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Parent-teacher associations : a study of the objectives and accomplishments of the P.T.A.'s with respect… MacCullie, Andrew 1955

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PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS A Study of the Objectives and Accomplishments of P.T.A's with respect to Citizenship Education by ANDREW MACCULLIE Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1955 The University of British Columbia i i i ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to determine (a) the extent to which P.T.A's in the Vancouver ar,ea engage in acti v i t i e s designed to pro-mote citizenship education for New Canadians and (b) the relative effectiveness and merit of citizenship programs by a comparison of what is being done with what might be accomplished. The study i s based on (a) a questionnaire submitted to the 53 associations In Vancouver, (b) examination of records In the office of the Historian for P.T.A's and in the f i l e s of the Liaison Officer in Vancouver, and (c) on personal and telephone Interviews with executive officers of the associations and ethnic groups, with school principals and with o f f i c i a l s of the Vancouver Council of P.T.A's. The questionnaire was designed to establish the different types of programs and pro-jects used, and to find out, where applicable, the factors limiting their use. Interviews were used to gain information,about program planning and association aims and purposes, with reference to whether or not these were oriented to citizenship education. Following a consideration of citizenship education from the viewpoint of implications for Canada as a nation, this study out-lines briefly the history of the P.T.A. movement and then examines the focus of P.T.A. programs in the Vancouver area. These are found to centre around (a) interpretation of the school to parents; (b) parent-child relationship problems; (c) topics of current interest in the community and (d) programs portraying student s k i l l s and talents. Program planning i s , with three exceptions, carried out with consideration for what is thought to be the purpose of the association and the predominating Interests of i t s members. Seventeen associations out of forty-five reporting, or 38$, do not use any citizenship programs or projects. The reasons given are (a) there are too few New Canadians in the area to warrant time being devoted to the subject and (b) there is no demand from their members for such programs. Three indicated they thought this was not a P.T.A. function. The remaining twenty-eight associations to-gether devoted eighty hours or 6% of their total program time to citizenship a c t i v i t i e s . Of the twenty-eight, one association repor-ted having devoted the f u l l year's program to citizenship education for newcomers, using twenty hours. The programs used, in order of frequency, are: (a) Films about Canadian l i f e and about other cultures; (b) social evenings and afternoon teas; (c) "New Canadians" evening and (d) plays, pageants or concerts. Examination of records and f i l e s showed a great variety of material available from which citizen-ship education programs could be readily developed. No appreciable cooperation was found to exist between P.T.A's and ethnic groups. This study indicates the need for cooperation and coordination amongst groups interested in citizenship education for newcomers. It is concluded that P.T.A's, organized as they are in practically every local school area, could plan effectively for programs and pro-jects which would help newcomers get a better understanding of, and f i t more easily and readily into, the community. .Further study could be devoted, with profit, to the particular needs of each association with reference to the incidence of immigrant population and, consequ-ently, the kinds of citizenship programs and projects most pertinent to each area. 11 TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter 1. problems of Citizenship In Canada Page What is meant by citizenship. The Canadian Community. Canadian conceptions of citizenship. Canadian immigration policies. National programs of Citizenship. The need for local action. Focus of present study* 1 Chapter 2. Development of P.T.A's: Current Activities P.T.A. development in Canada; in British Columbia. Aims and objectives of the movement. Typical programs of P.T.A's in the Vancouver area. Factors determining a c t i v i t i e s . The P.T.A. Council as a resource i n program planning. Material available for citizenship programs. P.T.A. activities i n relation to citizenship education. ... 17 Chapter 3. Accomplishments of P.T.A's. Organizational problems - elementary school P.T.A's and junior and high school. The New Canad-ian child. Programs and projects used to interest New Canadians in P.T.A's. Programs most frequently employed. Material available 35 Chapter 4. Potentialities of P.T.A's. Limiting factors in program planning. The P.T.A. as a factor i n community organization. Programs voted most important. Planning an effective program i n citizenship education. Suggested steps in program planning. Further areas for research. ... 45 Appendices: A. Questionnaire. 56 B. Interview Questions. 58 C. Program Suggestions. 59 Fig. 1 Time Devoted to Questionnaire Items 38 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer wishes to express his gratitude to those persons who contributed so generously of their, time and know-ledge to this thesis, especially to Professor W. J. Dixon and Dr. L. C. Marsh, of the School of Social Work, for their patience and encouragement which were present from the incep-tion of the thesis to i t s completion. Special thanks i s also due to Dr. W. G. Black, Liaison Officer, for his helpful suggestions, and to the many executive officers of Parent-Teacher Associations for their willing cooperation in completing questionnaires and making available the material on which this study is based. V PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS A Study of the Objectives and Accomplishments of P.T.A's with respect to Citizenship Education i PROBLEMS OF CITIZENSHIP IN CANADA Fif t y years ago, Canadian leaders with vision, f a i t h and courage proclaimed that the twentieth century belonged to Canada. They considered that the foundations for a great nation were well and truly l a i d , and that the superstructure would develop logically and swiftly having as an object lesson the marvelous expansion, consolidation and prosperity of the United States to the south under what were considered to be parallel condi-tions. Now that one-half of the twentieth century has gone, Canadians might well take stock and consider whether their country is approaching f u l l development or i f i t s limits are s t i l l beyond the horizon. Phenomenal growth has taken place during the last f i f t y years, economically and p o l i t i c a l l y , but this growth came mainly as the result of two world-wars entailing enormously increased government expenditures which gave only a temporary increased national productivity. In 1955 Canada s t i l l has many serious problems - unemployment, an Increasing national debt, decreasing foreign trade and a back-log of production surplus. The enthusiasm and energy of the average Canadian is somewhat dampened and frustrated by the fact that the large part of the f r u i t s of his labor must be spent for general overhead of the country as a whole. The overall picture i s that of a small population carrying a tremendous load. With an area of 3,750,000 square miles, Canada covers over 7% of the world area; her population of approximately 15,000,000 is only 2 1/188 or .053% of the world population. Based on area alone Canada should support 190,000,000 people If It accepted Its f a i r share of world population. A symposium on Population Growth and Immigration into Canada held at McMaster University i n 1949 concluded that, under favorable conditions, Canada (1) could absorb about 1,000,000 i n the next five years. Much more study and research must be done in this area to determine how intelligently and promptly the absorptive capacity of Canada can be expanded but the need for a greater population i s evident since only one-quarter of the country i s opened up for settlement and our natural resources have scarcely been tapped. Changes In the racial composition of Canada's population in recent years discloses that the ethnic balance Is being heavily t i l t e d against the B r i t i s h stock. In the f i r s t census taken after Confederation, in 1871, the people of British origin constituted 60.55% of Canada's total population but the last census held in 1951 revealed that they had become a minority, with their percentage reduced to 47.89. Moreover, while the French percentage showed in these years a slight decline from 31.07% to 30.83%, the percentage of other racial (2) groups had risen sharply from 8.38 i n 1871 to 21.28 i n 1951. The fact that more and more people of non-British origin are settling in Canada points up the need for the development of programs i n citizenship education so that the 1. O'Neill, J.J., "Canada: Limited or Unlimited" in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Canada. Vol.45, 1951, p.112. 2. Stevenson, J.A., "Ottawa Letter" in Saturday Night, 5 Mareh 1955, p.12. * Q — 3. newcomer may be helped to know h i s rights and responsibilities and to become a useful and happy member of the community. Before discussing program planning, organization and promul-gation, some consideration w i l l be given to the broad implica-tions of citizenship education in Canada i.e. what Is meant by citizenship; what is the nature of the Canadian community, and what are Canadian governmental policies relating to immigration and citizenship. What is Meant by Citizenship. Citizenship i s a big word with more than one meaning. It can be defined legally and weighed in terms of rights, privileges and duties but i t s implications do not end there. Citizenship is a matter of everyday l i v i n g and a thing of the heart. It implies an orientation of the individual towards the common good of the country. It concerns the whole country and not just parts of i t as a society or cooperative group. It is nourished and fostered by communication, by a rational understanding of the differences between Individuals, groups and communities because of their traditions, beliefs, standards and institutions. It requires responsible action not only on the part of the individual but also on the part of a l l organ-ized communities. It operates in the home, the school, the community groups and at a l l levels of government but Is not to be confused with civics i.e. rules and regulations, do's and don'ts, which are minor elements and not ends In them-selves. Citizenship i s basically the f u l l e s t expression of man's needs in conformity with the demands and limits of community and country. 4. The Canadian Community. Until recent years the picture brought to mind by the word "Canada" was that of a country of dichotomies, a country of two races, two religions, two languages, two cultures. ' Prior to World War 1, the concept of a distinctive Canadian community scarcely existed. However, after two wars i n which the name "Canada" symbolized vigor and v i t a l i t y in i t s armies, st a b i l i t y and steadfastness i n i t s government and unity of purpose in i t s people, there i s an awakening interest in the essence of this almost newly discovered entity. Statesmen, historians, educators, writers - a l l have been startled by the phenomenal development and a l l have sought to discover the Intrinsic fundamental characteristics of i t s elements, that i s , i t s people. As a result, the literature relating to studies of the Canadian community reveals dissimilarity i n detail but some uniform consistency in the general concept. Bruce Hutchison, in an examination of the Canadian (1) personality sees Canadians as "unimaginative, prosaic, p i t i f u l l y inarticulate and singularly lacking i n humor". He writes of Canadians as being a "lonely" people with national humility, but who accept nothing, "least of a l l limitations". He thinks that too much emphasis is l a i d on the assumption that there is a lack of unity throughout the land. 1. Hutchison, Bruce, "The Canadian Personality" as quoted in Our Sense of Identity, (Malcolm Ross;, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1954. In his opinion, diversity i n Canada, as in a family where each member is allowed to exploit to the f u l l his own a b i l i t i e s , i s a sure sign of strength and, in fact, the best guarantee of unity. (1) Arthur M. Lower, a distinguised historian, writes of the average Canadian as being sober, uncommunicative, reticent, and with l i t t l e sentimentality in his nature. He speaks of the docility of Canadians who are "ever ready to obey those who have made our decisions for us". Lower draws attention to the Canadian's great respect for law and order but he laments the lack of unity or cohesion in the Canadian community, attributing this to the fact that in this country there was never any common revolutionary experience to fuse a l l the various elements to-gether. Prom an economic viewpoint the Canadian, to Professor Lower, i s "completely subjective to American industrial imperialism" and "completely imbued with the branch plant, colonial mentality". He sees the Canadian community as an isolated community with an essential parochial outlook. The flt. Hon. Sir Vincent Massey, Governor-General of Canada, seems to have a clearer conception of the individuality of the (2) Canadian community. He sees as symbolic of Canadian!am such concrete substances as the canoe, the totem pole, Marquis wheat and the lacrosse stick. He, too, notes the Canadian's healthy respect for the institutions of government and writes of the Canadian as one dedicated to tolerance, not given to extremes, l . 1 Lower, A.R.-M., (Canada, Nation and Neighbor, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1952i 2. Massey, Vincent, On Being Canadian, J.M.Dent, Toronto, 1948. 6 . an individual of sober temperament, deliberate tempo and moderation in l i f e ' s habits. He sums up the community moral qualities as "patience, integrity, tolerance and a sense of re spons i b i l 1 t y " . (1) Prof. D. C. Glark, makes the sweeping statement that the Canadian community "is but a pale reflection of the American community". He claims that there are not two separate cultural systems but rather a number of forms of community organization related chiefly to underlying conditions of economic l i f e . According to Clark, the development of Canadian communities was restricted by fear of absorption by the United States, since expansion could go only as fast as i t was protected from con-quest. This may explain the Canadian reliance on and respect for law and order. Hugh McLennan, teacher and writer, speaks of the Canadian community as essentially feminine, having a "purely feminine capacity for sustaining within her nature contradictions so d i f f i c u l t to reconcile that most societies possessing them (2) would be torn by periodic revolutions". Other feminine characteristics he notes are hatred of quarrels and a tendency to compromise for the sake of peace in the home. McLennan asserts that Canada i s the most stable country in the world and i s outstanding for i t s conservatism and i t s respect for law and government. 