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Parent-teacher associations : a study of the objectives and accomplishments of the P.T.A.'s with respect.. MacCullie, Andrew 1955-12-31

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PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS A Study of the Objectives and Accomplishments of P.T.A's with respect to Citizenship Education  by ANDREW MACCULLIE  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of Social Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of Social Work  School of Social Work  1955 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  iii ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to determine (a) the extent to which P.T.A's i n the Vancouver ar,ea engage i n a c t i v i t i e s designed to promote citizenship education f o r New Canadians and (b) the r e l a t i v e effectiveness and merit of c i t i z e n s h i p programs by a comparison of what i s being done with what might be accomplished. The study i s based on (a) a questionnaire submitted to the 53 associations In Vancouver, (b) examination of records In the o f f i c e of the Historian for P.T.A's and i n the f i l e s of the Liaison O f f i c e r i n Vancouver, and (c) on personal and telephone Interviews with executive o f f i c e r s of the associations and ethnic groups, with school p r i n c i p a l s and with o f f i c i a l s of the Vancouver Council of P.T.A's. The questionnaire was designed to e s t a b l i s h the d i f f e r e n t types of programs and projects used, and to f i n d out, where applicable, the factors l i m i t i n g t h e i r use. Interviews were used to gain information,about program planning and association aims and purposes, with reference to whether or not these were oriented to c i t i z e n s h i p education. Following a consideration of c i t i z e n s h i p education from the viewpoint of implications f o r Canada as a nation, this study outl i n e s b r i e f l y the h i s t o r y of the P.T.A. movement and then examines the focus of P.T.A. programs i n the Vancouver area. These are found to centre around (a) interpretation of the school to parents; (b) parent-child relationship problems; (c) topics of current i n t e r e s t i n the community and (d) programs portraying student s k i l l s and talents. Program planning i s , with three exceptions, c a r r i e d out with consideration f o r what i s thought to be the purpose of the association and the predominating Interests of i t s members. Seventeen associations out of f o r t y - f i v e reporting, or 38$, do not use any c i t i z e n s h i p programs or p r o j e c t s . The reasons given are (a) there are too few New Canadians i n the area to warrant time being devoted to the subject and (b) there i s no demand from t h e i r members f o r such programs. Three indicated they thought this was not a P.T.A. function. The remaining twenty-eight associations together devoted eighty hours or 6% of their t o t a l program time to citizenship a c t i v i t i e s . Of the twenty-eight, one association reported having devoted the f u l l year's program to c i t i z e n s h i p education f o r newcomers, using twenty hours. The programs used, i n order of frequency, are: (a) Films about Canadian l i f e and about other cultures; (b) s o c i a l evenings and afternoon teas; (c) "New Canadians" evening and (d) plays, pageants or concerts. Examination of records and f i l e s showed a great variety of material available from which c i t i z e n ship education programs could be r e a d i l y developed. No appreciable cooperation was found to e x i s t between P.T.A's and ethnic groups. This study indicates the need f o r cooperation and coordination amongst groups interested i n c i t i z e n s h i p education f o r newcomers. It i s concluded that P.T.A's, organized as they are i n p r a c t i c a l l y every l o c a l school area, could plan e f f e c t i v e l y f o r programs and projects which would help newcomers get a better understanding of, and f i t more e a s i l y and r e a d i l y into, the community. .Further study could be devoted, with p r o f i t , to the p a r t i c u l a r needs of each association with reference to the incidence of immigrant population and, consequently, the kinds of c i t i z e n s h i p programs and projects most pertinent to each area.  11 TABLE  Chapter 1.  OP  CONTENTS  problems of Citizenship In Canada  What i s meant by c i t i z e n s h i p . The Canadian Community. Canadian conceptions of c i t i z e n s h i p . Canadian immigration p o l i c i e s . National programs of Citizenship. The need f o r l o c a l action. Focus of present study* Chapter 2.  Page  1  Development of P.T.A's: Current A c t i v i t i e s  P.T.A. development i n Canada; i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Aims and objectives of the movement. Typical programs of P.T.A's i n the Vancouver area. Factors determining a c t i v i t i e s . The P.T.A. Council as a resource i n program planning. Material available f o r c i t i z e n s h i p programs. P.T.A. a c t i v i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to c i t i z e n s h i p education. ... 17 Chapter 3.  Accomplishments of P.T.A's.  Organizational problems - elementary school P.T.A's and junior and high school. The New Canadian c h i l d . Programs and projects used to i n t e r e s t New Canadians i n P.T.A's. Programs most frequently employed. Material available Chapter 4.  35  P o t e n t i a l i t i e s of P.T.A's.  Limiting factors i n program planning. The P.T.A. as a f a c t o r i n community organization. Programs voted most important. Planning an e f f e c t i v e program i n c i t i z e n s h i p education. Suggested steps i n program planning. Further areas f o r research. ... 45 Appendices:  Fig.  A. B. C.  Questionnaire. Interview Questions. Program Suggestions.  56 58 59  1  Time Devoted to Questionnaire Items  38  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The writer wishes to express h i s gratitude to those persons who contributed so generously of their, time and knowledge to this thesis, e s p e c i a l l y to Professor W. J . Dixon and Dr. L. C. Marsh, of the School of Social Work, f o r t h e i r patience and encouragement which were present from the inception of the thesis to i t s completion. Special thanks i s also due to Dr. W. G. Black, Liaison Officer, f o r his h e l p f u l suggestions, and to the many executive o f f i c e r s of Parent-Teacher Associations f o r t h e i r w i l l i n g cooperation i n completing questionnaires and making available the material on which this study i s based.  V  PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS A Study of the Objectives and Accomplishments of P.T.A's with respect to Citizenship Education  i PROBLEMS OF CITIZENSHIP IN CANADA F i f t y years ago, Canadian leaders with v i s i o n , f a i t h and courage proclaimed that the twentieth century belonged to Canada. They considered that the foundations f o r a great nation were well and t r u l y l a i d , and that the superstructure would develop l o g i c a l l y and s w i f t l y having as an object lesson the marvelous expansion,  consolidation and prosperity of the United States  to the south under what were considered to be p a r a l l e l conditions. Now  that one-half of the twentieth century has gone,  Canadians might well take stock and consider whether t h e i r country i s approaching  f u l l development or i f i t s l i m i t s are  s t i l l beyond the horizon. Phenomenal growth has taken place during the l a s t f i f t y years, economically and p o l i t i c a l l y , but this growth came mainly as the r e s u l t of two world-wars e n t a i l i n g enormously increased government expenditures which gave only a temporary increased national p r o d u c t i v i t y . In 1955  Canada s t i l l  has  many serious problems - unemployment, an Increasing national debt, decreasing foreign trade and a back-log of production surplus.  The enthusiasm and energy of the average Canadian  i s somewhat dampened and f r u s t r a t e d by the f a c t that the large part of the f r u i t s of h i s labor must be spent f o r general overhead of the country as a whole.  The o v e r a l l picture i s  that of a small population carrying a tremendous load.  With  an area of 3,750,000 square miles, Canada covers over 7% of the world area; her population of approximately  15,000,000 i s only  2 1/188  or .053% of the world population. Based on area alone  Canada should support 190,000,000 people I f I t accepted I t s f a i r share of world population. A symposium on Population Growth and Immigration i n t o Canada held at McMaster University i n 1949 concluded that, under favorable conditions, Canada (1) could absorb about 1,000,000 i n the next f i v e years.  Much  more study and research must be done i n this area to determine how i n t e l l i g e n t l y and promptly the absorptive capacity of Canada can be expanded but the need f o r a greater population i s evident since only one-quarter of the country i s opened up for settlement and our natural resources have scarcely been tapped. Changes In the r a c i a l composition of Canada's population i n recent years discloses that the ethnic balance Is being heavily t i l t e d against the B r i t i s h stock.  In the f i r s t census  taken a f t e r Confederation, i n 1871, the people of B r i t i s h o r i g i n constituted 60.55% of Canada's t o t a l population but the l a s t census held i n 1951 revealed that they had become a minority, with t h e i r percentage reduced to 47.89.  Moreover,  while the French percentage showed i n these years a s l i g h t decline from 31.07% to 30.83%, the percentage of other r a c i a l (2) groups had r i s e n sharply from 8.38 i n 1871 to 21.28 i n 1951. The f a c t that more and more people of non-British o r i g i n are s e t t l i n g i n Canada points up the need f o r the development of programs i n c i t i z e n s h i p education so that the 1. O'Neill, J.J., "Canada: Limited or Unlimited" i n the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Canada. Vol.45, 1951, p.112. 2. Stevenson, J.A., "Ottawa Letter" i n Saturday Night, 5 Mareh 1955, p.12. * — Q  3. newcomer may be helped to know h i s r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and to become a useful and happy member of the community. Before discussing program planning,  organization and promul-  gation, some consideration w i l l be given to the broad implications of c i t i z e n s h i p education i n Canada i . e . what Is meant by c i t i z e n s h i p ; what i s the nature of the Canadian community, and what are Canadian governmental p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g to immigration and c i t i z e n s h i p . What i s Meant by C i t i z e n s h i p . Citizenship i s a big word with more than one meaning. I t can be defined l e g a l l y and weighed i n terms of r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s and duties but i t s implications do not end  there.  Citizenship i s a matter of everyday l i v i n g and a thing of the heart.  I t implies an orientation of the i n d i v i d u a l towards  the common good of the country.  I t concerns the whole country  and not just parts of i t as a society or cooperative  group.  I t i s nourished and fostered by communication, by a r a t i o n a l understanding of the differences between Individuals, groups and communities because of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s , b e l i e f s , standards and i n s t i t u t i o n s .  I t requires responsible action not only on  the part of the i n d i v i d u a l but also on the part of a l l organized communities.  I t operates i n the home, the school,  the  community groups and at a l l l e v e l s of government but Is not to be confused with c i v i c s i . e . rules and regulations,  do's  and don'ts, which are minor elements and not ends In themselves.  Citizenship i s b a s i c a l l y the f u l l e s t expression  man's needs i n conformity with the demands and l i m i t s of community and country.  of  4. The Canadian Community. U n t i l recent years the picture brought to mind by the word "Canada" was that of a country of dichotomies, a country of two races, two r e l i g i o n s , two languages, two cultures. ' Prior to World War 1, the concept of a d i s t i n c t i v e Canadian community scarcely existed.  However, a f t e r two wars i n which  the name "Canada" symbolized vigor and v i t a l i t y i n i t s armies, s t a b i l i t y and steadfastness i n i t s government and unity of purpose i n i t s people, there i s an awakening i n t e r e s t i n the essence of this almost newly discovered e n t i t y .  Statesmen,  h i s t o r i a n s , educators, writers - a l l have been s t a r t l e d by the phenomenal development the  and a l l have sought to discover  I n t r i n s i c fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i t s elements,  that i s , i t s people.  As a r e s u l t , the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g  to studies of the Canadian community reveals d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n d e t a i l but some uniform consistency i n the general concept. Bruce Hutchison, i n an examination of the Canadian (1) personality sees Canadians as "unimaginative, prosaic, p i t i f u l l y i n a r t i c u l a t e and s i n g u l a r l y lacking i n humor". He writes of Canadians as being a "lonely" people with national humility, but who accept nothing, "least of a l l limitations". the  He thinks that too much emphasis i s l a i d on  assumption that there i s a lack of unity throughout the  land. 1. Hutchison, Bruce, "The Canadian Personality" as quoted i n Our Sense of Identity, (Malcolm Ross;, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1954.  In h i s opinion, d i v e r s i t y i n Canada, as i n a family where each member i s allowed to e x p l o i t to the f u l l his own a b i l i t i e s , i s a sure sign of strength and, i n f a c t , the best guarantee of unity. (1) Arthur M. Lower, a distinguised h i s t o r i a n , writes of the average Canadian as being sober, uncommunicative, r e t i c e n t , and with l i t t l e sentimentality i n h i s nature.  He speaks of the  d o c i l i t y of Canadians who are "ever ready to obey those who have made our decisions f o r us".  Lower draws attention to the  Canadian's great respect f o r law and order but he laments the lack of unity or cohesion i n the Canadian community, a t t r i b u t i n g this to the f a c t that i n this country there was never any common revolutionary experience to fuse a l l the various elements together.  Prom an economic viewpoint the Canadian, to Professor  Lower, i s "completely subjective to American i n d u s t r i a l imperialism" and "completely imbued with the branch plant, c o l o n i a l mentality".  He sees the Canadian community as an  i s o l a t e d community with an e s s e n t i a l parochial outlook. The flt. Hon. S i r Vincent Massey, Governor-General  of Canada,  seems to have a clearer conception of the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the (2) Canadian community.  He sees as symbolic of Canadian!am such  concrete substances as the canoe, the totem pole, Marquis wheat and the lacrosse s t i c k .  He, too, notes the Canadian's healthy  respect f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n s of government and writes of the Canadian as one dedicated to tolerance, not given to extremes, l. Lower, A.R.-M., (Canada, Nation and Neighbor, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1952i 2. Massey, Vincent, On Being Canadian, J.M.Dent, Toronto, 1948. 1  6 .  an i n d i v i d u a l of sober temperament, deliberate tempo and moderation i n l i f e ' s habits.  He sums up the community moral  q u a l i t i e s as "patience, i n t e g r i t y , tolerance and a sense of re spons i b i l 1 t y " . (1)  Prof. D. C. Glark, makes the sweeping statement that the Canadian community " i s but a pale r e f l e c t i o n of the American community".  He claims that there are not two separate  cultural  systems but rather a number of forms of community organization related c h i e f l y to underlying conditions of economic l i f e . According to Clark, the development of Canadian communities was  r e s t r i c t e d by fear of absorption by the United States, since  expansion could go only as f a s t as i t was protected from conquest.  This may  for law and  explain the Canadian reliance on and respect  order.  