UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Dostoevsky and his influence upon the philosophy of Nicolas Berdyaev Price, Arthur David 1953

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DOSTOEVSKY AND HIS INFLUENCE UPON THE PHILOSOPHY OF NICOLAS BEKDYAEV by A r t h u r D a v i d P r i c e A t h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e degree of M a s t e r of . .Arte ... i n t h e Department of S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d from c a n d i d a t e s f o r the degree o f MASTER OF Members of t h e Department of THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1953 A b s t r a c t D o s t o e v s k y - - t h e m a s t e r n o v e l i s t - - i s a unique p r o d u c t of t h e R u s s i a n t r a d i t i o n . He i n h e r i t e d t h e v a l u e s of Orthodoxy, of S l a v o p h i l i s m , of W e s t e r n i s m , of r a t i o n a l i s m and of r o m a n t i c i s m and i n h i s t u r n c o n t r i b u t e d t o al m o s t e v e r y subsequent m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e from t h e e n l i g h t e n e d m y s t i c i s m of A l d o u s H u x l e y and the. pessimism of Hardy t o t h e d e s p a i r of modern a t h e i s t e x i s t e n t i a l i s m and t h e p e s s i m i s t i c optimism of Berdyaev and M a r c e l . D o s t o e v s k y ' s work i s t h e j o y of a l l t h o s e who d e l i g h t i n paradoxes--and Berdyaev r e v e l s i n them . H i s g r e a t n o v e l s a r e a t t h e same t i m e d i f f e r e n t from and more than t h e y seem . They a r e s y m b o l i c a l and a l l e g o r i c a l on t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l . A t l e a s t t h a t i s how t h e y a f f e c t me and how t h e y seem t o a f f e c t B e r d y a e v . I would l i k e a t t h i s t i m e to e x p r e s s my deep a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . J . St . C l a i r S o b e l l , Head o f the Department of S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r h i s g r e a t g e n e r o s i t y and encouragement; t o D r . C y r i l B r y n e r f o r h i s u n f l a g g i n g a s s i s t a n c e , c o o p e r a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; and t o M r . 'K.W Wainman,,who was t h e f i r s t t o c o n f r o n t me -w i t h t h e ' t o r t u r e d q u e s t i o n i n g s ' of D o s t o e v s k y . ) P r e f a c e D o s t o e v s k y has p l a y e d a d e c i s i v e p a r t i n my s p i r i t u a l l i f e . W h i l e I was s t i l l a y o u t h a s l i p from him , so t o s a y , was g r a f t e d upon me . He s t i r r e d and l i f t e d up my s o u l more tha n any o t h e r w r i t e r or p h i l o s o p h e r has done, and f o r me p e o p l e a r e always d i v i d e d i n t o " d o s t o e v e k y i t e s " and t h o s e t o whom h i s s p i r i t i s f o r e i g n . I t i s u n d o u b t e d l y due t o h i s " c u r s e d q u e s t i o n i n g " t h a t p h i l o s o p h i c a l problems were p r e s e n t t o my c o n s c i o u s n e s s a t so e a r l y an a g e , and some new a s p e c t of him i s r e v e a l e d t o me e v e r y t i m e I r e a d him . "The Legend of t h e Grand I n q u i s i t o r " , i n p a r t i c u l a r , made s u c h an i m p r e s s i o n on my young mind t h a t when I t u r n e d t o J e s u s C h r i s t f o r the f i r s t t i m e I saw him under t h e a p p e a r -ance t h a t he b e a r s i n t h e Legend. 1. N i c o l a s Berdyaev , D o s t o e v s k y , ( t r . by D onald A t t w a t e r Sheed & Ward, 1934, p. 7. T a b l e of C o n t e n t s Page A b s t r a c t Preface I n t r o d u c t i o n : A S h o r t B i o g r a p h y of N i c o l a s Berdyaev i - xv C h a p t e r I . : S l a v o p h i l i s m and R u s s i a n Thought 1 C h a p t e r I I . : D o s t o e v s k y — a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s p h i l o s o p h y 19 C h a p t e r I I I . : The Impact of D o s t o e v s k y on Berdyaev. .. 35 C h a p t e r IV.: The P h i l o s o p h y of Berdyaev 50 C h a p t e r V .: The Romantic E x i s t e n t i a l i s m of D o s t o e v s k y 66 C h a p t e r V I .: The E x i s t e n t i a l i s t s 72 C h a p t e r V I I . : Berdyaev and E x i s t e n t i a l i s m 83 C o n c l u s i o n 87 Chronology: L i s t of W r i t i n g s of D o s t o e v s k y and Berdyaev . B i b l i o g r a p h y i - x INTRODUCTION I n t r o d u c t i o n A S h o r t B i o g r a p h y of N i c o l a s Berdyaev 1 . Background (a) Berdyaev as a c h i l d (b) D o s t o e v s k y as a c h i l d . 2 . E a r l y Readings (a) The l u r e of Marxism (b) D o s t o e v s k y ' s a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l i s m of Sand . 3 . Berdyaev as an i d e a l i s t i c M a r x i s t (a) A r r e s t and e x i l e (b) The p a p e r , Problems of L i f e (c) M y s t i c a l A n a r c h i s m . 4. A S p i r i t u a l R e n a i s s a n c e (a) R e a c t i o n i n t h e Orthodox Church (b) Back t o R e l i g i o n . 5 . Berdyaev and B o l s h e v i s m . 6 . E x i l e and Death. A S h o r t B i o g r a p h y of N i c o l a s Berdyaev Background N i c o l a s A l e x a n d r o v i t c h Berdyaev was born i n 1874 of an a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l y i n K i e v . H i s f a t h e r , A l e x a n d e r M i k h a i l o v i t c h , was a man of wi d e c u l t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l - r e a d i n t h e f i e l d of h i s t o r y . As a young man he had been a c a v a l r y o f f i c e r . On r e t i r e -ment he became " M a r s h a l l of t h e N o b i l i t y " , an o f f i c e c r e a t e d by C a t h a r i n e t h e Gr e a t t o a t t r a c t more of t h e n o b i l i t y i n t o p u b l i c a f f a i r s . H i s f a t h e r showed no r e l i g i o u s t e n d e n c i e s a t a l l . As he grew o l d e r he seemed t o become o n l y more and more l i b e r a l i n o u t l o o k . Berdyaev's m o t h e r , A l i n a S e r g e e v n a , was h a l f F r e n c h by b i r t h . . Her mother was a Countess and h e r f a t h e r P r i n c e Kudashev. A l i n a Sergeevna was d i s t i n c t l y W e s t e r n . Though she was b o r n an Orthodox, h e r sympathies were w i t h Roman C a t h o l i c i s m and, as h e r son remarked, always p r a y e d from a l i t t l e F r e n c h C a t h o l i c p r a y e r - b o o k ?" She spoke h a r d l y a n y t h i n g b u t F r e n c h , f i n d i n g i t d i f f i c u l t t o compose even an e l e m e n t a r y s e n t e n c e i n R u s s i a n . I t was w i t h h i s mother t h a t Berdyaev , a t t h e age of s e v e n , 1. N i c o l a s Berdyaev , Dream and R e a l i t y , An Es s a y i n  Aut ob i ography, M a c m i l l a n Co., 1951, pp. 2 - 5 . i i i f i r s t t r a v e l l e d o u t s i d e of R u s s i a — t o K a r l s b a d and t h e n t o V i e n n a . Berdyaev's g r a n d f a t h e r and g r e a t - g r a n d f a t h e r had b o t h h e l d t h e o f f i c e of G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l i n S o u t h R u s s i a , w h i l e h i s grandmother and g r e a t - g r a n d m o t h e r had run away t o become nuns . (a) Berdyaev as a c h i l d The t r a d i t i o n o f t h e army comprised by f a r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f Berdyaev's b a c k g r o u n d . I t was t h e r e f o r e l o g i c a l t h a t young N i c o l a s A l e x a n d r o v i t c h s h o u l d be s e n t t o t h e K i e v Cadet Corps t o r e c e i v e h i s e a r l y e d u c a t i o n . Of t h i s p e r i o d he was t o w r i t e : To t h i s day I c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e r e a r e few t h i n g s more r e v o l t i n g t h a n t h e k i n d of c o n v e r s a t i o n w h i c h goes on among young boys: i t i s a s o u r c e of c o r r u p t i o n . The c a d e t s seemed t o me p a r t i c u l a r l y u n c o u t h , commonplace, and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c a l l o w . Moreover my comrades sometimes laughed a t t h e nervous t i c from w h i c h I had s u f f e r e d s i n c e c h i l d h o o d . I d i d not d e v e l o p any f e e l i n g s of c o m r a d e s h i p , and t h i s a f f e c t e d my whole l i f e r The members of the Berdyaev f a m i l y were prone t o v a r i o u s neuroses and Berdyaev was the i n h e r i t o r of an a c u t e nervousness "which e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f i n spasmodic movements" . H i s e r r a t i c , y e t c o m f o r t a b l e f a m i l y l i f e had "as i t w e r e , a f f i n i t i e s w i t h t h e T o l s t o y a n w o r l d and y e t had something of t h e i n t e n s i t y and c o m p l e x i t y 3 of D o s t o e v s k y 2 . I b i d ., p. 11. 3 . I b i d . , p. 1?. i i i :()b) D o s t o e v s k y as a c h i l d D o s t o e v s k y w r i t e s : I descended from a p i o u s R u s s i a n f a m i l y . As f a r as I can remember m y s e l f , I r e c a l l m y p a r e n t s ' a f f e c t i o n f o r m e . We, i n our f a m i l y , have known t h e G o s p e l almost e v e r s i n c e our e a r l i e s t c h i l d h o o d . The f i r s t book D o s t o e v s k y read was F o u r Hundred S t o r i e s from t h e O l d and New Testament, r e p l e t e w i t h f a d e d l i t h o g r a p h s of t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e w o r l d , Adam and Eve 5 i n p a r a d i s e , t h e d e l u g e , e t c . A t an e a r l y age D o s t o e v s k y r e a d Zhukovsky's p o e t r y and t h e o c c a s i o n a l work by P u s h k i n . He w r i t e s : I was o n l y t e n when I a l r e a d y knew v i r t u a l l y a l l t h e p r i n c i p a l e p i s o d e s i n R u s s i a n h i s t o r y - -frora K a r a m z i n whom, i n t h e e v e n i n g s , f a t h e r used t o read a l o u d t o us . E v e r y v i s i t t o t h e K r e m l i n and Moscow c a t h e d r a l s was, t o me, something solemn . E a r l y Readings At t h e age o f f o u r t e e n Berdyaev read Schopenhauer's W o r l d as W i l l and I d e a , K a n t ' s C r i t i q u e  of P u r e Reason, and H e g e l ' s Phenomenology of M i n d — a l l 4. D o s t o e v s k y , The D i a r y of a W r i t e r , ( t r . by B o r i s B r a s o l ) , C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1949, V o l . 1 , p. 152. 5 . Henry T r o y a t , F i r e b r a n d , t h e L i f e of D o s t o e v s k y , Roy P u b l i s h e r s , 1946, p. 29 . 6. J.A.T. L l o y d , F y odor D o s t o e v s k y , C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1947 , p . 5 . 7. D o s t o e v s k y , D i a r y of a W r i t e r , V o l . 1, p . 152. i v of w h i c h he had found i n h i s f a t h e r ' s library.® A t t h i s t i m e a l s o he p l u n g e d d e e p l y i n t o t h e n o v e l s of T o l s t o y and D o s t o e v s k y w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g of g r e a t e r importance t o him th a n p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l s c h o o l s o f thought and from w h i c h he d e r i v e d h i s C h r i s t i a n i t y . 9 Freedom ( p p . 11-12), Berdyaev w r i t e s : " I am not a p h i l o s o p h e r of t h e s c h o o l s and I do not and I d i d not b e l o n g t o any s c h o o l . Schopenhauer was t h e f i r s t p h i l o s o p h e r whom I t o o k i n d e e p l y . , . w h i l e s t i l l a boy.... I f e e l a s p e c i a l a f f i n i t y w i t h t h e d u a l i s m of K a n t , w i t h h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e realm of freedom and t h e realm of n a t u r e , w i t h h i s d o c t r i n e of freedom as of a c h a r a c t e r w h i c h i s apprehended by t h e mind, w i t h t h e K a n t i a n d o c t r i n e of t h e w i l l , w i t h h i s view of t h e w o r l d of phenomena as d i s t i n c t from t h e r e a l w o r l d . . . . I f i n d m y s e l f c l o s e a l s o t o Schopenhauer's d i s t i n c t i o n of w i l l and ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ' , t o h i s d o c t r i n e of t h e o b j e c t i f i c a -t i o n of t h e w i l l i n t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d , w h i c h c r e a t e s an u n r e a l w o r l d and t o Schopenhauer's i r r a t i o n a l i s m ." 