1. Clark, D.C., "The Canadian Community" in Canada (G.W. Brown), Calif. Presses Ltd., London, 1950. 2. McLennan, Hugh, Cross Country, Wm. Collins & Sons, London, 1949. 7. The opinions expressed above delineate the Canadian as stable, reliable, industrious and f a i r l y intelligent but rather dull and uninteresting. His individual resourcefulness and capacity to adjust and adapt are acknowledged, together with his respect for law, order and traditional institutions. Canadian Conceptions of Citizenship Of the people of Canada, their origins and the patterns and thinking of their daily l i v i n g , too l i t t l e account has been taken in any attempts to appraise our national values or to forecast our national goals. Under the occasion and spur of undeslred wars, Canada has found herself possessed of unsus-pected potentiality. Prom the relatively minor place she previously occupied in the estimate of the world, Canada has risen to front-line achievements. No nation has surpassed Canada in sudden discovery of herself or given a more spectacu-l a r demonstration of growth in productive capacity and power. Yet Canadians have only recently begun to appraise, consciously, their nation according to the measure of i t s capacity and to assess their status as a nation. Until the passing of the Canadian Citizenship 5111 in 1946, the Canadian "citizen" was defined by reference as one coming within the meaning of the definition of the Immigration Act. During World War II, "Canada" patches Indicated a citizen-ship that, u n t i l 1946, had no legal basis in i t s own right. Speaking to the second reading of the Citizenship B i l l on 2 April 1946, the Hon. Paul Martin, then Secretary of State, 8. outlined the objectives of the B i l l i n the following words: "For the national unity of Canada and for the future and greatness of this country i t is f e l t to be of the utmost importance that a l l of us, new Canadians or old, have a conscious-ness of a common purpose and common interest as Canadians - that a l l of us be able to say with pride and with meaning: "I am a Canadian Citizen". (1) Col. George Drew, Leader of the Opposition, speaking in the same debate defined citizenship as: more than the right to vote, more than the right to hold and transfer property; more than the right to move freely under the protection of the State; citizenship i s the right of f u l l partnership i n the fortunes and in the future of this nation". (2) John Diefenbaker spoke thus: "Legislation of Itself ean never build a united citizenship. We owe ourselves the compulsion, regardless of our r a c i a l origin, of understanding each other's point of view. We must dedicate our determination to encourage and develop i n this country mutual trust and mutual tolerance". (3) During the debate there was l i t t l e opposition to legis-lative recognition of citizenship status. A reluctance to break away from Old Country ties was voiced by T.L. Church who said: "If the government puts this B i l l through they w i l l l i v e to regret i t . B r i t i s h citizenship i s the greatest thing in the world". Mr. Pouliot, usually aggressive and loquacious, said simply: "We do not have a Canadian s p i r i t -1. Martin, Paul, "Debate on Citizenship B i l l " , Hansard 1946, Vol. 1, p. 208, Queen*s Printer, Ottawa, 194o7~^ 2,3. Ibid., p. 209. 9. therefore this B i l l i s premature". The chief problem in establishing functional citizen-ship in Canada might be expected to be the reconciliation of the French-Canadian and Anglo-Saxon viewpoints. Frank Under-b i l l wrote: "Canadian statesmanship has had to deal with a special minority community in French Quebec -a minority which is almost a nation in i t s e l f , defending i t s religion, language and culture against the pressures of an unsympathetic environment".(1) However, although French and English-speaking Canadians do not share a cultural tradition nor a common language they do have in common a unifying factor in the legacy of freedom which came from Great Britain. Freedom is the core of any democratic citizenship and i t is this legacy of freedom that has at a l l times held the two peoples together in Canada. People from many countries with differing standards and traditions now populate Canada and many more w i l l come. Each has valuable contributions to make by retention of their finest traditions. We appear now to be coming to a conscious realization of the potentialities of these traditions in the establishment of Canadian citizenship. Canadian Immigration Policies Shortage of people may well become Canada's No. 1 problem. This country i s one of the world's greatest producers 1. Underhill, Frank, " P o l i t i c a l Parties and Ideas", in Canada (G.M. Brown), Univ. of Ca l i f . Press, Los Angelos, 1950. 10. of baa© metals, newsprint, wood pulp, wheat and iron ore; i t occupies a territory larger than that of the United States but with less than a tenth of the U.S. population. Very important in the establishment of a national citizenship i s the top-level immigration policy, a policy which should be far-sighted and flexible but r e a l i s t i c a l l y integrated with our economic development. Immigration policy of our Dominion government has remained stable in recent years and is best stated i n the words of the late W. L. Mackenzie King speaking as Prime Minister in a debate on immigration, 1 May 1947: "Let me speak now of the government's long-term program. It i s based on the conviction that Canada needs population. The government i s strongly of the view that our immigration policy should be devised i n a positive sense, with the definite objective, as I have already stated,, of enlarging the population of the country. The government w i l l seek by legislation, regulation and vigorous administration to secure the careful selection and permanent settlement of such numbers as can advantageously be absorbed i n our national economy". {!) In April 1953, the Hon. W. E. Harris, Minister of Immi-gration and Citizenship said: "We shall anticipate future development as closely as we can and gear our immigration program to them. The approach w i l l continue to be a r e a l i s t i c one with the development of our economy the guiding factor". (2) 1. Hansard, 1947, Vol.3, p. 2644. 2. Ibid., p. 1953, Vol. 2, p. 706 11. National Programs of Citizenship: The Federal Government, through the Citizenship Branch of i t s Dept. of Immigration and Citizenship, has planned programs to stimulate awareness of and interest in the great importance of citizenship education. The major functions of the Branch as outlined by Minister Harris in April 1953 are: (a) working closely with national and voluntary organizations in the f i e l d of citizenship education. (b) assisting i n the creation and development of citizenship committees (50 to date) which are devoted chiefly to assisting new Canadians to adjust themselves more rapidly to l i f e i n Canada. (c) developing general citizenship programs for the use of voluntary organizations. These programs embrace such themes as - the respon-s i b i l i t y of citizens In a democracy - the problems of newcomers - language and citizen-ship classes. The Department has an agreement with the provinces whereby i t w i l l pay them a sum equal to one-half the amount expended by the provinces themselves in respect of language and citizenship classes for immigrants. It also offers free of charge to the various departments of education a l l of the necessary teaching material. In 1950 the Department appointed Liaison Officers whose chief duties are: (a) Close association with voluntary organizations and other agencies engaged in work among newcomers and in general citizenship promo-tion. 1. Hansard, 1952-53, Vol. IV, p. 4374 12. (b) Encouragement given to local citizenship coordi-nating committees undertaking additional responsibility towards immigrants beyond the i n i t i a l period of their adjustment. (c) Lectures to teachers and others engaged In work among immigrants. (&) Guidance given in organizing Citizenship Day ceremonies and programs. (e) Study of special d i f f i c u l t i e s of such immigrants as professional persons and intellectuals. (f) Cooperation with the Canadian Society for Aid to Eastern European Refugees and with agencies developing special technical and language courses for skilled tradesmen. (g) Encouraging the establishment of numerous clubs and associations for the purpose of giving new-comers an opportunity of making social contacts. (hj Assisting in the development of court ceremonies at numerous centres. (i) Organization of coordinated local programs of citizenship promotion. (j) Personal counselling, through office interviews, with immigrants having special problems. (1) We have also at the national level the programs devised by the Canadian Citizenship Council, a voluntary organization formed in 1940 and subsidized by the Federal Government whose objectives are given thus: "To develop in a l l Canadians (and Canadians to be) a constantly growing appreciation of the meaning and implications of democracy as a way of l i f e , and a better understanding of the nature, p r i v i -leges and obligations of citizenship". (2) 1. Annual Report of the Department of Immigration &  Citizenship, 1952-55. Queen's Printer. Ottawa. 1955. p.3. 2. Annual Report of the Canadian Citizenship Council. 1952. Office of the C.C.C. Toronto, p.3. 13. During 1951 the Council sponsored the "Projection of Canada Abroad" program. Representatives were sent to the "displaced-person" camps in Germany where personnel awaiting transportation to Canada were given orientation service. The Council has also sponsored a Language Teaching Institute to devise new techniques for language learning and to study the problems of non-literates and language problems peculiar to industry. There i s also a Consultant on Immigration Education who organizes teacher training courses, prepares teaching aids and heads an advisory service to teachers through corres-pondence. In summary, i t appears that national programs designed to promote citizenship education are varied and comprehensive but chiefly concerned with adjustment of the immigrant. Suggestions made in the Massey Report regarding overall cultural expression and expansion have not yet been imple-mented but there i s some indication that the government intends to act in this area. Too l i t t l e attention has been devoted to the arts and letters in the Canadian community - to most Canadians they are " f r i l l s " rather than a f i e l d of creative experiences. Consideration should be given to a more balanced national program of citizenship education whereby there may be fostered a mutual understanding of obligations, responsib-i l i t i e s and personal participation by both immigrant and native born. 14. The Meed fop Local Action; While national programs may give general direction and guidance in the f i e l d of citizenship education, f i n a l respon-s i b i l i t y for implementation of such programs l i e s within the individual communities - in the home, the school, the church and the many local organizations and agencies. The f i r s t social group each of us must f i t into Is the family. Here we face f i r s t the problem of conforming to a set of behavior rules, of accepting guidance or confronting authority or of showing i n i t i a t i v e and assuming responsibility. The family is the only consistent influence on the child for the f i r s t five or six years of his l i f e and It may well pervade his whole future. The school, as an agent in citizenship training, i s important in at least three ways; f i r s t , i t i s charged with direct responsibility for teaching future citizens the p r i v i l -eges and responsibilities of citizenship; second, by i t s very nature, the school exposes a l l youth to Its own patterns of thought and l i f e ; third, the school, in many instances at least, offers practical experience in community l i v i n g . The influence of the school in citizenship education i s almost unlimited. The church has many resources for citizenship training. Almost every church has a youth organization and most of them c a l l for study and action in social problems. Besides this there are Canadian Girls in Training, T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Squares a l l of which are sponsored by the Religious, Education Council of Canada. A natural reluctance on the part of the 15. church to be aggressive In advertising their resources has led to their not being used to the optimum. In the Greater Vancouver area many voluntary organizations are actively engaged in programs for citizenship education. The various ethnic groups, the Vancouver Citi zenship Council, the Civic Unity Association, the Institute of Social Workers and Ministers and Parent-Teacher Associations are the most important of those with a definite interest in citizenship train-ing. Under the direction of Dr. W. G. Black, Regional Liaison Officer, a l l voluntary organizations and interested individuals are given not only guidance in the development of programs but also definite material with which to work. Individual immig-rants are given personal counselling by the Liaison Officer and books whose t i t l e s are self-explanatory, namely - The Citizen as an Individual - The Citizen as a Parent - The Citizen as a Family Member - The Citizen as a Community Member - The Citizen as a Member of the Nation, and The Citizen as a Member of the World Community. Circulars from the Liaison Officer go out regularly to a l l Interested groups and i n d i v i -duals. These deal with every aspect of citizenship education and training e.g. What i t Means to be a Canadian Citizen, Suggested Projects and Activities in Citizenship Work at the Local Level; Citizenship in Action; Religion and Citizenship; Suggestions for Improving Your Community - and many others. A perusal of the monthly reports submitted by the Liaison Officer to the Department reveals a phenomenal variety 16. variety of activities carried on by personal contact. In one month - picked at random - the Liaison Officer had addressed eleven ethnic groups in the city, appeared on both television and radio programs, spoken at meetings of the Alcoholic Research Council, the Youth Counselling Service, Alcoholics Anonymous and the Institute of Soeial Workers and Ministers besides giving personal counsel to 125 office visitors and serving on many committees. In the Greater Vancouver area, at least, the national program has been brought to the local level through vigorous organization and administration. To what extent these organiz-ations - In particular the Parent-Teacher Associations - use the available resources is the question this thesis attempts to answer. This