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The Mennonites of Alberta Bargen, Peter Frank 1953

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THE  MENNONITES  OP A L B E R T A  THE MENNONITES OP ALBERTA  by  ?  Peter Ft Bargen  A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of A r t s i n the Department of H i s t o r y  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia April  1953  Summary THE MENNONITES OP ALBERTA  By Peter P. Bargen  The only claim that this thesis can make i s that i t i s an introductory account of the Mennonites i n Alberta. It has been attempted to give a b r i e f but clear account of the origins of the various Mennonite denominations and t h e i r movement i n Canada An general and into Alberta i n p a r t i c u l a r . The common religious foundation (fundamentals of f a i t h ) enjoyed by most Mennonite bodies today can be traced to the common origins i n the Anabaptist movement of the l 6 t h century i n Europe. Prom SwitaBrland and Holland the Mennonites have spread to a l l parts of the world. There have been four well defined movements o f ^ermonites i n t o Western Canada ranging i n time frm 1786 to 1 9 ^ 3 .  These movemnts are  important not only f o r t h e i r separation i n time but also f o r t h e i r divirgence i n outlook  which resulted from the different c u l t u r a l  background of the various immigrants. Today Mennonite differences, s o c i a l l y , c u l t u r a l l y and r e l i g i o u s l y , make i t clear that no one way ofl Mennonite l i f e  exists.  In Alberta the majority of Mennonites belong to two denominations : the Mennonite General Conference and the Mennonite Brethern, both of which can trace t h e i r Western Canadian o r i g i n back to the immigration from Russia 1 9 2 3 - 1 9 3 0 . In addition to these two denominations Alberta contains smaller elements of Old Mennonites, Mennonite Brethern i n Christ, Church of God i n Christ and Old Colony Mennonites. In Alberta today prosperity and numerical strength have made Coaldale headquarters of Mennonitism i n the province. The more l i b e r a l outlook of the General Conference Church and the Mennonite Brethern Church h ve given these tJo groups economic and c u l t u r a l dominance i n a  Alberta Mennonite  circles.  The l a n d s e t t l e m e n t p o l i c i e s o f t h e Mennonites have always f a v o u r e d group settlements;; i n Western Canada t h e y f o u n d I d e a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r s u c h developments. A l t h o u g h communal b e g i n n i n g s were common t h e average Mennonite does n o t t a k e t o communism and p r e f e r e d t o seek l a n d on h i s own. I n h i s s e a r c h t h e r e were o n l y two d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s : n a t u r a l f a c t o r s and t h e presence o f p e o p l e o f h i s own f a i t h . The s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e Mennonites on t h e l a n d was l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n under t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e C.P.R. and t h e Mennonite Land S e t t l e m e n t Board l a t e r amalgamated w i t h t h e Canadian Mennonite Board o f C o l o n i z a t i o n . A c o n f l i c t soon d e v e l o p e d between advocates o f s e t t l e m e n t c o n t r o l l e d b y Mennonite a g e n c i e s and conflict advocates o f f r e e s e t t l e m e n t o f f a r m e r s .  T h i s ssfefeiEiasHfe r e s u l t e d i n  a confuted p o l i c y of land settlement. Mennonite economic development i n A l b e r t a has been r a p i d , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e areas dominated b y t h e G-eneral Conference and Mennonite B r e t h e r n d e n o m i n a t i o n s ; economic c o - o p e r a t i o n among t h e ri  e n n o n i t e s has been l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e s e two g r o u p s . I n A l b e r t a  t h e V e r t r e t e r v e r s a m m l u h g ( R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Assembly) i s t h e c o n t r o l l i n g body o f most Mennonite enonomic endeavours. O r g a n i z a t i o n s have been s e t up on sc. l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s and p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s s u c h as i n s u r a n c e i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s , domestic and f o r e i g n r e l i e f and p r o d u c e r ' s c o - o p e r a t i v e s . A problem t h a t was c o - o p e r a t i v e l y s o l v s d b$it t h e R u s s i a n Mennonites was t h e R e i s e s c h u l d ( t r a v e l l i n g  expenses)  t o t h e amount o f #1,767,398.68, w h i c h had been l o a n e d £s£si t h e C.P.R. t o a i d t h e immigrants o f 1923-1930. T h i s debt was j o i n t l y l i q u i d a t e d  i n 19i}-6. The g e n e r a l problems o f t h e Mennonites i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e community i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e r e s l o v e themselves i n t o t h e s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s and e d u c a t i o n a l f i e l d s . The s p e c i f i c problems a l o n g t h e s e *  l i n e s have been a s s i m i l a t i o n , the German language, and p a c i f i s m (non-resistance). Most Mennonites, outside o f the more conservative elements, w i l l a s s i m i l a t e i n a l l things except r e l i g i o u s l y and s o c i a l l y ; the German language i s o n l y a temporary problem and w i l l disappear i n the near f u t u r e ; non-resistance ,is a fundamental part of the Mennonite f a i t h and compromise here Is very unlikely  8  Outside of the l a t e s t immigrants the Mennonites i n  general are w e l l on t h e i r way t o " c a n a d i a n i z a t i o n " . This f a c t becomes doubly evident i n the l i g h t of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the o l d e r immigrants and the ^ennonite "new Canadian". The Mennonites the themselves now are f a c e d with/at problem of a s s i m i l a t i n g the new-comers. The t h e s i s includes an appendix containing the f o l l o w i n g information; I , Order-in-Council regarding the Mennonite r i g h t s i n Canada 1873.  2„ An excerpt regarding Mennonite settlement i n Canada. 3. A p e t i t i o n of the Mennonite churches regarding m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g and a l t e r n a t i v e s e r v i c e s i n case of another war, 1952. I I , An a r t i c l e , " A m I a N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t ? " — b y B . B . Janz. £. A Map o f A l b e r t a showing a l l areas containing elements.  Mennonite  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1  Introduction Chapter I.  O r i g i n s and Doctrines of the Mennonites....1  II.  The Mennonite Settlements  III.  Reiseschuld  IV.  Land Settlement P o l i c i e s  70  V.  Economic Aspects  85  VI.  S o c i a l , R e l i g i o u s and Educational A s p e c t s l O l  VII.  M i l i t a r y Service and Post War Developments  i n Alberta  V I I I . Conclusion  19 lj.9  118 137  Appendix A. Order i n Council regarding Mennonite r i g h t s i n Canada 1873 • • ±k° B. Regarding Mennonite Settlement i n Canada... .11x2 C. P e t i t i o n of Mennonite Churches regarding M i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g and A l t e r n a t i v e Serv i c e s , 1952  11+.6  D. A r t i c l e , "Am I a N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t ? "  lij.8  Bibliography  153  1  INTRODUCTION This t h e s i s attempts to present an i n t r o d u c t o r y account o f the Mennonites i n A l b e r t a , without attempting an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or an e v a l u a t i o n of the Mennonite way of l i f e . Major emphasis has been placed on Mennonite migrations, s e t t l e ments, and common problems a r i s i n g out of the clashes of a l i e n c u l t u r e s on new s o i l .  Rather than deal w i t h one p a r t i c u l a r  Mennonite group, an attempt has been made to deal more w i t h general problems which have been the concern of the Mennonite people as a whole, i n the province of A l b e r t a .  A t t e n t i o n has  been given to the Mennonite economic organizations which have been e s t a b l i s h e d and the educational e f f o r t s which have been made to preserve the Mennonite i d e n t i t y I n a dominantly culture.  strange  Although the study i s l a r g e l y confined to the Menno-  n i t e s i n A l b e r t a , where necessary, the l a r g e r background has been given i n s o f a r as i t helps to b r i n g about an understanding of developments i n that province. As has been s t a t e d , the aim of t h i s t h e s i s i s not an I n t e r p r e t a t i o n but r a t h e r a p r e s e n t a t i o n of f a c t s .  The  reasons f o r t h i s approach are twofold: T. The Mennonite s e t t l e ments i n A l b e r t a are comparatively young, a few being founded i n the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s century, the m a j o r i t y having been founded i n the forties.  1920*s, and  some as l a t e as the t h i r t i e s and  I t i s impossible a t present to a t t a i n the proper  h i s t o r i c a l perspective necessary f o r a just i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 2. The great need i n the f i e l d of Mennonite h i s t o r y i n A l b e r t a  ii i s not so much one of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as i t i s o f the need to gather a l l the m a t e r i a l i n t o a more comprehensive whole.  The  m a t e r i a l and the sources are there, but are scattered throughout Canada and the United States.  One purpose, therefore, has  been to gather t h i s m a t e r i a l and put i t on record.  Because ,  of the l a t e beginnings of the settlements many of the pioneers are s t i l l a l i v e and have, a t l e a s t i n t h e i r minds, the e a r l i e s t h i s t o r y of the Mennonites i n A l b e r t a .  But t h i s knowledge w i l l  die w i t h them and now i s the opportune time to make t h i s h i s tory secure by t r a n s f e r r i n g i t from the p e r i s h a b l e minds of men to the semi-permanence of w r i t t e n record.  THE MENNONITES OP ALBERTA  CHAPTER ONE ORIGINS AND DOCTRINES OF THE MENNONITES The o r i g i n of the denominations classed under the head of Mennonite bodies can be traced to an e a r l y p e r i o d i n the h i s t o r y of the C h r i s t i a n Church.  As v a r i o u s changes i n  d o c t r i n e and church o r g a n i z a t i o n came about, i n both the East and the West, a number of communities, u n w i l l i n g to accept them and p r e f e r r i n g the s i m p l i c i t y of the A p o s t o l i c Church, remained more or l e s s d i s t i n c t through the middle ages.  These  communities r e c e i v e d various names i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s and i n d i f f e r e n t c e n t u r i e s , but from the time of the f i r s t general c o u n c i l at Nicaea i n the e a r l y p a r t of the f o u r t h century to the Conference-of Dordrecht, H o l l a n d , I n 1632, they represent a general p r o t e s t against e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r u l e and a r i g i d l i t u r g y , and an appeal to the simpler o r g a n i z a t i o n , worship, and f a i t h of the a p o s t o l i c age.^" At the time of the Reformation, the members of the s c a t t e r e d communities who l a i d p a r t i c u l a r s t r e s s upon the doct r i n e of b e l i e v e r ' s baptism, as opposed to i n f a n t baptism, found a leader i n Menno Simons.  He i s regarded by Mennonites,  however, not so much the founder of the church as a prominent 2  factor i n i t s organization.  The name Mennonite dates from  1 Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , R e l i g i o u s Denominations: 1906f Washington, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Part I I , 1910, p. k.°k* 2 Smith, G. Henry, The Story of the Mennonites, Berne, Indiana, Mennonite Book Concern, 19h5» p. 95f»  2  1550»  but would s c a r c e l y be recognized i n Holland where the  usual name i s "Doopsgezinde", or"Dooper", the Dutch equival e n t f o r the E n g l i s h " B a p t i s t " .  S i m i l a r l y i n p a r t s of Ger-  many, Switzerland and A u s t r i a , the German form "Taufgesinnte", or "Taeufer", was used to i n d i c a t e B a p t i s t s .  I t was some of  the Flemish Mennonites, who, upon i n v i t a t i o n of King Henry V I I I , s e t t l e d i n England and became the pioneers of the great weaving i n d u s t r y of that country. I t was to t h i s group that the B a p t i s t s of England were p a r t l y indebted f o r t h e i r organi z a t i o n as a r e l i g i o u s body.3  i t must be understood, however,  that the r i s e of the modern B a p t i s t s was l a r g e l y independent of the Anabaptist movement on the continent.^  -  The only con-  n e c t i o n seems to be the one already mentioned above, and also that the two founders o f the B a p t i s t Church i n England, John Smyth and Thomas Helwys, had to f l e e England and thus came i n t o contact w i t h the Anabaptists on the continent of Europe. Both of these men wex-e baptized according to • the Anabaptist fashion.^ As was s t a t e d , the o r i g i n of the Mennonites goes beyond Menno Simons.  The cradle of the Anabaptist movement  was i n Z u r i c h , Switzerland.  I t was here that Conrad Grebel  turned from Roman C a t h o l i c i s m and became an e v a n g e l i c a l bel i e v e r through the m i n i s t r y of Z w i n g l i . ^  I n 1525  a break oc-  curred between Zwingli and Grebel over the r e l a t i o n s h i p of 3 Department of Commerce and Labor, op. c i t . , p. 1+05. ll " B a p t i s t s , " i n Encyclopedia B r i t a n n i c a , Chicago, London, Toronto, Encyclopedia B r i t a n n i c a , Inc., V o l . I l l , 195°» P» 87 • 5. Loc. c i t . 6. Wenger, J.C., "The Cradle of the Mennonite Church," Mennonite L i f e , Jan. l%-7, p. 6.  the Church and S t a t e .  The former b e l i e v e d that the Church  and State were one while Grebel taught they should be separated.  Besides, f o r Grebel the-Reformation was going f a r too  slowly and the new church s t i l l r e t a i n e d too many ceremonies and forms from the Roman C a t h o l i c worship to s u i t him; espec i a l l y the mass and i n f a n t baptism were attacked.  Grebel  went h i s own way and inaugurated what has come to be c a l l e d " b e l i e v e r ' s baptism," thus founding what he c a l l e d the " f r e e " church.  To Grebel t h i s " f r e e " church meant "a f e l l o w s h i p of  voluntary C h r i s t i a n s , e n t i r e l y separated as a body from the s t a t e and s t a t e c o n t r o l . " ? Persecutions s e t i n at once but i n s p i t e of imprisonment  and death the new church grew.  1535 t h i s movement c o n s i s t e d of seventy-one  By  congregations  throughout S w i t z e r l a n d , and was spreading to the neighboring countries to the n o r t h .  Most of these congregations were  l a t e r r u t h l e s s l y exterminated. At about t h i s time a s i m i l a r movement was t a k i n g place i n northern Germany, where a man by the name of Melc h i o r Hofmann had been l i c e n s e d by Luther to preach the new reformation.  Because of Hofmann's r a d i c a l views, Luther l a t e r  r e g r e t t e d t h i s freedom of the m i n i s t r y that had been granted to so unstable an e n t h u s i a s t , who h e l d some f a n a t i c a l notions i n the realm of prophecy.  Hofmann f i r s t taught that C h r i s t ' s  second coming would take place i n 1533* and when the event d i d not take p l a c e he allowed a "prophetess" to teach that he, Hofmann, was the E l i j a h of the Old Testament. , The Melc h i o r Movement, as i t came to be c a l l e d , spread 7 I b i d . , p. 7-  throughout  Germany and into F r i e s l a n d and Holland. Two brothers,  Obbe and Dirck P h i l i p s , F r i s i a n Cath-  o l i c s from Leeuwarden, had i n the e a r l y 1530's a f f i l i a t e d themselves w i t h the M e l c h i o r i t e s .  When the coming of C h r i s t  d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e and the " s a i n t s " were persecuted unto the death, the brothers r e a l i z e d that they had heeded a f a l s e prophet.  Obbe and D i r c k then became the leaders of the Ana-  b a p t i s t s opposing the M e l c h i o r i t e s , appealing to the l e s s f a n a t i c a l f o l l o w e r s of the new church.  They taught that the  purpose of true C h r i s t i a n s should be to continue the struggle against s i n and put f o r t h every e f f o r t to b u i l d the Kingdom of God on earth.  This branch of the Anabaptist movement be-  came known by the name of Obbenites, and i t was t h i s group w i t h which Menno Simons l a t e r a f f i l i a t e d . Menno Simons was born i n lij.96 i n the l i t t l e v i l l a g e of Witmarsum i n F r i e s l a n d .  He was t r a i n e d f o r the Roman  C a t h o l i c priesthood and i n l%2li became a s s i s t a n t p r i e s t at Pingjum, a small neighboring v i l l a g e .  He was promoted to  p a r i s h p r i e s t i n Witmarsum i n 1531 , <i remained there u n t i l an  the end of h i s C a t h o l i c career i n 1536.  As e a r l y as 1525  Menno had questioned some of the Roman C a t h o l i c  doctrines.  Through a study of the New Testament he came to the conclusion that In the matters of the mass and i n f a n t baptism the Catho l i c Church was wrong.  The B i b l e did not state that the  bread and wine used i n the mass a c t u a l l y became the body and blood of C h r i s t , nor d i d the New Testament mention anything but " b e l i e v e r ' s " baptism.  I t was not t i l l A p r i l , 1535, that  5 Menno broke w i t h the Church i n a s p i r i t u a l sense, and i t was not u n t i l January, 153&, that he openly renounced Roman Catholicism. Menno openly announced h i s new found f a i t h and as a r e s u l t soon had to f l e e persecution.  He took refuge i n the  v i l l a g e of Groningen where a c e r t a i n measure of r e l i g i o u s freedom s t i l l e x i s t e d .  Here he met Obbe P h i l i p s and was im-  mediately a t t r a c t e d to him as one who shared a s i m i l a r r e l i g ious b e l i e f .  Menno was baptized by Obbe and thus became a  member of the Dutch n o n - r e s i s t a n t Anabaptists.  I t was not  long u n t i l Menno, by h i s energetic and f e a r l e s s proclomation of h i s f a i t h , drew upon him the wrath of the a u t h o r i t i e s , and i n 15^4-2 the Emperor Charles V, issued an e d i c t against him.^ Obbe l a t e r deserted the cause of the young church and Menno Simons became the e s t a b l i s h e d leader of the Dutch Anabaptists, thus g i v i n g h i s name to the e n t i r e movement.  Menno died on  h i s s i c k bed on January 30* 15&1. I t should be understood that the Mennonites formed the l a r g e s t denomination i n the Anabaptist movement.  Hist-  orians have even gone so f a r as to say that " A f t e r Menno's death Anabaptists became known-as M e n n o n i t e s . T h i s s t a t e ment i s an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n but i n d i c a t e s that the predominant group s u r v i v i n g the C a t h o l i c reformation f o l l o w i n g the general break-away of the s i x t e e n t h century were Mennonites. 8 This e d i c t i s reproduced i n Wenger, J . C , Glimpses of Mennon i t e H i s t o r y and D o c t r i n e , Harold Press, S c o t t d a l e , Pa., P. 7 8 . ' " 9 Lucas, H.S., The Renaissance and the Reformation, New York, Harper and Brothers, 1934» P» 5 1 8 .  6  Today there seem to be three d e f i n i t e branches of Anabaptists i n e x i s t e n c e , the Mennonites, the Swiss Brethern, and the Hutterites."^  In the case of the f i r s t two mentioned denomin-  ations the d i f f e r e n c e s i n doctrine seem only to be the r e s u l t of geographical separation and the f a c t that Menno Simons never taught In Switzerland; there i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n belief.  The H u t t e r i t e s , on the other hand, are s p i r i t u a l  descendants of Jacob Huter, whose f i e l d of a c t i v i t y was Morav i a and who  s t r e s s e d the p r i n c i p l e of a "community of goods"  as a necessary p a r t of a C h r i s t i a n l i f e .  Through the centuries  t h i s type of economy has cut the H u t t e r i t e s o f f from the world around them, made them u l t r a - c o n s e r v a t i v e s i n r e l i g i o n to such an extent that today they are considered "backward" i n a l l . things except the a r t of making money.  There i s very l i t t l e  s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s group and the average Mennonite except, perhaps, i n t h e i r p a c i f i s t a t t i t u d e .  For p r a c t i c a l  purposes,  however, the H u t t e r i t e s w i l l not be considered as Mennonites i n t h i s work. During the Reformation there were numerous Anabap11  t i s t parties.  Newman  d i v i d e s them i n t o f i v e main c l a s s e s ;  The C h i l i a s t i c Anabaptists such as Thomas Muenzer, Hans Hut, Melchior Rinck, Melchior Hofmann, Jan Matthys and the Muenster sect, were the r a d i c a l s whose philosophy was d i c t a t e d by medi e v a l modes of thought.  This group disappeared e n t i r e l y and  represents the unstable and f a n a t i c a l element i n the, Anabap10 Newman, A.H., A Manual of Church H i s t o r y , Chicago, The e r i c a n B a p t i s t P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i e t y , V o l . I I , I9l\li> PP» 161.  11 I b i d . , pp. 156-200.  Am-  158-  7 t i s t revolt.  The second group are the B i b l i c a l Anabaptists,  i n c l u d i n g the Swiss Brethern, the Mennonites, and the Moravian Anabaptists i n which the H u t t e r i t e s have t h e i r o r i g i n .  These  three branches of the B i b l i c a l Anabaptists have remained and have absorbed many'elements of the other p a r t i e s .  In add-  i t i o n there were the M y s t i c a l Anabaptists, the P a n t h e i s t i c Anabaptists and the A n t i - t r i n i t a r i a n Anabaptists, a l l of which have died out w i t h the exception, perhaps, of small groups here and there which s t i l l tend to agree w i t h one or the other party to a l i m i t e d extent.  For a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, how-  ever, the Anabaptists of today may be d i v i d e d i n t o the Swiss Brethern, Mennonites, and H u t t e r i t e s .  I t i s I n t e r e s t i n g to  note that these three groups were the only ones p r o f e s s i n g p a c i f i s m during times of war, but whether t h i s f a c t has done anything to help preserve and propogate t h e i r f a i t h i s a matt e r f b r conjecture.  In the f o l l o w i n g statement of d o c t r i n e •  a t t e n t i o n s h a l l be p a i d mainly to the teachings of Menno Simons and those persons c l o s e l y associated w i t h him. ,  The Mennonites are not a " c r e e d a l " church, that i s ,  no human system of d o c t r i n e i s d e f i n i t i v e f o r the l i f e  and  a c t i v i t i e s of i t s members. They were and are a Bible-centered group..  The reformers such as Luther and Z w i n g l i permitted  what was not s p e c i f i c a l l y forbidden by the s c r i p t u r e s , the Anabaptists b e l i e v e d what was not s p e c i f i c a l l y taught by s c r i p t u r e , or by the example of C h r i s t and the A p o s t l e s , was anathema. - Lt  an  I t should be mentioned that a number of i n d i v i d -  uals i n the Mennonite Church have, i n the p a s t , prepared. 12 Waltner, E., "Anabaptist Concept of the Church" Mennonite L i f e , Oct., 1950, P.  8 formal statements of d o c t r i n e dealing with the p r a c t i c a l aspects of C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g ,  Menno Simons was not the l e a s t  of those who prepared w r i t i n g s f o r the guidance of h i s f o l l o w ers; but there was a d e f i n i t e l a c k of t h e o l o g i c a l t r e a t i s e s among the Mennonites, a f a c t that stresses the B i b l i c a l rather than the t h e o l o g i c a l nature of Mennonitism.  The w r i t i n g s  which do e x i s t , however, w i l l serve as the b a s i s of the f o l lowing d o c t r i n a l s t a t e m e n t s . ^ The Anabaptist d o c t r i n e has always viewed the church i n i t s v e r t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p as the body of C h r i s t of which He i s the r e a l and l i v i n g head.  P i l g r i m Marpeck, one of the  e a r l y leaders of the Swiss Anabaptists wrote, "Christus das haubt seiner kierchen, die da 1st  1st  s e i n l e i b aus seinem  f l e i s c h und aus seinen gebainen w a r h a f t i g g e b o r e n . M e n n o Simons i n Holland echoed the same doctrine when he s a i d , "For a l l who are i n C h r i s t are new creatures, f l e s h of His f l e s h , bone of His bone and members of His b o d y . " ^ The Anabaptists always made a p r e c i s e d i s t i n c t i o n between the 'true' church, by which they meant themselves,: . and the 'church of the a n t i - c h r i s t ' , by which they meant the Roman C a t h o l i c Church.  There was great disappointment i n  t h e i r ranks when Luther and Z w i n g l i f a i l e d to c a r r y the r e f o r mation f a r enough and adopted, what the Anabaptists thought, were halfway measures, by compromising w i t h p o l i t i c a l exped13 The f o l l o w i n g confessions s h a l l serve as a b a s i s : "The S c h l e i t h e i m Confession of F a i t h " , adopted by the Swiss Brethern Conference, Feb. Ii, 1527; "The Dordrecht Confession of F a i t h , " adopted by the Dutch Mennonite Conference, A p r i l 21, 1632. Both Confessions are reproduced i n Wenger, op. c i t . , pp.  206-228.  Ill Waltner, op. c i t . , p. A4.O. 15 Loc. c i t .  9 iency r a t h e r than c a r r y t h e i r o r i g i n a l e c c l e s i a s t i c a l i d e a l s into actual r e a l i z a t i o n .  Thus i t remained f o r the  to become the 'true' body of C h r i s t on e a r t h .  "Brethern"  Menno Simons  l i s t e d the f o l l o w i n g s i x earmarks by which the " t r u e " church of C h r i s t was  to be d i s t i n g u i s h e d ,  1. By an unadulterated pure d o c t r i n e . . . 2 . By a s c r i p t u r a l use of the sacramental signs;.. . . 3 . By obedience to the Word...ii. By unfeigned b r o t h e r l y l o v e . . . 5 . By an unreserved confession of God and C h r i s t . . . 6 . By op,/ p r e s s i o n and t r i b u l a t i o n f o r the sake of the Lord's word. The Anabaptists b e l i e v e d i n a v i s i b l e Church of God c o n s i s t ing of those "...who have t r u l y repented, and r i g h t l y b e l i e v e d ; who  are r i g h t l y b a p t i z e d , u n i t e d w i t h God i n heaven, and i n -  corporated i n t o the communion of the s a i n t s on e a r t h . " " ^ Luther accepted the concept of a Volkskirche or Landeskirche (State Church) because he b e l i e v e d that the church e x i s t e d wherever the gospel i s preached i n p u r i t y and the sacraments are properly administered.  To the  Anabaptists  t h i s concept was most u n b i b l i c a l , f o r the boundaries of the church could not be defined according to sacramental r i t e s or geographical  lines.  f a i t h , the church was  As stated i n the Dordrecht confession of a "church of b e l i e v e r s , " of those who  had p e r s o n a l l y accepted C h r i s t and who of repentance.  showed the true f r u i t s  The Church was not a s o c i e t y of the baptized  or a "church of the e l e c t , " as Z w i n g l i taught.  Menno Simons  stated, Those are the true church of C h r i s t who were converted, who are born from above of God, who are of a r e generated mind, and by the operation of the Holy S p i r i t from the hearing of the d i v i n e Word have become c h i l d ren of.God; who obey Him and l i v e unblamably i n His holy commandments and according to His holy w i l l a l l Loc. c i t . 17 Loc. c i t . „ 16  r  10  t h e i r days or a f t e r t h e i r c a l l i n g . 18 In the Anabaptist concept of the church, regeneration, obedience, f e l l o w s h i p , brotherhood, were the key.words d e f i n i n g the boundaries of the 'true' church.  In the a c t u a l i z a t i o n  of t h i s church they b e l i e v e d that there were f o u r necessary steps; the preaching of the Word; regeneration of the heart of  the hearer; baptism of the regenerated; f e l l o w s h i p of the  b e l i e v e r s i n the form of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Lord's supper. Because the Anabaptists b e l i e v e d that the Word must be preached before a renewal of s p i r i t u a l l i f e could be possi b l e , they became a c t i v e and vigorous preachers.  Spreading  the Word was considered the duty of not only the m i n i s t r y but of a l l the members; every b e l i e v e r had the personal command of God to preach.  The Anabaptists were the f i r s t to make  the Great Commission ( C h r i s t ' s command to preach the Word to a l l mankind) b i n d i n g upon a l l church members. The n e c e s s i t y of a regeneration became a f o c a l p o i n t i n Anabaptist and Mennonite d o c t r i n e .  There must be a genuine  repentence from s i n and a b i r t h of a genuine f a i t h i n C h r i s t , a process which produces an inward change manifested by outward conduct.  Nowhere Is the nature of t h i s change elaborated  upon by the leaders of the movement, but i t s n e c e s s i t y and r e s u l t s are emphasized by Menno Simons, who stated t h a t w i t h genuine f a i t h must come obedience and true regeneration issues i n a l i f e of p r a c t i c a l h o l i n e s s making the i n d i v i d u a l a s i n cere Nachfolger C h r i s t i ( f o l l o w e r of C h r i s t ) .  F a i t h alone i s  18 Menno Simons, Complete Works, E l k h a r t Indiana, 18?1, I: l 6 l - l 6 2 , Quoted i n Waltner, op» c i t . , p. 111.  11  not s u f f i c i e n t , there must be manifest-the p r a c t i c a l f r u i t s of f a i t h .  In t h i s concept Menno went beyond Luther's slogan  of s o l a f i d a ( f a i t h alone). In regard to baptism the Anabaptists d i f f e r e d markedly from the Roman as w e l l as from the Reformed churches. The whole movement r e c e i v e d i t s name from the f a c t that i t s adherents b e l i e v e d i n baptism only a f t e r regeneration had taken p l a c e . movement.  Thus the name Anabaptist was attached to the new  C h i l d baptism was r e j e c t e d as u n s c r i p t u r a l f o r  n e i t h e r C h r i s t nor the Apostles ever p r a c t i c e d i t .  The l e a d -  ers s t a t e d that i t was the blood of C h r i s t and not the waters of baptism that insured s a l v a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l .  Baptism  became to the Anabaptists an outward s i g n of the inward change, a pledge of the one baptized to walk i n obedience to the words of C h r i s t , and thus was merely of symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e but had no sacramental value. degree of understanding  Since regeneration r e q u i r e d a  (Vernunft) , i n f a n t baptism was looked  upon as a deception based upon s u p e r s t i t i o n r a t h e r than upon the Word of Cod.  Menno Simons wrotej  We are not regenerated because we have been baptized ...but we are b a p t i z e d because we have been regenerated by . f a i t h and the Word of God ( I Pet. 1 : 2 3 ) . Regeneration i s not the r e s u l t of baptism but baptism i s the r e s u l t of regeneration. .19 In the S c h l e i t h e i m Confession of F a i t h (1527) the Brethern i n s i s t e d that baptism be administered only to those "who have learned repentance  and amendment of l i f e , and who b e l i e v e  t r u l y that t h e i r s i n s have been taken away by C h r i s t . . . . " 20 19 Menno Simons, op. c i t . , p. 2l5« Quoted i n Waltner op. c i t . , p.• 20 Wenger, op. c i t . , p. 208.  12  In regard to the Lord's Supper, the Anabaptists bel i e v e d that i t was symbolic and had no sacramental q u a l i t y . They r e j e c t e d both the Roman C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e of transubstant i a t i o n and the Lutheran d o c t r i n e of consubstantiation. For Conrad Grebel the Lord's Supper was p u r e l y "a symbol of the f e l l o w s h i p of the brethern w i t h one another and w i t h C h r i s t . . . I t i s also a pledge of b r o t h e r l y love' and f a i t h f u l s a n c t i f i e d 21  Christian l i v i n g . "  I t was the question of "Mass" which had  caused the f i r s t s p i r i t u a l s t r u g g l e i n Menno Simons and event u a l l y l e d him out of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church. -Menno considered the Lord's Supper as a proclamation of the death of C h r i s t , as a s i g n of C h r i s t i a n love and peace i n the church, and as a " f e l l o w s h i p of the f l e s h and blood of C h r i s t . "  2 2  The  Anabaptists regarded the Lord's Supper as the most solemn a c t i n which a C h r i s t i a n could p a r t i c i p a t e , f o r i t i n v o l v e d the renewal of the b e l i e v e r ' s covenant to devote h i s l i f e unreservedly to the service of C h r i s t renouncing a l l s e l f i s h and secular interests. -^ 2  Everywhere they went the Anabaptists took great pains to organize churches according to the b i b l i c a l p a t t e r n . This o b j e c t i v e they accomplished by adhering s t r i c t l y to the doctrines as stated above and by a vigorous emphasis on "nonconformity to the world," by which the Brethern meant that the church must be kept without "spot or w r i n k l e " i n as f a r as i t was humanly p o s s i b l e .  I t was c l e a r to them that the church  could never be p e r f e c t i n the sense of being e n t i r e l y free of unworthy members, f o r human i n t e l l i g e n c e was capable only i n 21 Waltner, op. c i t . , p. I L I . 22 Loc. c i t . 23 Newman, op. c i t . , p. 158.  13  a l i m i t e d degree to separate the "goats from the sheep." Even Menno Simons admitted the l i m i t a t i o n s of church d i s c i p l i n e when he s a i d , The Church judges that which i s v i s i b l e . But whati s inwardly e v i l , but does not appear outwardly to the Church, such God alone w i l l judge and pass sentence on them; f o r He alone, and not the Church, discerns hearts and r e i n s . 2 l i The aim of church p u r i t y has throughout Mennonite h i s t o r y posed some of the most d i f f i c u l t questions f o r t h i s group.  To maintain a "pure" church i n the midst of a s i n f u l  s o c i e t y i m p l i e s a separation from the world.  In- the S c h l e i t -  heim Confession of P a i t h the e a r l y Brethern wrote, A separation s h a l l be made from the e v i l and from the wickedness which the d e v i l planted i n the world; i n t h i s manner, simply that we s h a l l not have f e l lowship w i t h them (the wicked) and not run with them i n the multitude of t h e i r abominations. 25 To t h i s day the Mennonites declare that- the church i s " i n the world" but not "of the world."  This i d e a l o f " s e p a r a t i o n " has  posed many d i f f i c u l t problems f o r the Mennonites i n the past and has contributed much to the persecution arid misunderstanding which have followed the Mennonite Church since i t s inception. To be separate from the world meant that there must also be a separation from the s t a t e , f o r the state was of the world.  This separation from the state was then c a r r i e d out  i n three ways; they refused to take the oath, they refused to accept or f i l l p u b l i c o f f i c e or any p o s i t i o n i n the government, and they refused to bear arms or "take the sword" even 2li Quoted i n Waltner, op. c i t . , p. \\2. 25 Wenger, op. c i t . , p. 209.  i f threatened by death.  The S c h l e i t h e i m Confession of F a i t h  states, The sword i s ordained of God outside the p e r f e c t i o n of Christ...and i s ordained to be used by the w o r l d l y magistrates.... i t i s not appropriate f o r a C h r i s t i a n to serve as a magistrate because... the government magi s t r a c y i s according to the f l e s h , but the C h r i s t i a n ' s i s according to the S p i r i t ; t h e i r houses and dwelling remain i n t h i s world, but the C h r i s t i a n ' s are i n heaven; t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p i s i n t h i s world, but the C h r i s t i a n ' s c i t i z e n s h i p i s i n heaven; the weapons of t h e i r c o n f l i c t and war are c a r n a l and against the f l e s h only, but the C h r i s t i a n ' s weapons are s p i r i t u a l , against the f o r t i f i c a t i o n of the d e v i l . 26 In p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the migrations of the Mennonites t h i s p r i n c i p l e of "non-resistance" or " p a c i f i s m " has played a leading r o l e .  In Mennonite c i r c l e s i n Canada and the United  States non-resistance i s under d i s c u s s i o n today as never bef o r e , and i t has been throughout t h e i r h i s t o r y one of the most o b t r u s i v e features of the Mennonite branch of the Anabaptist movement and i t w i l l be expedient to examine t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n a l i t t l e more d e t a i l . ^7 The Mennonites are, to a l a r g e degree, b i b l i c a l literalists.  A number of New  Testament verses teach u n q u a l i -  f i e d love f o r , and non-resistance t o , e v i l men,  as the d i v i n e  e t h i c f o r C h r i s t i a n b e l i e v e r s . Such passages as Matthew 5: 38-1^8, Luke 6: 27-36, John 18:  36, Romans 12:  17-21,  and  others require no s p e c i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to the Mennonite but are accepted at face value.  In simple acceptance of t h i s as  being the fundamental p r i n c i p l e f o r C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g as taught by C h r i s t , the Mennonitesoppose the use of force i n p r i v a t e l i f e and r e j e c t m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e even during times of 26 I b i d . , pp. 210-211. 27 Modern developments i n t h i s f i e l d are discussed In Chapter VII.  15 c—  1  war as u n b i b l i c a l and " u n c h r i s t l i k e . " <^  As e a r l y as  1521+,  Conrad Grebel wrote, "True, be-  l i e v i n g C h r i s t i a n s are as sheep i n the midst of wolves.... They use n e i t h e r the w o r l d l y sword nor engage i n war,  since  among them taking human l i f e has ceased e n t i r e l y , f o r we are no longer under the Old Covenant."  F e l i x Manz, a colleague  of Grebel, s a i d , "No C h r i s t i a n smites w i t h the sword nor r e .  29  sists e v i l . "  Dirck P h i l i p s declared, "The people of the •  Lord arm themselves not with c a r n a l weapons...but w i t h the armor of God, w i t h the weapons of righteousness...and  with  C h r i s t i a n patience, w i t h which to possess t h e i r souls and overcome a l l t h e i r enemies."^ regenerated  Menno Simons t e s t i f i e d , "The  do not go to war, nor engage i n s t r i f e .  the c h i l d r e n o f peace...and know of no war. " 3  They are  A r t i c l e XIV  1  of the Dordrecht Confession of F a i t h r e j e c t s defense by f o r c e . Non-resistance  i s one key to Mennonite migrations.  In order to l i v e according to t h e i r f a i t h , the Mennonites have sought refuge i n countries enjoying the greatest degree of religious toleration.  Soon they were s c a t t e r e d throughout  Holland, Switzerland and the various German states i n c l u d i n g Prussia.  I n 1789, on the i n v i t a t i o n of Catherine I I , many  Mennonites from P r u s s i a migrated to Russia where they were promised r e l i g i o u s freedom, t h e i r own schools, and m i l i t a r y exemption f o r e v e r .  "Forever" l a s t e d u n t i l  I87O  when the  Russian Government threatened to withdraw m i l i t a r y exemption and the Mennonites looked around f o r a new home. 2(3 I b i d . , p. 153 30 I b i d .c,i tp. 29 Loc. . 151+ 31 Loc. c i t .  I n the end  16 a form of a l t e r n a t i v e s e r v i c e not under s u p e r v i s i o n of the m i l i t a r y was granted, but the confidence and the s e c u r i t y of the Mennonites had been shaken and a great m i g r a t i o n to U.S.A. and Canada set i n . During World War I the Mennonites who remained i n Russia were allowed a l t e r n a t i v e s e r v i c e .  had  The  Bolshevik Revolution, however, swept the Mennonite s e t t l e ments w i t h f i r e and sword and f o l l o w i n g the establishment of the Communist re'gime a new migration to Canada set i n .  Since  the Second World War a new migration to Canada has been i n = progress and thousands of Mennonites have found new homes here.  In a l l of these mass movements the motive to migrate  has been r e l i g i o u s freedom sparked by the p r i n c i p l e of nonresistance.  In Canada and the United States i s found the  bulwark of Mennonite Wehrlosigkeit ( p a c i f i s m ) . A l l of the Mennonite groups who have come to Canada or the United States have b e l i e v e d s t r o n g l y i n p a c i f i s m as a s c r i p t u r a l and e s s e n t i a l C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e .  Today i t i s i n  Canada and the United States where devotion to t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s most c l e a r l y seen.  When the Mennonites f l e d from persecu-  t i o n i n Europe they were u s u a l l y those who  strongly believed  i n the p r i n c i p l e of non-resistance who f l e d .  The ones who  stayed were f o r c e d to compromise w i t h the c i v i l a u t h o r i t i e s and u s u a l l y consented to m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e under pressure of l o s i n g t h e i r goods and property.  This d i v i s i o n has been go-  ing on among the Mennonites f o r ij.00 years and has been slow and i n p e r c e p t i b l e , but i t s e f f e c t s have been world wide.  The  European Mennonites today have l a r g e l y given up t h i s p o s i t i o n  17 on war. and  T h r o u g h the  their  aftermath  troubled period of the  the  Mennonites of Holland,  Germany were g r a d u a l l y f o r c e d away f r o m stand  and  of the  Old  and  New  to take  many i n f o r m e d  split  will  occur The  worlds. place  o v e r the  foregoing  most of  style  ites,  Mennonite B r e t h e r n  Church), General  ment o f  Old  and  Christian  In  agree that living.  after 32  the  i n C h r i s t (now  the  f a r north  t h e New  simple  they  In A l b e r t a the  called  life.  l a s t lj.00  alone  Old  Mennon-  United the  a meagre  a  settle-  existence.  doctrinal  Testament d i c t a t e s the i n f a n t b a p t i s m and  stand-  rules for practice  Christian life  s i n i n the w o r l d  They agree, t h a t  Mission-  Mennonite  at Port Vermilion,  b e l i e v e t h a t the  f r o m the  there  d i f f e r e n c e s i n forms  C o n f e r e n c e M e n n o n i t e s , and  They r e j e c t  a separation  stones  Naturally  Mennonite groups have s i m i l a r  " b e l i e v e r s " baptism; volves  foundation  among t h e M e n n o n i t e s i n t h e  Colony Mennonites ekes out All  ards  the  f o u r main Mennonite denominations;  Church.  Switzerland,  non-resistance.-^  of c l o t h i n g e t c .  are  Brethern  doctrine of  them o c c u r r i n g b e c a u s e o f  baptism,  Mennonites  Conference i s  i n Basel,  Mennonitism i s b u i l t .  