9. I b i d . , p. 80. "M.y own i n i t i a t i o n i n t o p h i l o s o p h y has been l a r g e l y due t o D o s t o e v s k y , whose c r e a t i v e work has f a r - r e a c h i n g a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s " (p.304) . " I f e e l u t t e r l y one w i t h I v a n Karamazov, who was d r i v e n mad by t h e t e a r s of a s i n g l e l i t t l e c h i l d . The problem of t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n of God i n f a c e of t h e m e a s u r e l e s s p a i n i n t h e w o r l d has always been a s o u r c e of i n f i n i t e torment t o me" (p.57) . And i n S l a v e r y and  Freedom (p.12) Berdyaev shows h i s debt t o Leo T o l s t o y : " T o l s t o y ' s r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e f a l s e s t a n d a r d s of g r e a t n e s s and t h e f a l s e s a n c t i t i e s of h i s t o r y , a g a i n s t the f a l s i t y o f a l l s o c i a l p o s i t i o n and t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s of mankind, p e n e t r a t e d my v e r y b e i n g . " I n h i s S l a v e r y and V (a) The L u r e of Marxism A t t h e age of t w e n t y , Berdyaev e n t e r e d the U n i v e r s i t y of K i e v w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of s t u d y i n g n a t u r a l s c i e n c e . H i s i n t e r e s t , however, l a y i n p h i l o s o p h y . Here he came under t h e sway of M a r x i s m — a f a s h i o n a t th e t i m e f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s w i t h any k i n d of p a s s i o n f o r s o c i a l j u s t i c e . Berdyaev r e c a l l s how a t t h i s age p e o p l e used t o c a l l him S t a v r o g i n and how much he s e c r e t l y r e l i s h e d t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . " I l i k e d b e i n g t h e a r i s t o c r a t of t h e R e v o l u t i o n , t h e d a r k - h a i r e d nobleman, g l e a m i n g w i t h l i f e and w e a r i n g t h e mask of c o l d a l o o f n e s s . " 1 0 Berdyaev was a t t r a c t e d t o Marxism because, l i k e H e r z e n , I b s e n 1 1 and D o s t o e v s k y , he was d e e p l y c o n cerned w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i e t y . 10. B e r d y a e v , Aut ob i og r aphy, p . 25 . 11. F o r I b s e n , t h i n k i n g r e v o l v e d around p r i v a t e e t h i c a l p r o b l e m s . S o c i e t y was t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e of e v i l . "He saw i n i t n o t h i n g b u t t h e r u l e of s t u p i d i t y , of p r e j u d i c e and f o r c e . " ( A r n o l d H a u s e r , The S o c i a l H i s t o r y of A r t , R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1951, V o l . 2, p. 916). What a t t r a c t e d me most o f a l l was i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e moving f o r c e s below t h e s u r f a c e of h i s t o r y , i t s c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h e h i s t o r i c h o u r , i t s b r oad h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s and i t s u n i v e r s a l ism (b) D o s t o e v s k y ' s a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l i s m of Sand I n h i s t r i b u t e t o George Sand, D o s t o e v s k y f e l t t h a t she based her s o c i a l i s t c o n v i c t i o n s not upon an "ant-±necessity"--a f a v o u r i t e D o s t o e v s k i a n rebuke--but upon a m o r a l f e e l i n g f o r man, "upon t h e s p i r i t u a l t h i r s t of mankind and i t s l o n g i n g f o r p e r f e c t i o n and 13 p u r i t y . " The n o v e l i s t e x c l a i m s , " I must have been about s i x t e e n y e a r s o l d when I f i r s t r e a d h e r . . . . I 14 r e c a l l t h a t I was i n a s t a t e of f e v e r a l l n i g h t ." D o s t o e v s k y , l o o k i n g a t t h e s o c i a l problems of h i s day from t h e v i e w p o i n t of t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , was p r o f o u n d l y d i s t u r b e d by t h e deepening g u l f between t h e c l a s s e s and t h e e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g a t o m i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y . He saw a s o l u t i o n i n r e u n i o n of t h e educated w i t h t h e s i m p l e , f a i t h f u l p e o p l e , from whom th e y had become e s t r a n g e d . F o r D o s t o e v s k y , t h e p e o p l e r e p r e s e n t e d an " a l l - u n i f y i n g , u n i v e r s a l human p r i n c i p l e 12. Qp. c i t . p. 117. 13. D o s t o e v s k y , D i a r y of a W r i t e r , p. 349. 1 4 • I b i d . , pp .345-6 . w h i c h i n a l l s i n f u l n e s s and h u m i l i a t i o n embrace God." Berdyaev as an i d e a l i s t i c M a r x i s t W h i l s t s t i l l i n t h e M a r x i s t r a n k s , Berdyaev a t t e m p t e d " t o show t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a s y n t h e s i s of c r i t i c a l Marxism and t h e I d e a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y of Kant and p a r t l y of F i c h t e ," 1 6 He was an i d e a l i s t i c M a r x i s t who m a i n t a i n e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of t r u t h and goodness as i d e a l i s t v a l u e s independent of the c l a s s s t r u g g l e and r e f u s e d t o s u b j e c t p h i l o s o p h y and e t h i c s t o t h e 17 r e v o l u t i o n a r y c l a s s s t r u g g l e . A c c o r d i n g l y , Berdyaev was reprimanded by Plekhanov who i n s i s t e d t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e to remain a M a r x i s t w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g an independent i d e a l i s t i c philosophy. 1® 15 . V y a c h e s l a v I v a n o v , Freedom and the T r a g i c L i f e , H a r v i l l P r e s s , 1952, p. 80. 16. B e r d y a e v , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , p . 122. 17. N i c o l a s B e r d y a e v , S l a v e r y and Freedom, C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1944, p. 13. 1 8 • I b i d . , p. 14. v i i i (a) A r r e s t and E x i l e I n 1898 Berdyaev was a r r e s t e d a l o n g w i t h one hundred f i f t y o t h e r S o c i a l Democrats and e x i l e d t o t h e n o r t h e r n p r o v i n c e of V o l o g d a . Here h i s l o t was not a h a r d one s i n c e t h e g o v e r n o r of t h i s n o r t h e r n t e r r i t o r y was a d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e of Berdyaev's g r a n d -19 f a t h e r . I n 1901, a f t e r h i s r e t u r n from e x i l e , Berdyaev went t o Germany where he e n r o l l e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f H e i d e l b e r g . Here he c o n t i n u e d h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n l i b e r a l and r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements. I n 1904 he l e f t Germany and r e t u r n e d t o S t . P e t e r s b u r g £® T h i s was the t i m e of t h e Russo-Japanese War and t h e march of F a t h e r Gapon upon t h e W i n t e r P a l a c e — o f s t r i k e s , pogroms, a s s a s s i n a t i o n s , m u t i n i e s and t h e f i r s t Duma--a t o o - l a t e attempt t o b r i n g l i b e r a l democracy t o R u s s i a . As Berdyaev remarked, i t was c o n s t i t u t i o n a l democracy t h a t was U t o p i a n i n R u s s i a -B o l s h e v i s m , i n t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , became r e a l i s t i c p o l i t i c s . 19. Matthew S p i n k a , N i c o l a s Berdyaev: C a p t i v e of Freedom. W e s t m i n s t e r P r e s s , 1950, pp. 14-5. 20. A t t h i s t i m e Berdyaev m a r r i e d L y d i a Y u d i f o r v n a Trushev, t h e d a u g h t e r o f a b r i l l i a n t and w e a l t h y l a w y e r . She had, a t one t i m e , been a c t i v e i n r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements and had t w i c e been a r r e s t e d and i m p r i s o n e d . She was y e t c o n t e m p l a t i v e and m y s t i c a l by n a t u r e . A f t e r h e r m a r r i a g e she became a Roman C a t h o l i c and devoted h e r s e l f t o w r i t i n g p o e t r y . ix (b) The Paper Problems of L i f e D u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1904-6 Berdyaev e d i t e d w i t h S e r g i u s E u l g a k o v a review named The New Way and a f t e r i t s q u i c k f a i l u r e , t h e magazine Problems of L i f e , a paper w h i c h combined many t e n d e n c i e s . P o l i t i c a l l y t h e paper belonged t o t h e l e f t , t h e r a d i c a l s c h o o l of t h o u g h t , b u t i t was t h e f i r s t i n t h e h i s t o r y of R u s s i a n p e r i o d i c a l s t o combine t h a t s o r t of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i d e a s w i t h r e l i g i o u s e n q u i r y , w i t h a m e t a p h y s i c a l o u t l o o k and a new tendency i n l i t e r a t u r e . I t was an attempt t o u n i t e t h o s e who had been M a r x i s t s and, becoming i d e a l i s t s , were moving towards C h r i s t i a n i t y , w i t h Merezhkovsky and t h e s y m b o l i s t s , i n p a r t w i t h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e academic p h i l o s o p h y of the' i d e a l i s t and s p i r i t u a l s c h o o l and w i t h j o u r n a l i s t s of the r a d i c a l tendency.21 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Berdyaev c o n c l u d e s , "the s y n t h e s i s was 22 not o r g a n i c enough and c o u l d n o t be d u r a b l e ." (c) M y s t i c a l A n a r chism A f t e r t h e R e v o l u t i o n of 1905 Berdyaev was p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c e p t i v e t o a movement known as • m y s t i c a l a n a r c h i s m ' whose p r i n c i p a l spokesmen were the poet Chulkov and V y a c h e s l a v Ivanov . H a r k i n g back t o t h e words of Ivan Karamazov, " I a c c e p t God, but I do not a c c e p t h i s w o r l d " , t h e m y s t i c a l a n a r c h i s t s preached a 2 1 . N i c o l a s B e r d y a e v , The R u s s i a n I d e a , G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1947 , p . 246 . 22. L o c . c i t . X t o t a l b r e a k w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d i n o r d e r t o f r e e t h e s p i r i t A S p i r i t u a l R e n a i s s a n c e Among t h e more c u l t u r e d M a r x i s t s t h e r e had been a more and more v o c i f e r o u s demand t h a t p h i l o s o p h y , a r t and r e l i g i o n b r e a k f r e e from t h e desp o t i s m of t h e d i a l e c t i c . Berdyaev had been one of t h e s e . There was a l s o a marked r e t u r n t o r e l i g i o n and a r e a l s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h i n l i t e r a t u r e . Such w r i t e r s as Merezhkovsky and Rozanov g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d the young B e r d y a e v . The new p o e t r y of symbol i s m - - A l e x a n d e r B l o k , B e l y and V y a c h e s l a v Ivanov a p p e a l e d t o the y o u t h f u l p h i l o s o p h e r and became a most p e n e t r a t i n g f a c t o r i n h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l e n v i r o n -ment . And of c o u r s e t h e r e was Berdyaev's e a r l y moving e n c o u n t e r w i t h D o s t o e v s k y w h i c h l a t e r l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d h i s a c t i o n s and t h o u g h t s . 2 3 . T h i s view i s i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h a t w h i c h D o s t o e v s k y t h r o u g h F a t h e r Z o s s i m a r e v e a l e d i n The B r o t h e r s Karamazov, where a l l t h a t i s unconscious i n t h e w o r l d i s good i n e s s e n c e - - t r e e s , f l o w e r s , a n i m a l s , c h i l d r e n , e t c . But on man a d i f f i c u l t m o r a l i t y i s p l a c e d s i n c e , endowed w i t h c o n s c i o u s n e s s , he has t h e a b i l i t y t o choose between r i g h t and wrong. I f s i n e x i s t s i t i s because man has not been good enough. There i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s h i f t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t o an u n j u s t God and an e v i l w o r l d . x i (a) R e a c t i o n i n t h e Orthodox Church I n 190? Berdyaev l e f t St . P e t e r s b u r g f o r P a r i s where he spent th e w i n t e r s t u d y i n g C a t h o l i c modernism and F r e n c h s y n d i c a l i s m . At t h i s t i m e he b r o k e w i t h t h e s y m b o l i s t Merezhkovsky and h i s c i r c l e and on r e t u r n i n g from P a r i s , s e t t l e d i n Moscow , r a t h e r t h a n S t . P e t e r s b u r g . By t h i s t i m e t h e Orthodox Church had reached i t s z e n i t h of r e a c t i o n even t o t h e p o i n t of c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e government i n t h e n e f a r i o u s pogroms of t h e " B l a c k Hundred" o r g a n i z a t i o n . Berdyaev was f u l l y c o n s c i o u s of t h i s and agreed w i t h D o s t o e v s k y t h a t t h e C h urch was p a r a l y z e d , t h a t i n s i n c e r i t y , s e l f -i n t e r e s t , and c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y were everywhere apparent . "The most c r e a t i v e and v a l u a b l e , e l e m e n t s of s o c i e t y had l e f t t h e Church and Orthodoxy assumed a w h o l l y g o v e r n -m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r . " (b) Back t o R e l i g i o n I n M a r c h 1909 a group of e x - M a r x i s t s and o t h e r "God-seekers" p u b l i s h e d a book, M i l e s t o n e s (Vyekhy) , w h i c h p r o c l a i m e d d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h a l l forms of x i i 24 humanism and p o s i t i v i s m and a t t e m p t e d t o summon t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s "back t o r e l i g i o n " . B e r d y a e v , a l o n g w i t h P r a n k , S t r u v e , T e r n a v t s e v and Gershen Lzon , was one of th e c h i e f c o n t r i b u t o r s t o M i l e s t o n e s . I n 1911 he w r o t e P h i l o s o p h y of F r e e d o m — a wprk w h i c h showed h i s e v e r -i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n m y s t i c a l r e a l i s m w h i c h had been more o r l e s s t a k e n over from Jacob Boehme, A n g e l u s S i l e s i u s , John T a u l e r and Franz von Baader . The y e a r b e f o r e t h e R e v o l u t i o n Berdyaev p u b l i s h e d The Meaning of  t h e C r e a t i v e A c t , i n w h i c h f o r t h e f i r s t t i me an e s c h a t o l o g i c a l note i s i n t r o d u c e d . I n t h i s work Berdyaev l a y s p a r t i c u l a r s t r e s s on remoteness i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n 25 of t h e C h r i s t i a n i d e a l . The y e a r a f t e r t he r e v o l u t i o n 24. S p i n k a , B e r d y a e v . P P . 