study Is based on information gained by questionnai-res submitted to executive officers of associations in the Vancouver area and by interviews with (a) presidents and secretaries of P.T.A's (b) school principals (c) presidents of ethnic groups and (d) o f f i c i a l s of P.T.A. Council and Federation. Material for the history of the movement was gathered from records in the Office of the Historian. Minutes of associations and Council and records In the office of the Liaison were made available for Information relating to programming. II P.T.A. DEVELOPMENT AMD CURRENT ACTIVITIES Judged on the basis of membership, scope of activities and successful organization from local to national level, The Parent-Teacher Association movement in Canada i s one of the biggest and most influential of our voluntary organiza-tions. Its influence reaches into practically every d i s t r i c t and home, either directly through i t s members or indirectly by the impact of i t s achievements in providing improved educa-tional f a c i l i t i e s for the child and in fostering a better understanding of teacher and school by parents. Its ever growing membership - now estimated at 43,000 in British Columbia and more that 300,000 in Canada - makes Its opinions worth considerable p o l i t i c a l consideration, but the organization i t s e l f is non-political. Following as It does, a policy of positive, constructive endeavor in a l l matters relating to the general welfare of the child, the movement readily generates public sympathy and support. Any program i t undertakes or any campaign i t supports meets with unusual success e.g. the national campaign against horror comic books, and the current local campaign for radical revision of school report cards* Many voluntary organizations owe their inception to the interest and i n i t i a t i v e of women and the P.T.A. movement i s no exception. Early schools provided l i t t l e but accommodation for teacher and pupils, and mothers got together to improve condi-tions. In Canada we read of "Mothers' Clubs", "Art Clubs" and 18. and "Parents' Clubs" which later united into "Home & School" clubs or, i n other provinces "Parent-Teacher" clubs,. In the United States the P.T.A. movement had Its origin In 1897 when a group met in Washington and organized the "National Congress of Mothers", the name of which was changed in 1924, to become (1) the "National Congress of Parents & Teachers". P.T.A. Development In Canada. In Canada the f i r s t Parent-Teacher Association was formed in the Graigflower School Di s t r i c t , near Victoria, B. C , on (2) 8 September 1915. The constitution of a California counter-part was used as a model after which to pattern a constitution suitable for use in British Columbia. The following year two associations were formed in Vancouver and interest in the new organizations was greatly stimulated by an arrangement whereby prominent pioneers in P.T.A. work in the western states (the movement had been active there for 20 years) came to Vancouver, gave interesting accounts of the valuable work being done down there and offered practical suggestions as to how progressive expansion could be developed in British Columbia. In 1916 Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and Alberta also had formed either P.T.A's or Home and School Clubs but i t was not u n t i l 1927 that organization at a provincial level was sufficient to warrant a national federation. In 1950 the national federation applied for Letters of Incorporation under the Companies' Act of Canada and the corporation was named "The Canadian Home and School and Parent-Teacher Federation". 1. History of The Canadian Home & School and Parent-Teacher Federation, 1927-1952, p.2. 2 . Early History of P.T.A's in British Columbia, p.5. 19. Development In Br i t i s h Columbia. In April, 1917, representatives from the six P.T.A's then active in Vancouver met to form a central organization which took for i t s name "The Parent-Teacher Federation of Vancouver and Vicinity". From 1917 u n t i l 1922, this federation carried on pioneer work, sending information and literature not only to other parts of this province but also to Interested persons in the prairie provinces and even as far east as the Maritimes. This ever-increasing burden of secretarial work indicated the need for a central organization and so the B.C. Federation came into being in 1922. Its f i r s t convention, held in 1922, brought out an attendance of 283 delegates representing 60 (1) associations. The geographical problems of British Columbia made organi-zation d i f f i c u l t in rural areas, much of the work having to be done by correspondence. However, steady progress was made and by 1947 - the sliver anniversary of the provincial body - the movement had grown to include 220 associations with 15,500 members. Since that time expansion has been phenomenal and the federation now boasts a membership of 540 associations and 43,000 parents. The provincial body acts as a liaison between local groups and the national body. It also provides sugges-tions for local activities by means of i t s annual "President's Package" outlining suggestions for the year 1s programs. At i t s annual convention local groups present resolutions to 1. History of the P.T.A. Movement in B.C. p. 35. 20. determine concerted action when necessary. Since 1928 there has been published an o f f i c i a l magazine, the B.C. Parent-Teacher News with six issues a year giving f u l l coverage to a l l matters of member Interest. The provincial federation also helps local groups build up their membership through annual member-ship campaign material provided free of charge. The federation is financed by an annual levy of 40^ per capita on association members, 5tf of which goes to the National Federation. Alms and Objectives of P.T.A's. Originally, organizations of parents approached the schools with the desire to do something to benefit them, that Is, to improve physical conditions and to offer new opportunities for the children by furnishing as equipment for playgrounds, better lib r a r i e s , hot lunches and more comfortable class-rooms. This pattern was followed in Canada for the f i r s t 25 years of P.T.A. activity, to such an extent, in fact, that in 1947 Dr. S. R. Laycock, then National President, drew attention to "the danger of putting back the clock by making the question of the adequacy of school buildings and school equipment a matter of (1) private funds raised by voluntary effort". In Dr. Laycock's opinion one of the major responsibilities of these associations was to study the needs of the ohild, the school and the school system and then create enough public opinion that local school boards, larger unit boards and departments of education would feel impelled to make the needed provision for such services as were found lacking but essential. 1. Laycock, S.R., "Parent-Teacher Objectives" in Twenty  -Five Years of Child Welfare, published by B.C. P.T.A. Federation, 1947, p. I'd. 21. The objectives of the P.T.A. movement at the present time as formulated by the National Federation and adopted by a l l associations are as follows: 1. To promote the welfare of children and youth. 2. To raise the standards of home l i f e . 3. To promote and secure adequate legislation for the care and protection of children and youth. 4. To foster cooperation between parents and teachers in the training and guidance of children and youth. 5. To obtain the best for each child according to his physical, mental, social and spiritual needs. 6. To give parents a better understanding of the schools and their work and to assist i n interpret-ing the schools to the public. 7. To confer and cooperate with organizations, other than schools, that concern themselves with the care, protection and training of children and youth in the home, school and community, and with the education of adults to meet these responsibilities. 8. To foster high ideals of citizenship and patriotism and to promote international good-will and peace. (1) With regard to the last named, the 12th convention of the National Federation, 1949, passed a resolution i n which i t "strongly recommended that at least one meeting a year be devoted to some aspect of citizenship, in our aim to achieve our common goals: a stronger and more enlightened patriotism, a better realization of true democracy, and a (2) country exemplifying real brotherhood". The only other reference to citizenship at the national conventions was in 1951 where a project at Prince Rupert was 1. History of the Canadian Home & School and Parent-Teacher Federation, p. 78; 2. Ibid, p. 67 22. brought to the attention of the delegates. In this project a citizenship council had been set up to promote citizenship ac t i v i t i e s , including the welcome and acceptance Into the community of recent immigrants. In recent years the efforts of the movement have been directed more to programs, projects and campaigns designed to improve conditions and raise standards in home, school and community. An example of the last Is the campaign carried on In the interest of the Native Indians and their needs which helped bring about an amended Indian Act by the Federal Govern-(1) ment assuring better conditions for the Indian. Other reeent activities of P.T.A's indicating a wider f i e l d of interests are their annual observation of Brotherhood Week, provisions of scholarships for students, support for the establishment of dental c l i n i c s and health centres throughout British Columbia and the observance, through their i n i t i a t i v e , of World Good-w i l l Day annually on 18 May. Typical Programs of P.T.A,'s In The Vancouver Area. Conclusions regarding the most common kinds of programs developed by P.T.A's in the Vancouver area were arrived at by a study of the information gained by the questionnaire (App.l), by. v i s i t s to local meetings and by interviewing 35 executive officers and school principals. In general these programs and projects are arranged to eomply with the interests of the local group and may be classified as follows: 1. History of the Parent-Teacher Movement, p. 13. 23. (a) Interpretation of the school to parents. Programs designed to give parents a better understanding of the school are universally used in the area studied, but much more time Is given to them by those associations linked to elementary schools. The reason for this* in the opinion of school principals and P.T.A. presi-dents is that parents show most interest in their children's f i r s t experiences with the school and that younger parents are most active in P.T.A. work so that more programs are devoted to their interests. Understanding of the school, what i t does at each grade level, the problems facing the child at different stages and how parents may help teachers - these form the basis of many programs and projects. Usually this inter-pretation i s done by the local teachers who come to the association meeting, explain how they work, t e l l what they expect of the child and then discuss any questions the parents wish to bring up. This type of program sparks better discussion than most. It also gives parents and teachers a chance to get acquainted with each other through mutual understanding of common problems. Some P.T.A's have members of the school board address them to explain administrative problems and general policy. Tours of the school are common to elementary and high school association projects. Children are used as guides and class-rooms often l a i d out to show samples of students' work In the different subjects. Leaving elementary school to go to high school i s often a trying experience for a child. High schools make the transition easier by having these children as 24. guests for an afternoon at the end of the term preceding their entry. So that the parents may better help the child at this time, counsellors are invited to association meetings to explain the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by their children in moving. This program is reported as being especially well received by a l l parents since i t helps them with a problem that they a l l , sooner or later, w i l l have to face. One past-president of the B.C. Federation told the writer that the biggest handicap facing the P.T.A. movement is the "mutual distrust" of parent and teacher. If this i s a valid appraisal, then the type of program which provides the opportunity for mutual understanding between parent and teacher should have a high pr i o r i t y in program planning. (b) Parent-child relationship problems. Programs which help the parent appreciate demands made on the child by the school, as in (a) above, should promote better parent-child relationship and, as a consequence, happier homes. However, there are many other causes than the school for parent-child misunderstandings and discord, e.g. overly-rigid parental authority and, probably most common of a l l , parental ignorance of the features and implications of the different stages in child development. Parent-teacher associations in the Vancouver area are aware of the prevalence of these problems and through certain programs are helping parents understand the importance of providing children with emotional as well as physical nourishment. 