Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social and family backgrounds as an aspect of recidivism among juvenile delinquents : a compilation and… Wright, Mildred May 1957

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-UBC_1957_A5 W8 S6.pdf [ 3.97MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0106488.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106488-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106488-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106488-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106488-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106488-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106488-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

SOCIAL AND FAMILY BACKGROUNDS AS AH ASPECT  OF RECIDIVISM AMONG JUVENILE DELINQUENTS. A Compilation and Review for a Group of Juvenile Delinquents Who Failed to Respond to Programmes Provided for Their Rehabilitation by MILDRED MAY WRIGHT Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment .of the Requirements fo r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the' School of Sbcia.l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1957 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia i i i ABSTRACT The subject under study i s the social and family backgrounds of a group of juvenile delinquents who f a i l e d i n re h a b i l i t a t i o n i n spite of services provided by the community. As a background, public concern with regard to the attitudes of professionals and the programmes provided f o r youthful offenders i s discussed. A review i s made of contrasting philosophies i n rel a t i o n to these of-fenders. Canadian programmes are shown to have evolved from both English and American systems. The detailed personal data was assembled f o r a sample group of boys ( 2 3 ) , a l l under eighteen at the time of committal (Oakalla, November 1 9 5 3 )• Material used included court and i n s t i t u t i o n a l records, s o c i a l histories and case records, and summaries of other agency contacts. These were secured from the f i l e s of Oakalla Prison, the Boys Industrial School, and the Provincial Probation Branch. The study throws l i g h t on one aspect of the c r u c i a l and obstinate problem of recidivism. The i n e f f e c t i v e -ness of the preventive and treatment programmes i n reaching the •hard-core' group of juvenile delinquents can be attributed at least i n part to the fact that the existing programmes were not oriented to meet the needs of the emotionally disorganized individuals who were often further damaged through their experiences i n treatment. Some of the implications of the study are (a) the need f o r early detection and diagnosis, (b) the develop-ment of diverse community and i n s t i t u t i o n a l programmes, (c) rational and consistent sentencing p o l i c i e s . It i s also shown that there i s a need f o r better coordination of services f o r delinquent and disturbed children. i v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My deepest appreciation i s due to the lat e Miss Marjorie J . Smith, without whose inspiration and stimulation this study would never have begun. To Mr. Adrian J . Marriage, Research Advisor, f o r guidance 5 revision of material and encouragement, to Miss Cecil Hay-Shaw f o r her f a i t h and support to complete the study, and to the many members'of the Faculty for their help, my sincere gratitude i s due. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I. Juvenile Delinquency - Public Concern A crime wave among youth. Condemnatory a t t i -tude. U n r e l i a b i l i t y of s t a t i s t i c s . Community demands an answer. Contrasting philosophies and programmes to pre-vent or cure delinquency. H i s t o r i c a l background to Canadian programmes. Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n and services. Focus of the present study 1 Chapter I I . The Twenty-Three Delinquent Boys Available records, sources of information. Analysis of material. Programmes used by the hoys, fac-tors concerning social and family backgrounds. Two summarized case histories to i l l u s t r a t e the application of treatment programmes to the factors e l i c i t e d from the soc i a l and family backgrounds . 21 Chapter I I I . An Aspect of Recidivism A case history i l l u s t r a t i n g f a i l u r e to adjust i n spite of certain treatment programmes. Relationship of family and social background to emotional development of the individual. Relationship of emotional starvation to the treatment programmes. The application of this i l l u s -t r a t i o n to the problems presented i n the other cases i n the study. I. 41 Chapter IV. Preventive Measures Summary of the findings - the obstinate problem of recidivism. Ineffectuality of preventive and treatment programmes. Early detection and diagnosis. Coordination of services. Development of services i n rural areas. Inconsistent and i r r a t i o n a l sentencing p o l i c i e s . Develop-ment of d i v e r s i f i e d resources. Further research. A Royal Commission 54 Appendices. A. Table 1. Treatment Prior to Incarcera-tion i n Oakalla Prison Farm. Table 2. Social and Family Factors, (a) Family (t>) Juvenile Delinquent B. Bibliography. SOCIAL AND FAMILY BACKGROUNDS AS AH ASPECT  OF RECIDIVISM-AMONG JUVENILE DELINQUENTS CHAPTER I JUVENILE DELINQUENCY - PUBLIC CONCERN •"Get tough with young thugs. 1" This i s a headline i n a February 1957 copy of the Vancouver Sun i n which J . Edgar Hoover, Director of the American F.B.I., i s reported as saying that "•recent happenings i n juvenile crime shatter the i l l u s i o n that soft-hearted molly-ooddling i s the answer to this problem."' Provoked by such statements, public concern i s s t i r r e d from a l -most complete apathy to a pre—Christian attitude sometimes r e -2 sembling that of the Lex Tali o n i s . The implication that there i s a crime wave for which youth i s responsible, usually has i t s or i g i n i n sensational cases which arouse both fear and h o s t i l i t y on the part of the public. Very l i t t l e i s said about the thou-sands of children who do not get into trouble, nor i s there much recognition of those whose serious disturbances are successfully treated by courts, c l i n i c s , s o c ial agencies, etc. S t a t i s t i c s to validate the impression that ttiere i s a crime wave among youth are frequently unreliable and sometimes lacking. Methods of reporting s t a t i s t i c s vary from court to court, area to area,' country to country, arid although eff o r t s •1. 'Get Tough with Young Thugs', The Vancouver Sun, February 5 , 1957, p . 8 . -2 . Exodus 2 1 : 2 3 - 2 5 . are being made to unify procedure, results are s t i l l subject to question. In Canada the actual d e f i n i t i o n of juvenile delinquency takes into consideration the i n f r a c t i o n of the most minor by-laws, as well as the most serious charges under the Criminal Code. In the l a s t report (1954) of the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s con-cerning juvenile delinquents f o r the year 1952, the t o t a l of 7,213 indicated a decrease of more than 300 children for the whole of Canada. This was the lowest number i n a 25 year period but there was i n fact an increase i n the four Western Provinces and New-foundland."'' In U.S.A. an increase of 29 per cent between 1949 2 and 1952 evinces some cause for concern. Nevertheless, increases or decreases must be considered i n the l i g h t of various influences, such as relationship to the number of births over a given period, s h i f t s i n population, changes i n procedures of reporting s t a t i s -t i c s , etc. Growing awareness of the fact that the etiology of delinquency i s as d i v e r s i f i e d as the number of individuals who become delinquent has led to a l i b e r a l i s a t i o n of opinion and a questioning of the condemnatory "get tough" attitudes. But some answer to the need for protecting society and preventing the problem i s demanded by a confused public. The methods by which each community answers the current outcry i s dependent upon the 1; .Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics,' Juvenile  Delinquents, 1952, 1954, PP«7-9> p.15. 2. KVARACEUS, W.C., The Community and the Delinquent, World Book Company, New York, 1954. pp.1-2, pp.7-8. - 3 -leadership within the community and the philosophy behind that leadership. As a result of pressure, many organizations f o r youth have developed - municipal, state-wide, public and private, some aimed at prevention, others at cures. The United Nations points out i n the survey of the Bureau of Social A f f a i r s , that there are "formidable d i f f i c u l t i e s i n proving the effectiveness of any single measure i n reducing the delinquency rate"''" because of the complexity of the problem, and a multi-disciplinary ap-proach i s recommended. Contrasting Philosophies and Programmes It i s of interest here to mention some of the various methods and philosophies which other countries have evolved to deal with the problem of juvenile delinquency. In Scandinavia programmes have an underlying philosophy that "children and young persons who show par t i c u l a r l y serious maladjustment, including delinquency, and who are i n need of corrective educational 2 measures" are the re s p o n s i b i l i t y of a c h i l d welfare committee. Such a committee may take action even against a parent's w i l l and children may be so treated up to 16 years of age i n Finland, Iceland and Sweden, or to 18 i n Denmark and Norway. In Sweden this may be extended to 21 or even older. Actually no c h i l d below 15 (14 i n Norway) can be t r i e d i n a court for a crime. Thus the 1. United Nations, Bureau of Social A f f a i r s , The Prevention  of Juvenile Delinquency, p.146. 2. Freedom and Welfare, Social Patterns i n the Northern Countries of Europe, Edited by George R. Nelson, et a l , Sponsored by the Ministries of Social A f f a i r s of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, 1953. pp.475-478-- 4 -f a m i l y w e l f a r e , h e a l t h and h o u s i n g programmes, e x t e n s i v e l y deve-l o p e d as p r e v e n t i v e as w e l l as r e m e d i a l measures, have i n f l u e n c e d a t t i t u d e s toward d e l i n q u e n c y and a s t a t e - w i d e c o n t r o l i s main-t a i n e d through the c h i l d w e l f a r e committee e s t a b l i s h e d i n each community under the v a r i o u s C h i l d r e n A c t s . (These•committees are comprised o f p r i e s t s , t e a c h e r s , p h y s i c i a n s - v o l u n t e e r s a c t i n g f o r government c o o r d i n a t i o n o f programmes.)• No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s made between t h e • c h i l d who m a n i f e s t s d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r and the c h i l d who i s i n need o f p r o t e c t i o n . With d e l i n q u e n t s between 15 and 21, c o u r t a c t i o n w i l l be taken o n l y a f t e r the p r o s e c u t o r and the c h i l d w e l f a r e a u t h o r i t i e s have c o n s u l t e d t o g e t h e r . I n c o n t r a s t , i n C a l i f o r n i a , U.S.A., as a r e s u l t o f the i n f l u e n c e o f the American Law I n s t i t u t e , a Youth A u t h o r i t y has been developed whose p r i m a r y concern i s the treatment o f the de-l i n q u e n t under s t a t e c o n t r o l , a l t h o u g h a p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n p r o -gramme p r o v i d e s a d v i c e c o n c e r n i n g p r e v e n t i v e measures. T h i s p l a n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I n New York the approach has been toward the p r e v e n t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Youth Commission as a s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n . As a r e s u l t o f r e s e a r c h , Youth Bureaux were e s t a b l i s h e d t o c o o r d i n a t e a l l p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies i n or d e r t o meet y o u t h needs and pre v e n t d u p l i c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , w h i l e a t the same time e s t a b l i s h i n g n e c e s s a r y new programmes ( i n c l u d i n g e d u c a t i o n , c l i n i c s , law enforcement^ r e c r e a t i o n , :''1• - 5 -health., etc.), i n an e f f o r t to discover early delinquency and f o r e s t a l l i t s development. As a result of this coordination of ef f o r t the Commission believes that evidence i s available to show that a l l but a very few delinquents could have been detected and that remedial action by schools would decrease delinquency. Out of this has developed the New York City Youth Board with' teams i n high delinquency areas using the "aggressive casework" approach. The United States Children's Bureau i n 1952 undertook a special programme of research concerning delinquent behaviour. Out of-this evolved the recommendation for a single public agency i n each state to take re s p o n s i b i l i t y for the development of team-work among the various services for delinquent children. In Canada, the Saskatchewan Government has coordinated a l l correctional