Hugh McLennan, teacher and writer, speaks of the Canadian community as e s s e n t i a l l y feminine, having a "purely  feminine  capacity f o r sustaining within her nature contradictions so d i f f i c u l t to reconcile that most s o c i e t i e s possessing them (2) would be torn by periodic revolutions".  Other feminine  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s he notes are hatred of quarrels and a tendency to compromise f o r the sake of peace i n the home.  McLennan  asserts that Canada i s the most stable country i n the world and i s outstanding f o r i t s conservatism  and i t s respect f o r  law and government. 1. Clark, D.C., "The Canadian Community" i n Canada (G.W. Brown), C a l i f . Presses Ltd., London, 1950. 2. McLennan, Hugh, London, 1949.  Cross Country, Wm.  C o l l i n s & Sons,  7. The opinions expressed above delineate the Canadian as stable, r e l i a b l e , industrious and f a i r l y i n t e l l i g e n t but rather d u l l and uninteresting. His i n d i v i d u a l resourcefulness and capacity to adjust and adapt are acknowledged, together with his  respect f o r law, order and t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Canadian Conceptions  of Citizenship  Of the people of Canada, t h e i r origins and the patterns and thinking of their d a i l y l i v i n g , too l i t t l e account has been taken i n any attempts to appraise our national values or to forecast our national goals.  Under the occasion and spur of  undeslred wars, Canada has found h e r s e l f possessed of unsuspected p o t e n t i a l i t y .  Prom the r e l a t i v e l y minor place she  previously occupied i n the estimate of the world, Canada has r i s e n to f r o n t - l i n e achievements.  No nation has  surpassed  Canada i n sudden discovery of h e r s e l f or given a more spectacular  demonstration  of growth i n productive capacity and power.  Yet Canadians have only recently begun to appraise, consciously, t h e i r nation according to the measure of i t s capacity and to assess t h e i r status as a nation. U n t i l the passing of the Canadian Citizenship 5111 i n 1946,  the Canadian " c i t i z e n " was  defined by reference as one  coming within the meaning of the d e f i n i t i o n of the Immigration Act.  During World War  I I , "Canada" patches Indicated a c i t i z e n -  ship that, u n t i l 1946, had no l e g a l basis i n i t s own  right.  Speaking to the second reading of the Citizenship B i l l on 2 A p r i l 1946,  the Hon. Paul Martin, then Secretary of State,  8. outlined the objectives of the B i l l i n the following words: "For the national unity of Canada and f o r the future and greatness of this country i t i s f e l t to be of the utmost importance that a l l of us, new Canadians or old, have a consciousness of a common purpose and common i n t e r e s t as Canadians - that a l l of us be able to say with pride and with meaning: "I am a Canadian C i t i z e n " . (1) Col.  George Drew, Leader of the Opposition, speaking  i n the same debate defined c i t i z e n s h i p as: more than the r i g h t to vote, more than the r i g h t to hold and transfer property; more than the r i g h t to move f r e e l y under the protection of the State; c i t i z e n s h i p i s the r i g h t of f u l l partnership i n the fortunes and i n the future of this nation". (2) John Diefenbaker spoke thus: "Legislation of I t s e l f ean never b u i l d a united c i t i z e n s h i p . We owe ourselves the compulsion, regardless of our r a c i a l o r i g i n , of understanding each other's point of view. We must dedicate our determination to encourage and develop i n t h i s country mutual t r u s t and mutual tolerance". (3) During the debate there was  l i t t l e opposition to l e g i s -  l a t i v e recognition of c i t i z e n s h i p status.  A reluctance to  break away from Old Country t i e s was voiced by T.L. Church who  said:  "If the government puts this B i l l through they  w i l l l i v e to regret i t . thing i n the world".  B r i t i s h c i t i z e n s h i p i s the greatest  Mr. Pouliot, usually aggressive  loquacious, said simply:  "We  and  do not have a Canadian s p i r i t -  1. Martin, Paul, "Debate on Citizenship B i l l " , Hansard 1946, Vol. 1, p. 208, Queen*s Printer, Ottawa, 194o7~^ 2,3. Ibid., p.  209.  9. therefore this B i l l i s premature". The chief problem i n establishing functional c i t i z e n ship i n Canada might be expected to be the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the French-Canadian and Anglo-Saxon viewpoints. bill  Frank Under-  wrote: "Canadian statesmanship has had to deal with a special minority community i n French Quebec a minority which i s almost a nation i n i t s e l f , defending i t s r e l i g i o n , language and culture against the pressures of an unsympathetic environment".(1) However, although French and English-speaking Canadians  do not share a c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n nor a common language they do have i n common a unifying f a c t o r i n the legacy of freedom which came from Great B r i t a i n .  Freedom i s the core of any  democratic c i t i z e n s h i p and i t i s this legacy of freedom that has at a l l times held the two peoples together i n Canada. People from many countries with d i f f e r i n g standards and traditions now populate Canada and many more w i l l come.  Each  has valuable contributions to make by retention of t h e i r finest traditions.  We appear now to be coming to a conscious  r e a l i z a t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of these t r a d i t i o n s i n the establishment of Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p . Canadian Immigration P o l i c i e s Shortage of people may well become Canada's No. 1 problem.  This country i s one of the world's greatest producers  1. Underhill, Frank, " P o l i t i c a l Parties and Ideas", i n Canada (G.M. Brown), Univ. of C a l i f . Press, Los Angelos, 1950.  10. of baa© metals, newsprint, wood pulp, wheat and i r o n ore; i t occupies a t e r r i t o r y l a r g e r than that of the United States but with less than a tenth of the U.S. population.  Very  important i n the establishment of a national c i t i z e n s h i p i s the top-level immigration p o l i c y , a p o l i c y which should be far-sighted and f l e x i b l e but r e a l i s t i c a l l y integrated with our economic development. Immigration p o l i c y of our Dominion government has remained stable i n recent years and i s best stated i n the words of the l a t e W. L. Mackenzie King speaking as Prime Minister i n a debate on immigration, 1 May  1947:  "Let me speak now of the government's long-term program. I t i s based on the conviction that Canada needs population. The government i s strongly of the view that our immigration p o l i c y should be devised i n a p o s i t i v e sense, with the d e f i n i t e objective, as I have already stated,, of enlarging the population of the country. The government w i l l seek by l e g i s l a t i o n , regulation and vigorous administration to secure the careful s e l e c t i o n and permanent settlement of such numbers as can advantageously be absorbed i n our national economy". {!) In A p r i l 1953,  the Hon. W. E. Harris, Minister of Immi-  gration and Citizenship said: "We s h a l l anticipate future development as c l o s e l y as we can and gear our immigration program to them. The approach w i l l continue to be a r e a l i s t i c one with the development of our economy the guiding factor". (2)  1.  Hansard, 1947, Vol.3, p. 2644.  2.  Ibid., p. 1953, Vol. 2, p. 706  11. National Programs of  Citizenship:  The Federal Government, through the Citizenship Branch of i t s Dept. of Immigration and Citizenship, has planned programs to stimulate awareness of and i n t e r e s t i n the great importance of c i t i z e n s h i p education.  The major functions of  the Branch as outlined by Minister Harris i n A p r i l 1953  are:  (a)  working c l o s e l y with national and voluntary organizations i n the f i e l d of c i t i z e n s h i p education.  (b)  a s s i s t i n g i n the creation and development of c i t i z e n s h i p committees (50 to date) which are devoted c h i e f l y to a s s i s t i n g new Canadians to adjust themselves more rapidly to l i f e i n Canada.  (c)  developing general c i t i z e n s h i p programs f o r the use of voluntary organizations. These programs embrace such themes as - the respons i b i l i t y of c i t i z e n s In a democracy - the problems of newcomers - language and c i t i z e n ship classes.  The Department has whereby i t w i l l pay  an agreement with the provinces  them a sum  equal to one-half the amount  expended by the provinces themselves i n respect of language and c i t i z e n s h i p classes f o r immigrants.  I t also o f f e r s free  of charge to the various departments of education a l l of necessary teaching In 1950  the  material.  the Department appointed Liaison Officers whose  chief duties are: (a)  1.  Hansard,  Close association with voluntary organizations and other agencies engaged i n work among newcomers and i n general c i t i z e n s h i p promotion.  1952-53, Vol. IV, p. 4374  12. (b)  Encouragement given to l o c a l c i t i z e n s h i p coordinating committees undertaking additional r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards immigrants beyond the i n i t i a l period of their adjustment.  (c)  Lectures to teachers and others engaged In work among immigrants.  (&)  Guidance given i n organizing Citizenship Day ceremonies and programs.  (e)  Study of special d i f f i c u l t i e s of such immigrants as professional persons and i n t e l l e c t u a l s .  (f)  Cooperation with the Canadian Society f o r Aid to Eastern European Refugees and with agencies developing special technical and language courses f o r s k i l l e d tradesmen.  (g)  Encouraging the establishment of numerous clubs and associations f o r the purpose of giving newcomers an opportunity of making s o c i a l contacts.  (hj  A s s i s t i n g i n the development of court ceremonies at numerous centres.  (i)  Organization of coordinated l o c a l programs of c i t i z e n s h i p promotion.  (j)  Personal counselling, through o f f i c e interviews, with immigrants having special problems. (1)  We have also at the national l e v e l the programs devised by the Canadian Citizenship Council, a voluntary organization formed i n 1940 and subsidized by the Federal Government whose objectives are given thus: "To develop i n a l l Canadians (and Canadians to be) a constantly growing appreciation of the meaning and implications of democracy as a way of l i f e , and a better understanding of the nature, p r i v i leges and obligations of c i t i z e n s h i p " . (2)  1. Annual Report of the Department of Immigration & Citizenship, 1952-55. Queen's Printer. Ottawa. 1955. p.3. 2. Annual Report of the Canadian Citizenship Council. 1952. Office of the C.C.C. Toronto, p.3.  13. During 1951 the Council sponsored Canada Abroad" program.  the "Projection of  Representatives were sent to the  "displaced-person" camps i n Germany where personnel awaiting transportation to Canada were given orientation service.  The  Council has also sponsored a Language Teaching I n s t i t u t e to devise new  techniques f o r language learning and to study the  problems of non-literates and language problems peculiar to industry.  There i s also a Consultant on Immigration  Education  who organizes teacher t r a i n i n g courses, prepares teaching aids and heads an advisory service to teachers through correspondence. In summary, i t appears that national programs designed to promote c i t i z e n s h i p education are varied and comprehensive but c h i e f l y concerned with adjustment of the immigrant. Suggestions made i n the Massey Report regarding o v e r a l l c u l t u r a l expression and expansion have not yet been implemented but there i s some i n d i c a t i o n that the government intends to act i n this area.  Too l i t t l e attention has been devoted  to the arts and l e t t e r s i n the Canadian community - to most Canadians they are " f r i l l s " rather than a f i e l d of creative experiences.  Consideration should be given to a more balanced  national program of c i t i z e n s h i p education whereby there  may  be fostered a mutual understanding of obligations, responsibi l i t i e s and personal p a r t i c i p a t i o n by both immigrant and native born.  14. The Meed fop Local Action; While national programs may give general d i r e c t i o n and guidance i n the f i e l d of c i t i z e n s h i p education, f i n a l respons i b i l i t y f o r implementation of such programs l i e s within the individual communities - i n the home, the school, the church and the many l o c a l organizations and agencies. The f i r s t s o c i a l group each of us must f i t into Is the family.  Here we face f i r s t the problem of conforming to a  set of behavior rules, of accepting guidance or confronting authority or of showing i n i t i a t i v e and assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The family i s the only consistent influence on the c h i l d f o r the f i r s t f i v e or s i x years of his l i f e and I t may well pervade his whole future. The school, as an agent i n citizenship training, i s important i n at l e a s t three ways; f i r s t , i t i s charged with d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r teaching future c i t i z e n s the p r i v i l eges and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of c i t i z e n s h i p ; second, by i t s very nature, the school exposes a l l youth to Its own patterns of thought and l i f e ; t h i r d , the school, i n many instances at least, offers p r a c t i c a l experience  i n community l i v i n g .  The  influence of the school i n c i t i z e n s h i p education i s almost unlimited. The church has many resources f o r citizenship  training.  Almost every church has a youth organization and most of them c a l l f o r study and action i n s o c i a l problems.  Besides  this  there are Canadian G i r l s i n Training, T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Squares a l l of which are sponsored by the Religious, Education Council of Canada.  A natural reluctance on the part of the  15. church to be aggressive In advertising  t h e i r resources has  led  to t h e i r not being used to the optimum. In the Greater Vancouver area many voluntary organizations are a c t i v e l y engaged i n programs f o r c i t i z e n s h i p education. The various ethnic groups, the Vancouver C i t i e n s h i p  Council,  z  the C i v i c Unity Association, and Ministers  the Institute of Social Workers  and Parent-Teacher Associations are the most  important of those with a d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t i n c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n ing.  Under the d i r e c t i o n of Dr. W. G. Black, Regional Liaison  Officer, a l l voluntary organizations and interested  individuals  are given not only guidance i n the development of programs but also d e f i n i t e material with which to work. rants are given personal counselling  Individual  by the Liaison  immig-  Officer  and books whose t i t l e s are self-explanatory, namely C i t i z e n as an Individual  - The  C i t i z e n as a Parent -  C i t i z e n as a Family Member - The - The  The  C i t i z e n as a Community Member  C i t i z e n as a Member of the Nation, and The  a Member of the World Community.  The  C i t i z e n as  Circulars from the  Liaison  Officer go out regularly to a l l Interested groups and duals. and  indivi-  These deal with every aspect of c i t i z e n s h i p education  training e.g.  What i t Means to be a Canadian C i t i z e n ,  Suggested Projects and A c t i v i t i e s i n Citizenship Work at Local Level; Citizenship  i n Action; Religion and  the  Citizenship;  Suggestions f o r Improving Your Community - and many others. A perusal of the monthly reports submitted by  the  Liaison O f f i c e r to the Department reveals a phenomenal variety  16. variety of a c t i v i t i e s carried on by personal contact.  In one  month - picked at random - the Liaison O f f i c e r had addressed eleven ethnic groups i n the c i t y , appeared on both t e l e v i s i o n and radio programs, spoken at meetings of the A l c o h o l i c Research Council, the Youth Counselling Service, Alcoholics Anonymous and the Institute of Soeial Workers and Ministers besides giving personal counsel to 125 o f f i c e v i s i t o r s  and  serving on many committees. In the Greater Vancouver area, at l e a s t , the national program has been brought to the l o c a l l e v e l through vigorous organization and administration.  