there  ary  1952,  d o c t r i n e s are  have b e e n many d i v i s i o n s  s u c h as  non-resistant  A Mennonite World  i n August,  and  Mennonite l e a d e r s f e a r t h a t a permanent  upon w h i c h h i s t o r i c a l  years,  their  Prussia  today a - c l e a r d i v i s i o n e x i s t s between the  scheduled and  N a p o l e o n i c Wars  and  a  in-  striving  the B i b l e p r o h i b i t s  F o r a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f the p r a c t i c a l h i s t o r y o f the d o c t r i n e o f n o n - r e s i s t a n c e see S c h a e f e r , P . J . , Woher? Wohin? M e n n o n i t e n l D i e M e n n o n i t e n i n Canada, 3 T e l l , M e n n o n i t e A g r i c u l t u r a l A d v i s o r y Committee, A l t o n a , Man., pp. l t L 7 - l 5 5 . S m i t h , op. c i t . , pp. 787-819* Wenger, op. c i t . , pp. 152-157. A l s o see c h a p t e r V I I o f t h i s t h e s i s .  18 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n warfare and i n l i t i g a t i o n , and f o r b i d s the use of the oath.  The dissentions i n the ranks of Mennonitism  a r i s e c h i e f l y i n the varying a t t i t u d e s towards such newer i n s t i t u t i o n s of Christendom as the Sunday School, toward the adoption of new inventions i n the realms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication, and toward newer forms of c l o t h i n g .  These  l a t t e r points, of d i f f e r e n c e s may seem t r i v i a l and even amusing to some observers, but they play a d e c i s i v e part i n the unraveling of Mennonite h i s t o r y .  CHAPTER TWO MENNONITE SETTLEMENTS IN ALBERTA Mennonite immigrations to Canada f a l l i n t o four d e f i n i t e periods: the movement Into Upper Canada from the United States In 1786,  a f t e r the American Revolution; the  movement i n the 1 8 7 0 ' s from Russia i n t o Canada and the United States; the coming of the Russian Mennonites, 1923 to 1930; the  movement of- d i s p l a c e d persons which occurred a f t e r World  War I I and i s s t i l l i n progress (1952).  In t h i s chapter  b r i e f a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d to the f i r s t three phases w i t h major emphasis on the t h i r d .  The f o u r t h movement w i l l be  d e a l t with i n a l a t e r chapter. A l l of these migrations have given A l b e r t a new s e t t l e r s ^ a n d the purpose here i s to examine b r i e f l y the h i s t o r y of each movement and the settlement i n A l b e r t a of the various Mennonite denominations entering w i t h each group. The f i r s t Mennonites came to North America from Switzerland i n 1683  a n  d s e t t l e d i n W i l l i a m Penn's newly found-  ed colony, where Germantown became t h e i r centre.^"  Here they  enjoyed peace and p r o s p e r i t y u n t i l the American Revolution burst upon them and m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e was demanded of them. Disturbed by t h i s c a l l to arms many Mennonites joined the stream of the United Empire L o y a l i s t s who sought refuge i n B r i t i s h North America.  The year 1786 marks the f i r s t  settle-  2  ment of Mennonites i n Vineland, i n L i n c o l n County  where they  1 Gibbon, J.M., Canadian Mosaic. The Making of a Northern Nation. McClelland and Stewart L t d . , Toronto, 1938, p. 171. 2 I b i d . , p. 170.  20  s e t t l e d i n b l o c k communities which were l a t e r a s s i m i l a t e d but never l o s t the v i r t u e s o f conservatism which have made the Mennonites "a s t a b i l i s i n g element i n a world of change."-^ Between i800 and 1820 another 2,000 came to Upper Canada. I t was not u n t i l the turn of the 19th century that the f i r s t of these Swiss Mennonites from'Ontario penetrated West to s t a r t settlements i n Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a .  The A l b e r t a colonies  of t h i s Mennonite denomination s t a r t e d i n 1 9 0 2 / and 19^7 i n Saskatchewan.  These two provinces united i n 19^7 i n t o the  Alberta-Saskatchewan Mennonite Conference w i t h E. S. Hallman as "overseer. "^JThis Mennonite group, u s u a l l y c a l l e d the Old Mennon i t e s , form the o l d e s t element among the Canadian Mennonites. They are the d i r e c t descendants of the Swiss Brethern who came to the United States when persecution i n Europe was at i t s height.  I n 1951 t h i s denomination had 69,537 members i n 565  congregations, served by 180 bishops and 833 m i n i s t e r s . ^  The  church i n Canada had a membership o f 6,335 w i t h about 5°0 i n Alberta.  This branch of Mennonitism i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  "staunch conservatism i n f a i t h and d i s c i p l i n e coupled w i t h a vigorous program of m i s s i o n , p u b l i c a t i o n s , education, and mu•7  tual aid... " 1  Church d i s c i p l i n e i s r i g i d and the church r u l e s  n e c e s s i t a t e simple and p l a i n dress,  plus a d e n i a l of many  3 I b i d . , p. 176. k- L e t t e r from E.S. Hallman to P.F. Bargen, dated July 21, 1952. 5 Zook E.D. ( e d . ) Mennonite Yearbook and D i r e c t o r y 1952, Mennonite P u b l i s h i n g House, S c o t t d a l e , Pa., 1952, p. 5l» 6 I b i d . , p. 5 3 . 7 Wenger, op. c i t . , p. 111. 8 Minutes and Reports of the Annual Conference of the A l b e r t a Saskatchewan Conference, 1931, P» ^ t  21  modern l u x u r i e s and ornaments such as wedding r i n g s and conv e n t i o n a l wedding gowns.^ The Mennonite Church holds f i r m l y a  to the d o c t r i n e of non-resistance and i s one of the most cons e r v a t i v e denominations on t h i s question. L i f e i s to b e - l i v e d simply, v o i d of l u x u r i e s and the s e l f i s h indulgences of the wealthy.  This s i m p l i c i t y i s c a r r i e d over to t h e i r churches  where the s t r u c t u r e s are simple and l a c k any ornamentation of the i n t e r i o r .  This group i n Canada has refused to accept Old q  TO  Age Pensions, Widows .Allowances and Family Allowances 7  be-  cause these measures i n v o l v e a r e l a t i o n between the s t a t e and church and therefore should be r e j e c t e d , and the members are urged not to apply f o r t h i s a i d . ^ This separation of church and s t a t e i s c a r r i e d over i n t o the economic f i e l d and the members are advised not to p a r t i c i p a t e i n any of the co-operative e f f o r t s i n the community, such as wheat p o o l s , . m i l k p o o l s , cream pools and "kindred o r g a n i z a t i o n , "  f o r "the a f f i l i a t i o n  w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the above character compromises and endangers the s p i r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s of our brethern and adds no13  t h i n g to s p i r i t u a l f e l l o w s h i p and growth."  Although o r i g i n -  a l l y speaking German, the Old Mennonites have now adopted the E n g l i s h language which i s used i n a l l church s e r v i c e s and In Sunday School. The Old Mennonites are counted as the f i r s t Mennonite settlers i n Alberta.  In 1889 a c e r t a i n E l i a s W.  Bricker  s e t t l e d near High River, A l b e r t a , having come out on the C.P.R.*s 8a I b i d . , 1914-7. P. 5. 911 Alberta-Saskatchewan Conference, 1 9 3 , p. 2 Loc. c i t . 10 Alberta-Saskatchewan Conference, 1931, 1914-5, P» 6 12 Alberta-Saskatchewan Conference, P« k-* 13 Loc. c i t . 2  22  homeseekers excursion of that year.-^  In 1900  and l a t e r he  was f o l l o w e d by other Mennonite s e t t l e r s from Ontario and the United States, so that by 1920 most of the settlements by members of t h i s denomination  had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the province.  In the High R i v e r area a church was b u i l t i n 1902 and the Mount View Mennonite congregation came i n t o existence. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l work was done by S.P.  The  Goffman who had been  commissioned by the Ontario Conference to o r d a i n m i n i s t e r s and organize churches i n the West.  Today the Mount View 15  Church has eighteen members, w i t h H.R.  Boettger as m i n i s t e r . ^  At about the same time,the West Zion Mennonite Church was organized near C a r s t a i r s , A l b e r t a .  The f i r s t Menno-  n i t e s e t t l e r i n t h i s d i s t r i c t was Andrew Weber of Ontario who  came West i n l891j-«  i n 1901  The main settlement was e s t a b l i s h e d  and the church was organized by S.P.  same year.  A church was b u i l t i n 1901  small and a new  Coffman i n the  but soon became too  s t r u c t u r e was erected i n 1929*  This congre-  gation i s unique among Mennonite; churches i n that approxima t e l y h a l f of the membership i s composed of people of B r i t i s h o r i g i n who have accepted the Mennonite f a i t h .  The present  membership of the church i s seventy-six w i t h Gordon Buschert as p a s t o r . ^ The Mayton Mennonite Church, l o c a t e d seventeen miles east of Olds, A l b e r t a , was a l s o organized by S.P.  Coffman.  The f i r s t Mennonite s e t t l e r s to t h i s area had come from northwestern :. Iowa.  This congregation i s now  extinct, dissolution  llj. Mennonite Encyclopedia and Questionnaire^ 15 Zook, E.D., op. c i t . , p, 59« Also Questionnaire. 16 Questionnaire.  23  s t a r t i n g i n 1915 when the m i n i s t e r , John K. Lehman, moved to Oregon.  In 1918 p r a c t i c a l l y the e n t i r e congregation moved to  the T o f i e l d d i s t r i c t and united w i t h the Salem Mennonite congregation there.  Through inter-marriage they are now thor17  oughly amalgamated i n t o t h i s new church. ' The o r i g i n of the T o f i e l d Old Mennonite settlement can be traced to the a c t i v i t i e s of two brothers O.C. and T.A. Blackburn, from Nebraska, U.S.A.  They became i n t e r e s t e d i n  the Canadian West and i t s settlement p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  Having  l i v e d i n the same community with the Amlsh Mennonites of Seward County, Nebraska, they became i n t e r e s t e d i n s e l l i n g land to them and were instrumental i n d i r e c t i n g the f i r s t group of home-seekers to the T o f i e l d d i s t r i c t .  The home-seek-  ers excursion took place i n 1907 but i t was not u n t i l  1910  that the f i r s t group of Mennonite s e t t l e r s moved to the Tofield district.  There had been s e t t l e r s i n the d i s t r i c t ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y Norwegians, f o r twenty years previous to 1910, and homesteading had occurred on every other s e c t i o n .  This  l e f t about h a l f the land s t i l l u n s e t t l e d and the Mennonites found ample opportunity to found prosperous farms.  Originally  t h i s group of s e t t l e r s belonged to the Amlsh Mennonite Church, but they joined the Alberta-Saskatchewan Conference i n 1915* Membership increased by newcomers from Ontario and the United States and i n 1918 as the Mayton Congregation moved to T o f i e l d . The f i r s t church was b u i l t i n 1911 1926.  and enlarged i n 1915  and  Today the Salem Congregation has a membership of 220  with John B. S t a u f f e r as B i s h o p . 17 Questionnaire 18 Questionnaire and Mennonite Encyclopedia. 1 8  2k  Other d i s t r i c t s s e t t l e d by the Old Mennonites w i l l be d e a l t with very b r i e f l y .  The Clearwater Congregation near  Youngston, A l b e r t a , was formed by Ptfennonites from Michigan and Indiana.  Due to drought the Mennonites moved away and  t h i s congregation i s now e x t i n c t .  I n the Duchess area, S.B.  Ramer was the f i r s t Mennonite s e t t l e r and a congregation was organized i n 1917, the s e t t l e r s coming mainly from Pennsyl- vania and are o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as Pennsylvania Dutch.  This  congregation at present has a membership of n i n e t y - e i g h t . Near Westward Ho, A l b e r t a , we f i n d the Mount Calvary Congregation which was organized i n 19^-5* although Mennonites had been i n the area since 1935*  Present membership i s 27.  At  S t i r l i n g , A l b e r t a , there i s a small congregation of seventeen members, who i n 19^7 broke away from the H u t t e r i a n Brethern and j o i n e d the Old Mennonite Church.  Near Smith, A l b e r t a , a  congregation was organized i n 19^4-7 and now has a membership of twenty.  A small congregation of seven members i s also  located near Acadia V a l l e y .  The t o t a l membership of- the Old  Mennnnite Church i n A l b e r t a (1952) i s Another Mennonite denomination which belongs to the f i r s t Mennonite movement i n t o the West was the United M i s s i o n ary  Church, p r e v i o u s l y c a l l e d Mennonite Brethern i n C h r i s t .  This group arose out of a schism that developed i n the Old Mennonite Church i n 1857, and was l e d by W i l l i a m Gehman of at  Pennsylvania, and Daniel Hoch and Solomon Eby, both of Ontario. This- group broke away from the main body of Mennonitism because they thought the o l d church was too conservative. 19 Zook, E.D., op. c i t . , p. Also Questionnaire. 20 Wenger, op. c i t . , p. 103.  In  25 faith  the U n i t e d M i s s i o n a r y  toric  Mennonite  Church i s i n l i n e  Confessions.  They e m p h a s i z e  w i t h the  his-  a vigorous pro-  gram o f e v a n g e l i s m , an e m o t i o n a l t y p e o f c o n v e r s i o n and  immer-  sion  areas  as t h e .mode o f b a p t i s m .  I n economic  t h e y do n o t draw s u c h a c o n s e r v a t i v e and  state  Christ  line  1893,  J a c o b Y.  came f r o m O n t a r i o  Janz o f the Mennonite and  taining  settlement.  thirty-four  In  fifty  location for a  residents  from Waterloo  and t o d a y members o f t h i s  County,  c h u r c h may  be  found a t Ac-  James R i v e r  Olds, Galahad,  this  and Edmonton.  b e i n g s e r v e d by  In A l b e r t a  twenty-four m i n i s t e r s  Ontario.  o t h e r s were e s t a b -  a d i a V a l l e y , A l l i n g h a m , Cremona, B e r g e n ,  is  new  I89I4- a c o l o n y was e s t a b l i s h e d c o n -  T h i s p i o n e e r s e t t l e m e n t h a s .grown r a p i d l y , lished,  Brethern  selected Didsbury,  m i l e s n o r t h o f C a l g a r y , as a s u i t a b l e Mennonite  between the c h u r c h  as t h e O l d M e n n o n i t e s . In  in  and p o l i t i c a l  Bridge,  denomination  and h a s  a membership  21 of  approximately f i v e  hundred.  .Another group era  of settlement i n Alberta  denomination. with  o f Mennonites  The  Mennonite  the Old Church because  conservative,  i s t h e C h u r c h o f God  the l a t t e r  away i n 1857,  was  i n Christ, because  first  in Christ  B r e t h e r n i n C h r i s t had  t h e C h u r c h o f God  eman o f O h i o , b r o k e  b e l o n g i n g to the  broken  considered  too  l e d by J o h n H o l d i t considered  the  22 Old  Church  too l i b e r a l .  where s t r i c t is 21  discipline  T h i s i s a Mennonite i s practiced,  denomination  shunning or avoidance  s t i l l e m p h a s i z e d , and t h e men a r e r e q u i r e d t o wear b e a r d s , Zook, E.D., op. c i t . , p . 118. L i t t l e more i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e about t h i s denomination i n A l b e r t a . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t o u t have n o t b e e n r e t u r n e d . 22 Wenger, op. c i t . . p . 108. T h i s g r o u p i s w i d e l y known as Holdemans.  26  "for As  this  denomination  and as a r e s u l t  2  the extent t h a t t h i s  the s t r i c t  acteristic refusal usury  denomination  will  Y e t they  still  to take  interest  a r e two c o n g r e g a t i o n s  came t o L i n d e n  there  o f the church  The f i r s t  i n 1902 f r o m  were l e d by Rev. Samuel B o e s e .  A  in Al-  settlers  the state  community a t L i n d e n ,  of this  o f Oregon  I n 1903 more came  u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f Rev. P e t e r B a e r g .  i s a well"established  from  Today  the c h u r c h  a membership o f 363 and a Sunday S c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t o f  having  l-J-55 (191+-8).  The R o s e d a l e  c o n g r e g a t i o n a t Crooked  N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a , was o r g a n i z e d i n 1928  Creek, i n  and now h a s a member-  of ninety-four. ^ These' t h e n a r e t h e A l b e r t a M e n n o n i t e  w h i c h owe t h e i r  direct  origin  i n t o W e s t e r n Canada.  these groups i n A l b e r t a  settlements  to the Mennonites o f Swiss o r  (Jutch a n c e s t o r y , and who b e l o n g  total  char-  on money l o a n e d , w h i c h i s c a l l e d  a t L i n d e n and a t R o s e d a l e .  Manitoba  in  adhere  d o c t r i n e s a r e t a u g h t , n o t a b l e among them b e i n g t h e  denomination  nites  fellowship  and c o n s i d e r e d w r o n g . ^  berta;  ship  allow  l e t t e r o f t h e c o n f e s s i o n o f f a i t h and some  There  and  joined  t h e d i s c i p l i n e was r e l a x e d  w i t h other Mennonite denominations. to  law o f God." ^  t h e R u s s i a n M e n n o n i t e s came t o Canada many o f them  this to  i s considered a p a r t o f the moral  to the f i r s t  movement o f Menno-  The t o t a l number o f c h u r c h i s approximately  1250,  members  while the  c h u r c h membership o f a l l M e n n o n i t e g r o u p s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y  26 3800.  Prom t h i s i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e l a r g e r M e n n o n i t e 2I4. D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce and L a b o u r , op. c i t . , p . lj.19' 25 M e n n o n i t e E n c y c l o p e d i a . 26 F i g u r e s c o m p i l e d b y a u t h o r f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e s : M e n n o n i t e E n c y c l o p e d i a ; Zook, E.D., op. c i t . ; Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  43.  J ^ U .  27  element i n A l b e r t a owes i t s o r i g i n to l a t e r immigrations, mainly from Russia.  The churches'dealt w i t h here, w i t h the  exception of the United Missionary Church, belong to the more conservative Mennonite elements, and consequently t h e i r i n fluence on the general course of Mennonite h i s t o r y i n A l b e r t a has been l e s s than that of the groups entering l a t e r . The second great Mennonite immigration to Canada came from Russia, beginning i n I87J4., the s e t t l e r s going p a r t l y to the Western United States but l a r g e l y to the Canadian P r a i r i e Provinces. Manitoba was chosen as the main area of settlement.  These s e t t l e r s were seeking new homes because  the r e l i g i o u s freedom promised f o r e v e r by Catherine I I of Russia, to entice the s e t t l e r from P r u s s i a , suddenly lapsed under Czar Alexander I I , who  thought, that he might make up  f o r l o s t manpower by R u s s i f y i n g the Mennonite farmer.  Thus  i t was that three years a f t e r the supression of the f i r s t R i e l R e b e l l i o n , a large Mennonite  settlement arose i n the  Red R i v e r V a l l e y of Southern Manitoba.  This group was  direc-  ted to Canada by W i l l i a m Hespeler, a Canadian of German ori g i n from Waterloo County, Ontario. J.M. Gibbon p o i n t s out the e f f e c t of t h i s new  imm-  28  i g r a t i o n on the settlement of the West.  These s e t t l e r s came  w e l l equipped w i t h c l o t h i n g f o r the Manitoba w i n t e r , but they heeded s u p p l i e s , implements  and t o o l s , which they purchased  w i t h gold Russian r o u b l e s , "which were a godsend to the Winnipeg merchants, who saw l i t t l e enough cash i n these pioneer days." Ashdown's Hardware Store i s reported to have s o l d over 27 Sibbon, op. c i t . , ~p~. 182. (For'many years Gibbon was c h i e f p u b l i c i t y agent f o r the C.P.R.) 28 I b i d . , pp. l83-l§ii.  28 $I|.000  worth of implements to the Mennonites i n one day. I n  a d d i t i o n , the new s e t t l e r s brought w i t h them the seeds of new grains and vegetables such as f l a x , muskmelons and watermelons. "They are also c r e d i t e d w i t h i n t r o d u c i n g groves o f trees as windbreaks on h i t h e r t o t r e e l e s s p r a i r i e . " The Mennonites had come as strangers to a new land, and had chosen Canada because of the many p r i v i l e g e s o f f e r e d I n 1 8 7 3 a delegation of four men had  them by the'government.  been sent out to scout the land and make arrangements w i t h the  Canadian government.  The p r i v i l e g e s granted were very  29  l i b e r a l and c o n s i s t e d of exemption from m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , the r e s e r v a t i o n of eight townships of land f o r the e x c l u s i v e use of the Mennonites; to each s e t t l e r over twenty-one years of age the government promised 1 6 0 acres of homestead land and the  Mennonites received the f u l l e s t p r i v i l e g e of e x e r c i s i n g  t h e i r r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s without any k i n d of molestation or r e s t r i c t i o n whatever, and the same p r i v i l e g e was extended to the education of t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  I n a d d i t i o n the govern-  ment advanced  $100,000  to the immigrants to help them get  established.  Many Mennonites took advantage of t h i s generous  offer. In the summer of 1 8 7 7 Lord D u f f e r i n v i s i t e d the Manitoba settlement and welcomed the newcomers.  His welcome-  read i n p a r t ^ I have come here today i n the name of the Queen of England to b i d you welcome on Canadian s o i l . You have come to a land where you w i l l f i n d the people w i t h whom you are to associate engaged, Indeed, i n a great s t r u g g l e , and contending with foes whom i t r e q u i r e s t h e i r best energies to encounter. But 29 See Appendix A. p. IJffi.  29 those foes are not your fellowmen, nor w i l l you be c a l l e d upon i n the s t r u g g l e to s t a i n your hands w i t h human blood - a task which i s so abhorrent to your r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g s . The war to which we' I n v i t e you as r e c r u i t s and comrades i s a war waged against the brute forces of nature; but those f o r c e s w i l l welcome our domination, and reward our attack by p l a c i n g t h e i r treasures at our d i s p o s a l . I t i s a war of ambition, - f o r we intend to annex t e r r i t o r y , - but n e i t h e r b l a z i n g v i l l a g e s nor devastated f i e l d s w i l l mark our r u t h l e s s track; our b a t t a l i o n s w i l l march across the i l l i m i t a b l e p l a i n s which s t r e t c h before us as sunshine s t e a l s athwart the ocean; the r o l l i n g p r a i r i e w i l l blossom i n our wake, and corn and peace and p l e n t y w i l l spring where we have trod. 3 0 In t h i s address Lord D u f f e r i n revealed c l e a r l y that he understood the Mennonite psychology, f o r -the type of warfare depicted  t h e r e i n would t h r i l l the hearts of these new  settlers.  I t was a month l a t e r that Lord D u f f e r i n p a i d h i s personal t r i b u t e to the progress of the Mennonite settlement when speaking i n Winnipeg; Although I have witnessed many s i g h t s to cause me pleasure during my various progresses through the Dominion, seldom have I beheld any spectacle more pregnant w i t h prophecy, more fraught w i t h promise of a s u c c e s s f u l f u t u r e than the Mennonite S e t t l e ment. (Applause) When I v i s i t e d these i n t e r e s t i n g people, they had only been two years i n the Provi n c e , and yet i n a long r i d e I took across many miles of p r a i r i e , which but yesterday was a b s o l u t e l y bare, desolate, and untenanted, the home of the w o l f , the badger, and the eagle, I passed v i l - . lage a f t e r v i l l a g e , homestead a f t e r homestead, f u r nished f o r t h w i t h a l l the conveniences and i n c i d e n t s of European comfort, and a s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e , while on e i t h e r side of the road c o r n f i e l d s already r i p e f o r h a r v e s t , and pastures populous w i t h herds of c a t t l e s t r e t c h e d away to the horiz.en. (Applause) Even on t h i s Continent - there has nowhere, I imagine, taken p l a c e so marvellous a transformation — (cheers) -- and yet when i n your name, and i n the name of the Queen of England, I bade these people welcome to t h e i r new homes, i t was not the improvement i n t h e i r m a t e r i a l fortunes that pre-occupied my thoughts. Glad I was to have the power of a p p l o t t i n g them so ample a p o r t i o n of our teeming s o i l - a s o i l which 30 Gibbon, op. c i t . , p. I 8 I 1 .  30 seems t o b l o s s o m a t a t o u c h - - ( c h e e r i n g ) — and w h i c h t h e y were c u l t i v a t i n g t o s u c h m a n i f e s t a d v a n t a g e -- I f e l t i n f i n i t e l y p r o u d e r i n b e i n g a b l e t o throw o v e r them t h e a e g i s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n - - ( l o u d c h e e r i n g ) — and i n b i d d i n g them f r e e l y s h a r e w i t h us o u r u n r i v a l l e d p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , our untrammelled p e r s o n a l l i b e r t y . The nites  by  $100,000 w h i c h h a d b e e n a d v a n c e d t o t h e Menno-  the C a n a d i a n government  announcing  this  31  the M i n i s t e r  was  i n 1892.  p a i d back  of the I n t e r i o r  In  stated,  In a l l the h i s t o r y o f our c o u n t r y , t h e r e i s n o t to be f o u n d a c a s e i n w h i c h a Company o r i n d i v i d u a l h a s more f a i t h f u l l y met h i s o b l i g a t i o n t o t h e Government t h a n h a s b e e n t h e c a s e h e r e . - N o t a s i n g l e i n s t a n c e i s known where one o f t h e s e t t l e r s o r o f t h e men who h a d g i v e n s e c u r i t y made any a t t e m p t t o w i t h d r a w f r o m h i s o b l i g a t i o n s . 32 This  characteristic  factor  o f h o n o r i n g t h e g i v e n w o r d was  The  to the Mennonite M e n n o n i t e s who  posed of three w e l l  defined  Immigrants  settled  large  $2,000,000  i n p e r s u a d i n g t h e C.P.R. t o e x t e n d a b o u t  worth o f c r e d i t  a  1923  t o 193O.  ''  i n M a n i t o b a were com  communities.  Two  -  of these groups  A  had l i v e d fairly  i n separate settlements  self-sufficient,  colonies.  The  namely  Kleine  t h e P u e r s t e n l a n d and  P u e r s t e n l a n d group  o n i e r or Old Colony Mennonites. Gemeinde, a d i s s i d e n t  i n R u s s i a where t h e y h a d  i s better The  known as  t h i r d g r o u p was  c h u r c h group which had  been  Bergthal Altkolthe sprung  up  35 i n t h e M o l o t s c h n a C o l o n y i n R u s s i a a b o u t 1812. of the l a t t e r group, "Small Church," i s \ very  (1952) o n l y 1,920 m e m b e r s . ^  The name appropriate f o r  it  has  31  I b i d . . p . 185 cit., Discussed i n chapter I I I . F r a n c i s , E.K., " T r a d i t i o n and P r o g r e s s Among t h e M e n n o n i t e s i n M a n i t o b a , " M e n n o n i t e Q u a r t e r l y Review, O c t . , 1950 > P« 5» Wenger, op. c i t . , p . 128. Zook, o p . c i t . , p . 53•  32 L o c . 33 3I4. 35 3o  The B e r g t h a l e r  group  31  belong to the o r i g i n a l Mennonite group but today belong  ^.y^  l a r g e l y to the General Conference Mennonite Church. The A l t k o l o n i e r represents a l l that i s r e a c t i o n a r y among Mennonites today.  The members are very s t r i c t i n the  exercise of the ban or shunning of expelled members.  They  have few Sunday schools, no evening or p r o t r a c t e d meetings, church conferences, missions, or benevolent i n s t i t u t i o n s . They worship f o r the most p a r t i n p r i v a t e homes and use German language e x c l u s i v e l y  i n t h e i r services.  the  They do not  associate i n r e l i g i o u s work with other Mennonite bodies,  and  are d i s t i n c t i v e and p l a i n i n t h e i r costume, using hooks and eyes i n s t e a d of buttons.  They c l i n g to o l d t r a d i t i o n s ,  progress and f i g h t the modern school.  The A l t k o l o n i e r  reject settled  mainly i n the West Reserve i n Manitoba. In Manitoba the p r i v i l e g e s granted to the Mennonite s e t t l e r s had been very l i b e r a l , the r e s u l t being that the communities grew, having complete freedom i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of.schools and l o c a l government.  The responsible  "authorities  were more concerned with a t t r a c t i n g e f f i c i e n t s e t t l e r s than w i t h t h e i r c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n , or t h e i r s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l integration."^^  Thus the Mennonites In- these colonies l a y  down the law according to t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n s rather than to the Canadian p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l system. This p e r i o d of peaceful development came to an end i n the e a r l y 1880's when the P r o v i n c i a l government demanded that the Mennonite reserves be reorganized i n t o  municipalities.  This proposal met with l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y except i n the ranks 37 F r a n c i s , op. c i t . , p. 6 .  32 o f t h e A l t k o l o n i e r who for  refused  t h e y meant t h a t the  the government.38  As  local  the  Colony Mennonites l e f t on  f o r an  escape.  S a s k a t c h e w a n and  i n M e x i c o and  j  from there their  crossed  treck north The  J4.OO m i l e s rest  late  of  1952,  join  Altkolonier heart.  t h e i r Brethern  — The  an  isolation  only  n i t e has  found,  "world"  w h i c h he  to a c e r t a i n seeks.  f r o m a u t h o r i t y , and denominations are people  and  Here i n t h i s  offers  degree,  i n t e r l o p e r s are  the  concerned about the  t o s e n d up  allowed  good t e a c h e r s  The  the is  wilderness, Old  C o l o n y Mennofrom  other  area.  the  interference Mennonite  s p i r i t u a l welfare  h a v e s e n t m i n i s t e r s t o the not  near  the  outside world  s c h o o l s , no  rare.  0  about from  that i s o l a t i o n  T h e r e a r e no  t e r s have been r e c e i v e d but their  the  on  Vermilion.^  isolated  t h a t must be  contact with  t h e b o a t o r dogteam.  plateau  Alberta,  at F o r t  where t h e y have assumed s q u a t t e r s r i g h t s ,  these  Alberta.  about f o r t y A l t k o l o n i e r  o f Edmonton, i s c o m p l e t e l y  civilization  colony  Chihuahua  the i ^ t h p a r a l l e d a t C o u t t s , to  Old  a new  A l t k o l o n i e r Colony at F o r t V e r m i l i o n ,  north  the p l a n e ,  J u l y 12,  as  this Para-  1932  n  founded  j o i n e d by newcomers f r o m the  as  around  t o M e x i c o and  t h e n o r t h bank o f t h e P e a c e R i v e r i n N o r t h e r n  These were soon  38  c o n t r o l l e d by  They f o u n d  to S a s k a t c h e w a n . ^ 9  a number g o i n g  changes,  c l o s e d more t i g h t l y  1 9 2 0 ' s when many m i g r a t e d  escape i n the  the p r o p o s e d  s c h o o l s w o u l d be  "world"  them t h e A l t k o l o n i e r l o o k e d  guay, w i t h  to a c c e p t  The  of minis-  to speak i n p u b l i c ;  have been f i r m l y  The s c h o o l q u e s t i o n i s t o o complex t o be T h o s e i n t e r e s t e d see I b i d . , pp. 7-19* 39 M e n n o n i t e E n c y c l o p e d i a \\Q The A l b e r t an. J u l y 12, 1952.  dealt with  refused.  here.  33  One v i s i t i n g m i n i s t e r s a i d , "They are c u l t u r a l l y retarded and s p i r i t u a l l y b l i n d , and yet they think they are s u f f e r i n g f o r C h r i s t ' s sake."  The settlement i s s c a t t e r e d f o r t y miles  along the Peace R i v e r on e i t h e r side of Port V e r m i l i o n . The church membership of t h i s group at present i s 3 2 0 . ^ " The other two Mennonite denominations  that reached  Canada i n the 1870's also expanded i n t o A l b e r t a , although only to a very small degree.""*"^"  The Kleine Gemeinde s t a r t e d  a settlement i n the Peace R i v e r area i n the year I 9 2 l i .  The  s e t t l e r s came from the United States and were w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h funds, having s o l d t h e i r holdings p r o f i t a b l y i n that country.  Due to d i s u n i t y and f r i c t i o n among them, coupled-  w i t h poor business management, the settlements never prospered and the s e t t l e r s slowly moved away.  By.l9ij-0 none of the  K l e i n e Gemeinde s e t t l e r s remained i n A l b e r t a . The f i r s t B e r g t h a l e r s e t t l e r s came to A l b e r t a from the West Reserve i n Manitoba i n 1901.  They came to the Dids-  bury area were they found a number of Mennonite s e t t l e r s had p r e v i o u s l y come from Ontario.  who  The open p r a i r i e between  Didsbury and Red Deer impressed the s e t t l e r s f a v o r a b l y . More f a m i l i e s came, some from Oregon, some from the East Reserve i n Manitoba, but many a l s o moved away so that the settlement stayed small.  The beginnings were made by growing feed g r a i n ,  and c a t t l e r a i s i n g became a p r o f i t a b l e occupation,^** In  19^3  1+1 Zook, op. c i t . , p. 122. \\Z The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from a pioneer of the Peace River d i s t r i c t , H. Kornelson. I4.3 Schaeffer, op. c i t . , p. 135 kk Vertreterversammlung, 1935• (Pr^tokoll der Vertreterversammlungen derMennonitTschen Siedler von Alberta)  3k  the f i r s t church was b u i l t and i n 1912 t h i s group joined the General Conference Mennonite Church.  Today t h i s group, through  intermarriage and.co-operative a s s o c i a t i o n , i s i d e n t i f i e d comp l e t e l y w i t h the immigrants o f 1923-1930. I t i s evident that the Mennonites of t h i s second immigration to Canada, l e f t t h e i r imprint l a r g e l y on the Province of Manitoba. group there.  Even today they are the main Mennonite  A l b e r t a , however, even though eventually r e c e i v -  ing a few of t h e i r numbers remained outside the o r b i t of t h e i r settlements.  The groups that d i d s e t t l e i n A l b e r t a now l i v e  i n i s o l a t i o n , moved away, or have become amalgamated w i t h the immigrants who came l a t e r . The coming of the Russian Mennonites i n the 1920's mafeks a new chapter i n the c o l o n i z a t i o n of Western Canada. When the new immigration s t a r t e d i n 1923 the.newcomers  often  s e t t l e d i n areas of previous Mennonite settlement but overflowed more i n t o the provinces of Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a than the previous movements.  These l a s t s e t t l e r s belonged  mainly to two church d i v i s i o n s , the Bruedergemeinde  (Brethern  Church), and the o r i g i n a l group from which the Mennonite Brethern had broken i n i 8 6 0 .  These groups entered Canada  p e n n i l e s s and I n the e a r l y years sought employment as labourers on farms.  Some were f o r t u n a t e enough to obtain farms  e i t h e r on a rent or sale b a s i s .  Because of three-men, David  Toews, B.B. Janz, and CP'. Klassen, and t h e i r e f f o r t s on beh a l f of the immigrants, the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway extended c r e d i t to the newcomers which enabled them t o enter Canada.  35 Besides showing a p h i l a n t h r o p i c s p i r i t , the C.P.R. i n a i d i n g these new immigrants, was l o o k i n g to the f u t u r e when the products of newly opened areas i n the West would provide t r a f f i c for i t s struggling r a i l lines. ^  The West, one of the r i c h e s t  a g r i c u l t u r a l areas i n the world, was to be turned i n t o a huge production  machine.  As S i r Edward Beatty l a t e r put i t , "Our  task was to convert.Western Canada i n t o a land of homes. The Russian Mennonites were to help i n t h i s task of opening the West and were encouraged to take up land.  The  C.P.R. was aware of the Mennonites d e s i r e to s e t t l e i n communi t i e s and consequently l a r g e areas of land were thrown open f o r mass settlement.  Since A l b e r t a contained l a r g e areas of  C.P.R. land which had been granted to the Company as a subsidy f o r b u i l d i n g the r a i l w a y , the o f f i c i a l s of the Company were anxious to obtain s e t t l e r s of the Mennonite c a l i b r e f o r these lands.  Without s e t t l e r s the land was of no value and the  Company saw that only through e f f o r t s and expenditures of i t s own funds and the p r i v a t e funds of i t s o r g a n i z e r s , and through organized c o l o n i z a t i o n schemes, could the West be populated and made p r o f i t a b l e .  This was the general p o l i c y but the  Mennonites played a very l a r g e p a r t i n the f u l f i l m e n t of that policy.^ The Canadian West opened i t s doors and the Mennon i t e s thronged i n . As water s e t t l e s i n low areas so the Mennon i t e s tended to e s t a b l i s h themselves i n homogeneous groups on the p r a i r i e s .  A s e t t l e r would move to an area and f i n d i t r i c h  k5 C.P.R., I r r i g a t i o n Farming i n Sunny A l b e r t a , 1925, p. 2. lj.6 Canadian P a c i f i c S t a f f B u l l e t i n , Feb. 1, 1940, lj-7 Loc. c i t . - For C.P.R. and settlement see chapter IV.  3D  and rewarding; r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s were n o t i f i e d and joined the  group.  Slowly l a r g e areas of land f e l l e x c l u s i v e l y i n t o  the  hands of the newcomers.  The Mennonite settlement at Coal-  dale, today the l a r g e s t i n the p r o v i n c e , ^  began when one  man,  Klaas Enns, and h i s f a m i l y consented to clean beets f o r a l o c a l farmer.  Through the years there have been movements of  Mennonite s e t t l e r s to and f r o across the p l a i n s and f o o t h i l l s of A l b e r t a * sea. the  The p i c t u r e seems as r e s t l e s s as the waves of the  One year an area would contain a number of settlements, next year the s e t t l e r s were gone.  Many f a m i l i e s moved  alone and remained i s o l a t e d from others of t h e i r f a i t h ; they were not as fortunate as Klaas Enns - no new s e t t l e r s followed and they remained alone, e i t h e r to move away or remain and be absorbed into the dominant c u l t u r e of the area.  Although  there are records of such cases, absorption has been r a t h e r a rare occurrence. The two Mennonite denominations p a r t i c i p a t i n g , i n the t h i r d Mennonite m i g r a t i o n to Canada were the Mennonite Brethern Church, and the o r i g i n a l body from which the Mennon i t e Brethern had broken i n i 8 6 0 .  The former body o r i g i n a t e d  as a r e v i v a l i s t movement i n the Molotschna Mennonite Colony i n Southern Russia.  In the eyes of t h i s d i s s i d e n t group the  o r i g i n a l Mennonite body was no longer pure and therefore i t could not approve of the l i f e and conduct of many of the church members.  On January 6, i 8 6 0 , eighteen f a m i l y heads  signed a statement of withdrawal from the parent body.  I4.8 Vertreterversammlung, 1951 > P«  12.  The  37  man who l i t t h i s new r e l i g i o u s flame was a German e v a n g e l i c a l by the name of Edward Wuest.  Fundamentally the Mennonite  Brethern Church remained a true Mennonite body, but a more B i b l e - c e n t r e d l i f e f o r i t s members.  emphasized  In s p i t e of per-  secution from the parent body, the Mennonite Brethern Church prospered and by 1885 membership had r i s e n to 1800. The d i s t i n c t i v e views of t h i s new branch of Mennon i t i s m were summarized by P.C. H i e b e r t , a l e a d i n g m i n i s t e r of the -new church. 1. A d e f i n i t e r e l i g i o u s experience f o l l o w e d by a changed l i f e , as a p r e r e q u i s i t e of admission to membership. 2. Baptism by immersion upon confession of f a i t h as the only recognized form. 3. A negative r e a c t i o n against a l l tendencies t o ward formalism as i t hindered early church procedure, and toward systematic r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n of c h i l d r e n . Ii. D e f i n i t e o p p o s i t i o n to a l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g and s e r v i c e . 5. L i m i t i n g communion to b a p t i z e d members i n good standing i n the l o c a l church. •6. A c t i v e evangelism c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a keen personal i n t e r e s t i n the personal conversion and s a l v a t i o n of one's a s s o c i a t e s . 7.' A thorough study of a l l the S c r i p t u r e s , which i s recognized as the Word of God, and an urgent demand that every member l i v e up to what God requires i n the B i b l e of those who have accepted C h r i s t as t h e i r personal Saviour. * Although the l a r g e s t number of Mennonite Brethern came to America i n the 1 9 2 0 ' s , they had, as e a r l y as the l870's, 51  s e t t l e d i n Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, and South Dakota, while only a small number reached Canada and s e t t l e d mainly in  Manitoba. In the 1920's many members of the parent Mennonite  k9 Wenger, op. c i t . , p. 119« 50 I b i d . , p. 120. 51 Lohrenz, John H., The Mennonite Brethern Church, the Mennon i t e p u b l i s h i n g House, H i l l s b o r o , Kansas, 1950, pp. 6 1 - 7 1 .  38  body In Southern Russia also migrated to Canada.  Once i n  t h e i r new homeland t h i s group was faced w i t h two a l t e r n a t i v e s : e i t h e r to form a .church conference of t h e i r own or to j o i n one of the e x i s t i n g Mennonite conferences i n Canada.  Small,  numbers joined the B e r g t h a l e r church and the Church of God i n C h r i s t (Holdeman),  but by f a r the l a r g e s t percentage  affil-  i a t e d w i t h the General Conference Mennonite Church of North America.-'  This l a t t e r body had o r i g i n a t e d when two small  Mennonite congregations i n Leeds County, Iowa, h e l d a conference to discuss the p o s s i b l e union of a l l the Mennonite bodies i n America.  Among those e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d was John Ober-  h o l z e r of Pennsylvania, who had taken an advanced stand i n the matter of aggresive work and missions.  Together w i t h s i x t e e n  other m i n i s t e r s he was charged with i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n to the then e s t a b l i s h e d Mennonite Church government, and was disowned. As a r e s u l t Oberholzer, i n Oct. l8k7, organized a separate conference i n Eastern Pennsylvania.  The new union movement  gained strong support and promised to advance along broader and more l i b e r a l l i n e s than the o l d conference had permitted. In May of i860, these d i s s i d e n t groups organized the General Conference Mennonite Church of America.  Membership grew rap-  i d l y and the movement spread north i n t o Canada.  By 1920 a  w e l l organized branch of the church e x i s t e d i n Canada. In.doctrine the General Conference Church i s , w i t h few exceptions, i n s t r i c t accord w i t h other Mennonite confessions, but i t does not i n t e r p r e t the Mennonite •confession of f a i t h as l i t e r a l l y as other Mennonite bodies do.  The main  52 Ibid... p. 192. 53 Department of Commerce and Labor, op. c i t . . p. k l 6 .  39  d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s body and. the Mennonite Brethern Church i s i n the demand of the Brethern f o r a personal r e l i gious experience leading to a manifest emotional conversion. They d i f f e r also i n the form of baptism; the General Conference b a p t i z e by pouring, the Mennonite Brethern by backward immersion.  