30-3. I n h i s A u t o b i o g r a p h y ( p p . 91-2) , Berdyaev says: " I have n e v e r been a m a t e r i a l i s t o r a p o s i t i v i s t , a l t h o u g h a t one ti m e I d e n i e d God . Even m y a a t h e i s t i c c o n v i c t i o n s had o t h e r r o o t s t h a n t h o s e p r o v i d e d by m a t e r i a l i s m and sha r e d by my f e l l o w * s t u d e n t s : i t was, i n f a c t , an i n v e r t e d r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n , an a n t i - t h e i s m r a t h e r t h a n an a t h e i s m , i m p l y i n g a d e n i a l not of God but of t h e man-made image of God, of what I b e l i e v e d t o be th e t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s c o n c e p t i o n s and t r a v e s t i e s of Him ." 2 5 • I b i d ., pp. 45-6 . x i i i B erdyaev produced a p i e c e of p o l e m i c a l d i a t r i b e under t h e t i t l e — T h e P h i l o s o p h y of I n e q u a l i t y . 2 6 W r i t t e n b e f o r e t h e a u t h o r had e x p e r i e n c e d a " s p i r i t u a l c a t h a r s i s " , Berdyaev a f t e r w a r d s r e g a r d e d i t h i s most u n s a t i s f a c t o r y book . 26. A t y p i c a l passage from F i l o s o f i a N e r a v e n s t v a ; P i s m a k  nedrygam po s o t s i a l n o i f i l o s o f i , O b e l i s k , 1923, p .44: " I n e q u a l i t y i s r e p e a t e d l y j u s t i f i e d r e l i g i o u s l y as t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e s t i n y of the human p e r s o n a l i t y f o r e t e r n i t y . . . . I n e q u a l i t y i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n of t h e cosmic system and of harmony, and i s t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the v e r y e x i s t e n c e of human p e r s o n a l i t y i t s e l f and t h e s o u r c e of ev e r y c r e a t i v e movement on e a r t h . . . . Out of i n e q u a l i t y even man was born . An a b s o l u t e e q u a l i t y w o u l d l e a v e b e i n g i n an i n c o m p l e t e s t a t e , w i t h o u t d i s t i n c t i o n - - t h a t i s n o t - b e i n g . " Goncerning t h e events of 1917, Berdyaev w r i t e s on Page 12: "A s p i r i t u a l r e v o l u t i o n has n o t h i n g i n common w i t h y o u r outward m a t e r i a l i s t i c , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n s . Marx n e v e r was a r e v o l u t i o n a r y of t h e s p i r i t . . . b u t D o s t o e v s k y was...and you have always deemed him a c o n s e r v a t i v e and r e a c t i o n a r y . " 27 . I b i d . , p. 243 XXV Berdyaev and B o l s h e v i s m 1919 f i n d s Berdyaev l e s s b i t t e r and more 28 humble. "Bolshevism i s my s i n , my g u i l t , " he c o n f e s s e d . The R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n has f u l f i l l e d D o s t o e v s k y ' s a n t i c i p a t i o n s . He has p r o p h e t i c a l l y l a i d b a r e i t s i d e o l o g i c a l d i a l e c t i c and has d e p i c t e d i t s image. D o s t o e v s k y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t R u s s i a n s o c i a l i s m i s a r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n , a q u e s t i o n of a t h e i s m ; t h a t R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n t e l l e c t u a l s a r e not concerned w i t h p o l i t i c s , but w i t h t h e s a l v a t i o n of humankind w i t h o u t God..29 From 1919-20 Berdyaev d e l i v e r e d a s e r i e s of l e c t u r e s on •z.r\ The Meaning of H i s t o r y a t t h e F r e e Academy of S p i r i t u a l C u l t u r e w h i c h he had founded i n 1918 by the a u t h o r i z a t i o n of Kamenev . In 1920 Berdyaev was a p p o i n t e d t o t h e c h a i r 31 of p h i l o s o p h y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Moscow and t h e same 32 y e a r was a r r e s t e d by t h e Cheka. Because of h i s n o t i c e -a b l y lukewarm a f f e c t i o n f o r B o l s h e v i s m , Berdyaev was summoned and i n t e r r o g a t e d a t m i d n i g h t by t h e f a n a t i c a l head of t h e Cheka, D z e r z h i n s k y and h i s deputy c h a i r m a n , M e n z h i n s k y . A t t h i s m e e t i n g Kamenev was a l s o p r e s e n t 2 8 . N i c o l a s B e r d y a e v , The End of Our Time, Sheed and Ward, 1933, p. 7 1 , p u b l i s h e d f i r s t a t B e r l i n i n 1924. 29 . I b i d ., p. 84 . 30. P u b l i s h e d i n B e r l i n , 1923. 3 1 . S p i n k a , B e r d y a e v , pp. 63-4. 32 . B e r d y a e v , A u t o b i o g r a n h y , p. 236. XV and h e a r d Berdyaev t a l k f o r more than h a l f an h o u r , s t a t i n g h i s r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l reasons f o r r e j e c t i n g Communism. Berdyaev, perhaps because of h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Kamenev, was summarily r e l e a s e d . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r of 1920-1 he d e l i v e r e d a s e r i e s of l e c t u r e s on Dostoevsky33 and i n 1922 was once more a r r e s t e d — t h i s t i m e by t h e G.P.TJ. 3 4 E x i l e and D e a t h I n 1922 Berdyaev began h i s l i f e i n e x i l e i n B e r l i n . Here, w i t h t h e h e l p of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Y I C.A., he o r g a n i z e d t h e R e l i g i o u s P h i l o s o p h i c a l Academy and t a u g h t , as d e p a r t m e n t a l dean, a t t h e R u s s i a n I n s t i t u t e of 35 S c i e n c e s . I n 1924 he t r a n s f e r r e d the R e l i g i o u s P h i l o s o p h i c a l Academy t o P a r i s where two y e a r s l a t e r he founded t h e r e l i g i o u s - p h i l o s o p h i c a l review Put , (The Way), w h i c h he c o n t i n u e d t o e d i t u n t i l t h e o u t b r e a k of W o r l d War I I . On March 2 4, 1948, a f t e r o n l y a b r i e f s p e l l of i l l - h e a l t h , N i c o l a s A l e x a n d r o v i t c h d i e d a t h i s d e s k — amongst h i s papers and books. 33. P u b l i s h e d i n B e r l i n , 1923. 34 . B e r d y a e v , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , p. 239. 3 5 . S p i n k a , B e r d y a e v , p. 66 . CHAPTER I . DOSTOEVSKY AND HIS INFLUENCE UPON THE PHILOSOPHY OF NICOLAS BERDYAEV Ch a p t e r I . S l a v ophi1ism and Rues i a n T nought The Orthodox Background . Moscow as t h e " T h i r d Rome" a) E a r l y exponents b) Chaadaev . Khomyakov (a) Founder of the S l a v o p h i l movement (b) 'Sobornost' . K i r e e v s k y (aV Romantic S l a v o p h i l i s m (b) K i r e e v s k y and Khomyakov . O t h e r S l a v o p h i l s (a) The Aksakovs (b) P o g o d i n ( C J T y utchev (d) D a n i l i e v s k y . N i c o l a s Fedorov . The a n i m a t i n g s p i r i t of R u s s i a n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y P h i l o s o p h y . DOSTOEVSKY AND HIS INFLUENCE UPON THE PHILOSOPHY OF NICOLAS BERDYAEV S l a v o p h i l i s m and R u s s i a n Thought The Orthodox background An a n a l y s i s o f the thought of D o s t o e v s k y and Berdyaev i s i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e power of t h e R u s s i a n Orthodox C h u r c h , f o r Orthodox a s c e t i c i s m and r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e has p e n e t r a t e d t o t h e v e r y c o r e of t h e s e two C h r i s t i a n t h i n k e r s . The d o m i n a t i n g t r e n d i n thought of t h e R u s s i a n Church e v e r s i n c e 988, when P r i n c e V l a d i m i r of K i e v a c c e p t e d C h r i s t i a n i t y from Byzantium , has been p r i m a r i l y an e t h i c a l one ?~ I t asked the q u e s t i o n : How i s one b e s t t o l i v e and how i s one t o 1. Most R u s s i a n r e l i g i o u s t h i n k e r s c l a i m t h i s i s e x c l u s i v e t o Orthodox C h r i s t i a n i t y . They r e g a r d t h e C a t h o l i c Church as l e g a l i s t i c and t h e P r o t e s t a n t as p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l . The e t h i c a l c o n t e n t , however, seems p r i m a r y i n most r e l i g i o n s . 1 p r o c u r e s a l v a t i o n ? 2 A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Orthodoxy i s i t s c o n c e p t i o n of s a l v a t i o n as " t h e o s i s " — t h e d i v i n i z a t i o n of man and t h e t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n of t h e cosmos . R u s s i a n r e l i g i o u s thought c o n s i s t e n t l y t e a c h e s t h a t man must h i m s e l f be a c r e a t o r . At the same time i t r e g a r d s s a l v a t i o n as i n s e p a r a b l e from e s c h a t o l o g y . I n t h e E a s t , t o be a member of t h e Church means , above a l l , t o merge one's own l i f e i n t h e f l o w of g r a c e from heaven and t o a c q u i r e t h e r e b y such g i f t s as f a i t h , h o l i n e s s and h u m i l i t y . I t i s t h e tendency of Orthodoxy t o r e g a r d t h e v i s i b l e w o r l d as a r e f l e c t i o n or symbol of some s p i r i t u a l e n t i t y e l s e w h e r e 4 w h i c h i t i s t h e t a s k of t h e Church t o r e f l e c t w i t h an e v e r c l o s e r a p p r o a c h t o p e r f e c t i o n , perhaps h e r e l i e s t h e o r i g i n of t h a t s e a r c h f o r meaning i n h i s t o r y , t h a t s t r a i n i n g f o r a w o r l d - w i d e o u t l o o k t h a t i s so n o t i c e a b l e a 5 f e a t u r e of R u s s i a n thought . Such a q u a l i t y i n R u s s i a n 2. George P. Fedotov , The R u s s i a n R e l i g i o u s M i n d , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1946 , pp .388-90 . f e d o t o v ' s t h e s i s has been s u b s t a n t i a t e d by numerous w r i t e r s . , i n c l u d i n g F a t h e r E u l g a k o v , F l o r i n s k y and o t h e r s . 3 . O l i v e r F i e l d i n g C l a r k e , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Berdyaev , G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1950, pp. 24-5 . 4. S i r John Maynard, R u s s i a i n F l u x , M a c m i l l a n Co ., 1948, pp. 439-440 . 5. T h i s i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e l i b e r a l and S l a v o p h i l w i n g o f t h e Church... Many, of the o r t h o d o x Orthodox w o u l d not s u b s c r i b e t o i t . Numerous works of s u c h w e l l - k n o w n S l a v o p h i l s as K i r e e v s k y , Khomyakov and even D o s t o e v s k y were s u p p r e s s e d by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s as d a n g e r o u s l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y . 