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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of C.A.S. wards not in foster homes : being a study of eighteen cases of children in correctional… Vaitmaa, Erna 1955

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A STUDY OF C.A.S. WARDS NOT IN FOSTER HOMES Being a Study of Eighteen Cases of Children Correctional Institutions as of October 31, 1954 by ERNA VAITMAA Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1955 The University of British Columbia (ii) Abstract The thesis is a part of a larger survey of the vards in British Columbia, with a special reference to the eighteen vards of Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, who were in correctional institutions as of October 31st, 1954. The history of child protection and welfare is briefly described, as a background to the study, and traces the developments in the child protect-ion movement, from early British Poor Lavs to the present complex Canadian pattern of child welfare and protection, in itself a part of development in North America generally* The examination of the statistical and qualitative material shoved that rejection in early childhood had often disturbed the children emotionally so badly that they were not able to adjust themselves in a foster home place-ment. The children were emotionally maladjusted, had difficulties in their relationship vith the others and shoved disturbed and delinquent behaviour* The analysis pointed out that a l l the foster home placements proved to be failures and resulted finally in their being placed in a correctional instit-ution* Case illustrations vere used to give a more detailed picture of the needs of the children during the placements and the efforts that vere made to help and prevent their further disturbance* The :'illustrations discuss the available history given in case records, and point out the rigmag^g effects of certain events during the early ohildhood as veil as during the foster home placements* The study of eighteen eases led to the formulation of certain rec-ommendaiona regarding a thorough study of each child when first taken into care, as veil ae the study of the reasons for the failure of foster home placements* It is hoped that this might help to prevent maladjustment In foster home placements* As the final conclusion of this study, three types of treatment homes are suggested for the children to whom the foster home placement in normal home environment proved to be unsuccessful* The agency and community interests are also stressed in the overall effort to prevent further "social hazards0 in society. (i) TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. The Historical Background of Child Protection Page Development of Child Protection in North America The Child Protection Movement in Canada The Vancouver Childrens Aid Society The Juvenile Delinquency^ The Scope of Thesis .,.•.«*......••.••.....•...•••.......• 1* Chapter II Description of Statistical Data Part 1, Analysis of Case Records Detailed Analysis of the Material Presented in the Main Table: Sex, Racial Origin, Religion, Age at Admission to C.A.S., Age at Admission to Wardship,.No. of years in,C.A.S. Care, No. of years Wards of C.A.S. Care, No. of Placements, No., of Workers, Age of 1st Committal to Correctional Institution 13» Part 2. Description of Qualitative Material Reason for Admission into Care Parental Background Health of Child Education, Hobbies and Interests Personal Problems Services Offered Problems in Foster Home Placements Summary •••••••••.••••••••••»••••••••.••••••••••••••••••••• 20. Chapter III Three Case Histories Illustrating Factors of Place- ments which have lead to Delinquency Case No. 1 Case No. 11 Case No. IB ..,»• ».,....,.....»......................23. Chapter IV Conclusion of Findings Recommendations for Preventive Measures Observation Receiving Home The Institutional Treatment Home A Treatment Home in a Family Setting Case Work Services for the Disturbed Children Community Resources ...»......•....»....•.•..••..•••...... 42. ( i i i ) I Acknowledgment A special gratitude is expressed to Mr* S.H. Pinker ton, the Executive Director of The Children's Aid Society in Vancouver, who readily made available the material for research purposes* To Miss Marjorie J« Smith, The Director of School of Social Work of B.C., I wish to express my deepest appreciation in helping and stimulating my interest in the study* Dr. L» Marsh, the Research Director of School of Social Work of B.C., should be rewarded with gratitude for helpful criticism on direction of the study* To Mrs* Joan Grant, the Research Advisor of the School of Social Work, a great appreciation must be expressed for helpful suggestions, directions and composition of the research plan* (iv) A STUDY OF C.A.S. WARDS NOT IN FOSTER HOMES Chapter 1* The Historical Background of Child. Protection Child welfare, with other words "child care and protection" as i t is known today, is the product of human effort during the latter half of the last century only* A long, painful prooess has changed the principle of "survival of the fittest" to the present "incubator" stage* Since man's earliest days the care and protection of the child has been one of the main duties and concerns of the parents* Parents in a l l cultures have helped the child by various ways and means to become a useful member of society* Two contradicting attitudes of ancient Greek culture regarding child rearing, have been in turn used as the basic philosophy of child guidance for centuries thereafter* The Spartans used strict military discipline and set a rigid uniform pattern and forced every child to grow according to set rules and regulations* with this method the mentally and physically weak, inadequate members were automatically screened out* The Athenians, however, brought up their children to appreciate beauty, fine arts and music* They accentuated the individual approach to man, and disregarded a l l rigidity and uniformity* During the centuries thereafter, human think-ing has taken alternative attitudes towards those ideas* Both beliefs, attitudes, means and ways have been alternately rejected, re-evaluated and reused* The present philosophy of child welfare seems to be founded more on the Athenian ideal* In our contemporary society parents are normally expected to f u l f i l l the role of protecting and caring for children. There is, however, a small proportion of parents who are not able, for varied reasons, - 2 -to f u l f i l l their duty, and the community has had to step in to protect the children* In Roman times the parental authority extended throughout the life of the father, and he had the right to k i l l his young* Centuries later, under British Common lav, the father had nearly as absolute authority over his children, provided that the family did not become dependent on public charity* The loco parent authority of the state to provide guardianship and protection of children has been a gradual development over a period of centuries* It vas not until the last quarter of the nineteenth century that the state vas enabled to assume the role of ultimate guardian* The history of Canadian child protection development may be traced back to British Poor Lav Days, vhen the basic conception of child welfare vas developed* In the first part of the sixteenth century, during the reign of Henry VIII, the apprenticing the parish poor children began* The dependent children vere to be placed on farms or at craftsmen's homes in order to learn a trade and earn a living* During the reign of Elizabeth I, the problem of dependent children vas more seriously considered* It became obvious that the charity of the church and vealthy people could not be expected to take care of a l l the poor* The indenture system vas introduced and actively carried out, and vas emphasized in the Poor Lav of 1601* Parents could apprentice their children to a craftsman to live in his house; there they learned a craft or a trade aid received for i t free food, shelter and clothing. In return the child vas expected to give loyalty and obedience and increasing work capacity to his master* This plan had obvious business advantages but proved to be an unsatisfactory means of taking care of dependent children. Another type of care used vas outdoor relief, and a tax system vas established in order to aid the poor by this means. Further, in the middle of the seventeenth century, in England, John Locke advocated a working plan for the children whose parents were dependent on public charity* All children above three and under fourteen were obliged to attend the working school. It was hoped that the parents would be able to work while the children were taken care of in the school. The children were taught to work, and to be obedient and have faith and fear in God. At this time the Idleness of the poor was considered sinful, and to teach the poor child to work and obey was seen as the main part of taking care of him. Along with the indenture system and out-door relief, aim houses were established to care for neglected and destitute children and a l l paupers in the same manner. In England the former workhouses vere changed later to institutions and aredQJL in use today. Thus, the children were taken care of by three main means: By outdoor relief, in aim houses or by indenture* Some private charities, mostly inspired by the church vere established in the forms of institutions and children's 'homes1. In England the two most famous voluntary agencies established long ago are Or, Barnardo Homes and the Foundling Hospital in Bloomsbury, London, Originally, children for the latter home vere left by their mothers in a basket hanging outside the hospital. The National Adoption Society in England vas another private effort. At the present time dependent children in England are taken care of by voluntary agencies and by public authorities. The latter operate institutions, cottage homes, receiving homes, and foster homes* The Development of Child Protection In  North America In early colonial days English philosophy and methods of child care vere also carried over to the New World, The indenture system was established and widely used* Children vere even brought from London to Virginia as apprentices. The cheap labour vas welcome by the masters and supported the Virginia Company in London* In the southern part of North America slave labour vas preferred and the interest in child labour vas not so great. Aim houses vere also established on - A- -British pattern, and mixed aim houses were used until the middle of the nine-teenth century* Individual states i»gan to pass laws requiring the removal of children over three years of age not defective in body and mind, from poor-houses, directing that they be placed in families, orphan asylums, or other suitable institutions, and that the public authorities make provision for their maintenance. It was evident that aim house care was not sufficient to protect and care for a child, and the establishment of orphanages became more general. Large amounts of capital had been invested into grounds and buildings of the aim houses, and transferring children from there seemed to be a great waste, a few private societies attempted to solve the problem, but they were not large enough to care for a l l needy children. The state had to face a serious problem regarding the care and protection of the dependent children who were to be removed from the almhouses. Many attempts were made to subsidize the private agencies with public funds and to aid public agencies with grants. The state, however, did not know how the dependent child was really cared for, and the need for state supervising of the institutions was recognized* This new movement called for the licencing of childcaring organizations* The boarding homes for children under three years first came under the licencing acts. Orphanages were established as institutional substitutes for the mixed almhouses. They were mainly founded by churches and other private charitable groups. The establishment of the orphanages may be considered at that time as a great step forward in child care* The establishment of the New York Children** Aid Society by Charles Lorlng Brace, 1 8 5 3 , was an important turn-ing point in child placing history* From that time placing of children in foster homes became more prominent and has developed today to an almost extreme position in relation to institutional care. Since then i t has been realized that not only food, shelter and clothing are necessities for the ohild*s development, but also emotional and social factors within the environ-ment* The new plan differed greatly from the institutional attitude* The need for normal home life and more education was recognized and this under-standing helped to develop the free foster home method* These new attitudes showed favorable results and private charities increased rapidly from i860* They adapted themselves to public policies in the care of children* The Humane Society movement beginning in the 1870*8 changed the attitude toward parental rights* The New York Society for The Prevention of Cruelty to the Children, incorporated in 1875, was the first prevision for the state to ex-ercise its authority as ultimate parent on behalf of the child* The S*P.C,C. movement grew rapidly within the United States as well as a l l over the world* Such societies al l had common protective aims, some of them acted on behalf of the children only, the others were general humane societies, protecting animals, old people and children. The Massachusetts Society for the Prevent-ion of Cruelty to Children organized in 1878 moved beyond rescue and punish-ment and attempted prevention and even rehabilitation* The humane societies were all private corporations and they advocated and favored the placing of the children in institutions rather than in homes* Later newer attitudes to-wards the "rescued" children made the state face a real issue* regarding the placement of children. The agencies that rescued children did not have a responsibility to provide for the placement of the children. The home was thought to be the ideal place for a child to grow up and i t became necessary to make clear why the child was separated from his parents* The early S,P,C,C. were concerned with the rescue of the children suffering from brutal treatment or living in unfavorable surroundings* They mainly stressed the moral basis for their activity and placed less emphasis on their value to society as a means of preventing crime and delinquency* , The difference between dependent and neglected and delinquent children was very often confused. As early as 1819 the publications of the Society for the Prevention of Pauperism in New York laid a foundation for the idea of separating the juveile delinquents from other dependent and neglected children* The New York City House of Refuge was established with the help of public funds. Since that time the first state institutions for delinquent boys and girls were established. First they were called "houses of refuge0, then "reform schools" and finally "training and industrial schools". The idea of those institutions was to separate, punish and salvage the delinquent boys and girls. Military discipline, hard work and monotony of daily life vere means by which salvation vas to be gained. The rehabilitation of the delinquent children has changed greatly since those days. Treatment consists of human understanding, care and training, rather than forced military discipline and detention. Another great movement in the protective field vas the Juvenile Court, The first Juvenile Court