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Housing projects for old people : an exploratory review of four selected housing projects for old people… Sharp, Patricia Louise 1957

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HOUSING PROJECTS FOR OLD PEOPLE An Exploratory Review of Four Selected Housing Projects for Old People i n the Greater Vancouver Area PATRICIA LOUISE•SHARP Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment ,of the Requirements for.the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social - Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1957 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia i i i ABSTBACT With ; the ^ increasing number of old people i n the population(of.Canada^ and of B r i t i s h Columbia i n par-ti c u l a r ^ housing needs have become a major part of the t o t a l welfare'planning f o r ; o l d people. Adequate housing i s an essential 1 service i n i t s own right, but i t i s also • ahiimportant basis for many other necessary services concerned with the welfare of this age group. This thesis i s an exploratory review of housing projects so f a r constructed for old people i n the Greater Vancouver area. Pour such projects are selected f o r this purpose, and a general structure for description and 'analysis devised, with special reference to (a) the nature of^the*accommodation,'(b) administration, and (c) opinions and attitudes of the residents. The information i n this survey i s attained through interviews with the people d i r e c t l y concerned with 1the ad-ministration and management of 1 the housing projects, with people who l i v e i n the projects, and with social workers who have close contact with and knowledge of the old people.• A series of v i s i t s were made to a l l types of accommodation i n the four projects. M: Because housing projects so far:are mostly private and volunteer efforts, there i s ; a great deal of v a r i a t i o n i n nature and concept," administration, e l i g i b i l i t y , services provided, etc. Some of this experimentation 1 i s "desirable; i n some regards, coordination and pooling of experience i s greatly:needed. The study i l l u s t r a t e * many of the good features of housing projects, and also indicates some of the less favorable aspects. It shows also the need fo r a comprehensive approach to housing f o r old people, i n which the t o t a l community participates, and i n which a l l community resources, including neighbourhood and metropolitan planning, are f u l l y u t i l i z e d . In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representative. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. i v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Sincere appreciation and thanks are extended to Dr. L. C. Marsh, of the School of Social Work, f o r his constant and consistent guidance and encouragement. His broad knowledge of welfare principles and aims have contributed to the ideas and opinions expressed i n this study, and the opportunities which he provided for discussion of questions and issues concerning the subject have been at a l l times a stimulus to the writer's thinking. Many other people helped to make this study pos-s i b l e : those concerned with the administration of the projects who w i l l i n g l y gave their time, and made i n -formalion available; the social workers who have been i n close association with the residents of the housing projects f a c i l i t a t e d this study by their cooperation and interest; and the residents themselves, who discussed their opinions and ideas freely, thus contributing a major part of the material of this thesis. Page 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I i • Housing'and Welfare for•the Aged. '• • ''! Increased focus on' old "people. ' Changing popu-lation distribution. Old people in society. Housing as part of total welfare planning: Needifor adequate housing and for planning. Financing housing projects. Selection of four projects to be studied. Method of survey; 1 •Chapter IK From Outside Looking In. 'A review of factors considered in the survey of the housing projects. General;description of each project, therbuildirig, location, available facilities, cost to the tenant.i Administration and management of'the projects, admissions procedures, daily operation^ program or•activi-ties ; planned by : the administration. 11 Chapter III. From Inside Looking Out. i; ;'Opinions and attitudes expressed by the resi-dents. : Factors considered in interviewing residents. Kind of'people living in the project. What the residents like and dislike. Social relationships among the residents. Activities of the residents. 46 Chapter IV. Planning for Tomorrow. ;• "Important lessons in planning housing for old people. Their application to the four projects reviewed. The issue:of=segregation. Need for a variety of accommo-dation. Administrative practices. Implications for com-•munity planning. Interest of social work in the housing projects. Need for coordination in planning and operation. 64 Appendices: ?Ai 1 ! Schedules Used in • Interviewing;.................. 85 • iBi • "Application Forms for Housing Projects. .. 87 rC. -Information for;Admissions ;Committees ;. 92 •D.: Rules:and Regulations:for T e n a n t s . . 94 ;E. J Bibliography. 100 i - : -ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT Pig. 1. The Fair Haven: Main Building.) \ A Fig. 2. The Fair Haven: Cottage Unit. ) Fig. 3 . Lions1 View: Apartment Block (built 1953)) Fig. 4 . Lions" View: Apartment Block (built 4 9 5 6 ) \ , Fig. 5 . Lions* View: Cottage Units (built 1 9 5 3 ) . J • ? Fig. 6 . Lions' View: . Cottage Units (built 1 9 5 6 ) . ) Fig. 7. Dania-Home: Main Building.) Fig. 8. SaniarHome: Cottages;' ' ' ) * Fig. 9 . West Vancouver Housing!Project:' ^ApartmentiBlock.) ^ Fig . 1 0 . West .Vancouver Housing Project: Cottage Duplex. ) HOUSING PEOJECTS >FOR OLD PEOPLE i CHAPTER I HOUSING AND WELFARE FOE THE AGED. In recent years, i n North America and many parts of Europe, there has been increasing attention focused on the older members of the population. So much of this interest and atten-tion has been concerned with the problems of the aged, both in terms of their numbers and their position in society, that we are apt to think of "old age" and "problems" as being inevitable companions. 7/hat are these problems, and why do they concern us so much more at the present time than i n the past? It i s a commonly known fact that the l i f e expectancy has increased markedly in recent years. Because of this, the number of old people in the population i s increasing. But the increasing number in i t s e l f i s not the reason for the many prob-lems; the larger numbers merely accentuate and aggravate other problems. Perhaps the major reason for the dilemma regarding old people l i e s in the fact that much of modern society i s geared to suit the younger portion of the population. We consider the adult years before age 65 as the productive years, thereby im-plying that the years over 65 are unproductive. We tend to exclude oldyipeople from the main stream of society i n many ways; - 2 -mandatory retirement, regardless of a b i l i t y or v i t a l i t y ; smaller family homes and apartments where there i s no room for the aging grandparents; increasing mobility of the population which leads to family dispersal. Through these and other factors the old person i s often l e f t alone, or i s forced to be dependent, either on society or on his adult children. Yet at the same time, society places great value on independence, almost as a moral virtue, so that the older person who finds himself dependent i feels he has been a f a i l u r e . ^ Besides the problem of finding his position or status i n society, the old person also has to cope with other more con-crete changes. He i s faced with decreasing physical strength and health. Often, because of the enforced retirement, he has a greatly reduced income, and within his limited income and limited physical strength and health he must cope with the problem of finding a suitable place to l i v e . The conditions described above place great demands on the individual for personal adjustment. He i s expected to accept social conditions and adjust to them. In Personal Adjustment i n Old Age the authors suggest that "..... an alternative type of adjustment would be social adjustment, i n which social norms, standards and i n s t i t u -tions would be adjusted to changed conditions i n such a way that they would provide more f u l l y for the s a t i s f a c -tion of the needs of the old."^ 1. Miner, John J . : "The Meaning of Personal Adjustment i n Old Age", Proceedings of The Governor's Conference on the Problems  of the Aging, Cal i f o r n i a , 1951, p.216. 2. Cavan, Ruth S., Burgess, Ernest W., Havighurst,' Robert J., and Goldhamer, Herbert: Personal Adjustment i n Old Age, Chicago, Science Eesearch Associates, 1949, P»29« i I i - 3 -I t i s with one sp e c i f i c form of social adjustment that this study i s concerned — with the provision of suitable housing. However, providing housing for old people cannot be separated and isolated from other forms of social adjustment. Closely related are the problems of providing for an adequate income, for physical care and maintenance of health, and for the general comfort and security of the individual. "The problem of housing the aged i s only one part of the larger problem of restoring old people to a position of dignity and use, giving them opportunities to form new social t i e s to replace those that family dispersal and death have broken, and giving them functions and duties that draw on their precious l i f e experience and put i t to new uses."-*-Although housing i n i t s e l f does not provide the answer to a l l the problems of the old person, neither i s i t feasible to attempt to reach some solution without r e a l i z i n g the importance of housing. I t i s unlikely that one could f e e l much sense of dignity and worth, l i v i n g alone i n a damp basement room, lonely and bored, with barely enough money to buy food l e t alone allow for entertainment or even transportation. This picture may be s l i g h t l y exaggerated but undoubtedly i s a true one for an appre-ciable portion of the population. In March, 1949, "the Vancouver Housing Association published a report on Housing for our Older  Citizens. In this study the Association makes reference to the l i v i n g conditions of older people at that time, and quotes several sources as stating that housing i s a major problem, and that l i v i n g accommodations are i n general poor and inadequate. 1. Mumford, Lewis: "For Older People - Not Segregation but Integration", Architectural Record, May 1956, p.191* - 4 -"Of 1500 oases recorded i n the Centre Social unit, 75$ were l i v i n g i n single rooms. Many of these rooms are i n damp basements or up several f l i g h t s of s t a i r s , often with l i t t l e or no heat. Many more have inadequate cook-ing and sanitary f a c i l i t i e s shared with several other tenants. For this accommodation they pay from $10 to $15 a month out of a t o t a l income of perhaps $40. " I l l health, undernourishment, loneliness, and a sense of insecurity produced by the fear of eviction, or by the lack of friends or rel a t i v e s to help i n times of need, complete the drab picture of l i f e for many old people i n our c i t y today. The study gives examples of s p e c i f i c situations, and concludes that "Verbal descriptions such as these convey but a dim im-. pression of the actual condition under which these people l i v e , b u t , i t i s quite certain that i f the general public could experience personally the needless misery i n f l i c t e d on old people through lack of adequate housing, effective steps would rapidly be taken to remedy the situation."^ Certainly as far as need i s concerned, there i s nothing to suggest that the picture has changed a great deal since 1949* In a pamphlet published i n 195^  by the Vancouver Housing Associa-tion the following statement appears: "The percentage of persons over 65 to the t o t a l population, the proportion on old age assistance or war veterans' allowance, and the amount of housing actually available for this age group, w i l l normally present a pretty clear picture of the need, a picture which w i l l be rendered more v i v i d by s p e c i f i c instances of old people l i v i n g i n poor -conditions or paying rents beyond their means. . "In the City of Vancouver, for example, there are how roughly 50,000 people over 65 years of age. Of those i n receipt of Old Age Pension, i . e . , over 70, income tax returns show that roughly four out of five have incomes under $1000 per year. For a l l these thousands we have so far provided under 100 dwellings s p e c i f i c a l l y a l l o -cated for their use."3 1. Vancouver Housing Association: Housing for Our Older  Citizens, Vancouver, March 1949, Summary of conclusions. 2. Ibid., p.7. 3. Vancouver Housing Association: Building for Senior  Citizens, Vancouver, January 1956, p»l» I t seems obvious that there i s necessity'for both public and private sponsorship of housing projects for old people. A comprehensive survey of the actual and spe c i f i c requirements could well be made to assist i n future planning, not only as to the number of dwellings required but also the most suitable types. With so many groups becoming interested i n the housing problems of the aged, there i s a danger that plans may be made without consideration for what the people who w i l l l i v e i n them actually want and find best suited. It seems v a l i d therefore, that at some point an attempt should be made to assess the housing projects already i n existence, with the hope that the good points from several of them may be incorporated, and the less desirable aspects eliminated. Although this study deals exclusively with housing projects, there i s no intention to imply that housing projects are the only type of accommodation needed or desirable. Hor i s there intended any suggestion that a l l old pieople. should move into housing projects. Individual preference and need w i l l vary. This study may provide some indication of the types of people best served by housing projects - their income l e v e l , family situation, previous housing, mobility, etc. A further study may be able to suggest other solutions to housing problems. In planning housing for old people, provision must be made for those who wish to l i v e independently, and for those who are no longer w i l l i n g or able to do so. Among the physically independent, there w i l l be those who prefer boarding home accom-modation, those who prefer to have their own housekeeping f a c i l i t i e s , those who are f i n a n c i a l l y able to seek their own accommodation on the open market. For the physically dependent very different arrangements must be made; boarding home care may be feasible for some who are p a r t i a l l y dependent; and nursing home care may be necessary for a number of this group. Planning must also give consideration to the r a t i o between married couples and single persons requiring accommodation. "Where individual units are being provided, the proportion of units for couples and single persons respectively must be decided. The s t a t i s t i c a l evidence and actual require-ments, as reflected i n applications received, both suggest that the demand for single units i s at least three times as great as for married u n i t s . " 1 Yet of the housing projects studied, none of them came olose to meeting this r a t i o . Any low-rental housing scheme requires f i n a n c i a l subsidy from some source, as the rentals paid w i l l not be s u f f i c i e n t to meet the cost of building. Financing can be obtained through co-operation of the Federal, Provincial, and Municipal governments, along with assistance from some charitable organization or service club. I f a non-profit or limited-dividend organization raises 10% of the-total cost*of the project, i t can apply to the provincial government for a grant covering one-third of the t o t a l capital cost the remainder of the money necessary may be obtained through a loan from Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation.^ 1. Vancouver Housing Association, 1956, op. c i t . , p.3. 2. Elderly Citizens' Housing Aid Act, Ch .19, S.B.C. 1955, Sec.2. 3 . National Housing Act, Ch . l 8 8 , Revised Statutes'of Canada 1952, Section 16. I f the provincial grant i s used, the housing i s available to people with a monthly income not exceeding $84.00 for"a single person or $168;00 for a married couple. The housing projects included i n this survey have "been financed "by the method described above. In many instances the municipality has allowed the land to be tax-free, so long as i t i s used for low-rental housing. Within this l e g i s l a t i v e framework, several housing projects for elderly citizens have been b u i l t i n the Greater Vancouver area; the Community Information Service l i s t s , as of January 1957» nine housing projects providing self-contained accommodation. Some of these also provide boarding home care. One, L i t t l e Mountain Public Housing, provides low-rental housing for families, and has 24 units reserved f o r elderly couples; For this exploratory review of housing projects for the aged, four such projects i n the Greater Vancouver area have been selected. The.selection has been made i n an attempt to get a f a i r l y representative sample of projects, including small and large projects, different types of accommodation and different sponsoring groups. On this basis, the ones which have been selected are: The West Vancouver Senior Citizens Housing Society, sponsored by the West Vancouver Kiwanis Club; Lions' View, sponsored by the British" Columbia/Housing Foundation; The F a i r Haven, sponsored by the United Church of ..Canada; Dania-Home, sponsored by the Danish National Group. - 8 -These four housing projects provide opportunity to study accommodation i n cottages and i n apartment blocks, includ-ing units for single persons and couples; also included are projects which provide boarding home care, and one which provides the opportunity for tenants to build their own cottages on pro-perty owned by the sponsoring group. To c o l l e c t the material, an outline was drawn up of the factors to be considered i n making the survey. Prom this outline two schedules were devised, one for interviewing residents, and one for interviewing the persons concerned with administration and management.