3 Orthodoxy was t o p r o v i d e a s u b s t a n t i a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e b e l i e f t h a t the R u s s i a n Empire had r e c e i v e d from God t h e t a l k of d e f e n d i n g t h e t r u e F a i t h and of c o n t i n u i n g t h e work begun by C o n s t a n t i n e t h e Great i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . Above a l l , i t gave impetus t o t h a t p h i l o s o p h y of h i s t o r y w h i c h was t o r e g a r d Moscow as t h e T h i r d Rome . Moscow as t h e " T h i r d Rome" (a) E a r l y exponents The i d e a of Moscow as t h e " T h i r d Rome" was f i r s t propounded by an e l d e r o f a monastery i n Pskov , P h i l o t h e u s , a f t e r t h e f a l l of the Orthodox B y z a n t i n e Empire i n 1453 . I n h i s e p i s t l e t o t h e Grand Duke B a s i l I I I . (1505-33) , P h i l o t h e u s a s s e r t s t h a t t h e R u s s i a n T s a r i s the, o n l y C h r i s t i a n r u l e r on e a r t h and then remarks t h a t : . ..In t h e God-bearing c i t y of Moscow t h e Church of t h e Most H o l y M o t h e r of God st a n d s as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e E c u m e n i c a l and A p o s t o l i c Throne , i t s h i n e s w i t h l i g h t s i d e by s i d e w i t h Rome and C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , i t i s unique i n t h e wh o l e e c u m e n i c a l w o r l d and s h i n e s b r i g h t e r t h a n the-8un<5 .. .. The f i r s t Rome c o l l a p s e d owing t o i t s h e r e s i e s , t h e second Rome f e l l a v i e t i m t o th e T u r k s , but a new and t h i r d Rome has sprung up i n t h e N o r t h , i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e w h o l e - u n i v e r s e l i k e a sun. . . . The f i r s t and second Rome have f a l l e n , but t h e t h i r d w i l l s t a n d t i l l t h e end of h i s t o r y , f o r i t i s t h e l a s t Rome. Moscow has no s u c c e s s o r ; a f o u r t h Rome i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e / 6 . Quoted i n N i c o l a s B e r d y a e v , The R u s s i a n Idea , G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1947 , p . 8 . 7 . Quoted i n N i c o l a s Z e r n o v , Moscow t h e T h i r d Rome , S .P.C .K. , 1937, p. 36'. 4 I n 1589 a t the i n s t a l l a t i o n i n Moscow of the P a t r i a r c h J o b , t h e h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t y of the E a s t e r n Church pronounced almost v e r b a t i m the d a r i n g words of t h e monk P h i l o t h e u s . ... Becuase the second Rome, w h i c h i s Cons'tant i n o p l e , i s now i n p o s s e s s i o n of t h e g o d l e s s - T u r k s , t h y g r e a t kingdom, 0 p i o u s T s a r , i s t h e T h i r d Rome . I t s u r p a s s e s i n d e v o t i o n e v e r y o t h e r , and a l l C h r i s t i a n kingdoms a r e now. merged i n t h y r e a l m . Thou a r t t h e o n l y C h r i s t i a n s o v e r e i g n i n t h e w o r l d , t h e m a s t e r of a l l f a i t h f u l C h r i s t i a n s ? (b) Chaadaev T h i s i d e a of Moscow as the " T h i r d Rome" was t o u n d e r l i e a l l l a t e r R u s s i a n thought . Even t h e p a r a d o x i c a l Chaadaev, a l t h o u g h a W e s t e r n i z e r , showed h i m s e l f e l o q u e n t l y c o n s c i o u s of R u s s i a ' s unique d e s t i n y . I have a p r o f o u n d c o n v i c t i o n t h a t we have a v o c a t i o n t o s o l v e a g r e a t many of t h e problems of s o c i a l o r d e r , t o b r i n g about the f u l f i l m e n t of a g r e a t many of the i d e a s w h i c h have t a k e n t h e i r r i s e i n s o c i e t i e s of t h e p a s t , and t o g i v e an answer t o q u e s t i o n s of g r e a t importance w i t h w h i c h mankind i s concerned. 1® Chaadaev was a t t r a c t e d by "the i n t e r n a t i o n a l , n o n - r a c i a l , and m o r a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r of t h e t r u e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n " . He c r e d i t e d t h e C a t h o l i c C hurch w i t h h a v i n g 8 . Tsar Fyodor , (1584-98) . 9 . Quoted in Nicolas Zernov , The Russians and Their Church S.P.C.K. , 1945, p. 7 1 . : 10 .Prom Peter Chaadaev's (1793-1856) , Apology of a Madman, quoted in Berdyaev , Russian Idea, p . 37 . 5 done far more than Orthodoxy to promote i t . The Slavo-phils were to leap upon this idea of Chaadaev to attempt to discredit the Catholic Church in order to show that its mantle had now fallen on 'Holy R u s s i a ' S o l o v y e v was to describe this as "the pseudo-Orthodoxy of anti-12 Catholic theologians" . Khomyakov (a) Founder of the Slavophil Movement Along with Kireevsky, the f i r s t modern and secular Church and the chief founder of the Slavophil movement was a retired officer of the Royal Guard, Alexei Khomyakov (1804-60). In his Notes Upon World  History, Khomyakov describes the conflict of two 11 . Richard Hare , Pioneers of Russian Social Thought , Oxford University Press, 1951, p. 16. 12 . In his work, Russia and the Universal Church, Geoffrey Bles , 1948, p. 46, Vladimir-Solovyev (1853-1900) , describes his fellow patriots and their infatuation with what is called "The Russian Idea": "According to them Orthodoxy, or the religion of the Greco-Russian Church, in contrast- to the religious bodies of the West, constitutes the true basis of our national being. Here,to begin with,is an obvious vicious c i r c l e . If we ask how the separated Eastern Church ju s t i f i e s its existence we are told: By having formed the Russian people and provided its spiritual nurture. And when we enquire how that people justifies its existence , the answer i s : By belonging to the separated Eastern Church" . 6 principles in history--freedom and necessity, sp i r i t u a l i t y and materialism 'Kushitstvo' was the term he used to describe Western Rationalism and Roman Catholicism, which for him represented necessity and materialism. On the other hand, he applied the term 'Iranstvo' to Russia , which he believed signified freedom and sp i r i t u a l i t y Khomyakov had an indelible f a i t h in the destiny of Russia. He was convinced that Russia's vocation was not to be the richest or most powerful country, but to become "the most 15 Christian of a l l human societies" . In the middle of the Nineteenth Century at a time when belief in progress , science and individualism was universal, Khomyakov was almost alone in prophesying the impending doom of an order based on the self-sufficiency of man and over-confident trust In the power of human reason . (b) 'Sobornost' However, i t is in the conception of Russian 'sobornost' that the value of Khomyakov's ideas is most 13 . Berdyaev , Russian Idea, pp . 44-5 . 14 . "Though the few c r i t i c a l minds among the early Slavophils were painfully aware how far from perfect Russia actually was , they were ready to take the undisputed 'fundamental' perfection of Russia for an actuality. They compared the idea of Russia, as they constructed i t , with Europe's rea l i t y , and arrived, naturally enough, at self-complimentary conclusions." Hans Kohn , The Twentieth Century, Macmillan Co., 1949, p . 101. 15. N. 0. Lossky, History of Russian Philosophy, International Universities Press Inc ., 1951, p. 40 . 7 apparent. For Khomyakov, 'sobornost' implied the harmonious conjunction of human freedom and unity based on a common love for the same absolute values . He stressed the interrelation in Christianity of love and freedom . -Since Christianity is a religion of love it is also a religion of freedom . In the words of Khomyakov 'sobornost' which he believed the unique feature of Orthodoxy is "opposed both to authoritarianism and to individualism . It is a unanimity, a synthesis of 18 authority. . .liberty in love which unites believers." 16 . Ibid ., p. 41. 17 . That the Slavophil movement has been profoundly influenced by the "Non-possessor" heritage and the teachings of St . N i l of Sorsk is shown by the stress on freedom in religion . The tradition of the "Non-possessors" (the mystic followers of St. N i l , who in the middle of the Sixteenth Century were opposed to the stern ritualism of the Josephites) made a notice-able reappearance in the Eighteenth Century in the person of St . Tikhon of Zadonsk (1724-83) who was to serve as the inspiration for Dostoevsky's 'starets' Father Zossiraa in The Brothers Karamaaov. 18. Quoted by Sergius Bulgakov, The Orthodox Church, Centenary, 1935, p. 74. "Sobornost constitutes a third principle absolutely distinct from religious individualism as represented by Protestantism and the authoritarianism of Catholicism" (Berdyaev , Tjoroards a  New- Epoch. Geoffrey Bles , 1949, p. 54) . Berdyaev interprets •sobornost' as the "interior concrete universalism of personality" (Berdyaev , Slavery and Freedom, pp. 68-9); "the inward, organic and harmonious aspect of Catholicity" (Berdyaev, The Origin of Russian  Communism . Geoffrey Bles, 1948, n . p . 87j and as freedom enlightened by grace (Berdyaev, The Beginning and the  End. Geoffrey Bles, 1952, p. 131. 8 In 'sobornost' the g i f t of the s p i r i t is conceived as an undivided and indivisible whole, present in the council or the congregation I 9 The g i f t of truth is attributed to the whole Church, not to isolated individuals nor to 2 0 the hierarchy.. Truth and love reside in the brethren 21 not in any of them taken separately . In the words of Vladimir Solovyev: "There is no kingdom of Heaven for the individual . His salvation must be a corporate one 22 along with his fellows" . Kireevsky U) Romantic Slavophilism The ideas of Ivan Kireevsky (1806-56) showed more Romanticism than those of any other Slavophil . Kireevsky was a religious mystic imbued with "a strong love of Russia and f a i t h in her great destiny ." To Kireevsky "wholeness" was the peculiar virtue of the Russian character. This principle of "wholeness" OA dominates his philosophy. In 1856, in Koshelev's revue Russian Conversation Kireevsky elaborated the 19. Maynard, Russia in Flux, p. 51. 20 . Ibid ., p . 59 . 21. Ibid. , p . 51. 22 . Quoted by Maynard, Russia in Flux, p. 99. 23. To Kireevsky is attributed the remark: "the best thing to be found in the world is a vision," (Berdyaev, Russian Idea, p. 48 .) 24. Lossky, Russian Philosophy, p. 19 . 9 concept of collectedness in his a r t i c l e The Possibility  and Necessity of New, Principles in Philosophy , 2 5 (Man) should not regard his logical capacity as the one and only instrument for the apprehension of truth;...the promptings of aesthetic thought taken in isolation should not be considered independently of other concepts as a sure guide to the comprehension of the ultimate nature of the world; not even must the ruling love of the heart be thought of separately from the other claims of the s p i r i t as an i n f a l l i b l e instructor in the achievement of the highest good; man must constantly seek in the depth of his soul that inner root of understanding, where a l l the separate faculties unite in one living whole of spir i t u a l vision .26 Only through intuition, "life-knowledge" as Kireevsky called i t , the "idea feeling" as Dostoevsky named i t , can man arrive at true understanding , 2 7 According to 2 5 • Ibid., p. 17 .A.Koshelev (1806-1883) .. 26. Ibid., quoted p. 20 . Cf . Dostoevsky's -Letters from the Underworld, published in 1864. "Reason "is" an exeeTIent thing— I do not deny that for a moment; but reason is reason and no more, and satisfies only the reasoning faculty in man, whereas volition is a manifestation of a l l l i f e . It is true that, in this particular manifestation of i t , human l i f e is a l l too frequently a sorry failure; .yet i t nevertheless is l i f e , and not the mere working out of a square root . For my own part , I naturally wish to satisfy a l l my faculties and not my reasoning faculty alone (that is to say a mere twentieth portion of my capacity for living) . For what does reason know? Reason only knows that man possesses a certain capability of apprehension" . (Letters from the Underworld, Everyman's Library, 1945, pp .33-4) . 27 . Hans Kohn , Prophets and People, Macmillan Co., 1946, p. 146 . 10 . Dostoevsky that "deep understanding which transcends a l l reason" was peculiar to the Russian people "rooted in their.. .feeling of sobornost." 2 8 Once than has united a l l his spiritual powers into a harmonious whole only then Kireevsky believes does man attain a mystical intuitive-ness into the understanding of superrational truths . Man must conduct his thought "through the domain of logic" --yet the knowledge gained is not true knowledge — rather a stepping-stone to the summit of hyperlogical knowledge which is "inexpressible". 2 9 For Kireevsky only the presence of such metalogical principles as the Absolute or God makes possible the earthly joys of love, sympathy, intuitiveness and mystical experience 3 0 The mind which ignores the superrational truths abstracts purely the rational elements and for Kireevsky this must end in chaos as for Dostoevsky i t ends in atheism, nihilism and suicide. Kireevsky's metalogical principle combined with his concept of the "wholeness" of existence appears again in the philosophy of Floreasky, Bulgakov and particularly 31 Berdyaev . "The whole truth is only revealed to the whole • z o man ." This ideal of integral knowledge as an organic 28. "The West has taken the "I" as the start ing point, the Russians the "We"; the West, the thinking individual, Russia the concrete and immediate experience of community." (Simon Frank, Die Russische Weltanschauung, Rolf Heise, 1926, p. 21). 