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Community organization for social welfare : an analytical study of a low-income transitional district… Steiman, Boris 1955

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COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION FOR SOCIAL WELFARE An Analytical Study of A Low-Income Transitional D i s t r i c t (Vancouver 1952-54) with Special Reference to Problems of Inter-Cultural Participation oy BORIS STEIMAN Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1955 The University of British Columbia A B S T R A C T This thesis arose out of the experience of a f i e l d work placement i n the Welfare Services Section of Fi r s t United Church during the 1952-53 school term. Accurate Information about the neighborhood i n which i t was located was required i n order to provide guidance for future recreation and welfare developments i n the d i s t r i c t . The lack of community organization i n this neighbor-hood prompted a closer look at the existing conditions and plans for a detailed survey were l a i d . Factual information was assembled, many meetings were held, and opinions and attitudes from many sources were canvassed. The significance o f t h i s study to social work i s mani-fold. It shows how this neighborhood became a "problem area," but also attempts to assess i t s assets as well as i t s l i a b i l i -t i e s . It Indicates the many sources necessary to gain a thorough understanding of the people of a neighborhood. It underlines the generic nature of socialw ork and the variety of roles required from the social worker. Particularly, i t approa-ches the area as a case example of community organization where many different ethnic groups are present, and there has been l i t t l e previous experience i n s elf-help. If there i s to be any positive change i n the area i t must be done with the closest cooperation of the local residents and Headers, The resources within the local c ommunity that have been uncovered must be d eveloped and supported while every means must be taken to reform or offset the unwholesome physical conditions. A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S A paper of this nature is not possible without the assistance and cooperation of many persons i n many fields of work. The writer wishes to thank the many men and women who gave freely of their time to discuss the various aspects of the topics studied i n this thesis. The advice and suggestions of Dr, L, C, Marsh and Miss E. Thomas of the School of Social Work and Reverend H, Morrow of First United Church made this project a meaningful and positive experience. Their interest and criticisms have been invaluable. To Miss Edna Cobbs who volunteered her services to type and retype the many pages that were brought to her, and for this finished product, a very special thanks. Finally, to my wife and children, whose patience, understanding and cooperation helped considerably to lighten the burden of this work. TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter 1. What is Community Organization? Page A. B. C. D. E. F. History and Development of Community Organiza-tions. Canadian Examples. Definitions. Aims and Objectives of Community Organization. Social Work and Community Organization. Principles of Community Organization. Reasons for this Study Chapter 2. The Study Area and The People. A. Area Under Consideration; B. Population. C. Physical Conditions. D. Institutions. E. Agencies. _ P. Previous Studies of the D i s t r i c t G. Local Opinions about the Area. H. Some Social Conditions Significant to this Study : Chapter 3. Leadership and Participation. A. Community Organization and Democracy. B. Leadership i n the Strathcona Area. C. Strathcona Case Committee. . D. Attempts at Community Efforts i n the D i s t r i c t . Chapter 4. Assets and L i a b i l i t i e s . 30 52 A. B. C. D. E. Appendices: A. B. Stocktaking. Community Organization i n Such An Area. Responsibilities for Developing Area. Community Organization not Monopoly of Social Work. Suggestions and Recommendations. , 61 C. Li s t of persons interviewed during Study. Distribution of Community Chest and Council Funds i n the Survey Area 1950-54. Bibliography. Charts: Fig. 1. Survey Area i n relation to Vancouver City. Fig. 2. Ethnic and Racial Groups (approximate distribu-tion), National Churches and Halls. Fig. 3. Characteristics of the Population: birthplace, mother tongue, number of households, homeowners, lodging houses, etc. Fig. 4. Physical Features: zoning, churches, Industrial and local commercial sites. COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION FOR SOCIAL WELFARE An Analytical Study of A Low-Income Transitional D i s t r i c t (Vancouver 1952-54) with Special Reference to Problems of Inter-Cultural Participation C H A P T E R I Organizing activities i n communities has a history about as old as society i t s e l f * The methods may not have been as clear as they are today, nevertheless every c i v i l i z a t i o n has examples. The history of the early Romans, Greeks, Hebrews and Egyptians i s laden with examples of community organization. There were many significant developments In the late 19th and early 20th centuries from which the principles accepted today by professional workers i n this area have been derived. The f i r s t conscious beginnings of community organization for welfare purposes can be traced at least, to the beginning of the charity organization movement i n England In 1869* During the early 19th century the f i e l d of philantropic work was largely concentrated on the work of poor r e l i e f . The failure of the oehurch and state to deal adequately with the problem of poverty led to the organization of many private r e l i e f socie-ties, under various auspices with l i t t l e or no attempt to correlate their a c t i v i t i e s . The resulting confusion i n the administration of r e l i e f seemed to increase rather than alleviate the evils of poverty. The effort to meet this situation led to the ca l l i n g of a conference i n London i n 1868, to which were Invited representa-tives of a l l the charity.societies i n the city. The following year those most interested i n this new movement succeeded i n establishing a "Society for Organizing Charitable Relief and Rgpressing Mendicity," which later was renamed the Charity Organization Society. - 2 -In America the struggle to overcome the evils of poverty became prominent enough to attract consideration i n the Eastern States as e arly as the 19th century. Various r e l i e f societies were formed which for the most part distributed alms. By 1840, there were over 3 0 r e l i e f societies i n New York City working with very l i t t l e knowledge, i f any, of each others plans* This lack of co-operation led a few years later, to the organization of the Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, which became the dominant charitable institution for the next 30 years. This new association made possible an important step toward better co-ordination by the fact that Its organization was broad enough to cover the whole situation. The panic of 1873 and the business depressions that followed brought about such heavy demands upon charity that they could not be met. As a result attempts at a better organization for r e l i e f were made i n several places. The most successful was at Buffalo where i n 1877 Reverend Gurteen who had formerly been connected with the London Charitable Society, led the•establishing of a similar society. The society divided the c i t y into d i s t r i c t s each with i t s own committee. Its work was to be done through the medium of a fr i e n d l y v i s i t o r assigned to each family. The Society was to give no r e l i e f fund of Its own, but was t o a c t as an investigating group and s end needy cases to- appropriate. agencies. As the above pattern expanded to other c i t i e s i t met opposition from strongly entrenched charity societies. Neverthe-less, the time seemed right for such a movement and i t spread from - 3 -c i t y to ci t y under the guidance of i t s well-equipped leaders. By the end of the 19th century the Charity Organization movement had been assured of a place of leadership i n the whole f i e l d of s o c i a l work. The social settlement movement that supplied many of the f i r s t community workers also had i t s origin during t h i s period. With the impulse of the World Pair i n Chicago i n the last decade of the 19th century the city planning movement got under way a few years later. In 1907 the Pittsburgh survey stimulated by Booth's monumental works on "Life and Labor of the People of  London," and other English studies, started American c i t i e s think-ing about the welfare problems of communities as inter-related aspects of organic wholes. There were beginning efforts i n many citie s looking definitely towards a more unified approach to the social problems of the community. Prom then on to 1917 the social workers of American cit i e s were increasingly conscious of the problems growing out of the multiplicity of welfare agencies, their common aims, and their inter-dependence. Some important beginnings were made In that period toward organizing the resources of commu-nities for more effective action. The Council of Social Agencies had i t s birth i n this decade and charities endorsement committees sprang up i n a number of cit i e s for the purpose of standardizing the work of the agencies. It remained however for the circumstances of World War I to give the f i n a l push to the movement. During the war attention was forcibly drawn to the necessity for united action i n many ways, . and by the time the Armstice was -signed organization was the dominant idea everywhere. It was impossible for social agencies to escape the general trend. Community organization became the watchword i n business, civic a c t i v i t i e s , religion, as well as i n social work and health work. Courses under the t i t l e of "Community Organization" f i r s t appeared i n American Universities i n the early 1920*8. Conferences and councils were everywhere called to discuss the relation of different agencies to one another and "correlation" and "co-operation" became the most important terms i n the vocabu-lary of those interested i n promoting the good l i f e . During the depression of the 1930's financial conditions became so impossible for £he existing agencies that the government had to-step i n and assume responsibility for much of the r e l i e f . Many schemes were tried to co-ordinate the resources of the country to meet the c r i t i c a l situation. Each community had to organize i t s own resources i n order to alleviate the conditions of dire poverty and substandard existence. It was during this period that the experience and know-ledge of welfare and re l i e f agencies was heavily drawn upon. It was also during this period that great strides were made i n community organization. One of the r esults of t h i s experience was the setting up at the 1938 Conference of Social Work of a separate section to deal with community organization. The formation of an Association to Study Community Organization was set up i n 1940. However, the entry of the U.S.A. into the Second World War delayed the operation of this newly formed organization u n t i l 1946 when i t became an Associate Group of the National Conference of Social Work. The material thus far mentioned concerns only the B r i t -ish and American experience. Although there has been l i t t l e writ-ten about community organization i n Canada i t is not for lack of examples i n this f i e l d . Community organization i n Canada as i n other countries covers an extremely wide range of areas Including community organization for recreation, education, health, welfare, fund raising, and combatting juvenile delinquency. One of the earliest and best known examples of organi-zing welfare services i s the Child and Welfare Council which Is known today as the Welfare Council of Canada. Many communities throughout the country were organized through the efforts of this agency to provide adequate welfare services. In her book, "A Man to Remember," Grace Maclnnis t e l l s about her father, J. S. Woodsworth and the work he did for six years among the uprooted immigrants i n North Winnipeg. By the end of this time she t e l l s us that, ....he had come at last to the conclusion that Social Service, l e f t to the i n i t i a t i v e of scattered i n d i v i -duals and organizations was no longer good enough. He envisioned a single clearing house, at the same time i n i t i a t o r and stimulus, which could work with every individual and agency i n the f i e l d to do a planned job of social service so thorough that no one would be neglected and that no need would remain unmet. That was the dream that resulted i n the Canadian Welfare League...(1).. The purpose of the League was to promote a general interest i n a l l forms of social welfare. It would make a practical study of Canada's emergent social problems caused by our large and heterogeneous immigration, by the rapid growth of our cit i e s and the stagnation of some of our rural d i s t r i c t s , and by the beginning (1) Maclnnis, Grace. A Man to Remember, MacMillan, 1953, p. 62 - 6 -of industrialism and generally our entrance into a f u l l e r national l i f e . The League planned to enlist citizens everywhere for personal service for the common welfare. In each community i t would federate or otherwise organize for co-operation existing social institutions so that their work would become more effective. It aimed to train leaders for social work,...There would be close co-operation with Canadian Clubs, Industrial bureaus, government departments, universities and other educa-tional institutions, and with various religious groups. (1) Truly an ambitious programme i n community organization. The co-operative movement i s also a fine example of community organization. Outstanding examples i n Canada are the many commu-nities that St. Francis Xavier University serves and the Wheat Pools and Folk Schools of the Prairie Provinces, Since 1921 SjS. Francis Xavier University has assisted many Nova Scotia communities to solve their economic problems. As a result, Credit Unions, Fisherman's, Agricultural, and Consumer Co-operatives, co-operative insurance, wholesale organizations, co-operative housing and a variety of miscellaneous projects such as medical services, hospitalization, etc. have been organized. The process of setting up these projects has shown that a people mobilized i n democratic organizations can do great things for themselves without resorting to violence or revolutionary ideolo-gies. The Wheat Pools of the Prairies have done an outstanding job i n bettering the social and economic conditions of thousands of persons. As co-operatives, they firmly believe that mutual aid i s democracy i n action. Hence, i f they were to succeed they needed (1) Maclnnis, Grace. A Man to. Remember, Macmillan, 1953, P» 62, - 7 -to promote a vigorous program of education, both for their members and with the general public. Over the years this program has broadened to include every major area i n the f i e l d of rural adult education. As one writer has said - "grain handling Is the means and (1) a better community is the end,". . A review of the objectives of the Manitoba Polk Schools reads almost like a l i s t of. principles of community organization and democratic principles. Hear are a few: 1, To make young people aware of the pi r t they can play i n community building, 2, To give them some confidence i n expressing their thoughts with ease and vigor, 3, To release the energy and latent talents of youth i n order to bring about a r i c h personal development, to develop an understanding of the co-operative move-ment i n i t s economic aspects, to demonstrate co-operative l i v i n g through group experience, to create i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s , a s p i r i t of genuine fellowship through significant social experiences, (2) For many years organization and preparation of leaders for physical education and other forms of recreational activities have been brought to the rural communities of Manitoba through the services of the Division of Physical Fitness of the Provincial Depa rtment of Health and Public Welfare, A depa. rtmental staff person assists a local committee to set up a permanent organization to handle local activities and provide adequate recreational f a c i l i t i e s . Leadership courses are held periodically and potential (1) Friesen, John, K. "The Wheat Pools Also Educate," Food For Thought - November 1950. (2) Friesen, John, K. Manitoba Folk Schools, Leech, C. E. Kings Printer, Manitoba, 1951 leaders from surrounding d i s t r i c t s congregate to participate i n these courses. In addition key personnel attend courses at summer schools and other institutes. In addition to i t s staff, the D i v i -sion makes available many other resources such as literature, films, projectors, sports equipment, etc. The process of setting up these programmes has involved hundreds of persons i n many communities. It has provided them with an opportunity to work together democratically and at the same time has tapped the potential resources of many citizens for the good of a l l . Another example of community organization was the setting up of the Edmonton Community Leagues. (1) In a recent paper by John Farina we learn that the f i r s t community league i n that city was set up i n 1917 i n the Jasper Place d i s t r i c t . The residents banded together and with assistance from staff members from the Extension department of the University of Alberta were able to form an organization to give them better transportation, and other essential services. By 1921 the c i t y had ten Leagues whose a c t i v i t i e s led to the greater use of school f a c i l i t i e s after school hours, construc-tion of skating rink, sidewalks, sewage system, gravelled roads, improved public transportation schedules, building of new schools, socials, and sports day. The objects of the Federation of Leagues i n 1921, taken from i t s constitution read -(1) Farina, John, "The Edmonton Community Leagues," M.S.W. Thesis -University of B r i t i s h Columbia,-1950"! "To f a c i l i t a t e the distribution of information between the units; to promote suitable programs and to become a clearing house for same; to take concerted action i n matters of common interest and i n the interest of the cit y as a whole, and to come to the support of i n d i v i -dual leagues as deemed adviseable when so requested."