services under the Corrections Branch of the Department of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation. This Branch has a consultative relationship to the Public Welfare Branch who are responsible for case decisions. Every case of delinquency i s re-ported to the chief probation o f f i c e r and an inquiry i s conducted before any court proceedings may be'commenced. : ; 1956 saw grave concern i i i B r i t i s h ; Columbia among lay and professional persons. Spearheaded by 'the •John 'Howard' Society,' who recognized through their work that "the limitations i n our present system of handling juveniles are, i n many cases, aiding development - 6 -of case-hardened Criminals",''' an attempt has been made to organize a B r i t i s h Columbia Youth Council. The objects of this organization are to include, among other important aims, the promotion and co-ordination of a c t i v i t i e s and research with a view to helping pre-vent youth behaviour problems and to secure e f f i c i e n t treatment, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and education of young offenders. j£t the same time the Board of Directors have planned to submit a report to the Provincial arrange for a Royal Commission to conduct a systematic study of youth problems and to consider the development of a Youth Authority. H i s t o r i c a l Background to Canadian Programmes In order to understand the basis upon which the present Canadian programmes have developed we must review the h i s t o r i c a l background of our laws concerning children who are delinquent. Looking back over the centuries we are aware that special treat-ment programmes and legal provisions for juvenile delinquents apart from adults have been the concern of people from very early times. Provision for dealing with the "wild, depraved, wayward 2 or headstrong" c h i l d was f i r s t made by determining the age below which a c h i l d could not be said to have insight into h i s behaviour. The Romans set the age of 7 as "the age of discernment"^ arid from 1. (Proceedings) • Juvenile Delinquency Conference, Hotel •Georgia, Vancouver, B.C., October 20-21, 1956.. p.l'and p.17. 2.' ' BARNES, H.E., and "TEETERS, N.*K.'New ^ Horizons ! i r i 'Crimino- logy, 2nd-Edition, 'New York, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1953.1' p.318. '3. ' TEETERS, N.K., and REINEMANN,, J.'O;.'The 'Challenge of 'Delinquency, New York, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 195°. -" P«41. 7 to puberty as the period within which the c h i l d could be punished i f some insight was proved to have been present. From puberty to 25, age was weighed against punishment. 1 The Napo-leonic Code determined the age of discernment as 16 years; the English Common Law established the age of 7 as that below which 2 no responsibility could be ascribed. These early practices have become basic to the laws of America and Canada, notwith-standing the many variations from state to state and province to province. The effect of these variations i s such that a c h i l d of 16 years of age who runs away from home i n B r i t i s h Columbia to Alberta and who commits a delinquency, w i l l be treated as an adult, held i n j a i l , charged i n Police Court and may serve a sentence i n Fort Saskatchewan J a i l . The Canadian Juvenile Delinquents Act establishes the age of a " c h i l d " as 16 years or "such other age as may be directed i n any province pursuant to sub-section 2"; v i z . : 'The Governor-in-Council may .'.by proclamation (a) Direct that i n any province.the expression " c h i l d " i n this Act means any boy or g i r l apparently or actually under the age of 18 years *3 A second development i n beginning to treat children d i f f e r e n t l y from adults was the gradual i n f i l t r a t i o n of the 1. YOUNG, Pauline V., Social Treatment i n Probation and  Delinquency, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1952. p.15. 2. BARNES and TEETERS, op.cit., p.318. 3 . Revised Statutes of Canada, Chapter 46, 19-20 George V, An Act Respecting Juvenile Delinquents, 1929, as amended etc., Section 2(l)(a) and Section.2(2)(a). - 8 -p r i n c i p l e s of equity proceedings from the B r i t i s h courts of chancery i n which the state assumed parental r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n providing guardianship and protection for the c h i l d i n need, as well as for the delinquent c h i l d . In addition, the informality of the equity proceedings was carried over to the courts dealing with delinquents. Thus the philosophy of our Juvenile Courts of today i s based upon these ideals of informality, protection, justice and inquiry into the needs of the offender, rather than upon punitive measures. This same philosophy i s carried through to services connected with the Juvenile Court programme so that the s p i r i t of the law i s , at least i n theory,' to provide "measures of social and educational treatment" i n place of punishment. 1 The result, then, i s that once a child has been found to be a delinquent, he must be treated as an individual i n his t o t a l 2 psycho-social situation. This philosophy i n the treatment of the delinquent has progressed very slowly i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which juveniles who have committed offences are detained. In England i n 1816, the main idea seems to have been either to hang the c u l p r i t or trans-port him to the colonies. There was no segregation of children from adults either i n x p r i s o n or i n the methods of punishment. The f i r s t half of the nineteenth century saw the development of 1. SUTHERLAND, Edwin H., Principles of Criminology, 4th Edition, J.B. Lippincott Company, Chicago, 1949. pp.307-308. 2. Cf. Juvenile Delinquents Act, 1929, section 3(2): ' 1 11 he shall be.dealt with not as an offender, but as one i n a condition of delinquency and therefore requiring help and.guidance and proper supervision." - 9 -schools for "waifs and strays" i n order to get young persons out of the prisons and at the same time to effect reformation and deterrence. Offenders were sent to prison for not less than fourteen days and then transferred to reformatories for from two to five years i f they were under 16 years of age. Industrial schools were established to t r a i n children under 14 who were i n need of protection and also children under 12 who had committed offences.*'' Discipline and hardships i n these early schools were often worse than i n the prisons. Moreover, there were, i n spite of these reforms, many children s t i l l i n prisons, and i n I865 the Prisons Act made i t mandatory for children under 16 "to he 2 " kept separate and given special treatment". A century pre-viously John Howard had written: "Boys confined for correction should always be separate from other prisoners, and indeed from one another By 1908 the "Juvenile-Adult" class of boys (16 to 21) was formed and through the ef f o r t s of S i r Evelyn Ruggles-Brise' was f i n a l l y developed into the Borstal System. Its aimwas to provide for ".....'the young hooligan advanced i n crime, perhaps with many previous convictions, and who appeared to be inevitably doomed to a l i f e of habitual crime.' u^ 1. POX, Lionel V/., The English Prison and'Borstal Systems, Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited, London, 1952. p.328. 2. Ibid., p.328. 3. HOWARD,'John, The State of the Prisons, : JJ.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., London, 1929 Edition. p.39n. . . . 4. EUGGLES-BRISE, S i r Evelyn, The English Prison'System; ' MacMillan, 1921, Ch. 8, as quoted in.FOX, op;cit., p.333. - 10 -The treatment of the young offender outside of an i n s t i t u t i o n began as an outgrowth of the practice known as the benefit of clergy or j u d i c i a l reprieve. The important elements of probation - supervision and suspended sentence - were i n t r o -duced i n court practice i n Birmingham and Portsmouth before they became law. In 1820 the individual was imprisoned for one day and then released to the supervision of a "parent or•guardian". By 1879 "the use of suspended sentence beoame law but i t was not u n t i l the year 1907 that probation l e g a l l y prescribed supervision.' The Children's Act of 1908 provided for the hearing of cases involving children under 16 i n a juvenile court, arid the' Prevention of Crime Act of the same year removed offenders under 21 from prison. The Children and Young Persons Act of 1933 raised the age of discernment from 7 to 8 years, defined a "young person" as an individual over 14 and under 17 years of age, and provided that a l l children and young persons should be under the j u r i s d i c -tion of the juvenile court. This act also renamed the old i n -d u s t r i a l schools and reformatories as "Approved Schools" to admit children and young persons of from 10 to 17 years of age. Thus the 16 to 17 year olds were to be provided for i n either an Ap-proved School or Borstal. Committal of any c h i l d to the care of a " f i t person" (which can be a l o c a l authority) was made possible' under this Aot. 1. United Nations, Probation and Related Measures, Depart-ment of Social A f f a i r s , New York, 1951. pp.42-43. - 11 -The Criminal Justice Act of 1948 provides that i n d i v i -duals from 8 to 17 years may he discharged absolutely or condi-t i o n a l l y , or he placed on probation (though when over 14, consent must be given). These same Children and Young Persons may also be detained i n a remand home for a period of not mbre than one month i f no other plan i s advisable. There i s also provision i n the Act for Special Remand Centres which do not yet exist. The intention i s to provide for persons under 17 years who may be too unruly for remand homes or approved schools as well as for the 17 to 21 year olds. In such a Centre f a c i l i t i e s for observation w i l l eventually be set up and special observation where necessary of the person 14 years and up w i l l be possible. The Criminal Justice Act therefore prohibits the imprisonment of any c h i l d under 15 and r e s t r i c t s imprisonment for the 17 to 21 group. In summary, then, the law i n B r i t a i n provides for a variety of methods of treating the young offender from 8 to 21 years. These are as follows: 1. cautions, binding over, or fines. 2. absolute discharge. 3. conditional discharge (discharged i f individual commits no offence during a period not to exceed twelve months). 4. probation for from one to three years, with consent of those over 14 years, (a) i n the community. (b) with residence i n a probation hostel for not more . . than twelve months, with freedom to go out to school or work. (c) with residence i n a protection home wherein the individual l i v e s and works for not more than twelve months. - 12 -5. f i t person order (chil d usually potentially delinquent). 6 . for minor offences - attendance at an Attendance Centre for those 12 to under 21 years for a few hours daily to a t o t a l of twelve hours i n order to r e s t r i c t leisure time and to give "appropriate occupation or i n s t r u c t i o n " . 1 7 . detention i n a remand home for not more than one month for those up to 17 years. 8. detention i n Detention Centres for 14 to 21 year olds, for normally from three to six months i f the i n d i v i -dual has not previously "been i n a Detention Centre or Borstal and when other methods are.not suitable. I f the offender i s of compulsory school age he may be. sent for not less than one month. 9 . committal to an Approved School i f under 17 or to Borstal training i f 16 to 21 years. 1 0 . for those under 21 who cannot be provided for and who are l e f t i n prison, the Young Prisoners Class (Borstal f a i l u r e s and those unsuitable for Borstal).Special wings i n certain prisons have been set aside for these persons with sentences of three months or over. 1 1 . release on license i s provided under the supervision of the Central After-Care Association for individuals who have served nine months to three years i n a Borstal or who have served two-thirds of the sentence i n a Young Prisoners Centre. The ultimate aim i s to provide methods of treatment to 2 prevent imprisonment of any 17 to 21 year old person. In the United States the programmes for treatment of children who were delinquent and those who were i n need of protec-tion were at f i r s t closely interwoven. In spite of the use of alms-houses, foster homes, and orphanages, many children were to be found i n the county j a i l s without segregation from adult 1 . HINDE, R.S.E., The B r i t i s h Penal System 1773-1950. Gerald Duckworth and Co. Ltd., London, 1951* P»175« 2 . POX, op.cit., pp.65-66 and pp.327-343. criminals. In 1822 the Society for the Prevention of Pauperism urged the development of reformatories to which children might he sent instead of to prison. 