29. Lossky, Russian Philosophy, p. 21. 30. Loc . c i t . 31. Ibid., p. 29. 32 . Ibid. , p. 404 . 11 all-embracing unity is brought about only through the combination of a l l man's powers--the senses, rationality, aestheticism, morality and religion. (b) Kireevsky and Khomyakov Both Kireevsky and Khomyakov exaggerated the sp i r i t u a l l y unifying qualities of the Russian people and set them in opposition to the s t e r i l i t y and formality of a "soulless" Europe. At the same time they rejected any idea of a r i g i d , static and despotic State . Rather they desired a peaceful, patriarchal monarchy which would allow the greatest amount of autonomy to the people. They were firmly convinced that Russia was presaging the true Christian society . Neither Kireevsky nor Khomyakov34 worked out a systematic philosophy but they laid the spi r i t u a l foundation of later philosophical thought in Russia which was to concern i t s e l f primarily with the systematic development of a Christian 'Weltanschuung'. 33. Armand C o q u a r t D m i t r i Pisarev et 3.'ideologic du  Nihilisme Russe. Institut d'§tudes Slaves, 1946, p. 15 . 34. "With Khomyakov philosophy depends upon religious experience as the primary Thing, to such an extent that he even speaks of the dependence of philosophical apprehension upon belief in the Holy Trinity ! " (Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p .161). 12 Other Slavophils (a) The Aksakovs In a letter to Dostoevsky the famed Russian diarist Sergei Aksakov 3lefined Slavophilism as the 35 "Christian idea pushed to its furthest limits ." His •57 son Konstantin Aksakov who carried on the Slavophile tradition f e l t that the Russian people continually aspired not to the building of a perfect state, but to the creation of a Christian society. Consequently he considered the Russian ideal to be i n f i n i t e l y harder and more impracticable than that of the purely p o l i t i c a l , state-minded Western nations 3 8 In the West , they k i l l souls and replace them by the perfecting of p o l i t i c a l forms and the establishment of good order and by police action. Conscience is replaced by law; regula-tions become a substitute for the inward impulse; even charity is turned into a mechanical business in the West; a l l the anxiety is for p o l i t i c a l forms.... At the foundation of the Russian State there lies spontaneity, freedom and peace 1 39 35 . Sergei Aksakov (1791-1859) , great Russian prose writer and father of Constant in and Ivan Aksakov. 36. Janko Lavrin, Dostoevsky and His Creation, W. Collins & Co. Ltd., 1920, p. 177 . 37 . Konstantin Aksakov (1817-1860) , one of the most talented Slavophiles. In the F i f t i e s he expounded his views in a Moscow weekly. The Rumor (Molva) . 38. Hare, Social Thought. p. 141, and Berdyaev, Russian Idea, p. 49 . 39 . Berdyaev, Russian Idea, quoted on p . 43 . On p. 48 Berdyaev refers to K. Aksakov disparagingly as"a growing infant...believing in the perfection of pre-Petrine institutions ." 13 (b) Pogodin In 1838-Mikhail Petrovich Pogodin , u a professor of Russian history at Moscow University wrote in his History: The time of European nations is past, their strength runs out . They can produce nothing higher in religion, law, science, or art, nor have they carried mankind to its moral good. How the future belongs to the Slavs who w i l l serve mankind. Russia, as the representative of the Slav race, w i l l fuse ancient and modern c i v i l i z a t i o n , reconcile heart and head, establish everywhere law and peace, and prove that mankind's goal is not only liberty,art, and science, or industry and wealth but something higher--the true enlightenment in the s p i r i t of Christianity, the guidance by God's word which is assurance of a l l happiness • (c) Tyutchev In 1848 the great Slavophils poet Tyutchev*"* wrote in his Russia and Revolution: The West is dying, everything crumbles,everything collapses in the general conflagration, the Europe of Charlemagne as well as the Europe of the treaties of 1815, the Roman papacy, and a l l the Western 40. Pogodin (1800-75), noted publicist and historian . In 1841 he founded in Moscow a conservative monthly magazine Moskvitianin markedly Slavophile in tone. This magazine continued u n t i l 1855 . 41. Kohn , The Twentieth Century, quoted on p. 103. 42. Fyodor Tyutchev (1803 - 73), one of Russia's foremost l y r i c a l poets. In his Diary of a Writer (Vol. 1, p.425), Dostoevsky quotes approvingxy toUr Tines by Tyutchev addressed to Russia . "Thee, my land, in days distressing, Christ, our Lord, in slavish dress , Burdened with the crucial stress. To and fro traversed blessing ." Cf . In Dostoevsky's writings,"Christ roams throughout the Russian land clothed as a beggar ." 14 kingdoms, Catholic and Protestant, f a i t h long since lost and reason reduced to absurdity. Above this vast shipwreck, appears, like an Ark of the Covenant, the Russian Empire, more vast than ever,^ Then who w i l l dare to doubt the Russian mission? 4 3 (d) Danilievsky The naturalist and founder of scie n t i f i c Slavophilism Nikolai Danilievsky 4 4 believed Russia was different and distinctly unique because God had willed each race or nation to be different . Just as each species of birds is distinctive and preserves its own characteristics, so also does each nation preserve its individual institutions, its particular characteristics , 45 its concept of justice and its distinctive ideals . Thus, for Danilievsky, the Slavs constitute a species of their own—a family led by "Big Brother" Russia which is endowed with the s p i r i t of God and destined to lead the 43. Quoted in Hare, Social Thought, p. 136, and also Kohn , Twentieth Century, p. 10"6. It is not d i f f i c u l t to understand why Tyutchev was so much admired by the later Pan-Slavists . Here is a sample from his poem Russian Geography written as early as 1829 . (p .132 Hare, Social Thought) "Seven inland seas and seven mighty rivers , Prom the Nile to the Neva, from the Elbe to China, From the Volga to the Euphrates, from the Ganges to the Danube, That is the Russian Empire ." 44. N. Y. Danilievsky (1822-85) belonged with Dostoevsky to the Petrashevsky group (see below) . He was an authority on Darwinism and on the habits of f i s h . He was the author of a historico-philosophical treatise Rossiya i jgy&opa (1871) . 45 . Anatole Mazour, Russia Past and Present, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc ., 1951, p. 35. 15 46 Slav nations along the path of glory . During the middle of the Nineteenth Century Russian intellectuals came under the influence of French Utopian Socialism. The philosophical ideas of Cabet, George Sand, Louis Blanc, Sain-Simon, Proudhon, and particularly Fourier were much in fashion . From 1845-9 such figures as Dostoevsky, Danilievsky, Saltykov-Shedrin and Pleshcheev would gather weekly at the home of Petrashevsky 4 7 and discuss current p o l i t i c a l tendencies . There were no attempts at violence or revolution amongst the Petrashevsky Circle,4® only an academic desire to arouse the dormant public to think . 46. Danilievsky sets up "cultural historical types as he sets up types in the animal world. There is no c i v i l i z a t i o n which holds good for a l l mankind, no common history of man. A l l that there can be is a rieher cultural historical type which associates more characteristics within i t s e l f . " (Berdyaev, The Russian  Idea, pp . 65-66) . ~" 47. To Petrashevsky is attributed the statement: "Finding nothing worthy of my attachment either among women or among men, I have vowed myself to the service of mankind ." (Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p. 99; and also Berdyaev, Origin of Russian Communism, p. 32). 48 . The figure of Stavrogin in The Possessed is supposedly based oh the figure of N. Speshnev--an extreme revolutionary of the Petrashevsky c i r c l e . 16 Nicolas Fedorov The influence of the enigmatic philosopher Nikolai Fedorov (1828-1903) should not he ignored. Fedorov was a "selfless soul, who f e l t acutely that each was responsible for a l l , who desired men to live neither for themselves nor for others, but, in the s p i r i t u a l . sense of the word, with a l l . " 4 9 Like Tolstoi he exposed the f a l s i t y of culture and desired a complete change of the world . "He was a Russian searcher after universal salvation in whom the responsibility of a l l for a l l reached its ultimate and most trenchant expression."^ Dostoevsky was to write of Fedorov: "He aroused my interest more than enough . I am essentially in complete agreement with his ideas, I have accepted them, so to 51 speak, as my own ." Fedorov's philosophy was projective K C and active not contemplative or theoretical . In his Philosophy of Common Work Fedorov does not passively reflect the world but actively strives to transform and improve i t . Everything can be accomplished by active 49. Avrahm Yarmolinsky, Dostoevsky, A Li f e , Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1934, p. 350 . 50. Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p. 208. 51. Ibid., p. 209 . 52. Fedorov advocated a unity of theory and practice like Marx and Engels and Berdyaev himself (see his introduction to Slavery and Freedom) . 17 53 work but not by passive thinking and knowledge. Death, for Nikolai Fedorov, is the one and ultimate evil--the true vocation of man is to resurrect l i f e . Fedorov's Philosophy of Common Work is sharply tinged with Messianism. The Russian people are to commence the 54 common work of redeeming the world's spiritually dead. Although Berdyaev has described Fedorov's philosophy as "naively r e a l i s t i c and simple-minded" 6 l n d his ideas as belonging "rather to natural science than to philosophy"^ he sees in Fedorov's desire for universal salvation not only a deep manifestation of love and 'sobornost' but a real victory over what he calls "transcendent religious 57 egoism" . The animating sp i r i t of Russian Nineteenth Century Philosophy It is particularly noticeable from Slavophil* thought that the fundamental idea of Russian philosophy is "the idea of the concrete existent, of the underlying 58 real existence which precedes rational thought!' In 53. Nicolas Berdyaev, "N. P. Pedorov" , The Russian Review Vol. 9 , No. 2 ., A p r i l 1950 , p. 129 . 54 . Ibid., pp. 125-30 . 55 . Berdyaev, The Beginning and the End, p. 233 . 56. Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p. 210. 57. Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t , Charles Scribner's Sons, 1935 , p. 324 . 58. Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p. 160 . 18 Russian philosophy f a i t h is contrasted with knowledge in the same way as spi r i t u a l i t y is contrasted with 5 Q materialism . The animating s p i r i t of Russian philosophy is Plato, classic German idealism and mysticism Essentially its interests are religious and its self-acquired mission is to mediate somewhere between religion and science. Thus i t can be said that Russian philosophy aims, in its own distinctive way, at the objectivication of mysticism . The varied contribution of Slavophil thought such as the rationalism of Khomyakov, the romanticism of Kireevsky, the idealism of Tyutchev and the empiricism of Danilievsky finds a form of synthesis in the works and philosophy of Russia's giant novelist Dostoevsky. 59. Thomas G. Masaryk, The Spirit of Russia, V o l . 2, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1919, p. 477 . 60 . Ibid ., p. 487. CHAPTER I I . Chapter II. Dostoevsky—An Interpretation of His Philosophy 1 . Irrationalism and the 'will' . 2. The 'Man-God' . 3. The Russian Idea. 4 . Suffering . 5 . Love. 6 . Beauty. Dostoevsky—An Interpretation of His Philosophy Irrationalism and the 'will' In 1854 , in a letter from the penal colony at Omsk to the devout Mme . Ponvizina, Dostoevsky wrote: ... I have formulated my creed wherein a l l is dear and holy to me. "This creed is extremely simple: here i t i s : I believe that there is nothing lovelier, deeper, more sympathetic , more rational, more human and more perfect than the Saviour; I say to myself that not only is.there no one else like Him, but that there could be no one . I would even say more: If anyone could" prove tome that Christ is outside the truth, and i f the truth really did exclude Christ, I should prefer to stay with Christ and not with the truth.. .. In The Possessed there is a character strikingly akin to-Dostoevsky in the figure of Shatov . When asked by Stavrogin i f he believed in God Shatov replies: 2 'I believe in Russia...I believe in her orthodoxy...1 believe in the body of Christ ....I believe that the new advent w i l l take place in Russia...,! believe...' Shatov muttered f r a n t i c a l l y . 