25. The most common type of program i n this category is the film, followed by a professionally qualified person to dis-cuss with parents questions that arise in their minds from seeing the film. Such films as: "Shyness", "The Deprived Child" and "How a Child Grows" are used and the discussion led by a mental coordinator or psychiatrist. A l l associa-tions using these films report great parent Interest and worthwhile discussions following. Another type of program for the same purpose was used by four P.T.A's this year. This was a series of study groups which took for their subjects the different stages in child growth and development I.e. infancy (to end of the third year); pre-school; early school and adolescence. Normal development of each stage was f i r s t studied, then problems as seen by parents. The response of parents to this program was rated "excellent". One associa-tion experimented by having an outstanding psychoanalyst speak to the members In one group. This was not considered successful - but perhaps the speaker's choice of subject was unfortunate inasmuch as she discussed: "The Father's Responsi-b i l i t i e s in Raising a Family", and fathers at P.T.A. meetings, with a few exceptions, are conspicuous by their absence. The president of this local f e l t that the t i l e was "unfortunate" and pointed i t up as an example of the Importance of small things in program planning. He said that the purpose of that phrasing of the topic was to arouse the fathers' interest and bring them out, whereas i t actually frightened them away. 26. (c) Topics of current interest. Without exception local P.T.A. groups spend at least one evening considering questions of public interest. This year the popular choice has been the Salk polio vaccine and fluoridation. Por the former, medical health officers have given generously of their own time to explain the scope, purpose and value of the local vaccination project; for the latter, dentists have been the chief speakers. Other subjects considered are - t r a f f i c hazards and safety rules, school taxation formulae, narcotic addiction and banning of fire-cracker sales. One evening a month is given over to a discussion of resolutions which the group intends bringing to the attention of parents at the annual provincial convention. Another question of continuing public interest engaging the attention of P.T.A's at present i s that of mental health in general and mental hospitals in particular. The Vancouver branch of the Canadian Mental Health Association has made speakers available and local associations are taking advantage of this service. This program i s at least partly responsible for the increasing number of volunteers who are coming forward to take part in the "vis i t i n g " plan whereby patients in mental hospitals are helped through friendly laymen going to see them regularly and taking an interest i n them. While a program devoted to matters of public interest might tend to considera-tion of things t r i v i a l , this danger has been avoided by P.T.A's. Their choice of topics i n a l l cases i s the result of careful consideration of member interest and community welfare. Since 27. the P.T.A. Is non-political, any question which might involve partisan p o l i t i c s is barred. (d) Evenings for displays by children. No other program can compete, i n terms of member attendance, with the one where children play the chief role. Very often children provide a musical item or a dance between educational features; other times the children provide the main feature. Physical education displays, plays, pageants, variety concerts and choirs are a l l used for program content. This i s not a major type of program in the Vancouver area; six associations reported a f u l l evening given up to i t and twelve others found i t valuable to f i l l i n as entertain-ment between main features. Factors Determining P.T.A. Program Act i v i t i e s . P.T.A. activities depend, in the main, on what the executive officers see as the role or purpose of the associa-tion. A l l persons Interviewed were asked to express an opinion as to what they considered should be the main area of P.T.A. interest. Twenty association officers and ten teachers stressed an understanding of the school, four officers con-sidered parent-child relationships as most important and one president thought, definitely, that "parent education" should be the chief concern since parents in general were "Ignorant" of school matters and child-raising. One teacher saw the main function of the P.T.A. as fund-raising and explained that there were many things a school needed and could only obtain through private funds e.g. musical supplies, audio-visual equipment 28. and enough sports equipment. The following are representative of the opinions expressed: (a) to interpret the school to parents. (b) to get parents interested in what is going on in the school. (c) should centre on understanding the child i n the school. (d) should confine i t s e l f to programs relating to the child and the school. (e) to provide a better understanding of child and parents. (f) vehicle for interpreting teaoher's role. (g) to create better relationships between teacher, parent and child. (h) " L i t t l e Johnnie" i n the middle between school and home. Bring the ends together to help Johnnie. In no instance was citizenship education mentioned as a main area of interest. When asked to give an opinion of this, there was unanimous agreement that, i n d i s t r i c t s where there was a number of New Canadians, the P.T.A. had a responsibility to make a speeial effort to help such parents towards an understanding of the school. This attitude supports what was stated above, that P.T.A's concentrate for the most part on matters of interest to the local group, (a) Program planning. Thirty associations out of thirty-five reporting have a program committeej the remainder have a chair-man only. The latter arrangement was of necessity rather than choice because of d i f f i c u l t y i n getting members to participate on committees. In a l l associations with program committees, teacher cooperation and participation was rated as "very good" or "excellent". In elementary schools in particular, teachers not only help plan programs but take an active part in their presentation. One association only complained that teacher 29. interest in the P.T.A. was "poor". School principals are, by the Constitution, honorary presidents of the associations. In many schools It is "understood" that teachers attend at least two P.T.A. meetings a year. Most committees plan their programs for a year. Some have a "night" program they follow from year to year e.g. "Better-Parent Night"; "Safety-Night"; "Better-Health Night"; "Election-Night", etc. Some programs are planned by terms, this being to overcome the d i f f i c u l t y experienced In getting outside speakers to commit themselves many months ahead. The one-man program associations report dissatisfaction with programs presented, the main complaint being that arrangements are l e f t u n t i l too late and done on an emergency basis, (b) Fund-raising a c t i v i t i e s . A l l P.T.A's in the Vancouver area con-tribute money to the school for "extras". What Is perhaps surprising i s that no association reported any d i f f i c u l t y raising the funds required and amounts raised vary from around $100 to over $3,000 annually. Usually one night i s given over to this project and the association sponsors a bazaar, a carnival, a fun f a i r or concert. The funds raised are used for a variety of purposes but by far the most common contri-bution is to school l i b r a r i e s . Tape recorders, sports equipment, records, a piano, audio-visual equipment have been provided besides regular annual contributions to eye-glass funds (to provide glasses for children unable to buy them) and bursary or scholarship funds. In every case there appears 30. to be close scrutiny of the need for a certain contribution before i t i s given. Prom information gained in interviewing presidents, the writer would estimate that Vancouver schools receive annually from the P.T.A's extras to the value of approximately $25,000. (c) The school lunch-room. No review of P.T.A. activities would be complete without reference to the very successful and worth-while organization, equipping and staffing of lunch rooms which the associations have done. Only two of the associations con-tacted had no lunch-room f a c i l i t i e s ; in the others i t i s a P.T.A. responsibility and mothers do the preparation and serving of food. Organizing the mothers for this work is a major task in i t s e l f since some schools have more than one hundred mothers on shifts. L i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i s experienced in getting volunteers and i t i s a work that appears to give the participants great satisfaction. The food served varies from milk or cocoa to f u l l course meals, a l l served at cost. Where children are unable to afford milk, the local P.T.A. supplies i t free. Teaehers, parents and children are appreciative of the valuable contribution to the child's health and happiness made by the P.T.A. through i t s lunch -room ac t i v i t i e s . The Vancouver P.T.A. Council As A Resource In Program Planning. When the B.C. Federation of P.T.A's was formed in 1922, the Vancouver groups organized their Council, a body designed to coordinate local activities and act as a liaison between 31. provincial and local associations. The Council has what is probably a unique program counselling service for i t s members. In order to relieve local group secretaries from the necessity of having to examine, evaluate and f i l e an ever-growing body of informational material, the Council has b u i l t up a program division which has available for members information on any subject and also suggestions on how to carry out programs relating to that subject. Within the program division are sections responsible for the following: Pre-School; Parent Education; School Education; School Board; Health; Safety; Youth Welfare; Community Standards; Pine Arts; Children's Reading; World Understanding; Literature; Magazines; Public Relations; and Rural Schools. P.T.A. presidents report using this resource extensively for programs where members take part e.g. study groups and debates. This resource has the advantage of relieving secretaries of a l o t of routine work; the only disadvantage might be that local groups do not have the material at hand and ready to use or that they might not know what i s available at Council. Material Available for Citizenship Education Programs. The Council has no section especially designated "Citizenship" but the sections responsible for community standards and world understanding probably cover that f i e l d . There is available, however, a wealth of material relating to citizenship education which is published by and may be obtained from the federal Citizenship Branch at nominal cost. One pamphlet called "Information for Newcomers" l i s t s 32. twenty-five different areas or subjects where Hew Canadians need help. This one pamphlet could form the basis for dis-cussion periods with newcomers who doubtless are anxious to know about such things as library f a c i l i t i e s , school courses for adults, purchase of property, social welfare provisions and recreational f a c i l i t i e s . The Branch also has a series of booklets dealing with the citizen - as an individual, as a parent, as a family member, as a community member, as a member of the nation and as a member of the world community. These are attractively illustrated to show practical activities and questions are given to provoke thought and f a c i l i t a t e discus-sion e.g. one booklet says the community member "should respect the rights of his neighbors", then asks: "What rights do our neighbors have?" and "In what ways might we show respect for the rights of our neighbors?" There are other books dealing with the Canadian scene e.g. "Our Government"; "Our Resources"; Many of these could be distributed to newcomers by the P.T.A. or they could be used for discussion periods. Here i s a resource in helping newcomers to a better understanding of their country of adoption - a resource that has not yet been used to any extent. Conclusions: P.T.A. Activities in relation to Citizenship Educ. The above review of P.T.A. activities shows that, In the Vancouver area, local associations are headed by people who are interested in - and often enthusiastic about - the work their associations do. We found, too, that P.T.A's have the support and active interest of teachers. Programs undertaken 35. i n Vancouver cover a wide range of topics, a l l important and pertinent to the welfare of home, school and child. This survey indicates clearly that, at the present time, citizen-ship education for New Canadians is a secondary consideration in P.T.A. program planning. Reasons why this i s so w i l l be considered later in this thesis. What has been established so far is that association programs are carefully planned, successfully promulgated and well received by the membership, but the planning does not include any major program of citizen-ship education for the newcomer. The extent to which such programs are actually being used in the Vancouver area w i l l be discussed in Chapter 3. I l l ACCOMPLISHMENTS OP P.T.A's IN CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION FOR. NEW CANADIANS This chapter deals with the examination and interpre-tation of information provided by P.T.A. presidents through completion of a questionnaire (Appendix 1) sent to them. Questionnaires were sent to a l l 53 associations in the Vancouver area. Forty-five were returned. The information thus obtained was supplemented by the interviews mentioned above. Officers and teachers were most cooperative in discussing association activities and many offered more help i f later required. Members of the Council were equally generous In making avail-able records in the office of the Historian. Material relating to the work done by the Community Influences committee of the National Federation was made available by Dr. W. G. Black, Liaison Officer, who also gave access to records in his office which were relevant to this study. Organizational Problems.- High School and Elementary P.T.A's. In Vancouver there are f i f t y elementary and fourteen secondary schools. Forty-five of the former and eight of the latter have active parent-teacher associations, the oldest of which was formed in 1916 while the youngest Is in i t s f i r s t year. P.T.A. officers and sehool principals agree that the secondary school association has more obstacles to overcome i n operating successfully than does the group organized around an elementary school. In every Instance, the secondary school P.T.A. draws 35. Its membership from an area already serviced by elementary associations - this makes I n i t i a l organization more of a prob-lem. Parents very often are already members of one P.T.A. and when they have children both at elementary and high schools, they usually stay with the elementary association. Presidents and principals alike agree that parents in the younger age group are more interested in association work. As they grow older they develop a wider f i e l d of interests and haven't the time to give to each interest that they formerly had. Again, as school principals noted, during his - or her - high school career, the student i s at the developmental stage where he begins to assert his individualism. He tends to pull away from the home, resist parental standards and go along with the group. Another factor here Is that parents - the majority at least -can help younger children with their school work-problems but high school subject matter is beyond their a b i l i t i e s . For younger parents too, greater interest centres around their child's f i r s t school experiences. This i s a determining factor in program planning. As we have already observed the "know your school" program Is very popular at the elementary le v e l . It i s probable that any program devoted to citizenship would not generally appeal to the younger parent who i s most deeply con-cerned with problems arising out of the immediate necessities of starting a home, raising a family and getting his children adapted to school l i f e . However, P.T.A's may use this knowledge to advantage in any project to interest newcomers - they may feel sure that the younger parents in that case would be particularly 36 . interested in P.T.A.