^ In conducting this survey, the persons most d i r e c t l y concerned with administration and management were interviewed, The Chairman of the Admissions Committee was interviewed, and i n each instance the Chairman i s a member of the Board of Directors. In two of the projects, The Pair Haven and Dania Home, a matron i s i n charge of day to day operations, and these two women were interviewed. Brochures and annual reports were used wherever possible. Interviews were conducted with a number of tenants of the housing projects; single persons and couples were included, and those l i v i n g i n different types of accommodation. In several instances the tenants interviewed were ones suggested by the Chairman of the Admissions Committee or the matron; i n other 1. See Appendix A :;r .: '. . instances the selection of persons was entirely random. This part of the survey consisted of interviews with a t o t a l of 26 persons. F i n a l l y , the survey included discussions with three social workers having direct contact with a number of the r e s i -dents i n the projects. These were general unstructured discus-sions of the social workers' opinions and impressions of the management, tenants' reactions and problems, s o c i a b i l i t y within the project, and suggestions about the project. This study i s an attempt to assess the selected housing projects, with the hope that information gained may be of some use i n planning future projects. Just how adequate are the part i c u l a r housing projects i n terms of providing for physical and health needs, meeting the economic r e s t r i c t i o n s , i n providing surroundings i n which the residents can lead a reasonably happy and oontented l i f e ? Do these projects mitigate to any extent the boredom and loneliness of so many old people? Do they pro-vide a reasonable degree of comfort and security beyond the actual l i v i n g quarters themselves? As stated previously housing i s one important facet of the t o t a l welfare of the aged, and i n providing housing i t i s hoped that other social and personal needs may be s a t i s f i e d . I f , then, i t i s agreed that housing programs should have a broader aim than to provide merely "a place to hang one's hat", a survey such as this must attempt to assess some aspects of these broader aims. The main focus of this study i s to discover - 1 0 -how adequate the housing projects are from the resident's point of view. I t w i l l deal also with the housing accommodation as such, hut more extensively with the housing accommodation as pro-viding some hope for a happier and more sati s f y i n g l i f e for old people. CHAPTER II PROM OUTSIDE LOOKING IN The present exploratory review of four housing projects attempts a descriptive account of each project, along with opinions and attitudes expressed "by the residents. This chapter i s concerned with the f i r s t part of the picture, a "general description" including the outside appearance, the location and available amenities, the number and kind of units, and the tot a l cost to the tenant; a discussion of "administration and management" includes the admissions pro-cedures, the daily operation, and any planned social or other a c t i v i t i e s for the tenants. Many of the c r i t e r i a u t i l i z e d i n this part of the survey follow closely the suggestions put forth by the Van-couver Housing Association, i n their survey Housing for our  Older Citizens. In the summary of conclusions, the Associa-tio n includes a recommendation that "Individual dwellings should be located i n small groups, under the charge of a competent caretaker, within easy range of shops, churches, social centres and transit routes. The provision of auxiliary ser-vices such as nursing and housekeeping help, recrea-tional clubs, etc., should be regarded as an integral part of !such projects The provision of different types of accommodation should be ef f e c t i v e l y integra-ted so that persons can move from house to hostel to home, according to their changing requirements, without being uprooted from the previous associations they hold dear."* 1. Vancouver Housing Association, op.cit., 194$, summary of conclusions. This theme i s also expressed by Mumford. He re-commends that any housing plan'should aim to restore old people to the community, that there should be no "barracks" and no labels, and that the housing should be situated where there i s a constant play of diverting a c t i v i t y . The type of administration found i n any housing project w i l l r e f l e c t the aims and objectives of the sponsors of the project. Is their objective simply to provide suitable buildings and f i n d occupants for them, or i s there a broader interpretation of their responsibility? Providing good, low-rental l i v i n g quarters i s unquestionably an important c o n t r i -bution to the welfare of the older age group, but i t i s , after a l l , only one part of the whole. In the administration and management of housing projects there i s the opportunity to make additional contributions which could be of great value. The loneliness and boredom which a f f l i c t so many old people do not automatically disappear when the older person moves into a housing project; yet i s there any effort on the part of the'administration to overcome these common problems? Is there any plan or program designed to mitigate, at least i n part, the effects produced when old people move from their familiar surroundings into a new and strange situation - a housing proj ect? The^procedure followed i n interviewing applicants and . Mumford, l o c . c i t . p.193. selecting tenants is another facet of administration which can demonstrate'the concern of the sponsoring group for the people to be served. The admissions procedure, in its simp-lest form, can be a mechanical and routine activity, in which the applicant f i l l s out a form, is judged to be eligible or not, and i f eligible is notified when accommodation becomes available. The admissions procedure becomes more complex when attempts are made to define eligibility more clearly, to obtain a degree of balance and diversification of tenants within the project, and to help the applicant with questions he may have regarding his prospective move into the project. The nature of the housing project will be determined ultimately by the kind of people who live in i t , thus the admissions pro-cedure becomes a means of affecting the character of the pro-ject. Within the stated age and income restrictions, is i t possible for the admissions procedure to decrease or to in-crease the degree of segregation? Understandably, sponsors want tenants who are "suitable", who will "fit in" to the project, but is suitability defined, and how is i t determined whether or not a person will "fit in"? "> 1 To obtain the information presented in this chapter, each of the four housing projects was visited by the writer, and:the various •types of accommodation were seen; !the persons 'concerned with ;administration 1 and'management were interviewed. - 14 -Annual reports and p u b l i c i t y brochures, where available, gave much valuable information, p a r t i c u l a r l y regarding admissions. A. General Description The Fair Haven: United Church Home for Senior Citigens The Fair Haven consists of a large number of b u i l d -ings housing a t o t a l of 152 persons. It was opened i n 1951> and since then additional units have been added. There i s one large main building centrally placed on the property, with the •smaller cottages uniformly spaced on either side and behind this building. A l l the buildings are of wood siding, and painted i n the same colors - dark brown on the lower part and l i g h t tan on the upper part. There i s a sign prominently placed'indicating that this i s The F a i r Haven, United Church Home;for Senior Citizens. The main building i s a large two-storey structure with a number of steps leading up to the front door. On both sides of this building and behind i t are the self-contained units of the project. -There are f i v e single cottages fo r couples, twenty duplex cottages for couples, and four one-storey buildings;containing sixteen suites for single persons. The ;landscaping i s completed except at the back of the pro-perty, -and allowanceihas been made for small gardens around the :houses. THE PAIR HAVEN 3 in 1 i Figure 1. Main B u i l d i n g • _ i 5 -' iThe'housing project i s i n South'Burnaby, on'Rumble Street at :Sussex. B u i l t on a sl i g h t i n c l i n e , the buildings face south with a view of the Fraser River. The d i s t r i c t i s entirely r e s i d e n t i a l , composed mainly of new single-dwelling homes. The d i s t r i c t seems to he a quiet one, with no schools or parks i n the immediate neighbourhood, but with a moderate volume of t r a f f i c on Rumble Street to provide some diversion f o r the occupants of the project. The nearest business sec-tion i s on Kingsway, about one mile distant and u p h i l l . There are stores nearer than Kingsway, and one small store i n the d i s t r i c t which provides delivery service i s appreciated by many of the tenants. A bus l i n e runs d i r e c t l y i n front of the housing units, providing easy access to Kingsway. However, for former residents of Vancouver the distance which i t i s necessary to travel to v i s i t friends and family i s often great. There i s no community centre i n the surrounding area !but'in the main building of the project there i s a large as-sembly h a l l . Besides a te l e v i s i o n set, this provides kitchen f a c i l i t i e s f o r preparation and serving of lunch to any group. These'kitchen f a c i l i t i e s may also be used by the residents for making a cup of tea during the day for themselves and friends. 'The :hall is !used f o r church services each Sunday evening, and during'the week various forms of entertainment are provided. A large5commoniroom on ;the ground f l o o r of the main building i s ! used i by ' the 'residents '• for; playing' cards j ' and 'for v i s i t i n g - 16 -amongst'themselves or with other friends. These f a c i l i t i e s are open to the tenants of the cottages as well as residents of the main building, but the cottage tenants apparently do hot use them extensively. The main building houses 57 persons, men and women, who receive their meals and room for $57 to 160 per month, depending on the type and location of the room. There are four double rooms; the rest are single. Each room has a sink, and i s furnished with the minimum necessary furniture. How-ever, the rooms are rather small and seem somewhat crowded when the tenants add their own possessions to the furnishings already there. Each wing has i t s own bathroom, and these f a c i l i t i e s seem to be adequate. The dining room i s located off the common room, and contains tables that seat four persons. Each person has a place reserved for him at one of the tables, and therefore 'always has•the same meal-time companions. A more f l e x i b l e seating arrangement would enable the tenants to mix more f r e e l y with each other i f they so desired. In'the cottages f o r couples the units consist of a living-room^ bedroom, bathroom, kitchen and good-sized u t i l i t y room. 'The bedroom i s small but other rooms are of adequate size:''The kitchen has ample cupboard'and work space. An o i l stove 5for?cookingJand'hot water'heating is•provided'at'a cost - 17 -o f ' $ 2 per:month.' The tenant ;may"install a space heater i n the'living r o o m i f desired, otherwise the whole unit i s heated by the kitchen stove. In the u t i l i t y room there i s more stor-age spacei cupboards, and a b u i l t - i n ironing board. Although the room i s large enough for a washing machine, there are no sinks or tubs b u i l t i n . While i t would be d i f f i c u l t to f i n d room to put a refrigerator i n the kitchen, there i s room f o r one i n the u t i l i t y room. There are sixteen housekeeping units f o r single persons, housed i n four one-storey buildings of four units each. In each unit there i s one main room serving as l i v i n g -room and bedroom, a kitchen, and a bathroom. There i s a four-burner e l e c t r i c stove i n the kitchen and a b u i l t - i n f o l ding table. Working space and cupboard space are adequate, but storage space i n the apartments i s limited. In the basement of one of the four buildings i s a laundry room, with a washing machine, two ironing boards, and space for drying clothes. The rent for a one-bedroom unit i s $25 per month, plus $2 for use of the stove; o i l and e l e c t r i c i t y are extra and together average $10 per month. The single units rent for $25 including heat, with the cost of e l e c t r i c i t y averaging $2 to $3 per month. - 18 -2. Lions' View. The Lions' View housing project i s sponsored by the B r i t i s h Columbia Housing'Foundation, a private corpora-t i o n which derived o r i g i n a l l y from the Community Chest and Council Committee on the Welfare of the Aged, which has a sub-committee on Housing. The Foundation was established i n 1952 f o r the purpose of providing low-rental housing for people with limited income, and has received substantial g i f t s of money from the Vancouver Lions' Club, which ( i n addition to the other f i n a n c i a l sources discussed i n Chap-ter I) enables i t to carry out i t s plans fo r a housing pro-ject f o r old people. "Lions' View", as the project i s called, was opened i n Apr i l 1953» and at that time provided accommo-dation f o r sixteen single persons and four couples. In 1956, additional buildings were provided to bring the t o t a l popu-l a t i o n up to 72 persons, 32 single and 20 couples. The older buildings are frame buildings, painted grey with bright-colored trim. The new buildings are yellow stucco, also with bright-colored trim. There are three two-storey apartment buildings facing the street, each containing eight suites f o r single persons. The rest of the buildings are one-storey structures, some with four and some with s i x apartments for couples, and including eight apartments f o r single persons. Most of these one-storey buildings are placed around a central lawn area, with the front:of*the5buildings facing i n to the "square"; the hacks look on to a lane. One of these buildings at the back of the property i s situated lower than the rest, with a concrete retaining wall separating i t from the other buildings. The back of this building looks out on to this concrete wall; the front doors face the property behind the project which i s a vacant l o t , and another back lane. At the time of the survey, these front doors could not be used, as the land at the front of the buildings i s lower than the fl o o r of the apartments; steps w i l l have to be built*, or the surrounding property b u i l t up s u f f i c i e n t l y so that steps are not required. The property has not been completely landscaped; the front part i s planted i n lawn but the back part i s not. Provision has been made for small gardens for those who want them, and several of the tenants have planted flowers alongside their unit. The housing project i s located one block o f f Kingsway, i n an old and well-established residential d i s t r i c t . Good shopping f a c i l i t i e s are to be found on Kingsway, and trans-portation service i s nearby, so that the t r i p to downtown Van-couver can be made quickly and conveniently. The d i s t r i c t deems to be a quiet one, with l i t t l e t r a f f i c along the streets bordering the project. Within walking distance are to be found several churches, and a public park; there are no schools i n the immediate-vicinity. LIONS' VIEW Figure 3. Apartment Block Figure 4. Apartment Block (1953) (1956) - 20 -The project does not include any central h a l l or meeting place for the tenants. Several of the residents who were interviewed have mentioned that they would l i k e to have benches provided i n the "square", so that they could s i t out-side on warm days and "get acquainted with their neighbours". The single units i n the apartment blocks consist of one large main room with the kitchen area p a r t i a l l y separate, and a separate bathroom. A door leads out to a balcony at the side of the building. Storage space i n the unit i s ade-quate, and additional locker space i s provided i n the basement. The kitchen has a f u l l size stove, a cooler, and ample cupboard and work space. The rooms are bright and spacious, with large windows. The single suites i n the one-storey buildings have similar accommodation. The typical unit for a couple has a separate bedroom, with the bathroom leading off the bedroom. The living-room i s smaller than i n the single units, but of adequate size. The kitchen has good cupboard space and working area, with one end partitioned off by bamboo curtains to form a u t i l i t y or storage space. An o i l stove for cooking and hot water heating i s i n -s t a l l e d i n the older unjts, while an e l e c t r i c stove i s used i n the newer ones. The f l o o r i n the unit i s a concrete one; some of the tenants mentioned this as being unsatisfactory, as i t i s cold, and makes heating of the rooms d i f f i c u l t . - 21 -Laundry rooms are provided i n the apartment blocks, with washing machines and clothes l i n e s . Since the laundry rooms are below ground l e v e l and have no means of heating, they are usually cold and damp. Several of the tenants men-tioned that drying clothes i s a problem, as there are no out-side clotheslines provided. In the apartment blocks, oentral heating i s i n s t a l l e d . In the two original buildings the heating has been satisfactory; one tenant stated she had even been too hot, but could easily close the hot a i r register. In the older double units an o i l space-heater i s provided; some of the tenants i n these units stated that i t was d i f f i c u l t to get the bathroom heated, as there did not seem to be s u f f i c i e n t c i r c u l a t i o n of the warm a i r ; the concrete floors have also added to the heating d i f f i c u l t y . The new buildings are heated by means of natural gas space-heaters, which many of the residents f i n d unsatisfactory for adequate c i r c u l a t i o n of warm a i r . The cost of fuel for heating has been a problem f o r some of the tenants. In the double units heated by o i l , costs have been higher than anticipated. One tenant had $31 to pay for u t i l i t i e s f o r one month, which meant that after paying rent and u t i l i t i e s she had less than $10 l e f t for food for the month. In the new apartment block, where there i s central heating, there has been trouble with the heating system, which the - 22 -management i s attempting to remedy. Before i n s t a l l i n g natural gas heaters the Foundation apparently requested an estimate of cost from the company involved, but the costs so far have been higher than this o r i g i n a l estimate indicated. : : The rent for an apartment i n one of the blocks i s $20 per month including heat; average costs for e l e c t r i c i t y are • within $2-$3, 1 making a total shelter cost of $23. The rent for single'suites i n the one-storey buildings i s $17 plus heat a n d : e l e c t r i c i t y , which are variable; one tenant estimated average cost at $14, others (such as the one mentioned above) Were higher. In these suites total shelter cost would be at least $30; The"couples pay $27 rent, with heat and e l e c t r i -c i t y approximating $20 or more, so their shelter cost would be close to $50. = 3«' Dania Home • ' Dahia Home was opened'in 1945, "built as the result of the ideas:and efforts of a small group of citizens of Danish • or i g i n who-wanted to establish a home for old people similar to those which have long been common i n Denmark. The f i r s t b u i l d -ings were financed entirely by private funds, but l a t e r addi-tions have been financed through grants from the Provincial Government and loans, as well as private donations. Originally, the main building of Dania