UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Group work practice in a receiving home for boys Billington, Alan Roy 1953

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GROUP WORK PRACTICE IN A RECEIVING HOME FOR BOYS An A n a l y s i s o f an E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o j e c t i n the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952-53  by ALAN ROY BILLINGTON  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f t h e Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK I n the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o t h e standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work-  School o f S o c i a l Work  1953 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  - ii -  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter I .  S o c i a l Work and the Modern I n s t i t u t i o n f o r Children  The changing p h i l o s o p h y o f f o s t e r c a r e . Types o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and development o f S o c i a l Work s e r v i c e s i n institutions. Types o f c h i l d r e n who b e n e f i t from i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. Modern p r a c t i c e . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the use o f S o c i a l Work s e r v i c e s . O r i g i n s and development, Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y Boys' Home. E x p e r i e n c e s and behaviour o f the boys. O b j e c t i v e s of group work and the job o f the group worker. O b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y . Problems that were a n t i c i p a t e d . Method o f study  Page  1  Chapter I I . D e v e l o p i n g a New Group Work Program P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g . Team c o n f e r e n c e s . Group s e s s i o n s w i t h the boys. Meetings w i t h Neighbourhood House s t a f f . A c t i v i t i e s u l t i m a t e l y a v a i l a b l e . Total process o f program development Chapter I I I . Changes  22  i n Behaviour  (a) Changes w i t h i n the group. Kinds o f a c t i v i t i e s . Process o f i n i t i a t i n g and c a r r y i n g out a c t i v i t i e s . O r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the group. Worker-group r e l a t i o n s h i p . T o t a l process t h a t brought about these changes. (b) Changes i n r e a c t i o n s towards new a c t i v i t i e s i n the community. The t o t a l process that brought about these changes  42  Chapter IV. I n d i v i d u a l Progress Behaviour o f i n d i v i d u a l boys i n the group work program; (a) those who d e r i v e d most b e n e f i t ; (b) those l e s s a b l e to b e n e f i t ; (c) those l e a s t a f f e c t e d . Conclusions Chapter V.  G e n e r a l Program  71  Implications.  C o - o p e r a t i o n between group worker and case worker on i n d i v i d u a l cases. C o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h house parents on i n d i v i d u a l cases. O v e r a l l i n t e g r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n n e c e s s a r y . Recommendations: (1) the immediate f u t u r e ; (2) l o n g range needs. The r o l e o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n t h i s work 89 Bibliography  108  - i i i -  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s i s a study and a n a l y s i s o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n of group work s e r v i c e s t o the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. When the p r o j e c t began, no group work s e r v i c e s and no adequate l e i s u r e time program were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r the boys l i v i n g i n the Home. The c u r r e n t p h i l o s o p h y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r c h i l d r e n , the p r i n c i p l e s and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f group l i v i n g , and the concepts o f environmental c o n t r o l a r e o u t l i n e d . Within t h i s frame o f r e f e r e n c e , the o r i g i n and development o f the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home i s t r a c e d , and the experiences and g e n e r a l behavi o u r o f the boys a r e d e s c r i b e d . The b a s i c f u n c t i o n o f t h e group worker and the v a l u e s o f group experiences i n this s e t t i n g are d i s c u s s e d . T h i s p u r e l y experimental p r o j e c t , t h a t a t f i r s t cont a i n e d many n e g a t i v e elements, showed l i t t l e i n i t i a l promise o f being very s u c c e s s f u l . Group process r e c o r d s a r e analysed t o show the gradual process o f d e v e l o p i n g a group work program p r o v i d i n g a v a r i e t y o f experiences f o r the boys, and c o n t r i b u t i n g to the t o t a l program o f the R e c e i v i n g Home i n o t h e r ways. P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o three a r e a s : (1) the s e r i e s of co-ordinated meetings i n v o l v i n g (a) the s t a f f o f the R e c e i v i n g Home; (b) the boys themselves as they planned and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the l e i s u r e time program; ( c ) t h e s t a f f o f Alexandra Neighbourhood House; ( 2 ) the g e n e r a l changes t h a t were brought about i n the boys' behaviour; ( 3 ) the progress o f t h e boys towards more normal behaviour. Other s p e c i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f the p r o j e c t , such as working w i t h t h e case workers and the house parents a r e mentioned. The p r o j e c t i n d i c a t e s the need f o r c o n t i n u i n g group work s e r v i c e s and a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f modern i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h a range o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . F i n a l l y , suggestions a r e made on the most a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n f o r t h e present R e c e i v i n g Home, and the r o l e o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n d e v e l o p i n g such new institutions.  - iv-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  T h i s p r o j e c t was made p o s s i b l e through t h e continued e f f o r t s o f many people, a l l o f whom are s i n c e r e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the progress  o f s o c i a l work.  First of a l l ,  c r e d i t must be g i v e n t o Mr. Ronald E .  Hawkes, s u p e r v i s o r o f the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home.  His vision,  i n i t i a t i v e , and enthusiasm were i n i t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s project.  C r e d i t must a l s o be g i v e n t o Miss Dorothy Coombs  E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , who approved the i n i t i a t i o n o f t h i s p r o j e c t , and who showed i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm as i t  continued  progressed.  I would l i k e t o express my most s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n to a l l those w i t h whom I was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d d u r i n g project.  this  To Miss E l i z a b e t h Thomas o f the School o f S o c i a l  Work o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n , and f o r her i n v a l u a b l e guidance and d i r e c t i o n o f the whole p r o j e c t ;  t o Mr. Jack Sanders, case work s u p e r v i s o r ,  the C h i l d r e n s A i d S o c i e t y , f o r h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , encourage1  ment, and g e n e r a l enthusiasm;  t o Mr. S. P i n k e r t o n ,  Assistant  E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , and t o t h e members o f the R e c e i v i n g Homes Committee, f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and support;  t o Mr. B a s i l Robinson,  continued  Executive  D i r e c t o r o f Alexandra Neighbourhood House, and t o h i s s t a f f , .  - V -  especially  t o Miss Barbara  Greene, Mr. Harold Alexander, Mr.  Wesley Rupp, and the students  and v o l u n t e e r s , without  whose  h e l p t h i s p r o j e c t would have been much l e s s e f f e c t i v e ;  t o the  o t h e r workers, s u p e r v i s o r s , and s t a f f o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y w i t h whom I was i n d a i l y c o n t a c t .  P a r t i c u l a r l y Mr.  R. E . Hawkes, Mr. and Mrs. C a l l a n d e r , and the s t a f f o f t h e Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home.  I t was a p l e a s u r e t o work w i t h such  e n t h u s i a s t i c , s i n c e r e , and c o o p e r a t i v e people.  No student  could ask f o r a more v a l u a b l e , s a t i s f y i n g f i e l d work  experience.  I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Dr. Leonard C. Marsh, Miss E l i z a b e t h Thomas, and Mr. Ronald E . Hawkes f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , s u g g e s t i o n s , and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s which were most h e l p f u l i n the composition  of this  thesis.  GROUP WORK PRACTICE IN A RECEIVING HOME FOR BOYS  Chapter I  SOCIAL WORK AND THE MODERN INSTITUTION FOR CHILDREN  For many years i t was thought that the foster family home was the total answer to providing homes for dependent children. It was thought that the institution, with i t s record of inhuman mass care, was gone for ever.  However, experience has shown  that some children f a i l to adapt themselves i n a satisfactory manner to even the most suitable foster homes.  Home after  home has been tried and the child has not been happy.  When  care has been provided i n a modern institution, some of these children have been able to adapt themselves to the group l i v i n g program i n a very satisfactory manner.  Experience has also  shown that social agencies have had considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n finding suitable foster homes i n which to place a l l the children under their care. vided.  Some other means of care has had to be pro-  Here, again, the modern institution i s proving i t s e l f  to be a unique resource.  As one prominent writer says "There  is ... (today) ... an acceptance of the complementary nature of institutional and foster home services rather than the continuing assumption that they are i n competition with each other."  1  1 Suzanne Schulze, "Group Living and the Dependent Child," i n Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work. Columbia University Press, 1947, p. 3 8 8 .  - 2 -  Apart  from those i n s t i t u t i o n s designed  f o r special  groups such as the advanced d e l i n q u e n t , the p h y s i c a l l y  handi-  capped, and the m e n t a l l y d e f i c l e n t - ( n o n e o f which a r e w i t h i n the scope o f t h i s s t u d y ) , t h e r e a r e f o u r main types o f c h i l dren's i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t a r e recognized  today.  These f o u r  types each render s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n , and  they may be c l a s s i f i e d  and d e s c r i b e d on the b a s i s o f these  services: 1.  I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r g e n e r a l care o r t r a i n i n g .  These  i n c l u d e i n s t i t u t i o n s making no l i m i t a t i o n s i n regard t o the type o f c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d o t h e r than those based on such broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s as age, sex, r a c e , o r r e l i g i o u s  affiliation.  They would a l s o i n c l u d e day n u r s e r i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r normal adolescents 2.  R e c e i v i n g homes.  "shelters". and  i n need o f group  short-time  agencies  experience.  These a r e f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as  They p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s care.  f o r d i a g n o s i s , o r emergency  They i n c l u d e temporary s h e l t e r s used by  pending placement i n a f a m i l y home, and a l s o the  d e t e n t i o n homes o r c o u r t s o r p r o t e c t i v e a g e n c i e s .  I n many  l o c a l i t i e s t h i s f u n c t i o n has l a r g e l y been taken over by s u b s i d i z e d f o s t e r homes. 3. these  Study homes o r treatment  centres.  centres f o r study and treatment  The f u n c t i o n o f  i s e x p l a i n e d most c o n c i s e l y  i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n w i t h s e r i o u s problems and treatment f o r such c h i l d r e n w h i l e they are l i v i n g w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , represent, a  - 3 -  somewhat recent development. The name study home, which has become popular, i s a term that has followed the introduction of psychiatric service into the f i e l d of child welfare, but there i s a sense i n which i t i s a misnomer. As the name implies, i n s t i t u t i o n s so called attempt an intensive study and treatment of each i n d i v i d ual ~ a service usually not expected of the asylum, school or home. Once a diagnosis has been made, however i t i s treatment which i s more important than study, a fact that should be recognized by c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s as well as by i n s t i t u t i o n s concerned p r i m a r i l y with disturbed children. I t would be more appropriate to name these i n s t i t u t i o n s treatment centres, because those establishments worthy of the name have gone f a r beyond the diagnostic function of merely studying the children entrusted to them. 1  4.  Institutions combining the features of receiving homes  and c l i n i c s f o r study and special treatment.  As the c l a s s i f i c a -  t i o n of this type of i n s t i t u t i o n implies, their function i s to provide care not only for children who are dependent or neglected, but also f o r some disturbed children i n need of special observat i o n and treatment.  These i n s t i t u t i o n s must supply or have  access to the necessary c l i n i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and trained s t a f f to diagnose serious emotional problems and carry out the required therapy. It can r e a d i l y be seen that the older i n s t i t u t i o n s were of the f i r s t type, and that the other three types l i s t e d below have been off-shoots from this parental stem, as have been the special types of i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r children such as those f o r the mentally handicapped.  In other words, the development of  1 Howard W. Hopkirk, Institutions Serving Children. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1944, p. 28.  - 4 -  c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s has  followed  the trend to  t i o n which i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the twentieth',  specializacentury.  1  Development of S o c i a l Work s e r v i c e s i n i n s t i t u t i o n s In h i s work, Mayo has d e s c r i b e d  the stages o f confused  t h i n k i n g t h a t have c h a r a c t e r i z e d the progress of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g . case work and  He  and  has a l s o c l a r i f i e d  group work i n t h i s s e t t i n g .  development the r o l e s of  He p o i n t s out  that  F o r years i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n were c r i t i c i z e d because of the predominance of mass treatment which e x i s t e d and the absence of case-work methods. The f i r s t r e a c t i o n to such c r i t i c i s m on the p a r t of i n s t i t u t i o n executives was to deny the n e c e s s i t y f o r case work as p r a c t i c e d i n the community and to p r o c l a i m the values o f group l i f e , making l i t t l e apparent e f f o r t , however, to improve i t s content. The next step was to embrace case work as a p o i n t of view and technique and f o r g e t that whether we l i k e i t or not the i n s t i t u t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y a group s i t u a t i o n . Our present s t a t e o f mind i s f o r t u n a t e l y more r a t i o n a l , f o r we are beginning to see group l i f e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s as a p o t e n t i a l a s s e t and r e a l i z e that the b a s i c d i f f i c u l t y c o n s i s t s not i n the e x i s t e n c e o f a group s i t u a t i o n but r a t h e r i n our f a i l u r e to develop i t s k i l f u l l y and i n r e l a t i o n to case work. 2  T h i s gradual  change i n p o i n t of view has  come about as  i n s t i t u t i o n s have a g a i n become more g e n e r a l l y accepted as a v a l u a b l e resource  for child  c a r e , and  as p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l  workers have come to t h i n k o f S o c i a l Work as i n c l u d i n g group work and  community o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as case work.  1 Harold Thomas W i l s o n , Embury House, A R e c e i v i n g Home f o r C h i l d r e n . T h e s i s , School o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950, pp. 2 6 - 4 5 . 2 Leonard Mayo, "What May Group Work and I n s t i t u t i o n s C o n t r i b u t e to Each Other?", In Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work. Chicago, The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1935> p. 3 3 1 .  - 5 -  Types of children that benefit from i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. P a r a l l e l to the development of the modern i n s t i t u t i o n as a group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n , has been the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of children that are suited f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g .  A group  of case workers i n Cleveland, r e a l i z i n g that many s o c i a l workers today had l i t t l e knowledge of modern i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, made an attempt to arrive at some general c r i t e r i a as to which c h i l dren might best p r o f i t from placement  i n modern i n s t i t u t i o n s .  They accepted as t h e i r basic assumption Hyman Lipman's statement that "children who need close relations with substitute parents should be placed i n foster homes, whereas children who need a more diluted relationship with adults would be better o f f i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , " ^ and they singled out the following types as those who would p r o f i t most from group l i v i n g : 1.  The child who has such strong family t i e s that h i s acceptance of substitute parents would be d i f f i c u l t .  2.  The child of separated parents who i s being used as a pawn by them to meet t h e i r own needs, with the situat i o n heightened when one or both parents have remarried.  3»  The child of certain inadequate parents who,  because of  t h e i r attitude toward f a i l u r e as parents, seem to prevent another family's success with t h e i r c h i l d . 4.  The child who  i s unable to form the close relationship  with adults that i s required i n a foster home. 1 Suzanne,Sehulze, "Group L i v i n g and the Dependent C h i l d , " i n Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work. New York, Columbia University Press, 1947, pp. 3 8 9 - 3 9 0 . *"  - 6 -  5.  The c h i l d who has had a s u c c e s s i o n o f f a i l u r e s i n f o s t e r homes and i s i n need o f a l e s s p e r s o n a l environment before a g a i n attempting f a m i l y l i f e .  6.  The c h i l d who r e q u i r e s a p e r i o d o f c l o s e and c o n t i n uous o b s e r v a t i o n i n o r d e r t o determine  7.  The c h i l d habit  8.  h i s needs.  over s i x years o f age who needs r e g u l a r  training.  The c h i l d who needs p r o t e c t i o n from u n s t a b l e p a r e n t s  1  I n a d d i t i o n , i t was the consensus o f o p i n i o n o f these workers that the o r d i n a r y i n s t i t u t i o n can admit o n l y a l i m i t e d number o f s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n without s e r v i c e s to a l l .  impairing i t s  The c h i l d r e n f o r whom placement i n i n s t i t u -  t i o n s was not considered as b e n e f i c i a l Included i n f a n t s , p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , orphans, feeble-minded,  h y p e r a c t i v e , and  2 completely withdrawn c h i l d r e n . The reasons why c e r t a i n types o f c h i l d r e n might be expected  to b e n e f i t from l i v i n g i n a modern i n s t i t u t i o n  become more apparent when i t s unique v a l u e s are s t u d i e d . The  unique v a l u e s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n . Schulze has l i s t e d  a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f v a l u e s t o  be found i n the i n s t i t u t i o n which may not be found  1  S c h u l z e , p. 392.  2  I b i d . , p. 393-  elsewhere:  - 7-  1.  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a m u l t i t u d e and v a r i e t y o f f a c e t s o f which i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g i s composed which may be s e l e c t e d and brought t o bear upon the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d f o r t h e r a p e u t i c purposes a c c o r d i n g t o h i s needs;  2.  The p o s s i b i l i t y i t o f f e r s f o r d i r e c t and continuous o b s e r v a t i o n o f the c h i l d under v a r i o u s l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s , so u r g e n t l y needed to a r r i v e a t a c l e a r d i a g n o s t i c p i c t u r e o f the c h i l d ;  3.  The o p p o r t u n i t y i t a f f o r d s the c h i l d t o rub shoulders w i t h a v a r i e t y o f people, a d u l t s as w e l l as c h i l d r e n , i n d a i l y companionship, so v e r y important f o r the c h i l d who has been l i f t e d out o f traumatic r e l a t i o n s h i p s and who i n t h i s way i s a f f o r d e d a chance t o e s t a b l i s h , a t i t s own pace o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n , new r e l a t i o n s w i t h both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n , s i n g l y and i n groups;  4.  The r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r freedom t h a t t h e c h i l d may be permitted i n the e x p r e s s i o n o f i t s h o s t i l i t y because o f the g r e a t e r frequency and c l o s e n e s s o f contacts between s k i l l e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ;  5.  The p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r the enrichment o f the i n d i v i d u a l through s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and achievement i n p l a y and work which i s o f the essence i n the treatment o f c h i l d r e n i n p a r t i c u l a r need o f success, r e c o g n i t i o n and the expansion o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s through acquaintance w i t h new i n t e r e s t f i e l d s as w e l l as through the deepening o f t h e i r interest levels;  6.  The range o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o develop a sense o f belonging and s e c u r i t y as a member o f the s m a l l l i v i n g u n i t y , o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l community as a whole, o f the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t y groups, s c h o o l and work groups and any number o f i n f o r m a l p l a y groups w i t h t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r making acceptance a r e p e t i t i v e experience;  7.  The o p p o r t u n i t y t o be reasonably dependent as w e l l as independent i n an environment l e s s h i g h l y charged emotiona l l y than a f a m i l y o r s u b s t i t u t e f a m i l y , where the " g i v e and take" and "do f o r y o u r s e l f " cannot help but be more h i g h l y c o l o r e d and more d e e p l y i n v o l v e d because o f the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f emotional t i e s i n e x i s t e n c e ;  8.  The frequency o f experience w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f democ r a t i c processes to d a i l y l i f e which may have great s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s l e a r n i n g how t o f u n c t i o n as a good c i t i z e n now as w e l l as i n the f u t u r e ;  9.  The d a i l y c o n s i s t e n t r o u t i n e , which though o f t e n misunderstood and abused, can be a v a l u a b l e t h e r a p e u t i c  - 8 f a c t o r and h e l p f u l to any c h i l d , and e s p e c i a l l y t o one who grew up l i k e Topsy and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y anxious t o know what to expect and to what he i s r e a c t i n g . Furthermore, i n the group s i t u a t i o n the t e a c h i n g o f conformance to c e r t a i n r o u t i n e s becomes l e s s o f a p e r s o n a l i s s u e o f obeying a c e r t a i n a d u l t but r a t h e r , i f s k i l f u l l y handled, a matter of something being expected of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d as of o t h e r s . 1  Before t u r n i n g to the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n t o be s t u d i e d , the v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , concepts, and c a t e g o r i e s t h a t have been d i s c u s s e d so f a r can be i n t e g r a t e d t o p r o v i d e a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f "the modern i n s t i t u t i o n " , i t s method, i t s b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y , and i t s aims. A g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of a modern i n s t i t u t i o n . The modern i n s t i t u t i o n accommodates a group o f u n r e l a t e d c h i l d r e n l i v i n g t o g e t h e r i n the care o f a group of u n r e l a t e d adults.  I t should have a h i g h l y t r a i n e d  s t a f f , and i t s l i v i n g  program should i n c l u d e group work and case work s e r v i c e s under p s y c h i a t r i c guidance.  I t should perform a s p e c i f i c  and serve a h i g h l y s e l e c t e d group o f c h i l d r e n .  function  I t should be  much s m a l l e r than the c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the p a s t , s i n c e it  i s now  realized  exceed one hundred t i v e use o f group  t h a t l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s whose p o p u l a t i o n s may c h i l d r e n have l i t t l e  chance t o make c o n s t r u c -  living.  Environmental c o n t r o l i s the b a s i c method t h a t i s u t i l ized. t h a t "We  Mayo's a r t i c l e i n c l u d e s a statement by Dr. David  Levy,  have accomplished more i n the r e - d i r e c t i n g o f conduct 2  through the m a n i p u l a t i o n of environment  than i n any o t h e r  way."  1 Suzanne S c h u l z e , "Group L i v i n g and the Dependent C h i l d , " i n Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947, pp. 389-390. 2 Leonard Mayo, "What May Group Work and I n s t i t u t i o n s C o n t r i b u t e t o Each Other?," i n Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l C o n f e r ence o f S o c i a l Work, Chicago, The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1935, p. 337  Dr.  Levy continues  t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y to " c r e a t e a  new  s i t u a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g some o f the e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s l a c k i n g i n the o l d environment and  s u i t e d to i n d i v i d u a l needs. "^"  Mayo  adds t h a t We move ... (a c h i l d ) ... to a new environment i n the hope t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i v e p a t t e r n s o f another group may be g r a d u a l l y assumed and that s o c i a l conduct may r e p l a c e the a n t i - s o c i a l . I f t h i s i s to be accomplished, i t demands a u n i o n o f these b a s i c s e r v i c e s w i t h the same ' k i c k * , the same sense o f adventure, of s e c u r i t y , and r e c o g n i t i o n , but in«a s o c i a l l y acceptable manner, t h a t the o l d group gave. The  group l i v i n g p h i l o s o p h y  i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d by Schulze.  She  of the modern i n s t i t u t i o n says t h a t , from a s o c i a l  work p o i n t of view, the word "group" "...  i m p l i e s a network  o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t have a s t r o n g l y l a s t i n g c h a r a c t e r  and,  because of t h i s , can c o n t r i b u t e a great d e a l toward the  devel-  opment o f the l a t e n t p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l belonging to i t , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t i s s k i l f u l l y guided a c c o r d i n g  to  3  modern group work p r i n c i p l e s . " s o c i a l climate  ... i s one  She  adds that "a  o f the s t r o n g e s t  w i t h c h i l d r e n whose s t r i v i n g s , d r i v e s , and  treatment  thus served  influences  c o n f l i c t s too  have remained l a t e n t , because of an u n d e s i r a b l e and  healthy  to d i s t o r t t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  often  home s i t u a t i o n , They can  be helped through the medium o f c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n  and  only  satisfy-  i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s that w i l l l e a d to s e l f - r e s p e c t , p e r s o n a l 1  Loc. c i t .  2  Loc. c i t .  3  Schulze,  op_. c i t . , p.  391.  - 10 s a t i s f a c t i o n s , and group r e c o g n i t i o n and i n t h i s way make i t p o s s i b l e f o r them t o become b e t t e r i n t e g r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s i s a general  statement o f the p h i l o s o p h y  1 , 1  o f the modern  institution. The diagnosis  u l t i m a t e aim o f the modern i n s t i t u t i o n i s the  and treatment o f c h i l d r e n t o prepare them f o r the  r e t u r n t o the community as b e t t e r i n t e g r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . The  c h i l d r e n a r e not r e t a i n e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r an i n d e f i -  n i t e p e r i o d but a r e moved on as soon as a s a t i s f a c t o r y p l a n can be s u b s t i t u t e d . Implications  f o r the use o f s o c i a l work.  Mayo can see the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f i n t e g r a t i n g case work, group work, and community o r g a n i z a t i o n so that they a l l c o n t r i bute harmoniously t o t h i s u l t i m a t e aim.  I n p a r t i c u l a r , he says,  ... group work w i t h c h i l d r e n i s o n l y a p a r t o f the a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . The s t a f f , the board, and the community o f f e r e q u a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o the superintendent who i s 'group conscious* 2  •• •  These concepts o f group work w i t h r e s p e c t t o c h i l d r e n , s t a f f , board, and community, l e a d us beyond the narrow c o n f i n e s o f the o l d c o n c e p t i o n o f group work as r e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t y a l o n e . We b e g i n t o see group work as a p h i l o s o p h y o r a way o f l i f e as w e l l as a technique and as much a p a r t o f the t o t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e scheme as case work.3 1 Suzanne Schulze, "Group L i v i n g and the Dependent C h i l d J' i n Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, New York Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947* p. 391. 2 Leonard Mayo, "What May Group Work and I n s t i t u t i o n s C o n t r i b u t e t o Each Other?", i n the Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, Chicago, The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1935, p . 