To what extent these organiz-  ations - In p a r t i c u l a r the Parent-Teacher Associations - use the available resources i s the question this thesis attempts to answer. This study Is based on information gained by questionnaires submitted  to executive o f f i c e r s of associations i n the  Vancouver area and by interviews with (a) presidents and secretaries of P.T.A's of ethnic groups and Federation.  (b) school p r i n c i p a l s  (c) presidents  (d) o f f i c i a l s of P.T.A. Council and  Material f o r the h i s t o r y of the movement was  gathered from records i n the Office of the H i s t o r i a n . Minutes of associations and Council and records In the o f f i c e of the Liaison were made available f o r Information to programming.  relating  II  P.T.A. DEVELOPMENT AMD CURRENT ACTIVITIES Judged on the basis of membership, scope of a c t i v i t i e s and successful organization from l o c a l to national l e v e l , The Parent-Teacher Association movement i n Canada i s one of the biggest and most i n f l u e n t i a l of our voluntary organizations.  I t s influence reaches into p r a c t i c a l l y every d i s t r i c t  and home, either d i r e c t l y through i t s members or i n d i r e c t l y by the impact of i t s achievements i n providing improved educational f a c i l i t i e s f o r the c h i l d and i n f o s t e r i n g a better understanding  of teacher and school by parents.  I t s ever  growing membership - now estimated at 43,000 i n B r i t i s h Columbia and more that 300,000 i n Canada - makes I t s opinions worth considerable p o l i t i c a l consideration, but the organization i t s e l f i s non-political.  Following as I t does, a p o l i c y of  p o s i t i v e , constructive endeavor i n a l l matters r e l a t i n g to the general welfare of the c h i l d , the movement r e a d i l y generates public sympathy and support.  Any program i t undertakes or any  campaign i t supports meets with unusual success e.g. the national campaign against horror comic books, and the current l o c a l campaign f o r r a d i c a l r e v i s i o n of school report cards* Many voluntary organizations owe t h e i r inception to the i n t e r e s t and i n i t i a t i v e of women and the P.T.A. movement i s no exception.  Early schools provided l i t t l e but accommodation f o r  teacher and p u p i l s , and mothers got together to improve conditions.  In Canada we read of "Mothers' Clubs", "Art Clubs" and  18. and  "Parents' Clubs" which l a t e r united into "Home & School"  clubs or, i n other provinces  "Parent-Teacher" clubs,.  In the  United States the P.T.A. movement had Its o r i g i n In 1897 when a group met i n Washington and organized  the "National Congress  of Mothers", the name of which was changed i n 1924, (1)  to become  the "National Congress of Parents & Teachers". P.T.A. Development In Canada. In Canada the f i r s t Parent-Teacher Association was formed i n the Graigflower School D i s t r i c t , near V i c t o r i a , B. C , on (2) 8 September 1915.  The constitution of a C a l i f o r n i a counter-  part was used as a model a f t e r which to pattern a c o n s t i t u t i o n suitable f o r use i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The following year two  associations were formed i n Vancouver and i n t e r e s t i n the new organizations was greatly stimulated by an arrangement whereby prominent pioneers  i n P.T.A. work i n the western states (the  movement had been active there f o r 20 years) came to Vancouver, gave i n t e r e s t i n g accounts of the valuable work being done down there and offered p r a c t i c a l suggestions as to how progressive expansion could be developed i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  In 1916  Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and Alberta also had formed either P.T.A's or Home and School Clubs but i t was not u n t i l 1927 that organization at a p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l was s u f f i c i e n t to warrant a national federation.  In 1950 the national federation applied  f o r Letters of Incorporation under the Companies' Act of Canada and the corporation was named "The Canadian Home and School and Parent-Teacher Federation". 1. History of The Canadian Home & School and Parent-Teacher Federation, 1927-1952, p.2. 2. Early History of P.T.A's i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p.5.  19. Development In B r i t i s h Columbia. In A p r i l , 1917,  representatives from the s i x P.T.A's then  active i n Vancouver met  to form a central organization which  took f o r i t s name "The Parent-Teacher Federation of Vancouver and V i c i n i t y " .  From 1917 u n t i l 1922,  this federation c a r r i e d  on pioneer work, sending information and l i t e r a t u r e not only to other parts of this province but also to Interested persons i n the p r a i r i e provinces and even as f a r east as the  Maritimes.  This ever-increasing burden of s e c r e t a r i a l work indicated the need f o r a central organization and so the B.C. came into being i n 1922.  Federation  Its f i r s t convention, held i n 1922,  brought out an attendance of 283 delegates representing 60 (1) associations. The geographical problems of B r i t i s h Columbia made organization d i f f i c u l t i n r u r a l areas, much of the work having to be done by correspondence. by 1947  However, steady progress was made and  - the s l i v e r anniversary of the p r o v i n c i a l body - the  movement had grown to include 220 associations with 15,500 members.  Since that time expansion has been phenomenal and  the federation now boasts a membership of 540 associations and 43,000 parents.  The p r o v i n c i a l body acts as a l i a i s o n between  l o c a l groups and the national body.  I t also provides sugges-  tions f o r l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s by means of i t s annual "President's Package" outlining suggestions f o r the year s programs. 1  i t s annual convention l o c a l groups present resolutions to 1.  History of the P.T.A. Movement i n B.C.  p. 35.  At  20. determine concerted action when necessary.  Since 1928 there  has been published an o f f i c i a l magazine, the B.C. Parent-Teacher News with s i x issues a year giving f u l l coverage to a l l matters of member Interest.  The p r o v i n c i a l federation also helps  l o c a l groups b u i l d up t h e i r membership through annual membership campaign material provided free of charge.  The federation  i s financed by an annual levy of 40^ per capita on association members, 5tf of which goes to the National Federation. Alms and Objectives of P.T.A's. O r i g i n a l l y , organizations of parents approached the schools with the desire to do something to benefit them, that Is, to improve physical conditions and to o f f e r new opportunities f o r the children by furnishing as equipment f o r playgrounds, better l i b r a r i e s , hot lunches and more comfortable  class-rooms.  This  pattern was followed i n Canada f o r the f i r s t 25 years of P.T.A. a c t i v i t y , to such an extent, i n f a c t , that i n 1947 Dr. S. R. Laycock, then National President, drew attention to "the danger of putting back the clock by making the question of the adequacy of school buildings and school equipment a matter of (1) private funds r a i s e d by voluntary e f f o r t " .  In Dr. Laycock's  opinion one of the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of these associations was to study the needs of the ohild, the school and the school system and then create enough public opinion that l o c a l school boards, larger u n i t boards and departments of education would f e e l impelled to make the needed provision f o r such services as were found lacking but e s s e n t i a l . 1. Laycock, S.R., "Parent-Teacher Objectives" i n Twenty -Five Years of Child Welfare, published by B.C. P.T.A. Federation, 1947, p. I'd.  21. The objectives of the P.T.A. movement at the present time as formulated by the National Federation and adopted by a l l associations are as follows: 1.  To promote the welfare of children and youth.  2.  To raise the standards  3.  To promote and secure adequate l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the care and protection of children and youth.  4.  To f o s t e r cooperation between parents and teachers i n the training and guidance of children and youth.  5.  To obtain the best f o r each c h i l d according to his physical, mental, s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l needs.  6.  To give parents a better understanding of the schools and t h e i r work and to a s s i s t i n i n t e r p r e t ing the schools to the p u b l i c .  7.  To confer and cooperate with organizations, other than schools, that concern themselves with the care, protection and t r a i n i n g of children and youth i n the home, school and community, and with the education of adults to meet these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  8.  To f o s t e r high ideals of c i t i z e n s h i p and p a t r i o t i s m and to promote i n t e r n a t i o n a l good-will and peace. (1)  of home l i f e .  With regard to the l a s t named, the 12th convention the National Federation, 1949,  of  passed a r e s o l u t i o n i n which  i t "strongly recommended that at l e a s t one meeting a year be devoted to some aspect of c i t i z e n s h i p , i n our aim to achieve our common goals:  a stronger and more enlightened  patriotism, a better r e a l i z a t i o n of true democracy, and a (2) country exemplifying r e a l brotherhood". The only other reference to c i t i z e n s h i p at the national conventions  was  i n 1951 where a project at Prince Rupert was  1. History of the Canadian Home & School and Parent-Teacher Federation, p. 78; 2.  Ibid, p. 67  22. brought to the attention of the delegates.  In this project  a c i t i z e n s h i p council had been set up to promote c i t i z e n s h i p a c t i v i t i e s , including the welcome and acceptance Into the community of recent immigrants. In recent years the e f f o r t s of the movement have been directed more to programs, projects and campaigns designed to improve conditions and raise standards i n home, school and community.  An example of the l a s t Is the campaign c a r r i e d  on In the interest of the Native Indians and their needs which helped bring about an amended Indian Act by the Federal Govern(1) ment assuring better conditions f o r the Indian.  Other reeent  a c t i v i t i e s of P.T.A's i n d i c a t i n g a wider f i e l d of interests are their annual observation of Brotherhood Week, provisions of scholarships f o r students, support f o r the establishment of dental c l i n i c s and health centres throughout B r i t i s h Columbia and the observance, through t h e i r i n i t i a t i v e , of World Goodw i l l Day annually on 18 May. Typical Programs of P.T.A,'s In The Vancouver Area. Conclusions regarding the most common kinds of programs developed by P.T.A's i n the Vancouver area were arrived at by a study of the information gained by the questionnaire (App.l), by. v i s i t s to l o c a l meetings and by interviewing 35 executive o f f i c e r s and school p r i n c i p a l s .  In general these  programs and projects are arranged t o eomply with the interests of the l o c a l group and may be c l a s s i f i e d as follows: 1.  History of the Parent-Teacher  Movement, p. 13.  23. (a)  Interpretation of the school to parents. Programs designed to give parents a  better understanding of the school are u n i v e r s a l l y used i n the area studied, but much more time Is given to them by those associations linked to elementary schools.  The reason f o r  this* i n the opinion of school p r i n c i p a l s and P.T.A. p r e s i dents i s that parents show most i n t e r e s t i n their children's f i r s t experiences with the school and that younger parents are most active i n P.T.A. work so that more programs are devoted to their i n t e r e s t s .  Understanding of the school, what  i t does at each grade l e v e l , the problems facing the c h i l d at d i f f e r e n t stages and how parents may help teachers - these form the basis of many programs and projects.  Usually this i n t e r -  pretation i s done by the l o c a l teachers who come to the association meeting, explain how  they work, t e l l what they  expect of the c h i l d and then discuss any questions the parents wish to bring up. than most.  This type of program sparks better discussion  I t also gives parents and teachers a chance to get  acquainted with each other through mutual understanding of common problems.  Some P.T.A's have members of the school board  address them to explain administrative problems and general policy.  Tours of the school are common to elementary and high  school association projects.  Children are used as guides and  class-rooms often l a i d out to show samples of students' work In  the d i f f e r e n t subjects.  Leaving elementary school to go to  high school i s often a trying experience f o r a c h i l d .  High  schools make the t r a n s i t i o n easier by having these children as  24. guests f o r an afternoon at the end of the term preceding t h e i r entry.  So that the parents may better help the c h i l d  at this time, counsellors are i n v i t e d to association meetings to explain the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by t h e i r children i n moving. This program i s reported as being e s p e c i a l l y well received by a l l parents since i t helps them with a problem that they a l l , sooner or l a t e r , w i l l have to face.  One past-president of the  B.C. Federation told the writer that the biggest handicap facing the P.T.A. movement i s the "mutual d i s t r u s t " of parent and teacher.  I f this i s a v a l i d appraisal, then the type of  program which provides the opportunity f o r mutual understanding between parent and teacher should have a high p r i o r i t y i n program planning. (b)  Parent-child relationship problems. Programs which help the parent appreciate  demands made on the c h i l d by the school, as i n (a) above, should promote better parent-child relationship and, as a consequence, happier homes.  However, there are many other causes than the  school f o r parent-child misunderstandings  and discord, e.g.  o v e r l y - r i g i d parental authority and, probably most common of a l l , parental ignorance of the features and implications of the d i f f e r e n t stages i n c h i l d development.  Parent-teacher  associations i n the Vancouver area are aware of the prevalence of these problems and through certain programs are helping parents understand the importance  of providing children with  emotional as well as physical nourishment.  25. The most common type of program i n this category i s the f i l m , followed by a professionally q u a l i f i e d person to d i s cuss with parents questions that arise i n t h e i r minds from seeing the f i l m . C h i l d " and "How  Such films as:  "Shyness", "The Deprived  a Child Grows" are used and the discussion l e d  by a mental heal.th coordinator or p s y c h i a t r i s t .  A l l associa-  tions using these films report great parent Interest and worthwhile discussions following. for  Another type of program  the same purpose was used by four P.T.A's this year.  This  was a series of study groups which took f o r t h e i r subjects the d i f f e r e n t stages i n c h i l d growth and development I.e. infancy (to end of the t h i r d year); pre-school; early school and adolescence.  Normal development of each stage was  studied, then problems as seen by parents.  The response of  parents to this program was rated "excellent". tion experimented  first  One associa-  by having an outstanding psychoanalyst  speak to the members In one group.  This was not considered  successful - but perhaps the speaker's choice of subject was unfortunate inasmuch as she discussed:  "The Father's Responsi-  b i l i t i e s i n Raising a Family", and fathers at P.T.A. meetings, with a few exceptions, are conspicuous by t h e i r absence. president of this l o c a l f e l t that the t i l e was  The  "unfortunate"  and pointed i t up as an example of the Importance of small things i n program planning. phrasing of the topic was  He said that the purpose of that  to arouse the f a t h e r s ' i n t e r e s t and  bring them out, whereas i t actually frightened them away.  26. (c)  Topics of current i n t e r e s t . Without exception l o c a l P.T.A. groups  spend at l e a s t one evening considering questions of p u b l i c interest.  