1 In 1825 in New York the first House of Refuge for juvenile delinquents was established. A part of the House of Correction was set aside in 1826 in Boston for the segregation of youthful offenders. Early institutions were juvenile prisons with discipline and labour modelled upon , 2 the adult programmes. Ohio established a school for juveniles in 1854 with a changed philosophy in that the child was not to be disciplined as an adult criminal. The institution was built with school buildings and the emphasis was on education and the learning of skills for earning a living as a decent citizen. Modelled upon the French Mettray Cottage System, Ohio built log cabins housing forty boys and "elder Brothers". The programme included farming, religion and stern discipline. At the same time the use of in-denture to farmers was used for younger children.^ By 1861 Illinois had begun to treat children from 6 to 17 years by the use of probation, committal to reform school or any other method which might be satisfactory. Massachusetts in 1872 provided separate hearings for children who were delinquent and in 1899 Chicago, Illinois, began what is considered the first 1. GILLIN, J . L . , Criminology and Penology, 3 r d Edition, D. Appleton-Century Company Inc., New York, 1 9 4 5 . pp.498-502. 2 . McKELVEY, B., American Prisons, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1936. pp.14-15* 3 . BARNES and TEETERS, op.cit., pp .608-610. Juvenile Court for children under 16 who were considered then as delinquents and not criminals. Prom that time the juvenile court movement spread throughout the United States to include the age of discernment, maximum age l i m i t s , equity procedure, segregation from adults, probation, the use of c h i l d guidance techniques, etc. In 1914 a special section developed i n the courts of Chicago known as the Boys' Court to provide hearings for boys of 17 to 21 years who had committed "misdemeanors and quasi-criminal offences"."'' Pre-hearing settlements were made and "modern case work methods" used. Similar courts have developed i n New York and other parts of the country. C a l i f o r n i a has pioneered i n develop-ing a Youth Authority which i s modelled upon the American Law Institute's plan outlined i n 1940. This programme i s influencing the programmes i n Canada as well as i n other parts of the United States. C a l i f o r n i a adopted the system i n 1943 and extended the age l i m i t to 23 years though the provision to include probation i n the authority was not made and remains under the power of the courts. The Institutes'model act suggests the use of a l l "law enforcement, detention, probation, parole, medical, educational, correctional, segregative, and other existing f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t i -tutions, and agencies to create and operate plans for deten-tion, and other f a c i l i t i e s , for the expeditious treatment of 2 offenders coming before i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . " An outstanding feature i n C a l i f o r n i a has been the Forestry Camp plan as well as 1. BAENES and TEETERS, op.cit., p.331. 2. Ibid., p.801. . - 15 -the use of the diagnostic centre f o r complete study of each case prior to allocation of the hoy to an i n s t i t u t i o n . Canadian programmes are based upon developments i n both Great B r i t a i n and the United States. Between I84O and 1908 refor-matory schools were developing i n Canada and through the efforts of the Ontario Children's Aid Societies i n 1893 the practise was ins t i t u t e d of notifying the Society i n every case where a c h i l d of 13 or under was brought before a court, so that a study of the environment and the needs of the c h i l d were made before the court could deal with the case. In 1894 children under 16 were brought before the courts only i n private hearings and a l l children were removed from prison when awaiting trial.''" The development of Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n has been rather uneven, largely because the B r i t i s h North America Act provides that l e g i s l a t i o n on criminal matters sha l l be i n the power of the Federal Government, whereas the establishment of courts both c i v i l and criminal i s l e f t to the provinces. The Juvenile Courts Acts provide f o r special courts for juvenile offenders as well as for certain problems which may lead to delinquency. The term "delinquency" i s an act under the Canadian Criminal Code which i s i n r e a l i t y contrary to the intent of the Juvenile Delinquents Act. In order not to contravene the B r i t i s h North America Act, which would have to be amended to define delinquency as a state (such an interpretation would bring this under the property and c i v i l 1. Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, 1952> The Juvenile  Court i n Law, p . l . - 16 -rights clause which then would make delinquency the res p o n s i b i l i t y of the provincial governments), delinquency has been declared an act and therefore becomes an offence. ..After the f i r s t Juvenile Delinquents Act became law under federal l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1908, i t had to be proclaimed i n each province, ci t y , town, etc., i n order to be acted upon. Thus i t happened that i n 1925 i n Quebec the Act had been proclaimed only i n the area of the Island of Montreal so that a juvenile Court under a Juvenile Court Act was provided only i n that area. An amendment i n 1950 "to the Courts of Justice Act of Quebec"'" through the proclamation of the Federal l e g i s l a -tion provided social welfare courts for a l l juveniles i n Quebec. In Saskatchewan a corrections Act became law i n 1950 to establish the Corrections Branch and the Juvenile Court to deal with every facet of juvenile delinquency, and treatment programmes. In B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1918 a provincial enactment instituted juvenile courts through proclamation throughout the province and i n 1948 the Juvenile Courts Act made provision for Family Courts as well as courts.for delinquent children. The Archambault Report outlined the essential features of the Canadian Juvenile Delinquents Act as follows: "1. A c h i l d over seve# i s capable of committing a crime but should not be held as accountable as an adult. 2. Incarceration of a c h i l d i n a detention home while . awaiting t r i a l . 3. Probation i s more effective than prison. 1. R.S. Quebec 1941, ch.15. 4. Where probation f a i l s detention i n an i n d u s t r i a l school should take place, wherein education, training and reformation should be provided rather than punishment i n prison. 5. Probation should be provided by s p e c i a l l y trained o f f i c e r s . 1 , 1 Prior to Confederation separate i n s t i t u t i o n s were established for children under 16 who were found guilty i n Crimi-nal Courts but their aim was punishment, not reformation. By 1943 there were over twenty i n s t i t u t i o n s for juveniles set up as training schools with various standards of treatment. Those which were i n any way successful based their programmes upon * the importance of highly q u a l i f i e d and personally suitable staff.' The difference i n these new schools was the stress l a i d upon such a c t i v i t i e s as work, school and play. Probation was almost unknown in,Canada u n t i l 1906 when without l e g i s l a t i o n , the Ottawa Children's Aid Society appointed two probation o f f i c e r s . This proved unsatisfactory u n t i l the Juvenile Delinquents Act provided statutory authority f o r the practice i n 1908. .The use of.probation has been related closely to the 1 establishment of Juvenile Courts which have evolved slowly and to a greater-degree i n certain areas. Thus probation has not been extensively developed. Ontario and B r i t i s h Columbia began the expansion of this service which new i s being introduced i n . a l l provinces.- •. ) . . . f 1. Canada, Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate  the Penal System-of Canada, King's Printer,- Ottawa, . 1938,. ; ;7 (Archambault),, pp..l85-l86. . . . . 2. TOPPIK.G.,-. -C..-W.,. iCanadian :.PenaI .Institutions, -Ryerson Press,- Toronto,'revised ed. 1943. pp.51-63 and p.116. - 18 -In many parts of Canada, as i n the United States, family and c h i l d welfare programmes have extended their preventive and remedial programmes to assist delinquent children. In B r i t i s h Columbia these include the services of public and private welfare agencies, c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s , public health c l i n i c s , etc. Where no probation s t a f f have been appointed, s t a f f of the Social Welfare Branch have assisted Juvenile Courts i n supervision of some delinquent children and their families. The use of the foster home programme throughout the province has been available to courts, as well as the use of private i n s t i t u t i o n s . There are two in d u s t r i a l schools which were established under Provincial Acts i n 1937 for juveniles under 18 years of age, since the Juvenile Delinquents Act had been extended by proclama-tion to include any ch i l d apparently or actually under 18 years of age. The Boys' Industrial School provides a treatment plan including health, vocational, educational, recreational and counselling services. Under the Prisons and Reformatories Act, New Haven and the Young Offenders' Unit have been established. The former i s an open i n s t i t u t i o n for offenders 16 to -23 years and i s modelled upon the B r i t i s h training plan. The l a t t e r i s located at Oakalla Prison Farm as a separate building to house 16 to 23 year olds i n a more secure environment. Both in s t i t u t i o n s provide treatment programmes with a determinate and indeterminate sentence involving the use of release on license directed by the B.C. Parole Board. - 19 -I t i s to be noted t h a t the boy under 16 who has proven beyond the c o n t r o l of the I n d u s t r i a l School o r who i s t r a n s f e r r e d from J u v e n i l e t o P o l i c e Court cannot q u a l i f y f o r e i t h e r New Haven o r Y.O.U. because of the age l i m i t s e t by the P r i s o n s and Reforma-t o r i e s A c t . I n s p i t e of the e x i s t e n c e of r e h a b i l i t a t i v e programmes f o r j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, r e c i d i v i s m has con-t i n u e d and i s of grave concern t o a l l who b e l i e v e i n the s p i r i t and p h i l o s o p h y of the law. This study grew out of t h i s grave concern f o r a group of youths who, i n r a t h e r a dramatic way, perhaps r e p r e s e n t the f a i l u r e of our programmes t o r e h a b i l i t a t e o r r e a c h them. The s u b j e c t s chosen f o r t h i s study were a l l j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s under 18 ye a r s of age at the time of t h e i r c ommittal t o the a d u l t j a i l a t O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm. The f a c t t h a t they were not i n o t h e r programmes e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i r c a r e r a i s e d c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s . Why d i d they p e r s i s t i n such s e r i o u s d e l i n q u e n c y i f they had been t r e a t e d i n o t h e r programmes? What programmes were a v a i l a b l e t o them? What h e l p had been o f f e r e d , and i s h e l p p o s s i b l e f o r them now? What were t h e i r s o c i a l and f a m i l y backgrounds^ and how might these r e l a t e t o t h e i r use o f a v a i l a b l e h elp? What can be done f o r s i m i l a r cases i n the f u t u r e ? The o b j e c t o f t h i s study i s to seek the answers t o these ques-t i o n s . . The second c h a p t e r of the study w i l l c o n s i s t of a d i s -c u s s i o n of the method and procedure.- The f a c t s c o n c e r n i n g the - 20 -cases as shown i n the tabulations w i l l be presented and sum-marized sketches of the cases w i l l explain the findings i n the tabulations. The subsequent chapters w i l l give a more detailed account of the cases, showing their family and personal histories, their court records and social and correctional agency contacts. An assessment of the diagnosis and the community resources as related to the cases w i l l be included. The findings w i l l then be summarised i n order to show the conclusions drawn from the study and the recommendations and suggestions for further research. CHAPTER- II THE TWENTY-THREE DELINQUENT'BOYS Available* Records; •'Sources' o f Information Of 44 offenders under 21 i n the West Wing of Oakalla Prison Farm'on November 1, 1953, 23 were found to have been, under the age of 18 at the time of th e i r present admission to prison. They were serving-sentences i n the West Wing as i t had been found impossible, because of their behaviour, to i n -clude them i n programmes provided f o r youthful and more re-forraable individuals. This group were chosen for study because they were ;juveniles within the meaning of the Juvenile Delin-quents Act"'" and i t seemed obvious that the programme established for treatment of such delinquents had either f a i l e d with them or, through some aberration i n the law or i t s administration, had not been made-available-to them. I t i s also possible that the necessary ;treatment did not exist i r i ' B r i t i s h Columbia. The remaining'21 offenders, at the time of their sentences^ were either over'18 years and•therefore adults•under-the * laws of Canada;•or were under 18 but were awaiting'screening"'for trans-fer to the Young Offenders Unit or to New Haven.