334. 3  I b i d . , p. 3 3 1 .  - 11  He  suggests,  i n g e n e r a l , that s o c i a l workers need to  sharpen t h e i r "awareness o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f e f f e c t i v e group work i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . " ^ A specific The  institution. Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y  of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, has provided an example o f how these t h e o r e t i c a l concepts tion;  i t has presented  can be a p p l i e d t o a s p e c i f i c  situa-  an o p p o r t u n i t y to demonstrate and  e v a l u a t e the use o f group work s e r v i c e s w i t h a c o l l e c t i o n o f anti-social The  children. Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home was opened i n February 1950  as an emergency housing  u n i t f o r teen-age boys.  At t h i s  time,  the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y was faced w i t h the problems o f c a r i n g f o r an i n c r e a s i n g number o f teen-age boys who were not s u i t a b l e f o r f o s t e r home, boarding  home, o r h o s t e l placement.  These were the o n l y other resources a v a i l a b l e .  The boys who  were cared f o r i n the R e c e i v i n g Home had a l r e a d y shown thems e l v e s t o be u n s u i t a b l e f o r any o f the other r e s o u r c e s ; had  they  h i s t o r i e s o f u n s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r home placements from  which the boys e i t h e r r a n away o r were removed a t the request o f the f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  Truancy, b u l l y i n g , l y i n g ,  swearing, temper tantrums, and r e f u s a l t o cooperate were common complaints  with adults  t h a t l e d t o placement i n the R e c e i v i n g  Home. 1  stealing,  Mayo, op. c i t . , p. 331*  - 12 -  At t h i s time, the Home was a p o t e n t i a l group work s i t u a t i o n , although The Home was being  group work s e r v i c e s were not being supervised  utilized.  by a male case worker who had a  l a r g e country case l o a d and was t h e r e f o r e unable t o give cons i s t e n t case work s e r v i c e s t o the r e s i d e n t s o f t h e Home. c o n d i t i o n continued In  This  u n t i l June, 1 9 5 1 .  June, 1951* a s e r i e s o f changes was i n i t i a t e d .  A  male case worker w i t h a s m a l l e r case load was appointed t o s u p e r v i s e the R e c e i v i n g Home more c l o s e l y .  Under h i s super-  v i s i o n s e v e r a l o t h e r developments were brought about, i n c l u d i n g the appointment o f b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d house p a r e n t s , a more h i g h l y s e l e c t e d group, b e t t e r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s i n the community, and a r e c r e a t i o n a l program. When the boys i n the Home were c a r e f u l l y those who had h i s t o r i e s o f d e l i n q u e n t from the Home.  considered,  behaviour were removed  The Home was l i m i t e d t o boys between the ages  o f twelve and f i f t e e n years who were a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l , and who could be expected t o p r o f i t from the group l i v i n g without  experience  c r e a t i n g t o o d i s t u r b i n g an i n f l u e n c e on the o t h e r group  members.  Since s l e e p i n g accommodation I n the Home was l i m i t e d ,  the number o f boys i n the Home was reduced from s i x t e e n to eleven. Through the e f f o r t s o f the s u p e r v i s o r o f the Home, p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r a b l y improved.  The s u p e r v i s o r ,  r e a l i z i n g t h a t the immediate community viewed the Home w i t h some d i s a p p r o v a l , d e l i b e r a t e l y set o u t t o remedy the s i t u a t i o n . Through h i s e f f o r t s , the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s became more t o l e r a n t and  c o o p e r a t i v e , and a neighbourhood a u x i l i a r y was formed; i t  - 13  included  representatives  c l u b s , and f o u r blocks  -  from a l o c a l church, from s e r v i c e  from Alexandra Neighbourhood House (which i s l o c a t e d from the Receiving  Home).  Through t h i s a u x i l i a r y ,  the church o f f e r e d the use of i t s gymnasium, and s e r v i c e clubs f i n a n c e d ment o f the Home.  one  of  the  the b u i l d i n g o f a games room i n the base-  These were much needed r e s o u r c e s ,  since  space f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the Home i s v e r y l i m i t e d . A l i m i t e d amount of organized was  g r a d u a l l y developed.  f a t h e r supervised  A volunteer  leisure-time l e a d e r and  activity the house  the group i n gymnasium a c t i v i t i e s once a week.  W i t h the s u p e r v i s o r ' s  h e l p , most o f the group members j o i n e d  the A i r Force o r Army Cadets, and  some got p a r t - t i m e  jobs  as d e l i v e r i n g g r o c e r i e s or p i n - s e t t i n g at a l o c a l bowling  such alley.  In the summer h o l i d a y s , some o f the group members attended Camp Howdy, a Y.M.C.A. camp. These are the main improvements t h a t were made i n the p h y s i c a l environment and  i n program development from J u l y ,  u n t i l September, 1952.  At t h i s time the Home was  double f u n c t i o n o f r e c e i v i n g home and The  s u p e r v i s o r , who  recognized  had  1951»  serving  semi-permanent  the  residence.  some understanding of group work,  t h a t i f group work s e r v i c e s were i n t r o d u c e d  as  an  i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n , the process o f h e l p i n g the boys to become b e t t e r i n t e g r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s , might be more e f f e c t i v e . S o c i e t y consulted  With t h i s i n mind, the C h i l d r e n ' s  Aid  the School o f S o c i a l Work o f the U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and  i n September 1952,  the author began  - 14 -  h i s work i n the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home, as a student i n second year f i e l d work placement,  p r o f e s s i o n a l l y s u p e r v i s e d by a member  o f f a c u l t y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o the R e c e i v i n g Hpme s u p e r v i s o r . Experiences and behaviour o f the group members. So f a r , the behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the group members have been l i s t e d v e r y b r i e f l y .  A more complete  picture  i s obtained when the a c t u a l experiences t h a t they have been through are studied and r e l a t e d t o t h e i r present behaviour and attitudes.  A number o f boys w i t h s i m i l a r h i s t o r i e s were s t u d i e d  by F r i t z Redl, i n D e t r o i t .  H i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f these boys f i t s  the boys i n the R e c e i v i n g Home v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e l y .  He says  that I f p r e v a i l i n g c r i t e r i a f o r what c o n s t i t u t e s an adequate c h i l d - a d u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p p a t t e r n are used as a b a s i s f o r r e a c h i n g c o n c l u s i o n s , we can see v e r y l i t t l e i n the case h i s t o r y p r o f i l e s o f our c h i l d r e n t h a t would s a t i s f y even the most naive c l i n i c i a n o r educator t h a t they had had anything even approaching an 'even break.' I n very few i n s t a n c e s were we a b l e t o gather any evidence that there had been even c o n t i n u i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o r i g i n a l parent images. Broken homes through d i v o r c e and d e s e r t i o n , the c h a i n - r e a c t i o n s t y l e o f f o s t e r placements and i n s t i t u t i o n a l storage were conspicuous events i n t h e i r l i v e s . Aside from c o n t i n u i t y , the q u a l i t y o f the t i e between c h i l d and a d u l t world was marred by r e j e c t i o n ranging from open b r u t a l i t y , c r u e l t y , and n e g l e c t t o a f f e c t barrenness on the p a r t o f some parents and n a r c i s s i s t i c a b s o r p t i o n i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s which e x i l e d t h e c a i l d e m o t i o n a l l y from them. C e r t a i n l y t h e r e were a l s o o p e r a t i v e heavy mixtures o f both s t y l e s o f r e j e c t i o n , o v e r t and unconscious. 1  1 F r i t z Redl and David Wineman, C h i l d r e n Who Hate, The F r e e P r e s s , Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , 1953» PP« 5 0 - 5 1 .  -  15  -  Redl l i s t s what he c a l l s some o f the m i s s i n g l i n k s i n their lives.  These m i s s i n g l i n k s a r e :  1.  F a c t o r s l e a d i n g to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a d u l t s , f e e l i n g s of being loved and wanted, and encouragement t o accept v a l u e s and standards o f the a d u l t world.  2.  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r and help i n a c h i e v i n g a g r a t i f y i n g recreational pattern.  3.  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r adequate peer  4.  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r making community t i e s , e s t a b l i s h i n g a f e e l i n g of being rooted somewhere where one belongs, where other people besides your parents know you and l i k e you.  5.  Ongoing f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s which were not i n some phase o f b a s i c d i s i n t e g r a t i o n at almost any g i v e n time o f t h e i r l i v e s .  6.  Adequate economic s e c u r i t y f o r some o f the b a s i c needs and n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e .  relationship.  Redl adds t h a t " I t i s important  t o emphasize t h a t these  items were m i s s i n g from t h e i r environment - not t h a t t h e i r d i s turbance p a t t e r n s themselves u t i l i z i n g them."  1  prevented  them from absorbing  and  As a r e s u l t o f these events, the f o l l o w i n g  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as o u t l i n e d by R e d l , are apparent c h i l d r e n i n the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home.  i n the  They have  ...extremely poor adjustment t o the communities and s c h o o l s from which they came. In the s c h o o l , both on a b e h a v i o u r a l and a s c h o l a s t i c b a s i s , they showed severe d i s a b i l i t i e s t o the extent o f having to be i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s or o f b e i n g excluded from s c h o o l altogether.. In t h e i r communities, they e i t h e r r a n w i t h the o t h e r d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n or engaged i n 'lone w o l f a c t i v i t i e s o f a d e l i n q u e n t o r impulsive nature. I n both s c h o o l and community a r e a s , they s u f f e r e d from the same l o s s of c o n t i n u i t y and s t a b i l i t y t h a t occurred i n t h e i r a d u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p p a t t e r n s . Because many of them were s h i f t e d about so much they never became  1 P.  57.  F r i t z Redl and David Wineman, C h i l d r e n who  Hate,  - 16 acquainted w i t h or rooted i n any one  community m i l i e u .  These are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t make these u n p r e d i c t a b l e , unmanageable by the u n t r a i n e d f o s t e r and  children  parent,  t h e r e f o r e u n s u i t a b l e f o r f o s t e r homes, boarding homes, o r  hostels.  These are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t l e d R e d l t o g i v e  them the apt d e s c r i p t i o n of "The  c h i l d r e n nobody wants.  A t t i t u d e s o f the boys t o a d u l t s and The  a c t i v i t y of an  Institution.  f a c t t h a t these c h i l d r e n are cared f o r i n an  t u t i o n does n o t , of course a u t o m a t i c a l l y change t h e i r  insti-  behaviour.  Redl says of c h i l d r e n such as t h e s e , t h a t T h e i r a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t s i s c o n d i t i o n e d by • p r e s t i g e v a l u e s which p r o c l a i m proud independence from a d u l t s , * and by 'a s t r o n g hatred of a d u l t s which induces s t r o n g r e s i s t a n c e toward c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h any a d u l t sponsored program, out o f pure s u s p i c i o n and a g g r e s s i o n ' . . . . 'At the o u t s e t i t can be s a f e l y assumed t h a t the a d u l t group l e a d e r i s an i n t r u d e r ' . . . . 3 When t h i s p i c t u r e of a c o l l e c t i o n o f such d e p r i v e d c h i l d r e n i s c o n s i d e r e d , one might w e l l wonder what hope t h e r e i s f o r them, e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s remembered t h a t the R e c e i v i n g Home i s not planned  o r designed  specifically for their  treatment,  1 R e d l , op. c l t . , p. 5 3 Note: Although the experiences and behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s quoted from Redl a p p l y to t h i s group, there are some d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d . Whereas Redl's group was i n the 8 - 1 0 years age group, t h i s group i s i n the 1 1 - 1 5 years age group. T h e r e f o r e , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d o l e s cence must a l s o be s t u d i e d . The behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i s t u r b e d a d o l e s c e n t s are v i v i d l y p o r t r a y e d by Hacker and G e l e e r d , who suggest methods o f working w i t h d i s t u r b e d a d o l e s c e n t s t h a t could be a p p l i e d to t h i s s i t u a t i o n . See F. Hacker and E . G e l e e r d , "Freedom and A u t h o r i t y i n Adolescence," i n The American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . American O r t h o p s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n , New York, 1945,  vol. 15,  pp.  621-630.  2  R e d l , op_. c i t . , p. 2 0 .  3  I b i d . , p. 2 2 6  - 17 and that when the boys are f i r s t sent there i t i s because they are too disturbed to be accepted anywhere else i n the community. What could the social group work method be expected to contribut to such a situation?  This question can be answered f i r s t i n a  general way and then more specifically. In general, most social agencies serving groups have two purposes i n common: (1) to help individuals use groups to further their development into emotionally balanced, intellectually free, and physically f i t persons; (2) to help groups achieve ends desirable i n an economic, p o l i t i cal, and social democracy. Social group work ... i s a method of affecting group l i f e with references to these purposes which are the lifeblood of the social welfare movement. We therefore see social group work as a process and a method through which group l i f e i s affected by a worker who consciously directs the interacting process towards the accomplishment of goals which i n our country are conceived i n a democratic frame of reference.1 More specifically, within this general concept, and i n relation to children, i t i s realized that Group experiences are some of the most important elements i n the child's growing up. They help him overcome infantile levels of emotional development which otherwise make i t d i f f i c u l t for him to relate to his associates. They help him to express or sublimate aggressive and sexual drives i n socially acceptable a c t i v i t i e s . They help him re-enact home situations with substitute parents and siblings. They help him to f u l f i l the need of a l l children to be liked by others - both adults and children. 2  While this concept i s true for a l l children, i t i s parti ularly appropriate for deprived children.  In this situation,  then, the most fundamental job of the group worker i s to provide s k i l f u l l y guided group experiences that are suited to the needs 1 G. Wilson and G. Ryland, Social Group Work Practice. The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1949, p. 61. 2 "Group Work and Psychiatry", i n the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. American Orthopsychiatric Association, New York, 1949j p» 462, et. seq.  - 18  -  o f the i n d i v i d u a l boys, and t h a t w i l l , g r a d u a l l y , h e l p them to develop c r e a t i v e means of s e l f e x p r e s s i o n , s a t i s f y i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s e l f r e s p e c t , p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , and a c c e p t a b l e conduct i n such a way  socially  t h a t these elements w i l l become  a permanent p a r t of t h e i r l i v e s .  As one prominent  w r i t e r says:  ... group work ... f u r n i s h e s the b a s i c l i f e l i k e , s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s w i t h i n which much o f the p r e s c r i b e d case-work treatment may be put i n t o p r a c t i c e . That i s to say t h a t the case-worker must t u r n t o the group-worker to f u r n i s h adequate s o c i a l groups comparable t o ^ t h e r e a l l i f e - s i t u a t i o n s i n which her c l i e n t s must e v e n t u a l l y ^ f u n c t i o n . We a l l l i v e , p l a y , and work i n a group world; ( i t i s t h e r e f o r e ) ... e s s e n t i a l f o r us to t e a c h the younger g e n e r a t i o n t h i s a r t . S o c i a l work as a whole, then, may f i n d i n guided group experience not merely a d e s s e r t but something as n e c e s s a r y to the whole d i e t as i s case work. 1 These g e n e r a l concepts were to serve as a guide throughout t h i s p r o j e c t .  However, when the p r o j e c t was  i n i t i a t e d , the  f u l l extent of the boys• r e t a r d e d and d i s t o r t e d s o c i a l and emotional development, and the i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i r h o s t i l e ,  anti-  s o c i a l r e a c t i o n s to t h e i r p e e r s , to a d u l t s and t o the g e n e r a l environment,  were not a p p r e c i a t e d .  i t y to determine  There had been no  i f the boys r e v e a l e d any p o s i t i v e  opportun-  characteris-  t i c s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i f they r e v e a l e d any c r e a t i v e o r i f they would b e n e f i t from group e x p e r i e n c e s . t h e r e f o r e , two b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s at that time. was  One  ability,  There were, objective  t o observe the boys* behaviour, and thereby determine  as  a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e the degree o f s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n t h a t existed.  The o t h e r o b j e c t i v e was  to i n i t i a t e and develop a  group work program based on these o b s e r v a t i o n s and guided by the 1 Leonard Mayo, "What May Group Work and I n s t i t u t i o n s C o n t r i b u t e t o Each Other?", i n the Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work. Chicago, The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1935, p. 3 3 6 .  -  19  -  g e n e r a l concepts a l r e a d y s t a t e d . it  T h i s would o n l y be done i f  appeared t h a t the group work method c o u l d be used and would  be o f v a l u e i n meeting the needs o f the boys.  I t was not  known i f the use o f group work s e r v i c e s would be f e a s i b l e i n such a s e t t i n g . When the p r o j e c t s t a r t e d , the l o c a l church gymnasium (which had been used the p r e v i o u s year) was the o n l y s u i t a b l e and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e space i n which t o c a r r y on any kind o f program w i t h the boys. little  The Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home had v e r y  to o f f e r e i t h e r i n the way o f a s u i t a b l e room o r i n the  way o f games, hobby m a t e r i a l o r s p o r t s equipment.  This  was  p a r t l y because o f the boys' a g g r e s s i v e , d e s t r u c t i v e t e n d e n c i e s . Anything that was provided was immediately abused and soon destroyed.  F o r the same reasons, and by t h e i r g e n e r a l behav-  i o u r , the boys i n v a r i a b l y abused the f a c i l i t i e s  o f most  r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s and were unable t o use them i n the appropr i a t e manner when exposed to them.  The group worker was  t h e r e f o r e r e l u c t a n t t o encourage the boys to venture i n t o the community under h i s s u p e r v i s i o n a t t h i s time.  Even i f t h i s  had been attempted, i t i s d o u b t f u l i f the boys would have gone anyway, s i n c e they were i n i t i a l l y v e r y s u s p i c i o u s o f the worker and h o s t i l e t o him. From the l i t t l e  that was known about the s i t u a t i o n , i t  was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the main problem would be the l a c k o f facilities.  I t was a l s o a n t i c i p a t e d that i t would be q u i t e  necessary to develop an e f f e c t i v e team work r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  20  the house f a t h e r , who, i n t h i s case, had p r e v i o u s l y had cons i d e r a b l e experience as a games and r e c r e a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r i n British institutions.  He had a l s o h e l d v a r i e d and q u i t e  r e s p o n s i b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n these  institutions.  As i s t o be expected, he had many worth-while  i d e a s and a  s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t but v e r y p o s i t i v e p h i l o s o p h y from experiences.  these  H i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the process o f d e v e l o p i n g  a group work program t h e r e f o r e promised  t o be o f r e a l v a l u e ,  and was considered t o be j u s t as e s s e n t i a l and j u s t as v a l u a b l e as t h a t o f the workers concerned. f a t h e r had devoted  I n the p a s t , the house  c o n s i d e r a b l e time t o l e i s u r e time  activities  w i t h the boys and had c o n s i s t e n t l y shown a r e a l i n t e r e s t i n the boys' p r o g r e s s . his  work a t the R e c e i v i n g Home, t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f the Home had  d i s c u s s e d the proposed who had agreed new  Before the group worker a c t u a l l y began  group work program w i t h the house f a t h e r ,  t o go along w i t h the i d e a , although i t was q u i t e  t o him. With so l i t t l e  i n f o r m a t i o n about boys who were p r o b a b l y  v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o work w i t h even under i d e a l circumstances, and w i t h the a n t i c i p a t e d problems t h a t would a r i s e out o f the l a c k of  resources and equipment, i t would have been reasonable t o  expect l i t t l e  o r no success from t h i s experimental  project.  However, i n s p i t e o f these circumstances, soon a f t e r t h i s p r o j e c t was s t a r t e d , i t was found be developed  t h a t group work s e r v i c e s would  i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner;  however, f o u r i n t e r -  r e l a t e d areas o f p l a n n i n g were n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g about t h i s  - 21 -  development.  The  f i r s t o f these areas was  preliminary plan-  n i n g w i t h the house f a t h e r and the s u p e r v i s o r o f the Rome. T h i s l e d to the second  area - team conferences i n c l u d i n g house  f a t h e r , group worker, case workers, the many purposes  and s u p e r v i s o r s .  t h a t these conferences served was  One  of  to e s t a b -  l i s h the f a c t t h a t group s e s s i o n s should be h e l d w i t h the boys so t h a t they could c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r ideas- t o the process o f d e v e l o p i n g the new  program.  These group s e s s i o n s were soon  b e i n g held r e g u l a r l y w i t h the boys; of planning. ways o f meeting  they were the t h i r d  From these s e s s i o n s , i t was  n e c e s s a r y to f i n d  the i n t e r e s t s t h a t were expressed by the  The f o u r t h area o f p l a n n i n g was  area  boys.  meetings w i t h the s t a f f o f  Alexandra Neighbourhood House.  T h i s made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the  boys t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a number o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t  interested  them i n the Neighbourhood House. "Ultimately, there were two ent l i n e s o f a c t i v i t y .  One was  concurrent but q u i t e d i f f e r -  the p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d  -gymnasium a c t i v i t y , which, when i t was and  e a g e r l y accepted by the boys.  suggested, was  The o t h e r was  p l i c a t e d process o f g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p i n g a new would p r o v i d e new,  the more com-  program which  d e s i r a b l e experiences f o r the  F o r the purposes  boys.  of a n a l y s i s , i t i s convenient to  s e l e c t the two major aspects o f the t o t a l program; process o f d e v e l o p i n g a new  program;  one i s the  the o t h e r i s the g e n e r a l  changes i n the boys' behaviour t h a t were brought about t h i s program. The  immediately  A chapter i s devoted  through  t o each o f these a s p e c t s .  group work r e c o r d i s used t o p r o v i d e s e l e c t e d examples t h a t  i l l u s t r a t e the developments i n each o f these a r e a s .  Chapter I I  DEVELOPING A NEW  From the f i r s t subsequent  PROGRAM  stages o f p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g , the  stages of team cbnferences  group s e s s i o n s w i t h the  boys, and meetings w i t h the Neighbourhood House s t a f f , arose i n t u r n . program  I n t h i s way,  each  the most e f f e c t i v e group work  that could be provided under the circumstances  g r a d u a l l y developed  was  t o a g r e a t e r extent than would have been  thought p o s s i b l e a t the o u t s e t .  I n f a c t , i t was  developed  to  l i m i t s set o n l y by the l i m i t s o f the immediate community resources. Preliminary planning. Before the process o f d e v e l o p i n g a new  program a c t u a l l y  began, the group worker and the s u p e r v i s o r o f the Home reviewed the p r e v i o u s e f f o r t s t o develop a program, and d i s c u s s e d v a r i o u s possibilities: (Oct. 2 3 ) W. met Mr. H. The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s were d i s c u s s e d about the R e c e i v i n g Home. Should the Home?  e f f o r t s be made to develop a " c l u b s p i r i t " a t Mr. H. thought t h a t the boys were conscious o f  1 The term "team conferences" i s used t o d e s c r i b e the meetings which i n c l u d e d the house f a t h e r , the group worker, the case workers, t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s , and a worker from the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c (on some o c c a s i o n s ) . These conferences served many purposes and they were the base o f the whole p r o j e c t . They served as case conferences, as a medium f o r exchanging and i n t e g r a t i n g group work and case work p h i l o s o p h y , as a medium f o r p l a n n i n g programs, and as a means o f c o o r d i n a t i n g the work o f a l l those i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t . Only the program p l a n n i n g asp e c t s are considered here.  - 23 -  a s o c i a l stigma about being "C.A.S. boys" and t h a t a c l u b w i t h i n the Home might be met w i t h l i t t l e enthusiasm because o f t h i s f e e l i n g . He thought t h a t i f a c l u b could be formed i n the community (perhaps u s i n g l o c a l church gymnasium as a c e n t r e o f a c t i v i t i e s ) and i f o t h e r boys i n the community could b e l o n g , the boys from B.R.H. would be helped i n t h i s way t o f e e l more a p a r t o f the community and that a move o f t h i s s o r t would tend t o h e l p the boys to mingle more f r e e l y w i t h o t h e r s i n the community. At p r e s e n t , he f e e l s they have few f r i e n d s o u t s i d e o f B.R.H., except o c c a s i o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h escapees from B. I . S., w i t h whom t h e y i d e n t i f y q u i t e r e a d i l y . Mr. H. has i n the past made e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h cont a c t s i n the community f o r each boy a c c o r d i n g t o h i s part i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s , e.g., E a r l was on t h e s c h o o l s o c c e r team. He has t r i e d t o make t h e procedures o f buying c l o t h e s , r e f e r r i n g t o parents (when a t s c h o o l ) as n a t u r a l as p o s s i b l e f o r the boys so t h a t t o outward appearances t h e i r l i f e i s as near as p o s s i b l e t o that o f boys from t h e i r own homes. He has attempted t o get business men from men's c l u b s t o "adopt" i n d i v i d u a l boys and develop t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g , and other a c t i v i t i e s . He has attempted t o get some o f them i n t o the "Y". 1  F o l l o w i n g t h i s meeting i t was apparent t h a t an a c t i v i t y program  centred a t the R e c e i v i n g Home would p r o b a b l y not be  s u c c e s s f u l because o f the wish o f the boys t o be away from t h e Home d u r i n g t h e i r l e i s u r e time, because o f t h e wide range o f interests  o f t h e boys, and because o f the l a c k o f equipment and  f a c i l i t i e s i n the Home. From October 24th t o November 20th, the o n l y planned program was the a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d gymnasium a c t i v i t y .  Other  p o s s i b i l i t i e s such as a swimming n i g h t once a week were t r i e d , and d e v e l o p i n g a hobby shop i n the house was c o n s i d e r e d by t h e group worker and the s u p e r v i s o r o f the R e c e i v i n g Home.  The  swimming n i g h t was not developed because o f i t s l i m i t e d v a l u e 1  Mr. H. i s s u p e r v i s o r o f the Home.  - 24 i n view o f crowded c o n d i t i o n s a t the p o o l , and because o f l a c k o f i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm by the boys.  The hobby shop i n  the house was not developed because o f the l a c k o f equipment and  space, and because o f the boys' d e s i r e t o be away from t h e  Home d u r i n g t h e i r l e i s u r e time. had  During t h i s time the worker  been meeting w i t h the group members i n t h e Home.  these o c c a s i o n s ,  a c t i v e games had been t r i e d  out i n t h e games  room, and "Monopoly" ( a board game) had been p l a y e d . occasions  On  the house f a t h e r had show r e a l c o o p e r a t i o n  On these and had  t o l d the group members that they had t o s t a y i n the house. T h i s was not t o o s a t i s f a c t o r y a p l a n ;  the house f a t h e r d i d  not want t o s e t these l i m i t s and t h e boys d i d not want t o accept  them.  undesirable  The worker f e l t t h a t these r e a c t i o n s had an  e f f e c t on the group work program.  