This year the popular choice has been the Salk  p o l i o vaccine and f l u o r i d a t i o n .  Por the former,  medical  health o f f i c e r s have given generously of t h e i r own time to explain the scope, purpose and value of the l o c a l vaccination project; f o r the l a t t e r , dentists have been the chief speakers. Other subjects considered are - t r a f f i c hazards and safety r u l e s , school taxation formulae, narcotic addiction and banning of f i r e - c r a c k e r sales.  One evening a month i s given over to  a discussion of resolutions which the group intends bringing to the attention of parents a t the annual p r o v i n c i a l convention. Another question of continuing public i n t e r e s t engaging the attention of P.T.A's at present i s that of mental health i n general and mental hospitals i n p a r t i c u l a r .  The Vancouver  branch of the Canadian Mental Health Association has made speakers available and l o c a l associations are taking advantage of this service.  This program i s at l e a s t p a r t l y responsible  f o r the increasing number of volunteers who are coming forward to take part i n the " v i s i t i n g " plan whereby patients i n mental hospitals are helped through f r i e n d l y laymen going to see them regularly and taking an i n t e r e s t i n them.  While a program  devoted to matters of public i n t e r e s t might tend to considerat i o n of things t r i v i a l , this danger has been avoided by P.T.A's. Their choice of topics i n a l l cases i s the r e s u l t of careful consideration of member i n t e r e s t and community welfare.  Since  27. the P.T.A. Is n o n - p o l i t i c a l , any question which might involve partisan p o l i t i c s i s barred. (d)  Evenings f o r displays by c h i l d r e n . No other program can compete, i n terms  of member attendance, with the one where children play the chief r o l e .  Very often children provide a musical item or a  dance between educational features; other times the children provide the main feature.  Physical education displays, plays,  pageants, variety concerts and choirs are a l l used f o r program content.  This i s not a major type of program i n the Vancouver  area; s i x associations reported a f u l l evening given up to i t and twelve others found i t valuable to f i l l i n as entertainment between main features. Factors Determining P.T.A. Program A c t i v i t i e s . P.T.A. a c t i v i t i e s depend, i n the main, on what the executive o f f i c e r s see as the role or purpose of the association.  A l l persons Interviewed were asked to express an opinion  as to what they considered should be the main area of P.T.A. interest.  Twenty association o f f i c e r s and ten teachers  stressed an understanding of the school, four o f f i c e r s considered parent-child relationships as most important and  one  president thought, d e f i n i t e l y , that "parent education" should be the chief concern since parents i n general were "Ignorant" of school matters and c h i l d - r a i s i n g .  One teacher saw the main  function of the P.T.A. as fund-raising and explained that there were many things a school needed and could only obtain through private funds e.g. musical supplies, audio-visual equipment  28. and enough sports equipment.  The following are representative  of the opinions expressed: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)  to interpret the school to parents. to get parents interested i n what i s going on i n the school. should centre on understanding the c h i l d i n the school. should confine i t s e l f to programs r e l a t i n g to the c h i l d and the school. to provide a better understanding of c h i l d and parents. vehicle f o r interpreting teaoher's r o l e . to create better relationships between teacher, parent and c h i l d . " L i t t l e Johnnie" i n the middle between school and home. Bring the ends together to help Johnnie.  In no instance was c i t i z e n s h i p education mentioned as a main area of i n t e r e s t .  When asked to give an opinion of t h i s ,  there was unanimous agreement that, i n d i s t r i c t s where there was a number of New  Canadians, the P.T.A. had a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  to make a speeial e f f o r t to help such parents towards an understanding of the school.  This attitude supports what was  stated above, that P.T.A's concentrate f o r the most part on matters of interest to the l o c a l group, (a)  Program planning. Thirty associations out of t h i r t y - f i v e  reporting have a program committeej the remainder have a chairman  only.  The l a t t e r arrangement was of necessity rather than  choice because of d i f f i c u l t y i n getting members to p a r t i c i p a t e  on committees.  In a l l associations with program committees,  teacher cooperation and p a r t i c i p a t i o n was rated as "very good" or "excellent". In elementary  schools i n p a r t i c u l a r , teachers  not only help plan programs but take an active part i n t h e i r presentation.  One association only complained  that teacher  29. i n t e r e s t i n the P.T.A. was  "poor".  School p r i n c i p a l s are,  by the Constitution, honorary presidents of the associations. In many schools I t i s "understood" that teachers attend at l e a s t two P.T.A. meetings a year. Most committees plan t h e i r programs f o r a year. have a "night" program they follow from year to year "Better-Parent Night";  "Safety-Night";  "Election-Night", etc.  Some e.g.  "Better-Health Night";  Some programs are planned by terms,  this being to overcome the d i f f i c u l t y experienced  In getting  outside speakers to commit themselves many months ahead.  The  one-man program associations report d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with programs presented,  the main complaint being that arrangements  are l e f t u n t i l too l a t e and done on an emergency basis, (b)  Fund-raising a c t i v i t i e s . A l l P.T.A's i n the Vancouver area con-  tribute money to the school f o r "extras".  What Is perhaps  surprising i s that no association reported any  difficulty  r a i s i n g the funds required and amounts raised vary from around $100  to over $3,000 annually.  Usually one night i s given over  to this project and the association sponsors a bazaar, a c a r n i v a l , a fun f a i r or concert.  The funds r a i s e d are used  f o r a variety of purposes but by f a r the most common c o n t r i bution i s to school l i b r a r i e s .  Tape recorders, sports  equipment, records, a piano, audio-visual equipment have been provided besides regular annual contributions to eye-glass funds (to provide glasses f o r children unable to buy them) and bursary or scholarship funds.  In every case there appears  30. to be close scrutiny of the need f o r a certain contribution before i t i s given.  Prom information gained i n interviewing  presidents, the writer would estimate that Vancouver schools receive annually from the P.T.A's extras to the value of approximately  $25,000.  (c)  The school lunch-room. No review of P.T.A. a c t i v i t i e s would be  complete without reference to the very successful and worthwhile organization, equipping and s t a f f i n g of lunch rooms which the associations have done.  Only two of the associations con-  tacted had no lunch-room f a c i l i t i e s ; i n the others i t i s a P.T.A. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and mothers do the preparation and serving of food.  Organizing the mothers f o r this work i s a  major task i n i t s e l f since some schools have more than one hundred mothers on s h i f t s .  L i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i s experienced  i n getting volunteers and i t i s a work that appears to give the p a r t i c i p a n t s great s a t i s f a c t i o n .  The food served varies  from milk or cocoa to f u l l course meals, a l l served at cost. Where children are unable to a f f o r d milk, the l o c a l P.T.A. supplies i t f r e e .  Teaehers, parents and children are  appreciative of the valuable contribution to the child's health and happiness made by the P.T.A. through i t s lunch -room a c t i v i t i e s . The Vancouver P.T.A. Council As A Resource In Program Planning. When the B.C. Federation of P.T.A's was  formed i n 1922,  the Vancouver groups organized t h e i r Council, a body designed to coordinate l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s and act as a l i a i s o n between  31. p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l associations.  The Council has what i s  probably a unique program counselling service f o r i t s members. In order to r e l i e v e l o c a l group secretaries from the necessity of having to examine, evaluate and f i l e an ever-growing body of informational material, the Council has b u i l t up a program d i v i s i o n which has available f o r members information on subject and also suggestions on how r e l a t i n g to that subject.  to carry out programs  Within the program d i v i s i o n are  sections responsible f o r the following: Education;  any  School Education;  Pre-School; Parent  School Board; Health;  Safety;  Youth Welfare; Community Standards; Pine Arts; Children's Reading; World Understanding; L i t e r a t u r e ; Magazines; Public Relations; and Rural Schools. this resource  P.T.A. presidents report using  extensively f o r programs where members take  part e.g. study groups and debates.  This resource has  the  advantage of r e l i e v i n g secretaries of a l o t of routine work; the only disadvantage might be that l o c a l groups do not have the material at hand and ready to use or that they might not know what i s available at Council. Material Available f o r Citizenship Education Programs. The Council has no section e s p e c i a l l y designated "Citizenship" but the sections responsible f o r community standards and world understanding probably cover that f i e l d . There i s available, however, a wealth of material r e l a t i n g to c i t i z e n s h i p education which i s published by and may  be  obtained from the federal Citizenship Branch at nominal cost. One pamphlet c a l l e d "Information f o r Newcomers" l i s t s  32. twenty-five d i f f e r e n t areas or subjects where Hew need help.  Canadians  This one pamphlet could form the basis f o r d i s -  cussion periods with newcomers who  doubtless are anxious to  know about such things as l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , school courses f o r adults, purchase of property, s o c i a l welfare provisions and recreational f a c i l i t i e s .  The Branch also has a series of  booklets dealing with the c i t i z e n - as an i n d i v i d u a l , as a parent, as a family member, as a community member, as a member of the nation and as a member of the world community.  These  are a t t r a c t i v e l y i l l u s t r a t e d to show p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and questions are given to provoke thought and f a c i l i t a t e discussion e.g. one booklet says the community member "should respect the rights of his neighbors", then asks: neighbors have?"  "What rights do our  and "In what ways might we show respect f o r  the rights of our neighbors?"  There are other books dealing  with the Canadian scene e.g. "Our Government"; "Our  Resources";  Many of these could be d i s t r i b u t e d to newcomers by the P.T.A. or they could be used f o r discussion periods.  Here i s a  resource i n helping newcomers to a better understanding  of  their country of adoption - a resource that has not yet been used to any extent. Conclusions:  P.T.A. A c t i v i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to Citizenship Educ.  The above review of P.T.A. a c t i v i t i e s shows that, In the Vancouver area, l o c a l associations are headed by people  who  are interested i n - and often enthusiastic about - the work t h e i r associations do.  We found, too, that P.T.A's have the  support and active i n t e r e s t of teachers.  Programs undertaken  35. i n Vancouver cover a wide range of topics, a l l important and pertinent to the welfare of home, school and c h i l d . survey indicates c l e a r l y that, at the present  This  time, c i t i z e n -  ship education f o r New Canadians i s a secondary consideration i n P.T.A. program planning.  Reasons why this i s so w i l l be  considered l a t e r i n this t h e s i s .  What has been established  so f a r i s that association programs are c a r e f u l l y planned, successfully promulgated and well received by the membership, but the planning does not include any major program of c i t i z e n ship education f o r the newcomer.  The extent to which such  programs are a c t u a l l y being used i n the Vancouver area w i l l be discussed i n Chapter 3.  Ill  ACCOMPLISHMENTS OP P.T.A's IN CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION FOR. NEW  CANADIANS  This chapter deals with the examination  and interpre-  tation of information provided by P.T.A. presidents through completion of a questionnaire (Appendix 1) sent to them. Questionnaires were sent to a l l 53 associations i n the Vancouver area. was  Forty-five were returned.  The information thus obtained  supplemented by the interviews mentioned above.  Officers  and teachers were most cooperative i n discussing association a c t i v i t i e s and many offered more help i f l a t e r required. Members of the Council were equally generous In making a v a i l able records i n the o f f i c e of the H i s t o r i a n . Material r e l a t i n g to the work done by the Community Influences committee of the National Federation was made available by Dr. W. G. Black, Liaison Officer, who  also gave access to records i n h i s o f f i c e  which were relevant to this study. Organizational Problems.- High School and Elementary P.T.A's. In Vancouver there are f i f t y elementary and fourteen secondary schools.  Forty-five of the former and eight of the  l a t t e r have active parent-teacher associations, the oldest of which was formed i n 1916 while the youngest Is i n i t s f i r s t year. P.T.A. o f f i c e r s and sehool p r i n c i p a l s agree that the secondary school association has more obstacles to overcome i n operating successfully than does the group organized around an elementary school.  In every Instance, the secondary school P.T.A. draws  35. Its membership from an area already serviced by elementary associations - this makes I n i t i a l organization more of a problem.  Parents very often are already members of one P.T.A. and  when they have children both at elementary and high schools, they usually stay with the elementary association.  Presidents  and p r i n c i p a l s alike agree that parents i n the younger age group are more interested i n association work.  As they grow  older they develop a wider f i e l d of interests and haven't the time to give to each i n t e r e s t that they formerly had.  Again,  as school p r i n c i p a l s noted, during his - or her - high school career, the student i s at the developmental stage where he begins to assert his individualism.  He tends to p u l l away from the  home, r e s i s t parental standards and go along with the group. Another factor here Is that parents - the majority at l e a s t can help younger children with t h e i r school work-problems but high school subject matter i s beyond t h e i r a b i l i t i e s .  For  younger parents too, greater i n t e r e s t centres around t h e i r child's f i r s t school experiences. i n program planning.  This i s a determining f a c t o r  As we have already observed the "know your  school" program Is very popular at the elementary l e v e l .  It is  probable that any program devoted to c i t i z e n s h i p would not generally appeal to the younger parent who i s most deeply concerned with problems a r i s i n g out of the immediate necessities of s t a r t i n g a home, r a i s i n g a family and getting his children adapted to school l i f e .  However, P.T.A's may use this knowledge  to advantage i n any project to i n t e r e s t newcomers - they may  feel  sure that the younger parents i n that case would be p a r t i c u l a r l y  36. interested i n P.T.A.• a c t i v i t i e s provided the programs were adequately interpreted to them. The New Canadian C h i l d . Every year varying numbers of children of d i f f e r e n t ages and various n a t i o n a l i t i e s , unable to speak or understand English, come here to l i v e .  