was established in Cook County, Illinois, in 1899, and spread rapidly throughout the United States and the whole English-speaking world. In the beginning it vas hoped that this agency would solve al l child protection, as well as delinquency, problems. The Juvenile Courts initially assumed that the delinquent child might receive the same kind of protection from the state in its role as "ultimate parent". The Juvenile Court hired probation officers who vere charged with the responsibil-ity of investigating social situations and the causes of delinquent behaviour. Further experience shoved that there vere certain limitations to carrying out the social and administrative functions of caring for and treating neglected and delinquent children. The Child Protection Movement In Canada The child welfare movement in Canada began rather early in compar-ison with other welfare programmes. In the beginning child welfare was more concerned about the child's physical welfare than about emotional and spirit-ual values. The first step towards child protection was the establishment of an humane society in 1887, in Toronto. The objective of this society was to protect the children and "prevent the development of criminal characters"• An act for prevention of cruelty to and better protection of children was passed in the Ontsdo Legislature in 1893. The most outstanding points of the act were: 1. Penalties for ill-treating and neglecting children} 2. The neglected child could be committed by the court to the care of relatives or of Children's Aid Societies which would have the rights of parents| 3« A Provincial Superintendent of neglected children was appointed to assist the Children's Aid Societies in protecting and supervising neglected children; 4.. The Children's Aid Societies gained the legal right as guardians to place the children in suitable homes or institutions; 5. Parents retained the right to make a complaint to a judge and the court could determine whether it was for the benefit of the child to return to his own homej 6. Especially noteworthy is the provision regarding the juvenile delinquents. Separate trials were suggested, and the law forbade the committal of children to adult (i) prisons. investigations were recommended regarding children who were under 1U years of age and were convicted of crimes. It was recommended that these children be committed to industrial schools, to homes for the destitute, or to the care of Children's Aid Societies. Further, the Ontario legislation encouraged the establishment of more Children's Aid Societies, with the purpose of providing protection services throughout the Province. In other provinces this plan was not workable because of vast, sparsely-populated areas. The need was met by appointing a superintendent of neglected children, later called the superintendent of child welfare, or director of child welfare, who was to carry out protective responsibilities in areas where there was no (i) Statute of Ontario (1893) Chap.45. - 8 -children's aid society. The Canadian children's aid societies are a com-bination of "protective society11 and "children's aid society" as they were established in the United States in the nineteenth century. By 1919 a l l Canadian provinces with the exception of Quebec had passed legislation for the protection of children. The primary objective of protection from neglect has moved to include more of preventive and treatment services, including work with unmarried mothers, services for children in their own homes as well as in foster homes. The children aid societies and public child welfare agencies use mainly supervised private families for the care of their wards, and in most instances, the law points out and insists upon the (i) superiority of foster home placements. The Vancouver Children's Aid Society In the beginning days of the Children's &id Society, Vancouver was just beginning to grow as a busy seaport and lumber center. With the industrialization of the City, the need for developing welfare services for adults as well as for the children became apparent. Institutional facilities to care for the needy children had been provided earlier in the Protestant Orphan's Home in Victoria in 1873. The first orphanage in Vancouver was established in 1892. Before that homeless children were cared for by some public-spirited women of the Women's Christian Temperance Union. In 1894 that organization acquired the property of the old Alexandra Hospital for Women and Children and incorporated the Alexandra Nonsectarian Orphanage and Children's Home of Vancouver. In other parts of the Provin ce institu-tional care for the children was also arranged. (i) Smith, Marjorie, J. " An Interpretation of Historical Development of,Child Protection " Child Protection in Canada. Canadian Welfare Council Ottawa, 1954» - 9 -The women board members of the Alexandra Orphanage became aware of seriously neglected children and realized that something should be done to move children from unsuitable homes. Finally the matter was brought to the attention of the Provincial legislature by Captain Tatlow, M.L.A. from Vancouver, who presented a brief for the local council of the women. The Vancouver Children's Aid Society was incorporated in 1901, and then acted to obtain guardianship of a twelve year old girl who according to the first annual report of the society, had been "horribly abused by her mother when mad with drink". This was the first ward of Vancouver C.A.S. During the past 5U years, the society has grown to a professional social agency with multiple services for about 3360 children. The services which the Vancouver C.A.S, now provides include: 1, investigation of complaints of neglect or abuse of children} 2, Efforts to preserve and strengthen the child's own family and to prevent family break-down while the child remains in his own home; 3* Guardianship of children committed to i t by the court; A. Foster care for wards and non-wards, who must receive care away from their own families for temporary or longer periods of time; 5. Investigation of adoptive homes and place-ment of children for adoption; and 6. Services for unmarried mothers. There are also three other agencies helping to carry responsibility for welfare of B.C, children. They are the Catholic Children's Aid Society in Vancouver; the Victoria Family and Children's Service; and the Child (i) Welfare Division of the Provincial Department of Health and Welfare. The agency until 1954 was divided into two departments; Family Work and Child Placing. The Family Work department carried responsibility (i) Angus, Anne, Margaret, Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B.C. 1901 - 1?51» Vancouver, B.C. 1951. A History of the Vancouver society pre-pared for the fiftieth anniversary celebration. - 10 -for preventive and protection work for families residing within the City of Vancouver. The responsibility included investigation of neglect com-plaints, and work with unmarried parents. The Family department workers prepared and presented evidence in court when the commitment of the children to the agency is being recommended, and they continue to work with the child's own family until the committal is completed. Family tfork department also carried responsibility for family case work when the children were under non-ward care, and worked with the families of infants under one year of age who are being supervised by the nursing staff. New cases coming to the agency were the responsibility of the Family depart-ment, and were referred to the Child Placing department after the worker had become sufficiently acquainted with the family situation to determine that placement is indicated. The total organization was changed in 1954 from the departmental structure to a district system. The main values In terms of child care arising from this change would seem to be a continuation of the same worker with parents and children even though they were separated. The Juvenile Delinquency One of the primary aims of protection of children has been the prevention of juvenile delinquency. During the last few years much interest in the treatment of delinquency has been verbalized but not a great deal has yet been achieved. Delinquency is a very complex problem and there are many environ-mental and emotional factors^Crowded houses and conjested neighbourhoods, low incomes and too large families are many times evident as causes in 11 -juvenile delinquency* The unstable and broken homes by reasons of divorce, separation or death also are significant factors in contributing to juvenile delinquency, Physical impairments, rejection by parents or play-mates, backwardness at school and emotional disturbances cause the abnormal behaviour, A conflicting, deprived personality plus unfavourable environmental pressures are the most dangerous ground fur breeding de-linquency. Juvenile delinquency is difficult to define because i t varies according to the cultures, social rules and regulations. It could be said that in a broad sense delinquency is illegal or "Immoral and indecent" conduct according to the laws and principles of a particular community. An professions concerned with child welfare have been trying to do something about juvenile delinquency during the last century. The first attempts were to protect the child from the criminal law and to give them different treatment from that meted out to adults. In earlier days the laws exempted children from criminal punishment only until seven years of age} above that age all were made responsible for their misdeeds and were treated as criminals. Gradually juvenile offenders were separated from adults and placed in separate reformatories. The juvenile court movement in the United States broughta great change in the treatment of delinquents. Once the unfortunate step is made and the child becomes an inmate of a correctional institution, the utmost should be done to insure that the institutional environment will give individual care to the child. The community should be helped to understand about the child-caring agencies, about the Importance of finding and treating behaviour problems at an early age. The emphasis should be put upon seeing the child as the whole, his - 12 -strength and weaknesses and not the problems only. Enabling the child to grow and develop in a wholesome environment is the best preventative medicine. Albert Deutch has saidt n The truth is that every institutional . (i) inmate presents a community failure". . . On the other hand, we must not forget the value of an institutional care for certain children. In some ways we have shifted too much away from the institutional care and over-emphasized care in private families to the detriment of certain individual children. Institutional care for the deprived and pre-delinquent children is sometimes necessary, in order to rehabilitate them. Many children from unstable and broken homes have become frightened of family life and their impression of parent figures is so badly damaged that they could be restored only in an institutional environment. As has been pointed out, the Children's Aid Society serves a dual purpose: protecting and providing care. If the C.A.S. effort fails to pre-vent delinquency, the juvenile court will determine the guilt or innocence, and a decision may be made for a treatment plan in a correctional institution. In Vancouver the following correctional institutions are provided for the care of juvenile delinquents : The detention home is used for temporary care of the delinquents when they are waiting for a court hearing. The correctional institutions with longer term treatment plans are the industrial schools for boys and girls, New Haven Borstal Institution and Young Offenders Unit in Oakalla prison. The present correctional institutions are gradually shifting away from ideas of punishment toward rectfeational and theraputic programmes for the rehabilitation of young delinquents and criminals. (i) Deutch, Albert, Our Rejected Children. Little & Brown and Company, Boston, 1950, Page 172,. . . . . . . . - 12 la-Tha Scope of Thesis The present study is a small part ef a larger project. This large study is in the field of child vrelfare and particularly concerns certain children who are the wards of private children's aid societies. Recently interest in wards who are not in foster homes was aroused by an incident in which a young g i r l , who was a ward of a private agency, was charged with drug addiction. At the time of the charge she was not in a foster home. Arising immediately out of renewed concern and interest 18 wards, The Childrens Aid Society and The School of Social Work planned a survey of placements of wards of the Society who were not in foster homes. This thesis, as a part of the wide project, considers wards who were in correctional institutions as at October 31, 1954* On the date the Vancouver C.A.S. had a total of 1120 wards, 211 of whom were not in foster homes, of the latter number 19 were in correctional institutions and the aim of this study is to evaluate the type of care being received, what factors were believed behind the original committal, what hereditary and environment factors had impaired the growth of each child and whether any modification of the present programme should be attempted. 02b' Statement of Methods and Procedure, The initial plan of this thesis was the study of 19 wards of the Vancouver Children's Aid Society in Correctional Institutions as of October 31st, 1954. One file, however, was not available and therefore the study was limited to 18, The naterial in chapter two has been obtained from the files of the Children's Aid Society, A tabulation of objective facts from the records and a listing of subjective material by individual cases was made, A number of classification lists are used to compare this material in order to point out the common and individual factors that have prevented the normal development of the children. This comparison will show the variety of problems arising in connection with the age at admission, the number of placements, the number of workers, parental back— ground and care in early childhood and other factors. The primary purpose of the study is to find out the reasons why these wards are in correctional institutions rather than in foster homes. Through this study we also try to evaluate the family situations of those children and trace the inadequacy of the parents in fulfilling their task. Further attempt is made to note agency services and community resources which were used to help these children. The material in case records sometimes does not give sufficiently detailed and objective information on the problems discovered. Therefore the case illustration method is used in Chapter Three to show detailed data in three cases with the hope that a better understanding of the causes of the problems and disturbances of these wards will result. This detailed information will also enable us to show the variety of placement resources which might satisfy the needs of these particular children. Chapter II Analysis of Case Records The Vancouver Children's Aid Society keeps a separate case record '' of each child in care, of his family and of the foster home. The family record has the basic file number, and the case record of each child of this family, i f in care, is distinguished with a dash and order number from the basic family number. The foster home case records are filed under a diff-erent number, i A The material in the three separate case records is often overlapping and repeated due to the fact that the information is recorded by three diff-erent social workers. The family worker, who renders case