Home was a farm housed which has been remodelled and has had wings added on to i t . On the surrounding land, four single cot-tages and one duplex have been b u i l t , s t i l l leaving enough space f o r more cottages. The main building has to some ex-tent retained i t s appearance as a farm home, and the cottages 1 are not of uniform construction. Therefore this particular housing project does not have the "barracks" appearance notice-able i n some other projects. ;'•• Dania Home i s located on Douglas Road i n North Bur-naby, i n a d i s t r i c t that i s largely r e s i d e n t i a l , but which also includes several motels. Several small stores are i n the v i c i n i t y , but no large shopping centre i s nearby. Busses to Vancouver and to New Westminster travel d i r e c t l y i n front of the Home, so that although the project seems rather isolated, there i s i n fact easy access to transportation. Churches are locat e d : i n the;neighborhood, jbut no schools or parks are i n the immediate v i c i n i t y . The•main source of outside a c t i v i t y which would interest the tenants would'be the•stream ;of t r a f f i c along:the!highway. •:The.main building i s a two-storey building that ihouses'46 persons, about equal numbers of men and women, and including four couples. There are nine double rooms, and the rest are single. The single rooms are rather small, but com-fortably furnished; the double rooms are much larger and more DANIA HOME Figure 8. Cottages - 24 -spacious. The furniture i s provided by the Home,:but i n at least one instance a couple requested that they be allowed to furnish their own room, arid this request was granted. The central part of the building contains a large, comfortably furnished lounge, the kitchen, and the dining room; At the end of one wing i s a sun-room with a t e l e v i s i o n set that was donated to the Home. These sections of the home are open at a l l times to residents of the Home and of the cottages. The stated charge for room and board i s $65 per month, but•the actual amount paid i s based on the i n d i v i d u a l 1 s a b i l i t y to pay. For those i n receipt of $60 a month - that i s either Old Age Assistance or Old Age Security plus cost-of-l i v i n g bonus - t h e Home charges $5 U a month, leaving $10 for the-resident 1s personal use. In some instances, more than $65 is•charged; and i f the income i s less than $60 the Board will!charge accordingly and make up.the d e f i c i t from i t s own funds. The four single cottages were b u i l t under special arrangements between the Board and the couples wanting to b u i l d . The Home provides the land tax free, and pays part of the cost of construction; the couples provide as much as they can toward the cost of building, which i s usually about half, although again the amount paid Is based on the a b i l i t y to pay. The - 25 -'couple may then l i v e i n the cottage without charge u n t i l the death of "both partners; then ownership of the cottage reverts to the Board. Such cottages are then rented f o r about $20 to $25 a month, or whatever amount the couple moving i n i s able to pay, with heat and l i g h t averaging $12 per month. The cottages are designed by the persons building them, subject to approval by the Board; thus each cottage i s different. One cottage seen by the writer consisted of a large room combining kitchen, dining room, and l i v i n g room, plus a bedroom and the bathroom. An o i l stove, used f o r cooking, also provides hot water and heat for the whole cottage. Furniture, including stove and refrigerator, i s supplied by the or i g i n a l tenant.^ Ample space i s available for a garden i f the tenants wish to have one. The duplex i s a new addition to Dania, b u i l t with money l e f t to the Board for that purpose. The building i s white stucco with picture windows i n the front. Each apart-ment i s very spacious, consisting of l i v i n g room, bedroom, kitchen, and bathroom. The kitchen has a f u l l e l e c t r i c stove and a refrigerator, and ample work area. Cupboard and storage space i n the apartment are adequate. E l e c t r i c a l units i n each room provide the heating, controlled by a thermostat. The rent charged for the duplex i s $30 per month; at the time of writing, the units had not been rented f o r long enough to - 26 -obtain ah'estimate of the cost of e l e c t r i c i t y . !4«f' West Vancouver Senior Citizens Housing Society i , ; This i s a new housing project, b u i l t by the West Vancouver Kiwanis Club and opened i n A p r i l , 1956. Landscaping i s not yet completed but plans are being made for this to be done i n the summer of 1957• There i s no sign or label i n d i -cating that this i s a housing project, and one could easily drive by without noticing any difference i n these houses and the rest of the neighborhood. In a l l , there are s i x buildings, four one-storey :duplexes j"~a two-storey apartment building containing eight 'apartments, and a '.'community centre" f o r the use of the tenants. *The buildings are of wood siding, brightly painted, and of modern design with large picture windows. They f i t i n well with this residential neighborhood. The houses are located a few blocks up a h i l l off Marine Drive; this helps to give a view f o r some of the windows, but the h i l l would be of some disadvantage to the less physically able tenants of the pro-ject. The land surrounding the buildings gives an appearance of spaciousness. Most-of this w i l l be planted with grass, but the tenants may use some of the area adjacent to the i r cottages for -a small garden. Across from the project i s a vacant l o t , WEST VANCOUVER HOUSING P R O J E C T Figure 10. Cottage Duplex not yet cleared, which the Kiwanis Club has purchased for expansion. Behind the houses i s a public school and playground, which provides the tenants with some diversion, as they may enjoy watching the children at play. Within a few blocks of the project are two churches. Good bus service nearby provides easy access to the parks along the waterfront, and also to a large shopping centre just beyond walking distance for most of the tenants. Many of the tenants use the smaller stores which are closer to the project. The "community centre" within the project i s referred to as the l i b r a r y . Besides the books available to the tenants, there i s comfortable furniture, and a te l e v i s i o n set. The common room i s large enough to accommodate a l l the tenants with ease, and kitchen space adjacent to the common room may be used f o r preparing and serving lunch to a large group; equipment i s available for this purpose. The apartment block has eight apartments, four up-st a i r s and four down, occupied by single or widowed women. These apartments are spacious and bright, with windows along the whole length of the south wall: Each unit has a separate bathroom; with the rest of'the-area -in ;one big L-shaped room. The kitchen area i s at one end of the L, the bedroom area at the other end, with l i v i n g room space between them. Each k i t -chen' is ;equipped?with a f u l l - s i z e d refrigerator:and'a four-burner- e l e c t r i c ' stove with" oven: * Cupboard* space'5 in" the'kitchen 5 - 28 -i s adequate; counter space i s rather small, hut probably suf-f i c i e n t f o r one person. Cupboard and storage space throughout the apartment seems to be satisfactory. The apartments f o r couples are contained i n four cottages, each cottage with two apartments. These units con-s i s t of bedroom, bathroom, l i v i n g room and kitchen. A l l rooms seem to be of ample size, and the apartments are bright and cheerful. The kitchen area i s larger than i n the single apart-ments, with more working space and more cupboards; the r e f r i -gerator and stove are the same as i n the single units. More storage space i s provided than i n the single apartments. A l l the apartments are heated by e l e c t r i c a l units i n each room. Each apartment has i t s own thermostat, so that the heat can be individually controlled to the tenants particular l i k i n g . A separate building i s provided for laundry, which includes an automatic washing machine and a dryer. Also i n -cluded i n this building i s additional storage space i n the form of locker rooms for the tenants of the single apartments. The building has bare concrete fl o o r s , and i s ordinar i l y cold and damp. However, an e l e c t r i c heater and fan have been i n s t a l l e d i n one corner, so that tenants may have some heat while working i n the room. Rent fo r the single apartments i s $15 per month plus $12 f o r e l e c t r i c i t y , which includes heat. Rent f o r the cottage apartments is - $ 2 5 per month plus $15 f o r e l e c t r i c i t y . Although the units have separate meters fo r e l e c t r i c i t y , the costs are kept constant and uniform throughout the year, with an adjustment being made at intervals i f necessary. B. Administration and Management 1. The Fa i r Haven The Fair Haven i s a project of the B r i t i s h Columbia Conference of the United Church of Canada, which aims to "pro-vide accommodation for many deserving senior citizens"."'' Ad-ministration i s carried out by a Board of Directors authorized by the Church's Board of Evangelism and Social 1Service!' The work of the Board i s conducted by several committeess Finance, Building, Business Management, Admitting, Publicity, Landscape, V i s i t i n g , and Mi n i s t e r i a l Advisory Committees. There i s a Women's1 Auxiliary to the Fair Haven, whose main purpose i s to provide furnishings. This Auxiliary also plans and organizes social a c t i v i t i e s f o r the residents, for example, a party at Christmas with g i f t s for the residents, and a picnic during the summer., , , s ....... : , , , , . . ...;.>•-•.'<'-•-,<'• 1. From a pamphlet on The Fair ;Haven,'published'•by ;the•' B.C. Conference of the United.Church of Canada.1 - 30 -The daily management of the Pair Haven i s carried out by a s t a f f of nine. Living i n the main building i s the general caretaker and his wife, the matron of the housing pro-ject. Their r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s extend over the whole project while the other s t a f f members have duties related to the main building only - preparation and serving of meals, housekeeping, etc. The matron has a part i n planning a c t i v i t i e s for the tenants, and has a committee appointed from the tenants to help her. She hears any complaints the tenants may have, helps re-solve any disputes that arise, which i f serious may be referred to the Board. She also c o l l e c t s rent from a l l the tenants. Admission to The Pair Haven i s obtained through sub-mitting an application to the Admitting Committee of the Board of Directors.^" The Committee consists of f i v e members, one of whom interviews the applicant "to ascertain the s u i t a b i l i t y of 2 the prospective guest f o r The Pair Haven". A form e n t i t l e d "Information f o r Admitting Committee" i s ' f i l l e d out b y t h e interviewer, supplying 1the> information that'is considered'perti-' ;' nent.^ The applicant i s not interviewed at the time af a p p l i -cation, as accommodation i s usually not available immediately, and the applicant's housing situation may•change during the waiting period. The Admitting Committee keeps a small number 1. See Appendix B. 2 . Prom the Annual Report of The Pair Haven, 1954, report of the Admitting Committee. 3. See Appendix C. - 31 -on the waiting l i s t who have been interviewed, so that vacan-cies may he f i l l e d immediately. The Annual Report for 1956 states that during the year admissions included "nine married couples, eleven women and three men. On the waiting l i s t there are: 53 couples, 74 women, 4 men and 20 women for the single suites, or a total of 204> for whom there i s no room". Applicants are considered i n order of application, and each one i s given individual consideration. Attempts are made to accept applicants who w i l l " f i t i n " , but the c r i t e r i a f o r s u i t a b i l i t y are not defined. To be e l i g i b l e , the a p p l i -cant must have a monthly income within the l i m i t s set by the Provincial Government- there i s l i t t l e investigation of the to t a l f i n a n c i a l assets, and generally the applicant's own statement of fi n a n c i a l status i s accepted. Each applicant must have a sponsor, who signs an agreement to take charge of the resident i f he or she should be required to move. The Social Welfare Branch may act as sponsor i n some cases. The applicant i s also required to submit the names of three per-sons f Or reference as to'character, habits and general health. The sponsor too must give'one'or5two names'for'reference as to f i n a n c i a l standing. •• When he;has been accepted by the admissions Commit-tee j J the applicant i s required to sigh a standard form, en t i t l e d i 1 1 Agreement with Occupant", which includes • the agreement -- 32 -"that I w i l l obey and submit to the Constitution and a l l the By-laws, rules and regulations of the above-mentioned homes as they exist now or hereafter may be amended, so long as I remain an occupant of The Pair Haven, and that my status as occupant w i l l be that of lodger and not of tenant. I agree that any o f f i c e r or member of the s t a f f of The Pair Haven may have access at a l l reasonable times to the room or unit from time to time occupied by me." :A copy of the Rules and Regulations i s given to each occupant at the time of his admission to The Fair Haven.^ •The Board of Directors of The Fair Haven appoints one Board member to act as a Social Convenor, to plan a variety of special a c t i v i t i e s and entertainment f o r the residents of the project. Some form of entertainment i s provided every Wednes-day, and church services are held i n the Assembly Hall every Sunday evening. Various Church groups take an interest i n the project and w i l l occasionally i n v i t e the tenants to their church for service or for a supper. Bus t r i p s have been ar-ranged as another form of entertainment, for example, to B e l -lingham and to Chilliwack. ; A Women's Auxiliary to The Fa i r Haven i s also active in ;planning and organizing social a c t i v i t i e s f o r the residents, for example, a party at Christmas with g i f t s f o r everyone, and a picnic during the summer. Within the project, the residents have'formed a Residents' Auxiliary, which works with the Women's Auxiliary i n some of the plans mentioned above. The Residents' 1. See Appendix D. Auxiliary planned and held a tea and bazaar with sale of work, homecooking and candy, and hopes to make this an annual event. The common room of the main building at The Fair Haven is open to a l l tenants for more informal and impromptu forms of social activities, such as card games and checkers. All these facilities and activities are open to the tenants of the whole project, and they are reported as being well-attended and enjoyed by the participants. However, the cottage residents participate far less than the people in the main building, and generally come to the main building only i f they have friends living there. '2. Lions' View Management and operation of the Lions' View housing project-for old people is carried out by the B.C. Housing Founda-tion. The Board of Directors of this Foundation consists of the"officers of the society and five Directors. One of the Directors is Chairman of the Admissions Committee, and it is she who has the most direct contact with residents of the pro-ject. General supervision of the premises, caretaking duties, and collection of rents are the responsibility of a caretaker living near but not in the project. H ;:The"Admissions - Committee report to the Board of Directors for 195^ is a detailed and comprehensive'statement - 34 -of i t s a c t i v i t i e s . A t o t a l of eleven persons were active on this committee, a l l of them being persons who are or have been closely associated with social work programs and/or housing programs. "The Chairman of this Committee i s a r e t i r e d social worker with a long period of previous interest and experience. 1 '.. ;The plan of admission has been that each applicant would be v i s i t e d by a member of'the ;committee, whb would com-plete : a' report covering "relevant social factors" j '• then appraise the information'in'a-general way to : determine the ! heed:" of the applicant. Four categories were devised,' based oh'the'estimate of need. The repOrt'states -"It i s understood that admissions are made on the basis of need. What, you might well ask, were the main factors that entered into our thinking with regard to t h i s term 'need1, which seemed to wear a different face i n every s i t u a t i o n . " 2 ?The c r i t e r i a decided on were: (l) physical capability and age of !the applicants; (2) the particular housing situation of the 'applicant, including heating problems and high rent; and (3) the applicant's "aloneness". In describing the method of selection , 'the report concludes -"Faced'with'the !situation as outlined,'14 1 single suites .• I.... and !171'applicants, just a s f a i r a way of making • •; the] 'Selection^ might ;have been,' ' as ; someone''suggested, to draw' the : names ' out f of'. a hat :' •: i We chose' the i hard fway of •. screening;byi stages, until:we-finally got' tofthei''semi-- f i n a l s " fin.which ali;but;about ;25|had'beenreliminated. In theiendi sheer"Urgency was:probably*the;deciding f a l t o r . " 3 ' ' • f l . : \ S6ef Appendix-3 if or j application'.form. :- : ; $2i; •' 5 Annual rReport.iof: AdMssipnSieonmuttee ft6 rthe Board of Goyerhorsy JB.CiHousing Fouhdatroh; i 9 5 6 i' p.3. '. 13i ' -Ibidi,. p.4. - 35 -The number of applicants £af exceeds the accommodation available, with a preponderance of single persons applying. During 1956 the committee dealt with applications from 171 single persons (20 of them men) and 41 married :couples, from which tenants for 16 single and 16 double units had to be selected: After July 15, 1956j no further applications from 'single persons were accepted;'the l i s t for married'couples remained open "because of the relatively'small number applying and'the fact that experience indicates that replacements are much more l i k e l y to be required i n t h e case of the couples."^ <'The'figures given i n the report regarding replacements deal with the period from the opening of the or i g i n a l accommo-dation 1 i n A p r i l 1953 - which consisted of 16'single>suites and '4?apartments'for couples - u n t i l the opening of further units -16 double'and 16 single - i n 1956. Out of the o r i g i n a l 24 occu-pants! there have been two replacements i n the single group, eight i n the married group. The replacements i n the married group have been necessary because of death of one partner or i l l n e s s necessitating removal. The Foundation's policy i s to provide accommodation for the remaining partner i f at a l l possible and i f desired by the tenant. This i s c l e a r l y stated i n the lease signed by the applicant at the time of his ad-mission to the housing project. The tenant i s also given a 2 copy of rules and regulations which he agrees to abide by. 1. Ibid., p.2. 