Special arrangements are made f o r these  children by the Vancouver School Board.  They are placed i n  "special classes", under s p e c i a l l y trained teachers, and given intensive training i n speaking, writing and understanding the English language.  These classes are held i n elementary  schools  and the l o c a t i o n of the classes varies to be central to r e s i dence areas  where New Canadians concentrate i n l a r g e s t numbers.  At- the present time there are twelve such classes i n operation, (1)  with an enrolment of Two Hundred and Forty-One p u p i l s .  The  average class attendance i s around f i f t e e n which allows f o r a high degree of i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n .  Students are recommended  for these classes by the p r i n c i p a l of the school, elementary or secondary,  where the newcomer e n r o l l s .  Upon graduation from the  special class, he takes on regular grade work according to how much schooling he had i n h i s native land.  The special class usu-  a l l y has a p u p i l f o r eighteen months or two years.  With this  preparation the New Canadian, according to school p r i n c i p a l s , f i t s well Into school l i f e , although he Is normally one or two years behind h i s age-grade.  New Canadian children are l e s s a  1. Dr. J. M i l l a r , i n charge of Research, Vancouver School Board. Personal Interview.  37. d i s c i p l i n a r y problem than the Canadian-born and, on the average, more d i l i g e n t i n class-room studies.  Parent-Teacher Associations  have representation on the p r o v i n c i a l department of education curriculum committee and through this medium may work toward an e f f e c t i v e program of c i t i z e n s h i p education i n the schools, benef i c i a l to native-born as well as newcomer.  However, the area  where P.T.A's would seem to have a stronger influence i s i n working with the adult or parent newcomer i n his home and i n association meetings.  Mothers, regardless of r a c i a l o r i g i n ,  have s i m i l a r problems i n r a i s i n g a family; the New  Canadian  mother's problems are i n t e n s i f i e d by her being i n a land of strange customs and of d i f f e r e n t language, and i t i s here that mothers i n P.T.A's could render support, help and encouragement. Before success can be achieved i n this respect, Canadian mothers w i l l have to recognize the natural reluctance of newcomers to mix where their language Is not understood and projects designed to bring newcomers into the association should be long-term, carried out with p e r s i s t e n t patience. Programs and projects used to i n t e r e s t Newcomers i n P.T.A's. The following enumeration and evaluation of P.T.A. a c t i v i ^ t i e s i n c i t i z e n s h i p education f o r New  Canadians emerges from  analysis of the questionnaire sent to P.T.A. presidents.  The  number of associations using the programs outlined i n the questionnaire and the time spent are shown by the following table.  On a basis of ten meetings a year, l a s t i n g two and a  h a l f hours each, i n f i f t y - t h r e e l o c a l s , we have a t o t a l of hours, of which approximately  676 were given to c i t i z e n s h i p  1325  38. programs. discussed  The reasons f o r lack of a c t i v i t y i n this area w i l l be later.  Figure 1:  Time Devoted to Questionnaire Items Time Taken  No. of Items Used  No. of P.T.A's  nil 1 hour, i£ " 2 " 3 4 10 " 16 "  none I 2 3 4 5 6 8  17 10 6 4 2 3 2 1  Content of Programs Most Frequently Used. (a)  Films. Twenty associations reported the use of f i l m s ,  educational and entertaining, as a suitable medium f o r i n t e r e s t i n g those who have language d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Besides the films l i s t e d i n  Chapter 2 which are used as of value to both Canadian and New Canadian, some associations report using f i l m - s t r i p s showing Canadian industries e.g. logging, farming, f i s h i n g , and two associations have used films showing some customs peculiar to western Europe e.g. Dani s h farming methods and Alpine bread-making.  Although twenty  associations l i s t e d films as designed to i n t e r e s t New Canadians,  there i s l i t t l e evidence that the films were selected f o r that purpose, (b)  Social Evenings & Afternoon Teas. Twelve associations l i s t e d s o c i a l evenings and  afternoon teas used to bring i n New Canadians.  In ten of these  the event was f o r the one purpose of introducing to regular members those New Canadians recently coming into the d i s t r i c t . They thought this plan was " f a i r l y successful".  In the case of  39. the remaining two, the s o c i a l evening i s a regular part of each meeting, usually at the end.  Lunch i s served and any newcomers  present are made welcome and taken around and Introduced to as many of the regular members as time allows.  Afternoon teas  have not been found successful i n working d i s t r i c t s since the parents very often both work, or i f one i s at home there may be the problem of not being able to get - or a f f o r d - a baby -sitter. (c)  "New Canadians"  Evening.  Eight associations set aside one evening to welcome and introduce newcomers to the P.T.A.  These special  guests are Invited by v i s i t s to their homes, by written i n v i t a tions or by telephone c a l l s . results.  V i s i t s to the homes bring best  Regular members also attend on this evening.  The  programs vary but i n a l l cases newcomers are given an explanation of the purpose of the association and how i t may be of benefit to them and their children.  Two groups reported having  a discussion of immigrants' problems on this occasion, three used films f o r entertainment and three had a v a r i e t y program contributed to by adults and c h i l d r e n .  Response from the special  guests was expressed as "good" i n terms of numbers attending but, as i s found In the case of groups sponsoring a "Fathers  1  Night", there was not found to be a great gain i n membership. Few of the New Canadians entertained became regular attenders, but i t was agreed that as a f r i e n d l y gesture i t was a worth -while endeavor.  40. (d)  Plays, Pageants. Concerts. Five associations use plays, pageants or  concerts, using New i n the d i s t r i c t .  Canadian talent and i n v i t i n g a l l newcomers  This type of program brings a large attendance.  Native costumes, songs, dances and music feature the event. Associations interested i n this kind of program reported that i t means a l o t of time spent i n preparation and rehearsal and that this i s the main reason why (e)  think  i t i s not more often attempted.  Other Programs Used. Two groups only reported having New  present to hear talks on Canadian customs and manners.  Canadians One  group gave one hour to a discussion of problems facing immigrants. Pour groups expressed "support" of C i t i z e n ship Day programs but no d e t a i l s were furnished as to the extent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Three groups indicated cooperation  with  other organizations v i z . neighborhood houses and community centre clubs. One exceptional case deserves mention.  This  i s where one high school P.T.A., because of the large number of newcomers l i v i n g i n the d i s t r i c t , has devoted a l l i t s programs this year to c i t i z e n s h i p education f o r New  Canadians.  Films,  panel discussions (one by newcomers), a s o c i a l evening, a play and an "International F e s t i v a l " were the d i f f e r e n t programs used.  The president of this association commented that this  "one-sided" kind of program brought objections from some members. For that reason, i n future, they w i l l have a more balanced program planned.  41. Another method used successfully to Interest newcomers i n the association i s reported by one association.  Here special e f f o r t i s made to have New  mothers come to work i n the lunch-room. that some d i f f i c u l t y was  Canadian  The president  reported  experienced i n getting them started but  that once they came, they r e a l l y enjoyed the experience and were most r e l i a b l e .  Through this work the newcomers became  interested i n the association with the r e s u l t that the majority of them became regular  attenders.  Material Available Prom the National  Federation.  Any association considering c i t i z e n s h i p programs or projects for  New  Canadians i s naturally concerned with arranging  the  program and obtaining material relevant to i t s successful completion.  The best material f o r that purpose, as found i n this  study, i s that developed and d i s t r i b u t e d by the Community Influences Committee e s p e c i a l l y f o r use by P.T.A's.  This com-  mittee has issued a number of c i r c u l a r s dealing with what i s involved i n c i t i z e n s h i p education and giving guidance f o r p r a c t i c a l application through s p e c i f i c programs and projects. One of these c i r c u l a r s i s e n t i t l e d :  "Citizenship i n Action".  It gives, f i r s t of a l l , a reference l i s t f o r basic reading,  e.g.  "Canadian Welfare", "Food f o r Thought", "The Human Community" and "Community Organization f o r S o c i a l Welfare".  This i s followed  by a l i s t of government publications mentioned above.  Then f i l m  and f i l m s t r i p s available are named with the time required f o r t h e i r showing e.g.  "The House I Live In" (15 minutes) and  42.  "Peoples of Canada" ( 2 G minutes).  Sixteen of these are named.  The c i r c u l a r then outlines d i f f e r e n t forms a c i t i z e n s h i p evening may take with emphasis on the value of stimulating l o c a l interest by using membership talent where possible. Collaboration with other organizations, special s o c i a l evenings for newcomers, membership drives, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Court House ceremonies and annual Citizenship Day programs are some other suggestions.  This c i r c u l a r concludes with the suggestion that  small things used at every meeting may be a part of a planned c i t i z e n s h i p education program, e.g. the singing of "0 Canada" and "The Queen", displaying the f l a g i n the meeting room, observing democratic rules of procedure i n conducting meetings and c u l t i v a t i n g the s p i r i t of good-will and fellowship among association members. Other c i r c u l a r s are:  "What i t means to be a good c i t i z e n " ,  l i s t i n g the r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a Canadian citizen;  "Suggestions f o r improving your community"; "Religion  and Citizenship"; "Suggested topics on c i t i z e n s h i p f o r discussion by panels" which l i s t s twenty-one possible topics, e.g. "Junior Citizenship i n the Family" and "The Home as a School"; "Parents as Teachers".  There i s also an excellent c i r c u l a r dealing i n  d e t a i l with the potential contributions of the following to citizenship training:  the family, the school, the neighborhood,  the church, the community, the province, Canada, and the United Nations. This l i t e r a t u r e provides ample material f o r a planned  43. c i t i z e n s h i p program extending over several years. In Chapter 4 an evaluation w i l l be made of P.T.A. a c t i v i t i e s i n promoting c i t i z e n s h i p education f o r New Canadians. Suggestions w i l l be made as to how these a c t i v i t i e s may be expanded economically and e f f e c t i v e l y .  IV POTENTIALITIES OF P.T.A'S IN EXPANDING CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION PROGRAM Many organizations are well suited to develop e f f e c t i v e citizenship a c t i v i t i e s .  This study indicates that the parent  -teacher association i s one such organization.  Leaders of the  movement are committed to improving c i t i z e n s h i p standards i n the statement of alms and objectives. Twenty-eight out of f i f t y - t h r e e associations i n the Vancouver area have undertaken programs designed to help the newcomer but i t i s clear that the p o t e n t i a l i t y of the P.T.A. i n this respect has not been f u l l y exploited.  There are d e f i n i t e  l i m i t i n g factors i n the implementation of c i t i z e n s h i p programs but these are not insurmountable.  Some of these factors w i l l  be discussed i n this chapter and consideration given to ways and means by which associations may use t h e i r resources to organize and promulgate c i t i z e n s h i p education programs more e f f i c i e n t l y and more e f f e c t i v e l y . Limiting Factors. Organizational problems p a r t i c u l a r to High School P.T.A's as opposed to those developing around elementary schools were discussed i n Chapter 3 above.  Parents of younger children,  according to information gained i n this study, are c h i e f l y concerned with personal aspects of the school, that i s , they want to know what i s expected of t h e i r c h i l d i n the d i f f e r e n t grades, they are interested i n getting to know what sort of  45. people the teachers are and they are moat w i l l i n g to put time and e f f o r t i n t o , and support programs which aim at s a t i s f y i n g those interests or which propose to help the c h i l d by providing the school with things tangible such as l i b r a r y books, sports equipment or a hot lunch;  Parent members of elementary school  associations, i n general, appear to support most r e a d i l y programs and projects which are l o c a l or personal i n character.  Programs  devoted to c i t i z e n s h i p education are u n l i k e l y to e l i c i t the support necessary to make them e f f e c t i v e so long as there are pressing home-school problems s t i l l unsolved. I t i s possible that members of junior high and high school P.T.A's might be more enthusiastic about c i t i z e n s h i p programs. Children of these members are reaching the stage of considering jobs, f i r s t part-time  and l a t e r f u l l - t i m e ; they are moving away  from parental influence and becoming more interested i n community l i f e .  When parents become aware that t h e i r children are  f a s t becoming adults, their Interest i n such broader f i e l d s as c i t i z e n s h i p education  i s more e a s i l y aroused and sustained.  More consideration w i l l be given to this d i v e r s i t y of parental interests when program planning i s discussed below. Another f a c t o r l i m i t i n g the effectiveness of P.T.A. c i t i z e n s h i p programs i s the f a c t that t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a parents' association and, consequently, a large number of newcomers - those single or married without children - w i l l not come under the influence of the association.  Again, c i t i z e n s h i p  programs may be thought of as f a l l i n g into two classes v i z . those  46. oriented to children, t h e i r school s i t u a t i o n and t h e i r home and community adaptation, and those designed to help parents with both home and community adjustments.  While P.T.A's do  not enter d i r e c t l y into a c t i v i t i e s of the c h i l d while at school, yet they may, by t h e i r representation on the p r o v i n c i a l school curriculum committee, contribute constructive ideas to progressively improve c i t i z e n s h i p a c t i v i t i e s within the school. Executive o f f i c e r s of thos associations which make a special e f f o r t to i n t e r e s t neweomers agree unanimously  that the  response to and results of these e f f o r t s , measured i n continuing attendance at meetings, are disappointing. comments i n this respect were:  Representative  "they don't seem interested";  "they come once but don't return"; " i t i s something they haven't been used to and don't understand"; "they are only interested when t h e i r children take part".  This problem of resistance to  overtures i s one that requires careful planning to overcome since i t Involves an understanding and acceptance of former c u l t u r a l customs and attitudes and requires patience and perserverance on the part of those who attempt to break down the barriers of apprehension and misunderstanding. Three associations expressed the opinion that, although newcomers are welcome at t h e i r meetings, no special e f f o r t should be made to "coax" them to attend.  To quote one p r e s i -  dent: In this area we get the f e e l i n g that New Canadians are either not interested at a l l , or else tliey expect special e f f o r t i n that d i r e c t i o n . Our members f e e l that there Is as much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the part of the New Canadian to i n t e r e s t himself i n the community as there i s on ours to make him welcome.  