order to help r e c i p i e n t governments to avoid s i m i l a r mistakes  i n preliminary selection.  A f t e r the Secretary-General has awarded the f e l l o w s h i p , and s a t i s f a c t o r y placement arrangements have been completed, the nominating  government r e c e i v e d a formal n o t i c e of t h e award.  1  The S e c r e t a r i a t attaches great importance t o t h e prep a r a t i o n of the Fellow t o be undertaken i n h i s own country, to h i s f e l l o w s h i p and departure.  prior  In order t o provide such an  1 The award contains b a s i c Information with regard to each, f e l l o w s h i p s or s c h o l a r s h i p s , and s t a t e s i n p a r t i c u l a r : (a) F i e l d and country o f study; d u r a t i o n o f study; (b) Person o r agency i n host country who i s to supervise the study and to whom the Fellow w i l l r e p o r t ; (c) Date o f departure from the home country; (d) Departure arrangements (passports, v i s a s , medical examination, i n o c c u l a t i o n , e t c . ) ; (e) ' T r a v e l arrangements; ( f ) F i n a n c i a l arrangements; (g) Arrangements f o r r e t u r n journey. Report of t h e Secretary-General. E/1893. (9 January, 1950), p.66.  84 opportunity, n o t i c e s of awards should be sent s e v e r a l months i n advance.  O r i e n t a t i o n i n c l u d e s improvement i n the f l u e n c y of the  language,  and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and other aspects  of the host  country.  In order t h a t the Fellows should be a b l e t o g a i n the g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t from t h e i r observations and s t u d i e s , o r i e n t a t i o n i n c l u d e s three main stages : 1. P r i o r to departure, p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i s disseminated about the welfare a c t i v i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s , as w e l l as about t h e i r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l atmosphere.  These help the  didates to get some i d e a about the country i n which they are i n g t o spend c o n s i d e r a b l e time.  cango-  Resident r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and  experts from these c o u n t r i e s can a l s o be of help i n b r i e f i n g the candidate p r i o r to h i s departure. 2. O r i e n t a t i o n at UN headquarters briefing.  i s the second  stage of  P r i o r to l e a v i n g f o r t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n , a l l candidates  are requested t o pass through the United Nations  headquarters.  Here they become thoroughly acquainted with the process and  pro-  gramme of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , with s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s .  At the headquarters  the Fellows r e c e i v e  the s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s of the f e l l o w s h i p s , which i n c l u d e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l programmes of o b s e r v a t i o n , r e p o r t i n g and other p e r s o n a l obligations."'" 1 The formal o b l i g a t i o n s undertaken by Fellows and s c h o l a r s , i n a c c e p t i n g the award, are the f o l l o w i n g : "(a).To conduct h i m s e l f at a l l times i n a manner compatible with h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a h o l d e r of a UN f e l l o w s h i p or s c h o l a r s h i p ; (b) To proceed i n accordance with the i n s t r u c t i o n s set out i n h i s n o t i c e of award;  85  3.  O r i e n t a t i o n i n the host country I s the t h i r d step of  preparations.  I n some c o u n t r i e s s p e c i a l l e c t u r e s and tours are  organized f o r groups o f Fellows, i n others they are b r i e f e d vidually.  indi-  The most important aspect of o r i e n t a t i o n i s the c u l -  t u r a l and s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s o f the c o u n t r i e s , and the aim i s t o help the Fellow t o a d j u s t to these d i f f e r e n t condit i o n s , thereby enabling him to see more c l e a r l y which methods and a c t i v i t i e s would be h e l p f u l i n terms of h i s own country's needs. Governments i n the c o u n t r i e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d agencies r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the planning and s u p e r v i s i o n o f the f e l lowship .programme.  These programmes of o b s e r v a t i o n are planned  to  permit Fellows to study the o p e r a t i o n o f welfare s e r v i c e s and  to  l e a r n something of the p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g them and of the  c o n d i t i o n s which have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r development.  This i s  achieved by d i s c u s s i o n s with r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c i a l s and by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n short courses, seminars  and conferences.  Whatever the o b s e r v a t i o n programme, i t should be construed with a focus upon the needs and resources of the Fellow's home country.  To  t h i s end, a copy of t h e i r background and c o n d i t i o n s of  t h e i r country's development p l a n i s forwarded (c)  to the host  country,  To spend f u l l time d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e award i n the study programme as d i r e c t e d by the s u p e r v i s i n g agency i n the country o f study and by the United Nations; (d) To r e f r a i n from engaging i n p o l i t i c a l , commercial or any a c t i v i t i e s other than those covered by h i s work programme d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the award; (e) To submit r e p o r t s as i n d i c a t e d ; (f) To r e t u r n to h i s home country at t h e end o f the f e l l o w s h i p or s c h o l a r s h i p ; (g) To-provide a l l emergency expenses, such as medical, dent a l and o p t i c a l care."  E/1893,  p.66.  86 although i n most cases d e t a i l e d planning i s d e f e r r e d u n t i l the a r r i v a l of the Fellows.  I f , however, t h e i r g o a l s and i n t e r e s t s have  been c l e a r l y s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , p r e l i m i n a r y planning can be more defined and accurate. Planning, a f t e r the a r r i v a l of the Fellow, i s a  co-opera-  t i v e process i n which the r e s p o n s i b l e agency o r i n d i v i d u a l  super-  v i s o r and the Fellow can make a s e l e c t i o n of the a v a i l a b l e resources . I t i s important t h a t the o b s e r v a t i o n programme should be kept as f l e x i b l e as p o s s i b l e , i n order to enable the Fellow to observe i n s t i t u t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s which may  not have been i n c l u d e d  i n the o r i g i n a l plan, but which, through h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s , may found h e l p f u l .  be  The programme should be developed w i t h regard to  the needs, background and a b i l i t y of the F e l l o w .  Aspects of i n d i -  v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , n a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l background, as w e l l as d i f ference i n experience are determining f a c t o r s as to how much the Fellow w i l l b e n e f i t from the programme.  I f , on the other hand, i t  i s found t h a t s e v e r a l F e l l o w s , a r r i v i n g simultaneously to the count r y , have s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t y , i n some cases j o i n t  pro-  grammes, group observations and d i s c u s s i o n s can be u s e f u l . As a part of the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme, conducted i n the P h i l i p p i n e s , s e v e r a l s o c i a l welfare f e l l o w s h i p s were awarded i n 1953•  One  of these Fellows, a c h i l d w e l f a r e c o n s u l -  t a n t , i s a l s o a l e c t u r e r i n casework and c h i l d - c a r e .  1  The  pro-  gramme of o b s e r v a t i o n f o r t h i s Fellow was arranged with her by the S o c i a l Welfare Panel of the T e c h n i c a l Co-operation D i v i s i o n of 1  Interviewed by the w r i t e r .  87 the Department it  of Trade and Commerce i n Ottawa, and, amongst others,  i n c l u d e d v i s i t s to schools of s o c i a l work, and to c h i l d  welfare  agencies. During the i n t e r v i e w she explained t h a t she had g r e a t l y b e n e f i t t e d from her observations i n understanding programmes and t h e i r development.  Canadian w e l f a r e  But she a l s o emphasized  how  welfare problems d i f f e r i n the P h i l i p p i n e s from those i n Canada, because of the d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l m i l i e u .  Accordingly, protection  of c h i l d r e n through placement i n adopting and f o s t e r homes, as performed by c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s In Canada, i s not a prevalent need i n her country because r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c h i l d i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o the r e l a t i v e s i f the parent i s unable to give adequate care.  The welfare and s t a t u s of the c h i l d w i t h i n  the f a m i l y , i s a l s o t r a d i t i o n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d , and n e g l e c t or abuse i s non-existent.  However, there i s a great need i n the  whole country to e s t a b l i s h and improve o v e r a l l measures f o r the improvement  of general h e a l t h ( p h y s i c a l and mental) and welfare  (education, r e c r e a t i o n , etc.) measures f o r c h i l d r e n which, l i k e the retarded economic development, are i n t h e i r primary  stages.  Prom t h i s point of view, i t may have been more h e l p f u l to her i f her placement f o r o b s e r v a t i o n had been i n a country which was s o c i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y more s i m i l a r t o her own. however, was given to her at a r e g i o n a l conference, visit  This  experience,  p r i o r t o her  to Canada. As a teacher at the school of s o c i a l work and n u r s i n g ,  i t was more important  f o r t h i s Fellow t o improve her methods o f  teaching and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s o c i a l work while i n Canada.  She  88 was planning t o implement these techniques upon h e r r e t u r n to the Philippines.  Her f l e x i b l e programme a l s o allowed h e r t o add to  her i t i n e r a r y a v i s i t observed  to the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l where she  a s e s s i o n o f t h e r e c e n t l y introduced weekly group  super-  v i s i o n s e s s i o n s of s o c i a l work students who have been there on field-placement. aspects:  The Fellow found the seminar h e l p f u l from two  ( l ) i n observing the use of group dynamics i n t r a i n i n g  casework students, and (2) i n a c q u a i n t i n g h e r s e l f with the problems o f s o c i a l workers i n a p s y c h i a t r i c s e t t i n g (the s u b j e c t o f the group d i s c u s s i o n ) . S o c i a l contacts and p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s have important b e a r i n g on t h e success o f the Fellow's v i s i t . understanding  H e l p f u l and  s u p e r v i s i o n , together w i t h the opportunity to make  p r o f e s s i o n a l contacts can make c o n t r i b u t i o n s which have  important  s u b j e c t i v e value to t h e Fellow and to h i s work upon r e t u r n t o h i s country. The  expenses of f e l l o w s h i p s and s c h o l a r s h i p s can be  broadly d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: r e c i p i e n t country,  ( l ) expenses o c c u r r i n g i n the  (2) expenses i n v o l v e d i n t h e host 1  country.  According to arrangements between the United Nations and the r e c i p i e n t government, the l a t t e r i s expected t o bear a t l e a s t those c o s t s that can be met i n l o c a l currency, such as i n c i d e n t a l s , medical examinations country.  and t r a v e l w i t h i n the boundaries  of the  Some governments a l s o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t o t a l  t r a v e l l i n g c o s t s , but i f they a r e unable t o do so, these are covered by the United Nations.  89  The T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n provides ( i ) a monthly l i v i n g allowance which i s intended to cover normal l i v i n g expenses, and v a r i e s from one country of o b s e r v a t i o n to another, according to the cost of l i v i n g ;  ( i i ) e s s e n t i a l t r a v e l w i t h i n the  host country, up to a l i m i t which w i l l be determined t r y of observation;  f o r each coun-  ( i i i ) a l i m i t e d amount f o r the purchase  dispensable t e c h n i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s ;  of i n -  and ( i v ) t u i t i o n and r e l a t e d  fees f o r s c h o l a r s h i p h o l d e r s . In view of the d i f f i c u l t i e s the r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s encountered i n meeting t h e i r share of f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Committee o f the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l i s c o n s i d e r i n g the replacement  of the r e c i p i e n t country's  partici-  p a t i o n i n the cost of t r a v e l expenses by a lump sum c o n t r i b u t i o n i n l o c a l currency, but  (1954)  no d e c i s i o n has yet been taken on  this subject. There are d i f f e r e n t f i n a n c i a l arrangements concerning the Fellow's s a l a r y d u r i n g h i s absence.  In some cases t h i s i s  f u l l y provided, whereas others provide a l i v i n g allowance members only.  to f a m i l y  Again, i n other cases, the Fellow's absence i s con-  s i d e r e d as a leave o f absence w i t h no f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n s .  Since  governments d i d not i n d i c a t e otherwise, presumably the Fellows and t h e i r governments have come to s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangements i n t h i s regard. In  case a Fellow o r s c h o l a r i n t e r r u p t s h i s t r a i n i n g ,  e i t h e r on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e , or a t the request o f h i s government, the r e c i p i e n t country may be requested t o reimburse of the expenses i n c u r r e d by the United Nations.  a p a r t , or a l l  The same may be  90 the case i f the Fellow or s c h o l a r f a i l s to r e t u r n t o h i s home count r y a f t e r the completion  o f h i s s t u d i e s abroad.  Reports from Fellows and s c h o l a r s p l a y an important  role  i n a s s e s s i n g the u s e f u l n e s s o f the programme and i n e v a l u a t i n g the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the experience  of Fellows and s c h o l a r s t o the eco-  nomic and s o c i a l development o f t h e i r c o u n t r i e s . The most important  source of i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h e one  r e c e i v e d from the Fellow h i m s e l f .  Reports are w r i t t e n i n s i x  copies, one of which i s r e t a i n e d by the Fellow, three are forwarded t o the United Nations, one to the host country and one t o the r e c i p i e n t government.  The methods o f r e p o r t i n g have changed from  a d e t a i l e d p r o c e s s - r e c o r d i n g of a c t i v i t i e s to a s e l f e v a l u a t i o n . Among the types o f r e p o r t s which a r e g e n e r a l l y requested,  are the  following : (1) Monthly summaries o f a c t i v i t i e s , and nature of studies; (2) A f u l l report from each Fellow or s c h o l a r a t the end of h i s programme of study. These are to throw l i g h t on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of h i s v i s i t and observations, whether he has found  areas o f i n t e r e s t ,  and t o what extent he t h i n k s that he w i l l be a b l e t o u t i l i z e h i s observations upon h i s r e t u r n to h i s country. Although  there i s an o u t l i n e given t o each Fellow" ' which 1  i s to be used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e r e p o r t , i t may be abandoned  1  See Appendix H.  91 i f i t i s found to be too r i g i d port.  and l i m i t i n g i n p r e s e n t i n g the r e -  Fellows and s c h o l a r s are also asked t o d i s c u s s t h e i r  find-  ings with t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s and, upon t h e i r r e t u r n , w i t h the United Nations o f f i c i a l s . -  Such i n d i v i d u a l suggestions may be u t i l i z e d  f o r f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n s and improvements i n conducting f u t u r e programmes. (3)  The most important aspect of r e p o r t i n g and e v a l u a t i n g  i s the follow-up study.  Fellows and s c h o l a r s are requested to i n -  form the United Nations and t h e i r governments, from time to time, to what extent they have been able to u t i l i z e t h e i r acquired abroad.  experiences  These r e p o r t s help the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o im-  prove t h e i r s e l e c t i o n ' and planning procedures, as w e l l as to evaluate the extent o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and measure i t s achievements.  S o c i a l Welfare The b a s i c procedures  Experts  i n p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l w e l f a r e ex-  p e r t s s e r v i c e s are s i m i l a r t o those o f the f e l l o w s h i p programme.  By  i t s nature, expert s e r v i c e Is the opposite p a r a l l e l t o f e l l o w s h i p s . In t h i s programme, i n d i v i d u a l s , who are a l r e a d y experienced i n s o c i a l welfare, a r e delegated by the United Nations from the host to share t h e i r knowledge with the r e c i p i e n t country.  country  The b a s i c  assumption governing t h i s s e r v i c e i s a l s o that no country, o r group of  c o u n t r i e s , has the monopoly of s o c i a l "know-how". The r o l e of experts, i s mainly a d v i s o r y .  In such a  c a p a c i t y they have t o take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n not only the p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l aspects o f t h e i r mission, but a l s o the c u l t u r a l , economic  92 and s o c i a l background of the r e c i p i e n t  country.  The g r e a t e s t number of experts nominated i n any year (24) was  d u r i n g 1947.  T h i s was  single  the f i r s t year of - operations  a f t e r UNRRA terminated i t s a c t i v i t i e s .  The year 1948-49 formed a  t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d from emergency programmes to more normal type of operations and t h e r e f o r e there was  a d e c l i n e i n the number of  s o c i a l welfare experts engaged i n the programme. however, expert s e r v i c e s show a steady i n c r e a s e .  After this 1  The d u r a t i o n of expert missions u s u a l l y d i d not nine months.  time,  exceed  Upon governments' request t h i s could be extended,  but some d i f f i c u l t i e s arose because of the expert's o b l i g a t i o n s to r e t u r n to h i s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n i n h i s country. expert's assignment was three to five-month  However, i f the  of a s p e c i f i e d nature, i n most cases a  p e r i o d was  s u f f i c i e n t f o r i t s completion.  The time element depends l a r g e l y on the nature of the expert's m i s s i o n . can be of two  According to t h e i r d u r a t i o n , expert  missions  types :  (1) L a s t i n g from a minimum of s e v e r a l weeks to a maximum of s i x months.  Experts on these missions c a r r y out a w e l l d e f i n e d  and h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d assignment, such as p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l welf a r e a c t i v i t i e s and s p e c i f i c forms of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , which do not n e c e s s i t a t e any i n v e s t i g a t i o n or p e r i o d o f a d a p t a t i o n ,  and  which enable the expert to g i v e h i s advice In a short time. (2) M i s s i o n s Of l o n g e r d u r a t i o n are c l o s e l y l i n k e d  with  the c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e of the r e c i p i e n t coun1  See Appendix G, Table VI.  93  t r y , which r e q u i r e t h a t , before the expert i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o g i v e advice, he f a m i l i a r i z e h i m s e l f with the e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n the country.  Although  the second type of m i s s i o n i s l e s s t e c h n i c a l i n  character, i t i s broader  i n scope.  According to the task the expert Is expected t o complete, the s e r v i c e s can be c l a s s i f i e d under three groups : (A) Survey M i s s i o n s , which u s u a l l y c o n s i s t o f a team of experts who assess the d i f f e r e n t aspects o f welfare needs and make recommendations regarding the p r o v i s i o n of I n d i v i d u a l experts, f e l l o w s h i p s and equipment, to a s s i s t e x i s t i n g welfare programmes, or with a view to the establishment  of demonstration  centres.  Such a team was sent to survey needs i n the area o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped In the L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s .  The  team, composed of s o c i a l welfare and medical experts, sponsored by the United Nations and the World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , reviewed the b a s i c medical and s o c i a l welfare f a c i l i t i e s o f Mexico, B r a z i l , B o l i v i a , Paraguay and C h i l e , and, a f t e r an eight weeks' survey, made recommendations to. the governments concerning t h e roost s u i t a b l e establishment capped.  1  o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c e n t r e f o r the p h y s i c a l l y handi-  S i m i l a r missions were sent by the United Nations and  i t s s p e c i a l i z e d agencies to A s i a , the Par and Middle E a s t , to r e view s e l e c t e d community development p r o j e c t s .  According t o the  p o l i c i e s , these groups o f experts leave the country as soon as t h e i r survey i s completed and t h e i r recommendations are made. (B) S o c i a l Welfare Consultants and A d v i s e r s are assigned 1 S o c i a l Commission of the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , Report No. E/CN.5/289/Add.5. P-29-  94 to  one p a r t i c u l a r country, although they may make short v i s i t s to  neighbouring areas.  They are to c o n s u l t the government on the  development of s p e c i a l i z e d s o c i a l welfare a c t i v i t i e s ,  on the f o r -  mulation o f s o c i a l p o l i c i e s and on s p e c i a l aspects o f s o c i a l welfare administration.  They u s u a l l y a d v i s e heads o f governments,  but may a l s o engage i n demonstration s o c i a l work methods.  and s u p e r v i s i o n o f s p e c i f i c  So f a r , c o n s u l t a n t s were mainly used f o r r  i n f o r m a l t r a i n i n g , i . e . , working with l o c a l experts.  Such prac-  t i c a l and i n f o r m a l t r a i n i n g of workers a l r e a d y i n the f i e l d i s very important  e s p e c i a l l y where there i s a l a c k o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  t r a i n e d personnel.  