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Group work practice in a receiving home for boys Billington, Alan Roy 1953

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GROUP WORK PRACTICE IN A RECEIVING HOME FOR BOYS An Analysis of an Experimental Project i n the Boys' Receiving Home of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952-53 by ALAN ROY BILLINGTON Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK In the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work-School of So c i a l Work 1953 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I. S o c i a l Work and the Modern I n s t i t u t i o n f o r Page Children The changing philosophy of fo s t e r care. Types of i n s t i t u t i o n s and development of S o c i a l Work services i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . Types of children who benefit from i n s t i -t u t i o n a l care. Modern p r a c t i c e . Implications f o r the use of Soc i a l Work services. Origins and development, Vancouver Children's Aid Society Boys' Home. Experiences and behaviour of the boys. Objectives of group work and the job of the group worker. Objectives of t h i s study. Problems that were anticipated. Method of study 1 Chapter I I . Developing a New Group Work Program Preliminary Planning. Team conferences. Group sessions with the boys. Meetings with Neighbourhood House s t a f f . A c t i v i t i e s ultimately a v a i l a b l e . T o t a l process of program development 22 Chapter III. Changes i n Behaviour (a) Changes within the group. Kinds of a c t i v i t i e s . Process of i n i t i a t i n g and carrying out a c t i v i t i e s . Organization within the group. Worker-group r e l a t i o n s h i p . Total process that brought about these changes. (b) Changes i n reactions towards new a c t i v i t i e s i n the community. The t o t a l process that brought about these changes 42 Chapter IV. Individual Progress Behaviour of i n d i v i d u a l boys i n the group work program; (a) those who derived most benefit; (b) those less able to benefit; (c) those le a s t affected. Conclusions 71 Chapter V. General Program Implications. Co-operation between group worker and case worker on in d i v i d u a l cases. Co-operation with house parents on i n d i -v i d u a l cases. Overall integration and co-ordination necessary. Recommendations: (1) the immediate future; (2) long range needs. The role of the Children's Aid Society i n t h i s work 89 Bibliography 108 - i i i -ABSTRACT This thesis i s a study and analysis of the introduction of group work services to the Boys' Receiving Home of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. When the project began, no group work services and no adequate l e i s u r e time program were r e a d i l y available f o r the boys l i v i n g i n the Home. The current philosophy of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r children, the p r i n c i p l e s and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of group l i v i n g , and the concepts of environmental control are outlined. Within t h i s frame of reference, the o r i g i n and development of the Boys' Receiving Home i s traced, and the experiences and general behav-iour of the boys are described. The basic function of the group worker and the values of group experiences i n this s e t t i n g are discussed. This purely experimental project, that at f i r s t con-tained many negative elements, showed l i t t l e i n i t i a l promise of being very successful. Group process records are analysed to show the gradual process of developing a group work program providing a v a r i e t y of experiences f o r the boys, and contributing to the t o t a l program of the Receiving Home i n other ways. P a r t i c u l a r attention i s given to three areas: (1) the series of co-ordinated meetings involving (a) the s t a f f of the Receiving Home; (b) the boys themselves as they planned and participated i n the l e i s u r e time program; (c) the s t a f f of Alexandra Neigh-bourhood House; (2) the general changes that were brought about i n the boys' behaviour; (3) the progress of the boys towards more normal behaviour. Other s p e c i f i c contributions of the project, such as working with the case workers and the house parents are mentioned. The project indicates the need f o r continuing group work services and a greater va r i e t y of modern i n s t i t u t i o n s with a range of s o c i a l services. F i n a l l y , suggestions are made on the most appropriate function f o r the present Receiving Home, and the role of the Children's Aid Society i n developing such new i n s t i t u t i o n s . - i v -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project was made possible through the continued e f f o r t s of many people, a l l of whom are s i n c e r e l y interested i n the progress of s o c i a l work. F i r s t of a l l , c redit must be given to Mr. Ronald E. Hawkes, supervisor of the Boys' Receiving Home. His v i s i o n , i n i t i a t i v e , and enthusiasm were i n i t i a l l y responsible for t h i s project. Credit must also be given to Miss Dorothy Coombs Executive Director of the Children's Aid Society, who approved the i n i t i a t i o n of t h i s project, and who showed continued i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm as i t progressed. I would l i k e to express my most sincere appreciation to a l l those with whom I was c l o s e l y associated during t h i s project. To Miss Elizabeth Thomas of the School of S o c i a l Work of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r professional supervision, and for her invaluable guidance and d i r e c t i o n of the whole project; to Mr. Jack Sanders, case work supervisor, the Children 1s Aid Society, f o r his p a r t i c i p a t i o n , encourage-ment, and general enthusiasm; to Mr. S. Pinkerton, Assistant Executive Director, The Children's Aid Society, and to the members of the Receiving Homes Committee, fo r t h e i r continued i n t e r e s t and support; to Mr. B a s i l Robinson, Executive Director of Alexandra Neighbourhood House, and to his staff,. - V -e s p e c i a l l y to Miss Barbara Greene, Mr. Harold Alexander, Mr. Wesley Rupp, and the students and volunteers, without whose help t h i s project would have been much less e f f e c t i v e ; to the other workers, supervisors, and s t a f f of the Children's Aid Society with whom I was i n d a i l y contact. P a r t i c u l a r l y Mr. R. E. Hawkes, Mr. and Mrs. Callander, and the s t a f f of the Boys' Receiving Home. It was a pleasure to work with such enthusiastic, sincere, and cooperative people. No student could ask f o r a more valuable, s a t i s f y i n g f i e l d work experience. I would also l i k e to thank Dr. Leonard C. Marsh, Miss Eli z a b e t h Thomas, and Mr. Ronald E. Hawkes f o r t h e i r assistance, suggestions, and constructive c r i t i c i s m s which were most help-f u l i n the composition of this t h e s i s . GROUP WORK PRACTICE IN A RECEIVING HOME  FOR BOYS Chapter I SOCIAL WORK AND THE MODERN INSTITUTION FOR CHILDREN For many years i t was thought that the foster family home was the total answer to providing homes for dependent children. It was thought that the institution, with its record of inhuman mass care, was gone for ever. However, experience has shown that some children f a i l to adapt themselves in a satisfactory manner to even the most suitable foster homes. Home after home has been tried and the child has not been happy. When care has been provided in a modern institution, some of these children have been able to adapt themselves to the group living program in a very satisfactory manner. Experience has also shown that social agencies have had considerable difficulty in finding suitable foster homes in which to place a l l the children under their care. Some other means of care has had to be pro-vided. Here, again, the modern institution is proving itself to be a unique resource. As one prominent writer says "There is ... (today) ... an acceptance of the complementary nature of institutional and foster home services rather than the continu-ing assumption that they are in competition with each other."1 1 Suzanne Schulze, "Group Living and the Dependent Child," in Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work. Columbia University Press, 1947, p. 3 8 8 . - 2 -Apart from those i n s t i t u t i o n s designed f o r sp e c i a l groups such as the advanced delinquent, the p h y s i c a l l y handi-capped, and the mentally deficlent-(none of which are within the scope of t h i s study), there are four main types of c h i l -dren's i n s t i t u t i o n s that are recognized today. These four types each render s p e c i f i c services according to t h e i r function, and they may be c l a s s i f i e d and described on the basis of these services: 1. I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r general care or t r a i n i n g . These include i n s t i t u t i o n s making no l i m i t a t i o n s i n regard to the type of children received other than those based on such broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s as age, sex, race, or r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . They would also include day nurseries and i n s t i t u t i o n s f or normal adolescents i n need of group experience. 2. Receiving homes. These are frequently referred to as "sh e l t e r s " . They provide f a c i l i t i e s for diagnosis, or emergency and short-time care. They include temporary shelters used by agencies pending placement i n a family home, and also the detention homes or courts or protective agencies. In many l o c a l i t i e s t h i s function has l a r g e l y been taken over by subsi-dized foster homes. 3. Study homes or treatment centres. The function of these centres for study and treatment i s explained most concisely i n the following quotation: I n s t i t u t i o n s for the observation of childre n with serious problems and treatment f o r such c h i l d r e n while they are l i v i n g within the i n s t i t u t i o n , represent, a - 3 -somewhat recent development. The name study home, which has become popular, i s a term that has followed the introduction of psychiatric service into the f i e l d of child welfare, but there i s a sense i n which i t i s a misnomer. As the name implies, institutions so called attempt an intensive study and treatment of each individ-ual ~ a service usually not expected of the asylum, school or home. Once a diagnosis has been made, however i t i s treatment which i s more important than study, a fact that should be recognized by child guidance cl i n i c s as well as by institutions concerned primarily with disturbed children. It would be more appropriate to name these institutions treatment centres, because those establishments worthy of the name have gone far beyond the diagnostic function of merely studying the children entrusted to them.1 4. Institutions combining the features of receiving homes  and clinics for study and special treatment. As the cl a s s i f i c a -tion of this type of institution implies, their function is to provide care not only for children who are dependent or neglected, but also for some disturbed children i n need of special observa-tion and treatment. These institutions must supply or have access to the necessary c l i n i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and trained staff to diagnose serious emotional problems and carry out the required therapy. It can readily be seen that the older institutions were of the f i r s t type, and that the other three types listed below have been off-shoots from this parental stem, as have been the special types of institutions for children such as those for the mentally handicapped. In other words, the development of 1 Howard W. Hopkirk, Institutions Serving Children. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1944, p. 28. - 4 -children's i n s t i t u t i o n s has followed the trend to s p e c i a l i z a -t i o n which i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the twentieth', century. 1 Development of S o c i a l Work services i n i n s t i t u t i o n s In his work, Mayo has described the stages of confused thinking that have characterized the progress and development of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g . He has also c l a r i f i e d the roles of case work and group work i n t h i s s e t t i n g . He points out that For years i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r children were c r i t i c i z e d because of the predominance of mass treatment which existed and the absence of case-work methods. The f i r s t reaction to such c r i t i c i s m on the part of i n s t i t u t i o n executives was to deny the necessity for case work as practiced i n the community and to proclaim the values of group l i f e , making l i t t l e apparent e f f o r t , however, to improve i t s content. The next step was to embrace case work as a point of view and technique and forget that whether we l i k e i t or not the i n s t i t u t i o n i s primarily a group s i t u a t i o n . Our present state of mind i s fortun-a t e l y more r a t i o n a l , f o r we are beginning to see group l i f e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s as a p o t e n t i a l asset and r e a l i z e that the basic d i f f i c u l t y consists not i n the existence of a group s i t u a t i o n but rather i n our f a i l u r e to develop i t s k i l f u l l y and i n r e l a t i o n to case work. 2 This gradual change i n point of view has come about as i n s t i t u t i o n s have again become more generally accepted as a valuable resource for child care, and as professional s o c i a l workers have come to think of S o c i a l Work as including group work and community organization as well as case work. 1 Harold Thomas Wilson, Embury House, A Receiving Home  for Children. Thesis, School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950, pp. 2 6 - 4 5 . 2 Leonard Mayo, "What May Group Work and I n s t i t u t i o n s Contribute to Each Other?", In Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1935> p. 3 3 1 . - 5 -Types of children that benefit from institutional care. Parallel to the development of the modern institution as a group li v i n g situation, has been the classification of children that are suited for institutional l i v i n g . A group of case workers in Cleveland, realizing that many social workers today had l i t t l e knowledge of modern institutional care, made an attempt to arrive at some general c r i t e r i a as to which c h i l -dren might best profit from placement in modern institutions. They accepted as their basic assumption Hyman Lipman's statement that "children who need close relations with substitute parents should be placed in foster homes, whereas children who need a more diluted relationship with adults would be better off i n institutions,"^ and they singled out the following types as those who would profit most from group l i v i n g : 1. The child who has such strong family ties that his acceptance of substitute parents would be d i f f i c u l t . 2. The child of separated parents who i s being used as a pawn by them to meet their own needs, with the situa-tion heightened when one or both parents have remarried. 3» The child of certain inadequate parents who, because of their attitude toward failure as parents, seem to prevent another family's success with their child. 4. The child who is unable to form the close relationship with adults that i s required i n a foster home. 1 Suzanne,Sehulze, "Group Living and the Dependent Child," in Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work. New York, Columbia University Press, 1947, pp. 3 8 9 - 3 9 0 . *" - 6 -5. The child who has had a succession of f a i l u r e s i n foster homes and i s i n need of a less personal environment before again attempting family l i f e . 6. The c h i l d who requires a period of close and contin-uous observation i n order to determine his needs. 7. The ch i l d over s i x years of age who needs regular habit t r a i n i n g . 8. The c h i l d who needs protection from unstable parents 1 In addition, i t was the consensus of opinion of these workers that the ordinary i n s t i t u t i o n can admit only a lim i t e d number of seriously disturbed children without impairing i t s services to a l l . The children for whom placement i n i n s t i t u -tions was not considered as b e n e f i c i a l Included i n f a n t s , pre-school children, orphans, feeble-minded, hyperactive, and 2 completely withdrawn children. The reasons why certa i n types of ch i l d r e n might be expected to benefit from l i v i n g i n a modern i n s t i t u t i o n become more apparent when i t s unique values are studied. The unique values of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Schulze has l i s t e d a substantial number of values to be found i n the i n s t i t u t i o n which may not be found elsewhere: 1 Schulze, p. 392. 2 I b i d . , p. 393-- 7 -1. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of a multitude and v a r i e t y of facets of which i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g i s composed which may be selected and brought to bear upon the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d for therapeutic purposes according to his needs; 2. The p o s s i b i l i t y i t o f f e r s f o r d i r e c t and continuous observation of the ch i l d under various l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s , so urgently needed to arr i v e at a clear diagnostic picture of the c h i l d ; 3. The opportunity i t affords the ch i l d to rub shoulders with a v a r i e t y of people, adults as well as children, i n d a i l y companionship, so very important for the c h i l d who has been l i f t e d out of traumatic relationships and who i n t h i s way i s afforded a chance to estab l i s h , at i t s own pace of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , new rel a t i o n s with both adults and children, singly and i n groups; 4. The r e l a t i v e l y greater freedom that the c h i l d may be per-mitted i n the expression of i t s h o s t i l i t y because of the greater frequency and closeness of contacts between s k i l l e d and professional s t a f f i n the i n s t i t u t i o n ; 5. The p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r the enrichment of the i n d i v i d u a l through self-expression and achievement i n play and work which i s of the essence i n the treatment of children i n pa r t i c u l a r need of success, recognition and the expansion of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s through acquaintance with new interes t f i e l d s as well as through the deepening of t h e i r interest l e v e l s ; 6. The range of opportunities to develop a sense of belonging and security as a member of the small l i v i n g unity, of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l community as a whole, of the various a c t i v i t y groups, school and work groups and any number of informal play groups with t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s for making acceptance a r e p e t i t i v e experience; 7. The opportunity to be reasonably dependent as well as independent i n an environment l e s s highly charged emotion-a l l y than a family or substitute family, where the "give and take" and "do for yourself" cannot help but be more highly colored and more deeply involved because of the quality and quantity o f emotional t i e s i n existence; 8. The frequency of experience with the a p p l i c a t i o n of demo-c r a t i c processes to d a i l y l i f e which may have great s i g n i f -icance i n r e l a t i o n to his learning how to function as a good c i t i z e n now as well as i n the future; 9. The d a i l y consistent routine, which though often mis-understood and abused, can be a valuable therapeutic - 8 -factor and h e l p f u l to any c h i l d , and e s p e c i a l l y to one who grew up l i k e Topsy and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y anxious to know what to expect and to what he i s reacting. Furthermore, i n the group s i t u a t i o n the teaching of conformance to cert a i n routines becomes less of a personal issue of obeying a c e r t a i n adult but rather, i f s k i l f u l l y handled, a matter of something being expected of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d as of others. 1 Before turning to the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n to be studied, the various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , concepts, and categories that have been discussed so f a r can be integrated to provide a clearer picture of "the modern i n s t i t u t i o n " , i t s method, i t s basic philosophy, and i t s aims. A general picture of a modern i n s t i t u t i o n . The modern i n s t i t u t i o n accommodates a group of unrelated ch i l d r e n l i v i n g together i n the care of a group of unrelated adults. It should have a highly trained s t a f f , and i t s l i v i n g program should include group work and case work services under ps y c h i a t r i c guidance. It should perform a s p e c i f i c function and serve a highly selected group of children. I t should be much smaller than the children's i n s t i t u t i o n s of the past, since i t i s now realized that large i n s t i t u t i o n s whose populations may exceed one hundred children have l i t t l e chance to make construc-t i v e use of group l i v i n g . Environmental control i s the basic method that i s u t i l -i z e d . Mayo's a r t i c l e includes a statement by Dr. David Levy, that "We have accomplished more i n the r e - d i r e c t i n g of conduct 2 through the manipulation of environment than i n any other way." 1 Suzanne Schulze, "Group L i v i n g and the Dependent C h i l d , " i n Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work, New York, Columbia University Press, 1947, pp. 389-390. 2 Leonard Mayo, "What May Group Work and I n s t i t u t i o n s Contribute to Each Other?," i n Proceedings of the National Confer-ence of S o c i a l Work, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1935, p. 337 Dr. Levy continues that i t i s necessary to "create a new s i t u a t i o n containing some of the e s s e n t i a l ingredients lacking i n the old environment and suited to i n d i v i d u a l needs. "^ " Mayo adds that We move ... (a child) ... to a new environment i n the hope that the constructive patterns of another group may be gradually assumed and that s o c i a l conduct may replace the a n t i - s o c i a l . I f t h i s i s to be accomplished, i t demands a union of these basic services with the same 'kick*, the same sense of adventure, of s e c u r i t y , and recognition, but in«a s o c i a l l y acceptable manner, that the old group gave. The group l i v i n g philosophy of the modern i n s t i t u t i o n i s c l e a r l y stated by Schulze. She says that, from a s o c i a l work point of view, the word "group" "... implies a network of relationships that have a strongly l a s t i n g character and, because of t h i s , can contribute a great deal toward the devel-opment of the latent p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l belonging to i t , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t i s s k i l f u l l y guided according to 3 modern group work p r i n c i p l e s . " She adds that "a healthy s o c i a l climate ... i s one of the strongest treatment influences with children whose s t r i v i n g s , d r i v e s , and c o n f l i c t s too often have remained l a t e n t , because of an undesirable home s i t u a t i o n , and thus served to d i s t o r t t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . They can only be helped through the medium of creative expression and s a t i s f y -ing human relationships that w i l l lead to s e l f - r e s p e c t , personal 1 Loc. c i t . 2 Loc. c i t . 3 Schulze, op_. c i t . , p. 391. - 10 -s a t i s f a c t i o n s , and group recognition and i n t h i s way make i t possible f o r them to become better integrated i n d i v i d u a l s . 1 , 1 This i s a general statement of the philosophy of the modern i n s t i t u t i o n . The ultimate aim of the modern i n s t i t u t i o n i s the diagnosis and treatment of children to prepare them f o r the return to the community as better integrated i n d i v i d u a l s . The children are not retained i n the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r an i n d e f i -n i t e period but are moved on as soon as a s a t i s f a c t o r y plan can be substituted. Implications f o r the use of s o c i a l work. Mayo can see the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of integrating case work, group work, and community organization so that they a l l c o n t r i -bute harmoniously to t h i s ultimate aim. In p a r t i c u l a r , he says, ... group work with children i s only a part of the administrator's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . The s t a f f , the board, and the community o f f e r equally challenging opportunities to the superintendent who i s 'group conscious* 2 • • • These concepts of group work with respect to children, s t a f f , board, and community, lead us beyond the narrow confines of the old conception of group work as recreation and leisure-time a c t i v i t y alone. We begin to see group work as a philosophy or a way of l i f e as well as a technique and as much a part of the t o t a l administrative scheme as case work.3 1 Suzanne Schulze, "Group L i v i n g and the Dependent Child J' i n Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work, New York Columbia University Press, 1947* p. 391. 2 Leonard Mayo, "What May Group Work and In s t i t u t i o n s Contribute to Each Other?", i n the Proceedings of the National  Conference of S o c i a l Work, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1935, p. 334. 