T h i s c o n d i t i o n continued group work program. the team  f o r t h e f i r s t month o f the  At t h a t time I t was p o s s i b l e t o i n i t i a t e  conferences. I t was the house f a t h e r ' s r e a c t i o n t o the group work  program t h a t l e d t o the f i r s t o f these  conferences:  1 (Nov. 20) Mr. H. r e p o r t e d on a conference w i t h H.F. Mr. H. had r a i s e d t h e s u b j e c t o f Monday n i g h t program i n the house w i t h W. h e l p i n g t o develop a hobbies program. H.F. f e l t t h a t he could do what W. was d o i n g . I f he had had a gymnasium, a swimming p o o l , a hobby shop, he could have been doing these t h i n g s a year ago. He f e l t t h a t W. was t r y i n g t o do i n f o u r hours a week what H.F. was doing 24 hours a day. H.F. thought t h a t i f W. was w i t h the boys, W. should s e t the l i m i t s on whether o r not they could go out or s t a y i n .  for  1 H.F. i s used i n the group record as an a b b r e v i a t i o n "house f a t h e r . "  - 25  -  Mr. H. attempted to c l a r i f y W.'s r o l e as a s p e c i a l i s t person working w i t h the boys under l i m i t s set by H.F., who at t h i s time accepts case work as a s p e c i a l i z e d job but not group work. He cannot see W.'s j o b as that o f a professional specialization. T h i s development was supervisory provided  conference.  an o p p o r t u n i t y  cussed, i t was  decided,  discussed  Since  In the group worker's  the house f a t h e r ' s r e a c t i o n  f o r the group work program to be  dis-  i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the case work  s t a f f , to hold a team conference i n c l u d i n g house f a t h e r , workers, and  supervisors.  Team c o n f e r e n c e s . The  f i r s t team conference was  held as planned;  (Nov. 2 6 . I n t h i s conference H. F. was a b l e to present h i s p o i n t of view about h i s p o s i t i o n . He s a i d t h a t i n h i s previous experiences w i t h boys' homes i n Glasgow, h i s r o l e as house f a t h e r i n c l u d e d working with the boys i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and hobbies o f a l l s o r t s . He r e a l i z e d t h a t there was a l a c k o f equipment and f a c i l i t i e s f o r these t h i n g s at B. R. H. and that t h i s was a r e a l handicap to the program. He f e l t now that r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s were being developed, not f o r him but f o r the group worker ( i m p l y i n g t h a t he had been wanting these t h i n g s a l l along f o r the boys, and now they were becoming a v a i l a b l e - i t was the group worker t h a t was u s i n g them.) Group Work and Case Work S u p e r v i s o r s attempted to c l a r i f y f o r H.F. the d i f f e r e n c e s i n f u n c t i o n between house f a t h e r , group worker, and case worker, p o i n t i n g out t h a t equipment and f a c i l i t i e s were f o r the boys and not f o r any one o f the t o t a l s t a f f . H.F. wanted p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the group work program to be on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s , p o i n t i n g out t h a t the boys had been allowed a l o t o f freedom i n the p a s t , even before h i s a r r i v a l at the Home, and t h a t i n the past years great s t r i d e s had been made, f i r s t one boy j o i n i n g cadets and then some more. The same t h i n g a p p l i e s to t h i s new program, he thought. When the boys can see t h a t they are m i s s i n g somet h i n g by not p a r t i c i p a t i n g , they w i l l want t o j o i n i n .  - 26 H. F. wants W. and Mr. H. to meet with the boys and t a l k over and c l a r i f y the new program with them. H. F. wants to be present and p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s . This conference Involved  cooperative planning between  workers, supervisors, and house father.  The r e s u l t was that  the house father's suggestions were to be put into e f f e c t , and that the workers, supervisors, and house father were to meet regularly to assess progress.  One o f the greatest values of  the meeting was that i t gave recognition to the house father's p o s i t i o n and gave him an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the planning.  The s p e c i f i c plan that was formed was that group worker,  case worker, and house father would meet with the boys, and convey to them that a l l the people working with them i n the Receiving Home are interested i n them and are working together to plan with them to make t h e i r experience i n the Receiving Home a happy one.  The house father invited the group worker and the  case worker to have supper at the Home on Friday, November 28} the meeting was planned to follow immediately a f t e r supper. This plan was carried out.  The workers and the house father  had come to a common agreement that was acceptable  to the house  father, who, i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , was i n the p o s i t i o n that could determine the degree of success of the group work program. Subsequent s t a f f meetings were characterized by increasing understanding and cooperation between the house father and the professional s t a f f .  After the f i r s t discussion with the  boys i n the Receiving Home, group work and case work supervisors, group worker, case worker and house father met to evaluate the  - 27 -  discussion with the boys and to plan f o r the next one.  The  group work supervisor c l a r i f i e d f o r the house father and the case worker that the group worker should be the person to lead the discussion. worker's job;  This was a further c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the group i n the past the case worker had been accustomed  to planning some events with the group members.  The house  father and the case worker were s t i l l to be i n on the discussion so that a l l three adults could develop a consistent approach to the group, and so that case worker and house father could deal with any matters that came up which concerned them d i r e c t l y , such as allowances or the routine of the Home.  I t was also  planned that i n the next discussion, group worker, case worker, and house father would show the boys that something d e f i n i t e had been done about t h e i r requests.  In t h i s way t h e i r f a i t h i n the  group discussions and i n the adults concerned would be maintained. This mutually s a t i s f a c t o r y state of a f f a i r s , with house father, group worker, case workers, and supervisors meeting regularly to plan and evaluate the discussions that were held concurrently with the boys, continued  u n t i l January.  At t h i s  time the house father suggested that the sessions with the group members be discontinued  temporarily;  he thought that the group  members were treating the sessions too l i g h t l y and that i f they were withheld them more.  for a short time the group members might appreciate The house father's suggestion was accepted, and the  group members * reactions when they learned that there would not be a group session on the following Friday evening were noted by the house father, as suggested by the group worker.  The group  - 28  worker explained v a l u e placed  -  t h a t t h i s would g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f  on these s e s s i o n s  agreed to do t h i s .  by the boys.  The  the  house f a t h e r  Although the group worker d i d not  really  agree w i t h the i d e a that the group s e s s i o n s w i t h the boys be d i s c o n t i n u e d ,  he and  the case worker were prepared to accept  i t , as i t could w e l l prove to be v a l i d , and t o t a l program. shows how  T h i s was  of value  the main concern, and  to  the  this incident  a promising i d e a would be accepted, a p p l i e d , and  evaluated, was  should  then  r e g a r d l e s s o f which team member suggested i t . Such  the degree o f c o o p e r a t i o n  that e x i s t e d . and  a f t e r two  The  group  were temporarily  discontinued,  worker d i s c u s s e d  the s i t u a t i o n w i t h the house f a t h e r s  sessions  weeks the group  (Jan.30) W. asked H. F. how the boys had reacted to not having the group d i s c u s s i o n s f o r the l a s t two weeks. H.F. s a i d t h a t the f i r s t week no one asked about i t o r wanted i t - they were glad i t was over, but t o n i g h t they had asked about i t , and he had s a i d t h a t they had to have something t h a t they r e a l l y wanted to t a l k about - that i t wasn't j u s t a matter o f asking to have t h i n g s done f o r them. W. t o l d H. F. that E a r l had been a s k i n g what had happened to t h e i r " g r i p e s e s s i o n s " and t h a t W. thought t h a t the group might be ready f o r another s e s s i o n by F r i d a y , February 6th. H. F. agreed t h a t he, too, thought t h a t the group might be ready by t h a t time, s i n c e they had been asking about i t t o n i g h t . W. mentioned to H. F. t h a t i t was important f o r the three o f them (W., Mr. H., and H.F.) to agree on what p o i n t s they wanted to b r i n g up, so t h a t they would have a c o n s i s t e n t approach to the group. H. F. agreed to t h i s and said they could do t h a t at the next meeting on Monday, February 2nd. Any resolved  c o n t r o v e r s i a l matters such as t h i s were always  i n such a way  t h a t the group s e s s i o n s  continued  to  be  - 29 c o n s t r u c t i v e experiences f o r the boys. the degree o f c o o p e r a t i o n The  group worker, the  house f a t h e r continued T h i s planning  that  T h i s , too,  illustrates  existed. s u p e r v i s o r o f the Home, and  the  to p l a n f o r the s e s s i o n s w i t h the boys.  helped to make the a c t u a l group work program w i t h  the boys more e f f e c t i v e s (Feb. 4) W., Mr. H. and H. F. agreed t h a t a group d i s c u s s i o n would be o f v a l u e . . . . I t was decided to t r y having the d i s c u s s i o n d u r i n g the meal i n s t e a d o f f o l l o w i n g i t , to o f f s e t the r e s t l e s s n e s s and impatience that had been apparent previously.... D i s c u s s i o n was set f o r F r i d a y , February 6, at supper time. T h i s process o f c o o p e r a t i v e and  planning  between the workers  the house f a t h e r progressed to an i n c r e a s i n g l y more e f f e c t i v e  l e v e l as time went on, and,  a week l a t e r :  (Feb. 13) H. F. asked W. i f W. would go ahead and s t a r t the d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the group at supper t i m e . W. agreed t o t h i s , and sat down to supper w i t h group. F o l l o w i n g supper, H. F. asked W. how i t had been. T h i s was asked w i t h r e a l i n t e r e s t and s i n c e r i t y . W. t o l d H. F, about the s e s s i o n , and t h a t W. f e l t t h a t i t had been a v e r y good s e s s i o n . H. F. s a i d that he thought i t was b e t t e r f o r W. to handle the d i s c u s s i o n alone s i n c e the group was then able to concentrate on the t h i n g s t h a t W. d i d w i t h them - when he and Mr. H. were t h e r e , t h e i r presence and the wider range o f matters d i s c u s s e d made the d i s c u s s i o n l e s s effective. H. F. t o l d W. to f e e l f r e e to come i n any n i g h t even i f i t was not a r e g u l a r program n i g h t i f there was something W. wanted to p l a n w i t h the group. W. s a i d t h a t he would. From t h i s time on i t was  accepted t h a t i t was  part  of  the group worker's job to p l a n program w i t h the boys i n the discussion  sessions.  The  team conferences had  f o r working out plans f a t h e r and  t h e r e f o r e provided  that were m u t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e  to the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f .  a medium to the house  These conferences were  - 30 an e s s e n t i a l p r e l i m i n a r y to the s e s s i o n s w i t h the boys, and they made the process o f d e v e l o p i n g  the group work program w i t h  the boys an e f f e c t i v e , i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e s i n the R e c e i v i n g Home. Group s e s s i o n s w i t h the  boys.  These s e s s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d as a r e s u l t o f house f a t h e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n worker, and  on November 26  the case worker should  boys to p l a n program w i t h them. ferences was  and  o f tne next one  the  group  hold group s e s s i o n s w i t h From t h i s time on,  group s e s s i o n s were being  p o s s i b l e to evaluate  t h a t he,  the  team con-  held c o n c u r r e n t l y ,  a group s e s s i o n and  the  p l a n the  i n the i n t e r v e n i n g team c o n f e r e n c e .  and i t  content The  group  s e s s i o n s were a most e f f e c t i v e medium f o r c o o p e r a t i v e  planning  between the three a d u l t s and  process  was  the boys.  The  planning  immediately accepted by the boys i n the f i r s t  session:  (Nov. 28) Boys were asked i f they would be i n t e r e s t e d i n a woodwork shop, and gave a unanimous response o f "yes." E a r l wanted to b u i l d a r a c i n g bug, and get some help from C.A.S. to get wheels and a x l e s - "then we won't have to s t e a l wheels o f f baby c a r r i a g e s and get i n t o t r o u b l e . " and  Dave wanted more horseback r i d i n g , a woodwork shop, a metalwork shop.  They were asked i f they l i k e d t h i s s e s s i o n , and boys unanimously agreed that they l i k e d i t . By t h i s time they were g e t t i n g r e s t l e s s and wanted to l e a v e the t a b l e . They were t o l d that there would be another s e s s i o n next week. Boys d i s p e r s e d to v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the house. At t h i s time the l e a d e r s h i p of the d i s c u s s i o n s shared by the group worker, case worker, and had  house f a t h e r .  not been s t a t e d at t h i s time t h a t the group worker  l e a d the d i s c u s s i o n . the new  T h i s was  a t r a n s i t i o n a l period  concept o f group work was  being  was  gradually  It  should i n which  introduced.  - 31 The  team conferences held between t h i s and  the next group  s e s s i o n were used to c l a r i f y t h i s concept o f group work l e a d e r ship.  In the next d i s c u s s i o n the group worker took a more  active role i n leadership.  The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt  element o f program development that was  included  reveals  the  i n the group  session. (Dec. 5) E a r l remarked t h a t the d i s c u s s i o n they had had l a s t week was "no good" because "nothing had happened t h a t they had asked f o r . " W. s t a r t e d the d i s c u s s i o n by asking i f they remembered what they had t a l k e d about l a s t week. Nobody could t h i n k o f anything s p e c i f i c , so W. asked "Didn't somebody ask about woodwork?" They remembered that Dave had asked about i t . W. t o l d group t h a t they could have the woodwork shop at Alexandra House f o r one night a week, but that i t would have to be Tuesday or Friday. There was much argument about which n i g h t would be b e s t . E a r l , Fred and Jack were d o u b t f u l i f they could go anyway. Jack s a i d he wasn't going to go down there and get h i s t e e t h knocked out. W. asked i f i t was f a i r to have a vote on which n i g h t they wanted. I t was genera l l y agreed t h a t t h i s was f a i r - W. asked f o r a show o f hands. G e r r y , Joe, Roy, H a r o l d , and Norm voted f o r F r i d a y . T h i s was a m a j o r i t y out o f the nine boys p r e s e n t . The others were s t i l l d i s s a t i s f i e d , so W. s a i d t h a t they could have another vote i f they wanted t o , a f t e r t r y i n g F r i d a y n i g h t f o r a few times - Woodwork i s to s t a r t on December 12th. W. t o l d group t h a t i f t h e r e was anything e l s e they wanted to t a l k about they could each have a t u r n now, and W. gave each boy i n t u r n a chance to say what he wanted t o . There was g e n e r a l agreement t h a t boxing, judo, and weightl i f t i n g are the a c t i v i t i e s that appeal to these boys. I n t h i s meeting, the group members saw meeting had  t h a t the  been c o n s t r u c t i v e i n that t h e i r expressed wish f o r  woodwork had  r e s u l t e d i n the woodwork shop at. A. N. H.  available.  The  work was  previous  being made  vote on which n i g h t would be the best f o r wood-  taken i n an e f f o r t to give the boys a chance to  pate i n the p l a n n i n g ,  and  to give them as much freedom as  participossible  i n the d e c i s i o n . These s e s s i o n s  had  o r i g i n a l l y been i n t r o d u c e d  as  "gripe  - 32  -  sessions", in which the boys had been given the opportunity to say anything they wanted to.  By the third meeting, however,  i t was possible to help the boys to move away from this negative concept: (Dec. 12) After supper, Norm and Gerry who had been sitting at a small table, brought their chairs to the large table for the "gripe session", at W.'s suggestion. W. asked the boys i f they thought they should change the name from "gripe session" to something else; W. then asked what happened at these sessions. Fred volunteered that they had heard about going to Alexandra House and about wrestling for Earl, and that they had asked for sports equipment. W. suggested that i t was more of a meeting than a gripe session. Earl said i t was a discussion. Fred said " a l l those i n favour of calling i t a discussion, raise their hands." A l l except Jack and Walt voted i n favour of changing the name. By this time the boys had experienced the constructive value of the meetings, and they were able to appreciate the planning element involved. In subsequent discussions, i t was possible to clarify the group workers job s t i l l further, and to plan for other 1  new  experiences: (Dec. 19) Fred said that W. was to s i t at the head of the table - that H. F. had said so. When any of the boys directed general questions to Mr. H. he would t e l l thems "You ask Al - he's the group leader." Earl wanted to go fishing and on a camping t r i p . He also wanted free showpasses, and remarked that 'nothing ever happened about the show passes*' W. asked Mr. H. about the show-passes, and he told the group that free passes were available for Tuesday afternoon, - December 23rd. W. asked group how many would be interested i n going on an overnight trip i f It could be arranged. A l l were interested. W. said that i t might be possible to arrange a t r i p . W. asked Mr. H. i f he had been able to make any arrangements about the Xmas tree t r i p , and Mr. H. told group that permission had been obtained to cut trees and light a f i r e in Cypress Canyon, above West Bay. Dave, Gerry, Earl, Walt, and Fred said they wanted to go. H.F. said that they could a l l take lunches.  - 33  -  T h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n shows how the r o l e of group l e a d e r . f a t h e r when he suggested  T h i s was  the group worker was  given  acknowledged by the house  t h a t the group worker s i t a t the head  o f the t a b l e , and by the case worker when he helped the group members to focus on the group worker as group l e a d e r . same time, the case worker and  At the  the house f a t h e r were a b l e to  c o n t r i b u t e t o the d i s c u s s i o n a t a p p r o p r i a t e p o i n t s . requests (e.g. show passes) were met,  and new  Previous  adventures were  d i s c u s s e d i n a s p i r i t of mutual understanding and c o - o p e r a t i o n . As the group work program progressed, these meetings w i t h the boys became even more e f f e c t i v e as they became more meaningful to them.  At one p o i n t i n p a r t i c u l a r t h i s was  very  c l e a r l y revealed: (Feb. 13) W. asked Jack about h i s l a s t t r i p up the mount a i n , and Jack t o l d W. how they had shared the work o f cooking, washing d i s h e s , and about the f u n they had had. The c o n v e r s a t i o n c a r r i e d on along these l i n e s , Jack's s t o r i e s g e t t i n g more and more e x c i t e d and the group as a whole l e t t i n g t h e i r Imagination r u n w i l d along the same l i n e s . After a few minutes E a r l suddenly remarked, "We're a l l around one t a b l e - t h i s i s the round t a b l e d i s c u s s i o n ! W. agreed t h a t i t was the time to d i s c u s s t h i n g s and make p l a n s . E a r l s a i d , "Yea, l e t ' s d i s c u s s - shut up, you guys!" W. s a i d there was something he wanted to t e l l them and E a r l and Jack t o l d the group to shut up. W. reminded group t h a t they had t a l k e d about going on an o v e r n i g h t t r i p , and t h a t W. wondered i f they s t i l l wanted to go. There was a g e n e r a l chorus o f consent - "Sure we do, when do we go? We t a l k e d about t h a t b e f o r e Christmas!" W. added t h a t they might be a b l e to get the Y.M.C.A. c a b i n f o r a weekend, and that s i n c e Jack had been there and knew a l l about i t , he might be a b l e to a c t as a l e a d e r on the t r i p . T h i s pleased Jack, who agreed e a g e r l y , and i t was a l s o an a c c e p t a b l e p l a n t o the group. E a r l , Dave, Jack, and H a r o l d were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f a v o u r o f going. The group a g a i n went o f f i n t o a mood of e x c i t e d a n t i c i p a t i o n and u n r e a l i s t i c p l a n n i n g o f what they would do up the mountain. E a r l and Jack brought the group back to r e a l i t y w i t h such orders as "shut up! This i s a discussion!" W. a l s o , f i r m l y reminded them t h a t i f they wanted to have these d i s c u s s i o n s they would have to pay a t t e n t i o n . When group had quietened 11  - 34 -  (Sown W. asked "Why do we have these d i s c u s s i o n s , anyway why do we get t o g e t h e r l i k e t h i s ? " Fred s a i d " t o keep us guys out of t r o u b l e . " Harold s a i d "to help l i t t l e c h i l d r e n " (as though t h a t was the s t o c k answer to a l l work w i t h a group such as t h i s ) . E a r l s a i d , "to help us have a b e t t e r time l i k e other k i d s have." W. t o l d Fred and Harold t h a t they were both p a r t l y right. W. t o l d E a r l t h a t h i s answer was the best o f a l l ; t h a t he wanted to help them to p l a n f o r themselves; wanted them to b r i n g t h e i r ideas to the d i s c u s s i o n so t h a t they could work them out together - not j u s t to ask f o r t h i n g s but to h e l p to make them happen. I f they could p l a n between now and the next d i s c u s s i o n n i g h t how they wanted to d i s t r i b u t e the work f o r the t r i p , they could make more plans then. The boys seemed to a p p r e c i a t e more c l e a r l y t h a t t h i s was a p l a n n i n g s e s s i o n w i t h W. i n a h e l p i n g r o l e . W.'s f i n a l remark to the group was " I t ' s up to you to b r i n g your i d e a s , and then w e ' l l help you w i t h them - i s t h a t O.K.?" There was g e n e r a l agreement t h a t t h i s was a l l r i g h t , and W. f e l t t h a t there was a r e a l understanding o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n by the boys, and t h a t they f e l t t h a t i t r e a l l y was " a l l r i g h t " - t h a t these s e s s i o n s were f o r them, and gave them help and s a t i s f a c t i o n . W. and boys l e f t supper t a b l e i n an atmosphere o f understanding and mature o b j e c t i v i t y about what the meetings were f o r . T h i s was  the f i r s t o c c a s i o n on which the group worker had  been able to l e a d the d i s c u s s i o n among the boys without worker and  the house f a t h e r being p r e s e n t .  to account  f o r the i n t e r e s t  apparent. through  the  T h i s f a c t may  and more mature o u t l o o k t h a t  During the gymnasium s e s s i o n s the boys had  help was  gone  a process o f i n c r e a s i n g s o c i o / e m o t i o n a l m a t u r i t y ;  l e v e l o f development seems to have c a r r i e d c u s s i o n group at t h i s p o i n t .  The  over i n t o  group worker was  case  this  the d i s a b l e to go  deeper i n t o r e a s o n i n g and a b s t r a c t d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the boys, who, and  I n t u r n , r e c i p r o c a t e d by acknowledging W.'s questions  w i t h responses  c o n s i d e r e d , r e a s o n a b l e , and  suggestions  which, f o r the most p a r t , were  co-operative.  It i s therefore  - 35 apparent that an e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p  b u i l t up w i t h a group  i n one area o f a c t i v i t y (the gymnasium) can be used t o h e l p them i n other areas ( e . g . d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n s ) . The d i s c u s s i o n s on program development made i t necess a r y f o r the group worker to f i n d ways o f h e l p i n g the boys t o participate  i n the a c t i v i t i e s i n which they expressed i n t e r e s t .  The most d e s i r a b l e and r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e r e s o u r c e was A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House which had a complete s t a f f o f group workers. The use of i t s f a c i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d p l a n n i n g w i t h the s t a f f o f the  Neighbourhood House.  A s e r i e s of meetings was arranged t o  precede and c o i n c i d e w i t h the use o f t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s by the boys from the R e c e i v i n g Home. Meetings w i t h Neighbourhood House s t a f f : On November 28, when the boys expressed an i n t e r e s t i n woodwork, the group worker met w i t h the d i r e c t o r o f Alexandra Neighbourhood House and explained the need f o r more f a c i l i t i e s and the i n t e r e s t i n woodwork t h a t had been expressed by the boys. I t was arranged f o r them to use the Neighbourhood House woodwork shop under the worker's s u p e r v i s i o n .  T h i s was to be an e x p e r i -  ment, w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the boys moving from woodwork i n t o o t h e r areas o f program i n the Neighbourhood House at a l a t e r d a t e . At t h i s time, then, the t h i r d major a r e a o f p l a n n i n g ( w i t h the s t a f f o f the Neighbourhood House) was i n i t i a t e d . was  carried  It  on c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h and coordinated w i t h the team  conferences and the group s e s s i o n s .  From t h i s time on the boys'  a c t i v i t i e s i n the group work program were being c a r r i e d  on  a c c o r d i n g to a c a r e f u l l y arranged and c l o s e l y coordinated o v e r -  - 36  a l l plan.  -  Each a d u l t w i t h whom the boys were i n contact had  t a k e n p a r t i n the p l a n n i n g , and each was aware o f the need t o work c l o s e l y w i t h the others and was w i l l i n g to do On the f i r s t  this.  t r i p t o the Neighbourhood House, the s t a f f  members on duty were aware t h a t the worker was going to a r r i v e w i t h the group, and they showed r e a l i n t e r e s t i n the boys and i n t h e i r woodwork p r o j e c t s .  F o l l o w i n g t h i s experience the  group worker met w i t h the e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r and the F r i d a y n i g h t program d i r e c t o r t o r e p o r t t h a t the woodwork program had been a success and that the i n t e r e s t shown by the s t a f f members had c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s u c c e s s .  I t was agreed t h a t t h i s program  would be resumed on January 9? a f t e r the Christmas h o l i d a y s . I n January, events to program development.  o c c u r r e d that were o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  S e v e r a l o f the boys went to Alexandra  Neighbourhood House on t h e i r own and enquired about j o i n i n g .  At  t h i s time the group members d i d not belong t o the Neighbourhood House.  The use o f the woodwork shop was an experiment to see  i f t h e i r i n t e r e s t could be aroused i n the Neighbourhood House program.  Since the boys appeared to be t a k i n g an i n t e r e s t i n  o t h e r aspects o f the program, the worker met w i t h the d i r e c t o r o f A. N. H. t o d i s c u s s the p r o g r e s s o f the experiment, and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f h e l p i n g the group members to j o i n the Neighbourhood House and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the t o t a l program f o r t h e i r agegroup.  A number of p o i n t s were agreed on as being mutually  desirables  - 37 -  1. Registration should be completed as soon as possible. If W. arrives at the A. N. H. at 7.30 on Friday, December 16th with group, individual registrations can be completed. 2. Interpretation to total A. N. H. staff of the following points would be of value. a.  Some background on the type of boy i n the R. H. and why he i s there.  b.  Why B.R.H. i s approaching Alexandra House "as a group."  c.  What has been achieved so far through contact with A . N. H.  d.  Why a total staff interpretation i s necessary.  e.  What B.R.H. staff hopes to accomplish with co-operation of Alexandra House staff. It was decided that a staff conference would be held  between A. N. H. staff and B. R. H. staff to interpret the situation to A. N. H., on January 19.  In the meantime, the Friday  night woodwork program would continue. The conference was held as planned.  The house father,  the group worker, and the case worker attended a regular staff meeting at the Neighbourhood House, at the group worker's suggestion.  The regular staff and the group work students at the  Neighbourhood House were at the meeting.  The following excerpt  reveals the content of the meeting: (Jan. 19). Mr. H. gave a case summary to illustrate the type of boy i n the home. The group worker gave an outline of why the resources of Alexandra House were being used in this particular manner - i.e., this was an attempt to introduce the boys to the House through their expressed interest i n woodwork. It was an attempt to overcome their anxiety and fear of moving out to a new situation - an attempt to give support and encouragement of a transitional nature until they could find their own interests i n Alexandra House.  -  38 -  W. mentioned t h a t t h e acceptance and encouragement t h a t the boys had r e c e i v e d from A.W.H. s t a f f had g i v e n them s t r e n g t h and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e t o continue coming. H. F . mentioned t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t one o f t h e boys (Jack) had had a v e r y happy e x p e r i e n c e on h i s mountain t r i p w i t h a group from A.N.H., and t h a t t h i s had i n c r e a s e d the o t h e r boys' i n t e r e s t i n j o i n i n g A.N.H., had been v e r y encouraging. I n answer t o q u e s t i o n s , H. F. gave an o u t l i n e o f the t o t a l program o f the R e c e i v i n g Home. A.W.H. s t a f f agreed t h a t t h i s t o t a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n had been o f r e a l v a l u e . T h i s meeting gave the Neighbourhood House s t a f f a more complete p i c t u r e o f t h e problems o f d e v e l o p i n g program i n the R e c e i v i n g Home and an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e Neighbourhood House as a program r e s o u r c e f o r these boys.  It  a l s o gave the house f a t h e r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e conference and t o e x p l a i n the program o f t h e R e c e i v i n g Home. F o l l o w i n g t h i s meeting, t h e group worker continued t o meet r e g u l a r l y w i t h the F r i d a y n i g h t program d i r e c t o r a t t h e Neighbourhood House: (Jan. 3 0 ) W. and Miss G. reviewed the developments s i n c e t h i s group had s t a r t e d t o use A.N.H. The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s were c o n s i d e r e d : 1 . H. F. has p a i d up a l l the memberships (unknown t o W. u n t i l today). 