work service to the family, records his Information about the parent, child foster home and agency relationship on the family record. The homefinder records his evaluat-ion about the situation on the foster home file. The child's case worker, however, works with the child as well as with the foster parents, and stores his information al l on the child's personal case record. It appears to be also a common practice to add the information and evaluation about the other children in the same foster home on the child's personal f i l e . This certainly has a great significance in evaluating and understanding the child of interest in relation to the other children. It also helps to understand and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the foster parents. Very often, however, the progress of other children is overemphasized in child's personal case record, leaving the client concerned in the background. Therefore, this practice makes i t extremely difficult to separate the child of interest from \ - u -the others* In-discussing the data obtained from available C.A.S, files, the essential faot is that this information regarding the child studied is ob-tained from three separate case records, which in turn are recorded by three different case workers. Evaluating this material, the following facts must be taken into consideration! First the problem as i t original 3y existed, secondly the interpretation of the problem by different workers, and thirdly the analysis of the material may be influenced by the writer. This must be kept in mind in reading the material presented. When the files had been examined, a l l the available data was assemb-led, and details of the 18 cases have been entered in a table which will be found in Appendix A. Reference to this table will be made in text whenever appropriate and certain parts «f i t discussed in detail. The discussion of the cases falls into two parts - presentation of objective data such as age, race, religion, placements, age at admission to C.A.S. care, age at admission to wardship, number of years in C.A.S. care, number of years wards of C.A.S,, number of placements, number of workers, age of first committal to correctional institution, number of times in correctional institution prior to the last committal, the status of the wards, and discuss-ion of subjective comments from the files which make some contribution to the overall picture. 1. Detailed Analysis of the Material Presented in the Main Table The 18 wards of the Vancouver Children's Aid Society studied herewith were in the following correctional institutions as of October 31, 1954«-Boys' Industrial School ••••••«• ••••• 7 Oakalla Prison Farm •,...••.••»••••«,.•••. A Young Offenders' Unit Oakalla 3 B.C. Penitentiary 2 Saskatchewan Penitentiary .,,.•••*.••••••• 1 New Haven Borstal Home ••••••••«««.,«„««« 1 Detention Home •••••••»••,.,•••,.,.«•.,.•• 1 - 15 r 2, Analyais and Description of Tabulation The cases studied vere assigned a random code number and the cases are discussed in the same order as they appear in the tabulation, SEX of the 18 vards studied in this study - 17 vere boys and 1 vas a girl, RACIAL ORIGIN - Twelve of them vere Anglo Saxons, (In case records vere indicated ten Anglo Saxons and tvo English,) Two were Irish, two Norwegian-English, and one Scottish and the racial origin of the one ward was unknown. The term,,racial origin" is very often misused in files. The racial origin on legal forms means the ethnical origin and follows the line of pater-nal lineage. In this study the paternity of several wards vas not established and therefore the determination of racial origin may not be considered a correct one, RELIGION : Seventeen vere baptised protestants and practiced that religion, one was a baptised catholic but practiced the protestant religion, 3, Age of Admission to C.A,S, Care The majority of children were admitted to care between the ages of ten and twenty years. This indicates that the basic personality of those children was developed under stress and strain, and therefore the wards were not able to adjust in a normal family atmosphere. The list below gives details of the ages of a l l eighteen at the time of admission to G,A,S, caret 1 ward was aged 2 years 2 n were n 9 B 4 ? " n 10 " 4 " ' ? n 12 ? 2 ? ? n 13 ? 3 H « n 14 5 1 " was n 15 «... 1 • " n 16 ? . - 16 -4. The Age at Admission to Wardship Fifteen wards were below ten years of age, one of them was a year old baby when made a ward of C.A.S, The list below indicates further details of the age range at the time of admission to wardship. 1 ward was aged 1 year 1 * » « 7 years 3 vards were„aged 9 years 3 " " " 10 years 2 n ? w U years 3 n n ? 12 years 1 ward was.aged. 13 years 2 wards were aged 14 years 2 tt n M 15 years 5. The Number of Years in C.A.S. Care The number of years in care are counted from the date when the child was first placed by the agency. The average number of years in care per child was three. 2 wards were' 1 year wards of C.A.S. 6 wards were 4 n " n ,* 2 wards were 5 ? B !? B 2 wards were 6 ?? w n " 1 ward was 7 M ward *? ? 3 vards were 9 w wards •* tt 1 ward was 10 •*? ward w ? 1 ward was 12 B ward n w 6. Number of Placements The placement dates in case records were not always given exactly and therefore the number of placements is not always accurate. On the above figures, the average 7#5 placements per child. Under the placement category are Included placements in foster homes, institutions, hospitals, clinics and correctional institutions. The placement history shows merely how many times a child had to change his environment. The reasons for changes are discussed in the section on qualitative material. - 17 -1 ward had 1 placement 1 ward had 5 placements 3 wards had 8 placements 1 ward had 9 placements 3 wards had 10 placements ' 1 ward had 11 placements 2 wards had 13 placements 1 ward had 14 placements 2 wards had 15 placements 2 wards had 21 placements 1 ward had 31 placements 7. Number of Workers The change of workers is a very important aspect to be considered in cases of insecure children. Multiple placement plus frequent change of workers may be considered as one of the main reasons for insecurity and maladjustment of the wards. The workers have basically more or less similar standards and a common aim in carrying out the treatment plan i Individual differences, however, inevitably occug and al l concerned, the child, his natural parents, the foster parents and the worker himself, have to get used to each other in each placement in order to develop a satisfactory relationship for cooperation. Seventeen of the eighteen wards had more than one worker, five had ten and more workers. 1 ward had 1 worker 1 » n 3 workers 2 wards « 4 n 3 " n 5 it 3 ? n 6 H 2 « n 7 n 1 ward tt 8 II 2 wards II 10 it 1 ward n 11 n 1 «» n 12 ti 1 ? n 13 it 8. The Age at First Committal to Correctional Institutions It will be noted from the following list that in all the IS cases - 18 -the first admission to a correctional institution occured when the children were ten and over. 1 ward at age of 10 T_ H tl tl II 12. 4 wards '? ? 11 12 2 " ? ? w 13 4 ? ? ? 14 1 ward ? « ? 15 4 wards « ? « 16 1 ward « " « 18 9. Placement History in Correctional Institutions Under the category of correctional institutions are included: Det-ention Home, Boys1 Industrial School, New Haven Borstal Home, Girls1' Industrial School, Oakalla Prison Farm, Young Offenders* Unit, Oakalla, B.C. Penetentiary, and Saskatchewan Penetentiary. Committment to Detention Home was mostly short term placement. Many of the wards expressed a desire to be committed to the Detention Home rather than to a foster home. Times Committed to Correctional Institutions Prior to the Last Placement. 3 wards have been committed 0 times 5 « " « « l time 3 ? " ? " 2 times 2 B " n 11 4 n 1 ward has been. ? 5 n 2 wards have been n 6 n 1 ward has been w 7 n 2 n it ti tt 9 n 10. Summary Prom the foregoing the following points emerge: 72,2$ of the children were committed to care between the ages of ten and twenty years. 83% of the children ten and over when admitted to wardship. Admission to correctional institutions was made in all cases when - 19 the children were over twelve years old. Fourteen of the wards were over six-teen years old. Length of time being in 6,A,S, care varied from one to twelve years, the average being three years. Number of placements of each child varied from four to thirty-one, and twelve of the children had ten and more placements. The average was 7.5. Seventeen of the eighteen children have had more than one worker and five had ten and over. Only three of the children have never been in a correctional institut-ion prior to the last placement. Of the remaining fifteen, the number of place-ments in such an institution varies from one to nine. As has been pointed out in Chapter I, additional qualitative material was collected from each file, and the following pages contain discussion of the material under the headings of: 1, Reasons For Admission into C.A.S, Care 2, Parental Background 3, Health of the Child 4, Education, Hobbies and Interest 5, Personal Problems 6, Services Offered by the Agency 7, Problems in Foster Home Placements. Brief individual case histories of all the wards have been made and are included in the Appendix B. These summaries include material in each of the above headings. f - 20 -Part II Description of Qualitative Material 1, Reason for Admission into Care The admission into care has been carried out under the Child (i) Protection Act* The reasons for admission to care were classified under the following headings; moral and physical neglect, moral neglect, and required help* It is rather difficult to draw the line between moral and physical neglect* It seems that physical neglect alone does not occur and is connected with moral neglect* Under the moral neglect i t is understood that the home life of the child was disturbed by desertion, separation, divorce, or by jail sentence of the parents* The immoral conduct of the parents like drinking, promiscuity and leaving children unsupervised are also included under moral neglect. Moral and physical neglect is the combination of the previously mentioned moral neglect plus physical neglect in forms of inadequate housing, insufficient food and clothing. In case of moral and physical neglect the children were reported by public health nurses, by police women, or by neighbours and the admission into care was carried out by the authorities without the consent of the parents or guardians* Under the heading of required help i t is understood that the parents or guardians recognized their inability to cope with the child's behaviour and turned to the agency for help. Under this category is also included the situation, when due to family break-up, one of the parents has asked the agency to help them to plan for the children. The statistical data regarding the reasons for taking children into agency care indicates that five children were taken into care because of T I 5 — " — " ~ R,S.B.C.(1948), Chapt,47, Sec, 7, Sub-sec. "K" - "Whose home by reason of neglect, cruelty, or deprivity is an unfit place for the child, or who has no proper guardianship, or who has no parent capable of exercising proper parental control," ~ 21 ~ moral and physical neglect, eight because of moral neglect, and in four cases the parents or guardians required help, and on one occasion the mother was mentally i l l , 2, Parental Background Most of the files gave an inadequate picture of the parental back-ground. Very little was known about their childhood, their ages, education and occupation. The information regarding fathers appeared to be especially in-sufficient, because the legal marriage of the parents appeared to be a very short lived union. The various common law relationships of the mother made i t impossible to determine the paternal background of the child. The following data is known about mothers' backgrounds. The mothers of a l l eighteen wards did not go beyond public school education, nor had they learned any trade or profession. They were either waitresses or domestic servants by occupation. One mother was doing clerical work in an office* In three cases the maternal family have an outstanding criminal record regarding stealing, prostitution and drug peddling. Two mothers have been sentenced to j a i l , one because of drug peddling and the other one because of contributing to juvenile delinquency. The marital union of the mothers only is known and it is subdivided under the following headingst Unmarried motherhood, married, separated, divorced, widow-hood, common law relationship* The unmarried motherhood means i f the mother had a child eut of wedlock and the father was not the legal husband. The statistical findings shew that only one mother had one marital union, she died shortly after the child birth. Two mothers had two marital unions, one of them remarried, the other one became an illigitimate mother in her widowhood. One mother went through three stages; she married, separated and established several common law relationships later. Six mothers went through four stages of marital relationships t Unmarried motherhood, married, separated and common law relationships. Further six mothers obtained legal divorce and thus added - 22 -one more form to their marital status. The conclusion about parental background shows that the mothers appeared predominently responsible in contributing to un-stable home environment for the children* The study of parental background plus the age range of the wards on admission into care shows that these children had a very insecure andunstable homelife during their formative years* The feeling of insecurity and rejection from early childhood became the chief source of further unresolved problems of these wards* 3* Health of the Child Under this heading is included both physical and mental health, as well as special traumas occuring in early childhood. It appears that seventeen of the eighteen wards studied suffered chronic enurisis, the physical health of eight wards appeared to be more or less satisfactory. They had suffered common childhood illnesses such as measles, whooping cough and chicken pox, but did not appear to have suffered any further complications. Three children had congenital eye disease, one of them slowly lost his eyesight, one had to have an eye removed in order to save the other, and one became very shortsighted* . One child had meningitis at the age of two years* One boy suffered from alopecia* He lost his hair and had to wear a wig* His hair condition caused him a lot of grief and he had to put up with merciless teasing by school friends as well as playmates* One child had a deformed mouth that caused speach difficulty, and one child had a partial facial paralysis* Ten wards suffered severe physical disorders such as kidney conditions, thyroid condition and nervousness* Six of the ten were physically very badly damaged* The health condition of the wards shows that more than half of them were physically very badly damaged* The inadequate appearance caused by disease had damaged the body image of themselves and their inferiority feelings were increased by teasing and mistreatment by other children in community. The children with - 23 -marked physical disability suffered a severe trauma during early childhood years. One child was forced into homosexual practice by his foster father in early childhood, which was a very damaging experience for him throughout his later life. The poor health conditions and resulting traumas added more anxiety, fear and hostility to these emotionally deprived children, 