(1) By 1924 there were 20 leagues - and i n 1939 the total had risen to 30. Further examples of community organization would.include National and Provincial Parent Teadhers Association, Red Cross Blood Drives, Red Feather Campaigns, Federal Youth Commission, and Community Chests and Councils. To raise funds to;.provide v i t a l l y needed services the Community Chest and Council uses thousands of volunteers annually. Truly a gigantic task i n community organlza-• (2) tion. In Canada, during 1953 $ 13,861,550 was raised to operate 1,029 agencies. During the second world war, In addition to the many efforts by local communities, to organize to assist the war effort, the Federal Government through i t s Wartime Prices and Trade Board set up special Consumer Committees. Under the direction of Byrne Hope Sanders, a National Campaign was started to educate housewives i n the ways of rationing, preparation of menus and purchase of foods. Thousands of women throughout the country participated i n t h i s gigantic undertaking. In the City of Vancouver, some of the outstanding examples of Community organization includes the formation of the Community Arts Council, the Co-OrdinatIng Council on Citizenship, the Vancouver Branch of the Canadian Folk Society, and the Civic Unity Association. (1) Constitution and By-Laws of the Edmonton Federation of Community Leagues - 1921. (2) Report of Community Chest and Council Division, Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa - 1954. - 10 -Community (Definition); There i s no single definition of the term "community" that w i l l serve a l l occasions, A great variety of definitions may be found i n print. Many of these definitions depend upon some kind of geographical limitation. A l l the people within some particular area make up "the community," The area may be rather exactly delimited — a township, a ward, a county — or i t may be defined i n general terms, such as "the smallest geographical unit (1) of organized association of the chief human a c t i v i t i e s , " The so-called "natural" communities or "neighborhoods" are presumably areas i n which people l i v e , shop, send their children to school, go to church and carry on a majority of day-to-day ac t i v i t i e s , such as leisure time and recreation. Actually, of course, such c r i t e r i a can be applied only i n a rather general way and often especially i n large c i t i e s — do not apply at a l l to the people residing i n any area. Other definitions of community are based upon dominant life - i n t e r e s t s . According to such definitions, a community con-sists of persons bound together by some deep common concern. These persons may or may not live i n proximity to one another In the same geographical area. Thus, members of a trade-union, a religious sect, or a p o l i t i c a l club would, from this point of view, constitute a community even though they lived i n widely scattered neighborhoods throughout the city . Since a considerable volume of social work i s sponsored by sectarian groups, the religious interests i s very frequently used (1) Sanderson, Dwight,"Democracy and Community Organization," .Publications of the American Sociological Society,—Vol X£V, pp. 83-93. - 11 to define community. Reference Is often made to the Jewish or the Catholic "ccmununity," or "congregation" which supports and directs various kinds of social agencies. Protestant social work is less sharply defined, though i n most ci t i e s there are some programs under Protestant auspices — Lutheran, Episcopalian, etc. Some town planners (including even some Brit i s h o f f i c i a l plans) now use "community" to mean a group of "neighborhoods," e.g. neighborhoods of 5000 population making up a community (or borough or ward, etc.) of 2 5 , 0 0 0 . "Although these various definitions of community have their-uses, the social worker cannot accept any one of them exclusively. His concept of community must necessarily vary i n terms of the particular problem under consideration. The practical question facing the social worker i s this: With respect to this particular problem, what i s the area within which support must.be mustered i f substantial results are to be achieved* In one instance the answer may be the neighborhood or the ward as, for example, i n attempting to improve methods of collecting and disposing of garbage. In another instance the a newer may be the county, or perhaps the state, as i n the case of trying to obtain an enlarged local levy or an increased state appropriation for r e l i e f . Or a nation-wide effort may be required, as, for example, i n seeking to expand the coverage of unemployment compensation or to develop an integrated plan for the care of needy transients." (1) Community Organization (Definitions): Now that i t has been shown that community organization Is widespread l e t us examine the term more closely. Among the d i f f i -culties encountered i s that the term community organization is frequently used synonymously with community agency. A compounding of this ambiguity makes i t possible to speak of "a community organization practicing community organization i n order to achieve (2) ; community organization, - truly a confusing use of words." (1) McMillen, Wayne, Community Organization For Social Welfare, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1949, pp. 29-30 (2) Social Work Year Book, Russel Sage Foundation, Hildreth and uompany, Vermont, 1949, p. 129» - 12 -Another problem derives from the use of community i t s e l f with i t s usual connotation of a small geographic area. It i s necessary of course to recognize that community organization i s achieved i n provincial, national, and inter-national communities and i n r a c i a l , religious and similar groups, as well as i n neigh-borhoods, towns, and c i t i e s . Any group of people l i v i n g together i n the same geographical area inevitably find i t necessary to bring about some degree of organization among themselves i n order to make their association workable or even tolerable. Beyond this further organization is effected as need i s recognized, to enrich the association i n many and varied ways. The need for broad participation i n planning has indeed become so generally recognized that the council device has become part of the social machinery i n every sizeable community i n the U.S.A. and Canada. Increasingly citizen activity i s being re-em-phasized as v i t a l to these agencies i n sharing planning i n order that the product i n showing results w i l l be truly community organization for social welfare. ''Community organization for social welfare i s the pro-cess by which people of communities as individual citizens or as representatives of groups join together to determine social welfare needs plan ways of meeting them and mobilize the necessary resources. The focus of the effort may be a functional f i e l d of social welfare, for e xample leisure-time and recreation, or a geographical area such as a neighborhood cit y or county.** (1) Community organization i s a method i n socialw ork, as are social casework and social group work. Unlike the other two, the term "community organization" i s not a sufficiently definitive (1) Social Work Yearbook, American Book - Stratford Press, New York, 1954 - P. 123. - 13 -welfare term to differentiate i t from that describing other non-welfare organizational efforts i n the community scene, since the term i s applied frequently to activities of such organizations as chambers of commerce, p o l i t i c a l parties, labor unions, educational organizations, and many other segments of community l i f e . The term "community organization for social welfare" i s generally accepted to describe the process as related to the f i e l d of social work. A s one writer has suggested, " i n i t s simplest form community organization for social welfare is a chieved whenever a group of citizens, recognizing a need, band together to see that (1) the need is met." This describes simply and accurately the generic nature of community organization. It does not include community organizations as a professional area of service with tested methods and known s k i l l s which when consciously and effect-ively applied, influence the processes at work to bring a better-balanced program of health and welfare services. The aim of community organization i s to develop relationships between groups and individuals that w i l l enable them to act together i n creating and maintaining f a c i l i t i e s and agencies through which they may realize their highest values i n the common welfare of a l l members of the community. (2) In considering the aims and objectives of community' organization, one needs to remember constantly that they may be accomplished only through a better adjustment of existing parts or the creation of new parts; that one deals with the groups and individuals of the community by improving their relationships; and that only on special occasions i s i t possible to deal with the community as a whole. The emphasis, which is particularly (1) Social Work Year Book - RusseX Sage Foundation - 1945 P. 87. (2) Sanderson, Dwight, Poison, Robert A. - Sural Community  Organization, John Wiley & Son, New York, 1939. P. 76. - 14 -Important In considering the objectives of community organization, as contrasted with i t s more general aim, has been stressed by Steiner, as follows: "The technique of community organization then must be found i n connection with the manipulation and control of individuals and groups instead of i n some wholesale means of Influencing and directing the community i t s e l f . " ( 1 ) "It i s a mistake to regard the community as a simple social unit that lends i t s e l f readily to manipulation and organization. On the contrary, community organization consists, for the most part, i n dealing with groups or combinations of groups within a community, and i n adjust-ing their differences so that a l l may exist side by side with a minimum of f r i c t i o n . " (2) The aim of community organization states the c r i t e r i a by which we direct our general Intention or purposes, but, i n order to achieve this aim, we need to determine just what definite objectives must be attained. Organization or integration as a means to certain ends may be desirable, but i t i s only a means to certain ends, and has content and meaning only as the ends desired are understood by the participants. What, then, are some of the specific objectives of community organization^ Common Need: Unless there are common needs which individuals and groups are unable to satisfy for themselves and for which they require common action, there w i l l be no dynamic for their action together as a community, as collective action i s the basis of a l l community integration. The recognition of common needs, such as better roads, a new school, the suppression or prevention of delinquency, or the need of f i r e protection, which can be satisfied (1) Steiner, Jesse Frederick, Community Organization, The Century Co. -New York 1925, PP 225. (2) Ibid. P. 327. - 15 -only through collective effort, forms the only firm basis for the f i r s t objective of community consciousness. The determination of the needs of the community i s , therefore, one of the f i r s t steps. Social Controlt Obviously, one of the primary objects of community organization i s to exercise such social control over the various groups and Individuals which compose i t as to enable them to act collectively for their common good. Social control becomes possible by the development of community s p i r i t , by loyalty to the community, and by symbols which express the common objectives of community activity. Protection Against Undesirable Influences; It i s not enough to promote community betterment from within, for the community must be able to defend i t s e l f from the aggression of undesirable influences, which might be abolished i f community sentiment were sufficiently strong and there was active co-operation between interested groups. It Is interesting to note that whenever a community is h i t by some disaster; such as a f i r e or flood, i t at once organizes to meet the situation. Many a community has found that i t can work together for the elimination of a saloon or drinking place. Or i t may be that only by community action can the common water supply be protected from pollution, or an unsightly factory be prevented from being erected near a desirable residential section. The zoning of land i s a protective device which many communities are taking up to prevent the undesir-able location of gas stations, factories, and other businesses which injure the valtfe and attractiveness of neighboring residential - 1 6 -property. For a l l these purposes, some method of community organization i s essential, even though the actual control may he the function of a local government unit. The competition of commercial amusements i n c i t i e s has forced some communities to improve the recreational f a c i l i t i e s for their young people, which may be considered a protective measure. Socialization; The ultimate goal of a l l human association i s the devel-opment of better personalities by the individuals concerned. We have seen that a community is composed of the various groups In which i t s people associate. One of the chief handicaps to community action is the number of families and individuals who do not belong to any formal organizations, who l i v e a relatively isolated social l i f e , associating only with their own families or neighbors. Personality develops through association, and one of the objects of community organization i s to promote groups or activities i n which those who lack group association may be per-suaded to participate. One of the best indexes of the socializa-tion of the members of a community is the degree of their p a r t i c i -pa tion i n i t s organizations. Just what i s involved i n this process of socialization is well described by Dr. E . W. Burgess: The socialization of the person consists in- his a l l -round participation i n the thinking, the feeling, and the activities of the group. In short, socialization i s per-sonality freely unfolding under conditions of healthy fellowship. Society viewed from this aspect i s an immense co-operative concern for the promotion of personal develop-ment. But social organization i s not the end of socializa-tion; the end and function of socialization i s the d evelop-ment of persons. The relation i s even closer: personality consists, almost wholly, i n socialization, i n the mental interaction of the person--and his group. The person i s - 17 -coming to realize that, i n achieving his interests, he must at the same time achieve functional relations with a l l other persons. In this achieving of right relations with his fellows, i n this capacity of f i t t i n g "into an i n f i n i t e l y refined and complex system of co-operation," the development of personality consists. (1) Consensus; To accomplish some unity of action, i t i s necessary that the people and their groups have some means whereby they may exchange views and come to a common understanding. This i s usually accomplished by a gradual crystallization of public opinion through casual conversation at the store, the garage, at various group-meetings, etc., where people congregate. Unfortunately, however, hearsay and gossip often distort the facts and promote disagreement rather than consensus. Various means of promoting consensus may be d evised, such as joint meetings of groups concerned with the same common interests, by the exchange of views between different groups through members who belong to both of them, or through some joint committee or council. Or, i f the community i s not too large, the old New England town meeting method may be used and a community meeting may be held, to discuss community problems. Obviously, parliamentary procedure i s but a method of obtaining consensus i n an orderly manner. Community Identity; Unless the Individuals and organizations within a commu-nity area are able to think of i t as being a spatial group apart from adjacent areas and unless they feel that they belong to i t , the community has no identity and the foundation of community organization i s lacking. The process of integration rests prim-(1) Burgess, Ernest, W. - The—Function of Socialization i n Social Evolution - University of Chicago Press -1916 - P. 236 - 237. - 18 -a r i l y upon a definite self-consciousness of the community. Co-Ordination and Go-Operation: Co-ordination to prevent conflict and promote efficiency and co-operation i s particularly important i n a small community. In larger communities, there i s a sufficient constituency so that various groups may compete In events inviting public support with-out endangering their success. Events of this sort are "constantly making for f r i c t i o n i n the community whieh is unorganized, and we shall see that the co-ordination of such activities may be easily accomplished by a community calendar. Frequently the community i s too small a unit to make possible the independent support of desired f a c i l i t i e s . To obtain them, i t i s necessary to co-operate with neighboring communities. Thus, to obtain a bus line, or a delivery route, or the extension of electric lines, It may be necessary for several communities to work together. Even i n desirable competition, as i n the mainten-ance of an amateur baseball or basketball league, the co-operation of several communities is necessary. Leadership: The development of leadership under which.theeoramunity can act i s essential. It i s not enough to attain consensus, for a l l may agree that certain things are desirable and yet nothing Is done about i t . If the community is to be able to a ct as a unit, i t must have leadership which Is recognized and has community confi-dence. Community leaders are necessary to make decisions, to direct community ac t i v i t i e s , and to speak for the community both i n relation to Its internal organization and i t s outside relation-ships. - 19 -If there Is no leader, no one can speak for the community and effective community action i s aborted. Community organization may result i n some sort of formal organization, such as a community council to act as an integrating and directive agency, but i t s essence i s not i n any mechanism, nor can.it be produced by the plans of any expert "social engineer." It i s