While the Mennonite Brethern Church joined t h e i r  own Brethern Church on a r r i v a l i n Canada, the parent body l a r g e l y joined the General Conference Mennonite A l b e r t a today, these two groups form the l a r g e s t  Church.  In  Mennonite  element, having a combined church membership of approximately 2,27lt.^"  There are very few Mennonite settlements i n A l b e r t a that c o n s i s t of only one Mennonite denomination.  In  most areas there i s a medley of General Conference and Mennon i t e Brethern w i t h perhaps s m a l l e r elements of other denominations.  This statement applies e s p e c i a l l y to the s e t t l e -  ments s t a r t e d i n the 1920"s.  In the e a r l y years n e c e s s i t y  compelled co-operation on economic as w e l l as r e l i g i o u s l i n e s , and often one church b u i l d i n g served a l l denominations i n the area.  I t was not u n t i l p r o s p e r i t y set i n that each denomina-  t i o n erected i t s own b u i l d i n g and segregated i t s s e r v i c e s from that of the others.  Today, i n some smaller areas such a La-  combe and Chinook, one b u i l d i n g s t i l l serves the purposes of a l l . Since the Mennonite Brethern broke away from the parent body i n i 8 6 0 a d e f i n i t e d i v i s i o n has e x i s t e d between these two branches of Mennonitism.  That d i v i s i o n has been c a r r i e d  over to Canada since the Mennonite General Conference 51+ & rtretereeraaimiiurigy 1951, p. 12.  Church  i n Canada c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of members of the o r i g i n a l Mennon i t e body i n Russia.  By the l a t t e r the Brethern are consid-  ered r e b e l s while the Brethern i n t u r n , look upon the General Conference as having l o s t the true fundamentals of C h r i s t i a n i t y and consequently can no longer be regarded as t r u l y Mennonite. In the higher c i r c l e s of Mennonite o r g a n i z a t i o n a determined e f f o r t i s being made at co-operation between these two denominations.  During the war t h i s co-operation was achieved es-  p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d of r e l i e f work and on the question of non-resistance.  As i s the case even among nations peace often  brings d i s u n i t y , and t h i s has been discernable among the Mennonites also.  These complex emotions e x i s t among the Mennonites  at l a r g e and g r e a t l y hinder any co-operative movements which try to h e a l the breach between the two bodies. i s the case, the misunderstandings  Thus, as often  of the past may lead to  f u r t h e r a l i e n a t i o n i n the f u t u r e . As subsequent chapters w i l l prove, however, a c e r t a i n degree of co-operation does e x i s t and may w e l l provide the b a s i s f o r f u t u r e rapprochement. Vertreterversammlung  The .  has done much to r e p a i r the shattered  ranks of Mennonite u n i t y i n A l b e r t a . The f i r s t General Conference Mennonite s e t t l e r s moved i n t o A l b e r t a from Manitoba as e a r l y as 1 9 0 1 and s e t t l e d 55  near Didsbury.  The m a j o r i t y , however, s e t t l e d i n the pro-  vince a f t e r World War I , most being of the new immigration 56  from Russia. Today the l a r g e s t Mennonite Conference church 55 Mennonite Encyclopedia. ' 56 "Questionnaires were sent out to a l l Mennonite Conference Churches i n A l b e r t a , but only one has been returned. Since no w r i t t e n information on these churches, outside of the reports of the Vertreterversammlung, e x i s t , the d i s c u s s i o n of these settlements i s of n e c e s s i t y meagre and incomplete.  57  e x i s t s at Rosemary, and has a membership of 285* The f i r s t Mennonite s e t t l e r s were brought to t h i s area i n 1929 by the Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n which sponsored the s e t t l e 58  ment. 1937  v  The s e t t l e r s were able to buy t h e i r land so. that by  about 8323 acres were Mennonite owned.  In 1935  the Can-  adian P a c i f i c Railway Company, who owned the land, handed the whole area of 350*000 acres over to the d i s t r i c t , at the same time c a n c e l l i n g the land debt of the f a r m e r s . ^  This step  was taken i n order to escape the high cost of c o n s t r u c t i n g and operating i r r i g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , while at the same time transf e r i n g these problems to community co-operation. Lying i n the heart of an i r r i g a t i o n d i s t r i c t , Rosemary has prospered and today i s the centre of a populous Mennonite area. The General Conference Church also has large denominations at C o a l d a l e ^ and Didsbury. ment was s t a r t e d i n 1901,  The l a t t e r s e t t l e -  when a group of about twenty Menno-  n i t e .families came from the West Reserve i n Manitoba and s e t t l e d there.61  The church continued to grow and i n 1951  had a  62  membership of 19L>  The f o l l o w i n g table shows the l o c a t i o n  and membership of the various Mennonite Conference  churches  in Alberta:^ 57 Vertreterversammlung, 195l> P* 12 58 This was a s u b s i d i a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n founded by the C.P.R. f o r the s p e c i f i c purpose of s e t t l i n g people on the land. General Manager was T.O.P. Herzer of Winnipeg. This organi z a t i o n had then, and s t i l l has, branch o f f i c e s i n the f o u r Western Provinces, and has i n a long range work s e t t l e d the m a j o r i t y of the Mennonite farmers. See Chapter IV of t h i s thesis. 59 Vertreterversammlung, 1935> P« 18. 60 Coaldale s h a l l be d e a l t w i t h l a t e r . 61 Vertreterversammlung, 1935> P» 13« 62 Vertreterversammlung, 195l» P» 12. 63 Loc. c i t .  Place  No. of F a m i l i e s  Members  Persons  Coaldale  98  25k  387  Vauxhall  21  53  96  Springridge  19  52  96  109  285  Rosemary Gem  .  98  15  Munson  58k  8  21  31  Calgary  16  $k  70  Didsbury  68  19k  361  Tofield  55  lkl  26k  Wembley  8  New  2  k  6  l  7  . 10  Brigden  Chinook  5k  21  11  Lacombe In 1951,  the Mennonite Brethern Church i n A l b e r t a  had a t o t a l membership of 1 1 6 2 . ^ t h i s denomination  The f i r s t settlement of  i n A l b e r t a began i n 1926 w i t h the e s t a b l i s h -  ment of the community at Coaldale.  With Coaldale as centre  other settlements soon came into existence, and i n 1928  the  various churches united i n t o a p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n known as the P r o v i n c i a l Conference of the Mennonite Brethern Church. In 1951,  tbe f o l l o w i n g churches i n A l b e r t a c o n s t i t u t e d the  Conference:^ Glace ( 6 l ) ,  Coaldale ( 6 1 0 ) , Gem  Lindbrook ( 3 8 ) ,  ( l k 2 ) , Grassy Lake (k5)  Linden ( 9 D ,  Creek (26), and Vauxhall (109).  La  Namaka (kO), Pincher  A l l of these congregations,  outside of Coaldale, are r e l a t i v e l y small and s h a l l be d e a l t 6k Mennonite Brethern Church, S t a t i s t i c s , 1951^ 65 Loc. c i t . Membership shown i n brackets.  k3  66  w i t h only b r i e f l y . The Gem Mennonite Brethern Church was organized i n June, 1929, w i t h a membership of t h i r t y - f i v e , and was accepted i n t o the Mennonite Brethern D i s t r i c t Conference the same year.  The Grassy Lake congregation was founded i n 1927  with a membership of seven; the f i r s t s e t t l e r s having come to the area i n 1926.  In La Glace, l o c a t e d i n the Peace R i v e r  area of Northwestern A l b e r t a , a Mennonite Brethern Church was organized i n 1928; the same year a church was organized at Lindbrook.  The Linden Mennonite Brethern Church i s l o c a t e d  about eight m i l e s north of Acme, A l b e r t a , and was formerly a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the E v a n g e l i c a l Mennonite Brethern  Conference,  but i n 1914-8 u n i t e d w i t h the Canadian Conference of the Mennon i t e Brethern. belonged  The church at Namaka, organized i n 1927, also  to the E v a n g e l i c a l Mennonite Brethern u n t i l 191+2,  when i t became a member of the Mennonite Brethern Church.  At  Pincher Creek a Mennonite Brethern Church was organized i n 191+6 and remained a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the Coaldale church u n t i l 191+8.  In that year i t organized i t s e l f as a separate  and constructed i t s own church b u i l d i n g .  church  In 1933 a Mennonite  Brethern Church was organized a t Vauxhall, and a church was erected i n 1936.  In 191+0, as a r e s u l t of arson, both the  Mennonite. Brethern and the General Conference Churches at Vauxhall were destroyed by f i r e .  In a d d i t i o n to the above  mentioned organized Mennonite churches small groups e x i s t at C a r s t a i r s , C r o s s f i e l d , Carseland, Strathmore, Duchess, Brooks, Irma, Castor, Provost, Drumheller, Craigmyle, Monitor, Consort, 66 The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from Questionnaire and Mennonite Encyclopedia.  kk  Ryley, Countess, Lymburn, and Beaverlodge.^  Coaldale, the  centre of A l b e r t a Mennonitism, deserves s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . At Coaldale we f i n d the g r e a t e s t concentration of Mennonites i n A l b e r t a . i t s environs contain  I 3 6 2  I t i s estimated that Coaldale and Mennonites i n c l u d i n g Mennonite Bre68  t h e m and General Conference Mennonites.  S i t u a t e d i n the  centre of 100,000 acres of good i r r i g a t i o n land Coaldale became the f i r s t settlement i n A l b e r t a dominated by the Russian Mennonites.  Through p r i v a t e e f f o r t s , and e f f o r t s of the Can-  adian P a c i f i c Railway Company, the Mennonites were brought to t h i s area i n 1925 and 1926; today, amidst a cosmopolitan 69 population of twenty r a c i a l groups, element there.  7  they form the dominant  When the Mennonites a r r i v e d Coaldale already  had a twenty-five year h i s t o r y behind  it.  The pioneer founder of Coaldale i s considered to be H.A. Suggit who came from I l l i n o i s about  l^Olx,  and -with  the co-operation of a f a m i l y named Cokeley, organized a company to c o l o n i z e and s e t t l e a block of some twelve thousand acres of i r r i g a t e d l a n d . ^  Suggit promoted numerous community  plans and a l s o b u i l t the f i r s t house at the present s i t e of Coaldale, only to l o s e h i s investments during the depression. Being i n d i r e f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s Suggit misappropriated about $2000.00 of the School Board funds and served a s i x months j a i l term as a r e s u l t . A l f a l f a and g r a i n were the staple crops around Coaldale u n t i l the sugar beet came and ushered i n a new p e r i o d . The sugar beet brought d r a s t i c chan6T See map at end of t h i s t h e s i s . 68 Vertreterversammlung, 1951, P» 12. 69 Coaldale F l y e r , December 12, 1952, p. 5« 70 I b i d . , p. 1. 71 M a t e r i a l J.B. Janz.  ges i n farm p r a c t i c e s , and p r a c t i c a l l y overnight extensive farming gave place to i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n .  The l o c a l f a r -  mers, u n w i l l i n g to make the change and unable to meet the demands of new methods, looked f o r greener pastures elsewhere and moved away.  The change to i n t e n s i v e farming also demanded  a much l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n than Coaldale possessed and the C.P.R.-, who around f o r new n i t e s who  at that time,  owned most of the land, began to look  settlers.  Their choice f e l l upon the Menno-v  j u s t then were entering Canada.  On t h e i r a r r i v a l the  Mennonites were t o l d by T.O.P.- Herzer, an o f f i c i a l of the company, that only on c o n d i t i o n that they r a i s e sugar beets could that l a n d be turned over to them. ^  j_t  w a s  a  wise c o n d i t i o n ,  f o r the sugar beet has become the s t a p l e product of the Coaldale area and has enabled the Coaldale Mennonites to a t t a i n t h e i r present l e v e l of p r o s p e r i t y . The Mennonite pioneer of Coaldale was Klaas Enns, who  came to Canada from Russia w i t h h i s f a m i l y i n 1925.  He  was not s a t i s f i e d w i t h c o n d i t i o n s i n Manitoba and s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l there journeyed on to A l b e r t a .  His f a m i l y acquired  a job as beet workers near S t i r l i n g , A l b e r t a , but s t i l l  not  s a t i s f i e d Mr. Enns began to look around f o r a place of h i s own.  One of h i s journeys took him to Coaldale, where a Mr.  Lathrop, who had been an agent f o r the C.P.R. f o r many years, o f f e r e d him h i s l a r g e farm f o r s a l e .  In agreement with h i s  three brothers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s Mr. Enns accepted the o f f e r and i n the s p r i n g of 1926  the f i r s t four Mennonite f a m i l i e s  moved to C o a l d a l e . T h e nature of the purchase was unheard 72 M a t e r i a l 73 M a t e r i a l  J.B. J.B.  Janz. Janz.  k6 of,  f o r i t involved a sum of $ 5 3 » O » O without the s e c u r i t y 0u  u  of a w r i t t e n contract and without the safeguard of a down payment. , The only c o n d i t i o n made upon the buyers was that they r a i s e 150 acres of beets annually and d e l i v e r them under the name of Mr. Lathrop, ' u n t i l the farm was p a i d f o r . The neighbors shook t h e i r heads over the s i m p l i c i t y of the newcomers and watched.the  outcome w i t h i n t e r e s t .  In. due time the farm  was p a i d f o r and ownership was t r a n s f e r e d to the Mennonites. The deal proved to be a success. The Coaldale settlement grew r a p i d l y as the Canadian. P a c i f i c Railway Company continued to b r i n g i n more Mennonite settlers.  The m a j o r i t y of Mennonites of Coaldale r e c e i v e d  t h e i r lands d i r e c t l y from the C.P.R., without any down payment but under the c o n d i t i o n that f o r - e v e r y e i g h t y acres of land received they would r a i s e ten acres of sugar beets, the proceeds of which were to go to the company f o r the payment of . the farm.'. As a f u r t h e r gesture the company advanced lumber and m a t e r i a l s to the s e t t e r s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of necessary 'farm b u i l d i n g s .  By the end of 1926 about f o r t y Mennonite fam-  i l i e s were i n the a r e a . ^  Ten years l a t e r Coaldale contained  208 f a m i l i e s w i t h lli+ii. persons and the Mennonites owned and worked about 20,700 acres o f ' l a n d . ^ Steps to f o s t e r the s p i r i t u a l growth of the s e t t l e r s were immediately undertaken i n 1926 when the f i r s t settlers arrived.  Meetings f i r s t took place In the barn l o f t  of the Lathrop farm which had become the centre of Mennonite a c t i v i t y i n the area.  A year l a t e r permission was obtained  71+ M a t e r i a l J.B. Janz. 75 Vertreterversammlung, 1935» P»  15'  to h o l d weekly meetings i n the local- school and i n 1929 v i c e s were s t a r t e d i n the newly b u i l t church.  ser-  The Mennonite  Brethern Church was organized i n the area i n 1926,  under the  leadership of Klaas Enns, while the General Conference Church d i d not organize u n t i l 1 9 2 8 . ^ 7  Although the two denominations  had h e l d j o i n t meetings u n t i l then, the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the l a t t e r church inaugurated a p o l i c y of separatism.  The present  Mennonite General Conference church b u i l d i n g was erected i n 1936,  w h i l e that of the Mennonite Brethern was erected i n 1939*  The l a t t e r church has a s e a t i n g capacity of 1300 and a membership of 6 1 0 .  7 7  P r o s p e r i t y and numerical dominance have made Coaldale the headquarters of A l b e r t a Mennonitism.  Locally  Coaldale possesses more Mennonite economic establishments than any other.area.  Mennonites there not only own farms but  also the two l a r g e s t general s t o r e s , two blacksmith shops, a garage, a hatchery, a feed m i l l , a r e s t a u r a n t , a photographic studio and the towns only p r i n t i n g : s h p p . On a co-operative basis the Mennonites of Coaldale support and operate a cheese f a c t o r y , a C r e d i t Union S o c i e t y , a doctor and h o s p i t a l s o c i e t y and a l o c a l h o s p i t a l .  On a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s Coaldale i s head-  quarters f o r the P r o v i n c i a l R e l i e f Committee, the Mennonite F i r e Insurance S o c i e t y , and the B u r i a l Fund S o c i e t y .  In add-  i t i o n the Mennonite Brethern Church of A l b e r t a sponsors  the  7ft  A l b e r t a Mennonite High School s i t u a t e d at Coaldale.  Coal-  dale i s indeed the heart of A l b e r t a Mennonitism. 76 Coaldale F l y e r . D e c . 1 2 , 1952, p. 10. ~ \ 77 Vertreterversammlung, 1951, P« 12. 78 These various i n s t i t u t i o n s are d e a l t w i t h i n chapter V of t h i s t h e s i s . For the A l b e r t a Mennonite High School see chapter VI. :  k8 Of the three Mennonite migrations to Canada the l a s t one has had the most profound and l a s t i n g upon A l b e r t a .  effects  The Mennonites of the f i r s t two movements were  of the more conservative Mennonite elements and have now been n u m e r i c a l l y swamped by the Russian Mennonites who soon assumed active dominance of Mennonite a f f a i r s i n the province.  Out-  side of very minor exceptions a d i s t i n c t d i v i s i o n has remained between the immigrants of the 1920's and the e a r l i e r Mennonite settlers.  This d i v i s i o n has been the r e s u l t not only of d i f f -  erences i n b e l i e f but also v a r i a t i o n s from a l i e n backgrounds.  i n interests  resulting  Therefore when one speaks of the  Mennonites i n A l b e r t a , j u s t precedence must be given to the Russian Mennonites, the l a t e s t but the most a c t i v e Mennonite element i n the province.  CHAPTER THREE REISESCHULD Reiaeschuld-y—what a c o l o r f u l v a r i e t y of response t h i s word has c a l l e d f o r t h on the p a r t of the Mennonites! P r i o r to 1 9 M , the word engendered anger i n some, despair i n 3  others, i n d i f f e r e n c e , weariness, and hopelessness i n s t i l l others.  I t compassed the f i e l d of human emotions and on i t s  r e t u r n the word was s t i l l there to trouble the dreams of the Mennonite people.  Some faced i t w i t h determination and r e -  solve and due to such people the word since 194-6, has found a smaller p l a c e In the Mennonite vocabulary and i s incapable of arousing the f i e r c e emotions associated w i t h i t p r e v i o u s l y . Today the word i s greeted more o f t e n w i t h a f a i n t show of pride and engenders a. sense of a job w e l l done. 1  But ithere are s t i l l  a number of those who face i t w i t h shame, even a f t e r over a quarter of a century has passed since i t was f i r s t coined. The connotations which the one word Reiseschuld has had f o r the Mennonites i n the p a s t , cannot be f u l l y understood by someone unless they too have l i v e d under i t s grim shadow f o r over twenty years. Reiseschuld, l i t e r a l l y t r a n s l a t e d , means " t r a v e l l i n g debt," and r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y to the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway debt i n c u r r e d by the Russian Mennonites i n t h e i r great migrat i o n to Canada i n the 1 9 2 0 ' s .  The Canadian P a c i f i c had exten-  ded to these people a c r e d i t of n e a r l y | 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , to be r e p a i d as soon as p o s s i b l e .  Unfortunately f o r the immigrants  50  they entered Canada when the earning p o s s i b i l i t i e s were decreasing and the world was on the b r i n k of the g r e a t e s t economic depression i n i t s h i s t o r y .  Reiseschuld was a word that  f o r the next twenty years was to hang over the Mennonites l i k e a black cloud; i t was to haunt many dreams and s h a t t e r many hopes.  But the Mennonites plagued by t h i s great debt  which i t seemed impossible to repay, owed t h e i r l i v e s to the c r e d i t which t h i s debt represented; there were those who  for-  got t h i s f a c t and l a t e r cast shame upon the name "Mennonite" by t h e i r i n d i f f e r e n t and often h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e to t h i s "debt of honour."  Those who remembered redeemed the Mennonite hon*  our by the l i q u i d a t i o n of the debt on November 19, 191L6.^~ P r i o r to the Mennonite immigration movement of the 1 9 2 0 ' s , the Canadian Government had passed a law f o r b i d d i n g 2  the entrance i n t o Canada of people of the Mennonite f a i t h . Yet the Mennonites i n Russia, who were l o o k i n g to a new home, chose Canada as a refuge from the Communist t e r r o r .  This  choice was l a r g e l y d i c t a t e d by the f a c t that so many of them had f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s i n Canada who had come to the New World i n the second great Mennonite migration of the l870's." But the doors to Canada were closed and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of settlement there seemed very remote.  The work of paving the way  f o r the new movement f e l l to the Canadian Mennonite Board of ' 1 Thiessen, J . J . , "30 Jahre CM. Board", Mennonitische Rundschau. Wed., March 12, 1952. 2 P r o t o k o l l der Vertreterversammlung der Mennonitischen Siedl e r A l b e r t a ' s , 1938, p . iZjT^ K:.r 1 Wo ted as Vertreter"^ versammlung.  51  Colonization.^ In the year 1921, a f t e r the annual convention o f the Canadian Conference of the Mennonite Churches, a d e l e g a t i o n was appointed by that body to go to Ottawa to p e t i t i o n the government to revoke the law f o r b i d d i n g the entrance of Mennon i t e s i n t o Canada.  The d e l e g a t i o n then formed was t y p i c a l  of the executive of the CM.B.C., i n that i t contained members from the l a r g e s t Mennonite groups i n Canada,'the General Conference and the Old Mennonites.  The f i r s t delegates were  H.A. Neufeld r e p r e s e n t i n g the Mennonite Brethern, H.H. Ewert and A.A. F r i e s e n r e p r e s e n t i n g the General Conference, and S.P. Coffman, r e p r e s e n t i n g the Old Mennonites.  The l a t t e r  was the same man who had so e n e r g e t i c a l l y organized Mennon i t e churches i n A l b e r t a i n the e a r l y 1900's.  In Ottawa the  d e l e g a t i o n was given hope that i t s wishes would be considered. In February or March , 1922, the same d e l e g a t i o n w i t h three new members, Gerhard Ens, G. Goudie, and David Toews, again went to Ottawa.  The new Prime M i n i s t e r , W.L. Mackenzie King,  gave them to understand that the r e s t r i c t i n g law would be l i f t e d as soon as p o s s i b l e .  I t was removed on J u l y 2, 19221^  The CM.B.C. was founded i n Gretna, Manitoba, on May 17, 1922, w i t h the understanding that the main o f f i c e was to be i n Rosthern, Saskatchewan.  The f i r s t executive consisted  3 H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to by the i n i t i a l s CM.B.C. Unless otherwise s t a t e d the f o l l o w i n g dates and f i g u r e s are taken from Thiessen, J . J . , op. c i t . k This i s one reason why the Mennonite s e t t l e r s i n Canada have, almost e x c l u s i v e l y , supported the L i b e r a l P a r t y . Mackenzie King had been r a i s e d i n an area i n h a b i t e d by Mennonites and was a personal f r i e n d of David Toews, f i r s t Chairman of the CM.B.C.  52 of:  David Toews  Chairman  C.J. Andres  Secretary-Treasurer  H.A.  Neufeld—Member  A.A.  F r i e s e n — C o r r e s p o n d i n g Secretary  Almost immediately a d e l e g a t i o n was sent to Montreal to begin t a l k s w i t h the C.P.R. regarding the immigration of Mennonites. The Company was i n t e r e s t e d , f o r they remembered the sturdy Mennonite pioneers of the 1 8 7 0 ' s , and were looking f o r such 5  farmers f o r t h e i r lands i n the West.  The d e l e g a t i o n presen-  ted the s i t u a t i o n to Colonel J.S. Dennis, Chief Commissioner of the Department of Immigration and Development f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, and asked i f i t would be p o s s i b l e to obtain c r e d i t from the Company f o r immigration purposes. Colonel Dennis promised to present the case to S i r Edward Beatty, then President of the C.P.R.  Dennis gave the dele-  gates to understand t h a t since the Mennonite Immigrants of the 1870's had been so honorable i n regard to the c r e d i t extended to them then, there should be l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n making new arrangements f o r c r e d i t . ^  On June 20, 1922,  Dennis  reported that the C.P.R. was w i l l i n g to b r i n g 3000 Mennonites to Canada on c r e d i t , and on June 26, the f i r s t c r e d i t cont r a c t was signed between the C.P.R' and the CM.B.C., w i t h David Toews signing f o r the Board.  Thus Toews made himself  responsible f o r repaying the l o a n and on h i s r e t u r n home he was severely c r i t i c i z e d f o r s i g n i n g away, by a simple stroke of the pen, the f u t u r e f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y of the Mennonites. L a t e r Dennis informed Toews t h a t he had r e c e i v e d l e t t e r s and 5 See chapters two and four of t h i s t h e s i s . 0 Mennonltische Rundschau, Dec. 21, 1938*  53  telegrams from Mennonites p r o t e s t i n g against the c r e d i t contract.  One l e t t e r had pointed out that the c o n t r a c t had been  drawn up i n such a way that l e g a l l y the C.P.R. could not c o l l e c t the money l a t e r .  This observation was true enough  and makes the Reiseschuld that much more unique as a long 7  term c r e d i t loan.  L i t t l e d i d the Mennonites i n Canada then  r e a l i z e that not only  3000  but nearly l k , 0 0 0  Mennonites  would enter Canada on t h e i r c r e d i t . David Toews, a teacher at Gretna, Manitoba, had indeed assumed a grave r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , loved, c r i t i c i z e d , and made fun of.  As a r e s u l t he was  During the  193^*3  someone  wrote the f o l l o w i n g s a r c a s t i c poem about him: Mein l i e b e r Bruder "Irgendwie" Verzweifelt w i r k l i c h nie. . Er l a e s s t d i e Dinge r u h i g gehen, Ohn' ihnen i n den Weg zu stehen, Und glaubt, die a l l e r s c h w e r s t e n Sachen Werden s i c h irgendwie schon machen... Und s i e h w i r leben Tag f u e r Tag, Was immer uns auch kommen mag; Behalten unsern frohen Mut; Am Ende w i r d doch a l l e s gut. 8 1  But the s i t u a t i o n had not been handled as haphazardly as the poem suggested, f o r David Toews considered i t a "work of F a i t h , of a t r u s t i n God and the honor of the immigrants."^ The new immigration began i n 1 9 2 3 , governed by the Loc. c i t . 8 Janzen J.H., David Toews, Rosthern, D.H. Epp, P u b l i s h e r , 1 9 3 9 , p. I D . Free t r a n s l a t i o n o f the poem: My dear brother "Somehow" Is discouraged nohow. He l e t s thing go Without standing i n t h e i r way you know, And b e l i e v e s that problems of the g r e a t e s t k i n d W i l l solve themselves as you w i l l f i n d . And look, we're l i v i n g and we sing, What'er the future has to b r i n g ; And our h i g h s p i r i t s keep we s h a l l , For the end w i l l always turn out w e l l . 9 Vertreterversammlung, 1 9 3 5 , p . 8 . 7  Order-in-Couneil, This  law  i s s u e d on  removed t h e m o n e t a r y  essary f o r immigrants  2668 i n 1 9 2 1 . " ^ tion  185,  P.C.  The  t o C a n a d a was  upon a r r i v a l .  1923.  1 0  of $250.00 nec-  qualification  and w h i c h  31,  January  h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d by  P.C.  o n l y r e q u i r e m e n t n e c e s s a r y f o r Immigra-  the a s s u r a n c e  o f an a g r i c u l t u r a l  In the case o f the Mennonites  occupation  this occupation  12 was  g u a r a n t e e d by  t h e C.P.R- and  the CM.B.C.  a r o s e , h o w e v e r , as l a r g e numbers o f i m m i g r a n t s forward from of  i n t e r i o r points  embarkation,  found  i n that  designated  as  to " i n s p e c t  and  to i s s u e  and  Issuing  to t h i s  Officers",  the p r o s p e c t i v e immigrants  c e r t i f i c a t e s which  carried  proceeding  A.solution  t h e C.P.R. a p p o i n t e d i n s p e c t i o n a l  fied his eligibility test,  brought  o f the c o n t i n e n t to the p o r t s  f o r Canada.  "Certificate  was  were  o n l y t o be r e j e c t e d by f a i l u r e t o meet  h e a l t h requirements was  Difficulties  from the  a statement  the  problem officers  whose d u t y i t  at internal  guaranteed placement,  points certi-  s t a n d p o i n t o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l from  the immigrant  t h a t he  as an a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t and w o u l d t a k e up  was  agricul-  13 t u r a l work i n C a n a d a . " In B.B.  J a n z , who  tificate nites by  Moscow t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e had  Issuing  also  b e e n c h o s e n by  Officer,  o f the Mennonites, t h e C.P.R. as a  Mr.'  Cer-  p o i n t e d o u t t h a t n o t a l l t h e Menno-  s o u g h t . t o e n t e r Canada on  the CM.B.C.; many M e n n o n i t e s  the c r e d i t  terms  h a d money t o pay  arranged cash.  This  l a t t e r g r o u p was e a g e r l y a c c e p t e d by t h e C P . R . as " p a y i n g 10 E n g l a n d , ,R., The C e n t r a l E u r o p e a n Immigrant i n Canada] T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L t d . , 192S), p . 21. 11 L o c . c i t . 12 P e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m B.B. J a n z . 13 E n g l a n d , o'p. c i t . , p. 26.  55 customers. ""^  Thus, two types o f Mennonite immigrants e n t e r -  ed Canada, those on c r e d i t and those p a y i n g t h e i r way.  The  f o l l o w i n g c h a r t shows the number e n t e r i n g each year e i t h e r 15  on c r e d i t o r cash terms: ^ Year  Credit  1923  /#2,759  —  42,759  3,89k •  i,i5k  5,Ok8  1925  2,171  1,601  3,772  1926  2,k79  3A6i  5,9kO  1927  3k0  507  8k7  1928  kC-8  103  511  1929  1,009  10  1930  29k  11  305  13,35k  6,8k7  20,201  The t o t a l c r e d i t extended  call  Total  192k  Total  was  4  Cash  1,019  to these immigrants  $ 1 , 7 6 7 , 3 9 8 . 6 8 , """^ a sum that the Mennonites  by the' C.P.R. soon came to  the R e i s e s c h u l d . The duty of the CM.B.C. now was to c o l l e c t  this  money and repay the C.P.R. i n the s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e time. Before the immigrants  c o u l d be expected to pay, however, they  must be s e t t l e d and put i n t o a p o s i t i o n where payment was possible. founded  In 192k the Mennonite Land Settlement Board was  to a i d the s e t t l e r s i n a c q u i r i n g l a n d .  In co-oper-  a t i o n w i t h the C.P.R. and the CM.B.C. t h i s body was success-  Ik Information from B.B. Janz. 15 Mennonitische Rundschau, Wed., March 12, 16 Loc. c i t .  195 « 2  56 f u l i n p r o v i d i n g land f o r many Mennonites.  In 193>k-> the  Land Settlement Board was absorbed by the CM.B.C., the l a t 17  t e r taking over the settlement duties of the former.  1  The  CM.B.C. was incorporated i n 1925 and H.B. Janz was appointed as " C o l l e c t o r " of the Reiseschuld.  Janz h e l d t h i s p o s i t i o n  u n t i l 1930, when he was succeeded by C P . Klassen, who r e mained on the job u n t i l the debt was l i q u i d a t e d . On A p r i l k, 19k6, David Toews resigned as Chairman of the CM.B.C. and was succeeded by J . J . Thiessen who i s s t i l l i n that p o s i tion.  David Toews died on February 2 5 , 19k7, a scant four  months a f t e r the l i q u i d a t i o n of the debt had again made him a f r e e man. Prom the beginning  the CM.B.C. r e a l i z e d that the  c o l l e c t i o n of the Reiseschuld would not be an easy task. I t was p r a c t i c a l l y impossible f o r the Board to supervise c l o s e l y the c o l l e c t i o n work i n a l l areas where the new immigrants had settled.  In order to f a c i l i t a t e c o l l e c t i o n s and increase the  e f f i c i e n c y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the new immigrants i n each province were requested £ 0 form  a " P r o v i n c i a l Committee" to  supervise the work of c o l l e c t i o n .  The provinces were then  to be d i v i d e d i n t o d i s t r i c t s each having a Distriktmann  (dis-  t r i c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) , who would be responsible f o r the Reise19  schuld payments i n h i s area.  Of the 200  d i s t r i c t s formed i n  20  Canada, f o r t y - t h r e e were i n A l b e r t a . i t t e e s and the Distriktmaenner 17 Vertreterversammlung, 1939, 18 I b i d . , p. 17. 19 1938, 20 Vertreterversammlung, Vertreterversammlung, I9k5,  The P r o v i n c i a l comm-  were responsible £0 the VerP« 18. p. 11. P« 30•  57  treterversammlung (Representative Meeting), which i n turn was responsible to the CM.B.C. i n Rosthern.  I n most of the l a r -  ger Mennonite settlements, such as Coaldale, an Ortskomitee (Local Committee) was formed to a i d the d i s t r i c t a t i v e i n h i s work.  represent-  In general, the f o l l o w i n g diagram portrays  i n a s i m p l i f i e d way the o r g a n i z a t i o n as i t functioned u n t i l 1914-6:  CANADIAN MENNONITE BOARD OP COLONIZATION PROVINCIAL VER 'RETER VER SAMMLUNG 1  PROVINCIAL COMMITTEES LOCAL COMMITTEES for larger d i s t r i c t s DISTRIKTMANN To finance t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e v y of three d o l l a r s was placed on each immigrant over l 6 years o f age.  This levy  had to be repeated i n 193k, and an a d d i t i o n a l charge of f i f t y cents, i n 1938•  Much trouble was encountered i n c o l l e c t i n g  t h i s levy i n i t s e n t i r g t y . The main f u n c t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , u n t i l I9k7, was  the e l i m i n a t i o n of the C.P.R. debt.  C l o s e l y associated  w i t h t h i s purpose was the e f f o r t to help the Mennonite Immigrants o b t a i n land and s e t t l e i n areas where they would not be i s o l a t e d from others of l i k e ' f a i t h .  As the years  ed, other f u n c t i o n s of an economic and co-operative  progressnature  f e l l to i t s l o t , as w e l l as the s u p e r v i s i o n of r e l i e f work,  58  p a r t i c u l a r l y during and a f t e r World War I I .  21  In f a c t these  l a t t e r duties soon became so Important that on one occasion >  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d , "Gut dass w i r noch d i e Reiseschuld haben, sonst haetten w i r keine Provinzielversammlungen mehr und das waere schade; denn nebenbei besprechen w i r j a noch manche andere F r a g e n . "  I n l a t e r years the P r o v i n c i a l Ver-  22  treterversammlung became the c e n t r a l i z i n g body and u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y f o r most Mennonite endeavors i n A l b e r t a . The f i r s t g i g a n t i c task, however, was the l i q u i d a By 1926 only about 228 c r e d i t con-  t i o n of the C.P.R. debt.  23  t r a c t s had been r e p a i d i n a l l of Canada.  J  The promissory  notes, signed by the immigrants when they entered Canada, were not returned however, because the debt was considered not an i n d i v i d u a l one but the debt of the Mennonite people as a whole.  The Board intended to keep the notes u n t i l the  e n t i r e debt was p a i d .  This step caused much o p p o s i t i o n and  had to be abandoned, ^" 2  and consequently since 1926, promissory  notes were returned when an i n d i v i d u a l paid h i s own share of the Reiseschuld i n f u l l . Payments lagged and the Canadian P a c i f i c expressed concern over the m a t t e r . ^ 2  By J u l y , 1936, the debt p l u s i n -  t e r e s t s t i l l amounted to $ l , k 6 7 , 8 2 3 . 6 0 , of which $232,058.87 was owed by the Mennonites i n A l b e r t a .  Injspite of the  21 These f u n c t i o n s s h a l l be d e a l t w i t h i n l a t e r chapters. 22 Vertreterversammlung, 1939, P'» 29 23 Vertreterversammlung, 1936, p. 28 2[\. Loc. c i t . 25 P r o t o k o l l der Versammlung der Mennoniten Gruppe b e i Coaldale, March 5, 193k. Hereafter r e f e r r e d to as V.M.G. 26 Vertreterversammlung, 1936, p. 26.  59 generous premiums f o r prompt payment, extended to the Mennon i t e s by the C.P.R., i t took A l b e r t a u n t i l the end of 19k5 to l i q u i d a t e h e r debt, and she was the f i r s t province to accomp l i s h this feat.  The f o l l o w i n g table gives a comprehensive  p i c t u r e of payments made and premiums  received i n the province  27  of A l b e r t a : Year Premiums Received 1932  Debt Paid . $-ki-980.5k  *  Interest Paid $  Levy (#3.00) $  Total I k,980.5k  1933  5,k07.k6  5,l+07.k6  1.934  12,3k9.83  I2,3k9.83  1935  1,758.8k  8,771.1k  707.80  kkk.21  9,923.15  1936  2,902.7k  10,253.21  679.85  637.08  ll,570.lk  1937  k,133.62  12,666.85  559.50  502.37  13,728.72  J1938  3,636.23  I0,l82.k7  1,107.31  703.58  11,993.36  1939  2,605.95]  8,033.32  70k.00  965.12  9,702.kk  I9k0  2,180.58  5,913.85  80.85  860.29  6,85k-99  19kl | 13,376.3k  19,356.35  513.50  l,kk2.92  21,312.77  I9k2 |  10,712.76  16,337.62  1,7514.-85  1,502.30  19,59k.77  I9k3  kl,0S7.32 , 35,328.23  3,156.10  1,588.86  kO,073.19  19kk  57,670.39  51,5514-09  2,328.17  1,502.60  55,38k. 86  19k5  12,521.60  10,529.2k  5I+I.O7  978.3k  I2,0k8.65  I9k6  3,392.67  3,020.2k  3,103.^3  1,196.25  7,319.92  T o t a l i 5 5 , 9 k k . o k 21k, 68k. kk  I5,236.k3  12,323.92  2k2,2kk-79  The t o t a l C.P.R. debt p a i d by the Mennonites i n A l b e r t a :  27 Vertre t e r v e r sammlung, D e c , 19k6, p. 39*.  T o t a l debt p a i d  —  $ 229,920.87  Premium Received  1 5 5 , 9 k k . Ok  T o t a l debt covered  385,86k.91  The t o t a l C.P.R. debt p a i d by the Mennonites i n Canada: $ 1,767,398.68  Principal—  180,000.00  Interest  l,9k7,398.68  Total-  This f i g u r e does not include the more than $ 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 28  granted to the Mennonites as premiums by the C.P.R. Why d i d i t take so long to repay the debt?  T  The great m a j o r i t y of the Mennonites at a l l times recognized the moral o b l i g a t i o n to pay, a f a c t that i s c l e a r l y evident when the Mennonite newspapers of the p e r i o d and the reports and minutes of the various o r g a n i z a t i o n s are studied.  Yet  there was a small but stubborn m i n o r i t y who took e i t h e r an i n d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e or even a h o s t i l e stand against the debt and sought every p o s s i b l e escape from t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s .  Even-  t u a l l y some d i d evade payment by an o u t r i g h t r e f u s a l to pay, but i t was at the p r i c e of having the Mennonite p u b l i c opinion against them even though the church ban was not used. The greatest d i f f i c u l t y i n connection w i t h the payment of the Reiseschuld was the depression of the 1930's, which h i t Canada soon a f t e r the immigrants a r r i v e d .  The con-  d i t i o n s during the great depression are f a m i l i a r and need not be discussed here.  S c a r c i t y of jobs, weakness of earning  power, low p r i c e s of farm products, and drought, played havoc w i t h the plans of the Mennonites as they d i d w i t h those of 28 Thiessen J . J . , op. c i t .  61  other people.  During the f i r s t years of the depression the  w i l l i n g n e s s to pay was there, but the p o s s i b i l i t i e s were not. Considering the circumstances i t i s r a t h e r amazing that so .much was p a i d during the time.  The t o t a l debt p a i d by the  Mennonites i n Canada from 1931 to 1935 i n c l u s i v e was #199, 3 6 5 . 5 1 , a f i g u r e that d e f i n i t e l y speaks o f a w i l l to pay, ^ 2  However, i t d i d take the wartime boom to e l i m i n a t e the debt entirely. As was'.mentioned, there were always those who t r i e d to escape payment by d i s c r e d i t a b l e , i f l e g a l means. thod t r i e d was a d e c l a r a t i o n of bankruptcy;3® successful.  One me-  i t was not  Others b e l i e v e d that with the death of the head  of the f a m i l y the Reiseschuld could be buried w i t h him.-^ There I s even record of some debtors who t r i e d to r e t u r n to Germany, although they had promised not to leave Canada u n t i l 32 the debt was p a i d .  J  The CM.B.C. d i d everything i n i t s power  to hinder any attempt to evade making payments.  There were,  of course, those who o u t r i g h t refused to pay. The CM.B.C. had to p o i n t out that the Reiseschuld was not an insured .debt and that i t was not a debt i n the ordinary sense of the term; i t had not a r i s e n through business t r a n s a c t i o n s which looked to a p r o f i t , r a t h e r i t arose through " r e l i e f a c t i o n " aimed at "saving l i v e s . " ^  The debt was to be considered not only as  the debt of an i n d i v i d u a l but also as a debt of the Mennonite s o c i e t y ; not only the head of the f a m i l y was responsible f o r 29 Vertreterversammlung, 1936, p. 26 30 I b i d . , p.~2TjT 31 I b i d . , p. 28. 32 Vertreterversammlung, 1939, P' 17. 33 Vertreterversammlung, 1936, p. 28.  62  i t but the e n t i r e f a m i l y must assume the o b l i g a t i o n . 3k  In A l b e r t a v a r i o u s methods were employed i n order to stimulate payment.  In the Vertreterversammlungen of the  1930's a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the G.M.B.C. was always•present. On most occasions David Toews, Chairman, and C P . Klassen, C o l l e c t o r , gave reports and attempted to s t i m u l a t e enthusiasm. |  The r e p o r t s given u s u a l l y contained more of an emotional appe a l to the "honor of the Mennonites" than a c t u a l f i g u r e s as ~" to the progress made.  This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true of David  Toews; C P . Klassen, as c o l l e c t o r , kept meetings informed of payments made and the amounts s t i l l owing.  Constant s t r e s s  was l a i d i n the f a c t that the C.P.R. c r e d i t had been made p o s s i b l e by the "honorable" dealings of the I87O immigrants w i t h the Canadian government at that time. ^  The C.P.R. debt  was a debt of honor that had to be r e p a i d . 36  I f the Mennon i t e s now f a i l e d to l i v e up to the moral o b l i g a t i o n s i n regard to the present debt, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r h e l p i n g future Mennonite immigrants would be g r e a t l y damaged.  Mr. C P . K l a -  ssen urged that i f large payments were impossible to make then small payments should be made.  This would a t l e a s t bear  witness that the w i l l to pay was there.-" I t was urged that the c h i l d r e n of parents owing the C.P.R., should be made f u l l y aware of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n regard to the Reiseschuld.,  When the c h i l d r e n became of age  ( 1 6 ) , , t h e y were r e q u i r e d to s i g n promissory notes making them3k Loc. c i t .  35 See page 30 of t h i s t h e s i s . 36 Report of David Toewsin Vertre terversammlung, 1935, P« 9» 37 Report of C P . Klassen i n Vertreterversammlung, 1935, P« 8»  '  6  3  selves d i r e c t l y responsible f o r the debt.  In the case of  marriage the husband assumed the debt f o r h i s wife.^8  By  these means a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the debt was passed on to the c h i l d r e n . A - scheme that was I n i t i a t e d i n the e a r l y t h i r t i e s was that of i n s u r i n g the head of the f a m i l y , that i n case of 39  his  death money to pay the debt would be a v a i l a b l e .  