47. Another president thought that paying special attention to the newcomers "spoiled" them.  Only one president expressed  complete s a t i s f a c t i o n with newcomer membership and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n executive  functions and program a c t i v i t i e s .  The success i n this association was planning  a t t r i b u t e d to c a r e f u l  of membership drives and a balanced program which was  c a r e f u l l y developed by a program committee i n consultation with the executive  committee.  In general, l o c a l associations acknowledge a  responsib-  i l i t y f o r making special e f f o r t to bring newcomers Into  the  movement but are not s a t i s f i e d with the success accomplished. While response from New  Canadians i s considered poor and  t h e i r continuing attendance at meetings unsatisfactory, this cannot be attributed to attitudes or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s peculiar to the newcomer per se. when interviewed,  Prom information given by  presidents  the average attendance at l o c a l association  meetings varies from 25% to 50$ of signed up membership. l i b e r a l estimate of o v e r a l l average attendance would be  A  40%  so i t i s possible that newcomers attend as regularly as other members but, because of t h e i r smaller numbers, t h e i r absence i s more conspicuous.  The low r a t i o of attendance to t o t a l  membership i s attributed by most associations to the absence of fathers.  Only three associations reported paternal Inter-  est equal to the maternal.  The effectiveness of a l l P.T.A.  a c t i v i t i e s Is l i m i t e d by low average attendance, a f a c t o r which i s c e r t a i n l y not r e s t r i c t e d to the newcomer element alone.  Some associations found attendance improved greatly  48. by changing from afternoon to evening meetings and, at present, i t i s only i n exceptional cases e.g. when junior grade pupils are active i n the program, that afternoon programs are presented. In i n d u s t r i a l areas the problem of attendance i s aggravated by the greater incidence In those d i s t r i c t s of both parents being employed. When discussing this aspect of association l i m i t a t i o n s with p r i n c i p a l s and association executive o f f i c e r s , both groups were i n agreement that this problem needed more attention than had hitherto been given to i t .  One teacher expressed what appears  to be the general opinion i n saying:  "The people, New  Canadian  and native-born a l i k e , that we can help most and who need help most are those who  do not attend.  We haven't concentrated on  this problem as we should have". I t Is evident that any attempt to i n t e r e s t New  Canadians  i n a c i t i z e n s h i p program requires most careful planning i n the f i r s t stages v i z . i n getting them s u f f i c i e n t l y interested to attend meetings r e g u l a r l y .  Community resources which may  be  of value i n accomplishing t h i s are discussed below. The P.T.A. as a Factor i n Community Organization. One of the methods used i n this study was  that of i n t e r -  viewing presidents or secretaries of ethnic groups i n the Vancouver area.  Eight executive o f f i c e r s cooperated r e a d i l y to  discuss the a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r groups and their p o t e n t i a l benefits of cooperation with parent-teacher associations. Seven of the eight groups reported their a c t i v i t i e s as  49.  mainly s o c i a l .  A meeting place Is provided f o r members and  programs are designed to provide entertainment.  Dances, card  games and bingo were the chief a c t i v i t i e s reported.  The  membership i s made up l a r g e l y of single people i n the younger age groups and the club-room, except on special ethnic celebration days, i s not a meeting place f o r f a m i l i e s .  Only one  of these groups has sponsored any academic c i t i z e n s h i p program - i n this case i t had arranged f o r classes In English f o r newly arrived members.  The eighth ethnic group was organized  for the benefit of those interested i n maintaining communicat i o n with the home-land and i t s traditions and heritage through study of i t s l i t e r a t u r e .  None of the eight groups contacted  had had any communication with P.T.A's but there was general agreement that cooperation would be b e n e f i c i a l In organizing programs i n c i t i z e n s h i p education. That the P.T.A. movement could employ the methodology of community organization i n organizing c i t i z e n s h i p a c t i v i t i e s would seem apparent.  Ethnic groups could be used as valuable  resource agencies to provide the following: (a)  Information as to the numbers and l o c a l e of new-  comers who might be interested i n such programs. (b)  Suggestions as to which problems were most important  and how these might be a l l e v i a t e d . (c)  Speakers or material f o r programs.  (d)  A means whereby the proposed programs might be made  known to the group members.  50. In addition to cooperation with ethnic groups each l o c a l association could work with the Board of Trade, service clubs, churches, Y.M.C.A., etc., i n any project f o r c i v i c improvement such as health campaigns, campaigns f o r b e a u t i f i c a t i o n of the neighborhood and e f f o r t s to obtain such desirable f a c i l i t i e s as l i b r a r i e s and recreational f a c i l i t i e s .  I f newcomers could  be brought Into a c t i v i t i e s of performance where they contribute, a continuing interest would be more e a s i l y established.  This  was found to be true i n the case of the association mentioned i n Chapter 3 which introduced the newcomer, successfully, to the P.T.A. through the medium of working i n the lunch-room. A l i m i t e d application of community organization p r i n c i p l e s i s undertaken by a minority of l o c a l associations.  These  sponsor groups organized around a common i n t e r e s t such as a r t , writing or books and the groups meet at members' homes.  Three  P.T.A's reported a f f i l i a t i o n with l o c a l cub groups and g i r l s ' clubs, as well as interest-groups.  One evening a year -  " A f f i l i a t i o n Night" - these groups are special guests of the association; their a c t i v i t i e s are reviewed and further programs discussed. Questionnaire Items thought most Important i n Program Planning. Executive o f f i c e r s were asked to Indicate on the questionnaire which items, i n their opinion, were most e s s e n t i a l to a citizenship program.  In order of frequency of choice these  items are: (a) "New Canadians" Evening: Although this i s given p r i o r i t y i n order of  51. importance, only ten associations reported having used this means of bringing i n the newcomer.  Eight presidents c l a s s i -  f i e d this a c t i v i t y as s i m i l a r to a "Fathers' Night" project, both being e f f e c t i v e only i n bringing out the special guest f o r that one occasion.  An evening devoted exclusively to the  interests of the New Canadian would appear to be an excellent means of Introducing him to the association, but i t should be followed up by c a r e f u l l y planned means of continuing newcomer i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  I t i s possible that i n s u f f i c i e n t  interpretation i s given to the newcomer because of language difficulties.  He may see the special evening as Just that  Instead of as a part of a continuing a c t i v i t y , (b)  Films about Canadian L i f e . Twenty associations reported using these but  no information was obtained as to how these were used. f i l m i s employed as entertainment, f u l l y exploited.  I f the  i t s value p o t e n t i a l Is not  Arrangements should be made f o r discussion  of the subject matter whenever possible.  Films dealing with  personality problems were apparently l i s t e d under this heading; whenever these were shown arrangements were made f o r a discussion period afterwards.  The value of this l a t t e r type of f i l m  i n parent education, newcomer or Canadian-bom, i s evident, (c)  Projects f o r V i s i t i n g New Canadians at Home. Six associations have made this a c t i v i t y a  part of t h e i r regular program.  Again evaluation of e f f e c t i v e -  ness i s d i f f i c u l t since no information i s available as to the nature or extent of the a c t i v i t y i . e . whether one or more v i s i t s  52. were made and whether Individuals or groups represented the association.  To be e f f e c t i v e any such project would have to  be consistent even i n the event of unsatisfactory f i r s t response. (d)  Discussion of Problems Relating to Immigrants. Although this type of program was voted fourth  i n order of importance, only three associations reported having used i t .  Any planned program to help newcomers adjust to a  new community must be related to the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by the newcomer.  Here i s where P.T.A's may use to great  advantage the experiences and services of l o c a l New Canadians. A panel discussion gives best r e s u l t s ; where a single speaker attempts to portray the problems to a large body audience, response by p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been unsatisfactory. (®)  Plays, Pageants and Concerts. This type of program may be made to serve a  double purpose i n that i t may be used to develop newcomer talent, c h i l d and adult, and i t may stimulate appreciation of other culture attributes e.g. native dances, songs, manners and customs.  Five associations have used this program and seven  others use newcomer talent as entertainment between other program items.  This type of program requires much more prepa-  ration than most and that Is probably why i t i s so l i t t l e used. The e f f o r t expended might seem more worthwhile I f the production were presented at a number of neighboring meetings instead of just l o c a l l y .  association  53. Planning an E f f e c t i v e Program i n Citizenship Education. Careful planning i s all-important i f any program i s to be successful.  Where a P.T.A. contemplates inaugurating  program of c i t i z e n s h i p education  a  successful organization  and  promulgation w i l l only be possible i f , (a)  there i s r e a d i l y available s u f f i c i e n t material and s t r u c t u r a l suggestions to implement the program.  As outlined i n Chapters 2 and 3 (see App.  C)  there  appears to be adequate material and suggestions i n the series of program outlines prepared by the Community Influences Committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Black.  Important i n this  material are the suggestions given f o r doing p r a c t i c a l  things  at each meeting to inculcate the general p r i n c i p l e s of good c i t i z e n s h i p , e.g. consistent application of democratic procedure at every meeting.  This study indicates that this material  has not been used as advantageously as i s possible by P.T.A's i n the Vancouver area. (b)  the association believes the program to be worthwhile and i t s objectives attainable.  There i s d i v e r s i t y of opinion as to the role of the P.T.A. and the types of programs that should be presented.  To be  successful, members must see the need f o r the program and then be ready to support i t e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to a successful conclusion. (e)  the cooperation, and i f possible the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Hew Canadian has been assured.  Here i s where d i f f i c u l t y i s usually encountered. overcome newcomer resistance needs thought, planning,  How  to  patience  54. and persistence, based on an understanding of the newcomers  1  attitudes and a sincere desire to help them with t h e i r problems. (d)  some e f f o r t has previously been made to determine the needs and i n t e r e s t s of the group f o r whose benefit the program i s devised.  Needs and i n t e r e s t s can be determined only by communication with the group concerned, although generally speaking, a l l newcomers have common needs and i n t e r e s t s v i z . a knowledge of English, help In getting to know community resources, housing regulations, etc.  This aspect may  Involve  local  considerable  work by regular P.T.A. members but i t i s e s s e n t i a l i f programs are to be time saving and  effective.  Suggested Steps i n Program Planning. 1.  A survey should be made by l o c a l associations to  determine the number of New  Canadians resident within the  district. 2.  There should be coordination of program planning  Council l e v e l , e.g. adjacent P.T.A's may  at  share an integrated  program to include newcomers within more than one  district.  This would make available more l o c a l talent and encourage i n t e r change of ideas. 3.  Arrangements should be made by the Council f o r orderly  d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i l m s , books, etc., so that program production of one association does not c o n f l i c t with that of another. 4.  Newspaper and radio f a c i l i t i e s should be used to  supplement advertising by l o c a l b u l l e t i n s . 5.  Membership talent should be used whenever possible.  55. 6.  By cooperative planning i n membership drives directed  to newcomers, associations may mutually benefit from the experiences of one 7.  another.  Consideration ought to be given to o f f e r i n g help to  newcomers with p r a c t i c a l Issues e.g. d i s t r i b u t i o n of departmental material r e l a t i n g to c i t i z e n s h i p papers, giving interpretation of educational f a c i l i t i e s available f o r adults, formation of educational classes, etc. Areas f o r Further  Research.  In an exploratory study such as t h i s , areas f o r further research become evident.  In this connection i t would be  b e n e f i c i a l to P.T.A's i n a l l aspects of t h e i r work i f study could be made to determine causal factors of the low average attendance  that prevails and the correlation, i f any, with  types of programs presented.  Another area worthy of research  i s that of the overlapping of functions between P.T.A's i n the elementary f i e l d and those organized around junior high and high schools.  This study should point up p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of closer cooperation to better serve the area  concerned.  Most valuable to developing e f f e c t i v e programs i n c i t i z e n s h i p education would be a study of programs which have been employed i n other provinces and i n other associations throughout B r i t i s h Columbia.  This should reveal a wealth of material and  suggestions f o r future expansion of c i t i z e n s h i p a c t i v i t i e s .  56. SCHOOL.  (High School) (Elementary School)  CITIZENSHIP PROGRAMS FOR NEW CANADIANS AMONG P.T.A.'S Please put a check mark ( v O where applicable. Please add an asterisk (*) against those you regard as the most important. 1. Which of the following a c t i v i t i e s are u t i l i z e d by your group to interest New Canadians i n the Association or to f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r adjustment to l i f e i n Canada? a.  "New Canadians" evening, or equivalent.  b.  Social evenings  c.  Talks relating to Canadian customs, manners etc  d.  Plays, pageants or concerts produced by ethnic groups.  e.  A few songs contributed to ordinary program by newcomers.  f.  "Citizenship Day" programs.  g.  Films, (a) about Canadian l i f e . . . . . (b) other cultures . . . . .  h.  Talks by members of minority or ethnic  i.  Discussion- periods to consider problems facing immigrants. . . . . . . . .  j.  Projects for v i s i t i n g newcomers i n their homes. . . . . . . . .  k.  Co-operation with other clubs or societies i n promoting welfare of newcomers. . . . . . . . .  Afternoon teas  ........  ........  groups..........  1. Other relevant a c t i v i t i e s (please -give d e t a i l s ) .  m. 2.  Please estimate number of hours spent on above during any year.  Which of the following factors, i n your opinion, l i m i t the amount of time devoted to citizenship education i n your meetings? a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.  