'And in God? In God?' •I...I w i l l believe in God.' A l l his l i f e Dostoevsky fluctuated between belief and non-belief. He could think with Ivan Karamazov but feel with Alyosha . He who could experience the 1. J. Middleton Murry, Pyodor Dostoevsky, A C r i t i c a l Study. Martin Seeker, 1923, p. 78 . 2. Pyodor Dostoevsky, The Possessed. Modern Library, 1936, p. 253. 19 20 spi r i t u a l purity of an Alyosha only the next moment would he seared by the ruthless skepticism of an Ivan. "If i t happens that I try to explain an idea I believe in, i t almost always happens that I cease to believe what I have explained ."3 By means of psychological insight and incomparable s k i l l Dostoevsky projects the reader into the mind of one of his "doubles*.1 Yes, I am really s p l i t in two mentally, and I'm horribly afraid of i t . It's just as though one's second self were standing beside one; one is sensible and rational oneself, but the other self is Impelled to do something perfectly senseless, and sometimes very funny; and suddenly you notice that you are longing to do that amusing thing, goodness knows why; that is what you want to, as i t were, against your w i l l ; though you fight against i t with a l l your might, you want to. I once knew a doctor who suddenly began whistling in church, at his father's funeral. In Letters from the Underworld Dostoevsky emphatically defends human personality as something distinct and autonomous . As the 'undergroundling' he expresses his unequivocal belief in free w i l l : Would i t not be a good thing...to live our lives again according to our own stupid whims ?... .Man loves to act as he likes, and not necessarily as reason and self-interest would have him do. Yes, he w i l l even act straight against his own interests. Indeed, he is sometimes bound to do B O...." Science w i l l in time show man that he does not possess any 3. Pyodor Dostoevsky, A Raw Youth, Macmillan Co., 1916, Chapter 2—Versilov speaks .. 4. Ibid., Versilov, with perfect frankness, confesses his undisguised schizophrenia. 5. Dostoevsky, Letters from the Underworld, pp.30-1. 21 w i l l or i n i t i a t i v e of hie own, and never has done, but that he is as the keyboard of a piano, or as the handle of a hurdy-gurdy"... .What but the handle of a hurdy-gurdy could a human being „ represent who was devoid of desires or volition? ...Every human act arises out of the circumstance that man is forever striving to prove to his own satisfaction that he is a man and not an organ handle .° Already in The Landlady in 1847 Dostoevsky had introduced in embryo the f i r s t spasms of the self-willed and proud Man-God mentality in the person of old Murin when he asserts: "Let each man live the l i f e he w i l l s " . 9 The 'Man-God1 Behind a l l Dostoevsky's creative art lies the unceasing search for an Absolute Value . 1 0 Throughout his work he shows that personalities are moved, not only by science and reason, but by an irrational force 6. Ibid., p. 29 . 7 . Ibid ., p. 32. 8. Ibid., p. 37, Berdyaev, along with Andre Gide, Henri Troyat, Leon Chestov, 1. H. Carr, E. J. Simmons and Janko Lavrin,affirm that Letters from the Underworld is the keystone to Dostoevsky's entire work. As indeed did Dostoevsky's contemporary, the c r i t i c Apollon Grigoriev, who exhorted the author to write only in such a vein . . 9. Dostoevsky, The Landlady. Everyraans Library, 1945, p .290 . 10. Janko Lavrin, Dostoevsky and His Creation, p. 57. 22 which "sways and dominates them the origin of which is unknown and inexplicable...the longing for an absolute self-assertion, the eternal search for an Absolute ValueV In The Possessed Stavrogin succeeds in the " k i l l i n g " of God and ends up not with absolute freedom but in an absolute void. Stavrogin is another one of Dostoevsky's 'Man-God' creations who would have been likely to shout with Nietzsche "God is dead—long live the Superman." Not the "Man-God" but the "God-Man" is Dostoevsky's ideal superman, one for whom: God, the.Universe and Eternity are living r e a l i t i e s . Dostoevsky emphatically repeats that man has no right to exist i f God does not exist. If God exists, a l l is His w i l l and from His w i l l I cannot escape. If not, i t ' s a l l my w i l l and I am bound to show self-will..., .1 am bound to shoot myself because the highest point of my-s e l f - w i l l is to k i l l myself with my own hands .12 The titanism of the extreme 'Man-God' K i r i l l o v shows i t s e l f once more in his passionate conversation with Stavrogin.. 'There w i l l be a new l i f e on earth. History w i l l be seen divided into two vast epochs, the f i r s t from the g o r i l l a to the annihilation of the conception of God, and,, secondly, from the extinction of God to?-' 'To the g o r i l l a ? ' suggested Stavrogin, with cold mockery . 'To the transformation of the earth and of man physically,' resumed K i r i l l o v calmly. 'Man w i l l be a God and be physically transformed in his powers. The world w i l l be changed, and a l l things w i l l be changed, including thought and emotion .'13 11. Ibid., p. 113 . 12. Dostoevsky, The Possessed, p. 627. 13 . Ibid., p . 114 . 23 K i r i l l o v is in many ways a development of the 'Man-God' Terentev in The Idiot and a forerunner of Ivan Karamazov. In his impassioned outbursts K i r i l l o v seems to deny God for the sake of man "and almost in a Christ-like sense offers himself as a sacrifice for the greater glory of man ."^ I have no higher idea than disbelief in God. I nave a l l the history of mankind on my side. Man has done nothing but invent God so as to go on living and not k i l l himself: that's the whole of universal history up t i l l now . I am the f i r s t one in the whole history of mankind who would not invent God .I 5 K i r i l l o v escaped humiliation by committing suicide . Not so Verkhovensky whose appetite for humiliation and devotion is extreme for a confirmed atheist Verkhovensky recognizes the necessity of bowing to someone greater than himself. He expresses this feeling with snivelling s e r v i l i t y before his god, Stavrogin: You are my idol I You injure no one, and every-one hates you. You treat everyone as an equal, and yet everyone is afraid of you—that's good. Nobody would slap you on the shoulder. You are an awful aristocrat . An aristocrat is i r r e s i s t i b l e when he goes in for democracy I To sacrifice l i f e , your own or another's is nothing to you. You are just the man that's needed. It's just such a man as you that I need. I know no one but you. You are the leader, you are the sun, and I am your worm 14. Ernest J . Simmons, Dostoevski, the Making of a Novelist. Oxford University Press, 1940 , p. 283 . 15 . Dostoevsky, The Possessed, p. 580 . 16. Troyat, Firebrand.the Life of Dostoevsky, p. 351. 1 7 • On. Cit ..p. 426. 24 Thie is the humiliation of a 'Man-god'. In opposition to such as K i r i l l o v , Verkhovensky and Stavrogin, Dostoevsky sets up the prototype of the 'God-man' such as Alyosha, Father Zo&sima and Prince Myshkin in whom humility conquers humiliation. The Russian Idea ~\ Dostoevsky firmly "believed that 'fsyechelove-chnost' — t h e a b i l i t y to share the point of view of a l l nations-§was "the principal personal characteristic and 19 designation of a Russian ." In a letter to the Tsarevitch Alexander, enclosed with a copy of The  Possessed , Dostoevsky wrote: " , . .We have forgotten that in the depths of the Russian national s p i r i t dwells the a b i l i t y to say something new to the entire world, on »20 condition that we maintain our own separate development." That "something new" was Russia's genuine contribution to the world because "the lost image of Christ in a l l . . . its purity is conserved in Orthodoxy".21 18. Berdyaev, Origin of Russian Communism, p. 36. 19. Dostoevsky, The Diary of a Writer, p. 342. In his Pushkin apeech Dostoevsky, with the greatest solem-nity, proclaimed his formula of an all-embracing, a l l -uniting and all-reconciling Russian and Christian ideal. According to Soloviev, Dostoevsky, in the realm of ideas was"a visionary and an a r t i s t , rather than a logical thinker, consequent with himself." (Lossky, Russian  Philosophy, p. 119) . 20. Stanislas Mackiewicz, Dostoevsky. Orbis Ltd., 1947, p. 171. 21. Dostoevsky, Diary of a Writer, p. 906. 25 It is from the East that the new word w i l l he uttered to the world in opposition to future socialism, and this word may again save European mankind. Such is the mission of the East .33. Every great people "believes and must believe i f i t intends to live long, that in i t alone resides the salvation of the world; that i t lives in order to stand at the head of the nations, to a f f i l i a t e and unite a l l of them, and to lead them in a concordant choir toward the f i n a l goal preordained for them .23 Using Shatov as his mouthpiece in The Possessed, Dostoevsky maintained that man could be redeemed only by the healing properties of the Orthodox f a i t h . Dostoevsky meant hot the institutionalized but the idealized Orthodoxy as conceived by Solovyev and later, Berdyaev and Bulgakov—a religion to be marked by freedom and devotion. No matter what "ism" people profess , i f they have no religious f a i t h Dostoevsky believed that their foundation was built upon the sand. Por Dostoevsky the only firm foundation was r e l i g i o n — particularly Orthodoxy, without which man becomes 24 "possessed". The object of every national movement, in every people and at every period of its existence is only the seeking for its god, who must be its own god, and the fai t h in Him as the only true one. God is the synthetic personality of the whole people, taken from i t s beginning to its end... .When gods begin to be common to several nations the gods are dying and the fai t h in them, together with the 22 . Lo.c . c i t . 23. Ibid ., p. 575 . 24. Ivar Spector, The Golden Age of Russian Literature, Canton Printers Ltd ., 1943, p. 133 . 26 the nations themselves . The stronger a people the more individual their God.... Every people is only a people so long as i t has its own god and excludes a l l other gods on earth irreconcil-ably-; so long as i t believes that by its god it w i l l conquer and drive out of the world a l l other gods.... If a great people does not believe that the truth is only to be found in i t s e l f alone (in i t s e l f alone and in it exclusively) ; i f i t does not believe that i t alone is f i t and destined to raise up and save a l l the rest by its truth, it would at once sink into being ethnographical . material, and not a great people. A really great people can never accept a secondary part in the history of Humanity, nor even one of the f i r s t , but w i l l have the f i r s t part. A nation which loses this belief ceases to be a nation. But there is only one truth, and therefore., only a" single one out of the nations may have great gods of their own. Only one nation i s 'god-bearing'? that's the Russian people . Vladimir Solovyev recalls that on one occasion Dostoevsky spoke of "the woman arrayed with the sun" mentioned in Revelation, and of her crying out"in pain to be delivered" of a man-child. For Dostoevsky, Solovyev declared, the woman was Russia and the child the message she carried for the world . 2 6 Do you know who are the only 'god-bearing' people on earth, destined to regenerate and save the world in.the name of a new God, and to whom are given the Keys of l i f e and of the new world..,. Do you know which is that people and what is its name?*' For Dostoevsky that 'god-bearing' people is the Russian people; The author found in Europe not Christianity but a dead and-rationalistic formula of the Christian doctrine. 25. Dostoevsky, The Possessed,, pp. 254-5 . 26 . Avrahm Yarmolinsky, Dostoevsky, p.357 . 2 7 • O P . Pit ., p. 250 . It was in the religious s p i r i t of the Russian peasants that he' found Christ as a living symbol, a mystical reality in man's consciousness.