3 I b i d . , p. 331 . - 11 He suggests, i n general, that s o c i a l workers need to sharpen t h e i r "awareness of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of e f f e c t i v e group work i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . " ^ A s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n . The Boys' Receiving Home of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, has provided an example of how these t h e o r e t i c a l concepts can be applied to a s p e c i f i c s i t u a -t i o n ; i t has presented an opportunity to demonstrate and evaluate the use of group work services with a c o l l e c t i o n of a n t i - s o c i a l children. The Boys' Receiving Home was opened i n February 1950 as an emergency housing unit for teen-age boys. At t h i s time, the Children's Aid Society was faced with the problems of caring for an increasing number of teen-age boys who were not suitable for foster home, boarding home, or hostel placement. These were the only other resources a v a i l a b l e . The boys who were cared for i n the Receiving Home had already shown them-selves to be unsuitable for any of the other resources; they had h i s t o r i e s of unsuccessful foster home placements from which the boys either ran away or were removed at the request of the foster parents. Truancy, b u l l y i n g , l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , swearing, temper tantrums, and re f u s a l to cooperate with adults were common complaints that led to placement i n the Receiving Home. 1 Mayo, op. c i t . , p. 331* - 12 -At this time, the Home was a poten t i a l group work s i t u a t i o n , although group work services were not being u t i l i z e d . The Home was being supervised by a male case worker who had a large country case load and was therefore unable to give con-si s t e n t case work services to the residents of the Home. This condition continued u n t i l June, 1951. In June, 1951* a series of changes was i n i t i a t e d . A male case worker with a smaller case load was appointed to supervise the Receiving Home more c l o s e l y . Under his super-v i s i o n several other developments were brought about, including the appointment of better q u a l i f i e d house parents, a more highly selected group, better public r e l a t i o n s i n the community, and a recreational program. When the boys i n the Home were c a r e f u l l y considered, those who had h i s t o r i e s of delinquent behaviour were removed from the Home. The Home was limited to boys between the ages of twelve and f i f t e e n years who were attending school, and who could be expected to p r o f i t from the group l i v i n g experience without creating too disturbing an influence on the other group members. Since sleeping accommodation In the Home was l i m i t e d , the number of boys i n the Home was reduced from sixteen to eleven. Through the e f f o r t s of the supervisor of the Home, public r elations were considerably improved. The supervisor, r e a l i z i n g that the immediate community viewed the Home with some disapproval, d e l i b e r a t e l y set out to remedy the s i t u a t i o n . Through his e f f o r t s , the l o c a l residents became more tolerant and cooperative, and a neighbourhood a u x i l i a r y was formed; i t - 13 -included representatives from a l o c a l church, from service clubs, and from Alexandra Neighbourhood House (which i s located four blocks from the Receiving Home). Through t h i s a u x i l i a r y , the church offered the use of i t s gymnasium, and one of the service clubs financed the building of a games room i n the base-ment of the Home. These were much needed resources, since space f o r recreational a c t i v i t i e s i n the Home i s very l i m i t e d . A limited amount of organized leisure-time a c t i v i t y was gradually developed. A volunteer leader and the house father supervised the group i n gymnasium a c t i v i t i e s once a week. With the supervisor's help, most of the group members joined the A i r Force or Army Cadets, and some got part-time jobs such as d e l i v e r i n g groceries or pin-setting at a l o c a l bowling a l l e y . In the summer holidays, some of the group members attended Camp Howdy, a Y.M.C.A. camp. These are the main improvements that were made i n the physical environment and i n program development from July, 1951» u n t i l September, 1952. At t h i s time the Home was serving the double function of receiving home and semi-permanent residence. The supervisor, who had some understanding of group work, recognized that i f group work services were introduced as an i n t e g r a l part of the group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n , the process of helping the boys to become better integrated i n d i v i d u a l s , might be more e f f e c t i v e . With t h i s i n mind, the Children's Aid Society consulted the School of S o c i a l Work of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and i n September 1952, the author began - 14 -his work i n the Boys' Receiving Home, as a student i n second year f i e l d work placement, p r o f e s s i o n a l l y supervised by a member of fa c u l t y and administratively responsible to the Receiving Hpme supervisor. Experiences and behaviour of the group members. So f a r , the behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the group members have been l i s t e d very b r i e f l y . A more complete picture i s obtained when the actual experiences that they have been through are studied and related to t h e i r present behaviour and att i t u d e s . A number of boys with s i m i l a r h i s t o r i e s were studied by F r i t z Redl, i n Detr o i t . His description of these boys f i t s the boys i n the Receiving Home very appropriately. He says that I f p r e v a i l i n g c r i t e r i a f o r what constitutes an adequate child-adult relationship pattern are used as a basis f o r reaching conclusions, we can see very l i t t l e i n the case h i s t o r y p r o f i l e s of our children that would s a t i s f y even the most naive c l i n i c i a n or educator that they had had anything even approaching an 'even break.' In very few instances were we able to gather any evidence that there had been even continuity of re l a t i o n s h i p with o r i g i n a l parent images. Broken homes through divorce and desertion, the chain-reaction style of fost e r placements and i n s t i t u -t i o n a l storage were conspicuous events i n t h e i r l i v e s . Aside from continuity, the q u a l i t y of the t i e between c h i l d and adult world was marred by r e j e c t i o n ranging from open b r u t a l i t y , cruelty, and neglect to affe c t barrenness on the part of some parents and narcissistic absorption i n t h e i r own interests which exiled the c a i l d emotionally from them. Certainly there were also operative heavy mixtures of both styles of r e j e c t i o n , overt and unconscious. 1 1 F r i t z Redl and David Wineman, Children Who Hate, The Free Press, Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , 1953» PP« 50-51 . - 1 5 -Redl l i s t s what he c a l l s some of the missing l i n k s i n t h e i r l i v e s . These missing l i n k s are: 1 . Factors leading to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with adults, feelings of being loved and wanted, and encouragement to accept values and standards of the adult world. 2. Opportunities for and help i n achieving a g r a t i f y i n g recreational pattern. 3. Opportunities f o r adequate peer r e l a t i o n s h i p . 4. Opportunities f o r making community t i e s , establishing a f e e l i n g of being rooted somewhere where one belongs, where other people besides your parents know you and l i k e you. 5. Ongoing family structures which were not i n some phase of basic d i s i n t e g r a t i o n at almost any given time of t h e i r l i v e s . 6. Adequate economic security f o r some of the basic needs and necessities of l i f e . Redl adds that " I t i s important to emphasize that these items were missing from t h e i r environment - not that t h e i r d i s -turbance patterns themselves prevented them from absorbing and u t i l i z i n g them." 1 As a res u l t of these events, the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as outlined by Redl, are apparent i n the children i n the Boys' Receiving Home. They have ...extremely poor adjustment to the communities and schools from which they came. In the school, both on a behavioural and a scholastic basis, they showed severe d i s a b i l i t i e s to the extent of having to be i n special classes or of being excluded from school altogether.. In t h e i r communities, they either ran with the other delinquent c h i l d r e n or engaged i n 'lone w o l f a c t i v i t i e s of a delinquent or impuls-ive nature. In both school and community areas, they suffered from the same loss of continuity and s t a b i l i t y that occurred i n t h e i r adult relationship patterns. Because many of them were shifted about so much they never became 1 F r i t z Redl and David Wineman, Children who Hate, P. 57. - 16 -acquainted with or rooted i n any one community mi l i e u . These are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that make these children unpredictable, unmanageable by the untrained f o s t e r parent, and therefore unsuitable for fo s t e r homes, boarding homes, or hostels. These are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that led Redl to give them the apt d e s c r i p t i o n of "The children nobody wants. Attitudes of the boys to adults and a c t i v i t y of an I n s t i t u t i o n . The fact that these children are cared f o r i n an i n s t i -t u t i o n does not, of course automatically change t h e i r behaviour. Redl says of childr e n such as these, that Their attitude towards adults i s conditioned by •prestige values which proclaim proud independence from adults,* and by 'a strong hatred of adults which induces strong resistance toward cooperating with any adult sponsored program, out of pure suspicion and aggression'.... 'At the outset i t can be safe l y assumed that the adult group leader i s an i n t r u d e r ' . . . . 3 When th i s picture of a c o l l e c t i o n of such deprived children i s considered, one might well wonder what hope there i s f o r them, e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s remembered that the Receiving Home i s not planned or designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e i r treatment, 1 Redl, op. c l t . , p. 5 3 - Note: Although the experiences and behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s quoted from Redl apply to t h i s group, there are some differences that must be considered. Whereas Redl's group was i n the 8 - 1 0 years age group, t h i s group i s i n the 1 1 - 1 5 years age group. Therefore, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adoles-cence must also be studied. The behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of disturbed adolescents are v i v i d l y portrayed by Hacker and Geleerd, who suggest methods of working with disturbed adolescents that could be applied to t h i s s i t u a t i o n . See F. Hacker and E.Geleerd, "Freedom and Authority i n Adolescence," i n The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. American Orthopsychiatric Association, New York, 1 9 4 5 , v o l . 1 5 , pp. 6 2 1 - 6 3 0 . 2 Redl, op_. c i t . , p. 2 0 . 3 Ibid . , p. 2 2 6 - 17 -and that when the boys are fi r s t sent there i t is because they are too disturbed to be accepted anywhere else in the community. What could the social group work method be expected to contribut to such a situation? This question can be answered first in a general way and then more specifically. In general, most social agencies serving groups have two purposes in common: (1) to help individuals use groups to further their development into emotionally balanced, intellectually free, and physically f i t persons; (2) to help groups achieve ends desirable in an economic, p o l i t i -cal, and social democracy. Social group work ... is a method of affecting group l i f e with references to these purposes which are the lifeblood of the social welfare movement. We therefore see social group work as a pro-cess and a method through which group l i f e is affected by a worker who consciously directs the interacting process towards the accomplishment of goals which in our country are conceived in a democratic frame of reference.1 More specifically, within this general concept, and in relation to children, i t is realized that Group experiences are some of the most important elem-ents in the child's growing up. They help him overcome infantile levels of emotional development which otherwise make i t difficult for him to relate to his associates. They help him to express or sublimate aggressive and sexual drives in socially acceptable activities. They help him re-enact home situations with substitute parents and sib-lings. They help him to f u l f i l the need of a l l children to be liked by others - both adults and children. 2 While this concept is true for a l l children, i t is parti ularly appropriate for deprived children. In this situation, then, the most fundamental job of the group worker is to provide skilfully guided group experiences that are suited to the needs 1 G. Wilson and G. Ryland, Social Group Work Practice. The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1949, p. 61. 2 "Group Work and Psychiatry", in the American Journal  of Orthopsychiatry. American Orthopsychiatric Association, New York, 1949j p» 462, et. seq. - 18 -of the i n d i v i d u a l boys, and that w i l l , gradually, help them to develop creative means of s e l f expression, s a t i s f y i n g human relat i o n s h i p s , s e l f respect, personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , and s o c i a l l y acceptable conduct i n such a way that these elements w i l l become a permanent part of t h e i r l i v e s . As one prominent writer says: ... group work ... furnishes the basic l i f e l i k e , s o c i a l situations within which much of the prescribed case-work treatment may be put into p r a c t i c e . That i s to say that the case-worker must turn to the group-worker to f u r n i s h adequate s o c i a l groups comparable to^the r e a l l i f e - s i t u a t i o n s i n which her c l i e n t s must eventually^function. We a l l l i v e , play, and work i n a group world; ( i t i s therefore) ... esse n t i a l for us to teach the younger generation t h i s a r t . So c i a l work as a whole, then, may find i n guided group experience not merely a dessert but something as necessary to the whole d i e t as i s case work. 1 These general concepts were to serve as a guide through-out t h i s project. However, when the project was i n i t i a t e d , the f u l l extent of the boys• retarded and distorted s o c i a l and emotional development, and the i n t e n s i t y of t h e i r h o s t i l e , a n t i -s o c i a l reactions to t h e i r peers, to adults and to the general environment, were not appreciated. There had been no opportun-i t y to determine i f the boys revealed any p o s i t i v e characteris-t i c s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i f they revealed any creative a b i l i t y , or i f they would benefit from group experiences. There were, therefore, two basic objectives at that time. One objective was to observe the boys* behaviour, and thereby determine as accurately as possible the degree of s o c i a l adaptation that existed. The other objective was to i n i t i a t e and develop a group work program based on these observations and guided by the 1 Leonard Mayo, "What May Group Work and I n s t i t u t i o n s Contribute to Each Other?", i n the Proceedings of the National  Conference of S o c i a l Work. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1935, p. 336 . - 19 -general concepts already stated. This would only be done i f i t appeared that the group work method could be used and would be of value i n meeting the needs of the boys. It was not known i f the use of group work services would be feasible i n such a s e t t i n g . When the project started, the l o c a l church gymnasium (which had been used the previous year) was the only suitable and r e a d i l y available space i n which to carry on any kind of program with the boys. The Boys' Receiving Home had very l i t t l e to o f f e r either i n the way of a suitable room or i n the way of games, hobby material or sports equipment. This was p a r t l y because of the boys' aggressive, destructive tendencies. Anything that was provided was immediately abused and soon destroyed. For the same reasons, and by t h e i r general behav-iour, the boys i n v a r i a b l y abused the f a c i l i t i e s of most recreation centres and were unable to use them i n the approp-r i a t e manner when exposed to them. The group worker was therefore reluctant to encourage the boys to venture into the community under his supervision at th i s time. Even i f t h i s had been attempted, i t i s doubtful i f the boys would have gone anyway, since they were i n i t i a l l y very suspicious of the worker and h o s t i l e to him. From the l i t t l e that was known about the s i t u a t i o n , i t was anticipated that the main problem would be the lack of f a c i l i t i e s . I t was also anticipated that i t would be quite necessary to develop an e f f e c t i v e team work re l a t i o n s h i p with 2 0 the house father, who, i n thi s case, had previously had con-siderable experience as a games and recreation i n s t r u c t o r i n B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s . He had also held varied and quite responsible administrative positions i n these i n s t i t u t i o n s . As i s to be expected, he had many worth-while ideas and a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t but very p o s i t i v e philosophy from these experiences. His p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the process of developing a group work program therefore promised to be of r e a l value, and was considered to be just as esse n t i a l and ju s t as valuable as that of the workers concerned. In the past, the house father had devoted considerable time to l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s with the boys and had consistently shown a r e a l i n t e r e s t i n the boys' progress. Before the group worker a c t u a l l y began his work at the Receiving Home, the supervisor of the Home had discussed the proposed group work program with the house father, who had agreed to go along with the idea, although i t was quite new to him. With so l i t t l e information about boys who were probably very d i f f i c u l t to work with even under i d e a l circumstances, and with the anticipated problems that would a r i s e out of the lack of resources and equipment, i t would have been reasonable to expect l i t t l e or no success from t h i s experimental project. However, i n spite of these circumstances, soon a f t e r t h i s pro-ject was started, i t was found that group work services would be developed i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner; however, four i n t e r -related areas of planning were necessary to bring about t h i s - 21 -development. The f i r s t of these areas was preliminary plan-ning with the house father and the supervisor of the Rome. This led to the second area - team conferences including house father, group worker, case workers, and supervisors. One of the many purposes that these conferences served was to estab-l i s h the fact that group sessions should be held with the boys so that they could contribute t h e i r ideas- to the process of developing the new program. These group sessions were soon being held r e g u l a r l y with the boys; they were the t h i r d area of planning. From these sessions, i t was necessary to find ways of meeting the interests that were expressed by the boys. The fourth area of planning was meetings with the s t a f f of Alexandra Neighbourhood House. This made i t possible f o r the boys to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a number of a c t i v i t i e s that interested them i n the Neighbourhood House. "Ultimately, there were two concurrent but quite d i f f e r -ent l i n e s of a c t i v i t y . One was the previously established -gymnasium a c t i v i t y , which, when i t was suggested, was immediately and eagerly accepted by the boys. The other was the more com-pli c a t e d process of gradually developing a new program which would provide new, desirable experiences for the boys. For the purposes of analysis, i t i s convenient to select the two major aspects of the t o t a l program; one i s the process of developing a new program; the other i s the general changes i n the boys' behaviour that were brought about through t h i s program. A chapter i s devoted to each of these aspects. The group work record i s used to provide selected examples that i l l u s t r a t e the developments i n each of these areas. Chapter II DEVELOPING A NEW PROGRAM From the f i r s t stages of preliminary planning, the subsequent stages of team cbnferences group sessions with the boys, and meetings with the Neighbourhood House s t a f f , each arose i n turn. In t h i s way, the most e f f e c t i v e group work program that could be provided under the circumstances was gradually developed to a greater extent than would have been thought possible at the outset. In f a c t , i t was developed to l i m i t s set only by the l i m i t s of the immediate community resources. Preliminary planning. Before the process of developing a new program a c t u a l l y began, the group worker and the supervisor of the Home reviewed the previous e f f o r t s to develop a program, and discussed various p o s s i b i l i t i e s : (Oct. 2 3 ) W. met Mr. H. The following points were discussed about the Receiving Home. Should e f f o r t s be made to develop a "club s p i r i t " at the Home? Mr. H. thought that the boys were conscious of 1 The term "team conferences" i s used to describe the meetings which included the house father, the group worker, the case workers, t h e i r supervisors, and a worker from the Child Guidance C l i n i c (on some occasions). These conferences served many purposes and they were the base of the whole project. They served as case conferences, as a medium f o r exchanging and integ-r a t i n g group work and case work philosophy, as a medium f o r planning programs, and as a means of coordinating the work of a l l those involved i n the project. Only the program planning as-pects are considered here. - 23 -a s o c i a l stigma about being "C.A.S. boys" and that a club within the Home might be met with l i t t l e enthusiasm because of t h i s f e e l i n g . He thought that i f a club could be formed i n the community (perhaps using l o c a l church gymnasium as a centre of a c t i v i t i e s ) and i f other boys i n the community could belong, the boys from B.R.H. would be helped i n t h i s way to f e e l more a part of the community and that a move of thi s sort would tend to help the boys to mingle more f r e e l y with others i n the community. At present, he fee l s they have few friends outside of B.R.H., except occasional contacts with escapees from B. I. S., with whom they i d e n t i f y quite r e a d i l y . Mr. H.1 has i n the past made ef f o r t s to e s t a b l i s h con-tacts i n the community for each boy according to his par-t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s , e.g., E a r l was on the school soccer team. He has t r i e d to make the procedures of buying clothes, r e f e r r i n g to parents (when at school) as natural as possible f o r the boys so that to outward appearances t h e i r l i f e i s as near as possible to that of boys from t h e i r own homes. He has attempted to get business men from men's clubs to "adopt" i n d i v i d u a l boys and develop t h e i r interests i n f i s h i n g , hunting, and other a c t i v i t i e s . He has attempted to get some of them into the "Y". Following t h i s meeting i t was apparent that an a c t i v i t y program centred at the Receiving Home would probably not be successful because of the wish of the boys to be away from the Home during t h e i r l e i s u r e time, because of the wide range of intere s t s of the boys, and because of the lack of equipment and f a c i l i t i e s i n the Home. From October 24th to November 20th, the only planned program was the already established gymnasium a c t i v i t y . Other p o s s i b i l i t i e s such as a swimming night once a week were t r i e d , and developing a hobby shop i n the house was considered by the group worker and the supervisor of the Receiving Home. The swimming night was not developed because of i t s lim i t e d value 1 Mr. H. i s supervisor of the Home. - 24 -i n view of crowded conditions at the pool, and because of lack of inte r e s t and enthusiasm by the boys. The hobby shop i n the house was not developed because of the lack of equipment and space, and because of the boys' desire to be away from the Home during t h e i r l e i s u r e time. During t h i s time the worker had been meeting with the group members i n the Home. On these occasions, active games had been t r i e d out i n the games room, and "Monopoly" (a board game) had been played. On these occasions the house father had show r e a l cooperation and had tol d the group members that they had to stay i n the house. This was not too s a t i s f a c t o r y a plan; the house father did not want to set these l i m i t s and the boys did not want to accept them. The worker f e l t that these reactions had an undesirable e f f e c t on the group work program. This condition continued f o r the f i r s t month of the group work program. At that time I t was possible to i n i t i a t e the team conferences. It was the house father's reaction to the group work program that led to the f i r s t of these conferences: 1 (Nov. 20) Mr. H. reported on a conference with H.F. Mr. H. had raised the subject of Monday night program i n the house with W. helping to develop a hobbies program. H.F. f e l t that he could do what W. was doing. I f he had had a gymnasium, a swimming pool, a hobby shop, he could have been doing these things a year ago. He f e l t that W. was tryin g to do i n four hours a week what H.F. was doing 24 hours a day. H.F. thought that i f W. was with the boys, W. should set the l i m i t s on whether or not they could go out or stay i n . 