This  scheme seems to have been a f a i l u r e f o r i t was given u p . ^ In 1 9 3 2 , ' i t was requested by the Mennonite s e t t l e r s at Goaldale that the C.P.R. be contacted and requested  that a l l pay-  ments on the debt should be used to reduce the p r i n c i p l e , and that no i n t e r e s t be p a i d on the i n t e r e s t . T h e  CM.B.C. was  informed of t h i s wish but there i s no record of a c t i o n being taken regarding i t .  As a l a s t attempt to stimulate payment,  i t was decided to p u b l i s h the names of the f a m i l i e s s t i l l owing as w e l l as the amounts outstanding.^"  2  This step may  have been s u c c e s s f u l i n a minor degree but seemed to c a l l f o r t h more anger than payments. In the l a t e summer of 1937, S i r Edward Beatty was v i s i t i n g Western Canada.  He had plans to v i s i t Calgary and  Lethbridge and expressed the desire to v i s i t a Mennonite s e t t 38 Vertreterversammlung, 1936, p. 28. The w r i t e r r e c a l l s how h i s mother o f t e n prevented the purchase of some desired but unnecessary a r t i c l e w i t h the words, "Kinder, n i c h t ehe d i e Reiseschuld bezahlt i s t . " ( C h i l d r e n , not before the Reiseschuld i s p a i d ) . How many y o u t h f u l hopes were shattered by that wordl 39 Vertreterversammlung, 1938, p. I k liO Loc. c i t . lj.1 V.M.G., Dec. 29, 1932. k.2 V.M.G. , Jan. 27, I 9 k l .  6k lement i n A l b e r t a .  The Mennonite leaders eagerly seized the  opportunity and i t was decided to have S i r Edward,come to Coaldale, the l a r g e s t Mennonite settlement i n A l b e r t a . time was very opportune f o r such a v i s i t .  The  Because of the gen-  e r a l discouragement occassioned by the depression and the apathy of many Mennonites regarding the Reiseschuld, t h i s v i s i t was u t i l i z e d to r e f r e s h the memory of the Mennonite people of t h e i r great escape from Russia.  The leaders also looked to  the future and saw c l e a r l y that the time might come again when the g o o d w i l l of the C.P.R. would be a necessary i e n t of f u t u r e Mennonite migrations.""^  Ingred-  Again, the Mennonites  wanted to show that even i f they had been slow to pay,  they  were t h a n k f u l f o r the great help which had been extended to them by the C.P.R.  I t was a move i n which diplomacy and  thankfulness had an equal share, and to the frayed f i n a n c i a l bonds between the C.P.R. and the Mennonites were now added the bonds of  to be  sentiment.  The s e t t l e r s i n Coaldale a l l remember " S i r Edward Beatty Day" w i t h genuine warmth and thankfulness.  I t i s one  day which w i l l go down i n the h i s t o r y of the Mennonites of A l b e r t a as a high-water mark of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the great company.  Colonel J.S. Dennis, who had been i n r e t i r e -  ment since 1930  i n V i c t o r i a , B.C.,  was a l s o i n v i t e d , and with  him came a number of C.vE.R. o f f i c i a l s i n c l u d i n g W.M. Vice president of the C.P.R.  Neil,  Present also were T.O.P. Herzer,  Chairman of-the Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , Senator Buchanan of A l b e r t a , and-Mr. E l t o n , the Mayor of Lethbrldge. k3 Personal information from B.B.  Janz.  65  On September 1 9 , 1 9 3 7 , these noteables entered the Mennonite Brethern church a t Coaldale, to experience something new. In the speeches which f o l l o w e d , the whole s t o r y o f the Mennonite escape from Russia was reviewed, f i r s t by Rev. B.B. Janz and th en by Rev. David Toews. trayed as the saviour o f the Canada i n the 1 9 2 0 ' s . the ceremony.  20,201  The C.P.R. was por-  Mennonites who had entered  Then came the most impressive p a r t of  Ten Russian born Mennonite g i r l s , aged nine to  twelve, a l l dressed i n white, came to the f r o n t i n p a i r s to where S i r Edward and Colonel Dennis s a t , and each placed a bouquet of flowers at t h e i r f e e t .  I n doing so one s a i d , "You  saved our l i v e s , " the other, "We thank you." ted by each p a i r of g i r l s .  This was repea-  The Mennonitlsche Rundschau, l a t e r  reported, "President Beatty was deeply moved and tears f i l l e d the eyes of Colonel Dennis. " ^ In the address of welcome-Rev. B.B. Janz s a i d , F a i t h f u l prayers o f thousands of our people i n Russia have knocked at the gate of our Heavenly Father, who t r a n s f e r r e d these knocks to the o f f i c e of S i r Edward Beatty and Colonel Dennis, who i n turn allowed t h e i r o f f i c e s to become a house o f God, where the r e s o l u t i o n to save so many l i v e s was passed and c a r r i e d out, an a c t of C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y unequalled i n the h i s t o r y of today. k 5 Following the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the bouquets by the g i r l s , an ..illuminated address was presented to S i r Edward Beatty.  I t read;  I t w i l l be recorded i n the pages of h i s t o r y and engraved on 2 0 , 0 0 0 l i v i n g , g r a t e f u l hearts that the a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway was an e s s e n t i a l and i n d i s p e n s i b l e l i n k i n the kk Mennonitlsche Rundschau, Dec. 1 2 , 1 9 3 8 ' ii-5 Gibbon, op. c i t . , p. 1 8 9 . ko Photographic copy of address obtained from J.B. Janz.  66 chain o f circumstances by which our people were saved from s p i r i t u a l and moral r u i n . Under the guidance of Divine Providence, a door of escape was opened f o r our people by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, and subsequently by the- Government and people of Canada. I n t h i s land of adoption we have found peace, s e c u r i t y , d a i l y bread and a Home. A l l t h i s was accomplished on a b a s i s o f good f a i t h . We on our p a r t s h a l l always endeavour to do a l l i n our power to j u s t i f y the confidence placed i n us, and we hope that the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway and the Government and people of Canada w i l l never have reason to withdraw t h e i r confidence. Our people, men of f a i t h and conscience, w i l l guarantee t h i s . Your personal d e c i s i o n favourable to t h i s movement, esteemed S i r Edward Beatty, was a determining f a c t o r i n the deliverance of our people. Neither the present nor the f u t u r e generations of our people w i l l ever f o r g e t . God be w i t h you. The Mennonite s e t t l e r s at Coaldale, A l b e r t a . September 1 9 t h , 1937. A s i m i l a r address was presented to Colonel Dennis.^ More than 20,000 people who were rescued from a s p i r i t u a l and moral d i s a s t e r remember g r a t e f u l l y , that 15 years ago there sat i n the counc i l s of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway a man who had the v i s i o n and the f a i t h to save a whole people - t o t a l strangers to him - who were f i n a n c i a l l y crushed and ruined. This noble confidence and the a c t of t r a n s p o r t i n g them to Canada, was under the Providence of God, the cause of t h e i r deliverance.. While ravages continue overseas, we here enjoy l i b e r t y , peace, s e c u r i t y , subsistance and a home. Your great confidence i n us, noble Colonel Dennis, as w e l l as that of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, the government and the people of Canada, w i l l not be dishonored by us. Our people, strong i n f a i t h and f a i t h f u l n e s s w i l l vouch f o r that. Your confidence i n us stands out as one of the most g l o r i o u s pages of our h i s t o r y . Never s h a l l we f o r g e t . God be w i t h you. -7  September 1 9 t h , 1937.  The Mennonite s e t t l e r s at Coaldale, A l b e r t a .  Following the p r e s e n t a t i o n of these addresses S i r k7 Photographic copy of address obtained from J.B. Janz.  Edward and Colonel Dennis were asked to speak.  S i r Edward -  s a i d that the manner i n which the Mennonites of Western Canada were repaying t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s was ample j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r what the C.P.R. had done.  He expressed the hope that the  Mennonite communities might continue long to enjoy the homes they were carving out f o r themselves.""^  Colonel Dennis s a i d ,  "May I say i n a l l s i n c e r i t y that I appreciate the sentiments expressed i n t h i s memorial.  I have been associated w i t h the  ® movement of Mennonite people i n t o Western Canada ever since my boyhood.  The f i r s t colonies were brought to Canada because  of a loan of a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s made by the Dominion Government. Every cent of that loan was r e p a i d . " ^  He went on to say that  the f a c t that the loan had been repaid had much to do with h i s being able to persuade S i r Edward to advance some $ 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 to help b r i n g the Mennonite refugees to Canada ten years previously.  The ceremony ended w i t h the s i n g i n g of God Save the  King. The Beatty c e l e b r a t i o n was a diplomatic triumph f o r the Mennonites i n A l b e r t a .  By t h i s i s not meant that the  s e t t l e r s were i n s i n c e r e i n the expression of t h e i r t h a n k f u l ness.  The l a r g e m a j o r i t y had never f o r g o t t e n the debt they  owed to the C.P.R., and the sentiments expressed were sincere. The  c e l e b r a t i o n s t i r r e d the s l u g g i s h consciences of the people,  and many, who u n t i l now had been i n d i f f e r e n t , r e c a l l e d the s u f f e r i n g and the misery of the past and the resolve to l i v e up to t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s was born again.  This i s c l e a r l y seen  by the f a c t that i n 1937 the Mennonites of A l b e r t a p a i d a h8 Canadian P a c i f i c S t a f f B u l l e t i n , Oct. 1, 1937. lj.9 Loc. c i t . Dennis seems to have made an e r r o r . The sum was $100,000.00  68  t o t a l sum of $ 1 3 , 2 2 6 . 3 5 , the highest f i g u r e p a i d i n any one year before 1 9 k l . ^  0 n  "the death of Colonel Dennis on Novem-  ber 26, 1938, and of S i r Edward Beatty on March 23, I9J4.3, deep g r i e f and genuine sympathy were expressed by the Mennonites.  Of Colonel Dennis, Rev. David Toews wrote, "Sie haben  einen guten Mann begraben.  Uns aber war er mehr.  Sentiment alone was not enough and the P r o v i n c i a l Committee had to make renewed e f f o r t s to c o l l e c t the remaining money.  The end of the depression made a marked change i n the  paying a b i l i t i e s o f the Mennonites. "This change i s c l e a r l y evident i n the payments made to the C.P.R. a f t e r 1 9 k l . In 1937, C.P. Klassen made arrangements w i t h the C.P.R. that i f any one of the 200 d i s t r i c t s p a i d t h e i r . e n t i r e debt, a premium of $0% o r more of the i n t e r e s t would.be granted to that area.5^-  This was a new stimulus and the d i s t r i c t s  i n A l b e r t a , under the l e a d e r s h i p o f the P r o v i n c i a l Committee, began to organize i n an e f f o r t to e l i m i n a t e t h e i r e n t i r e debt i n three y e a r s . i t was again stressed that a l l Mennonites were debtors, and that as long as one d o l l a r debt remained the Mennonites of Canada were bound by a moral o b l i g a t i o n . The debt was i n c u r r e d by the Mennonite paid by t h e m . ^  s o c i e t y and must be  The Vertreterversammlung decided that pressure  be brought to bear on debtors to pay i n f u l l .  Some would  still  not pay, but the remaining money was to be c o l l e c t e d from the Mennonite  s o c i e t y at the r a t e of $k5.00 per f a m i l y and thus  the debt was to be l i q u i d a t e d . 50 51 52 53 5k  See t a b l e page 59 -of t h i s t h e s i s . Mennonitlsche Rundschau, Dec. 21, 1938 Vertreterversammlung, 1937, p. 31 Vertreterversammlung, 1938, p. I k Vertreterversammlung, 1937, pp. 7-8  69  Although t h i s p l a n was not completed i n three years, the province of A l b e r t a was the f i r s t to cast o f f the burden of the Reiseschuld. Slowly, by d i s t r i c t s , the debt disappeared. Gem,  ,  55  Rosemary, Duchess, and others, accomplished t h i s i n 19k3.  In 19i|i|., Lindbrook, T o f i e l d , Wembley and La Glace were successful i n their e f f o r t s . ^  On February 9, 19k5> at the Ver-  b  t r e t e r v e r sammlung h e l d at Rosemary, the chairman of the Prov i n c i a l Committee, Mr. A.A.  Toews, announced the l i q u i d a t i o n  of the A l b e r t a Reiseschuld i n the f o l l o w i n g e l a t e d w o r d s , ^  '  ... .Wir wissen e'igentlich g a r n i c h t was uns und euch geworden i s t , nachdem e n d l i c h die grosse Schuldenl a s s t abgewaelzt i s t . Es geht uns so wie i n Psalm 126 geschrieben steht: dann werden w i r s e i n wie die Traeumenden. I s t es w i r k l i c h k e i t , O d e r i s t es nur e i n schoener Traum? Das, was uns vor e t l i c h e n Jahren ganz unmoeglich s c h i e n , i s t j e t z t zur Tatsache ge^ worden: die Provinz A l b e r t a hat a l s solehe keine Reiseschuld mehr der C.P.R. gegenueber und auch die Notenschuld i s t abgetan. Ja, w i r koennen mit Recht ausrufen: Der Herr hat grosses an uns getan, des s i n d w i r f r o e h l i c h . Ihm i n e r s t e r L i n i e a l l e Ehre.  Outside of a few sums overlooked p r e v i o u s l y , the Mennonites of A l b e r t a were f r e e of the p e r s i s t e n t heavy C.P.R. load. l a t e the word Reiseschuld has again a t t a i n e d a respectable place i n the Mennonite vocabulary.  55 Vertre t e r v e r sammlung, 194k» P» llj56 Loc. c i t .  57 Vertreterversammlung, 19k5,  P«  22.  Of  CHAPTER POUR LAND SETTLEMENT POLICIES Throughout t h e i r e n t i r e h i s t o r y the Mennonites have tended to s e t t l e i n groups, and whenever m i g r a t i o n and resettlement have been necessary, as i t o f t e n was, the Mennon i t e leaders endeavoured to o b t a i n land i n "blocks" which would insure group settlement. are simple.  The motives behind group settlement  The Mennonites have always s t r i v e n a t "separation"  from the world and t h i s i n turn meant the Gemeinschaft ( f e l l owship) o f the b e l i e v e r s .  Group settlements, t h e r e f o r e , have  been motivated as much by the d e s i r e to have the f e l l o w s h i p of those of l i k e b e l i e f , as they have been to remain apart from the " s i n f u l " world.  On the p a r t of the Mennonite.s there has  always been the j u s t i f i e d f e a r that unless they s e t t l e d i n homogeneous groups, i t would be impossible to avoid a s s i m i l a t i o n , w i t h , and absorption i n t o , the main stream of the country's culture.  For four-hundred years t h i s has been a domin-  a t i n g p r i n c i p l e of Mennonite group settlement, and i n Canada the p a t t e r n has been l a r g e l y the t r a d i t i o n a l one. Although economic f a c t o r s do p l a y a minor part i n s t i m u l a t i n g the Mennon i t e s to adhere to t h e i r own k i n d , they are only of very minor importance.  In Canada the Mennonites have been l a r g e l y absor-  bed i n an economic sense, but s o c i a l l y and r e l i g i o u s l y they remain an ethnic group.  Pear of l o s i n g t h e i r f a i t h i n the  stream of modern complex c u l t u r e and b e l i e f s has been, and remains, the dominant i n c e n t i v e to Mennonite group settlement. In Canada the desire to s e t t l e i n "closed" commurii-  71 t i e s met w i t h exceptional success. the  As has already been seen,  Mennonite immigrants of the 1870's had blocks of land r e -  served f o r t h e i r s p e c i a l use.  Even today, i n the East and  West reserves i n Manitoba, the Mennonite element i s completely dominant. for  Although such l a r g e areas were never again set aside  the settlement of any p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group, the C.P.R.  and the l a r g e landowners i n Canada were g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s e t t l i n g t h e i r l a r g e t r a c t s of land w i t h groups of people. The work of settlement which was attempted by the CM.B.C. was accelerated by the p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s of the r a i l w a y company and l a r g e landowners.  The pre-war and wartime booms were  things of the p a s t , and the large landowners i n the Canadian West were "eager to reduce or s e l l e n t i r e l y , t h e i r large h o l d ings.  There were only two a l t e r n a t i v e s : e i t h e r to cut up the  large land areas and s e l l to i n d i v i d u a l s or to s e l l e n t i r e holdings to groups of f a m i l i e s .  The l a t t e r method was p r e f e r r -  ed as being simpler and cheaper f o r the vendor and more promising of success f o r the fundless Mennonite s e t t l e r s . the  Since  C.P.R. was concerned to make the Mennonite c o l o n i z a t i o n i n  the West a success, they also favored t h i s method.  The Menno-  n i t e s had no o b j e c t i o n ; f o r them I t was an answer to prayer. The d e s i r e of the Mennonites to l i v e i n groups has often l e d uninformed observers to accuse them of tendencies toward communism.  Nothing could be more erroneous.  The  average Mennonite I s an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h the best of them, and communism has no appeal f o r him whatever.  Co-operation w i t h  persons of h i s own f a i t h has always been near to the Mennonite  72  h e a r t — b u t communism never has.  Rarely i s property owned  communally among the Mennonites, and then only where conditions make i t necessary to use the communal form i n order to make the beginnings somewhat e a s i e r .  The Mennonite i s an i n d i v i d u a l  w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c d e s i r e f o r complete personal freedom w i t h i n the l i m i t s of h i s own group. e  The m a j o r i t y of the newcomers of the 1 9 2 0 ' s , s e t t l e d  on C.P.R. lands, or lands found f o r them by the C.P.R. and i t s a f f i l i a t e d organizations.  James B. Hedges, i n h i s book B u i l d -  i n g the Canadian West, has c l e a r l y and a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y t o l d the story of the c o l o n i z a t i o n of the Canadian West through the e f f o r t s of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company.""" The Company, i n close co-operation w i t h the Canadian Mennonite Board"of C o l o n i z a t i o n , put f o r t h every e f f o r t to make the Mennonite c o l o n i z a t i o n scheme a success.  The Company also maintained  the Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n as a "medium f o r the settlement of p r i v a t e l a n d , "  and i n order to achieve a greater  harmony and u n i t y i n the work of s e t t l i n g the Mennonites, the Mennonite Land Settlement Board was organized, which, although containing A Mennonite member, was dominated and d i r e c t e d by Colonel Dennis of the C.P.R.  The Mennonites as a s o c i e t y , at  a l l times lacked a w e l l defined settlement p o l i c y , a f a c t that was to work i n a deterimental way on the plans .and hopes of the Canadian Mennonite Board of C o l o n i z a t i o n .  The element  of planning which d i d e x i s t was a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the organ1 Hedges, J.B.. B u i l d i n g the Canadian West, The Land and Colo n i z a t i o n P o l i c i e s of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, New York, The Macmillan Co., 1939, PP. 37Q-377. 2 I b i d . , p. 370  73  i z a t i o n under the d i r e c t i o n of the C.P.R' i t s e l f . 3 I t i s evident that the C.P.R. has been the most important f a c t o r In the settlement of the lands i n the Canadian West.  A f t e r the completion of the r a i l w a y , the company had  25,000,000 acres o f crown lands to dispose of and consequently desired to create i n the West a r i c h and productive  farming  community which would f u r n i s h t r a f f i c f o r the company's struggling r a i l lines.  To a i d i n t h i s venture and to meet the de-  mands o f c o l o n i z a t i o n , the Department of C o l o n i z a t i o n was f o r med i n 1916 w i t h Colonel J.S. Dennis at i t s head.  In 1930  t h i s name was changed to Department of Immigration and C o l o n i zation.^" In s e l e c t i n g the land subsidy which the C.P.R. was to r e c e i v e f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g the r a i l w a y , the company was'vbbl i g e d to accept areas which were not " f a i r l y f i t f o r s e t t l e ment."^  As f a r as the lands i n A l b e r t a were concerned, the  C.P.R. declined to accept the area along the main l i n e between Moose Jaw and the mountains because the land was too dry and therefore u n f i t f o r settlement.  By 1903 not a l l land had been  s e l e c t e d and the government issued an order that the balance of the land grant must be s e l e c t e d before the end o f that year, the d e f i c i e n c y at that time being 3 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 a c r e s .  0  The poss-  i b i l i t i e s of i r r i g a t i o n i n the dry b e l t i n A l b e r t a had been i n v e s t i g a t e d under the d i r e c t i o n of J.S. Dennis, then the I n 3 See Appendix B p. II C o l l e y , J . , "Company C o l o n i z a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s A i d Settlement of the Dominion", Canadian P a c i f i c S t a f f B u l l e t i n , March 1, 19I4.0, p. 6.  5 P o r t e r , S.G., "The Canadian P a c i f i c Land Grants and t h e i r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , Canadian P a c i f i c S t a f f B u l l e t i n , Feb., 1,  7k  spector of Surveys f o r the Dominion Government.  The i n v e s t i -  gation showed that p o t e n t i a l f e r t i l e lands were t r i b u t a r y to the St. Mary's and Bow r i v e r s east of Calgary. The C.P.R. accepted t h i s block of land and decided to b u i l d i r r i g a t i o n 7  works to serve i t . The e n t i r e i r r i g a t i o n block was subsequently d i v i ded i n t o three sections known as Eastern, C e n t r a l , and W e S t lS  em  sections.  Although 'the c e n t r a l s e c t i o n i s only now being  f i t t e d out w i t h i r r i g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s the Eastern and Western sections were soon completed.  The Western s e c t i o n comprises  1,002,3.0k. actes with 218,980 under i r r i g a t i o n . ^  The cost of  the I r r i g a t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n i n these two sections amounted to |18,000,000.  In 1912, the C.P.R. purchased the A l b e r t a Railway  and I r r i g a t i o n Company system, which l i e s d i r e c t l y south of the main C.P.R. i r r i g a t i o n b l o c k .  1 0  This area was f i r s t developed  by the Alber/ta Railway and I r r i g a t i o n Company and i s the o l d est i r r i g a t i o n area of any s i z e i n Canada.  I t was opened f o r  operation i n 1900. Thus two types of farming land were opened to the Mennonites when they came west i n the 1 9 2 0 ' s - - i r r i g a t e d land and dry land.  Being u n f a m i l i a r w i t h i r r i g a t i o n the pioneer  Mennonites p r e f e r r e d the dry l a n d , but i t was i n e v i t a b l e that some would come i n t o contact w i t h i r r i g a t e d land.  In 192k the  s e t t l e r s bought land at Didsbury and T o f i e l d , both s i t u a t e d i n 7 Loc. c i t . See map page 7 6 . 8 I r r i g a t i o n Farming i n Sunny A l b e r t a , 1925, P. 2. 9 P o r t e r , op. c i t . , p. 10 See map page 7 6 . 11 I r r i g a t i o n Farming i n Sunny A l b e r t a , p. 3«  75  dry areas, while the i r r i g a t i o n area around Lethbridge was f i r s t neglected.  Slowly the Mennonites also' penetrated  at  the  i r r i g a t i o n b l o c k s , not as farmers at f i r s t , but as l a b o r e r s i n the sugar beet f i e l d s .  Soon farms were bought and r e g u l a r  Mennonite homes e s t a b l i s h e d . The s u p e r i o r i t y of the i r r i g a t i o n land over dry land was proven i n the next decade when drought brought the dry land s e t t l e r s to the verge of s t a r v a t i o n while the s e t t l e r s .in the i r r i g a t e d areas prospered.  Since the ear-  l y t h i r t i e s the movement of Mennonites to i r r i g a t e d land has been p e r s i s t e n t and today the l a r g e r p o r t i o n of them are s i t u ated on i r r i g i b l e land.  Most of the settlements i n the dry  areas have remained small while the reverse has been the case i n the i r r i g a t i o n b l o c k s .  In the dry land the c h i e f areas of  Mennonite settlement are Didsbury and T o f i e l d .  Smaller s e t t -  lements are found east of the Calgary-Edmonton l i n e and i n the Peace R i v e r area.  In the I r r i g a t i o n areas the Main Mennonite  settlements are Coaldale, Rosemary, Gem,  Vauxhall, Brooks and  Duchess. Group settlements were e s t a b l i s h e d i n A l b e r t a as w e l l as i n the other western provinces.  Large t r a c t s of land,  owned by wheat farmers or c a t t l e ranchers, were rented or s o l d to groups of Mennonite f a m i l i e s , who  then worked the land on  a communal b a s i s , at l e a s t f o r the f i r s t few years.  This  scheme met w i t h a f a i r amount of success but also had i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s , the main ones being the i n d i v i d u a l i t y and the independence of the s e t t l e r s .  One such group settlement was made  i n the Carseland-Namaka-Strathmore d i s t r i c t where, i n  1925,  77  the Russian Mennonites took over a l a r g e t r a c t of land from the George Lane Company L t d . , Calgary.  The land was to be p a i d  f o r with one h a l f the crop produced i n a p e r i o d of ten years. The work i n the e a r l y years was of n e c e s s i t y done communally, and the machinery bought and the b u i l d i n g s erected i n the same manner.  As among a l l good i n d i v i d u a l i s t s d i f f e r e n c e s of  opinion soon brought f r i c t i o n .  When one farmer wanted to  leave work f o r a day and go to Calgary, the r e p l y was, "Wann ena no Calgary f o e t , dann w e l l wi a u l l a f o e r e . " ( I f one goes to Calgary, then we a l l go).. As soon as p o s s i b l e the land was d i v i d e d among the f a m i l i e s and g r a d u a l l y i n d i v i d u a l farms arose u n t i l today the communal system here has e n t i r e l y d i s appeared.  Although many f a m i l i e s from here have moved away,  mainly to B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s area s t i l l contains a prosperous Mennonite settlement. A s i m i l a r story can be t o l d of the Wembley d i s t r i c t . The Russian Mennonites a r r i v e d i n Swalwell i n 1925,  where they  spent the winter under the care of the e a r l i e r Mennonite s e t t lers.  Land scouts were sent out and had no d i f f i c u l t y i n  making arrangements to purchase a ranch of twenty-two quarters, w i t h 1000 acres under c u l t i v a t i o n , from the Adair Ranch Company.  The deal was made f o r $18.00 per acre w i t h machinery,  to be p a i d by h a l f the crop i n f i f t e e n years at li% i n t e r e s t f o r the f i r s t two years and 6% f o r the remaining time. t o t a l purchase p r i c e was $ 6 3 , 3 5 0 . 0 0 .  The  Contrary to Mennonite  p r a c t i c e t h i s purchase was made soley by the group concerned 12 Questionnaire.  78 without assistance or d i r e c t i o n by the Mennonite Land S e t t l e ment Board.  The l a t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n immediately informed 1J3  other immigrants not to purchase land independently.  The  f i r s t two years the land was worked communally but i n 1927 i t was p a r c e l l e d out to the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s .  Today very few  s c a t t e r e d Mennonite f a m i l i e s s t i l l l i v e i n the area. In the Didsbury area another group of eleven fami l i e s comprising seventy-four i n d i v i d u a l s , s e t t l e d on the Burns Ranch.  As i n other p l a c e s , the work was s t a r t e d on a  communal* b a s i s and l a t e r d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l farms.  These  cases show c l e a r l y that a community of goods i s not desired by the Mennonites, although they w i l l " t o l e r a t e " such conditions i f necessity dictates.  The settlements at Irma, Crowfoot,  Rosemary, Countess and many others were f i r s t s e t t l e d by groups, many of whom p r a c t i c e d communal ownership i n the f i r s t years. This was done to insure progress while supplying the means of . a t t a i n i n g independence.  The l a r g e t r a c t s could be bought at  cheaper p r i c e s than the then e x i s t i n g small farms.  In A l b e r t a  today there i s not one case of communal ownership of land among the Mennonites. ^" 1  The settlement of the Mennonites -on the land was  15 one. of the main f u n c t i o n s of the Mennonite P r o v i n c i a l Committee. Under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the Vertreterversammlung (Representat i v e Meeting of the Mennonites i n A l b e r t a ) , i t watched over the 13 Vertreterversammlung, 193b, p. 11. Ik Community of goods i s p r a c t i c e d by the H u t t e r i t e s , but they are not Mennonites. 15 The other functions was the c o l l e c t i o n of the Reiseschuld. See chapter three of t h i s t h e s i s .  79  r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l development of the i n f a n t s e t t lements.  This c o n t r o l , however, was very l i m i t e d , c o n s i s t i n g  mainly of reports and recommendations to the areas and the Committee had no f o r c e but persuasion to see that i t s recommendations were c a r r i e d out.  I t s suggestions - consisted mainly  of encouragement to e s t a b l i s h R e l i g i o u s and German schools on Saturday, and the establishment of a German l i b r a r y .  When a  settlement found i t s e l f i n d i f f i c u l t economic s t r a i t s , a r e c ommendation •for f i n a n c i a l help was u s u a l l y brought at the next Vertreterversammlung.  Large group settlements were recommen-  ded and Mennonites who were l i v i n g alone i n i s o l a t e d areas were 1  b  constantly urged to r e s e t t l e i n Mennonite centres. During the-years 1925 to 1932 Mr. Jacob  Gerbrandt  was the A l b e r t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the Mennonite Land Settlement Board.  Through h i s o f f i c e i n Lethbridge he was kept informed  of the settlement p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the province.  E f f o r t s were  made to s e t t l e the Mennonites on land as soon as p o s s i b l e and l a n d l e s s f a m i l i e s were encouraged, and o f t e n aided, to rent or 17 buy farms.  Coaldale has always had the l a r g e s t number of  l a n d l e s s Mennonite f a m i l i e s of any area i n A l b e r t a , the reason probably being that those wishing to take up farming i n the province"chose Coaldale as a stopover u n t i l land was found. In a d d i t i o n , the i r r i g a t i o n area, and the large acreage sown' to sugar beets, provided these f a m i l i e s w i t h s u f f i c i e n t work while they waited. In 1932 there were f i f t y - o n e l a n d l e s s fara16 Vertreterversammlung, 1935, P« 11, and 1938, p. J. 17 V.M.G., Oct. 23, 192.9.  80 X8 i l i e s i n Coaldale alone. T r a d i t i o n a l l y the Mennonites belong to the land and the l a r g e number o f f a m i l i e s without farms caused g r e a t concern. large. out  There were reasons, however, why the number was so Since most of the s e t t l e r s had come from R u s s i a with-  funds, the l a c k o f money was the g r e a t e s t cause o f f a i l u r e 19  to  purchase farms.  The d e p r e s s i o n o f f e r e d  to  better their finances.  little.opportunity  Many o f the areas a v a i l a b l e f o r  settlement i n the 1930's could n o t be accepted by the Mennon i t e s because o f the l a r g e amount of cash necessary f o r purchase.  I n 1 9 3 ° the P r o v i n c i a l Committee r e p o r t e d t h a t good  i r r i g a t i o n l a n d n o r t h east of C o a l d a l e , was a v a i l a b l e f o r $ k 5 . 0 0 to $$0.00  per acre.  A cash payment o f 20% was r e q u i r e d  and because o f t h i s the land c o u l d not be purchased f o r Menno-  20 n i t e purposes. In  Rev. B.B. Janz r e p o r t e d that, l a n d was  a v a i l a b e near the Athabasca R i v e r , n i n e t y m i l e s n o r t h o f Edmonton.  The terms were f a v o r a b l e , b e i n g $ 1 0 . 0 0 down payment  and fkO.OO when the t i t l e was r e c e i v e d .  But t h i s area was  homestead l a n d and to the Mennonites who were acquainted with the  w e l l equipped farms i n Southern A l b e r t a , the thought of  c l e a r i n g bush and b r e a k i n g l a n d was n o t very a t t r a c t i v e . ^ 1 . The p i o n e e r s p i r i t seemed to be l a c k i n g and escape was sought from the r i g o r s of p i o n e e r l i f e .  A t about t h i s time a s e t t l e -  ment was s t a r t e d at Irma, but a f t e r long y e a r s o f drought and 18V.M.G.. Dec. 2 9 , 1932. 19 Vertreterversammlung, 1937, P« 12. 20 V.M.G., Nov. 8, 193021 V.M.G.. March 19, 1 9 3 k .  81  h a i l , very few Mennonite f a m i l i e s remain i n the area.  Good  open land required much cash, i n f e r i o r homestead land was  not  d e s i r e d , and the number of l a n d l e s s f a m i l i e s grew. The l a c k of u n i t y among the Mennonites themselves, regarding the best settlement p o l i c y , was  in itself a  t a l f a c t o r i n the Mennonite land settlement p o l i c y .  detrimenThere was  a c l e a r d i v i s i o n of thought regarding group settlement.  The  CM.B.C. and the p r o v i n c i a l organizations emphasized the nece s s i t y o f co-operative e f f o r t s i n which land was found and s e t t l e d by the Mennonite s o c i e t y as a whole; others thought that the search f o r land was only.  the concern of the i n d i v i d u a l  Although t h i s d i f f e r e n c e caused d i f f i c u l t i e s , and  the  group scheme often s u f f e r e d because of l a c k of i n t e r e s t on the p a r t of the s e t t l e r s , the co-operative method has enjoyed the greatest p o p u l a r i t y and success.  The i n d i v i d u a l i s t s received  a great boost i n t h e i r views when i n 1937, man  of the CM.B.C., discouraged  David Toews, c h a i r -  over the many f a i l u r e s of  t h i s branch of the Boards a c t i v i t i e s , stated-that perhaps i t was. b e t t e r that people f i n d land independently  of Mennonite  22  organizations.  The settlements which found t h e i r  beginnings  i n the co-operative method have been mostly s u c c e s s f u l , although a few f a i l u r e s can be noted. The Mennonite settlement at Blue Ridge was founded i n 193l|.-1935, and c o n s i s t e d o r i g i n a l l y of s i x f a m i l i e s comp r i s i n g t h i r t y i n d i v i d u a l s . The settlement, s i t u a t e d on the south bank of the Athabasca r i v e r north-west of Edmonton, con-. s i s t e d of homestead land and o r i g i n a l pioneer conditions e x i s 22 Vertreterveraammlung, 1937,  p.  82 ted.  Constant appeals f o r help were made to the V e r t r e t e r v e r -  sammlung, w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis being put upon the n e c e s s i t y of more s e t t l e r s i f the success of the settlement was to be assured.  New s e t t l e r s d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e and i n 1 9 3 7 the 23  area was closed to f u r t h e r homesteading by the government. ^ The r e s i d e n t Mennonite s e t t l e r s were l e f t i s o l a t e d and by 191+2 only two f a m i l i e s remained.  Today there are no Mennonite  s e t t l e r s i n the area. The story of Blue Ridge i s not t y p i c a l but i t portrays developments i n c e r t a i n other areas as w e l l . Castor, Crowfoot, Beaverlodge,  In Irma,  Provost, Munson, New Brigden,  Monitor, Pawson Creek (B.C.), Gundy (B.C.) and Pouce Coup small Mennonite settlements grew up i n the t h i r t i e s , but t o day they have e i t h e r died out e n t i r e l y or contain only a few Mennonite. f a m i l i e s .  Most of the s e t t l e r s i n these areas soon  became discouraged because o f the severe c o n d i t i o n s or because t h e i r crops e i t h e r dryed, f r o z e or were h a i l e d out, and most moved to the southern p a r t o f the province, or to B r i t i s h Columbia. During World War I I , a l l active, attempts at opening new Mennonite settlements ceased because of the unfavorable a t t i t u d e of the general p u b l i c to Mennonite land expansion. The Mennonites considered the s i t u a t i o n serious enough without aggravating i t by excessive land a c q u i s i t i o n s .  In  191+1*  ever, a new settlement was s t a r t e d just n o r t h of Gem,  how-  and was  named New Gem. This p r o j e c t was c a r r i e d through because a r r angements had been s t a r t e d p r i o r to the w a r , ^ but were comple23 I b i d . , p . 1 1 . " 21+ Vertre t e r v e r sammlung, 191+1, P'» 1 9 ' 2  83  ted. only i n lQl+l when fourteen Mennonite f a m i l i e s s e t t l e d there on- bought land,  I n s p i t e of the help extended to the  new s e t t l e r s by the Eastern I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t  and the  Mennonite s o c i e t y i n general, the settlement f a i l e d to grow and the farms were l o s t through l a c k of payment.  Today the  settlement here does not e x i s t . Since World War I I only one l a r g e settlement proj e c t has been undertaken by the Mennonites of A l b e r t a , not y e t completed.  It is  The Canada Land and I r r i g a t i o n Company  had, since the war, been preparing a block of land f o r i r r i gation i n the C e n t r a l I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t of the o l d C.P.R. 26  block.  In 19k9, they informed the Mennonite P r o v i n c i a l  Committee that the land would be ready f o r settlement w i t h i n two y e a r s . ^  7  The Committee immediately gathered l i s t s of app-  l i c a n t s who d e s i r e d to take up land In the area. 1951, there were 3^5 Mennonite a p p l i c a n t s l i s t e d .  By August, The pro-  j e c t had not been completed i n the time announced and the area had not been opened to date.  The l a t e s t information regarding  t h i s area was received on August 11, 1952, when H.C.P. Cresw e l l , ^ Head of the Department of Immigration and C o l o n i z a t i o n 2  for  the C.P.B., s t a t e d that the area would not be ready u n t i l  195i+-, and then, p r i o r i t y would be given to veterans of World War I I and dryed out farmers from Saskatchewan.  When the de-  mands of these two groups had been met general a p p l i c a t i o n s from A l b e r t a would be accepted. 25 Loc; c i t . 26 See map page 76. 27 P r o t o k o l l des Mennoniten P r o v i n z i e l e s H i l f s k o m i t e e , Sept. 21, 1 9 k l , Hereafter noted as M.P.H. 28 M.P.H., Aug. 15, 1951. 29 On a v i s i t to Rev. B.B. Janz on that date.  8k Mention should be made of the Mennonite A g r i c u l t u r a l Society e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 9 i n A l b e r t a f o r the purpose of supplying funds, on a loan b a s i s , to those Mennonites wishi n g to buy land but l a c k i n g the f i n a n c i a l means to do so. Society as a whole was  The  a f a i l u r e because i t lacked the c o n f i -  dence of the general Mennonite p u b l i c .  The Society was  later  l i q u i d a t e d and a C r e d i t Union was formed on a sound f i n a n c i a l basis.  The  l a t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n had extended l a r g e sums to  Mennonites and s t i l l e x i s t s as one of the s u c c e s s f u l Mennonite endeavours.3^ Perhaps i f the Mennonites had not attempted to organize a body to supervise the settlement of Mennonites on land, the f a i l u r e of t h e i r planned land settlement would not be so obvious.  I t Is true that these people d i d tend to s e t t l e  i n groups, but t h i s was  not the r e s u l t of a conscious p o l i c y  on the p a r t of the Mennonites, but rather the consequence of a n a t u r a l adhesion of the Mennonite f o r h i s own people, and the f r u i t s of the e f f o r t s of the C.P.R. and the Canada Colonization Association.  The Mennonites on t h e i r own lacked the  u n i t y necessary f o r success i n t h i s f i e l d , and the few  settle-  ments such as Blue Ridge, which were e s t a b l i s h e d as a r e s u l t of a defined and supported p o l i c y , often proved a f a i l u r e .  No  small i n g r e d i e n t i n t h i s f a i l u r e i s the e s s e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the average Mennonite who  i s w i l l i n g to bear the consequences  of h i s own misjudgement but cannot f o r g e t i f h i s I l l f o r t u n e i s due -to someone e l s e ! 3 0 These organizations are d e a l t w i t h more f u l l y i n chapter V.  CHAPTER FIVE ECONOMIC ASPECTS  Economic co-operation  among the Mennonites has i t s  o r i g i n i n two f a c t o r s which a r i s e out o f the nature o f the Mennonite r e l i g i o n .  Co-operation I s looked upon as an a i d  i n keeping the Mennonite people close adherents to t h e i r group i n a s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l sense.  To the Mennonite r e -  l i g i o u s t i e s economic ones have been added. n i t e s co-operation  Among the Menno-  l a r g e l y takes the nature o f " r e l i e f " , i n  that many economic s e r v i c e s are o f f e r e d by organizations which do not look to a p r o f i t but are concerned w i t h extending these s e r v i c e s a t as low a cost as p o s s i b l e .  This l a t t e r f a c t  makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r the Mennonites i n A l b e r t a to receive Health Insurance, F i r e Insurance, and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s f o r a much lower p r i c e than would be p o s s i b l e by ordinary companies.  insurance  Such organizations as the Co-operative Cheese  Factory and the C r e d i t Union are e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the same purposes.  The men serving on the executives and i n the Comm-  i t t e e s of these organizations do so w i t h only small f i n a n c i a l remuneration, and often none a t a l l .  Only t r a v e l expenses  and operating expenses of the members are p a i d f o r . In studying the economic phases of Mennonite l i f e i n A l b e r t a a few evident f a c t s have to be taken i n t o consideration.  The f i r s t i s that the Mennonites are an a g r i c u l -  t u r a l people and, not i n c l u d i n g the l a t e s t immigrants, about Q$f l i v e on f a r m s . 1 0  1  Questionnaire.  This i s as i t always has been and as the  86 Mennonite leaders d e s i r e i t . The second f a c t i s that In matters of economic o r g a n i z a t i o n there i s a c l e a r r i f t  between  the Mennonite s e t t l e r s who came i n the f i r s t movement to the West and the ones who came i n the immigration of the 1920's. In s p i r i t u a l matters there i s sympathy and co-operation but on n o n - s p i r i t u a l  l i n e s the two groups remain d i s t i n c t .  The  e a r l i e r group has few a c t i v i t i e s that are not c o n t r o l l e d by the church.  The a t t i t u d e of the Old Mennonites to pools and 2  co-operatives has already been i n d i c a t e d .  