• Since this study i s focussed upon juveniles these'cases were'not1 con-" 1. R.S.C., Ch.46, l o c . c i t . - 22 -sidered, though i t i s highly probable that their social and family backgrounds would have indicated similar factors had they been included. This study was i n i t i a l l y undertaken when the Oakalla Prison Farm records were somewhat incomplete. The records available varied as to content, some including f u l l s o c i al histories from other in s t i t u t i o n s and others being no more than face sheets with annotations concerning such det a i l s as name, i n s t i t u t i o n a l number, age, offences, sentences, possible date of discharge, prison crimes and punishments, etc. It was ap-parent, however, that the administration was i n the process of developing a more complete system of obtaining records from other agencies and in s t i t u t i o n s for use i n Oakalla. Because 17 of the boys had been i n the Boys Industrial School their social histories were obtained d i r e c t l y from the School. The remaining 6 cases were found to have records with the Provin-c i a l Probation Branch. The Vancouver Social Service Index revealed r e g i s t r a -tions of many social agencies on the 23 boys and their families. It was found that there were, on the Boys Industrial School f i l e s and the Probation Branch records, summaries of the contacts of most of the agencies which were pertinent to this study. On the Boys School records the actual recording on each varied widely and frequently the treatment and progress of the boy would be located i n l e t t e r s to other agencies or in s t i t u t i o n s or i n f i n a l summaries to Courts. In addition there were social histories attached to the records which had been prepared by Probation Officers, Social Workers with the Social Welfare Branch or Children's Aid Societies, etc. In one case, '» the boy had arrived at the School without any material being forwarded, except the committal papers from the court and f o r considerable time the only information was what the boy was able to supply himself. Interviews with boys were not always re-corded by the caseworkers of the School, though i t was apparent' that they did take place. The s o c i a l diagnosis of the i n d i v i -dual boys' problems was indicated i n the Child Guidance C l i n i c reports which were found on 14 of the boys' f i l e s . Although i t was not s p e c i f i c a l l y stated on the School records, i t was apparent•that the Child Guidance report was the basis upon which the treatment plan was established. The Provincial Probation Branch records were of three types: (a) pre-sentence reports which were case his t o r i e s i n -cluding s o c i a l as well as court background i n f o r -mation, 1 (b) probation f i l e s which included the information from (a) a s w e l l as d e t a i l of the boys' adjustment while''-'" 'on probation, - 24 -(c) follow-up reports prepared fo r the hoy who was re-leased on license from the Y.O.U. This also included reports submitted by the prison s t a f f to the B. C. Parole Board. Analysis of Material Having obtained social .and family backgrounds on the 23 boys from the sources outlined above, the second step i n the study involved the drawing up of schemes of tabulation (see Appendix A, Tables 1 and 2 ) . Table 1 indicates the contacts of the boys with school services (health and teachers), social agencies (before or after f i r s t court appearance)^: juvenile courts, probation service, correctional in s t i t u t i o n s (Boys Industrial School, New Haven, Young Offenders Unit), use of foster home placement prior to appearance-in juvenile court or after such appearance, use of Child Guidance C l i n i c before or after juvenile court appearance, appearance i n Police Court, probation after appearance i n adult court. !This Table serves to point out that there were treatment processes used by certain social and correctional agencies i n the Province to help these boys. In Chapter III an attempt w i l l be made to discuss the reasons that the boys broke down i n spite of these programmes being available f o r them. There were 15 boys i n the group who had ho contact - 25 -with any social agency prior to their f i r s t appearance i n the Juvenile Court, although i t i s known from their h i s t o r i e s that 11 of the 15 had been problem children i n the early grades of school. For 3 of the group of 15 there were no statements con-cerning their adjustment i n the early years of school and only one of this group was d e f i n i t e l y not considered a school prob-lem. There were 8 of the t o t a l group of 23 who were known to a social agency prior to the Juvenile Court; of these 8, 2 h i s -tories had no statement concerning t h e i r school adjustment and 2 of the boys were not considered problem children at school. A l l of the boys had, of course, at least one appear-ance i n the juvenile courts of the Province and Table 1 i n d i -cates the number of new times that each boy was brought before these courts (this Table does not account for the number of separate dharges that were considered by the courts on each 'new :occasion). This column brought to l i g h t the p o s s i b i l i t y of d i f f e r i n g attitudes i n practice i n handling delinquents before the courts of the Province and this point w i l l be d i s -cussed more f u l l y i n subsequent chapters. Of the 23 boys, 9 were never on probation from the juvenile court (Table 1, column 4)• Comparing columns 4 and 5 i t can readily be seen that 3 of the boys who were never on juvenile probation were also never sent to the Boys Industrial School. A t o t a l of 17 of the boys had varying periods :at the - 26 -Boys School. New Haven was used as a resource for 5 toys, of whom 3 had been i n the Boys Industrial School. Three of the f i v e had never been on probation and two had been on probation more than once. Fifteen of the boys were i n the Young Offenders Unit and 9 °f this group had been i n the Boys Industrial School. Five of the 23 boys had been placed i n foster homes prior to appearing i n juvenile court; 9 were placed i n foster homes after appearance i n juvenile court and i n comparing columns 8 and 9 c a n noted that 5 of the 9 boys had not previously been i n a foster home. The Child Guidance C l i n i c was used as a resource for 6 of the boys before they were charged i n the juvenile court and for 11 after they were i n juvenile court. This represents a duplication of only 3 boys who were thus examined both before arid after appearing i n the juvenile courts, and indicates that 9 boys never were seen by the C l i n i c . Twenty of the boys appeared i n police courts a vary-ing number of times; however, 3 of the boys had ho record with a police court but were i n the adult j a i l . The use of proba-tion following adult court was made for one boy (from an Appeal '. Court). - 27 -The facts e l i c i t e d from Table 1 are summarized as follows: 15 boys were school behaviour problems prior to appear-ing i n juvenile court, 8 boys were known to social agencies prior to appearing i n juvenile court, 15 hoys were unknown to social agencies'prior to appear-ing i n juvenile court, 23 boys appeared i n juvenile court from one to seven times, 14 boys were placed on probation frogt juvenile court from one to three times, 17 boys spent from one to f i v e terms i n the Boys Industrial School, 5 hoys had been i n New Haven, 15 boys had been i n Young Offenders Unit, 5 boys were i n foster homes prior to f i r s t appearance i n juvenile court, 9 boys were i n foster homes following f i r s t appearance i n juvenile court, 6 boys were examined by the Child Guidance C l i n i c before being i n juvenile court, 11 boys were examined by the Child Guidance C l i n i c after being i n juvenile court, 20 boys were charged i n the police court, 1 boy was placed on probation from an Appeal Court. The use of detention homes has not been included i n the Table, since there were no indications that the period i n detention, other than the use of Child Guidance C l i n i c studies, had any bearing on the treatment used thereafter. It should be noted here that there are only two detention homes i n B r i t i s h Columbia, one i n Vancouver and one i n V i c t o r i a . Boys who are - 28 -i n need of detention i n other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia are held i n l o c a l lock-ups, or detained i n private homes. In this study only one hoy had been held i n the V i c t o r i a deten-tion home, but no record of his adjustment there was made other than a very terse statement by the Superintendent of that home. It i s of importance that one boy from Vancouver showed positive reactions to his treatment i n the Vancouver Home. Table 2, (a) and (b), of Appendix A i s a summary of the important factors concerning the boys* social and fiamily' backgrounds, with particular reference to the following: (a) Family Baokground: parents' ages (at b i r t h of d e l i n -quent) r a c i a l origin, r e l i g i o n , educational standard, employment, health (physical and mental); marital status, criminal record^ use - of alcohol or drugs, any additional factors affecting the boy's problem'(stability of home l i f e , etc.). (b) Personal ;Backgroundi age (at committal to Oakalla Prison Farm), religion,- education, em-ployment (date of f i r s t employment and type),•health (physical and mental), age'at f i r s t problem, age at f i r s t offence, use of alcohol or drugs, intelligence, siblings also problems. The material i n each history varied i n content to the extent that on almost each case one or more of the items was not recorded. There was, however, s u f f i c i e n t information from which to draw some definite conclusions. Facts concern-ing the grandparents of the boys i n almost a l l cases were non-existent or only implied. - 29 -Family Background Age of parents (at b i r t h of delinquent): i n 7 of the families concerned there was no record of either parent's age. In the remainder, there was no great difference i n the age of the parents of 11 boys but a disparity of ten years or more i n that of the parents of 5 boys. Racial o r i g i n : this item i s used loosely to cover si g n i f i c a n t differences of race or nationality. The importance of this factor w i l l rest i n i t s relationship to prejudices within the family unit or within the community i n which the family unit resided. One boy's mother was Indian (Canadian) and his father was I r i s h . A second boy's parents were East Indian (Sikh), and a t h i r d boy's mother was Swedish, his father being Chinese. In the remaining cases there were no d i f f i c u l t patterns of race or nationality. Religion: this factor i s of importance to the boy's adjustment, whenever there i s c o n f l i c t established through d i f f e r i n g religious views. In only one case was i t clear that th i s was a negative factor and an additional source of c o n f l i c t f o r the boy within the home. This boy's father was Roman Catho-l i c and the mother had been a convert at her marriage. Shortly thereafter she had renounced the f a i t h . There was continuous controversy which added to an already unhappy marital situation.* - 30 -Education: i n 8 cases there was no information re-corded. In 2 cases both parents had completed elementary school and i n one case the parents had some high school. The remaining parents had only the f i r s t few grades of formal education. Employment: f o r the few parents on whom there i s any indication of the nature of their employment, i t i s clear that they were i n the laboring and s k i l l e d or semi-skilled trades (mill-workers, carpenters, linemen, etc.). The economic condi-tion of the boys 1 parents w i l l therefore be indicated i n the case discussion insofar as i t was a factor i n affecting the boys' adjustment. Health: i n most of the cases studied the health of the parents i s poor. Marital status: 13 of the parents were l e g a l l y mar-r i e d . Pour of the boys were born of unmarried parents. The remainder of the parents were either separated or l i v i n g i n common law relationships. Criminal record: i n 2 boys' cases both parents had criminal:records. On one mother there are criminal charges of frequent assaults by her.- In the remainder of the cases the facts are unknown.. Use of alcohol or drugs: i n 8 families i t i s noted that one or*both?parents were either using alcohol to excess - 31 -or were drug addicts. In the remaining cases the parents were known to be either temperate or non-users of alcoholic beverages. Additional factors: the Table indicates a hopelessly-disturbed home l i f e as far as the parents of the boys are con-cerned. The problems range from old-world attitudes towards children of today, private foster home placements, alcoholism, temper tantrums, etc., to immorality, prostitution and paranoia. Personal Background Age (at committal to Oakalla Prison Farm): 7 of the boys were 1 5 years of age, 5 of "the hoys were 1 6 years of age, and the remainder were 1 7 • Religion:' there i s nonsignificant factor except i n ;'one case already•mentioned, and th i s w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n the summary of the particular boy's case. "' Education: one boy, who was Indian, reached only ' ; Grade 3;•one boy reached Grade 5 ? 