1 H.F. i s used i n the group record as an abbreviation f o r "house father." - 25 -Mr. H. attempted to c l a r i f y W.'s role as a s p e c i a l i s t person working with the boys under l i m i t s set by H.F., who at t h i s time accepts case work as a specialized job but not group work. He cannot see W.'s job as that of a professional s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . This development was discussed In the group worker's supervisory conference. Since the house father's reaction provided an opportunity for the group work program to be d i s -cussed, i t was decided, i n consultation with the case work s t a f f , to hold a team conference including house father, workers, and supervisors. Team conferences. The f i r s t team conference was held as planned; (Nov. 2 6 . In t h i s conference H. F. was able to present his point of view about his p o s i t i o n . He said that i n his previous experiences with boys' homes i n Glasgow, his role as house father included working with the boys i n recrea-t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and hobbies of a l l s o r t s . He realized that there was a lack of equipment and f a c i l i t i e s for these things at B. R. H. and that t h i s was a r e a l handicap to the program. He f e l t now that recreational f a c i l i t i e s were being developed, not f o r him but for the group worker (implying that he had been wanting these things a l l along for the boys, and now they were becoming available - i t was the group worker that was using them.) Group Work and Case Work Supervisors attempted to c l a r i -f y for H.F. the differences i n function between house father, group worker, and case worker, pointing out that equipment and f a c i l i t i e s were f o r the boys and not f o r any one of the t o t a l s t a f f . H.F. wanted p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the group work program to be on a voluntary basis, pointing out that the boys had been allowed a l o t of freedom i n the past, even before his a r r i v a l at the Home, and that i n the past years great s t r i d e s had been made, f i r s t one boy joining cadets and then some more. The same thing applies to t h i s new program, he thought. When the boys can see that they are missing some-thing by not p a r t i c i p a t i n g , they w i l l want to j o i n i n . - 26 -H. F. wants W. and Mr. H. to meet with the boys and talk over and c l a r i f y the new program with them. H. F. wants to be present and participate i n this. This conference Involved cooperative planning between workers, supervisors, and house father. The result was that the house father's suggestions were to be put into effect, and that the workers, supervisors, and house father were to meet regularly to assess progress. One of the greatest values of the meeting was that i t gave recognition to the house father's position and gave him an opportunity to participate i n the plan-ning. The specific plan that was formed was that group worker, case worker, and house father would meet with the boys, and convey to them that a l l the people working with them i n the Re-ceiving Home are interested i n them and are working together to plan with them to make their experience i n the Receiving Home a happy one. The house father invited the group worker and the case worker to have supper at the Home on Friday, November 28} the meeting was planned to follow immediately after supper. This plan was carried out. The workers and the house father had come to a common agreement that was acceptable to the house father, who, in this situation, was i n the position that could determine the degree of success of the group work program. Subsequent staff meetings were characterized by increas-ing understanding and cooperation between the house father and the professional staff. After the f i r s t discussion with the boys i n the Receiving Home, group work and case work supervisors, group worker, case worker and house father met to evaluate the - 27 -discussion with the boys and to plan for the next one. The group work supervisor c l a r i f i e d for the house father and the case worker that the group worker should be the person to lead the discussion. This was a further c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the group worker's job; i n the past the case worker had been accustomed to planning some events with the group members. The house father and the case worker were s t i l l to be i n on the discussion so that a l l three adults could develop a consistent approach to the group, and so that case worker and house father could deal with any matters that came up which concerned them directly, such as allowances or the routine of the Home. It was also planned that in the next discussion, group worker, case worker, and house father would show the boys that something definite had been done about their requests. In this way their f a i t h i n the group discussions and i n the adults concerned would be maintained. This mutually satisfactory state of af f a i r s , with house father, group worker, case workers, and supervisors meeting regularly to plan and evaluate the discussions that were held concurrently with the boys, continued u n t i l January. At this time the house father suggested that the sessions with the group members be discontinued temporarily; he thought that the group members were treating the sessions too l i g h t l y and that i f they were withheld for a short time the group members might appreciate them more. The house father's suggestion was accepted, and the group members * reactions when they learned that there would not be a group session on the following Friday evening were noted by the house father, as suggested by the group worker. The group - 28 -worker explained that t h i s would give an i n d i c a t i o n of the value placed on these sessions by the boys. The house father agreed to do t h i s . Although the group worker did not r e a l l y agree with the idea that the group sessions with the boys should be discontinued, he and the case worker were prepared to accept i t , as i t could well prove to be v a l i d , and of value to the t o t a l program. This was the main concern, and t h i s incident shows how a promising idea would be accepted, applied, and then evaluated, regardless of which team member suggested i t . Such was the degree of cooperation that existed. The group sessions were temporarily discontinued, and a f t e r two weeks the group worker discussed the s i t u a t i o n with the house fathers (Jan.30) W. asked H. F. how the boys had reacted to not having the group discussions for the l a s t two weeks. H.F. said that the f i r s t week no one asked about i t or wanted i t - they were glad i t was over, but tonight they had asked about i t , and he had said that they had to have something that they r e a l l y wanted to t a l k about - that i t wasn't just a matter of asking to have things done f o r them. W. told H. F. that E a r l had been asking what had happened to t h e i r "gripe sessions" and that W. thought that the group might be ready f o r another session by Friday, February 6th. H. F. agreed that he, too, thought that the group might be ready by that time, since they had been asking about i t tonight. W. mentioned to H. F. that i t was important for the three of them (W., Mr. H., and H.F.) to agree on what points they wanted to bring up, so that they would have a consistent approach to the group. H. F. agreed to t h i s and said they could do that at the next meeting on Monday, February 2nd. Any controversial matters such as t h i s were always resolved i n such a way that the group sessions continued to be - 29 -constructive experiences for the boys. This, too, i l l u s t r a t e s the degree of cooperation that existed. The group worker, the supervisor of the Home, and the house father continued to plan f o r the sessions with the boys. This planning helped to make the actual group work program with the boys more effectives (Feb. 4) W., Mr. H. and H. F. agreed that a group d i s -cussion would be of value.... It was decided to t r y having the discussion during the meal instead of following i t , to o f f s e t the restlessness and impatience that had been apparent previously.... Discussion was set for Friday, February 6, at supper time. This process of cooperative planning between the workers and the house father progressed to an increasingly more e f f e c t i v e l e v e l as time went on, and, a week l a t e r : (Feb. 13) H. F. asked W. i f W. would go ahead and s t a r t the discussion with the group at supper time. W. agreed to t h i s , and sat down to supper with group. Following supper, H. F. asked W. how i t had been. This was asked with r e a l i n t e r e s t and s i n c e r i t y . W. told H. F, about the session, and that W. f e l t that i t had been a very good session. H. F. said that he thought i t was better for W. to handle the discussion alone since the group was then able to concentrate on the things that W. did with them - when he and Mr. H. were there, t h e i r presence and the wider range of matters discussed made the discussion l e s s e f f e c t i v e . H. F. told W. to f e e l free to come i n any night even i f i t was not a regular program night i f there was something W. wanted to plan with the group. W. said that he would. From t h i s time on i t was accepted that i t was part of the group worker's job to plan program with the boys i n the discussion sessions. The team conferences had therefore provided a medium for working out plans that were mutually acceptable to the house father and to the professional s t a f f . These conferences were - 30 -an e s s e n t i a l preliminary to the sessions with the boys, and they made the process of developing the group work program with the boys an e f f e c t i v e , i n t e g r a l part of t h e i r l i v e s i n the Receiving Home. Group sessions with the boys. These sessions were established as a r e s u l t of the house father's suggestion on November 26 that he, the group worker, and the case worker should hold group sessions with the boys to plan program with them. From t h i s time on, team con-ferences and group sessions were being held concurrently, and i t was possible to evaluate a group session and plan the content of tne next one i n the intervening team conference. The group sessions were a most e f f e c t i v e medium for cooperative planning between the three adults and the boys. The planning process was immediately accepted by the boys i n the f i r s t session: (Nov. 28) Boys were asked i f they would be interested i n a woodwork shop, and gave a unanimous response of "yes." E a r l wanted to build a racing bug, and get some help from C.A.S. to get wheels and axles - "then we won't have to s t e a l wheels o f f baby carriages and get into trouble." Dave wanted more horseback r i d i n g , a woodwork shop, and a metalwork shop. They were asked i f they l i k e d t h i s session, and boys unanimously agreed that they l i k e d i t . By t h i s time they were getting r e s t l e s s and wanted to leave the table. They were told that there would be another session next week. Boys dispersed to various parts of the house. At t h i s time the leadership of the discussions was shared by the group worker, case worker, and house father. I t had not been stated at t h i s time that the group worker should lead the discussion. This was a t r a n s i t i o n a l period i n which the new concept of group work was being gradually introduced. - 31 -The team conferences held between t h i s and the next group session were used to c l a r i f y t h i s concept of group work leader-ship. In the next discussion the group worker took a more active role i n leadership. The following excerpt reveals the element of program development that was included i n the group session. (Dec. 5) E a r l remarked that the discussion they had had l a s t week was "no good" because "nothing had happened that they had asked f o r . " W. started the discussion by asking i f they remembered what they had talked about l a s t week. Nobody could think of anything s p e c i f i c , so W. asked "Didn't somebody ask about woodwork?" They remem-bered that Dave had asked about i t . W. told group that they could have the woodwork shop at Alexandra House fo r one night a week, but that i t would have to be Tuesday or Friday. There was much argument about which night would be best. E a r l , Fred and Jack were doubtful i f they could go anyway. Jack said he wasn't going to go down there and get his teeth knocked out. W. asked i f i t was f a i r to have a vote on which night they wanted. I t was gener-a l l y agreed that t h i s was f a i r - W. asked f o r a show of hands. Gerry, Joe, Roy, Harold, and Norm voted f o r Friday. This was a majority out of the nine boys present. The others were s t i l l d i s s a t i s f i e d , so W. said that they could have another vote i f they wanted to, a f t e r t r y i n g Friday night for a few times - Woodwork i s to s t a r t on December 12th. W. told group that i f there was anything else they wanted to t a l k about they could each have a turn now, and W. gave each boy i n turn a chance to say what he wanted to. There was general agreement that boxing, judo, and weight-l i f t i n g are the a c t i v i t i e s that appeal to these boys. In t h i s meeting, the group members saw that the previous meeting had been constructive i n that t h e i r expressed wish f o r woodwork had resulted i n the woodwork shop at. A. N. H. being made ava i l a b l e . The vote on which night would be the best f o r wood-work was taken i n an e f f o r t to give the boys a chance to p a r t i c i -pate i n the planning, and to give them as much freedom as possible i n the decision. These sessions had o r i g i n a l l y been introduced as "gripe - 32 -sessions", in which the boys had been given the opportunity to say anything they wanted to. By the third meeting, however, i t was possible to help the boys to move away from this negative concept: (Dec. 12) After supper, Norm and Gerry who had been sitting at a small table, brought their chairs to the large table for the "gripe session", at W.'s suggestion. W. asked the boys i f they thought they should change the name from "gripe session" to something else; W. then asked what happened at these sessions. Fred volunteered that they had heard about going to Alexandra House and about wrestling for Earl, and that they had asked for sports equipment. W. suggested that i t was more of a meeting than a gripe session. Earl said i t was a discussion. Fred said " a l l those in favour of calling i t a discussion, raise their hands." A l l except Jack and Walt voted in favour of changing the name. By this time the boys had experienced the constructive value of the meetings, and they were able to appreciate the plan-ning element involved. In subsequent discussions, i t was possible to clarify the group workers1 job s t i l l further, and to plan for other new experiences: (Dec. 19) Fred said that W. was to sit at the head of the table - that H. F. had said so. When any of the boys directed general questions to Mr. H. he would t e l l thems "You ask Al - he's the group leader." Earl wanted to go fishing and on a camping trip. He also wanted free show-passes, and remarked that 'nothing ever happened about the show passes*' W. asked Mr. H. about the show-passes, and he told the group that free passes were available for Tuesday afternoon, - December 23rd. W. asked group how many would be interested in going on an overnight trip i f It could be arranged. A l l were inter-ested. W. said that i t might be possible to arrange a trip. W. asked Mr. H. i f he had been able to make any arrange-ments about the Xmas tree trip, and Mr. H. told group that permission had been obtained to cut trees and light a fire in Cypress Canyon, above West Bay. Dave, Gerry, Earl, Walt, and Fred said they wanted to go. H.F. said that they could a l l take lunches. - 33 -This i l l u s t r a t i o n shows how the group worker was given the role of group leader. This was acknowledged by the house father when he suggested that the group worker s i t at the head of the table, and by the case worker when he helped the group members to focus on the group worker as group leader. At the same time, the case worker and the house father were able to contribute to the discussion at appropriate points. Previous requests (e.g. show passes) were met, and new adventures were discussed i n a s p i r i t of mutual understanding and co-operation. As the group work program progressed, these meetings with the boys became even more e f f e c t i v e as they became more meaningful to them. At one point i n p a r t i c u l a r t h i s was very c l e a r l y revealed: (Feb. 13) W. asked Jack about his l a s t t r i p up the moun-t a i n , and Jack told W. how they had shared the work of cooking, washing dishes, and about the fun they had had. The conversation carried on along these l i n e s , Jack's stories getting more and more excited and the group as a whole l e t -t i n g t h e i r Imagination run wild along the same l i n e s . A f t e r a few minutes E a r l suddenly remarked, "We're a l l around one table - t h i s i s the round table discussion! 1 1 W. agreed that i t was the time to discuss things and make plans. E a r l said, "Yea, l e t ' s discuss - shut up, you guys!" W. said there was something he wanted to t e l l them and E a r l and Jack told the group to shut up. W. reminded group that they had talked about going on an overnight t r i p , and that W. wondered i f they s t i l l wanted to go. There was a general chorus of consent - "Sure we do, when do we go? We talked about that before Christmas!" W. added that they might be able to get the Y.M.C.A. cabin f o r a weekend, and that since Jack had been there and knew a l l about i t , he might be able to act as a leader on the t r i p . This pleased Jack, who agreed eagerly, and i t was also an acceptable plan to the group. E a r l , Dave, Jack, and Harold were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n favour of going. The group again went o f f into a mood of excited a n t i c i p a t i o n and u n r e a l i s t i c planning of what they would do up the mountain. E a r l and Jack brought the group back to r e a l i t y with such orders as "shut up! This i s a discussion!" W. also, f i r m l y reminded them that i f they wanted to have these discussions they would have to pay attention. When group had quietened - 34 -(Sown W. asked "Why do we have these discussions, anyway -why do we get together l i k e t h i s ? " Fred said "to keep us guys out of trouble." Harold said "to help l i t t l e children" (as though that was the stock answer to a l l work with a group such as t h i s ) . E a r l said, "to help us have a better time l i k e other kids have." W. told Fred and Harold that they were both p a r t l y r i g h t . W. told E a r l that his answer was the best of a l l ; that he wanted to help them to plan f o r themselves; wanted them to bring t h e i r ideas to the discussion so that they could work them out together - not just to ask f o r things but to help to make them happen. I f they could plan between now and the next discussion night how they wanted to d i s t r i b u t e the work f o r the t r i p , they could make more plans then. The boys seemed to appreciate more c l e a r l y that t h i s was a planning session with W. i n a helping r o l e . W.'s f i n a l remark to the group was " I t ' s up to you to bring your ideas, and then we'll help you with them - i s that O.K.?" There was general agreement that t h i s was a l l r i g h t , and W. f e l t that there was a r e a l understanding of t h i s s i t u a t i o n by the boys, and that they f e l t that i t r e a l l y was " a l l r i g h t " - that these sessions were fo r them, and gave them help and s a t i s f a c t i o n . W. and boys l e f t supper table i n an atmosphere of understanding and mature o b j e c t i v i t y about what the meetings were f o r . This was the f i r s t occasion on which the group worker had been able to lead the discussion among the boys without the case worker and the house father being present. This f a c t may help to account f o r the inte r e s t and more mature outlook that was apparent. During the gymnasium sessions the boys had gone through a process of increasing socio/emotional maturity; t h i s l e v e l of development seems to have carried over into the d i s -cussion group at t h i s point. The group worker was able to go deeper into reasoning and abstract discussion with the boys, who, In turn, reciprocated by acknowledging W.'s suggestions and questions with responses which, f o r the most part, were considered, reasonable, and co-operative. I t i s therefore - 35 -apparent that an e f f e c t i v e relationship b u i l t up with a group i n one area of a c t i v i t y (the gymnasium) can be used to help them i n other areas (e.g. discussion sessions). The discussions on program development made i t neces-sary f o r the group worker to f i n d ways of helping the boys to pa r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s i n which they expressed i n t e r e s t . The most desirable and r e a d i l y accessible resource was Alexandra Neighbourhood House which had a complete s t a f f of group workers. The use of i t s f a c i l i t i e s involved planning with the s t a f f of the Neighbourhood House. A series of meetings was arranged to precede and coincide with the use of t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s by the boys from the Receiving Home. Meetings with Neighbourhood House s t a f f : On November 28, when the boys expressed an inter e s t i n woodwork, the group worker met with the d i r e c t o r of Alexandra Neighbourhood House and explained the need for more f a c i l i t i e s and the inter e s t i n woodwork that had been expressed by the boys. It was arranged f o r them to use the Neighbourhood House woodwork shop under the worker's supervision. This was to be an experi-ment, with the p o s s i b i l i t y of the boys moving from woodwork into other areas of program i n the Neighbourhood House at a l a t e r date. At t h i s time, then, the t h i r d major area of planning (with the s t a f f of the Neighbourhood House) was i n i t i a t e d . I t was carried on concurrently with and coordinated with the team conferences and the group sessions. From th i s time on the boys' a c t i v i t i e s i n the group work program were being carried on according to a c a r e f u l l y arranged and c l o s e l y coordinated over-- 36 -a l l plan. Each adult with whom the boys were i n contact had taken part i n the planning, and each was aware of the need to work cl o s e l y with the others and was w i l l i n g to do t h i s . On the f i r s t t r i p to the Neighbourhood House, the s t a f f members on duty were aware that the worker was going to a r r i v e with the group, and they showed r e a l interest i n the boys and i n t h e i r woodwork projects. Following t h i s experience the group worker met with the executive d i r e c t o r and the Friday night program d i r e c t o r to report that the woodwork program had been a success and that the interest shown by the s t a f f members had contributed to the success. It was agreed that t h i s program would be resumed on January 9? a f t e r the Christmas holidays. In January, events occurred that were of si g n i f i c a n c e to program development. Several of the boys went to Alexandra Neighbourhood House on t h e i r own and enquired about j o i n i n g . At t h i s time the group members did not belong to the Neighbourhood House. The use of the woodwork shop was an experiment to see i f t h e i r i n t e r e s t could be aroused i n the Neighbourhood House program. Since the boys appeared to be taking an in t e r e s t i n other aspects of the program, the worker met with the d i r e c t o r of A. N. H. to discuss the progress of the experiment, and the p o s s i b i l i t y of helping the group members to j o i n the Neighbour-hood House and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the t o t a l program f o r t h e i r age-group. A number of points were agreed on as being mutually desirables - 37 -1. Registration should be completed as soon as possible. If W. arrives at the A. N. H. at 7.30 on Friday, December 16th with group, individual registrations can be completed. 2. Interpretation to total A. N. H. staff of the following points would be of value. a. Some background on the type of boy in the R. H. and why he is there. b. Why B.R.H. is approaching Alexandra House "as a group." c. What has been achieved so far through contact with A . N. H. d. Why a total staff interpretation is necessary. e. What B.R.H. staff hopes to accomplish with co-operation of Alexandra House staff. It was decided that a staff conference would be held between A. N. H. staff and B. R. H. staff to interpret the situ-ation to A. N. H., on January 19. In the meantime, the Friday night woodwork program would continue. The conference was held as planned. The house father, the group worker, and the case worker attended a regular staff meeting at the Neighbourhood House, at the group worker's sug-gestion. The regular staff and the group work students at the Neighbourhood House were at the meeting. The following excerpt reveals the content of the meeting: (Jan. 19). Mr. H. gave a case summary to illustrate the type of boy in the home. The group worker gave an out-line of why the resources of Alexandra House were being used in this particular manner - i.e., this was an attempt to introduce the boys to the House through their expressed interest in woodwork. It was an attempt to overcome their anxiety and fear of moving out to a new situation - an attempt to give support and encouragement of a transitional nature until they could find their own interests in Alex-andra House. - 3 8 -W. mentioned that the acceptance and encouragement that the boys had received from A.W.H. s t a f f had given them strength and self-confidence to continue coming. H. F. mentioned that the f a c t that one of the boys (Jack) had had a very happy experience on his mountain t r i p with a group from A.N.H., and that t h i s had increased the other boys' i n t e r e s t i n joining A.N.H., had been very encouraging. In answer to questions, H. F. gave an outline of the t o t a l program of the Receiving Home. A.W.H. s t a f f agreed that t h i s t o t a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n had been of r e a l value. This meeting gave the Neighbourhood House s t a f f a more complete picture of the problems of developing program i n the Receiving Home and an appreciation of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the Neighbourhood House as a program resource f o r these boys. I t also gave the house father the opportunity to contribute to the conference and to explain the program of the Receiving Home. Following t h i s meeting, the group worker continued to meet regularly with the Friday night program d i r e c t o r at the Neighbourhood House: (Jan. 3 0 ) W. and Miss G. reviewed the developments since t h i s group had started to use A.N.H. The following points were considered: 1 . H. F. has paid up a l l the memberships (unknown to W. u n t i l today). 