4, Education, Hobbies and Interests Educational records seemed to be especially inadequately recorded. As we will later see, the multiple placement history also interrupted the school years and the children had to adjust not only to a new home environment, but also to the new school environment. The multiple changes of school may be one of the reasons why the educational records were not exactly recorded, It is known that only one child completed grade ten, four completed grade nine, three reached as far as grade eight, Grades seven, six and three were reached by two children respectively. The educational standard of four wards is not known. Regarding the intelligence range, three children belonged to superior intelligence group, one was high moron, and one was dull normal, the rest of them were considered a poor average at the time of examination. The intelli-gence range does not show a promising picture of these wards either. In the line of interests and hobbies the findings show also a very poor result. Only two children, both in superior intelligence range, were interested in academic education and were doing well at school. One of them wanted to become a lawyer and the other one a doctor but because of behaviour difficulty neither one of them reached beyond grade nine. Only one boy was interested in sports, and one in drawing. One boy showed a great Interest in church rituals. One boy showed ability in welding and printing but was not interested in develop-ing this trade. One boy was very talented In modeling and Interested in aeronautics. Eleven of the wards did not have any interests or hobbies, or any goal in life. They daydreamed how to make money the quickest way, were carried away with comic books and murder stories and were convinced that some day they would be powerful and that everybody else would be afraid of them. 5. Personal Problems Under this category is included the habits and tendencies in behaviour that causes disturbance in the wards as well as in the community. Under this heading the reasons for commital to the last correctional institut-ion is also discussed. As we have noted in previous findings, the unstable home backgrounds were the chief sources in contributing to the insecurity and maladjustment of these wards. The children with damaged personalities were not able to adjust in a normal home environment, nor to relate to adults, since their image of the parental figure was so damaged. This inability to cope with environment and different standards of various people caused a great deal of fear and anxiety and resulted in severe behaviour problems, and delinquent tendencies* The pattern of behaviour problems, of al l the wards, followed more or less a similar order. It started out with bad eating habits, temper tantrums and rebellion against authority that led to delinquent behaviour like lying, stealing, truancy and running away. Sexual maladjustment appeared to be rather small among the wards. It is known that three boys had homo-sexual tendencies, one of them had homosexual practice with his foster father in his early childhood. One girl was sexually promiscuous. Among further special problems one child was suicidal, one homocidal and one was suspected of taking narcotics. The reasons for commital to correctional institutions were as follows: Nine wards were committed because of stealing, seven were sentenced for breaking and entering, one for highway robbers, and one girl was charged with incorrigibility and she volunteered to go to a correctional institution rather than to a foster home. It appears to be that the average - 25 -number of placements to a correctional institution is two placements per child. 6 . Services Offered by the Agency Under this heading all the types of services to the children and to their parents as well as to the foster parents are included. All children in care, their parents, guardians and foster parents received oase work service from the agency. Previously, in the analysis of case records is indicated the difficulty and overlapping recording which may be further elaborated here regarding services. One case worker worked with the child as well as with the foster parents. There is a separate worker working with the child's family called the family worker. The homefinder also keeps contact with the foster parents. The case workers of Vancouver Children's Aid Society are divided into districts. Each time the child is placed in another district, i t means a change of worker. The multiple placements inevitably call for multiple change of workers. This is a real problem to be solved, how to give the child at least one source of security. At home they had many different common law fathers and inadequate mothers, later they were placed from one foster home to another with the hope of finding a suitable placement, and finally the change of workers. All wards were referred to child guidance clinic for examination, evaluation and for guidance because of their problems. The problems of two children were referred to a psychoanalyst and they received play therapy sessions over a period of time. One boy was examined and treated in Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine. With regard to general physical health care, all wards received medical assistance in case of illness. The services offered to the children, i f separately observed, were efficient and valuable, they proved, however, to be a waste of time and effort, because there was no proper environment for the children in which they could be expected to benefit from the treatment. 7. Problems in Poster Home Placements The reasons for multiple placement were without exception similar in nature. Summing up the previous discussions and evaluations, the children were too far disturbed and were not able to live in a normal family atmosphere. The foster parents were ordinary, conforming citizens and were not able to accept the children as they were. They expected any sign of love and attention to be returned with gratefulness and appreciation. When the children failed to f u l l f i l their expectations, they no longer were willing to vest any effort or interest in them. Some of the changes in foster homes were the result of sickness or moving on the part of the foster parents. The behaviour problems and delinquent tendencies were by far greater in number of the reasons given for the change of the foster home. The other side of the story may be con-sidered that the foster parents were not able to relate to and cope with the children either. In this study i t appears that the mutual difficulty has been the inability to cope and relate. The dangers of the continual replace-ments have been mentioned in previous discussions, the child's feeling of personal worth is affected by each new change of placement, and the readjust-ment even in the best new home is a very difficult task both for the foster parents and the child. It is evident that al l foster homes of the children studied were unsuitable and failed to f u l l f i l their purpose in helping the wards with their difficulties, 8. Summary All the examples show that the children were too far disturbed before being taken into care and that they needed pyschiatric help in an institutional setting at that time. This shows a serious' need for a treatment - 27 -home in an institutional setting where severely disturbed children may be evaluated, treated and prepared to be able to function and benefit from normal home life. Chapter III contains detailed case discussion of three children which, it is felt, will fully illustrate the diversity of the problems and complicating factors which arise in dealing with these wards. Chapter III Three Case Histories in^gta-fl-Mnff Factors of Placements  Which Have Led to Delinquency The unstable family background and rejection in early childhood has contributed to emotional maladjustment of the vards studied* Behaviour problems* delinquent tendencies* and relationship difficulties vere the the reasons for multiple placements* The continuing replacements and change of vorkers added more anxiety and resulted in a deeper feeling of insecurity and rejection* The case description of three vards* two boys and one girl* is chosen in order to illustrate the statistical data in Chapter II. The illustration emphasises the children's experiences prior to admission* the reason for admission and their experiences and reaction in foster home placements* and the reason of committal to the correctional insti-tution* It may also help to throw some light on the need for revised agency policy in placement and supervision of such wards* - 29 -Case Ho. 1. Mickey was born out of wedlock on February 22, 1941* The putative \ father served overseas in World War II and denied paternity* The mother and her common-law husband, who was a narcotics addict and criminal* were living in a cabin on the water front* They often went drinking and left the baby alone in the cabin* On one occasion a lawyer, when he went to serve a summons for divorce on the man* found the child alone in the cabin by a roaring fire* After that, however* the mother Improved her living habits and she was al-lowed to keep the baby* The mother became illegitimately pregnant and her common-law husband was sentenced to prison because of forgery and stealing* In the meantime, the mother gave birth to a baby girl* She placed both children with her sister and disappeared* The maternal aunt refused to take care of the children and turned them over to the Children's Aid Society* Mickey was about a year old when he was taken in to agency care and placed in the first foster home* At the time he was taken in to care Mickey appeared to be a normal healthy looking child* with sunny disposition and good nature* In the foster home he began to have eating difficulties and suffered abdominal cramps and chronic constipation* He objected to the bath tub and was not able to void* When he was over three years old, he developed dirty habits; he picked his nose, smeared with dirt and used bad words* The foster parents were not able to oope with his behaviour and they requested that Mickey be placed in another foster home* He was placed in another foster home with the hope that the foster parents would be more accepting people* This foster home was in a poor part of the town* Here Mickey's behavious became more negative* He became very destructive, tearing his clothes, deliberately knocking things - 30 over and spilling food. He shoved obvious rebellion against authority in the 1 foster home as veil as at school. He took a long time to go to school and back, and vas very annoying and trying at school. The foster mother vas not a cooperative person and vanted a lot of praise and recognition for being a "good* foster mother. The foster parents bought a new home in a better part of town and Mickey vas forced to conform to a different and much higher living standard. He had to take piano lessons and participate in the church choir. All these requirements made his insecurity more prominent and his need to seek attention, understanding and control became rather desperate. He became a truant from school and Sunday school, deliberately missed choir practice and spent much time playing and daydreaming by himself. He developed persecutory feelings and felt uncomfortable when noticed. With the worker's help he im-proved somewhat but relapsed again when the third new worker took over the supervision, Mickey's problem took on a more serious nature. He began to lie and steal from the foster mother's adopted son who was a model child. His anxiety grew to such an extent that he ran away from the foster home. He stole money and bought a pair of shoes and- a portable radio. He was brought back to the foster home but did not improve his behaviour* He practiced running away and finaly broke into a house and vas picked up by the police and taken to the Detention tyome. He had been ten years in the same foster home and had had six different vorkers. During this ten years placement he vas once in the Boy's Receiving Home over a short period of time and once in the Detention Home, He had to leave the foster home because the foster parents could not cope with his behaviour any longer. He had two further unsuccessful foster home place-ments that lasted a short while, and finally he vas charged with shop lifting and sentenced to the Boy's Industrial School, - 31 -Daring his first and longest foster home placement Mickey vas ex-amined by the Child Guidance Clinic and his behaviour problems were not found to be very serious in nature. It was thought that he was very withdrawn and hostile, his stealing and lying were performed in order to seek attention. It was advised that Mickey should join the Neighbourhood House activities* Mickey, however, was not able to relate to the group and became more hostile and withdrawn. His behaviour problems were also referred to a recognized psychoanalist. The findings were as follows: Mickey suffered from two kinds of pressure, inner and environmental. He felt inwardly worthless and was seeking identity, recognition and acceptance* The foster parents were not able to recognize his needs and therefore he was not able to relate to them* He also needed a controlled environment rather than to be forced to live and keep up with too high living standards* He felt insignificant, and having lost his identity he wondered whether he would ever become a man* It was evident that the foster parents never accepted him* They showed, however, some positive reaction when Mickey's intelligence rating increased* This was however, an intellectual rather than emotional acceptance that did not help him at all* At this time he was also asking for his natural parents* In this, however* he was looking for a source of supply rather than for a person* in order to gain safety and satisfaction for his needs. His rejection produced insecurity and inferiority feelings in early childhood. In the first foster home the foster parents thought he was "contaminated'1, but they themselves gave reason for Mickey's inferiority feelings. We may assume that he had also had a rigid toilet training. His anxiety created abdominal pains, and he was not able to eat. He did not want to play with others and preferred to play alone when he felt safe* In his next foster home he tried to let off his steam* He was, however* afraid of himself and other people* He felt that he was not able to keep up with - 32 -the foster home standards and by running away he felt he did not have to accept their standards* Individual play therapy was recommended for Mickey* He attended about seventy sessions of play therapy and developed more masculine qualit-ies* He vas not docile but developed free expression and liberation* Without foster home cooperation and lack of a treatment institution Mickey's behaviour regressed again* He became more and more destructive and un» controllable* Finally he broke in to a school and l i t fires* He vas charged with theft and committed to the Boy's Industrial School* About Mickey's parental background very little is known. His mother and maternal aunt vere also wards of Children's Aid Society* His maternal grandfather had T.B, with positive sputum* His mother vas a listless sub-missive, sexually promiscuous person* She had two illegitimate children and paternity vas not established in either case* She also had a series of common lav relationships and was known as a prostitute* She was charged with contributing to juvenile delinquency and sentenced to prison* Mickey's story indicates that his experiences, in agency foster homes vere not constructive* His personality vas damaged in early childhood