rather an attitude of the people and of their groups toward the supreme worth of the common welfare. It Is a form of patriot-ism for the local community, and i f i t i s to be effective i n i t s social control i t must come about through a gradual democratic process ofachieving consensus about the common'alms and objectives, and of developing willingness to act together under chosen.leader-ship. Many of the methods used i n community organization are also widely used i n case work and group work. Casework seeks the facts i n order to help the individual or the family to find a way out of trouble. Community organization assembles data i n order to help people to ascertain what a particular community needs and how i t s needs may be met. Pact-gathering, individualization, and diag-nosis are common to a l l three processes. Group work provides training and experience i n co-operative activity. It seeks to evoke responses that w i l l help a group to achieve substantial agreement and to carry forward unitedly the common purposes of the group. Community organization likewise seeks to stimulate group action and to promote unity of purpose and the w i l l to co-operate i n the attainment of objectives. In a sense, group work is a training - ground for community organization; for, i n community - 20 -organization, the group seeks to transmit to other groups the experiences that have been effective i n integrating i t s own approach to common responsibilities. Changes i n Emphasis; Community organization has been considered as a process worthy of special study for only a comparatively short period of time. Even during this brief period, however, i t has been possible to note certain changes and shifts of interest, Jn the earlier period the chief emphasis was placed on problems of co-ordination. Many agencies were operating i n the same functional f i e l d . It was necessary to divide the f i e l d among them, to work out intake policies, to arrange for clearance and exchange of information. Some of the co-ordinating devices developed In that period have persisted and are s t i l l rendering an essential service — notably the social service exchange. Somewhat later, major emphasis came to be placed upon the cultivation of community support. In order to attain this objective, i t was necessary to undertake jointly a number of functions which had previously been the responsibility of individ-ual agencies. Joint financing provides the most conspicuous i l l u s -tration of this trend. The effort to obtain wider support i n the community also led to increased attention to fact-gathering, research, and interpretation. Social work had long been supported and directed by a relatively small group i n the community. It became increasingly clear that this narrow base of support could be widened only by continuous dissemination of verifiable facts concerning social needs. It was also recognized that effective-- 21 -nesa along these lines would necessitate a co-operative approach. Councils and similar mutual associations tended, as a result, to take over from the individual agencies the responsibility for directing research and for interpreting .the findings to the commu-nity. In recent years emphasis has been placed to a greater extent than ever before upon the formulating of programs to pro-vide for unmet needs.. Private agencies, both individually and through local councils or national headquarters, have proposed specific social programs to legislators. Many studies have been undertaken to reveal the scope and character of some particular need and to determine how the need may best be met. The xjuestion of interrelationships of agencies is not at present the dominant interest. Today the social agencies and t he social workers are primarily concerned to arouse interest i n the questions, What does the community need and how can we get what i t needs? Principles i n Community Organization for Social Welfare; (1) Prom the experience of many agencies have emerged certain accepted principles which seem universally applicable. (1) Community organization for social welfare i s concerned with people and their needs. Its objective is to enrich human l i f e by bringing about and maintaining a progressively more effec-tive adjustment between social welfare resources and social welfare needs. (1) Social Work Yearbook, 1954, P. 123 - 22 -(2) The community is the primary client i n community organization for social welfare. (3) It is an axiom i n community organization that the com-munity i s to be understood and accepted as i t i s and where i t i s . The focus i s toward recognizing the inherent values i n the per-sonality and i n enabling development to the fu l l e s t capacity. The f u l l and constructive use of existing resources i s indicated, (4) A l l of the people of the .community are concerned i n Its health and welfare services. Representation of a l l interests and elements i n the population and their f u l l and meaningful p a r t i c i -pation are essential objectives i n community organization. ( 5 ) The fact of ever-changing human needs and thereality of relationships between and among people and groups are the dynamics in the community organization process. (6) Interdependence of a l l threads i n the social welfare fab-r i c of organization i s a fundamental truth. No single agency can usefully "live unto i t s e l f alone, "but i s constantly performing i t s functions i n relation to others. (7) Community organization for social welfare as a process i s a part of generic social work. Knowledge of i t s methods and s k i l l i n their application w i l l enhance the potentialities for growth and development of any community effort to meet human needs. Process; Community organization i n the social welfare f i e l d may be described as encompassing those processes at work toward these enas: ( a) gaining facts about human needs, (b) analyzing resources (services) available to meet needs, (c) synthesis, (1) Ibid. - 23 -correlation, and testing of facts, (d) relating facts about need to facts about available services (e)"bringing into participation i n a l l phases of the process individuals and representatives of groups concerned, (f) fostering interaction of attitudes and representative viewpoints with the objective of reaching agreement through mutual understanding, (g) stimulating citizen interest i n social problems and creating motivation for action through p a r t i c i -pation and education, (h) determining p r i o r i t i e s , (i) developing and Improving standards of service, (j) identifying gaps or duplications i n services (k) adjusting or eliminating existing services or developing new services to meet needs, (1) enhancing community understanding through education, and (m) mobilizing support — moral and financial. Methods: The term "method" implies some systematic application of known procedures and actions toward some established objectives. Methods In social work are tested i n the crucible of experiences. Prom trial-and-error beginnings some methods i n community organi-zation have evolved and are sufficiently discernible to make possible their articulation. Social work, practiced as i t i s , i n that dynamic climate of human relationships sees i t s established methods i n a l l areas of practice constantly i n a state of transi-tion — improving with study and experience. Some of the methods usually identified with community (1) organization are: (1) Administrative and 'process recording. =3ome- type of adminstrative recording i s i n us.e i n every agency engaging i n (1) Ibid. P. 124-125. - 24 -community organization. Minutes, annual reports, project progress reports are examples of some types of essential administrative recording, (2) Research, Research i n social work has been defined as "the sc i e n t i f i c testing of the validity of social work function and method," Pact gathering, analysis, synthesis, and testing are a l l involved i n research as a method. Surveys and special studies il l u s t r a t e the use of research methods. Pacts provide the founda-tion i n the structure of community organizations, (3) Consultation. D i f f i c u l t of description as a method, consultation service i s implicit i n the role of a l l agencies carrying any major responsibility i n community organization. Staff members of community welfare councils and community chests find themselves i n consultation relationship i n such subject-areas as budgeting, personnel policies and practices, interagency relation-ships, methods of interpretation, and so forth, (4) Group conference. Need to draw groups of people toge.th.er informally to discuss common problems is f u l f i l l e d i n use of the group conference method. Less formal than committee structure, such group discussions allow for participation of more people i n formulation of policies and plans. Institutes, workshops, and con-ferences developed around special problems are used extensively. (5) Committee operation. The committee is a basic tool i n community organization and as a method is In common usage i n a l l types of agencies. In community organization for social welfare i t i s the means by which and through which many of the processes take place. - 25 -(6) Interpretation, One of the major problems i n community organization i s that of improving and increasing communication. Lack of f u l l and adequate communication between groups and i n d i v i -duals, some of whom may be actually or apparently i n opposition, is responsible for much resistance and frustration. The usual connotation of the word "interpretation" i s equally pertinent insofar as community organization i s concerned. This method involves use of s k i l l i n public relations and publicity through a l l accepted media, (7) Administration. The knowledge and s k i l l s In administra-tion are drawn upon contantly by the professional worker i n commu-nity organization. (8) Mobilization. This refers to the mobilization of man-power, of finances, and of a l l other resources essential to the realization of a given project. Increasingly, emphasis i s placed on the citizen role i n health and welfare services. Implicit here is the knowledge required i n bringing citizens into meaningful participation, developing leadership, and, i n general, creating a working force behind a given project. Efforts toward needed social legislation are a part of resource mobilization. ( 9 ) Negotiation. The s k i l l of negotiation is employed i n every aspect of community organization; negotiation with individuals, with large and small groups, and, i n a sense, with the community as a whole Is part and parcel of the community organization function. Community Organization and Democracy; As both a process-and a product, Community Organization for social welfare i s an expression of the democratic functioning - 26 -of society for the good of i t s citizens. The objectives of social-work - security, personal adjustment, health, self-expression,, the welfare of the community - are attained only as people join to-gether i n purposeful effort to reach them. Through free associa-tion i n support of a common cause and responsible participation i n organized social enterprise, the citizens of a democracy are able to turn social welfare potentialities into actualities and themselves grow i n stature during the process. Community Organiza-tion work is thus a challenge and an opportunity which faces every good citizen. Community Organization i n social work Is the process of creating and maintaining a progressively more effective adjustment between community resources and community welfare needs. This adjustment i s achieved through the participation of individuals and groups i n the community. It involves the articulation of problems and needs the determination of solu-tions, and the formulation and conduct of a plan of action. (1) Community Organization and Social Work: If we accept the principle of starting where people are physically, mentally, emotionally, spiritually, what are some of the other guideposts to solving health and welfare problems which may be traced to our growing body of social work knowledge about people and the communities i n which they live£ F i r s t , social work as a profession has been constantly pushing back problems to their causes. Great emphasis i s placed on preventive service. Thus we find concern for environmental factors such as housing, play space, sanitation, zoning, safety and a good social climate, including inter-racial and intercultural understanding. Educational programs on family l i f e , parent child relations, and symptoms of behaviour problems are d esigned to give insight and early recognition of trouble requiring expert guidance. Much con-cern has been expressed for getting people and services to-gether to prevent or to treat the problems at an early stage (1) Barry, Mildred, C. "Community Organization Process - An Approach to Better Understanding." Social Work Journal Vol. XXXI October 1950 No. 1 4 . :~P.~157. - 27 -of development. This Involves both a knowledge and an acceptance of community services; as well as their availa-b i l i t y . Second, more and more emphasis is given to mental hygiene. We realize the need for ego satisfaction through opportunities for self expression and a sense of being an important p a r t i c i -pant i n a group to which we have a sense of belonging. The concepts of Interaction of individuals within the group and the art of group development are expressed i n the current interests i n group dynamics. Third, social work has always been dependent upon other professions such as medicine, law, psychiatry, sociology, and nursing. More and more It recognizes the interplay between housing, employment, city planning, law enforcement, education, religion, and race relations as important to the social prob-lems with which i t deals. If we agree, then, that social work of the future i s not an isolated professional practice, but i s an integral part of the social l i f e of the community, we recog-nize that Its effectiveness i n solving welfare problems depends upon strengthening a l l aspects of community l i f e through pro-grams of prevention, practical application of mental hygiene concepts, and integrating welfare broadly to include work with a l l related f i e l d s . The various social forces and programs which are treated as specializations at the national provincial or city level merge i n the d i s t r i c t or neighborhood of the city where they directly affect the lives of people. Here such concerns as health, delinquency, recreation, housing, rat con-t r o l , family and child welfare, liquor control, old age, street lights, employment, and zoning make up the warp and woof ofthe pattern of l i f e of the family and individuals. (1) The public look to social work for pe riodic over-all accounting of the needs and services present i n any f i e l d (health, delinquency, child welfare, etc.) for co-ordination of effort among the organizations at work i n the f i e l d , and for leadership i n planning a community program of next steps i n progress towards accepted goals. As agencies work together i n councils they meet this obligation with varying degrees of effectiveness. Voluntary joint activity seldom proceeds with the dispatch common to live operations In industry or commerce, and results are often slow i n eventuating, and when secured, are fraught with compromise. In "(T) Sieder, Violet, M.- "Solving Health and Welfare Problems Through Neighborhood Participation," Social Welfare  Forum, Columbia University Press, New Xork, 1951 pp.314 - 28 -the long run however, steady progress i s made whenever diligent and persistent effort i s put into the process. Method; The reason for the study was to consider this specific area i n Vancouver as a "case study" of the principles outlined In the body of this chapter. The idea of t h i s thesis arose out of a second year social work, f i e l d work placement at F i r s t United Church, Vancouver, during the 1952 - 53 school term. During the spring of 1952, Reverend H. Morrow, Director of Alexandra Neighborhood House l e f t that agency to take charge of the welfare services of F i r s t United Church. The enormity of i h i s task prompted Rev. Morrow to request the School of Social Work for a student interested i n community organization to assist him to make a study In the d i s t r i c t i n which the..Church was located. It was hoped that the results of this study would give direction to the Board of the Church for future action. Under supervision of Mr. Morrow the study began. Information about population, institutions, agencies, ethnic groups, etc., were obtained and recorded. Means of locating local leadership were considered and attempted. Determination of needs were outlined and the future of the area was discussed. The records of the f i e l d work placement were used to give a picture of the area under consideration and suggestions and recommendations concerning the future plans for the area are based on the total picture. Among the methods used during the placement were i n d i v i -dual and group interviews, attendance at meetings as an observer, and/or participant, preparation of charts, maps, and sketches. Two progress reports and one f i n a l report were prepared. Inter-views were held with the Community Chest Staff, important business men, the Town Planning Commission, The City Land Office, The HeaHh and Sanitation Department, professional workers i n the Area, as well as many residents of the d i s t r i c t . C H A P T E R II  THE STUDY AREA AND THE PEOPLE For purposes of this study the area was divided Into three sections, (Fig. 1). In 1952 a survey was undertaken to provide certain information for First United Church and i t s future planning i n the d i s t r i c t . Since the church is located at the corner of Hastings and Gore, i t was decided that Areas A and B would have to be considered along with Area C i n order to obtain a complete picture. Boundaries were drawn to coincide with those of the Bureau of Statistics i n order to obtain information from the 1951 Census figures; Area A i s part of the Central Business D i s t r i c t , bounded by Cambie Street on the West, False Creek to the South, Main Street on the East and Burrard in l e t to the North. Hereafter this w i l l also be referred to as the Downtown Area. ' Area B. which i s bounded by Main Street on the West, Hastings Street to the South, Glen Drive on the East and Burrard Inlet to the North,, w i l l be referred to as the Industrial Area. Area C, w i l l be called the Strathcona Area. Its western boundary is Main Street: i t then goes south to Terminal Avenue, thence east to Glen Drive and North along Hastings Street. Being close to the commercial centre and not far from the industrial and shipping sections of Burrard Inlets waterfront, a large portion of Areas A and B was invaded by industry, whereas Area C became one of the earliest residential developments i n the city. As industry developed and the city expanded the original residents moved to the newer d i s t r i c t s . Fig. 1. Relation of the Survey Area to Vancouver City o First United Church Since that time this l o c a l i t y has become the meeting ground for a variety of r a c i a l and national groups* Some of these groups s t i l l l i v e In the area while only traces can be found of others. The Chinese, Japanese and Italian people were among the earliest to settle i n that l o c a l i t y and today residents: of Chinese and Italian origin are s t i l l there i n great numbers. Only a small number of Japanese have returned to the area since they were evicted during World War I I . With the influx of many immigrants during the migration peak of some thirty-five years ago, the area also became the social and religious centre for a number of Central European peoples as well as the existing Oriental community. The newcomers naturally gravitated towards their kinsmen and because of the language barrier they set up a number of cultural 'islands' which s t i l l exist at present. The d i s t r i c t soon became the home of many migratory workers of the lumbering, mining, and fishing industries. This resulted i n shifts of ownership i n housing. Many of the former family residences were converted to boarding and rooming houses to accommodate the overflow from the cheap hotels and room-ing houses of the down-town d i s t r i c t . Since most of the houses were wooden, changes of occupancy and inadequate conversion led to deterioration. The greatest amount of deterioration i s to be found i n Area B which i s zoned for heavy industry and i s l i k e l y to be totally converted into an industrial area within the next ten to f i f t e e n years i f present trends continue. At present the population includes, among others, con-tingents of Chinese, Japanese, Italian, Negro, Scandinavian, K E Y 5 P e t * l ? A. ftT«« 0 « C f t f t l A C > » * W O U R ^ ' N t * * ' ^ ^ - y u C - o 5 L A V I A M e O « C « T i O N A L U O i v i t S jr i a c»L> o K B » « T c n u d e * -C»TWO(_IC- won*" a uoL-y T H i M i r y guff MM « « T U « O « * C U » « I H tUD tig? O <D C l I l H A O I T H U I f l M J P f f l h ^ » E R U S K * * M * M • T M f ft mArty . T U r t ? & R o » r i l - P - M » i m « « P l A » l -SKXJOINflVlflW - A H & L O - • S ^ H o W _ Afproxi*\are... „ D J . 