I t has remained to  the l a t e r immigrants to b u i l d economic o r g a n i z a t i o n s to serve their society,  and i t w i l l be to the l a t e r immigrants that  emphasis s h a l l be given throughout t h i s chapter. The reasons f o r t h i s d i v i s i o n i n the economic f i e l d are not too c l e a r but c e r t a i n observations can be made. The general a t t i t u d e  of the Old Mennonites to economic co-op-  e r a t i v e s has already been mentioned and i s , perhaps, the best answer to t h i s question. however.  There are other f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d ,  Most of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s which have been founded  among the Mennonites as a whole are d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y responsible to the Vertreterversammlung, many having t h e i r o r i g i n i n t h i s body.  The Vertreterversammlung came to l i f e  i n 1928 and was concerned w i t h two main problems:  Reiseschuld  and Settlement. Both of these problems had no i n t e r e s t to the Old Mennonites because they were not concerned i n those matters. Consequently the Vertreterversammlungen were not attended by the Old Mennonites nor by the United Missionary Church or the  Church of God i n C h r i s t , and no part was taken i n t h i s  2 See page  Jfrfof  this  thesis.  87  organization.  During World War I I and immediately f o l l o w i n g  i t the Old Mennonites d i d attend the meetings; but then the common problems of m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e and r e l i e f work temporarily gave a l l Mennonite groups the shadow of a common ground upon which to meet.  To some extent, therefore, the basis of non-  co-operation between these two groups l i e s i n the l a c k of common problems. One has to look a b i t deeper, however, i f the true nature of t h i s economic r i f t between the various Mennon i t e denominations i s to be understood.  The Old Mennonites  have been i n America since 1683 and have always been a mino r i t y group i n a s o c i e t y that was p r o g r e s s i v e and enjoyed economic l e a d e r s h i p .  Prom the e a r l y years they have taken  advantage of the l o c a l businesses and i n d u s t r i e s and d i d not f i n d i t necessary to co-operate as a group i n order to have economic s e r v i c e s extended to them.  The i n d i v i d u a l i s m of the  American f r o n t i e r also played i t s p a r t i n the l i f e of the Mennonites.  The group from Russia has had a d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r y .  In that country the Mennonites enjoyed a much higher standard of l i v i n g and c u l t u r e than t h e i r Russian neighbors. The Russian peasants, f o r centuries suppressed by despotic r u l e r s , had l o s t a l l i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e and were content to l i v e t h e i r l i f e of dependency upon the a r i s t o c r a c y .  I n order to  have the necessary economic f a c i l i t i e s to ensure progress the Mennonites had to b u i l d them on t h e i r own. The wide powers of self-government granted to the Mennonites i n Russia enabled them to supply t h e i r own needs.  W i t h i n seventy years a f t e r  88 t h e i r founding i n southern Russia the Mennonite settlements were blooming w i t h f l o u r milllfl, f a c t o r i e s of various kinds, and other economic establishments.  In order to a t t a i n t h i s  economic l e a d e r s h i p i t was necessary that economic co-operation become a r e a l i t y .  This s p i r i t of co-operation among themselves  has not been l o s t by these people and has been c a r r i e d over i n t o Canada. In A l b e r t a t h i s co-operative movement got underway about the year 1927, when the Mennonite s e t t l e r s around Coaldale began h o l d i n g r e g u l a r meetings o f , a l l Mennonite regardless of denomination,  immigrants,  f o r the purpose of mutual a i d and  the s o l u t i o n of common problems.3  i n 1928 t h i s movement was  expanded to a p r o v i n c i a l scale and the Vertreterversammlung came i n t o existence to a c t as the "Assembly" of Mennonite economic and r e l i e f e f f o r t s i n the province.  The f r u i t s of t h i s  movement can now be seen i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the various economic and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which have t h e i r o r i g i n i n t h i s co-operative e f f o r t . Oneof the e a r l i e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s to be formed by the Mennonite group a t Coaldale was the Doktor V e r e i n (Doct o r Society) i n 1926 when a contract was entered i n t o w i t h Dr. W.S. G a l b r a i t h of Lethbridge, who agreed to render a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s to the members of the s o c i e t y and t h e i r f a m i l i e s f o r a monthly f e e of $1.0©per family.^" The purpose of the s o c i e t y was to extend medical s e r v i c e s to the Mennon i t e s a t a p r i c e payable by the average s e t t l e r . 5  ^he s o c i e t y  3 V.M'.G.. Nov. 1, 1927. k V.M.G., Dec. 2 2 , 1928 5 "Statutes of the S o c i e t y " given i n V.M.G.. Jan. 9 , 19^2.  89 s t a r t e d w i t h twenty-five members but membership grew r a p i d l y and today 2k0 f a m i l i e s are l i s t e d as members.  I n 1932 a con-  t r a c t was secured -with the Gait H o s p i t a l i n Lethbridge and h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s were extended a t a much lower rate than previously.  This contract expired and a new one was made w i t h 7  the St. Michaels H o s p i t a l i n Lethbridge.  The need f o r a l o c a l  Mennonite doctor was keenly f e l t because many of the s e t t l e r s could not speak E n g l i s h s u f f i c i e n t l y to make themselves understood. In 1933 Dr» D.L. Epp, a Mennonite, declared  himself  8  w i l l i n g to serve the community on a contract b a s i s .  A Menno-  n i t e graduate nurse, Miss Helen Martens, next suggested that Coaldale was prosperous enough to be able to support.a Mennonite Hospital.  The r e s u l t was the formation  i n 193k of the  Coaldale Mennonite H o s p i t a l S o c i e t y , and the founding of a Q  three bed h o s p i t a l i n a vacant b u i l d i n g .  The Society has  grown, has acquired a twelve bed h o s p i t a l b u i l d i n g and i s served a t present by a doctor of Japanese e x t r a c t i o n , Dr. Okamura. The membership i n the s o c i e t y i s r e s t r i c t e d to Mennonite fam. , , 1 0 llies. C l o s e l y a k i n to the Doctor and H o s p i t a l s o c i e t i e s i s the Beerdigung3kass"e ( B u r i a l Fund) which was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1928  f o r the purpose of p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r the b u r i a l  of the deceased. ^" 1  I n 1952 the r e g i s t r a t i o n fee was f i f t y  cents per f a m i l y and a levy of $2.00 f o r every ten deaths b V.M.G., A p r i l 5 , 1932. 7 Loc. c i t . 8 y?M.G.. Oct. 1, 1933. 9 V.M.G., Sept. 2k, 1 9 3 1 M 10 V.M.G., Nov. 1 8 , 1935- VJLG., Jan. 9 , 19k2. 11 Statutes of the Mennonite B u r i a l Fund Society.  90  making a demand on the treasury.  The sums paid out i n case  of a death are $90.00 f o r adults and $50.00 f o r c h i l d r e n . 12  under ten years of age.  I n 1951 t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n had a  t o t a l membership of k21 f a m i l i e s and seemed f i n a n c i a l l y sound ^ 1  The Mennonite F i r e Insurance Society has a unique h i s t o r y of i t s own. I n 1927, the Mennonite s e t t l e r s of A l b e r t a decided to j o i n the Canadian Mennonite Mutual F i r e Insurance Company, which had i t s headquarter i n Plum Coullee, Manitoba!^" This o r g a n i z a t i o n was not a commercial business l o o k i n g f o r a p r o f i t , but had been undertaken f o r the purpose of p r o v i d i n g a r e l i e f program i n the insurance f i e l d .  In the next few  years f o u r d i s t r i c t s were organized i n A l b e r t a and a l l Mennon i t e s were urged to j o i n the company.  The company was not  r e g i s t e r e d o r incorporated. In I9k2 the company was r e g i s t e r e d i n Manitoba by the p r o v i n c i a l government and one of the requirements f o r t h i s step was that i t s a c t i v i t i e s be confined to the p r o v i n c i a l boundaries.  A short time l a t e r Saskatchewan took a sim-  i l a r step and A l b e r t a found i t s e l f l e f t a l o n e . , T h e only s o l u t i o n was to organize on a p r o v i n c i a l basis and t h i s was done by the formation of the A l b e r t a Mennonite F i r e Insurance Society.  1 0  The province r e t a i n e d the previous four d i s t r i c t s ,  Coaldale, Rosemary, Didsbury, and Peace  R i v e r , each w i t h a 17  representative on the executive of the Society. ' 12 Loc. c i t .  13 Vertreterversammlung, 1951, P» II4lk V.M.G., Dec. 30. 1927. 15 P r o t o k o l l des Brandaeltesten, Aug.  10, 19I4.3.  16 Vertreterversammlung, Nov. 191+3, pp. 22-23. 17 Loc. c i t .  91  The question, of i n c o r p o r a t i o n was  immediately  discussed and s t a t u t e s were drawn up and submitted v i n c i a l government.  to the pro-  Government o f f i c i a l s , however, advised  against i n c o r p o r a t i o n because t h i s step would n e c e s s i t a t e the s o c i e t y to meet c e r t a i n conditions as w e l l as face higher costs of operation.  The Mennonites were assured that as long  as 'the s o c i e t y stayed w i t h i n the boundaries of " r e l i e f "  and  showed no p r o f i t no obstacles would be put i n i t s way by the government.  Although Incorporation was waived on the r e c e i p t  of t h i s information, the Mennonites f e l t that the government might not always be as " w e l l wishing" as i t was  then, and many  favoured i n c o r p o r a t i o n while the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r such a step were s t i l l there.  In December of 1951,  there were 789  Mennonite f a m i l i e s r e g i s t e r e d as members w i t h insured property worth $ 3 , 6 7 6 , 8 9 1 . 0 0 .  Money i n the treasury at that time amoun-  19  ted to $36,95iw70.  The s o c i e t y extended insurance not only  f o r f i r e but also f o r storm damage to crops and b u i l d i n g s . To date the s o c i e t y has functioned very s u c c e s s f u l l y and has  ex-  tended a very necessary s e r v i c e to the Mennonites at rates that are below the r e g u l a r insurance c o s t s , the premium at present  (1952) being $.30  per $ 1 0 0 . 0 0 .  The l a s t a u t h o r i t y  i n matters of the s o c i e t y i s the Vertreterversammlung. In 19k6  the P r o v i n c i a l Mennonite R e l i e f Organization  21  of 18 19 20 21  Alberta was organized f o r the purpose of u n i t i n g a l l Vertreterversammlung, Dec. I9kk, P« 9 Vertre t e r v e r sammlung, 1951, P« -11 • Vertre terver sammlung, 191\.7, p. Ik* Following information from the Statute of the P r o v i n c i a l Mennonite R e l i e f Organization of A l b e r t a .  92 Mennonite denominations i n the province i n t o a cohesive and a c t i v e s o c i e t y f o r c a r r y i n g on various r e l i e f a c t i v i t i e s at home and abroad.  This o r g a n i z a t i o n has remained subordinate  to the Canadian Mennonite Board of C o l o n i z a t i o n i n that i t has confined i t s a c t i v i t i e s more or l e s s to a p r o v i n c i a l s c a l e . I t s a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e , support of Mennonite s i c k and Insane; support In case of death i n a f a m i l y ; support i n case of f i r e or storm d e s t r u c t i o n ; r e g u l a t i o n of the settlement and search f o r new areas of settlement,  and many other a c t i v -  i t i e s not c l e a r l y defined i n the Statute. are members of a denomination supporting automatically members of t h i s body.  questions  A l l Mennonites, who the o r g a n i z a t i o n , are  This o r g a n i z a t i o n , as  many others, i s under the f i n a l supervision of the V e r t r e t e r versammlung. Mennonite economic co-operation on a l o c a l - s c a l e .  was also p r a c t i c e d  The Coaldale Mennonite C r e d i t Union had i t s  o r i g i n i n the Coaldaler W i r t s c h a f t l i c h e r Verein (Coaldale- A g r i cultural Society). 1938  The l a t t e r s o c i e t y had been formed i n  f o r the purpose of g i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d to the needy i n  the community e s p e c i a l l y those who wanted -to buy land but d i d op.  not have the funds to do so.  A f t e r t h i s society, was formed  great e f f o r t s were made to e n l i s t new members but by -I9k2 the s o c i e t y had acquired a c a p i t a l of only a l i t t l e over $300.00 and had made only ten loans t o t a l l i n g l e s s than $k00.00 to seven persons.  The s o c i e t y proved a t o t a l f a i l u r e and was  22 P r o t o k o l l des Coaldaler W i r t s c h a f t l i c h e r Verein, J u l y $, 19W.  :  93 l i q u i d a t e d i n 191+2.  J  In i t s place a new o r g a n i z a t i o n  arose,  the Coaldale Mennonite S e c u r i t y and C r e d i t Union, which w i t h out much e f f o r t or many membership d r i v e s , i n three years had a membership of 130, and i n the l a s t year (1951) i t made  loans  to 158 i n d i v i d u a l s to the value of $ 2 8 , 6 7 1 . 6 9 . ^ 2  This change i n fortune and p u b l i c support can be explained by the f a c t that from i t s i n c e p t i o n the Credit Union has been under the c o n t r o l and supervision of the government. I t operates i n accordance w i t h government r e g u l a t i o n s and the books are r e g u l a r l y inspected by o f f i c i a l a u d i t o r s . made according to government r e g u l a t i o n s .  Loans are  The A g r i c u l t u r a l  Society, on the other hand had been b u i l t on the trust.and honesty of the s e t t l e r s and there was no governmental supervision.  The A g r i c u l t u r a l Society, therefore, lacked the se-  c u r i t y which was necessary before the people would i n v e s t money in i t .  The C r e d i t Union today has a c a p i t a l o f $68,160.86  w i t h a membership of 2 l 6 . ^ 2  Among the few f i n a n c i a l f a i l u r e s experienced by the Mennonites was the Coaldale Cannery which was b u i l t i n 1939.  The reasons f o r t h i s f a i l u r e are d i f f i c u l t to deter-  mine because no records are a v a i l a b l e and information has to be gathered v e r b a l l y from various i n d i v i d u a l s who were shareholders i n the e n t e r p r i s e .  I t i s a story which most Mennonites  wish to f o r g e t and v e r y . l i t t l e information i s v o l u n t a r i l y given. Certain g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s regarding the unsuccessful venture can be made from the information gathered. 23 P r o t o k o l l der Coaldale Mennonite S e c u r i t y and C r e d i t Union, March 18, 191+2. 2k I b i d . . May 2 3 , 1952. 25 I b i d . , Feb. k, 1952.  9k  The cannery faced keen competition from the Brodar Canneries i n Taber and Lethbridge.  In how f a r t h i s i s  a v a l i d reason f o r f a i l u r e and i n how f a r i t i s merely an excuse i s d i f f i c u l t to determine.  Other e n t e r p r i s e s , with as  much of more l o c a l competition, have prospered and i t i s i n conceivable that t h i s competition had very much to do w i t h the c o l l a p s e , except i n so f a r as I t added the " l a s t straw" to an already weak and s t r u g g l i n g business. More to the p o i n t seems to be the a l l around poor management of the cannery from i t s founding to i t s c o l l a p s e . The cannery was b u i l t as a co-operative e f f o r t and were s o l d at $20.00 each.  shares  Arrangements were made by which i n -  d i v i d u a l s might obtain shares by h e l p i n g i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the. b u i l d i n g .  This was an easy way to o b t a i n shares  and  many took advantage of i t f o r i t meant that i t r e q u i r e d no cash to become a shareholder.  The end r e s u l t , however,, was  that the cannery was erected but the money on hand f e l l f a r short of the c a p i t a l necessary to cover the amount of the shares given out.  This weak f i n a n c i a l b a s i s , seems to be the  main reason f o r the eventual c o l l a p s e . Then again the machinery bought to equip the b u i l d i n g was second-hand and very o l d and i t r e q u i r e d double the labour necessary to operate a more modern cannery.  The  b u i l d i n g was also erected on an extremely low s i t e and the drainage system had to be constructed at a f a r greater cost than would have been necessary had a higher s i t e been chosen. Taken a l l together these f a c t o r s were enough to insure f i n a n -  95  c i a l f a i l u r e , and three years from i t s founding the cannery closed i t s doors and was given over to the executive of the Cheese Factory to dispose of w i t h as l i t t l e f i n a n c i a l l o s s as possible.  Although i t had operated f o r three years the strugg-  l i n g e n t e r p r i s e never r e a l l y p a i d f o r i t s e l f . used during  1914-7  and  The cannery was  to can l o c a l meat f o r the European  191+8  r e l i e f program. A co-operative cheese f a c t o r y appears to f i n d great support among the Mennonites i n A l b e r t a .  Since 1930  no  l e s s than- four cheese f a c t o r i e s , have been b u i l t by the Mennon i t e s of t h i s province,"and  some young settlements, such as 26  Vauxhall, have not l o s t the dream of b u i l d i n g one.  The Men-  nonite* iraaiigrants of the 1920's had become acquainted with creameries and cheese f a c t o r i e s i n Russia where i n S i b e r i a , Orenburg and Samara they had t h e i r own establishments of t h i s 27 kind.  1  These e n t e r p r i s e s were very s u c c e s s f u l i n Russia and  when the Mennonites came to Canada t h i s type of co-operative again found f a v o r .  -  The f i r s t Mennonite cheese f a c t o r y i n A l b e r t a was b u i l t i n the e a r l y 1930's by the Mennonites around Swalwell. Due to the s c a t t e r e d nature of the settlement and the d i f f i c u l t i e s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (many s t i l l used oxen), the f a c t o r y 28 f a i l e d because not enough m i l k was d e l i v e r e d .  By 193°  more  Mennonites had moved to the area and the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s had improved, and a new f a c t o r y was b u i l t i n that year. This f a c t o r y i s s t i l l operating and seems f i n a n c i a l l y sound.At Didsbury and Rosemary cheese f a c t o r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n 26 Vertreterversammlung, 19U1\.> P«  27 Vertreterversammlung, 28 Vertreterversammlung,  1938* p . 1935, p .  23.  21. 20.  96 1939,  but remained i n operation only a few years.  A t Bidsbury  d i s u n i t y among the shareholders and outside competition forced the f a c t o r y i n t o bankruptcy. and  A t Rosemary not enough support-  ers could be found/the struggle came to an end when the f a c tory burned to the ground.  I t was never r e b u i l t .  At a, meeting on J u l y 26, 1937, of the Mennonite groups around Coaldale, i t was decided to canvas the d i s t r i c t and s o l i c i t support f o r the b u i l d i n g of a cheese f a c t o r y . ^ In August of the same year a committee of f i v e was voted to organize the work.3°  The committee v i s i t e d the cheese f a c t o r y  at Swalwell i n order to obtain information and draw up b u i l d i n g plans.  In November of 1937,'the committee reported that the  f a c t o r y i n Coaldale had been completed except f o r the machinery which had not yet arrived.^" " 1  A l l who d e l i v e r e d m i l k to the  f a c t o r y were to become shareholders on the f o l l o w i n g those w i t h one cow to pay a fee of twenty-five cents;  basis: those  w i t h two cows must buy a quarter share a t $ 5 . 0 0 ; those w i t h three of f o u r cows must buy h a l f a share a t $10.00; those w i t h s i x cows one share f o r $ 2 0 . 0 0 . ^  The t o t a l cash cost of the  b u i l d i n g and machinery was $ k , 0 0 0 . 0 0 . - ^  The f a c t o r y soon be-  came too small and a new b u i l d i n g was erected i n 1939, and the o l d one was converted i n t o an egg-grading s t a t i o n and a l o c k e r plant._  The p r o f i t from the f a c t o r y i n the f i r s t year was  $630.90,  3 l +  while i n 1951 i t had a t o t a l income of $ 1 0 9 , 5 l 6 . 0 0 ,  29 V.M.G., J u l y , 26, 193730 V.M.G.. Aug. 16, 1937. 31 Loc. c i t . 32 Vertreterversammlung, 1938, P« 22. 33 Loc. c i t . 3k Income tax f i l e of Cheese Factory f o r 1939.  97  l e s s expenses, and showed a c l e a r p r o f i t of $ 1 2 , 2 1 k . k 3 . Since 1937  35  other f u n c t i o n s have been taken over by the  cheese f a c t o r y co-operative;  I t now operates an egg-grading  s t a t i o n , a p o u l t r y feed r e t a i l s t o r e , a l o c k e r p l a n t and a lumber yard.  These aspects of the business i n 1951  a p r o f i t of f l , 1 7 5 » 7 8 .  brought  The cheese f a c t o r y at Coaldale has  also been outstanding i n that i t has taken f i r s t p r i z e f o r i t s cheese at the Canadian P a c i f i c E x h i b i t i o n i n Vancouver i n I 9 k 0 , and at the Edmonton and Calgary E x h i b i t i o n s i n 19iA; t h i r d p r i z e at the B r i t i s h Empire E x h i b i t i o n i n 19k0, 1951  i t took and i n  received eighth, n i n t h , tenth and eleventh p r i z e s at the  Royal-Winter P a i r i n Toronto.  Today the f a c t o r y has much supp-  o r t and under i t s manager, J . J . Klassen, appears to be one of the more s u c c e s s f u l economic ventures of the A l b e r t a Mennonites. In a d d i t i o n to the a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g economic co-operation the Mennonites of A l b e r t a organized f o r d i r e c t r e l i e f a c t i v i t i e s which were extended to a l l people regardless of f a i t h .  During and a f t e r World War I I the two continents of  Europe and South America were the spheres of Mennonite r e l i e f programs.  These r e l i e f a c t i v i t i e s were organized on a p r o v i n -  c i a l b a s i s and were under the c o n t r o l of the Vertreterversammlung.  The f i r s t meeting of the Vertreterversammlung was held  i n 1929,  ahd since that time has supervised most Mennonite  a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the province.  Since t h i s body was too large  to f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y as an executive, a P r o v i n c i a l  Committee  35 Trading P r o f i t and Loss Statement of the Cheese Factory, • Dec. 31, 1951. 36 Loc; c i t . •  98  was e l e c t e d to be the executive of the Mennonite r e l i e f e f f o r t s . As has been p r e v i o u s l y noted, the two main problems d e a l t with by t h i s committee u n t i l 19^6 were the Reiseschuld and the Mennon i t e settlement  problem.  In I9k6 i t was f e l t that a new chapter i n the h i s t o r y of the Mennonites i n A l b e r t a was beginning.  The Reise-  schuld had -just been paid and the Vertre terver sammlung turned from that problem to the one of r e l i e f f o r Europe and other needy c o u n t r i e s .  I t was decided to create a Mennonitisches  Provinzieles Hilfskomitee  (Mennonite P r o v i n c i a l R e l i e f Commi-  t t e e ) , which was to replace the o l d P r o v i n c i a l Committee and •37  take over the supervision of the r e l i e f program.  The comm-  i t t e e was to be open to representatives of a l l Mennonite denominations i n A l b e r t a who desired to co-operate i n t h i s work. In each congregation a L o c a l R e l i e f Committee was to be organi z e d to c o n t r o l the a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t .  The o l d  P r o v i n c i a l Committee was d i s s o l v e d and i t s a c t i v i t i e s and funds taken over by the new o r g a n i z a t i o n . The.'first chairman of t h i s new committee was J . J . Klassen, of Coaldale.  He i s s t i l l ser-  ving i n that capacity. The duty of the M.P.R.C. was to o f f e r help on two general l i n e s :  to help preserve l i f e and clothe the naked, 39  and to a i d i n the new Mennonite immigration erous other minor but important  to Canada.  Num-  d u t i e s , such as support of the  i l l and poverty s t r i c k e n Mennonites w i t h i n the province, encouragement of Mennonite endeavours along c u l t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l l i n e s , and the s u p e r v i s i o n of the co-operative 37 Vertreterversammlung, 19U-6, p. 11. 38 Loc. c i t .  39 See chapter V I I .  Mennonite  99  e n t e r p r i s e s which operated on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s , were taken over by the committee.  The f o r e i g n r e l i e f program, however,  was one of i t s main concerns. Following World War I I , the economic chaos i n Europe r e s u l t e d i n s t a r v a t i o n and s u f f e r i n g f o r the people there.  The Mennonites declared themselves w i l l i n g to a i d i n a  r e l i e f program to a l l e v i a t e t h i s s u f f e r i n g as much as p o s s i b l e . In A l b e r t a the M.P.R.C. i n 1914-7 immediately went to work on a p r o j e c t of meat canning as a f i r s t step i n the r e l i e f e f f o r t . The cannery a t Coaldale was s t i l l standing i d l e and a l l the Mennonite d i s t r i c t s i n A l b e r t s were urged to send meat to Coaldale, o r i f that was not p o s s i b l e , to send money to be used to cover the cost o f canning.'"'"  0  A l l labour i n connection w i t h Work s t a r t e d on January 6,  t h i s p r o j e c t was to be voluntary.  1914-7, and by March 11, a carload of canned meat, containing over $0,000 cans, was sent to Europe v i a New York."^"""" This carload represented 136 head of c a t t l e and t e n sheep k i l l e d and canned at a cost of $k,771«93^"  2  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s meat  500 blankets and t h i r t y p a i r s of shoes were-sent to Europe. The A l b e r t a Mennonite r e l i e f e f f o r t i n 19k7 t o t a l l e d $ k 7 , k 7 0 . 0 0 , i n c l u d i n g the value of the meat canned. The r e l i e f e f f o r t was continued and i n I9k8 meat was again canned, t h i s time using 155 head of c a t t l e and two sheep t o t a l l i n g 72,k28 l b s . which gave 51,93b cans of meat worth $38,086.kO.  Blankets were bought and c o l l e c t e d and also  k0 Reports of the M.P.R.C., Dec. 6 , 19k6. Hereafter M.P.R.C. k l M.P.R.C., March 11, 19k7. lj.2 V e r t r e t e r v e r sammlung, Dec. I 9 k 7 , p. 7. k3 Loc. c i t .  100 sent  to Europe.  etc.)  Clothes  were c o l l e c t e d  c o u l d n o t be c a n n e d  and s e n t because  and a s a n a l t e r n a t i v e In  1950 and 1951  and a g r i c u l t u r a l  to Paraguay.^"  program  blankets,  and o t h e r n e c e s s a r y i t e m s t o E u r o p e  It included The  oats,  the Mennonites  canned  must be remembered t h a t  O l d Mennonite  o f a l l Mennonite  this  ever,  the r e l i e f  Conference Church it,  directed  and t h e M e n n o n i t e  o t h e r Mennonite  denominations.  had p r o c l a i m e d t h a t to  save l i f e .  to  prove  continues its  that  it,  they r e f u s e d  America.  work.^ activity i n Alberta.  now h a d r e m a i n e d  endeavours,  joined i n  Basically,  was t h e work o f t h e M e n n o n i t e  i t and f i n a n c e d  clothes,  and S o u t h  relief  t o make i t a s u c c e s s .  effort  soap,  denominations  c o n g r e g a t i o n s , who u n t i l  work and d i d h e l p  Mennonites  i n A l b e r t a had donated o r  -aloof f r o m the main stream o f Mennonite the  beans,  $ l 8 6 , k 6 6 . 1 0 on f o r e i g n r e l i e f  the e f f o r t s  to Europe.  o f the A l b e r t a  of sending r o l l e d  s p e n t a sum o f  spades,  I n 19k9 meat  o f f l o u r was s e n t  consisted  By t h e end o f 1951  (hoes,  the cannery h a d been d i s m a n t l e d ,  a carload  the r e l i e f  tools  Brethern; they  how-  General  initiated  with only voluntary help  from  D u r i n g t h e war t h e M e n n o n i t e s to take l i f e  I n the post-war p e r i o d  they had the o p p o r t u n i t y  t h e s e were n o t empty w o r d s .  today, b u t has d i m i n i s h e d  b u t were p r e p a r e d  The r e l i e f  program  s i n c e E u r o p e h a s been o n  way t o e c o n o m i c r e c o v e r y .  kk V e r t r e t e r v e r s a m m l u n g , Dec. 19k8, p . 3« ij-5 F i g u r e c o m p i l e d b y t h e w r i t e r f r o m t h e a n n u a l r e p o r t s o f the S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r o f t h e M.P.R.C.  CHAPTER SIX SOCIAL. RELIGIOUS, AMD EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS The Mennonites have always been a group that has stood apart from the general c u l t u r e i n which they found them^ selves.  In Russia t h i s separation was not d i f f i c u l t to a t t a i n  due to the many p r i v i l e g e s enjoyed by the Mennonites.  I t was  made e a s i e r by the f a c t that the Mennonite c u l t u r e there was higher than that of t h e i r Russian neighbors, and there was l i t t l e d e s i r e to acquire the s o c i a l customs of the Russian peasant. ^The greatest legacy of Russia to the Mennonite  way  of l i f e seems to have been the world renown soup Borscht, which today can s t i l l be found i n the best Mennonite homes.^ In Canada t h i s separation has been preserved w i t h greater d i f f i c u l t y , f o r the "world" here o f f e r s many things which the Mennonites, e s p e c i a l l y the young people d e s i r e . . Consequently the e f f o r t s to remain a group apart must be so much more determined and energetic i f success i s to be assured. The motive behind the Mennonite separation from the "world" are simple but fundamental.  Contrary to modern  p h i l o s o p h i c thought, the Mennonites have always b e l i e v e d i n absolute good and absolute e v i l .  Between these two extremes  e x i s t the amoral elements which may be used e i t h e r f o r good or e v i l .  The'one absolute t r u t h dominating t h e i r f a i t h i s  that man i s born a sinner and cannot achieve s a l v a t i o n except through "heart ' f a i t h i n the only Son of God, Jesus C h r i s t , 1  who shed h i s blood on Calvary f o r the s a l v a t i o n of mankind. This work of s a l v a t i o n must be accepted by each i n d i v i d u a l by  102 f a i t h , and he must then become a f o l l o w e r of C h r i s t .  The  Mennonites do not b e l i e v e that only they are r i g h t , but any church i s wrong i f i t denies the above absolute t r u t h and makes s a l v a t i o n a matter of good works or i n d i v i d u a l endeavor. Humanism, w i t h i t s high sounding p r i n c i p l e s , i s good i n i t s e l f but w i l l not "save" mankind, and i n modern times.serves to confuse the r e a l t r u t h of the s a l v a t i o n o f f e r e d through  Jesus  Christ. Therefore separation from t h i s "world s p i r i t " i s an absolute n e c e s s i t y i f the " t r u e " f a i t h i s to be preserved, and the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e i r f a i t h i s the fundamental cause of a l l s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , and educational a c t i v i t i e s among the Mennonites.  There i s a f e a r that i f the modern world w i t h i t s  humanism, e v o l u t i o n , and s a n c t i o n of a l l r e l i g i o n s i s allowed to poison the minds of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , without an antidote being administered, the e x t i n c t i o n of Mennonitism would be a matter of only a short time.  In the b a t t l e between absolute  good and absolute e v i l there can be no compromise; fundamenta l l y there i s a r i g h t and a wrong w i t h numerous amoral f a c t o r s which can be used i n e i t h e r way depending upon t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to the Word of God.  In t h i s philosophy of l i f e l i e s the  key to the Mennonite f a i t h w i t h i t s r e s u l t a n t s p i r i t of separatism. The s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of the Mennonites are not numerous and those which e x i s t are l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d by the church.  A Jugendverein  every denomination  (Young Peoples Society) e x i s t s i n  i n A l b e r t a , except f o r the Old Colony Menno-  103  nites is  at Port Vermilion.  to p r o v i d e s p i r i t u a l  means o f r e l i g i o u s every  two  choir  supplements  offer  e v e r y week.  on  outlets  and  games a r e e n j o y e d ,  and  f o r young p e o p l e  this  social  o r g a n i z a t i o n s among M e n n o n i t e s  offers  to get acquainted.  social  for  great local  life.  s e t t l e m e n t was immediately, ten  c h u r c h has  In A l b e r t a ,  a church.  i n the l o c a l  always  settlement. weekly  1  As  soon  If a building  were h e l d  a whole  the  the  denominations  in  g i v e s room  to a r i s e  in  each  c o u l d n o t be e r e c t e d  Of  the s i x t y  odd  o r have l i v e d ,  areas i n  c h u r c h meet-  week o f the f o u n d i n g o f  as p o s s i b l e  per-  i n p r i v a t e homes, o r more o f -  live,  the f i r s t  s e r v i c e s were h e l d .  Que s t i o n n a i r e .  As  appor-  b e e n the c e n t r e o f M e n n o n i t e  school building.  i n g s were h e l d ' f r o m  course  field.  organization  A l b e r t a where t h e M e n n o n i t e s  Of  orches-  i s a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n which,  social  the f i r s t  meetings  as m u s i c a l  the b e s t  autonomy o f t h e c h u r c h e s  g r e a t d i v e r g e n c e i n the The  Mennonite  a r e s a n c t i o n e d by  h a p s , does n o t h o l d t r u e f o r a l l M e n n o n i t e The  and  have been n e g l e c t e d ,  activities  statement  The  a t p r i v a t e homes where  tunity  Canada.  of the  f o r the Mennonite y o u t h .  and  This l a t t e r  Society  i n some d i s t r i c t s  sports  so few  o f once  Such a c t i v i t i e s  1  by  upon t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n .  t h e r e are o f t e n g a t h e r i n g s o f groups  church.  an a v e r a g e  A b o u t o%%  church p i c n i c s ,  social  mainly because  Jugendverein  t h e work o f t h e Young P e o p l e s  i n A l b e r t a have c h o i r s . annual  of the  refreshment which i s accomplished  programms b r o u g h t  are h e l d  programs, tras  purpose  o r t h r e e weeks, d e p e n d i n g  practices churches  The  a b u i l d i n g was  Closely  allied  the  e r e c t e d and  w i t h the c h u r c h i s ,  10k of  c o u r s e , t h e Sunday S c h o o l f o r t h e c h i l d r e n  the a d u l t s  also.  S i n c e i t i s t h e Sunday S c h o o l w h i c h a c q u a i n t s  the c h i l d r e n w i t h the B i b l e of the Mennonite and  and o f t e n f o r  Church,  and w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r  i t has  always  received  doctrines  great  i s o r g a n i z e d a t t h e same time as t h e c h u r c h . I n Canada t o d a y i t i s n o t t h e s o c i a l  purely  religious beliefs  attention  o f the p u b l i c  Presbyterian,  Baptist,  fundamental b e l i e f s  of the Mennonites eye.  which  along r e l i g i o u s  lines.  s e r v i c e which  seek s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s u n d e r  the law.  discussed  similar  draws t h e the  tic  (Altkolonier),  The m a t t e r o f m i l i t a r y  later.  the Mennonites  advocates of education.  the Mennonites tried  to use  have always been  Contrary to p u b l i c  sought escape f r o m knowledge,  i t as a means t o e d u c a t e  harmony w i t h t h e i r  faith.  To  to knowledge i t s e l f  tion  living  and-to  usually  their faith.  among t h e M e n n o n i t e s  i s a c q u a i n t e d w i t h two  t h a y have  and  addition  Low  in  the m a j o r i t y o f the Mennonite  that rather  people i n and  but to i t s a p p l i c a In C a n a d a t h e r e i s  the younger  languages, E n g l i s h  in  Mennonites.  t o what i s c a l l e d  enthusias-  them knowledge i s a m o r a l ,  i s not  illiteracy  elem-  opinion  t h e i r young  the o b j e c t i o n to d a i l y  att-  Mennonites  O u t s i d e o f the v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e Mennonite ents  s u c h as  R a t h e r i t i s the  i n these f i e l d s  s h a l l be  draws t h e  and M i s s i o n a r y A l l i a n c e , h a v e  e n t i o n o f the p u b l i c , because  service  o r the  Many o t h e r d e n o m i n a t i o n s  m a t t e r o f e d u c a t i o n and m i l i t a r y  no  emphasis,  generation and  German, t h e l a n g u a g e  German, used  homes a p a r t f r o m t h e O l d  I n s R u s s i a s c h o o l s were b u i l t  i n Mennonite  settle-  105  ments even before education became compulsory there.  In  t h e i r time i n Russia the Mennonites supported kOO p u b l i c 'schools, 13 h i g h schools, k high schools f o r g i r l s , 2 normal schools, one school f o r the deaf and dumb and one c o l l e g e . In a l l of these i n s t i t u t i o n s the r e g u l a r curriculum set by 2  the government was taught.  In.Canada and the United States,  however, the same freedom of school a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has not been granted, r a t h e r the schools are supported by the government and f r e e compulsory education i s extended to a l l i n h a b i tants.  Yet i n s p i t e of t h i s the Mennonites have e s t a b l i s h e d  t h e i r " p r i v a t e " schools i n order to c o n t r o l , to a c e r t a i n degree, the education of t h e i r young people.  In 19k3 ifchere were  15 Mennonite c o l l e g e s and high schools i n the United States.-^ In Canada today seven high schools are operating as p r i v a t e Mennonite i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n a d d i t i o n to two Mennonite c o l l e g e s i n Winnipeg.  Of these I n s t i t u t i o n s one i s i n Ontario, f o u r  i n Manitoba, one i n Saskatchewan, one i n A l b e r t a , and two i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The B i b l e Schools play an important p a r t i n Mennonite education.  The purpose of these schools i s to give  the young people a sound foundation i n the B i b l e and to propogate the Mennonite f a i t h .  The B i b l e schools operate during  a f i v e month p e r i o d (November to end of March), and are supported by the various congregations who 19k3  e s t a b l i s h them.  the number of B i b l e schools i n Canada and the United  2 Lethbridge.Herald. March 15, 1930. 3 Warkentin A., and G i n g e r i c h M., Who's Who Among the Mennon i t e s , Newton Kansas, Bethel College Press, 19q-3> pp. 333r  33T|T"  In  io6 States numbered twenty-nine.  In A l b e r t a today s i x are oper-  a t i n g w i t h an enrollment of approximately 1 3 0 students.  The  l a r g e s t B i b l e schools are at Coaldale, Didsbury and Gem.  It  would not be an exaggeration to say that of a l l the Mennonite young people i n .Alberta about 80$ can be expected to attend a B i b l e school f o r one or more years. The d e s i r e f o r p r i v a t e schools a r i s e s d i r e c t l y out of the f a c t that modern education teaches many things cont r a r y to the fundamentals of the Mennonite f a i t h .  Private  schools employing Mennonite teachers are to insure that Science and S c r i p t u r e are kept i n harmony and not i n c o n f l i c t .  For  example, the c h i l d r e n are acquainted w i t h the theory of e v o l u t i o n but i f t h i s theory presents a c o n f l i c t w i t h the S c r i p t u r e s , they are t o l d i t i s the theory that i s wrong and not the B i b l e .  I t i s t h e r e f o r e , a matter not of the m a t e r i a l  taught but of the manner i n which i t i s taught and how interpreted.  i t is  Some w r i t e r s have s t a t e d ^ that the "attempt to  r e t a i n the German language," i s one of the basic motives f o r the establishment of Mennonite p r i v a t e schools.  This f a c t o r  may play a small part but when one considers that German i s taught r e g u l a r l y i n the "German Schools" on Saturdays or a f t e r r e g u l a r day school, and the f a c t that the nature of the i n s t r u c t i o n i n the p r i v a t e school i s overwhelmingly  E n g l i s h w i t h only  a few r e l i g i o u s subjects taught i n German, one cannot accept such a thepry.  The schools are not e s t a b l i s h e d to r e t a i n the  German language but to r e t a i n the Mennonite f a i t h and the k I b i d . , pp. 33k-336. % Reimer, D.P., The Mennonites of B r i t i s h Columbia, Thesis, U.B.C, 19k6, p. 62.  107  German language i s a by-product.^ p r i v a t e schools i n CanadaJ  Not only Mennonites have  tn A l b e r t a alone there are 6 3 7  p r i v a t e schools and only one i s Mennonite. As e a r l y as 1935 the s e t t l e r s around Coaldale sought information regarding the founding and operation of t h e i r own school.  I n January, 1936* Rev. B.B. Janz and Mr.  J.B. Janz were sent.to Edmonton to i n v e s t i g a t e the r i g h t s enQ  joyed i n educational matters by m i n o r i t y groups.  An audience  w i t h the Prime M i n i s t e r , Aberhart, s a t i s f i e d them that they had the r i g h t to b u i l d t h e i r own school i f they so d e s i r e d , but they had to support i t themselves and were not exempt from the l o c a l school tax which went to the support of the l o c a l p u b l i c school. To r e c e i v e r e c o g n i t i o n , however, the school must be supervised and the curriculum p r e s c r i b e d by the Proves i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n .  7  Because the depression made  e x t r a f i n a n c i a l burdens impossible the p l a n was dropped u n t i l a more opportune time.  The coming of the war i n 1939 post-  poned the plans i n d e f i n i t e l y . The question arose again on the annual P r o v i n c i a l Conference of the Mennonite Brethern Church held a t Namaka, on November 17 and 18, 19kk»  A committee of s i x was voted to 10  gather information and report to the next conference.  In  November, 19k5> the committee reported that government permis s i o n had been received f o r the founding of a school and a 6 The language problem i s more f u l l y discussed on pages ho-//y 7 O f f i c i a l l i s t of p r i v a t e schools obtained from the Department of Education. 8 V.M.G., Jan. 11, 19369 V.M.G., Feb. 1 3 , 1936. 10 P r o t o k o l l der P r o v i n z i e l l e n Hahressitzung der Mennoniten Bruedergemeinde von A l b e r t a ] 19kk» P~ 9^  108 piece of land was being h e l d i n reserve by the Coaldale s e t t l e r s as a l o c a t i o n f o r the school.  A group of Mennonites  (Ready Made Corner) had donated a b u i l d i n g which had already been moved near to the d e s i r e d location."*"^  The s i t e was to be  a 70 acre farm one h a l f mile north of Coaldale, of which s i x acres were to be reserved f o r the school and the r e s t rented or s o l d to meet expenses.  The conference passed two r e s o l u -  t i o n s on t h i s o c c a s i o n : 1. The school was not to be a "church" school i n that the r e q u i r e d finances be supplied by that body, but that a s o c i e t y be formed w i t h i n the Mennonite Brethern Conference and membership be voluntary. school to be a v a i l a b l e at  $$0.00  2. Shares i n the  each.  On March 8, 1^1x6, the Mennonite Educational Society of A l b e r t a was organized and steps were taken to open the school 12  i n the f a l l of that year.  