• activities provided the programs were adequately interpreted to them. The New Canadian Child. Every year varying numbers of children of different ages and various nationalities, unable to speak or understand English, come here to l i v e . Special arrangements are made for these children by the Vancouver School Board. They are placed in "special classes", under specially trained teachers, and given intensive training in speaking, writing and understanding the English language. These classes are held in elementary schools and the location of the classes varies to be central to resi-dence areas where New Canadians concentrate in largest numbers. At- the present time there are twelve such classes in operation, (1) with an enrolment of Two Hundred and Forty-One pupils. The average class attendance i s around fifteen which allows for a high degree of individual instruction. Students are recommended for these classes by the principal of the school, elementary or secondary, where the newcomer enrolls. Upon graduation from the special class, he takes on regular grade work according to how much schooling he had in his native land. The special class usu-a l l y has a pupil for eighteen months or two years. With this preparation the New Canadian, according to school principals, f i t s well Into school l i f e , although he Is normally one or two years behind his age-grade. New Canadian children are less a 1. Dr. J. Millar, in charge of Research, Vancouver School Board. Personal Interview. 37. disciplinary problem than the Canadian-born and, on the average, more diligent i n class-room studies. Parent-Teacher Associations have representation on the provincial department of education curriculum committee and through this medium may work toward an effective program of citizenship education in the schools, bene-f i c i a l to native-born as well as newcomer. However, the area where P.T.A's would seem to have a stronger influence is in working with the adult or parent newcomer in his home and in association meetings. Mothers, regardless of racial origin, have similar problems i n raising a family; the New Canadian mother's problems are intensified by her being in a land of strange customs and of different language, and i t i s here that mothers in P.T.A's could render support, help and encouragement. Before success can be achieved in this respect, Canadian mothers w i l l have to recognize the natural reluctance of newcomers to mix where their language Is not understood and projects designed to bring newcomers into the association should be long-term, carried out with persistent patience. Programs and projects used to interest Newcomers in P.T.A's. The following enumeration and evaluation of P.T.A. ac t i v i ^ ties in citizenship education for New Canadians emerges from analysis of the questionnaire sent to P.T.A. presidents. The number of associations using the programs outlined in the questionnaire and the time spent are shown by the following table. On a basis of ten meetings a year, lasting two and a half hours each, i n fifty-three locals, we have a total of 1325 hours, of which approximately 676 were given to citizenship 38. programs. The reasons for lack of activity in this area w i l l be discussed later. Figure 1: Time Devoted to Questionnaire Items No. of P.T.A's No. of Items Used Time Taken 17 none n i l 10 I 1 hour, 6 2 i£ " 4 3 2 " 2 4 3 3 5 4 2 6 10 " 1 8 16 " Content of Programs Most Frequently Used. (a) Films. Twenty associations reported the use of films, educational and entertaining, as a suitable medium for interesting those who have language d i f f i c u l t i e s . Besides the films l i s t e d in Chapter 2 which are used as of value to both Canadian and New Cana-dian, some associations report using film-strips showing Canadian industries e.g. logging, farming, fishing, and two associations have used films showing some customs peculiar to western Europe e.g. Dan-ish farming methods and Alpine bread-making. Although twenty associations l i s t e d films as designed to interest New Canadians, there is l i t t l e evidence that the films were selected for that purpose, (b) Social Evenings & Afternoon Teas. Twelve associations l i s t e d social evenings and afternoon teas used to bring in New Canadians. In ten of these the event was for the one purpose of introducing to regular members those New Canadians recently coming into the d i s t r i c t . They thought this plan was " f a i r l y successful". In the case of 39. the remaining two, the social evening i s a regular part of each meeting, usually at the end. Lunch i s served and any newcomers present are made welcome and taken around and Introduced to as many of the regular members as time allows. Afternoon teas have not been found successful in working dis t r i c t s since the parents very often both work, or i f one i s at home there may be the problem of not being able to get - or afford - a baby - s i t t e r . (c) "New Canadians" Evening. Eight associations set aside one evening to welcome and introduce newcomers to the P.T.A. These special guests are Invited by v i s i t s to their homes, by written invita-tions or by telephone c a l l s . Visits to the homes bring best results. Regular members also attend on this evening. The programs vary but i n a l l cases newcomers are given an explana-tion of the purpose of the association and how i t may be of benefit to them and their children. Two groups reported having a discussion of immigrants' problems on this occasion, three used films for entertainment and three had a variety program contributed to by adults and children. Response from the special guests was expressed as "good" in terms of numbers attending but, as i s found In the case of groups sponsoring a "Fathers 1 Night", there was not found to be a great gain in membership. Few of the New Canadians entertained became regular attenders, but i t was agreed that as a friendly gesture i t was a worth -while endeavor. 40. (d) Plays, Pageants. Concerts. Five associations use plays, pageants or concerts, using New Canadian talent and inviting a l l newcomers in the d i s t r i c t . This type of program brings a large attendance. Native costumes, songs, dances and music feature the event. Associations interested in this kind of program reported that i t means a lot of time spent i n preparation and rehearsal and think that this is the main reason why i t is not more often attempted. (e) Other Programs Used. Two groups only reported having New Canadians present to hear talks on Canadian customs and manners. One group gave one hour to a discussion of problems facing immigrants. Pour groups expressed "support" of Citizen-ship Day programs but no details were furnished as to the extent of participation. Three groups indicated cooperation with other organizations viz. neighborhood houses and community centre clubs. One exceptional case deserves mention. This is where one high school P.T.A., because of the large number of newcomers liv i n g in the d i s t r i c t , has devoted a l l i t s programs this year to citizenship education for New Canadians. Films, panel discussions (one by newcomers), a social evening, a play and an "International Festival" were the different programs used. The president of this association commented that this "one-sided" kind of program brought objections from some members. For that reason, in future, they wi l l have a more balanced program planned. 41. Another method used successfully to Interest newcomers in the association is reported by one assoc-iation. Here special effort i s made to have New Canadian mothers come to work in the lunch-room. The president reported that some d i f f i c u l t y was experienced in getting them started but that once they came, they really enjoyed the experience and were most reliable. Through this work the newcomers became interested in the association with the result that the majority of them became regular attenders. Material Available Prom the National Federation. Any association considering citizenship programs or projects for New Canadians is naturally concerned with arranging the program and obtaining material relevant to i t s successful com-pletion. The best material for that purpose, as found in this study, is that developed and distributed by the Community Influences Committee especially for use by P.T.A's. This com-mittee has issued a number of circulars dealing with what is involved in citizenship education and giving guidance for practical application through specific programs and projects. One of these circulars is entitled: "Citizenship in Action". It gives, f i r s t of a l l , a reference l i s t for basic reading, e.g. "Canadian Welfare", "Food for Thought", "The Human Community" and "Community Organization for Social Welfare". This i s followed by a l i s t of government publications mentioned above. Then f i l m and film strips available are named with the time required for their showing e.g. "The House I Live In" (15 minutes) and 4 2 . "Peoples of Canada" ( 2 G minutes). Sixteen of these are named. The circular then outlines different forms a citizenship evening may take with emphasis on the value of stimulating local interest by using membership talent where possible. Collaboration with other organizations, special social evenings for newcomers, membership drives, participation in Court House ceremonies and annual Citizenship Day programs are some other suggestions. This circular concludes with the suggestion that small things used at every meeting may be a part of a planned citizenship education program, e.g. the singing of "0 Canada" and "The Queen", displaying the flag in the meeting room, observing democratic rules of procedure in conducting meetings and cultivating the s p i r i t of good-will and fellowship among association members. Other circulars are: "What i t means to be a good citizen", l i s t i n g the rights, privileges and responsibilities of a Canadian citizen; "Suggestions for improving your community"; "Religion and Citizenship"; "Suggested topics on citizenship for discussion by panels" which l i s t s twenty-one possible topics, e.g. "Junior Citizenship in the Family" and "The Home as a School"; "Parents as Teachers". There i s also an excellent circular dealing in detail with the potential contributions of the following to citizenship training: the family, the school, the neighborhood, the church, the community, the province, Canada, and the United Nations. This literature provides ample material for a planned 43. citizenship program extending over several years. In Chapter 4 an evaluation w i l l be made of P.T.A. a c t i v i -ties in promoting citizenship education for New Canadians. Suggestions w i l l be made as to how these activities may be expanded economically and effectively. IV POTENTIALITIES OF P.T.A'S IN EXPANDING CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION PROGRAM Many organizations are well suited to develop effective citizenship a c t i v i t i e s . This study indicates that the parent -teacher association i s one such organization. Leaders of the movement are committed to improving citizenship standards i n the statement of alms and objectives. Twenty-eight out of fifty-three associations i n the Van-couver area have undertaken programs designed to help the new-comer but i t is clear that the potentiality of the P.T.A. in this respect has not been f u l l y exploited. There are definite limiting factors in the implementation of citizenship programs but these are not insurmountable. Some of these factors w i l l be discussed in this chapter and consideration given to ways and means by which associations may use their resources to organize and promulgate citizenship education programs more eff i c i e n t l y and more effectively. Limiting Factors. Organizational problems particular to High School P.T.A's as opposed to those developing around elementary schools were discussed in Chapter 3 above. Parents of younger children, according to information gained in this study, are chiefly concerned with personal aspects of the school, that i s , they want to know what is expected of their child in the different grades, they are interested in getting to know what sort of 45. people the teachers are and they are moat willing to put time and effort into, and support programs which aim at satisfying those interests or which propose to help the child by providing the school with things tangible such as library books, sports equipment or a hot lunch; Parent members of elementary school associations, in general, appear to support most readily programs and projects which are local or personal in character. Programs devoted to citizenship education are unlikely to e l i c i t the support necessary to make them effective so long as there are pressing home-school problems s t i l l unsolved. It is possible that members of junior high and high school P.T.A's might be more enthusiastic about citizenship programs. Children of these members are reaching the stage of considering jobs, f i r s t part-time and later full-time; they are moving away from parental influence and becoming more interested in com-munity l i f e . When parents become aware that their children are fast becoming adults, their Interest in such broader fields as citizenship education is more easily aroused and sustained. More consideration w i l l be given to this diversity of parental interests when program planning is discussed below. Another factor limiting the effectiveness of P.T.A. citizenship programs i s the fact that this i s essentially a parents' association and, consequently, a large number of new-comers - those single or married without children - w i l l not come under the influence of the association. Again, citizenship programs may be thought of as f a l l i n g into two classes viz. those 46. oriented to children, their school situation and their home and community adaptation, and those designed to help parents with both home and community adjustments. While P.T.A's do not enter directly into activities of the child while at school, yet they may, by their representation on the provincial school curriculum committee, contribute constructive ideas to pro-gressively improve citizenship activities within the school. Executive officers of thos associations which make a special effort to interest neweomers agree unanimously that the response to and results of these efforts, measured in continu-ing attendance at meetings, are disappointing. Representative comments in this respect were: "they don't seem interested"; "they come once but don't return"; " i t i s something they haven't been used to and don't understand"; "they are only interested when their children take part". This problem of resistance to overtures i s one that requires careful planning to overcome since i t Involves an understanding and acceptance of former cultural customs and attitudes and requires patience and perserverance on the part of those who attempt to break down the barriers of apprehension and misunderstanding. Three associations expressed the opinion that, although newcomers are welcome at their meetings, no special effort should be made to "coax" them to attend. To quote one presi-dent: In this area we get the feeling that New Canadians are either not interested at a l l , or else tliey expect special effort i n that direction. Our members feel that there Is as much responsibility on the part of the New Canadian to interest himself in the community as there i s on ours to make him welcome. 