^ 8 In the words of Berdyaev , 2 9 Dostoevsky was the herald of the 'Russian Idea' and of the consciousness of his nation, with a l l its antinomies and restless uneasi-ness, its humility and arrogance, its universal compassion and its national exclusivism . In his many writings Dostoevsky revealed more than any other writer before or after him a religious populism and a Messianic people-worship . Suffering The fundamental spi r i t u a l quest of the Russian people i s , Dostoevsky believed, their craving for suffering—"perpetual and unquenchable suffering— everywhere and in everything ." It seems that they have been affected by this thirst for martyrdom from time immemorial. The suffering stream flows through their whole history--not merely because of external calamities and misfortunes: i t gushes from the people's very heart. 3 2 Dostoevsky's greatest characters go through four stages: crime, followed by the punishment of suffering. 28. Lavrin, Dostoevsky and His Creation, p. 184. 29. Nicolas Berdyaev . Dostoevsky, Sheed & Ward, 1934, p.160. 30 . Ibid., p. 184 . 31. Dostoevsky, Diary of a Writer, p . 36 . 32 . Loc . c i t . 28 repentance, and through love, forgiveness. It was Dostoevsky's belief that man's heart possessed the greatest and most poignant pity for a l l creatures and that through "urailenie" 3 3or "melting of the heart", what had formerly been strange and alien becomes part of the individual himself, becomes "dear" to him and he comes to love a l l creatures, has compassion for their suffer-ing, and shares in their destiny. For Dostoevsky, the greatest thing in the world was love , which he conceived of as evolving only from suffering . It has been frequently maintained that Dostoevsky made a fetish of suffering . However, he did not advocate suffering for its own sake, but rather as the most important means whereby an individual, society or nation could reach the highest end. Pulcheria Alexandrovna in Crime and Punishment is one of Dostoesky's heroically suffering figures 3 4 The mother of Raskolnikov has endured almost every misfortune, has been cruelly tormented by l i f e , yet within her there is an unworldly s p i r i t which cannot be extinguished. In the same book the wry police inspector says to Raskolnikov: "I am convinced that you w i l l decide to 'take your 33. L. A. Zander, Dostoevsky, ( t r . by Natalie Duddington), S.C.M. Press Ltd., 1948, p. 24. 34. Richard Curie, Characters of Dostoevsky, William Heinemann Ltd., 1950 , pp. oD-6. 29 suffering'.... For suffering Rodion Romanovitch, is a great thing.... Don't laugh at i t , there's an idea ^5 in suffering." In the author's greatest work, The Brothers Karamazov, Mitya shouts to his accusers: "I accept the torture of accusation and my public shame, I want to suffer and by suffering I shall be purified." It is plain that man feels- i l l at ease when the end of his labor has "really been reached . That is to say, he loves to attain, but not completely to a t t a i n 3 ^ . . May i t not also be that he loves adversity? And may not adversity be as good for him as is happiness?... I am not altogether for adversity, any more than I am altogether for prosperity; what I most stand for is ray personal freewill, and for what it can do for me when I feel in the right mood to use i t . . ' . . I feel certain that man never wholly rejects adversity; for adversity is the main-spring of self-realization ?^ The impact of Dostoevsky's remorseless experiences is f e l t in these lines: I can bear everything, any suffering, i f I can only keep on saying to myself 'I l i v e 1 ; I am in a thousand torments, but I l i v e . I am on the p i l l a r , but I exist . I see the sun, or I do not see the sun, but I know that i t i s . And . to know that there is a sun, that is l i f e enough." 35. Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, Everyman's Library, 1948, Part VI., Chapter II. 36. Dostoevsky, Letters from the Underworld, p. 40. 37. Ibid., p. 41. 38. Quoted in Dmitri Merejkowski, Tolstoi as Man and A r t i s t . with an essay on Dostoevsky, Archibald Constable & Co. Ltd., 1902 , p. 143 . 3G "Dostoevsky's work',' Berdyaev remarks, "is permeated by compassion to a degree to be found nowhere else in the whole of world literature ."39 He had a deep reverence for human suffering, yet not without reason he is called 'a cruel genius'. The element of cruelty in him is connected with his f a i t h in the redemptive power of suffering. He regarded man as a contradictory being who needs to suffer . His was not an optimistic sort of humanism: i t was tragic . At the heart of a l l his works are to be found the themes of man and his sad destiny. Dostoevsky's outlook on suffering can best be summed up in his own words, "Friends, do not fear l i f e . Only by suffering can we learn to love l i f e ." Love "Christ is the only love of the Russian people, and they love His image in their own way, to the limit 41 of suffranee ." For Dostoevsky, man's greatest duty was to love God. For, i f there be no God, to love man would be to deify him, regard him as an Absolute and hence a 'man-god' . Dostoevsky believed that i t was impossible to love man apart from God. He even makes 39 . Berdyaev , Towards a New Epoch, p. 59 . 40 . Loc . c i t . 41. Dostoevsky, Diary of a Writer, p. 39. 31 Ivan Karamazov declare that he cannot love hie fellows. Outside of the Christian conception love becomes an AO illusion and a l i e - - i t degenerates into arbitrary self-43 w i l l and a sense of total self-sufficiency. In Dostoevsky' s characters, i t manifests i t s e l f in depraved sensuality or intellectual nihilism ^"both of which have as their end result insanity or suicide. In Letters from the Underworld Dostoevsky underlines the marked contrast between the rational skepticism, with a l l its resultant contradictions, of the 'undergroundling' and the naJve pity and love of the prostitute, Lisa. It is he who is damned, she who is saved . Dostoevsky believed that only one's resolution Mto do everything fortthe sake of active love. . .is obligatory and important . 1 , 4 4 One must sacrifice, to the extent of giving everything and not even wishing that anything be given in return... .How is this to be done? It is impossible to do i t , but i t must be done in and for i t s e l f , i t must be in one's nature, unconsciously existing in the nature of the whole tribe. In a word, there ought to be a foundation of brotherly love—there ought to be love.45 42. Berdyaev, Dostoevsky, p. 131. 43 . Ibid., p. 123 . 44. Dostoevsky, Diary of a Writer, Vol. 2, p. 622. 45. Dostoevsky, Letters from the Underworld. pp. 86-7. 32 Dostoevsky advocates a unique type of Christian Socialism. Supreme freedom is not to hoard money and not to "base one's security upon i t , but'to distribute one's property among a l l people and to go and serve everybody.' If a man is capable of this , i f he is capable of overcoming himself to such an extent--isn't he free after that? This is the supreme manifestation of will-power 1 4 7 In The Brothers Karamazov Dostoevsky's most supreme ode to love is spoken by the saintly Father Zossima: Brothers have no fear of men's sin . Love a man even in his sin, for that is the semblance of Divine Love and is the highest love on earth. Love a l l God's creation, the whole and every grain of sand in i t . Love every leaf, every ray of God's l i g h t . Love the animals, love the plants,, love everything. If you love everything, you w i l l perceive the divine mystery in things..,. And you w i l l come at last to love the whole world with an all-embracing love4§.. God took seeds from different worlds and sowed them on this earth, and his garden grew up and everything came up that could come up, but what grows lives and is alive only through the feeling of its contact with other mysterious worlds . If that feeling grows weak and is destroyed in you, the heavenly growth w i l l die away in you. Then you w i l l be indifferent to l i f e , and even grow to hate i t , 4 9 46. Although he "denies the possibility of setting up heaven on earth without the aid of God, without the recognition that sin is a reality and not something which w i l l disappear with the operation of an improved system of the production and distribution of commodities" (lex Warner, The Cult of Power, John Lane the Bodley Head Ltd.-, 1946, p. 83) . 47 .Dostoevsky, Diary of a Writer, p. 623. 48 . Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Brothers Karamazov, Modern Library, 1950 , pp . 382-3 . ': 49 . Ibid., p . 385. 33 In his eloquent "Legend of the Grand Inquisitor" Dostoevsky makes i t abundantly clear that the only worthwhile alternative to a ruling elect which offers mankind miracle, mystery and authority is the incompar-50 able anarchy of love . Beauty "Beauty," Dostoevsky said, " w i l l save the world." It " i s the Christianized cosmos in which chaos is overcome.... Beauty is the goal of a l l l i f e , i t is 51 the deification of the world." But this same beauty for Dostoevsky was at the same time terrible and mysterious. "It is here," he wrote, "that the devil strives with God, and the f i e l d of battle is the hearts of men ." How are we to understand this?... Externally harmonious beauty may be deceptive and false, i t may screen ugliness. Beauty may pass over into its opposite, as may every other principle too, when it breaks away from the source of light . It may, therefore, be said with equal truth, that i t is harmony and rest from painful struggle and that i t may become a ' f i e l d of battle' between God and the devil.** 2 Dostoevsky's "traditional mysticism of love" 5 3pervades a l l his works . In The Brothers Karamazov, through the 50. Ivan Roe, The-Breath, of Corruption, an Interpretation  of Dostoevsky. Hutchison & Co. Ltd.. 1950. p. 86. 51. Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t . p. 333. 52. Nicolas Berdyaev , The Divine and the Human, Geoffrey Bles , 1949 , p . 140 . 53. Qp. c i t . , p. 263. personality of Ivan , the author writes: I want to see with my own eyes the hind l i e down with the lion and the victim rise up and embrace hie murderer. I want to be there when everyone suddenly understands what i t has a l l been for. A l l the religions of the world are built on this longing and I am a believer .54 54. Dostoevsky, The Brothers Karamazov. p. 289. CHAPTER III . Chapter III .. The Impact of Dostoevsky on Berdyaev 1. Mysticism . 2. Messianism . 3. Humanism (a) Its bankruptcy (to) The twofold nature of progress. 4 . Democracy . 5. Asceticism, atheism and nihilism. 6 . E v i l (a) As non-being (b) A l l things are not lawful. 7 . Immortality. The Impact of Dostoevsky on Berdyaev Mysticism The foundation and source of a l l creative movement, according to Berdyaev, is mysticism. It is that "knowledge which has its source in v i t a l and immediate contact with the ultimate real i t y . . .derived from 'mystery' . m 1 Berdyaev distinguishes between two kinds of mysticism . There is f i r s t the saintly mysticism.of perfection or elevation of the soul to God and secondly the mysticism of penetration—a kind of second sight or insight into the supreme meaning of a l l things. Into this second category Berdyaev places Jacob Boehrae, Baader, Soloyev , Leon Bloy and 2 Dostoevsky. The following citation from The Possessed would be for Berdyaev an instance of Dostoevsky's prophetic mysticism which has as i t s aim the diviniza-tion of man and the transfiguration of everything created . 1 . Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t , p. 2 5 3 . 2 . Lampert, Evgeny-, "Hicolas Berdyaev", Modern Christian  Revolutionaries, ed . Attwater, Devin-Adair Co., 1 9 4 7 , p . 3 3 6 . 3 • O P . c i t ., pp . 2 5 4 - 5 . 3 5 36 Every earthly woe and every earthly tear is a joy for us . And when you water the earth with your tears a foot deep, you w i l l rejoice at everything at once, and your sorrow w i l l he no more, such is the prophecy. In such a passage Berdyaev would find'fei transcendence of the created world" 4 in which the transcendental 5 becomes spi r i t u a l l y immanent . Mess ian ism Mysticism and Messianism are closely linked in Berdyaev's writings . He discovers four types of Messianism: National or universal messianism , messianism of this world or the next, Victorious or suffering messianism and Personal or impersonal messianism . These four Mess ian isms converge to produce Christian Messianism which "not only postulates the existence of the transcendent, but also recognizes the possibility of changing our world by means of the 7 transcendent." Berdyaev regards Christianity as both 4. Nicolas Berdyaev , Spirit and Reality, Geoffrey Bles, 1946, p. 119 . 5. Ibid.. p. 120. Professor Lavrin regards Dostoevsky as a transcendental or symbolic r e a l i s t , as a visionary rather than a visual realist who sees in actuality only a v e i l of the inner reality . (Dostoevsky—A  Study and Dostoevsky and His Creation, p. 33). 