In September the school opened  w i t h k l students and two teachers, Mr. Henry Thiessen, p r i n c i p a l , and Mr. Jacob Regehr.  Grades nine to twelve were taught.  In 19k9, two new classrooms were added and at present the c o n s t r u c t i o n of two more classrooms  (1952)  i s i n progress.  In  1951 the grades seven and eight were added thus making the school a Junior-Senior High School w i t h an enrollment of 90 students, employing f o u r teachers.  In the l a s t year the t u i -  t i o n fees f o r the various grades were as f o l l o w s : Grades V I I and.VIII  65.00  — $  Grade I X —  1 70.00  Grade X  $75.00  11 I b i d . , p. k 5 . 12 P r o t o k o l l des Komitees der Mennonitischen a, 191+6.  Hochschule, March  109 Grade XI  $ 80.00  Grade X I I  $ 85.00  These fees are too low to cover the cost of operating the school and the d e f i c i e n c y i s made good by p r i v a t e donations, c o l l e c t i o n s and money gathered when the school presents a program at the various churches.  In the course of the l a s t  s i x years three teacherages have been constructed, the l a s t being completed i n 1950.  A l l c o n s t r u c t i o n work on and at the  school i s done by voluntary labour.  The t o t a l value of school 13  property i n 1952 new  stood at $ 2 8 , 6 6 9 . 2 1 ,  not i n c l u d i n g the  classroom a d d i t i o n s valued at roughly $ 6,000.00 without  labour. The curriculum of the A l b e r t a Mennonite High School i s that p r e s c r i b e d by the p r o v i n c i a l Department of Education, and the school i s under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the d i v i s i o n a l High School Inspector.  In a d d i t i o n to the r e g u l a r curriculum r e l i -  gious subjects such as B i b l e Story i n the lower grades and C h r i s t i a n E t h i c s i n the h i g h e r , are taught; t h i s i s only natu r a l since the l a c k of r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n the p u b l i c schools was  a major f a c t o r f o r the establishment of t h i s i n -  stitution.  The aim i n r e l i g i o n i s not so much one of indoc-  t r i n a t i o n as one of p r o v i d i n g "God  and B i b l e centred" knowledge  and information to the c h i l d r e n . As a r e q u i r e d f o r e i g n language German i s taught.  German also receives emphasis i n that  I t i s taught i n the lower grades where a f o r e i g n language i s not r e q u i r e d . 13 P r o t o k o l l der Jahresversammlung des Mennonitischen v e r e i n , A p r i l 9. 1952, p. 12.  Bildungs-  110 The mainly nite  instruction  i n the Saturday  churches.  l.H t h e German l a n g u a g e  Schools  children  Bible  and i n s t r u c t i o n  with  place  o r g a n i z e d by the v a r i o u s  Menno-  From t h e month o f O c t o b e r t o t h e end o f March,  the Mennonite schools  takes  are gathered  i n the l o c a l  i s given  schools or  i n German and r e l i g i o n ,  t h e g r e a t e s t e m p h a s i s on t h e l a t t e r .  Only  i f the s e t t l e -  ment i s t o o s m a l l o r t h e s e t t l e r s  scattered with poor  of  of education neglected.  transportation, i s this  Vertreterversammlung all  branch  has c o n s t a n t l y urged  p o s s i b l e , t o open S a t u r d a y  Alberta  there  mined e f f o r t  schools  a l l churches,  a r e f o u r t e e n Mennonite areas t o t e a c h German a n d r e l i g i o n ,  efforts •fields.  e i t h e r on  schools 1950 as  the s e t t l e r s  i n operation with  these  German s c h o o l s  the  their  children  i n these  make  two  i n Coaldale had s i x Saturday  s i x t e a c h e r s - and 12k  seven  teachers  are not supported  (Old Mennonites) s i n c e t h i s E n g l i s h language  Russian  general  students. ^  In  1  s c h o o l s were c o n s o l i d a t e d and a t p r e s e n t f u n c t i o n  one s c h o o l w i t h  lers  Where  Saturdays  r e s p e c t i s n o t p o s s i b l e many p a r e n t s  i n t h e home t o e d u c a t e I n 1935  In  w h i c h make a d e t e r -  1  i n this  The  i fat  i n t h e i r areas.  o r d u r i n g a few weeks i n t h e summer months. ^organization  means  and an e n r o l l m e n t  by the e a r l y Mennonite denomination has long  settused  i n i t s s e r v i c e s and Sunday s c h o o l s .  Mennonites a r e making a determined  t h e German l a n g u a g e  o f 185»  i n order  effort  to a v o i d a r i f t  The  to r e t a i n  b e t w e e n y o u n g and  old. The  German l i b r a r y  l k Questionnaire. 15 V e r t r e t e r v e r s a m m l u n g ,  1935,  i s closely  P«  23-  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  Ill German s c h o o l .  The  Vertreterversammlung has urged each s e t t -  lement to a c q u i r e German books which c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e to the c h i l d r e n .  The  areas b o a s t i n g Saturday schools  a l l have l i b r a r i e s of t h i s n a t u r e .  I t i s a general  almost  observation,  however, t h a t though the books are there, the v a s t m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n would f a r r a t h e r read E n g l i s h . there t h a t the more p r e s s u r e  The  danger i s  i s put on to read German the more  a n t i p a t h y w i l l develop towards the language.  The  efforts  are  being made but the German language must e v e n t u a l l y be  given  up.  between  At p r e s e n t  the language serves to b r i d g e  the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n who generation  the gap  do not master E n g l i s h and  the younger  i n t e r e s t e d mainly i n the E n g l i s h language. The  German language has posed some of the most  d i f f i c u l t problems f o r the Mennonites, e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g a time of war.  The war-year newspapers of A l b e r t a are  with accusations l o y a l t y and  a g a i n s t the Mennonites charging  filled  them w i t h  treason, mainly because of t h e i r language and  disthe  l6  e f f o r t s to r e t a i n i t .  Various  o r g a n i z a t i o n s made e f f o r t s to  r o o t out the German language among the Mennonites.  They were  u n s u c c e s s f u l because the government seemed a l i t t l e more t o l e r ant than many of the c i t i z e n s .  The L e t h b r i d g e  City Council i n  1914.0 passed a r e s o l u t i o n which, i f endorsed by the  education  a u t h o r i t i e s , would deny i n s t r u c t i o n i n o t h e r than the E n g l i s h or French language to be g i v e n i n any r e l i g i o u s  community  17  schools.  The  endorsement was  not forthcoming.  In  Coaldale  the l o c a l Women's I n s t i t u t e " r e s o l v e d to co-operate w i t h 16 L e t h b r i d g e H e r a l d , Nov. 2, 191+0. 17 Loc. c i t .  the  112 local  board  authorities taught  o f t r a d e i n t h e p r o t e s t t o be s e n t against Bible  s c h o o l and S a t u r d a y  i n German a t t h e l o c a l M e n n o n i t e i  duration  schools  r a r y f o r t h e d u r a t i o n , b u t i n 19k6  st  caused  Y e t the Mennonites,  of  to the p r e s s u r e .  by e m o t i o n r a t h e r t h a n  failing  ted  to understand  somewhat, b u t e m o t i o n s s t i l l  lib-  by  the h a t r e d  German, s t u b b o r n l y  The c o n c e s s i o n s  t h e German s c h o o l and l i b r a r y  ings  and t h e German  of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c again-  the g e n e r a l p u b l i c h a d f o r a n y t h i n g to y i e l d  during the  t h e y were o n c e more o p e n e d .  o f the f e e l i n g  t h e German l a n g u a g e was  reason.  church  being  Under c o n s t a n t p u b l i c p r e s s u r e t h e  Mennonites d i d c l o s e the Saturday  bulk  school  ft  o f t h e war."  The  t o the p r o p e r  refused  made by t h e c l o s i n g  d i d soothe ran high.  t h e s o u n d o f German i n p u b l i c p l a c e s .  the aroused  feel-  The p u b l i c r e s e n "Why  should our  19 e a r s be o f f e n d e d was  by t h e s o u n d o f a non B r i t i s h  t h e o p i n i o n o f many.  refused  to l i s t e n  Many M e n n o n i t e s v e r y  language...", untactfully  t o t h e s e w a r n i n g s and c o n t i n u e d  t o speak  German i n p u b l i c p l a c e s . If ties there  caused such  one c o n s i d e r s  t h e b i t t e r n e s s and t h e d i f f i c u l -  f o r t h e M e n n o n i t e s by t h e German l a n g u a g e , why i s a real  attempt  at i t s preservation?  from a Mennonite p o i n t o f view the L e t h b r i d g e H e r a l d t h e German l a n g u a g e faith  of July  The answer  i s g i v e n by Rev. B.B. J a n z i n 6,  191J-0.  He p o i n t s o u t t h a t  i s not a fundamental p a r t o f the Mennonite  as many h a v e b e l i e v e d .  The h i s t o r y  o f the Mennonites  shows t h a t t h e y h a v e c h a n g e d t h e i r l a n g u a g e 18 L e t h b r i d g e H e r a l d , J u l y 5 , 19U-0. 19 L e t h b r i d g e H e r a l d , J u l y 5, 1 9 k ' 0  several  times.  113 Originally  t h e y spoke  Dutch o r Swiss, but  constant p r e s s u r e they adopted change a t t h a t  i n Prussia,  t h e German l a n g u a g e .  time o c c a s s i o n e d as much d i f f i c u l t y  t r a n s i t i o n f r o m German t o E n g l i s h does now. to  the p r i v i l e g e s  Mennonites  enjoyed there,  d i d not take p l a c e .  again f a c e d w i t h the problem solution history  of this  of the Mennonites  the U n i t e d  States;  former language The in  difficulty  the U n i t e d  States  Rev. the Mennonite  mon  religious  men  who  o f t h e i r new  terminology.  the  their  homeland. Mennonites  seen i n i t s b e g i n n i n g s  of the l a t e s t  p e o p l e were u n a b l e  The  c e n t u r y m i g r a t e d to  immigrants  Janz f u r t h e r p o i n t e d o u t t h a t f i f t y  purposes.  to f o l l o w Even  t o Canada.  p e r cent  an E n g l i s h  ser-  t h o u g h many o f them  thing  i t remained  to l e a r n  In a d d i t i o n ,  come o v e r f r o m R u s s i a and the E n g l i s h  change f r o m one  language  e x p e c t e d i n one  the r e l i g i o u s tive  language.  change among t h e  clearly  are  through the y e a r s to express themselves i n E n g l i s h  for  them t o u s e  due  o f the  i n A m e r i c a have l o s t  the r e a l m o f everyday a f f a i r s ,  had  the  d e m o n s t r a t e d by  i n t h e 18th  t h e tongue  generation  t o g e t h e r more d i f f i c u l t  be  is clearly  i s also  with i t s B i b l i c a l  had l e a r n e d in  adopted  as  I n Canada t h e M e n n o n i t e s  same p r o c e s s o f t h e i n d i c a t e d  among t h e y o u n g e r  of  the R u s s i f i c a t i o n  the m a j o r i t y  and  This  In R u s s i a ,  o f a d o p t i n g a new  who  under  body,  to t e a c h t h e i r  language  f o r them an a l -  the E n g l i s h  t h e m i n i s t e r s were m o s t l y i t was  in Biblical  impossible f o r discourse.  t o a n o t h e r s h o u l d n o t and  generation.  Church,  the l i t e r a r y  considers  The  could not  " T h i s makes i t e v i d e n t  the Mennonite children  language  that  i t impera-  book l a n g u a g e  of  Ger-  Ilk man, the  i n o r d e r to p r e v e n t the c a t a s t r o p h e o f a d i v i s i o n c h u r c h b e t w e e n t h e young  Mr. J a n z goes  within  „20  and o l d . "  on t o s a y ,  Our D o m i n i o n g o v e r n m e n t i s v e r y w i s e i n n o t a p p l y i n g any f o r c e i n t h i s m a t t e r b e c a u s e t h e change o f l a n g u a g e f o r t h e i m m i g r a n t t a k e s care o f i t s e l f h i s t o r i c a l l y , i n the course of time The M e n n o n i t e s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o m a i n t a i n a S a t u r d a y s c h o o l o f t h e i r own f o r the c h i l d r e n do nc^t p u r s u e any o t h e r a i m but an e x c l u s i v e * ' r e l i g i o u s p u r p o s e . . . They a r e t o e n a b l e t h e c h i l d t o r e a d t h e same B i b l e w h i c h i t s ( s i c ) m o t h e r r e a d s , t h a t i t ( s i c ) may s i n g t h e same song w h i c h m o t h e r s i n g s , and u n d e r s t a n d t h e w o r s h i p i n which the f a m i l y p a r t i c i p a t e s . 21 1  The  German l a n g u a g e  young  therefore,  and o l d , u n t i l  i s t o s e r v e as a l i n k  the E n g l i s h  language  between  can s e r v e the p u r -  poses o f a l l . Thus t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c h a v e arguments  for their  f o u n d on b o t h s i d e s is  a little  and t h e M e n n o n i t e s  s t a n d and j u s t i f i c a t i o n s  o f the q u e s t i o n .  What  more u n d e r s t a n d i n g on t h e p a r t  s p e a k i n g p u b l i c , who h a v e n e v e r b e e n ority part  group,  and a l i t t l e  o f the Mennonites  course o f h i s t o r y already to  changed  nites  that  language Mennonite  20 21  Loc. Loc.  There  they w i l l  cit. cit.  once  i s the f e a r  also  i s g i v e n up; t h i s public.  do n o t m a s t e r  language  lose  i s needed,  perhaps,  o f the E n g l i s h o f a min-  t o l e a r n E n g l i s h on t h e it.  i n this matter i s clear;  their  do i t a g a i n .  who  seem t o be  i n the p o s i t i o n  more e f f o r t  both  But the g e n e r a l  the Mennonites  have  and t h e y c a n be e x p e c t e d i n the h e a r t s  their faith  i s n o t the view  o f some Menno-  when t h e German o f the g e n e r a l  115 The Mennonites have t r i e d to maintain t h e i r group i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n the midst of a c u l t u r e strange to them.  Their  s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , and educational endeavors have been motivated by the d e s i r e to maintain t h e i r r e l i g i o u s separation. This struggle has o f t e n l e d them i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r non•Mennonite neighbors i n areas of a c t i v i t y which seem unimportant to the l a t t e r but c o n s t i t u t e a v i t a l l i n k i n Mennonite r e l i gious development. The question i s often asked, "To what extent have the Mennonites been a s s i m i l a t e d ? " This question i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t to answer and depends upon the f i e l d of a c t i v i t y which i s considered.  Economically the Mennonites have been  a s s i m i l a t e d , s o c i a l l y and e d u c a t i o n a l l y they maintain a reserve, pp  r e l i g i o u s l y they make no compromise.  Some observers t h i n k ^  that when the German language has disappeared from among them a s s i m i l a t i o n w i l l have been completed.  This i s a f a l l a c y ; i t  may make a s s i m i l a t i o n somewhat e a s i e r and more r a p i d , but the Mennonites of the United States have proven that the foundation of Mennonitism i s not a language but a b e l i e f , i t i s a p h i l o sophy of l i f e .  As long as t h i s philosophy remains u n a s s i m i l -  ated the Mennonites also remain so. The core of Mennonitism i s s t i l l f i r m , even though i n recent years there has been evident a "breaking away" from the Mennonite f a i t h .  This was e s p e c i a l l y true during the war  years when accompanying s o c i a l and economic upheavals a l s o reached i n t o the Mennonite way of l i f e .  I t i s indeed doubtful  i f complete a s s i m i l a t i o n of these people would be d e s i r e a b l e . 22 Wordsworth, J.S., Strangers Within Our Gates, F r e d e r i c k Clarke Stephenson, Toronto, l^Oo, P« 191»  116 Their beliefs in  and  conservative p o l i t i c a l  t h e modern w o r l d ;  a noble  i n d u s t r y and  example to many o t h e r s .  people  remain w i t h  responsibilities engineers, and  their  f a i t h of  t h e i r f a t h e r s and  occupations.  schools  and  school 90  students  in The  the  farm.  June  22nd,  are  place  serve young  assuming  teachers,  (1950-1951)  o f w h i c h 108  thirty-two  there  were i n  i n Mennonite p r i v a t e s c h o o l s ; and  there  nurses  training.^ majority  Writing  1938,  of Mennonite youth,  i n the  Family  Herald  Mariaia G r e e n E l l i s  however,  stay  and W e e k l y S t a r  on  of  said,  I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t 96$ o f t h e M e n n o n i t e s o n s h a v e s t a y e d on t h e f a r m , and t h a t h a s n o t j u s t happened. I t has b e e n by d e f i n i t e i n t e n t and training. The o t h e r f o u r p e r c e n t , a r e the e x c e p t i o n s . You w i l l f i n d a M e n n o n i t e d o c t o r i n G o l d e n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , an e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r i n B r a n don, an i n t e r p r e t e r i n W i n n i p e g , a U n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and a n o t h e r a t Oxford. The l a t t e r went o v e r i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e as a Rhodes S c h o l a r f r o m M a n i t o b a , and r e m a i n e d to become h e a d o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f Romance languages. B u t M e n n o n i t e b o y s and g i r l s a r e by t r a d i t i o n and t r a i n i n g ' o f t h e s o i l ' , and the p r o b l e m w h i c h w o r r i e s the Mennonite f a t h e r s today i s what i s g o i n g t o h a p p e n when t h e s u r p l u s i s f o r c e d away f r o m t h e community. Undoubtedly i t w i l l weaken t h e c h u r c h , b u t i t w i l l a l s o h a s t e n t h e i r a b s o r p t i o n i n t o Canadian l i f e . 2k During  and  f o l l o w i n g W o r l d War  II this  list  of p r o f e s s i o n a l  23 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and V e r t r e t e r v e r s a m m l u n g , 195l» PP* 2k  Quoted i n G i b b o n , op.  c i t . , p.  186.  as  agriculturalists  In A l b e r t a alone  were t h i r t y - s e v e n U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , or nurses  could  m a j o r i t y o f the  p r o f e s s o r s , Doctors,  Mennonite h i g h  public high  The  thrift  i n a l l w a l k s o f C a n a d i a n , l i f e as  university  many o t h e r  were 198  the  l e a n i n g s have a  12-13.  117 Mennonite men and women has i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y , because the " s u r p l u s " has a l r e a d y been f o r c e d away from the e s p e c i a l l y i n Ontario culture i s s t i l l  and B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a .  community,  In A l b e r t a  agri  the dominant aim of the young people. In  another ten years the p i c t u r e here w i l l a l s o have changed.  CHAPTER V I I MILITARY SERVICE AND POST WAR DEVELOPMENTS " i f they were only as good C i t i z e n s as they are good C h r i s t i a n s . " (Calgary Herald, June 2£, 1914-2) The Mennonite stand to m i l i t a r y service i n the past has, been b r i e f l y mentioned i n chapter one. They were, and i n Canada and the United S t a t e s , s t i l l are p a c i f i s t s who dec l a r e , "We should not provoke or do v i o l e n c e to any men - even, when necessary, to f l e e f o r the Lord's sake from one country to another, and take p a t i e n t l y the s p o i l i n g of our goods, but to do v i o l e n c e to no man.""'"  This a t t i t u d e has been a f f i r m e d  and r e a f f i r m e d i n the past and has been extended also i n t o the f i e l d of government where o f f i c e h o l d i n g i s considered "unspiri t u a l , " because the "world can be c o n t r o l l e d only by the sword and the weapons of our warfare are not c a r n a l . " the Mennonite r e l a t i o n to the state? the m a j o r i t y of p a c i f i s t Mennonites lows:  What then i s  The answer, as given by  the world over i s as f o l -  We accept the teaching of S c r i p t u r e that the governments of the world are i n s t i t u t e d of God f o r the purpose of keeping law and order i n ( s i c ) the earth among men. To do t h i s the s t a t e enacts laws, judges between p a r t i e s i n contention ( I Cor. 6 : l 6 ) , threatens and punishes c r i m i n a l s and i f necessary bears the sword i n order to cufcb crime (Rom. 13:14.). According to the same S c r i p t u r e the state i s a l s o given f o r the purpose of p r a i s i n g the w e l l doer and p r o t e c t i o n of the good. I Pet. 2:k. Since the B i b l e i s our r u l e of conduct, we want to take the C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e toward the s t a t e . The f o l l o w i n g we b e l i e v e to be the s c r i p t u r a l r e lationship: 1. Honor the King. I Pet. 2:17  1 Gibbon, op. c i t . , p. 170 2 Alberta-Saskatchewan Conference Reports, 193A* P» 3  119 2. 3.  P r a y f o r t h e r u l e r s , t h a t we may l e a d a q u i e t and p e a c e a b l e l i f e i n a l l g o d l i n e s s and h o n -  I Tim. 2:1-3.  esty.  To obey t h e l a w s o f t h e l a n d , w i t h t h i s o n l y e x c e p t i o n t h a t when t h e s t a t e a s k s s o m e t h i n g of us t h a t i s c o n t r a r y t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e B i b l e , we o u g h t t o obey God r a t h e r t h a n man. Acts 5:29. k. I n no c a s e t o r e s i s t t h e g o v e r n m e n t ( A c t s 1 3 : 2 ) , nor speak e v i l o f r u l e r s ( T i t . 3 : 2 ) , n o r take part i n seditions (Gal. 5:20). 5» To g l a d l y p a y t a x , c u s t o m s , and r e v e n u e s t h a t may be r e q u i r e d This general a  point  attitude  of vigorous  ence i n B a s e l ,  13:6; Matt. 17:27.  o f u s . Rom.  o f the Mennonites  discussion  S w i t z e r l a n d , w h i c h was h e l d  t o t h e u s e o f arms, b u t l e f t  which have  t o the s t a t e has been  a t the Mennonite World C o n f e r -  The M e n n o n i t e s o f t h e w o r l d r e a f f i r m e d jection  i n August,  1952.^  t h e i r fundamental ob-  unresolved  grown among t h e E u r o p e a n and A m e r i c a n  the d i f f e r e n c e s Mennonites  since  the 17th  mously  a d o p t e d message: As c i t i z e n s o f o u r c o u n t r i e s , we d e s i r e t o be subj e c t t o o u r g o v e r n m e n t s , t o p r a y f o r them and t o seek the w e l f a r e o f the n a t i o n , under the c o n d i t i o n t h a t where t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f human laws a r e c o n t r a r y t o t h e w o r d o f God, we must obey God r a t h e r t h a n man. Our r u l e o f l i f e must a l w a y s be t h e word o f God. 5  This but  century.  resolution  gives  the p r i n c i p l e  seated part  the  Mennonites  Yet  the a t t i t u d e  was r e a c h e d i n a u n a n i -  ample room f o r i n d i v i d u a l - non-resistance  o f the Mennonite During  should  A compromise  i s clear  interpretation,  is still  feeling  because o f these p a c i f i s t  o f the Mennonites has always been  "obey God r a t h e r  a deep-  faith.  t i m e s o f war t h e h o s t i l e  increases  3  against principles. t h a t one  t h a n man" i n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  3 I b i d . , 1935, P» 3» U n d e r l i n i n g i s mine. k L e t h b r i d g e H e r a l d , A u g . l 6 , 1952. 5 L o c . c i t . U n d e r l i n i n g i s mine.  even  120 if  i t means t h e l o s s  ing  the Reformation  o f "wbrdly"  the Mennonites r e s i s t e d  make them p e r f o r m m i l i t a r y forced  to f l e e  a time  service  principles  i t necessary  and a l t h o u g h  alternative  o f R u s s i a and m i g r a t e d  the i n v i t a t i o n  the Mennonite p r i n c i p l e s  medical  s e r v i c e s were f o r  area.  with  alternative  army.  o l u t i o n had withdrawn a l l p r i v i l e g e s  After  v i c e men i n R u s s i a were s u p p o r t e d  The M e n n o n i t e s services  The a l t e r n a t i v e  annually.  p a c i f i s t s has been v a r i e d .  and s u p p l i e d by t h e v a r i o u s  America.  the experience During  o f the Mennonite  the American R e v o l u t i o n the  o f U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s  I n t h e War o f 1812,  exempt f r o m m i l i t a r y and  c o s t i n g the  0  M e n n o n i t e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were f o r c e d the stream  to bear  arms o r  to B r i t i s h  North  t h e M e n n o n i t e s i n Canada were  s e r v i c e b u t had to f u r n i s h  o x e n and s e r v e as t e a m s t e r s .  7  During  their  horses  the American  V e r e i n i g t e n M e n n o n i t e n Gemeinden i n O n t a r i o , J a h r b u c h , p . 18. H e r e a f t e r n o t e d as.V.M.G.0., J a h r b u c h . 7 G i b b o n , op. c i t . , p . 177*  6  ser-  and a t t h e h e i g h t o f W o r l d War I , t h e r e  In N o r t h America  join  rev-  by the Mennonites  were 12,000 M e n n o n i t e s i n t h e v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s , $ 1,500',000  or with  t h e Communist  enjoyed  the g r e a t m i g r a t i o n o f the 1 9 2 0 ' s began.  churches  I n I87O an  (Ukas) w i t h d r e w r e c o g n i t i o n o f  i n the Russian  Mennonite churches,  their  and t h e g r e a t i n f l u x o f t h e 1 8 7 0 ' s  i n Russia escaped  service  to Prussia.  to defend  Canada a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o o k p l a c e .  remaining  t h e y were  of Catherine I I  t o the lower Dneiper  a c t o f the R u s s i a n government  into  and a s a r e s u l t  they found  a l l o w e d many a c c e p t e d  Dur-  any a t t e m p t s t o  or suffer p e r s e c u t i o n — t h e y f l e d  Here again, i n time, pacifist  g o o d s and p o s s e s s i o n s .  Civil  I95lt  121 War the United States allowed m i l i t a r y exemption i n r e t u r n f o r 8 a money payment c a l l e d commutation f e e . World War I again r a i s e d the question of m i l i t a r y service.  Non-combatant s e r v i c e i n the army was allowed by the  Canadian government, but there was no guarantee that the draftee would not be s h i f t e d around and placed i n a combatant position.  The s i t u a t i o n grew serious and the Mennonites of Can-  ada, on Jan. 8 , 1917,  handed an address to the Government of  Canada, asking I t to remember the promised p r i v i l e g e s to the ,q  Mennonites;  The government s t a t e d that i t s promises had not  been f o r g o t t e n .  1 0  Through the C i v i l i a n Board of Inquiry;, a l l  the conscientious o b j e c t o r s were screened and the i n s i n c e r e cases e l i m i n a t e d from the p a c i f i s t ranks. given work on farms.  The others were  The whole a f f a i r , however, f r i g h t e n e d  the more conservative elements and caused another Mennonite migration i n the 1920" s when the A l t k o l o n i e r treked to MexicoH World War I I caught the Canadian Mennonites unprepared f o r the emergency.  P r i o r to the war no e f f o r t s had  been made to arrange f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s e r v i c e s i n case war came. This l a c k of f o r e s i g h t was not caused so much by i n d i f f e r e n c e as by the d i f f e r e n c e s of opinion among the various Mennonite denominations regarding the type of s e r v i c e to be done.  The  very conservative elements ( A l t k o l o n i e r ) a b s o l u t e l y refused any type of s e r v i c e during wartime; the Old Mennonites were w i l l i n g to do work under c i v i l i a n s u p e r v i s i o n b u t r e j e c t e d a l l 8 V.M.G.O., Jahrbuch, 1951, P. 18 9 Text of address i n Schaeffer, op. c i t . , pp. I k 8 - I 5 l . 10 I b i d ; , p. 151. 11 Some of these have returned to Canada and s e t t l e d at Port Vermilion- i n northern A l b e r t a . ?  122 non-combatant Medical  s e r v i c e , even under s p e c i a l  Corps;  the General  C o n f e r e n c e .and  t h e r n were w i l l i n g  t o do f o r e s t r y  inclined  non-combatant  t o accept  c o n d i t i o n s i n the the Mennonite  and f a r m work b u t were a l s o s e r v i c e i n the M e d i c a l  When t h e war b r o k e o u t t h e M e n n o n i t e s were i n c a p a b l e senting  a united front  on t h i s  Under p r e s s u r e soon reached  Bre-  Corps.  of pre-  question.  o f war, however, compromises were  and t h e government g r a n t e d  alternative services.  In t h i s r e s p e c t  t h e r e was no d i s t i n c t i o n made .between Menno-  nites  g r o u p s Who p r o f e s s e d p a c i f i s t  and o t h e r  ternative passed  s e r v i c e was g r a n t e d  i n 1927,  principles.  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e M i l i t i a Law  which s t a t e d i n p a r t ,  The f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n s o n l y s h a l l be exempt.from l i a b i l i t y t o s e r v e i n t h e m i l i t i a . . . . P e r s o n s , who from the d o c t r i n e s o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n , are averse to b e a r i n g arms o r r e n d e r i n g p e r s o n a l m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , u n d e r s u c h c o n d i t i o n s as a r e p r e s c r i b e d . Alternative River,  s e r v i c e camps a r o s e  and then  Columbia.  Al-  i n Manitoba,  first  i n Ontario, near  Montreal  S a s k a t c h e w a n , A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h  The m a j o r i t y of' camps were i n B r i t i s h  where a t t h e h e i g h t  12  o f t h e war n i n e t e e n  Columbia,  camps were  occupied  13 by  approximately  fire It  fighting,  i s estimated  camps.^  7k0 men.  felling  The d u t i e s o f t h e men were  scorched  t r e e s and p l a n t i n g new o n e s .  t h a t k 5 0 , 0 0 0 t r e e s were p l a n t e d b y men . i n t h e s e  These c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s r e c e i v e d o n l y  c e n t s p e r d a y and h a d t o s u p p l y their  mainly  own f a m i l i e s .  fifty  t h e i r own c l o t h i n g and s u p p o r t  The government u n d e r t o o k t h e s u p p o r t o f  12 S c h a e f f e r , op. c i t . , p . 153-. 13 V.M.G.0., J a h r b u c h , 1951, p . 19« l k Loc. c i t .  -  123 the on  I n 19^3  camps. the  being  at $ 25.00 per  farm paid  Most o f except  t h e s e men  directly  the  men  to  month, w i t h  the  accepted  Red  the  s e v e n were c l o s e d . ' " ' objectors  throughout  Canada.  ually  to  sent  the  The  The  new  ones who  delegation  members o f  the  Old  controlled  by  Because  this  B.B.  them o n l y still  army w h i c h was j e c t e d by  unit,  wounded.  men  The  p l a n was  sent  to of  years  of  serve  in hospitals  the  s e r v i c e were  Ottawa t o  that  of  a  a f i g h t i n g machine. service  i n the  The was  involved i f a man  "fighting The  only took  force"  suggestion  Medical  Corps,  w o u l d e x p o s e M e n n o n i t e y o u n g men the  ordinary acts  The  soldier,  o f m e r c y and  and  t r a i n i n g , even i n t h i s  transfered rejected  t h e r e " w a s no t o an  to  yet  healing. the  t h i s ' p l a n was  main o b s t a c l e s . t o  arms t r a i n i n g and  therefore,  us-  ar-  involved p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n "part" of  be  war  Mennonites of a l l  service  integral part  to perform  that b a s i c  would not  15 L o c . c i t .  chose t h i s  They a r g u e d  Janz t h a t  delegation.  required  the  to  under m i l i t a r y s u p e r v i s i o n ,  the  seemed t o be  last  m i l i t a r y , even i f t h i s  same p h y s i c a l d a n g e r s as of  a l l f o r e s t r y camps  s e r v i c e which  under s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s ,  require  and  any  wheel of  the  t o r e m a i n i n camp.  Mennonites r e j e c t e d  arid a cog  Rev.  salary  soon e v i d e n t .  became an  made by  the  was  s u c h s e r v i c e s he  was  r e s t of  o f work  opinion  s i c k and  i n the  the  consisted  a d i f f e r e n c e of  the  or  allowed  w h i c h was  denominations;  of  the  choice  m e n t a l h o s p i t a l s as o r d e r l i e s .  range f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s e r v i c e  care  the  service  were a l s o  various  the  Cross,  During  1  conscientious  were g i v e n  this  re-  plan  noncombatant guarantee  a c t i v e combatant  in its entirity.  Of  that unit.  the  eight  12k  d e l e g a t e s o n l y one, B.B. J a n z , seemed t o f a v o u r t h e p l a n . I n September 19k3, an O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l  allowed  the s e r v i c e s o f the c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s i n the M e d i c a l and D e n t a l Corps. ing  S p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s s t a t e d t h a t even b a s i c  was t o be done w i t h o u t  train-  arms and the men c o u l d n o t be t r a n s -  f e r e d to another u n i t without  t h e i r consent.  When t h i s became  known t h e p a c i f i s t s o f a l l r e l i g i o u s complexions j o i n e d t h i s b r a n c h o f the s e r v i c e .  I t i s n o t d e f i n i t e l y known how many  j o i n e d b u t t h e f i r s t o f t h i s group r e c e i v e d b a s i c t r a i n i n g i n Peterboro,  O n t a r i o , i n December o f 19k3 and January o f 19kk.  I n t h i s f i r s t group t h e r e were f o r t y - t h r e e men r e p r e s e n t i n g the Mennonite, P e n t e c o s t a l , S e v e n t h - D a y - A d v e n t i s t and Plymouth l6  B r e t h e r n churches;  o f these men t w e n t y - f i v e were Mennonites.  As f a r as i s known, t h i s was the l a r g e s t number t o be t r a i n e d as a group.  The men who j o i n e d l a t e r went through t r a i n i n g as  i n d i v i d u a l s and n o t as a p a r t o f a l a r g e " r e s t r i c t e d " group. The p r i v i l e g e s enjoyed by these men on d i s c h a r g e were t h e same as those o f the r e g u l a r s e r v i c e m a n . In t r a c i n g the o r i g i n of t h i s  Order-in-Council 17  no w r i t t e n i n f o r m a t i o n o r sources  are a v a i l a b l e .  Rev. B.B.  Janz r e l a t e s t h a t a f t e r t h e Mennonite d e l e g a t i o n had a r r a n g e d for  a l t e r n a t i v e s e r v i c e , he p e r s o n a l l y g o t i n touch w i t h Major  G e n e r a l L a f l e c h e , M i n i s t e r o f War, and proposed a scheme which would make i t p o s s i b l e f o r Mennonite young men t o s e r v e i n the M e d i c a l Corps.  A paper was drawn up s t a t i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s  under w h i c h such s e r v i c e s c o u l d be made p o s s i b l e .  These con-  16 e n cter a ionfi wn rg i tw ie tr h. arms, n o n t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y d i t iP oe nr s o nianlc l ue xd pe ed r ino 17 The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n I s o b t a i n e d from Rev. B.B. Janz.  125 t o o t h e r u n i t s , and spiritual  s e r v i c e i n groups w i t h arrangements f o r  supervision  f l e c h e was  by  the Mennonite  that  conscientious  of  A year later  J a n z t o keep J a n z was  conditions.  could  The  issue  o f September,  a s k e d f o r b y Mr.  serve  "restricted"  service  which  i n t h e army e x c e p t u n d e r  seemed dead. 19k3,  T h e n came t h e  i n which p a r t  J a n z were g r a n t e d ,  o f the con-  evidently  the audience w i t h Major General L a f l e c h e .  the  him  informed  o f D e f e n s e h a d r e j e c t e d any p l a n by  objectors  Order-in-Council ditions  He p r o m i s e d B.B.  as t o d e v e l o p m e n t s .  the Department  regular  General La-  e n t h u s i a s t i c and p r o m i s e d t o do a l l i n h i s power  to a i d i n s u c h a -program. informed  Church.  a-:result  It is clear  i n t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n Army  that  Medical  C o r p s and t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n Army D e n t a l C o r p s , o r i g i n a t e d outside  o f the u n i t e d  therefore  a c t i o n • 6"f ^ t h e M e n n o n i t e  d i d n o t e n j o y c h u r c h endorsement.  seems much more f a v o r a b l e that  to such a p l a n  i n c a s e o f a n o t h e r war  this  c h u r c h e s and  Today  the p u b l i c  and i t c a n be e x p e c t e d  service shall  receive  major  emphasis. In A l b e r t a ing m i l i t a r y  the s i t u a t i o n o f the Mennonites  s e r v i c e was  regard-  t h e same as o f t h o s e i n o t h e r p r o -  l8 vinces.  The p i c t u r e  i n A l b e r t a was  the f o l l o w i n g :  In  t h e armed s e r v i c e s  In  the r e s t r i c t e d M e d i c a l Corps s e r v i c e  In  the C O .  camps and f a r m s  .  •  77 8 173  In H o s p i t a l s  0  In p r i s o n because o f p a c i f i s m  2  Other  8  services  18 TSjuestionnaire & V e r t r e t e r v e r sammlung, 19kh> 19k5> 19^6.  126 In  cases  vices  where  special  The  General  not  take  the  men l o s t  was  taken.  the  y o u n g men I j o . l n e d t h e  action  was  Conference  a uniform  taken  and  action  their  the  regular  regarding  them on  Mennonite  Brethern  c o n c e r n i n g them.  In  c h u r c h membership w h i l e  The members  of  the  military  In  Old Mennonite  their  serreturn.  Churches  some  did  localities  others  no  action  denomination  who  19 joined  the  services  In  but  the  all  seems  to  have  latter  States  united  stand  of  another  been h e l d  Alberta and a t  World  have shall  war.  War  this  the  in  matter  military  of  individual  Mennonites efforts  regarding  in  taken  the  spotlight.  June,  1952.  In  at  Coaldale  February,  to  Ottawa  to  interview  ister,  Laurent,  in  regard  to  this  ister  promised that  no  action  on the  would  be  this  regard  without  1951  the  of  prior  in  nonIn  1951*  Prime  The  the  of  a nine  new  question. part  a  Conferences" have  s e r v i c e have  been h e l d  the  case  question  sent  in  service  the  was  taken  that  where  delegation St.  Canada and  ensure  military "Peace  conscience.  in  to  service  countries,  conferences have  Didsbury  church membership.  end v a r i o u s  both  and m i l i t a r y  such  II  forfeited  of  determined  b e made  To  the  a matter  made  throughout  resistance  church,  b e e n made  Since United  automatically  man Min-  Prime  government  consultation  with  20 the  group  assurance lend  a  or  groups  that  in  sympathetic  concerned.  the ear  future to  This  the  their  gave  Government wishes  the of  Mennonites Canada would  regarding  military  service. The M e n n o n i t e s 19 20  Questionnaire See A p p e n d i x C .  p.  have  been accused of  Min-  hypocrisy  in  127 the m a t t e r o f m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e .  The q u e s t i o n  "In how f a r a r e t h e M e n n o n i t e s s i n c e r e tary be  exemption?"  well  founded,  f o r some h a v e u s e d  objection  sonal  convictions  into stand  claim  mili-  the p r i v i l e g e s of  may conscien-  t o escape m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e n o t because o f perbut rather  because o f pressure  o f combatant d u t y , p r o s p e c t s  " u l t e r i o r " motives. ever,  when t h e y  asked,  I n some c a s e s t h e c h a r g e o f h y p o c r i s y  tious  fear  has been  of f i n a n c i a l  The number o f s u c h c a s e s  f o r t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f p a c i f i s m h a s been the Mennonite i s a sincere  child  from h i s e a r l y years.  from  gain,  t h e home, or other  i s small,  how-  indoctrinated The M e n n o n i t e  one, and t h e m o t i v e s o f t h e men who h a v e  been a c t i v e i n o b t a i n i n g  the a l t e r n a t i v e services  c a n n o t be  questioned. The  popular  the m i l i t a r y q u e s t i o n of  Coaldale,  stand  o f the Mennonites  was e x p r e s s e d  i n regard  to  i n 191+0 b y Rev. B.B. J a n z  A l b e r t a , when he s a i d ,  I may w e l l s a y t h a t o u r r e s t r i c t i o n i n t h e m a t t e r o f war d o e s n o t mean f o r u s t o s i t a t home and do n o t h i n g . No; where o u r f e l l o w c i t i z e n s a r e r e q u i r e d t o go o u t , t h e n a l s o our y o u n g men c a n go o u t t o s e r v e t h e i r country, but without blood. Whether the g o v e r n ment s h o u l d p l a c e them i n any c i v i l s e r v i c e f o r t h e u p b u i l d i n g o f t h e c o u n t r y , o r Red C r o s s work t o t h e ( s i c ) c a r e f o r t h e s i c k and wounded, o r e v e n p a t i e n t s w i t h m o s t c o n t a g i o u s diseases. W h a t e v e r t h e s e r v i c e may be, t h o u g h i t requires s a c r i f i c e , sickness, suffering or even d e a t h , we have no r i g h t t o s h r i n k b a c k before anything. O n l y one r e q u e s t : "Don't r e q u i r e o f us t o k i l l o r work f o r d e s t r u c t i o n -- and p l a c e a l l s e r v i c e , a l s o t h e m o s t d a n g e r ous u n d e r a c i v i l command"... Under no c o n d i t i o n f e a r o r cowardice or comfort or anything else s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o keep o u r y o u n g man b a c k , o n l y t h e p o i n t o f c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t i o n as i n d i c a t e d above i s t o r e c e i v e due c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  21 L e t h b r i d g e  Herald,  J u l y 6 , 191+0.  21  128 This statement i s c l e a r and speaks of a s i n c e r i t y that cannot be questioned. During World War I I the matter of Mennonite l o y a l t y to Canada was a t o p i c of frequent d i s c u s s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n d i s t r i c t s where Mennonites l i v e d .  In t h i s regard the Mennonite  himself was rather confused at times. He knew that he was no Nazi, but at the same time he had a deep -.regard f o r Germany as a country.  I t was Germany that had given s h e l t e r to the thou-  snads of refugees from communist Russia and had clothed and fed them f r e e of charge f o r many months while they had waited f o r embarkation to Canada.  I t took the Mennonites a while to  adjust to the f a c t that the Nazis had taken power and the very government which had extended a i d to them had been e l i m i n a t e d , . I t took only a few s t o r i e s of Nazi a t r o c i t i e s to set the Mennon i t e s r i g h t , and outside of a few f a n a t i c s , the Mennonites a l l re jected ..Nazism as u n c h r i s t i a n and t e r r i b l e .  As a r u l e the  Mennonites do not mix i n p o l i t i c s and even sympathy f o r Germany never c a r r i e d w i t h i n i t the seeds of danger f o r Canada. 22  The t i e  with Germany i s sentimental and not p o l i t i c a l . In the post-war p e r i o d the Mennonites have attempted to readjust themselves to the d i s l o c a t i o n s caused by the war. Some young men once more took up land while others entered the schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s of Canada and the United States to seek occupations- i n other f i e l d s .  The o l d e r generation again  seemed more content now that the war was over and t h e i r young men home.  The word came from Europe that many Mennonites among  them f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s of Mennonites i n Canada, sought 22 See Appendix D f o r the O f f i c i a l Mennonite view of National Socialism.  129 entrance into  Canada.  Immediately  ery o f the N o r t h American  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  Mennonites  t o h e l p open Canada's d o o r s  was g e a r e d i n an e f f o r t  to these u n f o r t u n a t e s .  Thus a f o u r t h g r e a t movement o f M e n n o n i t e s Canada g o t underway.  