F e l l o w s h i p s and s c h o l a r s h i p s are i n d i s p e n s a b l e  i n such cases i n order t o b u t t r e s s long-term  planning o f welfare  services. The b a s i c methods o f t r a i n i n g used by s o c i a l welfare c o n s u l t a n t s were seminars,  conferences,  i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and  o r i e n t a t i o n courses, with s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to new introduced by the c o n s u l t a n t s , and demonstration as t r a i n i n g centres and the establishment  techniques  p r o j e c t s , such  of schools o f s o c i a l  work. Marion Dix o f the United Nations Information Centre i n I n d i a has d e s c r i b e d the areas covered by United Nations  social  welfare a d v i s e r s i n China., which was the f i r s t country t o b e n e f i t 2 from the s o c i a l welfare a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s .  The components o f  1 S o c i a l Commission of the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , Proposals f o r the R e v i s i o n of the Work Programmes f o r the Years 1952 and 1955. E/CN.5/240/Add.l (24 January. 1951) p.20. 2 Marion Dix, "United Nations S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s " , speech d e l i v e r e d a t the A l l I n d i a Conference o f S o c i a l Work, Bombay, 1947. Indian J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Work, IX, N o . l , pp.78-81.  95 t h i s programme were the f o l l o w i n g : (a) Minimum standards f o r the improvement of homes f o r c h i l d r e n , f o r the aged and f o r the d i s abled ; (b) Minimum standards of emergency r e l i e f s e r v i c e s , such as mass feeding, temporary s h e l t e r , r e f u gee camps, d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e l i e f s u p p l i e s , cash l o a n s , e t c . ; (c) Minimum standards f o r the improvement of c h i l dren's d i e t i n i n s t i t u t i o n s ; (d) Standards of r e g i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n of r e l i e f and welfare agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s ; (e) V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g of needy adolescent ( f ) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of d i s a b l e d a d u l t s and capped c h i l d r e n ;  youth;  of handi-  (g) C h i l d welfare demonstration centres with s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n both to b e t t e r care of c h i l d r e n and to a s s i s t i n g , mothers to work to supplement f a m i l y income. S i m i l a r l y , Miss A i l e e n M. Davidson, a l e a d i n g welfare worker of the A u s t r a l i a n Red a d v i s e r to a Maternal Bangkok, T h a i l a n d .  Cross, has acted as s o c i a l  welfare  and C h i l d H e a l t h Demonstration Centre i n She gave a s s i s t a n c e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g s t a n -  dards of maternal and c h i l d h e a l t h through l e c t u r e s on b a s i c concepts of s o c i a l work, medical  s o c i a l work and  community o r g a n i -  zation."'" (C) S o c i a l Welfare Resident to  are  assigned  regions i n which there i s a need f o r long-term, m u l t i l a t e r a l  action. nal  Representatives  They are a v a i l a b l e as welfare consultants to the r e g i o -  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board.  Bulletin,  and  They a l s o a s s i s t governments  1 Technical Assistance Administration, F o r t n i g h t l y (November 1951), p.5-  96 on welfare problems and i n p r e p a r i n g requests to the T e c h n i c a l Assistance Administration.  They help i n the s e l e c t i o n of candidates  f o r f e l l o w s h i p s and s c h o l a r s h i p s and g i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of United Nations  policies. I t i s a l s o t h e i r duty to co-ordinate the programmes of  the UNICEF and WHO  i n t h e i r j o i n t a c t i v i t i e s , mainly i n the area  of c h i l d welfare, and they are a l s o expected g a i n and provide a s s i s t a n c e and guidance to l e a d to e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t s .  t o help new  experts to  i n the manner most l i k e l y  Such r e s i d e n t s o c i a l welfare r e -  p r e s e n t a t i v e s were sent to f o u r main regions of a c t i v i t i e s : Europe, the Par East, L a t i n America and the Middle  East.  1  No attempt has been made by the S e c r e t a r i a t to appoint p r o f e s s i o n a l experts who United Nations. ments' requests.  would be permanently attached t o the  Instead, experts are h i r e d a c c o r d i n g to  govern-  I f t h e i r mission i s of long d u r a t i o n , i t seems  to be more advantageous f o r the r e c i p i e n t governments to engage the s e r v i c e s of- an expert i n the s e l e c t i o n of whom the United Nations could help the r e c i p i e n t government. A f t e r the needs of w a r - s t r i c k e n areas were met, expert missions focused on under-developed a r e a s .  the  There was  d e c l i n e i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of European c o u n t r i e s , and  a  their 2  place was  occupied by the Par and Middle East and L a t i n America. S i m i l a r to f e l l o w s h i p s , i n the experts' f i e l d s of as-  signment p r i o r i t y was  1951),  1 p.19. 2  Report  g i v e n to s o c i a l w e l f a r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , of the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l .  See Appendix G, Table  V.  E/1893 (9  January,  97 community, f a m i l y and c h i l d welfare, and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f the handicapped.  P r o g r e s s i v e l y , as the f i e l d s became more d i v e r s i f i e d ,  s o c i a l defence, added.  housing and town and country planning have been  T h i s d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n has p a r t l y r e s u l t e d from the neces-  s i t y of meeting i n c r e a s i n g needs i n l e s s developed P a r a l l e l with the fellow-exchange  regions."'"  programme i n Europe,  arrangements were made f o r short-term assignments of experts. This was l a r g e l y f a c i l i t a t e d by the common nature the area o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e development.  of problems i n  The scheme was based on  r e g i o n a l co-op'eration and promoted mutual a s s i s t a n c e programmes. Within the European programme, up to 1952, eleven exp e r t s were made a v a i l a b l e by t h e i r governments to r e q u e s t i n g c o u n t r i e s i n the f i e l d s of youth and c h i l d welfare, o c c u p a t i o n a l therapy,  s o c i a l casework, and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g .  They were  r e c r u i t e d from A u s t r i a (three e x p e r t s ) , the Netherlands  (three  experts) and from the United Kingdom ( f i v e e x p e r t s ) , and they s e r ved i n F i n l a n d (three e x p e r t s ) , France  ( f o u r experts) and Swit-  zerland ( f o u r e x p e r t s ) . T h i s programme, introduced by the European o f f i c e ,  faci-  l i t a t e d t o the highest p o s s i b l e degree the exchange o f ideas and techniques.  I t c o n s t i t u t e d an e f f e c t i v e and inexpensive means  of i n t e g r a t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l a c t i o n , which could be 2 a p p l i e d and extended to other regions as w e l l . Requests f o r the s e r v i c e s o f s o c i a l welfare a d v i s e r s  p.19.  1  See Appendix G, Table I I .  2  Report of the Secretary-General.  E/CN.5/289/Add.l,  98 have been d e a l t with on the b a s i s of c e r t a i n fundamental  criteria,  such as the nature of the request and i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n , the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f competent personnel to render the s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d , the extent to which the r e q u e s t i n g government was able to c o n t r i bute to the expenses which can be met i n l o c a l currency, and the extent to which s i m i l a r a s s i s t a n c e has been f u r n i s h e d by the United Nations to the same government p r e v i o u s l y .  However, no r i g i d  rule  has been l a i d down concerning how much help was t o be granted to a country, and the United Nations made every attempt t o meet a l l r e quests. The method of sending experts to make p r e l i m i n a r y surveys proved s u c c e s s f u l and has o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n a b e t t e r understanding of the nature of requests, s i n c e , i n such i n s t a n c e s , experts were able to advise governments i n planning s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s . This was even more necessary as requests o f governments, normally r e c e i v e d through t h e i r d e l e g a t i o n to the United Nations, were i n some cases delayed, o r i n v o l v e d misunderstandings  when government  o f f i c i a l s d i d not possess the necessary t e c h n i c a l background o r the terminology.  Expressions such as " s o c i a l w e l f a r e " , " p o l i c y  making", " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n " , had d i f f e r e n t meanings i n d i f f e r e n t countries.  To avoid such misconceptions, the S o c i a l Commission  recommended the p u b l i s h i n g o f a g l o s s a r y i n E n g l i s h , French and Spanish, l i s t i n g s o c i a l welfare terms and drawing a t t e n t i o n t o the d i f f e r e n t meanings which might be attached t o them i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s u s i n g the same language.  T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n has been use-  f u l to Fellows and s c h o l a r s , as w e l l as t o p a r t i c i p a n t s at seminars and c o n f e r e n c e s . 1951.  1  1 S o c i a l Commission, Terminology B u l l e t i n , No. 78, Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , United Nations, New York.  99 Arrangements have been made between the United Nations and the r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s whereby expenses i n c u r r e d i n the adm i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n of the. programme (such as the payment of experts' s a l a r i e s and t h e i r t r a v e l expenses) would be met the United Rations, i f the r e c i p i e n t country was i n l o c a l currency.  by  unable to do so  However, the r e c i p i e n t government was  expec-  ted to meet l o c a l expenses, such as p r o v i d i n g o f f i c e accommodation, s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e , t r a v e l w i t h i n the country, and subsistence allowance. t i e s encountered gramme.  per diem or  There have, however, been some d i f f i c u l -  i n the l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the expert pro-  In some cases the government was  unable to meet a l l  expenses, i n which case the United Rations s u b s i d i z e d them;  in  others, i n t e r p r e t e r s and s e c r e t a r i a l s t a f f were not always a v a i l a ble. Experts i n s o c i a l welfare are s e l e c t e d from v a r i o u s countries.  Although  the S o c i a l Commission of the Economic and  S o c i a l C o u n c i l s t r e s s e d t h a t they should be h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d , i t i s more important t h a t t h e i r experience and l a t e d to those of the r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s .  c u l t u r e should be r e The s o c i a l welfare  a d v i s e r should be f a m i l i a r with s o c i a l problems i n r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s and should have a b i l i t y to work with l o c a l personnel. Although, b a s i c a l l y , s o c i a l work methods and techniques are g e n e r i c and a p p l i c a b l e to a l l f i e l d s of s o c i a l welfare, i t i s important that the s o c i a l welfare a d v i s e r have thorough  experience  i n the a r e a i n which he i s t o c o n s u l t with the government or welfare agencies.  But, i n a d d i t i o n to being an expert, he must be a good  p r a c t i t i o n e r who,  p r o v i d i n g good a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s and  demonstra-  t i n g methods, i s a l s o able to e s t a b l i s h a p o s i t i v e working  relation-  100 s h i p with a l l ranks of s o c i a l workers. The S o c i a l Welfare D i v i s i o n of the Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s compiled  a r o s t e r o f experts from d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s and  made i t a v a i l a b l e to governments r e q u e s t i n g such a s s i s t a n c e .  The  r o s t e r took i n t o account the experts', experience as w e l l as t h e i r language q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  However, t h i s method d i d not always  prove to be a p p l i c a b l e because i t had to be re-adjusted and r e v i s e d too f r e q u e n t l y .  The p r a c t i c e at the present time i s t h a t the  United Nations, upon the request of governments, c o n s u l t s the r e s p o n s i b l e agencies o f d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s , which i n t u r n provide a list  of suggestions which are then communicated to the r e q u e s t i n g  government. nominations.  1  The l a t t e r i s f r e e t o choose, accept or r e j e c t T h e i r choice i s o f t e n d i r e c t e d towards those  wel-  f a r e a d v i s e r s who have worked i n c o u n t r i e s under the UNRRA, and t h e r e f o r e d i d not r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l p e r i o d of adjustment, and, who were f a m i l i a r w i t h the economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the country. There i s l i t t l e  emphasis on the o r i e n t a t i o n o f experts  p r i o r to t h e i r departure from t h e i r home country.  I t i s evident,  however, that i t would h e l p experts i f they were to acquaint themselves with the s p e c i a l l i t e r a t u r e on the area or the problems i n the country of t h e i r assignments. s o c i o l o g y , anthropology,  C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f experts i n  economics and diplomacy would provide  v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e t o s o c i a l welfare a d v i s e r s and i t would be h e l p f u l i f these could be made a v a i l a b l e to s o c i a l welfare experts 1 See Appendix I (copy o f the a p p l i c a t i o n form f o r r e c r u i t i n g experts used by the S o c i a l Welfare Panel o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l Co-operation D i v i s i o n , Department of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa.)  101 p r i o r to t h e i r departure. The major part of o r i e n t a t i o n and b r i e f i n g Is done at the United Nations headquarters, where the expert's m i s s i o n i s made c l e a r and i s f i n a l i z e d .  A b r i e f p e r i o d i s devoted to the under-  standing of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures, and of the work of present and past m i s s i o n s .  The  s p e c i a l i z e d agencies who  experts are a l s o asked to c o n s u l t the have been a c t i v e i n h i s f i e l d .  In  cases where the experts are unable to come to the headquarters, b r i e f i n g i s done through  correspondence.  The f i n a l stage of o r i e n t a t i o n i s upon the expert's a r r i v a l i n the r e c i p i e n t country. quarters may  Since the United Nations head-  not be f a m i l i a r w i t h the recent economic and  social  developments of the country, the r e g i o n a l s o c i a l welfare a d v i s e r s are h e l p f u l i n b r i n g i n g experts up to date. Experience showed t h a t the more the expert knew about the country of h i s assignment, the p r e v a l e n t welfare problems, tance he could o f f e r .  the b e t t e r was  h i s understanding of  and the more profound the a s s i s -  B r i e f i n g a t the headquarters had been  l a c k i n g i n an organized programme of o r i e n t a t i o n and was  based  mainly on i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h v a r i o u s s t a f f members. was mainly due to d i f f i c u l t i e s which u n d e r - s t a f f i n g and  This  multipli-  c i t y of demands on s t a f f made i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and administra^t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t departments.  The T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Ad-  m i n i s t r a t i o n , however, made a r e a l e f f o r t to i r o n out these  diffi-  culties.  was  To t h i s end, an Inter-Departmental Working Group  set up i n 1951,  which pooled the recommendations and opinions of  experts and Fellows who  had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the programme.  Their  102 suggestions were concerned with, among others, planned  orientation  p e r i o d s , the appointment o f a s p e c i f i c s t a f f member to be respons i b l e f o r the s u p e r v i s i o n of the expert o r Fellow's  orientation,  and a c o m p i l a t i o n of a d i v i s i o n a l manual o u t l i n i n g h i s t o r i c growth, purposes,  f u n c t i o n s , programmes, d i v i s i o n a l and departmental o r -  g a n i z a t i o n and programme, p o l i c i e s and s e r v i c e s , and f i e l d dures.  The United Nations documents and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h  procepartici-  pants d i d not i n d i c a t e t h a t these recommendations have been followed up.  However, the S e c r e t a r i a t compiled  reference l i s t s of printed  m a t e r i a l , and provided study k i t s encompassing economic and s o c i a l analyses o f d i f f e r e n t under-developed  areas which a l s o i n d i c a t e  how f a r these c o u n t r i e s have been able t o adapt Western methods. As soon as the s o c i a l welfare a d v i s e r i s a b l e t o gauge the l a t t e r , he w i l l know to a degree the s o c i a l welfare problems f a c i n g the urban p o p u l a t i o n ;  the degree to which there has o r has not been  land reform, f o r i n s t a n c e , w i l l be i n d i c a t i v e o f the s o c i a l f a r e problems f a c i n g r u r a l communities. completed  under the t i t l e  "Report  wel-  Such a survey has been  on the World S o c i a l S i t u a t i o n " ,  with s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o under-developed  areas, as mentioned i n  the previous chapter. As i n the f e l l o w s h i p programme, experts a r e requested to provide the United Nations w i t h monthly and f i n a l reports.  comprehensive  Monthly r e p o r t s c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on r e l a t i o n s w i t h  governments, f a c i l i t i e s a f f o r d e d and d i f f i c u l t i e s  encountered.  They a l s o i n c l u d e a progress r e p o r t and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f techniques which were employed i n c a r r y i n g out a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s . The  f i n a l report covers s u b s t a n t i a l aspects of the work,  103 the expert's views and advice on problems'of, h i s m i s s i o n , and h i s own  e v a l u a t i o n of h i s accomplishments.  Recommendations made by  the a d v i s e r s are sent to the r e c i p i e n t governments, as w e l l as to the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and to the  affiliated  agencies. The  e v a l u a t i o n of the services- of s o c i a l welfare a d v i s e r s  i s a task which can only be done i n co-operation with governments.  Comprehensive follow-up  time, are e s s e n t i a l t o assess how  s t u d i e s , a f t e r a p e r i o d of  this contribution affected social  c o n d i t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s and communities. ture was  completed i n 1951,  recipient  A study of t h i s  but i t s f i n d i n g s are not  na-  available.  Reports and documents of the United Nations i n d i c a t e that s c h o l a r s h i p s , f e l l o w s h i p s and med  expert advice have so f a r f o r -  the core of•the programme of a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s .  The reason f o r t h i s i s l i k e l y that these methods were the most f e a s i b l e and  could best be u t i l i z e d  s o c i a l welfare programmes, formulate  i n the endeavour to improve p o l i c i e s and provide p r o f e s -  s i o n a l personnel to implement the p l a n s . Expert advice, s c h o l a r s h i p s and a new  method i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l welfare.  f e l l o w s h i p s introduced T h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s have  been e s s e n t i a l and were most s u c c e s s f u l l y u t i l i z e d to r a i s e l i v i n g standards used advanced  i n an attempt  and enable under-developed c o u n t r i e s to  experience.  In most under-developed c o u n t r i e s , the l a c k of schools of s o c i a l work and the absence of q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l work i n s t r u c t o r s was  a s e r i o u s impediment to the improvement of s o c i a l w e l f a r e .  104 To f i l l  such a gap r e q u i r e s considerable time, e s p e c i a l l y as a l l  aspects of l i v i n g of a community have to be encountered before t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s can be e s t a b l i s h e d .  The s o c i a l worker's r o l e ,  i n every community, i s to meet prevalent needs.  The needs t h e r e -  f o r e c o n t r o l the c u r r i c u l u m which i s t o prepare the worker f o r h i s task.  The United Nations  has been a s s i s t i n g governments i n p l a n -  ning and s e t t i n g up schools of s o c i a l work.  Preliminary studies  to t h i s end r e q u i r e d s e v e r a l months or years, meanwhile  there  was  a need f o r t r a i n e d workers, who would e v e n t u a l l y share t h e i r knowledge In the schools and who would provide s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare  The  s e r v i c e s , by p r o v i d i n g f e l l o w s h i p s , s c h o l a r -  ships and expert advice, met t h i s demand to a c e r t a i n extent.  But  the n e c e s s i t y f o r such t r a i n i n g s t i l l p r e v a i l s , even though the programme met the immediate needs.  In order, however, to imple-  ment i n t e g r a t e d programmes of s o c i a l welfare, the r e c i p i e n t t r i e s w i l l have to continue  coun-  t r a i n i n g on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , because  only f a r - s i g h t e d and comprehensive s o c i a l work education  can pro-  v i d e s e r v i c e , adequate to reach a l l c l a s s e s of the n a t i o n .  CHAPTER IV SOCIAL WELFARE SEMINARS, CONFERENCES • AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS  In a d d i t i o n to the formal t r a i n i n g of i n d i v i d u a l  social  workers, the programme of a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s a l s o adopted methods which have been a p p l i e d to s o c i a l work p r e v i o u s l y . Seminars and  conferences have been used i n s o c i a l work n a t i o n a l l y  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y and a l s o In formal education i n schools of s o c i a l work.  T h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the value of inter-change  of  ideas, d i s c u s s i o n of common problems and developments i n technique and methods.  In the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes these  aspects  have been e s s e n t i a l , but i n a d d i t i o n seminars and conferences have been used f o r the purposes of r e g i o n a l planning of welfare grammes.  The  developmental  pro-  emphasis on the governments' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r planning as a p r e r e q u i s i t e to t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e  showed i t s e f f e c t by b r i n g i n g neighbouring governments together not only i n b e t t e r mutual understanding  but a l s o i n j o i n t  responsibili-  ties.  