5 T ^ J . B . O „ T . I O f M O F . E T H N I C . _ « A » . P . R A C I A L _ G R O U P S ~ IMATIO/yrtU. .C.H.WI?CI+.trS A/M O M A U L S V A N C 0 U V t R C E N T R E SEX n*D OC^E O l i T R l B o T l O N / B I RTH PLfVClZ , M o T H « T o r r * u e fcY CENSUS sue- n>>5T"«?icr s P H Y S I C A L . F F A T U R K S - z o N m f r - t W ^ r t E S . I N O U 5 T R I A U « n O L O C B L C O M f ^ P R C I f l i . L o T S - 3 2 -Anglo-Saxon, Ukrainian, Hungarian, and Russian peoples. Most of the ethnic activities are carried on i n Area C, and as was men-tioned earlier i t has become the social and religious centre for a number of national groups. There are at least 23 ethnic and ra c i a l groups represented i n the whole area. An Indication of the mixed nature of some of the families becomes, evident as one checks the l i s t of children that attended the Strathcona Day Nursery during 1952. French-Irish English-Chinese Russian-Ukrainian Norwegian-Ukrainian Ukrainian-English Polish-English Finnish-Indian Irish-Scottish English German No* No. 4 Ukrainian 6 3 Scottish 1 3 Norwegian 1 1 Negro 1 1 Irish 5 1 Swedish l 1 French-English i 2 Jewish-Russian l 5 Czech-German 1 1 Ukrainian-Canadian 2 No Austrian-Scottish English-Swedish Chinese-Irish Irish-Canadian English-Irish Italian-Polish Scottish-French Scottish-Indian (1) Figure 2 - shows the approximate distribution of ethnic and racial groups throughout the whole study area. A check of the 1951 Census report shows that almost 50$ of the persons i n the whole area were born i n foreign countries and that over sixty per cent have a mother tongue other than English. Detailed distribution for each sub-district i n the study area i s shown i n Figure 3, while the totals are shown i n the table follow-(2) Ings (1) From report of the Casework Agency Review Committee on Strath-cona Nursery School, June 25, 1951. Information contained i n private correspondence with Chief, Population Section, Census Division, Dominion Bureau of Statistics - April 1953. (2) " 3 3 " Dlstributlon of Mother Tongue and Birthplace (Per Centj; Ethnic "Index" Area A Area B Area C Mother Tongue Other than English 61$ 55$ 68$ Birthplace other than Canada & Br. Countries 54$ 42$ 49$ Area A or the Downtown Area, which i s part of the central business d i s t r i c t and covers some 18 city blocks, contains some 500 families; 1,600 single men and 250 single women. Children up to age of fourteen comprise only four per cent of the total population and sixty per cent of the males i n this Area are over the age of 55. This is a man's area, and few women live here i f they can avoid i t . Men outnumber women three to one i n the whole d i s t r i c t but i n this area the proportion is 7 to 1. Area B or the Industrial Area which covers 27 city, blocks is believed to contain 900 families, 700 single men and 350 single women. Fifteen per cent of i t s population i s under the age of 14, while 46 per cent of a l l males are over the age of 55• During and after the last war, (1939-45) many families lived i n the lodging houses i n this d i s t r i c t . Recent reports from the City Health Department show that this situation has been considerably reduced and at presant there are relatively few families l i v i n g i n loding houses. Area C, or the Strathcona Area, on the other hand covers 45 city blocks and contains some 1800 families, 1,350 single men, and 650 single women. Children up to the age of 14 make up fi f t e e n per cent of the population, while 43 per cent of the male population - 3 4 -i s over 55 years of age. The proportion of males to females for both d i s t r i c t B and C i s 2:1, Although some 16,000 persons reside i n the Survey Area only a small portion (9J- blocks) i s actually zoned for residential purposes. The rest Is heavy industrial, general business and local commercial, (See Figure 4 ) « Area A Is zoned as a general business d i s t r i c t with some heavy industry at i t s northern t i p . Here also we find sixty-six restaurants, twenty-two hotels and ' seventy-two lodging houses. Most of the people of this d i s t r i c t reside i n these lodging houses. The 4500 persons l i v i n g there are crowded into 479 households which means an average of 15.4 persons to each household. Compared with the city average of 3.3 this i s a highly overcrowded area. When one considers that this i s a business d i s t r i c t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to believe that so many persons l i v e there. This exerpt (1) from a recent Survey i s a description of many of the l i v i n g quarters. generally speaking, transients and families occupy about one-half of the rooms, and the remaining accommo-dation i s held by single men and women and by married couples renting on a weekly or monthly basis...many of the lodging houses begin on the second floor, at the top of a long bare stairway, often insufficiently swept. The ground floor may be occupied by any type of business, shoe repair, butcher shop, second hand store, cafe or beer parlour. The operator's office (usually also his l i v i n g quarters) faces the stairway and i s often adorned with old calen-dars and fly-specked signs and bulletins relating to the rules of the house. Long dark corridors branch out, with rooms opening off on either side. Sometimes i t Is necessary to light a match (1) Survey of Social and Health Conditions i n a Special Area of Downtown Vancouver. - Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver 1947 (To be referred to as Downtown Survey of 1947.) - 3 5 . -to pick out the room number desired. Most lodging houses are at least two floors high and some more. Only a few have elevator service. Doors and walls are flimsy and permit sounds and smells to escape into the halls . Bathrooms and toilets are dark, cramped and discolored looking, a far cry from the spick and span, t i l e d bath-rooms of the modern apartment or hotel. One would hesitate to bathe a child i n most of the rusty looking tubs. Inside the rooms, the furniture Is of the scantiest; an iron bed, sagging mattress, dresser and chair usually comprise the equipment. Linoleum or worn mats cover the floor. Curtains are flimsy and grimy. Walls are stained and badly i n need of decorating. The lighting i s bad and the view consists of the brick wall of the next build-ing. Even when the housekeeping of the operator i s good, and the sanitation meets the requirements of the City Health Department, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to imagine more unatr tractive, depressing, and uncomfortable housing. Some of the social workers on the staff of the City Social Service Department who are i n touch with more than 2 5 per cent of the persons i n the d i s t r i c t believe that many of the single persons were not of the type that could easily be rehabilitated, "The down town area has a tremendous mobile, isolated group that d r i f t s out here. They were not the type that could be socialized," They did not wish to participate i n anything. They were a group of psychopaths, alcoholics, and deviantes." Many who claim to be single we believe are really married and have for one reason or another l e f t their wives and families...." There was great apathy among the group. The only recreation that existed i n the area was the reading room i n the Central City Mission which was a small and poorly equipped, the Vancouver Library, the waiting room of the B.C. Electric Station, and the beer parlors. These men do not take part i n anything. There i s no give and take, they are'neuteral apathetics.' They have never had anything and are condi-tioned to hardship, they do not expect anything and are not disappointed i f they do not get anything. For some of them their greatest a b i l i t y i s to keep the cheap room they have. Most of them do not know their neighbor, nor wish to do so. They do not wish to associate with any-one nor w i l l they accept any responsibility. Most of them just go from one warm place to another.tt (1) . The figure of -25$ of persons who are known to be depen-dent upon one form of social assistance or another (this of course does not include the many persons who are not eligible for assis-tance under any of the existing categories) i s extremely high when we realize that i n the ci t y of Vancouver, the d ependency rate i s just over 3$. It i s worth while to note that 59$ of the social assis-tance cases for the whole survey area during 1952 lived i n th i s downtown area. Area B which is north of Hastings Street i s considerably blighted with industry. Large industries line the waterfront and others have been set up i n a l l nearby blocks. It was here that most of the Japanese Community lived u n t i l the last war. The ancient houses, old stores and waterfront shacks were taken over by migrants from the prairies, many of them of central European origin,, who came to work i n Vancouver shipyards during the w ar. Many of the occupants are truck drivers, fishermen, loggers, and unskilled workers in.the canneries. Children play around the dirty wharves; and In the oily, sewage tainted water of Burrard Inlet. The park on Powell and Jackson, a r e l i c of the area's original residential character, i s now used only for men's b a l l games. St. Joseph's Hospital, was once f a i r l y well situated with a view across the bay, but is now a forbidding structure surrounded by the noise and dir t of industry. Odours from the canneries and other plants (1) Field Work Placement Records including this information are on Fi l e at the School of Social Work, University of British Columbia. are ever present. Of the three Sections i n the study, Area B shows the greatest amount of deterioration i n housing. In spite of this there are 175 homeowners and sixty per cent of its. lodging houses are owner operated. The rentals i n this d i s t r i c t are more compar-able to Area C than to Area A. The statement i s frequently made about the Strathcona Area that increased industrialization has made the neighborhood unsuitable as•a residential area. However, an actual count i n Area C shows that there are only thirteen major industrial plants' located i n the area and most of these are on the fringe of the dis-t r i c t . The area also contains fourteen minor industries such, as produce and poultry stations and small truck and transfer depots. Six gas stations, eighteen grocery stores and fourteen local com-mercial enterprizes make up the r emainder of the industry i n the Area. (Pig. 4). There are four main types of residential buildings i n the Strathcona and Industrial Areas. These include single houses, not necessarily housing only one family; apartments, including suites built around and over stores; rooming houses and cabins. Although housing is not considered too good i n Area C i t i s considerably better than t^hat of Areas A and B. Home ownership i n the Strath-cona Area has increased from 27 per cent i n 1947 to 37 per cent i n 1952, and 61 per cent of the lodging houses are owner operated. This Area has 1,913" households with an average of 3.7 persons i n each. The average number of persons per hous.ehold for Area A and B Is 15.4 and 5.3 respectively. -38 -Remarking upon rentals, Dr. Marsh i n his report i n 1947 stated;that: - In general, this is a low-rent area. An important point is that these properties were s t i l l under rent control when this survey was made: a few rent increases were noted i n those years (1946-7) hut they have become more common since. Chiefly, how-ever, i t is a substandard and deteriorated area. The proportion of houses and rooms renting at less than $15, and even as low as $5 or $6, is more striking; i t is i n fact a clear index of the deteriorated character of the property of the dis-t r i c t . (1) Prevailing rents at that time were $16 - $29 per month for unfurnished rooms - $18-30 per month for sub-tenants renting furnished quarters. Typical rent of a family l i v i n g i n a cabin was $17 while unfurnished sleeping rooms brough $6 to $12 per month. As Dr. Marsh points out, "whether rents are really low or not depends on what the tenant gets for his money." The Downtown Survey of 1947 stated that the average monthly rent i n the area i t covered (Area A) was $25.30. In figures obtained during the author's study this amount had reached $28.00, . and the most recent report of the Vancouver Housing Association of a study made during the winters of 1952-53 give the following average monthly rentals: (All of this was shared accommodation.) Although there has been a steady rise i n rentals over the years the calibre of the accommodation has deteriorated. If the earlier figures are to be c onsidered as "cheap" rents, and measured against the substandard or over-crowded accommodation they buy, so (1) Marsh, Leonard, C. - Rebuilding A Neighborhood, University of British Columbia 1950 pp. 13. Unfurnished rooms for family Furnished rooms for family Single room for family $35 $27 $34 - 39 -also must "the present rents which are s t i l l low i n comparison with new housing built elsewhere. Religious; Outside of a number of "missions" there are no religious institutions i n the Business D i s t r i c t , 0 n the 6ther hand i n Area B or the Industrial Area, we find St. James Anglican Church (the oldest church i n Vancouver), The Salvation Army Temple, St. Paul's Catholic Church, The Scandanavian Baptist Mission and the Francis-can Sisters of Atonement, Convent. In addition to i t s conventional Church ac t i v i t i e s , St. James Church operates a small kindergarten (15 children) as well as a home for old men which accommodates 28 pensioners under the supervision of a retained nurse. A l l the above-mentioned institutions In addition to their regular duties are actively engaged i n providing food and shelter for the many destitute and needy individuals and families that are to be found l i v i n g i n and about the neighborhood. The religious institutions i n the Strathcona Area.would include the following: F i r s t United Church, Sacred Heart (Catholic) Italian, St. Marys (Ukrainian Catholic), Chinese United, Chinese Catholic, Chinese Anglican, Chinese Presbyterian, Chinese Pentecos-t a l , Chinese Christ Church, Russian Orthodox, African Methodist Episcopalian Church, St. Vincents Shelter. It is interesting to note that a l l but one of the above named churches have definite ethnic or racial congregations. How-ever i n most cases services i n English are provided for the younger members. - 40 -Fi r s t United Church, which is the second oldest Church i n Vancouver, was for many years the place of worship of some of the city's earliest citizens. It, along with St. James, was situ -ated i n the heart of the best residential area and both were sup-ported by large influential congregations. With the development and expansion of the city, the function and membership of these churches has altered considerably. Today, only five per cent of their membership liv e In the d i s t r i c t whereas most of their commu-nity services are ut i l i z e d by the needy families and individuals of the neighborhood. Assistance i n the form of meals, groceries, and used clothing is provided for a large number of unemployed men many of whom come from the Downtown Area. Education: Eight pre-school centres provide accommodation for 346 children. One of these, the Strathcona Day Nursery which is located i n the Industrial Area can accommodate f i f t y children of working mothers from the d i s t r i c t . The hours of operation are from 7 A.M. to 6 P.M. During 1951 there were 120 children registered with an average daily attendance of 37* while i n 1952, 143 children were registered and the average daily attendance was 42. A number of mothers have been trained to assist the permanent staff and there are indications that this much needed service