machin-  Most new comers o r i g i n a l l y  into  came f r o m  R u s s i a , h a v i n g e s c a p e d f r o m t h e r e w i t h t h e German f o r c e s i n their  retreat  from the east  i n 19kk.  come t o Canada as d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n s . m i g r a t i o n Mennonites i o n a l s have been 19k7. ^  f r o m t h e D a n z i g a r e a a n d some German n a t -  included  i n t h i s movement w h i c h  t h e a i d and t h e e f f o r t s  Brazil,  Uruguay  distribution  made•possible  o f the Canadian Mennonites.  and C h i n a have e n t e r e d t h i s  i n Canada h a s b e e n  2  New B r u n s w i c k  2  Quebec  7 1193  '  2500  Manitoba  1115  Saskatchewan  -IOI4.9  Alberta--  1791  Columbia  7839  Total These Mennonite  r e f u g e e s h a v e e n t e r e d Canada u n d e r  egories.^ 23 M e n n o n i t i s c h e R u n d s c h a u, M a r c h 12, k- I b i d . ,  Their  as follows: ""*" 2  British  By  Paraguay,  country.  P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d  Ontario  2  started i n  1952, n e a r l y 8 , 0 0 0 M e n n o n i t e s f r o m E u r o p e ,  March,  have  I n t h e l a s t y e a r o f im-  The new i m m i g r a t i o n t o C a n a d a h a s been  2  by  These Mennonites  M a r c h 19,  1952.  25 V e r t r e t e r v e r s a m m l u n g , 1 9 5 l ,  P» l b .  1952.  four  cat-  130 The  first  were n e a r r e l a t i v e s in  Canada f i l l e d  and  the degree  also  would 1200  to r e c e i v e  of Mennonites  of r e l a t i o n s h i p  entrance permission  i n Canada.  o u t an a p p l i c a t i o n  himself responsible He  group  The  stating h i s circumstances  w i t h the immigrant,  f o r the t r a v e l l i n g  expenses  g u a r a n t e e d t h a t when t h e i m m i g r a n t was  n o t become a p u b l i c a p p l i c a t i o n s had been  bringing  applicant  charge.  o f the r e f u g e e . i n Canada he  t h e end o f 19k6,  By  a c c e p t e d by  about  t h e CM.B.C. f o r t h e  and by 1950  over o f near r e l a t i v e s ,  and made  about k , 7 8 l  of  27 these  r e f u g e e s h a d e n t e r e d Canada. ' On O c t o b e r 22,  J.J.  191+8, t h e P r e s i d e n t  T h i e s s e n , and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  Committee,  W.I.  Snyder,  handed  o f the M e n n o n i t e  a petition  government a s k i n g f o r p e r m i s s i o n to b r i n g  2000 M e n n o n i t e d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n s who in was  Canada. " 20  given only  ligious  groups  i s part  Jolliffe,  t o the  h a d no  i n J a n u a r y , 191+9-  r e q u e s t s a t about  of a l e t t e r  Director  9  of Immigration, allowing  friends  that other r e -  and Roman 30  ,  or  two weeks i t  t h e same t i m e . ^  dated January  about  relatives  I t appeared  s u c h as L u t h e r a n s , B a p t i s t s  Central  Canadian  t o Canada  A l t h o u g h p r o m i s e d an answer w i t h i n  h a d made s i m i l a r lowing  o f t h e CM.B.C.,  1 9 1 4 - 9 ,  Catholics The  fol-  by Mr.  A.L.  t h e movement b u t  setting  definite conditions: I am p l e a s e d t o a d v i s e t h a t a p p r o v a l h a s been g i v e n f o r t h e a d m i s s i o n t o Canada o f up t o 1000 s u c h workers t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r dependents. I t i s unders t o o d t h a t t h e s e d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n s a r e u n d e r t h e mandate o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Refugee O r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t  20 V e r t r e t e r v e r s a m m l u n g , 191+6» p . 10  27 M i n u t e s o f t h e M e e t i n g o f the, CM.B.C.. A u g u s t ,  191+9.  28 A M e n n o n i t e R e l i e f o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s u p e r v i s i n g the Mennonite i m m i g r a t i o n from Europe to South America. 29 Reptffrt o f t h e CM.B.C., F e b . 2, 1 9 1 + 9 . 30 L o c . c i t .  131 a r e n o t p e r s o n s e l i g i b l e f o r e n t r y i n t o Canada u n d e r the c l o s e r e l a t i v e c l a s s e s , b u t w i l l h a v e t o be s e l e c t e d on an o c c u p a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r empl o y m e n t on f a r m s . I t i s d e s i r e d t h a t the s e l e c t i o n s of f a m i l y g r o u p s be g i v e n p r i o r i t y and t h a t e v e r y e n c o u r agement w i l l be g i v e n t o the movement o f f a m i l y g r o u p s t o Canada. The C a n a d i a n M e n n o n i t e B o a r d o f C o l o n i z a t i o n w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i n d i n g employment and s u i t a b l e housing f o r these d i s p l a c e d persons. A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the employment o f f a m i l i e s o r i n d i v i d u a l s on t h e f a r m s w i l l be c o m p l e t e d on t h e f o r m s s u p p l i e d by the D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , by t h e i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r a p p l i c a n t a p p l y i n g f o r the f a m i l y o r i n d i v i d u a l f a r m l a b o u r e r f o r employment on the f a r m s . The a p p l i c a n t w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o g i v e the u s u a l a s s u r a n c e o f a minimum o f t w e l v e months employment a t g o i n g wages and a d e q u a t e housing accomodation, E a c h a p p l i c a n t w i l l be end o r s e d by the C a n a d i a n M e n n o n i t e B o a r d o f C o l o n i z a t i o n as h a v i n g s a t i s f i e d i t s e l f t h a t employment i s a v a i l a b l e , t h a t the a p p l i c a n t i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y e m p l o y e r , and t h a t s u i t a b l e h o u s i n g a c c o m o d a t i o n is available. The c o m p l e t e d a p p l i c a t i o n s as so e n d o r s e d ' w i l l be s e n t i n t o the D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Committee f o r the p r o v i n c e where the a p p l i cant farmer r e s i d e s . A r r a n g e m e n t s w i l l be made, i f d e s i r e d , and where p r a c t i c a b l e , t o e n a b l e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f y o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n t o be p r e s e n t at meetings of the D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Committee at which the a p p l i c a t i o n s are c o n s i d e r e d . The Dominion-Provincial Committee w i l l u n d e r t a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n to s a t i s f y i t s e l f t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n s are i n order. The s e l e c t i o n o f the above p e r s o n s w i l l be made i n t h e u s u a l manner o v e r s e a s by t h e C a n a d i a n Government S e l e c t i o n Teams. I f the o v e r s e a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of your o r g a n i z a t i o n are i n a p o s i t i o n t o a s s i s t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e f u g e e O r g a n i z a t i o n i n l o c a t i n g and p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e M e n n o n i t e d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n s t o t h e S e l e c t i o n teams, t h i s w i l l be o f d e f i n i t e a s s i s t a n c e . A l l p e r s o n s s e l e c t e d f o r employment w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e an u n d e r t a k i n g t o t a k e employment f o r a p e r i o d o f a t l e a s t t w e l v e months f o l l o w i n g t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Canada. The u n d e r t a k i n g w i l l be i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e u s u a l u n d e r t a k i n g r e q u i r e d f r o m o t h e r d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n s s e l e c t e d on an o c c u p a t i o n a l b a s i s . The I.R.O. w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the payment o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s to Canada. The Cana d i a n M e n n o n i t e B o a r d o f C o l o n i z a t i o n and the M e n n o n i t e C e n t r a l Committee w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e  132  f o r paying the costs of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n from the port o f entry to the -place of employment i n Canada. The l a t t e r costs may be p a i d on a recoverable b a s i s . I t i s understood that arrangements covering t h i s movement can be c a n c e l l e d on s i x t y days' n o t i c e . 31 Thus the way f o r these new immigrants was opened and on March 5,  191+9,  a t a general meeting of a l l Mennonite churches w i t h  representatives of Lutheran, B a p t i s t , and C a t h o l i c groups as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l governments, the l a s t minute arrangements were made.  I t was s t r e s -  sed that p r i o r i t y was given to farm workdrs and domestics and 32  the a p p l i c a n t should be a farmer i n a c t u a l need of farm help. By August of 191+9, about tered Canada.33  136  persons i n t h i s category had en-  Today t h i s movement has been completed.  The t h i r d category consisted o f immigrants coming to Canada through the e f f o r t s and sponsorship of the Canadian Department of 'Laboufc.  This group included workers f o r the  various i n d u s t r i e s i n Canada.  By the end of 1 9 5 1 about 1+65  Mennonites had entered Canada under t h i s arrangement. ^ The C.M.B.G. d i d not encourage Mennonites to seek entrance i n t h i s category, because on a r r i v a l the refugees were scattered a l l across Canada and i t was p r a c t i c a l l y impossible f o r the church to remain i n contact w i t h them.  The Board made e f f o r t s to get  permission to place t h i s group near large Mennonite settlements where s p i r i t u a l s u p e r v i s i o n would be p o s s i b l e .  They met w i t h  success only i n Southern A l b e r t a where the Immigrants were given work i n the l a r g e sugar-beet f i e l d s of that region. 31 Report of CM.B.C., Jan. 2 8 , 191+9. 32 L e t t e r o f J . J . Thiessen to members of the CM.B.C. and the P r o v i n c i a l Committees, March 1 7 , 191+9. 33 B e r i c h t der CM.B.C. , Aug. 1 7 , 191+93l+ Vertreterversammlung, 1 9 5 1 , P* l o .  133  Some of the Mennonites i n Europe were German nati o n a l s and t h i s group posed a p a r t i c u l a r problem.  They r e -  ceived no r i g h t s under the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Refugee Organization arrangements and t h e i r entrance i n t o Canada was barred u n t i l 1950*  This group included hot only Mennonites but Lutherans,  B a p t i s t s and Roman C a t h o l i c s as w e l l .  In order to u n i f y t h e i r  e f f o r t s on behalf of t h i s group the above mentioned r e l i g i o u s denominations founded the Canadian C h r i s t i a n Council f o r ReSettlement of Refugees (C.C.C.R.R.) i n 191+7, w i t h Dr. T.O.P. Herzer (Lutheran) as President.  On February 2, 1950 a C.C.  C.R.R. delegation headed by Herzer interviewed the M i n i s t e r of Immigration, the Hon. Walter E. H a r r i s , w i t h reference to the f u r t h e r extension of r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the admission to Canada of refugees of German e t h n i c o r i g i n and p o s s i b l y of German nationals. ^ 3  B  y Orddr-in-Council P.C. 1606 of March 28, 1950,  the refugees of German ethnic o r i g i n were allowed to immigrate to Canada.  In September of the same year an Order-in-Council ,  P.C. I+36I+, allowed a l l German n a t i o n a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n immigra37  t i o n to apply f o r entrance i n t o Canada.  This group could  not enter on c r e d i t but had to come on a cash b a s i s .  Of the  10,000 Germans brought over by the C.C.C.R.R. since 191+7  about  268 were Mennonites. ^ 3  The f i n a n c i n g of the Mennonite immigrants was undertaken by the CM.B.C.  In each province the P r o v i n c i a l Commi-  ttees provided a fund on which applicants might draw to finance the Immigration of t h e i r near r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . By Dec35 M.P.H., Aug. 8, 191+7 36 of the Meeting1951, of the Feb. 7, 1950. 37 Minutes Vertreterversammlung,, P» CM.B.C., 17 38 Loc. c i t .  131;  ember, 1951,  the t o t a l amount of c r e d i t extended by the C.M.B. 39  C. was $131,221.Ik, of which $9i+,l+95.73 had again been repaid. O r i g i n a l l y the C.M.B.C. and the P r o v i n c i a l Committees had been against the c r e a t i o n of a new Reiseschuld f o r they  still  remembered the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n the l i q u i d a t i o n of the o l d one.  I f a p o l i c y of "no d r e d i t " was to be c a r r i e d  out, however, i t meant that thousands of refugees would have to remain i n Europe.  The s i t u a t i o n seemed to warrant i t and  c r e d i t was once more extended.  Even the C.P.R. o f f e r e d the  Mennonites a c r e d i t of $180,000 f o r immigration purposes, i f the-Mennonites would come to Canada on the Company's ships. The c r e d i t was to be repaid w i t h i n two years at 3$ i n t e r e s t . By March, 1952,  about $77,000 of t h i s c r e d i t had been u s e d .  k0  In December, 191+6, the Mennonites of A l b e r t a created the "Immigration Fund", from which money was to be used to help the new immigrants come to Canada.  Although the fund  then contained only $791+.l+8, there was s t i l l over $1,000 i n the- Reiseschuld fund; t h i s was t r a n s f e r e d to the new  treasury,  The fund was to be f i l l e d by personal l o a n s , g i f t s ,  collections  and any other means which could be c a r r i e d out w i t h reasonable success.  From the fund, loans f o r two or three years could  be made at a r a t e of 3% i n t e r e s t .  Vigorous e f f o r t s were made  by the Committee to f i l l the treasury and the support of a l l Mennonite denominations was s o l i c i t e d .  By A p r i l , 1952  of ninety-seven loans had been made amounting to 39 Loc. c i t . 1+0 Mennonitlsche Rundschau, March 19, 1+1 M.P.H., Feb. 5, 19k7. 1+2 M.P.H., A p r i l 23, 1952. . -  1952.  a total  $k6,086.92.  1+2  135  Most of the loans were r a p i d l y repaid and the fund i s considered a success i n every sense of the term.  Since the immigra-  t i o n movement has almost come to a stop the fund i s to be u t i l i z e d i n other ways not yet defined. The Mennonite P r o v i n c i a l R e l i e f Committee undertook not only to supply money f o r immigration but accepted the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of f i n d i n g jobs- and land f o r the immigrants as well..  The attempts, to keep the immigrants near Mennonite  settlements was, of course, one of i t s major concerns.  Contact  was maintained w i t h immigrants who had work outside of Mennon i t e c i r c l e s and i f v i s i t s were not p o s s i b l e then letterswere w r i t t e n to them.  The churches i n a l l areas were urged to con-  t a c t a l l Mennonite newcomers and draw them i n t o the Mennonite 1+3  spiritual orbit. The Committee regre^ed the r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n of the new immigrants. again urging the "New  "fc"  Warnings were sent out time and time Canadians" to l i v e up to the terms of  t h e i r contracts by remaining on the farms f o r at l e a s t twelve kh months.  Due to the h i g h p r i c e of land and the s c a r c i t y of  good land, no large settlement scheme could be undertaken. A p p l i c a n t s were accepted f o r the land i n the newly opened i r r i g a t i o n area near V a u x h a l l . The h i g h s a l a r i e s i n towns and c i t i e s have been an added i n c e n t i v e to seek employment outside of  agriculture. Due to t h i s new immigration the Mennonites them-  selves faced the problems of a s s i m i l a t i n g and absorbing the M.P.H., Aug. 10, 191+8. Loc. c i t .  1+3 1+1+  136  newcomers. new  This i s proving to be a d i f f i c u l t t a s k / f o r the  immigrants are s t i l l Europeans and i t i s i n the contrast  between these two groups that one can see the extent to which the o l d immigrants have become "Canadianized."  Twenty f i v e  years under a Communist regime has given many of the newcomers s t a r t l i n g economic and s o c i a l ideas. misunderstanding  and i n most Mennonite centres today a c l e a r  l i n e of demarcation new.  The r e s u l t o f t e n i s  can be discerned between the o l d and the  These v a r y i n g i d e o l o g i e s w i l l again demand a p e r i o d of  time before a s s i m i l a t i o n of the two groups w i l l be completed. As i t i s , the convulsions of s o c i a l and economic d i s l o c a t i o n and adjustment must be endured.  CHAPTER  EIGHT  CONCLUSION In the eyes of the Canadian people, the Mennonites have always presented a problem I n a s s i m i l a t i o n .  The obser-  vant reader i s constantly under a bombardment of words which ask, or even demand, the a s s i m i l a t i o n of a l l m i n o r i t y groups i n Canada.  I t must be admitted that a degree of a s s i m i l a t i o n  i s necessary f o r the good of the country; complete a s s i m i l a t i o n would be a catastrophe of no mean proportions.  Each m i n o r i t y  group, no matter of what p h y s i c a l e x t r a c t i o n or geographic o r i g i n , has some c o n t r i b u t i o n to make to the general c u l t u r e ; each group enriches, and enlarges the l i f e of the n a t i o n . I t would be an irreplrable l o s s i f the many ethnic groups i n Canada should loose t h e i r r a c i a l genius and p e c u l i a r i t i e s , even f o r the sake of c r e a t i n g a common Canadian i n d i v i d u a l .  The  richness and beauty of a nation's c u l t u r e does not depend upon s i m i l a r i t y but upon the d i v e r s i t y and v a r i e t y which only d i v e r gent groups and races can give i t .  A l l great c u l t u r e s have  a r i s e n because of the c o n t r i b u t i o n made to them by other cultures. The Mennonites i n Canada have t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to make to the general Canadian c u l t u r e .  In A l b e r t a t h i s con-  t r i b u t i o n has, u n t i l the present, been on a g r i c u l t u r a l l i n e s . Although the Mennonite s o c i e t y i n A l b e r t a to the present has been predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l , the young people today are being f o r c e d from the land i n t o other occupational f i e l d s  138 T h e r e i s now into  t o the c i t y  which promises to develop  an o b s t i n a t e p r o b l e m f o r t h e M e n n o n i t e  trend it  a trend  i s negative  will  i n one  open v a s t  leaders.  sense, i t i s p o s i t i v e  If this  i n another, f o r  a r e a s i n w h i c h M e n n o n i t e g e n i u s may  find  ample room f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . The taken p l a c e .  a s s i m i l a t i o n o f the Mennonites has n o t y e t To become a s s i m i l a t e d  only  change h i s d r e s s  This  change  and l a n g u a g e , b u t h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f  i s not l i k e l y  m i n o r i t y group  to  As  i n a free  to l o o k a f t e r  soon as t h e s o c i e t y  respect,  the Mennonites w i l l  a country  offering  better opportunities.  a l w a y s be a c e r t a i n  society,  world rather  i s no  and w i l l  t h a n l e t t h e w o r l d change  i n any way,  which i t e x i s t s . definite  of Mennonite  attempt to  it.  As l o n g  which  i t welcomed  change as  i t will  t h r e a t e n the w e l f a r e o f the c o u n t r y i n The  contribution  usstable world.  longer  Of c o u r s e t h e r e  M e n n o n i t i s m r e m a i n s s i n c e r e , h o n e s t and i n d u s t r i o u s , never,  spiritual  once more m i g r a t e  c r u m b l i n g a t t h e edges  but the centre remains f i r m  life.  s o c i e t y where a  i t s own  i n this  will  the  to occur  i s at l i b e r t y  and e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s . free  t h e M e n n o n i t e must n o t  May  c o n s e r v a t i v e Mennonite t o make t o p o l i t i c a l Canada  them.  never r e g r e t  elements have  stability  a  i n an  t h e open d o o r s w i t h  139  140  APPENDIX  "A"  1  The M e n n o n i t e Agreement o f 1873 The f o l l o w i n g I s a c o p y i n f u l l o f t h e O r d e r - i n C o u n c i l o f l o 7 3 , g i v i n g the Mennonites c e r t a i n r i g h t s i n Canada, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Immigration Branch, Ottawa, 23rd J u l y , 1873. Gentlemen,I h a v e t h e h o n o u r , u n d e r i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Hon. t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , to s t a t e to you, i n r e p l y to your l e t t e r of t h i s days d a t e , t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t s r e l a t i n g to advantage o f f e r e d t o s e t t l e r s , a n d t o t h e i m m u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d t o Mennon i t e s , w h i c h a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e S t a t u t e Law o f Canada, and by o r d e r o f H i s E x c e l l e n c e , G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l i n C o u n c i l , f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n o f German M e n n o n i t e s , h a v i n g i n t e n t i o n t o emi g r a t e t o Canada, v i a Hamburg: 1. A n e n t i r e e x e m p t i o n f r o m M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e i s , b y l a w and O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l , g r a n t e d to the denomination o f C h r i s t i a n s c a l l e d "Mennonites . 2. An O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l was p a s s e d o n t h e 3 r d o f M a r c h l a s t , to r e s e r v e e i g h t T o w n s h i p s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a , f o r f r e e g r a n t s on t h e c o n d i t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t as p r o v i d e d i n the D o m i n i o n L a n d s A c t , t h a t i s t o s a y : "Any p e r s o n who i s t h e h e a d of a f a m i l y , o r h a s a t t a i n e d t h e age o f t w e n t y - o n e y e a r s , s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o be e n t e r e d f o r one q u a r t e r - s e c t i o n o r a l e s s q u a n t i t y o f u n a p p r o p r i a t e d Dominion Lands f o r t h e purpose o f s e c u r i n g a homestead r i g h t i n r e s p e c t t h e r e o f . " 3» The s a i d r e s e r v e o f e i g h t T o w n s h i p s i s f o r t h e e x c l u s i v e use o f t h e M e n n o n i t e s , a n d t h e s a i d f r e e g r a n t s o f one q u a r t e r s e c t i o n t o c o n s i s t o f l 6 0 a c r e s e a c h , as d e f i n e d b y t h e A c t . 1+. S h o u l d t h e Mennonite S e t t l e m e n t extend beyond t h e e i g h t T o w n s h i p s s e t a s i d e by t h e O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l o f M a r c h 3 r d , l a s t , o t h e r T o w n s h i p s w i ± l b e , i n t h e same way, r e s e r v e d t o meet t h e f u l l requirements o f Mennonite immigration. 5. I f , n e x t S p r i n g , t h e M e n n o n i t e s e t t l e r s , on r e c e i v i n g t h e e i g h t T o w n s h i p s s e t a s i d e f o r u s e , s h o u l d p r e f e r t o exchange them f o r any o t h e r e i g h t , u n o c c u p i e d T o w n s h i p s , s u c h exchange w i l l be a l l o w e d . 6. In a d d i t i o n to the f r e e grant o f a q u a r t e r - s e c t i o n o f l60 a c r e s t o e v e r y p e r s o n o v e r t w e n t y - o n e y e a r s o f age, o n t h e c o n d i t i o n o f settlement, the r i g h t to purchase the remaining threeq u a r t e r s o f the s e c t i o n a t $1.00 p e r a c r e , w h i c h i s the l a r g e s t q u a n t i t y o f l a n d t h e Government w i l l g r a n t a P a t e n t f o r one p e r s o n . 7. The s e t t l e r w i l l r e c e i v e a P a t e n t f o r f r e e g r a n t a f t e r three years' r e s i d e n c e i n accordance with the-terms o f the Dominion.Lands A c t . 1 A n d e r s o n , J.T.M., THE EDUCATION OF THE NEW-CANADIAN, J.M.Dent & Sons, L t d . , L o n d o n and T o r o n t o , 1918, p p . 2Lj.7-2L+9•  lk.1  8 . i n the event of the death of the s e t t l e r , the l a w f u l h e i r can claim the Patent f o r the f r e e grant, upon proof that settlement duties f o r three years have been preformed. 9. Prom the moment of occupation, the s e t t l e r acquires a homestead r i g h t i n the land. 1 0 . The f u l l e s t p r i v i l e g e of e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s i s by law-afforded to the Mennonites, without any k i n d of molestation or r e s t r i c t i o n whatever, and the same p r i v i l e g e extends to the education of t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n schools. 1 1 . The p r i v i l e g e of a f f i r m i n g , instead of making a f f i d a v i t s , i s afforded by law. 1 2 . The Government of Canada undertakes to f u r n i s h passenger warrants from Hamburg to Port Garry, f o r Mennonite f a m i l i e s of good character, f o r the sum of $ 3 0 . 0 0 per adult person; under eight years, h a l f p r i c e , or $ 1 $ . 0 0 , and f o r i n f a n t s under one year, $ 3 . 0 0 . 1 3 . The M i n i s t e r s p e c i a l l y authorized me to state that t h i s arrangement as to p r i c e s h a l l not be changed f o r the seasons of  I87I4. and  I876.  1I+. I am f u r t h e r to state that i f i t i s changed, t h e r e a f t e r , the p r i c e s h a l l not, up to the year 1 8 8 2 , exceed $Ij.0.00 per adult, and c h i l d r e n i n p r o p o r t i o n , subject to the approval of Parliament. 15. The immigrants s h a l l be provided w i t h p r o v i s i o n s on the p o r t i o n of the journey between L i v e r p o o l and Collingwood', but during other portions of the journey they are to f i n d t h e i r own p r o v i s i o n s . I have the honour to be, Gentlemen, Your obedient Secretary Messrs.  servant,  P.M. LOWE, of Department of A g r i c u l t u r e .  DAVID KLASSEN JACOB PETERS HEINRICH WIEBE CORNELIUS TOEWS Delegates from Southern Russia.  Ik2 APPENDIX  "B"  x  R e g a r d i n g M e n n o n i t e S e t t l e m e n t i n Canada , The a g e n c y i n w e s t e r n C a n a d a w h i c h was t o see t h e Mennoni t e immigrant t h r o u g h t h e w i n t e r and a i d them i n f i n d i n g t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e e c o n o m i c l i f e o f t h e D o m i n i o n was t h e C a n a d i a n Mennonite Board of C o l o n i z a t i o n . While this organization was e n t i r e l y c a p a b l e o f p r o v i d i n g t e m p o r a r y c a r e f o r t h e newcomers, i t s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r s e t t l i n g them on t h e l a n d w e r e d i s t i n c t l y l i m i t e d by t h e s l e n d e r means o f t h e M e n n o n i t e c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e W e s t . A l t h o u g h a t h r i f t y and i n d u s t r i o u s f a r m i n g f o l k , t h e s e p e o p l e l a c k e d t h e l a r g e r e s o u r c e s , t h e p r e s t i g e , and t h e m a c h i n e r y n e c e s s a r y f o r the s u c c e s s f u l c o l o n i z a t i o n o f the new a r r i v a l s i n the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . What was r e a l l y n e e d e d was t h e u n i o n o f t h e M e n n o n i t e B o a r d o f C o l o n i z a t i o n w i t h some a g e n c y o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c , t h e company w h i c h h a d made p o s s i b l e t h e c o m i n g o f t h e i m m i g r a n t s i n t o C a n a d a . The r a i l w a y was m a i n t a i n i n g t h e Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n as a medium f o r t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f p r i v a t e l y owned l a n d . I n r e c o g n i t i o n of C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c a s s i s t a n c e , t h e b o a r d was d e s i r o u s , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , o f p l a c i n g them on l a n d s i n C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c t e r r i tory. T h i s s i t u a t i o n i n d i c a t e d the i m p o r t a n c e of a w o r k i n g a r r a n g e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e M e n n o n i t e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e C a n a d a Colonization Association. D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r and s p r i n g o f 192k t h e C a n a d i a n Mennon i t e B o a r d o f C o l o n i z a t i o n , i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , b u s i e d i t s e l f w i t h t h e s e t t l e m e n t on t h e l a n d of the M e n n o n i t e s b r o u g h t f o r w a r d d u r i n g the p r e c e d i n g y e a r . The i m p o r t a n c e o f l o c a t i n g them p r o m p t l y was a p p a r e n t . C o n s e n t o f t h e D o m i n i o n a u t h o r i t i e s t o a f u r t h e r movement o f M e n n o n i t e s w o u l d n a t u r a l l y be c o n t i n g e n t u p o n t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t c o m e r s . Y e t midsummer f o u n d many o f them u n p l a c e d . The l a c k o f p r o g e s s seemed t o r e s u l t f r o m an i n s u f f i c i e n t l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t h e two o r g a n i z a t i o n s . To b r i n g them i n t o c l o s e r harmony and more a c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n , a M e n n o n i t e L a n d S e t t l e m e n t B o a r d was f o r m e d , w i t h t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m the C a n a d i a n M e n n o n i t e B o a r d o f C o l o n i z a t i o n , t h r e e ' f r o m the C a n a d a C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , and t h r e e f r o m t h e M e n n o n i t e n e w c o m e r s . ( D e n n i s t o Rev. D a v i d Toews, J u l y 19, 192k, Pile No. 218, Section 6,M.) These steps, o f c o u r s e , were taken upon the i n i t i a t i v e of Dennis i n b e h a l f of the Canadian P a c i f i c . The company, t h r o u g h i t s D e p a r t m e n t o f C o l o n i z a t i o n and D e v e l o p m e n t , h a d assumed t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e movement o f t h e M e n n o n i t e s t o Canada and f o r t h e i r p l a c e m e n t on t h e l a n d . In e f f e c t i n g t h i s close c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e M e n n o n i t e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e Canad i a n C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , Dennis sought to s e c u r e f o r the company a d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l and o v e r s i g h t c o m m e n s u r a t e w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t h a d assumed. The C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c w o u l d be the g u i d i n g s p i r i t i n a p a r t n e r s h i p w h i c h e x i s t e d f o r the mu1  H e d g e s , J . B . , B u i l d i n g t h e C a n a d i a n W e s t , The L a n d and C o l o n i z a t i o n P o l i c i e s o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , New Y o r k , The M a c m i l l a n Co., 1939, pp. 370-377.  11*3  t u a l b e n e f i t of the r a i l w a y and the Mennonite people. But w h i l e keeping h i s hand on the t h r o t t l e , Dennis was c a r e f u l to make h i s c o n t r o l as unobtrusive as p o s s i b l e . To t h i s end, one of the three representatives of the Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n Assoc i a t i o n on the Land Settlement Board was himself a Mennonite. Under the new arrangement, s u b s t a n t i a l progress was made during the l a t t e r p a r t of 1921). i n the settlement of Mennonite f a m i l i e s . The primary f u n c t i o n s of the Land Settlement Board were to f i n d owners of improved- land who were disposed to s e l l t h e i r holdings, to b r i n g such owners together w i t h the Mennon i t e immigrants, to see that contracts f o r the sale of such lands were f a i r to a l l concerned, and to provide a f t e r - c a r e and s u p e r v i s i o n f o r the new s e t t l e r s . The day was gone when the settler.was placed on the land,and promptly f o r g o t t e n , while he s h i f t e d f o r himself as best he could. The aim and purpose of immigration promotion now was to b u i l d the s e t t l e r i n t o the economic l i f e of the country. Every precaution must be taken, therefore, to guard against f a i l u r e of the newcomer; care must be taken to prevent the immigrant from becoming a p u b l i c charge. With a strong p u b l i c Opinion which was at best merely t o l e r a n t of Continental immigration, Mennonite c o l o n i z a t i o n must be a success. Since the Mennonites were meagerly provided w i t h funds, and since they were being s e t t l e d on lands which sold at a subs t a n t i a l p r i c e , p a r t i c u l a r care was necessary i n evolving a p r a c t i c a l plan by which they could acquire t i t l e to land. There were i n western Canada many l a r g e farms, s u r v i v a l of the.bonanza days when wheat farms of great proportions were a common s i g h t . With the passing of the prosperous conditions which had p r e v a i l e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e during the pre-war and war p e r i o d s , many of these farms had l o s t t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s to t h e i r owners. The depressed p r i c e s of farm products a f t e r 1 9 2 1 made these men receptive to proposals that they dispose of t h e i r holdings. But the meare w i l l i n g n e s s of them to s e l l o f f e r e d no s o l u t i o n of the problem. There remained the question of the buyer; and i n the face of the p r e v a i l i n g farm s i t u a t i o n there was no demand f o r the large farms. The obvious s o l u t i o n was e i t h e r to d i v i d e these l a r g e h o l d i n g s i n t o small u n i t s f o r sale to i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s or to s e l l them i n t a c t to groups of f a m i l i e s who would operate them on a community b a s i s . By v i r t u e of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l devotion to the community form of settlement, the Mennonite immigrants whom the Canadian P a c i f i c was b r i n g i n g to Canada were c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d as the ones who would make a success of group settlement on l a r g e farms. But while the Mennonites were good human m a t e r i a l , they were so l a r g e l y without means as to preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r purchasing the land i n the ordinary way. In working out s p e c i a l arrangements f o r purchase by the Mennonites there was needed some responsible o r g a n i z a t i o n commanding the confidence of bothi; the vendor and the buyers. As the c h i e f sponsor of the Mennonite immigration, and as the agency which had made i t p o s s i b l e f o r them to come forward, the Canadian P a c i f i c was the l o g i c a l intermediary: and i n i t s Canada Colo n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n i t had an instrument at hand f o r such  work. Mot o n l y c o u l d t h e l a t t e r c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e M e n n o n i t e Land S e t t l e m e n t B o a r d i n l o c a t i n g the l a n d s a v a i l a b l e f o r p u r c h a s e , b u t , what was more i m p o r t a n t , t h r o u g h i t s a g e n t s i t c o u l d g u a r a n t e e a j u s t a p p r a i s a l o f t h e l a n d and d e v i s e c o n t r a c t s f o r s a l e w h i c h would s a f e g u a r d the i n t e r e s t s o f a l l p a r t i e s concerned. The p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f c o n t r a c t e v o l v e d t o meet t h i s s i t u a t i o n was one c a l l i n g f o r p u r c h a s e on a c r o p - p a y m e n t basis. Where g r o u p s o f M e n n o n i t e f a m i l i e s were s e t t l e d on t h e l a r g e f a r m s , a d d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s and e q u i p m e n t must be p r o v i d e d by the v e n d o r s and added t o t h e p r i c e o f t h e l a n d . The t o t a l c o s t was t h e n t o be l i q u i d a t e d by t h e a n n u a l d e l i v e r y t o t h e v e n d o r o f o n e - h a l f o f a l l c r o p s and l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c e d on t h e land. I n t h i s way e v e r y i n c e n t i v e was g i v e n t o s e t t l e r s t o a c h i e v e maximum p r o d u c t i o n as a means o f e f f e c t i n g t h e most r a p i d payment f o r t h e l a n d . Once a community o f M e n n o n i t e s h a d b e e n s e t t l e d on a l a r g e f a r m t h e i n s p e c t o r s o f t h e Mennon i t e L a n d S e t t l e m e n t B o a r d and o f t h e Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n p r o v i d e d s u p e r v i s i o n and a f t e r - c a r e i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f a i l u r e t o a minimum. I n t h i s way t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c e f f e c t e d n o t m e r e l y a s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e M e n n o n i t e s on t h e land, w i t h reasonable assurance of t h e i r success, but i t a l s o i n a u g u r a t e d something i n the n a t u r e o f a r e v o l u t i o n i n l a n d h o l d i n g i n p o r t i o n s o f t h e C a n a d i a n West. Extensive c u l t i v a t i o n , a marked f e a t u r e o f the e a r l y development t h r o u g h o u t the wheat b e l t on t h e A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n p r a i r i e s , was t o be r e p l a c e d i n a measure by a more i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n by t h e h a n d s . o f a t h r i f t y and i n d u s t r i o u s p e o p l e l o n g a c c u s t o m e d t o unremitting-, t o l l . And i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e meant b a l a n c e d f a r m i n g i n which d i v e r s i f i e d p r o d u c t i o n would s u p p l a n t the e x c l u s i v e g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h had a t t e n d e d the o p e r a t i o n of the l a r g e f a r m s . The new s y s t e m was a r e c o g n i t o n , t o o , o f the f a c t t h a t t h e M e n n o n i t e s were more l i k e l y t o s u c c e e d t h r o u g h community e f f o r t t h a n when e a c h f a m i l y was l e f t t o work o u t i t s own s a l v a t i o n . . . . As a r e s u l t o f the a d o p t i o n o f t h i s p l a n f o r M e n n o n i t e s e t t l e m e n t , t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c was s o o n a b l e t o show g r a t i f y i n g r e s u l t s from i t s e f f o r t s , which warranted i t i n seeking a u t h o r i z a t i o n f r o m D o m i n i o n a u t h o r i t i e s f o r a f u r t h e r movement of t h e s e p e o p l e from R u s s i a . The e n c o u r a g i n g p r o s p e c t s f o r M e n n o n i t e s u c c e s s on t h e l a n d i n t h e West h a d t h e e f f e c t , t o o , of p r e d i s p o s i n g P r e s i d e n t B e a t t y o f the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c toward a c o n t i n u e d movement o f t h e M e n n o n i t e s on a c r e d i t b a s i s , c a r e b e i n g t a k e n a t a l l t i m e s , however, t o g u a r d a g a i n s t t h e g r a n t ing o f e x c e s s i v e c r e d i t s to the Canadian Mennonite Board o f C o l o n i z a t i o n a t any g i v e n t i m e . T h r o u g h t h e d e c a d e o f t h e twent i e s t h e i m m i g r a t i o n o f the M e n n o n i t e s and t h e work o f t h e Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n went hand i n h a n d . The C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c c o n t i n u e d t o move M e n n o n i t e s on b o t h a c a s h and c r e d i t b a s i s . . . . T o March, 1927, the C a n a d i a n C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n h a d s e t t l e d on p r i v a t e l y owned l a n d a t o t a l o f 1,138 Mennonite f a m i l i e s , n o t t o m e n t i o n some 203 f a m i l i e s o f o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s . ( H e r z e r t o M a c a l i s t e r , M a r c h 11, 1927, P i l e No. 29*4-, 4  11& S e c t i o n 11, M.). By t h e c l o s e o f the 1928 s e a s o n i t had p l a c e d more t h a n 3-,000 M e n n o n i t e f a m i l i e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g o v e r 16,000 s o u l s . ( R e p o r t o f the Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r 1928). The a r e a o f l a n d t h u s c o l o n i z e d was i n e x c e s s o f 700,000 a c r e s , w i t h a c o n t r a c t p r i c e o f a l m o s t # 3 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . T h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e t h e Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n gradually evolved c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e p r i n c i p l e s governing i t s p r o c e d u r e w i t h r e s p e c t to t h i s type o f l a n d s e t t l e m e n t . It r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t f o r a s s i s t e d s e t t l e m e n t any f a m i l i e s w h i c h c o u l d n o t be p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d and i n s p e c t e d by the p r o s p e c t i v e vendors. I n o r d e r t o i n t e r e s t the s e l l e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n a n c i a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , a s s u r a n c e must be g i v e n t h a t some o r g a n i z a t i o n w o u l d p r o v i d e o v e r s i g h t and d i r e c t i o n o f the immig r a n t s p u r c h a s i n g the l a n d . F o r the p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h i s f u n c t i o n among the M e n n o n i t e s e t t l e m e n t s t h e r e were, o f c o u r s e , t h e C a n a d i a n M e n n o n i t e B o a r d o f C o l o n i z a t i o n and t h e M e n n o n i t e Land S e t t l e m e n t Board, b o t h of which f u n c t i o n e d i n c l o s e h a r mony w i t h t h e Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . . . . The p r i m a r y c o n c e r n o f the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c i n t h i s work was, o f c o u r s e , t h e i n c r e a s e d s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e c o u n t r y t r i b u t a r y t o i t s own l i n e s i n t h e West. On o c c a s i o n , however, the l a n d s t h u s s e t t l e d were t r i b u t a r y to b o t h t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c and t h e C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s . ' As a p r o t e c t i o n t o i t s i n t e r e s t s i n s u c h c a s e s , t h e company, t h r o u g h t h e Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e r e be i n s e r t e d i n the c o n t r a c t a c l a u s e r e q u i r i n g t h e p a r t i e s p u r c h a s i n g the l a n d to d e l i v e r t h e i r c r o p s t o C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c s t a t i o n s . U n t i l 1927 the a c t i v i t i e s o f the Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n were c o n f i n e d a l m o s t w h o l l y to the t h r e e p r a i r i e p r o vinces. I n t h e e a r l i e r y e a r s M a n i t o b a h a d b e e n the s c e n e o f g r e a t e s t a c t i v i t y , b u t i n 1928 b o t h S a s k a t c h e w a n and A l b e r t a were f a r a h e a d o f M a n i t o b a i n number o f f a m i l i e s as w e l l as a r e a o f l a n d s e t t l e d . By the t i m e most o f t h e f a r m s i n M a n i t o b a had b e e n c o l o n i z e d : ! on a community b a s i s , and now the same p r o c e s s was b e i n g e x t e n d e d to the o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . . . . The r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f M e n n o n i t e s , as compared w i t h o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s , i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t work o f the Canada C o l o n i z a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f i g u r e s f o r the y e a r 1928. Of a t o t a l o f 667 f a m i l i e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g 3 , 6 6 8 s o u l s e s t a b l i s h e d on the l a n d i n t h a t y e a r , 393 were M e n n o n i t e s . German f a m i l i e s numbered 178, o f whom 135 bad b e e n s e t t l e d t h r o u g h the a i d o f t h e L u t h e r a n I m m i g r a t i o n B o a r d , while, the r e m a i n i n g J4.3 f a m i l i e s were C a t h o l i c s i n whose. s e t t l e m e n t the V.D.C.K. h a d p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t . Of 13 o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n the y e a r ' s t o t a l , k7 B r i t i s h f a m i l i e s were the l a r g e s t group.  