Lack of interest by members Lack of subject materials. . . . . . speakers. . . . . . . Citizenship education not considered a P.T.A. function. . . . . . . . . More urgent community problems given p r i o r i t y . Lack of planning for a balanced program.. Number of New Canadians i n your area too few to warrant time being given to the subject. . . . . . . . . No demand for such programs or a c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . Other factors (please name)  Please use other side for any comments you may l i k e to make  57  February 25th, 1955  President, P. T. A.,  As part of my work f o r the Master of Social Work degree from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia,, I am studying f o r my thesis the subject of c i t i z e n s h i p 'education a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l untary organizations, with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on Parent-Teacher Associations. The study i s being done with the co-operation of Dr. W. G> Black, Liaison O f f i c e r , Department of Citizenship and Immigration, and with the approval of the Vancouver P.T.A. Council. May I ask f o r your help i n furnishing information on the enclosed form? I hope you w i l l not f i n d t h i s too great a c a l l on your time. As the time f o r this study i s l i m i t e d I should appreci a t e having the questionnaire returned not l a t e r than the 10th of March, 1955. A stamped, addressed envelope i s enclosed f o r your convenience. Even i f your p a r t i c u l a r Association has never taken up any of these a c t i v i t i e s , please indicate t h i s and return the form. It is• hoped that t h i s research project, when•completed, w i l l be of value to the P.T.A. movement; and a copy of the completed report w i l l go to the B. C. Federation. With thanks f o r your cooperation, I am, Yours t r u l y ,  AMcC/kt  58. Appendix Interview  B  Questions  Total membership of the association? Average attendance? Who plans programs - one man, committee or the executive? What are the functions of the P.T.A.? Is program b u i l t around functions?  Member interest?  What of contacts with New Canadians? Is c i t i z e n s h i p education thought to be within scope of P.T.A.? What time devoted to fund raising? For what are funds expended? Typical programs used by association? Teacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n - as members?  on executive?  Limiting factors i n c i t i z e n s h i p programs? Reasons f o r low average attendance? Any problems p e c u l i a r to the d i s t r i c t ?  on programs?  59.  EDUCATION FOR GOOD CITIZENSHIP 1.  SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES 1.  Citizenship means group membership; the l i t t l e c h i l d i s a member of a group, and the Family i s the most important group of a l l ; therefore the process of becoming a good c i t i z e n ( s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) begins from the cradle.  2.  A good group member develops attitudes of helpfulness and cooperation towards the other members of the group.  3.  These attitudes of helpfulness should be consciously developed i n children by parents and teachers, by giving them opportunities to do things f o r others and by p r a i s ing them.for h e l p f u l acts. On the other hand, words and deeds which are thoughtless, s e l f i s h or h u r t f u l to others should be discouraged.  4.  Love, kindness, thoughtfulness, brotherhood, kinsmanship, good neighborliness, good c i t i z e n s h i p , and many other expressions r e f e r to the same basic psychological attitudes, that of wanting to work and play with others and help others.  5.  Undue pampering and mollycoddling of the c h i l d and undue stress on "getting" and neglect of "giving" and helping, undermine the very foundations of good c i t i z e n s h i p .  6.  Attitudes of helping and serving, and of thoughtfulness and consideration f o r others, may be d i f f i c u l t to develop at f i r s t , but once the beginnings are made, t h e i r development through the later,years of childhood and youth become easier, u n t i l at length the adolescent w i l l have at the heart of his personality a s p i r i t of service and duty to h i s home, c i t y and country which w i l l delight and gladden h i s f r i e n d s .  7.  D i s c i p l i n e has an intimate relationship to c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g . D i s c i p l i n e i n home and school, and the d i s c i p l i n e of law f o r adults,.'should be regarded as more than negative and r e s t r a i n i n g , more than a system of controls and r e s t r a i n t s from without. The good c i t i z e n of a democracy has developed s e l f - c o n t r o l and i n t e r n a l d i s c i p l i n e . He wants to obey the necessary mores and laws of h i s society, because he has learned that only by obedience to those laws can he and h i s fellows obtain the maximum of freedom.  8.  A l l d i s c i p l i n e should be consistent, whether administered by parents and teachers to children, or by o f f i c i a l s of the law to adults.  60. 9.  A good c i t i z e n does more than obey the law. His a t t i tude of helpfulness leads him to do much more f o r others than what he i s required to do.  10.  In addition to developing good attitudes and motives, information concerning one's neighborhood and province and country must be taught to young c i t i z e n s . But this Information must be c a r e f u l l y selected and graded, and only those facts should be taught which are i n t e r e s t i n g and which are understandable f o r that p a r t i c u l a r year and grade.  11.  Parents should not leave a l l the teaching of c i v i c information to teachers. By means of interesting books and home discussions, a wealth of useful Information may be taught In d e l i g h t f u l and pleasant ways.  12.  In addition to the teaching of information and the development of attitudes, children and youth must be encouraged to raise questions and discuss problems. Every week, through press and radio, v i t a l problems of l o c a l , national and international c i t i z e n s h i p are thrust forward f o r attention. When parents discuss these problems i n t e l l i g e n t l y and Impartially, and bring t h e i r children into such discussions, they are doing a wonderf u l job i n c i t i z e n s h i p education.  13.  Men's minds are bedevilled today by erroneous ideas, concepts and prejudices, which lead them to say mischievous words and to do a n t i - s o c i a l acts. I t Is the duty of parents, f i r s t to avoid being g u i l t y of spreading ideas and prejudices known to be wrong, and secondly to help clear the minds of t h e i r children from such confusion.  14.  There are c e r t a i n fundamental p r i n c i p l e s underlying e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l l i f e which have been amply proven by the t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r experiences of mankind over centuries of history. These p r i n c i p l e s should be c l e a r l y taught by parents and teachers, f u l l y explained and discussed and exemplified on every possible occasion. They are the very foundations of our Democracy. Following are some of these p r i n c i p l e s : a.  The Golden Rule - do unto others as you would have them do unto you.  b.  The Golden Mean - avoid both extreme radicalism and extreme reaction.  c.  Seek the. best possible harmonizing of Liberty and Law, of Freedom and Control.  61 d.  I f laws need to be changed, they should be changed by l e g a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means, not by force. S o c i a l evolution i s better than revolution.  e.  Government should be "of the people, by the people, f o r the people".  f.  Government should be by the majority, but with the maximum of safeguards and freedoms f o r the m i n o r i t i e s .  g.  I t i s better to work f o r s p e c i f i c reforms than to endeavour to supplant one "system" by another "system" i n an endeavour to usher i n Utopia overnight.  h.  We must endeavour to bring about the best possible blending of state enterprise, group enterprise, and i n d i v i d u a l enterprise. Placing a l l enterprise under state control w i l l r e s u l t i n i n e f f i c i e n c y , waste, and an undue smothering of i n d i v i d u a l and group I n i t i a t i v e .  i.  We must stress the i n d i v i d u a l value of each human being, regardless of race, r e l i g i o n , or class, and the r i g h t of each i n d i v i d u a l to a maximum opportunity f o r personal development.  j.  We must not only obey the laws of our land but endeavour to go beyond them In serving our fellow men.  k.  We must always work f o r "the greatest good of the greatest number", placing the good of the province above that of the town, of Canada above that of the province, of World Brotherhood above that of Canada.  62. SUGGESTED TOPICS ON CITIZENSHIP FOR ADDRESSES OR PANELS FOR HOME AND SCHOOL OR PARENT-TEACHER MEETINGS. The Kind of Love that Does Not Spoil the Child. The Relation between D i s c i p l i n e and Citizenship. Training f o r Leadership i n Democracy. Junior Citizenship i n the Family. The Home Library. How To Prevent Delinquency. Good Citizenship at the Local  Level.  Good Citizenship a t the P r o v i n c i a l Level. Good Citizenship at the Dominion Level. Great Canadian Leaders (a s e r i e s ) . The Emergence of a Richer Canadian Culture. The Implications  of True Patriotism.  Some Great Events i n Canadian History. Canada's New Role i n World A f f a i r s . The Essential Principles of Democracy. Training f o r Leadership i n a Democracy. Liberty and Law. Is Selfishness  the Greatest Sin i n Society.  The D i s t i n c t i o n between H y p o c r i t i c a l and Functioning  Morality.  The Importance of E t h i c a l Religion to Citizenship. The Home as a School; Parents as Teachers. An exchange of programmes w i l l be h e l p f u l . the National  Please forward to  Chairman of the Citizenship Committee, notes or  press clippings dealing with meetings on Citizenship. (Dr.) Win. G. Black. Chairman, Citizenship Committee, Canadian Federation of Home & School,  63. SUGGESTIONS FOR LOCAL HOME AND SCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION  The f i e l d divided according to areas of c i t i e n s h i p : z  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)  (f)  Citizenship i n the home. Citizenship i n the neighborhood. Problems of municipal c i t i z e n s h i p ( c i t y or town). What we should know about our Province; p r i v i l e g e s and duties involved i n p r o v i n c i a l c i t i z e n s h i p . "This Canada of Ours". How to improve our national unity and s o l i d a r i t y , and how to improve the quality of our services to our country. World Brotherhood; the United Nations; The Agencies of the United Nations - (F.A.O., W.H.O., UNESCO, I.L.O., etc.)  The f i e l d divided according to aspects of c i t i z e n s h i p : ,(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k)  (1)  The Meaning of Democracy. The Significance of Flag and National Anthem. Ways and Means of Developing Patriotism. Our heritage of Liberty and Law. Weaving Various Cultures Into One National Culture. Great Canadians (e.g. William Lyon McKenzie, John A. MacDonald, S i r Wilfred L a u r i e r ) . Canada's Role i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth. Canada's Role i n the United Nations. What Parents may do to teach C i t i z e n s h i p , The Power of Example. A remedial program; some serious f a u l t s i n our s o c i a l behaviour, and how to eradicate them (prejudices, sectionalism, unwillingness to compromise, group selfishness). The danger to Canada of any ideology which advocates flaunting of Constitution and law, and resort to foree.  Programme Features:(a) (b) (c) (d)  Lectures by competent speakers, followed by a question period and a short summary. Panel discussions, followed by question period and ending i n summaiyy by chairman. Symposium. Group discussion (one large group). (Short 5 minute opening by Leader. (Discussion, well d i s t r i b u t e d and directed by leader. (Use of v i s u a l aids where h e l p f u l (e.g. charts, maps, f i l m - s l i d e s ) . (Summary of main f i n d i n g s . (Suggestions f o r further study and appropriate a c t i o n .  64. 3.  Programme Features:(e) (f) (g) (h)  4.  (Continued)  Group discussion, the main group divided i n t o several sub-groups, these sub-groups to convene l a t e r and report t h e i r f i n d i n g s . Film, followed by talk or discussion on the same subject. Play, bringing out some aspect of good c i t i z e n s h i p , and followed by short talk on same theme. Concert of group songs, solos and folk-dances i n costume, portraying the various contributions to Canadian culture of the immigrants who have come to Canada.  Program Planning:(a)  (b)  (c) (d)  The program should be so planned that at l e a s t one l o c a l program a year should be devoted to c i t i z e n ship, and at l e a s t three programs a year should contain c e r t a i n features of c i v i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . Every home and school program should i n i t s ceremonial include "0 Canada" and "The King", and frequent reference should be made to the Home and School Code or Policy, which contains i n single form the statement of our c i v i c objectives. Important subjects not discussed i n the current year should be Incorporated In the programs of the ensuing year. Every home and school association should be organized and c a r r i e d on i n a democratic manner, thus providing f o r i t s members an immediate example of good c i t i z e n s h i p .  SPURGES OF MATERIAL III 1.  2.  Films: CTrTte to National F i l m Board and National Film Society of Canada (Ottawa) f o r excellent l i s t s and information as to how to obtain the films desired. Film-slides: Write to your P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education f o r information as to l i s t of f i l m - s l i d e s a v a i l a b l e , and how to obtain them.  65 3.  Plays: write to your P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education f o r l i s t of plays, c l a s s i f i e d by age and grade. See also: Moses, "Treasury of Plays f o r Children" ( L i t t l e ) Moses, "Another Treasury of Plays f o r Children" ( L i t t l e ) Skinner, "Children's Plays" (Appleton) Smith, "Plays, Pantomines and Tableaux f o r Children (Dodd Mead) Barrio, "Representative Plans" (Scribner) Bullard, "One-Act Plays" (Holt) Penney, "Plays, Old and New" (Allyn) Hampden, "Twenty One-act Plays" (Dent) Jagendorf, "Plays f o r Clubs, Schools & Camps" (French) Webber & Webster, "Typical Plays f o r Young People" (Haughton) Webber & Webster, "One-Act Plays" (Haughton) Bennett, "Let's Do a Play" (Nelson)  4.  Books and Other Publications on Citizenship:"Canadian Citizenship Act" - (10 George VI.) (Chap. 15) King's Printer, Ottawa. "Canadian Citizenship Act - Regulations", King's Printer, Ottawa. "Canadian Democracy & Citizenship Action" (Pamphlet) (Canadian Legion, Legion House, Ottawa) "Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p " (House of Commons Debate, Paul Martin) King's Printer, Ottawa. McKown, H. "Character Education" (McGraw) McGIll, G.E., "Co-Operative Play Groups f o r Pre-School Children" (Canadian Citizenship Council, 166 Marlborough Ave., Ottawa) Merriam, "The Making of C i t i z e n s " (University of Chicago Press) Pearson, L.B., "Canada and the Post-War World" (Canadian A f f a i r s , Vol. 1 No. 6) Royal Bank of Canada "The Meaning of Citizenship" Trotter, R.G., "Commonwealth: Pattern f o r Peace?" United Nations Charter (United Nations Society of Canada, Ottawa) Wallace, "Canadian C i v i c s " (Macmillan)  5.  Charts:Some excellent charts are available f o r pinning to easel on Blackboard, f o r use during lecture or discussion, and f o r close personal study afterwards. Charts on the United Nations may be obtained by writing to the Secretary, United Nations, Lake Success, New York. Charts on Canada may be  66. 5.  Charts:-  (Continued)  obtained from the various appropriate departments at Ottawa. Also, the large coloured charts on Canada issued as the "Canadian A f f a i r s " series are excellent; these are issued by the National Film Board. Other charts may be obtained by writing to the Canadian Citizenship Council, Ottawa. 6.  