2. Most of the boys are now attending Alexandra House f o r regular program. 3 . Alexandra House needs more leaders f o r t h i s program. 4. Tuesday i s regular "Tweenage" night. 5 . Since boys are now regular members they should be sub-ject to the regulations of the House, i . e . , no longer come on Fridays. 1 The term "tweenage" i s used to describe the general program f o r 12-14 year old boys and g i r l s . I t i s separate from the "teenage" program f o r 1 5 - 1 8 year old boys and g i r l s . - 39 -6. Teenagers are complaining about th i s group using the house on Fridays. 7. Woodwork night might therefore be shifted to Tuesday. 8. In th i s event, woodwork shop might be open to a l l tween-agers who want to use i t . This would s t i l l provide group from B.R.H. with t h e i r main i n t e r e s t , and provide a means of t h e i r mixing with other A.N.H. members while s t i l l under W.'s guidance. Following t h i s meeting, a group session and a meeting with A.N.H. s t a f f were necessary. The boys had to be told about the change i n plans, and i t was agreed that the Tuesday night s t a f f at the Neighbourhood House should be informed about the new group that would be coming i n , the nature of the group, and the worker's job with the group. The boys were approached i n the following manner: (Feb. 2) W. told H.F. that A.N.H. wanted B.R.H. group to go to woodwork on Tuesdays instead of Fridays. W. also told Fred, Dave and Walt, and said that he would be there when A.N.H. opened. They a l l accepted t h i s change as a good idea and said they would see W. down there. This approach put the change on the basis of an imperson-a l administrative request from A.N.H. The house father was made aware of the changes i n the t o t a l plan, and his cooperation was therefore obtained i n helping the boys to go to woodwork on Tuesday nights. The Tuesday night s t a f f were brought i n on the new plan i n the following pre-arranged manner: (Feb. 3) W. had supper with A.N.H. s t a f f and volun-teers who were to be on duty that night. W. and Miss G. explained to s t a f f group that W. would be i n woodwork shop with B.R.H. group as part of an interim plan, the f i n a l aim being a two-way process of B.R.H. boys moving out to other programs i f they wanted to, and perhaps some of A.N.H. members moving i n to woodwork shop, with the end resul t being an int e r e s t group under W.'s leadership, including some boys from B.R.H. and others from t o t a l "tweenage group". A l l s t a f f involved were aware of the s i t u a t i o n and the aims. - 40 -Through t h i s process of c a r e f u l l y planned meetings, the boys from the Receiving Home were able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a le i s u r e time program under the guidance of a number of leaders who were a l l aware of the o v e r a l l aims and objectives, and who could therefore contribute to them i n a coordinated manner. An i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s o v e r a l l leadership that was designed to be he l p f u l to the boys i s found i n the following excerpt: (Feb. 24) Miss G. came to woodwork shop to ask i f the group would l i k e to send a delegate to the tweenage council that i s being formed. W. asked i f they would l i k e to send someone, and Fred said "Sure, I ' l l go!" W. asked Gerry and Roy i f i t was a l l right with them i f Fred went, and they both agreed that i t was a l l r i g h t . Miss G. to l d group that E a r l was the delegate from the cooking club. No one else was i n woodwork shop at th i s time. The program that was now available to the boys under t h i s integrated leadership included a wide v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s : club groups (two boys' clubs, each of which developed i t s own program, such as hikes, cooking, hobbies, s p e c i a l projects to help A.N.H.), games room program, gymnasium program, parties (with s o c i a l recreation, games and dances), woodwork (also under other leaders at other times) and the tweenage cou n c i l , (to plan and coordinate the t o t a l tweenage program). Each of the elements that has been considered so far has helped to bring about t h i s f i n a l state of program develop-ment. F i r s t , the supervisor of the Receiving Home realized that group work services could be integrated with the Receiving Home program. After some preliminary planning, t h i s was done i n such a way that the house father was an i n t e g r a l part of the planning team. From th i s point, i t was possible to plan program - 41 -i n the group sessions with the boys, helping them to develop t h e i r interests by joining Alexandra House. With the co-operation of Alexandra House s t a f f , a va r i e t y of experiences was made available i n the tweenage program. There was, there-fore, a t r i p l e series of inter-related, concurrent, and co-ordina-ted group experiences. The f i r s t series involved the s t a f f of the Receiving Home, the second Involved the boys themselves as they a c t u a l l y participated i n the planning and i n the a c t i v i t i e s , and the thi r d involved the s t a f f of Alexandra House. The work with the s t a f f of the Receiving Home and of Alexandra House was an ess e n t i a l preliminary to the work with the boys. I f Alexandra House (the only group work agency i n the community) had not been so conveniently located, i t would not have been possible to develop the group work program i n such an e f f e c t i v e manner. The process of developing a program and helping the boys to move out into l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s depends to a great extent on what resources are available i n the community; i t also depends on the extent to which the s t a f f of community agencies understand the boys 1 needs and are able to cooperate i n providing the kinds of experiences that w i l l meet these needs. Chapter III CHANGES IN BEHAVIOUR It was possible to observe changes i n the boys' behaviour in two different areas of the group work program. One area was the gymnasium activity periods which revealed changes within the group. The other area was the adult super-vised leisure time activities i n the community; changes were also apparent in the boys'reaction to these a c t i v i t i e s . Changes i n behaviour within the group. The series of activity periods that were held i n the church gymnasium provided an opportunity f i r s t to observe the boys' behaviour and then, on the basis of these observations, to work regularly and consistently with the boys i n this con-trolled environment for a period of three months. There was l i t t l e outside interference, and, under these circumstances, changes i n individual and group behaviour were brought about. After the f i r s t period i n the gymnasium, the extremely anti-social nature of the boys was revealed. At this time, some of the objectives that were set up were to reduce the anti-social behaviour of the individuals, to develop a more democratic process of making decisions, and to improve the personal and social adjustment of the individuals within the group. - 43 -For the purposes of analysis, the ways i n which changes i n behaviour were gradually brought about are discussed under the following headings: kinds of a c t i v i t i e s , duration of a c t i v i -t i e s , the process of i n i t i a t i n g and carrying out a c t i v i t i e s , the organization within the group, and the worker-group r e l a t i o n -ship. Kinds of a c t i v i t i e s . The kinds of a c t i v i t i e s that were indulged i n by the boys during the f i r s t meetings included f i g h t i n g , impulsive "acting out", rope climbing, swinging on the rope, tumbling and gymnastic stunts, simple games of t h e i r own invention, wrestling, and basketball. Later, indoor soccer, indoor rugby, B r i t i s h Bulldog, and war b a l l were added. Most of these a c t i v i t i e s are self-explanatory, and excerpts from the group records w i l l help to c l a r i f y the others. The following are examples of free, impulsive "acting out": (Oct. 24) Dave found a cub cap, a pa i r of glasses, and a miniature walking s t i c k i n a cupboard; he made a very comical figure s t r u t t i n g around, obviously pleased with him-s e l f and getting great s a t i s f a c t i o n from i t . (Oct. 24) Joe, Fred, Walt, Harold, Dave, and Gerry were running w i l d l y around the gymnasium screaming and shouting when they were not a c t u a l l y taking t h e i r turn at shooting fo r the basket. (Oct. 24) Harold and Joe started to f i g h t f u r i o u s l y , and chased out of the gymnasium, saying they were going home. Walt and Dave were aimlessly running around the gymnasium. These were the various forms of free, impulsive "acting out". Some examples of games of t h e i r own invention are - 44 -revealed i n the following i l l u s t r a t i o n s : (Nov. 7) A l l the boys were either s i t t i n g around or amusing themselves, none prepared to cooperate with any of the others. Walt asked W. i f they could play "tag with the l i g h t s out." W. said they would have to ask the j a n i t o r . Walt d i d , and W. explained i n more d e t a i l what he wanted to do, since Walt did not make his request very c l e a r . Janitor said he didn't mind what they did as long as nothing got broken. A l l boys joined i n eagerly and the game went on f o r 35 minutes as follows: Several of the boys would carry a r o l l e d up mat and charge one of the others with i t . When he was h i t he had to go to "prison" - a dark storage space under the stage. In the dark i t was not possible to t e l l who was the v i c t i m i n each case, but the game was very popular. This game l o s t i t s i n t e r e s t , and a new a c t i v i t y evolved r o l l i n g one boy up i n a mat with only his head and shoul-ders out, and p i l i n g a l l the other mats on top. The weight of the mats prevented him from getting out u n t i l the other boys l e t him out. W. supervised t h i s a c t i v i t y c l o s e l y to ensure that the boy r o l l e d i n mats was not subjected to too much weight. Walt, Dave, E a r l , and Frank took turns at being r o l l e d up. (Dec. 7) On another occasion Dave re-appeared and announced that he had been up i n the a t t i c watching the gym-nasium through a v e n t i l a t o r . Since E a r l and Walt did not believe him he challenged everybody "you come with me and I ' l l show youl" Dave led the way to a small doorway high up i n the stage w a l l . To reach i t , i t was necessary to climb on a table and then scramble up to the doorway. I t was then necessary to climb on to a p i l e of t r e s t l e and squirm through a small trapdoor. A l l boys had candle stubs which Dave had found i n the kitchen. Harold and Joe asked W. to help them i n getting up to the a t t i c . W. helped them to get up. After a few minutes of looking around and r e a l i z i n g that there was nothing i n the a t t i c , W. and boys returned to gymnasium. There was an atmosphere of adventure and excitement about the whole v i s i t to the a t t i c that appealed to the boys. From the many possible i l l u s t r a t i o n s , one more w i l l be included: (Dec. 1) Dave had found a v o l l e y - b a l l net and he and E a r l were putting i t up i n the gymnasium. Dave went to the store-room to look f o r a v o l l e y - b a l l . He could not f i n d one, but came back with a f l a g . He came charging down the s t a i r s into the gymnasium screaming and y e l l i n g and ran around i n the gymnasium with the f l a g . Joe and Walt also got flags and acted i n the same manner. - 45 -W. went to store room when Dave and Joe went back there. Dave found a large c o l l a p s i b l e wheel chair and asked W. i f they could use i t . W. agreed that i t would be a l l right to use i t i f they did not damage i t and i f they put i t back afterwards. W. helped Dave to unfold the chair and set i t up. Dave gave E a r l rides i n the chair. E a r l was carrying a f l a g and shouting "charge! charge!" as Dave raced down the gymnasium and swung his chair into a sharp turn just before i t h i t the wall. This went on for several minutes a v a r i a t i o n being to charge straight at some other boy and swerve before h i t t i n g him. E a r l gave Dave a r i d e . He went so fast and turned so sharply that the chair tipped up backwards and Dave- f e l l out on the f l o o r . He almost burst out i n a f i t of temper, but both boys immediately started to laugh so hard they they could not be angry. In general, t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were unorthodox and unpre-d i c t a b l e ; they were entered into impulsively and with l i t t l e apparent a b i l i t y to r e s i s t the temptations they offered. Duration of A c t i v i t i e s : In the f i r s t meeting, f i g h t i n g , arguing, and impulsive acting out were of longest duration. Individual a c t i v i t i e s were of much shorter duration, and a c t i v i t i e s including the t o t a l group were of very short duration. The following i l l u s t r a t i o n reveals the state of organization of the f i r s t meeting: (Oct. 24) E a r l , Dave, Jack and Roy were clamouring to play basketball. W. agreed to t h i s , and was assigned the role of referee by Jack. W. started the game. Wild con-fusion developed immediately. I t was a case of E a r l vs. Jack with no one else having any idea of what was expected. From t h i s point on, the noise and confusion were such that W. was unable to determine who was on what team. However, W. noted that only Jack, E a r l and Roy had any idea of how to play, or any interest i n playing. This trend continued through the second, t h i r d and fourth meetings. During t h i s time i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s were more popular and lasted much longer than group a c t i v i t i e s . For example: - 46 -(Oct. 24) Dave found a long rope with a ri n g attached to one end. He asked W. i f they could use i t . W. exam-ined the gymnasium c e i l i n g and found a hook that appeared to be suitable over the centre of the f l o o r . W. set up a t a l l step ladder and E a r l volunteered to climb ladder and hook the rope on. A l l boys took turns climbing the rope, W. explaining correct technique. Harold could only make i t about half way up. Fred made i t a l l the way with great d i f f i c u l t y . Others a l l climbed a l l the way with compara-ti v e ease. This new a c t i v i t y proved very popular - i t was varied by swinging i n a large c i r c l e , one boy pushing another t i l l he took o f f from the f l o o r and went f l y i n g around hanging on to the r i n g . A l l took turns at t h i s . This kind of informal free play was most popular and of greater duration than organized a c t i v i t i e s during the f i r s t four meetings. Progress was slow and gradual, and although the t h i r d meeting was s t i l l characterized mainly by free play, Individual a c t i v i t i e s and impulsive acting out, i t was no longer of the same aimless, e r r a t i c form. I t was of a more organized nature. (For example, the exploring t r i p to the a t t i c and the free play with wheelchair and flags.) Organized a c t i v i t i e s of longer duration were therefore becoming apparent. By the f i f t h meet-ing the a c t i v i t y was mostly organized games. Although there was s t i l l some free acting out, i t involved fewer indivi d u a l s f o r shorter periods of time: (Jan. 5) There were some vi o l e n t b a t t l e s , but since they were part of the game, nobody objected or l o s t his temper. On one occasion when Joe did forget the s p i r i t of the game and started screaming and y e l l i n g and crying when Roy caught him and ripped a button (accidentally) o f f his s h i r t , Joe l e f t the game, and said he wasn't going to play any more. E a r l and Dave laughed at him and called him a s i s s y , and he screamed, "what the h e l l do I care I" and then turned to W. and screamed, "And you can bugger o f f too!" crying b i t t e r l y a l l the time. A few minutes l a t e r , he was back i n the game playing eagerly, and helping to catch a sew v i c t i m . However, the a c t i v i t y of the game was more s a t i s f y i n g than a continued - 47 -d i s p l a y of negative behaviour would be. Joe saw that he was not getting any attention and was l o s i n g out on the chance to have fun with the other boys. In the s i x t h and seventh meetings, such displays of f i g h t i n g , arguing, and impulsive acting out were almost non-existent, and organized a c t i v i t i e s were planned by some of the boys and carried out e f f e c t i v e l y and i n an orderly sequence. The behaviour of the boys i n the seventh meeting was, therefore, a complete contrast to t h e i r behaviour i n the f i r s t meeting, with the pattern of a c t i v i t y completely reversed. The process of i n i t i a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s : During the seven meetings, there were changes i n the ways that a c t i v i t i e s were started. In the f i r s t meeting, ind i v i d u a l s or sub-groups would make i n s i s t e n t demands to the worker that the whole group should do what the p a r t i c u l a r i n d i -v i d u a l or sub-group wanted to do. Such an imposed program could never have succeeded with t h i s group at thi s time because of t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to co-operate with each other or with the worker. This was shown, fo r example, i n the attempt to s t a r t a basketball game i n the f i r s t meeting. Consequently, many of the a c t i v i t i e s of the f i r s t four meetings started because the individuals responded to impulsive demands which they were unable to control. Sometimes the results were quite chaotic: (Dec. 8) Dave was pursuing his usual course - antag-onizing Harold at every opportunity. Dave, Norm, Joe and Harold made i t impossible to continue the v o l l e y b a l l game by t h e i r constant inter r u p t i o n (running across the court and d i s t r a c t i n g the players). W. turned his attention to - 48 -Harold. Dave had him pinned down to the mat and was pounding him i n a wild, unrestrained manner. W. was un-able to note the sequence of events that led to the next incident. Dave, Earl, Joe, and Gerry were involved i n a fierce battle. In spite of this sort of situation, with the worker's help some of the impulsive acting-out was channelled into games right from the f i r s t meeting, and new activities were started i n that ways (Oct. 24) W. played "head the b a l l " with Roy, Earl, and Walt, while Gerry amused himself by swinging on the rope. This game of "head the b a l l " was very simple but proved popular, and was played eagerly and intensely by the boys. This game had been suggested by W. when activ-i t y was appearing to lag. (Nov. 7) W. showed Harold, Gerry and Fred some simple balancing stunts and pyramids, and they attempted to help each other (with l i t t l e success). They enjoyed this activity and there was much laughing and joking about i t . In the second meeting, some of the boys suggested simple group activities to the worker; i n this way, activ i t i e s that provided outlets for aggressive impulses were initiated: (Nov. 7) Harold told W. about a game he knew of where one person lay on the mat and a second person sat on his feet and was shot up into the air (sort of "human cannon ba l l " effort). Harold asked W. to give him a ride i n this manner. W. Did. This activity was immediately popular. A l l boys joined i n and took turns at having rides. Fred, Earl, and Harold gave rides to everyone else. (This was one of the highlights of the evening as far as enjoyment went.) (Nov. 7) Earl wanted to wrestle hut nobody was willing to wrestle with him. W. suggested that he referee while some of the others wrestled. Earl did. He proved to be a very competent referee, and obviously enjoyed the role. Dave wrestled Walt. After three rounds Dave won. (First two rounds tied, f i n a l round a really desperate effort to win.) During the game Fred, Joe, Harold and Gerry paid attention to i t , cheering and shouting. Gerry assumed the role of an announcer and gave a running commentary over an imaginary microphone. - 49 -In the t h i r d meeting, more of the i n d i v i d u a l members i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , which, although s t i l l on an impulsive l e v e l , were within the structure of various games instead of being expressed through f i g h t i n g and arguing: (Dec. 1) In the gymnasium E a r l started a basketball game on his own i n i t i a t i v e . Walt, Dave, Roy, and Joe joined i n and played eagerly and without c o n f l i c t f o r f i v e minutes. (Dec. 1) Harold told W. he had to get the mats out and show him how to do some gymnastics and tumbling. W. t o l d Harold that i f he wanted to use the mats he had to help get them out. Harold agreed w i l l i n g l y to t h i s and helped to get them out. W. was showing Harold how to do simple tumbling and balancing stunts. Joe came over and wanted W. to put up the rope. W. said they could have i t up a f t e r a while when the other boys had had time to play basketball. Later, Joe again asked f o r the rope and W. agreed to put i t up. Dave helped W. to get the ladder and to set i t up. Roy climbed the ladder and hooked up the rope. Harold, Joe and Roy attempted to climb the rope; Roy climbed to the top; Joe climbed part way, and Harold attempted to climb i t but was not strong enough. At Roy's request, W. showed him how to grip the rope with his f e e t . (Dec. 1) Roy and E a r l were playing b a l l tag using chairs to defend themselves. Walt asked W. to play "rugby" with him, running up and down the gymnasium and throwing the b a l l back and f o r t h i n "rugby pass" s t y l e . W. and Walt played f o r several minutes. This process of channelling t h e i r impulses into a c t i v i -t i e s became Increasingly e f f e c t i v e i n the f i f t h , s i x t h , and seventh meetings. In these meetings, the t o t a l group would pa r t i c i p a t e i n group games such as indoor soccer, indoor rugby, war-ball, and B r i t i s h Bulldog. These games were suggested ei t h e r by the worker or by one of the group members. By t h i s time the process of i n i t i a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s was mutual agreement between the group members. A c t i v i t y i n the f i f t h meeting i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s trend: - 50 -(Jan.5) The a c t i v i t y that developed immediately was throwing and kicking the b a l l s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y around the gymnasium. W. i n s i s t e d that there must be no kicking the b a l l at the walls or c e i l i n g or at other boys (to protect buildingj and to prevent outbursts of temper and f i g h t i n g ) . W. told them that i f they wanted to throw the b a l l s , to throw them at the basketball backboards. These l i m i t s were accepted with l i t t l e resistance, and the group members even began to d i s c i p l i n e themselves by warning any member who stepped out of l i n e . Within these l i m i t s , a l l group mem-bers were very a c t i v e . Norm and Joe were throwing the soccer b a l l s at one basketball hoop. Dave was bouncing a basketball around the gymnasium f l o o r . E a r l , Walt, Roy, and W, were involved i n a vigorous, four-cornered passing game with the rugby b a l l . E a r l would d e l i b e r a t e l y send very f a s t s p i r a l passes at W. and laugh triumphantly i f W. missed them. This a c t i v i t y continued f o r about f i f t e e n minutes. It seemed as though the group members had found an acceptable outlet for th e i r aggressive drives and h o s t i l i t y . There was l i t t l e negative f e e l i n g or extreme h o s t i l i t y evident i n t h e i r actions but rather a p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g of s a t i s f a c t i o n a r i s i n g from th i s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c passing game which involved the co-operative element of passing the b a l l to one of the other players i n order to get i t back. This i s the f i r s t occasion on which four indiv i d u a l s (W., Walt, Fred and E a r l ) have been able to co-operate i n any a c t i v i t y i n the gymnasium fo r t h i s length of time. A few moments l a t e r , E a r l suggested to W. eagerly " l e t ' s play soccer!" W. said he wondered how many wanted to play (a superimposed game or one suggested by W. would not have been successful, as shown by previous experience). E a r l said that Fred, Roy, Dave and Walt would play; he turned to them and urged them to play. Dave was the l a s t one to agree; a l l the others agreed eagerly. E a r l turned to Norm and Joe and asked them i f they wanted to play. Norm agreed and Joe followed his example. E a r l and Roy volunteered to pick sides. Sides were unequal but E a r l did not object to being one man short. E a r l told W.