47. Another president thought that paying special attention to the newcomers "spoiled" them. Only one president expressed complete satisfaction with newcomer membership and their participation in executive functions and program a c t i v i t i e s . The success i n this association was attributed to careful planning of membership drives and a balanced program which was carefully developed by a program committee in consultation with the executive committee. In general, local associations acknowledge a responsib-i l i t y for making special effort to bring newcomers Into the movement but are not satisfied with the success accomplished. While response from New Canadians is considered poor and their continuing attendance at meetings unsatisfactory, this cannot be attributed to attitudes or characteristics peculiar to the newcomer per se. Prom information given by presidents when interviewed, the average attendance at local association meetings varies from 25% to 50$ of signed up membership. A l i b e r a l estimate of overall average attendance would be 40% so i t is possible that newcomers attend as regularly as other members but, because of their smaller numbers, their absence is more conspicuous. The low ratio of attendance to total membership is attributed by most associations to the absence of fathers. Only three associations reported paternal Inter-est equal to the maternal. The effectiveness of a l l P.T.A. activities Is limited by low average attendance, a factor which is certainly not restricted to the newcomer element alone. Some associations found attendance improved greatly 48. by changing from afternoon to evening meetings and, at present, i t i s only in exceptional cases e.g. when junior grade pupils are active i n the program, that afternoon programs are presented. In industrial areas the problem of attendance i s aggravated by the greater incidence In those districts of both parents being employed. When discussing this aspect of association limitations with principals and association executive officers, both groups were in agreement that this problem needed more attention than had hitherto been given to i t . One teacher expressed what appears to be the general opinion in saying: "The people, New Canadian and native-born alike, that we can help most and who need help most are those who do not attend. We haven't concentrated on this problem as we should have". It Is evident that any attempt to interest New Canadians in a citizenship program requires most careful planning in the f i r s t stages viz. in getting them sufficiently interested to attend meetings regularly. Community resources which may be of value in accomplishing this are discussed below. The P.T.A. as a Factor in Community Organization. One of the methods used in this study was that of inter-viewing presidents or secretaries of ethnic groups i n the Vancouver area. Eight executive officers cooperated readily to discuss the activities of their groups and their potential benefits of cooperation with parent-teacher associations. Seven of the eight groups reported their activities as 49. mainly social. A meeting place Is provided for members and programs are designed to provide entertainment. Dances, card games and bingo were the chief activities reported. The membership is made up largely of single people in the younger age groups and the club-room, except on special ethnic cele-bration days, i s not a meeting place for families. Only one of these groups has sponsored any academic citizenship program - in this case i t had arranged for classes In English for newly arrived members. The eighth ethnic group was organized for the benefit of those interested in maintaining communica-tion with the home-land and i t s traditions and heritage through study of i t s literature. None of the eight groups contacted had had any communication with P.T.A's but there was general agreement that cooperation would be beneficial In organizing programs i n citizenship education. That the P.T.A. movement could employ the methodology of community organization in organizing citizenship activities would seem apparent. Ethnic groups could be used as valuable resource agencies to provide the following: (a) Information as to the numbers and locale of new-comers who might be interested in such programs. (b) Suggestions as to which problems were most important and how these might be alleviated. (c) Speakers or material for programs. (d) A means whereby the proposed programs might be made known to the group members. 50. In addition to cooperation with ethnic groups each local association could work with the Board of Trade, service clubs, churches, Y.M.C.A., etc., in any project for civ i c improvement such as health campaigns, campaigns for beautification of the neighborhood and efforts to obtain such desirable f a c i l i t i e s as libraries and recreational f a c i l i t i e s . If newcomers could be brought Into activities of performance where they contribute, a continuing interest would be more easily established. This was found to be true in the case of the association mentioned in Chapter 3 which introduced the newcomer, successfully, to the P.T.A. through the medium of working in the lunch-room. A limited application of community organization principles is undertaken by a minority of local associations. These sponsor groups organized around a common interest such as art, writing or books and the groups meet at members' homes. Three P.T.A's reported a f f i l i a t i o n with local cub groups and g i r l s ' clubs, as well as interest-groups. One evening a year -"A f f i l i a t i o n Night" - these groups are special guests of the association; their activities are reviewed and further programs discussed. Questionnaire Items thought most Important in Program Planning. Executive officers were asked to Indicate on the question-naire which items, in their opinion, were most essential to a citizenship program. In order of frequency of choice these items are: (a) "New Canadians" Evening: Although this i s given priority in order of 51. importance, only ten associations reported having used this means of bringing in the newcomer. Eight presidents classi-fied this activity as similar to a "Fathers' Night" project, both being effective only in bringing out the special guest for that one occasion. An evening devoted exclusively to the interests of the New Canadian would appear to be an excellent means of Introducing him to the association, but i t should be followed up by carefully planned means of continuing newcomer interest and participation. It is possible that insufficient interpretation i s given to the newcomer because of language d i f f i c u l t i e s . He may see the special evening as Just that Instead of as a part of a continuing activity, (b) Films about Canadian Life. Twenty associations reported using these but no information was obtained as to how these were used. If the film is employed as entertainment, i t s value potential Is not fu l l y exploited. Arrangements should be made for discussion of the subject matter whenever possible. Films dealing with personality problems were apparently l i s t e d under this heading; whenever these were shown arrangements were made for a discus-sion period afterwards. The value of this latter type of fi l m in parent education, newcomer or Canadian-bom, is evident, (c) Projects for Visiting New Canadians at Home. Six associations have made this activity a part of their regular program. Again evaluation of effective-ness is d i f f i c u l t since no information is available as to the nature or extent of the activity i.e. whether one or more v i s i t s 52. were made and whether Individuals or groups represented the association. To be effective any such project would have to be consistent even in the event of unsatisfactory f i r s t response. (d) Discussion of Problems Relating to Immigrants. Although this type of program was voted fourth i n order of importance, only three associations reported having used i t . Any planned program to help newcomers adjust to a new community must be related to the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by the newcomer. Here i s where P.T.A's may use to great advantage the experiences and services of local New Canadians. A panel discussion gives best results; where a single speaker attempts to portray the problems to a large body audience, response by participation has been unsatisfactory. (®) Plays, Pageants and Concerts. This type of program may be made to serve a double purpose in that i t may be used to develop newcomer talent, child and adult, and i t may stimulate appreciation of other culture attributes e.g. native dances, songs, manners and customs. Five associations have used this program and seven others use newcomer talent as entertainment between other program items. This type of program requires much more prepa-ration than most and that Is probably why i t i s so l i t t l e used. The effort expended might seem more worthwhile If the produc-tion were presented at a number of neighboring association meetings instead of just l o c a l l y . 53. Planning an Effective Program in Citizenship Education. Careful planning is all-important i f any program is to be successful. Where a P.T.A. contemplates inaugurating a program of citizenship education successful organization and promulgation w i l l only be possible i f , (a) there is readily available sufficient material and  structural suggestions to implement the program. As outlined in Chapters 2 and 3 (see App. C) there appears to be adequate material and suggestions in the series of program outlines prepared by the Community Influences Com-mittee under the chairmanship of Dr. Black. Important in this material are the suggestions given for doing practical things at each meeting to inculcate the general principles of good citizenship, e.g. consistent application of democratic proced-ure at every meeting. This study indicates that this material has not been used as advantageously as i s possible by P.T.A's in the Vancouver area. (b) the association believes the program to be worth- while and i t s objectives attainable. There is diversity of opinion as to the role of the P.T.A. and the types of programs that should be presented. To be successful, members must see the need for the program and then be ready to support i t enthusiastically to a successful con-clusion. (e) the cooperation, and i f possible the participation  of the Hew Canadian has been assured. Here is where d i f f i c u l t y i s usually encountered. How to overcome newcomer resistance needs thought, planning, patience 54. and persistence, based on an understanding of the newcomers1 attitudes and a sincere desire to help them with their problems. (d) some effort has previously been made to determine  the needs and interests of the group for whose  benefit the program is devised. Needs and interests can be determined only by communica-tion with the group concerned, although generally speaking, a l l newcomers have common needs and interests v i z . a knowledge of English, help In getting to know community resources, local housing regulations, etc. This aspect may Involve considerable work by regular P.T.A. members but i t i s essential i f programs are to be time saving and effective. Suggested Steps in Program Planning. 1. A survey should be made by local associations to determine the number of New Canadians resident within the d i s t r i c t . 2. There should be coordination of program planning at Council level, e.g. adjacent P.T.A's may share an integrated program to include newcomers within more than one d i s t r i c t . This would make available more local talent and encourage inter-change of ideas. 3. Arrangements should be made by the Council for orderly distribution of films, books, etc., so that program production of one association does not conflict with that of another. 4. Newspaper and radio f a c i l i t i e s should be used to supplement advertising by local bulletins. 5. Membership talent should be used whenever possible. 55. 6 . By cooperative planning in membership drives directed to newcomers, associations may mutually benefit from the experiences of one another. 7. Consideration ought to be given to offering help to newcomers with practical Issues e.g. distribution of depart-mental material relating to citizenship papers, giving interpretation of educational f a c i l i t i e s available for adults, formation of educational classes, etc. Areas for Further Research. In an exploratory study such as this, areas for further research become evident. In this connection i t would be beneficial to P.T.A's in a l l aspects of their work i f study could be made to determine causal factors of the low average attendance that prevails and the correlation, i f any, with types of programs presented. Another area worthy of research is that of the overlapping of functions between P.T.A's in the elementary f i e l d and those organized around junior high and high schools. This study should point up pos s i b i l i t i e s of closer cooperation to better serve the area concerned. Most valuable to developing effective programs in citizenship education would be a study of programs which have been employed in other provinces and in other associations throughout British Columbia. This should reveal a wealth of material and suggestions for future expansion of citizenship a c t i v i t i e s . 56. SCHOOL. (High School) (Elementary School) CITIZENSHIP PROGRAMS FOR NEW CANADIANS AMONG P.T.A. 'S  Please put a check mark (vO where applicable. Please add an asterisk (*) against those you regard as the most important. 1. Which of the following act iv i t ie s are u t i l i z e d by your group to interest New Canadians in the Association or to f ac i l i t a te their adjustment to l i f e in Canada? a. "New Canadians" evening, or equivalent. b. Social evenings Afternoon teas c. Talks relating to Canadian customs, manners etc d. Plays, pageants or concerts produced by ethnic groups. . . . . . . . . e. A few songs contributed to ordinary program by newcomers. f . "Citizenship Day" programs. . . . . . . . . g. Films, (a) about Canadian l i f e . . . . . (b) other cultures . . . . . h. Talks by members of minority or ethnic g r o u p s . . . . . . . . . . i . Discussion- periods to consider problems facing immigrants. . . . . . . . . j . Projects for v i s i t ing newcomers in their homes. . . . . . . . . k. Co-operation with other clubs or societies in promoting welfare of new-comers. . . . . . . . . 