Seminars and  Conferences  Under the p o l i c i e s and procedures S o c i a l Commission i n 1 9 5 0 ,  the purpose of a seminar i s to provide  ah o p p o r t u n i t y during a p e r i o d of two l i s t s and persons  l a i d down by the  to three weeks to s p e c i a -  from p a r t i c i p a t i n g c o u n t r i e s , who  are r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r policy-making, planning of programmes, or d i r e c t i n g operations  106 in  s o c i a l welfare to (a) d i s c u s s among themselves, und'er the  dership of a United Nations  s o c i a l welfare  expert, the most recent  t e c h n i c a l developments i n t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s , methods of s o l v i n g s o c i a l problems i n v o l v e d i n these and  lea-  (b) compare developments,  (c) develop the f i n d i n g s of such comparative s t u d i e s with a  view to promoting s o c i a l  progress.  Seminars can be h e l d i n areas where s o c i a l problems are s i m i l a r , or among groups of nations with a common c u l t u r a l background.  They can be of g r e a t e s t advantage i f they are conducted .  on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , a l l o w i n g maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Under the programme, the United Rations a u t h o r i z e d c a t e g o r i e s of seminars:  ( l ) Regional meetings, administered  by the Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s and, Assistance Administration;  three first  l a t e r , by the T e c h n i c a l  ( 2 ) Seminars i n Europe, under the  European Exchange P l a n , organized by the European Regional O f f i c e of the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ;  and  ( 3 ) Conferences,  organized by a government or a group of governments with the tance  assis-  of the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The  seminars show a trend i n the d i r e c t i o n of more i n t i -  mate exchange of views between persons on the same t e c h n i c a l l e v e l , with a focus of a t t e n t i o n on s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t s . been u t i l i z e d ing  They have a l s o  i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and  and promoting t r a i n i n g of workers from l e s s developed  evaluatareas.  1  In a d m i n i s t e r i n g such programmes, the r e q u e s t i n g governments and welfare o f f i c i a l s . a r e asked to draw up. a t e n t a t i v e pro1  See Appendix G, Table  VII.  107 gramme, suggest  t o p i c s f o r l e c t u r e s and submit them to the T e c h n i -  c a l Assistance Administration f o r approval.  T h e r e a f t e r , the or-  g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the host country, while l e c t u r e r s and experts f o r the seminars are s e l e c t e d by the United Nations on the spot, or o f t e n from neighbouring tries.  Since the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process i s l e f t to the  coun-  initiating  government, or governments, t h i s encourages neighbouring c o u n t r i e s to a s s i s t each other. A seminar of great s i g n i f i c a n c e i n European welfare grammes was  h e l d i n Copenhagen on a l c o h o l i s m , upon the  of the Danish Government,.in November 1951. and the WHO  co-operated  experts concerned problem.  pro-  initiative  The United  Nations  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , and brought together  with a l c o h o l i s m as a p u b l i c h e a l t h and  welfare  The p a r t i c i p a n t s were experts i n a v a r i e t y of t e c h n i -  c a l f i e l d s , such as s o c i o l o g y , s o c i a l work, f a m i l y care, welfare a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , criminology, penology, law enforcement and h o l i c beverage c o n t r o l .  alco-  They came from A u s t r i a , Belgium, F i n l a n d ,  France, Norway, Sweden, S w i t z e r l a n d , West Germany and  Yugoslavia  and were awarded f e l l o w s h i p s by the WHO."'" The European Seminar on S o c i a l Questions, h e l d i n P a r i s , i n November 1949, p r o j e c t s and  had f a r reaching e f f e c t s i n developing f u r t h e r  i n t e g r a t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y accepted  national policies.  techniques  At the time of t h i s seminar, the  into  Italian  Government had been engaged i n b r i n g i n g about l e g i s l a t i v e measures to curb j u v e n i l e delinquency.  • The M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e of t h i s  1 Secretary-General, Report on United Nations Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e . Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l . E/2209 (21 A p r i l , 1952) p.70. New York.  108 country, who  has attended the P a r i s seminar, i n i t i a t e d the o r g a n i -  z i n g of a s i m i l a r p r o j e c t on j u v e n i l e delinquency i n I t a l y . Secretary-General chose from v a r i o u s other c o u n t r i e s f i v e  The  experts  s p e c i a l i z i n g i n j u v e n i l e delinquency, to l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s and, thus, give the members of the seminar the b e n e f i t of t h e i r experience. The Seminar was r e s t i n g and  h e l d i n Rome i n 1950.  I t was  an  inte-  o r i g i n a l experiment which gave an o p p o r t u n i t y to a l l  r e s p o n s i b l e personnel i n the p r e v e n t i o n and treatment  of young  offenders to share t h e i r knowledge and d i s c u s s the best methods that could be a p p l i e d i n I t a l y , and that could help personnel to perform  i t s duties. Another seminar developed  h e l d i n B r u s s e l s , i n December 1951,  out of t h i s t r e n d .  This  upon the i n i t i a t i v e of the  Government of Belgium, with the co-operation of the WHO. seminar d e a l t with the "Medical, P s y c h i a t r i c and S o c i a l of Offenders".  E i g h t y - t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s represented  governments at the seminar.  1  was  Each was  The Examination eighteen  asked to nominate a team  of experts from among i t s members to represent the  judicial,  s c i e n t i f i c and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e aspects of the problem.  The  experts  were assigned to corresponding workshops, the meetings of which formed the major part of the a c t i v i t i e s .  P r i o r to the seminar,  p u b l i c a t i o n s were d i s t r i b u t e d and each p a r t i c i p a t i n g country supp l i e d a comprehensive report on i t s methods of d e a l i n g w i t h o f f e n ders.  In t h i s way  nineteen r e p o r t s were c i r c u l a t e d i n advance.  1 The p a r t i c i p a n t s came from the f o l l o w i n g c o u n t r i e s : A u s t r i a , Belgium, Denmark, F i n l a n d , Greece, Germany, I s r a e l , I t a l y , Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, P o r t u g a l , Sweden, S w i t z e r l a n d , Turkey, the United Kingdom and Y u g o s l a v i a .  109 The  f i n d i n g s and  recommendations of the seminar were d i s t r i b u t e d  to a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g and n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g countries."'" F o l l o w i n g the B r u s s e l s Seminar, a f u r t h e r i n s t i t u t e lowed which d e a l t with Probation,  i n London (1952).  The  United  Nations made a v a i l a b l e the s e r v i c e s of eight experts and f a c u l t y members, i n a d d i t i o n to those who z i n g the seminar. represented workers.  by The  The  fol-  four  were i n charge of o r g a n i -  s i x t e e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g governments were  j u d i c i a r y and  c o r r e c t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and  purpose of the seminar was  and views on the p r a c t i c e of, and  to exchange  social  information  t r a i n i n g f o r , probation,  inclu-  ding c r i t e r i a f o r e l i g i b i l i t y f o r casework s e r v i c e s , s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g of personnel,  and the observation  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and  treatment procedures i n the United Kingdom, i n c l u d i n g the prepar a t i o n of s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s , methods of s u p e r v i s i o n , r e c o r d i n g  and  2 u t i l i z i n g auxiliary social services. Seminars under the European Exchange P l a n represent i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n of the group method. f e a t u r e s are mainly i n t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Their d i s t i n c t i v e The  host  i n which the seminar i s h e l d , provides h o s p i t a l i t y and f a c i l i t i e s f r e e of charge f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s . t r i b u t i o n r e c i p r o c a l v i s i t s of i t s own  personnel  country, conference  For t h i s conto other  c i p a t i n g c o u n t r i e s are the compensation, at a l a t e r date. r e t u r n v i s i t s are v a l u a b l e from s e v e r a l a s p e c t s . and  s t i m u l a t e interchange  of ideas and  techniques  E/2209,  p.71.  2  E/CN.5/289/Add.5, pp.26-29.  partiThe  They extend i n s o c i a l wel-  f a r e , and they a l s o s t i m u l a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-operation, 1  an  bringing  110 together governments and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n s . Up to the year 1953,  there have been f o u r seminars, a l l  studying s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g and o f f e r i n g workshops and f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel.  T h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n was  courses  especially  v a l u a b l e i n Europe where i n c o n t i n e n t a l c o u n t r i e s casework t e c h niques have not been developed  to any great extent.  niques which were thus developed  The  tech-  marked the beginning of the p l a n -  n i n g f o r courses i n s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g .  Through a c q u i r i n g the  p r i n c i p l e s and methods of s o c i a l casework, and d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e s , these seminars could be f u r t h e r u t i l i z e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and The  f i r s t two  S w i t z e r l a n d , i n 1950  practice.  of these seminars were h e l d i n Geneva,  and 1951-  The workers were s e l e c t e d accor-  ding t o t h e i r knowledge of a common language, which was f o r the Seminar i n 1950,  and E n g l i s h i n 1951-  French  The seminars were  organized by the United Nations, i n co-operation with the Swiss Government, the Aide Suisse a 1'Europe, and the Geneva School of S o c i a l Studies.  The main t o p i c s of d i s c u s s i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t  i n the development of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g .  These d e a l t w i t h  the s o c i a l worker's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h those whom he h e l p s , techniques i n i n t e r v i e w i n g , teamwork i n s o c i a l  case-  work, use of community resources, and the r o l e of the s u p e r v i s o r of s o c i a l welfare agencies i n the t r a i n i n g of t h e i r  staff.  A seminar on foster-home care of c h i l d r e n was Oslo, i n J u l y , 1952,  1  held i n  organized by the United Nations, the Nor-  wegian M i n i s t e r of S o c i a l A f f a i r s and the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Oslo. 1  Ibid.  Ill  The t h i r t y - e i g h t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t e n "Exchange Plan" c o u n t r i e s studied and d i s c u s s e d foster-home care s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r c o u n t r i e s . T h i s comparative a n a l y s i s of t h e d i v e r s i t y of needs and methods r e s u l t e d i n t h e improvement of s e r v i c e s i n child-placement. F o l l o w i n g t h i s p r o j e c t , a seminar was h e l d i n Keerun, F i n l a n d , i n August, .1952, f o r s i x t y - t h r e e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers, s u p e r v i s o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s from thir-r teen "Exchange Plan" c o u n t r i e s .  I t was organized by the United  Nations Geneva O f f i c e i n co-operation w i t h the F i n n i s h M i n i s t e r ozf S o c i a l A f f a i r s and the WHO, with an emphasis on general work techniques  case-  and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programmes.  Miss M a r j o r i e J . Smith, D i r e c t o r o f the School of S o c i a l Work,  1  found that European workers were eager to l e a r n from the  North American experience, which revealed to them t h a t not only were casework problems on t h i s continent, analogous with experienced concepts  those  by the European students, but many p r i n c i p l e s and  of casework were European i n o r i g i n . The  seminar came to r e a l i z e t h a t , . i n order to be able  to p r a c t i s e as a p r o f e s s i o n a l caseworker, three kinds o f i n t e grated knowledge and understanding rough grounding behaviour, society;  are r e q u i r e d :  " f i r s t a tho-  i n s o c i a l sciences and i n the knowledge of human  that i s , a s c i e n t i f i c base of knowledge about man and second, c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s toward people and t h e i r needs  and r i g h t s ;  and t h i r d , a set o f s k i l l s i n c l u d i n g such t h i n g s as  i n t e r v i e w i n g techniques, the establishment  of relationships, selec-  2 t i o n o f m a t e r i a l and r e c o r d i n g , e t c . " 1 Interviewed by the w r i t e r . 2 Smith, M a r j o r i e J . , "Casework Across the A t l a n t i c " , Canadian Welfare. XXVIII, No.8 (15 March, 1953), pp.28-32.  112 Her main c o n c l u s i o n , however, which i s a l s o a b a s i c c i p l e of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes Is t h a t "One  prin-  of the most  important l e s s o n s to be learned from such an experience as teachi n g p r o f e s s i o n a l casework i n a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e , i s that one. cannot merely teach techniques and expect them to be accepted used i n the same way as they have been developed Techniques  i n themselves  pulate and c o n t r o l .  i n North  and America.  can be dangerous and can be used to mani-  Most important i s to teach the a t t i t u d e s ,  b e l i e f s and philosophy upon which s o c i a l work r e s t s - the Importance of the i n d i v i d u a l , acceptance of people as they are, h e l p f u l n e s s , no i m p o s i t i o n of ideas or domination, the r i g h t of the person to s e l f determination.  I f these a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s  be accepted and are t r a d i t i o n a l i n the c u l t u r e then t e c h n i c a l can be e a s i l y taught and  can skills  assimilated."  The programme of exchange of s o c i a l work personnel, i n i t i a t e d by the Regional O f f i c e of the Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , i n Geneva, proved t o be very s u c c e s s f u l . p o r a r i l y d i s c o n t i n u e d i n Europe,  tem-  plans were made to i n t r o d u c e the  "Exchange of Fellows and Seminars" regions, where, on account  Although i t was  method i n the L a t i n American  of c u l t u r a l and economic s i m i l a r i t i e s ,  such a programme c o u l d be used t o the advantage of a l l p a r t i c i pants . S o c i a l welfare conferences are organized on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s under the United Nations s o c i a l welfare a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s . The governing p r i n c i p l e of t h i s method i s found., i n the b e l i e f that many s o c i a l problems are r e g i o n a l and stem from indigenous ditions .  con-  113 While s e r i e s of conferences  were organized  i n the Middle  East, with the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Arab S t a t e s , the Regional ference of S o c i a l Workers which had r e s u l t s was  perhaps the most f a r - r e a c h i n g  one d e a l i n g with "Problems of P h y s i c a l l y Handicapped  C h i l d r e n and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Centres".  T h i s conference  i n Jamshedpur, I n d i a , i n December 1950.  organized upon the recommendation of Dr. J . P.  Par E a s t e r n S o c i a l Welfare Representative  held  education.  Bulsara,  of the United  T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and was M i n i s t e r of Education  was  I t s programme i n c l u d e d  such t o p i c s as methods of care, treatment, t r a i n i n g and I t was  Con-  Nations  i n i t i a t e d by  of the Government of I n d i a , who  the  approached  the Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s to a s s i s t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . A f t e r the United Nations'  approval was  obtained,  t a t i o n s were sent to the governments of Afghanistan, Ceylon,  Indonesia,  Invi-  Burma,  P a k i s t a n , the P h i l i p p i n e s , T h a i l a n d and  United Kingdom T e r r i t o r i e s In South East Asia,.each  1  the  to send  two  s p e c i a l i s t s , or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to c o n t r i b u t e data and papers on the s u b j e c t .  Pive governments, those  of Ceylon,  Indonesia,  I n d i a , the P h i l i p p i n e s and Thailand agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e . For economic and p u b l i c i t y purposes, the conference  was  h e l d at the same time and place as the 4th Annual S e s s i o n of the Indian Conference of S o c i a l Work (Jamshedpur, 22-26 December, 1950).  The  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the conference  was  entrusted by  the  T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n to the r e l e v a n t body of the Indian Conference of S o c i a l Work, whereas expenses were assumed by the Government of I n d i a . 1  Request No.  A d d i t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s were  P 3-9/50-D2 (9 August, 1950).  114 r e c e i v e d from the UNESCO, ILO, WHO m a t e r i a l was The  and the UNICEF, and  published  sent by other i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . p a r t i c i p a n t s were s i x t y - e i g h t s p e c i a l i s t s :  doctors,  therapists, educationists, psychologists, psychiatrists,  teachers,  v o c a t i o n a l guidance and t r a i n i n g experts, and The task of the conference  was  s o c i a l workers.  t o survey the nature and the  extent  of problems i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , evaluate the steps a l r e a d y taken to meet the needs, and to prepare an " a c t i o n - p r o j e c t " to and organize treatment  systematize  and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l l y  handi-  capped. The  Jamshedpur Conference emphasized the importance of  c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the medical,  e d u c a t i o n a l , employment and  s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and between these and the home and the community with a view to enabling the s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f the handicapped child. The recommendations of the conference  d e a l t with  the  improvement of methods of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and f u r t h e r research to be undertaken by governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s and by the t a t i v e s of the medical and a l l i e d p r o f e s s i o n s .  Those recommen-  dations which required the immediate a t t e n t i o n of the t i o n s were the f o l l o w i n g r "(a) Formulation  represen-  organiza-  1  of l e g i s l a t i o n to  enforce  1 Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , Progress Report i n the Field of—Social Activities. E/CN.5/240 (January-December 1950), pp.24-25. See also': E/1893, p.12, and T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Admin i s t r a t i o n Conference and Seminar S e r i e s N o . l . ST/TAA/SER.C/2 ( J u l y 1951).  115 r e g i s t r a t i o n of the handicapped f o r s t a t i s t i c a l data;  was  (b  Establishment d i a g n o s i s and  (c  Promotion of general s o c i a l welfare measures;  (d  Use  (e  T r a i n i n g of s p e c i a l i s t s and t h e i r employment by i n s t i t u t i o n s ;  (f  Establishment of workshops to provide mechan i c a l a i d f o r the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped;  (g  T r a i n i n g of t e c h n i c i a n s to produce aid;  (h  V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped;  (i  P u b l i c employment s e r v i c e s f o r the handicapped;  (3  E s t a b l i s h i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n centres, wards and schools with modern equipment;  (k  P u b l i c education to change a t t i t u d e s of p u b l i c , f a m i l y and employers;  (1  C o - o r d i n a t i o n of a l l e f f o r t s f o r treatment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n by the United Nations and i t s s p e c i a l i z e d agencies;  (m  E x p l o r a t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a p i l o t p r o j e c t f o r t r a i n i n g of personnel f o r t r e a t ment, and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , by the United Nations and the s p e c i a l i z e d agencies f o r c o u n t r i e s and regions who request i t . "  The  conference,  of s e r v i c e s f o r e a r l y d i s c o v e r y , treatment;  of modern s a f e t y devices i n i n d u s t r y ;  the f i r s t  mechanical  of i t s kind i n the Par East,  not an end i n i t s e l f , but a means to an end.  It facilitated  v a l u a b l e contacts, mutual exchange of views and of e s s e n t i a l i n formation. thusiasm.  I t c l a r i f i e d problems and aroused  i n t e r e s t and  en-  ,Its main purpose, however, can be served only when  the p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves,  and other co-workers i n the  fields  u t i l i z e the r e s u l t s toward an i n t e n s i v e follow-up and f o r m u l a t i o n and execution of p r a c t i c a l programmes of work.  116 Demonstration and P i l o t P r o j e c t s Under the s o c i a l welfare a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s , p r o v i s i o n was made f o r the United, Nations to "organize and p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r o j e c t s f o r experimenting  i n , or demonstrating  s o c i a l welfare and, to provide the necessary i n connection t h e r e w i t h . "  v a r i o u s phases of  t o o l s and equipment  1  The demonstration  p r o j e c t s i n c o r p o r a t e t e c h n i c a l advice,  a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s t o governments, seminars and the p r o v i s i o n of f e l l o w s h i p s and s c h o l a r s h i p s , s i n c e t h e i r b a s i c aim i s to establ i s h centres where p r a c t i c e and academic t e a c h i n g can be u t i l i z e d i n connection with prevalent s o c i a l needs of a country or a r e g i o n . The p r o j e c t s are implemented upon the request of governments, on the b a s i s of the recommendations of welfare a d v i s e r s , and of P e l lows who had been observing s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s abroad.  They can  be e s t a b l i s h e d to serve a s p e c i a l i z e d need, and to conduct r e search, or to provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r general t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l welfare. The f i r s t Egypt,  such demonstration  centre was e s t a b l i s h e d i n  i n 1951, upon the recommendation of the United  Welfare A d v i s e r , who  Nations  i n t h i s instance was Dr. Harry Cassidy, one  of Canada's best known welfare educators and r e s e a r c h e r s .  