might be expanded. The Strathcona School, the only public schoollocated i n the Survey Area has an enrollment of over 1000 of which 60$ are Chinese. Since Hawk's street i s a school boundary the children east of this street attend Seymour School. The Sacred Heart Church and the Chinese Catholic Mission accommodate 85 and- 46 pupils - 41 -respectively i n their parochial schools while a l l high school students must attend schools out of the d i s t r i c t . Language schools are conducted by the Japanese, Chinese, Ukrainian, and Russian groups while English classes for new Canadians are carried out mainly by the Chinese Church groups. Recreation: Recreation i n the Downtown Area i s confined mainly to the Public Library reading rooms, pool rooms, beer parlors, and movie houses. To a number of the men, these reading rooms are the only form of recreation they have since they are provided free of charge. The r ecent closing of the main reading rooms due to lack of funds has robbed many of these men of their only form of whole-some recreation and w i l l increase the present over-burdened f a c i l i -ties of the remaining reading rooms. The other forms of recreation mentioned are beyond the means of most of the men, nevertheless many of them somehow manage to get enough money to frequent the beer parlours. Wholesome recreational activities In this area have been conspicuous by their total absence. Recreational f a c i l i t i e s i n Area B are only slightly better than i n Area A. The Police Gymnasium is open to groups of boys for boxing and wrestling classes. St. James Church has a small gymnasium for i t s members, while' Oppenheimer Park (formerly Powell Street Park) i s used mainly for senior b a l l games... Many of the children plan i n and about the wharves and railroad yards and factories and are i n constant danger. The development of industry i n the Area has brough with i t a heavy flow of t r a f f i c which has robbed the children of their - 42 -only play ground—the street. . Recently an o f f i c i a l of the police department mentioned the fact that a number of the industrialists i n the area were willing to provide funds to set up a play ground for children. This action would not only discourage the children from vandalism but would also prevent accidents on their property. Although this may be "enlightened self interest" on the part of these business men i t could be one of the means of providing some of the urgently needed play space i n the area. The Gibb's Boy's Club, the Pender Y.W.C.A., and the Kiwassa Girls Club are the three main recreational agencies serving the Strathcona Area. Their activities attract children and young adults not only from the Immediate surroundings but also from adjoining d i s t r i c t s . Some 242 boys attend the Gibbs Boys Club while the membership of the Pender Y.W.C.A. is around 350. Although the Kiwassa Girls Club Is just outside the survey Area i t has been included i n the study since i t has over 200 members, many of whom reside i n the survey area. Twenty-one volunteers assist i n the program work i n this agency. The Boy's Club and the Pender Y.W.C.A. have 17 and 19 volunteers respectively. The Girl's Club and the Boy's Club, each have one f u l l -time director and one part-time assistant and the Pendery Y has two full-time staff persons. The two former agencies have a hetero-genous membership whereas 90 per cent of the members of the Pender Y.W.C.A. are Chinese. This agency was originally set up to pro-vide recreational f a c i l i t i e s for the Chinese Community and was called the Chinese Y Centre. As time went on the work of the agency expanded and the membership could not be confined to the Chinese and that the Y had to serve the whole community. When a . - 43 -new building was recently erected the name was changed to the Pender Y.W.C.A. Play space i n the d i s t r i c t i s limited. Outside of the two parks which are seldom used, the streets, alleys, vacant lots and False Creek Flats are the playground for most of the children. A successful summer playground program i n McLean Park attracts many youngsters; and i t is hoped that as McGeer Park i s developed i t w i l l become the centre for most of the sports activities of the area* Gradual additions to the Strathcona School has eliminated most of i t s play space. An empty lot across from the school iiihich might have been used as a playground i s now occupied by an industrial plant, ^raffle to this location has added greatly to the existing t r a f f i c hazard. Although there seems to be considerable concern for recrea-tional and leisure time activities for children planning for non-commercial activities for adults are not In evidence. In addition to the agencies mentioned above, three national halls are located i n the d i s t r i c t : The Association of Ukrainian Canadians, the Russian People's Home and the Yugoslavian Educational Home. The f i r s t two u t i l i z e their buildings for a variety of cultural and educational acti v i t i e s and the latter i s used only for meetings. Health and Welfare Agencies; For many years this general l o c a l i t y has produced many health and sanitation problems and has received a great deal of attention from the Metropolitan Health Committee. Both morbidity - 44 -and mortality rates are high among the people i n this area. The following schedule indicates certain health aspects and t he order of t h e i r significance i n the surveys area as compared to other areas of Vancouver. > City of Vancouver-Summary of Various Rates by Census Areas '- 1951 (l) Index Census 5 . Area (2) 6 5 Rank 6 Birth Rate (per 1 0 0 0 ) population) 11.2 18.8 37 S t i l l Births per 1000 pop. 44.7 5.4 1st 29 th Death Rate: Rate per 1000 population 35.6 19.3 1st 2nd Tuberculosis death rate (per 100,000 pop.) 142.7 102.9 1st 2nd Pneumonia 167.9 102.9 1st 3rd Infant Mortality Rate per 1000 live births 44.7 21.7 3rd 20th In addition to the house calls made by the Metropolitan Health Nurses, the Victorian Order of Nurses make an average of 15 calls each day. The school nurses who are i n contact with most (1) Medical Health Officer's Annual Report - 1951 -of the Greater Vancouver Metropolitan Health Committee. (2) City of Vancouver is divided into 38 census areas, See Pig. 1. - 45 -of the families report that there has been a marked improvement i n the Public Health situation during the past few -years. This they believe can be attributed mainly to the influence of Strathcona and Seymour schools. The Venereal Disease Division of the Department of Health and Welfare, reports that the area under consideration, and parti-cularly the downtown area has been the zone of highest f a c i l i t a t i o n i n the city and province for many years. Most of the contacts reported are i n the lodging houses and i t has been shown that the standard of l i v i n g and behaviour i n the lodging houses i s a r e f l e c -tion of the personal standards of the proprietor and that premises can be operated respectably i n any d i s t r i c t . The Sanitary Division of the City Health Department e s t i -mates that more inspection time i s required for t h i s area than for any other of similar size In the city, yet they receive few com-plaints from the residents. The people seem to tolerate unsatis-factory conditions because many of them feel that i t would not do them any good to complain. Many social agencies operate i n the d i s t r i c t and there is a wide variation i n their case loads. Figures obtained from the City Social Service Department show that i n 1952 there were 789 social assistance cases i n the survey area. In addition there were 447 persons receiving Old Age Assistance and approximately 2000 t Old Age Security recipients were receiving the Provincial Bonus. It has also been estimated that some 600 persons i n the l o c a l i t y were i n receipt of War Veterans Allowance and Workmen1s Compensa-tion pensions. These figures total almost twenty-five per cent of - 46 -the persons li v i n g i n the area* However, they do not include the great number of needy persons who are not eligible for assistance under any of the above mentioned categories* A considerable num-ber of these persons, who are classified as unemployed employables are helped by various organizations which include the Salvation Army, First United Church, St. James Church, St. Pauls, The Sisters of Atonement, and St. Vincents Home and Shelter* The problem of these men is serious enough to warrant a separate study. It i s gratifying to hear that such a study Is at present under considera-tion by the Federal authorities. In 1952 the Family Welfare Bureau reported 2 7 out of i t s 1230 cases to be in this d i s t r i c t . During the same period the Children's Aid Society dealt with 103 cases i n the same d i s t r i c t . The Strathcona Case Committee which meets periodically to discuss and handle specific social w elf are cases wijbhin the l o c a l i t y i s composed of r epresentatives from the following agencies and organi-zations; Kiwassa Girl's Club, Pender Y.W.C.A., City Social Service Department, Family Welfare Bureau, Children's Aid Society, Metro-politan Health Committee, Victorian Order of Nurses, Strathcona School, Catholic Children's Aid Society, Health Centre for Children, School Attendance Officers, Women's Division of the Vancouver City Police Attendance Officers, Women's Division of the Vancouver City Police Department and Fir s t United Church. Other agencies such as the Salvation Army, The Vancouver Housing Association and the Juven-i l e Court attend by invitation. Most of the missions for "saving and uplifting" are located i n t h i s d i s t r i c t and carry on a flourishing trade among the - 47 -many derelicts and drifters that frequent the l o c a l i t y . Many of these men look forward to the 'bowl of soup' that i s often their daily sustenance. Previous Studies; Excluding the present study made by the author at least five other studies or surveys have been made which concern the area under consideration. The f i r s t of these was by Dr. Mutchmore who came from Toronto i n 1928 to offer suggestions for the expansion of F i r s t United Church. The next study done i n 1945, examined the recrea-(1) tional f a c i l i t i e s of Vancouver.. .Reverend H. Morrow's Thesis on The Community Services of Fir s t United Church was completed i n 1948 and gives a thorough picture of the function of F i r s t United Church. In 1947 The Community Chest and Council undertook a Survey on Social and Health conditions i n a special area of downtown Van-couver which covered a l l the Downtown area of the present study as well as a good portion of Areas B and C. A most thorough study of the Strathcona area was made i n 1947 for a Report on a Demonstration  Slum Clearance and Urban Rehabilitation Project.  Local Opinions About the Area; During the course of the survey, many persons were Inter-viewed and a variety of viewpoints and suggestions were obtained (2) about, the Strathcona Area. .Some of the main points were to rebuild or maintain the d i s t r i c t as a residential area; many persons want to liv e there for a variety of reasons; there were many permanent r e s i -dents as well as homeowners residing there; clean up the slum  (1) Survey Report of Group Work and Recreation of Greater Vancouver  13)45 - Published by the Community Chest and Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver. (2) For names of these persons and agencies See Appendix A. - 48 " conditions; improve the roads; more play space needed; no recrea-tional f a c i l i t i e s for adults; build a recreation centre; use schools for youth and adult recreation; set up a representative group to speak for the area,. The above l i s t was compiled from the Interviews, with local residents, church leaders, social workers, health personnel, and education representatives. The unanimous reply received from business and industrial leaders was t o rezone the entire area for industry. However, the greatest majority of persons agreed that the d i s t r i c t should be maintained as a residential area. Other points that were mentioned include, making the present site more attractive; the churches should be doing more to develop the leadership potential; set up a small housing develop-ment; rebuilding the total area would be too costly; not enough permanent residents to warrant rebuilding the area; residents not making a positive contribution to the neighborhood; the transients cause the trouble; and give area adverse publicity. When considering some of the replies one must take into consideration the knowledge the respondent has about the area, his experiences there, good or bad, his interests i n the area, etc. It appears that the business men and industrialists who were approa ched were only interested to see that the area was turned over to industry. L i t t l e or no consideration was given to the many persons residing there and their hopes and wishes. One gentleman stated that the area was f u l l of transients, foreigners and the 3cum of Vancouver, There were no permanent homes there and that no nice people lived i n the area. This type of response indicated, among other things, how l i t t l e this man knew about this d i s t r i c t . - 49 -On the other hand, the people that knew the existing situation showed great understanding and expressed their hope for renewed efforts to build up the area. One social worker mentioned that there was intellectual impoverishment i n the d i s t r i c t . She pointed but however, that i n other d i s t r i c t s similar problems existed but that the people there work together to alleviate these problems. It Is not unusual, while making a study of the agencies of a d i s t r i c t , to find that one or two agencies are not cuite performing* their stated purpose or that others are undertaking more than they ought to. It would seem that the school (in the person.of i t s principal) i s doing a task that i s not i n keeping with i t s purpose or f a c i l i t i e s . Family guidance and counselling could be handled more capably by other agencies. The task of the school Is to bring enlightenment and democratic l i v i n g to Its constituents. Much work could be devoted to involving the parents i n evening a c t i v i -ties where a more positive approach could be made to them. As i t appears now the only contact that the school has with parents i s the result of d i f f i c u l t i e s with the children. The school Is not a social agency and should not be operating i n this f i e l d . A somewhat similar situation was brought to light when i t was learned that the staff of one of the Day Nurseries were acting as family counsellors. This was taking up a considerably amount of time that should have been devoted to the administration and operation of the agency. At the time of this writing discus-sions were under way to arrange for referrals to be made to competent agencies to handle the cases that corae--to- the nursery. - 50 -It i s to such matters that the Strathcona Case Committee should turn i t s attention. Significant Social Conditions: In the matter of transiency, a factor d i f f i c u l t to measure, i t Is estimated that the average transient family remains i n the area for 18 months and that some 30$ represent new and possible mobile population. These figures are c ompiled from the records from the Seymour School, Salvation Army, GIbbs Boy.»s Club, and the Kiwassa Girl's Club. Since the Strathcona Area adjoins the down-town area any adverse publicity concerning the down-town area Is bound to be f e l t by the residents of the Strathcona d i s t r i c t . "The 'bad name' - (1) of the downtown d i s t r i c t i s not easy to 'live down.'" "The tone of the d i s t r i c t as i t exists at present lowers the name and repute-(2) tion of the agency no matter what the quality of the work." The results of the study confirm that there are l i t t l e or no f a c i l i t i e s for wholesome adult recreation within the area. (3) According to the figures compiled i n an earlier study we see that more than 60% of a l l wage earners of the d i s t r i c t l i v e within one mile of their work. This fact may also give us the reason for the 10% increase for resident home owners i n the Strath-cona Area. Furthermore, from the statements of several industria-l i s t s , as well as other business people, we learn that a pool of readily accessible labor must be near the water-front industries. (1) Marsh, Rebuilding a Neighborhood - Page 8. (2) Ibid. Page 8 - footnote. (3) ToTcT. Page 10. - 51 -Among the other social conditions significant to the study we find more than usual apathy associated with deprived or blighted l o c a l i t i e s . Attempts to involve local residents to parti-cipate i n the affairs of the neighborhood have been tried from time to time but with almost no success. One important exception must be noted. In the late 1930*s the efforts of the Italian Rate Payers Association, under the capable leadership of their Legal Counsel, Mr. Branca, petloned the Civic Authorities and were . successful t o r ezone a small portion of the Strathcona Area as a residential d i s t r i c t . This was indeed an example of co-operative effort by the citizens for the benefit of the community. Unfortu-nately there are no other successes to report at this time. Temporary residence i s often given as the reason for the apathy and non-participation of many persons i n the neighborhood. Elsewhere i n this paper i t has been noted that almost one-third of the residents spend only between 15 to 18 months l i v i n g In this area. Many claim that they do not wish to become involved as they w i l l soon be leaving the d i s t r i c t . Others find i t d i f f i c u l t to make any roots Into organizations during their short stay and of course there are those who abstain from organized activities of a l l sorts. Does a l l this mean that there is no leadership i n the Strathcona Area,? What attempts have been made over the years to Involve residents i n large-scale activities? Why is i t d i f f i c u l t to locate potential.leaders who w i l l act as spokesmen for the di s t r i c t ? Let us examine the questions more f u l l y . C H A P T E R III  Community Organization and Democracy: Community organization involves both the active p a r t i c i -pation of the people i n community affairs and the leadership of those best f i t t e d to direct i t s a c t i v i t i e s . Among the various experiments that have been tried out i n this f i e l d few have satisfactorily approximated this