2. See Appendix D. - 36 -The report of the Admissions Committee includes a statement of the sources of income of the tenants. Old Age Security or Old Age Assistance plus c o s t - o f - l i v i n g bonus i s the source of income for a l l but three of the 1953-1956 tenants, and f o r a l l but eleven of the 1956 admissions. In this group of fourteen, the income i s from the following sources: two d i s a b i l i t y pensions, f i v e superannuation, three Workmen's Compensation, one D.V.A., one military pension, one imperial pension, and one social assistance. There i s no form of planned a c t i v i t y or recreation for the residents of Lions' View, and no organization of a c t i v i t i e s within the project. The Chairman of the Admissions Committee stated that the aim of the B.C. Housing Foundation was to be "good landlords", and expressed the opinion that they would hope that the residents would seek a c t i v i t i e s within the community rather than within the project. The Foundation i s at present considering the question of a recreational centre on the premises, but has reached no decision. At the request of the Vancouver Housing Association, the Admissions Committee made enquiries of applicants regarding their desire f o r such a centre. The response to this enquiry, as stated i n the Annual Report, was as follows: - 37 -"The majority were favorable to the idea though not part i c u l a r l y enthusiastic. One of our new tenants suggests that what i s needed i s 'a place l i k e Gordon House i n that part of the c i t y 1 . - A few thought i t better not to l i v e and f i n d one's social l i f e with the same people and preferred to maintain present interests with outside groups. "One 79-year-old commented that old people were often a good deal to blame for th e i r own loneliness as they were unwilling to make the effort to keep the con-tacts with former friends and make new ones. Two very bluntly wondered why we were talking about space for recreation when what was obviously needed most was more houses. The money and ground, i n t h e i r opinion, should be used toward further building." The Lions Ladies Club has had direct interest i n this housing project, providing window drapes and some furnishings. They have i n the past planned a few a c t i v i t i e s for the tenants, such as picnics and a Christmas party. 3. Dania Home Perhaps the most s t r i k i n g feature about Dania Home i s the f l e x i b i l i t y of the p o l i c i e s and of the people concerned with the administration and management. The most consistently ex-pressed idea of the persons sponsoring Dania Home i s that they want to provide a home, i n the true sense of the word, f o r those who need i t . Originally, Dania was to be a home for people of Dan|sh origin only, but this policy has changed over the years u n t i l at present only about one-third of the residents are Danish. The average age of the people i n the Home i s probably l . I b i d . , p.6. i n the mid-eighties, and only occasionally i s there a person younger than eighty. The matron prefers the age group above eighty, and the type of Home probably appeals to this group rather than to those between s i x t y - f i v e and eighty. Administration of Dania Home i s carried out by a Board of Directors of the V/est Canada Danish Old People's Home. One Board member acts ad Chairman of the House Com-mittee, which i s concerned with admissions to the Home. Daily management of the Home i s conducted by a matron who l i v e s i n the Home; she has a s t a f f of three to help with the cooking and cleaning, and a part-time grounds-keeper for the outside work. The residents help with the work of the Home i f they want to and are able to. They may help with the preparation of meals, and usually several w i l l help set the tables and clean up after the meal. Besides the three regular meals during the day, there i s always coffee or tea served i n the afternoon, and again at night. Any v i s i t o r s are invited to join the group f o r meals or lunch, and tenants of the cottages may eat i n the main building i f they wish to do so; the arrangements are very i n -formal . An estimated s i x to eight vacancies occur i n the Home each year, almost always due to the death of a resident. The number of applicants presently awaiting admission i s twelve, with a few more applications pending. Acceptance of a p p l i -cants i s based on order of application as much as possible, but this order i s not r i g i d l y followed. I f an applicant i s known to have pa r t i c u l a r l y poor housing, or i f his need i s more acute than most, he w i l l be given p r i o r i t y . Although the proportion of men and women i n the Home i s about equal, there i s no s p e c i f i c attempt on the part of the House Com-mittee to maintain an absolute balance. Admission to the Home i s attained through a p p l i -cation to the Chairman of the House Committee. She i n t e r -views each applicant and i n most instances sees their current l i v i n g quarters. The decisions are l e f t i n her hands, but she w i l l consult with other members of the Committee i f there i s any question about the applicant. No detailed investigation of the applicant's f i n a n c i a l resources i s made; most of the applicants are i n receipt of some form of public assistance, therefore investigation i s not necessary. Those who have private incomes are required to sign a statement declaring their fixed monthly income. The prospective resident i s asked to give the name of a guarantor who would be responsible f o r extra expenses occurring during i l l n e s s or death. I f there i s no guarantor, the applicant i s required to deposit $300 i n a trust fund to cover funeral expenses. Here again, the policy i s f l e x i b l e ; - 40 -i f there i s no guarantor and the resident cannot deposit $300, some other arrangement w i l l be made by the Board. On the application form,^ the applicant states his general health, and any sp e c i f i c i l l n e s s he has; he must also 2 have a doctor's statement regarding his health. The Chairman of the House Committee said their greatest concern was that the applicant be mentally sound, although a resident i s not required to move out of the Home i f some mental deterioration occurs, unless there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that he may do harm to himself or others. When residents become i l l , they are cared f o r as long as possible by the matron, who w i l l send a tray to the room for meals when necessary. Indeed, many of the old folks regularly have breakfast sent to their rooms. The matron does not con-sider this to be an unreasonable demand on her time and energy. Actually, she i s very reluctant to send any of the residents to a hospital or nursing home, unless absolutely essential, as she i s convinced that the Home means a great deal to the old people, and that moving them to new surroundings during i l l n e s s i s harmful and inconsistent with the purposes of the Home. The matron's concern extends to the cottage tenants too, who w i l l also receive meals and care i f they become i l l . When removal from the Home becomes essential, either the family or the so c i a l ; " l . .'See Appendix B. r2. fSee Appendix C for form to be signed ;on admission to "the Home. • ' : ' T 41 -,y A . worker from the Social Welfare Branch makes the arrangements. ' ; The f l e x i b i l i t y mentioned above i s very evident i n the daily l i f e at Dania. There are no rules and regulations for the residents to follow; the Chairman of the Board commented that i f people did not know how to act by the time they were 70 or over, rules would not make much difference to them anyway. Residents are free to come and go as they please; the door of the Home i s never locked, but residents are expected to l e t the matron know when they are going to be out for any length of time 'and approximately when they expect to return. Recreation and a c t i v i t i e s within the Home are provided mostly by outside groups; for example, various choirs w i l l put on concerts, youngsters from Brownies or Guides come i n to v i s i t with the residents, and regular religious services are conducted by clergy of various f a i t h s . For the residents who wish to go out to church, transportation i s provided by church members. Besides these a c t i v i t i e s , the residents occupy themselves by : helping•around"the Home; the matron allows them to do what they 1 - want, to a great extent, yet there seems to be no pressure on them to do any specific work. There are no nearby community or recreational centres, ! and probably a group within the age range of this one would not : take any great advantage of such f a c i l i t i e s . The l i f e of the f ^residents seems to be very much centred in'the Home,: and this _ 42 -i s encouraged by the matron and the administrators. A frie n d l y atmosphere pervades the Home and i s evident to the v i s i t o r who joins the old people for their afternoon coffee, Jand i s able to witness their s o c i a b i l i t y . 4» West Vancouver Senior Citizens' Housing Society The West Vancouver Kiwanis project i s governed by a Board of Directors appointed s p e c i f i c a l l y for the housing project by the Kiwanis Service Club. One member, the Secretary-Treasurer, i s at present the most d i r e c t l y concerned with management. He i s well-known to the tenants and takes an interest i n them. He co l l e c t s the rent each month, and i t i s to him that tenants report the need fo r any necessary repairs, or make any requests. There i s provision for complaints to be considered by the Secretary-Treasurer, and i f necessary, taken to the Board of Directors; but so far, this has not been -necessary. •; The Kiwanis Club members have put a great deal of individual and personal effort into the housing project, and seem to have a sense of pride and interest i n their project. The residents know many of the club members personally, and the wives of the Kiwanis have v i s i t e d and planned a few social events. A sense of pride i n the project seems to exist i n the tenants as well as i n the Kiwanis; the'Secretary-Treasurer - 43 -'stated that they have often assured him that they would he delighted to show their accommodations to anyone interested. : One couple occupying a cottage receives a reduction i n rent i n exchange for caretaking duties, which include d i s -posal of garbage, janitor services to the l i b r a r y ahd laundry building. There i s also, among the tenants, one woman who seems to have assumed a role of u n o f f i c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and leadership. She was primarily responsible f o r planning a social gathering f o r the residents, and she hopes that many more a c t i v i t i e s may be planned i n the future. The Secretary-Treasurer i s i n charge of admissions. 'He has an admittance committee of four including himself, a social worker, a housewife, and a minister. Applicants are seen by a member of this committee, and selection i s made by the committee.''" An attempt i s made to select those applicants who w i l l , i n the opinion of the committee, f i t i n to the pro-ject, in 1short, those who are "needy and desirable". The Secretary-Treasurer emphasised that the main c r i t e r i o n of fin a n c i a l e l i g i b i l i t y was whether or not the applicant had a "medical"card". This would mean that he would be on social assistance; or i n receipt of some portion of the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g :bonus. ^The tenants must be physically independent to the ex-tent that they are able to look after themselves and their l i v i n g quarters. In some instances, one.partner of a'married ;; ' i i i .;See'Appendix B. - 44 -"couple may be s e m i - i n v a l i d , but the'spouse i s a b l e t o c a r r y on the r o u t i n e s o f d a i l y l i f e . I n the event'of i l l n e s s o r a c c i d e n t which F e n d e r s 4 the tenant'physically 'dependent 'other"living a r -•' rahgemefits; must be made, e i t h e r w i t h the'. h e l p ' o f r e l a t i v e s o r ' the' S o c i a l 7/elf are 'Branch^ ' 'In 'one i n s t a n c e , some d i f f i c u l t y ' d i d a r i s e when '• the tenant had a h ; a c c i d e n t and could'no l o n g e r ; c a r e f o r : h e r s e l f | s s h e c o u l d not m a i n t a i n her apartment by h e r -s e l f and t h e r e were no p r o v i s i o n s f o r a s s i s t a n c e , o t h e r than what o t h e r t e n a n t s c o u l d o f f e r v o l u n t a r i l y ^ Arranging'nursing home'care p r e s e n t e d a problem^ as she d i d not want t o move. S i n c e ' t h e p r o j e c t 'opened i n 1 A p r i l , 1956> there {Has'been o n l y • ohe^vacaacy. When ah a p p l i c a n t i s accepted f o r a d m i s s i o n i n t o the ho u s i n g project,' he g i v e s the name of a person t o be n o t i f i e d i n case o f emergency. He i s a l s o r e q u i r e d t o s i g n a statement ^agreeing t o abi d e by the c o n d i t i o n s l i s t e d by the Board of I Directors.''" i :.As mentioned i n , t h e g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r o -j e c t , the l i b r a r y i s f o r the use of the tena n t s f o r any a c t i -v i t i e s they w i s h t o p l a n , and f a c i l i t i e s a re t h e r e f o r s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s . So f a r , the K i w a n i s themselves have not made any : e f f o r t t o o r g a n i z e a c t i v i t i e s among the t e n a n t s , a l t h o u g h the wives of club•members have sponsored one or two events on ' s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s . The l i b r a r y i s o p e n : t o 5 t h e t e n a n t s two 1. See Appendix C. days each week and w i l l he'made available more often*should they 'request'it;'in this f i r s t year of'operation,'the l i b r a r y ; f a c i l i -t i e s '• have-hot been'used extensively. 'At'the time of the writer's contact with the tenants, plans were under way for a social evening, arranged by two or three of the residents. The woman who appeared to be the instigator of these plans expressed the hope that some form of a c t i v i t y could become a regular part of their l i v e s . From the foregoing description, i t can be seen that there are many s i m i l a r i t i e s and many differences i n the four housing projects studied. Each has certain qu a l i t i e s to commend i t , none i s entirely without drawbacks; these w i l l be discussed i n Chapter XV". But probably more important than differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the physical "plant" and i t s administration, i s the feeling of the person who l i v e s i n the housing project. Some impressions of these are reviewed i n the next chapter. CHAPTER III FROM INSIDE LOOKING OUT. ' There are several wavs of evaluating the success of an old people's housing project. One - which i s strangely-enough not yet u t i l i z e d much i n North America - i s to compare the experience of the great amount of public (low-rental) housing which has a long history i n B r i t a i n and Western Europe, and even 15 to 20 years i n the United States. Old people's housing i s after a l l a special category of subsidi§ed, low-rental housing. Another i s by structural, building, and arch i -tectural standards. This i s valuable and appropriate enough so fa r as i t goes. But a good deal more i s obviously needed. A t h i r d method - that of reviewing the reactions of the people who l i v e within projects — has not yet been developed very much. There i s a great need f o r comparative information of this kind. Many writers have expressed reservations as to the advi s a b i l i t y of building housing projects exclusively f o r old people,, fearing they w i l l turn into "age ghettos", just as some low-rent public housing, planned on too parsimonious a scale, became•economic ghettos. Certainly the reaction against the dangers of segregation, i n some form or another, has now become widespread. The Dominion Government r e f l e c t s this opinion i n ' i t s refusal to operate projects exclusively for old people, while f o r low-rental housing f o r families, including a limited number of units for old people, i t w i l l provide 75 per cent of the c a p i t a l . In:.-.spite of these fears and reservations, housing projects of the type described i n Chapter II may he valuable i n meeting needs of several groups of old people. Not enough jias yet been done, however, i n ascertaining what the people who l i v e i n these projects think about them. What kind of people are they? What do they l i k e and what do they not l i k e about their l i v i n g quarters? Has l i v i n g i n a housing project affected their social relationships i n any way, and i f so, i n what way? To obtain some answers to these questions, a few people from each project were interviewed. Of the to t a l (26), eleven were single persons (including persons widowed, divorced or separated) and f i f t e e n were married; of the f i f t e e n married persons, six couples were seen together, and i n three instances, only one partner was seen. Common Denominators The responses obtained by the schedule were varied, as would be expected, as the residents themselves are of varied background and experience. However, although the people interviewed were a l l different, certain common factors can be noted. Obviously, one common factor i s the age of the - 48 -residents; a l l those interviewed were over 65, and most were over 70. One 57 year old woman had been admitted because her need was considered to be great. In three of the four pro-jects, a considerable age range existed; i n the fourth pro-ject, Dania Home, the average age of the residents appeared substantially higher, as noted i n Chapter I I . The income lev e l of the tenants varies, although the upper l i m i t f o r e l i g i b i l i t y i s fixed, by Provincial Govern-ment regulation, at 140 per cent of the Old Age Assistance plus c o s t - o f - l i v i n g bonus. Within this l i m i t set by the Pro-v i n c i a l Government, each sponsoring group sets i t s own e l i g i -b i l i t y requirements. The F a i r Haven w i l l accept applicants whose fixed monthly income i s within the stated maximum, but no investigation of t o t a l f i n a n c i a l assets i s made; the a p p l i -cant signs a declaration of income. Thus i t has been possible for some people to s e l l their own homes and move into the project, for although they may have the capital derived from the i r property, their fixed monthly income could be limited. Income level of the residents of The Fair Haven seems to be r e l a t i v e l y higher than for the other projects, as judged by the furnishings, extra possessions such as refrigerators, t e l e v i s i o n sets, and telephones. One couple had supplied paint to redecorate their cottage; they.had also owned a car prior to moving into the project, but had sold i t to conform - 49 -to the regulations of the project. Not a l l the residents of The Fair Haven f i t into this group, as many are l i v i n g on substantially less than $84 per month; however, a range of income does exist. This range of income i s not as evident i n the Lions 1 View project. More worries regarding finances were expressed i n the group interviewed, and fewer "extras" were