Upon  the government's request, the United Nations a s s i s t e d i n s e t t i n g up a demonstration  centre f o r the s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the  b l i n d , a problem prevalent i n a l l Arab S t a t e s .  T h i s centre was  to t r a i n Egyptian n a t i o n a l s , and a l s o to serve as a  1  demonstration  United Nations General Assembly R e s o l u t i o n 418(V).  117 p r o j e c t at which n a t i o n a l s  of the r e g i o n could be introduced to  modern methods of education, Experts, fellowships  t r a i n i n g and employment of the  blind.'  and equipment f o r the p r o j e c t were provided by  the United Nations and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n . e s s e n t i a l value of t h i s p r o j e c t was i n r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s  on the  causes and methods of the prevention and treatment  of  and  education,  i n the s e r v i c e s provided i n medical treatment,  The  blindness, voca-  /  t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and placement^for employment. was e s t a b l i s h e d  A similar  centre  i n Turkey, i n 1952, under the programme of a d v i - -  sory s o c i a l welfare  services.  1  In connection with the Yugoslav f e l l o w s h i p s  programme,  the government decided to set up a p i l o t demonstration centre serve as a t r a i n i n g  ground to s p e c i a l i s t s i n the  to  rehabilitation  of p h y s i c a l l y handicapped i n Y u g o s l a v i a and i n other p a r t s of Europe. and  I t was equipped to t r e a t t h i r t y - f i v e r e s i d e n t  one hundred o u t p a t i e n t s ,  equipment,  patients  to which the United Nations  and awarded f e l l o w s h i p s  supplied  f o r the team of eight  experts.  T h i s was the f i r s t major r e h a b i l i t a t i o n centre under the  sponsor-  ship of the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , opened i n B e l grade,  i n October 1952. Succeeding these p r o j e c t s ,  been e s t a b l i s h e d and  in Asia.  i n other countries  seminar p r o j e c t s ,  1  i n Europe, i n South America  However, t h e i r development,  programme of f e l l o w s h i p s  difficulties  s e v e r a l s i m i l a r centres have  and expert  compared with the  services,  or even with the  has been much slower on account of  technical  which were encountered i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of  setting  E/CN.5/289/Add.5. •• p.29-  See a l s o :  ST/TAA/SER.B/15  (October 1951).  pp.3-4.  118 up d e m o n s t r a t i o n example, serve  the  the  centres.  necessity  to  One s u c h d i f f i c u l t y train  q u a l i f i e d personnel  In the  Social  the  view to  connection with  the  United  social  to  welfare  services,  Economic and S o c i a l  Council  expressed  the  field  function  r e c o g n i t i o n was g i v e n t o  welfare,  and  regional  is  a  clearing-house  of  essential  of the the  programme  importance  and,  second,  the  i n United  accumulated  technical  publications,  In addition to  i n f o r m a t i o n and  films,  also  the  equipment,  social  it  was  first  f o r the  professional organized wide  literature  fashion.  organization,  necessity  to  been  w a s made  took t h i s social  and  the  work t h a t  in a centralized  United  step underlines welfare  of  Nations, the  a  and  collecprevious-  organizations.  of s o c i a l  available  that  publications  accumulated  field  of  special studies The method  international  i n the  The f a c t  promote  Printed have  time  and  welfare  printed  d i s s e m i n a t i n g t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n had been used professions  social  establishment  centres,  cen-  available  ting  by numerous  available.  to  of  reports  ly  made  fields  periodic and  were  demonstration  aspects;  of developing,  and  reference  informa-  f r o m two  m a t e r i a l w a s made  N a t i o n s programmes  in institutions.  for  importance.  collecting information i n different  participants  personnel  would  advisory social  Nations that  welfare  T h i s move b r o a d e n e d  tralizing  who  for  Information  the  Commission o f the  i n the  First,  been,  programme.  Technical  tion  has  But a l l and  world-  awareness  of  the  internationally.  of the  classified,  different  social  together with  sciences  studies  on  119 c h i l d and f a m i l y welfare, s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and These are a l l u t i l i z e d  social  defence.  i n the a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare  The s e r i e s of Study K i t s  1  services.  on " S o c i a l Progress Through S o c i a l A c t i o n "  provides a u s e f u l t o o l i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n and development. Films have proved  to be e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l as a means of  v i s u a l education to s o c i a l workers.  The Geneva O f f i c e of the  S o c i a l Welfare D i v i s i o n was  to e s t a b l i s h a f i l m - l i b r a r y ,  c o n s i s t i n g of 316  the f i r s t  s o c i a l welfare f i l m s f o r l o a n .  c o l l e c t i o n i s q u i t e unique i n number and any s i m i l a r attempt of the past.  T h i s extensive  i n quality, surpassing  I t s items, demonstrating  work methods, have been e x t e n s i v e l y used by welfare and schools of s o c i a l work i n Europe, and,  institutions  f o l l o w i n g the European  example, other regions have a l s o adopted t h i s A s p e c i a l p r o j e c t was  social  technique.  undertaken i n I n d i a , where, under  the s u p e r v i s i o n of the United Nations, Dr. K. S. Mashkar, Techn i c a l A d v i s e r and Honorary S e c r e t a r y of the Bombay Mother's and C h i l d r e n ' s Welfare S o c i e t y , i n i t i a t e d the p r o d u c t i o n of f o u r f i l m s concerning the r o l e of the s o c i a l welfare worker i n I n d i a i n the f i e l d s of m a t e r n i t y welfare, i n f a n t care, environmental and the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped  welfare,  children.  T h i s method of t e a c h i n g solved a double problem i n I n d i a : need f o r s o c i a l workers, and the l a c k of education f o r r u r a l welfare personnel.  facilities  Since, i n most r u r a l areas, wel-  f a r e workers l a c k the opportunity f o r formal education, l e a r n by i m i t a t i o n .  the  they  The f i l m i s accompanied by a t e x t o f com-  mentary and by l a r g e s t i l l photographs o f the e s s e n t i a l steps i n 1 "The United Nations S e r i e s on Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and Development", published j o i n t l y by the UN and the UNESCO. ST/SOA/SER.0/ ST/TAA/SER.D/  120 training.  These f i l m s and  e x h i b i t s are loaned f r e e of charge to  s o c i a l welfare t r a i n i n g centres, to p u b l i c h e a l t h nurses, h e a l t h v i s i t o r s , c o l l e g e s and  universities.  1  The use of f i l m s i n t e a c h i n g s o c i a l work i n I n d i a i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t because the s e r v i c e s which are provided the techniques used have t o be complementary to the l i f e and t u r e , as w e l l as to the needs of the community.  The  and  cul-  r o l e of the  s o c i a l worker i n t h i s country d i f f e r s from the North American or European concept because i t i n c l u d e s b a s i c hygiene  and  medical  s e r v i c e s as w e l l as the education of r u r a l communities. • In add i t i o n to f e l l o w s h i p s and  expert advice, which are important  the l o n g run i n the development of s o c i a l welfare, these  in  inter-  -mediary steps help those r u r a l communities i n which w e l f a r e s t a n dards are not yet comparable with the more advanced r e g i o n s . Demonstration equipment s u p p l i e d under the programme has so f a r been r e s t r i c t e d to p r o s t h e t i c m a t e r i a l f o r the rehab i l i t a t i o n . of the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped, and has been provided f o r the use of demonstration  and teach i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n centres  i n Yugoslavia, I s r a e l , Egypt, Turkey and Guatemala. The Geneva O f f i c e has,  i n a d d i t i o n to such equipment,  i n c l u d e d , as an e s s e n t i a l t o o l i n s o c i a l work education, the of case-records.  use  In order to supply schools of s o c i a l work i n  Europe w i t h such m a t e r i a l , s i m i l a r schools In North America were requested t o c o n t r i b u t e from t h e i r current c a s e - m a t e r i a l to t h i s new  record l i b r a r y i n Geneva.  These f i l e s , adopted from  1 "UN S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s " , I n d i a J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Work. IX, No.l (June 1948), pp.77-78.  a c t u a l casework and group work p r a c t i c e g i v e European students an opportunity to analyse and study the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e o r y to practice. S p e c i a l s t u d i e s on d i f f e r e n t aspects of s o c i a l welfare have been conducted  by the S o c i a l Commission i n co-operation with  the S o c i a l Welfare D i v i s i o n o f the United Nations.  These i n c l u d e  t e x t s of s o c i a l welfare l e g i s l a t i o n s of t h i r t y - f i v e c o u n t r i e s , published and d i s t r i b u t e d year by year, showing changes t h a t occur.  In a d d i t i o n to f a m i l y and c h i l d welfare and prevention of  crime and treatment  of o f f e n d e r s , these cover t e x t s r e l a t i n g to  i n t e r n a t i o n a l conventions on the suppression of p r o s t i t u t i o n  and  t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f the handicapped,  and  the welfare of the aged. In  order t o provide, f i r s t l y ,  governments, and,  secondly,  experts and United Nations Fellows with the best p o s s i b l e documentation, a r e p o r t on "Methods of S o c i a l Welfare A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " (E/CN.5/224) was  compiled which covers t h i r t y c o u n t r i e s and  dis-  cusses the r e l a t i v e r o l e of c e n t r a l and l o c a l government and  of  non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n b r i n g i n g s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the reach o f t h e i r  clients.  A study of s p e c i a l importance  f o r the s o c i a l work pro-  f e s s i o n and s o c i a l work education g e n e r a l l y i s the survey n i n g f o r S o c i a l Work:  an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Survey"  "Trai-  (E/CN.5/196).  T h i s encompasses i n f o r m a t i o n about t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n t h i r t y - f o u r c o u n t r i e s , a l o n g with supplementary  and methods  material trans-  mitted by u n i v e r s i t i e s and schools i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . i s a g e n e r a l review of systems o f schools of s o c i a l work, and  It a  122 comparative a n a l y s i s of these i n s t i t u t i o n s , with s p e c i a l reference to t h e i r c u r r i c u l a r and h o n - c u r r i c u l a r aspects. provides  a d i r e c t o r y o f 367 schools  The report  also  of s o c i a l work.  A f t e r the completion of t h i s r e p o r t , i t was d i s t r i b u t e d amongst governments.  I t s a n a l y s i s enabled the S o c i a l Commission  to develop b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s , r e l e v a n t to p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g of s o c i a l workers, which i n t u r n was sent to governments with a r e commendation f o r t h e i r support. day that the employment preference  I t i s g e n e r a l l y recognized t o -  of t r a i n e d s o c i a l welfare  personnel, i n  t o u n s k i l l e d workers adds to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e r -  v i c e and to the improvement of standard  of l i v i n g .  I t was f o r  t h i s reason that the a t t e n t i o n of governments was aroused to p r o v i d i n g educational grants ing  i n s o c i a l welfare  and to I n c l u d i n g s o c i a l work t r a i n -  p o l i c y making.  In d i r e c t i n g t h i s survey, Dr. Katherine merly of London, now Secretary Education, tion  1  Kendall,  for-  of the C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Work  made an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i a l work educa-  as w e l l as g i v i n g i t a new i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  In a subsequent a r t i c l e she emphasized that the supply o f prof e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d workers i s everywhere c o n s i d e r a b l y the demand;  short of  and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f i l l i n g t h i s gap l i e s ,  i n the f i r s t place, w i t h n a t i o n a l policy-making  bodies.  The completion of t h i s survey marked the f i r s t  occasion  on which an i n t e r n a t i o n a l body gave r e c o g n i t i o n to standards i n the s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n :  they emphasize the p r o f e s s i o n a l  1 K e n d a l l , Katherine, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Developments i n S o c i a l Work Education", S o c i a l Work J o u r n a l . XXXII, No.2 ( A p r i l 1951), pp.70-78.  123 aspects of s o c i a l welfare, the n e c e s s i t y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and the need f o r governments t o take a c t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g opportunities for training. The S o c i a l Commission a l s o assumed the task of doing a s i m i l a r study on " I n - S e r v i c e - T r a i n i n g i n S o c i a l Welfare  Agencies",  which has been e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l i n areas l a c k i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l institutes.  To a i d the e f f e c t i v e use of community w e l f a r e  cen-  t r e s In r u r a l areas, a survey was a l s o prepared on " S o c i a l Serv i c e s i n R e l a t i o n to R u r a l Welfare". on community  The focus of t h i s study i s  s e l f - h e l p programmes, with s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o the  c o n t r i b u t i o n of the United Rations and the - s p e c i a l i z e d agencies. P e r i o d i c r e p o r t s on s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and development programmes enabled governments and the S e c r e t a r i a t to f o l l o w the progress of development programmes i n p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r i e s .  For  example, the " S o c i a l Welfare Information S e r i e s on Current L i t e r a ture and R a t i o n a l Conferences"  i s an important  periodical bulletin,  published by the United R a t i o n s . < • I t s s e r v i c e s extend to s e v e r a l areas : (1) S e l e c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n of s u i t a b l e a r t i c l e s and o r i g i n a l reference m a t e r i a l on v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s of the S o c i a l Commission, which are not covered i n other p e r i o d i c a l s ; (2) Information on s o c i a l welfare l i t e r a t u r e , f i l m s , conferences, obtained from governments, and s p e c i a l i z e d agencies and o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; and catalogues of f i l m s of s o c i a l welfare activities; (3) D i r e c t o r i e s of nation-wide o r g a n i z a t i o n s concerned with f a m i l y , youth and c h i l d welfare, welfare of the aged, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the handicapped, and o t h e r . s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ; and (4) D i r e c t o r i e s of schools of s o c i a l work and  124  other t r a i n i n g  bodies.  T e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h seminars and  con-  f e r e n c e s have each c o n t r i b u t e d t o the t r a i n i n g of s o c i a l Workers and to the improvement of s o c i a l w e l f a r e programmes i n under-developed a r e a s .  T h e i r v a l u e , however, can o n l y be l a s t i n g i f each  method comprises a p a r t of the o t h e r I n an i n t e g r a t e d n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l programme.  They have t o be a p p l i e d I n accordance  w i t h the need and w i t h a focus on development-planning.  The  improvement of p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l i n under-developed areas w i l l e l i m i n a t e some o b s t a c l e s i n the way  of s o l v i n g w e l f a r e problems.  F e l l o w s h i p s , s c h o l a r s h i p s , expert s e r v i c e s and must be used i n such a way  t h a t they complement each o t h e r  the l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . selves.  seminars and  They are not an end i n them-  These methods of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e are s i m i l a r t o  each o t h e r on account of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l n a t u r e .  However,  t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n depends l a r g e l y on the l e v e l of s o c i a l w e l f a r e a c t i v i t i e s i n a country or i n a r e g i o n .  S c h o l a r s h i p s are  essen-  t i a l i n p r o v i d i n g b a s i c p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , on the o t h e r hand, h i g h e r l e v e l of development can be f u r t h e r improved through f e l l o w s h i p s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , s i n c e the l a t t e r shows a b r o a d e r h o r i z o n to l o c a l w e l f a r e programmes.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n seminars  a l s o r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n degree of p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e .  In  areas where p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work i s not yet a v a i l a b l e , seminars would do l i t t l e i n e n a b l i n g exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n ;  in-  s t e a d , the more b a s i c steps toward such development have to be preferred.  CHAPTER V RECEIVING AND CONTRIBUTING COUNTRIES: TWO EXAMPLES  The S o c i a l Welfare Advisory S e r v i c e s are based on the p r i n c i p l e s that the s o c i a l work knowledge and experience of advanced c o u n t r i e s should be shared with the p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel of under-developed  areas.  The aim of the programme i s achieved  through exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n at every l e v e l of s o c i a l welfare administration.  The programme marks the beginning of a new  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l w e l f a r e and g i v e s new education.  era  emphasis to s o c i a l work  T h i s programme i s the outcome of comparative  r i e n c e between standards, c u l t u r e s , economic and  expe-  s o c i a l values.  I t s value i s not merely that i t i n i t i a t e d s o c i a l w e l f a r e development throughout  the world.  In a d d i t i o n , the s p e c i a l  signi-  f i c a n c e of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o s o c i a l work i s t h a t i t i s provided by governments through an i n t e r n a t i o n a l body which recogn i z e d the n e c e s s i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s  and  e d u c a t i o n a l standards f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work. The advisory s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s , however, make l a s t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s only i f the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of the programme are adhered  to throughout.  Well-formulated requests from  govern-  ments are necessary i n order to give a concrete b a s i s of o b j e c t i v e s . To achieve t h i s , p a r t i c i p a t i n g governments have appointed an p r o p i a t e agency to co-ordinate and s u p e r v i s e l o c a l  ap-  activities.  The programme must, i n a d d i t i o n , be backed by the necessary  funds  126 c o n t r i b u t e d both by the United Nations and by r e c i p i e n t ments.  Only through  govern-  such a co-operative e f f o r t can t h e programmes  be f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the n a t i o n a l p l a n s . In order that the plans may be c a r r i e d out s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , i t i s e s s e n t i a l that the s e l e c t i o n o f s c h o l a r s , f e l l o w s and experts be made i n terms of s u i t a b l e c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l  qualifi-  c a t i o n s , e n a b l i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s to make the h i g h e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h e i r country's w e l f a r e . The u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s of United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes have now been presented, and the methods used i n s o c i a l welfare a c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b e d . can best be understood, t o t a l development.  These a c t i v i t i e s  however, i n the l i g h t of a country's  The reason f o r t h i s i s mainly t h a t s o c i a l  welfare a c t i v i t i e s anywhere a r e c l o s e l y "related t o t h e p r e v a l e n t economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and to the c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l standards.  Furthermore, a study o f a country's o v e r a l l welfare  programme shows how the d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s r e l a t e , on the one hand, t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work education, and, on the other, t o economic development. r e v e a l s how a long-term, immediate p l a n s .  Such an a n a l y s i s a l s o  comprehensive n a t i o n a l p l a n u n d e r l i e s  Two s p e c i f i c c o u n t r i e s were chosen t o g i v e con-  c r e t e examples of the "mutual a i d " p r i n c i p l e s which are p r e v a l e n t i n United Nations a c t i v i t i e s .  The implementation  of a d v i s o r y  s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s i n Guatemala was one example, because t h i s was one o f the f i r s t t i e s have enabled first  c o u n t r i e s where United Nations  activi-  f a r - r e a c h i n g n a t i o n a l reforms, and where i t was  recognized that t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, expansion  of production  and a s h i f t i n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e must be accompanied by welfare  127 a c t i v i t i e s i n order t h a t such e v o l u t i o n may was  be l a s t i n g .  Canada  chosen as the example of c o n t r i b u t i n g c o u n t r i e s , mainly on  account of i t s i n t e g r a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery which was  set  up f o r the purpose of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , and because the Canadian people and  the government have shown i n t e r e s t i n h e l p i n g other coun-  t r i e s to f a r g r e a t e r extent  i n p r o p o r t i o n to any of the Member  governments.  The T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme i n Guatemala Guatemala, a country which lacked i n d u s t r y almost comp l e t e l y and which has not developed i t s n a t u r a l resources maximum c a p a c i t y , showed a l s o a low  standard  to  i n i t s welfare  their pro-  1 grammes. A f t e r the 1944 troduced  Revolution,  a comprehensive economic and  T e c h n o l o g i c a l r e t a r d a t i o n was production. comprising  the Guatemalan government i n s o c i a l reform  found to be one  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , the poverty  programme.  