by rejection and physical neglect* The foster home placements proved to be of too high a standard for Mickey's disposition* He was not able to identify himself with a rigidly conforming pattern of family life* Mickey seemed to be store settled and at peace in an institutional setting* He, however, did not find the expected controlled environment in Receiving home either and rather willingly vent to Boy's Industrial School* All the efforts to help Mickey failed because they were counteracted by the lack of environmental facilities to carry out the treatment plan* Therefore this case illustrates clearly the need for a therapeutic Institutional - 33 -setting where the children with damaged personalities could find refuge in an atmosphere of peace and acceptance. The child in need of identification and controlled environment heeds definitely an<: institutional setting where he does not have to live and keep up with a conforming family pattern. - 34 -Case Ho. 2 Dick P . was born on March 26, 1935 as his mother's second illegitimate child. The mother was a known prostitute and she placed the children in various private boarding homes. When Dick was nine years old she was charged with drug addiction and sentenced to prison. The foster mother did not receive the maintenance and referred the children to the Children's Aid Society. They became wards of the Children's Aid Society Tinder the Child Protection Act, When taken in care, Dick had fair general physical condition. He had a nervous habit of blinking his eyes and suffered from an enlarged thyroid. He was a thin, pale boy with fair complexion. He was rather quiet and had a pleasant manner. Dick was nine years of age when he was made a ward of the Children's Aid Society. Being eleven years in C.A.S. care he had 32 placements Including the last correctional institution as well as foster homes and institutions. He was nine times in correctional institutions prior to the final sentence. He was in the first foster home only a year, a l l the other placements lasted less than a year. Prior to being taken in to care Dick lived in several private boarding homes and was left the most of the time to his own devices. In the agency foster home, however, he had to start a regimented life. The first foster mother demanded that Diok should be "exact like a clock". Dick's irresponsible nature did not agree with this kind of restriction and he had to find excuses as to why he was late coming home from school or from play. These little lies developed into a serious issue and Dick be-came a chronic liar. He would lie about things that did not have any significance to anyone. He would admit his lies only when punished. For - 35 -this reason he often got punished but his behaviour did not improve* He had chronic enuresis and temper tantrums* The foster father died and the Child Guidance Clinic advised that Dick should be placed in a foster home where he had a male figure with whom to identify* The foster mother was not an understanding person and felt personally hurt because she was not able to keep Dick any longer* She tried to turn Dick against the agency and tried to prove that she was the only person who wanted him* Dick, however, did not mind moving at al l , and did not show the slightest concern about where he was going or what was happening to him* Inwardly, however, he was anxious and worried* After being moved from the first regimented foster home, he followed a series of placements in town and countryside* His spiteful and destructive behaviour was intolerable to the ordinary conforming eitizen* In addition to his delinquent behaviour, he showed an unwholesome attitude towards sex and masturbated excessively* He sought attention by negative means, and his most intolerable habit was lighting fires wherever he could lay his hand on matches* Dick's long and painful placement history damaged his deprived personality and added more anxiety and inferiority feelings* He felt that he was not able to keep up with rigidly set standards and felt most inade-quate when not being able to control himself* His lack of personal worth prevented him from forming a normal relationship with adults* He became suspicious and hostile and was involved in several thefts, hold-ups and breaking and enterings* He also was involved in homo-sexual practice while placed in a country home* About Dick's parental background, al l that is known Is that the mother was known to the agency since 1934, when her first illegitimate child - 36 -was born* The Mother was also known to the police throughout the province because of peddling drugs* Mother and also the maternal grandmother who was separated from her husband, were known as promiscuous women* They lived in the cheaper parts of town and went through a series of short-lived common law relationships* Mother was occasionally employed as a waitress and was the bread winner to her commonlaw husbands* When she was first illegitimately pregnant, she married in order to give a name to the child* The marriage lasted two days only and her husband left her on account of adultery. When Dick was born, the mother wished to place him for adop-tion* The difficulty, however, was that the paternity could not be estab-lished, because the friend of her common-law husband was supposed to be the putative father and the two men stood up for each other* After Dick's birth the mother had a nervous breakdown and claimed that she went to work too soon. She was also treated for V.D, on several occasions. When Dick was eighteen months old, the C,G,C, recommended that he not be adopted* About the putative father, i t was known that he came from a "respectable family", Dick did not show much interest in his mother and mother preferred the older daughter to Dick, Dick, however, was attracted to his grand-mother, who was interested in both children and visited them while she was in nursing home. In case records, the last recording on mother was 1947 and her whereabouts since then are not known, Dick was rejected by his mother from birth, who wanted to have him adopted. Mother was never able to take care of Dick personally and he was placed anywhere that was most convenient to her, Dick was craving for love and affection and tried to achieve i t by any means. In the end he tried to draw attention by negative means. His ability to relate to a parental figure - 37 -vas so severely damaged that the best and warmest foster home was a great threat for him. He denied that he had to give something in return for i t . He did not have anything and he could not do anything, therefore an institutional setting where he was not so closely involved with parental figures would have been a more suitable setting for him. He also stated that the foster homes were "no good" and preferred to stay in Detention Home. Once he even committed a crime in order to be taken into the Detention Home. Although all symptoms indicated that Dick was not a foster home child, and even showing distinct rejection towards foster homes, he was always put in another foster home again. He rebelled against foster home placements by running away, misbehaving and even lighting fires. In one of the foster homes he sprinkled oil a l l over the furnace and l i t i t . When he was asked why he did i t , he said listlesslyj "I do not know", and so were all his answers regarding his delinquent behaviour. This case also illustrates very clearly the need for a treatment center within an insti-tutional setting, that would enable the child to relate and find out who the adults really are and learn to have confidence in them and look forward to guidance. The rebellion against authority and desperate need for control at the same time and not getting i t is a very damaging experience for a teen-ager. Case No, 3. Dora vas fifteen years old when taken in agency care. She was made a ward of Children's Aid Society a year later, under the Child Protection Act, Her mother and father had separated, the father had to leave town and work in the interior. He left the two daughters, aged seventeen and sixteen, alone in an apartment and arranged to pay the rent. Both girls were inclined to be permiscuous and were spending most of their time in down-town cafe's with questionable characters. The eldest sister was soon in trouble and unable to give any guidance to Dora, She was given a float to get out of town and Dora was taken in by other girls in the same house, Dora was asked to go to her grandmother by police woman, she refused and was apprehended, Dora was nervous and had dizzy spells and a heavy vaginal discharge, and was suspected of having V,D, when taken into care. She recovered, however, under medical treatment, Dora was placed in a high standard family as a mother's helper. In the beginning there did not seem to be any difficulty for Dora to adapt to the luxurious way of living. Soon Dora missed her "freedom11 and friends in down-town hang-outs. She ran up large telephone bills and demanded that she be allowed to go to town for shows and to meet her friends. The foster mother was horrified by the company Dora was keeping. She was willing to accept and "educate" Dora but she could not accept her family and friends, Dora felt that she was not able to cope with her environment and inner forces, she became very irritable and mistreated the foster mother's little children. She slapped them and forced them to do things exactly as she wanted. She also "borrowed" the foster mother's clothes and ruined them. She also became rebellious and failed to perform her duties. The foster mother also noticed that she had lost small sums of money, Dora's behaviour, became so trying that the foster mother had to ask for her removal. - 39 -The second placement was in the Girls* Receiving Home. Here Dora was more at ease and adjusted. She appeared to be quite cooperative and pleasing in manner. At that time, her sister came back to town and her brother came out of jail and Dora began to feel restless again. On her own request she was placed with her maternal aunt. At her aunt's place she appeared to be most cooperative. Her aunt was able to control her and forbade her to go to drive-in theatres. Dora, however, was "boy crazy" as her aunt put i t . She went to school and reached as far as grade seven. Unfortunately the aunt and uncle decided to separate and they were not able to keep Dora any longer. Dora, however, did not know that her aunt was going to be separated from her husband. Dora was placed in a foster home a*ain, very much against her will. She went to watch a parade and did not return. Dora was picked up by a police woman and sent to the Detention Home. She was charged with incorreg-ibility and she voluntarily went to Girl's Industrial School. During this placement history, Dora had only one social worker and seven placements, including the last correctional institution. Dora's family on both sidest Maternal and paternal, were known to the social agencies in town as well as the Provincial agencies. Her maternal relatives also have a well known poUbe record. The marriage of the parents had been unsatisfactory and disharmonius from the beginning. The two elder siblings, a brother and sister were born prior to the parents' marriage. The mother was drinking excessively and ran away several times with other men and had several common law relationships. The father also had common law wives and they left him because they were not able to cope with the two girls. One Christmas Eve, when Dora was a baby, the mother went out to do Christmas shopping and did not return until she was located over the radio when Dora - 40 - , vas fatally i l l and needed an operation* The mother was drhking excessively and the father was beating her for i t * The older brother was committed three times to correctional institut-ions, and finally to penitentiary because of robbery. The older sister had an illegitimate child at age of eighteen, and was undecided whether she should place that child for adoption or not. Dora obviously had a difficult and disturbed childhood. Despite the difficulties in family l i f e , she felt very attached to her family and kept contact with them wherever they were or whatever they were doing. Her father was mostly interested in Dora, and the other siblings thought that i t was because she was the only ehild who was born when the parents were married. The father's interest in Dora, however, was rather unstable and irregular. When under the influence of alcohol, he would fondle and cuddle the child and make promises he was never able to f u l l f i l , In sober moments, he was very resolute, demand-ing and rigid* He tried to help his children, and especially Dora, financially. Because of his work, which took him out of town to places where he could not have his children with him, he neglected them. He, however, showed more res-ponsibility towards his children than did his wife. Dora's short history in the Agency shows the personality of a child damaged by a broken marriage. Her conception of a parent figure was very negative and therefore she was not able to respect adults, who tried to control and guide her in a family setting. Her strong family ties were more the sign of insecurity than a genuine desire to belong to her family. She wanted to belong to a family, but this was beyond reality level. An institution would be again the answer in Dora's case where she would not have to be too close to authority and yet would have enough adults around so that she could identify her needs in a positive way. Dora was in her middle teens when taken into agency care. 4.1 -She was approaching womanhood, and had lived an "adult" life a few years prior to being taken into care. She was able to determine for herself her own flow of life, although in a negative direction, but she did not have anyone to guide or direct her. In her frustration she looked for guidance as al l teenagers unconsciously do, but since it was not given to her at the right time and in the right way, she did not benefit from it but reacted even more negatively. When Dora was made a ward of the Children's Aid Society it meant that she had to go back several years and she was treated as i f she had never had any liberty and she was expected to switch over and pretend to be an innocent little girl in keeping with her chronological age, Dora defin-itely needed special psychiatric help and treatment and acceptance on the level on which she was able to function, and slowly to be given an opportunity to identify the socially acceptable way of living. It was obvious that the foster parents were not able to permit her behaviour, because they did not approve of it and that they did not want to appear inadequate i f not able to control the girl. Chapter IV ___________ ^ The Conclusion of Findings The findings and conclusions of Chapters two and three are drawn together in Chapter four so that recommendations and suggestions can be made regarding prevention, treatment facilities, the nature of casework services and the use of community resources for children who are disturbed in early childhood. All suggestions are made with the hope that they will be helpful in preventing the committal of disturbed children to correctional institutions. According to the findings of statistical data and case discussions the underlying difficulty of the children was emotional maladjustment. The fact that 72,2/6 of the wards studied were taken into care due to moral and physical neglect, and 83,4$ were between the ages of 10 and 20 at the time of coming into care, indicates that these children were already emotionally dis-turbed. Unstable home environment and parental rejection during