encountered. It i s l i k e l y that the lower income level i n this project i s a result of the admissions procedure, which shows a great at-tempt on the part of the Admissions Committee to select those applicants whose need i s greatest, and a low income very often results i n greater need. Several of the tenants interviewed commented that they would go out more often i f they could afford the bus fare; some wanted a telephone but oould not afford i t , and two couples had agreed to save expenses by sharing a news-paper and a telephone. Also, there were many complaints about the d i f f i c u l t y i n meeting the costs of heat and e l e c t r i c i t y . The residents of Dania Home pay for their accommoda-tion according to their income, thus i t i s to be expected that average l e v e l of income would be low. However, regardless of the l e v e l of income, the residents always have a de f i n i t e amount each month for personal expenditures. As i n The F a i r Haven, no investigation i s made into the t o t a l resources of the applicant; he signs a statement indicating his monthly income. Three of - 50 -the couples interviewed, and one widower, had sold their own homes s p e c i f i c a l l y to move into Dania Home. The range of i n -come of the residents of Dania Home varies within l i m i t s set by regulation, with possibly more very low incomes than i n the other projects, but also with a substantial number with the maximum allowable. For admission to the West Vancouver project, the applicant must be i n possession of a "medical card" issued by the Social Welfare Branch. This i n i t s e l f i s evidence of a rather low income, although the medical card could be held by a person i n receipt of a very low co s t - o f - l i v i n g bonus, i n d i -cating that there are extra f i n a n c i a l resources. By using, ;the medical card as a c r i t e r i o n f o r e l i g i b i l i t y , the sponsoring group eliminates the necessity of conducting any f i n a n c i a l i n -vestigations. Although income level i s generally low, the tenants interviewed did not show as great concern over budget-ing as those i n Lions' View; they were able to l i v e within th e i r means. ; It i s to'be'expected that persons l i v i n g i n housing projects move there because of previous unsatisfactory housing. This was found to be true of the majority of residents i n t e r -viewed i n a l l four projects. Most of the old people had l i v e d i n a succession of housekeeping rooms, i n which f a c i l i t i e s were shared with others, and were inadequate. In Chapter I, the need for housing was described, with examples of unsatis-factory accommodation cited; the residents of the housing projects are drawn mainly from this group. Factors such as high rent, too many s t a i r s , lack of heat, change of landlord with subsequent increase i n rent, unreasonable expectations from landlords, a l l appeared i n the responses to the schedule. As mentioned above, some of the tenants had sold their own homes, usually because of i l l n e s s or death of a partner, or because they could no longer look after the house and yard. Generally, the sale of a home was followed by a succession of moves into apartments, suites i n private homes, or house-keeping rooms. A few of the tenants interviewed had moved di r e c t l y from their own home into the housing project. From these facts i t can be seen that the group i n t e r -viewed had a high degree of mobility prior to moving into the project. Many of the tenants had come to Vancouver from other provinces at the time of retirement; some had l i v e d i n several parts of Canada before s e t t l i n g i n this area; seven of the 26 interviewed had l i v e d most of their l i v e s i n the Greater Van-couver d i s t r i c t . Some examples may serve to i l l u s t r a t e the pattern of mobility. Mrs. A had l i v e d most of her l i f e i n Vancouver, where she and her husband owned their own home. 'The husband became i l l , which made i t necessary to s e l l the home and move to an apartment. Upon the death of '<• her husband, Mrs. A could not maintain the apartment, so applied f o r ad-mission to a housing project. Mr. and Mrs. B had l i v e d on a farm i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia and had not been able to manage i t , either physically or f i n a n c i a l l y . They f i n a l l y moved to Vancouver, but could not f i n d suitable housing. After l i v i n g i n rooms and with friends, they returned to the i n t e r i o r , only to f i n d that l i v i n g costs there were high, and the accommodation they managed to f i n d was located out of town and inconvenient to shopping and other f a c i l i t i e s . They re-turned to Vancouver, with hopes of getting into a housing pro-ject, and after a waiting period of seven months were able to obtain a cottage. Mr. C, a widower, had been a wanderer a l l his l i f e , for many years with the B r i t i s h Army. He eventually settled i n the Lower Mainland region of B r i t i s h Columbia, and over a period of years held many jobs and l i v e d i n many l o c a l i -t i e s . F i n a l l y he had to quit work, and moved i n with his son •and daughter-in-law. This was an unhappy arrangement for a l l of them, and i n the presence of Mr. C's declining health, the daughter-in-law had him admitted to a nursing home. Mr. C hated the nursing home, and he was eventually requested to leave. His daughter-in-law made arrangements for his admission to a housing project providing boarding home care. = i From these (and other examples not mentioned), i t i s evident that many of the tenants of ;the housing projects have - 53 -suffered some previous disruption i n the i r home and family t i e s i To'most Of them, l i v i n g i n ! t h e housing project "at la s t " , represents a move into a permanent, as well as a secure and adequate dwelling. They hope to he able to stay where they are for the rest of their l i v e s . A sense of permanence shows up as a factor of major importance i n almost a l l of the responses to the schedule. However, there were some instances i n which the residents did not f e e l the security i n their l i v i n g quarters which they so intensely desired. One widow stated that she had her trunk packed, ready to move as soon as she was re-quested to do so. This woman admitted frankly that she had a reputation as a "complainer", and that she and the matron did not get along together amicably. She did not want to move, as she knew from past experience the type of housing she could ex-pect to get. Since permanence i s so fervently desired by the old 'people, the management of the housing projects must be designed to promote a sense of security, i f the projects are to f u l f i l l t h e i r purposes. It i s to be hoped that the tenants are not made-to f e e l that they are obliged to l i k e everything about the housing project - even to be sure to show gratitude and appreciation - because of the fear that, should they complain 'or express diss a t i s f a c t i o n , they w i l l be asked to move. The social workers who have clients l i v i n g in :the'housing projects commented, that'the fear of being asked to move was more pre-valent among7the residents than the responses to the schedule would indicate, the suggestion being that the people are afrai d to'give any response that i s not wholly positive. Obviously, ! i f this i s the situation, no matter how good the intentions, the housing project i s not meeting one of the most important requirements of the people i t i s designed to serve. It i s pos-s i b l e that'the housing project may become a means of f u l f i l l i n g the desires'and ambitions of the sponsoring group, rather than the desires and wishes of the old people. As one social worker "expressed i t , ' t h e project may become a "memorial" to the spon-sors, andthe occupants of the project merely part of the memorial. Admittedly the occupants do benefit greatly from the project, but the question arises as to whether or not they get as "much as they could or should. Pros r and Con3 The tenants interviewed expressed markedly favorable opinions of the housing projects. Many examples of these opin-ions could be quoted: "I just love my l i t t l e place" was the reaction of one widow. "We've never had i t so good" said a re-t i r e d c i t y employee, "we have a comfortable and well-equipped place, with no work to do and no worries." A couple l i v i n g i n a boarding home section of one of the projects stated "It's f a r "better than we ever dared hope i t would he." Many of the tenants expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n i n having a "decent place to l i v e " that was within their limited means, a far better place than they could hope to acquire elsewhere. When asked to specify what they l i k e d most about the housing project, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the tenants included three things i n their statements: the physical f a c i l i t i e s were good, i n most cases better than their previous housing; the rent was within the a b i l i t y to pay; and they had a fee l i n g of independence. The physical f a c i l i t i e s of the individual units have been described i n the preceding chapter. F a c i l i t i e s for house-keeping are considered to be satisfactory by most of the tenants interviewed. In a l l four of the housing projects, a good stove with an oven i s provided, some e l e c t r i c and some o i l stoves; each project has made provision for laundry; one project con-tains refrigerators i n each unit; cupboard and storage space i s provided i n a l l units. Many of the tenants expressed particular appreciation of the fact that they have their own bathrooms. Considering the previous housing of many of the tenants, i t i s to be expected that the f a c i l i t i e s provided would be a source of pleasure and satis f a c t i o n ; even those who had l i v e d i n their own homes expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n with their units, although they were more inclined to take for granted the conveniences supplied. - 56 -Although the physical f a c i l i t i e s were generally approved by the tenants, there were criticisms of some points. One couple suggested that b u i l t - i n ironing boards i n each unit could have been added at l i t t l e cost, and with greatly increased convenience to the tenants. Lighting of the i n d i -vidual units was c r i t i c i z e d i n several instances, where a c e i l i n g l i g h t i n the l i v i n g room or bedroom i s not provided. One tenant complained at length about the inadequate sound-proofing between units, and stated she could hear every word of conversation i n the next apartment. In one of the projects, heating was frequently mentioned as a source of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ; the tenants complained that the floors are cold, as they are of concrete, covered with linoleum t i l e . If the tenant can afford a carpet, the problem i s p a r t i a l l y overcome; but even with a carpet, the elderly tenants fe e l the coldness at their feet rather acutely. In some of the units, where heat i s derived from one soured such as a stove or space heater, the tenants f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to heat the bathroom, as the a i r does not circulate through i t . Hot water heating was judged to be un-economical by one tenant who l i v e d i n a unit heated by a natural gas space heater. He found his e l e c t r i c i t y b i l l s high, and suggested that the e l e c t r i c a l l y heated hot water tank was the reason; i n his opinion a more economical system would be to have the water and the rooms heated from the same source. The very reasonable rent charged found favorable com-ment from a l l the tenants interviewed. With shelter cost re-duced i n most instances as compared to previous experiences, the old people can now l i v e within their means. A person i n receipt of only $60 per month s t i l l has to budget carefully; those whose income i s as high as the maximum allowable are able to l i v e more comfortably. This being so, i t i s unfortunate that recently and i n certain instances the high cost of u t i l i -t i e s has offset the advantage of low rent. A person i n receipt of less than $60 a month has great d i f f i c u l t y i n meeting the shelter costs, even with the low rent. Of the four housing projects studied, only one makes an attempt to adjust their charges to the income of the resident, and this adjustment may be made either upward or dowrjward. This i s a practice that re-quires substantial f i n a n c i a l backing, but one that could well be considered by other groups sponsoring housing projects. The th i r d factor mentioned as being of importance to the residents interviewed i s their independence. To the tenants, l i v i n g i n their own self-contained units gives them this sense of independence; many commented on having their own bathroom; often they said they f e e l more free to "come and go as they please", without disturbing or being disturbed by, other tenants or landlords; they may have dompany i n their homes according to the i r own wishes. To those who had had their own homes, this i s - 58 -accepted as matter of course; for those who had previously lived in housekeeping rooms in private homes, this i s a new and trea-sured result of l i v i n g i n the housing project. In a concurrent study of housing problems and reactions of old people^ i t has been found that many elderly couples have l i t t l e enthusiasm for moving into a housing project, because they think they w i l l be giving up their independence. The responses obtained from the tenants of the projects show this to be a needless fear, i f the management is reasonable. Ways and means of making this information available to the prospective appli-cants are needed. The residents of the boarding home type of accommoda-tion could be expected to have slightly different attitudes toward independence; in their choice of this particular type of accommodation they are probably showing acceptance of a certain amount of dependency. However, in Dania Home, a l l of the r e s i -dents interviewed commented on the amount of freedom they have to come and go as they please. The residents of the boarding home of The Fair Haven were more interested in a l i v i n g arrange-ment in which everything i s provided for them, and are contented with their quarters. Sociability The fact that a person has moved into a housing pro-ject means that he has moved from a familiar neighbourhood into 1. Angel, J. and McKinnon, D., Housing Needs and Prefer- ences among Senior Citizens (West Vancouver), Master of Social Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1957-an unfamiliar one. As indicated e a r l i e r , a majority of the tenants have had several moves prior to residency within the project, and have therefore suffered uprooting many times over. Super f i c i a l l y , i t would seem that moving into a housing project, where there are other people i n similar circumstances, would result i n forming new associations and friendships, and would provide new interests. Examination of social relationships • within a housing project show that s o c i a b i l i t y among the r e s i -dents i s a variable feature, dependent on many factors, and does not necessarily develop as a result of l i v i n g i n a housing project. In interviews with residents of the four housing pro-jects, an attempt was made to obtain information which would make i t possible to assess the s o c i a b i l i t y within the projects. Res-ponses, of course, varied; but d i s t i n c t patterns for each of the projects emerged. The pattern of The Pair Haven seems to be one of providing entertainment and arranging a c t i v i t i e s for the r e s i -dents. A Social Committee i s set up by the Board of Directors, with one of the Board members acting as Chairman. With her committee, she plans programs and t r i p s for the old people, who seem to enjoy them very much. Attendance i s said to be good. Within the boarding home section of the project, the tenants interviewed indicated that they f i n d companionship i n the home, and that they enjoy the soc i a l a c t i v i t i e s arranged f o r them. Observations of social workers who have had contact with this • - 60 -home indicate that the general atmosphere i s formal'arid rather r i g i d l y 1 structured. The cottage tenants'are f r e e 1 t o use the lounge and assembly h a l l i n the home, hut very few do so, which could be construed as substantiating the observations stated above. The cottage residents interviewed did not state reasons for their lack of participation i n .events within the residence; they seemed aware of"the f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s , but without any :interest of enthusiasm. ' '• ' S o c i a b i l i t y among residents of Lions' View appeared to be notably low. One couple who had l i v e d there for two years commented on the fact that they have not come to know their neigh-bours; the woman at one time t r i e d to be friendly and asked several other ladies i n for tea. However, the event was not too success-f u l , and there has been no continuation of this social attempt. Two of the couples interviewed admitted that they are rather ;lonely; they can not afford to go out and have not found com-panionship .within the project. Social workers with contact with the residents of this project remarked on the lack of s o c i a b i l i t y . In endeavouring to postulate reasons for this lack of s o c i a b i l i t y , one suggestion was that within this project there i s a group whose income i s low, whose t i e s with friends and relatives have been disrupted frequently, and whose experience i n establishing and maintaining sooial relationships has been limited. It was thought that these people, l e f t to their own resources, w i l l not - 61 -be able to i n i t i a t e group a c t i v i t i e s and social relationships; an experienced and trained person to act as enabler could pos-s i b l y assist these tenants toward a more sa t i s f y i n g l i f e . Lack of a common meeting place may i n h i b i t s o c i a b i l i t y ; on the other hand, i t cannot be asserted positively that a common building by i t s e l f would answer the needs of the residents. In Dania Home, the pattern i s again one of entertain-ment provided for the residents. In this project, there i s no • Social Committee to plan programs; rather, various interested groups contact the matron to offer their services. These pro-grams are enjoyed by the residents, as f a i l i n g health and ad-vanced years prevent many of them from going out. The atmos-phere within the Home i s relaxed and informal, as mentioned e a r l i e r , and although residents do not participate i n planning the programs and a c t i v i t i e s , there i s a high degree of p a r t i c i -pation i n the daily routines of the Home. Observation of the residents i n the lounge and i n the dining room lead to the con-clusion that s o c i a b i l i t y among the old people i s high. Tenants "of the cottages are free to join the residents of rthe Home i n any of the programs and church services, or for meals i f they so desire, and they frequently take