of the problems of of small farmers,  the m a j o r i t y of the rural- p o p u l a t i o n , brough about  m u l t i p l e problems of general welfare. extremely conscious  The  government had become  of the need to develop i t s s o c i a l welfare  v i c e s , i n order to meet the most p r e s s i n g needs of the The  formation  ser-  population.  of Guatemala's s o c i a l s e c u r i t y scheme shows  1 Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , Expanded Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e , 4th Report of the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board to the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Committee. Vol. II. E/2213 (8 May, 1952), pp.107-111. New York, 1952. See a l s o : Report of the Secretary-General, United Nations Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e . E/2209 (21 A p r i l , 1952), p.28; and, T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e F o r t n i g h t l y B u l l e t i n , (15 May, 1951), pp.1-2.  128 p o s i t i v e signs of post-war economic growth, due to the measures taken by the government to expedite  t e c h n i c a l development.  The  programme of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y was b u i l t g r a d u a l l y and was based upon a general plan which s p e l l e d out the needs t h a t had to be met f i r s t .  However, i t was a l s o recognized  that the a v a i l a b l e  machinery and f i n a n c i a l resources would allow only a gradual i n t r o d u c t i o n of welfare measures.  Thus, the expansion of welfare  s e r v i c e s depended l a r g e l y upon a g e n e r a l increase i n production, i n income and on the improvement of l i v i n g The "Organic  Law"  standards.  of 1946 made p r o v i s i o n f o r the i n t r o -  d u c t i o n of a comprehensive s o c i a l welfare programme which was to operate  throughout the Republic.  This was preceded by a pre-  l i m i n a r y r e p o r t and recommendations, as w e l l as by i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l produced and used by the government t o o b t a i n p u b l i c understanding  and support  f o r the programme.  The Act was an enabling measure s e t t i n g up an  adminis-  t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , the Guatemalan S o c i a l S e c u r i t y I n s t i t u t e . The f i r s t  step i n o r g a n i z i n g the I n s t i t u t e was t o e n l i s t the  s e r v i c e s of the M i n i s t r y o f P u b l i c H e a l t h and S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , which were s u c c e s s i v e l y expanded to s u i t the programme.  The  plan aimed at the eventual i n c l u s i o n of a l l r e s i d e n t s i n the welfare scheme.  To t h i s end, the s o c i a l s e c u r i t y system was  d i v i d e d between two a u t h o r i t i e s ;  the M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c H e a l t h  and S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r medical  care f o r  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases and f o r the maintenance of community h e a l t h , whereas a l l other schemes were to be administered  by the  State S o c i a l Insurance I n s t i t u t i o n , supervised by the M i n i s t e r  129 -of l a b o u r and Economic A f f a i r s .  I t soon became apparent that  s o c i a l welfare measures cannot succeed  without  t r a i n e d personnel.  But there were no f a c i l i t i e s i n Guatemala f o r s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g . T h i s problem was f i r s t discussed at the  Inter-American  Congress of Women at Guatemala C i t y i n 1947, where the need f o r s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g i n L a t i n America was g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a tion.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s conference,  Welfare  Seminar was held a t M e d e l l i n , Colombia, i n August 1947,  at  which c e r t a i n members  the f i r s t United Nations  Social  o f the Guatemalan I n s t i t u t e of S o c i a l  S e c u r i t y were a l s o present. The D i r e c t o r of t h i s Seminar was appointed  by the United  Nations and he was a s s i s t e d by other s t a f f members In o r g a n i z i n g and conducting the programme.  The twenty-five delegates to  M e d e l l i n came from t h i r t e e n c o u n t r i e s ;  of these, twelve  came from  governmental departments;  three from schools of s o c i a l work;  there were f o u r educators,  three s o c i a l workers, and three others.  The programme o f the seminar centred around the f o l l o w ing  problems:  s o c i a l welfare t r a i n i n g and community o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  general p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l welfare, c h i l d , welfare, h e a l t h , r u r a l welfare, programmes o f work, and problems o f delinquency. The language of the seminar was  Spanish.  As a r e s u l t o f these meetings, the need f o r s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g became even more evident> approached the United Nations ing  and the Government of Guatemala  to provide a s s i s t a n c e i n e s t a b l i s h -  a school o f s o c i a l work. ' In the F a l l  of 1948, Dr. Walter P e t t i t , D i r e c t o r o f the  130 New York School  of S o c i a l Work was assigned  i n an a d v i s o r y  to a s s i s t the government i n t h i s endeavour. experts were secured  Subsequently, f o u r  through the UN to make plans f o r s e t t i n g up  the s c h o o l , and a Regional  L i a i s o n O f f i c e r was appointed  ordinate other t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o j e c t s . assigned  capacity  to co-  The experts so  to the school came from Puerto Rico, C h i l e and B r a z i l .  An expert  spent seven months i n Guatemala and d i d the i n i t i a l  planning and o r g a n i z i n g , and drew up f u r t h e r plans f o r United Nations s c h o l a r s h i p s and f e l l o w s h i p s which the s c h o o l could i n the t r a i n i n g of s o c i a l workers. months, beginning developing planning  Another expert  obtain  spent nine  i n A p r i l 1 9 4 9 , when the school was opened, i n  the curriculum and teaching methods, d i r e c t i n g and  c l a s s e s , d e l i v e r i n g l e c t u r e s , and o r g a n i z i n g and super-  v i s i n g field-work.  T h i s expert was a l s o asked by the government  to advise on the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f welfare  services.  I t was  understood t h a t a Guatemala n a t i o n a l should e v e n t u a l l y be appointed as the d i r e c t o r of the school. Meanwhile, upon the request  o f the government, s e v e r a l  United Nations f e l l o w s h i p s and s c h o l a r s h i p s were awarded to Guatemalan c i t i z e n s to study s o c i a l work methods abroad.  The  f i r s t three f e l l o w s h i p s were awarded t o graduates of the School of S o c i a l Work o f Guatemala f o r s:udy i n Uruguay, C h i l e and Mexico, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The  courses e s t a b l i s h e d i n the school o f s o c i a l work  were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o c o n d i t i o n s i n Guatemala. lum  i n c l u d e d subjects such as casework, s o c i a l  The c u r r i c u -  legislation,  s o c i a l problems and s o c i a l welfare i n s t i t u t i o n s o f Guatemala,  131 psychology and mental hygiene, general p r i n c i p l e s of medicine, v a r i o u s forms of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , s o c i a l anthropology, and d i e t e t i c s .  the  nutrition  For p r a c t i c a l experience the students were assigned  to Guatemalan agencies, and,  i n a d d i t i o n , groups of students par-  t i c i p a t e d i n f i e l d t r i p s to s o c i a l w e l f a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n order to acquire f i r s t - h a n d knowledge of s o c i a l w e l f a r e c o n d i t i o n s . The school i s now  f u n c t i o n i n g a c c o r d i n g to the highest  standards of s o c i a l work education and i t has made the p r i n c i p l e s and methods of s o c i a l s e r v i c e known throughout The  the country.  experts a l s o acted i n a c o n s u l t a t i v e c a p a c i t y to  s o c i a l w e l f a r e agencies p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the s e t t i n g up of the Guatemalan Demonstration the b l i n d .  Centre f o r the s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of  An expert was  delegated to help e s t a b l i s h a compre-  hensive and co-ordinated programme f o r the t o t a l l y and  partially  d i s a b l e d b l i n d i n a r e s i d e n t s c h o o l , the programme of which i n cluded v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , development of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the b l i n d , s o c i a l adjustment  techniques and a programme of  p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n and t r a i n i n g of personnel f o r work w i t h the blind. The Guatemalan s o c i a l reform and the a d j u n c t i v e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme i l l u s t r a t e the importance s i v e development planning. l o c a l a c t i o n was  of comprehen-  P a r a l l e l with the a s s i s t a n c e obtained,  taken to harmonize s o c i a l welfare a c t i v i t i e s .  The t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme took advantage of a l l methods of the a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s .  I n i t i a l exploration  and planning a c t i v i t i e s r e s u l t e d from the l e s s o n of a United Nations seminar;  and a request f o r , and the appointment of, a  1 3 2  a s o c i a l welfare consultant was accompanied by l o c a l a c t i o n and planning.  U t i l i z i n g the s e r v i c e s of r e s i d e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ,  expert c o n s u l t a n t s , f e l l o w s h i p s and s c h o l a r s h i p s , t e c h n i c a l i n f o r mation and equipment, a f i r m foundation was l a i d f o r s o c i a l work education.  Furthermore, through improving  professional s k i l l s ,  i t was not p o s s i b l e to implement p o s i t i v e measures i n s o l v i n g indigenous  s o c i a l problems, with a focus on the g e n e r a l w e l f a r e  of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n .  Canadian P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Advisory Welfare S e r v i c e s  Social  While the United Nations machinery co-ordinates t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s and ensures that s e r v i c e s should be provided to those c o u n t r i e s that need them, the instruments f o r t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l programme are provided by Member governments. The governments of t e c h n i c a l l y more advanced c o u n t r i e s have recogn i z e d t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s s i s t i n g under-developed c o u n t r i e s not only by c o n t r i b u t i n g the funds necessary t o Implement the programme, but by p r o v i d i n g the p r a c t i c a l s e r v i c e s .  They them-  s e l v e s have asked, a t l e a s t i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , t h e i r  experien-  ced o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c i t i z e n s t o serve on t h e i r b e h a l f abroad; they have a l s o given United Nations Fellows and s c h o l a r s from r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s the opportunity to compare developed  standards  with t h e i r own, and t o b e n e f i t from the a v a i l a b l e h i g h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s by i n v i t i n g them to more advanced countries. Canada, both as a member o f the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l and hence of the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Committee, has been  133 w e l l represented  i n the planning and  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes.  c o - o r d i n a t i o n of v a r i o u s  In a d d i t i o n to f i n a n c i a l con-  t r i b u t i o n s , Canada has a l s o g i v e n t a n g i b l e evidence of the d e s i r e to co-operate i n a p r a c t i c a l manner by sending t e h n i c a l experts by o f f e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s to United Nations Fellows scholars.  and  and  In f a c t , i n the l a s t eight years, p a r t i c i p a t i o n by  Canadians has  extended i n t o a l l f i e l d s of a s s i s t a n c e .  In order to co-ordinate  a l l Canadian a c t i v i t i e s i n the  sphere of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economic and T e c h n i c a l Co-operation  D i v i s i o n was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Department  of Trade and Commerce, i n September 1951,  1  under the d i r e c t i o n of  2 Mr.  R. G. C a v e l l of Toronto.  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e end  The D i v i s i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  of Canada's commitments to the economic  development programme of United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e the Colombo P l a n (the programme f o r t e c h n i c a l co-operation South and  and  in  South E a s t ' A s i a ) . The D i v i s i o n c o n s i s t s of two  main u n i t s :  ( l ) a group  which Is concerned p r i m a r i l y with " c a p i t a l a s s i s t a n c e " ( i . e . , p l y of machinery and  other goods), and  sup-  (2) the T e c h n i c a l Co-opera-  t i o n S e r v i c e , which i s e s s e n t i a l l y concerned with people ( s e l e c t i o n of experts, planning The  f o r Fellows  T e c h n i c a l Co-operation  and s c h o l a r s ) . S e r v i c e a c c o r d i n g l y has  a  d i r e c t o r a t e which arranges the programmes f o r a l l f o r e i g n t r a i n e e s 1 Ottawa, 1951,  Department of Trade and Commerce, 60th Annual Report, p.49-  ,2 -Former Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Canadian i n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s and an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y known businessman with many years of experience i n the Far E a s t .  134 (Fellows and s c h o l a r s ) who  come to Canada to study under the  auspices of the v a r i o u s agencies which sponsor them (UN, UNESCO, FAO,  WHO,  Colombo Plan, e t c . ) ;  and a second d i r e c t o r a t e which  r e c r u i t s and dispatches Canadian experts who  go to the v a r i o u s  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes abroad. The t r a i n i n g programme f o r Fellows and s c h o l a r s i s designed t o provide them w i t h plans and i n s t r u c t i o n programmes i n t h e i r f i e l d s o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , but i t a l s o attempts give them as complete a p i c t u r e as p o s s i b l e of the  to  democratic  i n s t i t u t i o n s and general c u l t u r e i n Canada. Since the programme began, n e a r l y 200 persons have come t o Canada under the auspices of the United Nations. great m a j o r i t y of these were Fellows who  have acquainted  with Canadian techniques i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s . t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n s were preponderantly connected  The themselves  Although  with i n d u s t r y ,  technology and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , a s i z e a b l e number of s o c i a l f a r e workers have a l s o s t u d i e d under United Nations and  wel-  other  i n t e r n a t i o n a l programmes (see Table 2, p.135). Under UNESCO, a fundamental education p r o j e c t has been e s t a b l i s h e d at L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y i n Quebec C i t y , f o r i n g t r a i n e e s from H a i t i and the Middle E a s t .  French-speak-  In addition,, the  McG-ill School of S o c i a l Work i n Montreal, at the suggestion of the S c h o l a r s h i p Panel of the T e c h n i c a l Co-operation D i v i s i o n , i s to o f f e r s p e c i a l courses f o r UN t r a i n e e s to help them adapt Canadian methods to t h e i r own 1 i t s k i n d and  country's needs and c o n d i t i o n s .  1  T h i s very s i g n i f i c a n t development i s the f i r s t of i t s p r i n c i p l e s are f u r t h e r analysed i n Chapter I I .  135 Table 2.  Personnel Trained i n Canada f o r The United. Nations, 1950-1955  F i e l d o f Study  Fellows Scholars  Total  I n d u s t r i a l S e r v i c e s and Technology  45  2  47  Agriculture, Fisheries, F o r e s t r y , N a t u r a l Resources and Development  10  -  10  Economies  42 .  2  44  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Management  42  1  43  Social  16  7  2 3  Welfare  S o c i a l Sciences* Health** Total  5  1  6  • 1  -  1  161  Source:  13  174 < >  Adapted from S t a t i s t i c a l Summary of T e c h n i c a l Co-operation Programme, 1950 - 31 December, 1955 of the T e c h n i c a l Co-operation D i v i s i o n , Department o f Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, Canada, pp.1-5.  In a d d i t i o n to the above, 206 persons were t r a i n e d -under the f o l l o w i n g : Colombo P l a n 161; UNESCO p r o j e c t s 29; FAO 8; ICAO 5; H O 1; FOA 2. The 174 persons from the United Nations came from 53 c o u n t r i e s .  * **  Includes education, l i b r a r y , communication and town, planning. Most t r a i n i n g i n . t h e - a r e a o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s has been done under the sponsorship of the World Health O r g a n i z a t i o n .  136 In  the broad a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the t r a i n i n g programme,  a l l u n i v e r s i t i e s have been i n c l u d e d i n the D i r e c t o r a t e ' s work, and the schools o f s o c i a l work across Canada have been hosts t o welfare t r a i n e e s coming from Europe, L a t i n America and the A s i a n countries.  During the p e r i o d 1950-1953, out o f f o u r t e e n t r a i n e e s  who s t u d i e d i n Canada under the sponsorship o f the United Nations, seven were s o c i a l workers (one of them a student at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia), fields.  and three were studying i n r e l a t e d  1  A l l requests f o r s c h o l a r s h i p s o r f e l l o w s h i p s are addressed by the United Nations and i t s agencies d i r e c t to the T e c h n i c a l Co-operation S e r v i c e . forwarded  The s o c i a l welfare a p p l i c a t i o n s are then  to the S o c i a l Welfare Panel o f t h i s d i v i s i o n , and the  Chairman, i n t u r n , recommends a s u i t a b l e programme f o r t r a i n i n g . Academic t r a i n i n g i s provided w i t h i n the f a c i l i t i e s  of d i f f e r e n t  u n i v e r s i t i e s , and programmes of o b s e r v a t i o n f o r welfare Fellows are a l s o explored and arranged by the S o c i a l Welfare Panel, i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with schools o f s o c i a l work and other welfare  insti-  tutions. When the T e c h n i c a l Co-operation S e r v i c e i s assured that a s u i t a b l e programme o f t r a i n i n g can be arranged i n Canada, and that the Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s has no o b j e c t i o n to the entrance o f the t r a i n e e i n t o Canada, the D i r e c t o r a t e n o t i f i e s the United Nations.  When t h e t r a i n e e a r r i v e s i n Canada, the D i r e c -  1 T e c h n i c a l Co-operation S e r v i c e , Monthly Report Trainees and Experts - 15 February, 1954. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economic and T e c h n i c a l Co-operation D i v i s i o n , Department o f Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, Canada, February, 1954. pp.1—11.  137 t o r a t e makes the necessary a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements, and him,  i f he i s a welfare t r a i n e e , to the Executive A s s i s t a n t of the  Deputy M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Welfare, who man  refers  of the S o c i a l Welfare Panel.  i s the C h a i r -  A f t e r a b r i e f i n g p e r i o d , the  Fellows proceed on a planned i t i n e r a r y throughout which they are a s s i s t e d by P r o v i n c i a l Welfare Department r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and f a r e agency a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  wel-  When the r e g u l a r six-month p e r i o d  of o b s e r v a t i o n i s over, the Fellows hand i n t h e i r r e p o r t s to the S o c i a l Welfare Panel and r e t u r n to the United Nations  headquarters.  S i m i l a r l y , t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e s c h o l a r s h i p - h o l d e r s are r e q u i r e d to keep i n touch w i t h the S o c i a l Welfare Panel throughout stay i n Canada.  their  The Panel a c t s as a l i a i s o n between the t r a i n e e  and the T e c h n i c a l Co-operation D i v i s i o n , and g e n e r a l l y as the t r u s t e e f o r the t r a i n e e d u r i n g h i s programme.  1  A separate d i v i s i o n of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economic and T e c h n i c a l Co-operation D i v i s i o n a s s i s t s UN and i t s s p e c i a l i z e d agencies i n r e c r u i t i n g t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s .  During the  second  year of i t s a c t i v i t i e s , the D i v i s i o n was  c o n s i d e r a b l y strengthened2 to meet the i n c r e a s i n g demands of the United Nations. In 1952,  as many as n e a r l y one hundred Canadian  experts  1 B a r t l e t t , D.W., Mr., C h i e f , T e c h n i c a l Co-operation S e r v i c e , l e t t e r to the w r i t e r (3 February, 1954). Bowen, D.G., Mr., T e c h n i c a l Co-operation S e r v i c e , l e t t e r to the w r i t e r (6 November, 1953). S i n c l a i r , D.B., Mrs., E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t to the Deputy M i n i s t e r of Health, and Welfare, l e t t e r to the w r i t e r (2 December, 1953). 2 Department of Trade and Commerce, 61st Annual p o r t . 1952, Ottawa, 1952. pp.52-57.  Re-  138 were working abroad under the United Nations Expanded Programme o f T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e , some of them assuming l e a d e r s h i p i n s o c i a l welfare p r o j e c t s .  1  To mention a few outstanding examples, the  l a t e Dr. Harry Cassidy, who was head of the School o f S o c i a l Work at  the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, went as an expert t o a s s i s t the  government of Egypt i n s e t t i n g up a t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e f o r the blind;  Miss A l i c C a r r o l l , P r o v i n c i a l S u p e r v i s o r of P s y c h i a t r i c  S o c i a l Work i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, went to Japan as a s o c i a l welfare a d v i s e r to a s s i s t i n s e t t i n g up c h i l d  welfare  services;  Miss E l i z a b e t h Govan of the Canadian'Welfare C o u n c i l ,  the f i r s t  person under the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n to  v i s i t I r a q , helped with the establishment there;  of s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g  Mrs. Helen McCrae, of the School o f S o c i a l Work at the  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, taught  c h i l d welfare at the UN  Seminar i n Sweden, and Miss M a r j o r i e J . Smith, D i r e c t o r of the School o f S o c i a l Work a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, taught at the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l Casework Seminar  i n Finland.  