2. Most o f the boys are now a t t e n d i n g A l e x a n d r a House f o r r e g u l a r program. 3 . Alexandra House needs more l e a d e r s f o r t h i s program. 4. Tuesday i s r e g u l a r "Tweenage" n i g h t . 5 . Since boys a r e now r e g u l a r members they should be subj e c t t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f the House, i . e . , no l o n g e r come on F r i d a y s . 1 The term "tweenage" i s used t o d e s c r i b e the g e n e r a l program f o r 12-14 year o l d boys and g i r l s . I t i s separate from the "teenage" program f o r 1 5 - 1 8 year o l d boys and g i r l s .  - 39 6. Teenagers a r e complaining about t h i s group u s i n g the house on F r i d a y s . 7. Woodwork n i g h t might t h e r e f o r e be s h i f t e d t o Tuesday. 8. I n t h i s event, woodwork shop might be open t o a l l tweenagers who want t o use i t . T h i s would s t i l l p r o v i d e group from B.R.H. w i t h t h e i r main i n t e r e s t , and p r o v i d e a means o f t h e i r mixing w i t h o t h e r A.N.H. members w h i l e s t i l l under W.'s guidance. F o l l o w i n g t h i s meeting, a group s e s s i o n and a meeting w i t h A.N.H. s t a f f were n e c e s s a r y . the  The boys had to be t o l d about  change i n p l a n s , and i t was agreed t h a t the Tuesday n i g h t  s t a f f a t the Neighbourhood House should be informed about the new group that would be coming i n , the nature o f the group, and the  worker's j o b w i t h the group.  the  f o l l o w i n g manner:  The boys were approached i n  (Feb. 2) W. t o l d H.F. t h a t A.N.H. wanted B.R.H. group to go t o woodwork on Tuesdays i n s t e a d o f F r i d a y s . W. a l s o t o l d F r e d , Dave and Walt, and s a i d t h a t he would be t h e r e when A.N.H. opened. They a l l accepted t h i s change as a good i d e a and s a i d they would see W. down t h e r e . T h i s approach put the change on the b a s i s o f an impersona l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e request from A.N.H.  The house f a t h e r was made  aware o f the changes i n the t o t a l p l a n , and h i s c o o p e r a t i o n was t h e r e f o r e obtained i n h e l p i n g the boys t o go t o woodwork on Tuesday n i g h t s . The Tuesday n i g h t s t a f f were brought i n on the new p l a n i n the f o l l o w i n g pre-arranged manner: (Feb. 3) W. had supper w i t h A.N.H. s t a f f and v o l u n t e e r s who were t o be on duty t h a t n i g h t . W. and Miss G. explained t o s t a f f group t h a t W. would be i n woodwork shop w i t h B.R.H. group as p a r t o f an i n t e r i m p l a n , the f i n a l aim being a two-way process o f B.R.H. boys moving out t o o t h e r programs i f they wanted t o , and perhaps some o f A.N.H. members moving i n t o woodwork shop, w i t h the end r e s u l t being an i n t e r e s t group under W.'s l e a d e r s h i p , i n c l u d i n g some boys from B.R.H. and o t h e r s from t o t a l "tweenage group". A l l s t a f f i n v o l v e d were aware o f t h e s i t u a t i o n and the aims.  - 40 Through t h i s process o f c a r e f u l l y planned meetings, the boys from the R e c e i v i n g  Home were able t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a  l e i s u r e time program under the guidance o f a number o f l e a d e r s who  were a l l aware o f the o v e r a l l aims and o b j e c t i v e s , and who  could t h e r e f o r e  c o n t r i b u t e t o them i n a coordinated  manner.  An  i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s o v e r a l l l e a d e r s h i p t h a t was designed t o be h e l p f u l t o the boys i s found i n the f o l l o w i n g  excerpt:  (Feb. 24) Miss G. came t o woodwork shop t o ask i f the group would l i k e t o send a delegate t o the tweenage c o u n c i l that i s being formed. W. asked i f they would l i k e to send someone, and Fred s a i d "Sure, I ' l l go!" W. asked Gerry and Roy i f i t was a l l r i g h t w i t h them i f Fred went, and they both agreed t h a t i t was a l l r i g h t . Miss G. t o l d group that E a r l was the d e l e g a t e from the cooking c l u b . No one e l s e was i n woodwork shop a t t h i s time. The  program that was now a v a i l a b l e t o t h e boys under  t h i s integrated leadership included  a wide v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s :  c l u b groups (two boys' c l u b s , each o f which developed i t s own program, such as h i k e s , cooking, hobbies, s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s t o help A.N.H.), games room program, gymnasium program, p a r t i e s ( w i t h s o c i a l r e c r e a t i o n , games and dances), woodwork ( a l s o under o t h e r l e a d e r s a t other times) and the tweenage c o u n c i l , (to p l a n and  coordinate  the t o t a l tweenage program).  Each o f the elements t h a t has been considered has  so f a r  helped t o b r i n g about t h i s f i n a l s t a t e o f program develop-  ment.  F i r s t , the s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e R e c e i v i n g  Home r e a l i z e d t h a t  group work s e r v i c e s could be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the R e c e i v i n g Home program.  A f t e r some p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g ,  t h i s was done i n  such a way that the house f a t h e r was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the planning  team.  From t h i s p o i n t , i t was p o s s i b l e t o p l a n program  - 41 -  i n the group s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e boys, h e l p i n g them t o develop t h e i r i n t e r e s t s by j o i n i n g Alexandra House.  With the co-  o p e r a t i o n o f Alexandra House s t a f f , a v a r i e t y o f experiences was  made a v a i l a b l e i n the tweenage program.  There was, t h e r e -  f o r e , a t r i p l e s e r i e s o f i n t e r - r e l a t e d , c o n c u r r e n t , and c o - o r d i n a ted group e x p e r i e n c e s .  The f i r s t s e r i e s i n v o l v e d the s t a f f o f  the R e c e i v i n g Home, the second  Involved the boys themselves as  they a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p l a n n i n g and i n the a c t i v i t i e s , and  the t h i r d i n v o l v e d the s t a f f o f Alexandra House. The work w i t h the s t a f f o f the R e c e i v i n g Home and o f  A l e x a n d r a House was an e s s e n t i a l p r e l i m i n a r y to the work w i t h the boys.  I f Alexandra House (the o n l y group work agency i n  the community) had not been so c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d , i t would not have been p o s s i b l e t o develop t h e group work program i n such an e f f e c t i v e manner.  The process o f d e v e l o p i n g a program and  h e l p i n g the boys t o move out i n t o l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s depends t o a great extent on what r e s o u r c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n the community; it  a l s o depends on the extent t o which the s t a f f o f community  agencies understand  the b o y s  1  needs and are a b l e t o cooperate i n  p r o v i d i n g the k i n d s o f experiences t h a t w i l l meet these needs.  Chapter I I I  CHANGES IN BEHAVIOUR  It was possible to observe changes i n the boys' behaviour i n two d i f f e r e n t areas of the group work program. One area was the gymnasium a c t i v i t y periods which revealed changes within the group.  The other area was the adult super-  vised l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s i n the community;  changes were  also apparent i n the boys'reaction to these a c t i v i t i e s . Changes i n behaviour within the group. The series of a c t i v i t y periods that were held i n the church gymnasium provided an opportunity f i r s t to observe the boys' behaviour and then, on the basis of these observations, to work regularly and consistently with the boys i n this cont r o l l e d environment  f o r a period of three months.  There was  l i t t l e outside interference, and, under these circumstances, changes i n i n d i v i d u a l and group behaviour were brought about. After the f i r s t period i n the gymnasium, the extremely a n t i - s o c i a l nature of the boys was revealed.  At t h i s time,  some of the objectives that were set up were to reduce the a n t i s o c i a l behaviour of the i n d i v i d u a l s , to develop a more democratic process of making decisions, and to improve the personal and s o c i a l adjustment of the individuals within the group.  - 43 -  For the purposes o f a n a l y s i s , the ways i n which changes i n behaviour  were g r a d u a l l y brought about a r e d i s c u s s e d under  the f o l l o w i n g headings:  kinds o f a c t i v i t i e s , d u r a t i o n o f a c t i v i -  t i e s , the process o f i n i t i a t i n g and c a r r y i n g out a c t i v i t i e s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the group, and the worker-group r e l a t i o n ship. Kinds  of a c t i v i t i e s . The kinds o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were i n d u l g e d i n by the  boys d u r i n g the f i r s t  meetings i n c l u d e d f i g h t i n g ,  " a c t i n g o u t " , rope c l i m b i n g , swinging  impulsive  on the rope, tumbling and  gymnastic s t u n t s , simple games o f t h e i r own i n v e n t i o n , w r e s t l i n g , and b a s k e t b a l l .  Later,  i n d o o r s o c c e r , i n d o o r rugby, B r i t i s h  B u l l d o g , and war b a l l were added.  Most o f these a c t i v i t i e s are  s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y , and excerpts from the group r e c o r d s w i l l t o c l a r i f y the o t h e r s .  help  The f o l l o w i n g are examples o f f r e e ,  impulsive "acting out": (Oct. 24) Dave found a cub cap, a p a i r o f g l a s s e s , and a m i n i a t u r e walking s t i c k i n a cupboard; he made a v e r y comical f i g u r e s t r u t t i n g around, o b v i o u s l y pleased w i t h hims e l f and g e t t i n g great s a t i s f a c t i o n from i t . (Oct. 24) J o e , F r e d , Walt, H a r o l d , Dave, and Gerry were running w i l d l y around the gymnasium screaming and shouting when they were not a c t u a l l y t a k i n g t h e i r t u r n a t shooting f o r the basket. (Oct. 24) Harold and Joe s t a r t e d t o f i g h t f u r i o u s l y , and chased out o f the gymnasium, s a y i n g they were going home. Walt and Dave were a i m l e s s l y running around the gymnasium. These were the v a r i o u s forms o f f r e e , i m p u l s i v e " a c t i n g out".  Some examples o f games o f t h e i r own i n v e n t i o n are  - 44  -  r e v e a l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n s : (Nov. 7) A l l the boys were e i t h e r s i t t i n g around or amusing themselves, none prepared to cooperate w i t h any o f the o t h e r s . Walt asked W. i f they could p l a y "tag w i t h the l i g h t s out." W. s a i d they would have to ask the j a n i t o r . Walt d i d , and W. e x p l a i n e d i n more d e t a i l what he wanted to do, s i n c e Walt d i d not make h i s request v e r y c l e a r . J a n i t o r s a i d he d i d n ' t mind what they d i d as l o n g as n o t h i n g got broken. A l l boys j o i n e d i n e a g e r l y and the game went on f o r 35 minutes as f o l l o w s : S e v e r a l o f the boys would c a r r y a r o l l e d up mat and charge one o f the o t h e r s w i t h i t . When he was h i t he had to go to " p r i s o n " - a dark storage space under the s t a g e . In the dark i t was not p o s s i b l e to t e l l who was the v i c t i m i n each case, but the game was v e r y popular. T h i s game l o s t i t s i n t e r e s t , and a new a c t i v i t y evolved r o l l i n g one boy up i n a mat w i t h o n l y h i s head and s h o u l ders out, and p i l i n g a l l the o t h e r mats on t o p . The weight o f the mats prevented him from g e t t i n g out u n t i l the o t h e r boys l e t him o u t . W. s u p e r v i s e d t h i s a c t i v i t y c l o s e l y t o ensure that the boy r o l l e d i n mats was not s u b j e c t e d to too much weight. Walt, Dave, E a r l , and Frank took turns a t being r o l l e d up. (Dec. 7) On another o c c a s i o n Dave re-appeared and announced t h a t he had been up i n the a t t i c watching the gymnasium through a v e n t i l a t o r . S i n c e E a r l and Walt d i d not b e l i e v e him he challenged everybody "you come w i t h me and I ' l l show y o u l " Dave l e d the way to a s m a l l doorway h i g h up i n the stage w a l l . To r e a c h i t , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o climb on a t a b l e and then scramble up to the doorway. It was then n e c e s s a r y to climb on t o a p i l e o f t r e s t l e and squirm through a s m a l l t r a p d o o r . A l l boys had candle stubs which Dave had found i n the k i t c h e n . Harold and Joe asked W. to help them i n g e t t i n g up t o the a t t i c . W. helped them t o get up. A f t e r a few minutes o f l o o k i n g around and r e a l i z i n g t h a t there was n o t h i n g i n the a t t i c , W. and boys returned to gymnasium. There was an atmosphere of adventure and excitement about the whole v i s i t to the a t t i c t h a t appealed to the boys. From the many p o s s i b l e i l l u s t r a t i o n s , one more w i l l be i n c l u d e d : (Dec. 1) Dave had found a v o l l e y - b a l l net and he and E a r l were p u t t i n g i t up i n the gymnasium. Dave went to the store-room t o l o o k f o r a v o l l e y - b a l l . He could not f i n d one, but came back w i t h a f l a g . He came c h a r g i n g down the s t a i r s i n t o the gymnasium screaming and y e l l i n g and r a n around i n the gymnasium w i t h the f l a g . Joe and Walt a l s o got f l a g s and acted i n the same manner.  - 45 -  W. went t o s t o r e room when Dave and Joe went back t h e r e . Dave found a l a r g e c o l l a p s i b l e wheel c h a i r and asked W. i f they could use i t . W. agreed t h a t i t would be a l l r i g h t to use i t i f they d i d not damage i t and i f they put i t back afterwards. W. helped Dave t o u n f o l d the c h a i r and s e t i t up. Dave gave E a r l r i d e s i n the c h a i r . E a r l was c a r r y i n g a f l a g and s h o u t i n g "charge! charge!" as Dave raced down the gymnasium and swung h i s c h a i r i n t o a sharp t u r n j u s t before i t h i t the w a l l . T h i s went on f o r s e v e r a l minutes a v a r i a t i o n b e i n g t o charge s t r a i g h t a t some o t h e r boy and swerve b e f o r e h i t t i n g him. E a r l gave Dave a r i d e . He went so f a s t and turned so s h a r p l y that the c h a i r tipped up backwards and Dave- f e l l out on the f l o o r . He almost b u r s t out i n a f i t o f temper, but both boys immediately s t a r t e d to l a u g h so hard they they could not be angry. In dictable;  g e n e r a l , t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were unorthodox  and unpre-  they were entered i n t o i m p u l s i v e l y and w i t h  little  apparent a b i l i t y t o r e s i s t the temptations they o f f e r e d . Duration of A c t i v i t i e s : In  the f i r s t meeting, f i g h t i n g , a r g u i n g , and i m p u l s i v e  a c t i n g out were o f l o n g e s t d u r a t i o n . of  I n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s were  much s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n , and a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g the t o t a l  group were o f v e r y s h o r t d u r a t i o n .  The f o l l o w i n g  r e v e a l s the s t a t e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the f i r s t  illustration  meeting:  (Oct. 24) E a r l , Dave, Jack and Roy were clamouring t o play basketball. W. agreed t o t h i s , and was assigned the r o l e o f r e f e r e e by Jack. W. s t a r t e d the game. Wild conf u s i o n developed immediately. I t was a case o f E a r l v s . Jack w i t h no one e l s e having any i d e a o f what was expected. From t h i s p o i n t on, the n o i s e and c o n f u s i o n were such t h a t W. was unable t o determine who was on what team. However, W. noted that o n l y J a c k , E a r l and Roy had any i d e a o f how to p l a y , o r any i n t e r e s t i n p l a y i n g . T h i s trend continued through the second, t h i r d and f o u r t h meetings.  During t h i s time i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s were more  popular and l a s t e d much l o n g e r than group a c t i v i t i e s . example:  For  - 46  -  (Oct. 24) Dave found a l o n g rope w i t h a r i n g attached to one end. He asked W. i f they could use i t . W. examined the gymnasium c e i l i n g and found a hook t h a t appeared to be s u i t a b l e over the c e n t r e o f the f l o o r . W. set up a t a l l step l a d d e r and E a r l v o l u n t e e r e d to climb l a d d e r and hook the rope on. A l l boys took turns c l i m b i n g the rope, W. e x p l a i n i n g c o r r e c t t e c h n i q u e . Harold could o n l y make i t about h a l f way up. Fred made i t a l l the way w i t h great difficulty. Others a l l climbed a l l the way w i t h comparat i v e ease. T h i s new a c t i v i t y proved v e r y p o p u l a r - i t was v a r i e d by swinging i n a l a r g e c i r c l e , one boy pushing another t i l l he took o f f from the f l o o r and went f l y i n g around hanging on t o the r i n g . A l l took t u r n s at t h i s . T h i s k i n d of i n f o r m a l f r e e p l a y was  most p o p u l a r and  of  g r e a t e r d u r a t i o n than organized a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the f i r s t  four  meetings.  Progress was  third  meeting was  still  a c t i v i t i e s and  slow and g r a d u a l , and although the  c h a r a c t e r i z e d mainly by f r e e p l a y , I n d i v i d u a l  i m p u l s i v e a c t i n g o u t , i t was  same a i m l e s s , e r r a t i c form. (For  I t was  no l o n g e r o f the  o f a more organized n a t u r e .  example, the e x p l o r i n g t r i p to the a t t i c and  w i t h wheelchair and  flags.)  Organized  a c t i v i t i e s of longer  d u r a t i o n were t h e r e f o r e becoming apparent. ing  the a c t i v i t y was  was  still  for  s h o r t e r p e r i o d s o f time:  the f r e e p l a y  mostly organized games.  By the f i f t h meetAlthough there  some f r e e a c t i n g out, i t i n v o l v e d fewer i n d i v i d u a l s  (Jan. 5) There were some v i o l e n t b a t t l e s , but s i n c e they were p a r t o f the game, nobody objected o r l o s t h i s temper. On one o c c a s i o n when Joe d i d f o r g e t the s p i r i t of the game and s t a r t e d screaming and y e l l i n g and c r y i n g when Roy caught him and r i p p e d a button ( a c c i d e n t a l l y ) o f f h i s s h i r t , Joe l e f t the game, and s a i d he wasn't going to p l a y any more. E a r l and Dave laughed a t him and c a l l e d him a s i s s y , and he screamed, "what the h e l l do I care I" and then turned to W. and screamed, "And you can bugger o f f too!" c r y i n g b i t t e r l y a l l the time. A few minutes l a t e r , he was  back i n the game p l a y i n g  e a g e r l y , and h e l p i n g t o c a t c h a sew v i c t i m . a c t i v i t y of the game was  However, the  more s a t i s f y i n g than a continued  - 47 -  d i s p l a y o f n e g a t i v e behaviour would be.  Joe saw t h a t he was  not g e t t i n g any a t t e n t i o n and was l o s i n g out on the chance t o have f u n w i t h the o t h e r boys. In  the s i x t h and seventh meetings,  such d i s p l a y s o f  f i g h t i n g , a r g u i n g , and i m p u l s i v e a c t i n g out were almost e x i s t e n t , and organized a c t i v i t i e s were planned  non-  by some o f the  boys and c a r r i e d out e f f e c t i v e l y and i n an o r d e r l y sequence. The behaviour o f the boys i n the seventh meeting was, t h e r e f o r e , a complete c o n t r a s t t o t h e i r behaviour i n t h e f i r s t  meeting,  w i t h the p a t t e r n o f a c t i v i t y completely r e v e r s e d . The process o f i n i t i a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s : During the seven meetings, ways t h a t a c t i v i t i e s were s t a r t e d .  there were changes i n the I n the f i r s t  meeting,  i n d i v i d u a l s o r sub-groups would make i n s i s t e n t demands t o the worker t h a t the whole group should do what the p a r t i c u l a r v i d u a l o r sub-group wanted t o do. could never have succeeded of  indi-  Such an imposed program  w i t h t h i s group a t t h i s time because  t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to co-operate w i t h each o t h e r o r w i t h the  worker.  T h i s was shown, f o r example, i n the attempt  a b a s k e t b a l l game i n the f i r s t meeting. the a c t i v i t i e s o f the f i r s t i n d i v i d u a l s responded unable t o c o n t r o l .  to start  Consequently,  many o f  f o u r meetings s t a r t e d because the  to i m p u l s i v e demands which they were Sometimes the r e s u l t s were q u i t e c h a o t i c :  (Dec. 8) Dave was p u r s u i n g h i s u s u a l course - antago n i z i n g Harold a t every o p p o r t u n i t y . Dave, Norm, Joe and Harold made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o continue the v o l l e y b a l l game by t h e i r constant i n t e r r u p t i o n (running a c r o s s t h e court and d i s t r a c t i n g the p l a y e r s ) . W. turned h i s a t t e n t i o n t o  - 48 -  Harold. Dave had him pinned down to the mat and was pounding him i n a wild, unrestrained manner. W. was unable to note the sequence o f events that led to the next incident. Dave, E a r l , Joe, and Gerry were involved i n a fierce battle. In spite of t h i s sort of s i t u a t i o n , with the worker's help  some of the impulsive acting-out was channelled into games  right from the f i r s t meeting, and new a c t i v i t i e s were started i n that ways (Oct. 24) W. played "head the b a l l " with Roy, E a r l , and Walt, while Gerry amused himself by swinging on the rope. This game of "head the b a l l " was very simple but proved popular, and was played eagerly and intensely by the boys. This game had been suggested by W. when a c t i v i t y was appearing to l a g . (Nov. 7) W. showed Harold, Gerry and Fred some simple balancing stunts and pyramids, and they attempted to help each other (with l i t t l e success). They enjoyed t h i s a c t i v i t y and there was much laughing and joking about i t . In the second meeting, some of the boys suggested group a c t i v i t i e s to the worker;  simple  i n t h i s way, a c t i v i t i e s that  provided outlets f o r aggressive impulses were i n i t i a t e d : (Nov. 7) Harold t o l d W. about a game he knew of where one person l a y on the mat and a second person sat on his feet and was shot up into the a i r (sort of "human cannon ball" effort). Harold asked W. to give him a ride i n t h i s manner. W. Did. This a c t i v i t y was immediately popular. A l l boys joined i n and took turns at having r i d e s . Fred, E a r l , and Harold gave rides to everyone else. (This was one of the highlights of the evening as f a r as enjoyment went.) (Nov. 7) E a r l wanted to wrestle hut nobody was w i l l i n g to wrestle with him. W. suggested that he referee while some of the others wrestled. Earl did. He proved to be a very competent referee, and obviously enjoyed the r o l e . Dave wrestled Walt. After three rounds Dave won. ( F i r s t two rounds t i e d , f i n a l round a r e a l l y desperate e f f o r t to win.) During the game Fred, Joe, Harold and Gerry paid attention to i t , cheering and shouting. Gerry assumed the role of an announcer and gave a running commentary over an imaginary microphone.  - 49  -  I n the t h i r d meeting, more o f the i n d i v i d u a l members i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , which, a l t h o u g h s t i l l on an i m p u l s i v e l e v e l , were w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e o f v a r i o u s games i n s t e a d of being expressed  through f i g h t i n g and  arguing:  (Dec. 1 ) I n the gymnasium E a r l s t a r t e d a b a s k e t b a l l game on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e . Walt, Dave, Roy, and Joe j o i n e d i n and played e a g e r l y and without c o n f l i c t f o r f i v e minutes. (Dec. 1 ) Harold t o l d W. he had to get the mats out and show him how to do some gymnastics and tumbling. W. t o l d Harold that i f he wanted to use the mats he had t o help get them out. Harold agreed w i l l i n g l y to t h i s and helped to get them o u t . W. was showing Harold how to do simple tumbling and b a l a n c i n g s t u n t s . Joe came over and wanted W. to put up the rope. W. s a i d they could have i t up a f t e r a while when the o t h e r boys had had time to p l a y b a s k e t b a l l . L a t e r , Joe a g a i n asked f o r the rope and W. agreed to put i t up. Dave helped W. to get the l a d d e r and t o s e t i t up. Roy climbed the l a d d e r and hooked up the rope. H a r o l d , Joe and Roy attempted to climb the rope; Roy climbed t o the top; Joe climbed p a r t way, and H a r o l d attempted t o c l i m b i t but was not s t r o n g enough. At Roy's r e q u e s t , W. showed him how to g r i p the rope w i t h h i s f e e t . (Dec. 1) Roy and E a r l were p l a y i n g b a l l t a g u s i n g c h a i r s to defend themselves. Walt asked W. to p l a y "rugby" w i t h him, running up and down the gymnasium and throwing the b a l l back and f o r t h i n "rugby pass" s t y l e . W. and Walt played f o r s e v e r a l minutes. This process o f c h a n n e l l i n g t h e i r impulses t i e s became I n c r e a s i n g l y e f f e c t i v e i n the f i f t h , seventh meetings. participate  In these meetings,  into sixth,  activiand  the t o t a l group would  i n group games such as i n d o o r s o c c e r , i n d o o r rugby,  w a r - b a l l , and B r i t i s h B u l l d o g .  These games were  suggested  e i t h e r by the worker or by one o f the group members. time the process of i n i t i a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s was between the group members. i l l u s t r a t e s this trend:  By  this  mutual agreement  A c t i v i t y i n the f i f t h meeting  - 50 (Jan.5) The a c t i v i t y t h a t developed immediately was throwing and k i c k i n g the b a l l s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y around the gymnasium. W. i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e r e must be no k i c k i n g t h e b a l l a t the w a l l s o r c e i l i n g o r a t o t h e r boys ( t o p r o t e c t b u i l d i n g j and t o prevent o u t b u r s t s o f temper and f i g h t i n g ) . W. t o l d them t h a t i f they wanted t o throw the b a l l s , t o throw them a t the b a s k e t b a l l backboards. These l i m i t s were accepted w i t h l i t t l e r e s i s t a n c e , and the group members even began t o d i s c i p l i n e themselves by warning any member who stepped out o f l i n e . W i t h i n these l i m i t s , a l l group members were v e r y a c t i v e . Norm and Joe were throwing the s o c c e r b a l l s a t one b a s k e t b a l l hoop. Dave was bouncing a b a s k e t b a l l around the gymnasium f l o o r . E a r l , Walt, Roy, and W, were i n v o l v e d i n a v i g o r o u s , f o u r - c o r n e r e d p a s s i n g game w i t h the rugby b a l l . E a r l would d e l i b e r a t e l y send v e r y f a s t s p i r a l passes a t W. and l a u g h t r i u m p h a n t l y i f W. missed them. T h i s a c t i v i t y continued f o r about f i f t e e n minutes. It  seemed as though the group members had found an  a c c e p t a b l e o u t l e t f o r t h e i r a g g r e s s i v e d r i v e s and h o s t i l i t y . There was l i t t l e n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g o r extreme h o s t i l i t y evident in  t h e i r a c t i o n s but r a t h e r a p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g o f s a t i s f a c t i o n  a r i s i n g from t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p a s s i n g game which i n v o l v e d the c o - o p e r a t i v e element o f p a s s i n g the b a l l t o one o f the o t h e r p l a y e r s i n o r d e r t o get i t back.  T h i s i s the f i r s t o c c a s i o n on  which f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s (W., Walt, Fred and E a r l ) have been a b l e to  co-operate  of  time.  i n any a c t i v i t y i n the gymnasium f o r t h i s l e n g t h  A few moments l a t e r , E a r l suggested t o W. e a g e r l y " l e t ' s p l a y s o c c e r ! " W. s a i d he wondered how many wanted t o p l a y (a superimposed game o r one suggested by W. would not have been s u c c e s s f u l , as shown by previous e x p e r i e n c e ) . Earl s a i d t h a t F r e d , Roy, Dave and Walt would p l a y ; he turned t o them and urged them t o p l a y . Dave was the l a s t one t o agree; a l l the others agreed e a g e r l y . E a r l turned t o Norm and Joe and asked them i f they wanted t o p l a y . Norm agreed and Joe followed h i s example. E a r l and Roy v o l u n t e e r e d t o p i c k sides. Sides were unequal but E a r l d i d not o b j e c t t o b e i n g one man s h o r t . E a r l t o l d W.„to r e f e r e e the game. W. d i d , and W.'s d e c i s i o n s were accepted without q u e s t i o n by a l l except Roy, who d e f i a n t l y questioned s e v e r a l d e c i s i o n s , but  - 51 i n each case f i n a l l y accepted the d e c i s i o n s and continued to p l a y e a g e r l y . W. imposed the r u l e t h a t t h e b a l l must not be r a i s e d o f f the f l o o r ( t o prevent damage). Since a l l boys were p l a y i n g i n socks, they could not k i c k v e r y hard; the game was t h e r e f o r e adapted t o the gymnasium v e r y s a t i s factorily. E a r l and Fred had wanted t o p l a y "war b a l l " as w e l l as s o c c e r , and asked W. i f they could p l a y now. A t W. s request, E a r l explained the game t o him and t o o t h e r group members, and they decided t o p l a y , u s i n g t h e same teams as f o r the s o c c e r game. The game i n v o l v e d throwing basketb a l l s at opposing team i n an e f f o r t t o t a g them. I t was a w i l d , e n e r g e t i c game t h a t they thoroughly enjoyed. Earl was the l a s t person remaining i n the game, and t h e r e f o r e the winner. f  W. asked i f they wanted t o p l a y another game o f war b a l l or B r i t i s h Bulldog. (Joe had a l r e a d y asked t o p l a y B r i t i s h Bulldog.) The unanimous c h o i c e was B r i t i s h B u l l d o g . Roy suggested t h a t W. should be the f i r s t one t o go i n the c e n t r e to t r y t o c a t c h them. E a r l s a i d t h i s would not be f a i r , t h a t W. could c a t c h them t o o e a s i l y . Since Roy, Fred and Dave s t i l l wanted W. t o go i n t h e middle, W. o f f e r e d t o go i n u n t i l he caught the f i r s t person, and then t h i s person could take over. A l l agreed to t h i s . W. caught F r e d , who r e s i s t e d v i o l e n t l y and fought w i t h W. t o avoid being l i f t e d o f f the f l o o r . A l l were c h e e r i n g f o r F r e d u n t i l he was f i n a l l y l i f t e d o f f the f l o o r ( o b j e c t o f the game). These i l l u s t r a t i o n s show t h a t over the p e r i o d o f seven meetings, the process  o f i n i t i a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s changed from  e r r a t i c , i m p u l s i v e , and independent d e c i s i o n s t o d e c i s i o n s t h a t were mutually  a c c e p t a b l e by the worker and the group members.  