advantage of this h o s p i t a l i t y . ' ?TheWest Vancouver housing project seems to have a moderate'degree of s o c i a b i l i t y . The l i b r a r y may be used as a community centre, with i t s t e l e v i s i o n set to provide'diversion - 62 -rfor those interested. A few social a c t i v i t i e s have been pro-vided"for the'residents'by interested'groups, and possibly more w i l l be done i n the future; this i s a relatively 1hew project, which w i l l be expanded i n the future. There'is evidence of iattempts by the residents to form their own so c i a l group,' which could possibly be encouraged by'the management;* These'attempts 'are due'largely'to the efforts of "one resident; 1who>has:assumed 'a'role of leadership in'the project;'and'who sees;the.possibi-l i t y •' of greater s o c i a b i l i t y among 1the rresidents. "As'this i s a small project, such :efforts"of'one'person may be f r u i t f u l . There i s i t h e p o s s i b i l i t y ' t h a t she may become :easily discouraged i f response to•her plans i s slow and'limited; there i s also the danger'that she:may eventually feel"she has to "run" the project and the l i v e s of '• the people i n i t . Here again,, a q u a l i f i e d person cOuld be of value. > In assessing the responses of the residents of the housing projects to the schedule used by the interviewer, the statements made:cannot always be taken:at face value. Certainly the iopinions < and attitude of those interviewed are favorable to the housing project. Some p o s s i b i l i t i e s have been suggested that'may have influenced these responses. The previous l i v i n g quarters have i n some cases been so bad and the people so thank-f u l for an improvement that they may well have been unwilling to comment on any disadvantages. The tenants may have been f e a r f u l of expressing negative opinions, i n case the i n t e r -viewer had some connection with the administration. Many-tenants may have become so accustomed to a l i f e of limited a c t i v i t i e s and limited interests that they cannot picture a l i f e any different; that i s to say, they may have been forced to accept a way of l i f e not completely satisfying, for so many years, that anything else i s to them inconceivable. Consideration of the attitudes and opinions of the tenants of housing projects leads to an awareness of the role that social workers could be taking. I f housing projects are regarded as groups of people, rather than as groups of houses, social work has a legitimate interest i n them, and could pro-vide appropriate help i n dealing with the problems i n human relationships which inevitably arise. CHAPTER IV PLANKING FOR TOMORROW. '• In a report submitted to the Community Chest of Greater Toronto i n January, 1949> the Secretary of the D i v i -sion ofi Old Age presented a summarization of the important factors i n housing of elderly people. This report presented excerpts from three reports from quite different sources -from B r i t a i n , the United States, and Denmark.^ It i s s i g n i -f i c a n t that on three points there was a great deal of agreement: (l) the old should not be segregated; (2) there must be a variety of accommodation provided; and (3) housing should be planned f o r a range of income-groups. These points are sub-stantiated many times by other writers concerned with the problems of housing f o r old people; and the bearing of these on the importance of administration i s obviously great. With this i n mind, i t i s possible to bring together conclusions from the present exploratory survey of four housing projects, under three broad and inclusive headings: (l) "segre-' gation" as an "issue which can be considered from several points 1. (a) New York (State) Legislature, Joint Committee on Prob-lems Of the Aging, Birthdays Don't Count, New York (State) Legis-lature, Legislative Document, 1948, No.61. (b) Nuffield Foundation, Old People^ Report of a Survey Committee on the Problems of Ageing and the Care of :Old'People. Oxford Uni-v e r s i t y Press, London, 1947* (c) Social Department of Denmark, Social :Denmark, Social Depart-ment of Denmark; Copenhagen, 1945* of view - soci a l , geographic, and economic; (2) variety of accommodation; and (3) administration. Segregation A l l authorities on housing projects f o r old people deplore the idea of segregation of any kind. Actually, there 'are many ways of defining this concept, though segregation of a particular age group i s perhaps the most obvious example. Lewis Mumford writes: "The worst possible attitude toward old age i s to regard the aged as a segregated group, who are to bB removed, at a fixed point i n their l i f e course, from the presence of their families, their neighbors, and their friends, from th e i r familiar quarters and their familiar neighbor-hoods, from their normal interests and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , to l i v e i n desolate idleness, relieved only by the presence of others i n a similar plight."* One of the answers to this from the point of view of over-all urban planning has been suggested by P.H.U. Stratton, writing 'on behalf of the Vancouver Housing Association: : " I t i s no doubt undesirable on social grounds to have large communities of people drawn from one age group segregated i n a single project. I f , however, public housing projects f o r senior cit i z e n s are kept on a small scale and scattered over a number of different neighbor-hoods, where the tenants can maintain contact with their former community associations, or l i v e close to relat i v e s , this objection ceases to hold good." 2 1. Mumford, Lewis, l o c . c i t . , p.192. 2. Stratton, P.H.U., "Housing f o r Senior Citizens the Next Step", Community Planning Review, Vol.VI, No.3, September 1956, p.100. - 66 -The Nuffield Report also suggests small groups of houses i n t e r -spersed with family dwellings. There are several details to consider, however, before i t can be said that these conditions are s a t i s f a c t o r i l y met. How many are there i n the c i t y (and suburbs)? What i s a large and what i s a small project? How f a r are f a c i l i t i e s s u f f i c i e n t l y planned and distributed to form neighbourhoods into which old people's groups can actually be "fitted"? What has happened i n the four housing projects studied? The Pair Haven houses 172 persons and i s planning expansion; Lions' View at present accommodates 72 persons; Dania Home has 58 residents, with room for more cottages; the West Vancouver project has 24 tenants, and plans are being considered f o r addi-t i o n a l units i n the same location. Does this represent segrega-tion? Where i s the d i s t i n c t i o n to be made between small and large projects? In i t s publication of January, 1956, "the Vancouver Housing Association states: "While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i x any s p e c i f i c upper l i m i t of size to senior c i t i z e n s ' housing projects, i t i s generally accepted that the segregation of large numbers drawn from one age-group i n a single project i s undesir-able. Small projects housing under 100 persons are therefore to be preferred. They have the additional advantage that, where a number of small projects are planned, they can be located i n different neighbourhoods and so afford tenants an opportunity of retaining their former associations."* 1. Vancouver Housing Association, Building for Senior C i t i - zens, Vancouver Housing Association, Vancouver, 1956. p.2. - 67 -According to these suggested figures, only The Pair Haven could be considered as segregated. Yet to many persons, even 100 people of a particular age group, housed i n one project, consti-tute a greater degree of segregation than i s desirable. The Canadian Government, speaking through Central Mortgage and Hous-ing Corporation, has demonstrated i t s attitude toward segrega-tion by l i m i t i n g to f i v e per cent the number of units which may be reserved for old people i n any one project subsidised through Federal Government finances. In particular areas, social workers or town planners, or both, may set the upper l i m i t lower than 100; for example, i n West Vancouver, a maximum of 20 units was sug-gested to the Council of the Municipality. It i s the opinion of the writer that where a number of buildings are of similar con-struction, and geometrically arranged i n rows or around a square, the housing project has at least the outward appearance of segre-gation. This again, however, depends on the variety of types found i n other kinds of housing. I f there were more group and "court type" projects f o r single houses, row houses and apartments - both i n public and private housing - as there might well be, the c i t y patterns and the "psychology of residence" would also change. What the present pattern i n Vancouver i s beginning to bring out i s that most of the provisions f o r assisted rental housing has been so f a r f o r old people, rather than low-income groups i n general. Proceeding from a broad planning basis, - 68 -Mumford suggests that the size of housing projects should depend on age distributions i n the total population of the community."1" Geographic segregation, however, i s apparently easy to create j yet i t i s a feature to be avoided. In choosing sites for the housing projects, three out of the four managements here reviewed have made an effort to choose a suitable spot i n terms of available f a c i l i t i e s , and they are a l l close to transporta-tion services. Choice of location w i l l always be influenced by what land i s available, and i t s cost. In a community such as Greater Vancouver now i s , planners may not have the opportunity to b u i l d i n a location providing a l l the f a c i l i t i e s judged to be desirable; they may decide to s a c r i f i c e certain features i n order to gain others. But assuming that housing projects are to be a permanent feature of the community, as i t seems they are, long term advantages should not be sa c r i f i e e d f o r immediate gains. What may seem necessary from an economic standpoint today, may well be uneconomic i n planning for tomorrow; a finan-c i a l gain today i s not always a t o t a l gain i n terms of the future welfare of a large section of the population. This point i s well i l l u s t r a t e d i n decisions on size as well as i n choice of location, which are often influenced by immediate f i n a n c i a l considerations, instead of being based on what i s desirable over a long period of years. It may be more economical to build one large project rather than several small scattered 1. Mumford; -lo c ; c i t - ; , p 1193. *•) '•• - 69 -ones; but i s i t socially desirable? Another issue here i s that old people's housing, like most other housing, i s the product of individual (or small group) decisions. There i s not enough of a basic residential plan for the cit y (or metropolitan area) to give guidance on most appropriate locations. Whatever happens, a major disadvantage of building large housing projects, or of building in relatively isolated areas, i s the consequent re-location that must occur for a large number of the tenants. Moving into the housing project means moving away from previous ties, and often i t is d i f f i c u l t for the old people to form new ones. Thus adjustment within the housing project includes the problems of accepting or getting used to a new location; this i s compounded by the fact that so many of the tenants have had several moves prior to this last one. Economic segregation i s as undesirable as any other form of segregation. It has shown up in many public housing projects because they have been forced, by legislation or financial "economies", to set low limits on income e l i g i b i l i t y . Dr. Albert Rose, writing for Canada, expresses some general experience when he says: " housing projects which merely provide only for certain social or economic groups in the population can be l i t t l e more than twentieth century 'ghettos*."1 1. Rose, Albert, "Housing Administration i n Canada", Canadian Welfare, December 15, 1952. p.36. - 70 -I t may be asked, i f housing projects are deliberately designed to provide housing for low-income groups, how i s economic segre-gation to be avoided? There are some answers for public housing i n general; but for senior citizens at present provision of hous-ing i s s t i l l made with some reluctance - or i s at least approached with f i n a n c i a l caution - therefore the tendency i s to circum-scribe e l i g i b i l i t y f a i r l y rigorously. In B r i t i s h Columbia, :the 1 Provincial Government has been generous i n i t s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s -tance for housing projects for*old people, ;but has stipulated that admissions be limited to those i n receipt of less than 140 per cent of\the Old Age Assistance plus c o s t - o f - l i v i n g bonus. Under this regulation there i s necessarily-a degree of economic Segregation. It has been shown, i n a preceding chapter, that the method of selection of applicants w i l l have a great effect on the presence or lack of economic segregation. I f selection i s based entirely on economic need, then the housing project may indeed f i n d i t s e l f accommodating only those from the lowest i n -come l e v e l . On the other hand, a selection of only those i n receipt of the maximum allowable income could hardly be j u s t i f i e d . "The twin goals of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and balance are not impossible of achievement : i f imagination,' research and experimentation are applied. One simple-suggestion for economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and balance would be to provide that 40 :per cent of•the :tenant families be within the lowest t h i r d of the income range'governing e l i g i b i l i t y , 40 per cent be within'the middle th i r d and 20 per cent i n the upper third :of-the'income'range."* :1.:'•' Rose," l o c . c i t . ^ p.36. 5 • In none'of the housing projects studied was there any indication of an attempt to attain the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and balance. Admission of applicants i s based mainly on order of application, with the exception of one (Lions' View), which has attempted to admit those most desperately i n need; the West Van-couver Senior Citizens Housing Society often requests the Social Welfare Branch to suggest a possible tenant whose need i s great. I f the goals of "balance and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n " have been attained, i t i s more apt to be fortuitous, rather than the result of sys-tematic planning. Variety of Accommodation The need to provide a variety of types of accommoda-ti o n has not ; yet been f u l l y realized, p a r t i c u l a r l y since the sponsors of housing projects are under pressures of expediency, and often anxious to get started with their plans as soon as possible. Also, the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n getting even a limited pro-ject "floated" and constructed i n the f i r s t place may tend to in h i b i t long—term planning. The Vancouver Housing Association suggests very reasonably that different types of accommodation should be integrated within a housing project, so that the i n d i -vidual may move from a cottage to a boarding home without break-ing ti e s he may have established."^ Two of the housing projects studied provide boarding home care :as well as-the'self-contained '1: Vancouver Housing Association^ Housing tfor|Our Older  Citizens, Vancouver, March 1949. P«19« - 72 -unitsj"the other two"have only'the self-contained dwellings. At present, however, because the number of dwellings of a l l types i s so limited, a l l types are constantly f i l l e d . The opportunity to move from one type of accommodation to another, even where some variety exists, i s minimal. This problem i s common among 1all health and welfare f a c i l i t i e s , including hospitals, nursing homes, etc. 1 The presence of a boarding home * and self-contained units'within'one housing project does not necessarily mean that there i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the two types; they may too easily be different buildings existing side by side,' as seems true of The Pair Haven. The presence of a boarding home within the project provides * an> opportunity • for • a f l e x i b l e program, i n which'limited meal service could be offered to those l i v i n g i n the s e l f -contained units should they so desire.• Judging from the i n t e r -views, some?of the single tenants want to l i v e independently i n a'self-contained:quarters, yet f i n d that preparing meals for 'one!and eating alone i s a drawback to the arrangement. While these people do not desire a "residence" type of accommodation, they would appreciate the companionship found i n joining with others i n at least one meal a day. Dania Home provides this opportunity, but there are no units for single persons within t h e p r o j e c t , and the couples do not seem to need this service to as great an extent as the single persons. - 73 -""<:'': '• Illness among the residents of a housing project i s obviously a matter of more than'ordinary importance when the tenants•are old folk. I f no nursing services exist, the old person who becomes physically incapable of caring for himself must have some arrangement made for his care. A move to a nursing home i s often considered to be the 1 proper•solution, but'this means a break with his familiar environment, and i t i s " a move dreaded by most people. Even when the i l l n e s s i s of a'temporary nature, the tenant may be forced to give up his accommodation. In one of the four projects surveyed, w i l l i n g -ness to care for the elderly person during i l l n e s s i s p a r t i -c u l a r l y evident. In this project, Dania Home, the matron has strong convictions that to send an old person to a nursing home violates the objectives of the Home, and accordingly prefers to give the extra care and services needed for as long as possible, sThe Board of Dania Home concurs i n this approach by the matron, ;and hopes•that some time i n the future they w i l l be able to add an infirmary to their project. This philosophy on the part of the•administrators of Dania Home has resulted i n a larger pro-portion of physically dependent or p a r t i a l l y dependent residents. 'But i t has also'contributed greatly to the sense of permanence and security'enjoyed'by the residents. I'i 't The other three/pro jects :'have no f provision^ f o r care during|illness; iWaenithe tenant'becomes.physically :incapable of caring :for'himself, he must move. Where s o c i a b i l i t y ! i s high, 'neighbourliness helps out i n times•of temporary'incapacity. Provision ;for housekeeping help would be a'partial'solution which would allow the 5 old person to stay i n what is'how "his •own'home".