The recruitment o f experts i s done upon the request of the United Nations through  the a p p r o p r i a t e channels  n i c a l Co-operation D i v i s i o n .  of the Tech-  An attempt was made by the S o c i a l  Welfare Panel to keep.a r o s t e r of s u i t a b l e experts i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s who might be a v a i l a b l e i f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l was r e quested by-one of the r e c e i v i n g governments.  The Department o f  H e a l t h and Welfare, with the co-operation o f the Canadian Assoc i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, the Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , and the schools o f s o c i a l work, p e r i o d i c a l l y provides a l i s t of experts.  Report,  1 Davis, R.E.G., "The S o c i a l S e t t i n g " , 55rd Annual Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa, 1955.  139 Sometimes the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , knowledge, approaches people d i r e c t .  from i t s own  In other cases, i n d i v i d u a l s  made d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n to the United Nations or have t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n through the Canadian government.  channelled The procedure  i s f l e x i b l e , but the aim i s t o f i n d the best q u a l i f i e d person f o r the p a r t i c u l a r task. There I s v e r y l i t t l e of the T e c h n i c a l Co-operation  l e g i s l a t i o n governing the operations Division;  r i t y i s a s e c t i o n of the "Appropriations  i t s only l e g i s l a t i v e authoAct" of 1 9 5 1 , which grants  power f o r expenditure  under r e g u l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by the Governor  General-in-Council.  These r e g u l a t i o n s simply grant a u t h o r i t y to  spend funds f o r s p e c i f i e d purposes under s p e c i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s and do not go i n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  aspect  Canada i s c o n t i n u i n g to support activities.  of the o p e r a t i o n s . the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e  But t o be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e , Canada's c o n t r i b u t i o n to  these schemes must have the understanding and backing d i a n people.  o f the Cana-  I n d i v i d u a l s , business a s s o c i a t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the government can promote t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes o f the United Nations and i t s s p e c i a l i z e d agencies t o achieve  t h e i r aim of r a i s i n g the standards of l i v i n g o f under-  developed areas b y h e l p i n g to f i n d the r i g h t kind o f expert and by ensuring  that the n a t i o n a l s of c o u n t r i e s which they are h e l -  ping are welcomed i n t o Canada. R e l a t i o n to S o c i a l Work as a P r o f e s s i o n In order to make s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g e f f e c t i v e , the r i g h t kind of education must be provided  f o r both Canadian  1  140  s o c i a l workers and f o r the United Nations t r a i n e e s .  The C o u n c i l  of S o c i a l Work Education (mainly an American body but with extens i v e Canadian membership), i n o u t l i n i n g the standards of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g has placed  s p e c i a l emphasis upon the knowledge and  understanding of the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , t h e i r development, and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the s o c i a l order, needs.  to s o c i a l change and to community  There i s l i t t l e doubt that the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e  pro-  grammes are s t i m u l a t i n g s o c i a l workers anew to g r e a t e r awareness of the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s . c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes, l i k e "three-dimensional"  s o c i a l welfare  e t i o l o g y of d e p r i v a t i o n :  itself,  Technirecognize  socio-cultural,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and economic determinants.. To-day, schools of s o c i a l work are broadening the areas of teaching with the comparative analyses  of g e n e r i c s o c i a l work  methods and p r i n c i p l e s which a r e b a s i c to s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e throughout the world.  Such a curriculum  enables s o c i a l workers  to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n the a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare  services  abroad, and i t a l s o h i g h l i g h t s "the areas which have to be i n c l u d e d i n the s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance o f f o r e i g n t r a i n e e s studying i n Canada.  While i t i s important  to provide  the l a t t e r with ade-.  quate s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g , f e l l o w s h i p s and s c h o l a r s h i p s  will  serve the purposes of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e only i f the t r a i n e e i s .helped through s u p e r v i s i o n t o study and to Observe, keeping c o n s t a n t l y i n mind the needs and d i f f e r e n c e s of h i s own country. In view of t h i s trend i n s o c i a l work, i t i s not a c c i d e n t a l that the 7th I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on S o c i a l Work (to be held i n Toronto, June 27 - J u l y 2, 1954) has adopted as i t s theme " S e l f -  141 H e l p and of  Co-operative Action".  a l l nations  will  can c o n t r i b u t e  to  This ings in  and  the  in  experiences  their  an e f f o r t Up  countries their is  yet  workers  concepts welfare  to  establish  to  1952,  over  participated been  analyzed  profession  Social  and  Welfare  guide  the  international seventy in  the  welfare  subjects  affect  the  experience. the  individuals carries  with i t  an o b l i g a t i o n f o r  on  behalf  duties  smallest  of  i n under-developed  the  would g i v e North American s o c i a l workers  into  obstacles  trates  the  fields, logy,  to  need  such as  and. s o c i a l  for the  i n de  Clearly  facto  such  integration  political  science,  anthropology.  many and there  social example, cultural  of  rendered  health  where of  in  s o c i a l work w i t h  s o c i a l economics,  and  social  special  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  kind  the  services;  d i f f i c u l t i e s which participants  face.  from  service  area  articles  and  whole  For  countries  o n l y p a r t i a l l y i n the  extent  a  qualifications  and  programme h a v e  a great  is  repayment  welfare,  the  to  the  descriptions  are  It  work o f a N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i a l  to  practitioner's  experts  way i n w h i c h  where  work o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s  whole  find-  Regrettably,  Orient,  helped;  as  program®,  i n which these  as  a  fore  as  experts  since.  their  as  standards.  United Nations  literature  shared  profession  i n the  o f the  the  Services.  s o c i a l work  ever  workers  community.  undoubtedly b r i n g to  increasing  attitudes  adviser  world  social  o f many s o c i a l w o r k e r s who s e r v e d  dealing with such  and  of the  will  much p r o f e s s i o n a l  have  literature  welfare  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to  had  conference  ways i n w h i c h t h e  of Advisory  number has  not  the  conference  programme  largely  explore  At this  -  such  insight  in  the  also  illus-  other  social  psycho-  142 Conclusion The T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme i n g e n e r a l , and the Advisory S o c i a l Welfare  S e r v i c e s i n p a r t i c u l a r , have a s p e c i a l  i n t e r e s t f o r s o c i a l workers.  In t h i s programme o f the. United  Nations, a l l c o u n t r i e s of the world banded together"with a view to the c r e a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s of s t a b i l i t y and w e l l - b e i n g which are necessary  f o r p e a c e f u l and f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s among n a t i o n s  based on respect of the r i g h t s and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n of peoples, ...to promote h i g h standards  of l i v i n g , f u l l employment and con-  d i t i o n s of economic and s o c i a l progress and development."  1  Most  of the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes are s t i l l preocuppied r a i s i n g economic p r o d u c t i v i t y .  Nevertheless  with  welfare s e r v i c e s  have now been " b u i l t i n " to t h i s broad o b j e c t i v e . A d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s , of course, cover more than has been the subject of the present study.  No attempt has  been made to analyse i n d e t a i l the p a r t i c u l a r areas of welfare a c t i v i t i e s which would i n c l u d e p u b l i c welfare a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , community o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o r r e c t i o n s , housing,  town and  country  planning, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped, i n s u r a n ces and  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , assistance, to i n d i g e n t a l i e n s , and  mother and c h i l d care.  N e i t h e r have human r i g h t s , n a r c o t i c s , and  p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e s been considered, although  they are e s s e n t i a l  to the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of the United Nations-  Any of these  could be t o p i c s f o r s p e c i a l r e s e a r c h . I t i s , however, of s p e c i a l importance t h a t a b e t t e r understanding 1  be gained  of the p r i n c i p l e s and methods u n d e r l y i n g  A r t i c l e 55(a) of the United Nations  Charter o f 1946.  143 the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme on the broadest level.  international  The aims of the programme, on examination,  prove to be  c l o s e l y analogous to those towards which s o c i a l workers have been working i n p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r i e s f o r many years. A s s i s t a n c e , f o r the f i r s t  In T e c h n i c a l  time, s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n has  been recognized b y an i n t e r n a t i o n a l governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n and has been i n v i t e d to j o i n teams of p r o f e s s i o n a l experts. d i t i o n , s o c i a l -welfare i s now  regarded,  In ad-  not as an adjunct to  p o l i t i c a l or economic a s p i r a t i o n s , "but r a t h e r as the  foremost  goal of n a t i o n a l development. ' In a sense c e r t a i n welfare needs are now  recognized as the r i g h t of every i n d i v i d u a l , community  and n a t i o n .  S e v e r a l other a c t i v i t i e s a l s o - the expansion  of  i n d u s t r y , the use of n a t u r a l resources, i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n of food - are now  welfare-focused.  And  as s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e  centres upon the w e l l - b e i n g of people i n need, so are t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s c e n t r i p e t a l and  focus upon the needs of the  under-developed c o u n t r i e s . The United Rations has formulated  a philosophy  and  some b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s which u n d e r l i e the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme.  These p r i n c i p l e s are a l s o b a s i c to s o c i a l work.  But  more s p e c i f i c a l l y , a United Rations Programme of a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s has been developed,  u s i n g methods unique to  s o c i a l work (casework, group work, community o r g a n i z a t i o n ) i n s e r v i n g under-developed c o u n t r i e s . The United Rations and the p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies making continuous  are  e f f o r t s to Improve t h e i r methods and s e r v i c e s .  The value of the programme depends, on the one hand, on the low-up on the recommendations of p a r t i c i p a n t s , seminars and  fol-  144  conferences;  and, on the o t h e r hand, on s t u d i e s conducted subse-  q u e n t l y to a p p r a i s e the r e s u l t s of i n d i v i d u a l assignments and seminars i n r e l a t i o n t o s o c i a l development i n the r e c i p i e n t countries. The  a d v i s o r y s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s are r a p i d l y becoming  an i n t e g r a t e d p a r t of n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g .  By  promoting development through s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s , s t a r t i n g o f t e n from the most modest l e v e l , through which h i g h e r standards  consis-  t e n t w i t h the country's r e s o u r c e s are b e i n g reached, u s u a l l y every s t e p b r i n g s about changes and. .opens up new  needs.  I t i s impor-  t a n t t h a t r e a l i s t i c p l a n n i n g should take these i n t o account, o r d e r t h a t the changes may  in  be f o l l o w e d by f u r t h e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l  a s s i s t a n c e and n a t i o n a l a c t i o n .  The U n i t e d N a t i o n s  A s s i s t a n c e i s w e l l aware, o f t h i s .  Technical  I t has become a f o r c e i n en-  c o u r a g i n g governments of under-developed c o u n t r i e s to p l a n f o r the s o c i a l progress of t h e i r own  peoples  i n a way which o f f e r s i n the  s o r e l y d i s t r e s s e d w o r l d of to-day one o f the r e a l keys to the peace of mankind.  No p r o f e s s i o n should be a b l e to welcome t h i s  more than s o c i a l work.  APPENDIX A  The Charter of the Rights of the Child  I.  THE CHILD must he protected beyond and above a l l considerations of race, nationality, or creed.  II.  THE CHILD must be cared for with due respect f o r the family • as an entity.  III.  THE CHILD must be given the means requisite f o r i t s normal development, materially, morally and s p i r i t u a l l y .  IV.  THE CHILD that i s hungry must be fed, the c h i l d that i s sick must be nursed, the child that i s physically or mentally handicapped must be helped, the maladjusted c h i l d must be reeducated, the orphan and the waif must be sheltered and succoured.  Vi  THE CHILD must be the f i r s t to receive r e l i e f i n times of distress.  VI.  THE CHILD must enjoy f u l l benefits provided by s o c i a l welfare and social security schemes, must'receive a training which w i l l enable i t , at the right time to earn a l i v e l i h o o d , and must be protected against every form of exploitation.  VII.  THE CHILD must be brought up i n the consciousness that i t s talents must be devoted to the service of i t s fellow men.  1 The Save the Children's Fund: "The Charter of the Rights of the Child". The World's Children. Vol. XXXIII, Ho.2, March 1 9 5 3 , p . 3 8 .  APPENDIX B Text of R e s o l u t i o n 58 (I) Adopted by the General Assembly on December 14, 1946  Whereas-Article 66 o f the C h a r t e r of the United Nations provides : 1. The Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l s h a l l perform such funct i o n s as f a l l w i t h i n i t s competence i n connection w i t h the c a r r y i n g out o f the recommendations o f the General Assembly. 2. I t may, with the approval o f the General Assembly, perform s e r v i c e s a t the request o f Members o f the United Nations and at the request o f the s p e c i a l i z e d agencies. 3. I t s h a l l perform such other f u n c t i o n s as are s p e c i f i e d elsewhere i n the present Charter or as may be assigned to i t by the General Assembly; Whereas the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , on 1 October 1 9 4 6 , recommended the t r a n s f e r to the United Nations o f c e r t a i n urgent and important a d v i s o r y f u n c t i o n s i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare c a r r i e d on by UNRRA, s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n being g i v e n t o the needs o f c h i l d r e n ; Whereas the General Assembly, a f t e r examining the r e p o r t and the recommendations presented by the S e c r e t a r y General i n document A / 1 3 2 , recognizes the n e c e s s i t y o f t r a n s f e r r i n g to the United Nations the urgent and important a d v i s o r y f u n c t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare c a r r i e d on by UNRRA; The General Assembly, t h e r e f o r e , A.  A u t h o r i z e s the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l :  1. I n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , t o make p r o v i s i o n , with the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the s p e c i a l i z e d agencies where a p p r o p r i a t e , f o r the continuance of the urgent and important a d v i s o r y f u n c t i o n s i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare c a r r i e d on by UNRRA; and, f o r t h i s purpose, 2. To i n c l u d e i n t h e budget of_the United Nations f o r 1 9 4 7 the funds necessary f o r the assumption o f the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s , a l l o f which are necessary f o r the accomplishment of an e f f e c t i v e programme: 1 United Nations General Assembly O f f i c i a l Records. Agenda item 3 1 . Annexes F i f t h S e s s i o n . New York, 1 9 5 0 . Agenda item 31: A d v i s o r y S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s : Report of the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l . Document A / 1 3 5 5 . Annex 1 , p p . 2 - 4 .  147  (a) For a requisite number of s o c i a l welfare experts to provide, on the request of governments which show the need f o r them, such advisory services, and to put into practice, over an appropriate period, new technical methods i n any branch of s o c i a l welfare; (b) For enabling a requisite number of suitable q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l welfare o f f i c i a l s to observe, and f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with, the experience of other countries administering s o c i a l welfare programmes; (c) For providing advice, demonstration and i n s t r u c t i o n i n connexion with the manufacture of prosthetic appliances and the vocational training Of physically handicapped persons; and f o r furnishing the necessary equipment and tools; (d) For furnishing to the Member countries which have been devastated during the war, technical publications helpful i n the t r a i n i n g of s o c i a l welfare workers. The furnishing of the experts s h a l l be undertaken by the Secretary-General i n agreement with the governments concerned, and the selection of grant holders s h a l l be made by the SecretaryGeneral on the basis of proposals received from governments. The amount of service to be furnished to the various governments s h a l l be decided by the Secretary-General, and s h a l l be reviewed by the Social Commission at i t s next session. The kind of service mentioned under (a), (b), (c), and (d) to be rendered to each country s h a l l be decided by the government.concerned. B. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Social Commission on the measures which he takes i n compliance with the terms of the present resolution, and requests the Commission during i t s f i r s t session to formulate recommendations concerning the continued action required to carry on the essential advisory a c t i v i t i e s of UNRRA i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare.  APPENDIX C R e s o l u t i o n 200 ( I I I ) T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r Economic Development  The General Assembly, 1. Taking i n t o account the a c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e p r e v i o u s l y taken by the General Assembly ( r e s o l u t i o n s 52(1) and 58(1) of 14 December 1946) and by the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l ( r e s o l u t i o n s 27(IV) and 51(IV) of 28 March 1947, 96(V) of 12 August 1947, 139(VII) A, of 26 August 1948 and 149(VII) C, of 27 August 1948), 2. Considering that (a) The promotion of c o n d i t i o n s of economic and s o c i a l progress and development i s one of the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s of the Charter of the United Nations, (b) The l a c k of expert personnel and lack of t e c h n i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n are among the f a c t o r s which impede the economic development of the under-developed areas, (c) The United Nations can extend e f f i c a c i o u s and t i m e l y help i n t h i s connection f o r the achievement of the o b j e c t i v e s set f o r t h i n Chapters IX and X of the Charter, 3. Decides to a p p r o p r i a t e the funds necessary to enable the Secretary-General to perform the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s , where approp r i a t e i n co-operation with the s p e c i a l i z e d agencies, when requested to do so by Member Governments: (a) Arrange f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l teams cons i s t i n g of experts provided by or through the United Nations and the s p e c i a l i z e d agencies f o r the purpose o f a d v i s i n g those Governments i n connection with t h e i r economic development programmes., the o r g a n i z a t i o n of such teams, of course, not to preclude the i n v i t a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l , or groups of, experts from the United Nations or from s p e c i a l i z e d agencies i n connection w i t h problems i n the f i e l d of those s p e c i a l i z e d agencies; (b) Arrange f o r f a c i l i t i e s f o r the t r a i n i n g abroad of exp e r t s of under-developed c o u n t r i e s through the p r o v i s i o n s of f e l lowships f o r study i n those c o u n t r i e s or i n s t i t u t i o n s which, i n the p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s of study , have achieved an advanced l e v e l of t e c h n i c a l competence; (c) Arrange f o r the t r a i n i n g of l o c a l t e c h n i c i a n s w i t h i n the under-developed c o u n t r i e s themselves by promoting v i s i t s of experts 1  1 United Nations, O f f i c i a l Records of the T h i r d Sess i o n of the General Assembly, Part I . 21 Sept.-12 Dec. 1948. RESOLUTIONS ( P a l a i s de C h a i l l o t , P a r i s ) . A/810. Dec. 1948. R e s o l u t i o n 200 ( I I I ) T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r Economic Development, pp. 38-40.  