O r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the group: With t h i s change i n methods o f i n i t i a t i n g  activities,  t h e r e was a n a t u r a l and i n e v i t a b l e change i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the members w i t h i n the group.  During  the f i r s t three meetings,  i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s o r sub-groups o f two o r three  individuals  would p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s such as b a s k e t b a l l ,  tumbling,  and  The t i e s  gymnastics f o r v e r y s h o r t , i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d s .  between t h e i n d i v i d u a l s were v e r y l o o s e and temporary a t t h i s time, and e a s i l y severed by a t t a c k s o f i m p u l s i v e a c t i n g o u t . When the group members d i d u n i t e i n any a c t i v i t y d u r i n g  these  meetings, i t was o n l y f o r v e r y b r i e f p e r i o d s , when they were w r e s t l i n g o r e n j o y i n g games o f t h e i r own i n v e n t i o n . During the f i f t h , s i x t h , and seventh meetings, when an a c t i v i t y was s t a r t e d , i t s appeal spread t o t h e t o t a l group, and all  group members p a r t i c i p a t e d  b a s i s o f team membership.  i n t h e a c t i v i t y , sometimes on the  I n the l a t t e r case, the groups  stayed together as teams f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e game, and conf l i c t s and a g g r e s s i v e impulses were channelled through the outl e t s provided by t h e games: (Jan.26) The i n i t i a l a c t i v i t y was a " s o c c e r p r a c t i c e " i n i t i a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g boys - Gerry, E a r l , Walt and Harold. F r e d s a i d he wasn't going t o p l a y a n y t h i n g , and sat out l o o k i n g v e r y s u l l e n and d e j e c t e d . E a r l asked W. to s t a r t a s o c c e r game, and E a r l , Walt, H a r o l d , Gerry, and W. s a t down when W. suggested t h a t they should s i t down and f i g u r e out what they could do w i t h f o u r p l a y e r s . B a s k e t b a l l was suggested, and t h i s was immediately taken up as an a c c e p t a b l e s u g g e s t i o n . "Yea, B a s k e t b a l l I " T h i s was the g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n . A f t e r some d i s c u s s i o n and d i s a g r e e ment as t o who would p l a y on what team (no r e a l a r g u i n g o r shouting as i n p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n s ) E a r l v o l u n t e e r e d t o p l a y w i t h Gerry a g a i n s t Harold and Walt. E a r l t o l d W. t o r e f e r e e t h e game and t o c a l l steps and I n t e r f e r e n c e . At h a l f - t i m e ( c a l l e d by W. a f t e r about 7 minutes o f p l a y ) E a r l and G e r r y were l e a d i n g 2 t 0 . W. suggested t o E a r l that maybe Harold and Walt could use another man on t h e i r s i d e . E a r l s a i d "Yeal sure they could - Hey, F r e d , come on and get i n the game." F r e d , who had been l i s t l e s s l y k i c k i n g a s o c c e r b a l l a g a i n s t the w a l l agreed t o p l a y w i t h Harold and Walt a g a i n s t E a r l and Gerry. I n the second h a l f o f the game, W. suggested t o Fred and Walt t h a t they work as a p a i r and pass the b a l l down t o Harold i f E a r l o r Gerry blocked them. They d i d t h i s , and Harold scored a basket. By u s i n g these team t a c t i c s , b o t h Walt and Fred were each a b l e t o score b a s k e t s . In the meantime, E a r l had scored two more. At t h i s p o i n t t h e score was 4 : 3 f o r E a r l and G e r r y . The game broke up i n  -  53  -  c o n f u s i o n ( a f t e r 1 5 minutes o f p l a y ) when F r e d k i c k e d a b a l l at G e r r y and h i t him on the neck. G e r r y began t o c r y and e a l l e d Fred a no good b a s t a r d and went a f t e r him i n a c o o l , c a l c u l a t e d manner as i f he were going t o systema t i c a l l y t e a r him a p a r t . Before they had a chance to s t a r t f i g h t i n g , E a r l s a i d " O . K . i f you wanna f i g h t , then w r e s t l e I" Mats were a l r e a d y out on the f l o o r and F r e d and G e r r y agreed t o w r e s t l e ; Gerry i s the s t r o n g e s t member o f the group, but F r e d was determined to take him on i n s p i t e o f h i s own obvious apprehension. During the w r e s t l i n g , E a r l , Walt, and Harold were s p e l l bound and watched every move. W. r e f e r e e d one round and then i n v i t e d E a r l to r e f e r e e . E a r l d i d , u s i n g W.'s w h i s t l e . Gerry was pinned by Fred i n the two rounds f o u g h t ; W. d e c l a r e d F r e d the winner when G e r r y would not go a t h i r d round. Fred and G e r r y were both s u r p r i s e d a t the outcome o f the f i g h t ; a l l had expected the o p p o s i t e r e s u l t . Fred was e l a t e d and triumphant. T h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n shows t h a t the i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the group had changed from a s t a t e i n which i s o l a t e d u a l s e i t h e r remained t i e w i t h one o r two  i s o l a t e d o r formed a v e r y l o o s e  individ-  temporary  other i n d i v i d u a l s , t o a s t a t e i n which the  i n d i v i d u a l s were a b l e t o u n i t e w i t h a common purpose  and  remain  t o g e t h e r , performing e f f e c t i v e l y as a group f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d of time under the s t r e s s o f c o m p e t i t i v e games. Worker-group r e l a t i o n s h i p : One  o f the elements  that helped to b r i n g about  the  changes that have been noted i n behaviour o f the group members was  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the worker and  the group members.  As t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p became more e f f e c t i v e , the group members became more c o - o p e r a t i v e w i t h each other and w i t h the worker. From the f i r s t meeting,  the worker attempted  e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n any way  to b u i l d  an  t h a t presented i s e l f - by  - 54 meeting expressed  i n t e r e s t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and sub-groups, by  u s i n g a l l a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , and by p a r t i c i p a t i n g , ing,  instruct-  o r r e f e r e e i n g i n the a c t i v i t i e s when requested t o do so.  During the f i r s t  t h r e e meetings the group as a whole would not  accept l i m i t s , s u g g e s t i o n s , o r d i r e c t i o n from t h e worker, b u t , as some o f the i l l u s t r a t i o n s have r e v e a l e d , i n d i v i d u a l s o r subgroups would, f o r a short time, permit the worker t o suggest a c t i v i t i e s o r p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h them. During these meetings,  the worker was used  q u i t e regu-  l a r l y by the members as a t a r g e t f o r abuse and h o s t i l i t y , as r e v e a l e d by the f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n s : (Oct. 23) E a r l asked W. to r e f e r e e the w r e s t l i n g . W. d i d . E a r l beat Roy, Dave, and F r e d . Roy would n o t accept W.'s d e c i s i o n t h a t he had been beaten. He f l a r e d up and swore a t W. w i t h i n t e n s e f e e l i n g and anger. W. explained q u i e t l y t h a t as r e f e r e e he had t o be f a i r t o b o t h competitors and blow h i s w h i s t l e a t the end o f the round r e g a r d l e s s o f who won. Roy, almost on t h e verge o f t e a r s now, r e t o r t e d a n g r i l y - "Aw, you weren't even watching". W. assured Roy t h a t he had been watching and E a r l sided w i t h W. "Sure he was watching". Roy was c o o l i n g down by t h i s time, but s t i l l appeared t o f e e l t h a t W. had g i v e n an u n f a i r d e c i s i o n . (Nov. 7) T h i s i s the kind o f s i t u a t i o n t h a t a r i s e s . W. w i l l attempt to get an organized game going. Boys r e s i s t by e i t h e r t e l l i n g W, to"go t o h e l l , and stop s p o i l ing t h e i r f u n " , o r e l s e by i g n o r i n g him. Then, when they are d i s o r g a n i z e d they s t a r t t o f i g h t amongst themselves, or s i t around and s u l k , and blame- W. f o r "doing n o t h i n g " , and "not l e t t i n g them have any f u n " . I f W. then makes suggestions they d e f y W. by r e f u s i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e . This v i c i o u s c i r c l e o n l y gets broken when some o f the boys s t a r t some new a c t i v i t y themselves and o t h e r s j o i n i n . T h i s s i t u a t i o n arose a f t e r the gymnasium program had been running f a i r l y smoothly f o r about an hour. F r e d and Dave began t o p i c k f i g h t s w i t h s m a l l e r boys. Fred picked on Joe, and Dave picked on H a r o l d . Harold l a y sobbing on the mat and would not take h i s hands o f f h i s f a c e o r t e l l W. what had happened. . Joe was w i t h him and t o l d W. t h a t F r e d had thrown Harold t o t h e f l o o r . Joe added "You're no good - you might as w e l l go t o h e l l f o r a l l you do around  - 55 here," w i t h h i s eyes b l a z i n g w i t h anger and hate i n h i s voice. These i l l u s t r a t i o n s r e v e a l q u i t e c l e a r l y t h a t the worker did  not have an e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the t o t a l group a t  this  time. In  the t h i r d and subsequent  meetings,  the worker began  to  set more l i m i t s on i n d i v i d u a l behaviour.  By t h i s time some  of  the group members would accept c l o s e r l i m i t s from the worker: (Dec. 1) On three o c c a s i o n s W. l i m i t e d i n d i v i d u a l act i v i t y , and on each o c c a s i o n r e c e i v e d a p o s i t i v e response. Roy was going to throw some wax a t o t h e r boys i n gymnasium; W. explained t h a t i t would s p o i l the f l o o r and asked Roy to put i t i n the waste b a s k e t . Roy complied i n a c h e e r f u l manner. When Dave took a new candle from a cupboard and was going to l i g h t i t W. asked him to put i t back, e x p l a i n ing that i t belonged to the church. Dave put i t back. When E a r l took a r o l l e d up magazine from a p i l e and s l i p p e d i t under h i s sweater W. asked E a r l i f he r e a l l y wanted i t , and E a r l s a i d : "No, I guess not," i n a nonchalent manner and put i t back on the p i l e . In the f o u r t h meeting  a s i t u a t i o n arose t h a t made the  worker aware o f the need f o r s e t t i n g c l o s e r l i m i t s on the group as a whole: (Dec. 8) W. suggested t h a t they p l a y "head the b a l l " over the n e t , s i n c e the b a l l was too heavy f o r v o l l e y b a l l . A l l were encouraged by W. to p l a y , but o n l y E a r l , H a r o l d , Gerry, and Roy would do so. T h i s game l a s t e d f o r s e v e r a l minutes w i t h W. r e f e r e e i n g . Dave, Norm, Joe, and Harold made i t i m p o s s i b l e to continue by t h e i r constant i n t e r r u p t i o n (running a c r o s s the c o u r t and d i s t r a c t i n g the p l a y e r s ) . W. turned h i s a t t e n t i o n to H a r o l d ; Dave had him pinned down to the mat and was pounding him i n a w i l d , u n r e s t r a i n e d manner. W. was unable to note the sequence of events t h a t l e d to the next i n c i d e n t , but E a r l , Dave, Joe, and Gerry were involved i n a f i e r c e b a t t l e . G e r r y had h i s f e e t t i e d t o g e t h e r and Dave was p a r t i a l l y t i e d up, c r y i n g b i t t e r l y . Joe was c r y i n g and w a i l i n g l o u d l y . W. t o l d them a l l to get t h e i r c o a t s on - that t h i s was the end of the gymnasium meeting f o r t o n i g h t ( i n answer t o q u e s t i o n i n g ) .  - 56 This uncontrolled  chaos was p r o b a b l y a d i r e c t r e a c t i o n  t o the change t h a t had been made e a r l i e r the same evening i n s l e e p i n g arrangements i n the R e c e i v i n g Home; o f value  i n t h a t i t prompted  weaknesses  however, i t was  the worker to i n v e s t i g a t e the  o f the group members more c l o s e l y , and to  the need f o r c l o s e r l i m i t s .  consider  I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t f i r m  a u t h o r i t y i s n e c e s s a r y to compensate  f o r the extremely l i m i t e d  ego s t r e n g t h o f the group members, and that the i m p o s i t i o n o f l i m i t s helps  to r e l i e v e a n x i e t y by r e s t r i c t i n g the p o s s i b l e  range o f a c t i v i t i e s .  I t appears t h a t W.'s  a c t i o n i n stopping  the a c t i v i t y at t h i s p o i n t was p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t , s i n c e i t was evident  t h a t the boys appeared q u i t e happy to leave the  gymnasium, and calmed down to an unusual degree Another f i n d i n g was  t h a t competitive  f o r a group o f t h i s type.  afterwards.  a c t i v i t y was not s u i t a b l e  The worker r e a l i z e d that on t h i s  o c c a s i o n there had been too much freedom and too much emphasis on c o m p e t i t i o n .  W i t h these f i n d i n g s as a guide, the worker  planned to l i m i t f u t u r e gymnasium meetings to one hour and to avoid  competitive  games.  In the t h r e e meetings t h a t followed  t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the worker and the group became i n c r e a s i n g l y more e f f e c t i v e .  The worker s e t l i m i t s on the l e n g t h o f the  gymnasium program and on the type o f a c t i v i t y ;  the group as a  whole accepted the l i m i t s s e t by the worker and the games and plans  suggested by him.  and seventh meetings:  T h i s was w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d  i n the s i x t h  - 57  -  (Jan. 19) W. had s t a r t e d a p a s s i n g game w i t h the rugby b a l l . Gerry, H a r o l d , Walt, E a r l , and Roy j o i n e d in; soon t h i s group were i n v o l v e d i n a p a s s i n g and c a t c h ing game u s i n g f o u r b a l l s - a f a s t , a c t i v e game. (Jan. 26) E a r l asked W. t o s t a r t a s o c c e r game, and E a r l , Walt, H a r o l d , Gerry, and W. s a t down when W. suggested t h a t they should s i t down and f i g u r e out what they could do with four p l a y e r s . B a s k e t b a l l was suggested and t h i s was immediately taken up as an a c c e p t a b l e i d e a . A f t e r some d i s c u s s i o n and disagreement as t o who would p l a y on what team (no r e a l a r g u i n g or shouting as i n p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n s ) , E a r l v o l u n t e e r e d to p l a y w i t h G e r r y a g a i n s t H a r o l d and Walt. E a r l t o l d W. t o r e f e r e e the game and to c a l l steps and interference. These examples i l l u s t r a t e how s h i p g r a d u a l l y changed.  the worker-group r e l a t i o n -  By working w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s and  sub-  groups, by a c c e p t i n g h o s t i l i t y from the boys, by g r a d u a l l y imposing  l i m i t s , and by d e l i b e r a t e l y i n i t i a t i n g  activities  w i t h i n these l i m i t s as the meetings p r o g r e s s e d , the worker  was  u l t i m a t e l y able to help the t o t a l group to move from an i n f a n tile  to a more mature l e v e l o f  behaviour.  However, the use o f r e l a t i o n s h i p by the worker was  only  one o f the many i n t e r - r e l a t e d elements t h a t helped the group members to move t o a more mature l e v e l o f behaviour.  When  these elements are d i s c u s s e d i n an i n t e g r a t e d manner, the t o t a l p r o c e s s t h a t brought  about the changes i n behaviour becomes more  apparent. E v o l u t i o n o f changes i n behaviour. The i n i t i a l meeting was  the f i r s t  o c c a s i o n on which  t h i s group had been i n such a s e t t i n g w i t h a group worker.  The  boys were f r e e to r e a c t to the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r e s t a b l i s h e d behaviour p a t t e r n s ;  none o f these p a t t e r n s  - 58 i n c l u d e d any h a b i t s o f c o - o p e r a t i o n .  I n v a r y i n g degrees,  a l l the boys e x h i b i t e d i n a b i l i t y t o share, l a c k o f p a t i e n c e or  perseverance, d e s i r e f o r immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n , extremes  of  anger and temper, c r y i n g , f i g h t i n g , n a r c i s s i s m , s u s p i c i o n  or  i n d i f f e r e n c e t o new people i n c o n t a c t w i t h them, and  defiance of adult In  authority.  s p i t e o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , some p o s i t i v e  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s were u t i l i z e d r i g h t from the f i r s t E a r l was the f i r s t  meeting.  t o r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y t o the worker and t o  ask f o r the worker's h e l p .  E a r l i s a n a t u r a l a t h l e t e who  was accepted by Roy, Walt, and Jack as a l e a d e r i n a t h l e t i c activities.  S i n c e E a r l accepted the worker, and had s t a t u s  w i t h the boys as a l e a d e r , Roy, Walt, and Jack, f o l l o w i n g E a r l ' s l e a d , a l s o accepted the worker as a h e l p i n g p e r s o n .  Simultan-  e o u s l y , the worker a l s o accepted the o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s who a t t h a t time were o n l y able t o express themselves by i m p u l s i v e a c t i n g out and f i g h t i n g .  i n the gymnasium  The worker was o f course  prepared f o r o n l y a slow process o f behaviour change. In  the second meeting, Fred and E a r l were a b l e t o ask  the worker t o h e l p them s t a r t a c t i v i t i e s .  I n both cases the  worker d i d t h i s , and i n both cases the a c t i v i t i e s appealed t o a l l the boys.  The simple games t h a t r e s u l t e d brought the t o t a l  group t o g e t h e r i n enjoyable a c t i v i t i e s , even i f o n l y f o r a few minutes• In to  these e a r l y meetings,  the worker p e r m i t t e d the boys  i n i t i a t e t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s , even though these  activities  were o f t e n h i g h l y unorthodox and l a s t e d f o r o n l y a v e r y s h o r t  - 59 time.  The v a l u e of these a c t i v i t i e s was  t h a t they i n v o l v e d  a l l the boys i n experiences t h a t were v e r y s a t i s f y i n g to them and provided an o u t l e t f o r a g g r e s s i v e impulses through p l a y . In the t h i r d meeting, E a r l ' s a b i l i t y and s t a t u s as a n a t u r a l l e a d e r were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g a b a s k e t b a l l game i n c l u d i n g Walt, Dave, Roy,  and Joe.  The worker's w i l l i n g n e s s  t o accept and encourage such expressed i n t e r e s t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and s m a l l groups helped them to have some more s a t i s f y i n g  exper-  i e n c e s and to r e a l i z e that the worker would h e l p them and p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h them.  The worker's encouragement of the e x p l o r -  i n g , and the i m p u l s i v e , spontaneous p l a y t h a t f o l l o w e d i t , helped the t o t a l group to experience new  a c t i v i t i e s which were  v e r y s a t i s f y i n g to them yet d i d not demand much o r g a n i z a t i o n o r c o n t r o l from the group members or from the worker.  Gradually,  through these a c t i v i t i e s , mutual understanding developed the worker and the group members.  between  T h i s understanding helped  the group members to accept the l i m i t s t h a t the worker g r a d u a l l y s e t , and these l i m i t s , i n t u r n , l e d to a more s a t i s f y i n g program. The s t a t e o f u n c o n t r o l l e d chaos that developed f o u r t h meeting  i n the  (Dec. 8) helped the worker t o r e a l i z e t h a t more  l i m i t s were n e c e s s a r y i n the gymnasium a c t i v i t y , and t h a t  competi-  t i v e games should be avoided u n t i l the boys showed t h a t they were a b l e t o accept the f r u s t r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d . I n the f i f t h meeting, more equipment was  a v a i l a b l e , and  the worker t o l d the group t h a t the gymnasium meeting would be l i m i t e d to one hour.  The boys were a b l e to perform much more  harmoniously w i t h i n these l i m i t s , and, because of the a d d i t i o n a l  - 6o  -  equipment, they were able to channel t h e i r a g g r e s s i v e  impulses  i n t o b a l l games, u s i n g them as an a c c e p t a b l e form o f f i g h t i n g and  as a medium f o r r e l e a s i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s .  u r a l l e a d e r , asked game, and was  E a r l , as a n a t -  f o r the worker's h e l p i n s t a r t i n g a s o c c e r  a b l e to i n f l u e n c e the o t h e r group members to  follow his leadership.  S i n c e they had by t h i s time had s e v e r a l  s a t i s f y i n g , c o - o p e r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s , they were ready,  with  E a r l ' s l e a d , to accept the worker's suggestions about how adapt the s o c c e r game to the gymnasium. had more f a i t h and  S i n c e the boys  to now  confidence i n the worker than i n p r e v i o u s  meetings, the worker was of B r i t i s h B u l l d o g .  i n v i t e d to p l a y w i t h them i n the game  A l l these elements, i . e . the c l o s e r  limits,  the g r e a t e r amount o f equipment, E a r l ' s l e a d e r s h i p , the p r e v i o u s experiences of the group, and  t h e i r i n c r e a s e d f a i t h and  confi-  dence i n the worker c o n t r i b u t e d to the i n c r e a s i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t the boys achieved  from the gymnasium meeting.  By the s i x t h meeting the worker was the g e n e r a l behaviour  a b l e to d e t e c t from  of the boys when i t was  an a c t i v e r o l e i n i n i t i a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . mutual f e e l i n g between the worker and  n e c e s s a r y to take  By t h i s time  the boys was  the  such t h a t  they would f o l l o w the worker's l e a d when the worker d i d s t a r t new  activity.  a  On t h i s o c c a s i o n the group members j o i n e d i n  when the worker s t a r t e d a p a s s i n g game t h a t soon i n v o l v e d a l l those p r e s e n t .  E a r l then wanted to t r y a d i f f e r e n t game.  h i s l e a d e r s h i p and and  the worker's d i r e c t i o n , the game was  i n v o l v e d a l l the group members p r e s e n t .  Satisfying  With  started  - 61 experiences w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f simple, c o - o p e r a t i v e games were the u s u a l a c t i v i t y by t h i s time.  The group members had  achieved enough c o n t r o l and o b j e c t i v i t y to be a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e the r e a l i t y o f the s i t u a t i o n when the worker suggested  a compro-  mise and gave them the a l t e r n a t i v e o f a c c e p t i n g i t o r l e a v i n g the gymnasium.  With t h e i r memories o f p r e v i o u s f u n t h a t they had had,  w i t h i n c r e a s i n g confidence i n the worker, and w i t h t h e need t o make an immediate d e c i s i o n , the group members decided t o s t a y and accept the compromise suggested  by the worker:  (Jan. 19) E a r l suggested t h a t they p l a y war b a l l . W. asked how many wanted t o p l a y war b a l l , and a l l agreed e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t h a t they wanted to p l a y . Roy and E a r l chose teams, and E a r l and Harold played a g a i n s t Roy, Gerry, and Walt. The b a l l h i t a c h a i r , and the c a r e t a k e r t o l d the boys t o take i t easy on the c h a i r s , and complained t h a t he d i d n ' t know why they had t o p l a y these "damn f o o l games instead of b a s k e t b a l l . " T h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n by the c a r e t a k e r turned the group members' h o s t i l i t y on him, and there were many muttered o b j e c t i o n s . W. suggested t h a t i f the could not p l a y war b a l l they could p l a y B r i t i s h B u l l d o g - a popular game t h a t had been suggested e a r l i e r and r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r o f war b a l l . The g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n was, "we're not going t o p l a y anything now," so W. s a i d t h a t i f they d i d n ' t want to p l a y anything they might as w e l l a l l go home, and s t a r t e d t o change h i s shoes. T h i s a c t i o n made group r e a l i z e t h a t W. meant what he s a i d , and they decided to s t a y and p l a y B r i t i s h B u l l d o g . A l l boys j o i n e d and played t h r e e games o f B r i t i s h B u l l d o g i n the u s u a l w i l d , e n t h u s i a s t i c manner. I n view o f a l l the p r e v i o u s s a t i s f y i n g experiences had  that  a r i s e n from c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h the worker,  and w i t h an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the v a l u e o f p l a n n i n g , the boys were a b l e to progress t o t h i s p o i n t .  I n the seventh meeting they  were able t o p l a n t h e i r own games program w i t h the worker's h e l p , and  to p a r t i c i p a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a h i g h l y competitive  basket-  - 62 -  b a l l game (the chosen a c t i v i t y ) f o r a reasonable l e n g t h o f time. When the game d i d t h r e a t e n t o d i s i n t e g r a t e i n t o an u n c o n t r o l l e d , Impulsive  a c t i n g out s i t u a t i o n , the group members were more a b l e  to c o n t r o l the s i t u a t i o n without  the worker's h e l p by r e - d i r e c t -  i n g the i m p u l s i v e urges t o f i g h t i n t o a w r e s t l i n g match - an a c c e p t a b l e a c t i v i t y t h a t had g i v e n p r e v i o u s  satisfaction.  During the seven meetings h e l d i n t h i s t h r e e month p e r i o d , and judging on the b a s i s o f expressed  interests,  tudes, a c t i v i t i e s , and a b i l i t y t o share and co-operate, boys q u i t e c l e a r l y progressed  attithese  from an i n f a n t i l e l e v e l o f behav-  i o u r t o t h e p o i n t where they c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s p l a y e d the a b i l i t y to work as a harmonious u n i t , t o p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n c o m p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and t o enjoy these e x p e r i e n c e s . has been a steady p r o g r e s s i o n ;  This  the v a l u e o f the gymnasium  meetings was i n b r i n g i n g about these behaviour  changes r a t h e r  than i n d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s i n the a c t i v i t i e s .  Not u n t i l  January  26 (months a f t e r the meetings began) were the boys a t t h e p o i n t where they could p a r t i c i p a t e i n organized a c t i v i t i e s t o the extent necessary t o develop  the s k i l l s i n v o l v e d .  i l l u s t r a t e how the boys, through guided  These meetings  group e x p e r i e n c e s , were  helped t o reduce t h e i r a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour, t o develop something o f a democratic  process i n making d e c i s i o n s , and t o  improve t h e i r p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l adjustment w i t h i n the group.  Reactions t o o t h e r a d u l t - s u p e r v i s e d a c t i v i t i e s . P a r a l l e l t o t h i s s e r i e s o f a c t i v i t y p e r i o d s i n the gymnasium was the s e r i e s o f meetings i n which the boys o r i g i n a l l y  -  showed a complete and  63  -  general l a c k of enthusiasm f o r a d u l t -  s u p e r v i s e d l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s i n the community. t h e i r a t t i t u d e changed.  The  r e v e a l s the boys' o r i g i n a l  group worker's i n i t i a l  Gradually observation  attitude*  (Oct. 15) W. n o t i c e d t h a t boys chose c h a i r s c l o s e s t to Mr. H. and t h a t c h a i r s c l o s e to W. were o n l y occupied when no others were a v a i l a b l e . Walt seldom spoke d u r i n g the meal, but a l l other boys were i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Mr. H., asking about boys who had been sent to BISCO o r the D e t e n t i o n Home, or b o a s t i n g about t h e i r own p e r i o d s i n the D e t e n t i o n Home. There were eager questions about BISCO, and an obvious a d m i r a t i o n of the p l a c e and anyone who had been there - t h i s appeared to be the u l t i m a t e g o a l i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n - to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h BISCO - an a t t i t u d e of "I would l i k e to have a r e p u t a t i o n and a 'BISCO' r e c o r d , but dare I commit the a c t t h a t w i l l send me t h e r e . " At t h i s time the boys were s u s p i c i o u s o f the group worker and had  no apparent i n t e r e s t i n the l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s  a b l e i n the community. and  When t h i s was  avail-  r e a l i z e d , the g e n e r a l aims  p h i l o s o p h y of working w i t h a group of t h i s type were c o n s i d -  ered.  Some o f the aims were:  The worker could help the group  to move away from t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h B. I . S. i n favour o f s o c i a l l y acceptable develop  standards;  community l e a d e r s h i p and  be helped  the group work program could responsibility;  to i n t e r - r e l a t e w i t h o t h e r groups, and  the group could i t s social  h o r i z o n s could be broadened. During the e a r l y d i s c u s s i o n s o f program p l a n n i n g t h a t were held w i t h the group members, the boys• f e e l i n g s about A l e x andra House and about u s i n g the woodwork shop were r e v e a l e d : (Nov. 28) Jack s a i d he wasn't going to go down there and get h i s t e e t h knocked o u t . E a r l , Roy, Fred and Gerry expressed f e a r o f the "16 S c o t s " (a group of teenagers at Alexandra House) and s a i d t h a t when they went to the Ridge  -  64  -  Theatre the " 1 6 Scots" would beat them up. Earl said that the " 1 6 Scots" usually picked on Gerry, and once they even threw him on the road. Earl was quite indignant about this, and Mr. H. asked the boys what they did when the " 1 6 Scots" picked on Gerry; Earl said there was nothing they could do because the "16 Scots" were bigger guys and a l o t stronger. Because of the " 1 6 Scots", boys were reluctant to go to Alexandra House; Mr. H. told them that i f they did go to Alexandra House, they could a l l leave together from R. H. and that W. would be going with them, so the "16 Scots" would not bother them even i f they did see them. Boys agreed that i t would be a l l right i f i t was done that way. This illustrates the general feeling of the group doubt and anxiety about their a b i l i t y to mix with other groups of their own age, and a feeling of "gang rivalry".  