•'Housekeeping help would be cheaper than nursing home cafe, ;and perhaps not quite 1as scarce. Where boarding home accommodation exists, a f l e x i b l e and interested"•management, with genuine concern for the elderly fesidehts, could"make an important'contfibution i n planning'for i l l n e s s . In planhingfbr variety i n accommodation,'illness i s one of the eventualities that should be recognized arid care-f u l l y considered by the sponsors. A project which houses old • people"is going to be a project i n which i l l n e s s w i l l occur with great frequency; to turn the tenant out when he becomes i l l i s riot an adequate solution. Ideally, housing projects should be planned i n coordination with other health and welfare f a c i l i -t i e s , so that when i l l n e s s does occur, there i s some provision for the individual. Administration In the preceding chapters a great deal has been said about the type of buildings, the physical f a c i l i t i e s , the loca-tion, etc. Important as they are, i t i s hoped that these factors •9 have not been given undue emphasis, fo r -- 7 5 -" we must not for a moment imagine that the ar c h i -tect himself, even when hacked by ample f i n a n c i a l re-sources, can provide the answers that are needed, or that beauty and order and convenience alone are suf-f i c i e n t . " 1 There are two extremes i n this regard at the moment. On the one hand are projects which have been planned with hardly any atten-tion to architectural principles and ideas, because building economies have been paramount5 and on the other hand are a few which have been planned with the utmost i n professional help from architects, but with l i t t l e regard for the welfare of the people who w i l l l i v e i n the buildings. The "happy medium" re-quires much thought and cooperation between the sponsors and the professional groups concerned, with s e n s i t i v i t y to welfare needs along with well-planned buildings. Any program which has as i t s objective the provision of a service concerned with the welfare of a particular group, must plan for more than physical f a c i l i -t i e s alone. This i s true of homes for old people, whatever th e i r nature. "The home should f i l l a social usefulness for i t s r e s i -dents. It must contribute to the emotional and the physical well-being of the people residing i n i t . It should create a warm, friendly atmosphere not only to preserve the assets of the senior c i t i z e n but also to increase his capacity for adjustment."2 I f housing projects are to be "successful" they must provide ade-quate shelter, and along with i t an opportunity for the residents to f i n d a more sa t i s f y i n g l i f e , to f i n d that they are not merely 1. Mumford, l o c . c i t . , p.192. 2. Kaplan, Jerome, A Social Program for Older People, Uni-v e r s i t y of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1953. p.122. "associate" members of the community. To this end, administra-t i o n of the projects should be directed. In his discussion on "Housing Administration i n Canada", Albert Rose recommends what sta f f should be provided and what their r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s should be. His remarks are directed to-ward a l l public housing administrations, but surely are pertinent to housing projects for old people operated by private organiza-tions. "However the housing project i s staffed, i t i s essential that some one should be s p e c i f i c a l l y responsible for dealing with the human problems that inevitably arise when people move into a new and strange situation, es-p e c i a l l y when they are thrown into contact with people to whom the situation i s equally new and strange."* 2 In another publication, Dr. Rose makes the point that better hous-ing d e f i n i t e l y makes better c i t i z e n s , but adds that "these results cannot be adhieved without a program of education and supervision". To further his point, he quotes a study conducted i n the Toronto area, which concludes that the u p l i f t i n g of morale which occurs within housing projects i s not due entirely to better housing; the important factor i s the interest of the housing administration i n the people who occupy the buildings. It i s i n respect to administration that the housing pro-jects studied show the greatest lacks. A l l have Boards of Direc-tors, none have a counsellor or a counselling program to deal 1. Rose, l o c . c i t . , p.35« 2. Rose, Albert, Adequate Housing: Does i t Make Better C i t i - zens?, ifrom: an address to. the.National Conference on Social Work, June 26, 1954, published by•the Community Planning.Association of Canada^•OttawaiL*; 3. Rose, l o c . c i t . , p.8. s p e c i f i c a l l y with the human problems. The Fair Haven has a matron i n charge of the project, and a caretaker for maintenance and building service; programs and entertainment are provided for the residents but there seems l i t t l e interest shown i n en-couraging active participation i n project or community a c t i v i t i e s . The Lions 1 View has a caretaker f o r the premises, who shows l i t t l e interest i n the tenants. Dania Home provides an example of the salutary effect the personality of a matron can have; she has an active and genuine interest i n the tenants as individuals, and i n turn i s beloved by them. But even here, the l i f e of the residents i s almost entirely "Home-centred"; programs are pro-vided for them. Yet the atmosphere i n the Home i s relaxed and congenial; the tenants seem to f e e l an active sense of p a r t i c i -pation i n the daily a c t i v i t i e s of the Home. The West Vancouver project, although recent, already gives the impression that there i s a "group s p i r i t " among the tenants. The Secretary-Treasurer of the Board maintains an interest i n the residents, which they appreciate; but any group a c t i v i t i e s or community participation develop independently of the administration. In general, where administration has shown an interest i n the tenant, the pattern has been one of providing "for" the individual, rather than increasing his personal a c t i v i t y . Social workers have long deplored programs that are imposed on individuals from above, however well-intentioned. - 78 -"It i s necessary for an individual to have an active relationship to his environment i f he i s to continue and to increase his effectiveness. The real 'vice* i s complete passiveness Maximum opportunities - and guidance when necessary - must he available so there can be self-care, self-help, s e l f - p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the part of the resident of the home. Stereotyped ideas about a passive a c t i v i t y pattern for older people should be adjusted." 1 It i s i n this:.area'that* social workers could be of ' ' ' great value i n a housing project; and i t i s for this reason ' that persons-"'with a knowledge ! of human relationships and welfare needs could be profitably used, either i n an advisory capacity or as part of the sta f f of a housing project. Some form of counselling, whether formally structured or informal, whether by volunteers or professional persons, i s a goal to be sought. The problem of programming i s not an easy one to re-solve. There are certain basic philosophic differences i n the approach to any welfare program between social workers and many private organizations, such as those sponsoring the housing pro-jects. The importance of individual participation provides an •• i l l u s t r a t i o n of one such difference. "No matter how benevolent the'administration s t a f f maybe, through personal i n c l i n a t i o n or as a matter of policy, the • basic objective i s not the creation of a benevolent auto-cracy or benevolent paternalism To the extent that the tenants of Canadian public housing develop a sense of res-p o n s i b i l i t y and participation, to that extent w i l l the basic objectives of public housing, namely the provision of ade-quate shelter and an opportunity for a f u l l e r l i f e i n an adequate community setting, be r e a l i z e d . " 2 ; • >ls Kaplan, op.cit* j; ;p,119. •; 2 ; : Rose; Albert, "Housing•Administration'in.Canada", • ? - r: 'Canadian :Welfare; Ottawa; 'DecemberL15; 1 9 5 2 * p.37? - 79 -A "benevolent paternalism" is most evident in The Fair Haven, while in the Lions1 View, the administration seems to "lean over backwards" to avoid this evil, and as a consequence, falls into the equal evil of leaving- the tenants strictly to their own de-vices. Dania Home represents a certain compromise;"? the adminis-tration itself seems notably lacking in a benevolent, paternal-istic attitude, and the residents do participate to a greater extent in the activities of the Home. " when the resident is an active participant in planning and carrying out the program of the home, he feels wanted. His unity with group life becomes greater than his conflict with the group."* But, as mentioned previously, the residents participate in a limited area - the daily routine of the Home. Even here, in the opinion of the writer, there could be greater encouragement of community participation. Another basic difference in attitude is frequently en-countered when social workers and private service organizations come together. The private organization so often asks of the people they help "are they worthy?". This question is considered by many of the housing project admissions committee members; ad-mission may be limited to those who will " f i t " in some undefined way, to those judged "needy and desirable". Recognition of the worth of the individual is a basic premise underlying all social •work; thus, when asked about a prospective tenant "Is he worthy?" the social worker must leave i t to the questioner7to'decide for fhimself. : • •  1. Kaplan, op.cit., p.122. - 80 -> ' Because of these differences, social workers may prefei? to stay out of housing projects. However, the social workers interviewed i n the course of this survey indicated their interest in'the people l i v i n g i n the projects, and i n the administration, i n one of the projects, the working relationship between social worker"and project administration i s stated as being excellent; i n the others, i t may range from open h o s t i l i t y to a friendly relationship i n which the social worker has decided that he cannot do more without actively interfering, but has made himself a v a i l -able i f needed. The whole area of administration of housing projects i s one that needs to be further explored, and tackled with ima-gination and perceptiveness. Br. Rose and many other writers of experience contend that adequate housing can make better c i t i z e n s . Perhaps through a dynamic administration there should be more at-tempts i n "senior eitigens" housing projects to prove that they can i n fact be senior c i t i z e n s . Conclusions The point could well be made that very few old people voluntarily move out of a housing project once they are i n , and the conclusion drawn that the housing projects are therefore en-t i r e l y satisfactory. But are there other factors to consider? Too often the tenant has nowhere else to go, :thus the 1 accommodation - 81 -i n a project represents almost a last resort. Security, per-manence, and low cost are factors that strongly override any disadvantages that may he noted. Possibly more often, the old people cannot express any dissatisfaction they may feel because they have never known any other existence, and perhaps do not know that l i f e could and should be more satisfying. Many old people have come to expect l i t t l e in their declining years and there i s a danger that the community may settle for that. The sponsors of housing projects are to be commended for their activity on behalf of the old people in the community. Certainly an overwhelming majority of the tenants interviewed expressed satisfaction with their l i v i n g quarters and no desire to live elsewhere. Many expressed the wish to stay in their present quarters unt i l they died. The housing projects are meeting a definite need in providing good low-rental housing. But the projects could meet more of the needs of their tenants by improving administrative practices to help f i l l emotional as well as physical requirements. It i s not implied here that sponsors of the housing projects should be the sole groups to involve themselves in comprehensive programs for the aged. Public and private welfare agencies could provide the necessary leadership to attain the goal of satisfying l i f e patterns for the aging. Other community resources, such as the Community Chest Committee on the Welfare - 82 -: o f the Aged, could possibly be used to"better advantage. '*• Churches have a great opportunity to help the tenants develop identity within the neighbourhood, yet churches were c r i t i c i g e d i n some instances by both tenants and social workers interviewed i n the'course of this study. The neighbourhood church 'has an important role to f i l l with regard to the housing projects, yet indications are that this i s not recognized or acted upon. ' > 'Community centres and Neighbourhood Houses should be able to provide a c t i v i t i e s and programs that include the old "people. In particular, Gordon House and Alexandra House have a good background of experience i n work with old people, and could give valuable assistance to other groups interested i n this age 'group. Yet the number of such centres i s limited, and too often the'programs are youth-centred; often, too, the a c t i v i t i e s are available to those who attend on their own i n i t i a t i v e , when what ' ;is'required'is active seeking out of those who would benefit by <the'centre. ?ifhere a centre or assembly h a l l i s located within the project, i s there any reason why this could not be used as a centre for"the whole community, rather than f o r the tenants alone? It i s perhaps an important reminder that service clubs could ask for help from the old people, thus encouraging p a r t i c i -pation rather than directing their a c t i v i t i e s to""doing things f o r " - 83 -the aged. Senior Citizens' Clubs were mentioned many times by tenants as providing a source of a c t i v i t y and recreation; f o r many, these clubs were the only s o c i a l group attended. In a redent survey of the administration of the City of Vancouver, the following statement appears: "Planning for the proper care of the aged i s a matter i n which the City Department of Social Service and the Social Welfare Branch of the Provincial Government should play prominent parts, but which p r i n c i p a l l y i s a matter of t o t a l community concern. B r i t i s h Columbia has made an excellent beginning i n the development of housing f o r i t s senior c i t i z e n s . What seems to be lacking i s provision of occupation for old people. Such occupation could be achieved through continuance i n employment, development of recreation centers f o r old people i n churches, s e t t l e -ments and other available f a c i l i t i e s , or other a c t i v i t i e s which assure the elderly person that he i s a part of society and not some one to be cast up on a scrap heap of uselessness merely because he has reached a certain chronological age." What seems to be most needed to meet the problems i n a comprehensive way, and to ensure the development of housing pro-jects to their f u l l e s t potential, i s a real effort i n community organization. The sponsors of the housing projects need not be held solely responsible for the planning and provision of an adequate program, but they must be w i l l i n g to use the f a c i l i t i e s and services available. There i s room for the professional per-son and the volunteer, for interested groups and individuals, f o r public and private organizations. The need for some coordinat-ing body i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident, because the housing projects at present are a l l privately sponsored, and each i s proceeding'. 1. Public Administration Service, Report'on*an Administrative' Survey of the Municipal Government, City of Vancouver, Chicago,1955> p.115-- 84 -i n i t s own direction. For the most part, the person trained i n social welfare i s not used advantageously. At present there i s no way to l i n k together the available resources and the people who need them, or to recognize and remedy the lacks i n the to t a l program. From this survey, i t can be seen that housing projects are neither a l l good nor a l l bad. Their most conspicuous success 1 i s i n providing satisfactory low-cost housing f o r the older age group. Their most conspicuous omission i s the f a i l u r e to help coordinate, i n any planned or comprehensive way, the opportunities f o r a way of l i f e - i n health, welfare, recreation, education and citizenship - that w i l l increase the older person's sense of dig-nity and worth, as a person and as a member of the community. APPENDIX A Schedules Used i n Interviewing Management and Residents of Housing Projects  Schedule I : Management. Name of Project? Sponsoring Group: 1. General'Description of the Project: Outside ;appearance ' ' Location'and Neighbourhood Available F a c i l i t i e s Number of Units and Cost per Unit to Tenant : 2. Management: ; Operation Admissions• 3. Individual Units: ' Housekeeping F a c i l i t i e s Other F a c i l i t i e s 4 . General Comments: : Schedule I I : Residents. Name of tenant: Age: Sex: Status: Project: 1. Length of residence i n project: 2. Factors inducing resident to move into the project: 3 . Waiting period: 4 . Comparison of neighbourhood and l i v i n g quarters with previous ones: 5. What does resident l i k e most about the project: 6. What does resident l i k e least about the project: 7« ; Is resident reasonably s a t i s f i e d with present l i v i n g quarters • I f not, what are the main sources of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n : 8; What changes would resident suggest for future housing projects: 9« Resident's use of free time (hobbies, a c t i v i t i e s , clubs): 10. Has there been any change i n resident's use of free time since moving into the project: f I f so, what are the changes, and what are the main reasons: 11. Are there any clubs or organizations within the project: What;are they: Does resident participate: ' I f not, why: 12. ' Would resident l i k e to have more a c t i v i t i e s available: 1 3 . Would resident l i k e to have some outside person available to organize such a c t i v i t i e s : 14; Since moving into the housing project has resident noticed any difference i n the number of his friends, or i n the frequency of contact with friends: (Obtain reasons) 1 5 . Any contact with young people: 16. Would resident l i k e to have a soc i a l worker or family coun-s e l l o r available with whom to discuss his plans :or problems APPENDIX B Application Forms for Admission to the ' '• ' Housing Projects  1. THE FAIR HAVEN United Church of Canada Homes for Senior Citizens Burnaby, B.C. Application for Admission 1. Name i n f u l l ( p r i n t ) : x • t n , • x- \ v (Surname; (Christian names; 2. Date of b i r t h : Place of b i r t h : 3. Present Address: Phone No.:"' (wife • ) 4. Single, married, widowed? I f married, name of (husband) 8 5i How many years immediately prior to your application have you l i v e d i n B.C.? 6. State the name and address of a person or persons who w i l l agree to take charge of you should i t be necessary f o r you to remove from The Fa i r Haven due to i l l health (physical or mental) or other condition. In the event that you have ho'such person, kindly discuss the matter with the Social Welfare Office i n : your '• d i s t r i c t : Name: Address: ©fame: Address: 7. Give ?the names;and addresses of three persons,for reference as to icharacter,.habits, and igeneral;health: Name: Address: Name: ~ Address: Name: Address: 8 ; *In case of;emergency, whom should we notify? 