„to referee the game. W. d i d , and W.'s decisions were accepted without question by a l l except Roy, who d e f i a n t l y questioned several decisions, but - 51 i n each case f i n a l l y accepted the decisions and continued to play eagerly. W. imposed the rule that the b a l l must not be raised o f f the f l o o r (to prevent damage). Since a l l boys were playing i n socks, they could not kick very hard; the game was therefore adapted to the gymnasium very s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y . E a r l and Fred had wanted to play "war b a l l " as well as soccer, and asked W. i f they could play now. At W.fs request, E a r l explained the game to him and to other group members, and they decided to play, using the same teams as for the soccer game. The game involved throwing basket-b a l l s at opposing team i n an e f f o r t to tag them. It was a wild, energetic game that they thoroughly enjoyed. E a r l was the l a s t person remaining i n the game, and therefore the winner. W. asked i f they wanted to play another game of war b a l l or B r i t i s h Bulldog. (Joe had already asked to play B r i t i s h Bulldog.) The unanimous choice was B r i t i s h Bulldog. Roy suggested that W. should be the f i r s t one to go i n the centre to t r y to catch them. E a r l said t h i s would not be f a i r , that W. could catch them too e a s i l y . Since Roy, Fred and Dave s t i l l wanted W. to go i n the middle, W. offered to go i n u n t i l he caught the f i r s t person, and then t h i s person could take over. A l l agreed to t h i s . W. caught Fred, who resisted v i o l e n t l y and fought with W. to avoid being l i f t e d o f f the f l o o r . A l l were cheering f o r Fred u n t i l he was f i n a l l y l i f t e d o f f the f l o o r (object of the game). These i l l u s t r a t i o n s show that over the period of seven meetings, the process of i n i t i a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s changed from e r r a t i c , impulsive, and independent decisions to decisions that were mutually acceptable by the worker and the group members. Organization within the group: With t h i s change i n methods of i n i t i a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , there was a natural and inevitable change i n the organization of the members within the group. During the f i r s t three meetings, iso l a t e d individuals or sub-groups of two or three indi v i d u a l s would pa r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s such as basketball, tumbling, and gymnastics f o r very short, i n d e f i n i t e periods. The t i e s between the individuals were very loose and temporary at thi s time, and e a s i l y severed by attacks of impulsive acting out. When the group members did unite i n any a c t i v i t y during these meetings, i t was only f o r very b r i e f periods, when they were wrestling or enjoying games of t h e i r own invention. During the f i f t h , s i x t h , and seventh meetings, when an a c t i v i t y was started, i t s appeal spread to the t o t a l group, and a l l group members participated i n the a c t i v i t y , sometimes on the basis of team membership. In the l a t t e r case, the groups stayed together as teams f o r the duration of the game, and con-f l i c t s and aggressive impulses were channelled through the out-l e t s provided by the games: (Jan.2 6 ) The i n i t i a l a c t i v i t y was a "soccer practice" i n i t i a t e d by the following boys - Gerry, E a r l , Walt and Harold. Fred said he wasn't going to play anything, and sat out looking very s u l l e n and dejected. E a r l asked W. to sta r t a soccer game, and E a r l , Walt, Harold, Gerry, and W. sat down when W. suggested that they should s i t down and figure out what they could do with four players. Basketball was suggested, and t h i s was immediately taken up as an acceptable suggestion. "Yea, BasketballI" This was the general reaction. Afte r some discussion and disagree-ment as to who would play on what team (no r e a l arguing or shouting as i n previous sessions) E a r l volunteered to play with Gerry against Harold and Walt. E a r l told W. to referee the game and to c a l l steps and Interference. At half-time (called by W. a f t e r about 7 minutes of play) E a r l and Gerry were leading 2 t 0 . W. suggested to E a r l that maybe Harold and Walt could use another man on t h e i r side. E a r l said "Yeal sure they could - Hey, Fred, come on and get i n the game." Fred, who had been l i s t l e s s l y kicking a soccer b a l l against the wall agreed to play with Harold and Walt against E a r l and Gerry. In the second half of the game, W. suggested to Fred and Walt that they work as a pa i r and pass the b a l l down to Harold i f E a r l or Gerry blocked them. They did t h i s , and Harold scored a basket. By using these team t a c t i c s , both Walt and Fred were each able to score baskets. In the meantime, E a r l had scored two more. At t h i s point the score was 4 : 3 f o r E a r l and Gerry. The game broke up i n - 5 3 -confusion ( a f t e r 1 5 minutes of play) when Fred kicked a b a l l at Gerry and h i t him on the neck. Gerry began to cry and ealled Fred a no good bastard and went a f t e r him i n a cool, calculated manner as i f he were going to system-a t i c a l l y tear him apart. Before they had a chance to s t a r t f i g h t i n g , E a r l said " O . K . i f you wanna f i g h t , then wrestle I" Mats were already out on the f l o o r and Fred and Gerry agreed to wrestle; Gerry i s the strongest member of the group, but Fred was determined to take him on i n spite of his own obvious apprehension. During the wrestling, E a r l , Walt, and Harold were s p e l l -bound and watched every move. W. refereed one round and then invited E a r l to referee. E a r l d i d , using W.'s whistle. Gerry was pinned by Fred i n the two rounds fought; W. declared Fred the winner when Gerry would not go a t h i r d round. Fred and Gerry were both surprised at the outcome of the f i g h t ; a l l had expected the opposite r e s u l t . Fred was elated and triumphant. This i l l u s t r a t i o n shows that the i n t e r n a l organization of the group had changed from a state i n which i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d -uals either remained i s o l a t e d or formed a very loose temporary t i e with one or two other i n d i v i d u a l s , to a state i n which the indivi d u a l s were able to unite with a common purpose and remain together, performing e f f e c t i v e l y as a group f o r a considerable period of time under the stress of competitive games. Worker-group r e l a t i o n s h i p : One of the elements that helped to bring about the changes that have been noted i n behaviour of the group members was the relationship between the worker and the group members. As t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p became more e f f e c t i v e , the group members became more co-operative with each other and with the worker. From the f i r s t meeting, the worker attempted to build an e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n any way that presented i s e l f - by - 54 -meeting expressed interests of individ u a l s and sub-groups, by using a l l available resources, and by p a r t i c i p a t i n g , i n s t r u c t -ing, or refereeing i n the a c t i v i t i e s when requested to do so. During the f i r s t three meetings the group as a whole would not accept l i m i t s , suggestions, or d i r e c t i o n from the worker, but, as some of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s have revealed, i n d i v i d u a l s or sub-groups would, f o r a short time, permit the worker to suggest a c t i v i t i e s or p a r t i c i p a t e with them. During these meetings, the worker was used quite regu-l a r l y by the members as a target f o r abuse and h o s t i l i t y , as revealed by the following i l l u s t r a t i o n s : (Oct. 23) E a r l asked W. to referee the wrestling. W. d i d . E a r l beat Roy, Dave, and Fred. Roy would not accept W.'s dec i s i o n that he had been beaten. He f l a r e d up and swore at W. with intense f e e l i n g and anger. W. explained q u i e t l y that as referee he had to be f a i r to both competitors and blow his whistle at the end of the round regardless of who won. Roy, almost on the verge of tears now, retorted a n g r i l y - "Aw, you weren't even watching". W. assured Roy that he had been watching and E a r l sided with W. "Sure he was watching". Roy was cooling down by th i s time, but s t i l l appeared to f e e l that W. had given an unfair d e c i s i o n . (Nov. 7) This i s the kind of s i t u a t i o n that a r i s e s . W. w i l l attempt to get an organized game going. Boys r e s i s t by ei t h e r t e l l i n g W, to"go to h e l l , and stop s p o i l -ing t h e i r fun", or else by ignoring him. Then, when they are disorganized they s t a r t to f i g h t amongst themselves, or s i t around and sulk, and blame- W. f o r "doing nothing", and "not l e t t i n g them have any fun". I f W. then makes suggestions they defy W. by refusing to p a r t i c i p a t e . This vicious c i r c l e only gets broken when some of the boys s t a r t some new a c t i v i t y themselves and others j o i n i n . This s i t u a t i o n arose a f t e r the gymnasium program had been running f a i r l y smoothly f o r about an hour. Fred and Dave began to pick fi g h t s with smaller boys. Fred picked on Joe, and Dave picked on Harold. Harold l a y sobbing on the mat and would not take his hands o f f his face or t e l l W. what had happened. . Joe was with him and told W. that Fred had thrown Harold to the f l o o r . Joe added "You're no good - you might as well go to h e l l f o r a l l you do around - 55 -here," with his eyes blazing with anger and hate i n his voice. These i l l u s t r a t i o n s reveal quite c l e a r l y that the worker did not have an e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with the t o t a l group at t h i s time. In the t h i r d and subsequent meetings, the worker began to set more l i m i t s on i n d i v i d u a l behaviour. By t h i s time some of the group members would accept closer l i m i t s from the worker: (Dec. 1) On three occasions W. li m i t e d i n d i v i d u a l ac-t i v i t y , and on each occasion received a p o s i t i v e response. Roy was going to throw some wax at other boys i n gymnasium; W. explained that i t would s p o i l the f l o o r and asked Roy to put i t i n the waste basket. Roy complied i n a cheerful manner. When Dave took a new candle from a cupboard and was going to l i g h t i t W. asked him to put i t back, explain-ing that i t belonged to the church. Dave put i t back. When E a r l took a r o l l e d up magazine from a p i l e and slipped i t under his sweater W. asked E a r l i f he r e a l l y wanted i t , and E a r l said: "No, I guess not," i n a nonchalent manner and put i t back on the p i l e . In the fourth meeting a s i t u a t i o n arose that made the worker aware of the need f o r setting closer l i m i t s on the group as a whole: (Dec. 8) W. suggested that they play "head the b a l l " over the net, since the b a l l was too heavy f o r v o l l e y b a l l . A l l were encouraged by W. to play, but only E a r l , Harold, Gerry, and Roy would do so. This game lasted f o r several minutes with W. refereeing. Dave, Norm, Joe, and Harold made i t impossible to continue by t h e i r constant interrup-t i o n (running across the court and d i s t r a c t i n g the players). W. turned his attention to Harold; Dave had him pinned down to the mat and was pounding him i n a wild, unrestrained manner. W. was unable to note the sequence of events that led to the next incident, but E a r l , Dave, Joe, and Gerry were involved i n a f i e r c e b a t t l e . Gerry had his feet t i e d together and Dave was p a r t i a l l y t i e d up, crying b i t t e r l y . Joe was crying and wailing loudly. W. told them a l l to get t h e i r coats on - that t h i s was the end of the gymnasium meeting for tonight ( i n answer to questioning). - 56 -This uncontrolled chaos was probably a d i r e c t reaction to the change that had been made e a r l i e r the same evening i n sleeping arrangements i n the Receiving Home; however, i t was of value i n that i t prompted the worker to investigate the weaknesses of the group members more cl o s e l y , and to consider the need f o r closer l i m i t s . I t i s generally agreed that firm authority i s necessary to compensate f o r the extremely limited ego strength of the group members, and that the imposition of l i m i t s helps to r e l i e v e anxiety by r e s t r i c t i n g the possible range of a c t i v i t i e s . It appears that W.'s action i n stopping the a c t i v i t y at t h i s point was psychologically correct, since i t was evident that the boys appeared quite happy to leave the gymnasium, and calmed down to an unusual degree afterwards. Another finding was that competitive a c t i v i t y was not suitable f o r a group of t h i s type. The worker realized that on t h i s occasion there had been too much freedom and too much emphasis on competition. With these findings as a guide, the worker planned to l i m i t future gymnasium meetings to one hour and to avoid competitive games. In the three meetings that followed t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the rel a t i o n s h i p between the worker and the group became increasingly more e f f e c t i v e . The worker set l i m i t s on the length of the gymnasium program and on the type of a c t i v i t y ; the group as a whole accepted the l i m i t s set by the worker and the games and plans suggested by him. This was well i l l u s t r a t e d i n the s i x t h and seventh meetings: - 57 -(Jan. 19) W. had started a passing game with the rugby b a l l . Gerry, Harold, Walt, E a r l , and Roy joined i n ; soon t h i s group were involved i n a passing and catch-ing game using four b a l l s - a fast, active game. (Jan. 26) E a r l asked W. to st a r t a soccer game, and E a r l , Walt, Harold, Gerry, and W. sat down when W. suggested that they should s i t down and figure out what they could do with four players. Basketball was suggested and t h i s was immediately taken up as an acceptable idea. Afte r some d i s -cussion and disagreement as to who would play on what team (no r e a l arguing or shouting as i n previous sessions), E a r l volunteered to play with Gerry against Harold and Walt. E a r l told W. to referee the game and to c a l l steps and interference. These examples i l l u s t r a t e how the worker-group r e l a t i o n -ship gradually changed. By working with i n d i v i d u a l s and sub-groups, by accepting h o s t i l i t y from the boys, by gradually imposing l i m i t s , and by d e l i b e r a t e l y i n i t i a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s within these l i m i t s as the meetings progressed, the worker was ultimately able to help the t o t a l group to move from an infan-t i l e to a more mature l e v e l of behaviour. However, the use of relationship by the worker was only one of the many in t e r - r e l a t e d elements that helped the group members to move to a more mature l e v e l of behaviour. When these elements are discussed i n an integrated manner, the t o t a l process that brought about the changes i n behaviour becomes more apparent. Evolution of changes i n behaviour. The i n i t i a l meeting was the f i r s t occasion on which t h i s group had been i n such a setting with a group worker. The boys were free to react to the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n according to t h e i r established behaviour patterns; none of these patterns - 58 -included any habits of co-operation. In varying degrees, a l l the boys exhibited i n a b i l i t y to share, lack of patience or perseverance, desire f o r immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n , extremes of anger and temper, crying, f i g h t i n g , narcissism, suspicion or indifference to new people i n contact with them, and defiance of adult authority. In spite of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , some po s i t i v e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s were u t i l i z e d r i g h t from the f i r s t meeting. E a r l was the f i r s t to rel a t e p o s i t i v e l y to the worker and to ask f o r the worker's help. E a r l i s a natural athlete who was accepted by Roy, Walt, and Jack as a leader i n a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . Since E a r l accepted the worker, and had status with the boys as a leader, Roy, Walt, and Jack, following E a r l ' s lead, also accepted the worker as a helping person. Simultan-eously, the worker also accepted the other i n d i v i d u a l s who at that time were only able to express themselves i n the gymnasium by impulsive acting out and f i g h t i n g . The worker was of course prepared for only a slow process of behaviour change. In the second meeting, Fred and E a r l were able to ask the worker to help them start a c t i v i t i e s . In both cases the worker did t h i s , and i n both cases the a c t i v i t i e s appealed to a l l the boys. The simple games that resulted brought the t o t a l group together i n enjoyable a c t i v i t i e s , even i f only f o r a few minutes• In these e a r l y meetings, the worker permitted the boys to i n i t i a t e t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s , even though these a c t i v i t i e s were often highly unorthodox and lasted for only a very short - 59 -time. The value of these a c t i v i t i e s was that they involved a l l the boys i n experiences that were very s a t i s f y i n g to them and provided an outlet f o r aggressive impulses through play. In the t h i r d meeting, E a r l ' s a b i l i t y and status as a natural leader were responsible f o r i n i t i a t i n g a basketball game including Walt, Dave, Roy, and Joe. The worker's willingness to accept and encourage such expressed interests of i n d i v i d u a l s and small groups helped them to have some more s a t i s f y i n g exper-iences and to r e a l i z e that the worker would help them and p a r t i c i p a t e with them. The worker's encouragement of the explor-ing, and the impulsive, spontaneous play that followed i t , helped the t o t a l group to experience new a c t i v i t i e s which were very s a t i s f y i n g to them yet did not demand much organization or control from the group members or from the worker. Gradually, through these a c t i v i t i e s , mutual understanding developed between the worker and the group members. This understanding helped the group members to accept the l i m i t s that the worker gradually set, and these l i m i t s , i n turn, led to a more s a t i s f y i n g program. The state of uncontrolled chaos that developed i n the fourth meeting (Dec. 8) helped the worker to r e a l i z e that more l i m i t s were necessary i n the gymnasium a c t i v i t y , and that competi-t i v e games should be avoided u n t i l the boys showed that they were able to accept the fr u s t r a t i o n s involved. In the f i f t h meeting, more equipment was a v a i l a b l e , and the worker told the group that the gymnasium meeting would be lim i t e d to one hour. The boys were able to perform much more harmoniously within these l i m i t s , and, because of the additional - 6o -equipment, they were able to channel t h e i r aggressive impulses in t o b a l l games, using them as an acceptable form of f i g h t i n g and as a medium fo r releasing t h e i r f e e l i n g s . E a r l , as a nat-u r a l leader, asked f o r the worker's help i n s t a r t i n g a soccer game, and was able to influence the other group members to follow his leadership. Since they had by t h i s time had several s a t i s f y i n g , co-operative experiences, they were ready, with E a r l ' s lead, to accept the worker's suggestions about how to adapt the soccer game to the gymnasium. Since the boys now had more f a i t h and confidence i n the worker than i n previous meetings, the worker was invited to play with them i n the game of B r i t i s h Bulldog. A l l these elements, i . e . the closer l i m i t s , the greater amount of equipment, Ear l ' s leadership, the previous experiences of the group, and t h e i r increased f a i t h and c o n f i -dence i n the worker contributed to the increasing s a t i s f a c t i o n that the boys achieved from the gymnasium meeting. By the s i x t h meeting the worker was able to detect from the general behaviour of the boys when i t was necessary to take an active role i n i n i t i a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . By t h i s time the mutual f e e l i n g between the worker and the boys was such that they would follow the worker's lead when the worker did s t a r t a new a c t i v i t y . On t h i s occasion the group members joined i n when the worker started a passing game that soon involved a l l those present. E a r l then wanted to t r y a d i f f e r e n t game. With his leadership and the worker's d i r e c t i o n , the game was started and involved a l l the group members present. S a t i s f y i n g - 61 -experiences within the l i m i t s of simple, co-operative games were the usual a c t i v i t y by t h i s time. The group members had achieved enough control and o b j e c t i v i t y to be able to appreciate the r e a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n when the worker suggested a compro-mise and gave them the alte r n a t i v e of accepting i t or leaving the gymnasium. With t h e i r memories of previous fun that they had had, with increasing confidence i n the worker, and with the need to make an immediate decision, the group members decided to stay and accept the compromise suggested by the worker: (Jan. 19) E a r l suggested that they play war b a l l . W. asked how many wanted to play war b a l l , and a l l agreed e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y that they wanted to play. Roy and E a r l chose teams, and E a r l and Harold played against Roy, Gerry, and Walt. The b a l l h i t a chair, and the caretaker told the boys to take i t easy on the chairs, and complained that he didn't know why they had to play these "damn f o o l games instead of basketball." This intervention by the caretaker turned the group members' h o s t i l i t y on him, and there were many muttered objections. W. suggested that i f the could not play war b a l l they could play B r i t i s h Bulldog - a popular game that had been suggested e a r l i e r and rejected i n favour of war b a l l . The general reaction was, "we're not going to play anything now," so W. said that i f they didn't want to play anything they might as well a l l go home, and started to change his shoes. This action made group r e a l i z e that W. meant what he s a i d , and they decided to stay and play B r i t i s h Bulldog. A l l boys joined and played three games of B r i t i s h Bulldog i n the usual wild, enthusiastic manner. In view of a l l the previous s a t i s f y i n g experiences that had arisen from co-operating with each other and with the worker, and with an appreciation of the value of planning, the boys were able to progress to t h i s point. In the seventh meeting they were able to plan t h e i r own games program with the worker's help, and to par t i c i p a t e successfully i n a highly competitive basket-- 62 -b a l l game (the chosen a c t i v i t y ) f o r a reasonable length of time. When the game did threaten to disintegrate into an uncontrolled, Impulsive acting out s i t u a t i o n , the group members were more able to control the s i t u a t i o n without the worker's help by r e - d i r e c t -ing the impulsive urges to f i g h t into a wrestling match - an acceptable a c t i v i t y that had given previous s a t i s f a c t i o n . During the seven meetings held i n t h i s three month period, and judging on the basis of expressed i n t e r e s t s , a t t i -tudes, a c t i v i t i e s , and a b i l i t y to share and co-operate, these boys quite c l e a r l y progressed from an i n f a n t i l e l e v e l of behav-iour to the point where they consistently displayed the a b i l i t y to work as a harmonious unit, to pa r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n competitive a c t i v i t i e s and to enjoy these experiences. This has been a steady progression; the value of the gymnasium meetings was i n bringing about these behaviour changes rather than i n developing s k i l l s i n the a c t i v i t i e s . Not u n t i l January 26 (months a f t e r the meetings began) were the boys at the point where they could p a r t i c i p a t e i n organized a c t i v i t i e s to the extent necessary to develop the s k i l l s involved. These meetings i l l u s t r a t e how the boys, through guided group experiences, were helped to reduce t h e i r a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour, to develop something of a democratic process i n making decisions, and to improve t h e i r personal and s o c i a l adjustment within the group. Reactions to other adult-supervised a c t i v i t i e s . P a r a l l e l to t h i s series of a c t i v i t y periods i n the gymnasium was the series of meetings i n which the boys o r i g i n a l l y - 63 -showed a complete and general lack of enthusiasm f o r adult-supervised leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s i n the community. Gradually t h e i r attitude changed. The group worker's i n i t i a l observation reveals the boys' o r i g i n a l attitude* (Oct. 15) W. noticed that boys chose chairs closest to Mr. H. and that chairs close to W. were only occupied when no others were a v a i l a b l e . Walt seldom spoke during the meal, but a l l other boys were i n conversation with Mr. H., asking about boys who had been sent to BISCO or the Detention Home, or boasting about t h e i r own periods i n the Detention Home. There were eager questions about BISCO, and an obvious admiration of the place and anyone who had been there - t h i s appeared to be the ultimate goal i n t h e i r estimation - to be associated with BISCO - an attitude of "I would l i k e to have a reputation and a 'BISCO' record, but dare I commit the act that w i l l send me there." At t h i s time the boys were suspicious of the group worker and had no apparent inter e s t i n the l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l -able i n the community. When t h i s was r e a l i z e d , the general aims and philosophy of working with a group of t h i s type were consid-ered. Some of the aims were: The worker could help the group to move away from t h e i r association with B. I. S. i n favour of s o c i a l l y acceptable standards; the group work program could develop community leadership and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; the group could be helped to i n t e r - r e l a t e with other groups, and i t s s o c i a l horizons could be broadened. During the early discussions of program planning that were held with the group members, the boys• feelings about Alex-andra House and about using the woodwork shop were revealed: (Nov. 28) Jack said he wasn't going to go down there and get his teeth knocked out. E a r l , Roy, Fred and Gerry expressed fear of the "16 Scots" (a group of teenagers at Alexandra House) and said that when they went to the Ridge - 6 4 -Theatre the " 1 6 Scots" would beat them up. Earl said that the " 1 6 Scots" usually picked on Gerry, and once they even threw him on the road. Earl was quite indignant about this, and Mr. H. asked the boys what they did when the " 1 6 Scots" picked on Gerry; Earl said there was nothing they could do because the "16 Scots" were bigger guys and a lot stronger. Because of the " 1 6 Scots", boys were reluctant to go to Alexandra House; Mr. H. told them that i f they did go to Alexandra House, they could a l l leave together from R. H. and that W. would be going with them, so the "16 Scots" would not bother them even i f they did see them. Boys agreed that i t would be a l l right i f i t was done that way. This illustrates the general feeling of the group -doubt and anxiety about their ability to mix with other groups of their own age, and a feeling of "gang rivalry". This was apparently the extent of their ability to relate to the community. However, when i t came to the point of being able to vote on which night they wanted to go to woodwork, there was enough interest shown to produce a 7 to 2 vote in favour of a particular night. Even at this point, though, there was s t i l l some mis-givings and some traces of reluctance: (Dec. 1 2 ) One of the questions most persistently asked was about the woodwork shop - what they could make and i f anybody would be there to t e l l them what they had to do. W. told them that they could make whatever they wanted to with what was there, and that nobody would t e l l them what they had to do. In spite of their mixed feelings, Earl, Dave, Gerry, Joe, and Norm went to woodwork with the worker. There were some interesting reactions: (Dec. 1 2 ) Earl said that he wanted to join the "Nabe" (meaning the Neighbourhood House), and Joe said enthusiasti-cally to W., "You're right, sirI It is fun down herel" in a very surprised manner. Norm said that he wanted to join the "Nabe". This interest was partly due to the interest shown in the boys and their projects by the Neighbourhood House staff, who - 65 -v i s i t e d the woodwork shop according to a pre-arranged plan. In general, the group showed in t e r e s t and enthusiasm f o r woodwork and a vague i n t e r e s t i n other aspects of the Neighbourhood House program. The Christmas tree hike, planned with the boys, was a source of i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the follow-ing excerpt: (Dec. 20) The basic objective of the t r i p (to c o l l e c t trees) was successfully accomplished. Once the t r i p got started there was no evidence of discontent or negative ' behaviour, and morale was high. Party Returned to cars with trees. The boys were singing and shouting and i n high s p i r i t s . At supper W. suggested that they t e l l ( r e l i e f week-end cook) about t h e i r t r i p . E a r l , Dave, and Fred told about the hiking and climbing with eager enthusiasm. E a r l added that they had more fun than l a s t year, when they just went out behind a house and cut a tree. Dave was persistent-l y saying that they should go on an overnight t r i p . During the meal and afterwards, boys were exclaiming and repeating that they sure had fun and that i t was a neat t r i p - i t was r e a l l y good, etc. This kind of healthy, enthusiastic reaction continued to be apparent i n subsequent meetings: (Jan. 9) By t h i s time the boys had come bursting i n and were clamouring to go to the woodwork shop. Frank was work-ing, Jack was not present, but the remaining nine a l l went with W. to Alexandra House woodwork shop. Jack was already at Alexandra House and joined the group there. On the way down to Alexandra House, Dave asked W. "When are you going to take us camping, Al?" Fred added "Yea, when are you? We can a l l take care of ourselves, 'cause when we run away we have to take care of ourselves anyway." W. told them that as soon as he could find somewhere f o r them to stay on an overnight t r i p they would be able to go. Some other p o s i t i v e elements that W. noted were: 1. The group members were able to work cooperatively i n spite of the limited space and l i m i t e d number of tools and v i c e s . - 6 6 -2. There was a healthy atmosphere of laughter and good natured banter as the work progressed, e.g., Fred repaired a baby's rocking chair with n a i l s that were obviously too small. He sat i n the chair and started rocking and sing-ing "Rock-a-bye-baby". Suddenly the chair collapsed and he landed on the f l o o r . He laughed and the group members laughed with him and at him. 3 . Eight of the nine boys finished with a s p e c i f i c a r t i c l e to take home. E a r l had nothing to take, but his a c t i v i t y with the paint seemed very s a t i s f y i n g and meaningful to him. Two weeks l a t e r , the woodwork period was described i n the following manner: (Jan. 23) The woodwork session provided an a c t i v i t y that was of i n t e r e s t to the group members; t h e i r energy and aggressive tendencies were re-directed i n a constructive d i r e c t i o n . There was no f i g h t i n g or arguing.... In general, the group members were having fun and enjoying the a c t i v i t y of woodwork and painting. The boys continued to show int e r e s t and enthusiasm i n the t o t a l group work program; E a r l reacted i n quite an aggres-sive manner when the discussions were temporarily discontinued: (Jan. 30) E a r l asked W. "Hey, A l , what's happened to our gripe sessions - we're not having them any more." W. asked i f he thought they should have some more, and E a r l thought they should - said that H. F. had told him that i t was no good unless they had something they would discuss seriously - they weren't just sessions where the boys could say "give me t h i s , " or "give me that" and repeat the same old requests. Later i n the evening E a r l nailed a piece of plywood to the bench and drew a face and the house father's name under i t . He said "O.K. watch t h i s . " He took a hammer and said "I'm going to n a i l his face i n , " and drove n a i l s into the face with t e r r i f i c force and i n t e n s i t y ; then pounded the wood to shreds with the hammer. This was done with t e r r i f i c i n t e n s i t y and concentration and repeated ham-mer blows and E a r l said "There, that's what I think of himI" and heaved a sigh of r e l i e f and s a t i s f a c t i o n when he f i n i s h e d . His intense feelings about having the discussions taken away are quite apparent. Later i n the evening, more evidence of inte r e s t i n the neighbourhood House program was revealed: - 67 -(Jan. 30) E a r l asked i f i t would be a l l right i f he l e f t early because he wanted to go to bed early. He said he was playing soccer the next day. This reveals that E a r l had enough Interest and i n i t i a t i v e to j o i n the Neighbourhood House soccer team on his own; he was keen enough to want to be a good player, and to get enough sleep to enable him to play wel l . At t h i s time i t was also apparent to the Neighbourhood House s t a f f that most of the other boys were attending the t o t a l tweenage program Instead of just wood-work. Their i n t e r e s t had spread to the t o t a l program, and they f e l t secure enough to p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t . I t was at t h i s time that the woodwork program was switched to Tuesday, the regular tweenage night. On t h i s occasion: (Feb. 3) Dave arrived at woodwork shop and told W. he thought W. was going to meet them at B.R.H. He added that when he got to A.N.H. and found out from Miss G. that W. was there he had phoned home and told the others to come on down. Several boys and g i r l s entered the woodwork shop during the evening. They were, apparently, school friends of t h i s group, since they a l l knew each other by name. There was a considerable amount of chasing and running around woodwork shop and auditorium. The i n t e r a c t i o n between t h i s group and the other "Tween-agers" was quite harmonious. Group members did not object to other tweenagers coming i n to woodwork shop; some of the tweenagers showed more e r r a t i c behaviour and caused more d i s -turbance than t h i s group. On t h i s occasion Dave had enough in t e r e s t i n the program to phone the other group members; they too had enough in t e r e s t to come to A.N.H. on t h e i r own. At t h i s time, t h e i r behaviour was, on the whole, better than that of the general membership -an i n d i c a t i o n that the boys were able to use the group work pro-gram e f f e c t i v e l y . - 68 -Three days l a t e r the worker held another long discussion with the hoys i n the Receiving Home. The following i l l u s t r a t i o n reveals t h e i r reactions to the group work program at t h i s time: (Feb. 6) When W. arrived, E a r l and Roy expressed r e a l enthusiasm when they asked W. i f there was going to be a discussion and found that there was. During supper, Dave said that he wanted two nights of woodwork instead of one - that they didn't have a chance to f i n i s h what they were making i n one night. Norm thought that they should be able to go to the gymnasium more often. E a r l was t e l l i n g Fred that he should j o i n the soccer team at A.N.H. because they needed more players. At t h i s time there was spontaneous enthusiasm f o r the group work program, and E a r l had even assumed the role of u n o f f i c i a l talent scout f o r the soccer team. At the end of February t h i s trend was s t i l l apparent, and further progress was evident: (Feb. 24) Walt, Fred, E a r l and Jack now seem to be using A.N.H. f a c i l i t i e s on t h e i r own. E a r l and Jack are i n club groups and on the soccer team; Fred and Walt are interested i n woodwork; Fred and E a r l w i l l represent t h e i r groups on the tweenage council that i s being formed. Gerry, Roy, Harold and Norm use A.N.H. f a c i l i t i e s i n t e r m i t t e n t l y . During March t h i s trend continued: (Mar. 3) E a r l , Jack, Walt, Dave, Fred, and Harold have found t h e i r own interests and friends and are happy and s e l f -confident i n the t o t a l tweenage program at A.N.H. There i s evidence that these group members are developing deeper and more meaningful relationships within the tweenagers. This was the general picture that recurred quite consist-e n t l y when the boys were at the Neighbourhood House. Many in t e r - r e l a t e d elements helped to bring about t h i s f i n a l state. F i r s t of a l l , the group work services were an i n t e g r a l part of the Receiving Home program. It was therefore - 69 -possible to plan the program with the boys and help them to overcome t h e i r fears of joining Alexandra House. With the co-operation of Alexandra House s t a f f , the boys were helped to have a series of s a t i s f y i n g , introductory experiences i n the tweenage program. After t h e i r c a r e f u l introduction to these experiences, they were eager to move into the p a r t i c -u l a r areas of program that were of special i n t e r e s t to them. This i s the kind of s i t u a t i o n that can ar i s e when co-ordinated professional leadership i s available i n the Receiving Home and i n community agencies such as Alexandra House. There i s a remarkable contrast between the boys' a t t i -tude on October 15, when they were suspicious of the worker and were talking eagerly about BISCO, and t h e i r attitudes on January 9, when they were clamouring to go to woodwork and asking about a camping t r i p . The gradual process of becoming integrated with the tweenage program and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the a c t i v i t i e s i t offered provided the group members with an acceptable sub-s t i t u t e f or t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with BISCO. Through the d i r e c t work with the boys and the concurrent (and just as essen-t i a l ) work with the s t a f f of the Receiving Home and of Alex-andra House, some of the aims and objectives that were o r i g i n a l l y considered have been achieved. The boys have been helped to move away from t h e i r association with B.I.S. i n favour of s o c i a l l y acceptable standards; they have been helped to i n t e r - r e l a t e with other groups, and t h e i r s o c i a l horizons have been broadened to include an appreciation of the sa t i s f a c t i o n s - 7 0 -of a constructive l e i s u r e time program. They have, i n general, been helped to plan, to play, and to l i v e more e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e i r own group and i n the community. These accomplishments are an es s e n t i a l part of the t o t a l process of helping them to move out, ultimately, to a normal l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . Chapter IV INDIVIDUAL PROGRESS There are many ways i n which the group work program could be evaluated. One way i s to consider the progress of each boy. I f the general concepts that served as a guide f o r working with individuals i n the group work program are r e i t e r a t e d , they w i l l provide a convenient frame of reference against which the boys' progress can be assessed. One general concept wass "we move a c h i l d to a new environment i n the hope that the constructive patterns of another group may be gradually assumed and that s o c i a l conduct may replace the anti-social."" 1" A second general concept was that the word "group" "... implies a network of relationships that have a strongly l a s t i n g character and, because of t h i s , can contribute a great deal toward the development of the latent p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l belonging to i t , espec-i a l l y i f i t i s s k i l f u l l y guided according to modern group work p r i n c i p l e s . " 2 A t h i r d general concept was that "a healthy s o c i a l climate ... i s one of the strongest treatment influences 1 Leonard W. Mayo, "What may Institutes and Group Work Contribute to Each Other?", i n Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1935, p. 337. 2 . Suzanne Schulze, "Group L i v i n g and the Dependent C h i l d , " i n Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work. New York, Columbia University Press, 1947, p. 391 . - 72 -with children whose s t r i v i n g s , d r i v e s , and c o n f l i c t s too often have remained l a t e n t , because of an undesirable home s i t u a t i o n , and thus served to d i s t o r t t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . They can only be helped through the medium of creative ex-pression and s a t i s f y i n g human relationships that w i l l lead to s e l f respect, personal s a t i s f a c t i o n s , and ... recognition, and i n t h i s way make i t possible f o r them to become better integrated i n d i v i d u a l s ."^ Each boy i s considered from the point of view of his behaviour i n the group work program and the extent to which the general concepts could be applied f o r his benefit. E a r l , (age 15) E a r l was able to take advantage of a l l the group exper-iences provided f o r the boys i n the Receiving Home. He participated i n the gymnasium program, the Christmas tree hike, and a l l the a c t i v i t i e s available f o r the boys at Alexandra House. The only a n t i - s o c i a l conduct that he showed was a tendency to b u l l y and antagonize smaller boys. This tendency was less noticeable during the l a t t e r part of the group work program. In general, he was helped to develop creative expression and s a t i s f y i n g human rel a t i o n s h i p s , and to exper-ience personal s a t i s f a c t i o n and recognition from the worker and from the s t a f f of Alexandra House. In the gymnasium he revealed general a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y i n wrestling, basketball, 1 Loc c i t . - 73 -and soccer. He was a natural leader, and the fact that he was eager to please the worker and able to influence the other boys enabled the worker to use Earl's leadership to help the other boys to p a r t i c i p a t e i n group a c t i v i t i e s . On several occasions he made remarks and told fantasy s t o r i e s that revealed his general disillusionment about adult people, and his confusion and anxiety about l i v i n g i n the Receiving Home. The f a c t that he participated eagerly and consistently i n a l l the a c t i v i t i e s that were av a i l a b l e , and the f a c t that he often w i l l i n g l y under-took to do d i r t y , menial jobs, and did them i n a thorough, meticulous manner, may be signs that he i s clutching at anything and everything i n order to be l i k e d and accepted. He often repeated i n parrot fashion the exact words or phrases that the worker had used - another i n d i c a t i o n of the degree to which he can i d e n t i f y with a male adult. He showed i n i t i a t i v e and s e l f confidence i a joining the soccer team and i n signing up f o r s o f t b a l l at Alexandra House. He i s not quite ready to accept a normal l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n yet, i n view of his general lack of enthusiasm f o r adults, and his lack of a strong or consistent f e e l i n g of self-worth. However, i n view of his a b i l i t y to r e l a t e to adults once he has tested them and assured himself that they w i l l accept him, i t should be possible f o r him to move, ultimately, to a normal l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . In the meantime, he needs to be gently exposed to a number of people i n family situations so that he can see that they are not a l l cruel and r e j e c t i n g . - 74 -Roy. (age 14) When the group work program was started, Roy revealed much a n t i - s o c i a l conduct. To counteract t h i s condition, a network of s k i l f u l l y guided relationships was b u i l t up and a healthy s o c i a l climate was developed to help Roy to achieve s a t i s f y i n g human re l a t i o n s h i p s . In October, November and December, Roy was an extremely unhappy boy. His problem of severe enuresis was a depressing influence on the whole Receiving Home. Roy was teased unmercifully by the other boys both i n the Home and at school. The house father, respon-s i b l e f o r supplying sheets, blankets, and mattresses, was exasperated by t h i s continuing problem. Roy's general reaction was belli g e r e n t and defiant; he fought v i c i o u s l y with the smaller boys i n the Home. This, i n turn, created more antag-onism towards Roy, and greater tension and s t r i f e . No physio-l o g i c a l cause could be found f o r his enuresis. In the weekly meetings held between house father, group worker, case workers, and t h e i r supervisors, Roy's case history was studied. I t appeared that Roy's enuresis might be an expression of h o s t i l i t y towards the house father, whom he regarded as a substitute father. With t h i s i n mind, i t was suggested to the house father that he adopt a more lenient, understanding approach towards Roy, and explain to him that he was not i n the p o s i t i o n of a father. The house father did t h i s . At the same time, i t was suggested that i n the group sessions, Roy's problem could be discussed with the t o t a l group ( i n Roy's absence) and t h e i r co-operation could be obtained by asking them to stop teasing - 75 -him. This was done, and the boys responded i n a very sympath-e t i c , co-operative manner. By t h i s double approach, Roy's enuresis immediately diminished, and has, subsequently, stopped almost completely. This i s an example of how the s t a f f meetings were used to form a plan to help the house father to help the boy, and how the group sessions were used to a s s i s t i n the t o t a l process. When t h i s problem diminished to such a marked degree, Roy became much happier and less aggressive i n the group work program. He got great s a t i s f a c t i o n from ta l k i n g with the worker and engaging the worker i n situations that were competitive but f r i e n d l y . I t did not matter what the a c t i v i t y was. E i t h e r i n woodwork or i n a game of indoor rugby, the kind of s i t u a t i o n that gave Roy r e a l s a t i s f a c t i o n was the one i n which he could show his a b i l i t y and win approval. This appears to be his greatest strength - his a b i l i t y to r e l a t e consistently and i n a f r i e n d l y manner to adults. He should be able to r e l a t e i n the same way to foster parents who could give him this kind of attention and share a c t i v i t i e s with him. Walt, (age 14) Racial o r i g i n : Chinese. In general, Walt has been helped to experience recognition, personal s a t i s f a c t i o n s , and s a t i s f y i n g human re l a t i o n s h i p s . In p a r t i c u l a r , during the f i r s t two or three months that he was i n the Home, Walt was a scapegoat. He was abused i n many ways by the other boys, and was rather iso l a t e d and very unhappy and fear-f u l . More recently, he has become less an object of abuse, and more accepted as equal to the other boys. This was p a r t l y due - 76 -to the fact that he was accepted as equal to the other boys i n the group work program, and p a r t l y due to his own inherent q u a l i t i e s of honesty, f r i e n d l i n e s s , and willingness to help and sympathize with the other boys when they are i n d i f f i c u l -t i e s . He i s apt to y i e l d to impulsive urges such as e r r a t i c , random running around and play f i g h t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y when other in d i v i d u a l s i n i t i a t e t h i s kind of a c t i v i t y ; he also has a tendency to d e l i b e r a t e l y create situations that would normally bring punishment from the adults concerned - he seems to i n v i t e physical punishment i n thi s way. Apart from these deviations, he presents no serious problems and i s able to l i v e harmoniously i n the Home. He enjoys a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s and i s good at woodwork. Since January he has attended Alexandra House regularly, and often on his own i n i t i a t i v e . Since a suitable f o s t e r home would be d i f f i c u l t to find f or Walt (because of his r a c i a l o r i g i n and his other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) a group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n i s the only f e a s i b l e resource, unless his own home s i t u a t i o n can be improved to the point where i t i s possible f o r him to return there. Harold. (Age 13) Harold was able to benefit by gradually assuming some of the constructive patterns provided i n the group work program. He was able to develop some of his latent p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , and to become a s l i g h t l y better integrated i n d i v i d u a l . This was achieved by enabling him to express some of the s t r i v i n g s , d r i v e s , and c o n f l i c t s that served to d i s t o r t his personality. - 77 -Through creative expression and s a t i s f y i n g human relationships he achieved a greater degree of personal s a t i s f a c t i o n and recog-n i t i o n . Harold was referred to the Child Guidance C l i n i c . The following information about him supplemented the information provided by the case worker and the house father. C l i n i c a l diagnosis to determine an immediate and long-term plan that would best meet his needs was considered necessary. This case shows how s p e c i f i c incidents that a r i s e i n the group work program are of value i n revealing habits, s k i l l s , i n t e r e s t s , and progress. This information i s provided from a series of recorded observa-tions over a period of four months. The f i r s t impression that the worker received from observing Harold was that he was isolated and unhappy i n the group. He would usually s i t alone and would often sing mourn-f u l l y to himself, rocking back and f o r t h as he did so, and gazing into space, apparently quite oblivious of what was going on around him. He would not j o i n i n active group games and was b u l l i e d continually by the bigger boys who alleged that he would annoy them and then run to the house father f o r protection. At Halloween, the worker noticed that Harold was dressed l i k e a g i r l - he was wearing l i p s t i c k and makeup and had a kerchief over his head. The other boys often teased him f o r "acting l i k e a g i r l " ; the worker noticed other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that substantiated t h i s claim to some extent; he sings i n a high voice and c o l l e c t s pictures of models from fashion magazines, and draws pictures of women i n long, flowing dresses. In the gymnasium with the other boys, Harold demands - 78 -constant attention from the worker and has a r e a l i n t e r e s t and some s k i l l i n balancing and tumbling stunts. He can work co-operatively with others i n th i s a c t i v i t y . The remainder of the group prefers aggressive, f i g h t i n g games. U n t i l Christmas-time Harold would lose his temper very e a s i l y and burst out crying and sobbing at the l e a s t attack from any of the other boys. On two occasions he l e f t the gym-nasium i n a f i t of uncontrolled i n f a n t i l e rage and did not return on either occasion. (The group as a whole was very prone to f i g h t i n g and impulsive acting out at t h i s time; Harold was one of the most active along these l i n e s . ) There i s a piano i n the gymnasium and Harold would sometimes s i t and play the piano, though with l i t t l e s k i l l or a b i l i t y . Harold has become more aggressive i n his contacts with the worker. One of his fa v o r i t e t r i c k s i s to creep up behind W. and jump up on W.'s back and butt W. continually with his knees while he hangs on. He l i k e s to f i g h t with W. and enjoys i n f l i c t i n g pain by scratching or gouging with his fin g e r s . He does t h i s with intense concentration and e f f o r t u n t i l i t r e a l l y hurts the r e c i p i e n t . However, the next minute he i s f r i e n d l y and eager for W. to teach him new stunts, which he w i l l practice very c a r e f u l l y . During January and February Harold became more a member of the group - les s i s o l a t e d , more co-operative, and able to work as a team member i n basketball games and other "rough", "tough", f i g h t i n g games which are so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of this group. - 79 -He developed a higher f r u s t r a t i o n tolerance and was able to take the inevitable bumps and bruises as a part of the game fcather than as a personal i n s u l t . He revealed an Interest i n weight t r a i n i n g and body building and boasted about his (imaginary) strength. In woodwork, Harold showed no r e a l s k i l l i n the use of t o o l s , but l i k e d to use the lathe and power-driven sanding d i s c . At f i r s t he was a f r a i d of the dust and noise and f l y i n g chips, but a f t e r seeing worker and other boys use the lathe he. t r i e d i t f o r himself under worker's guidance and i n s t r u c t i o n and then used i t alone, with r e a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and pride i n his accom-plishment. Worker spent some time with Harold i n each gymnasium and woodwork session, encouraging and helping him i n his ex-pressed i n t e r e s t s , and then i n v i t i n g him to j o i n i n some a c t i v -i t y with other group members who have the same i n t e r e s t s . This s a t i s f i e d his need f o r attention and helped him to work with other boys. These observations cover only a short period of Harold's t o t a l " l i f e - s i t u a t i o n " - they cover about four or f i v e hours per week. However, i n t h i s group work area he has shown inte r e s t s and a b i l i t y to r e l a t e e a s i l y to the worker (when he i s given much i n d i v i d u a l attention) and increasing a b i l i t y to r e l a t e to the group i n a harmonious manner. However, the worker does not want to give the impression that he considers Harold to be a well-adjusted boy. The following excerpt from a group record reveals symptoms that suggest that Harold i s i n need of - 80 -p s y c h i a t r i c consultation. The group had just been exploring the a t t i c of the gym-nasium, with W.'s help. They found that i t was dark and dusty, and s a t i s f i e d t h e i r c u r i o s i t y . After a few minutes of looking around, and r e a l i z i n g that there was nothing i n the a t t i c , W. and boys returned to the gymnasium. There was anatmosphere of adventure and excitement about the whole v i s i t to the a t t i c that appealed to the boys. W. assisted Harold and Joe to get down, at t h e i r request. A l l except Harold returned to the gymnasium. Harold was i n the kitchen and had Just finished washing his hands when W. came through kitchen. Harold turned to W. and said "Look at my gloves." He produced two pairs of ladies gloves — one pair of fancy black ones and one p a i r of red ones. He put on the black ones and said they were h i s mother's; he waved his hands around, showing o f f the gloves i n a very effeminate manner, apparently seeking W's approval of t h i s act. He said that his mother had another p a i r of long white gloves that came up to her elbow. W. asked Harold i f he thought those were the kind of gloves that boys should wear. Harold thought that boys should wear woollen or leather gloves. Harold told W. that he never l e t the other boys see him wearing the gloves - that he always carried them with him but never wore them when other people could see him. Harold told W. that his mother was 3 8 , that she had a boy-friend and was getting married soon, and that when she had some money he was going back to l i v e with his mother soon af t e r Christmas. These four boys, E a r l , Roy, Walt, and Harold, are the ones who have been able to benefit to the greatest extent from the group work program. Of the other seven boys, three have been able to benefit to a lesser extent. Fred, (age 14) In general, Fred has found some means of creative expression and some personal s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n the group work program. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , he has participated eagerly i n - 81 -most of the a c t i v i t i e s at Alexandra House. In woodwork he has revealed s k i l l , persistence, ingenuity, and the a b i l i t y to work consistently from week to week. He has attended woodwork and the general program at Alexandra House regularly and on his own i n i t i a t i v e , and, generally, has used the resources i n a s a t i s f y i n g , appropriate manner. There are however, other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that must be considered. Underlying his apparently s a t i s f a c t o r y behaviour i s a tendency to take advantage of c e r t a i n situations i n a scheming, calculated manner. He w i l l go to great lengths to win the confidence of adults, and then, being i n a po s i t i o n where he i s trusted and, therefore, often not being watched, he w i l l d e f t l y s t e a l some object which may not i n i t s e l f be of any great value. He usually times these acts so that some other boy could be held responsible, and stout-l y denies any knowledge of the incident when i t i s discovered. In addition, he i s , at times, moody, su l l e n , unco-operative, and bad tempered, besides being of a b u l l y i n g , aggressive nature. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are, of course, i n d i c a t i v e of underlying disturbances that have not been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y resolved. A semi-permanent residence would seem to be the only f e a s i b l e resource f o r Fred. Apart from the problems mentioned, he i s able to l i v e e f f e c t i v e l y and harmoniously i n t h i s s e t t i n g . Dave, (age 14) Dave has achieved l i t t l e i n the way of creative expression, personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , or s a t i s f y i n g human relat i o n s h i p i n the group work program. In general, his s t r i v i n g s , drives, and - 82 -c o n f l i c t s have eithe r remained latent or been expressed i n an a n t i - s o c i a l manner. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , under e x i s t i n g circum-stances, i t has been d i f f i c u l t to work e f f e c t i v e l y with Dave. In the gymnasium program he has consistently indulged i n impulsive, e r r a t i c behaviour such as f i g h t i n g , running around aimlessly, and exploring every accessible inch of the church h a l l . When he has occasionally joined i n more controlled a c t i v i t i e s , h i s lack of physical size and strength, i n addition to his temper and his feelings of i n a b i l i t y to compete with the other boys have caused him to quit very e a s i l y . In woodwork he has occasionally completed a simple project with the worker's help, but generally his behaviour has been e r r a t i c , impulsive running around i n a noisy, unpredictable manner. He i s very susceptible to i n f l u -ences from contagious, tempting s i t u a t i o n s . When a group of boys started kicking at a door i n Alexandra House, he was the one who continued u n t i l he put his foot through the panel. On another occasion he was involved with Norm i n an episode of lock-picking at Alexandra House. However, there have been examples of his a b i l i t y to be influenced by the worker and to rel a t e p o s i t i v e l y to him. After subjecting the worker to the most extreme forms of "te s t i n g " he w i l l then, ultimately, work i n a very co-operative, f r i e n d l y manner for a short time when he has found that i t i s safe to do so, and that he w i l l not be rejected. The occasions on which the worker has been able to work most e f f e c t i v e l y with Dave have been either i n the woodwork shop or when discussing W's car or dr i v i n g i n i t with Dave, when there - 83 -were no other boys around. On these occasions he has shown an intense f a s c i n a t i o n f o r the car, and, i n spontaneous conversation, has revealed some of the things he would l i k e to do - f o r example, drive a car, take g i r l s out, and go on weekend t r i p s . In more recent contacts he has asked ¥. when he w i l l be i n again, and has asked ¥. to bring him some spe c i a l kinds of wood; generally, he has become more f r i e n d l y and outgoing. In view of his intense suspicion and generalized antagon-ism towards adults, the length of time that i t takes to form an e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with him, the uncertain nature of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , his impulsive behaviour and his tendency to engage i n delinquent a c t i v i t y with very l i t t l e persuasion, Dave appears to be a long way from the point where he could accept or be accepted i n a normal family l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . He appears to need much i n d i v i d u a l attention over a long period. It i s f o r boys such as t h i s that a semi-permanent group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n appears to be the only fea s i b l e resource. Gerry, (age 15) In general, Gerry has achieved a measure of equality with the other boys, as well as recognition and personal s a t i s f a c t i o n from the group work program. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Gerry's major handicap i s his limited i n t e l l i g e n c e . Unable to pass Grade I work, and unable to read or write, he i s h a b i t u a l l y treated i n a d e r i s i v e , scornful manner by the other boys. He i s able to perform certain routine chores around the Home, he has very - 84 -l i m i t e d manual a b i l i t y i n woodwork, and some a b i l i t y and i n t e r e s t i n gardening. His pleasant, cheerful manner, his well developed physique, and his eager expression give a f a l s e impression of greater a b i l i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e than are a c t u a l l y present. He requires constant, patient d i r e c t i o n and guidance i n order to perform even routine tasks, and w i l l probably never progress to a much higher l e v e l . The four remaining boys, f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons, have derived l i t t l e benefit from the group work program. Norm, (age 13) In general, Norm has been unable to make e f f e c t i v e use of the group work program. On d i f f e r e n t occasions he has shown that he can respond to i n d i v i d u a l attention, and on these occasions he has temporarily shown s k i l l i n woodwork and i n gymnastic a c t i v -i t i e s . On most occasions he has been i n what appears to be a very confused, hazy state of mind; i t i s often d i f f i c u l t to t e l l i f he i s aware of what i s going on around him. On d i f f e r e n t occasions he has stolen tools and a wallet from Alexandra House, and on one occasion was involved i n a lock-picking episode at Alexandra House. He usually engages i n wild, impulsive, chasing games with Dave i n a noisy, defiant manner. He i s unable to s e t t l e down or concentrate on any other a c t i v i t y . A close study over a period of several months i s necessary to asses his progress, since he has only been i n the Receiving Home four months. One sign of progress i n t h i s time has been his becoming s l i g h t l y more ta l k a t i v e and aggressive with the worker. - 85 -Joe. (age 12) Joe l e f t the Home in January for treatment at the Ryther C l i n i c . During the gymnasium periods he revealed extreme out-bursts of temper and intense h o s t i l i t y towards the worker. Frank, (age 16) With the exception of a few minutes i n the gymnasium i n one of the early gymnasium periods, Frank did not participate i n the group work program. His desire for independence and his more mature interests took him completely outside the group work program. Jack, (age 14) Jack participated i n some of the planning sessions held with the group i n the Receiving Home. Apart from this, he found his own friends and his own interests i n the community, including a hobbies club i n a local church and a soccer team and a club group at Alexandra House. His successful experience on a weekend tri p up the mountain with this club at Christmas time made the other boys more eager to join Alexandra House. He i s , therefore, an example for the other boys i n this respect. His i n i t i a l contacts with the worker were very guarded and non-commital, but at Christmas time he f e l t secure enough to ask the worker to loan him a pack and other equipment for his trip up the mountain. He has since become slightly more spontaneous and outgoing in his contacts with the worker. He takes a long time to establish even a superficial relationship with male - 86 -adults, and even when he does t h i s , he i s continually suspicious of them and hesitant i n his dealings with them. In his deal-ings with the other boys, the worker has noticed that Jack i s very e a s i l y upset by being shoved or attacked i n a p l a y f u l manner, and w i l l cry quite e a s i l y . He i s at present r e l a t i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y to i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n the community; but he needs to have a series of successful experiences i n group rel a t i o n s h i p s , and continuous support and encouragement to b u i l d up his self-confidence. He might, a f t e r a series of such experiences, make a successful adjustment to f o s t e r parents who did not demand too much show of appreciation from him. From these i l l u s t r a t i o n s i t i s apparent that the group work program has provided a v a r i e t y of guided group experiences i n which i t has been possible to observe and evaluate the spec-i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and general behaviour of most of the boys while they have been i n normal, d a i l y l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s . In some cases i t has been possible to bring about desirable changes i n behaviour. This objective has been achieved f a i r l y success-f u l l y considering the limited time and l i m i t e d resources a v a i l -able. It i s apparent that c a r e f u l consideration should be given to the s e l e c t i o n of boys f o r the Receiving Home. For example, Frank and Gerry are occupying space that could be used to greater advantage by other boys. I t i s also apparent that i t i s necessary to work with these boys f o r a considerable period of time to get any results that are l i k e l y to be of - 87 -permanent value. Two years of c a r e f u l consistent work would probably be necessary to ensure that the boys were r e a l l y f i t to return to a normal l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . In some cases, i t might not be reasonable to expect a boy to return to a normal l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . In such cases, semi-permanent group l i v i n g accommo-dation would be necessary. In general, better results could be obtained i f more time was spent with the boys i n a c t i v i t i e s that have not been available i n t h i s program? f o r example, mechanical work on cars, other manual a c t i v i t i e s , such as hobbies, household r e p a i r s , carpenter-ing, and gardening. With a " c o l l e c t i o n of boys" such as one i n e v i t a b l y finds i n a Receiving Home, i t i s usually necessary to work with them f o r some time on an i n t e r e s t basis, i n d i v i d u a l or i n small groups, u n t i l the network of relationships that i s so ess e n t i a l i n developing the latent p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the boys i s b u i l t up. Only then can they experience creative expression and the s a t i s f y i n g human relationships that have been completely lacking i n t h e i r l i v e s and that are necessary before they can become better integrated i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a l l the boys progressed i n t h e i r school work to an unusual and unexpected extent a f t e r the group program had been i n e f f e c t f o r s i x months. In the words of the house parents, t h e i r marks were "the best ever", and several of the boys also made progress i n t h e i r general conduct at school. It may be that because a l l the boys were getting some measure of new and s a t i s f y i n g experiences from the whole - 88 -smoothly operating group work project, they were able to work more e f f e c t i v e l y and harmoniously i n school. It i s possible that these s a t i s f a c t i o n s helped the boys to release t h e i r poten-t i a l a b i l i t y to improve i n t h e i r school work. It i s reasonable to assume that t h i s may well be the case; i t i s also reasonable to assume that only by continuing the group work services w i l l i t be possible to help the boys maintain t h e i r present l e v e l of behaviour and to continue to progress. Chapter V GENERAL PROGRAM IMPLICATIONS Another way to evaluate the group work program ( i n addition to considering i n d i v i d u a l progress) i s to consider the general concepts that were o r i g i n a l l y stated and the extent to which they were applied i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r project. One of these concepts was, "the basic d i f f i c u l t y ... ( i s ) ... our f a i l u r e to develop ... group l i f e .. s k i l f u l l y and i n r e l a t i o n to case work."* Another concept was that " ... group work with childre n i s only a part of the administrator's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . The s t a f f , the board, and the community o f f e r equally challenging opportunities to the superintendent who i s 'group conscious.' These concepts of group work with respect to children, s t a f f , board, and community lead us beyond the narrow confines of the old conception of group work as recreation and l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t y alone. We begin to.see group work as a technique, and as much a part of the t o t a l administrative 2 scheme as case work." It has already been i l l u s t r a t e d ( i n chapter II) how group work s k i l l s were used with respect to s t a f f and the commun-i t y i n a general way. There were other times when the group 1 Leonard W. Mayo, "What may Ins t i t u t i o n s and Group Work Contribute to Each Other," i n Proceedings of the National Confer-ence of Social Work. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1935» p. 331. 2 Ibid., p. 335. - 90 -worker was able to work with the case worker, the house parents, and the s t a f f of Alexandra House on more s p e c i f i c points. Cooperation with the case worker. The following examples give two s p e c i f i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s of cooperation with the case worker: (Jan. 5) When W. arrived at B.R.H., E a r l and Walt were alone i n the dining room. E a r l told W. that the other boys had a l l gone out - that they were not going to Alexandra House and would not be going to the gymnasium. He added that Fred and Dave were fed up with the gymnasium and would not be going there any more. A few minutes l a t e r , Dave, Fred, and some of the other boys came bursting i n through the front door, and Dave shouted, "Let's go to the gym!" The worker noted at t h i s time that the eager enthusiasm with which Dave and Fred burst i n would seem to contradict E a r l ' s statement that they were not i n t e r e s t i n the gymnasium. This may therefore have been a projection of his own f e e l i n g s . The worker also noted that i n group a c t i v i t i e s where there i s a personal threat, Walt and E a r l often withdraw into i s o l a t i o n from the other boys. E a r l may therefore f e e l too insecure to j o i n Alexandra House, where he thinks he would be exposed to competitive a c t i v i t i e s and to the danger of defeat and loss of status. Walt may be reluctant to j o i n because of his insecur-i t y and fear of being conspicuous. In t h i s case his fears may stem from the fact that he i s Chinese and therefore feels d i f f e r -ent. With these considerations i n mind, the group worker thought that the case worker might be able to explore these problems with the i n d i v i d u a l s . The incident and the group worker's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t were discussed with the case worker, - 91 -who i n turn interviewed the boys and found that they were quite reluctant to j o i n Alexandra House. With the case worker's help, the boys were able to overcome t h e i r fears and j o i n the Neighbourhood House with a greater f e e l i n g of confidence and security. Another i l l u s t r a t i o n reveals how the content of a case work interview can be integrated with the group work a c t i v i t i e s . On one occasion, the group worker was discussing with the boys how they had progressed i n t h e i r l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s , what they could remember about what they had done, and what each boy was good at. Each boy was given an opportunity to speak. It came to Jack's turn. The following s i t u a t i o n arose: (March 17) W. asked Jack what he could remember, and Jack said "Nothin." W. agreed that Jack had been out on his own most of the time, but that W. could remember some good things about him, too. Jack, e s p e c i a l l y , and other boys were eager to know what they were. W. said that he knew that Jack had gone out on his own and made a l o t of friends i n the neighbourhood, and had found a hobbies club i n a church. Jack eagerly said, "Yea — you know what? Mr. H. told me somethin' that was r e a l good that I'd done." W. asked him what i t was. Others were asking the same ques-t i o n . Jack f i r s t said i t was something private, and then he stood up and said, excitedly, "He told me that I've gone out on my own and made friends i n the neighbourhood and he said that's good I" W. agreed that i t was good to be able to do that. Before t h i s session began, W. knew (from a previous meeting) that Mr. H. had already discussed th i s with Jack. W. therefore took the same l i n e of approach i n the group session. Jack then recalled what Mr. H. had said, and, having been praised by W. f o r the same thing, was eager to t a l k about i t i n the group s e t t i n g . The fact that he did t a l k about i t i n such - 92 -a constructive way was of value to the other boys; they would accept such a statement from one of t h e i r peers more r e a d i l y than from an adult, and might even be stimulated to go out and do the same thing. Case work and group work can, therefore, be coordinated and integrated i n a very e f f e c t i v e manner when there i s mutual understanding between the workers concerned. Co-operation with the house parents. The group worker was able, on one occasion, to help the house mother with a s p e c i f i c problem: (March 17) When Roy was going out he came to H.M.1 and asked, "How do I look?" H.M. said that he looked much better now he had his good clothes on. Roy said he f e l t funny, and went out. At t h i s time, W., Roy, and H. M. were i n the kitchen. Other boys and H.F. i n other parts of the house. W. asked where Roy was going and H.M. told W. W. remarked, "I know how he feels about being dressed up." This was just a chance remark. (W. meant that he knew that Roy must f e e l pretty uncomfortable being a l l dressed up when he would prefer to be i n ordinary school clothes) H.M. said that she wished W. would t e l l her how Roy did f e e l , and then she would understand i t too - that she couldn't see why he d i s l i k e d dressing up and that she always wanted the boys to look smart when they went out or to the o f f i c e . She thought that going to the o f f i c e (to see case worker) should be important to them. W. said that a fourteen year old boy was often very self-conscious about his appearance anyway, and that when he was dressed up he was a l l the more s e l f -conscious because i t was unusual f o r him a f t e r wearing school clothes. That was what Roy meant by saying he f e l t funny. H.M. said she thought a boy should dress up when asking a g i r l f o r a date, otherwise the g i r l wouldn't want to go. W. said that he thought H.M. was quite right i n wanting to help them to be smartly dressed; and a f t e r a few times they would become less self-conscious and more at ease, and that she was helping them to do that. The p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n t point about t h i s discussion i s that i t arose out of a simple l i t t l e incident, when the boy, the house mother, and the worker were mingling i n a natural, 1 H.M. and H.F. r e f e r to house mother and house father. - 93 -harmonious manner i n the group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . The interpre-t a t i o n was given to the house mother at the time when i t was of most value - immediately a f t e r the s i t u a t i o n arose, and when there was a question i n her mind. This i s the kind of incident that can be used to r e a l advantage i n a group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n when there i s a natural, harmonious atmosphere that includes workers, house parents, and children. Co-operation with community resources. The general program at Alexandra Neighbourhood House included an Easter party with games and a dance as part of t h i s event. On t h i s occasion a p a r t i c u l a r boy was helped to enjoy the party: ( A p r i l 7») W. noticed that Roy was s i t t i n g with one of the volunteer workers and that she looked rather uncomfort-able at his obvious, eager attention. W. was able to t a l k with her (away from group) a few moments l a t e r ; W. asked her i f she realized what i t meant to Roy to be able to t a l k to her. She wondered why he was so at t e n t i v e , and W. ex-plained that Roy needed to f e e l grown up and to have a g i r l that would t a l k to him, encourage his conversation, and give him attention. Roy, at fourteen, i s quite t a l l and fe e l s awkward with the average g i r l h is own age. W. said that i f she could help Roy i n these ways i t would make him f e e l good, and i t was something no one else there could do, since he had chosen her to be f r i e n d l y with. She understood and assumed th i s role very n a t u r a l l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . During the dance she also danced with Roy, much to his obvious s a t i s f a c t i o n and enjoyment. Before leaving, W. again spoke to the volun-teer worker, and discussed what the evening had meant to Roy. She appreciated her es s e n t i a l part i n t h i s experience, and was obviously s a t i s f i e d at being of such service. When there i s a coordinated group of adults who are a l l co-operating to help the boys, th i s i s the kind of experience that can be brought about. - 94 -General Conclusions. These i l l u s t r a t i o n s show how the objectives of working with case worker, house parents, and community agencies on i n d i v i d u a l cases have been achieved on some occasions. It should be remembered that the group work project being studied has only been i n e f f e c t f o r a period of s i x months, and that there have been l i m i t s on the amount of time that the worker was able to spend with the boys (an average of two nights a week), and i n planning with other s t a f f members (an