Magazines on the United Nations:"Changing World" Monthly p u b l i c a t i o n of the American Association f o r the United Nations, 45 East 65th Street, New York 21, N.Y. "United Nations News" Monthly p u b l i c a t i o n of the United Nations Society i n Canada, 124 Wellington Street, Ottawa. United Nations Weekly B u l l e t i n , Ryerson Press, 299 Queen Street West, Toronto, Ontario. United Nations World, U.N. World Inc., 385 Madison Avenue, New York 17, New York.  67. CANADIAN FEDERATION OF HOME AND SCHOOL CITIZENSHIP CIRCULAR NUMBER FOUR SOME FURTHER SUGGESTIONS FOR LOCAL PROGRAMMES These suggestions may serve either as the major features of l o c a l programmes or as adjunct features. They w i l l , of course, be varied i n numerous ways according to a v a i l a b i l i t y of l o c a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . (1)  A panel discussion, with a Chairman and three or four participants, the panel to be followed by audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n and concluded with a b r i e f five-minute summary by the Chairman. The panel need not necess a r i l y be comprised s o l e l y of "experts" or "authorities" or of outside speakers; i t i s often wise to include members of the association i n the panel, or young people of the neighborhood, or members of other organizations. Suggested Themes: "Causes of Delinquency", "Neighborhood Morale", "How to Combat Race Prejudice", "Canada»s Duty as a Member of the United Nations", "How to Become a C i t i z e n " , "The Meaning of Freedom", "Weaknesses i n our Democracy", "Discipline and Democracy", "Role of Parents as Teachers of Citizenship", "Leisure Time and Citizenship", "Our ubligations to our Handicapped Citizens", "Better Care f o r our Senior Citizens, the Aged", "Citizenship and Morality".  (2)  An Open Forum, with a well-prepared leader who opens the discussion, leads I t from point to point, and concludes I t with a b r i e f five-minute summary. Three or four members of the audience should be prepared beforehand to act as p a r t i c i p a n t s , but they w i l l s i t i n the audience. Chairs should be arranged i n semi-circular formation i n order to get away from the s t i f f n e s s and formality of the usual front-facing arrangement.  (5)  A Lecture, given by that l o c a l or outside person best equipped to speak on the chosen subject. The resources of the l o c a l i t y and of the l o c a l school s t a f f should not be overlooked, though they often are. Suggestions might be made to the l e c t u r e r : (a) (b) (c)  to l i m i t h i s address to not more than 45 minutes to use v i s u a l aids i f f e a s i b l e , and to include In his address as many p r a c t i c a l suggestions f o r the members to consider as poss i b l e . The effectiveness of many lecturers Is reduced due to t h e i r vagueness and generality.  68. (4)  A f i l m evening, with two or three films chosen which deal with various aspects of c i t i z e n s h i p . The National Film Board has produced a wealth of films which have great c i t i z e n s h i p value, yet many associations make l i t t l e or no use of them. Each f i l m should be preceded by a short explanatory preamble, and followed by a short ten-minute discussion. This serves to emphasize and r e g i s t e r the c h i e f p r i n c i p l e s or features.  (5)  A concert, play or pageant, the songs of the p a t r i o t i c or folk-song types and the plays and pageants dramat i z i n g such great themes as world brotherhood, the advantages of helpfulness, and the e v i l effects of selfishness and prejudice. The talent of the school or of l o c a l amateur p l a y e r s clubs and musical societies could be used much more than i t i s at present by many l o c a l associations. 1  (6)  A quiz contest, or a "two-side" information contest, with careful s e l e c t i o n of the questions to ensure that they are important and s i g n i f i c a n t . Quiz contests could be very h e l p f u l , or i f they comprise dozens of stupid t r i v i a l i t i e s could be most wasteful. There are hundreds of important facts about Canada from which to choose, facts concerning her h i s t o r y , her geography, her laws, her customs, her component peoples, her government, and her foreign p o l i c y .  (7)  A Study Group - Whereever possible an association should encourage the formation of a study group, comprising those members who can a f f o r d the time to meet r e g u l a r l y to read and discuss great books on such subjects as c h i l d and adolescent psychology, community problems, educational problems, and c i t i z e n s h i p .  (8)  An Information or Library Convener - Every association should have such a convener, whose duties should be to locate sources of good reading material on c i t i z e n ship and other subjects, to obtain whenever possible, free l e a f l e t s and pamphlets f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n , and to manage the sale of such h e l p f u l booklets as "Guide to Reading f o r Canadian Homes". (See Citizenship Pamphlet Number Two f o r a useful bibliography.)  (9)  A Community Project - The l o c a l association might i n l t i a t e , or a s s i s t other l o c a l groups with a s p e c i f i c neighborhood project, such as, "Clean-up, Paint-up Week", a "Song and Dance F e s t i v a l " , a "Youth i n Our Town" p i l o t project (write your p r o v i n c i a l convener f o r information on t h i s ) , or a campaign f o r a special community recreational or c u l t u r a l feature such as an  69 (9)  A Community Project - (Continued) additonal playground, tennis court, gymnasium, or most important of a l l , a community centre. Such projects as these are v i t a l l y important f o r the development of good c i t i z e n s h i p because they are tangible, p r a c t i c a l , and immediate, because they permit of the cooperation of both youth and adults, and because they do much to Improve l o c a l morale. Many of us remember v i v i d l y the cooperative "bees" of the r u r a l areas, and how they served so greatly to improve the sense of brotherhood of the entire community.  (10)  Closer contact with the Provincial and National C i t i z e n ship Conveners; i f you need further ideas or materials, write to your P r o v i n c i a l Citizenship Convener. I t i s his or her duty and pleasure to help you i n this v i t a l work.  70. COMMUNITY STANDARDS (Circular Number Five of the Citizenship Committee) Standards are guides f o r l i v i n g which are intangible and i n v i s i b l e , yet of basic importance to a society. They are formul a t e d as a r e s u l t of the values and desires of a people, and also as a r e s u l t of the need f o r c e r t a i n conformities. They may change slowly or quickly, and they may r i s e or f a l l , according to changes i n the desires and ways of l i f e of the people themselves. We, i n our Canadian Society, have many standards, formulated from the wisdom and experience of previous generations. Many of these might well be maintained as they are, while others need to be reformulated and elevated. The following appear to be the chief types of standards: (a)  Moral Standards - with respect to such Ideals as honesty, truthfulness, kindness, generosity, courtesy, modesty. The Canadian Home and School Federation has as part of i t s basic p o l i c y the maintenance of these ideals and standards, and the quickening of the awareness of a l l youth and adults as to t h e i r v i t a l importance f o r e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l l i v i n g . The consciences of our people must be made more sensitive to these ideals.  (b)  Standards of Material Living - i n terms of food, clothing, shelter, bodily protection and health. The minimum standards i n these respects are higher i n Canada than i n most countries, and yet i n respect to our poorest people we are f u l l y aware of conditions of malnutrition, congested l i v i n g quarters and slums which need not e x i s t In Canada and which should not be tolerated complacently. The Federation i s therefore behind every e f f o r t to raise these minimum standards.  (c)  Educational Standards - We have often asserted our conviction that "every c h i l d , everywhere" should have the best possible educational opportunities, regardless of the wealth, creed or r a c i a l o r i g i n of h i s parents. We have made amazing progress i n education i n Canada, yet we have much s t i l l to do i f we are to get near to our standard or goal. The home and school authorities must, therefore, never cease i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to improve the standards of education throughout a l l parts of Canada.  71. COMMUNITY STANDARDS (Continued) Recreational & Leisure Time Standards - Leisure time f o r young and old, should be used f o r re-creation and refreshment of body and mind, and also f o r the improvement of the whole texture and substance of l i v i n g . Our standards have r i s e n remarkably i n Canada over the past decades, yet we know of thousands who are unaware of them or who cannot enjoy them. More playgrounds, more community centres, more l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , more f a c i l i t i e s f o r music and a r t and drama - these continue to be l i s t e d among the prime obligations of home and school associations. Co-ordination on a national scale of our government and.lay c u l t u r a l organizations might well be another goal f o r which to s t r i v e . Aesthetic Standards - In a land of great and diverse natural beauties are to be found squalid slums and bleak smoke begrimed areas, and, even away from such areas, thousands of homes which are unnecessarily drab and tawdry. Beauty, order, and neatness should characterize a l l our home and community l i v i n g . The home and school associations can do much to raise the aesthetic standards of the people. S c i e n t i f i c Standards - Aware of the existence of certain c r i t e r i a which d i s t i n g u i s h truth from falsehood-, of the remarkable contributions which the physical, b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l sciences have made and continue to make, yet also aware of the insidious dangers of propaganda, the Federation has always emphasized the necessity of maintaining s c i e n t i f i c standards, and of an education whieh w i l l make our people able to d i s tinguish truth from d i s t o r t i o n . S p i r i t u a l Standards - While remaining s t r i c t l y non -sectarian, the Canadian Home and School Federation has always emphasized the importance of l o f t y conceptions of human personality and human l i v i n g , and has deplored a l l tendencies and influences leading to vulgarity, cheapness, and mere materialism. The l o c a l associations w i l l continue i n many s p e c i f i c ways to emphasize "whatsoever things are noble and true and of good report". They w i l l also emphasize the p r i n c i p l e basic to both Democracy and C h r i s t i a n i t y , namely that the i n d i v i d u a l person i s of value f o r h i s own sake, and i s not to be regarded merely as a chattel of a g l o r i f i e d t o t a l i t a r i a n Super-State.  72. YOUTH GUIDANCE (Circular Number Six of the Citizenship Committee) "Fumbling, foundering and making mistakes are part of l i f e , and are necessary f o r the formation of character" - thus spoke an eminent person recently. In a sense he was r i g h t , but only p a r t l y so. I t i s true that there w i l l always be a large element of chance i n l i f e , that we w i l l a l l make many mistakes, and that we often develop from the mistakes we make. But this i s not to argue that we should not endeavour to reduce the amount of fumbling and error, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a world which i s becoming increasingly more complex and confusing to our youth. I t would seem beyond question that a well-planned programme of educational, vocational, and personal guidance should be provided f o r our youth, and made known widely by means of adequate p u b l i c i t y . Such a programme i s found i n a few progressive communities i n Canada, i s p a r t i a l l y provided f o r i n other communities, and i s completely lacking i n many. An adequate guidance programme should comprise the following features: (a)  Elementary School - guidance i n personal problems.  (b)  Junior High School -  (c)  Senior High School and College - Continuation and development of a l l three aspects of guidance.  beginnings of vocational guidance, educational guidance regarding subject e l e c t i v e s , personal guidance.  Most progressive school systems have Incorporated a well -balanced provision of aptitude testing and counseling Into t h e i r school programmes. I f such services are not available i n your school, your association might well begin to make representations to the school board. The greatest e x i s t i n g need f o r guidance and counseling i s for the period after school leaving, the period when so many young people make serious blunders with respect to t h e i r vocations or t h e i r sex and other personal problems. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of youth who do poorly i n t h e i r f i r s t jobs and as a result of their f a i l u r e become demoralized and blunder on into other f a i l u r e s , instead of obtaining proper counseling from competent a u t h o r i t i e s . In this age of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and of s w i f t l y changing economic trends, i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y Important that our bewildered youth know where to go f o r competent occupat i o n a l aptitude testing and counseling. And i n this age of moral questioning, i t i s equally important that competent personal counseling be also a v a i l a b l e . Find out what counseling resources are available i n your community, help to get them  73 YOUTH GUIDANCE (Continued) organized and then a s s i s t In setting up such an adequate programme of p u b l i c i t y that every young man and woman w i l l know where to go f o r Information and advice. If you do not have a competent well-trained counselor f o r your post-school youth, you probably w i l l f i n d the following people glad to co-operate as a counseling "team" or " c l i n i c " : The l o c a l pastors, The l o c a l s o c i a l workers The high school counselors and the National Employment Service. Perhaps a guidance association could be formed, which could then associate i t s e l f with the National Guidance Association. Some valuable suggestions concerning a guidance programme w i l l be found i n the booklet e n t i t l e d "Youth i n Our Town" (write f o r this to your Provincial Citizenship Convener), i n the publications of the Vocational Guidance Centre, Ontario College of Education, University of Toronto, i n the suggestions available from the o f f i c e of your p r o v i n c i a l Deputy Minister of Education, and i n the publications of the following: Canadian Citizenship Council, 46 E l g i n St., Ottawa, Ont., Canadian Association f o r Adult Education, 340 Jarvis St., Toronto, Ont. Canadian Council of Churches, Dept. of C h r i s t i a n Education, Toronto, Ont. Canadian Welfare Council, 245 Cooper St., Ottawa, Ont., Canadian Youth, Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Association, Toronto, Ont., Young Women's C h r i s t i a n Association, Toronto, Ont., Extension Department of your p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y . You w i l l also f i n d an excellent bibliography of good books f o r youth on the vocational and personal problems i n "Guide to Reading f o r Canadian Homes", procurable f o r 25^ and postage from Mrs. Kenneth Kern, Executive Secretary, 4373 West 12th Avenue, Canadian Federation of Home and School, Vancouver, B. C.  74. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Annual Report of the Dept. of Immigration & Citizenship. 1952, Queen's Printer, Ottawa. 2. Annual Report of the Canadian Citizenship Council. 1952, The Office of the Council, Toronto, Ont. 3. Clark, Samuel D. George W., ed. Canada.  "The Canadian Community", i n Brown, Univ. of C a l i f . Presses, Berkley, 1950.  4. Early History of P.T.A's In B r i t i s h Columbia. The P.T.A. Federation, Vancouver, B. C. 5.  Hansard. 1946. V o l . 1;  1947, Vol.3;  1952-55, Vol. 4.  6. History of the Home & School and Parent-Teacher Federat i o n . 1927-1952. 7. Hutchison, Bruce, "The Canadian Personality", i n Ross, Malcolm, ed. Our Sense of Identity, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1954. 8. McLennan, Hugh, London, 1949.  Cross-Country,  Wm.  C o l l i n s & Sons,  9. O'Neill, J.J., "Canada; Limited or Unlimited" i n the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Canada, Vol. 45, 1951. 10. Stevenson, J.A., 5 March 1955.  "Ottawa L e t t e r " i n Saturday Night,  11. Underbill, Frank H., " P o l i t i c a l Parties & Ideas", i n Brown, George W., ed., Canada, Univ. of C a l i f . Presses, Berkley, 1950.  

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