2 reached Grade 6 6 reached 1 • Grade 7 ; ' 6 reached Grade 8; and the remainder completed Grade 9 « 'Age at f i r s t employment: on 7 of the boys there i s :'• no information; on 14'of^the boys i t i s indicated that they began work from 1 1 to 16 years.of age on their f i r s t jobs; in?one dase •• •the boy began work at 1 1 years but the nature of his work was t i : -unknown •.or unreported; one boy had a variety of • jobs from the i age of 1 5 . - 32 -' :Health: i n 5 ° f the cases health was given as a 'factor which contributed to the poor adjustment of the boy. • ' • • ' Age at f i r s t problem: i n 6 cases there was no i n f o r -mation. D i f f i c u l t behaviour problems appeared !for most of the boys i n t h e early years of l i f e , from 5 "to 8 years, again at 10, 12, and 13. It i s interesting to note that•the case h i s -tories did not record si g n i f i c a n t information on developmental history which would have given a clearer picture i n this area. 'Age at f i r s t offence:' one.boy began his depredations against the law at the age of nine; two more at eleven, and the remainder were spread over 12, 13, 14, 15 and 17 years of age. '• Use of alcohol or drugs: 5 boys were intemperate i n the i r use.of alcoholic beverages; 4 boys had become drug users, 'and on:the•remainder of the group i t was•stated that they were <abstainers. ;; Intelligence: on 4 of the boys there was no record; • 2'of\the boys were noted to be of superior or bright normal inte l l i g e n c e ; 11 of-the boys:were of borderline to low average intelligence, and * the•remainder were average. 1 :: Siblings;who were also 1 problems: . 9 : o f t h e boys had Fsiblings who were'also problem:or;delinquent children. j ;5»To•illustrate the relationship of:the >factors<tabulated ,in Table 2.(concerning the social:and family backgrounds'of the - 33 -"boys i n this study) to the use of existing programmes, as tabulated i n Table 1, two case histories w i l l be b r i e f l y pre-sented. In so doing i t i s of importance'to note the implica-tions from the use or non-use of'programmes as well as from the lack-of resources to meet the needs of these young people. Case "A" •Family 1 Background Age (at b i r t h • -of "A"): Nationality: Religion: 'Marital?status i Health: Economic status: Housing: Educations Court Record: Mother 26 years I r i s h Convert to Roman Catholic, but subsequently renounced this f a i t h . Living i n common law with another man. Parents separated, 1945• Diagnosed by•psychiatric; examination as:verging on paranoia (ungovernable temper* unstabley i r r a -tional behaviour :toward children). Always poor; often on social allowance. Poor "Limited" Mother charged i n court on more than one occasion with assault. Father 55 years I r i s h Roman Catholic Living i n a hospital. Invalid, result of injury. Now on Old Age Pension. Unknown N i l "Step"-Father: very l i t t l e known concerning him -l i v e d with mother since 1950• "A" says, "I guess he just doesn't want us around." - 34 -Personal Background Health: reasonably normal early development, ;but a l l indications suggest he was exposed to an*extremely immature mother^' It'has been said that "A's problem beganthe day he was born;" Good physical condition except teeth which were poor; food fussy; b i t e s " n a i l s ; d i f f i c u l t y with sleeping. Education: f a i l e d Grade 6 at .15 •years. Attended Catholic'schools with frequent changes of location. Education "a dead loss" as he truarited'frequently!and was a problem i n the earliest'grades. In Grade"3, when18 years of :age, 1 he had a tendency to "interfere" with other children, was unable'to con-centrate and was generally d i f f i c u l t . "A" says he "hated school" and blamed i t on " r e l i g i o n " but also added Vseemed l i k e I was dumb - I thought that anyway." Interests: movies (frequently attended two;on Satur-days); fond of games when at school. Personality: small, nervous, "innocuous l i t t l e creature a l l dressed up i n the zootiest of zoot pants"^ •'Thorough-l y mixed up, bewildered and confused. 1 Peels sorry'for'himself arid i s pre-occupied to; the extent of not remembering important •events. Has average intelligence (Child"Guidance :Clinic). Poster Home: recommended by Child Guidance C l i n i c i n 1946'but lack of suitable homes at rthe:time'caused delay (see - 35 -Court record). Numerous placements after discharge from Boysr Industrial School - a l l of which were'wrecked by the mother's persistent interference. Court Record: 1. Juvenile: Sept.1945* Escaped from Juvenile Detention Home. Mother f a i l e d to lay information. Charge dropped. - 9 years of age. Mar. 1946. 10 years of age - i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y (C.G.C. recommended1"Wardship" -delay finding foster;home.) Boys Industrial School. Oct. 1947. (Truancy - beyond control of guardian) I n c o r r i g i b i l i t y - Boys Industrial School Oct. 1949. Incorrigible - Boys Industrial - School Feb. 1 9 5 ° . Incorrigible - Boys Industrial School Dec. 1951 . Transferred to Police Court,- three charges Breaking and Entering, etc. See below. 2 . Police Court and Adult Correctional In s t i t u t i o n a l record: Dec. 1951 . 3 charges Breaking and Entering and possession of an offensive weapon and public mischief - 6 months definite (New Haven), plus 12 months indeterminate. Jan. 1952. Escape legal custody - 9 months consecu-tiv e at Oakalla Prison Farm (Y.O.U.) Apr. 1953. Revoked license (had been released on license 2 6 / 2 / 5 3 ) . Admitted taking drugs. Oct. 1953. Creating a disturbance i n a public place - fine $50, i n default, 30 days. Nov. 1953. Revoked license (had been released second time on license 2 9 / 9 / 5 3 ) . Y.O.U. could no longer cope with his aggressive episodes so he was kept i n the West Wing of Oakalla. The use of a foster home was not made u n t i l after "A's" f i r s t sojourn i n the Boys School, and as the:C.G.C. had recom-mended, wardship with placement f a r enough away'to prevent the - 36 -easy return to his mother, i t i s possible that the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a suitable foster home at that time might have proven the turning point i n this boy's l i f e . However, he was able to ad-just f a i r l y well i n the Boys Industrial School, so that the need for a longer period i n some type of treatment i n s t i t u t i o n or home for emotionally disturbed children might have been a neces-sary preliminary to a future foster home placement. This boy's intolerable family background as indicated i n Table 2 precluded the likelihood of success of any of the programmes. At no point were his basic problems able to be treated with the mother remaining constantly i n the picture.''" Case "B" Family Background Health: Marital status: Education: Racial o r i g i n : Religion: Mother Deceased of a lung injury Unmarried Unknown Indian Roman Catholic Father Drug addict Putative Unknown I r i s h Protestant Nothing further i s known of this boy's father, but his mother was known to have been promiscuous and to have con-tinued to l i v e with various men after the child's b i r t h . "B" was l e f t with various people including his maternal grandmother 1. Since this study was completed i t i s of interest to note that "A" has been charged with murder! - 37 -who was an alcoholic. "B" spent most of his early years on the Indian Reserve leading a nomadic existence, although he did not have Indian Rights. It i s clear from the very meagre information we have i n this case that the mother was i n immature, deprived person, very i l l equipped to take on the up-bringing of a c h i l d , and that those to whom she l e f t the re s p o n s i b i l i t y were equally emotionally corrupt. Personal Background "B" was 17 years of age when this study was under-taken. Education: Grade 2>. He had seldom attended school, yet there i s no record that the school or anyone concerned with the care of children knew of this situation u n t i l he came before the Juvenile Court when he was already i n his teens. Then, i t was learned that he had spent most of his school years "with the horses and the men on the Reserve" ! Employment: i t i s recorded that "B" went to work at 11 years of age but the nature of this work i s unknown or un-recorded and i t i s indicated that he spent the time playing cards, gambling, drinking, or at picture shows. Court Record: "B" appeared i n the Juvenile Court i n 1950 for the f i r s t time, when he had been apprehended while - 38 -stealing various a r t i c l e s . He obviously needed money for his entertainment, but the way of l i f e that he led provided him with l i t t l e that he could come by honestly. Because of his deprived upbringing the probation o f f i -cer recommended that "B" be given the opportunity of a decent home 1ife ;and :suggested that he be placed 1in a foster home under the supervision of the Superintendent of Child Welfare. A home was found on another Reserve; however, he continued to steal and shortly thereafter came before the Juvenile Court. Since nothing further could be offered i n the community to help this boy, he was committed to the Boys Industrial School. Boys Industrial School record indicated very l i t t l e of a treatment plan but "B" was examined at the Child Guidance C l i n i c , who considered i t was possible that i n a more stimulat-ing environment his low average intelligence might rate higher. It was pointed out that he had inadequate feelings and low affect i n environmental and personal relationships, but no plan was recommended. "B" went "A.W.O.L." within a few months and committed other depredations. He again came before the Juvenile Court. At this time there was considerable f e e l i n g on the part of law enforcement authorities concerning runaways from the School and par t i c u l a r l y concerning those who committed offences while - 39 -"A.W.O.L.". He was therefore transferred to the police court and sentenced to Oakalla. He was, at that time, transferred to the Young Of-fenders' Unit, but f a i l e d to f i t into the group and was sub-sequently transferred to the West Wing of Oakalla proper. This second case i l l u s t r a t e s the dearth of resources for the Indian or part Indian population. U n t i l the boy com-mitted an offence his existence remained undetected i n spite of the fact that he had l e f t school. He was a serious custody r i s k at the Industrial School who were, at that time, having serious d i f f i c u l t i e s maintaining safe detention long enough to establish a treatment relationship with inmates. Pressure from the nearby community was effective i n influencing court procedure so that more severe measures were used by the Judge. Summary of the Findings This chapter has provided the factual data on the 23 delinquent adolescents. Table 1 indicates the following factors: there were symptoms of future delinquent behaviour among many boys i n their early school years; the r e f e r r a l by school services to s o c i a l agencies or other resources was limited; the use of foster homes, while unsuccessful i n r e h a b i l i t a t i n g those boys - 40 -f o r whom the service was used, was not part of the treatment plan for a proportionately large number of the cases; Child Guidance C l i n i c i s not too readily used as a diagnostic tool by school teachers, health services, s o c i a l agencies or courts; transfers of boys to police courts without recourse to the use of other preliminary services i s f a i r l y frequent. Table 2 indicates the variety of background factors contributing to the behaviour of these delinquents. The most outstanding factor i s distorted upbringing of the boys. A num-ber of attempts were made to reh a b i l i t a t e them through the use of certain programmes. That the treatment f a i l e d cannot neces-s a r i l y be attributed to the programmes themselves but rather to the i n a b i l i t y of the boys to avail themselves of the treatment '•provided because of their severely disturbed emotions. Chapter III w i l l provide a more detailed account of one case i n an attempt to assess the use made of certain available pro-grammes i n re l a t i o n to the diagnosis of the boy's problem. The findings i n this case w i l l then be discussed i n re l a t i o n to their bearing on the other cases i n the study. CHAPTER III AN ASPECT OP RECIDIVISM " A l l those who attempt to help delinquents or their parents must take into account the prominence of the factor of deprivation that appears so s t r i k i n g l y i n the history of d e l i n -quents. The reading of case after case of unbelievable starva-tion at many levels - the emotional, the c u l t u r a l , the educa-ti o n a l , and the economic - tempts the worker f i g u r a t i v e l y to approach a l l delinquents with an armload of g i f t s as i f t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s