goal. Mere provision of oppor-tunities for the people to work out their own plans and policies is not sufficient, for usually only a minority take advantage of such opportunities, and the results are frequently disappointing. On the other hand, when the natural leaders assume responsibili-ties on their own i n i t i a t i v e as they do i n a paternalistic regime, the effect on the people i s l i k e l y to be depressing or may even lead to open revolt. What is needed is a plan of organization that w i l l produce efficiency without imperilling democracy. Per- . haps when the conditions of l i f e become such that thorough co-operation i s essential for community progress, a rational plan of community organization may be able to win a larger measure of pub-l i c support. What then, does leadership mean i n the Strathcona Area?? Are opportunities available for citizens i n this neighborhood to prove their leadership a b i l i t i e s ? What type of leadership exists i n t h i s area? Who i s providing i t ? By looking into these questions we shall see the exist-ing situation. A number of ethnic and r a c i a l societies and schools (1) are located i n the v i c i n i t y . The largest of these groups is the (1) See Pig. 2. - 53 -Chinese Community which has a large number of tongs, societies, clubs, etc. Since the Chinese situation warrants a separate study, suffice i t to say that many obstacles appear i n the path of Chinese participation i n community a f f a i r s . There are undoubtedly many capable Chinese leaders who could make a most valuable and positive contribution to the improvement of the neighborhood. It would require a highly specialized job to prepare the Chinese people to accept participation i n community a f f a i r s . Leaders are also to be found i n the Italian, Russian, Ukrainian, Jugoslavian and Japanese organizations. How do we know? The fact that these groups have been operating for many years within their own sphere proves t h i s . Successful programs have been conducted by them for their own people but seldom have they worked together. Although later on we w i l l show several weak attempts at some organized efforts i n the area - to our knowledge there has not been a project i n which a l l groups have participated. Individual efforts by the Italian Community succeeded to rezone a small portion for residential purposes, while the Canadian Association of United Ukrainians was one of the initiators to have McGeer park converted into a playground. A great number of people staff the agencies, schools and institutions already mentioned. How many of these actually reside i n the d i s t r i c t ? Of more than one hundred staff personnel and volunteers of the Gibb's Boy's Club, Kiwassa Girl's Club, Pender Y.W.C.A., Strathcona and Seymour Schools, only three l i v e - 54 -i n the area* Of a l l the others, only the Sisters and Priests of the parochial schools and kindergartens reside there* Some of the mothers of the Kiwassa Mother's Group 'and almost a l l of the parents of the Strathcona Day Nursery Parent's Group l i v e i n the neighborhood• Professional Leadership; In Chapter II, the composition and object of the Strath-cona Case Committee was mentioned* None of the persons represent-ing these 19 agencies resides within the study area* An examination of the work of this committee indicates that i t has not been very effective. It meets seldom and then only for a very specific cause, and s eldom concerns i t s e l f with the neighborhood. A case committee should add strength and incentive to the solution or alleviation of d i s t r i c t problems. The representa-tives to this body are particularly aware of the many d i f f i c u l t situations i n the area. Through the limitations of their own agencies they" may be frustrated and handicapped when i t comes to taking individual action. However the case committee affords an excellent opportunity to join forces with other workers i n the united action, that would mean closer working relationships, more joint projects, more referrals and inevitably a more complete service to the people* Attempts at Community Organization In the D i s t r i c t : One might fe e l after reading about the lack of local accomplishment that there have not been any attempts to involve the residents i n co-operative efforts. This i s not so. - 55 -During the winter of 1951 the mothers of the d i s t r i c t became qi ite concerned about delinquency i n the lo c a l i t y and through the efforts of the Kiwassa Mothers Group, Mrs. T. Exner, of the faculty of the University of British Columbia School of Social Work, was invited to discuss the situation with the women. Some 25 mothers attended six meetings at which most of the ethnic and ra c i a l groups i n the neighborhood were represented. Following are some points Mrs. Exner made i n conference with the writer: The mothers went to Chief of Police Mulligan re more policing of the area. A number of drug addicts were i n the area and had been found using the common washroom of. over-crowded houses as a place to give themselves injections. These washrooms were practically open to the public and the mothers were quite concerned about this matter. It was brought out that, there were no P.T.A.'s i n the area nor did the parents'have a place to meet....when the matter of P.T.A. was discussed the principals of both Strath-cona and Seymour Schools were approached without success. The only thing one principal could offer was a c ourse i n English to the people i n the area. The other principal was impressed with the delinquency i n the area and f e l t that the parents of non-delinquents did not need an organization while an organization for the parents of delinquents would do them no good. It was also brought out at that time that the Mental Health Coordinator had not contacted any parents whatsoever, although he had done some work with the individual students at the school. The Kiwassa Mothers and Strathcona Day Nursery Mothers went to the P.T.A. headquarters to see about getting an organization i n the area but the matter was not followed through. Although this group met to discuss the behaviour of adolescent g i r l s they also pointed out that none of the Churches offered recreation for adults. They f e l t that there was no place where they could participate i n activities with their children. The efforts of the Strathcona Day Nursery to involve parents i n i t s program has proved that some of the mothers are - 5 6 -interested enough to assist the nursery staff. Some have even undertaken an in-service training course and become part-time assistants. At present a 'Parents1 group meets once a month. The program which was formerly arranged by the staff Is now planned and carried out by the parents. More and more the people i n the d i s t r i c t are taking the responsibility for the a c t i v i t i e s of the group. The director of this agency believes that there exists a desire on the part of many people i n the area for better-ment but that they lack the knowledge to go ahead. They feel the in a b i l i t y to provide leadership although there are signs that this leadership i s developing as Is t heir desire for knowledge. It was also her belief that this Parent's group might eventually be the nucleus for a P.T.A. i n the d i s t r i c t . Attempts by the staff of the GIbbs Boy's Club to involve parents of members i n the program has met with no success. At a recent championship basketball game i n which the agency was involved - 3 6 telephone calls resulted i n three fathers attending this game. The Halloween Committee that was supported by the Parks Board and the Group Work Division of the Community Chest was able to get an adult committee to work along with the Teen Committee. This whole venture may eventually become a unifying force i n the d i s t r i c t . More recent attempts to revive interest i n a P.T.A. have been put forth by Mrs. T. Harris. Mrs. Harris who has been mentioned earlier In this paper is a Board Member of the Strathcona Day Nursery. It was her intention to set up a P.T.A. without the support of the principal of the school* However after consulta-tion with the author she discussed the plan with the principal who suggested that the formation of a group of pre-school parents might eventually lead to a proper P.T.A. As part of the survey both school principals were Inter-viewed and the matter of P.T.A.'s were discussed. Among the reasons given for the absence and lack of success to set up a P.T.A. are the following: (a) there is a conscious awareness of language barriers among the people l i v i n g i n the area. (b) economic problem of not having suitable clothing to wear to meetings. (c) there was no one to look after the children on meeting nights. (d) there are too many parents working odd shifts. (e) In some cases both parents are working. (f) most of the parents were just not interested. (g) because of the great number of Chinese pupils, i t would be Impossible to get a truly representa-tive group of parents. (h) many of the people do not li v e there long enough to participate i n any group a c t i v i t i e s . One of these gentlemen stated that a P.T.A. could not be forced on the s chool nor would the school wish to force a P.T.A. on to parents. He went on to say the P.T.A.'s usually start for two reasons. One,to find fault with the curriculum and teachers and the other was.to raise funds for the school. He f e l t that most of the parents i n this area were not interested i n either reason at present. - 58 -Although some of the reasons stated bear some validity, i t does not excuse the principals from making every effort to encourage the parents to take a greater interest i n the welfare of their children. The combined efforts of the school staff and parents could do much to overcome some of the -stated obstacles to the formation of a P.T.A. . One principal remarked, quite emphatically, that since there were a overwhelming number of Chinese pupils the P.T.A. would not be truly representative. This i s a very narrow view since the only representation needed i n a P.T.A. i s interested parents, regardless of their race or ethnic background. It is quite l i k e l y that one of the main reasons that,a P.T.A. does not exist is that no genuine effort has been made by the s chools to cooperate with parents to set up such an organiza-tion. The two reasons given earlier for the formation of P.T.A."s may be true i n certain cases but is the exception rather than the rule. Among other things P.T.A.!s offer many positive experi-ences for parents to learn more about their children's health, education and welfare. It would appear that the attitudes of the principals were a negative factor i n the. formation of a P.T.A. At this point l e t us look at the ethnic and r acial d i s t r i -bution of pupils of the two public schools i n the d i s t r i c t . This was the order as of July 1952: - 59 -Strathcona School (1 ,000 pupils)? Seymour School (432 pupils); Chinese 626 Anglo Saxon. 125 Ukrainian 48 Japanese 43 Italian 32 Scandinavian 20 Polish.. / 19 German 16 Finnish.. 14 French 9 Russian............. 6 American. 1 Other Foreign 39 Anglo Saxon. 164 Chinese 86 Ukrainian 64 Italian 26 Scandinavian 24 Russian 15 Finnish 10 French 8 Japanese.. 6 German 5 Other 48 The Strathcona School has been called a "small United Nations." It i s there that these children work together i n a truly democratic manner. Why shouldn't the parents benefit from this situation? In addition to learning more about their children, they would gain some of the advantages of participating with their neighbors i n projects of common interest. They would get a more widespread feeling of belonging to the community and sharing i t s responsibilities. The pride which comes with this feeling i s Infectious. It would open up more channels of communications both for individuals and for groups, and projects which could never be accomplished by 10$ of the people might be undertaken with confi-dence If 40$ were to put their efforts behind them. Such might have been the case i n the matter of the re-zoning of the remainder of "the Strathcona Area as a residential d i s t r i c t . (A small portion was re-zoned through the efforts of the Italian Community shortly before World War II). Several attempts have been made to have this l o c a l i t y re-zoned as a r esidential area. Three letters are ca f i l e at the - 60 -City Hall. The f i r s t dated April 18, 1951, is from F i r s t United Church, the second, dated June 28, 1951 i s from the Vancouver Housing Association and the third dated November 23, 1951 i s signed •jointly by First United Church, Strathcona School, St. James (1) Church and the Salvation Army. Among the groups i n the d i s t r i c t Interested to improve li v i n g conditions i s the Negro Citizens League. It i s also pressing for improved roads and housing as well as more play-space. A l l these efforts were made by well-meaning individuals, who are really "outsiders." They do not reside i n the area a l -though they are part of i t because of the nature of their work. How much more effective would have been a petition from a majority of the residents of the d i s t r i c t ] An o f f i c i a l of the Vancouver Housing Association stated, "the city would l i s t e n to people." In spite of this the greatest percentage of people inter-viewed during the course of this study were i n favor of rebuilding the neighborhood as a residential area. As one social worker has said, "If there were better housing the younger generation.... would be encouraged to stay and those who have moved further out, (2) might be tempted to return.". Thus far we have looked at the leadership and participa-tion i n the Strathcona Area. In many respects i t has not been too good. However there are many encouraging factors which w i l l be discussed i n the following pages. (1) This correspondence is available at the City Planning Depart-ment and shows that although repeated requests were made to have the area re-zoned as a residential area no action had been taken by the Town Planning Commission as of October 2, 19-(2) MARSH - Rebuilding a Neighborhood - Page 8 - footnote. C H A P T E R I V Now that we have had a thorough look at. the area and i t s people, let us "take stock" of the situation. Very often i n studies, of this nature one uncovers many negative aspects or conditions. Many of these are serious and this d i s t r i c t Is no exception. However, too often the negatives are stressed and positive findings may often be overlooked or just not considered. L i a b i l i t i e s ; F i r s t , l e t us look at some of the l i a b i l i t i e s of this neighborhood: 1. The condition of a large portion of the housing i s deplorable and substandard. 2. Some 30$ of the families are transients. Their average length of residence i n the d i s t r i c t i s approximately 18 months. 3. Almost 60$ of the persons i n the d i s t r i c t speak a language other than English. 4 . There has been very l i t t l e integration into Canadian l i f e by many of the old time residents of the area. 5. Over 30$ of the persons In the area are known to be dependent. 6. Communication between most ethnic groups i n the neighborhood is almost non-existent. 7. There does not exist a P.T.A. 8. There i s no known representative group to speak for the people i n the dis t r i c t . . 9. There is a definite lack of wholesome recreational and social f a c i l i t i e s for adults. 10. Almost a l l of the leadership i n the fields of recrea-tion, .education and religion reside outside of the area under study. - 62 -11. Seemingly the area i s ideal for industry and this view has many supporters among the top level business people and industrialists of this c i t y . 12. The area suffers greatly from adverse publicity since i t i s very close geographically,to the down-town business d i s t r i c t with which much crime, adult delinquency, and other vices are often associated. 13. At present the existing Strathcona Case Committee is ineffective. 14. The area has for many years been the target for "Do-gooders." 15. A number of churches seem to be working with national or r a c i a l groups and not with the general community. Although i t may not be possible to show that the area under study i s a slum area, i t would not be d i f f i c u l t to prove that i t i s a blighted area. Queen and Carpenter i n their recent book, (1) The American City, have li s t e d the following set of c r i t e r i a by which to measure blighted areas. 1. Relatively high density of population. 2. More males than females. 3. Small percentage of children. 4. Many old men. 5. Heterogeniety of population. 6. Highly mobile population. 7. Large number of "detached" persons. 8. Few acquaintances and friends. 9. High morbidity and mortality rate. 10. High incidence of Venereal Disease, Tuberculosis, and suicide. (1) McGraw, H i l l - Book Co. New York, 1953. - 63 -1 1 . Presence of missions f o r the purpose of "saving and u p l i f t i n g . " 12. I n s t i t u t i o n s that seem indigenous to such an area -pawnshops, second hand stores, lodging houses, cheap restaurants, poolrooms, houses of p r o s t i t u -t i o n , etco 13 . Poverty, disease, vice and crime are i d e n t i f i e d with f a r greater frequency i n t h i s area than with other parts of the c i t y . E c o l o g i c a l l y , the whole study area f i t s into the t r a n s i -t i o n a l or blighted zone. Examination of the three d i v i s i o n s within the study area shows, however, that Area A and B conform to these c r i t e r i a more than does the Strathcona Area. Nevertheless, due to t h e i r proximity the Strathcona Area i s bound to be adversely a f f e c -ted. These are some of the reasons that make i t d i f f i c u l t to apply community organization p r i n c i p l e s i n t h i s Area. Assets t A l i s t of assets of the d i s t r i c t would include the follow-ing: 1. The Strathcona area must be considered a bona-fide community. i 2. Most of the 1800 f a m i l i e s i n this area are permanent residents. 3 . More than 21% are resident homeowners. 4. Very l i t t l e heavy industry i s to be found i n t he area. See Pig. 4» 5 . Many groups and agencies have an investment i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . (1) 6 . Other groups that have shown a r e a l i n t e r e s t i n the l o c a l residents are F i r s t United Church, Pender Y.W.C.A., Kiwassa Mothers Group, The Strathcona Day Nursery Parents Group, St. James Church, The Salvation Army, and the Vancouver Housing Association.  (1) Almost a l l the funds allocated by the .gornmunity Chest and Council i n t h i s d i s t r i c t are spent I n t he Strathcona Area. The d i s t r i -bution of these funds are shown i n Appendix B. - 64 -7. Leadership, inspiration, as well as material and spiritual assistance has been provided by Fi r s t United Church for many years. In addition i t has fostered and created an interest i n the problems of the area. From the time of the f i r s t report in 1928 by Dr, Mutchmore, this institution has been aware of many of the shortcomings of the d i s t r i c t . With the recent arrival of Reverend H. Morrow to head the Welfare Services of this Church this present study was made possible, 8, There are 11 other churches i n the Strathcona Area and 4 more i n the d i s t r i c t north of Hastings Street. 9» There i s a. wealth of untapped potential i n the ethnic and r a c i a l societies. 10, Availability of pertinent factual material from previous studies, 11, Professional participation i n the instance of the Strathcona Case Committee, 12, An abundance of recreational f a c i l i t i e s for children, 13, The positive possibilities In the future of the area expressed by most of the persons interviewed during the present survey, 14, ?Enlistment of support of Civic departments to rebuild the Area by local organizations, SUMMARY DISCUSSION In Chapter one the basic principles of Community Organiza-tion were outlined and described. The conditions under which we could expect community organization to operate were also mentioned. From a l l the information presented about the Strathcona Area, we can conclude that i t is not a "normal" area, and, therefore we cannot apply to i t the basic principles of community organization. When one realizes that for many years ther esidents of this neighborhood have had l i t t l e or no opportunity to participate i n the affairs of their own community, one can readily understand the - 65 -existing apathy and Indifference that exists today. The lack of interest i n communal affairs has not allowed the citizens to become familiar with the basic democratic tools of group participation and acceptance of responsibility. No wonder i t is almost Impossible to locate potential leaders. The duties and responsibilities of leader-ship are foreign to them. Is It any wonder that they stay within the satisfying and protective' sanctuary of their clubs and organiza-tions. The problem of how to reach these persons is not to be solved easily or quickly. Since the "Normal" elements for carrying out community organization are not noticeably discernible i n this neighborhood, let us consider the distribution of responsibilities to improve or alleviate this situation. To begin, let us pose these questions; - Is the larger community responsible for a blighted or underprivileged area? Has i t the right to permit this cancerous condition to exist? Many would fe e l that a l l blighted areas are the responsibility of the whole community and that every effort must be made to correct the situation. Alleviation of deplorable conditions would i n the f i n a l analysis be more profitable i n prevention of crime, disease, broken homes, and many other social i l l s that are usually associated with underprivileged areas. The many positive elements that have been outlined as currently existing i n this area make i t possible to make some sugges-tions to improve the situation. - 66 -The f i r s t responsibility l i e s with the people of the neighborhood, A better neighborhood makes better people, and the people of the neighborhood are the ones to start making i t better. When they, themselves, join with their neighbors to plan, to work, or to act together, a great thing can happen. They can tap the powerline of genuine democracy i n spite of poverty, inequalities, prejudice, and indifference. Then, the existing educational, r e l i -gious, recreational, and other agencies i n the area must lend their f u l l e s t support to any plan which w i l l make the lives of the c i t i -zens richer and f u l l e r . One cannot overrate the Importance of the Strathcona Case Committee i n any plan for the area. The potential of professional competence is unlimited. It must be given a clear frame of reference in which to operate. The Community Chest and Council:.through i t s Social Planning Division must continue to support and encourage the work that has already been done to bring the facts to the fore. It must co-operate with other Interested civic bodies to arrive at some definite decision about the future of the area. Then, there i s the Citizen and Immi-gration Branch of the Federal Government that has so much to offer both to the newcomer to Canada as well as the Canadian Citizen of longstanding. Positive integration of newcomers into a new l i f e i n this country depends both on the newcomer and the "old Canadian." Many gaps exist i n this situation that might be c apably handled by the Citizenship Branch i n conjunction with the existing educational f a c i l i t i e s . Then too, has not the Civic Planning Body and-Park Board also a responsibility to this d i s t r i c t as i t has to the others i n - 67 -the city? What of a l l the churches i n this d i s t r i c t ? The welfare activities of the church are the most ancient and probably the most firmly fixed i n the habits and thoughts of the general population. Throughout the whole history of the Chris-tian Church and, also, i n the Jewish Faith, the association of deeds of mercy with religious activities has been firmly fixed i n the minds of the people. In fact, many persons regard welfare activities as one of the most important modes of expression of the religious impulse. It has, therefore, been taken as a matter of course that the Church occupies a conspicuous place i n the promotion and maintenance of such services. In the earlier chapters we have mentioned the work of Fir s t . United Church. It i s vast and varied. It is only through the fore-sight and determination of the leaders of this Church that two studies:have been possible. The f i r s t was Reverend H. Morrow's Thesis, The Community Services of First United Church, and the present study. In his paper Reverend Morrow made, the following observations: A protestant church can not expect to become the community centre i n this area, but i t i s possible for i t to provide real leadership as one agency working for the community. In developing programs care must be taken to see that there i s no competition but that the various churches and agencies offer-ing service complement each other, so that there i s maximum service to people. Should such a plan be followed, i t i s important that the church ins i s t on a high quality of leadership. Consideration should be given to the appointment of a director who i s trained i n social group work. Under existing circumstances there seems l i t t l e likelihood of a community association developing i n the Strathcona Area. Such dis t r i c t s tend t o lose tfe§ir potential leaders and the deteriorated and overcrowded housing conditions depress the - 68 -inhabitants so that there i s l i t t l e evidence of community feeling. It would appear that, so long as present housing conditions exist, the neighborhood w i l l have to depend on agencies and organizations to provide many of the functions of the community control. Two opportunities seem to present themselves to the Church, the f i r s t is the provision of a seven-day-a-week program of leisure time a c t i v i t i e s . The second is to develop a program of friendship groups under strong pro-fessional leadership. If i t follows out these opportuni-ties, F i r s t Church can meet a very real need i n the East End of Vancouver, Social fiction to be effective, needs the co-operation of a l l the agencies i n the area as well as the people. However, since the agencies have the machinery for organi-zation, they should make every effort to bring the infor-mation about the d i s t r i c t , i t s shortcomings and i t s possi-b i l i t i e s , to the citizens and to assist them to understand the situation. The potential leadership I n t h i s d i s t r i c t i s an unknown quantity. Who i s i n a better position to discover and develop It than the professional social and recreational workers? Although the Strathcona d i s t r i c t is one of the most marked examples of the d eteriorated r e s i -dential area i n Vancouver, yet i t i s a d i s t r i c t that con-tains a high percentage of families. Industry has not made as great in-roads into this d i s t r i c t as into the adjacent territory to the north. Basically, this is s t i l l a residential area. Many families l i v i n g i n the neighbor-hood have expressed a preference to continue residing i n this section of the city because of the close proximity to work and the city centre. Pressure of low income, housing shortage, and since the war, high cost of l i v i n g have forced more and more people to live i n the blighted and sub-standard areas as they cannot afford the rents demanded for more adequate li v i n g accommodation. But i n such an evironment, people become apathetic and community feeling disappears, (1) Although this paper Is written to show how Social Work can help to alleviate conditions i n this blighted area, let i t not be assumed that community organization is the monopoly of social work. Community organization cannot be confined i n Its application to any one narrow water-tight area of human need. It must deal with (1) Morrow, H. "The Services of F i r s t United Church" - M.S.W. -Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1948. - 69 -communities as a whole. The l i s t of agencies and institutions men-tioned "above indicate that only through co-operating with religious, educational, recreational, health planning, etc., authorities w i l l i t be possible to make any order out of the existing chaos. The profession of social work is beginning to make a contribution to the analysis of the process of community organiza-tion. The professional community organization worker acts as the "agent" for continuous study of the problems of the neighborhood, for planning among health, welfare, and educational agencies and stimulating the thinking and action of the neighborhood groups i n regard to health and welfare matters. Social work can contribute through one of i t s original functions i n the operation of settlement and neighborhood houses as well as i t s more recent.fields of case work, group work, community organization and social resea? ch. SUGGESTIONS and RECOMMENDATIQMS A number of suggestions to alleviate many of the problems of this d i s t r i c t have been suggested. Among them a r e : — 1. Build a community centre, 2. Set up a neighborhood house, 3. Set up a neighborhood association, 4. Rebuild the neighborhood, 5 . Industrialize the complete d i s t r i c t . 6. Send i n a community organizer. 7. Set up community projects with a commonvneed. 8. Make existing area more presentable. Since the area has so many possibilities as a residential - 70 -area i t should not be turned over to industry. If i t is to remain a residential area there are two possibilities - (a) rebuild i t accor-ding to plan on the nature of the Rebuilding a Neighborhood Report, or (b) try to Improve existing conditions. Under present conditions i t i s not l i k e l y that the area w i l l be rebuilt u n t i l some of the other suggestions are s et into motion. Such a tremendous undertaking would undoubtedly require the whole-hearted support of a l l the residents i n the area as well as civ i c , provincial, and federal departments. A great deal of ground work would have to go into preparing both sides to accept the whole plan. This i s really a long range task and would require the co-operation and efforts of a l l the leaders, social, and r ecreational workers, agency boards religious, and educational personnel, ethnic and r a c i a l organizations as well as the support of the Community Chest and Council. Basic to the success of any positive plan is more effective local organization with good leadership. Local groups are usually dependent upontheir elected officers for leadership. There may be some supervision and stimulation from outside the community but the real responsibility for keeping an organization going rests upon the local people themselves. Finding qualified leaders i s not an easy task. It usually means persuading some capable and very busy person to assume the office. It Is Important, therefore, that organizations foliow a policy of leadership training for their officers, not only for those who are now i n positions of responsibility, but those who are potential leaders. It Is not the purpose of t h i s paj>er to outline programs of - 71 -training for leaders* Many excellent books are available on t h i s subject. The foregoing suggestions of improving local"organizations and leadership should be part of the normal procedure of a l l progres-sive communities. Unfortunately, this is not the case i n a l l dis-t r i c t s . Under the best of conditions such a plan is painstaking and Requires much patience and perseverance, • In the Strathcona area where the situation i s not very conducive to participation and assuming responsibility, the task mustjbe even slower - more painstaking. Great care must be taken to ferret out potential leaders and t hey must be stimulated and motivated to accept leadership roles i n keeping with their a b i l i t y to accept responsibility. Community' Projects; • Although i t i s not too d i f f i c u l t to prepare a l i s t of com-munity projects, there i s no assurance that they w i l l be acceptable to ihe persons who w i l l have to carry them out. It would be preferabl< to compile such a l i s t along with a representative-group of citizens from the d i s t r i c t . Included i n a l i s t of community projects might be — a f i e l d or s ports day, a community sing-song, dramatic produc-tions, clean up and planting, community choir - or orchestra - choral groups, athletic teams, picnic, blood drive, T.B, X-Ray, Red- Gross Drive, and Red Feather Drive, 3elf survey of d i s t r i c t and recreation-al f a c i l i t i e s study. One would hope that i n working together a community esprit-de-corpsi would be bu i l t up through the satisfactions of shared emotional experiences and diverse elements i n the community - 72 -would forget their differences i n loyalty-:; fco a common enterprise. The primary leader may be an outsider, who acts as a stimulator, but If i t i s to succeed, the f i n a l responsibility must (1) rest upon local leaders. As Lindeman has pointed out, "It does not seem to matter who originates the consciousness of need or acts as stimulator, so long as the feeling of need is spread so that i t is accepted by the groups involved." Great care must be exercised i n selecting the leaders, pa r t i c u l a r l y In the beginning. The out-sider or employed leader w i l l do well to canvass the situation thoroughly and discover who are the accepted and trusted local leaders, and then stimulate the people to designate their own leaders for various phases of work. It i s important that the leaders should be thoroughly imbued with the values of community organization, but sometimes those who seem to be most alert to them, may not be depen-dable or acceptable to the group. It must be constantly borne i n mind that, although, leadership i s fundamental, the success of the program w i l l depend upon the degree to which i t i s accepted by the individuals and groups i n the community. A consensus must be devel-oped among them, so the program becomes theirs and not that of a few leaders. Public Relations and Communication are two of the tools that could be of great value to the success of any local program. The local citizens must be regularly Informed as to the progress of both the individual efforts of agencies i n the d i s t r i c t as well as any combined efforts. (1) Lindeman, Edward C.