the most important formative years created a negative concept of the parent figure* The unpleasant experiences in connection with adults have made these children insecure, suspicious and hostile* The available placements wre foster homes with ordinary socially conforming standards, and the foster parents did not have any special training or understanding of emotionally maladjusted children. Such disturbed children were not able to adjust to normal home-environment* Their inability to adjust to the required family standards and to relate to the parent figures contributed to further feelings of insecurity and rejection* Anxiety and frustration were acted out in delinquent behaviour* Behaviour difficulties brought further resentment, and rejection by foster parents and made necessary replacements* The multiple changes of placements and social workers - 43 -added more anxiety and difficulties in behaviour and resulted in the final committal to correctional institution. The findings and conclusions about the studied vards, as well as recommendations for preventive measures are in some respects very similar to (i) previous study of the placement of adolescent boys. The current project differs from the previous one because i t is narrowed down to C.A.S. wards in correctional institutions only. This study, however, starts with the earliest recorded history of the child and leads up to adolescence when the child is committed to the institution, 1, Recommendations for Preventive Measures The majority of these wards were taken into care as neglect cases and the first placement occurred as an emergency placement. The child was taken into care and placed without much time to evaluate his personality, nor the strength and weaknesses of the foster parents. The case records do not indicate a later complete diagnosis of the situation. The description of any one of the situations is interpreted by different workers in different ways and the basic need of the child when taken into care is not clearly defined. The case records seemed to indicate the perpetual condition of emergency. It is necessary to record a tentative diagnosis in al l case records, so that later workers can see a clear picture of a child and his situation. The first placement is of greatest significance and should be very carefully chosen. Placement plans should be evaluated in a conference between the case worker, supervisor and homefinder. The child should be honestly and carefully prepared for leaving his home and the in-adequacy of the parents should be clarified in positive terms. The worker's role in the placement is important in helping to clarify and in giving supportive (i) Reed, George, A, The Placement of Adolescent Boys, Master of Social Work Thesis, 1953. • _ 44 -help to the child during the placement process* The worker's support is necessary to help the child adjust to his new home and to help the foster parents accept the child as he is* The ideal foster home for disturbed children is s t i l l to be estab-lished* Available foster homes meet the needs of well adjusted children, for disturbed children such a home, together with a worker's help and under-standing, is yet not enough* Therefore careful diagnosis and foster home placement alone are not the answer to helping the extremely disturbed child. In order to get a good picture of the child's strengths and weaknesses we have to know his early childhood history, study his present behaviour and relate al l this to the strength and weaknesses of any considered placement* A careful evaluation before placement is possible for these children only in observation and study homes* Small institutions of such nature are necessary for any agency which must care for children coming from disrupted and deprived backgrounds* 2. Observation Receiving Homes A brief interview in a neglect case does not give sufficient data to formulate a valid diagnosis. In order to get a complete picture of the child's needs a longer observation should follow* This is possible only in a neutral institutional setting. For this purpose an institutional type of receiving home should be established where selected children are admitted on an emergency basis for a short period of time. This institutional setting should be a home of mixed age and sex groups and with an impersonal atmosphere. The mixed age and sex groups are necessary to observe the child's reaction to his own and the opposite sex as well as to different age groups. The impersonal atmosphere means that there should not be a parent figure but several friendly figures of men and women to whom the children oan relate and with whom they - A5 -can identify. The personnel should be trained for this purpose and be in close contact with the agency social workers. Every child in this home should receive a Child Guidance Clinic examination and evaluation. The period in ob-servation receiving home should be arranged individually in relation to how soon the child is ready to leave the home and able to accept another more permanent placement. If the diagnosis for the child is established, a carefully evaluated plan should be made in conference. At the conference should be determined whether the child is ready to be placed in the family atmosphere of a foster home or does he need further treatment in an institutional setting. For treat-ment purposes some carefully selected and specially trained foster homes can be used, but a Small institution Is necessary for a certain number of the children, 3 . The Institutional Treatment Home This type of institution is very complex and almost impossible to be described fully in this chapter. The suggestions here attempted are as realistic as possible. Such an institution should be of semi-cottage type. There might be small and larger groups, mixed age and sex groups, and separate age and sex groups, according to the treatment needs. The semi-cottage type of institution is better for treatment purposes because small groups may be isolated or exposed to a larger community depending on the need. This would give a flexible and multiple opportunity for children to mly with the desired groups. A semi-cottage type of institution is more economical to build and operate. It may start with a main building and gradually be expanded to various smaller cottages. The personnel would be a greater problem. Certain educational stand-ards and special training would be required. In this case it would be rec-ommended that the individual social workers should not live in the institution but should be outsiders who act as a link between the institution and the outside V - 46 -„world» This institution should be made suitable for the range of years that children may be wards of the Society. There should be a separate section for school boys and working boys, but they should not be entirely separated. As far as interests and hobbies are concerned, they may form common interest groups and participate in common activities. During the child's stay in the institution, there should be a close contact with Child Guidance Clinic. Before the final decision is made to determine the child's ability to go to a normal home environment, a confer-ence should be held among the personnel of the institution, the social workers, a C.G.C. team and foster home finders. 4. A Treatment Home.in a Family Setting It was earlier suggested that a few well selected foster homes could be used for treatment 'purposes. These homes should receive special guidance and training in order to help the foster parents understand the needs of disturbed child. Special board rates should be paid for children whose needs can be met in this way. All resources for diagnosis, treatment and special services should be available for the children in these homes. 5. Case Work Services for Disturbed Children The case worker's role in the treatment plan lies in acting as a link between the treatment home and community. The case worker should neither become a parent figure nor equal to the child. He should remain the source of confidence, security and acceptance. The case worker's most important part would be the social therapy and supportive help to the child. All disturbed children and especially adolescents look for support and guidance, direction and firm control. Among the disturbed children rebellion against the authority and the need to be controlled are far stronger than among well adjusted children. - 4-7 -6. Community Resources The recruiting and training of an adequate staff S6r institutions and the selection of adequate foster homes for treatment purposes should not be only the concern of the agency but of the community as a whole. This aspect may need a separate study and investigation and cannot be developed fully in this paragraph. Some suggestions regarding community interests in helping the "social outcasts" are necessary. It is always easier to expel a member of society than to win one back. Community interest should be drawn in to strengthen preventive measures. It is hoped that the analysis of the statistical data and case illustrations may help the agency to concentrate on the needs of young, disturbed children and seriously consider what can be done through better case work services to deter the development of delinquent tendencies. However, agency attention should be focused sharply on the children who are so highly disturbed at the time they come into care that ordinary facilities now available are imperfect to meet their needs despite the finest efforts on the part of social workers. This focus demands the highest skill in studying and assess-ing a child and his environment, and clear cut diagnostic thinking and judg-ment. Beyond that the agency must concern itself with the establishment or the conversion of present facilities to include special foster homes, and observation and treatment institution for the small but devastated group of children who finally, after many attempts to adjust in foster homes, enter correctional institutions. - 48 -Appendix A. Table Showing Details of Records of 18 Wards See Discussion in Text on pages 50 to 73. Sex Racial Origin Religion Age of Admission to C.A.S. No, of Years Wards of C.A.S. Care No. of Placements No. of Workers Age of First Committal to Correctional Institution Status taken from parents marital status recorded on the f i l e . Taken from the information of the fi l e s . It n tt it it ti it tt tt tt tl tt tt it ** -* tt tt it tl it tt tt it it n ti tt tt it -II tt tt ti tt tt tt II it it II ti tt it tt tt tt it ti tt ti Code No. Sex Racial Origin Religion Age at Ad-mission to C.A.S. *<*e at Ad-mission to Wardship 1 1 M Anglo Saxon Church of England 12 12 2 M Irish Protestant 1 2 3 M Anglo Saxon ii 10 10 i i . n * i i i r, 4 M English it 15 15 5 M Irish Roman Catholic (non practicing) 10 10 ij t 1 H 6 M Anglo Saxon Protestant 14 14 \ 7 M Anglo Saxon Protestant 9 9 . ii ft i T • 8 H English Protestant 12 12 9 M Anglo Saxon Church of England 7 12 r I 10 M ? Protestant 12 12 11 M Anglo Saxon Anglican 9 10 12 M Anglo Saxon Protestant 13 13 ;.13 M Anglo Saxon Church of England 14 14 14 M Norwegian English Protestant 11 14 • 15 Scottish Protestant 10 10 16 M Anglo Saxon Protestant 9 > 17 H Anglo Saxon Protestant 11 13 18 F Norwegian English Protestant 15 . 16 APPENDIX "A* No. of Yrs. Wards of C.A.S. Care No. of Place-ments No. of Workers Age of 1st Committal to Correctional Institution. No. of Times in a Correctional Institu-tion Prior to Last Committment Status 6 14 10 15 6 Legi. • 11 9 8 12 1 Il l e g i . 5 13 5 10 5 Legi. I 1 4 4 16 0 Legi. 4 8 7 14 0 Il l e g i . 4 10 3 14 1 Il l e g i . 4 11 5 12 I Legi. 4 15 4 12 6 Legi. ) 4 13 6 16 1 Legi. 5 10 11 13 2 Legi. ) 8 15 10 16 2 Il l e g i . 4 8 6 14 2 Legi. ^ 4 5 13 18 0 Legi. 6 21 6 14 7 Legi. 7 21 7 12 7 Il l e g i . ) 10 31 12 11 10 Il l e g i . 4 10 5 13 4 Legio L ~. 1/2 8 1 16 1 Legi. - 50 - Appendix WB" Brief Case Histories of The Eighteen Wards Case No. 1, 1, Reason of Admission into Care This boy was taken into care of Children's Aid Society at the age of twelve years. His mother died when he was ten years old. The father placed him with his three younger siblings in a private boarding home. The father was unable to provide for his children and disappeared. The foster mother reported the children to the C.A.S. and required help. The children were made wards of C.A.S. under the Child Protection Act. 2. Parental Background There is not much information in records regarding the family back-ground. His parents had one marital union. It is known that the client is the eldest child of three siblings. His mother died when he was ten years old. His father is known as an irresponsible person and ran away from his responsibili-ties and drank heavily. In sober moments he developed keen interest in his children and promised to make a home for them. He, however dropped his promises while going to drinking sprees. 3 . Health His general health appeared to be good, and he had not had any serious illnesses except the usual childhood diseases. His teeth were badly deteriorated and he needed constant dental repair. In later teens he was suspected of taking drugs on several occasions. There was sound evidence that he associated with drug addicts. 4. Education. Interests and Hobbies •ffle completed grade ten in normal school. He had average age I.Q. and was an average student at school. He showed special ability in printing and welding. - 51 -5. Personal Problems He began to steal <inavery early age. Even when he did not under-stand the purchasing power of the money, he would hide i t in the earth, digging i t out and at times petting and fondling i t . Later his stealing developed into a very serious problem. He attempted several hold-ups, stole cars and participated in highway robberies. Finally he was sentenced to Oakalla for stealing at age of eighteen, 6, Services Offered by the Agency He was examined by the Child Guidance Clinic and his personality difficulties were evaluated and treatment recommended. The case work services were rendered to the client, his parents and to the foster parents, 7, Problems in Foster Home Placements His foster home placements were rather unfortunate ones. During his f i r s t and longest placement, the foster father was jealous and a non-accepting person. The foster mother shielded his behaviour problems for five years, being afraid to show her inadequacy in not being able to control the boyTs behaviour. - 52 -Case Mo. 2. 1» • Reason of Admission Into Care This child was taken into care under the Child Protection Act at the age of one year with his few' months old baby sister. The mother had left her two illegitimate children with her sister and disappeared. The maternal aunt refused to keep the children and handed them over to C.A.S. and they were made wards of C.A.S. because of moral neglect a year later. 2. Parental Background The mother and maternal aunt were both wards of Children's Aid Society. He is this mother's second illegitimate child. The paternity has not been established in either case. Mother is known as a listless, sub-and missive promiscuous woman. She was imprisoned because of contributing to juvenile delinquency. The mother went through two types of marital union} unmarried and common law. Her common law husband was a drug addict and was charged°several occasions with forgery and stealing. 3. Health The child had had the usual childhood illnesses like whooping cough, measles and chicken pox. He constantly suffered from colds. 4. Education. Hobbies and Interests His educational standard is not known. He had average intelligence range. He did not have any interest in school work nor in group participation and preferred to daydream alone. 