This was  apparently the extent of their a b i l i t y to relate to the community. However, when i t came to the point of being able to vote on which night they wanted to go to woodwork, there was enough interest shown to produce a 7 to 2 vote i n favour of a particular night.  Even at this point, though, there was s t i l l some mis-  givings and some traces of reluctance: (Dec. 1 2 ) One of the questions most persistently asked was about the woodwork shop - what they could make and i f anybody would be there to t e l l them what they had to do. W. told them that they could make whatever they wanted to with what was there, and that nobody would t e l l them what they had to do. In spite of their mixed feelings, Earl, Dave, Gerry, Joe, and Norm went to woodwork with the worker.  There were some  interesting reactions: (Dec. 1 2 ) Earl said that he wanted to join the "Nabe" (meaning the Neighbourhood House), and Joe said enthusiastically to W., "You're right, sirI It i s fun down herel" i n a very surprised manner. Norm said that he wanted to join the "Nabe". This interest was partly due to the interest shown i n the boys and their projects by the Neighbourhood House staff, who  - 65 v i s i t e d the woodwork shop a c c o r d i n g t o a pre-arranged g e n e r a l , the group showed i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm  plan.  In  f o r woodwork  and a vague i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r aspects o f the Neighbourhood House program. The Christmas  t r e e h i k e , planned w i t h the boys, was  source o f i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm, ing  as i l l u s t r a t e d  a  i n the f o l l o w -  excerpt: (Dec. 20) The b a s i c o b j e c t i v e o f the t r i p ( t o c o l l e c t t r e e s ) was s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplished. Once the t r i p got s t a r t e d there was no evidence of d i s c o n t e n t o r n e g a t i v e ' behaviour, and morale was h i g h . P a r t y Returned to cars with trees. The boys were s i n g i n g and s h o u t i n g and i n high s p i r i t s . At supper W. suggested t h a t they t e l l ( r e l i e f weekend cook) about t h e i r t r i p . E a r l , Dave, and Fred t o l d about the h i k i n g and c l i m b i n g w i t h eager enthusiasm. Earl added t h a t they had more f u n than l a s t y e a r , when they j u s t went out behind a house and cut a t r e e . Dave was p e r s i s t e n t l y saying t h a t they should go on an o v e r n i g h t t r i p . During the meal and a f t e r w a r d s , boys were e x c l a i m i n g and r e p e a t i n g t h a t they sure had f u n and t h a t i t was a neat t r i p - i t was r e a l l y good, e t c . T h i s kind of h e a l t h y , e n t h u s i a s t i c r e a c t i o n continued t o  be apparent  i n subsequent  meetings:  (Jan. 9) By t h i s time the boys had come b u r s t i n g i n and were clamouring to go to the woodwork shop. Frank was worki n g , Jack was not p r e s e n t , but the remaining n i n e a l l went w i t h W. to Alexandra House woodwork shop. Jack was a l r e a d y at Alexandra House and j o i n e d the group t h e r e . On the way down t o Alexandra House, Dave asked W. "When are you going to take us camping, A l ? " F r e d added "Yea, when are you? We can a l l take care o f o u r s e l v e s , 'cause when we r u n away we have t o take care o f o u r s e l v e s anyway." W. t o l d them t h a t as soon as he could f i n d somewhere f o r them to s t a y on an o v e r n i g h t t r i p they would be able to go. Some o t h e r p o s i t i v e elements t h a t W. 1.  noted were:  The group members were a b l e t o work c o o p e r a t i v e l y i n s p i t e of the l i m i t e d space and l i m i t e d number of t o o l s and v i c e s .  -  66  -  2.  There was a h e a l t h y atmosphere o f l a u g h t e r and good natured banter as the work progressed, e.g., Fred r e p a i r e d a baby's r o c k i n g c h a i r w i t h n a i l s t h a t were o b v i o u s l y too small. He s a t i n the c h a i r and s t a r t e d r o c k i n g and s i n g i n g "Rock-a-bye-baby". Suddenly the c h a i r c o l l a p s e d and he landed on the f l o o r . He laughed and the group members laughed w i t h him and at him.  3.  E i g h t o f the nine boys f i n i s h e d w i t h a s p e c i f i c a r t i c l e t o take home. E a r l had nothing to take, but h i s a c t i v i t y w i t h the p a i n t seemed v e r y s a t i s f y i n g and meaningful to him. Two  weeks l a t e r , the woodwork p e r i o d was  described i n  the f o l l o w i n g manner: (Jan. 23) The woodwork s e s s i o n provided an a c t i v i t y t h a t was o f i n t e r e s t to the group members; t h e i r energy and a g g r e s s i v e tendencies were r e - d i r e c t e d i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e direction. There was no f i g h t i n g or a r g u i n g . . . . In g e n e r a l , the group members were having f u n and e n j o y i n g the a c t i v i t y o f woodwork and p a i n t i n g . The boys continued  to show i n t e r e s t and  the t o t a l group work program;  enthusiasm i n  E a r l reacted i n q u i t e an aggres-  s i v e manner when the d i s c u s s i o n s were t e m p o r a r i l y  discontinued:  (Jan. 30) E a r l asked W. "Hey, A l , what's happened to our g r i p e s e s s i o n s - we're not having them any more." W. asked i f he thought they should have some more, and E a r l thought they should - s a i d t h a t H. F. had t o l d him t h a t i t was no good u n l e s s they had something they would d i s c u s s s e r i o u s l y - they weren't j u s t s e s s i o n s where the boys could say "give me t h i s , " or " g i v e me t h a t " and repeat the same old r e q u e s t s . L a t e r i n the evening E a r l n a i l e d a p i e c e o f plywood to the bench and drew a f a c e and the house f a t h e r ' s name under i t . He s a i d "O.K. watch t h i s . " He took a hammer and s a i d "I'm going to n a i l h i s f a c e i n , " and drove n a i l s i n t o the f a c e w i t h t e r r i f i c f o r c e and i n t e n s i t y ; then pounded the wood to shreds w i t h the hammer. T h i s was done w i t h t e r r i f i c i n t e n s i t y and c o n c e n t r a t i o n and repeated hammer blows and E a r l s a i d "There, t h a t ' s what I t h i n k of himI" and heaved a s i g h o f r e l i e f and s a t i s f a c t i o n when he f i n i s h e d . His i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s about having away are q u i t e apparent.  the d i s c u s s i o n s taken  L a t e r i n the evening,  more  of i n t e r e s t i n the neighbourhood House program was  evidence  revealed:  - 67 (Jan. 30) E a r l asked i f i t would be a l l r i g h t i f he l e f t e a r l y because he wanted to go to bed e a r l y . He s a i d he was p l a y i n g s o c c e r the next day. T h i s r e v e a l s t h a t E a r l had enough I n t e r e s t and to  initiative  j o i n the Neighbourhood House s o c c e r team on h i s own;  he  was  keen enough to want to be a good p l a y e r , and to get enough s l e e p to  enable him t o p l a y w e l l .  At t h i s time i t was  also  apparent  to  the Neighbourhood House s t a f f t h a t most o f the o t h e r boys  were a t t e n d i n g the t o t a l tweenage program Instead of j u s t woodwork. felt  T h e i r i n t e r e s t had spread to the t o t a l program, and secure enough to p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t .  t h a t the woodwork program was tweenage n i g h t .  I t was  at t h i s  they  time  switched to Tuesday, the r e g u l a r  On t h i s o c c a s i o n :  (Feb. 3) Dave a r r i v e d at woodwork shop and t o l d W. he thought W. was going to meet them at B.R.H. He added t h a t when he got to A.N.H. and found out from Miss G. t h a t W. was there he had phoned home and t o l d the o t h e r s to come on down. S e v e r a l boys and g i r l s entered the woodwork shop d u r i n g the evening. They were, a p p a r e n t l y , s c h o o l f r i e n d s o f t h i s group, s i n c e they a l l knew each o t h e r by name. There was a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of chasing and running around woodwork shop and a u d i t o r i u m . The i n t e r a c t i o n between t h i s group and the o t h e r "Tweenagers" was q u i t e harmonious. Group members d i d not o b j e c t to other tweenagers coming i n to woodwork shop; some of the tweenagers showed more e r r a t i c behaviour and caused more d i s turbance than t h i s group. On t h i s o c c a s i o n Dave had to  phone the o t h e r group members;  to  come to A.N.H. on t h e i r own.  was,  enough i n t e r e s t i n the program they too had  enough i n t e r e s t  At t h i s time, t h e i r  behaviour  on the whole, b e t t e r than t h a t o f the g e n e r a l membership -  an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the boys were a b l e to use the group work p r o gram e f f e c t i v e l y .  - 68 -  Three days l a t e r the worker h e l d another l o n g d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the hoys i n the R e c e i v i n g Home.  The  following i l l u s t r a t i o n  r e v e a l s t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to the group work program a t t h i s (Feb. 6) When W. a r r i v e d , E a r l and Roy enthusiasm when they asked W. i f there was d i s c u s s i o n and found t h a t there was.  time:  expressed r e a l going to be a  During supper, Dave s a i d t h a t he wanted two n i g h t s o f woodwork i n s t e a d of one - t h a t they d i d n ' t have a chance to f i n i s h what they were making i n one n i g h t . Norm thought t h a t they should be able to go to the gymnasium more o f t e n . E a r l was t e l l i n g Fred t h a t he should j o i n the s o c c e r team at A.N.H. because they needed more p l a y e r s . At t h i s time there was  spontaneous enthusiasm  group work program, and E a r l had  f o r the  even assumed the r o l e o f  u n o f f i c i a l t a l e n t scout f o r the s o c c e r team. At the end of February t h i s trend was f u r t h e r progress was  s t i l l apparent,  and  evident:  (Feb. 24) Walt, F r e d , E a r l and Jack now seem to be u s i n g A.N.H. f a c i l i t i e s on t h e i r own. E a r l and Jack are i n c l u b groups and on the s o c c e r team; Fred and Walt are i n t e r e s t e d i n woodwork; F r e d and E a r l w i l l r e p r e s e n t t h e i r groups on the tweenage c o u n c i l t h a t i s being formed. Gerry, Roy, Harold and Norm use A.N.H. f a c i l i t i e s i n t e r m i t t e n t l y . During March t h i s trend  continued:  (Mar. 3) E a r l , Jack, Walt, Dave, F r e d , and Harold have found t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s and f r i e n d s and are happy and s e l f c o n f i d e n t i n the t o t a l tweenage program at A.N.H. There i s evidence t h a t these group members are d e v e l o p i n g deeper and more meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the tweenagers. T h i s was  the g e n e r a l p i c t u r e t h a t r e c u r r e d q u i t e c o n s i s t -  e n t l y when the boys were a t the Neighbourhood House. Many i n t e r - r e l a t e d elements helped to b r i n g about t h i s f i n a l state.  F i r s t of a l l , the group work s e r v i c e s were an  i n t e g r a l p a r t of the R e c e i v i n g Home program.  I t was  therefore  - 69 -  p o s s i b l e t o p l a n the program w i t h the boys and h e l p them t o overcome t h e i r f e a r s o f j o i n i n g Alexandra House.  With the  c o - o p e r a t i o n o f Alexandra House s t a f f , the boys were helped to have a s e r i e s o f s a t i s f y i n g , i n t r o d u c t o r y experiences i n the tweenage program.  After their careful introduction to  these e x p e r i e n c e s , they were eager t o move i n t o the p a r t i c u l a r areas o f program t h a t were o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o them. T h i s i s the kind o f s i t u a t i o n t h a t can a r i s e when c o - o r d i n a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p i s a v a i l a b l e i n the R e c e i v i n g Home and i n community agencies such as Alexandra House. There i s a remarkable tude on October  c o n t r a s t between the boys' a t t i -  15, when they were s u s p i c i o u s o f the worker and  were t a l k i n g e a g e r l y about BISCO, and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s on January 9, when they were clamouring t o go t o woodwork and a s k i n g about a camping t r i p .  The g r a d u a l process o f becoming i n t e g r a t e d  w i t h the tweenage program and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the a c t i v i t i e s it  o f f e r e d provided the group members w i t h an a c c e p t a b l e sub-  s t i t u t e f o r t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h BISCO.  Through the  d i r e c t work w i t h t h e boys and the concurrent (and j u s t as essent i a l ) work w i t h the s t a f f o f the R e c e i v i n g Home and o f A l e x andra House, some o f the aims and o b j e c t i v e s t h a t were o r i g i n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d have been a c h i e v e d .  The boys have been  helped t o move away from t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h B.I.S. i n f a v o u r of  s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e standards;  they have been helped t o  i n t e r - r e l a t e w i t h o t h e r groups, and t h e i r s o c i a l h o r i z o n s have been broadened t o i n c l u d e an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the s a t i s f a c t i o n s  -  of a c o n s t r u c t i v e l e i s u r e  70  -  time program.  They have, i n  g e n e r a l , been helped to p l a n , t o p l a y , and to l i v e more e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e i r own group and i n the community.  These  accomplishments are an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the t o t a l process o f h e l p i n g them to move out, u l t i m a t e l y , t o a normal l i v i n g situation.  Chapter IV  INDIVIDUAL PROGRESS  There are many ways i n which the group work program could be e v a l u a t e d . each boy.  One way  i s to c o n s i d e r the p r o g r e s s o f  I f the g e n e r a l concepts that served as a guide  f o r working w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s i n the group work program are r e i t e r a t e d , they w i l l p r o v i d e a convenient frame o f r e f e r e n c e a g a i n s t which the boys' progress can be a s s e s s e d . One g e n e r a l concept wass "we environment  new  i n the hope t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i v e p a t t e r n s o f  another group may may  move a c h i l d t o a  be g r a d u a l l y assumed and t h a t s o c i a l  r e p l a c e the a n t i - s o c i a l . " " " 1  conduct  A second g e n e r a l concept  was  t h a t the word "group" "... i m p l i e s a network o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t have a s t r o n g l y l a s t i n g c h a r a c t e r and, because o f t h i s , can c o n t r i b u t e a great d e a l toward  the development  o f the  l a t e n t p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l b e l o n g i n g to i t ,  espec-  i a l l y i f i t i s s k i l f u l l y guided a c c o r d i n g t o modern group work principles."  2  A t h i r d g e n e r a l concept was  t h a t "a h e a l t h y  s o c i a l c l i m a t e ... i s one of the s t r o n g e s t treatment  influences  1 Leonard W. Mayo, "What may I n s t i t u t e s and Group Work C o n t r i b u t e to Each Other?", i n Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1935, p. 337. 2 . Suzanne S c h u l z e , "Group L i v i n g and the Dependent C h i l d , " i n Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work. New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947, p . 3 9 1 .  -  72  -  w i t h c h i l d r e n whose s t r i v i n g s , d r i v e s , and  conflicts  too  o f t e n have remained l a t e n t , because of an u n d e s i r a b l e s i t u a t i o n , and  home  thus served to d i s t o r t t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  They can o n l y be helped through the medium of c r e a t i v e p r e s s i o n and  s a t i s f y i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t w i l l l e a d  s e l f respect, personal and  i n t h i s way  integrated  s a t i s f a c t i o n s , and  recognition,  i n d i v i d u a l s ."^ i s considered  from the p o i n t o f view o f h i s  behaviour i n the group work program and general  Earl,  ...  (age  the extent to which  concepts could be a p p l i e d f o r h i s b e n e f i t . 15)  E a r l was  able to take advantage of a l l the  i e n c e s provided  f o r the boys i n the R e c e i v i n g  group exper-  Home.  He  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the gymnasium program, the Christmas t r e e and  hike,  a l l the a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r the boys at Alexandra  House.  The  o n l y a n t i - s o c i a l conduct t h a t he showed was  tendency to b u l l y and was  to  make i t p o s s i b l e f o r them to become b e t t e r  Each boy  the  ex-  antagonize s m a l l e r boys.  l e s s noticeable during  program.  In g e n e r a l ,  expression  and  ience personal  he was  helped to develop c r e a t i v e  s a t i s f y i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and s a t i s f a c t i o n and  1  general  to exper-  r e c o g n i t i o n from the worker In the gymnasium he  athletic a b i l i t y i n wrestling,  Loc c i t .  tendency  the l a t t e r p a r t o f the group work  from the s t a f f o f Alexandra House. revealed  This  a  basketball,  and  - 73 and  soccer.  He was  eager to please  a n a t u r a l l e a d e r , and  the worker and  the f a c t that he  able to i n f l u e n c e the other boys  enabled the worker to use E a r l ' s l e a d e r s h i p boys to p a r t i c i p a t e i n group a c t i v i t i e s . he made remarks and  to help the On  several  a n x i e t y about l i v i n g i n the R e c e i v i n g  he p a r t i c i p a t e d e a g e r l y and t h a t were a v a i l a b l e , and  and  everything  Home.  his  confusion  The  c o n s i s t e n t l y i n a l l the  fact  activities  d i d them i n a thorough,  be signs t h a t he i s c l u t c h i n g at  i n order to be l i k e d and  accepted.  He  anything often  repeated i n p a r r o t f a s h i o n the exact words or phrases t h a t worker had  the  used - another i n d i c a t i o n of the degree to which he  can i d e n t i f y w i t h a male a d u l t . confidence  that  the f a c t t h a t he o f t e n w i l l i n g l y under-  took to do d i r t y , menial j o b s , and meticulous manner, may  his  other  occasions  told fantasy s t o r i e s that revealed  g e n e r a l d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t about a d u l t people, and and  was  He  showed i n i t i a t i v e and  i a j o i n i n g the soccer team and  s o f t b a l l at Alexandra House.  He  self  i n s i g n i n g up f o r  i s not q u i t e ready to accept a  normal l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n y e t , i n view o f h i s g e n e r a l l a c k o f enthusiasm f o r a d u l t s , and f e e l i n g of self-worth.  h i s l a c k of a s t r o n g o r  consistent  However, i n view of h i s a b i l i t y to  r e l a t e to a d u l t s once he has t h a t they w i l l accept him,  t e s t e d them and  i t should  assured  himself  be p o s s i b l e f o r him  u l t i m a t e l y , to a normal l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n .  t o move,  In the meantime, he  needs to be g e n t l y exposed to a number o f people i n f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s so t h a t he rejecting.  can see t h a t they are not a l l c r u e l and  - 74 Roy.  (age 14) When the group work program was s t a r t e d , Roy r e v e a l e d  much a n t i - s o c i a l conduct.  To counteract  network o f s k i l f u l l y guided  this condition, a  r e l a t i o n s h i p s was b u i l t up and a  h e a l t h y s o c i a l c l i m a t e was developed t o help Roy t o achieve s a t i s f y i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  I n October, November and  December, Roy was an extremely unhappy boy. severe e n u r e s i s was a d e p r e s s i n g R e c e i v i n g Home.  H i s problem o f  i n f l u e n c e on t h e whole  Roy was teased u n m e r c i f u l l y by the  boys both i n the Home and a t s c h o o l .  other  The house f a t h e r , respon-  s i b l e f o r s u p p l y i n g sheets, b l a n k e t s , and mattresses, was exasperated was  by t h i s c o n t i n u i n g problem.  b e l l i g e r e n t and d e f i a n t ;  s m a l l e r boys i n the Home.  Roy's g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n  he fought v i c i o u s l y w i t h the  T h i s , i n t u r n , created more antag-  onism towards Roy, and g r e a t e r t e n s i o n and s t r i f e . l o g i c a l cause could be found f o r h i s e n u r e s i s .  No p h y s i o -  I n the weekly  meetings held between house f a t h e r , group worker, case workers, and  t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s , Roy's case h i s t o r y was s t u d i e d .  It  appeared that Roy's e n u r e s i s might be an e x p r e s s i o n o f h o s t i l i t y towards the house f a t h e r , whom he regarded father.  With t h i s i n mind, i t was suggested t o the house f a t h e r  t h a t he adopt a more l e n i e n t , understanding Roy,  as a s u b s t i t u t e  approach towards  and e x p l a i n t o him t h a t he was not i n the p o s i t i o n o f a  father.  The house f a t h e r d i d t h i s .  At the same time, i t was  suggested t h a t i n the group s e s s i o n s , Roy's problem could be d i s c u s s e d w i t h the t o t a l group ( i n Roy's absence) and t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n could be obtained  by a s k i n g them t o stop t e a s i n g  - 75 him.  T h i s was  done, and  the boys responded i n a v e r y sympath-  e t i c , c o - o p e r a t i v e manner.  By t h i s double approach, Roy's  e n u r e s i s immediately  d i m i n i s h e d , and  almost  T h i s i s an example of how  completely.  has, subsequently,  stopped  the s t a f f meetings  were used to form a p l a n to help the house f a t h e r to help the boy,  and how  the group s e s s i o n s were used to a s s i s t i n the  total  process. When t h i s problem d i m i n i s h e d to such a marked degree,  Roy  became much happier and l e s s a g g r e s s i v e i n the group work program. He  got great s a t i s f a c t i o n from t a l k i n g w i t h the worker and  engaging the worker i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t were c o m p e t i t i v e but friendly.  I t d i d not matter what the a c t i v i t y was.  Either i n  woodwork o r i n a game of indoor rugby, the k i n d of s i t u a t i o n t h a t gave Roy  r e a l s a t i s f a c t i o n was  the one  h i s a b i l i t y and win a p p r o v a l .  i n which he could show  T h i s appears to be h i s g r e a t e s t  s t r e n g t h - h i s a b i l i t y to r e l a t e c o n s i s t e n t l y and manner to a d u l t s .  He  t o f o s t e r parents who  should be a b l e to r e l a t e i n the same  him.  Racial origin:  Chinese.  I n g e n e r a l , Walt has been helped p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s , and p a r t i c u l a r , d u r i n g the f i r s t the Home, Walt was  to experience r e c o g n i t i o n ,  s a t i s f y i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . two  a scapegoat.  the o t h e r boys, and was ful.  way  could give him t h i s kind o f a t t e n t i o n and  share a c t i v i t i e s w i t h Walt, (age 14)  i n a friendly  or three months t h a t he was He was  In in  abused i n many ways by  r a t h e r i s o l a t e d and v e r y unhappy and  fear-  More r e c e n t l y , he has become l e s s an o b j e c t of abuse, and  more accepted  as equal to the o t h e r boys.  T h i s was  partly  due  - 76 t o the f a c t that he was accepted  as equal t o the o t h e r boys i n  the group work program, and p a r t l y due t o h i s own i n h e r e n t q u a l i t i e s o f honesty, and  f r i e n d l i n e s s , and w i l l i n g n e s s t o help  sympathize w i t h the o t h e r boys when they a r e i n d i f f i c u l -  ties.  He i s apt t o y i e l d t o i m p u l s i v e urges  such as e r r a t i c ,  random running around and p l a y f i g h t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y when o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s i n i t i a t e t h i s kind o f a c t i v i t y ;  he a l s o has a  tendency t o d e l i b e r a t e l y c r e a t e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t would b r i n g punishment from the a d u l t s concerned p h y s i c a l punishment i n t h i s way.  - he seems t o i n v i t e  Apart from these d e v i a t i o n s ,  he p r e s e n t s no s e r i o u s problems and i s a b l e t o l i v e i n the Home. woodwork.  normally  harmoniously  He enjoys a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s and i s good a t  Since January he has attended Alexandra House  r e g u l a r l y , and o f t e n on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e . f o s t e r home would be d i f f i c u l t  to find  Since a s u i t a b l e  f o r Walt (because  of h i s  r a c i a l o r i g i n and h i s other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) a group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n i s the o n l y f e a s i b l e r e s o u r c e , u n l e s s h i s own home s i t u a t i o n can be improved to the p o i n t where i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r him t o r e t u r n t h e r e .  Harold. (Age 13) Harold was a b l e t o b e n e f i t by g r a d u a l l y assuming some o f the c o n s t r u c t i v e p a t t e r n s provided i n the group work program. He was able t o develop  some o f h i s l a t e n t p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , and  t o become a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r i n t e g r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l . achieved by e n a b l i n g him to express  T h i s was  some o f the s t r i v i n g s ,  d r i v e s , and c o n f l i c t s t h a t served t o d i s t o r t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y .  - 77 Through c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n and he achieved nition.  s a t i s f y i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s  a g r e a t e r degree o f p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and  Harold was  r e f e r r e d to the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c .  f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about him  supplemented the  provided  the house f a t h e r .  by the case worker and  d i a g n o s i s to determine an immediate and would best meet h i s needs was shows how  recogThe  information Clinical  long-term p l a n t h a t  considered  necessary.  T h i s case  s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s t h a t a r i s e i n the group work program  a r e of value i n r e v e a l i n g h a b i t s , s k i l l s , T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s provided  i n t e r e s t s , and  from a s e r i e s of recorded  progress. observa-  t i o n s over a p e r i o d of f o u r months. The  first  impression  o b s e r v i n g Harold was group.  t h a t the worker r e c e i v e d from  t h a t he was  isolated  and  unhappy i n the  He would u s u a l l y s i t alone and would o f t e n s i n g mourn-  f u l l y to h i m s e l f , r o c k i n g back and  f o r t h as he d i d so, and  i n t o space, a p p a r e n t l y q u i t e o b l i v i o u s of what was around him. bullied  was  a l l e g e d t h a t he would  then run to the house f a t h e r f o r p r o t e c t i o n .  At Halloween, the worker n o t i c e d t h a t Harold l i k e a g i r l - he was  wearing l i p s t i c k and  k e r c h i e f over h i s head. "acting l i k e a g i r l " ;  The  makeup and  was had  dressed a  o t h e r boys o f t e n teased him f o r  the worker n o t i c e d o t h e r  t h a t s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h i s c l a i m to some e x t e n t ; h i g h v o i c e and  on  He would not j o i n i n a c t i v e group games and  c o n t i n u a l l y by the b i g g e r boys who  annoy them and  going  gazing  characteristics he s i n g s i n a  c o l l e c t s p i c t u r e s of models from f a s h i o n magazines,  and draws p i c t u r e s of women i n l o n g , f l o w i n g  dresses.  In the gymnasium w i t h the other boys, Harold  demands  - 78 -  constant a t t e n t i o n from the worker and has a r e a l i n t e r e s t and some s k i l l i n b a l a n c i n g and tumbling  stunts.  o p e r a t i v e l y with others i n t h i s a c t i v i t y .  He can work c o -  The remainder o f  the group p r e f e r s a g g r e s s i v e , f i g h t i n g games. U n t i l Christmas-time  Harold would l o s e h i s temper v e r y  e a s i l y and b u r s t out c r y i n g and sobbing at the l e a s t a t t a c k from any o f the o t h e r boys.  On two o c c a s i o n s he l e f t  the gym-  nasium i n a f i t o f u n c o n t r o l l e d i n f a n t i l e rage and d i d not r e t u r n on e i t h e r o c c a s i o n . (The group as a whole was v e r y prone to  f i g h t i n g and i m p u l s i v e a c t i n g out a t t h i s time;  one in  o f the most a c t i v e along these l i n e s . )  Harold was  There i s a piano  the gymnasium and Harold would sometimes s i t and p l a y the  p i a n o , though w i t h l i t t l e s k i l l o r a b i l i t y . Harold has become more a g g r e s s i v e i n h i s c o n t a c t s w i t h the worker.  One o f h i s f a v o r i t e t r i c k s i s t o creep up behind  W. and jump up on W.'s  back and b u t t W. c o n t i n u a l l y w i t h h i s  knees while he hangs on.  He l i k e s t o f i g h t w i t h W. and enjoys  i n f l i c t i n g p a i n by s c r a t c h i n g o r gouging w i t h h i s f i n g e r s .  He  does t h i s w i t h i n t e n s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n and e f f o r t u n t i l i t r e a l l y h u r t s the r e c i p i e n t . and  However, the next minute he i s f r i e n d l y  eager f o r W. t o teach him new s t u n t s , which he w i l l  very  practice  carefully. During January and February Harold became more a member  of  the group - l e s s i s o l a t e d , more c o - o p e r a t i v e , and a b l e to  work as a team member i n b a s k e t b a l l games and o t h e r "rough", "tough", f i g h t i n g games which a r e so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s  group.  - 79 -  He developed  a h i g h e r f r u s t r a t i o n t o l e r a n c e and was  able to  take the i n e v i t a b l e bumps and b r u i s e s as a p a r t o f the game fcather than as a p e r s o n a l i n s u l t .  He r e v e a l e d an I n t e r e s t  i n weight t r a i n i n g and body b u i l d i n g and boasted  about h i s  (imaginary) s t r e n g t h . In  woodwork, Harold showed no r e a l s k i l l  i n the use o f  t o o l s , but l i k e d to use the l a t h e and power-driven At f i r s t  he was  a f r a i d o f the dust and n o i s e and  sanding  disc.  f l y i n g chips,  but a f t e r seeing worker and o t h e r boys use the l a t h e he. t r i e d it  f o r h i m s e l f under worker's guidance  and  i n s t r u c t i o n and  then  used i t a l o n e , w i t h r e a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and p r i d e i n h i s accomplishment. Worker spent some time w i t h Harold i n each gymnasium and woodwork s e s s i o n , encouraging pressed i n t e r e s t s , and  and h e l p i n g him i n h i s ex-  then i n v i t i n g him to j o i n i n some a c t i v -  i t y w i t h o t h e r group members who  have the same i n t e r e s t s .  