v  Ik6  APPENDIX "C" Text of the Mennonite p e t i t i o n to the Canadian Government, regarding the prospects of a l t e r n a t i v e s e r v i c e i n case of a f u t u r e war. The audience with the Prime M i n i s t e r occurred on February 22, 1951, at k o'clock i n the afternoon. Ottawa, den 22 Febr.,  1951.  Rt. Hon. Louis St. Laurent, Prime M i n i s t e r of Canada. Honourable S i r : The H i s t o r i c Peace Churches of Canada, namely: Mennonites, Brethern i n C h r i s t (Tunker) / Society of Friends (Quaker), and the Church of the Brethern have enjoyed residence i n t h i s Dominion f o r over one hundred and f i f t y years. We s i n c e r e l y appreciate our country, the t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e of her Government, and her strong e f f o r t s to promote peace among a l l n a t i o n s . We e s p e c i a l l y wish to pay r e s p e c t f u l t r i b u t e to the l a t e Prime M i n i s t e r of Canada, the Rt. Hon. W.L. MacKenzie King. At the same time we wish to take t h i s opportunity to assure you, our present Prime M i n i s t e r , of our prayers that the b l e s s i n g of God may r e s t upon you and the Government of Canada. H i s t o r i c a l l y , as Peace Churches whose number exceeds f i f t y thousand members, we have a B i b l i c a l background and deep-rooted, sacred c o n v i c t i o n against p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n war i n any form. We are indeed g r a t e f u l to our Government f o r granting to us freedom of conscience and r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t y which enables us to worship Almighty God according to our understanding of His Word. We have enjoyed t h i s p r i v i l e g e ever s i n c e our church f a t h ers came to t h i s country i n 1790. Since that time l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada has c o n s i s t e n t l y respected the peace c o n v i c t i o n s of a l l our groups i n c l u d i n g those which have come during the i n tervening years. During World War I the Government granted to a l l our drafted young men postponement from m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . Again, i n World War I I exemptions were provided f o r conscientious object o r s by a l l o w i n g them to serve i n p r o j e c t s of n a t i o n a l importance under c i v i l i a n s u p e r v i s i o n . We as Peace Churches, b e l i e v e that war i s out of harmony w i t h the teaching of the Gospel and the S p i r i t of our Lord Jesus C h r i s t ; consequently we are r e s t r a i n e d " from engaging i n war or v i o l e n c e of any kind. We are not asking f o r s a f e t y that avoids danger and sacr i f i c e but we cannot have any p a r t i n the taking of human l i f e . We are w i l l i n g to serve our country and fellowmen i n r e l i e f 1 Mennonite Brethern Church of Canada, Yearbook of the Fortyf i r s t Canadian Conference, The Columbia Press, Yarrow, B.C., 1951, PP. k l - k k .  114-7  work a t home or abroad or to engage i n work of n a t i o n a l importance such as s e r v i c e i n h o s p i t a l s , mental i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n dustry o r a g r i c u l t u r e under c i v i l i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In the unfortunate event of n a t i o n a l emergency which i n the view of the Canadian Government demands the m o b i l i z a t i o n of manpower, i t would be appreciated i f an opportunity could be given f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h Government o f f i c i a l s as to ways i n which we might serve i n accord w i t h our peace testimony. We t r u s t our r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s w i l l continue to be understood i n the future as they have been i n the past. We hope our Government w i l l continue to respect the conscience of m i n o r i t y groups and i n d i v i d u a l s . May the b l e s s i n g of God be upon the Parliament of Canada and may He grant you, our Honourable Prime M i n i s t e r , wisdom i n the discharging of your many duties as c h i e f executive of our Dominion. R e s p e c t f u l l y submitted, Fred Haslam, B.B. Janz, Coaldale, A l t a . J.B. Mart i n David Reimer, Giroux, Man.  C.J. Rempel, 10 Union S t r . J.G. Rempel, Rosthern, Sask. David Schulz, A l t o n a , Manitoba. Elven Shantz. E.J. Swalm, Duntrun, Ont.  1^8 APPENDIX "Am  "D"  I a N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t " , by B.B. J a n z , a s i t a p p e a r e d i n t h e L e t h b r i d g e H e r a l d , June, 19J-J-0.  T h i s a r t i c l e was w r i t t e n by B.B. J a n z , C o a l d a l e , A l b e r t a i n December 1 9 3 8 and p u b l i s h e d i n J a n u a r y 1 9 3 9 - i n f o u r Mennon i t e w e e k l y n e w s p a p e r s i n t h e German l a n g u a g e i n Canada and U.S.A. - A t t h a t t i m e t h e r e was no i m m e d i a t e d a n g e r of• war w i t h Germany, and i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e p u r p o s e was n o t t o p r o t e c t h i s own s k i n , b u t t o t h o r o u g h l y w a r n h i s p e o p l e a g a i n s t the s u b v e r s i v e propaganda. The e x p r e s s e d v i e w s a r e g e n e r a l l y t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e M e n n o n i t e s i n Canada. Many o f t h e c h u r c h l e a d e r s h a v e e x p r e s s e d t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n , b u t t h e German Cons u l i n W i n n i p e g w r o t e h i m an a n g r y l e t t e r demanding t o r e v o k e h i s d e c l a r a t i o n p u b l i c l y i n t h e p r e s s , and some a g e n t s o f the p r o p a g a n d a f r o m o v e r s e a s t h r e a t e n e d the t i m e w o u l d come t o s e t t l e w i t h him. They t r i e d t o make i t h a r d t o t a k e a f i r m s t a n d o f a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e B r i t i s h t h r o n e and t h i s home count r y and t o g i v e d e f i n i t e d e c l a r a t i o n s . But the a u t h o r f e l t no r e m o r s e h a v i n g done s o . The 2 1 , 0 0 0 I m m i g r a n t s w i l l h a v e t o use t h e i r m o t h e r tongue f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g , as t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n does n o t m a s t e r any o t h e r l a n g u a g e , i n w h i c h t o e n j o y t h e c h u r c h s e r v i c e . But t h i s w i l l change i n the c o u r s e o f t i m e , as h i s t o r y i n O n t a r i o h a s p r o v e n . - We a r e d e e p l y g r a t e f u l t o t h e Government and the c o u n t r y , t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t a n d us i n t h i s r e s p e c t . And we s i n c e r e l y hope t h e r e w i l l be no d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n and t h a t we may e n j o y t h e same p r i v i l e g e u n m o l e s t e d as the o t h e r 5 0 o r so l a n g u a g e s i n Canada do. And i t i s t o be remembered, t h a t a c o u p l e o f c e n t u r i e s ago t h e f o r e f a t h e r s o f most o f t h e s e p e o p l e s p o k e t h e D u t c h l a n g u a g e and f u r t h e r , t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e a r e b o r n and r a i s e d i n R u s s i a f o r a c e n t u r y and a h a l f as c i t i z e n s o f t h a t c o u n t r y and t h e y t h e m s e l v e s h a v e n e v e r b e e n i n Germany. AM  I  A  NATIONAL  SOCIALIST ?  -  GOD  FORBID I  Am I ( h e r e i n Canada) a C o n s e r v a t i v e ? - God f o r b i d l - Am I ( h e r e i n Canada) a L i b e r a l ? - God f o r b i d l - - Am I ( h e r e i n Canada) a S o c i a l C r e d i t e r ? - God f o r b i d i - Am I ( h e r e i n Canada) a N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t ? - God f o r b i d l And y e t i n a l l s e r i o u s n e s s i t seems I am e x p e c t e d by t h e p e o p l e o v e r s e a s t o answer t h e l a s t w i t h ' y e s ' o r ' o f c o u r s e " , to c o n f e s s m y s e l f a member o f a f o r e i g n s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l p a r t y ; w h i l e o v e r t h e r e no one, e v e n i n h i s dreams, w o u l d t h i n k of c a l l i n g h i m s e l f a Canadian L i b e r a l , s i n c e the L i b e r a l s are i n power h e r e t o d a y , t h e i r p o l i c i e s s e e m i n g the most p o p u l a r a t the p r e s e n t . F o r anyone o v e r t h e r e t o deny h i s a d h e r e n c e t o t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t p a r t y and t o c o n f e s s a d h e r e n c e t o a C a n a d i a n p a r t y w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d n o n s e n s e o r t r e a s o n by a l l . I n Germany t h e p e o p l e a r e N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s , and t h e y e x p e c t t h a t I , a C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n , who does n o t b e l o n g t o any  lk9 p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , w i l l , i n s p i t e of that, confess myself e i t h e r s e c r e t l y o f o p e n l y a N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t a c c o r d i n g t o the a r t i c l e w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e "B o t e" No. kQ, 1938• Whoever s p e a k s German h e r e i n Canada ( i n t h e U.S.A., B r a z i l , P a r a g u a y ) i s t o c o n f e s s h i m s e l f a member o f the N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t p a r t y . That i s t r e a s o n . T h e r e may be German c i t i z e n s h e r e ( t h a t i s p e o p l e who a r e n o t C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s ) whose c a l l i n g h a s t e m p o r a r i l y b r o u g h t them h e r e f r o m Germany and who a r e d e f i n i t e l y e x p e c t i n g t o . r e t u r n t o Germany, who may c l i n g t o t h e p o l i t i c a l f a i t h o f t h e i r f a t h e r l a n d without being accused of treason f o r that reason. They may. B u t as soon as i t s h o u l d come t o a new c o n f l i c t between p e o p l e s , ,the C a n a d i a n Government w i l l know how t o a c t , and t h e German Government w i l l a c t i n t h e same way w i t h C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s o y e r t h e r e : c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps e t c . When t h e r e f o r e f o r e i g n e r s as g u e s t s o f t h i s c o u n t r y c o n f e s s themselves a d h e r e n t s to the p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e i r f a t h e r l a n d , t h a t i s , t h e y f a v o u r t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e i r f a t h e r l a n d and f o r t h e m s e l v e s , . o t h e r s may s h r u g t h e i r s h o u l d e r s , b u t t h e y have t h a t p r i v i l e g e . But t h a t does n o t mean t h a t t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s must w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n be i n t r o d u c e d h e r e , o r t h a t t h e s e people s h o u l d t r y to win c o n v e r t s . They may a f t e r a l l be s i n c e r e l y f o n d o f t h e i r f a t h e r l a n d w i t h o u t b e l o n g i n g to i t s p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . And a l l o f us c a n on o c c a s i o n d e s c r i b e communism t r u t h f u l l y , w i t h o u t b e l o n g i n g to this or that p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . We may s p e a k as human b e i n g s f r o m i n n e r c o n v i c t i o n w i t h o u t membership i n a p a r t y o r w i t h o u t p a r t y d i s c i p l i n e . But to-day N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m as b e e n p r e s e n t e d t o us h e r e i n Canada, i s , i n f a c t , a l m o s t f o r c e d upon u s , so t h e question i s : w e a n d N a t i o n S o c i a l i s m . Now, a l l o f us have come h&re f r o m R u s s i a . No c o u n t r y i n t h e w o r l d w i s h e d t o g i v e us a home. Canada o p e n e d h e r d o o r s wide f o r u s : t o a d m i t 2 1 , 0 0 0 the d o o r s h a d t o be opened w i d e . A c r e d i t o f two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i s an i n d i c a t i o n how w i d e the d o o r s were o p e n e d . The h o m e l e s s h a v e f o u n d a home. T h o s e who were h u n g r y a t one t i m e a r e now e a t i n g good b r e a d , some a r e living i n plenty. I t i s t r u e t h a t i n the b e g i n n i n g , i.e.. i n t h e f i r s t t e n y e a r s , we h a d to work h a r d and f i g h t a g a i n s t d e s t i t u t i o n , f o r we h a d n o t h i n g . Our A m e r i c a n b r e t h e r n d e v o t e d some $25>0,000 t o p r o v i d e us w i t h c l o t h i n g , t h e y d e v o t e d a s i m i l a r sum t o t h e s i c k and o t h e r s u f f e r e r s , and a n o t h e r l i k e sum t o h e l p us a c q u i r e l a n d . . We h a v e become c i t i z e n s . During t h e s e y e a r s some 7k c h u r c h e s h a v e b e e n e r e c t e d . We have i n f a c t f o u n d f o o d and s h e l t e r , p e a c e and r e s t i n t h i s c o u n t r y , c o m p l e t e f r e e d o m and the p r a c t i c e o f o u r f a i t h . We a r e a l l a d h e r e n t s o f t h e M e n n o n i t e f a i t h f o u n d e d on t h e B i b l e . U n t i l now t h e s e p e o p l e h a v e , h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , been w i t h o u t p o l i t i c s ; i n s i m p l e l a n g u a g e , f o r t h o s e who cannot u n d e r s t a n d , l e t us aay: t h e s e M e n n o n i t e s ( i n c l u d i n g the a f o r e s a i d 21,000) h a v e i n f o r m e r t i m e s n e v e r a d h e r e d t o any p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , n o t i n R u s s i a . n o r h e r e i n Canada. And o u r n a t i v e b r o t h e r s h e r e h a v e n o t done s o . F o r t h a t r e a s o n the Canadian Government c o n s i d e r e d i t s e l f s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the Mennonites. An O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l , i n 1921, made i t imposs-  150 i b l e f o r Mennonites to come to Canada. .Premier W.L. Mackenzie King was requested by representatives of n a t i v e born Mennonites to set aside t h i s Order-in-Council. He was w i l l i n g to do so, cost what i t may. He himself had been a schoolmate of Mennon i t e boys i n Kitchener, Ont., had learned to :know and value the Mennonites p e r s o n a l l y , They were people who l i v e d according to t h e i r confession of f a i t h , a b l e s s i n g to t h e i r community and good c i t i z e n s of the State; o r i g i n a l l y most of them were Germans, but w i t h the passing of time a l l had become E n g l i s h speaking. A new Order-in-Council removed the d i f f i c u l t y , and the door was opened once more. Now we are here. Our brethern i n Russia are s t i l l s u f f e r ing. We here i n Canada, when the question of memberhsip I n a p o l i t i c a l party i s r a i s e d , can q u i e t l y say: "God f o r b i d ! " And even i f i t concerns the party of the head of our Government. No one i s concerned about that, and we are i n no p o l i t i c a l danger on that account, as would be the case |if we pursued a s i m i l a r p o l i c y over there, i . e . i n Russia (or i n Germany). And now consider these p o i n t s : 1/ You have experienced a l l these things ;and have taken advantage of them. That puts you under some o b l i g a t i o n , or does i t not? 2/ Becoming a c i t i z e n of t h i s f a t h e r l a n d 'also has a meaning; d i d you not become a c i t i z e n ? I t means that you are sati s f i e d with t h i s land as your f a t h e r l a n d and t h i s excludes any p o s s i b i l i t y of p r e f e r r i n g any other country. That means another o b l i g a t i o n . Or do you think that i t i s quite i n order to become a c i t i z e n , to take r e l i e f from a k i n d Government, and to c r y or w r i t e " H e i l H i t l e r " , as i s supposed to have happened in... 3/ The r e l i g i o u s basis of the Mennonites teaches us to be submissive to e x i s t i n g a u t h o r i t i e s , (adherence to t h i s or that p o l i t i c a l f a i t h i s not included i n t h i s statement), but not to play p o l i t i c s . k/ Now, you are asked to i d e n t i f y y o u r s e l f with a f o r e i g n p o l i t i c a l p a r t y which i s absolute, i . e . , which permits no other p o l i t i c a l party to e x i s t , and i n consequence destroys a l l other p a r t i e s as soon as i t (the absolute; party) comes i n t o power. Adherence to the p r i n c i p l e of N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m i s at the same time the negation of a l l p o l i t i c a l or other p a r t i e s or s o c i e t i e s over here. 5/ H i t h e r t o we as a congregation have been h i s t o r i c a l l y without p o l i t i c s and now to enter p o l i t i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y to accept adherence to a party which i s i n contrast to that of our chosen f a t h e r l a n d a t any r a t e , would be ah h i s t o r i c a l mistake, and h i s t o r i c a l catastrophe. That i s breach of f a i t h against the s t a t e and against our own confession. 6 / She Mennonites i n Canada and the United States have helped us to come to t h i s country on account of t h e i r f a i t h i n us and on account of t h e i r kindness toward the Mennonites from Russia, t h e i r s u f f e r i n g brothers and s i s t e r s , and the many many innocent c h i l d r e n . They have borne w i t h us and helped us again and again. Should the unheard of t h i n g now happen that these newcomers should go a n . e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t  151 way, t o become i n v o l v e d p o l i t i c a l l y , and t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h a f o r e i g n p o l i t i c a l i d e a l seasoned w i t h m i l i t a r i s m (bec a u s e i t s p r o p a g a n d a l a y s emphasis on d e f e n c e ) ? In t h a t case n o t o n l y the newcomers a r e f i n i s h e d h e r e , b u t t h e h e a v y and deep shadow o f g u i l t , o f f a i t h l e s n e s s , o f u n r e l i a b i l i t y , would s e t t l e on a l l t h e M e n n o n i t e s i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a t l e a s t upon t h o s e who s p e a k German. Then t h e i r k i n d n e s s w i l l b r i n g much s o r r o w . I t w i l l s t r i k e t h e German s p e a k i n g c o n g r e gation with p a r t i c u l a r force. A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e we a r e i n s t r u c t i n g o u r c h i l d r e n i n S a b b a t h s c h o o l s and even i n some p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n German ( t h e u p p e r g r a d e s and b e f o r e and a f t e r s c h o o l hours f o r i n s t a n c e ) . In the case of p o l i t i c s o r t r e a s o n y o u may e x p e c t t h a t , as s'oon as a c r i s i s o c c u r s , a n a t u r a l c o n s e q u e n c e w i l l be t h a t s t r i c t m e a s u r e s w i l l be t a k e n n o t o n l y a g a i n s t our language, but even a g a i n s t our p e o p l e . T h e s e meas u r e s w i l l be t a k e n by t h e Government, w h i l e t h e p u b l i c w i l l l e t us f e e l t h e i r d i s p l e a s u r e i n o t h e r ways. And n o t w i t h o u t cause then i n case of f o r e i g n p o l i t i c s . We h a v e a l r e a d y seen how i n c e r t a i n c a s e s the i l l w i l l o f E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c i t i z e n s has b e e n a r o u s e d by t h e i l l c o n s i d e r e d a c t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s t i c a l l y minded p e r s o n s . D u r i n g the d a y s o f t h e M u n i c h c r i s i s i t was a l r e a d y e v i d e n t t h a t some p e r s o n s were o b j e c t s of s u s p i c i o n . However, h i t h e r t o the E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c i t i z e n s h a v e h a d no r e a l c a u s e t o be a l a r m e d . The M e n n o n i t e C h u r c h e s , i n c l u s i v e o f the newcomers h a v e t h r o u g h o u t r e m a i n e d f a i t h f u l t o t h e i r r e l i g i o n and t o t h e S t a t e . F o r t h a t r e a s o n t h e M e n n o n i t e s h a v e n o t h e s i t a t e d t o become c i t i z e n s a f t e r t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d of f i v e y e a r s . The above m e n t i o n e d s u g g e s t i o n s i n the "B o t e" d i d n o t come' f r o m h e r e , t h e y came f r o m o u t s i d e . I t was the f i r s t attempt at propaganda. B u t when we examine the numerous a r t i c l e s w h i c h h a v e a p p e a r e d i n o u r p a p e r s and w h i c h came f r o m o u r s i d e , we see t h a t i t i s n o t t h e f i r s t n o t even t h e t e n t h a t t e m p t t o draw us i n t o t h e s t r e a m o f i d e o l o g i c a l v i e w p o i n t s w h i c h e x i s t on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e R h i n e . A l l this extravag a n t emphasis on l a n g u a g e , w h i c h i n c l u d e s a c e r t a i n contempt f o r o t h e r l a n g u a g e s , t h i s emphasis on German b l o o d , Ary.anism, d e f e n c e , German b o o k s , b o o k - c l u b s , stamp c o l l e c t i o n s , e t c . , h a v e o n l y one o b j e c t : t o t i e us g e o g r a p h i c a l l y t o Germany. The M e n n o n i t e s do n o t a s s o c i a t e t h e m s e l v e s t o any e x t e n t w i t h t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f German N a t i o n a l Bund - d a y s , o t h e r w i s e s u c h p r a c t i c e w o u l d have t o be condemned. So we w i l l l e t i t p a s s . - I t i s w e l l known t h a t I p e r s o n a l l y h a v e done my s h a r e i n w o r k i n g f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e German l a n g u a g e f o r c h u r c h p u r p o s e s , b u t t h a t d o e s n o t mean t h a t I h a v e i n c l u d e d i n t h e German l a n g u a g e a d h e r e n c e t o German p o l i t i c s . We h a v e , f i g u r a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , s i g n e d a m a r r i a g e c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n Government: we were d e s t i t u t e , homeless, r a g g e d as t o c l o t h i n g b u t n o t as t o c h a r a c t e r and m i n d . We h a v e j o i n e d o u r s e l v e s f o r b e t t e r o r worse w i t h t h i s S t a t e ; we b e l i e v e d a t t h a t t i m e , and we s t i l l b e l i e v e , t h a t i t was Gods w i l l t o b r i n g us h e r e ; we w o u l d g l a d l y h a v e a l l o u r b r e t h e r n h e r e f r o m P a r a g u a y and B r a z i l as w e l l . We l i v e , i f n o t i n t h e  152  r i c h e s t and the most b e a u t i f u l p a r t of the world, at l e a s t i n the most p e a c e f u l . This i s the answer to our s t r u g g l e s , our prayers and e n t r e a t i e s while i n Russia before the doors both here and over there were opened. We are s a t i s f i e d , and more we are happy, s t i l l more - we are s i n c e r e l y g r a t e f u l . I f now i n our p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e we were to p r e f e r some other State as our partner i n marriage, that would mean a d u l t e r y , i n our case treason to the State. To the best of my knowledge, our r e p u t a t i o n as Mennonites has never been tarnished,and we have never been g u i l t y of u n f a i t h f u l n e s s to the State. I t must not happen now. I f the aforementioned propaganda were to be succe s s f u l , i t would be the cause of endless misery and c o n f l i c t i n the hearts of i n d i v i d u a l persons and i n whole f a m i l i e s . The p h y s i c a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y on t h i s side of the ocean according to the p o l i t i c a l dogma which p r e v a i l s overseas leads to awkward s i t u a t i o n s . I f t h i s a t t i t u d e were to spread i t would be a calamity f o r a l l our people. Be warned, my people, and put an end to t h i s propaganda.from over yonder. I t i s not to be understood from what I have said that I consider everything over here to be good and everything found i n Germany to be e v i l . Not at a l l . On the other hand the opposite i s not the case e i t h e r . Our a l l e g i a n c e to our chosen f a t h e r l a n d i s not a f f e c t e d by the conditions under which we l i v e . The f a c t that there i s much good over there has never been questioned. A l l those achievments i n Germany i n the f i e l d of C h r i s t i a n F a i t h , and C h r i s t i a n L i f e , i n the f i e l d of c u l t u r e and science, of good l i t e r a t u r e , i n A r t , i n Medicine, i n techn i c a l Education have earned the respect of everyone, and part i c u l a r l y of ourselves. We are g l a d of a l l those t h i n g s , and we should make as much of them our own as p o s s i b l e . But anything that concerns p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l f a i t h i s not our business. We need not f o r g e t that Germany's f i r m stand against communism was a l s o the means of saving the whole of Europe from communism and t h i s should have our p a r t i c u l a r approbation, since we ourselves s u f f e r e d so t e r r i b l y i n Russia from t h i s movement. And we must not f o r g e t that adherence to communistic p r i n c i p l e s i n Canada and the United States i s to be c r i m i n a l l y n e g l i g e n t . From our experience we know what a t e r r i b l e , bloody, harvest t h i s awful seed w i l l b r i n g f o r t h , unless God works a s p e c i a l miracle. In the B i b l e we read of people who were weighed i n the balance and found wanting. They p e r i s h e d l - We as Mennonites, and the Newcomers p a r t i c u l a r l y are i n the Balance w i t h r e f e r ence to three p o i n t s : 1/ Whether we s h a l l pay our f i n a n c i a l debts, i . e . , i f we are honest i n business; 2/ Whether we adhere to our confession of f a i t h as nonresistants; 3 / Whether we s h a l l be drawn i n t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n connection w i t h a f o r e i g n movement, or whether we s h a l l remain f a i t h f u l to our Government. Through F a i t h we s h a l l conquer. B.B.Janz. Coaldale, A l b e r t a .  153  BIBLIOGRAPHY In w r i t i n g a t h e s i s of t h i s nature much information has to be gathered v e r b a l l y from those persons who have helped to make the h i s t o r y t h e r e i n presented. case here.  That has also been the  Much valuable information has been obtained by  means of a questionnaire sent out to the leaders of the various churches of a l l Mennonite denominations i n A l b e r t a .  Such  information has been acknowledged throughout the t h e s i s as Questionnaire.  I have drawn most h e a v i l y upon the information  thus obtained and upon that presented i n the various minutes and reports put at my d i s p o s a l by i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n the work.  151+  BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES Minutes and Reports 1.  P r o t o k o l l e der Versammlungen der Mennoniten Gruppe b e i Coaldale, f o r the years Nov. 1. 1927 to Feb. k. 1952. A very v a l u a b l e source f o r the Coaldale d i s t r i c t i n p a r t i c u l a r and f o r the province i n general. Deals authori t a t i v e l y w i t h many of the economic;and r e l i e f organizat i o n s at present f u n c t i o n i n g under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the Russian Mennonites.  2. P r o t o k o l l e des P r o v i n z i e l e n Mennoniten H i l f s k o m i t e e s . f o r the years 1 9 k l to 1952. 3'  Minutes and Reports of the Annual Conferences of the A l berta-Saskatchewan Conference, f o r the years 1927 and 1930 to 1951.  !+•• P r o t o k o l l e der Jahressitzungen der Mennoniten Bruedergemeinde von Alberta,, f o r the years 1929. 1 9 k l , and 19kk to 5.  P r o t o k o l l e und B e r i c h t e der Vertreter-Versammlungen der Mennonitischen Gemeinden von A l b e r t a , f o r the years 1935 to 1951. This i s one of the most valuable sources since i t deals w i t h a l l aspects of Mennonite endeavors i n the province of A l b e r t a . These reports are the backbone of t h i s t h e s i s .  6.  P r o t o k o l l e der Jahresversammlungen des Mennonitischen B i l d u n g s v e r e i n , f o r the years 19kb to 1952.  7.  P r o t o k o l l e des Mennonitischen Hochschulkomitees, f o r the years March 8 , 19k6 to March 15, 1952.  8.  P r o t o k o l l e der ,Coaldaler K a s e r e i , f o r the years Aug. l 6 , 1937 to Feb. 13;, 1952.  9.  P r o t o k o l l e Buch des Brandaeltesten der Coaldaler D i s t r i k t s , f o r the year Dec. 30, 1927 to Dec. 12, 1951.  10. P r o t o k o l l e des W i r t s c h a f t l i c h e n Vereins, f o r the years March 18, 1938 to 19k2. 11. P r o t o k o l l e der Coaldaler Mennonite S e c u r i t y £ C r e d i t Union, March 191+2 to 1952. 12.  Report of the M.C.C. Peace Section Study Conference, held at Winona Lake, Indiana on November 9 to 12, 1950* These reports contain a good statement of the Mennonite n o n - r e s i s t a n t philosophy. 12a. Reports of the Canadian Mennonite Board of Colonization, under the following dates: Feb. 2, 1949; Jan. 28, 1949; March 17, 1949J Aug. 17, 1949; Feb. 7, 1950.  155 13•  C o a l d a l e M e n n o n i t e n B r u e d e r Gemeinde, Gedenk u n d D a n f e i e r , C o a l d a l e , A l b e r t a , May 27, 1951. R e p o r t s o f t h e 25 a n n i v e r s a r y c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e C o a l d a l e Mennonite B r e t h e r n Church. Valuable f o r information on t h e C o a l d a l e s e t t l e m e n t .  Newspapers 1.  The L e t h b r i d g e  2.  The A l b e r t a n ,  3.  Die Mennonitische  k.  The.Coaldale  Herald, Calgary,  Lethbridge,  Alberta.  Alberta.  Rundschau, C h r i s t i a n  Flyer,  Press,  Winnipeg,  Coaldale, Alberta.  Yearbooks 1.  General  2.  General  3.  Conference Mennonites, Mennonitisches Jahrbuch, M e n n o n i t e P u b l i c a t i o n O f f i c e , Newton, K a n s a s , 1951 and 1952.  Conference Mennonites, Jahrbuch d e r V e r e i n i g t e n M e n n o n i t e n Gemeinden i n O n t a r i o , N i a g a r a P r e s s , V i r g i l , O n t a r i o . 1951. o Mennonite B r e t h e r n Church of North America, Yearbook, M e n n o n i t e B r e t h e r n P u b l i s h i n g House, H i l l s b o r o , K a n s a s ,  1951. k.  Mennonite B r e t h e r n Church o f N o r t h America,. Yearbook of the F o r t y - f i r s t Canadian Conference^ 1951* The C o l u m b i a P r e s s , Y a r r o w , B.C., 1951.  5.  M e n n o n i t e Y e a r b o o k , M e n n o n i t e P u b l i s h i n g House, Pa., 1952.  Clippings  and P e r s o n a l  Scottdale,  Reports  Much v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l was p u t a t my d i s p o s a l b y Mr. J.B. J a n z , C o a l d a l e , who h a s b e e n g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Mennonites i n g e n e r a l and o f the C o a l d a l e area i n p a r t i c u l a r s i n c e 1927. T h e r e a r e numerous r e p o r t s o f v a r i o u s p i o n e e r s who f i r s t opened up t h i s a r e a . The m a t e r i a l h a s b e e n a c k n o w l e d g e d i n t h e t h e s i s as M a t e r i a l -- J.B. J a n z .  SECONDARY  SOURCES  Magazines  and P a m p h l e t s  1.  Mennonite L i f e ,  B e t h e l C o l l e g e , N o r t h Newton, K a n s a s , U.S.A.  156  The f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s have been e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l : Enns, D.P., "Mennonite Education i n Russia", J u l y , 1 9 5 1 , p. 2 8 . F r a n c i s , E.K., "Mennonite Contributions to Canada's Middle West", A p r i l , 191+9, p. 2 1 . Kaufman, E.G., "The General Conference of the Mennonite Church of North America", J u l y 191+7, p. 3 7 . Krahn C , "Mennonites the World Over", January, p. 2 9 .  191+6,  Rempel, J.G., "Mennonites on the A i r i n Western Canada", J u l y , 1 9 5 2 , p. 1 2 5 . Schellenberg, D.J. "A Moses of Our Day—David Toews", J u l y , 1 9 5 0 , p. 6 . Suderman D., "The Returning C i v i l i a n P u b l i c Service Man", January, 191+6, p. 5» Thiessen J . J . , "Present Mennonite Immigration to Canada", J u l y 1 9 4 9 , p. 3 3 . Waltner E., "The Anabaptist Concept of the Church", October, 1 9 5 0 , p. 1+0. Wenger, J.C., "The Cradle of the Mennonite Church", January, 191+7, p. 6 . 2.  Canadian P a c i f i c S t a f f B u l l e t i n , the f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s : C o l l e y , J . , "Company C o l o n i z a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s A i d S e t t l e ment of Dominion", Feb. 1, 191+0. P o r t e r , S.G., "The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Land Grants and t h e i r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , Feb. 1 , 191+0 and  3. • 1+.  May  5,  191+0.  C.P.R., I r r i g a t i o n Farming i n Sunny A l b e r t a , 1 9 2 5 . Coaldale Commercial Club, Coaldale, The Gem of the West,  5i. Horsch J-., Symposium on War, Mennonite P u b l i s h i n g House, Scottdale, Pa., 1 9 2 7 . 6.  Horsch J . , War and the C h r i s t i a n Conscience, Mennonite P u b l i s h i n g House, Scottdale, Pa.  7.  Krahn C., Menno Simons' Lebenswerk, Wetenschappelijke Boekhandel, J . G l e i j s t e i n , Amsterdam, 1 9 3 7 .  157 8.  Mennonite  B r e t h e r n C h u r c h o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , Handbook o n P e a c e , 1939.  9.  Mennonite  B r e t h e r n Church o f N o r t h America, Fundamentals o f F a i t h i n Q u e s t i o n and Answer Form, I 9 k 3 »  Encyclopedias 1.  Encyclopedia Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., C h i c a g o , London, T o r o n t o , 195^' The f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s have b e e n u s e d . "Anabaptists* "Baptists" "Menno S i m o n s " "Mennonites"  2.  Taylor  3.  W a r k e n t i n A., G i n g e r i c h M., Who's Who Newton, K a n s a s , 19k3*  k«  Mennonite E n c y c l o p e d i a . T h i s e n c y c l o p e d i a h a s n o t been p u b l i s h e d y e t (1952) b u t t h e m a t e r i a l on t h e M e n n o n i t e s o f A l b e r t a was p u t a t my d i s p o s a l b y t h e M a n a g i n g E d i t o r , Melvin Gingerich. The m a t e r i a l h a s b e e n i n v a l u a b l e .  C.R., ( e d . ) The A m e r i c a n New Y o r k , 19k7. "Anabaptists'* "Baptists" "Menno S i m o n s " "Mennonites"  Encyclopedia,  Among  Books I n c . ,  the Mennonites,  Thesis R e i m e r , D a v i d P h i l i p , The M e n n o n i t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s u b m i t t e d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f r e q u i r e m e n t s foi? t h e degree o f B a c h e l o r o f A r t s t o the Department o f H i s t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l 18, 19k6. A u s e f u l e s s a y b u t t e n d s t o d e a l a l i t t l e t o o much w i t h t h e M e n n o n i t e s a s a r e l i g i o u s g r o u p and n e g l e c t s t h e developments i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Not t o o sound a t r e a t ment.  Periodicals F r a n c i s , E.K., " T r a d i t i o n and P r o g r e s s Among t h e M e n n o n i t e s i n M a n i t o b a " , Mennonite Q u a r t e r l y Review, O c t o b e r , 1 9 5 ° . ( M e n n o n i t e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , Goshen C o l l e g e , Goshen, Indiana) A s c h o l a r l y a r t i c l e on t h e f i r s t R u s s i a n M e n n o n i t e group i n Manitoba. Deals p a r t i c u l a r l y with the s c h o o l problem. Very u s e f u l .  158 Books 1.  A n d e r s o n J.T.M., The E d u c a t i o n o f t h e New-Canadian, L o n don and T o r o n t o , J.M. Dent & Sons, L t d . , 1918. Deals w i t h the g e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n a l problems p o s e d by t h e C a n a d i a n s o f n o n - B r i t i s h e x t r a c t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e s made t o t h e M e n n o n i t e s , pp.  65-79.  2.  Dyck, P e t e r P., O r e n b u r g am U r a l , C o l u m b i a P r e s s , Y a r r o w , B.C., 1951 D e a l s i n g e n e r a l w i t h the Mennonite S e t t l e m e n t s i n Russia w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e s to Education and I n d u s t r i e s . V a l u a b l e f o r a g e n e r a l background.  3.  P r i e s e n J o h n , J . , An O u t l i n e o f M e n n o n i t e H i s t o r y , H e r a l d P u b l i s h i n g Co.,' Newton, K a n s a s , 19kk. A v a l u a b l e b o o k l e t d e a l i n g w i t h the m i g r a t i o n s o f t h e M e n n o n i t e s t h e w o r l d o v e r , and t h e r e a s o n s f o r them.  k.  E n g l a n d R o b e r t , The C e n t r a l E u r o p e a n Immigrant i n Canada, M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L t d . , T o r o n t o , 1929. A s t u d y o f t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n i n Canada o f t h e Cont i n e n t a l immigrants. P a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e M e n n o n i t e s on p a g e s 50 t o SU-'  5.  D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce and L a b o r , B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , R e l i g i o u s D e n o m i n a t i o n s : 1906, W a s h i n g t o n , G o v e r n ment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , P a r t I I , ! 9 1 0 . A b r i e f b u t u s e f u l survey o f the o r i g i n of the v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s b o d i e s i n A m e r i c a and t h e i r p r e s e n t (1906) s t a t u s . G i v e s a sound t r e a t m e n t of Mennonite o r i g i n s .  6.  Gibbon  7.  Hedges James B., B u i l d i n g t h e C a n a d i a n West, The L a n d and C o l o n i z a t i o n P o l i c i e s of the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l way, The M a c m i l l a n Co., New Y o r k , 1939* An e x c e l l e n t s u r v e y o f t h e C o l o n i z a t i o n and S e t t l e ment p o l i c i e s o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . An i n v a l u a b l e s o u r c e f o r t h e M e n n o n i t e i m m i g r a t i o n  John M u r r a y , C a n a d i a n M o s a i c , The M a k i n g o f a N o r t h e r n N a t i o n , M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L t d , , Toronto, 1938. A v a l u a b l e s t o r y of the v a r i o u s immigrant n a t i o n a l i t i e s w h i c h make up t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e . The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f each group are d e a l t w i t h i n a scholarly fashion. An e x c e l l e n t p i c t u r e o f t h e M e n n o n i t e s i s g i v e n i n c h a p t e r V I I , "Germany and Canada". Very v a l u a b l e .  o f t h e 1920's.  159 8.  H i l d e b r a n d J . J . , H i l d e b r a n d ' s Z e i t t a f e l , J . Regehr, N o r t h K i l d o n a n , Man., 191+5. A c h r o n o l o g i c a l summary o f t h e H i s t o r y o f t h e Mennonites. Is o f l i m i t e d value..  9.  L u c a s H e n r y S., The R e n a i s s a n c e and t h e R e f o r m a t i o n , H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , New Y o r k and L o n d o n , 193h-. V a l u a b l e f o r the account o f the r i s e o f Anabaptism, . c h a p t e r XXXIX.  10.  N e c k a r , H e . i l b o r n A., D i e M e n n o n i t e n - G e m e i n d e n i n R u s s l a n d w a e h r e n d d e r K r i e g s - u n d R e v o l u t i o n s J a h r e , 1911+ b i s 1 9 2 0 . Aus dem H o l l a e n d i s c h e n u e b e r s e t z t . u n d e r g a e n z t , Kommissions V e r l a g d e r M e n n o n i t i s c h e n Pluechtlingsfuersorge, 1921. I s of. l i m i t e d v a l u e o n l y .  11.  Newman, A l b e r t H., A M a n u a l o f C h u r c h H i s t o r y , The A m e r i c a i B a p t i s t P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i e t y , Chicago, Kansas C i t y , L o s A n g e l e s , S e a t t l e , V o l . I I , 191+1+. A g e n e r a l h i s t o r y o f t h e A n a b a p t i s t movement i s included. Of l i m i t e d v a l u e .  12.  S c h a e f e r , P a u l J . , Woher? Wohin? M e n n o n i t e n , 3 . T e i l . D i e M e n n o n i t e n i n Canada, M e n n o n i t e A g r i c u l t u r e A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e , A l t o n a , Man., 191+0. A b r i e f b u t v a l u a b l e survey o f the Mennonites i n Canada. The M e n n o n i t e s i n A l b e r t a a r e v e r y b r i e f l y dealt with. Useful.  13.  S m i t h , H e n r y C., The S t o r y o f t h e M e n n o n i t e s , M e n n o n i t e Book C o n c e r n , B e r n e , I n d i a n a , 191+5* An a u t h o r i t a t i v e work o n t h e M e n n o n i t e s b y a Mennonite s c h o l a r . Very v a l u a b l e f o r a general background to t h i s t h e s i s .  11+. S m i t h , H e n r y C. , The Coming o f t h e R u s s i a n M e n n o n i t e s , An E p i s o d e i n , t h e s e t t l i n g o f t h e L a s t F r o n t i e r , 1871+-1881+, M e n n o n i t e Book C o n c e r n , B e r n e , I n d i a n a , TO A comprehensive study o f the f i r s t m i g r a t i o n o f R u s s i a n M e n n o n i t e s t o t h e A m e r i c a n and t h e Cana d i a n West. Valuable. 15.  W e d e l , C.H., A b r i s s d e r G e s c h i c h t e d e r M e n n o n i t e n , '--I B e t h e l C o l l e g e , Newton, K a n s a s , 1 9 ° 1 + . The s t o r y o f t h e M e n n o n i t e s i n S w i t z e r l a n d , P r u s s i a , and i n N o r t h . A m e r i c a . Of v e r y l i m i t e d value.  16.  Wenger, J o h n . C., G l i m p s e s o f M e n n o n i t e H i s t o r y a n d D o c t r i n e , H e r a l d P r e s s , S c o t t d a l e , P a . , 191+7. A very v a l u a b l e source o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the v a r i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n s among t h e M e n n o n i t e s . The  i6o expression 17.  of doctrine  i s generally  sound.  Wiebe, G e r h a r d , U r s a c h e n u n d G e s c h i c h t e d e r Auswanderung der Mennoniten aus R u s s l a n d nach A m e r i c a , Drucke r e i des Nordwesten, W i n n i p e g , 1898. D e a l s w i t h t h e M e n n o n i t e i m m i g r a t i o n t o Canada  i n t h e l870's.  Valuable.  18.  L o h r e n z , John H., The M e n n o n i t e B r e t h e r n C h u r c h , The M e n n o n i t e B r e t h e r n P u b l i s h i n g House, H i l l s b o r o , K a n s a s , 1950. The most r e c e n t H i s t o r y o f t h e M e n n o n i t e B r e t h e r n Church. A general survey of the various a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on b y t h i s M e n n o n i t e d e n o m i n a t i o n . Of l i m i t e d v a l u e f o r t h i s t h e s i s .  19.  H a l l m a n E . S . , The H a l l m a n - C l e m e n s G e n e a l o g y w i t h a Fami l y s R e m i n i s c e n c e , The R e c o r d P r i n t i n g Company, H e s s t o n , K a n s a s . CNo d a t e g i v e n ) U s e f u l f o r the h i s t o r y o f the early-Mennonite ( o l d ) C h u r c h i n t h e p r o v i n c e s o f S a s k a t c h e w a n and Alberta. 1  ALBERTA Areas marked all contain  Mennonite Elements  

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