average of two meetings a week). If group work services were a continuous, permanent part of the Receiving Home program, i t i s assumed that the results that have been demonstrated could be achieved i n greater measure. The following record of meetings between the group worker and the house parents gives a more complete i l l u s t r a t i o n of the t o t a l group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n ; i t shows that group work services are only one of many closely Interwoven aspects of day-to-day l i v i n g i n the Home. (A p r i l 13) W. phoned H.F. and arranged to meet him l a t e r i n the evening to discuss the progress of the boys i n the Neighbourhood House program. W. v i s i t e d B.R.H. at 8.00 p.m. and W. and H. F. met i n H.F's private lounge. H. F. provided coffee. W. said that he thought H.F. might l i k e to know how the boys had progressed at A.N.H. - that W. did not know how much H.F. had heard or what the boys had told him. H.F. said that what he knew was from what he saw from the boys' a c t i v i t i e s ; that Roy had found a new c i r c l e of friends at A.N.H. -outside of school and outside of the a i r f o r c e cadets - that Roy had been l a t e home one night and had told H.F. about his new f r i e n d s . H.F. added that he was quite pleased about t h i s , and that he could understand that Roy wanted to stay outside and t a l k with the gang fo r a while as any boy - 95 -would, and that, under the circumstances, he had not been reprimanded f o r being l a t e i n . W. agreed that i t was good that Roy had been able to do t h i s , and told H.F. about the previous Tuesday at A.N.H. - how W. had been able to plan with Miss G. how the boys might be able to help with the party, how W. had then had a discussion at supper time with the boys, and how they had agreed to run the loud speaker system and had done a very nice job that was e s s e n t i a l to the dance. W. pointed out that t h i s had happened because he had been able to plan with the boys i n the discussion. W. said that the group had reached t h i s l e v e l through the discussions and the program that had developed out of them. W. traced t h i s process f o r H.F. - how H.F. had o r i g i n a l l y suggested the idea of the discussions, how the woodwork, use of A.N.H. generally, and now t h i s experience of c o n t r i -buting to the party had a l l come out of his o r i g i n a l idea of having discussions with boys and his co-operation i n star t i n g them and maintaining them. W. thought that H.F. followed W's explanation quite c l e a r l y , and appreciated being given the credit for the success. H.F. v o l u n t a r i l y and earnestly said that he thought i t was much better f o r W. to have the discussions alone with the boys since t h i s helped them to concentrate on the group program. W. and H.F. discussed generally how the boys were moving out into the community, and H.F. said they were at the point where they no longer wanted to wear blue jeans and t h e i r usual school clothing when they went out on Sundays, but were taking a pride i n t h e i r appearance and appreciated good clothing f o r going out v i s i t i n g . He told W. how E a r l and Jack were going to get into the provost corps of the cadets, how E a r l had been picked out as a p o t e n t i a l N.C.O.., and how Dave and Fred were going to get into vehicle main-tenance and repair classes i n the cadets. He showed insight into the fact that each boy i s d i f f e r e n t and needs d i f f e r e n t experiences. W. asked where they met f o r cadets and H.F. named the l o c a t i o n and then asked eagerly i f W. would l i k e to go over there and see the cadets on parade. W. said that he would l i k e to go, and added that the execu-t i v e d i r e c t o r of C.A.S. had suggested that W. get more information on the cadet camp, and that W. had wondered i f he, H.F., and Mr. H. might a l l go over some night. H.F.said they had an open i n v i t a t i o n to go over any parade night and that the o f f i c e r s i n charge would be very glad to show them around. It was t e n t a t i v e l y arranged that a v i s i t would be made on A p r i l 2 7 » H.F. had also told W. how Fred's uncle had v i s i t e d B.R.H. and how he had shown a r e a l i n t e r e s t i n Fred and i n his progress at B.R.H. H.F. said that he had immediately - 96 -wondered i f t h i s might be a possible home for Fred, and had telephoned Mr. H. to give him the information. W. planned with H.F. to come i n on Tuesday night f o r a discussion with the group, pointing out that he would pre-v i o u s l y contact A.N.H. and plan with them how the boys might best f i t into t h e i r program, and then discuss any new p o s s i b i l i t i e s with them at supper time - that t h i s was the purpose of the discussion. H.F. was quite agreeable to t h i s plan. ( A p r i l 14) H.M. eagerly told W. that C.A.S. were making i t possible f o r her to go out and buy some new furniture and a vacuum cleaner f o r the Home. She added that when they got i t they would have a party to celebrate the occasion, and the boys would a l l be able to bring t h e i r g i r l f r i e n d s . These two records reveal many s i g n i f i c a n t points. The house father i s i n a po s i t i o n to pick up l i t t l e d e t a i l s of i n f o r -mation that are of r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to a s o c i a l worker. For example, the facts that Roy had made new fr i e n d s , and that E a r l , Dave, Jack and Fred are getting into special groups i n the cadets reveal t h e i r general progress. These are d e t a i l s that come out i n the general conversation of the moment, and often at no other time. They reveal the inherent p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r helping the Individual boys that exist i n such a s i t u a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when • c k i l l e d s t a f f are i n residence and are available to use these incidents i n the most e f f e c t i v e way - at the time when they a r i s e , rather than i n an o f f i c e interview which i s often i n a more formal environment and perhaps at a set time several days l a t e r . The records also reveal that administrative decisions such as on the purchasing of f u r n i t u r e , bear d i r e c t l y on the whole group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n , as revealed by the house mother's enthus-iasm, her consequent desire to have a party f o r the boys, and the - 97 -p o t e n t i a l value of such an experience f o r them. More generally, the records reveal the harmony and under-standing that must exist between the t o t a l s t a f f and the s t a f f of community organizations such as the cadets and the Neighbour-hood House i f the t o t a l program i s to be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e . They reveal that the house parents must be given cre d i t where i t i s due, and that t h e i r needs and point of view must be considered. The house parents are, n a t u r a l l y , concerned with environmental factors such as the boys' clothing and the fu r n i t u r e ; they t r y to take a r e a l pride i n the appearance of the Home. I f t h i s i s not appreciated by the professional s t a f f , and i f l i t t l e provision i s made to maintain the physical environment of the Home, the morale of the house parents can drop to a very low l e v e l . When t h i s happens, the job they are doing i n caring f o r the boys becomes les s e f f e c t i v e , the degree of spontaneous co-operation that they extend to the professional s t a f f decreases, and the jobs of the s o c i a l workers concerned become more d i f f i c u l t . I f e f f e c t i v e work i s to be done with the boys, the house parents' point of view must be considered. Their p o s i t i o n as the people who provide continuing day-to-day care f o r ten teen age boys who are always very a c t i v e , often quite noisy, and who sometimes indulge i n f i g h t s , arguments, moods of depression or defiance, and i n i n d i v i d u a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s of behaviour must always be remembered. I t must also be remembered that the Home at the present time does not provide many outlets f o r such behaviour, and that the house parents, f o r the most part, have the extremely t r y i n g task of maintaining a happy, harmonious atmosphere i n the - 98 -Home. Such behaviour i s , of course, to be expected from children such as these, and one of the advantages of an i n s t i -t u t i o n such as the Boys 1 Receiving Home i s that no one s t a f f person i s expected to deal with d i f f i c u l t s i tuations alone and unassisted. Such an arrangement would of course be impractical and highly undesirable. The weekly conferences and also the other meetings between group worker, case workers, house parents, house s t a f f and supervisors have been and must continue to be opportunities f o r a l l to share t h e i r experiences, to lear n from others, and to contribute to the o v e r - a l l program. There i s always room f o r improvement - always something that each person can learn, as anyone who has been associated with t h i s project w i l l r e a d i l y admit. For example, i n the team conferences, i t was often learned that one p a r t i c u l a r person was i n the best po s i t i o n to help a boy i n the most e f f e c t i v e way; the way i n which the boy could best be helped was the main in t e r e s t at a l l times. This happened i n Roy's case, when the house father was i n the best p o s i t i o n to help Roy overcome his enuresis. The house father was the only person who could solve t h i s problem with Roy, but the case worker was able to supply diagnostic i n -formation and the group worker was able to a s s i s t i n carrying out the pre-arranged plan. A l l aspects of each element of the group l i v i n g s i t u a -t i o n - case work, group work, house parents, community contacts, administrative procedures and decisions, and many other elements, - 99 -i n e v i t a b l y i n t e r a c t , and either contribute to or detract from the ultimate effectiveness of the day-to-day l i v i n g experiences, depending on how harmoniously they are Integrated. In order that the boys i n the Home may be helped to derive the maximum benefit from the time they spend there, as many aspects as possible of the elements that influence t h e i r day-to-day l i v i n g experiences must be integrated i n the most e f f e c t i v e way with each other, and with appropriate resources i n the community. In th i s case the Child Guidance C l i n i c , the Army Cadets, and Alexandra House are examples of appropriate resources that have been used i n t h i s project. The present Boys Receiving Home i s a c t u a l l y a group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n that r e l i e s on a number of outside resources to e f f e c t a treatment program. It r e l i e s on the church gymnas-ium, the schools, the cadets, and the Neighbourhood House to carry on i t s program. The program i s a c t u a l l y " b u i l t out" in t o the community. It i s therefore necessary f o r the s t a f f to have the time and the s k i l l to mobilize these resources and to develop the necessary contacts and public r e l a t i o n s with the immediate neighbours and with the community resources. The amount of freedom that the boys have i n the r e s i d e n t i a l K l t s i l a n o community also makes i t necessary to select the boys very c a r e f u l l y and to provide an adequate l e i s u r e time program f o r them. An open home, such as the Boys' Receiving Home, cannot be expected to handle ten a c t i v e l y delinquent boys without undesirable reactions coming back from many dire c t i o n s i n the community. However, i f the intake i s c a r e f u l l y planned, - 100 -and i f there i s an adequate group work program, highly s a t i s -factory results can be expected. This project has shown that, even with a group that contained a high percentage of boys that were not too suit a b l e , good res u l t s were obtained. The most desirable course i n the future i s to select the boys more care-f u l l y , being reasonably sure that they can benefit to the maximum from the group l i v i n g experience. A c a r e f u l l y planned group work program should then be developed to meet t h e i r needs. In the immediate future, c e r t a i n steps could be taken to ensure that the boys i n the Receiving Home are helped to derive the maximum benefit from the time they spend there. There are f i v e main areas that should be considered (a) Group Work Services. With t h i s study as an i n d i c a -t i o n of what might be expected, i t i s recommended that group work services be continued as an i n t e g r a l part of the Receiving Home program. (b) Case Work Services. From experience gained during t h i s study, i t i s recommended that there be one case worker f o r a l l the boys i n the Receiving Home, and that t h i s worker have enough time to give consistent services to the boys. It should be remembered that the boys i n the Home are there because of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l problems. They need case work services even more than group work services i n some instances. (c) Records. It i s es s e n t i a l that complete case h i s t o r i e s and case recording on a l l the boys i n the Home be made f r e e l y and e a s i l y accessible to the group work s t a f f . I t - 101 -is highly desirable that there also be a free interchange of information between professional workers in C.A.S. and in other agencies in the community (such as Alexandra House) when these agencies are working with children who are in the care of the Society. (d) Psychiatric Guidance. It is recommended that a required part of the intake procedure of the Receiving Home be a complete report from the Child Guidance Clinic immediately prior to the boy being admitted to the Home. (e) Finances and Equipment for Group Work Program. There are certain items that are essential for an adequate group work program. For example, in arts and crafts, "When group members are working with their hands, conversation is apt to flow more freely, and the social group worker gains an insight into their difficulties and their attitudes that would otherwise take many weeks to achieve. As he thus increases his under-standing of the members, he may find i t desirable to change his method of working with them."1 Generally, to exercise s k i l l in activities is one of the ways through which individuals can reach their maximum satisfaction and adjustment in l i f e . Specif-ically, the Receiving Home would benefit from a well equipped woodwork shop, a supply of sports equipment which would 1 Gertrude Wilson, and Gladys Ryland, Social Group  Work Practice, Cambridge, Massachusetts, The Riverside Press, 194-9, P. 304. - 1 0 2 -necessarily have to be replenished from time to time, a supply of records and a record player, subscriptions to appropriate magazines, and a fund to cover expenses of t r i p s such as the weekend t r i p up Hollyburn Mountain (when i t was necessary to rent skis and a cabin). The experiences provided through l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s are a v i t a l part of the whole process of helping the group members to become happier and better able to l i v e e f f e c t i v e l y and harmoniously with other people, but the provision of these experiences i s limited by the a v a i l a -b i l i t y of f i n a n c i a l resources. Long range needs should also be considered. From the evaluation of the i n d i v i d u a l boys, i t i s apparent that other kinds of accommodation are necessary i n addition to the Receiv-ing Home. Dave, Walt, Frank, Jack, E a r l , Fred, and Roy could function e f f e c t i v e l y i n a semi-permanent group l i v i n g residence f o r schoolboys, - t h i s i s a c t u a l l y what the Receiving Home i s at the present time. Norm, Harold, and perhaps Dave would benefit from a treatment home under supervision of profession-a l l y trained house parents with access to continuing psychiat-r i c consultation. Gerry, with s p e c i a l i z e d , i n d i v i d u a l teaching, might improve his academic performance to some extent, e s p e c i a l l y i f at the same time he received the encouragement and support that he now gets from the house parents. He i s , however, one of those borderline cases that should r e a l l y be i n a spe c i a l home for mentally retarded children. Joe, who has ac t u a l l y gone to the Ryther Child C l i n i c , i l l u s t r a t e s the need f o r a treatment centre i n thi s province. In addition, the - 103 -boys who were i n i t i a l l y housed i n the Receiving Home must not be overlooked. Adequate means of providing f o r t h e i r case i s also lacking. At present the Boys 1 Receiving Home i s attempting to serve as a Receiving Home, as a semi-permanent residence f o r schoolboys, and as a "semi-treatment" residence. The term "semi-treatment M i s used because there i s at present, no consis-tent or o v e r a l l p s y c h i a t r i c consultation, and because day-to-day care i s directed by house parents with no professional t r a i n i n g . It can be r e a d i l y appreciated that non-professional personnel are quite inadequate to occupy any key position i n a r e a l t r e a t -ment centre. Conversely, when such personnel are i n a key po s i t i o n , i t i s usually extremely d i f f i c u l t and sometimes impos-s i b l e to work e f f e c t i v e l y with the children. This i s merely a general statement of fa c t s , and does not imply any c r i t i c i s m of the excellent job that i s being done by the present house parents i n the Boys' Receiving Home. Experience has shown that four d i s t i n c t kinds of accommo-dation are needed: a Boys' Receiving Home for temporary care; a semi-permanent residence for school boys; a semi-permanent residence f o r working boys, and a treatment residence. The Children's Aid Society always has a s u f f i c i e n t number of teen-age boys (age 12-14), who are at lea s t of average i n t e l l i g e n c e , and whose emotional disturbance indicates a f a i r prognosis, to j u s t i f y the development of a treatment residence that would serve a highly selected group and provide a cl o s e l y controlled environ-ment. The Society also has enough boys of the same age (who - 104 -show a less favorable prognosis, and who w i l l probably never be able to return to t h e i r own homes or to fos t e r homes) to j u s t i f y the development of semi-permanent residences f o r school boys and for working boys. A separate establishment i s neces-sary for each of these groups because of the many problems that a r i s e when they are housed together - e.g. school boys want to leave school and make money - working boys want to stay out l a t e , and so on. A boy would be c a r e f u l l y chosen to stay i n either of these homes, (which ever was the most appropriate f o r him) u n t i l he was able to move to a suitable boarding home or to employment i n which he could be f i n a n c i a l l y independent. A Receiving Home i s of course necessary for temporary care and observation of a number of categories of boys, some of whom would ultimately go to one of the other homes already mentioned. Ideally, of course, a r e s i d e n t i a l school on the cottage plan and employing the most advanced methods of education c l o s e l y integrated with s o c i a l work and under p s y c h i a t r i c guid-ance should be available for many children such as those found i n the Boys' Receiving Home. One very important consideration that i s sometimes not appreciated i s the name (or absence of a name) f o r a p a r t i c u l a r home. "The Boys' Receiving Home" does sound rather d u l l and uninspiring. How much more a l i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g t h i s Home and any future Homes could be made to sound i f they had i n s p i r -i ng, imaginative names I In time, intimate t r a d i t i o n s such as the Christmas tree t r i p and other s p e c i a l events could be - 105 -developed as an i n t e g r a l part of the program; the boys could look forward with a n t i c i p a t i o n to t h e i r stay there, and a f t e r -wards look back with pride i n t h e i r association with the Home. Any children's i n s t i t u t i o n , regardless of i t s name, should, of course, be administered according to the most modern practices i n s o c i a l work. There i s an increasing wealth of appropriate information available on thi s subject. The present Boys' Receiving Home would probably be quite e f f e c t i v e as a semi-permanent residence f o r school boys. The present house parents are well suited f o r the job that would be required of them i n such circumstances. The house father i s able to handle the necessary d i s c i p l i n e consistently and appro-p r i a t e l y . He i s sensitive to the needs of the boys and takes a r e a l interest i n them as i n d i v i d u a l s . He i s able to maintain and improve the Home environment and work e f f e c t i v e l y with the schools and community resources. Above a l l , he has the rare q u a l i t y of being able to maintain a neutral r e l a t i o n s h i p with a boy as long as t h i s i s necessary. The house mother i s equally well able to appreciate the needs of the boys. She always conveys the impression that everything i s going along smoothly. She i s able to show the boys consistent kindness, warmth, a f f e c -t i o n , and understanding i n an appropriate manner, and to provide the l i t t l e touches that give a r e a l l y relaxed, f r i e n d l y atmosphere to the Home. In many progressive organizations, workers and house parents are encouraged to attend various courses of study covering - 106 -a l l aspects of their work. They are sometimes expected to attend certain basic courses of study which are considered to be essential preparation for their work. These courses of study are often supplemented by regular meetings i n which the particular problems they encounter in their day-to-day work are discussed with consultants from their own organization or from the local community. Such an educational program might well be a feature of real value for the workers and the house parents from organizations i n the Vancouver area. The Children's l i d Society of Vancouver has, since 1903, used Receiving Homes and other institutions to accommodate some of the children under i t s care. It i s interesting to note the contrast between the f i r s t Home in 1903 - an over-crowded cottage on Pender Street - and the present Boys' Receiving Home, which is acknowledged to be the most progressive group li v i n g project in Canada at this time. It is also interesting to reca l l some of the statements about the early Receiving Homes from reports presented to the board of the Society during the f i r s t years of i t s existence. Two of these statements were: Owing to the already over-crowded condition of the Home, a very large number of applications have to be refused ... you must either limit your work or you must increase your space. 1 These statements are equally appropriate today, but today there i s no question that the most desirable course is 1 Anne M. Angus, Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, Br i t i s h Columbia. 1901-1951* Allied Printing, Vancouver, p. 17. - 107 -to increase the space, and to provide the highest standards of professional services i n greater measure. I t i s conceivable that i f this course i s followed, a new pattern of preventive treatment could be developed. I f t h i s does happen, those children who might otherwise be the delinquent adolescents of today and the adult offenders of tomorrow, could be re-directed to a more e f f e c t i v e , more acceptable way of l i f e . The C h i l -dren's Aid Society of Vancouver could well continue to pioneer i n t h i s v i t a l work. BIBLIOGRAPHY Specific References 1 . Books. Hopkirk, Howard W., Institutions Serving Children, Hew York Russell Sage Foundation, 1944. Redl, Fritz, and Wineman, David, Children Who Hate. Glencoe, Illinois, The Free Press, 1 9 5 2 . Wilson, Gertrude, and Ryland, Gladys, Social Group Work  Practice, Cambridge, Massachusetts, The Riverside Press, 1949. 2 . Pamphlets and Articles Angus, Anne M., Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, British  Columbia, 1901-1951, Vancouver, Allied Printers, 1951. Hecker, Frederick J., and Geleerd, Elisabeth R., "Freedom and Authority in Adolescence," in the American Journal  of Orthopsychiatry, New York, American Orthopsychiatric Association, 1945, vol. 1 5 , pp. 6 2 1 - 6 3 0 . Mayo, Leonard W., "What may Institutions and Group Work Contribute to Each Other," in Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1 9 3 5 , pp. 3 3 1 - 3 3 9 . Schulze, Suzanne, "Group Living and the Dependent Child," in Proceedings of the National Conference of Social  Work. New York, Columbia University Press, 1947, pp. 3 o 7 ^ 3 9 8 . , "Group Work and Psychiatry", in the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, New York, American Ortho-psychiatric Association, 1949, pp. 455-462. 3 . Other Sources Wilson, Harold Thomas, Embury House, A Receiving Home for Children, University of British Columbia, School of Social Work, Master of Social Work thesis, 1 9 5 0 . - 109 -General References 1. Books Slavson, S. R., Character Education in a Democracy, New York, Associated Press, 1939. Slavson, S. R., Creative Group Education, New York, Associated Press, 194-5. 2. Articles Bettelheim, Bruno, and Sylvester, Emmy, "Therapeutic Influence of the Group on the Individual," in the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, New York, American Orthopsychiatric Association, 194-7, XVII, pp. 684-692. Gula, Martin, "Study and Treatment Homes for Troubled Children," in Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work," 1947, pp. 228-236. Louis, Lucas, et. al., "Some Problems in Group Care Treatment, in the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry New York, American Orthopsychiatric Association, 1952 XXII i Is pp. 98-126. Trecker, Harleigh B., "Social Group Work," in the Social  Work Yearbook. 1947. New York, Russell Sage Founda-tion, 1947. Winnlcott, D. W., and Britton, Clare, "Residential Management as Treatment for Difficult Children," in Human Relations, London, Tavistock Publications, Limited, 1947-48, I s pp. 87-97. 

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