This  s a t i s f i e d h i s need f o r a t t e n t i o n and helped him to work w i t h o t h e r boys. These o b s e r v a t i o n s cover o n l y a s h o r t p e r i o d of Harold's t o t a l " l i f e - s i t u a t i o n " - they cover about f o u r o r f i v e hours per week. and  However, i n t h i s group work a r e a he has shown i n t e r e s t s  a b i l i t y to r e l a t e e a s i l y to the worker (when he i s g i v e n  much i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n ) and i n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y to r e l a t e t o the group i n a harmonious manner.  However, the worker does not  want to g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t he c o n s i d e r s Harold to be a w e l l - a d j u s t e d boy.  The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt from a group r e c o r d  r e v e a l s symptoms t h a t suggest t h a t Harold i s i n need o f  - 80 psychiatric consultation. The  group had j u s t been e x p l o r i n g the a t t i c o f the gym-  nasium, w i t h W.'s h e l p . and  satisfied their  They found  t h a t i t was dark and dusty,  curiosity.  A f t e r a few minutes o f l o o k i n g around, and r e a l i z i n g t h a t there was nothing i n the a t t i c , W. and boys returned t o the gymnasium. There was anatmosphere o f adventure and excitement about the whole v i s i t t o the a t t i c t h a t appealed t o the boys. W. a s s i s t e d Harold and Joe t o get down, a t t h e i r request. A l l except Harold returned t o the gymnasium. Harold was i n the k i t c h e n and had Just f i n i s h e d washing h i s hands when W. came through k i t c h e n . Harold turned t o W. and s a i d "Look a t my g l o v e s . " He produced two p a i r s o f l a d i e s gloves — one p a i r o f fancy b l a c k ones and one p a i r o f r e d ones. He put on the b l a c k ones and s a i d they were h i s mother's; he waved h i s hands around, showing o f f the gloves i n a v e r y effeminate manner, a p p a r e n t l y seeking W's a p p r o v a l o f t h i s act. He s a i d t h a t h i s mother had another p a i r o f l o n g white gloves t h a t came up t o her elbow. W. asked Harold i f he thought those were the k i n d o f gloves t h a t boys should wear. Harold thought t h a t boys should wear woollen o r leather gloves. Harold t o l d W. t h a t he never l e t the o t h e r boys see him wearing the gloves - t h a t he always c a r r i e d them w i t h him but never wore them when o t h e r people could see him. Harold t o l d W. t h a t h i s mother was 3 8 , t h a t she had a boyf r i e n d and was g e t t i n g married soon, and t h a t when she had some money he was going back t o l i v e w i t h h i s mother soon a f t e r Christmas. These f o u r boys, E a r l , Roy, Walt, and H a r o l d , a r e the ones who have been a b l e t o b e n e f i t t o t h e g r e a t e s t extent from the group work program.  Of the o t h e r seven boys, t h r e e have been  able to b e n e f i t to a l e s s e r  extent.  F r e d , (age 14) I n g e n e r a l , F r e d has found  some means o f c r e a t i v e  e x p r e s s i o n and some p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n the group work program.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , he has p a r t i c i p a t e d e a g e r l y i n  - 81 -  most o f the a c t i v i t i e s a t Alexandra  House.  I n woodwork he  has r e v e a l e d s k i l l , p e r s i s t e n c e , i n g e n u i t y , and the a b i l i t y t o work c o n s i s t e n t l y from week t o week. and  the general program a t Alexandra  He has attended woodwork House r e g u l a r l y and on h i s  own i n i t i a t i v e , and, g e n e r a l l y , has used the r e s o u r c e s i n a s a t i s f y i n g , a p p r o p r i a t e manner.  There a r e however, o t h e r  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d . a p p a r e n t l y s a t i s f a c t o r y behaviour of  Underlying h i s  i s a tendency t o take advantage  c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s i n a scheming, c a l c u l a t e d manner.  He w i l l  go t o great l e n g t h s t o win the confidence o f a d u l t s , and then, b e i n g i n a p o s i t i o n where he i s t r u s t e d and, t h e r e f o r e , o f t e n not being watched, he w i l l d e f t l y s t e a l some o b j e c t which may not i n i t s e l f be o f any g r e a t v a l u e .  He u s u a l l y times  these  a c t s so that some o t h e r boy could be held r e s p o n s i b l e , and s t o u t l y denies any knowledge o f the i n c i d e n t when i t i s d i s c o v e r e d . I n a d d i t i o n , he i s , at times, moody, s u l l e n , u n c o - o p e r a t i v e , and bad  tempered, b e s i d e s being o f a b u l l y i n g , a g g r e s s i v e  nature.  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are, o f course, i n d i c a t i v e o f u n d e r l y i n g d i s t u r b a n c e s that have not been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e s o l v e d .  A  semi-permanent r e s i d e n c e would seem to be the o n l y f e a s i b l e resource f o r F r e d .  Apart  from the problems mentioned, he i s  a b l e to l i v e e f f e c t i v e l y and harmoniously i n t h i s  setting.  Dave, (age 14) Dave has achieved  l i t t l e i n the way o f c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n ,  p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , o r s a t i s f y i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the group work program.  I n g e n e r a l , h i s s t r i v i n g s , d r i v e s , and  -  82 -  c o n f l i c t s have e i t h e r remained l a t e n t o r been expressed i n an a n t i - s o c i a l manner.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , under e x i s t i n g circum-  s t a n c e s , i t has been d i f f i c u l t  t o work e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h Dave.  I n t h e gymnasium program he has c o n s i s t e n t l y indulged i n impulsive,  e r r a t i c behaviour such as f i g h t i n g , running around  a i m l e s s l y , and e x p l o r i n g  every a c c e s s i b l e i n c h o f the church h a l l .  When he has o c c a s i o n a l l y j o i n e d  i n more c o n t r o l l e d  h i s l a c k o f p h y s i c a l s i z e and s t r e n g t h , and  activities,  i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s temper  h i s f e e l i n g s o f i n a b i l i t y t o compete w i t h the o t h e r boys have  caused him t o q u i t v e r y e a s i l y .  I n woodwork he has o c c a s i o n a l l y  completed a simple p r o j e c t w i t h the worker's h e l p , but g e n e r a l l y h i s behaviour has been e r r a t i c , i m p u l s i v e running around i n a noisy,  unpredictable  manner.  He i s v e r y s u s c e p t i b l e  ences from contagious, tempting s i t u a t i o n s .  to i n f l u -  When a group o f  boys s t a r t e d k i c k i n g a t a door i n Alexandra House, he was the one  who continued u n t i l he put h i s f o o t through the p a n e l .  another o c c a s i o n he was i n v o l v e d p i c k i n g a t Alexandra House.  w i t h Norm i n an episode o f l o c k -  However, there have been examples  o f h i s a b i l i t y t o be i n f l u e n c e d p o s i t i v e l y t o him.  On  by the worker and t o r e l a t e  After subjecting  the worker t o the most  extreme forms o f " t e s t i n g " he w i l l then, u l t i m a t e l y , work i n a very co-operative,  f r i e n d l y manner f o r a short  time when he has  found that i t i s s a f e t o do s o , and t h a t he w i l l not be r e j e c t e d . The  occasions on which the worker has been a b l e t o work most  e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h Dave have been e i t h e r i n the woodwork shop o r when d i s c u s s i n g W's c a r o r d r i v i n g i n i t w i t h Dave, when there  - 83 were no o t h e r boys around.  On these o c c a s i o n s he has shown an  i n t e n s e f a s c i n a t i o n f o r the c a r , and, i n spontaneous c o n v e r s a t i o n , has r e v e a l e d some of the t h i n g s he would l i k e to do - f o r example, d r i v e a c a r , take g i r l s out, and  go on weekend t r i p s .  I n more  r e c e n t contacts he has asked ¥. when he w i l l be i n a g a i n , has asked ¥. to b r i n g him some s p e c i a l kinds o f wood; he has become more f r i e n d l y and  and  generally,  outgoing.  I n view of h i s i n t e n s e s u s p i c i o n and  g e n e r a l i z e d antagon-  ism towards a d u l t s , the l e n g t h of time t h a t i t takes to form an e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h him,  the u n c e r t a i n nature of t h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p , h i s i m p u l s i v e behaviour  and h i s tendency to engage  i n d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t y w i t h v e r y l i t t l e p e r s u a s i o n , Dave appears to be a long way accepted  from the p o i n t where he could accept or be  i n a normal f a m i l y l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n .  He appears t o  need much i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n over a long p e r i o d .  It i s for  boys such as t h i s t h a t a semi-permanent group l i v i n g  situation  appears to be the o n l y f e a s i b l e Gerry,  (age  resource.  15)  I n g e n e r a l , Gerry has achieved a measure o f e q u a l i t y w i t h the o t h e r boys, as w e l l as r e c o g n i t i o n and p e r s o n a l from the group work program. handicap  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Gerry's major  i s his limited intelligence.  work, and unable  Unable to pass Grade I  to read or w r i t e , he i s h a b i t u a l l y t r e a t e d i n a  d e r i s i v e , s c o r n f u l manner by the o t h e r boys. perform  satisfaction  He i s able to  c e r t a i n r o u t i n e chores around the Home, he has  very  -  84  -  l i m i t e d manual a b i l i t y i n woodwork, and some a b i l i t y and in  gardening.  interest  H i s p l e a s a n t , c h e e r f u l manner, h i s w e l l developed  physique, and h i s eager e x p r e s s i o n g i v e a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n o f g r e a t e r a b i l i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e than are a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t . r e q u i r e s constant, p a t i e n t d i r e c t i o n and guidance  He  i n order to  perform even r o u t i n e t a s k s , and w i l l p r o b a b l y never progress t o a much h i g h e r l e v e l . The f o u r remaining boys, f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons, have d e r i v e d l i t t l e b e n e f i t from the group work program. Norm, (age In  13) g e n e r a l , Norm has been unable to make e f f e c t i v e use o f  the group work program. he can respond  On d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s he has shown t h a t  to i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n , and on these o c c a s i o n s he  has t e m p o r a r i l y shown s k i l l i n woodwork and i n gymnastic ities.  On most o c c a s i o n s he has been i n what appears  v e r y confused, hazy s t a t e of mind;  and  on one o c c a s i o n was  Alexandra House.  t o be a  i t i s often d i f f i c u l t  i f he i s aware of what i s going on around him. o c c a s i o n s he has s t o l e n t o o l s and  activ-  On  to  tell  different  a w a l l e t from Alexandra House,  i n v o l v e d i n a l o c k - p i c k i n g episode a t  He u s u a l l y engages i n w i l d , i m p u l s i v e , chasing  games w i t h Dave i n a n o i s y , d e f i a n t manner.  He i s unable  to  s e t t l e down or c o n c e n t r a t e on any o t h e r a c t i v i t y . A c l o s e study over a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l months i s n e c e s s a r y to  asses h i s p r o g r e s s , s i n c e he has o n l y been i n the R e c e i v i n g  Home f o u r months. his  One  s i g n of progress i n t h i s time has been  becoming s l i g h t l y more t a l k a t i v e and a g g r e s s i v e w i t h the worker.  - 85 -  Joe. (age 12) Joe l e f t the Home i n January f o r treatment at the Ryther Clinic.  During the gymnasium periods he revealed extreme out-  bursts of temper and intense h o s t i l i t y towards the worker. Frank, (age 16) With the exception of a few minutes i n the gymnasium i n one of the early gymnasium periods, Frank did not participate i n the group work program.  His desire f o r independence and his  more mature interests took him completely outside the group work program. Jack, (age 14) Jack participated i n some of the planning sessions held with the group i n the Receiving Home.  Apart from t h i s , he  found his own friends and his own interests i n the community, including a hobbies club i n a l o c a l church and a soccer team and a club group at Alexandra House.  His successful experience  on a weekend t r i p up the mountain with t h i s club at Christmas time made the other boys more eager to j o i n Alexandra House. He i s , therefore, an example f o r the other boys i n t h i s respect. His i n i t i a l contacts with the worker were very guarded and  non-  commital, but at Christmas time he f e l t secure enough to ask the worker to loan him a pack and other equipment f o r his t r i p up the mountain.  He has since become s l i g h t l y more spontaneous  and outgoing i n his contacts with the worker.  He takes a long  time to e s t a b l i s h even a s u p e r f i c i a l relationship with male  - 86 -  a d u l t s , and  even when he does t h i s , he i s c o n t i n u a l l y s u s p i c i o u s  o f them and  h e s i t a n t i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h them.  i n g s w i t h the o t h e r boys, the worker has n o t i c e d v e r y e a s i l y upset by being manner, and  shoved or attacked  w i l l cry quite e a s i l y .  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t o i n d i v i d u a l s and  He  In h i s d e a l t h a t Jack i s  in a playful  i s at present  relating  groups i n the community;  but  he needs to have a s e r i e s of s u c c e s s f u l experiences i n group r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and  continuous support and  b u i l d up h i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . such experiences, parents who  encouragement to  He might, a f t e r a s e r i e s o f  make a s u c c e s s f u l adjustment to f o s t e r  d i d not demand too much show of a p p r e c i a t i o n from  him. From these i l l u s t r a t i o n s i t i s apparent t h a t the group work program has  provided  a v a r i e t y of guided group experiences  i n which i t has been p o s s i b l e to observe and ific  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  evaluate  the  spec-  general behaviour of most o f the boys  w h i l e they have been i n normal, d a i l y l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s .  In  some cases i t has been p o s s i b l e to b r i n g about d e s i r a b l e changes i n behaviour.  T h i s o b j e c t i v e has  been achieved  f u l l y c o n s i d e r i n g the l i m i t e d time and able.  l i m i t e d resources  I t i s apparent that c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n should  g i v e n to the s e l e c t i o n of boys f o r the R e c e i v i n g example, Frank and  Home.  successavailbe For  G e r r y are occupying space t h a t could be  to g r e a t e r advantage by other boys. it  fairly  used  I t i s a l s o apparent that  i s necessary to work w i t h these boys f o r a  considerable  p e r i o d of time to get any r e s u l t s that are l i k e l y to be  of  - 87 permanent v a l u e .  Two  years o f c a r e f u l c o n s i s t e n t work would  p r o b a b l y be n e c e s s a r y to ensure t h a t the boys were r e a l l y t o r e t u r n to a normal l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n .  fit  I n some cases, i t might  not be reasonable t o expect a boy to r e t u r n to a normal l i v i n g situation.  I n such cases, semi-permanent group l i v i n g accommo-  d a t i o n would be n e c e s s a r y . I n g e n e r a l , b e t t e r r e s u l t s could be obtained i f more time was  spent w i t h the boys i n a c t i v i t i e s that have not been a v a i l a b l e  i n t h i s program?  f o r example, mechanical work on c a r s , o t h e r  manual a c t i v i t i e s , such as hobbies, household i n g , and gardening.  r e p a i r s , carpenter-  With a " c o l l e c t i o n o f boys" such as  one  i n e v i t a b l y f i n d s i n a R e c e i v i n g Home, i t i s u s u a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o work w i t h them f o r some time on an i n t e r e s t b a s i s , i n d i v i d u a l or i n s m a l l groups, u n t i l the network o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t i s so e s s e n t i a l i n d e v e l o p i n g the l a t e n t p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f the boys i s b u i l t up.  Only then can they experience c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n and  the s a t i s f y i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s that have been completely l a c k i n g i n t h e i r l i v e s and t h a t are necessary b e f o r e they can become b e t t e r i n t e g r a t e d  individuals.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t a l l the boys progressed i n t h e i r s c h o o l work t o an unusual and unexpected  extent a f t e r the  group program had been i n e f f e c t f o r s i x months.  In the words  o f the house p a r e n t s , t h e i r marks were "the b e s t e v e r " , and s e v e r a l of the boys a l s o made progress i n t h e i r g e n e r a l conduct at s c h o o l .  I t may  be that because a l l the boys were g e t t i n g  some measure o f new  and s a t i s f y i n g experiences from the whole  - 88 smoothly o p e r a t i n g group work p r o j e c t , they were a b l e to work more e f f e c t i v e l y and harmoniously t h a t these s a t i s f a c t i o n s  i n school.  I t i s possible  helped the boys t o r e l e a s e t h e i r  t i a l a b i l i t y to improve i n t h e i r s c h o o l work. to assume t h a t t h i s may w e l l be the case;  I t i s reasonable  i t i s a l s o reasonable  to assume t h a t o n l y by c o n t i n u i n g the group work s e r v i c e s it  poten-  will  be p o s s i b l e t o help the boys m a i n t a i n t h e i r p r e s e n t l e v e l o f  behaviour and to continue t o p r o g r e s s .  Chapter V  GENERAL PROGRAM IMPLICATIONS  Another way t o evaluate the group work program ( i n a d d i t i o n t o c o n s i d e r i n g i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r e s s ) i s t o c o n s i d e r the g e n e r a l concepts t h a t were o r i g i n a l l y s t a t e d and the extent t o which they were a p p l i e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t . these concepts was, "the b a s i c d i f f i c u l t y f a i l u r e t o develop ... group l i f e to case work."*  ..  One o f  ... ( i s ) ... our  s k i l f u l l y and i n r e l a t i o n  Another concept was t h a t " ... group work w i t h  c h i l d r e n i s o n l y a p a r t o f the a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  The s t a f f , the board, and the community o f f e r  e q u a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t who i s 'group c o n s c i o u s . '  These concepts o f group work w i t h r e s p e c t  to c h i l d r e n , s t a f f , board, and community l e a d us beyond the narrow c o n f i n e s o f the o l d c o n c e p t i o n o f group work as r e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t y a l o n e .  We b e g i n to.see group work as  a t e c h n i q u e , and as much a p a r t o f the t o t a l  administrative  2 scheme as case work." I t has a l r e a d y been i l l u s t r a t e d  ( i n chapter I I )  how  group work s k i l l s were used w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t a f f and the communi t y i n a g e n e r a l way.  There were o t h e r times when the group  1 Leonard W. Mayo, "What may I n s t i t u t i o n s and Group Work C o n t r i b u t e t o Each Other," i n Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l C o n f e r ence o f S o c i a l Work. Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1935» p. 331. 2  I b i d . , p. 3 3 5 .  -  worker was and  90  -  able to work w i t h the case worker, the house p a r e n t s ,  the s t a f f of Alexandra House on more s p e c i f i c p o i n t s .  C o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the case worker. The  f o l l o w i n g examples g i v e two  specific  illustrations  o f c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the case worker: ( J a n . 5) When W. a r r i v e d a t B.R.H., E a r l and Walt were alone i n the d i n i n g room. E a r l t o l d W. t h a t the o t h e r boys had a l l gone out - t h a t they were not going to Alexandra House and would not be going t o the gymnasium. He added that Fred and Dave were fed up w i t h the gymnasium and would not be going t h e r e any more. A few minutes l a t e r , Dave, F r e d , and some o f the o t h e r boys came b u r s t i n g i n through the f r o n t door, and Dave shouted, " L e t ' s go to the gym!" The worker noted a t t h i s time t h a t the eager  enthusiasm  w i t h which Dave and Fred b u r s t i n would seem t o c o n t r a d i c t E a r l ' s statement T h i s may  t h a t they were not i n t e r e s t i n the gymnasium.  t h e r e f o r e have been a p r o j e c t i o n o f h i s own  The worker a l s o noted  t h a t i n group a c t i v i t i e s where t h e r e i s a  p e r s o n a l t h r e a t , Walt and E a r l o f t e n withdraw i n t o from the o t h e r boys.  feelings.  E a r l may  isolation  t h e r e f o r e f e e l too i n s e c u r e to  j o i n Alexandra House, where he t h i n k s he would be exposed to c o m p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and to the danger o f d e f e a t and l o s s o f status.  Walt may  be r e l u c t a n t to j o i n because o f h i s i n s e c u r -  i t y and f e a r o f being conspicuous.  I n t h i s case h i s f e a r s  stem from the f a c t t h a t he i s Chinese and t h e r e f o r e f e e l s  may  differ-  ent. With these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n mind, the group worker thought  t h a t the case worker might be able to e x p l o r e these  problems w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l s .  The  i n c i d e n t and  the group  worker's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t were d i s c u s s e d w i t h the case worker,  - 91 -  who  i n t u r n i n t e r v i e w e d the boys and found that they were  q u i t e r e l u c t a n t to j o i n Alexandra House.  With the case  h e l p , the boys were a b l e to overcome t h e i r f e a r s and Neighbourhood  worker's  j o i n the  House w i t h a g r e a t e r f e e l i n g o f c o n f i d e n c e and  security. Another i l l u s t r a t i o n r e v e a l s how  the content o f a case  work i n t e r v i e w can be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the group work a c t i v i t i e s . On one o c c a s i o n , the group worker was d i s c u s s i n g w i t h the boys how  they had progressed i n t h e i r l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s , what  they could remember about what they had done, and what each boy was  good a t .  Each boy was  came to Jack's t u r n .  g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o speak.  It  The f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n a r o s e :  (March 17) W. asked Jack what he could remember, and Jack s a i d "Nothin." W. agreed that Jack had been out on h i s own most o f the time, but t h a t W. could remember some good t h i n g s about him, t o o . Jack, e s p e c i a l l y , and o t h e r boys were eager t o know what they were. W. s a i d t h a t he knew t h a t Jack had gone out on h i s own and made a l o t o f f r i e n d s i n the neighbourhood, and had found a hobbies c l u b i n a church. Jack e a g e r l y s a i d , "Yea — you know what? Mr. H. t o l d me somethin' that was r e a l good t h a t I'd done." W. asked him what i t was. Others were a s k i n g the same question. Jack f i r s t s a i d i t was something p r i v a t e , and then he stood up and s a i d , e x c i t e d l y , "He t o l d me t h a t I've gone out on my own and made f r i e n d s i n the neighbourhood and he s a i d t h a t ' s good I" W. agreed t h a t i t was good to be a b l e to do t h a t . Before t h i s s e s s i o n began, W. knew (from a p r e v i o u s meeting) that Mr. H. had a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d t h i s w i t h Jack. t h e r e f o r e took the same l i n e o f approach i n the group  W.  session.  Jack then r e c a l l e d what Mr. H. had s a i d , and, having been p r a i s e d by W. f o r the same t h i n g , was the group s e t t i n g .  eager t o t a l k about i t i n  The f a c t t h a t he d i d t a l k about i t i n such  - 92 -  a c o n s t r u c t i v e way  was  accept such a statement  o f v a l u e to the o t h e r boys;  they would  from one o f t h e i r peers more r e a d i l y  than from an a d u l t , and might even be s t i m u l a t e d to go out do the same t h i n g . be coordinated and  Case work and  and  group work can, t h e r e f o r e ,  i n t e g r a t e d i n a v e r y e f f e c t i v e manner when  t h e r e i s mutual understanding between the workers  concerned.  C o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the house p a r e n t s . The group worker was  a b l e , on one o c c a s i o n , to help the  house mother w i t h a s p e c i f i c problem: (March 17) When Roy was going out he came t o H.M. and asked, "How do I l o o k ? " H.M. s a i d t h a t he looked much b e t t e r now he had h i s good c l o t h e s on. Roy s a i d he f e l t funny, and went out. At t h i s time, W., Roy, and H. M. were i n the k i t c h e n . Other boys and H.F. i n o t h e r p a r t s of the house. W. asked where Roy was going and H.M. told W. W. remarked, " I know how he f e e l s about being dressed up." T h i s was j u s t a chance remark. (W. meant t h a t he knew t h a t Roy must f e e l p r e t t y uncomfortable b e i n g a l l d r e s s e d up when he would p r e f e r to be i n o r d i n a r y s c h o o l c l o t h e s ) H.M. s a i d t h a t she wished W. would t e l l her how Roy d i d f e e l , and then she would understand i t too - t h a t she c o u l d n ' t see why he d i s l i k e d d r e s s i n g up and t h a t she always wanted the boys to l o o k smart when they went out o r t o the o f f i c e . She thought t h a t going to the o f f i c e (to see case worker) should be important to them. W. s a i d t h a t a f o u r t e e n year o l d boy was o f t e n v e r y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about h i s appearance anyway, and t h a t when he was dressed up he was a l l the more s e l f conscious because i t was unusual f o r him a f t e r wearing s c h o o l clothes. That was what Roy meant by s a y i n g he f e l t funny. H.M. s a i d she thought a boy should d r e s s up when a s k i n g a g i r l f o r a d a t e , otherwise the g i r l wouldn't want to go. W. s a i d that he thought H.M. was q u i t e r i g h t i n wanting t o h e l p them to be s m a r t l y d r e s s e d ; and a f t e r a few times they would become l e s s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and more at ease, and t h a t she was h e l p i n g them to do t h a t . 1  The p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t about t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t i t arose out o f a simple l i t t l e i n c i d e n t , when the boy, house mother, and the worker were m i n g l i n g i n a n a t u r a l , 1  H.M.  and H.F.  r e f e r to house mother and house f a t h e r .  the  - 93 -  harmonious manner i n the group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n .  The i n t e r p r e -  t a t i o n was g i v e n t o the house mother at the time when i t was o f most v a l u e - immediately  a f t e r the s i t u a t i o n a r o s e , and when  t h e r e was a q u e s t i o n i n her mind.  T h i s i s the k i n d o f i n c i d e n t  that can be used t o r e a l advantage i n a group l i v i n g  situation  when there i s a n a t u r a l , harmonious atmosphere t h a t i n c l u d e s workers, house p a r e n t s , and c h i l d r e n . Co-operation w i t h community r e s o u r c e s . The  g e n e r a l program at Alexandra  Neighbourhood House  i n c l u d e d an E a s t e r p a r t y w i t h games and a dance as p a r t o f t h i s event.  On t h i s o c c a s i o n a p a r t i c u l a r boy was helped  t o enjoy  the p a r t y : ( A p r i l 7 » ) W. n o t i c e d t h a t Roy was s i t t i n g w i t h one o f the v o l u n t e e r workers and t h a t she looked r a t h e r uncomfortable a t h i s obvious, eager a t t e n t i o n . W. was a b l e to t a l k w i t h her (away from group) a few moments l a t e r ; W. asked her i f she r e a l i z e d what i t meant t o Roy t o be a b l e to t a l k to her. She wondered why he was so a t t e n t i v e , and W. exp l a i n e d t h a t Roy needed to f e e l grown up and to have a g i r l that would t a l k t o him, encourage h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n , and g i v e him a t t e n t i o n . Roy, a t f o u r t e e n , i s q u i t e t a l l and f e e l s awkward with the average g i r l h i s own age. W. s a i d t h a t i f she could help Roy i n these ways i t would make him f e e l good, and i t was something no one e l s e there could do, s i n c e he had chosen h e r t o be f r i e n d l y w i t h . She understood and assumed t h i s r o l e v e r y n a t u r a l l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . During the dance she a l s o danced w i t h Roy, much t o h i s obvious s a t i s f a c t i o n and enjoyment. Before l e a v i n g , W. a g a i n spoke t o the v o l u n t e e r worker, and d i s c u s s e d what the evening had meant t o Roy. She a p p r e c i a t e d her e s s e n t i a l p a r t i n t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , and was o b v i o u s l y s a t i s f i e d at being o f such s e r v i c e . When t h e r e i s a coordinated  group o f a d u l t s who a r e a l l co-  o p e r a t i n g to h e l p the boys, t h i s i s the k i n d o f experience can be brought about.  that  -  General  94  -  Conclusions. These i l l u s t r a t i o n s show how  w i t h case worker, house parents,  and  i n d i v i d u a l cases have been achieved should has  the o b j e c t i v e s o f working community agencies  on  on some o c c a s i o n s .  be remembered t h a t the group work p r o j e c t being  o n l y been i n e f f e c t f o r a p e r i o d o f s i x months, and  It studied that  t h e r e have been l i m i t s on the amount o f time t h a t the worker able to spend w i t h the boys (an average of two and  n i g h t s a week),  i n planning w i t h o t h e r s t a f f members (an average o f  meetings a week).  