could somehow be resolved by the appeasement of the i r many hungers"."'' The inter-relatedness of these levels of starvation must be thoroughly understood i f an attempt at treatment i s to be made because the delinquent i s meeting his needs i n his aggressive behaviour or character disorder. Gordon Hamilton states that " i f the personality continues to carry a load of aggression well on into adolescence, i t seems to be l i k e having a too-prolonged high blood pressure, when actual bodily changes take place. I f aggression becomes habi-tual, there i s no known way of remaking the character i n which the changes have occurred. Prevention i n early childhood seems 1. PECK, H.B., and BELLSMITH, V., Treatment of the  Delinquent Adolescent, Family Association of America, New York, 1954. p.20. - 42 -the only hopeful approach'.'''' The recidivism of the 23 hoys i n this study would indicate the apparent development of habitual aggression to the danger point wherein l i t t l e can now be done for them. To understand more clearly the needs of these delinquents a more detailed account of a case history of one of these juveniles i s now presented. It was not at f i r s t easy to identify the areas of starvation i n this particular case but as the family back-ground became better known to one of the l a s t i n s t i t u t i o n s to handle this boy, i t became clear that the same background of deprivation i n parent-child relationships was present as i n a l l the other cases of this study. The fact that i t was s l i g h t l y more subtle made i t d i f f i c u l t to detect. Family and Social Background of Peter Mother was 24 years of age when Peter was born. She, herself, was an adopted c h i l d , being placed with her a.doptive parents at 2 months of age. Education: she completed Grade 10 at school and apparently did well i n her studies. Health: her health was good. Personality: she was somewhat anxious but otherwise unemotional; more easy-going than the father. She preferred to - 43 -"talk i t out" rather than use the harsher methods of the father* however her di s c i p l i n a r y techniques f e l l f a r short of her intentions because she usually "gave i n " . Father was exactly the same age as the mother. He had had an unhappy childhood p a r t i c u l a r l y as his parents separated when he was 15 years of age. (His father was alco-holic and ended his own l i f e as a suicide when he was 80 years old.) Education: completed Grade 8 but appeared i n t e l l i -gent and capable of having gone further. Health: good. Personality: he i s somewhat overbearing and dominant. He i s a severe d i s c i p l i n a r i a n but sincere. Employment: a railway t i e inspector who i s away from home a l l week and earns a good income. These parents own their own home and l i v i n g standards are good. Marital situation - i s said to be excellent and both parents exhibited intense interest i n cooperating i n a plan to help Peter. Siblings: Peter has one brother who i s two years younger and who i s regarded as the direct opposite of the sub-j e c t . Peter exhibited early jealousy of this brother but l a t e r developed a good relationship. - 44 -His one s i s t e r i s 15 years younger than himself. Nothing has been recorded concerning the relationship between Peter and this small c h i l d . Peter - personal history: "Developmental: The mother's pregnancy had been normal but was concluded by a long and arduous labour and the natural b i r t h of this boy. Peter weighed about 8 pounds when he was born; he was breast fed f o r one month and abruptly weaned to a bottle with which he continued f o r one year. Other developmental f a c -tors appeared normal. Nothing i s known of the mother's attitude to having this c h i l d . Health: Never seriously i l l ; was proud of his physical prowess and had a good attitude to health. Habits: Appeared to be exceedingly normal but at about 10 years of age began to develop a sli g h t stammer. No signs of masturbation noted. Began stealing at 9 years and was severely "belted" f o r i t by his father. Education: Began school at 5 years and 10 months. Was interested for 3 years, then his interest lagged. His classroom work deteriorated steadily, necessitating more attention from teachers. He became extremely active and restless and d i s -turbing i n the classroom. He was suspected of petty thefts but never caught. He completed Grade 8 but was twice expelled - 45 -f o r being involved i n the t e l l i n g of a "sex story" and drink-ing at a school party. Among students his reputation became that of "a bad egg". His companions were other pre-delinquents. Personality: Gay and carefree as a young boy but b u l l i e d his brother. Sometimes pushes others v i o l e n t l y for no apparent reason. Has been known to "spit i n a youngster's face" and "throw d i r t i n a baby's face". Impulsive, defiant, but sensitive underneath; to adults he i s courteous and gives a f i r s t impression of honesty and dependability. He i s an habi-tual and accomplished l i a r ; an extrovert and extremely active physically, but slack i n regard to school work - "aims to get by", and puts on an a i r of having a good opinion of himself. Interests t While at school he played a l l the games but did not join any club; l i k e d hunting and f i s h i n g ; reading comics was an obsession; given a f a i r amount of pocket money; li k e d mechanics (but didn't think i t paid enough). Employment: After leaving school he worked i n a m i l l and l a t e r i n a garage but ran away. Upon his return home he got a job i n a wholesale grocery but slept on the job and got f i r e d . Then he was caught stealing a car. Child Guidance C l i n i c : This boy was referred by his school when he was 12 years of age to a t r a v e l l i n g c l i n i c . He had been untruthful and was stealing at school. Tests revealed a boy of superior general intelligence but who exhibited - 46 -feelings of insecurity, anxiety and d i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a t i o n -ships with others, p a r t i c u l a r l y lack of affection from his mother. A recommendation was made that his father take a more active r o l e i n the hoy's l i f e and that f a i r and consis-tent d i s c i p l i n e both at home and at school be established. Court Record: Juvenile Court . Dec. 2 0 , 1952. Theft of an auto. Committed to Boys In-dustria l School. (His father concurred with court o f f i c i a l s and requested this.) Escaped from B.I.S. on Dec. 2 5 , 1£52, with another boy and they met a th i r d juvenile, and this started a round of delinquencies. Jan . / l 9 5 3 . Transferred on 20 complaints of car theft and 8 breaking and entering charges to Police Court. (He was held prior to the transfer i n the. Vancouver Detention Home where he broke windows and chairs i n an almost frenzied state with l i t t l e cause for provocation.) Police Court Jan . / 1 9 5 3 . 20 charges of theft of automobiles, 8 charges of breaking and entering -Sentenced to 3 years (Penitentiary) Appeal Court March/1953. Reduced above sentence to 2 years less 1 day with recommendation for sentence to be served i n the Young Offenders' Unit. Young Offenders Unit: This lad exhibited such uncontrollable temper i n this i n s t i t u t i o n that he was transferred at least temporarily after 6 months to the West Wing of Oakalla. - 47 -Summary: This hoy was a severe behaviour problem i n the early years of school. Recognition that he needed help was apparent i n the r e f e r r a l , by the school, to the Child Guidance (Travelling) C l i n i c for assessment. Shortly thereafter he was expelled from school.:' His parents sent him to a private school where he attended to the following January when he was again ex-pelled - this time for theft - and was returned home. He then went to work but after periodic absences from home and after being f i r e d from his job, he was charged f o r the f i r s t time i n a juvenile court and sent to the Boys Industrial School. This juvenile has good i n t e l l e c t u a l endowment but i s of a very sensitive, restless nature. He i s anxious, and feels unloved and rejected by both of his parents. His mother who i s not a warm nor affectionate person, t r i e d to use reasoning as a di s c i p l i n a r y measure but always "gave i n " . The father, who was only home on weekends, was harsh, demanding and impressed the boy with the unfairness of d i s c i p -l i n a r y measures. At school his acting-out aggressive behaviour brought a variety of dis c i p l i n a r y measures. We do not know what happened between the Child Guidance C l i n i c study and his' expul-sion from the public school but i t would appear that matters went from bad to worse. His appearance i n the Juvenile Court resulted i n further feelings of rejection when his father requested he be - 48 -sent to the Boys School and the concurrence of the Court heightened his h o s t i l i t y toward his parents and a l l authority. "Diagnosis: From the history i t i s evident that the mother was not a person who was able to show warmth and affec-tion and i t would appear that the feelings of rejection were i n i t i a l l y i n response to very subtle, unconscious attitudes of rejection on the part of the mother. Later, these were re-inforced by the harsh, unjust d i s c i p l i n e of the father, coupled with the ambivalent d i s c i p l i n e of the mother. The boy's only method of response would be on an aggressive le v e l which would •bring forth more erratic d i s c i p l i n e on the part of the parents. This was further reinforced by his teachers who tended to l e t small things s l i d e so that the boy was not under the impression of "being picked on". There followed major misbehaviour which resulted i n drastic action. Deprived emotional development: Thus this boy's problems l i e i n his family relationships and his f r u s t r a t i o n i n not being able to work out his i n f a n t i l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s through s o c i a l l y acceptable behaviour. It i s obvious that he could not work i t out at home as his anti-social behaviour had brought about community resentment. Ms school had to enforce d i s c i p -l i n e and protect other children. The attitudes at home apparent-l y could not be changed enough to bring about change at school. Therefore i t did not seem possible to treat this boy i n the community. - 49 -Community Programmes for Treatment Here we must examine the community resources near his home. He l i v e d i n a small town i n Northern B r i t i s h Columbia. The Child Guidance C l i n i c for that area i s a t r a v e l l i n g one and therefore i t s resources would be limited to diagnostic assess-ment. It i s unlikely that private psychiatry would be available even i f i t were considered. This boy was not referred to the Social Welfare Branch covering the area, u n t i l after he had been i n the Boys Industrial School and at that time there was no probation o f f i c e r serving his home town. Perhaps casework services i n the home might have helped these parents to face their own inadequacies and provided individual and supportive treatment for the boy. The question remains, therefore, would he have adjusted had he been t r i e d i n a foster home? At the time when this ser-vice would have been requested i t was unlikely that the boy could have accepted the normal home l i f e of a foster home, since his d i f f i c u l t i e s already were reinforced i n the area of parent-child relationships. Thus his needs were for a re-learning experience i n trust and love with some one parent person. The period i n the Boys Industrial School was n e g l i -gible as far as treatment wad concerned (5 days). His depreda-tions i n the community were considered more serious than his - 50 -own needs and the courts deemed i t wise to use police court procedures. Perhaps he could have adjusted i n the Boys School had they been able to provide the custody necessary to retain this boy and others l i k e him, so that he could be exposed to treatment. Prom this history and the f a i l u r e of the resources used to help Peter, i t i s clear that the boy needed "individual-ized treatment as well as a controlled environment""'" and that none of these was available to him. The Other Cases The problems i n the cases of the other boys i n this study vary as indicated i n the summary of Table 2 i n Chapter I I . Each individual had developmental needs which were unmet and which resulted i n emotional immaturity. Each successive attempt to rehabilitate the boy resulted i n f a i l u r e . The programme used merely reinforced the pattern of h o s t i l i t y . Some of these d i s -turbances i n growth were achieved by more obvious family up-heavals than the subtly hidden attitudes i n the case discussed i n this chapter; nevertheless they remained unresolved i n spite of various programmes being used to effect a change i n the prob-lems of the c h i l d and his family. The remaining cases (20) which have not been discussed i n d e t a i l thus f a r i l l u s t r a t e homes which have pathological 1. HAMILTON, Gordon, op.cit., p.159. histories