149 i n various aspects of economic development for the purpose of i n structing l o c a l personnel and f o r a s s i s t i n g i n the organization of technical i n s t i t u t i o n s . (d) Provide f a c i l i t i e s designed to a s s i s t Governments to obt a i n technical personnel, equipment and supplies, and to arrange for the organization of such other services as may be appropriate i n the promotion of economic development, including the organization of seminars on special problems of economic development, and the exchange of current information concerning technical problems of economic development; 4. Instructs the Secretary-General to undertake the performance of the functions-listed i n paragraph 3 above, i n agreement with the Governments concerned, on the basis of requests received from Governments with due regard to geographical considerations and i n accordance with the following p o l i c i e s : (a) The amount of services and the f i n a n c i a l conditions under which they s h a l l be furnished to the various Governments s h a l l be decided by the Secretary-General, and s h a l l be reviewed by the Economic and Social Council at each of i t s sessions; (b) The kind of service mentioned under paragraph 3 to be rendered to each country s h a l l be decided by the Government concerned; (c) The countries d e s i r i n g assistance should perform i n advance as much of the work as possible i n order to define the nature and the scope of the problem involved; (d) The technical assistance furnished s h a l l ( i ) not be a means of foreign economic and p o l i t i c a l interference i n the i n t e r nal a f f a i r s of the country concerned and s h a l l not be accompanied by any considerations of a p o l i t i c a l nature; ( i i ) be given only to or through Governments; ( i i i ) be designed to meet the needs of the country concerned; (iv) be provided, as f a r as possible, i n the form which that country desires; (v) be of high quality and technical competence; (e) The sums appropriated f o r the performance of the functions set forth i n paragraph 3 s h a l l not be expended on functions or services which are a special r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a specialized agency except i n agreement with the executive head of that agency; 5. Requests the Secretary-General to report to each session of the Economic and Social Council on the measures which he has taken i n compliance with the terms of the present resolution; 6. Recommends to the Economic and Social Council that i t review at each session and, when-necessary, formulate recommendations concerning policy and budgetary action required by the General Assembly to carry on the functions i n s t i t u t e d by the present resolution. Hundred and seventieth plenary meeting 4 December 1948.  APPENDIX D Resolution 222 (IX) Economic Development of Under-Developed Countries-^ Resolutions of 14 and 15 August 1949 Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance for Economic Development of Under-Developed Countries Resolution of 15 August 1949 The Economic and Social Council, Having considered the report prepared "by the SecretaryGeneral, i n consultation with the specialized agencies, on an expanded programme of technical assistance f o r economic development, pursuant to resoltuion 180(VHI), Being impressed with the s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to economic development that can be made by an expansion of the international interchange of technical knowledge through i n t e r national co-operation among countries, Believing that a sound international programme of t h i s character must combine and make use of the experience of many nations, with different s o c i a l patterns and c u l t u r a l traditions and at different stages of development, so as to f a c i l i t a t e progress i n the less advanced countries and to help solve t h e i r technical and economic problembs, 1. Transmits to the General Assembly the above-mentioned report together with the observations and guiding principles set out i n Annex I of this resolution; 2. Recommends that the General Assembly approve the draft resolution i n Annex I I , which provides f o r an expanded programme of technical assistance for economic development of under-developed countries; 3. Requests the Secretary-General, subject to such dec i s i o n as may be taken by the General Assembly on the draft resolution i n Annex I I , to i n v i t e the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination to set up a Technical Assistance Board (TAB) which 1 United Nations, Economic and Social Council O f f i c i a l Records; Fourth Year, Ninth Session 5 July-15 August 1949. RESOLUTIONS, Geneva, Switzerland. No. E/1553/Corr.l, 8 Dec. 1949, No. E/1553, 15 Aug. 1949.  151  s h a l l consist of the executive heads, or t h e i r representatives of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies which p a r t i c i pate i n accordance with this paragraph i n the expanded programme of technical assistance. The Secretary-General, or his representative, s h a l l be Chairman of the Board. Within the TAB: (a) Each p a r t i c i p a t i n g organization s h a l l inform the other organizations of requests to i t for technical assistance f o r economic development; (b) Important requests for such assistance s h a l l be promptly discussed; (c) The p a r t i c i p a t i n g organizations s h a l l discuss t h e i r coordination efforts under t h i s programme, s h a l l consult before comprehensive missions and programmes of assistance involving several organizations are arranged, and each s h a l l be prepared to co-operate f u l l y with the others i n a c t i v i t i e s involving t h e i r common interests; (d) The p a r t i c i p a t i n g organizations s h a l l exchange i n f o r mation which becomes available to them on current developments i n the f i e l d of technical assistance, including the progress of techn i c a l assistance rendered or projected by them, by Governments and by private organizations; (e) The TAB s h a l l inform the Technical Assistance Committee of the Council (TAC) mentioned below, of any requests for techn i c a l assistance for economic development as soon as they have reached the TAB, so that the TAC s h a l l always be i n possession of a l i s t of projects being discussed or reviewed by the TAB or part i c i p a t i n g organizations; (f) Periodic reports s h a l l be made by the TAB to the TAC; these reports s h a l l include an examination of a c t i v i t i e s undertaken and results achieved, and a statement on funds received and committed under this expanded programme; (g) Each p a r t i c i p a t i n g organization s h a l l present annually to the TAB i t s proposed programme for the next f i s c a l year i n the l i g h t of i t s experience with the expanded programme. The programmes of the several p a r t i c i p a t i n g organizations s h a l l be examined i n r e l a t i o n to each other, and the TAB s h a l l make recommendations concerning them and the t o t a l programme to the Council through the TAC; (h) A l l decisions other than on procedural matters s h a l l be taken by general agreement and, when agreement cannot be reached, the issue i n dispute s h a l l be referred f o r decision to the TAC; 4. Authorizes the Secretary-General, a f t e r consultation with the other p a r t i c i p a t i n g organizations, to designate the Executive Secretary of the TAB, who s h a l l : (a) Convene and service the TAB and prepare the needed documents; (b) Collect and circulate to members of the TAB: ( i ) Information regarding enquiries f o r technical assistance received by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g organizations; ( i i ) Programmes of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g organizations f o r techn i c a l assistance i n the f i e l d s for which they are responsible; ( i i i ) information on technical assistance rendered and projected by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g organizations and any other information  152  which becomes available to them concerning such assistance rendered by Governments or by other public or private bodies; (c) Prepare or arrange f o r such studies i n regard to requests and plans for technical assistance as may be needed by the TAB, and furnish, when required by the TAB, information and analyses r e l a t i n g to the needs and conditions of the various countries requesting assistance: (d) Prepare f o r the TAB, with the assistance of the organizations concerned and on the basis of information supplied by the Governments concerned, such reports on the operations carried out under the expanded co-operative programme of technical assistance as may be necessary; 5. Requests the Secretary-General to make appropriate arrangements whereby the executive heads of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g organizations may assign members of t h e i r s t a f f to the s t a f f of the TAB as necessary.  7. Requests that the TAB and the TAG, i n carrying out t h e i r terms of reference, be guided by the "Observations on and guiding principles of an expanded programme of technical assistance for economic development" (Annex I) and take into account the records of the debate on the expanded, programme which occurred during the ninth session of the Council.  APPENDIX E United. Nations General Assembly R e s o l u t i o n 516(IV) A d v i s o r y S o c i a l Welfare Services. The General Assembly 1. A u t h o r i z e s the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l t o place on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s , r a t h e r than on the present year-to-year b a s i s , the a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s o r i g i n a l l y a u t h o r i z e d by i t s r e s o l u t i o n 38(1) o f 14 December 1946; 2.  D i r e c t s the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l :  (a) To i n c l u d e an amount f o r these s e r v i c e s i n the budget of the United Nations i n the f u t u r e ; (b) For 1950, t o continue t h i s work a t approximately the same l e v e l o f expenditure on the part o f the United Nations as i n 1949; 3. Requests the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l t o review the terms o f r e s o l u t i o n 58(1), i n the l i g h t o f the provisions, of paragraph 1.above and i n the l i g h t o f the d i s c u s s i o n s and suggest i o n s made i n the T h i r d Committee of the General Assembly, and to recommend to the next r e g u l a r s e s s i o n o f the General Assembly any m o d i f i c a t i o n s which i t may c o n s i d e r necessary t h e r e i n . Two hundred and f o r t y - t h i r d p l e n a r y meeting, 17 November 1949.  1 United Nations: O f f i c i a l Records of the Fourth S e s s i o n of the General Assembly RESOLUTIONS. 20 Sept.-10 Dec. 1949Lake Success, New York. A/1251. 28 D e c , 1949.  APPENDIX F A d v i s o r y S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s  Revised t e x t proposed by the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l ( r e s o l u t i o n 312(XI) of J u l y 14, 1950) and r e s o l u t i o n adopted by the General Assembly 418(V). Whereas, by A r t i c l e s 55 and 60 o f the Charter of the United Nations, the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l under the a u t h o r i t y o f the General Assembly, i s charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r promoting higher standards of l i v i n g and c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i a l progress and development, Whereas, by A r t i c l e 66 o f the Charter, the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l may, with the approval of the General Assembly, perform s e r v i c e s at the request of Members o f the United Nations and a t the request of s p e c i a l i z e d agencies, Whereas the General Assembly, a f t e r examining the recommendations of the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l and the accompanyi n g r e p o r t of s e r v i c e s rendered f o r the f i r s t three years o f o p e r a t i o n , approved the recommendations and placed the a d v i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s o f r e s o l u t i o n 58(1) on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s and d i r e c t e d t h a t a review be made of the terms of the r e s o l u t i o n and a p p r o p r i a t e recommendations made with respect to d e s i r a b l e or necessary changes, Whereas the General Assembly recognizes that the adv i s o r y s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s c o n s t i t u t e a p r a c t i c a l o p e r a t i o n a l programme o f d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e to governments and that the other a c t i v i t i e s of the United Nations i n the s o c i a l f i e l d should be p r o p e r l y c o r r e l a t e d t o these s e r v i c e s i n order to achieve maximum e f f e c t i v e n e s s , to which end the S o c i a l Commission has adjusted i t s long-range work programme, The General Assembly, t h e r e f o r e , 1 United Nations General Assembly O f f i c i a l Records. Agenda item 31. Annexes F i f t h S e s s i o n . New York, 1950. Agenda item 31: Advisory s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s ; r e p o r t of the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l . Document A/1355. Annex I , pp.2-4. See a l s o : United Nations R e s o l u t i o n s adopted by the General Assembly d u r i n g p e r i o d 19 Sept.-15 Dec. 1950. General Assembly, O f f i c i a l Records: F i f t h Session, Supplement No. 20; (A/1775) pp.40-41. Three hundred and f o u r t e e n t h plenary meeting, 1 Dec. 1950.  155 A.  A u t h o r i z e s the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l :  1. Subject to the d i r e c t i o n s of the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , to make p r o v i s i o n f o r the under-mentioned f u n c t i o n s and s e r v i c e s , such p r o v i s i o n to be made where a p p r o p r i a t e with the co-operation of the s p e c i a l i z e d agencies and i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s having c o n s u l t a t i v e s t a t u s : (a) For a r e q u i s i t e number of s o c i a l welfare experts to prov i d e a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s at the request of governments which show the need f o r them, and to put i n t o p r a c t i c e , over an a p p r o p r i a t e p e r i o d , new methods i n any branch o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e ; (b) For e n a b l i n g s u i t a b l y q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l welfare o f f i c i a l s to observe, and f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with, the experience and p r a c t i c e of other c o u n t r i e s i n any branch of s o c i a l w e l f a r e ; (c) For e n a b l i n g s u i t a b l y q u a l i f i e d persons who cannot r e c e i v e a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n i n g i n branches of s o c i a l welfare i n t h e i r own country to r e c e i v e a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n i n g i n f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s having the necessary f a c i l i t i e s ; (d) For p l a n n i n g by a p p r o p r i a t e methods p r o j e c t s f o r e x p e r i menting i n or demonstrating v a r i o u s phases of s o c i a l welfare, o r g a n i z i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n these p r o j e c t s , p r o v i d i n g the necessary t o o l s and equipment i n connection therewith, and a s s o c i a t i n g to the extent p r a c t i c a b l e with the p r o j e c t s , the persons r e f e r r e d to i n sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) above; (e) For f u r n i s h i n g t e c h n i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s and f i l m s ; and ( f ) For planning and conducting seminars; and 2. To i n c l u d e i n the budgetary estimates of the U n i t e d Nations the sums necessary f o r c a r r y i n g out an e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n a l programme based on the p r o v i s i o n o f the above s e r v i c e s ; B. I n s t r u c t s the Secretary-General t o undertake the p e r f o r mance of the f u n c t i o n s l i s t e d i n paragraph A . l . above, i n agreement with the governments concerned, on the b a s i s of requests r e c e i v e d from governments and i n accordance with the f o l l o w i n g policies: 1. The kind of s e r v i c e to be rendered to each country s h a l l be decided by the government concerned; 2. The f u r n i s h i n g of the experts and s e r v i c e s s h a l l be undertaken by the Secretary-General; the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l s h a l l , normally, make a p p l i c a t i o n f o r experts t o S t a t e s which are Members of the United.Nations, and the s e l e c t i o n of grant h o l d e r s s h a l l be made by the Secretary-General on the b a s i s of proposals r e c e i v e d from the governments, which s h a l l i n d i c a t e t h e i r preferences with regard to host c o u n t r i e s ; 3. The amount of s e r v i c e s and the c o n d i t i o n s under which they s h a l l be f u r n i s h e d to the v a r i o u s governments s h a l l be decided by the Secretary-General with due regard to the g r e a t e r needs of the under-developed areas and i n conformity w i t h the p r i n c i p l e that each r e q u e s t i n g government s h a l l be expected to p a r t i c i p a t e f i n a n c i a l l y to the maximum p o s s i b l e extent i n the s e r v i c e s provided t o i t ; and  156 G. Requests the Secretary-General to r e p o r t r e g u l a r l y to the S o c i a l Commission on the measures which he takes i n compliance with the terms of the present r e s o l u t i o n and requests the Commiss i o n to formulate recommendations from time to time, concerning the continued a c t i o n r e q u i r e d to c a r r y on the e s s e n t i a l advisory a c t i v i t i e s i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l w e l f a r e .  APPENDIX G STATISTICS OF UNITED NATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ADVISORY SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES PROGRAMME^ Table I.  Fellowship Awards According to Fields of Study. 1947-1951  Fields of Study Community, family and child welfare Social welfare administration Rehabilitation of the handicapped Corrections Social security Housing, town and country planning Employment services Social aspects of health Social research Rural welfare Labour relations Social aspects of migration Co-operatives Standards of living Total  Table II.  26  23  16 1 16 2 8 7 2 1  — -  30 24 12 10 8 3 4 6 2 2  -  -  .1  104  120  Total 192 129 105 71 70 . 34  35 22 38  -  58 31 16 15 15 8 9 5 6 4 4 2 3 2  3 1 1  14 6 5 4 4  188  183  176  771  43 29 23 21 20 1 7 7 10 2 2  -  24  11 20 2 1 6 5  30 26 26  -  Project Areas in Which Welfare Experts Worked, 1947-1951 Project Area  Social welfare administration Community, family and child welfare Rehabilitation of the handicapped Social security Corrections Housing, town and country planning Labour relations Social development Exploratory missions Public Education Standard of living Total  Number of Fellows 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951  Number of Experts 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 7 8 4 5  3 2 1 3  4 2 2 1  3 2 3 1 4 1  -  -  -  _  1.  _  -  - •  24  -  -  -  -  10  -  -  -  -  •-  -  1 1  9  17  3 4 3  -  1 3 —  2 1 —  17  Total 20 18 13 9 6 3 2 2 1 1 1 77  1 Source: A l l the following tables were adapted from United Nations Department of Social Affairs: Evaluation of the Programme of Advisory Social Welfare Services. 1947-1951. Annex pp.88-95- E/CN.5/266/Rev.l. United Nations, New York, 1953.  158  Table III.  Distribution of Fellowship Awards byRecipient Countries. Totals for 1947-1951  Area  No.  EUROPE  Area FAR EAST  Yugoslavia Greece Austria Finland Italy Poland Netherlands Cz echoslovakia Belgium Sweden Norway Hungary Switzerland Denmark Luxemburg West Germany United Kingdom Albania Trieste  55 47 45 44 44  NEAR AND MEDDLE EAST  £k  Egypt Israel Lebanon Turkey Iran Syria  20 19  OCEANIA  k  Australia New Zealand  3 1  29 25 23 17  16  13 12 11 9 5 4 3 2 1  16  11  8 7  No. 174  India Philippines China Japan Thailand Ceylon Pakistan South Korea Indonesia  75 39  LATIN AMERICA  XL  Ecuador Chile British West Indies Brazil Haiti Guatemala Netherlands West Indies Argentina Colombia Mexico Bolivia Dominican Republic Uruguay  16 12 11 9  28 10  8  5 4 3 2  9  4 4 3 3 3 1 1 1  AFRICA  1  Southern Rhodesia  1  NORTH AMERICA  1  Canada  1  159  Table IV.  Fellowship Awards According to Countries of Operation in Five Regions. 1947-1951  Region  1947 1948 1949 1950 1951  Europe  52  Total No.  P.C.  80  141  121  108  502  65.0  38  41  45  45  221  29.0  2  5  17  16  40  Oceania  -  1  -  6  7  1.0  Far East  -  -  -  • 1  1  X  183  176  771  North America Latin America (including Caribbean)  Total  - •  120  104  188  5-0  100  x = Less than 1 per cent.  Table V.  Distribution of Experts According to Regions. 1947-1951  Region  1948  1947  1949  1950  1951  (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b)  Total (b)  Europe  7 13  4  4  4  5  3  6  1  1  29  Far East  2 11  1  2  1  1  1  1  4  .7  22  Near and Middle East  -  -  1  1  4  4  2  3  8  Latin America  - -  4  2  2  3  6  3  4  16  2  2  2  -  -  2  •  Africa Total  9 24  7 10  8  9  (a) = Number of countries. (b) - Number of experts.  11 17  12 17  77  160  Table VI.  Countries From Which Experts Were Recruited, 1947-1951  Country United States of America  Total 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951  33  15  4  4  3  7  United Kingdom  8  2  1  1  -  4  France  6  3  -  -  2  1  Chile  4  -  1  1  2  -  Australia  3  1  - •  -  1  • 1  Canada  3  -  1  2  -  -  Denmark  3  1  -  -  2  -  Union of Soviet Socialist Republic  3  1  2  Belgium  2  Mexico  2  -  -  Netherlands  2  -  New Zealand  2  -  Austria  1  Brazil  1  Finland  _  1  1  -  1  1  -  -  2  - '  ->  1  -  1  -  -  1  -  -  i  -  -  India  l  -  Sweden  l  • -  -  Union of South Africa  l  -  1  -  77  24  10  9  Total  ;  mm  1  -  -  -  1  -  1  • -  -  1  -  mm  17  17  161 Table VII.  Subject  Shb.jects and Scope of United Nations Seminars and Related Projects Under the Advisory Social Welfare Services. 1947-1951 Place  A. EUROPE 1. Training, housing, Paris corrections, family welfare  Duration  Participants (a) (b)  UN Experts  1949 (Nov-28-Dec.lO)  11  1951 (Dec3-Dec.l5)  18  83  13  1950 (Nov.6-Nov.18)  10  34  2  1951 4- Social Casework(x) Woudschoten (Netherlands) (Aug.l9-Sep.l)  14  60  7  5. Training and Func- Sevres tions of the French Polyvalent (sic)l Social Worker (x)  1951 (Nov.12-Nov.19)  12  42  6. Conference on Juve- Rome nile Delinquency  1950 (Dec.3-Dec.10)  1  150-200  5  Brussels  2. Corrections  3- Social Casework(x) Vienna  57  B. MIDDLE EAST 1. Social Welfare  Beirut  1949 (Aug.l5-Sep.8)  7  52  12  2. Rural Welfare  Cairo  1950 (Nov.22-Dec.14)  1  111  39  C. ASIA AND FAR EAST 1. Youth Welfare  Simla  1951 (Nov.l-Nov.21)  5  24  25  Jamshedpur (India)  1950 (Dec.19-Dec.2l)  5  68  5  D. LATIN AMERICA 1. Social Welfare  Medellin  1947 (Aug.ll-Aug.29)  13  25  9  2. Social Welfare  Montevideo  1947 (Sep.8-Sep.25)  7  13  9  Conference on Physically Handicapped Children  (a) = Number of countries represented. (b) = Number of delegates, (x) = Exchange Plan (Europe). 1  French expression for "generic".  APPENDIX H Outline of Report - United Nations Social Welfare Fellowships  I.  Details of Preparation and Distribution :  (a) Prepare s i x copies of the report, retaining one f o r yours e l f and sending five copies as follows, unless otherwise instructed by UN Headquarters, New York, or Geneva. I f observing i n Europe, send f i v e copies to the Geneva office. I f observing elsewhere i n the world, send f i v e copies to UN Headquarters, New York. (b) Submit the five copies as indicated before you depart f o r your home country. Note: ( l ) The information i n your report should be cleared with your supervisor i n the country of observation, to assure accuracy. (2) The United Nations w i l l d i s t r i b u t e your f i n a l report to your home government and to the supervising agency i n the country of observation. II.  