1. Other relevant ac t iv i t ie s (please -give detai ls) . m. Please estimate number of hours spent on above during any year. 2. Which of the following factors, in your opinion, l imi t the amount of time devoted to citizenship education i n your meetings? a. Lack of interest by members b. Lack of subject materials. . . . . . speakers. . . . . . . c. Citizenship education not considered a P.T.A. function. . . . . . . . . d. More urgent community problems given pr io r i ty . e. Lack of planning for a balanced program.. f. Number of New Canadians in your area too few to warrant time being given to the subject. . . . . . . . . g. No demand for such programs or ac t iv i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . h. Other factors (please name) Please use other side for any comments you may l i k e to make 57 February 25th, 1955 President, P. T. A., As part of my work f o r the Master of Social Work degree from the University of British Columbia,, I am studying for my thesis the subject of citizenship 'education act i v i t i e s in vol-untary organizations, with particular emphasis on Parent-Teacher Associations. The study i s being done with the co-operation of Dr. W. G> Black, Liaison Officer, Department of Citizenship and Immigration, and with the approval of the Vancouver P.T.A. Council. May I ask for your help in furnishing information on the enclosed form? I hope you w i l l not find this too great a c a l l on your time. As the time for this study i s limited I should apprec-iate having the questionnaire returned not later than the 10th  of March, 1955. A stamped, addressed envelope is enclosed for your convenience. Even i f your particular Association has never taken up any of these a c t i v i t i e s , please indicate this and return the form. It is• hoped that this research project, when•completed, w i l l be of value to the P.T.A. movement; and a copy of the com-pleted report w i l l go to the B. C. Federation. With thanks for your cooperation, I am, Yours truly, AMcC/kt 58. Appendix B  Interview Questions Total membership of the association? Average attendance? Who plans programs - one man, committee or the executive? What are the functions of the P.T.A.? Is program buil t around functions? Member interest? What of contacts with New Canadians? Is citizenship education thought to be within scope of P.T.A.? What time devoted to fund raising? For what are funds expended? Typical programs used by association? Teacher participation - as members? on executive? on programs? Limiting factors in citizenship programs? Reasons for low average attendance? Any problems peculiar to the district? 5 9 . EDUCATION FOR GOOD CITIZENSHIP 1. SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES 1. Citizenship means group membership; the l i t t l e child i s a member of a group, and the Family i s the most impor-tant group of a l l ; therefore the process of becoming a good citizen (socialization) begins from the cradle. 2. A good group member develops attitudes of helpfulness and cooperation towards the other members of the group. 3. These attitudes of helpfulness should be consciously de-veloped in children by parents and teachers, by giving them opportunities to do things for others and by prais-ing them.for helpful acts. On the other hand, words and deeds which are thoughtless, sel f i s h or hurtful to others should be discouraged. 4. Love, kindness, thoughtfulness, brotherhood, kinsman-ship, good neighborliness, good citizenship, and many other expressions refer to the same basic psychological attitudes, that of wanting to work and play with others and help others. 5 . Undue pampering and mollycoddling of the child and undue stress on "getting" and neglect of "giving" and helping, undermine the very foundations of good citizenship. 6. Attitudes of helping and serving, and of thoughtfulness and consideration for others, may be d i f f i c u l t to de-velop at f i r s t , but once the beginnings are made, their development through the later,years of childhood and youth become easier, u n t i l at length the adolescent w i l l have at the heart of his personality a s p i r i t of service and duty to his home, city and country which w i l l delight and gladden his friends. 7. Discipline has an intimate relationship to citizenship training. Discipline i n home and school, and the discipline of law for adults,.'should be regarded as more than negative and restraining, more than a system of controls and restraints from without. The good citizen of a democracy has developed self-control and internal discipline. He wants to obey the necessary mores and laws of his society, because he has learned that only by obedience to those laws can he and his fellows obtain the maximum of freedom. 8. A l l discipline should be consistent, whether administered by parents and teachers to children, or by o f f i c i a l s of the law to adults. 60. 9 . A good citizen does more than obey the law. His a t t i -tude of helpfulness leads him to do much more for others than what he is required to do. 10. In addition to developing good attitudes and motives, information concerning one's neighborhood and province and country must be taught to young citizens. But this Information must be carefully selected and graded, and only those facts should be taught which are interesting and which are understandable for that particular year and grade. 11. Parents should not leave a l l the teaching of civic information to teachers. By means of interesting books and home discussions, a wealth of useful Information may be taught In delightful and pleasant ways. 12. In addition to the teaching of information and the de-velopment of attitudes, children and youth must be encouraged to raise questions and discuss problems. Every week, through press and radio, v i t a l problems of local, national and international citizenship are thrust forward for attention. When parents discuss these prob-lems intelligently and Impartially, and bring their children into such discussions, they are doing a wonder-f u l job in citizenship education. 13. Men's minds are bedevilled today by erroneous ideas, concepts and prejudices, which lead them to say mis-chievous words and to do anti-social acts. It Is the duty of parents, f i r s t to avoid being guilty of spreading ideas and prejudices known to be wrong, and secondly to help clear the minds of their children from such confusion. 14. There are certain fundamental principles underlying effective p o l i t i c a l l i f e which have been amply proven by the trial-and-error experiences of mankind over centuries of history. These principles should be clearly taught by parents and teachers, f u l l y explained and discussed and exemplified on every possible occasion. They are the very foundations of our Democracy. Following are some of these principles: a. The Golden Rule - do unto others as you would have them do unto you. b. The Golden Mean - avoid both extreme radicalism and extreme reaction. c. Seek the. best possible harmonizing of Liberty and Law, of Freedom and Control. 61 d. If laws need to be changed, they should be changed by legal and constitutional means, not by force. Social evolution is better than revolution. e. Government should be "of the people, by the people, for the people". f. Government should be by the majority, but with the maxi-mum of safeguards and freedoms for the minorities. g. It i s better to work for specific reforms than to endeavour to supplant one "system" by another "system" in an endeavour to usher in Utopia overnight. h. We must endeavour to bring about the best possible blending of state enterprise, group enterprise, and individual enterprise. Placing a l l enterprise under state control w i l l result in inefficiency, waste, and an undue smothering of individual and group Initiative. i . We must stress the individual value of each human being, regardless of race, religion, or class, and the right of each individual to a maximum opportunity for personal development. j . We must not only obey the laws of our land but endeavour to go beyond them In serving our fellow men. k. We must always work for "the greatest good of the greatest number", placing the good of the province above that of the town, of Canada above that of the province, of World Brotherhood above that of Canada. 62. SUGGESTED TOPICS ON CITIZENSHIP FOR ADDRESSES OR PANELS FOR HOME AND SCHOOL OR PARENT-TEACHER MEETINGS. The Kind of Love that Does Not Spoil the Child. The Relation between Discipline and Citizenship. Training for Leadership i n Democracy. Junior Citizenship in the Family. The Home Library. How To Prevent Delinquency. Good Citizenship at the Local Level. Good Citizenship at the Provincial Level. Good Citizenship at the Dominion Level. Great Canadian Leaders (a series). The Emergence of a Richer Canadian Culture. The Implications of True Patriotism. Some Great Events in Canadian History. Canada's New Role in World Affairs. The Essential Principles of Democracy. Training for Leadership in a Democracy. Liberty and Law. Is Selfishness the Greatest Sin in Society. The Distinction between Hypocritical and Functioning Morality. The Importance of Ethical Religion to Citizenship. The Home as a School; Parents as Teachers. An exchange of programmes w i l l be helpful. Please forward to the National Chairman of the Citizenship Committee, notes or press clippings dealing with meetings on Citizenship. (Dr.) Win. G. Black. Chairman, Citizenship Committee, Canadian Federation of Home & School, 63. SUGGESTIONS FOR LOCAL HOME AND SCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION  The f i e l d divided according to areas of citi zenship:-(a) Citizenship i n the home. (b) Citizenship in the neighborhood. (c) Problems of municipal citizenship (city or town). (d) What we should know about our Province; privileges and duties involved in provincial citizenship. (e) "This Canada of Ours". How to improve our national unity and solidarity, and how to improve the quality of our services to our country. (f) World Brotherhood; the United Nations; The Agencies of the United Nations - (F.A.O., W.H.O., UNESCO, I.L.O., etc.) The f i e l d divided according to aspects of citizenship:-,(a) The Meaning of Democracy. (b) The Significance of Flag and National Anthem. (c) Ways and Means of Developing Patriotism. (d) Our heritage of Liberty and Law. (e) Weaving Various Cultures Into One National Culture. (f) Great Canadians (e.g. William Lyon McKenzie, John A. MacDonald, Sir Wilfred Laurier). (g) Canada's Role in the British Commonwealth. (h) Canada's Role in the United Nations. (i) What Parents may do to teach Citizenship, (j) The Power of Example. (k) A remedial program; some serious faults in our social behaviour, and how to eradicate them (prejudices, sectionalism, unwillingness to compromise, group selfishness). (1) The danger to Canada of any ideology which advocates flaunting of Constitution and law, and resort to foree. Programme Features:-(a) Lectures by competent speakers, followed by a question period and a short summary. (b) Panel discussions, followed by question period and ending in summaiyy by chairman. (c) Symposium. (d) Group discussion (one large group). (Short 5 minute opening by Leader. (Discussion, well distributed and directed by leader. (Use of visual aids where helpful (e.g. charts, maps, film-slides). (Summary of main findings. (Suggestions for further study and appropriate action. 64. 3. Programme Features:- (Continued) (e) Group discussion, the main group divided into several sub-groups, these sub-groups to convene later and report their findings. (f) Film, followed by talk or discussion on the same subject. (g) Play, bringing out some aspect of good citizenship, and followed by short talk on same theme. (h) Concert of group songs, solos and folk-dances in costume, portraying the various contributions to Canadian culture of the immigrants who have come to Canada. 4. Program Planning:-(a) The program should be so planned that at least one local program a year should be devoted to citizen-ship, and at least three programs a year should contain certain features of civic significance. (b) Every home and school program should in i t s cere-monial include "0 Canada" and "The King", and frequent reference should be made to the Home and School Code or Policy, which contains in single form the statement of our c i v i c objectives. (c) Important subjects not discussed in the current year should be Incorporated In the programs of the ensuing year. (d) Every home and school association should be organ-ized and carried on in a democratic manner, thus providing for i t s members an immediate example of good citizenship. SPURGES OF MATERIAL III 1. Films: CTrTte to National Film Board and National Film Society of Canada (Ottawa) for excellent l i s t s and information as to how to obtain the films desired. 2. Film-slides: Write to your Provincial Department of Education for information as to l i s t of film-slides available, and how to obtain them. 65 3. Plays: write to your Provincial Department of Education for l i s t of plays, classif i e d by age and grade. See also: Moses, "Treasury of Plays for Children" (Little) Moses, "Another Treasury of Plays for Children" (Little) Skinner, "Children's Plays" (Appleton) Smith, "Plays, Pantomines and Tableaux for Children (Dodd Mead) Barrio, "Representative Plans" (Scribner) Bullard, "One-Act Plays" (Holt) Penney, "Plays, Old and New" (Allyn) Hampden, "Twenty One-act Plays" (Dent) Jagendorf, "Plays for Clubs, Schools & Camps" (French) Webber & Webster, "Typical Plays for Young People" (Haughton) Webber & Webster, "One-Act Plays" (Haughton) Bennett, "Let's Do a Play" (Nelson) 4. Books and Other Publications on Citizenship:-"Canadian Citizenship Act" - (10 George VI.) (Chap. 15) King's Printer, Ottawa. "Canadian Citizenship Act - Regulations", King's Printer, Ottawa. "Canadian Democracy & Citizenship Action" (Pamphlet) (Canadian Legion, Legion House, Ottawa) "Canadian Citizenship" (House of Commons Debate, Paul Martin) King's Printer, Ottawa. McKown, H. "Character Education" (McGraw) McGIll, G.E., "Co-Operative Play Groups for Pre-School Children" (Canadian Citizenship Council, 166 Marl-borough Ave., Ottawa) Merriam, "The Making of Citizens" (University of Chicago Press) Pearson, L.B., "Canada and the Post-War World" (Canadian Affairs, Vol. 1 No. 6) Royal Bank of Canada "The Meaning of Citizenship" Trotter, R.G., "Commonwealth: Pattern for Peace?" United Nations Charter (United Nations Society of Canada, Ottawa) Wallace, "Canadian Civics" (Macmillan) 5. Charts:-Some excellent charts are available for pinning to easel on Blackboard, for use during lecture or discussion, and for close personal study afterwards. Charts on the United Nations may be obtained by writing to the Secretary, United Nations, Lake Success, New York. Charts on Canada may be 66. 5. Charts:- (Continued) obtained from the various appropriate departments at Ottawa. Also, the large coloured charts on Canada issued as the "Canadian Affairs" series are excellent; these are issued by the National Film Board. Other charts may be obtained by writing to the Canadian Citizenship Council, Ottawa. 