involving alcoholism* use of drugs* immorality* mental i l l n e s s * lack of warmth i n f a m i l i a l relatiohships• domineering, r i g i d parents. Such are the homes that the Gluecks' study* measured and i d e n t i f i e d as the family settings from which the delinquents developed. To give examples of this pathology from the other cases the following are b r i e f l y summarized. Case Number 4 - the record states, "The boy was v i o l e n t l y rejected and cruelly treated from b i r t h " ; i n Case Number 8, the history i s that of a "c h i l d of an unmarried mother who l i v e d with various men, kept a disorderly house, f i n a l l y became an addict and spent much time i n jail'.' The mother of Case Number 11 died of an i l l e g a l abortion when the boy was 4"if years old; the father re-married almost immediately to a r i g i d and cruel woman who became the child's only source of d i s c i p l i n e . C§se Number 13 indicates a c h i l d who witnessed "the alcoholic and sexual orgies" of his step-mother and the putative father with whom he had been l e f t . The available community resources could not hope to be successful with these severely disturbed children. Foster homes were t r i e d with Cases 4>8, 9» 12 and 13 prior to the i r appearance i n juvenile court. They had never experienced normal home l i f e and were at once suspicious, more hostile and unaccept-ing and could not recognize the desire of others to love and help them. These cases i l l u s t r a t e the need for a treatment 1. GLUECK, Sheldon and Eleanor, Unraveling Juvenile Delin- quency, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1951• p.107. - 52 -centre within an i n s t i t u t i o n a l setting that would help them to learn to relate s o c i a l l y to other persons i n the hope of pre-paring them to l i v e i n a foster home or elsewhere, later on i n thei r l i v e s . In 3 cases, the Child Guidance C l i n i c recommendations to use a foster home or to remove a c h i l d from the d i f f i c u l t home surroundings were not carried out. The reason given i n the records was that there was not the particular foster home for these children available at that time. In one case of c h i l d protection, i t appeared that legal evidence was very d i f f i c u l t to obtain. Three boys were transferred to Oakalla Prison from the Boys Industrial School because they were too obstreperous to handle and too upsetting to the other boys i n the School. This procedure has since been abandoned, as i t was found to be not technically l e g a l . (A habeas corpus action concerning a g i r l from the G i r l s Industrial School brought to l i g h t the procedure that a c h i l d must be transferred from the Juvenile Court to the police Court on an indictable offence i f treatment i n an adult i n s t i t u t i o n i s to be used.) One boy did not attend school after Grade 3 and yet his very existence seemed unknown u n t i l he was apprehended by police years l a t e r . - 53 -The reasons that the programmes of the Boys School and other correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s f a i l e d with these hoys can he assessed only i n the l i g h t of the resources used i n the treatment plan f o r such emotionally damaged individuals. Overcrowded i n s t i t u t i o n s , schools, and correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s cannot pro-vide individualized treatment. The qualifications and c a p a b i l i -t i e s of s t a f f members employed to provide treatment for severely rejected children must not only be of the highest calibre, but must be located i n a setting where individualized treatment i s possible. These boys could not be handled i n the ordinary school settings without expert assistance. When the aggressive be-haviour became too great for the community to stand, treatment i n an i n s t i t u t i o n was inevitable. S k i l l e d personnel experienced i n working with delinquents are i n short supply but are needed along with a l l the programmes established to prevent the more normal individual from d r i f t i n g into delinquent behaviour. The s o c i a l agencies and correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s who cared for these children were a l l overburdened with heavy caseloads and with the non-existence i n the communities involved of personnel or i n s t i -tutions who specialize i n reaching these unreached youths. Chapter IV w i l l summarize the findings of this study and w i l l provide suggestions for future research and recommenda-tions for solving the many problems i n the f i e l d of treatment of the young offender and his return to a f u l l and more s a t i s -f y i n g way of l i f e i n the community. CHAPTER IV PREVENTIVE : MEASURES Crucial arid '-Obstinate Problem Concern over the c r u c i a l and Lobstinate problem of recidivism, dramatically exemplified fby•a particular group of juveniles, has provided the animus f o r this study. No attempt has been made to analyze the programmes with which eachJboy had contact as this would constitute material for further research. Ineffective Prevention and Treatment Programmes The 23 boys i n this study i l l u s t r a t e through th e i r treatment i n a variety of services and their continued r e c i d i -vism, the i n e f f e c t u a l l y of preventive and treatment programmes for'severely disturbed individuals. Early Detection and Diagnosis The•outstanding indication i n the study points to the damaged personalities of:the boys. Their childhood experiences were;so traumatic that they could not readjust without treat-ment focused on the easing of the anxiety, fr u s t r a t i o n and re-jection from those early experiences. The treatment'of each boy at any stage of his career should have been based upon a sound diagnosis derived from the comprehensive study of the individual i n his sociopsychological setting because "....the predisposition to delinquency i s not a finished product at b i r t h but i s determined by the emotional relationships, that i s , by the f i r s t experiences which the environment forces upon the c h i l d factors which are not the underlying causes of delinquency but the direct or indirect provocation, also play a part".* Many of the boys i n the study were detected early i n their delinquent careers but at the f i r s t warning signals comprehensive studies were not conducted. For those cases where detailed studies were carried out, the resources to treat the individual were not readily available. The data presented by the boys i n this study were not inconsistent with the results of many other s c i e n t i f i c studies 2 of delinquent children. Detection at a very early age i s rapidly(becoming a prac t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y . ' I f this had happened i n the cases of the boys studied here, the importance of treat-ment programmes within the province based oh the heed of se-verely disturbed children would have been even more apparent. There are indications f o r the development of diagnostic services at the pre-school le v e l and, for those families whorrefused 1. AICHORN, August, Wayward Youth, Meridian-Books, Noonday Press, New. York, 1955 (reprinted by arrangement with The;Viking Press, Inc., New York, 1955)> pp;30-31. 2 . GLTJE0K, op.cit., pp.272-282. help for their children, there i s need for an aggressive ap-proach, perhaps even an authoritative, compulsory approach, to bring help to them. Co-ordination of Services to Delinquent and Disturbed Children. Some of these children might have been turned from criminal careers had the i r schools been able to develop increased f a c i l i t i e s f o r counselling and individualized educational pro-grammes. Referrals to social agencies were not always made even when this resource was available. This might have reduced the number of delinquents since many children with serious problems are helped by social agencies. Many of the boys were members of neighbourhood gangs but never took part i n organized leisure time activities."'" The value of the aggressive approach from the various community centres and neighbourhood houses might have contributed through s o c i a l i z a t i o n techniques with the gang i n preventing overt delinquency on the part of the members. Some experimentation with good results has taken place i n New York 2 i n the approach through the gang. 1. GLUECK, op.cit., pp.277-278. 2 . WITMER, Helen and TUFTS, Edith, the effectiveness of  Delinquency.Prevention Programs, Children's Bureau Publication Number 350 - 1954, p.48. cf. HAMILTON, Glen, The 'Teen-Age'  Gang in 1 t h e Community, Master of Social Work Thesis, Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949« - 57 -"Development of a Variety of Resources. There i s a challenge f o r communities'to develop other v a r i e t i e s of services which would provide resources i n addition to those of the courts and the limited number of social agencies. Such measures would include treatment centres and inst i t u t i o n s f o r emotionally disturbed children, hostels for children whose homes are unsuitable and f o r whom a foster home would be too . emotionally challenging ( i f available), and additional treatment f a c i l i t i e s attached to Child Guidance C l i n i c s , especially f o r the rural areas of the province. It i s of interest here to men-tion the Mersham Experiment i n England, where 500 children from Kent were studied and treated between October 1947 and July 1950 with modern psychiatric and related techniques with exceedingly favorable results even for the t y p i c a l l y aggressive delinquents. In the study abnormal behaviour and certain adverse background conditions of home l i f e were i d e n t i f i e d and related.""" Development of Services i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Rural Areas In B r i t i s h Columbia* i t must be remembered that i n . many d i s t r i c t s f r ontier conditions s t i l l p r e v a i l . Children who show signs of becoming delinquent have not always had the oppor-tu n i t y of being exposed to some of the programmes already a v a i l -1. LEWIS, Hilda, Deprived Children, The Mersham Experiment, A Social and C l i n i c a l Study, Oxford University Press, London, 1954. p . v i i . - 58 -able in the larger urban areas of the province. Their communi-ties tend to turn quickly to juvenile court action. The court, when other forms of treatment are exhausted, sees the need to remove the child from the community, hence the more frequent use of committal to the Industrial School from the rural areas. Evidence of Inconsistent and Irrational Sentencing Policies Throughout this study i t has been observed that court officials are frequently guilty of inconsistent sentencing poli-cies. This seems partly related to the lack of resources already mentioned in the more rural areas, but also is related to the attitude of the judge of the juvenile court, who may believe in more severe measures of punishment of juveniles. The situation in regard to a crime wave at any given time will also influence the judiciary to be more severe. One boy, in particular, was sent to the School on a first offence "as a lesson to the others in the gang", though the offence was not particularly serious. Committal of several of the boys on first offences to the School was noted from their point of view to have constituted addi-tional rejection. This kind of thing would seem to indicate the need for some method of individualized treatment processes throughout British Columbia rather than a perpetuation of the attitude of punishment to deter. One might suggest the need for specialized training f o r judges of juvenile courts as well as for probation s t a f f s . The problem of the attitudes of members of police forces raises the question of the need for good relations between the police and the social and correctional agencies as well as edu-cational programmes f o r special s t a f f of police forces to deal with the pre-delinquent and delinquent c h i l d . Heed f o r D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and Improvement of Insti t u t i o n a l Re- sources The present programmes i n correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s do not offer the maximum potentials f o r treatment which would meet the needs of these severely disturbed boys and, at the same time, protect society while the process i s underway. As individuals they need a situation of considerable security with the application of various diagnostic and treatment tech-niques to provide them with some new feelings of acceptance, support and control to lessen their anxiety and h o s t i l i t y . Such treatment might be necessary over a long jberiod of time and under the guidance of psy c h i a t r i c a l l y trained s t a f f . A pro-gramme of after-care and compulsory supervision would involve changes i n our criminal law but this would seem only common sense i n the l i g h t of the cost to the community of a group of delinquents such as these. A re-evaluation of our existing services i n re l a t i o n - 60 -to the s t a f f qualifications both personally and academically i s of great importance where the staff are working with children who are serious behaviour problems. It i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the communities to seek methods to provide training to i n -crease the s k i l l s of suitable s t a f f and to attract q u a l i f i e d personnel. Extension of Probation Services The more extensive use of probation was indicated i n several of the cases i n the study. This service was not at-tempted i n some cases where there was no clear indication against the advisability of using i t . Many areas concerning the f i e l d of delinquency remain without our f u l l understanding and there i s need fo r further re-search. Because the problems continue to disturb and concern us to the point that i r r a t i o n a l action i s sometimes taken to amelio-rate public feeling, i t i s suggested that before further mistakes are made, a Royal Commission should conduct a study focused upon juvenile delinquents and treatment programmes for them. Study and coordination of p o l i c i e s and programmes by the Canadian Corrections Association of the Canadian Welfare Council to reinforce the findings of the Fauteux Committee1 i n 1. Canada, Report of a Committee Appointed to Inquire into  the Principles and Procedures Followed i n the Remission Service  of the Department of Justice of Canada, Ottawa, 1956. pp.87-90. - 61 -bringing about change i n Canadian Law w i l l provide hope for the future of our youth. The recommendations of the conference on juvenile delinquency held i n Vancouver"'' to coordinate programmes indicates progress toward leadership i n handling the d i f f i c u l t problem of recidivism. 