9. Give your doctor's name: '• • Address: 10. •Have'provisions been made for•funeral:expenses?; Yes? No? 11. Have you ra ;cemetery plot? 12i Do you.use narcotics or stimulants? - 88 -'13. Name of church a t t e n d e d : Are you a member? 14« Does your t o t a l f i x e d monthly income from a l l sources exceed the maximum a l l o w e d by the " E l d e r l y C i t i z e n s Housing A c t " ( c l a u s e 3D) as i n e f f e c t as of A p r i l 11th, 1956 - namely, $84. per mOnth f O r a s i n g l e person o r $168. per month f o r ' a married'couple? Y e £ } ? . N q ? "15; D o y o u agree t o abide by the R u l e s & R e g u l a t i o n s of The P a i r * Haven as now i n f o r c e (see e n c l o s e d forms) or as h e r e a f t e r ' ' amended? 16. S t a t e the type of accommodation you r e q u i r e : Room & Board? B a c h e l o r U n i t ? Cottage U n i t ? PLEASE NOTIFY the A d m i t t i n g Committee, through t h i s o f f i c e , i f you change your address o r phone no., o r no l o n g e r d e s i r e accom-modation I n The P a i r Haven. K i n d l y r e t u r n t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the A d m i t t i n g Committee, The P a i r Haven, c/o The U n i t e d Church O f f i c e s , 505 Dunsmuir S t r e e t , Vancouver 2, B.C. S i g n e d : Date: - 89 -_2j_ BRITISH COLUMBIA HOUSING FOUNDATION Application for Admission to Housing Project '• 'at'Horley and Fairmont Streets  1. Nameiof applicant: Man: ; Woman: "Man:Single Married Widowed'' Woman:Single Married Widowed 21 Address: ' Phone: 3. What i s your present l i v i n g accommodation? 4 . Rent at present address: 5. Date and place of b i r t h : Man: Woman: 6. How long have you l i v e d i n Canada? Man i n B.C.? Woman i n B.C.? 7. Name, address and relationship of nearest r e l a t i v e ( i f none i n this v i c i n i t y , name and address of closest f r i e n d ) : 8. What was your occupation? 9. Are you employed? I f so, please state salary: 10. Do you receive the Old Age Pension (over 70 years)? Old Age Assistance (over 65 years)? War Veterans Allowance? M i l i t a r y or other pension? Social allowance? Other income? If so, state amount: 11. What are your assets? Property? Bank accounts: Bonds: Insurance Policy: Others: 12. Are you i n good health? Man: Woman: 13. When did you la s t receive medical attention? Man: Woman: 14. Please give the name of your doctor: Date: Signature of applicant: - 90 -3 . WEST CANADA DANISH OLD PEOPLES HOME 4205 Douglas Road An Ideal Transplanted from Our Native Land Burnaby, Vancouver, B.C. Freedom and Independence "DANIA HOME" Confidential Inquiry f o r prospective guests of Danish Old People's Home. Mr. (give name i n f u l l ) from Mrs. Miss Present Address? Born at (Place and Date)? Name, Address and Relationship of Next of Kin? Are y o u i n receipt of a pension? Answer "Yes" or "No"? Give Particulars? Would you prefer monthly payments? Or could you make different arrangements? A t r i a l up to three months may he arranged: What is"the general state of your health? State b r i e f l y i f you suffer from any chronic or other sickness: Name and Address of two personal references: Dated this day of 19 (Usual Signature) - 91 -4 - WEST VANCOUVER SENIOR CITIZENS HOUSING SOCIETY Confidential Application Form f o r Prospective Tenants Mr., Mrs., Miss: (Block Letters) (Denote which) (Surname) (Given Names) Present Address : (Block Letters) How long have you resided i n this Municipality? Place of B i r t h : Date of B i r t h : Name of Next of Kin: Address: Relationship: Are you i n receipt of a pension? Answer "Yes" or "No": Give Particulars: Federal: P r o v i n c i a l : Othenincome: Are you.willing to.submit a medical health report i f requested? Are you i n a'position to pay your own medical expenses? Or, have you a medical card? Give Number: Names and addresses of two personal references: Dated at this day of 1^  . Usual Signature Admittance Committee Remarks: - 9 2 -APPENDIX C Forms Completed by Admissions Committee after Interviewing Applicant^  JU THE FAIR HAVEN - UNITED CHURCH HOMES FOR SENIOR CITIZENS Information f o r Admitting Committee1 1. A b i l i t y to get along with people. (a) Family relationship (b) Landlord or former "homes" 2. Church, (a) Membership i n past (b) Voluntary work, choir, W.A., etc. (c) Paid worker? 3. Possessions. Furniture to furnish a room? 4. Health. Diabetic? Heart? Must be able to use s t a i r s . 5. Financial standing. O.A.P.? D.V.A.? Listen while she (he) talks. 6. Cultural background. Interviewer's impressions. 7. R e l i a b i l i t y of Sponsor. Try to have a member of family present during interview or see or talk to them. Ascertain his or her a b i l i t y to assume res p o n s i b i l i t y . 8. Present l i v i n g conditions. (a) Why do they want to move? (b) Would you l i k e her for a tenant or neighbor? < ? < 1 < •< ; < < C « r ' ' ! *British'Columbia•Housing;Foundation;has * no ? specific«form; For the :West Vancouver project j this,information:is'incorporated into the Application Form. ; DANIA HOME North Burnahy, Vancouver, B.C. Confidential Data and Information (fo he carefully completed f o r a l l guests.) F u l l Name of Guest: Mr. Mrs. Miss Place of B i r t h : Date of B i r t h : Pension No.: Province of: Amount Received: $ B.C. Hospital Insurance No.: Additional Payments: (other than Guest's own), amounting to $ per month, made by Total Monthly Rate: $ Due on the of each month, i n advance, retroactive. In case-of serious i l l n e s s or death, WHO i s to be n o t i f i e d : I f the Home i s to be responsible i n either case, a deposit of $ was made on by or signatures required of responsible parties: Entrance made on: Departure Date & Reason: STATEMENT I hereby declare'the above to be true and correct to the best of my knowledge. Signature of Guest. Signed on behalf of the HOUSE COMMITTEE. DOCTOR'S remarks to be f i l l e d i n here, as to Guest's state of health Further Remarks of House Committee: Signature of Doctor - 94 -APPENDIX D Rules and Regulations of the Housing Projects* 1. THE PAIR HAVEN United Church of Canada Homes for Senior Citizens Burnaby, B.C. Rules and-Regulations" 1. Rent s h a l l be paid i n advance, the f i r s t day of each month, to the Matron i n her o f f i c e . Notice of intention to va-cate must be given i n writing to the Matron one f u l l calendar month i n advance. 2. No person other than the occupant or occupants to whom the unit or room i s assigned s h a l l be allowed to reside therein. Rooms or units cannot be sublet. 3. (a) Occupants must keep the unit occupied i n good order. They must not deface the property or drive nails i n the walls.or woodwork. (b) Painting, papering or alt e r i n g of the property s h a l l not be done except by permission of the Business Management Committee. 4. Occupants s h a l l not unduly waste water. The Matron s h a l l be not i f i e d i f repairs to the plumbing or heating equipment are necessary. 5 . Garbage must be wrapped before being placed i n the garbage-can. Cans, glass-or other non-combustible material s h a l l ' not be placed i n the incinerator. 6. No occupant s h a l l absent.himself/herself for;more than four consecutive'weeks i n 1 the year without - the permission of•the Business' Management Committee. • ' ; 7. Occupants•shall keep their radios and tele v i s i o n sets tuned ' down so*as not to annoy other occupants.> Outside :TV aerials' s h a l l not be erected. 8. An occupantJshall not own and operate a motor car.• 9. Pets such as dogs and cats sha l l not be permitted. 10. Should the death occur of one of the occupants of a duplex unit, the other occupant (a) sh a l l vacate the said unit by the end of the month following that i n which the death oc-curred. The Board of Directors, byymajority vote, may ex-tend the time of occupancy i f circumstances warrant. "Dania Home has no printed Rules and Regulations. - 95 -(b) i f the remaining occupant applies for single accommo-dation i n The Pair Haven, such application s h a l l receive prior consideration by the Admitting Committee. 1 1 . A l l property of the occupant contained i n his/her unit or room shal l be at the occupant's r i s k as to damage by f i r e , water, or loss by theft. 1 2 . Should the physical, mental or other condition of any occu-pant become such that i n the opinion of a doctor or of the Business Management Committee, he or she i s no longer a proper person to be retained at The Pair Haven, or i f an occupant w i l f u l l y violates the rules and regulations or creates trouble among the other occupants, the Business Management Committee s h a l l discuss the matter with the Board of Directors and appropriate action s h a l l be taken and the sponsor s h a l l be n o t i f i e d . 1 3 . I f an occupant feels cause for d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n or complaint he/she s h a l l discuss the matter with the Matron who, i f unable to f i n d a suitable solution, s h a l l report the matter to the Business Management Committee for considera-tion and action. 1 4 . Occupancy may be terminated f o r lack of accommodation due to unforeseen circumstances, but i n such event the occupant sh a l l be entitled to take with him/her a l l personal pro-perty and effects. Such portions of money paid i n rentals or f o r board and room i n excess of benefits received s h a l l be refunded as the Board of Directors may determine. These rules and regulations have been approved by the Board of Directors and are effective after August 1 , 1 9 5 6 , and can be changed only by a two-third majority vote of the Board of Directors. - 96 -2^ BRITISH COLUMBIA HOUSING FOUNDATION Regulations f o r Tenants Ours i s a'community project. Its smoAth running depends upon a friendly, helpful s p i r i t and the willingness of every tenant to do his or her part. 1. Residents. No one may l i v e on the premises except the person, or persons, to whom i t has been rented, except by special permission. 2. Care of premises. Your apartment or cottage i s your home. Take care of i t as i f you owned i t . Please contact B.C. Housing Foundation representative before making any repairs. Be careful not to mar woodwork, walls or f l o o r s . Painting or papering by tenants i s not permitted without permission of the B.C. Housing Foundation. I f you wish to hang pictures, the Foundation representative w i l l advise you how i t i s to be done. Remember to protect window s i l l s used f o r plants. Coasters should be placed under the legs of heavy pieces of furniture. Please report any property damage. It i s understood that any damage for which the tenant i s responsible w i l l be made good by him. Special attention i s necessary to keep o i l and e l e c t r i c stoves, sinks, bathroom fixtures and other equipment clean and i n good working order. Leaking taps, defective t o i l e t s , etc., should be reported im-mediately. Water pipes, sinks, t o i l e t s and bath must be used only for the purpose intended. Please do not put tea or coffee grounds i n the sinks, or tea bags i n the t o i l e t , or sweepings down the register i No washing may he done i n the bath tubs. Laundry periods w i l l be arranged with the Foundation represen-tative. Garbage should be drained, wrapped and tie d before being put i n the can provided. Tenants of the :apartments are requested to turn off h a l l l i g h t s when going out or coming i n . You are'expected to provide your own l i g h t bulbs. 3« F i f e Escapes. No obstruction may be placed on f i r e escapes. 4. Insurance. The Foundation i s not responsible f o r the pro-perty of tenants, and you are advised to carry f i r e insurance on your furniture. *5»'Noise.• Please be considerate of your neighbours. Avoid unnecessary a c t i v i t i e s which may be annoying to them. Radio and other music should be r e s t r i c t e d to the hours between 8 am and 10.30 pm. When children come to v i s i t , see that they do not run about the hall s , etc. 6 ; rGleaning, etc. You are expected to keep your share of s t a i r -ways and halls clean, and to care for the grounds around the cottage. As good citi z e n s , we a l l take pride i n our homes, and hope that they add to»the general appearance of the d i s t r i c t . You are ex-pected to do your b i t i n "keeping up appearances". I f you l i v e in'ah apartment and l i k e gardening, be sure to l e t the represen-tative know. A tenant may always have recourse to the Board of Directors should any situation arise which seems to c a l l for special con-sideration. B.C. HOUSING FOUNDATION. - 98 -3^ ' • WEST VANCOUVER SENIOR CITIZENS SOCIETY I, the undersigned applicant as tenant of No of the West Vancouver Senior Citizens 1 residential accommodation in'the Muni-c i p a l i t y of West Vancouver, hereby agree i n consideration of the Society permitting the occupancy by me of the said accommodation as a tenant from month to month, to abide by and be governed by the following conditions r e l a t i n g to such tenancy: 1. The tenancy hereby executed sha l l be on a monthly basis dating ' i from the f i r s t day of the month and may be terminated at any time by either the Society or by the tenant on 5 weeks' notice i n writing. Such notice to be given one week prior to a rent day. • '2. A l l rents must be paid promptly to the Society or i t s agent, •' monthly i n advance. • ' NO person other than those to whom the accommodation i s ! 'rented w i l l be allowed to reside on the premises without the consent of the Society. Tenants must keep the premises clean and i n good order. On vacating, premises must be l e f t clean, otherwise tenants w i l l be charged fo r cleaning. 3. No tenant s h a l l do, or permit to be done, i n their premises, anything which may tend to the annoyance of other tenants. No vocal or instrumental music, or use of radio or gramo-phone, or TV sh a l l be allowed before 8:00 aim. or after 11:00 p.m., and no loud or disturbing noise at any time. THIS WILL BE STRICTLY ENFORCED. 4. Tenants must not drive n a i l s or tacks i n the walls or woodwork. On request, reasonable requirements w i l l be done by the Society's agent. 5. Any damage to any part of the building or premises caused through the action, neglect, or carelessness of the tenant, or any member of his or her family, sh a l l be repaired and made good by the tenant under the direction of the Society's representative, and stoppage of plumbing, i f caused by care-lessness or neglect of the person using same, w i l l be at the tenant's own cost f o r clearing. 6. Broken windows must be replaced at tenant's expense. 7. No painting, papering, or redecorating s h a l l be done by tenants without permission of the Society. 8. No subletting of premises w i l l be permitted. 9. Tenants s h a l l not w i l f u l l y waste, or permit to be wasted, water furnished by the Society and i n the case of leaky - 99 -taps or t o i l e t s , w i l l please notify the owners. The lawns, use of outside taps and watering of gardens are under the control of the Society. 10. A l l garbage must be drained, well wrapped, and t i e d before being placed i n the garbage can. 11. The f i r e escapes are for use as emergency exits only; any use of them i s solely at tenant's own r i s k . 12. The day, time, and period of use of laundry f a c i l i t i e s i n the apartment blocks are subject to prior arrangement with the janitor. 13* Young children v i s i t i n g tenants i n the apartments are not permitted to run or play i n the corridors or on the s t a i r s . 14. A l l property stored on the premises w i l l be at the tenant's r i s k as to loss or damage from any cause whatever, including water, moisture, f i r e , or theft. Tenants w i l l be respon-s i b l e for insurance on their own furniture and other per-sonal belongings. 15* Tenants i n upstairs apartments are required to keep s t a i r s clean, the resp o n s i b i l i t y to be shared on an alternative weekly arrangement. 16. The Society reserves the right for authorized o f f i c i a l s to . enter and inspect a l l premises at any reasonable time, and to change these regulations from time to time at i t s sole discretion. 17. Tenants planning absence on a v i s i t should notify adjacent tenant and the Society's representative. 18. Dogs are not allowed on the premises. 19* At bottom of page, please give name and address of relatives or friends whom you wish contacted i n case of emergency. Dated at B.C., this day of A.D.19 Witness: Tenant: - 100 -APPENDIX E BIBLIOGRAPHY BURGESS, Ernest W., CAVAN, Ruth S., and HAVIGHURST, Robert J . Your A c t i v i t i e s and Attitudes. Science Research Associates, Chicago, 1948. CAVAN, Ruth S., BURGESS, Ernest W., HAVIGHURST, Robert J., and Personal Adjustment i n Old Age*.'- Science • Research Associates, Chicago, 1949* GOLDHAMER, Herbert. GOULDING, William S. "Housing'for Older People", Canadian ' •  ; ' Welfare, December 15, 1952.-Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa. KAPLAN, Jerome. A Social Program for Older People. Univer-s i t y of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1953. LEYDIER, Bernice. Boarding Home Care for the Aged. Master of Social Wibrk Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1948. MELNER, John G. "The Meaning of Personal Adjustment i n Old Age", Proceedings of the Governor's Con- ference on the Problems of the Aging. California, 1951. MUMPORD, Lewis. "For Older People - Not Segregation but Integration", Architectural Record, May, 1956. F.W. Dodge Corporation, New York. New York (State) Legislature, Joint Committee on Problems of the Aging. Birthdays Don't Count. New York (State) Legislature, Legislative Document, 1948, No.61. NUFFIELD FOUNDATION. Old People. Report of a Survey Committee on the Problems of Aging and the Care of Old People. Oxford University Press, London, 1947. Public Administration Service. Report-on'an Administrative Survey of the Municipal Government; C i t y  of Vancouver. Public Administration Ser-vice, Chicago, 1955. - 101 -"Revised Statutes of Canada, 1952. National Housing Act, Chapter 1 8 8 . ROSE, Albert. "Adequate Housing: Does I t Make Better Citizens?", an address to the National  Conference on Social Work, June 2 6 , 1954, Community Planning Association of Canada, Ottawa. ROSE, Albert. "Housing Administration i n Canada", Canadian Welfare, December 15 , 1952. Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa. Social Department of Denmark. Social Denmark, Social Depart-ment of Denmark, Copenhagen, 1945* Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955* Elderly Citizens' Housing Aid Act, Chapter 1 9 . STRATTON, P.R.U. "Housing for Senior Citizens - the Next Step", Community Planning Review, Community Planning Association of Canada, Ottawa, Vol. 6, No. 3 , September 1956. Vancouver Housing Association. Housing f o r our Older Citizens, Vancouver Housing Association, Vancouver, • March, 1949. Tancouver Housing Association. Building for Senior Citizens, Vancouver Housing Association, Vancouver, January, 1956. 


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