\-• The Community - An Introduction to the Study of Community Leadersnlp and Organization, p -.pi 73 -Community projects should be creative; shared experiences that prove satisfying. It i s important to go about community leader-ship systematically instead of impetuously. Time devoted to commu-nity effort i s only a small portion of time. Therefore, the time we do give must be well directed, to the point, so that each succes-sive endeavour builds on what has gone on before. The farther removed the planners are from the community where the program is to be put into action, the less effective w i l l be their planning. Programs too hastily devised and based on too limited obser-vation by a few self-chosen people frequently have to be changed later on....Proper anticipation avoids later amputation. Include i n early planning those responsible for carrying out the planning. This sharing i n the development and achievment of the pro-gram is necessary to' the morale of the workers. Getting the help of people i n the early stages makes them feel responsible for the success of the program-but more important, It gives them a say i n what directly concerns them. (1) Neighborhood Council; One of the earlier suggestions was the formation of a neighborhood or d i s t r i c t council. Prom what we have learned about the Strathcona Area, we must agree that the d i s t r i c t is far f rom ready to assume ther esponsibillties attached to such an organiza-tion. A Council i s normally a co-ordinating body. At present there Is really nothing to co-ordinate. Neighborhood House: Let us consider the advantages of a Neighborhood House. A neighborhood house performs a function i n - f a c i l i t a t i n g the free association of a l l groups within the community. It is desirable (1) Sanders, Irwin T. Making Good Communities Better (Revised), University of Kentucky Press, 1953. P. 40. - 74 -that people should meet with their neighbors, no matter what their respective identities or differences may be, under circumstances which require a l l to treat one another as equals, and on a variety of matters to strive to come to a common mind. The neighborhood house would certainly be a common meeting ground for persons of varying backgrounds to meet for a variety of purpo&es - recreational, social, concerts, discussions, educational, etc. It would also be non-political, non-sectarian, etc., and would serve a l l equally and would serve to attract a l l people. A neighborhood house would provide an opportunity for adult participation i n a variety of interest and social groups. Representation and experience on a House Council as well as on committees of the various activities would further provide the long-needed involvement which should lead to recognition of needs. After the adults and young adults have had a good experience i n participation and assuming responsibility i n the existing organi-zations - only then - and through their positive experience - w i l l they realize that they have a responsibility to the community and by then i t is hoped that they w i l l have learned some of the tools of democratic procedure which are essential to the formation of a strong community organization. Eventually a citizens self-survey of the community would make the local people highly conscious of the needs of the area. So far the needs have been discovered and stated by outsiders which is not quite the same thing. People i n the area were not directly Involved i n these studies and were not able to become emotionally conscious of the needs. This experience should also provide an - 75 -opportunity to publicize the positive contributions of the area. Professional leadership must continue to work with organi-zations that show positive interest i n co-operation - i.e. -Strathcona Day Nursery Mothers, Kiwassa Mothers, Teen Committee, Adult Committee, Pender Y.W.C.A., Youth Programs i n Kiwassa and Gibbs, First United Church, and St. James Church. Strathcona Case Committee agencies should combine efforts to locate potential leaders, - encourage them to participate,and give strength and incentive to projects. In addition every means to involve the local citizenry must be sought whether i t be through a Blood Drive., Red Feather Campaign, Clean-up Campaign, T.B. X-Rays, Halloween Party, Christ-mas Parties, etc. Every effort by existing recreational agencies must be made to involve parents at every level at which they might be able to function. Continuous study and evaluation of the neighborhood must include a large number of citizens representing most interest groups in the community. (See footnote-Page 76-for representation on (1) Jackson Street Council.) If they can be brought together to p a r t i c i -pate democratically i n every phase of the study, they are almost certain to develop an awareness of, and involvement in, the problem they are studying. This method should provide an equal status"con-tact with members of other r a c i a l and religious groups. Such contact in the course of the joint project stands a good change of effecting some breakdown of barriers between groups. - 76 -Mildred Barry i n a recent art i c l e has stated that, "Community Organization i n social work is the process of creating and maintaining a progressively more effective adjustment between community resources and c ommunity welfare needs. Thus, adjustment is achieved through the help of the prof essional.:wbrker and through the p a r t i c i -pation of individuals and groups i n the community. It Involves the articulation of problems and needs. The determination of solutions, and the formulation and con-duct of a plan of action." (2) The chief concern of the one who would increase co-opera-tion may well be the creation of conditions and f a c i l i t i e s for the encouragement of acquaintance and mutual confidence. Given a sp i r i t of confidence and understanding and competent personnel, the workers w i l l generally find ways of co-operation that are adapted to their needs.. The particular form of the co-operative machinery is not a matter of v i t a l concern. No great amount of outside effort is necessary to bring i t into existence. It w i l l appear almost spontaneously when the conditions are ripe for i t and qualified per-sonnel exists. Member Organizations; 1951 (1) Alaska Fish Cannery Workers Union Bailey - Gatzert P.T.A. Buddhist Church Cathay Auxiliary Unit 186 American Legion Cathay Post 186, American Legion China Merchants Club Chong Wa C i v i l Liberties League of Seattle Evergreen Temple 157, IBPOEW St. Peter's Japanese Mission Ship Scalers Union, Local 589 A.F.L. Fashionette Club Fil i p i n o Community of Seattle & Vicinity George Washington P.T.A. International Thimble & Social CJEib (2) Barry, Mildred C. - Community Japanese American Citizens League Japanese Baptist Young People's Council Seattle Urban League Tyre Lodge 48, A.F.&A.M. Wee Moderns Japanese Methodist Church Lewis Ford Auxiliary 289, V.F.W. Lewis Ford Post 289, V.F.W. Lotus Young Buddhist Association Neighborhood House Owl's Club, Inc. Philo Rati Club Puget Sound Lodge 109, IBPOEW Royal Esquires of Seattle Organization as a Process. Page 157. - 77 -"The starting point for the practical organizer of com-munity machinery is not abstract logic but a thorough knowledge of the l i f e and problems and personalities of the community for which the machinery is to be built." (1) Since in every community there is already an established way of getting particular things done, we must use as far as possible the existing set-up i n order to achieve the best results. Community Organization Steps Covered By The Survey: Edward C. Lindeman, one of the foremost authorities on community organization has listed the following steps i n the process of community action: (2) 1. Consciousness of Need: Some person, either within or without the community, expresses the need which is later represented by the definite project. 2. Spreading the Consciousness of.Need: A leader, within some institutions or group within the community, convinces his or her group, or a portion of the group, of the re a l i t y of the need. 3. Projection of Consciousness of Need: The group interested attempts to project the consciousness of need upon the leader-ship of the community, the consciousness of need becomes more general. 4. Emotional Impulse to Meet the Need Quickly: Some influential assistance i s enlisted, i n the attempt to arrive at a quick means of meeting the need. 5. Presentation of Other Solutions: > 6. Conflict of Solutions: Various groups lend their suppprt to (1) North, Cecil Clare - The Community and Social Welfare - McGrain H i l l , New York, 1 9 3 l . P. 344. ~" (2) Lindeman, Edward C. - The Community: An Introduction to Communlt;; Leadership and Organization. Association Press, New York, 1921. Pages 121-122. - 78 -one or the other of the various solutions presented. 7. Investigation: It appears to be increasingly customary to pause at this point, and to investigate the project with expert assistance. 8. Open Discussion of Issue; A public mass meeting or gathering of some kind i s held, at which the project i s presented. 9. Integration of Solutions;—The various solutions presented are tested, with an effort to r etain something out of each. 10. Compromise on Basis of Tentative Progress; Certain groups relinquish certain elements of their plan i n order to save themselves from complete defeat, and the solution which results i s a compromise with certain reservations. The means selected for meeting the need are not satisfactory to a l l groups, but are regarded as tentatively progressive. Thus far, this study has completed the f i r s t three steps and started on the fourth. This has been accomplished by building on to the existing studies that have been done concerning the d i s t r i c t . In every community a handful of people work f a i t h f u l l y and continually. As soon as they lay aside one task, another i s waiting. Some of them serve i n numerous capacities at the same time. This concentration of work and influence within a small group of able and w i l l i n g leaders is unavoidable, but i t also tends to ignore the potential services of many persons who l i v e outside the narrow limits of organized workers for the community. If enough of these were recruited to active service i n whatever capacity their - 79 -background and s k i l l s would permit, i t is conceivable that the rate of progress would be stepped up greatly. It has often been assumed that only a few persons are able to take a hand i n communal a f f a i r s . There is an alternative choice that many helpful hands have remained unused simply because, under the accepted routine, they were not invited to participate. How to awaken the Interest of the majority of the citizens i s a problem -also a challenge - to the extent that we find the methods for enlisting the interest and help of larger and larger numbers of citizensj to that extent we develop the resourcefulness and the community to meet i t s problems. It i s reasonable to assume that the talents, and experience of many citizens are a vailable for community improvement, as soon as we can establish the pattern within which they can work. A P P E N D I X - 81 -APPENDIX A L i s t of Persons Interviewed During The Study Religious Institutions: Miss Mossop Miss Harris Father M. Hanley Rev. T. Moore Father D. Sommerville Father Byrnes Rev. R. A. Redman Rev. H. Morrow Mrs. M. Rollins Miss J. Oliver Sister Pious Sister Superior Father Delatore Rev. Boniface Miss R. Yeandle Pastor Snellman Miss E. Sawbridge Father Leonard Pastor Gulbranson Chinese United Church Chinese United Church Catholic Welfare Headquarters African Methodist Episcopalian Church St. James Church St. Paul's Church Fir s t United Church Fir s t United Church First United Church Fir s t United Church Franciscan Sisters of Atonement St. Vincent's Shelter Sacred Heart Church St. Mary's Church Chinese Presbyterian Church Finnish Lutheran Church Chinese Anglican Church Chinese Catholic Mission Scandinavian Baptist Mission Welfare Agencies: Mrs. B. Ma bee Mrs. P. G. Massey Miss E. Tuckey Mr. J. Chambers Mr. R. S. Astbury Miss M. Wright Mr. F. McDaniels Mr. H. Hearndon r Family Welfare Bure Children's Aid Soci Children's Aid Soci City Social Service City Social Service City Social Service City Social Service City Social Service au ety ety Depa. rtment Department Department Department Depa rtment Education: Mr. H. E. Patterson Mr. Y. D. Boyd Miss B. Howard Strathcona School Seymour School Strathcona School Health: Dr. S. Murray Miss D. Shields Mrs. M. McKenzie Miss J. McCarthy Mr. W. Wookey Mr.--G. Waller Miss E. Graham Metropolitan Metropolitan Metropolitan Metropolitan Metropolitan Metropolitan Victorian Ord Health Committee Health Committee Health Committee Health Committee Health Committee Health Committee er of Nurses - 82 -Appendix A Recreation Agencies; Mr. R. Smith Mr. W. Norman Mr. G. Haws Mrs. J. Emmott Miss E. Fung Miss J. Henderson Miss P. Rodriguez Mr. T. Stenson Mr. G. Wakely Ethnic and Racial Groups; Miss M. Nikishima Mr. Foon Sien Mr. J. Dubno Mr. J. Plakas Vancouver Boy's Club Association Vancouver Boy's Club Association Vancouver Boy's Club Association Gordon Neighborhood House Pender Y.W.C.A. Pender Y.W.C.A. Kiwassa Girl's Club Catholic Youth Activities Vancouver East Y.M.C.A. Japanese Canadian Citizens Association Chinese Benevolent Association Association of United Ukrainian Canadians Yugoslavian Educational Home Community Chest and Council; Donalda Mcrae' Mr. R. Bialuski Mr. G. Jones Mr. T. Exner City of Vancouver; Mr. T. Flannagan G. Sutton Brown G. Stevens G. Grant R. Green N. Wightman Police Department; Walter Mulligan S. Armeneau W. Roddy N. Hewitt Miscellaneous: Mr. E. Orr Mr. R. Rose Mr. J. Eckman Mr. P.R.U. Stratton Mrs. A. MacDonald Mrs. M. Judge Mrs. 0 Harris Land Sales Department Director of Planning Juvenile Detention Home Juvenile Detention Home Juvenile Detention Home Juvenile Detention Home Chief Constable Detective Constable Inspector Women's Division Vancouver Board of Trade Vancouver Board of Trade Greater Vane. Industrial Development Board Vancouver Housing Association Vancouver Housing Association Director, Strathcona Day Nursery Housewife - 83 -APPENDIX A Miscellaneous - Cont'd: Dr. W. G. Black Dr. P. Black Mrs. T. Exner Dr. L. C. Marsh Dr. C W. Topping Miss M. .Sweeny Miss R. Manca Mr. C. Bonting Mr. R. M. Kinncaid Citizenship and Immigration Department Historian School of Social Work, TJ.B.C. School of Social Work, TJ.B.C. Department of Sociology, U.B.C. Executive Director, Community Arts Council Jackson Street Community Council, Seattle, B. C. Underwriters Association Bureau of Statistics. - 84 -APPENDIX B (1) Distribution of Community Chest Funds i n The Survey Area - 1950-54 Total Chest Funds i n dollars provided for Agencies or Services within the following boundaries: Cambie and Glen. Waterfront and Terminal. - For the years 1950 to 1954 inclusive. ' 1950 1951 1952 1955 ~1954 Camp Alexandra 5,151 6,132 7,740 10,225 9,002 Firs t United Church Fresh Air Camp. 885 877 1,150 1,500 1,200 Salvation Army-Welfare Department.... - - 1,000 1,997 2,300 Strathcona Nursery School 5,559 6,405 8,834 9,523 D,731 Vans. Boy's Club-Rufe Gibbs 9,819 U,235 11,999 12,61820,227 Vane. Girl's Club (Vernon Drive). - >. 1,300 1,300 3,477 Vane. Sailor's Home (500 Alexander).. 5,144 5,135 8,260 7,950 4,247 Y.W.C.A. - Pender East Branch 5,555 6,154 6,949 8,176 8,950 32,113 35938 4 7,232 53,298 33,134 This amount does not include any private funds which are used to provide service for the many persons who are not eligible for assistance under the existing legislation. Nor does i t include the amount paid to many dependent persons who come under the Old Age Security Act, Old Age Pensions, Social Assistance, War Veterans Allowance, etc. No doubt the financial total of a l l these programs (1) Compiled by the Budget Secretary of the Vancouver Community Chest and Council at the request of the writer. A Vancouver Sailors' Home moved to 1301 Robson Street at the end of June, 1954, therefore, the 1954 grant shown above i s for the f i r s t six months of 1954 only. - 85 -APPENDIX B would be considerable. It would also be interesting to learn how much time is devoted by agency staffs to provide service to people i n this Neighborhood. This would be a suitable topic for a future study. - 86 -APPENDIX C - BIBLIOGRAPHY Books;-Colcord, Joanna C. Your Community: Its Provision f o r Health, Education, Saftey and Welfare, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1 9 4 7 . D i l l i c k , Sidney. Community Organization f o r Neighborhood Develop-ment* Past and Present, William Morrow and Company. New York, 1953. Farina, John, The Edmonton Community Leagues, Master of S o c i a l Work  Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 b 0 . Freisen, John K. Manitoba Folk Schools, Kings P r i n t e r , Manitoba, 1 9 5 1 . Hillman, Arthur, Community Organization and Planning, MacMillan and Company, New York, 1 9 5 0 . Lindeman, Edwar.d C. ,An Introduction to the Study of Community Leadership and Organization, Association Press, flew York 1 9 2 1 . : Maclnnis, Grace, J. S. Woodsworth, A Man to Remember, MacMillan and Co. Toronto, 1 9 5 3 . Marsh, Leonard C. Rebuilding a Neighborhood, Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1 9 5 0 . McMillen, Wayne, Community Organization f o r Soc i a l Welfare, Univer-s i t y of Chicago Press, 1945 Morrow, H.The Services of F i r s t United Church, Master of S o c i a l  Work Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1948. Murphy, Campbell, Community Organization, Houston M i f f l i n , Boston, 1954 North, C. C. The Community and Soc i a l Welfare, McGraw H i l l Book Co., New York, 1 9 3 1 . Sanders, Irwin T. Making Good Communities Better (Revised), Univer-s i t y of Kentucky Press, 1 9 5 3 . Sanderson, Dwight, Poison, Robert A., Rural Community Organization, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1939 Social Work Year Book, Russell Sage Foundation, 1943 Social Work Year Book, Russell Sage Foundation, 1945 S o c i a l Work Year Book, Russell Sage Foundation, 1949 Social Work Yearbook, Stratford Press, 1954 Steiner, Jesse Frederick - Community Organization, The Century Co., New York, 1 9 2 5 . Survey Report of Group Work and Recreation of Greater Vancouver -Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, 1 9 4 5 . Universities i n Adult Education - UNESCO 1 9 5 2 . Young, Pauline V. S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveys and Research, Prentice H a l l Inc. New York, 1950 - 87 APPENDIX C - BIBLIOGRAPHY Articles: Barry, Mildred, C. "Community Organization Process" Social Work  Journal XXXI - 1950. Chapin, P. Stewart Jr. "A Plan for Citizen Participation i n Commu-nity Development," Social Forces. March 1947. Culberson, George W. "Community Organization and Inter-Cultural Relations" Proceedings of the National Conference of  Social Work, 194b. ~ ' Dickey, Roosevelt S. "Better Neighborhoode-Better People" Community, Vol. 21 - September 1945, Community Chests and.Councils, Inc. New York. D i l l i c k , Sidney "Some Problems of Social Work Practice i n Community Organization" Proceedings of the Fourth Biennial Alumni F|culty Conference of Soc i a l Work, university of Pit t s -burgh, April 1949. Friesen, John K. "The Wheat Pools also Educate" Food For Thought, November 1950. -Hendry, Charles E. "Community Organization Team-Work i n Rural Com-munities" The Social Welfare Forum, Columbia University Press, New York 1953. Krughoff, Me r r i l l , "Community Organization: A Dynamic Process," Canadian Welfare, June 1, 1947. Newstetter, Wilbur I. "The Social Intergroup Work Process: How does It d i f f e r from the Social Group Work Process?" i n Howard, Donald S. ed. Community Organization, Its Nature and  Setting, American Association of So c i a l Workers, Associa-tion for the Study of Community Organization, Community Chest and Councils Inc., New York, 1947. Seider, Violet M. "Solving Health and Welfare Problems through Neighborhood Participation," Social Welfare Forum, Columbia University Press, New York, .1951. Sanderson, Dwight, "Democracy and Community Organization,"Publication  of American-Sociological Society, Vol XIV - pp 83-93. Shawn, Thelma "From the Ground Up," Community, Vol. 23 Number 10, June 1948, Community Chests and Councils Inc. Pamphlets: A Guide to Community Coordination, Coordinating Councils Inc., Los Angeles 1941. Community Wise, Woman's Press, New York, 1947 Current Trends i n Community Organization, Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa 194b. Health and Welfare Planning i n the Smaller Community, Community Chests and Councils of America, New York, 1954* Lets Make a Study, Community Chests and Councils Inc., New York, 1942 Seider, Violet M. Everybody Benefits when Everybody Participates, Canadian Welfare, December 1949. Survey of Social and Health Conditions i n a Special Area of Downtown Vancouver - Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver Twr.— Teamwork i n Our Town, Community Chests and Councils Inc., New York 1950, 

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