1. Juvenile Delinquency Conference, op.cit. - 62 -APPENDIX A Table I : Treatment of the 23 boys prior to incarceration i n the West Wing of Oakalla Prison Farm, November 1, 1953.  CODE Column 1. school problem prior to Juvenile Court appearance. Column 2. s o c i a l agency contact with the family prior to Juvenile Court appearance. Column 3. number of Juvenile Court appearances (new charges). Column 4. number of times on probation from a Juvenile Court. Column 5« number of times committed to the Boys Industrial School. Column 6. number of times committed to New Haven. Column 7« number of times committed to the Young Offenders Unit at Oakalla Prison Farm. Column 8. placement i n foster home(s) prior to appearance i n Juvenile Court. Column 9» placement i n foster home(s) after appearance i n Juvenile Court. Column 10. Child Guidance C l i n i c examination before Juvenile Court appearance. Column 11. Child Guidance C l i n i c examination after Juvenile Court appearance. Column 12. number of Police Court appearances prior to this detention i n the West Wing. Column 13. number of times on probation (adult) from a Police Court or Court of Appeal prior to this detention i n West Wing. Column 14. Total. Table 1: Treatment Prior to Incaraeration in West Wing of Oakalla, November 1, 1953  Case Sch. Social Juv. Juv. B.I. New Y.O. P.H. F.H. CGC CGC Police Probation j Totals No. Prob. Agency Court Prob. School Haven Unit P.ct A.ct .P.ct A.ct Court fr.Ad.Ct. (13) ! (14) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) : 1 x(3) x(5) x(l) x(l) x(4) X X X x(3) x(3) 1 7 2 X X X X X X X I 10 3 X x(7) x(l) x(5) X X x(2) x(D I 8 4 X x(3) x(4) x(l) x ( l ) X X X X X x ( l ) x(l) I 9 5 No x(2) X X ft j 6 •> 6 X x ( l ) x(3) x(l) X X x ( l | 6 7 X x(2) X X X x(2) •i 7 8 No X x(3) x(3) x(l) x(l) x(2) x(l) X X X X x(2) 1 9 9 X X X x(2) x(2) 1 6 10 X x(2) x ( l x(l) x(l) x(l) X * 6 11 X X x(3) X X X I 1 9 1 12 X X x(5) x(4) X X X x(l) 8 1 13 X x(2) x(2} X X X x(2) | 6 i 1 4 X x(6) x(6) x(l) x(3) x(l) i 5 l 15 X x(2) x(l) X X x(l) 6 16 X x(4) x(2) X I 6 17 X X x(5) x(l) x(2) X X x(2) 1 8 18 x(2) x ( l ) x(l) X x(l) x ( l ) i 4 19 ! No X x(l) X 5 20 i X x(4) x(3) X X x(2) 6 21 ; x(l) X X x(4) i 4 . 22 | X x(2) X x(l) x(D. 4 23 j X x(2) X - 4 Total] 15 8 23 14 17 5 15 5 9 6 11 20 I 149 ON - 64 -Table 2: Social and Family Factors COPE (a) Column 1. Age of parents at birth of boy. Column 2. Racial or nationality factors* A - American EI — East Indian Ir - Irish C - Chinese FC - French .N - Norwegian D - Dutch Canadian Sc - Scottish E - English G - German Sw - Swedish I - Indian Column 3. Religion: P — Protestant RC — Roman Catholic GO — Greek Orthodox S - Sikh Column 4« Education: P — Poor. A - Average - completed elementary. G — Good - high school or better. Column 5« Employment: U — Unemployed L - Labourer C - Clerical S - Skilled D - Domestic ss - Semi-skilled F - Farmer Column 6. Health: P - Poor F - Fair G - Good Column 7» Marital Status • • TJM - Unmarried mother CL - Common law union M - Married M ^ - Second marriage involving step-parent for boy. S - Separated S2 - Separated and second marriage Column 8. Criminal Record. Column 9 . Additional (Problem) Factors in the family relationship: A - Alcoholic C M - Mental illness I DM - Dull mentally Im Dp - Depressed 111 D - Drug addict N-S FP - Foster parent MD E - Employment away from home. Cruelty Immorality Immaturity 111 health Bon—support Marital discord - 65 -00 Column 1. Age of boy at committal to Oakalla. Column 2. Religion of boy. Column 3. Education completed. Column 4. Age at f i r s t employment. Column 5- Health (code as f o r (a) Column 6). Column 6. Age at appearance of f i r s t behaviour problem. Column 7. Age of f i r s t criminal offence. Column 8.' Use of alcohol or drugs. Column 9. Intelligence (ratings of C.G.C. or schools). L-A - Low average AA - Above average . A - Average S - Superior B - Borderline Column 10. Siblings who are also problems. Table 2 ( a ) : S o c i a l and Family F a c t o r s , November 1953. F A M I L Y 1 — 1 Case Age Eace E e l i g i o n Education Employment Health M a r i t a l C r i m i n a l A d d i t i o n a l Status Becord Fac t o r s j No. M F M F M F M F M F M F M F M F (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (?) 1 I I r EC P P(dd) UM A 2 26 55 I r I r EC EC P P u P P CL X M i 3 27 29 G G P P P L G P M DM M j 4 30 35 U EC EC P P L M DP 5 26 34 E E P P A A M j 6 24 24 E P P G A S G G M S(2) 7 24 32 I ' 3w P P A A D SS G F A j 8 20 P UM X X D D 9 M FP FP | 10 32 36 G E EC EC P P D G P M 0 11 20 23 E E P P P L P(dd) M M 12 37 50 Sc E P P U U P M C 13 21 35 FC I r P P UM X X I i i 14 EI EI S S L G G M Cultu r e 1 15 A Sc P P P G G G M Im Im i 16 29 33 Sc Sc P P- SS G G M I I 1 17 Sw C P P(dd) UM I I 18 E E 19 23 33 U U GO GO P P P G P M 111 ; 20 22 25 E E P P A A C SS P M N-S 21 EC S M D 22 25 38 E E P P P P D SS G G M E 23 37 40 G D P8 P P P D L G F M C C Table 2 (b): Social and Family Factors, November 1953 J U V E N I L E D E L I N Q U E N T Case . Age .of Religion Education Age at Health Age at Age of Alcohol Intel- Siblings No. First App'ce. Fi r s t or ligence Problems O.P.F. Employ- of 1 s t . Offence Drugs ment Problem (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) t i o ) 1 17 P Gr . 3 11 G 15 A L-A 2 17 RC 6 G 8 9 D A X 3 15 P 6 G 11- 11 B X 4 15 RC 7 P 5 13 L-A 5 16 P 8 G 13 13 AA 6 16 P 8 G 3-4 15 S 7 15 P 9 16 F 14 A 8 17 P 9 G 10 14 . .AA 9 17 P 9 G 13 17 A A IC- 17 P 7 G 12 - 12 L-A l l 15 P 8 P. 4 11 D A 12 17 P 9 P 15 D B 13 16 P 7 P 14 15 A 14 17 S 7 G 14 14 B 15 15 P 9 G 13 15 L-A 16 17 P 9 G 14 A 17 17 P 5 G 14 B 18 17 P 7 19 17 P 8 14 G 14 15 D X 20 16 P 7 14 G 12 B 21 16 RC 9 15 G A 22 15 None 8 15 P 13 15 A 23 15 P 8 . 14 G 14 15 A L-A X T - 67 -APPEMDIX B BIBLIOGRAPHY (a) General References ABBOTT, Grace BARROW, Milton L. The Child and the State, Vol . 1 1 , University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1938. The Juvenile i n Delinquent Society, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, 1954* B r i t i s h Columbia Gaol Rules and Regulations; Queen's Printer, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1950 and 1956.-Canadian Welfare Council, Delinquency and Crime Division, Report of the Committee on Revision of the Juvenile  Delinquents Act, Ottawa, February 1956• and BELL, Marjorie, Crime,"Courts and Pro- bation, The. MacMillan Company, New York, 1956. Democratic Government i n Canada, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1949. Our Rejected Children, L i t t l e , Brown & Com-pany, Boston, 1950. Searchlights on Delinquency, Imago Publishing Co., London, 1949* Prisons and Borstals, the Home Office, London, H.M.Stationery Office, revised ed., 1950. ' The Psycho-Analytical Approach to Juvenile  Delinquency, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd., London,. 1947* "The Social Services", i n Brown,G.W.,ed., Canada, United Nations Series, Cambridge University Press, London, 1950. The Canadian Prison, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1947. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods for Social Workers, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1952. Group Problems i n Crime and Punishment, Routledge, London, 1955* National Association f o r Mental Health, Why Delinquency? The Case for Operational Research,•Report of a.Con-ference on the S c i e n t i f i c Study of Juvenile Delinquency, London, October 1949. CHUTE, Charles L., DAWSON, R.MacG., DEUTSCH, Albert EISSLER, K.R.,ed. England and Wales, FRIEDLANDER, Kate GOV AN, Elizabeth KIDMAN, John MCMILLEN, Wayne MANNHEIM, H. - 68 -Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Report of the Commission Appointed by the Attorney-General to Inquire into the  State and Management of the Gaols of B r i t i s h ' Columbia, 1 9 5 °i King's Printer, Victoria,B.C., 1951 . TAPPAN, P.W. Contemporary Correction, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1951* (b) Specific References AICHOBN, August Wayward Youth, The Noonday Press, New York, 1935. BARNES, H.E. and TEETERS, N.K., New Horizons i n Criminology, Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1953. Canada, Report of a Committee Appointed to Inquire into the Principles and Procedures Followed i n the  Remission Service of the Department of Justice  of Canada, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1956« Canada, Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate the Penal System of Canada, Ottawa, 1938. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Juvenile Delinquents, 1952, Ottawa, 1954. Canadian Welfare Council, The Juvenile Court i n Law, Ottawa, 1952. Children and Young Persons Acts, 1933, 1938 and 1952> Halsbury's Statutes of England, second ed., Vols. 1 2 , 2 7 . Criminal Justice Act, I 9 4 8 , Halsbury's Statutes of England, second ed., V o l . 2 7 . Exodus. FOX, Lionel W. The English Prison and Borstal Systems, Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd., London, 1 9 5 2 « GILLIN, J.L., Criminology and Penology, D. Appleton-Century Co. Inc., New York, 3 r d edition, 1945* GLUECK, Sheldon and Eleanor, Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1951< HAMILTON, Glen The 'Teen-Age Gang and the Community, Thesis for the Degree of Master of Social Work, Uni-versity of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949. - 69 -HAMILTOl, Gordon Psychotherapy i n Child Guidance, Columbia University Press, New York, 1948. Theory and Practice of Social Case Work, Columbia University Press, New York, 1952. HINDE, R.S.B. The B r i t i s h Penal System 1773-1950, Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd., London, 1951. HOWARD, John The State of the Prisons, J.M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1929. Juvenile Delinquency Conference (Proceedings), Vancouver, B.C., October 1956. KVARACEUS, W.C. The Community and the Delinquent, World Book Company, New York, 1954. LEWIS, Hilda Deprived Children, the Mersham Experiment, A Social and C l i n i c a l Study, Oxford University Press, London, 1954. McKELVEY, Blake American Prisons, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 111., 1936. NELSON, G.R. et a l , ed. Freedom and Welfare, Social Patterns i n the Northern Countries of Europe, Sponsored by the Ministries of Social A f f a i r s of Den-mark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, 1953. PECK, H.B. and BELLSMITH, V i r g i n i a , ' Treatment of the Delinquent Adolescent, Family Service Association of America, New York, 1954* Revised Statutes of Canada, Chapter 46, 19-20 George V, An Act Respecting Juvenile Delinquents, 1929» as amended, etc. Revised Statutes of Quebec, 1941. Chapter 15« SUTHERLAND, Edwin H. Principles of Criminology, J.B. Lippincott Company, Chicago, Fourth edition 1949* TEETERS, N.K. and REINEMANN, J.O., The Challenge of Delinquency, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1950. The Vancouver Sun, February 5« 1957• TOPPING, C.W. Canadian Penal Institutions, Ryerson Press, Toronto, revised ed., 1943. United Nations, Department of Social A f f a i r s , The Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, New York, 1955« United Nations, Department of Social A f f a i r s , Probation and Related Measures, New York, 1951. - 70 -WITMER, Helen L. and TUFTS, Edith, The effectiveness of Delinquency Prevention Programs, Children's Bureau Publication N0.35O, 1954. YOUNG, Pauline V. Social Treatment i n Probation and Delin-quency, McGraw-Hill Book Company,Inc., New York, 1952. 


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items