6. Magazines on the United Nations:-"Changing World" Monthly publication of the American Association for the United Nations, 45 East 65th Street, New York 21, N.Y. "United Nations News" Monthly publication of the United Nations Society in Canada, 124 Wellington Street, Ottawa. United Nations Weekly Bulletin, Ryerson Press, 299 Queen Street West, Toronto, Ontario. United Nations World, U.N. World Inc., 385 Madison Avenue, New York 17, New York. 67. CANADIAN FEDERATION OF HOME AND SCHOOL CITIZENSHIP CIRCULAR NUMBER FOUR SOME FURTHER SUGGESTIONS FOR LOCAL PROGRAMMES These suggestions may serve either as the major features of local programmes or as adjunct features. They w i l l , of course, be varied in numerous ways according to avai l a b i l i t y of local participants. (1) A panel discussion, with a Chairman and three or four participants, the panel to be followed by audience participation and concluded with a brief five-minute summary by the Chairman. The panel need not neces-sarily be comprised solely of "experts" or "authorities" or of outside speakers; i t i s often wise to include members of the association in the panel, or young people of the neighborhood, or members of other organizations. Suggested Themes: "Causes of Delinquency", "Neighborhood Morale", "How to Combat Race Prejudice", "Canada»s Duty as a Member of the United Nations", "How to Become a Citizen", "The Meaning of Freedom", "Weak-nesses in our Democracy", "Discipline and Democracy", "Role of Parents as Teachers of Citizenship", "Leisure Time and Citizenship", "Our ubligations to our Handi-capped Citizens", "Better Care for our Senior Citizens, the Aged", "Citizenship and Morality". (2) An Open Forum, with a well-prepared leader who opens the discussion, leads It from point to point, and con-cludes It with a brief five-minute summary. Three or four members of the audience should be prepared before-hand to act as participants, but they w i l l s i t in the audience. Chairs should be arranged in semi-circular formation in order to get away from the stiffness and formality of the usual front-facing arrangement. (5) A Lecture, given by that local or outside person best equipped to speak on the chosen subject. The resources of the l o c a l i t y and of the local school staff should not be overlooked, though they often are. Suggestions might be made to the lecturer: (a) to limi t his address to not more than 45 minutes (b) to use visual aids i f feasible, and (c) to include In his address as many practical suggestions for the members to consider as pos-sible. The effectiveness of many lecturers Is reduced due to their vagueness and generality. 68. (4) A f i l m evening, with two or three films chosen which deal with various aspects of citizenship. The National Film Board has produced a wealth of films which have great citizenship value, yet many associations make l i t t l e or no use of them. Each film should be preceded by a short explanatory preamble, and followed by a short ten-minute discussion. This serves to emphasize and register the chief principles or features. (5) A concert, play or pageant, the songs of the patriotic or folk-song types and the plays and pageants drama-tizing such great themes as world brotherhood, the ad-vantages of helpfulness, and the e v i l effects of selfishness and prejudice. The talent of the school or of local amateur players 1 clubs and musical societies could be used much more than i t i s at present by many local associations. (6) A quiz contest, or a "two-side" information contest, with careful selection of the questions to ensure that they are important and significant. Quiz contests could be very helpful, or i f they comprise dozens of stupid t r i v i a l i t i e s could be most wasteful. There are hundreds of important facts about Canada from which to choose, facts concerning her history, her geography, her laws, her customs, her component peoples, her government, and her foreign policy. (7) A Study Group - Whereever possible an association should encourage the formation of a study group, comprising those members who can afford the time to meet regularly to read and discuss great books on such subjects as child and adolescent psychology, community problems, educational problems, and citizenship. (8) An Information or Library Convener - Every association should have such a convener, whose duties should be to locate sources of good reading material on citizen-ship and other subjects, to obtain whenever possible, free leaflets and pamphlets for distribution, and to manage the sale of such helpful booklets as "Guide to Reading for Canadian Homes". (See Citizenship Pamphlet Number Two for a useful bibliography.) (9) A Community Project - The local association might i n l -tiate, or assist other local groups with a specific neighborhood project, such as, "Clean-up, Paint-up Week", a "Song and Dance Festival", a "Youth in Our Town" p i l o t project (write your provincial convener for information on this), or a campaign for a special community recreational or cultural feature such as an 69 (9) A Community Project - (Continued) additonal playground, tennis court, gymnasium, or most important of a l l , a community centre. Such pro-jects as these are v i t a l l y important for the development of good citizenship because they are tangible, practical, and immediate, because they permit of the cooperation of both youth and adults, and because they do much to Improve local morale. Many of us remember vividly the cooperative "bees" of the rural areas, and how they served so greatly to improve the sense of brotherhood of the entire community. (10) Closer contact with the Provincial and National Citizen-ship Conveners; i f you need further ideas or materials, write to your Provincial Citizenship Convener. It is his or her duty and pleasure to help you i n this v i t a l work. 70. COMMUNITY STANDARDS  (Circular Number Five of the Citizenship Committee) Standards are guides for li v i n g which are intangible and invisible, yet of basic importance to a society. They are formu-lated as a result of the values and desires of a people, and also as a result of the need for certain conformities. They may change slowly or quickly, and they may rise or f a l l , according to changes in the desires and ways of l i f e of the people them-selves. We, in our Canadian Society, have many standards, formulated from the wisdom and experience of previous generations. Many of these might well be maintained as they are, while others need to be reformulated and elevated. The following appear to be the chief types of standards: (a) Moral Standards - with respect to such Ideals as honesty, truthfulness, kindness, generosity, courtesy, modesty. The Canadian Home and School Federation has as part of i t s basic policy the maintenance of these ideals and standards, and the quickening of the awareness of a l l youth and adults as to their v i t a l import-ance for effective social l i v i n g . The consciences of our people must be made more sensitive to these ideals. (b) Standards of Material Living - in terms of food, clothing, shelter, bodily protection and health. The minimum standards in these respects are higher in Canada than in most countries, and yet in respect to our poorest people we are f u l l y aware of conditions of malnutrition, congested l i v i n g quarters and slums which need not exist In Canada and which should not be tolerated complacently. The Federation is therefore behind every effort to raise these minimum standards. (c) Educational Standards - We have often asserted our conviction that "every child, everywhere" should have the best possible educational opportunities, regardless of the wealth, creed or racial origin of his parents. We have made amazing progress i n education in Canada, yet we have much s t i l l to do i f we are to get near to our standard or goal. The home and school authorities must, therefore, never cease in their efforts to improve the stan-dards of education throughout a l l parts of Canada. 71. COMMUNITY STANDARDS (Continued) Recreational & Leisure Time Standards - Leisure time for young and old, should be used for re-creation and refreshment of body and mind, and also for the improve-ment of the whole texture and substance of l i v i n g . Our standards have risen remarkably in Canada over the past decades, yet we know of thousands who are unaware of them or who cannot enjoy them. More playgrounds, more community centres, more library f a c i l i t i e s , more f a c i l i t i e s for music and art and drama - these continue to be l i s t e d among the prime obligations of home and school associations. Co-ordination on a national scale of our government and.lay cultural organizations might well be another goal for which to strive. Aesthetic Standards - In a land of great and diverse natural beauties are to be found squalid slums and bleak smoke begrimed areas, and, even away from such areas, thousands of homes which are unnecessarily drab and tawdry. Beauty, order, and neatness should characterize a l l our home and community l i v i n g . The home and school associations can do much to raise the aesthetic standards of the people. Scientific Standards - Aware of the existence of certain c r i t e r i a which distinguish truth from falsehood-, of the remarkable contributions which the physical, biological and social sciences have made and continue to make, yet also aware of the insidious dangers of propaganda, the Federation has always emphasized the necessity of maintaining sc i e n t i f i c standards, and of an education whieh w i l l make our people able to dis-tinguish truth from distortion. Spiritual Standards - While remaining s t r i c t l y non -sectarian, the Canadian Home and School Federation has always emphasized the importance of lofty concep-tions of human personality and human li v i n g , and has deplored a l l tendencies and influences leading to vulgarity, cheapness, and mere materialism. The local associations w i l l continue in many specific ways to emphasize "whatsoever things are noble and true and of good report". They w i l l also emphasize the principle basic to both Democracy and Christianity, namely that the individual person i s of value for his own sake, and i s not to be regarded merely as a chattel of a g l o r i -fied totalitarian Super-State. 72. YOUTH GUIDANCE (Circular Number Six of the Citizenship Committee) "Fumbling, foundering and making mistakes are part of l i f e , and are necessary for the formation of character" - thus spoke an eminent person recently. In a sense he was right, but only partly so. It i s true that there w i l l always be a large element of chance in l i f e , that we w i l l a l l make many mistakes, and that we often develop from the mistakes we make. But this is not to argue that we should not endeavour to reduce the amount of fumbling and error, particularly in a world which is becoming increasingly more complex and confusing to our youth. It would seem beyond question that a well-planned programme of educational, vocational, and personal guidance should be provided for our youth, and made known widely by means of adequate publicity. Such a programme is found in a few progressive communities in Canada, i s partially provided for in other communities, and i s completely lacking in many. An adequate guidance programme should comprise the following features: (a) Elementary School - guidance in personal problems. (b) Junior High School - beginnings of vocational guidance, - educational guidance regarding - subject electives, - personal guidance. (c) Senior High School and College - Continuation and development of a l l three aspects of guidance. Most progressive school systems have Incorporated a well -balanced provision of aptitude testing and counseling Into their school programmes. If such services are not available i n your school, your association might well begin to make represen-tations to the school board. The greatest existing need for guidance and counseling i s for the period after school leaving, the period when so many young people make serious blunders with respect to their voca-tions or their sex and other personal problems. This is particularly true of youth who do poorly in their f i r s t jobs and as a result of their failure become demoralized and blunder on into other failures, instead of obtaining proper counseling from competent authorities. In this age of specialization and of swiftly changing economic trends, i t is particularly Important that our bewildered youth know where to go for competent occupa-tional aptitude testing and counseling. And in this age of moral questioning, i t is equally important that competent personal counseling be also available. Find out what counseling resources are available in your community, help to get them 73 YOUTH GUIDANCE (Continued) organized and then assist In setting up such an adequate programme of publicity that every young man and woman w i l l know where to go for Information and advice. If you do not have a competent well-trained counselor for your post-school youth, you probably w i l l find the following people glad to co-operate as a counseling "team" or " c l i n i c " : The local pastors, The local social workers The high school counselors and the National Employment Service. Perhaps a guidance association could be formed, which could then associate i t s e l f with the National Guidance Association. Some valuable suggestions concerning a guidance programme w i l l be found in the booklet entitled "Youth in Our Town" (write for this to your Provincial Citizenship Convener), in the publica-tions of the Vocational Guidance Centre, Ontario College of Education, University of Toronto, in the suggestions available from the office of your provincial Deputy Minister of Education, and in the publications of the following: Canadian Citizenship Council, 46 Elgin St., Ottawa, Ont., Canadian Association for Adult Education, 340 Jarvis St., Toronto, Ont. Canadian Council of Churches, Dept. of Christian Education, Toronto, Ont. Canadian Welfare Council, 245 Cooper St., Ottawa, Ont., Canadian Youth, Young Men's Christian Association, Toronto, Ont., Young Women's Christian Association, Toronto, Ont., Extension Department of your provincial university. You w i l l also find an excellent bibliography of good books for youth on the vocational and personal problems in "Guide to Reading for Canadian Homes", procurable for 25^ and postage from Mrs. Kenneth Kern, Executive Secretary, 4373 West 12th Avenue, Canadian Federation of Home and School, Vancouver, B. C. 74. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Annual Report of the Dept. of Immigration & Citizenship. 1952, Queen's Printer, Ottawa. 2. Annual Report of the Canadian Citizenship Council. 1952, The Office of the Council, Toronto, Ont. 3. Clark, Samuel D. "The Canadian Community", in Brown, George W., ed. Canada. Univ. of Calif. Presses, Berkley, 1950. 4. Early History of P.T.A's In British Columbia. The P.T.A. Federation, Vancouver, B. C. 5. Hansard. 1946. Vol. 1; 1947, Vol.3; 1952-55, Vol. 4. 6. History of the Home & School and Parent-Teacher Federa- tion. 1927-1952. 7. Hutchison, Bruce, "The Canadian Personality", in Ross, Malcolm, ed. Our Sense of Identity, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1954. 8. McLennan, Hugh, Cross-Country, Wm. Collins & Sons, London, 1949. 9. O'Neill, J.J., "Canada; Limited or Unlimited" in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Canada, Vol. 45, 1951. 10. Stevenson, J.A., "Ottawa Letter" in Saturday Night, 5 March 1955. 11. Underbill, Frank H., " P o l i t i c a l Parties & Ideas", i n Brown, George W., ed., Canada, Univ. of Calif. Presses, Berkley, 1950. 


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