5. Personal Problems The boy started out with bad eating habits and had constant disorders of the digestive system, later his demands for attention became a difficult problem. He suffered chronic enurisis. He lied, stole small things, was a truant from school and used bad language. Finally he began to steal and ran 53 -away from his foster home at the age of 12, He was committed to Boys* Industrial School because of stealing, 6, Services Offered Case work services were offered to the client as Lwell as to his mother and foster parents. He was also examined by Child Guidance Clinic and his capacity and problems evaluated, and he was given seventy play therapy sessions, 7, Problems with Foster Home Placements The foster home placements appeared to have too high standards for the boy's ability to cope. His f i r s t placement was a foster home with very rigid and conforming standards. Due to these factors the client was not able to relate to the foster parents, and the foster home placements were failures in helping the boy with his problems. Case No. 3 1, Reason of Admission to Care Moral and physical neglect were the reasons for bringing this boy into care. The client was the youngest child of six siblings, of which the two eldest siblings were mother's illegitimate children. The paternity of the third eldest child was not known and the two youngest children were from legal marital union. The parents and six children lived in a small fphysically unsuitable shack. Since the children did not receive adequate care, the client and his two siblings were made wards of C,A,S, under the Child Protection Act. 2. Parental Background Mother was a pleasure-seeking promiscuous woman. She drank ex-cessively and was not interested in her family. She went through the following marital stages: unmarried mother, married, separated, divorced and common law - 54 -relationship. The fifcher was a very gentle, weak and submissive person. He remarried after obtaining divorce and established satisfactory marital union, 3. Health He went through childhood illnesses without any serious complicat-ions. Enuresis was his constant trouble, 4, Education. Hobbies and Interests It is not known which school grade he completed. It appeared that he did not have any interest in school work. He did not have any interests and hobbies and preferred to be alone and fought everybody who tried to approach him, 5, Personal Problems When taken into care, the boy was too far damaged and was not able to form an adequate relationship with his foster parents. He was uncontrollable, began to lie and steal. He was not able to keep up with the foster home's standards and ran away on several occasions. When he was 15 years old he was committed to the Boys" Industrial School, because of stealing, 6, Services Offered Casework services were given to the client as well as to the family. He also was referred to Child Guidance Clinic in the hope of help-ing him with his problems, 7, Problems in Foster Home Placements All his foster home placements were a failure because the foster parents were not" able to cope with his delinquent behaviour and were not able to accept him as he was. For this reason the boy preferred to stay in the Detention Home to foster home. - 55 -Case Mo. La 1. Reason for Admission Into Care This child was taken into care on the mother's request. At that time the mother was a widow and had an Hbtgitimate child. After the child was born the client became very difficult to manage. Mother was forced to seek help from C.A.S. and child was made a ward of C.A. S. under Child Protection Act. 2. Parental Background Mother was taken in C.A.S. care at age of three years. She had multiple placements and did not adjust to any placement. She married and had two children from her marriage, of which the client was the eldest. The second child died. In widowhood the mother had an illegitimate child. She suffered an eye disease and was slowly going blind, 3 . Health There does not seem to be any marked physical disability, except his eye trouble. He also suffers of chronic enuresis, 4, Education. Interests. Hobbies The client completed grade 9 but did not have any interest in academic education, nor did he have any special interests and hobbies, 5, Personal Problems The boy became very demanding after his brother1 s birth. He had temper tantrums, was unsociable and lied. Later he began to steal and was committad to the Boys' Industrial School at age of 16 because of stealing. 6. Services Offered Casework services were given the client and to foster parents as well as to the family. He was also examined by Child Guidance Clinic. 7. Problems in Foster Home Placements The foster parents could not cope with his constant need for attention - 56 -On one occasion the foster father was hospitalized and he had to be placed in another home. He rebelled against authority and was difficult to handle. Case No, 5 1, Reason of Admission into Care This child was placed in pending adoption home. The foster father had a honfeexual relationship with him, and he was made a ward under the Child's Protection Act because of moral neglect, 2, Parental Background The mother married and had one child from this marital union. She separated and established a common law relationship and had four illegitimate children by this union, including the client. The common law husband of the mother was an artist and an inadequate head of the family. He was not able to provide for the growing family, 3. Health He suffered of congenital eye disease and one eye was removed. He also suffered from kidney trouble and had intractable enuresis, 4, Education. Interests and Hobbies ^ It is not known which grade he reached at school being partly blind he did not seem to have much interest in school activities. He did not have any particular interests and hobbies and disliked group activities, 5 , Personal Problems This child had a very traumatic sexual experience and continued to have problems along this line in later l i f e . He also had a congenital eye disease and one eye was removed for this reason. These traumatic experiences caused a lot of anxiety and contributed to his delinquent behaviour. He began to l i e and was difficult to control. He was committed to Boys1 Industrial School at age of 14 because of stealing. - 57 -6. Services Offered Case work services were rendered to the client HS well as to the family and foster parents. The boy was not able to relate to the workers, ex-cept to the very last one. He was examined by G.G.G. and his problems were dis-cussed in case conference with a pj^ choanabpslTs** Case No. 6 . 1. Reasons of Admission into Care The mother deserted the client when he was a week old and arranged private placement. The private foster mother was a spinster and worked as a cook in logging camps. She was unable to take care of the child and she in her turn placed the boy in different inadequate private boarding homes. The foster mother married when the boy was ten years old in order to get a father to her foster child. This paternal relationship did not work out satisfactorily and created even more difficulties in control of the boy and finally he was made ward of C.A.S. under the Child's Protection Act because of moral neglect. 2. Parental Background There is not much known about the family of this child. It is known he was born out of wedlock and his mother deserted him when he was a week old. The mother went through the following marital stages : Unmarried, married, separated and established a common law relationship with a Japanese and had three children from this union. 3 . Health He had had the usual childhood illnesses like chicken pox, measles and whooping cough. He also had enuresis. He was struck by a car but no serious physical injuries resulted from this accident. 4. Education. Interests and Hobbies The client classified to superior intelligence range and completed grade 9. He was interested in sports and reading. He wanted to become a doctor. - 58 -5. Personal Problems The client began to be very rebellious when the foster mother married. He lied, was selfish and demanding. He began to steal and performed armed robbery. At age of 18 he was committed to New Haven Borstal Home on this latter account. 6. Services Offered Case work services were rendered to the client as well as to his "private foster mother" and to his legal foster parents. He was examined by C.6.C. 7. Problems in Foster Home Placements The foster home placements were not adequate to help this boy with serious personality disturbances. He was too disturbed and not able to identify with male figure in a normal family atmosphere. Case No. 7 1. Reasons for Admission into Care '• ?The delinquent behaviour and mother's inability to cope and take care of the child were the reasons for taking this child into care. He was made ward of C.A.S. under the Child Protection Act because of moral neglect. 2. Parental Background His mother went through following marital status range: Unmarried mother, married, separated, divorced and common law relationship. The client was born out of wedlock and was the eldest of two siblings which were born from mother's legal marital union. The parents separated and eventually obtained divorce. The father gained custody of the two children. 3. Health Besides ordinary childhood illnesses he had meningitis at the age of two years. He suffered from insomnia and chronic enuresis. - 59 -4. Education. Interests and Hobbies The client completed grade six, he was considered to be in the dull-normal intelligence range. He had an exceptional ability to work with his hands, especially modelling aaoplanes, 5, Personal Problems His troubles started with lying, truancy and stealing. He was unable to cope with other children and ran away frequently which!.indicated that he was not able to face the consequences of his behaviour, le was charged with stealing and committed to Boys1 Industrial School when he became 13 years old, 6 , Services Offered The client, his family and foster parents received case work services. He was examined by C.G.C, and received play therapy sessions, 7, Problems in Foster Home Placements The foster parents did not accept his behaviour and thus a l l the placements failed to improve this boy's behaviour problems. Case No. 8 1. Reason for Admission into Care The client was placed in a private adoption home at age of four years. The natural mother deserted him. It turned out to be an unsatisfactory placement, the pending foster parents were not able to cope with his behaviour problems and asked C.A.S, for help. The boy was made a ward of G.A.S. under Child Protection Act.' 2. Parental Background The mother went through five phases of marital unions. The client and his eldest sister were from lawful marriage. The parents separated and - 60 -divorced finally. The mother established a common law relationship and had an illegitimate child of this union, 3. Health He had whooping cough and measles in early childhood. Further he suffered from chronic enuresis and overweight. He also had constant colds, 4 , Education. Hobbies and Interests Grade three was the limit that this boy was able to reach, being classified as a high grade moron in intelligence range. Although a protestant he developed a serious interest in Roman Catholic Church, and in a l l mysterious rituals, 5, Personal Problems This child's behaviour problems started at an early age with temper tantrums which developed later to chronic lying and stealing. He especially liked to collect jewelry. He was involved in homosexual activities and wasfrequently exposing himself. This child grew unmanageable and he began to run away . He began to drink and associate with undesirable characters. Finally he was sentenced for breaking and entering to Oakalla at age of 1 6 , 6 , Services Offered Case work services were rendered to the client, to his parents as well as to the foster parents. He was examined by C.G.C, 7, Problems in Foster Home Placements The foster parents were not able to cope with his personality disorders. Multiple placements in foster homes proved to be more damaging than helping him with his anxiety and his delinquentcy, which became very troublesome. - 61 Case No. 9 1. Reason of Admission into Care Father requested help in planning for his two children* He returned from overseas and found that the children were placed with their maternal grandmother and mother had established a common law relationship with another man* The children were made wards of C»A,S. under the Child Protection Act, 2, Parental Background Father served overseas, the mother established common law relation-ship with another man and neglected the children* The parents divorced and father remarried. Mother's marital union record was as follows t Married, separated, divorced, common law and remarriage* Neither of the parents were able to plan for the children and both children remained wards of C.A.S. under the Protection Act for the reason of moral neglect. 3 . Health He had chicken pox and measles. He also had a bad eye disease* A , Education. Interests and Hobbies It is not known how far he reached at school* He, however, did not have any interest in school, neither had he any interests and hobbies* 5* Personal Problems The boy began to show difficulties in behaviour by lying, further he began to steal and run away from school and foster homes* When he was 16 years of age he was committed to Boys1 Industrial School because of stealing, 6* Services Offered Case services work was rendered to the client, to his parents and foster parents. Child Guidance Clinic examination was arranged, 7, Problems in Foster Home Placements .His foster home placements failed to meet his needs and help him to overcome his problems. He also had a series of placements where the foster parents had marital difficulties and were constantly quarreling. Case No. 10 1, Reason of friwflflsficm into Care The client and his younger brother were picked up by the police and placed in detention home. The children were made wards of C,A»S, under the Child Protection Act due to moral neglect, 2* Parental Background The mother had six children including the client from her legal marital union. She also had several common law relationships during married life. Finally she separated, divorced and carried on her common law relation -ship* She was an unstable and pleasure-seeking person, 3. Health He had a speech difficulty due to deformed mouth, his general health, however, was satisfactory. 4-, Education, Hobbies, Interests The client completed grade six. He did not have any interest in school work, neither had he any special interests nor hobbies, 5. Personal Problems Stealing and lying were the personality disorders of this client. While in foster home he teok a gun and shot at his father but did not k i l l him* He showed extreme hostility towards his father* At age of 17 he was sentenced to Oakalla for breaking and entering, 6, Services Offered The client, his parents and foster parents received case work services. The boy was examined by Child Guidance Clinic and also received treatment in Crease Clinic, - 63 -7. Problems in Foster Home Placements The foster parents expected too much from this disturbed child and were not able to help to relieve his anxiety. This child's delinquent behaviour was unacceptable to them. A series of unsuccessful placements ended up in a correctional institution. Case ff9t U 1. Reason to* Ad^agjon in Care This client was made ward of C.A.S. under the Child Protection Act, due to moral and riysical neglect, living in an inadequate housing, and receiving no care. 2. Parental Background Mother had left the father and lived in common law relation with a crippled man, who had two wooden legs and one hand and lived on social assistance. Mother had one child from this union* She was urged to return to her legal husband* Her common law husband threatened suicide and also attempted it * Mother's marital status was fivefold: Married, separated, divorced, common law and unmarried mother. There were nine children includ-ing the client who was fourth in line. The three younger siblings of the client were also wards of C.A.S. Mother was an inadequate person but interfered with foster home and caused many unpleasant situations for the children. 