Content of the Report:  (a) On additional sheets of p l a i n paper which you w i l l attach to this sheet, please discuss the following topics i n the order given: (1) Your own comments on the value of the fellowship programme from the international point of view;, also, any suggestions f o r improvement i n t h i s respect. (2) Your own comments about the fellowship programme as a means of a s s i s t i n g your government i n developing i t s welfare services; i n l i n e with the purpose of the programme under Resolution 419(v"); also any suggestions i n t h i s respect. ( 3 ) Any general comments you wish to make regarding your own fellowship and observation programme, including the extent to which i t has met your interests and needs, and any suggestions f o r improvement. ( 4 ) A detailed statement of the specific aspects of your  163  observation that you think may country.  be useful to you i n your  (5) A detailed summary of the aspects of the f i e l d of your interest on which you have been working during the entire period of your fellowship. (Summarize by topics.) (6) A l i s t of books and publications that you have found p a r t i c u l a r l y useful during the period of your observation. Give t i t l e , author, date of publication, name and address of publisher. (b) Please f i l l i n the following, f o r any period not covered by monthly reports.  APPENDIX I Expert's Application Form Please Attach Photo Size ijs x lg  INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION DIVISION DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND COMMERCE  OTTAWA, CANADA  Apposez Photo Grandeur l|xl£  PERSONAL HISTORY NOTICE PERSONNELLE Please answer each question completely. Type or print in ink. If certain items require more space, repeat their item numbers and continue on plain paper.  Repondez en detail a checune des T.CS. FILE REF. questions, a l a machine ou en NUMBERS lettres majuscules. Si vous Tna.nqu.ez de place, continuez sur une feuille separee en indiquant le numero de la question. 1. F a m i l y Namff - Nrtm rift Fawn "11A Fii-s+. Namfif? - Prpjirnns Maiden Name (if applicable) Nom de demoiselle (s*il y alieu) ,2. Permanent Address - Domicile permanent Telephone «  3. Mailing Address (if different from above) - Adresse postale (si elle differe de la precedente) C) Sex - Sexe - 4.A)Country of birth B) Date of birth Date de naissance Pays d'origine 5.A)Citizenship at birth B)Citizenship now Nationalite actuelle Nationalite a l a naissance  Telephone D) Marital Status Evat c i v i l  C)Length of residence in Canada Duree de la residence au Canada  N.B. If 5A and B are different, attach explanation. Si 5A et 5B different, joindre explanations 6 . Dependents Personnes a Age Name Relationship Name Age Relationship Norn Degre de parente Nom Degre de parente 7. If appointed, for what period would you be willing to serve?  Si vous etes nomme, quelle duree d'engagement envisages-vous? Six months or less Six mois ou moins One year or less Une annee ou moins One to two years D'un a deux ans Over two years Plus de deux ans 8. Have you previously submitted an application for employment with an international organization? If so, give details and dates. Avez-vous deja sounds une demande d'emploi a un organisme international? Dans 1'affirmative, donnez des details et les dates. 9. List any of your relatives employed by the United Nations or its Specialized Agencies. Donnez les noms de ceux de vos parents qui sont employes par les Nations Unies ou leurs institutions specialisees. Relationship Name of International Organization Name - Nom Nom de 1'organisation internationale Degre de parente 10. For exactly what kind of work do you wish to be considered? Pour quel genre de travail, exactement, des'irez-vous etre pris en consideration?  165  _ 11. EDUCATION - ETUDES A) College or University - Facultes ou grandes ecoles Name and Place Years Attended Annees d'etudes Norn et adresse From-de To-a  Major Subjects Principaux sujets d etudes 1  Degrees,Honours Grades universitaires, diplomes  B) Schools or Other Forma]. Training or Education Avez-vous frequente d'autres etablissements enseignement technique, general? Type of School Name and Place Years Attended Diplomas, etc. Genre d'etablisse- Diplomes, etc. Nom et adresse Annees d etudes ment From-de To-a 1  12. List professional societies to which you belong. Enumerez les associations professionnelles dont vous etes membre. 13. List, but do not attach, any significant publications you have written. Include publisher and date and place of publication. Enumerez (san les joindre) tous travaux importants que vous pouvez avoir publies. Indiquez le nom de l'editeur, le lieu et l a date de la publication. Describe your proficiency in the spaces provided. 14- LANGUAGES - LANGUES Precisez l a mesure dans laquelle vous pouvez, dans List of languages (mother tongue first) Indiquez les langues (en Speaking Proficiency Writing Proficiency Reading Proficienc commencant par votre Rediger Parler Lire langue matemelle) 15« You may be required to pass a medical examination before appointment. II se peut que vous soyez requis de passer un examen medical, avant votre engagement. A). Are you in good health? Etes-vous en bonne sante? B) Describe any physical defects. - Decrivez toute infirmite physique dont^vous souffrezC) Will you submit a certificate of health i f required? Soumettrez-vous un certificat de bonne sante, s i vous en etes requis? D) Will you submit a certificate of vaccination i f required? Soumettrez-vous un certificat de vaccination, s i vous en etes requis? E) Will you submit to any necessary inoculations? Vous soumettrez-vous a toute inoculation necessaire?  166 16. EMPLOYMENT RECORD: Starting with your present position, l i s t in reverse order every employment during the last 10 years and any significant employment not included in that period. Include service in the Armed Forces. Use additional sheets of paper i f required. ,A) PRESENT EMPLOYMENT - POSTE ACTUEL Dates of Employment - Duree d'emploi From: month year To: present De: mois annee A : ce .iour Title of your Position - Titre de votre poste  ANTECEDENTS PROFESSIONNELS: Enumerez, en'common cant par le plus recent tous les emplois que vous avez exerces au cours des dix dernieres annees; en dehors de cette periode, ne citez que les postes importants. Veuillez i n clure votre service aux Armees. Adjutez au pesoin des fuillets supplementaires. Description of your work - Nature de votre travail  Name and Address of Employer - Nom et adresse d'employeur Type of Business - Genre d'entreprise  t  •  Name of your Supervisor - Nom de votre superieur Reason for wishing to leave - Pourquoi desirezvous changer? Have you any objections to our making inquiries of your present employer? Voyez-vous quelque inconvenient a ce que nous prenions des renseignements aupres de votre employeur actuel? B) PREVIOUS POSITION - POSTE ANTERIEUR Description of your work - Nature de votre travail Dates of Employment - Duree d'emploi tfrom: month year To: present , Be: mois annee A : ce jour Salaries per Starting: Final: Au debut: A l a fin: Title of your Position - Titre de votre poste Name and Address of Employer - Nom et adresse ' d'employeur Type of Business - Genre d'entreprise  7  Name of your Supervisor - Nom de votre superieur Reason for wishing to leave - Pourquoi desirezvous changer? . . C PREVIOUS POSITION - POSTE ANTERIEUR '' ' Dates of Employment - Duree d' emploi From: month year To: present De: mois annee A : ce .iour Salaries per Starting: Final: Au debut: A la fin: Title of your Position - Titre de votre poste Name arid Address of Employer - Nom et adresse d' employeur Type of Business - Genre d'entreprise Name of your Supervisor - Nom de votre superieur Reason for wishing to leave - Pourquoi des^rez1  Description of your work - Nature de votre travail  167 . D) EMPLOYMENT RECORD (Cont'd.) Description of your work - Nature de votre ANTECEDENTS PROF. (Suite) travail ~ Dates of Employment - Duree d'emploi , From: month year To: present De: iriois annee A : ce .iour Salaries per , Starting: Final: Au debut: A la fin: Title of your Position - Titre de votre poste Name and Address of Employer - Nom et adresse d'employeur Type of Business - Genre d'entreprise Name of your Supervisor - Nom de votre superieur Reason for wishing to leave - Pourquoi desirezvous changer? * 17. REFERENCES: List three persons not reREFERENCES: Nommez trois personnes qui n'ont lated to you, to whom we may refer for an pas de l i e n de parente avec vous et auxquelles estimate of your suitability for appointnous pourrons nous referer pour determiner ment. Do not repeat names listed i n votre aptitude a remplir l e poste solicite. item 16. Ne repetez pas de noms cites dans 1'article 16. Name - Nom Full Address - Adresse complete Profession  ;  1$. State b r i e f l y any other relevant facts or special qualifications. Include information regarding residence or prolonged travel abroad, giving dates, areas, purpose, etc.  Decrivez brievement tous autres details pertinent ou aptitudes speciales. Veuillez inclure des renseignements sur vos sejours ou vos voyages prlonges a l'etranger, citant dates, regions, objet, etc.  19* I certify that the statements made by me in answer to the foregoing questions are true, complete and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief.  Je certifie que les declarations faites par moi en reponse aux questions ci-dessus sont, dans tout l a mesure ou je pois en entre certain, vraies, completes et exactes.  Date  Signature  APPENDIX J BIBLIOGRAPHY (Figures i n left-hand column are the o f f i c i a l UN index numbers.)  I.  UNITED NATIONS DOCUMENTS A. General Assembly Official.Records  A/81  United Nations O f f i c i a l Records of the Third Session of the General Assembly. Part I. 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E/1986  Measures f o r Economic Development of Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s . Report by a Group of Experts Appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. 3 May, 1951.  E/2161  Report of the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l Adm i n i s t r a t i v e Committee on C o - o r d i n a t i o n . 13 December, 1951.  E/2204  C o - o r d i n a t i o n of the Work of the United Nations and the S p e c i a l i z e d Agencies, Part I I . Report of the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l . 30 A p r i l , 1952.  E/2209  United Nations Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s tance. Report o f the Secretary-General to the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l . 21 A p r i l , 1952.  E/2213  Expanded Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e .  170 Fourth Report of the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board to the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Committee on the P e r i o d J u l y 1950 - December 1951. Vol. I. May 8, 1952. 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S o c i a l Commission of the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l of the United Nations E/CN.5/105/Rev.l  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Exchange of S o c i a l Welfare Personnel. Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s . Techn i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r S o c i a l Progress No. 1. Sales No. 1949.IV.6. Lake Success, New York. August, 1949-  E/CN.5/108  T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r S o c i a l Progress No. 2. I n t e r n a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s , Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s . 1949.  E/CN.5/175/Rev.l  United Nations S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s f o r A s s i s t i n g States i n the Middle E a s t . B e i r u t , 15 August - 8 September. 1949. Technical A s s i s t a n c e f o r S o c i a l Progress No.3. United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s Sales No. 1950.IV.8. (11 J u l y , 1950.) Lake Success, New York.  E/CN.5/196/Rev.l  T r a i n i n g f o r S o c i a l Work: an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Survey. S o c i a l Commission Report. 23 October, 1950.  E/CN.5/224  Methods of S o c i a l Welfare A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n Sales No. 1950.IV.10. (25 October, 1950.) United Nations, New York, 1950.  E/CN.5/239  Advisory  S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s , Report of  171 the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l on the Programme under R e s o l u t i o n 58(1) as 'Amended. 5 February, 1951. E/CN.5/240  Progress Report i n t h e F i e l d of S o c i a l A c t i vities January - December. 1950. Social Commission o f the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l .  E/CN.5/254  Report o f the S o c i a l Commission to the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l . A p r i l 14, 1951.  E/CN.5/266  E v a l u a t i o n of the Programme of A d v i s o r y S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s 1947 - 1951. Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s . U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1953-  E/CN.5/267/Rev.l  Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s : P r e l i m i n a r y Report on the World S o c i a l S i t u a t i o n . United Nations, 1952.  E/CN.5/272  Proposals Concerning Changes i n the Work Programmes f o r the Years 1955 - 1954. Proposed Work Programme f o r the Year 1955. 24 March, 1952.  E/CN.5/289/Add.5  Progress Made by the U n i t e d Nations i n the F i e l d o f S o c i a l A c t i v i t i e s i n 1952. January December 1952. Report by the S e c r e t a r i a t . Part I I . A d v i s o r y S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s and Relevant A s s i s t a n c e Provided Under the Expanded Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r the Economic Development of Under-developed Countries. 12 February, 1955.  E/CN.5/291  Programme o f Concerted P r a c t i c a l A c t i o n i n the S o c i a l F i e l d o f the United Nations and S p e c i a l i z e d Agencies. Report of the Secretary-General. 2 March, 1955-  E/CN.9/102  Programme of Concerted P r a c t i c a l A c t i o n i n the S o c i a l F i e l d . Report o f the S e c r e t a r y General. 12 January, 1955.  D. T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Committee o f the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l E/TAC/12  Expanded Programme of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e : Proposals f o r Improving Procedures Whereby Co-ordinated Country T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes f o r Approval by the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board may be Developed a t the Country l e v e l . 22 June, 1955.  E/TAC/15  R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the Resident Representat i v e o f the T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board and the  172  Corresponding Responsibilities of F i e l d Representatives of the P a r t i c i p a t i n g Agencies. Technical Assistance Committee, 27 June, 1953. E/TAC/L.21  Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance Fourth Report of the Technical Assistance Board to the Technical Assistance Committee. Technical Assistance Committee, 11 July, 1952.  E. United Nations Secretariat ST/ECA/10  Measures f o r Economic Development of Underdeveloped Countries. Report by a Group of Experts Appointed by the Secretary-General. New York, 3 May, 1951.  ST/TAA/3  United Nations Technical Assistance Administ r a t i o n : Services of the United Nations Techn i c a l Assistance Administration and How to Obt a i n Them. New York, 1951.  ST/TAA/SER.C/2  Technical Assistance Administration Conference and Seminar Series No. 1. 2 July, 1951.  ST/TAA/SER.C/4  Modern Methods of Rehabilitation of the Adult Disabled. Report of a group-training course organized by the United Nations with the cooperation of WHO ILO, held i n Sweden, Finland and Denmark, 8 September - 7 November, 1952. (Sales No. 1952.IV.19.) December, 1952.  ST/TAA/SER.D/7  Dr. Ahmed Hussein and Dr. Carl C. Taylor: Report of the Mission on Rural Community Organization and Development i n the Caribbean Area and Mexico. Report prepared f o r the Technical Assistance Administration of the United Nations. March, 1953.  F. United Nations Technical Assistance Board ST/TAB/1 UN.I  II.  The Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance for Economic Development of Under-developed .Areas. New York, 1951.  DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND  COMMERCE  Technical Co-operation Service, International Economic and Techn i c a l Co-operation Division, Monthly Report: Trainees and Experts - 15 February, 1954. and S t a t i s t i c a l Summary of Technical Co-operation Programme 1950 - 51 December, 1955. Department of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, Canada, 1954.  173 III. The  PERIODICALS I n t e r n a t i o n a l Survey. 1950 - 1953. Issued by Reference D i v i s i o n , C e n t r a l O f f i c e of Information, London.  United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n F o r t n i g h t l y Bulletin. 29 January, 1951, ST/TAA/SER.B/1; 20 February, 1951, ST/TAA/SER.B/2; 6 March, 1951, ST/TAA/SER.B/3; 15 May, 1951, ST/TAA/SER.B/8; 12 June, 1951, ST/TAA/SER.B/10; J u l y 1951, ST/TAA/SER.B/11; August 1951, ST/TAA/SER.B/12; October 1951, ST/TAA/SER.B/14; November 1951, ST/TAA/SER. B/15; December 1951, ST/TAA/SER.B/16; January 1952, ST/ TAA/SER.B/17. B e l l o c h , D., " T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes and P o l i c i e s " . International A f f a i r s . XXVIII, 1. (January, 1952.) pp.49-58. Davis, R.E.G., 33rd Annual Report o f the Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l : "The S o c i a l S e t t i n g " . Presented a t the Annual Meeting, May 28, 1953. Ottawa, O n t a r i o . Canadian Welfare. (May 1953.) pp.2-4. Dix, Marion, "United Nations S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s " . Speech d e l i v e r e d a t the A l l I n d i a Conference o f S o c i a l Work, Bombay, 1947. Indian Journal o f S o c i a l V/ork. IX, 1. pp.78-81. Franck, P.G. & D. Seelye Franck, "Implementation o f T e c h n i c a l Assistance". I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n c i l i a t i o n (February, 1951) No. 468. Carnegie Endowment F o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Peace. New York, 1951. Freeman, Kathleen, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Co-operation i n S o c i a l Work". The World's C h i l d r e n . XXXI, 11. (November, 1951.) pp. 343-349. Hamilton, Gordon, "Helping People - The Growth o f a P r o f e s s i o n " . S o c i a l Work and Human R e l a t i o n s . 1949. Anniversary Papers o f the New York School o f S o c i a l Work and the Communit y S e r v i c e S o c i e t y of New York, 1949. Hediger, E.S., "Geneva I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Wartime". Foreign Reports. XIX, 4. (1 May, 1943.) pp.38-46.  Policy  Henderson, J u l i a , "New F r o n t i e r s f o r S o c i a l Welfare Centres". S o c i a l Work J o u r n a l . XXXIV, 1. (January, 1953.) p.6. H o l l y , Jane M., " S o c i a l Work: I t s Base, S k i l l s and R e l a t i o n t o other F i e l d s " . S o c i a l Case Work. XXXI, 10. (1950.) pp.399-410. Howard, D.S., "The Common Core o f S o c i a l Work i n D i f f e r e n t Countries". S o c i a l Work J o u r n a l . XXXII, 4. (October, 1951.) pp.163-172.  174 Howard, D.S., " T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r Economic Development Program of the United Nations and the S p e c i a l i z e d Agencies". I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n c i l i a t i o n (January, 1950) No. 457. Carnegie Endowment f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Peace. New York, 1950. de Jough, J.F., "A European Experiment i n Casework Teaching". S o c i a l Casework. XXXIV, 1. (January, 1953.) p.9. K a s i u s , Cora, "Are S o c i a l Work P r i n c i p l e s Emerging I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y ? " S o c i a l Casework. XXXIV, 1. (January, 1953.) pp.23-29. Keenleyside, H.L., " T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e - T o o l f o r World E v o l u tion". I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Q u a r t e r l y . XV, 4. (Autumn, 1951.) pp.213-219. K e n d a l l , C a t h e r i n e , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development i n S o c i a l Work Education". S o c i a l Work J o u r n a l . XXXII, 2. (April, 1951.) pp.70-77. D a i l y , Dorothy, "Comments on the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e l l o w s h i p Program". The S o c i a l Welfare Forum. O f f i c i a l Proceedings of the 79th Annual Meeting of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , May 25-30, 1952. pp.104-117. l a l l y , Dorothy, "Gains i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Welfare". S o c i a l Casework. XXXIII, 6. (June, 1952.) pp.227-233. Ogburn, W.F., " S o c i a l E f f e c t s o f Technology i n I n d u s t r i a l i z e d Societies". I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l Science B u l l e t i n . IV, 2. (Summer, 1952.1 UNESCO, P a r i s . pp.269-279. Ringwood, O.K.D. & E.S.Hediger, "The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Red Cross Committee". F o r e i g n P o l i c y Reports. XIX, 4. ( l May, 1943.) pp.46-48. Smith, M a r j o r i e J . , " S o c i a l Casework Across the A t l a n t i c " . Canad i a n Welfare. XXVIII, 8. (March, 1953.) pp.28-32. S c o t t , F.R., "Welfare Work i n Burma". 2. (June, 1953.) pp.5-10.  Canadian Welfare.  XIX,  Sweetser, A., "The N o n - P o l i t i c a l Achievements of the League". F o r e i g n A f f a i r s . XIX, 1. (October, 1940.) pp.179-192. Younghusband, E i l e e n L., "Basic T r a i n i n g f o r Casework: I t s P l a c e i n the School Curriculum i n Europe". S o c i a l Casework. XXXIV, 1. (January, .1953.) pp.3-8.  IV.  BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS  Department o f Trade and Commerce, Annual Report, 1951. Annual Report, Ottawa, 1952.  6lst  175 Dunham, A r t h u r , " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of S o c i a l Agencies". Social Work Yearbook 1947. A d e s c r i p t i o n o f Organized A c t i v i t i e s i n S o c i a l Work and Related F i e l d s . Russel H . K u r t z , E d i tor. R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, New York, 1947. pp.15-16. F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S o c i a l Workers from around the World Observe S o c i a l Welfare i n the United S t a t e s . International Technical Co-operation Serie No. I . August, 1952. Washington, D . C . F i n k , A . E . , The F i e l d of S o c i a l Work. 1942.  H . Holt & C o . , New York,  League o f N a t i o n s , E s s e n t i a l F a c t s about the League of N a t i o n s . Information S e c t i o n , Geneva, 1935. Fourth E d i t i o n . League o f N a t i o n s , The League Hands Over. Geneva, 1946.  League of  League of Red Cross S o c i e t i e s , The Red C r o s s , I t s Organization. Geneva, 1930. Myers, D . P . , Handbook of the League of N a t i o n s . Foundation, New York, 1935. Stroup, H . H . , S o c i a l Work, An I n t r o d u c t i o n can Book Company, New York, 1948.  Nations,  International World Peace  to the F i e l d .  Ameri  T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the United N a t i o n s , P r o gramme of Fellowships and Scholarships f o r 1954. In Econo mic Development, P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S o c i a l Welfare. January, 1953United N a t i o n s , New York. United N a t i o n s , United Nations Yearbook. 1951. New York, 1951.  Lake Success,  Vandenbosch, A . & W.N. Hogan, The United Nations - Background, O r g a n i z a t i o n , F u n c t i on, A c t i v i t i e s . M c G r a w - H i l l , New York 1952. W i l s o n , Gertrude & Gladys Ryland, S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . The C r e a t i v e Use of the S o c i a l P r o c e s s . Houghton M i f f l i n C o . , The R i v e r s i d e P r e s s , Cambridge, M a s s . , 1949.  V.  CORRESPONDENCE AND INTERVIEWS  

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