was  two  I f group work s e r v i c e s were a c o n t i n u o u s ,  permanent part o f the R e c e i v i n g  Home program, i t i s assumed t h a t  the r e s u l t s that have been demonstrated could be achieved  in  g r e a t e r measure. The and  f o l l o w i n g record o f meetings between the group worker  the house p a r e n t s gives a more complete i l l u s t r a t i o n o f  t o t a l group l i v i n g are o n l y one  situation;  the  i t shows t h a t group work s e r v i c e s  of many c l o s e l y Interwoven aspects of day-to-day  l i v i n g i n the Home. ( A p r i l 13) W. phoned H.F. and arranged t o meet him l a t e r i n the evening to d i s c u s s the progress of the boys i n the Neighbourhood House program. W. v i s i t e d B.R.H. at 8.00 p.m. and W. and H. F. met i n H.F's p r i v a t e lounge. H. F. provided c o f f e e . W. s a i d t h a t he thought H.F. might l i k e to know how the boys had progressed at A.N.H. - t h a t W. d i d not know how much H.F. had heard o r what the boys had t o l d him. H.F. s a i d that what he knew was from what he saw from the boys' a c t i v i t i e s ; that Roy had found a new c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s at A.N.H. o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l and o u t s i d e o f the a i r f o r c e cadets - t h a t Roy had been l a t e home one n i g h t and had t o l d H.F. about h i s new f r i e n d s . H.F. added t h a t he was q u i t e pleased about t h i s , and t h a t he could understand t h a t Roy wanted to s t a y outside and t a l k w i t h the gang f o r a w h i l e as any boy  - 95 -  would, and t h a t , under the circumstances, he had not been reprimanded f o r being l a t e i n . W. agreed t h a t i t was good t h a t Roy had been a b l e to do t h i s , and t o l d H.F. about the p r e v i o u s Tuesday at A.N.H. - how W. had been a b l e t o p l a n w i t h Miss G. how the boys might be able to h e l p w i t h the p a r t y , how W. had then had a d i s c u s s i o n at supper time w i t h the boys, and how they had agreed to r u n the loud speaker system and had done a v e r y n i c e job t h a t was e s s e n t i a l t o the dance. W. p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s had happened because he had been a b l e to p l a n w i t h the boys i n the d i s c u s s i o n . W. s a i d t h a t the group had reached t h i s l e v e l through the d i s c u s s i o n s and the program t h a t had developed out o f them. W. t r a c e d t h i s process f o r H.F. - how H.F. had o r i g i n a l l y suggested the i d e a o f the d i s c u s s i o n s , how the woodwork, use of A.N.H. g e n e r a l l y , and now t h i s experience of c o n t r i b u t i n g to the p a r t y had a l l come out of h i s o r i g i n a l i d e a o f having d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h boys and h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n i n s t a r t i n g them and m a i n t a i n i n g them. W. thought t h a t H.F. followed W's e x p l a n a t i o n q u i t e c l e a r l y , and a p p r e c i a t e d being g i v e n the c r e d i t f o r the s u c c e s s . H.F. v o l u n t a r i l y and e a r n e s t l y s a i d t h a t he thought i t was much b e t t e r f o r W. to have the d i s c u s s i o n s alone w i t h the boys s i n c e t h i s helped them t o concentrate on the group program. W. and H.F. d i s c u s s e d g e n e r a l l y how the boys were moving out i n t o the community, and H.F. s a i d they were at the p o i n t where they no l o n g e r wanted to wear b l u e jeans and t h e i r u s u a l s c h o o l c l o t h i n g when they went out on Sundays, but were t a k i n g a p r i d e i n t h e i r appearance and a p p r e c i a t e d good c l o t h i n g f o r going out v i s i t i n g . He t o l d W. how E a r l and Jack were going to get i n t o the provost corps o f the cadets, how E a r l had been picked out as a p o t e n t i a l N.C.O.., and how Dave and F r e d were going to get i n t o v e h i c l e maintenance and r e p a i r c l a s s e s i n the c a d e t s . He showed i n s i g h t i n t o the f a c t t h a t each boy i s d i f f e r e n t and needs d i f f e r e n t experiences. W. asked where they met f o r cadets and H.F. named the l o c a t i o n and then asked e a g e r l y i f W. would l i k e to go over there and see the cadets on parade. W. s a i d t h a t he would l i k e to go, and added t h a t the execut i v e d i r e c t o r o f C.A.S. had suggested t h a t W. get more i n f o r m a t i o n on the cadet camp, and t h a t W. had wondered i f he, H.F., and Mr. H. might a l l go over some n i g h t . H.F.said they had an open i n v i t a t i o n to go over any parade n i g h t and that the o f f i c e r s i n charge would be v e r y glad t o show them around. I t was t e n t a t i v e l y arranged t h a t a v i s i t would be made on A p r i l 2 7 » H.F. had a l s o t o l d W. how Fred's u n c l e had v i s i t e d B.R.H. and how he had shown a r e a l i n t e r e s t i n F r e d and i n h i s progress at B.R.H. H.F. s a i d t h a t he had immediately  - 96 -  wondered i f t h i s might be a p o s s i b l e home f o r F r e d , and had telephoned Mr. H. t o give him the i n f o r m a t i o n . W. planned w i t h H.F. t o come i n on Tuesday n i g h t f o r a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the group, p o i n t i n g out t h a t he would prev i o u s l y contact A.N.H. and p l a n w i t h them how t h e boys might best f i t i n t o t h e i r program, and then d i s c u s s any new p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i t h them at supper time - t h a t t h i s was the purpose o f the d i s c u s s i o n . H.F. was q u i t e agreeable to t h i s plan. ( A p r i l 14) H.M. e a g e r l y t o l d W. t h a t C.A.S. were making i t p o s s i b l e f o r h e r t o go out and buy some new f u r n i t u r e and a vacuum c l e a n e r f o r the Home. She added t h a t when they got i t they would have a p a r t y t o c e l e b r a t e the o c c a s i o n , and the boys would a l l be able t o b r i n g t h e i r g i r l f r i e n d s . These two records  r e v e a l many s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s .  The  house f a t h e r i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o p i c k up l i t t l e d e t a i l s o f i n f o r mation that are o f r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o a s o c i a l worker.  For  example, the facts t h a t Roy had made new f r i e n d s , and t h a t  Earl,  Dave, Jack and Fred reveal  t h e i r general progress.  i n the general time.  are g e t t i n g i n t o s p e c i a l groups i n the cadets  conversation  These a r e d e t a i l s t h a t come out  o f the moment, and o f t e n a t no o t h e r  They r e v e a l the i n h e r e n t  p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r helping the  I n d i v i d u a l boys t h a t e x i s t i n such a s i t u a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when • ckilled  s t a f f are i n residence  and are a v a i l a b l e t o use these  i n c i d e n t s i n the most e f f e c t i v e way - a t the time when they a r i s e , r a t h e r than i n an o f f i c e i n t e r v i e w which i s o f t e n i n a more f o r m a l environment and perhaps a t a s e t time s e v e r a l days l a t e r . The  records  also reveal that administrative decisions  such  as on the purchasing o f f u r n i t u r e , bear d i r e c t l y on the whole group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n , as r e v e a l e d  by the house mother's enthus-  iasm, h e r consequent d e s i r e to have a p a r t y f o r the boys, and the  - 97 p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f such an experience f o r them. More g e n e r a l l y , the records r e v e a l the harmony and unders t a n d i n g t h a t must e x i s t between t h e t o t a l s t a f f and the s t a f f of  community o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the cadets and the Neighbour-  hood House i f the t o t a l program i s t o be f u l l y  effective.  They  r e v e a l t h a t the house parents must be g i v e n c r e d i t where i t i s due,  and t h a t t h e i r needs and p o i n t o f view must be c o n s i d e r e d .  The house parents a r e , n a t u r a l l y , concerned  with  environmental  f a c t o r s such as the boys' c l o t h i n g and the f u r n i t u r e ; to  they t r y  take a r e a l p r i d e i n the appearance o f t h e Home.  I f this i s  not a p p r e c i a t e d by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , and i f l i t t l e p r o v i s i o n i s made t o m a i n t a i n the p h y s i c a l environment o f the Home, the morale o f the house parents can drop t o a v e r y low level.  When t h i s happens, t h e j o b they are doing i n c a r i n g f o r  the boys becomes l e s s e f f e c t i v e , the degree o f spontaneous coo p e r a t i o n t h a t they extend and  t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f  the jobs o f the s o c i a l workers concerned  decreases,  become more d i f f i c u l t .  I f e f f e c t i v e work i s t o be done w i t h the boys, the house p a r e n t s ' p o i n t o f view must be c o n s i d e r e d .  T h e i r p o s i t i o n as  the people who p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i n g day-to-day care f o r t e n t e e n age boys who a r e always v e r y a c t i v e , o f t e n q u i t e n o i s y , and who sometimes i n d u l g e i n f i g h t s , arguments, moods o f d e p r e s s i o n o r d e f i a n c e , and i n i n d i v i d u a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f behaviour be remembered.  I t must a l s o be remembered t h a t the Home a t the  present time does not p r o v i d e many o u t l e t s f o r such and  must always  behaviour,  t h a t the house p a r e n t s , f o r the most p a r t , have t h e extremely  t r y i n g t a s k o f m a i n t a i n i n g a happy, harmonious atmosphere i n the  - 98 -  Home. Such behaviour i s , o f course, t o be expected  from  c h i l d r e n such as t h e s e , and one o f the advantages o f an i n s t i t u t i o n such as the Boys person i s expected unassisted.  1  R e c e i v i n g Home i s t h a t no one s t a f f  t o d e a l w i t h d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s alone and  Such an arrangement would o f course be i m p r a c t i c a l  and h i g h l y u n d e s i r a b l e .  The weekly conferences and a l s o the  o t h e r meetings between group worker, case workers, house p a r e n t s , house s t a f f and s u p e r v i s o r s have been and must continue t o be o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l t o share t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , t o l e a r n o t h e r s , and t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the o v e r - a l l program.  from  There i s  always room f o r improvement - always something t h a t each person can l e a r n , as anyone who has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s w i l l r e a d i l y admit.  project  F o r example, i n the team c o n f e r e n c e s , i t  was o f t e n l e a r n e d t h a t one p a r t i c u l a r person was i n the b e s t p o s i t i o n t o h e l p a boy i n the most e f f e c t i v e way;  the way i n  which the boy could best be helped was the main i n t e r e s t a t a l l times.  T h i s happened i n Roy's case, when the house f a t h e r was  i n the best p o s i t i o n t o help Roy overcome h i s e n u r e s i s .  The  house f a t h e r was the o n l y person who c o u l d s o l v e t h i s problem w i t h Roy, but the case worker was a b l e t o s u p p l y d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n and the group worker was a b l e t o a s s i s t i n c a r r y i n g out the pre-arranged  plan.  A l l aspects o f each element o f the group l i v i n g  situa-  t i o n - case work, group work, house p a r e n t s , community c o n t a c t s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures  and d e c i s i o n s , and many o t h e r  elements,  -  99 -  i n e v i t a b l y i n t e r a c t , and e i t h e r c o n t r i b u t e t o o r d e t r a c t from the u l t i m a t e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the day-to-day l i v i n g depending on how harmoniously  they are I n t e g r a t e d .  experiences, I n order  t h a t the boys i n the Home may be helped t o d e r i v e the maximum b e n e f i t from the time they spend t h e r e , as many aspects as p o s s i b l e o f the elements that i n f l u e n c e t h e i r day-to-day l i v i n g experiences must be i n t e g r a t e d i n the most e f f e c t i v e way w i t h each o t h e r , and w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e resources i n the community. I n t h i s case the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , the Army Cadets, and Alexandra House a r e examples o f a p p r o p r i a t e r e s o u r c e s t h a t have been used i n t h i s  project.  The present Boys R e c e i v i n g Home i s a c t u a l l y a group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n t h a t r e l i e s on a number o f o u t s i d e resources to e f f e c t a treatment ium,  program.  I t r e l i e s on the church gymnas-  the s c h o o l s , the cadets, and the Neighbourhood House t o  c a r r y on i t s program. i n t o the community.  The program i s a c t u a l l y " b u i l t  out"  I t i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y f o r the s t a f f t o  have the time and the s k i l l t o m o b i l i z e these r e s o u r c e s and t o develop the necessary contacts and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h the immediate neighbours  and w i t h the community r e s o u r c e s .  amount o f freedom t h a t the boys have i n the  The  residential  K l t s i l a n o community a l s o makes i t necessary t o s e l e c t the boys v e r y c a r e f u l l y and t o p r o v i d e an adequate l e i s u r e time program f o r them.  An open home, such as the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home,  cannot be expected  t o handle t e n a c t i v e l y d e l i n q u e n t boys  without u n d e s i r a b l e r e a c t i o n s coming back from many d i r e c t i o n s i n the community.  However, i f t h e i n t a k e i s c a r e f u l l y  planned,  - 100 -  and  i f there i s an adequate group work program, h i g h l y s a t i s -  f a c t o r y r e s u l t s can be expected.  T h i s p r o j e c t has shown t h a t ,  even w i t h a group t h a t contained a h i g h percentage  o f boys t h a t  were not too s u i t a b l e , good r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d .  The most  d e s i r a b l e course i n the f u t u r e i s t o s e l e c t t h e boys more c a r e f u l l y , being r e a s o n a b l y sure t h a t they can b e n e f i t t o the maximum from the group l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e .  A carefully  planned  group work program should then be developed  t o meet t h e i r needs.  In the immediate f u t u r e , c e r t a i n steps could be taken t o ensure  that the boys i n the R e c e i v i n g Home a r e helped t o  d e r i v e the maximum b e n e f i t from the time they spend t h e r e . There a r e f i v e main areas t h a t should be considered (a) Group Work S e r v i c e s .  With t h i s study as an i n d i c a -  t i o n o f what might be expected, i t i s recommended t h a t group work s e r v i c e s be continued as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the R e c e i v i n g Home program. (b) Case Work S e r v i c e s .  From experience gained d u r i n g  t h i s study, i t i s recommended t h a t t h e r e be one case worker f o r a l l the boys i n the R e c e i v i n g Home, and t h a t t h i s worker have enough time t o g i v e c o n s i s t e n t s e r v i c e s to the boys.  I t should  be remembered t h a t the boys i n the Home a r e t h e r e because o f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l problems.  They need case work s e r v i c e s even  more than group work s e r v i c e s i n some i n s t a n c e s . (c) Records.  I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t complete  case  h i s t o r i e s and case r e c o r d i n g on a l l the boys i n the Home be made f r e e l y and e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o the group work s t a f f .  It  - 101 -  is highly desirable that there also be a free interchange of information between professional workers i n C.A.S. and i n other agencies i n the community (such as Alexandra House) when these agencies are working with children who are i n the care of the Society. (d) Psychiatric Guidance.  It i s recommended that a  required part of the intake procedure of the Receiving Home be a complete report from the Child Guidance Clinic immediately prior to the boy being admitted to the Home. (e) Finances and Equipment for Group Work Program. There are certain items that are essential for an adequate group work program. For example, i n arts and crafts, "When group members are working with their hands, conversation i s apt to flow more freely, and the social group worker gains an insight into their d i f f i c u l t i e s and their attitudes that would otherwise take many weeks to achieve.  As he thus increases his under-  standing of the members, he may find i t desirable to change his method of working with them."  1  Generally, to exercise s k i l l i n  activities i s one of the ways through which individuals can reach their maximum satisfaction and adjustment i n l i f e .  Specif-  i c a l l y , the Receiving Home would benefit from a well equipped woodwork shop, a supply of sports equipment which would  1 Gertrude Wilson, and Gladys Ryland, Social Group Work Practice, Cambridge, Massachusetts, The Riverside Press, 194-9, P. 304.  -  102  -  n e c e s s a r i l y have t o be r e p l e n i s h e d from time t o time, a supply of records and a r e c o r d p l a y e r , s u b s c r i p t i o n s t o a p p r o p r i a t e magazines, and a fund t o cover expenses o f t r i p s such as t h e weekend t r i p up H o l l y b u r n Mountain (when i t was n e c e s s a r y to r e n t s k i s and a c a b i n ) .  The experiences p r o v i d e d  through  l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s a r e a v i t a l p a r t o f the whole process o f h e l p i n g the group members t o become happier and b e t t e r a b l e to l i v e e f f e c t i v e l y and harmoniously  w i t h o t h e r people, but  the p r o v i s i o n o f these experiences i s l i m i t e d by t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of f i n a n c i a l resources. Long range needs should a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . e v a l u a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l boys, i t i s apparent  From the  that other  kinds o f accommodation are n e c e s s a r y i n a d d i t i o n t o the Receivi n g Home.  Dave, Walt, Frank, Jack, E a r l , F r e d , and Roy  could  f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n a semi-permanent group l i v i n g r e s i d e n c e f o r schoolboys, - t h i s i s a c t u a l l y what the R e c e i v i n g Home i s a t the present time.  Norm, H a r o l d , and perhaps Dave would  b e n e f i t from a treatment home under s u p e r v i s i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d house parents w i t h access t o c o n t i n u i n g p s y c h i a t r i c consultation.  Gerry, w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d , i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h i n g ,  might improve h i s academic performance to some e x t e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i f a t the same time he r e c e i v e d the encouragement and  support that he now gets from the house p a r e n t s .  He i s ,  however, one o f those b o r d e r l i n e cases t h a t should r e a l l y be i n a s p e c i a l home f o r m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n .  J o e , who has  a c t u a l l y gone to t h e Ryther C h i l d C l i n i c , i l l u s t r a t e s t h e need f o r a treatment  centre i n t h i s province.  I n a d d i t i o n , the  - 103 -  boys who were i n i t i a l l y housed i n the R e c e i v i n g Home must not be o v e r l o o k e d .  Adequate means o f p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e i r case i s  also lacking. At present t h e Boys R e c e i v i n g Home i s attempting t o 1  serve as a R e c e i v i n g Home, as a semi-permanent r e s i d e n c e f o r schoolboys,  and as a "semi-treatment" r e s i d e n c e .  "semi-treatment  M  The term  i s used because there i s a t p r e s e n t , no c o n s i s -  t e n t o r o v e r a l l p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n , and because day-to-day care i s d i r e c t e d by house parents w i t h no p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . It  can be r e a d i l y a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l  are q u i t e inadequate ment c e n t r e .  personnel  t o occupy any key p o s i t i o n i n a r e a l  Conversely, when such personnel  p o s i t i o n , i t i s u s u a l l y extremely  treat-  a r e i n a key  d i f f i c u l t and sometimes impos-  s i b l e t o work e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the c h i l d r e n .  T h i s i s merely a  g e n e r a l statement o f f a c t s , and does not imply any c r i t i c i s m o f the e x c e l l e n t job t h a t i s being done by the present house  parents  i n t h e Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home. Experience d a t i o n are needed:  has shown t h a t f o u r d i s t i n c t kinds o f accommoa Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home f o r temporary c a r e ;  a semi-permanent r e s i d e n c e f o r s c h o o l boys; a semi-permanent r e s i d e n c e f o r working boys, and a treatment  residence.  The  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y always has a s u f f i c i e n t number o f teenage  boys (age 12-14), who a r e a t l e a s t o f average i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  and whose emotional  disturbance i n d i c a t e s a f a i r prognosis, to  j u s t i f y the development o f a treatment  r e s i d e n c e t h a t would  a h i g h l y s e l e c t e d group and provide a c l o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d ment.  serve  environ-  The S o c i e t y a l s o has enough boys o f the same age (who  - 104 -  show a l e s s f a v o r a b l e p r o g n o s i s , and who w i l l probably  never  be able to r e t u r n to t h e i r own homes o r t o f o s t e r homes) t o j u s t i f y the development o f semi-permanent r e s i d e n c e s boys and f o r working boys. s a r y f o r each o f these  A separate  establishment  f o r school i s neces-  groups because o f t h e many problems t h a t  a r i s e when they a r e housed t o g e t h e r - e.g. s c h o o l boys want t o l e a v e s c h o o l and make money - working boys want t o s t a y out l a t e , and so on.  A boy would be c a r e f u l l y chosen t o s t a y i n  e i t h e r o f these homes, (which ever was the most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r him)  u n t i l he was a b l e t o move t o a s u i t a b l e boarding  home o r  to employment i n which he could be f i n a n c i a l l y independent. A R e c e i v i n g Home i s o f course necessary  f o r temporary care and  o b s e r v a t i o n o f a number o f c a t e g o r i e s o f boys, some o f whom would u l t i m a t e l y go t o one o f the o t h e r homes a l r e a d y mentioned. I d e a l l y , o f course, a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l on the cottage p l a n and employing the most advanced methods o f e d u c a t i o n c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h s o c i a l work and under p s y c h i a t r i c g u i d ance should be a v a i l a b l e f o r many c h i l d r e n such as those  found  i n the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home. One appreciated home.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t i s sometimes not  i s the name ( o r absence o f a name) f o r a p a r t i c u l a r  "The Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home" does sound r a t h e r d u l l and  uninspiring. and  very important  How much more a l i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g t h i s Home  any f u t u r e Homes could be made to sound i f they had i n s p i r -  i n g , i m a g i n a t i v e names I  I n time, i n t i m a t e t r a d i t i o n s such as  the Christmas t r e e t r i p and other s p e c i a l events could be  - 105 -  developed  as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the program;  the boys could  l o o k forward w i t h a n t i c i p a t i o n t o t h e i r s t a y t h e r e , and a f t e r wards l o o k back w i t h p r i d e i n t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Home. Any  c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s name,  should, o f course, be administered p r a c t i c e s i n s o c i a l work.  a c c o r d i n g t o the most modern  There i s an i n c r e a s i n g wealth o f  a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on t h i s s u b j e c t . The present Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home would p r o b a b l y be q u i t e e f f e c t i v e as a semi-permanent r e s i d e n c e f o r s c h o o l boys.  The  present house parents are w e l l s u i t e d f o r the j o b t h a t would be r e q u i r e d o f them i n such c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  The house f a t h e r i s  a b l e t o handle the necessary d i s c i p l i n e c o n s i s t e n t l y and appropriately.  He i s s e n s i t i v e t o the needs o f the boys and takes a  r e a l i n t e r e s t i n them as i n d i v i d u a l s . and  He i s a b l e t o m a i n t a i n  improve the Home environment and work e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the  schools and community r e s o u r c e s .  Above a l l , he has the r a r e  q u a l i t y o f being a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a n e u t r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a boy as l o n g as t h i s i s necessary.  The house mother i s e q u a l l y  w e l l a b l e to a p p r e c i a t e the needs o f the boys.  She always  conveys the i m p r e s s i o n that e v e r y t h i n g i s going along smoothly. She  i s able t o show the boys c o n s i s t e n t k i n d n e s s , warmth, a f f e c -  t i o n , and understanding the l i t t l e  i n an a p p r o p r i a t e manner, and t o p r o v i d e  touches t h a t give a r e a l l y r e l a x e d , f r i e n d l y atmosphere  to the Home. I n many p r o g r e s s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , workers and house parents  are encouraged t o attend v a r i o u s courses o f study  covering  - 106 -  a l l aspects of t h e i r work.  They are sometimes expected to  attend c e r t a i n basic courses of study which are to be essential preparation f o r t h e i r work.  considered  These courses of  study are often supplemented by regular meetings i n which the p a r t i c u l a r problems they encounter i n t h e i r day-to-day work are discussed with consultants from t h e i r own organization or from the l o c a l community.  Such an educational program might  well be a feature of r e a l value f o r the workers and the house parents from organizations i n the Vancouver area. The Children's l i d Society of Vancouver has, since 1903,  used Receiving Homes and other i n s t i t u t i o n s to accommodate  some of the children under i t s care.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note  the contrast between the f i r s t Home i n 1903 - an over-crowded cottage on Pender Street - and the present Boys' Receiving Home, which i s acknowledged to be the most progressive group l i v i n g project i n Canada at this time.  I t i s also i n t e r e s t i n g to  r e c a l l some of the statements about the early Receiving Homes from reports presented  to the board of the Society during the  f i r s t years of i t s existence.  Two of these statements were:  Owing to the already over-crowded condition of the Home, a very large number of applications have to be refused ... you must either l i m i t your work or you must increase your space. 1 These statements are equally appropriate today, but today there i s no question that the most desirable course i s 1 Anne M. Angus, Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. 1901-1951* A l l i e d P r i n t i n g , Vancouver, p. 1 7 .  - 107  -  to i n c r e a s e the space, and to p r o v i d e the h i g h e s t of p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n g r e a t e r measure. t h a t i f t h i s course i s f o l l o w e d , a new treatment  could be developed.  c h i l d r e n who today and  standards  I t i s conceivable  p a t t e r n of p r e v e n t i v e  I f t h i s does happen, those  might otherwise be the d e l i n q u e n t a d o l e s c e n t s o f  the a d u l t o f f e n d e r s o f tomorrow, could be r e - d i r e c t e d  to a more e f f e c t i v e , more a c c e p t a b l e way  of l i f e .  The  Chil-  dren's Aid S o c i e t y of Vancouver could w e l l continue to p i o n e e r i n t h i s v i t a l work.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Specific References 1 . Books. Hopkirk, Howard W., Institutions Serving Children, Hew York Russell Sage Foundation, 1944. Redl, F r i t z , and Wineman, David, Children Who Hate. Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , The Free Press, 1 9 5 2 . Wilson, Gertrude, and Ryland, Gladys, Social Group Work Practice, Cambridge, Massachusetts, The Riverside Press, 1949. 2 . Pamphlets and Articles Angus, Anne M., Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, British Columbia, 1901-1951, Vancouver, Allied Printers, 1951. Hecker, Frederick J., and Geleerd, Elisabeth R., "Freedom and Authority i n Adolescence," i n the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, New York, American Orthopsychiatric Association, 1945, v o l . 1 5 , pp. 6 2 1 - 6 3 0 . Mayo, Leonard W., "What may Institutions and Group Work Contribute to Each Other," i n Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1 9 3 5 , pp. 3 3 1 - 3 3 9 . Schulze, Suzanne, "Group Living and the Dependent Child," in Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work. New York, Columbia University Press, 1947, pp. 3o7^398.  , "Group Work and Psychiatry", i n the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, New York, American Orthopsychiatric Association, 1949, pp. 455-462. 3 . Other Sources Wilson, Harold Thomas, Embury House, A Receiving Home for Children, University of British Columbia, School of Social Work, Master of Social Work thesis, 1 9 5 0 .  - 109 -  General References 1. Books Slavson, S. R., Character Education i n a Democracy, New York, Associated Press, 1939. Slavson, S. R., Creative Group Education, New York, Associated Press, 194-5. 2. Articles Bettelheim, Bruno, and Sylvester, Emmy, "Therapeutic Influence of the Group on the Individual," i n the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, New York, American Orthopsychiatric Association, 194-7, XVII, pp. 6 8 4 - 6 9 2 .  Gula, Martin, "Study and Treatment Homes for Troubled Children," i n Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work," 1947, pp. 228-236. Louis, Lucas, et. a l . , "Some Problems i n Group Care Treatment, i n the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry New York, American Orthopsychiatric Association, 1952 XXII i Is pp. 98-126. Trecker, Harleigh B., "Social Group Work," i n the Social Work Yearbook. 1947. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1947. Winnlcott, D. W., and Britton, Clare, "Residential Management as Treatment for D i f f i c u l t Children," in Human Relations, London, Tavistock Publications, Limited, 1947-48, I s pp. 87-97.  

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