3. Health He had bad vision and infected teeth. He suffered from chronic enuresis. A. Education. Interests and Hobbles He completed grade 9* He did not have any further interest in schooling, neither had he any interests nor bobbies* - 64 -5. Personal Problems His behaviour problems started with sulkiness and temper tantrums. Later he began to lie and steal. He associated with run-aways from Boys' Industrial School, At age of 17 he was sentenced for breaking and entering, 6, Services Offered Case work services were rendered to the client as well as to his family and foster parents, 7. Problems in Foster Home Placements The mother interfered with foster home placements and criticized the foster home and agency policy. The mother's behaviour caused a lot of anxiety and resentment in the boy. Most of the placements failed due to mother's interference. Case No, 12 1, Reason for Admission in Care The client and his brother showed severe behaviour problems in the heme, school and community. The mother was mentally i l l and unable to take care of her three children. Mother was once married and was a widow at that time. The client and his two siblings were made wards of C.A.S, due to mother's illness, 2, Parental Background The mother was mentally i l l and was committed to mental hospital with a poor prognosis. The father died when the client was three years old. His older brother was also a problem child but the younger sister appeared to be a normally adjusted child, 3. Health He suffered from chronic enuresis. His general health was good and he had had only the usual childhood illnesses. - 65 -4. Education. Hobbies and Interests He was a very good student with an I.Q. of 123. His ambition was to become a lawyer. He however ran into difficulties in school with his delinquentcy and was not able, to attend school beyond grade seven. 5. Personal Problems His behaviour problem started with disobedience and rebelling against authority. He was not able to adjust in any foster home placements. He hated everybody, including his mother and was cruel to other children in foster homes. He also practiced stealing, especially watches. He ran away on several occasions and was involved in delinquency. At age of 17 he was sentenced to Young Offenders Unit for breaking and entering. 6. Services Offered Case work services were offered to the client as well as to his family and foster parents. He was examined by C.G.C. 7. Problems in Foster Home Placements The foster parents were conforming rigid people and were not able to accept the boy i f he was not able to return their good will. The boy preferred the institutional setting. In order to be admitted to detention home he committed some offences. Case No. 13 1. Reason for Admission In Care The boy became a burden to community because of his destructive behaviour. He also was involved in several minor delinquencies when taken into care. The parents had separated and father came with the children from another province and requested help. The client and his two younger siblings were made wards of C,A,S, under the Child Protection Act, - 66 -2. Parental. Background Father and mother were separated and divorced finally. Mother went through following series of marital unions: Married, separated, divorced, common law and unmarried mother. The client was the middle child of six siblings, from which the youngest was mother's illigitimate child. Father remarried but was unable to plan and provide for his children. 3. Health He had a bad thyroid condition, suffered of enuresis and alopecia, his hair was gradually falling off in patches and he had to wear a wig. His general health was very poor. ,4. Education. Interests and Hobbies He completed grade eight but did not have any further interest in school nor take any other vocational training . Neither did he have any hobbies or interests. 5. Personal Problems He was a very rebellious and distructive child. He was constantly in trouble and because of lying and stealing. Eventually he ran away from his placement. At age of 18 he was sentenced to Oakalla for breaking and entering. 6, Services Offered. Case work services were offered to the client and his family and to the foster parents. He was examined by C.G.G. 7. Problems in Foster Home Placements The foster parents were not accepting people and could not cope with his personality difficulties. The foster father was a very hot tempered man and was a great threat to the child. - 67 -Case Mo. 1A 1, Reasons for Admission Into Care This child was recommended for placement in a foster home for a year by C.G.C, His father died when he was six years old and his mother remarried two years later. After the mother remarried the boy began to show very serious personality disorders and the stepfather requested that the child be taken in care or otherwise he threatened to leave the mother. 2. Parental Background Father died when the boy was six years old in a logging accident. The client was the only child. Mother married later but both the mother and stepfather rejected and were unwilling to take care of the boy. 3» Health He had asthma and eczema, he also had a partial facial paralysis since birth due to mother's 66 hours labour. 4. Education. Interests and Hobbies He completed grade nine, but did not have any interest in school nor in any other line of vocational training. 5. Personal Problems The boy had very severe temper tantrums and was suicidal. He was a truant, was lying and stealing and was involved in homosexual relationships. After several committals to correctional institution he was sentenced to B. C. Pen*t«ntiary for breaking and entering when he reached 17 years of age. 6. Services Offered Case work services were rendered to the client, foster parents and also to his maternal parent. He was examined by C.G.C. 7. Problems in Foster Home Placements The foster parents were not able to cope with his personality dis-orders and rejected him when he was not able to follow the conforming pattern of an average family life. He, himself preferred the detention home to other placements. Case No. 1$ 1. Reason for Admission into Care This child was made ward of C.A.S. under the Child Protection Act and charged with moral neglect. He was the second illegitimate child of his mother. His mother and her common law husbands did not have any interest in him and did not take care of him. 2. Parental Background The mother had an illegitimate child, married and had no children of this marriage and her husband deserted her after a year of married life. The mother separated and established a common law relationship and the client was the last known illegitimate child. 3. Health He had measles, mumps and pleurisy at six years of age. He was nervous and listless. Education. Interests and Hobbies He completed grade eight. His ambition was to become a pilot and he was very interested in aeronautics. His personality difficulties, however, curtailed his further education. 5. Personal Problems  v He had a great deal of fantasy and liked to daydream about getting money in order to buy things for his mother. He tried to draw other children^ attention by telling fantastic tales. He was very disobedient and began to lie and steal and ran away from foster homes. Detention home seemed to be his favorite placement. At age of 17 he was charged with stealing and committed to Young Offenders Unit. - 69 -6. Services Offered Case work was offered to the client, his family and foster family. His problems were also evaluated in C,G,C, 7. Problems in Foster Home Placements The foster parents were unable to look upon the child as a disturbed one and expected him to conform to duties of a normal child. His foster home placements contributed to his further breakdown and he himself preferred to be in a detention home rather than in foster homes. Case Ho. 16 1, Reason of Admission into Care Mother was charged with drug addiction and in Oakalla, The private boarding home mother did not receive maintenance and reported the child to C.A.S, and the child was made ward of C.A.S. under the Child Protection Act. 2. Parental Background Mother is known to the agency since 1934-. She is also known to the police in the City and Province-;as a promiscuous woman and was charged with drug addiction. Her first child was born out of wedlock, she married in order to get a name to the child and left him after two days legal marital union. She has established several short-lived common law relationships and the client was born as an illegitimate child from one of these unions. 3. Health He has enlarged thyroid glands, and a nervous habit of blinking his eyes. He suffered from chronic enuresis, 4. Education. Interests and Hobbies He was not able to attend school beyond grade three because of lack of interest and will power to study. He was very interested in drawing and spent considerable time developing this art. 5. Personal Problems - 70 -His main problem was chronic lying. He also had tempter tantrums and showed unwho^ ome attitude towards sex. He liked to play and smear with dirt. He valued watches and jewelry the most among the stolen articles. Lighting fires was his most intolerable delinquent act. After the longest record of committals to correctional institutions, at age of 19 he was sentenced to B.C. Penetentiary for break and entry. 6. Services Offered Case work service was rendered to the client, foster parents and his natural mother. 7» Problems in Foster Home Placements His multiple foster home placement history shows that among thirty-one placements was not a single satisfactory one that could have helped to meet the boy's needs. The boy himself preferred several times to stay in an institution rather than going to a foster home. Case Ho. 17 1, Reason for Admission into Care This client was committed twice in detention home charged with bicycle theft. He was involved in several delinquencies and he became a real threat to the community. He was made ward of C.A.S. under the Child Protect-ion Act due to moral and physical neglect. 2. Parental Background The mother is known as a domineering, ill-tempered woman. She had two children from her first marital union. Later she separated and formed another common law relationship. She was unable to take care of her children and resented C.A.S, doing i t for her. The client is the second and youngest child in the family. 71 -3. Health His general health was good. He had the usual childhood illnesses like measles and chicken pox. He suffered of chronic enuresis, 4, Education. Interests and Hobbies Although he was in the superior intelligence group he did not show any interest to continue his education beyond grade eight. He did not have any hobbies or interests, 5. Personal Problems His main problem was his destructive behaviour. He liked to steal bicycles and tore them apart to see "how they tick". He was a truant, ran away from foster homes and was lying and stealfag constantly. Finally at the age of 17 years was sentenced to Oakalla because of stealing, 6, Services Offered Case work services were offered to the client, to his family as well as to the foster parents, 7, Problems in Foster Home 'Placements Mother was constantly interfering with foster home placements, Foster parents were unable to remain neutral regarding the client. The mother's antagonistic attitude towards the foster parents was a great draw-back in enabling them to form any relationship. The child became more and more frustrated and multiple placement history was the result. Case No. 18 1, Reason for Admission into Care The parents separated and the father had custody of the two youngest daughters, the client and her sister. Father left both girls with-out adequate supervision and left the town. The client became involved in several delinquencies and was made ward of C.A.S, under Child Protection Act, - 72 -due to moral and physical neglect, 2, Parental Background Both families from paternal and maternal lineage were known to social agencies in town and province as well as to the polic© because of theft and drug peddling. The mother had two illegitimate children, a son and a daughter prior to her marriage. The client is the youngest and the only child of the legal marital union. Her eldest brother was sentenced to B, C, Penetentiary, and the eldest sister was also involved in several juvenile delinquencies and had an illegitimate child at the age of seventeen, 3. Health She had serious gynecological troubles and received treatments for vaginal discharge. Bad teeth were also a great source of trouble for her and she hated to go to the dentist, 4-. Education. Interests and Hobbies The client did not have any positive interests regarding education. She completed grade seven and carried on her schooling in Girls* Industrial School, Shows and comic books were the main part of her spare time interests, 5, Personal Problems The girl was involved in several sexual offences and was known as a promiscuous person. She was charged with incorrigibility and volunteered to go to Girls* Industrial School instead of going to a foster home on probation, At that time she was 16 years old, 6, Services Offered Case work services were offered to the client as well as to her parents and foster parents, 7, Problems in Foster Home Placements The girl was used to living on her own and had more, or less determined her own pattern of life. She was used to her "freedom11 which was by no means - 73 -a positive influence. In foster home setting she was expected to function and behave on the level that was generally expected from her chronological age. The foster home placements proved to be too threatening to her. Finally she volunteered to live in a controlled institutional atmosphere. - 74 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbot, Grace, The Child and the State. 2 vols. University of Chicago; 1938. Angus, Anne Margaret, Children's Aid Society of Vancouver. B. C. 1901 - 1951^  Vancouver, B.C. 1951. A history of the Vancouver Society prepared for the fiftieth anniversary celebration. Bowley, Agatha H., The Psychology of the Unwanted Child E & S Livingstone Ltd., Edingburgh, 1947. British Columbia, Revised Statute 1948. Chap. 47, Sec. 7. Deutch, Albert, Our Re.iected Children Little, Brown and Co, Boston, 1950. Folks, Homer, The care of Destitute. Neglected and Delinquent Children Macmillan; New York, 1902. Healy, William, Criminal Youth and the Borstal System The Commonwealth Fund, E.L. Hildreth Co.,New York Ontario Superintendent of Neglected and Dependent Children, Annual Report. 1898. Neglected and Dependent Children of  Ontario; Work Under the Children's Protection Act. Crown Printer} Ottawa, Ontario; I898 Reed, George, Aubry Amlth, Marjorie J. "An Interpretation of the Historical Development of Child Protection in Canada.M Child Protection in Canada. Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, 1954. Thurston, Henry, The Dependent Child Columbia University Press, New York, 1930 

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