6. Berdyaev, The Divine and the Human, p. 175 . 7 . Ibid., p. 177 . 37 Messianic and eschat©logical, "that is to say, dynamic and progressive in the spirutal or deepest sense of the g word ." For Berdyaev, the Messianic idea gives meaning 9 to history, especially to Russian history . Russia remained outside the great modern humanist movement; she has had no Renaissance.... She has never "been able wholly to accept human-ist culture, with its rationalist concepts, formal logic and law, neutrality in religion, and general secular compromise.... But the Russians took over the last fruits of European humanism at the moment of its decay, when i t was destroying both i t s e l f and the divine image in man.... Russia, situated midway of East and West, in a terrible catastrophic way has taken on the most considerable significance of a l l - ^ l nations: the eyes of the whole world are on her. In "The New Middle Ages"—the coming period of history and culture, Berdyaev reserves a special place for Russia because he feels she "looks to the future". She has remained relatively free of standardized " c i v i l i z a -tion" and as yet has been unwilling to sacrifice content 12 for form . Above a l l , like Dostoevsky, Berdyaev feels 8. Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t , p. 304 . 9 » Ou • c i t . , p. 171. 10 . Quoted in Lara pert, Berdyaev, p. 363. 11. Ibid., pp. 364-5. 12 . Loc . cit . 38 the Russian people are the most universalist. Humanism (a) Its bankruptcy Over and over again Berdyaev remarks that the creative powers and inner potentialities of the Renaissance are "played out", "exhausted", "used up" 14 and "bankrupt" . The Middle Ages with their asceticism, monastic-ism, and chivalry had economized human forces and thus allowed their creative flowering in the age of the Renaissance. Humanism, on the other hand, repudiated both ascetic discipline and submission to supernatural principles . It dissipated and exhausted human forces, and thus undermined the authority of human personality.... Once the personality has lost a l l idea and consciousness of i t s e l f , i t seeks for a s p i r i t -ual authority to restore its f a i l i n g strength.... Humanist atheism leads to humanist self-repudiation, or anti-humanism, and that freedom becomes compulsion.... Modern man, in pursuit of his aim to dominate the world has become its slaved.. (Russian thought with)its deep sense of anguish and suffering is in complete contrast to the spontaneous joy and exuberance of Renaissance humanism. Dostoevsky in particular penetrated to the very depths of European human-ism . In his works the humanist ideal appears tragically bankrupt . 13. Cf . Doestoevsky's Pushkin speech in which he describes the task of coming generations in Russia to be that of uttering "the ultimate word of great universal harmony, of the brotherly accord of a l l nations abiding by the law of Christ's gospel." (Diary of a Writer. Vol.2, p .980) . 14 . Monroe C. Beardsley, "Berdyaev: Sibyl in Wasteland" , The Russian Review. Vol. 2, No. 2, Spring 1943, p. 15 . 15 .Nicolas Berdyaev, The Meaning of History. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936, p. 180. 16. Ibid., p. 181. 17 . Ibid., p. 184 . 39 The dialectic of humanism, as Berdyaev traces i t , is summed up by Lisaveta Prokofievna in Dostoevsky's The Idiot, in her words to the "lunatics" who aspire 18 to love each other without loving God: "You are so eaten up with pride and vanity that you'll end by ..19 eating up one another, that's what I prophesy.." Berdyaev concludes that in the absence of belief in OA the humanity of God, man must needs become inhuman . "Man's self-affirmation leads to his perdition; the free play of human forces unconnected with any higher aim brings about the exhaustion of man's creative powers Berdyaev sees in Dostoevsky a great Christian writer who denounced as the essential defect of Humanism its powerlessness to find a solution to the tragedy of 22 human destiny . Berdyaev's metaphysics of history may be summed up in his own words: 18. Op. c i t . , p . 15 . 19 . Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Idiot , Modern Library, 1935, p. 270 . 20 . Berdyaev , Autobiography , p . 180. 21. Berdyaev, Meaning of History, p. 142. 22. Berdyaev , Dostoevsky, p . 39 . 40 Man is the child of God and suffers a tragic destiny.... At the foundations of this destiny li e s the original freedom with which God's child has been endowed and which is the true reflection and image of the creator. 2 3 The source of man's "tragic destiny" is that he is endowed with freedom for e v i l as well as for good . 24 In other words, "destiny depends on freedom". (b) The twofold nature of progress Berdyaev is convinced that historical progress in human happiness is impossible. He perceives progress only "in .the tragic sense of the inner principles of being, of the good-evil, divine-demonic antithesis, of 25 the principles of good and e v i l in collaboration." Ivan Karamazov is brought about to a repudiation of God because he saw history as a progression in human happi-ness—others were to suffer in order that this generation might bring about a new society. Progress , as Berdyaev interprets i t , is twofold in nature; either 23 . On. ci t ., p. 77 . 24. Ib i d . , p. 79. "Disciplined histo r i c a l pessimism frees us from a l l earthly Utopias and illusions of a perfect social order.... It is not easy to overcome the radical e v i l of human nature and of the nature of the world, but the ultimate victory over e v i l is the transfiguration of the world—a 'new heaven' and a 'new earth'". (Berdyaev, Pilosofia Ueraventsva, p. 246). 25 . Berdyaev , Meaning of History, p.192 . 41 it is orientated ...to the resolving end, to the Kingdom of God, to the immanent and the transcendent , or i t may "be an endless process to which there can be no solution , which contains nothing of value in i t s e l f and in which everything is turned into a means . Democracy Berdyaev is particularly explicity in his denunciation of Democracy which he regards as Renaissance self-assertion in the p o l i t i c a l sphere ?^ Only a voluntary subjection of the w i l l of the people to the w i l l of God can overcome the disintegrating effects of individualistic autonomy with its alternative of tyrannical collectivism. Berdyaev would have the Kingdom of God as the goal not only of s p i r i t u a l l i f e , but also of p o l i t i c a l l i f e . Shatov's accusation against liberalism^!n The Possessed is mild compared 26. Berdyaev, The Divine and the Human, p. 179. 27 . Spinka, Nicolas Berdyaev, p. 168. 28 . Shatov accuses the liberals of offering nothing but "senility, a glorious mediocrity of the most bourgeois kind, contemptible shallowness, a jealous equality, equality without individual dignity, equality as i t is understood by flunkeys." (The Possessed, p. 589) . to Berdyaev1 s bitter polemic against Democracy . Democrats talk a lot about liberty, but no respect for the human sp i r i t and personality is entailed: i t is a love of liberty expressed by people who are not interested in truth.... There was probably more real liberty of the sp i r i t in the days when the fires of the Spanish Inquisition were blazing than in the middle class republics of to-day.29 Even Berdyaev's sense of humour was exposed to his anti-democratic bias . Both in his Autobiograpfay and The End of Our Time he relates an anecdote attributed to Louis Blanc designed to expose the hypocrisy of bourgeois liberalism . A well-to-do Parisian approaches a cab-driver and asks, "Are you free?", to determine i f the cab was engaged. "Yes ," replied the cabbie . "Long live freedom ," replied the prosperous citizen and passes on. Berdyaev's philosophy characteristically lacks a democratic s p i r i t . It aspires rather toward a 30 31 mystical form of aristocracy. In his Autobiography Berdyaev approves the statement of some c r i t i c s that he speaks for the aristocratic meaning of socialism . His main critique of Democracy is that he finds in i t a model of mankind's sp i r i t u a l decline through the 29. Quoted by Lampert, Nicolas Berdyaev, p. 374. 30. Masaryk, The Spirit of Russia, Vol. 2 , p. 527. 31. Berdyaev, Autobiography, p. xiv . Preface . 43 assertion of the w i l l to power, organization and earthly happiness . For Berdyaev the higher spir i t u a l l i f e can come about only through asceticism and resignation . Asceticism, Atheism and Nihilism In religious asceticism i t is possible to distinguish two main varieties. There is the asceticism of a Father Zossima, devotional in origin and a l t r u i s t i c in practice,and that asceticism which is escapist in origin and anti-humanist in practice, whose advocates "are so preoccupied with themselves , with their purity and salvation, that they come to hate humanity and have 33 no compassion to waste on i t . " An outgrowth of this type of mentality is nihilism, which Berdyaev describes as "Orthodox asceticism turned inside out, asceticism without Grace." At the base of Russian nihilism lies the Orthodox rejection of the world—the idea that "the whole world l i e t h in wickedness ." Dostoevsky has left us such monumental n i h i l i s t s as the anti-social and amoral Raskolnikov, the demented fanatic K i r i l l o v and the moral psychopath Stavrogin. Under the category of 32. Berdyaev, Meaning of History, p. 216 . 33 . Berdyaev , Spirit and Reality, p. 79 . 34. Berdyaev, Russian Communism, p. 45 . 44 "mild" nihilism the names of Dostoevsky, Leontiev, Solovyev, Tolstoy and Berdyaev would inescapably appear, especially i f Dostoevsky were right when he wrote, "we are a l l n i h i l i s t s . " The "mild" n i h i l i s t Dostoevsky protested vehemently against those "extreme" n i h i l i s t s who had fallen into atheism and anthropo-id o la try . Such extremists of the intelligentsia preached "a n i h i l i s t i c religion of purely mundane wellbeing ," 3 5 "A new religion is coming instead of the old one" shouts Verkhovensky in The Possessed . At the basis of this "new religion" is the ego—separated from God--and hence, for Dostoevsky, an ego conceived • z g as naught . Dostoevsky ,, as an enemy of nihilism , revolted against the Schilleresque idea of "the high •zw and the beautiful" . And this very hatred for the conventional l i e of c i v i l i z a t i o n led the author to search for truth in the l i f e of the people . "Only the people and their future sp i r i t u a l power w i l l convert our atheists who have torn themselves away from their 38 , nativesso.il ." 35 . Masaryk, Spirit of Russia, Vol. 2, p . 487 . 36 . Ibid ., p. 451. 37. Berdyaev considers this exposure of the "exalted l i e " as one of the essentially Russian motifs . (The Russian  Idea, p. 130). 38. Spoken by Father Zossima in The Brothers Karamazov. 45 E v i l (a) As non-being Dostoevsky's greatest figure , the atheist Ivan Karamazov, could find no just i f i c a t i o n for the e v i l , injustice and suffering in the world. In his eloquent tale of the tears of a l i t t l e child, Ivan, like other Russian atheists, shows that he considers suffering to be e v i l . To recognize God, therefore, would be an attempt to ju s t i f y this e v i l . 3 9 In Freedom and the S p i r i t , Berdyaev makes an attempt to rationalize Ivan's plight: The source of e v i l is not in God, but in the unfathomable irrationality of f reedom4.Q .. The cause of evil l i e s in a false and illusory self-affirmation and in spiritual pride which places the source of l i f e not in God but in se l f , to the annihilation of human personality in so far as i t bears the divine image .41 E v i l was considered by Berdyaev to be "non-being" , whereas Love he considered to be "the affirmation of 42 l i f e and being in everything and everybody ." The living experience of e v i l , the denunciation of its non-being can lead man to the highest good. Once he 39 . Nicolas Berdyaev , E l Cristianismo y e l problema del Comunismo , Espasa-Calpe, 1944, p. 95. 40 . Berdyaev, Freedom and the Spirit , p. 165 . 41. Ibid., p. 167 . 42 . Loc . c i t . 46 has overcome the experience of e v i l he can more clearly 43 perceive the fulness of truth and goodness. Berdyaev points out that man is not enriched by e v i l i t s e l f , rather"he is enriched by that spiritual strength which is aroused in him for the overcoming of e v i l . . . . It is 44 e v i l that puts man's freedom to the test ." Freedom of s p i r i t means freedom for e v i l , and not for good only; but freedom for e v i l results in self-will,and s e l f - w i l l leads to insurrection against the source of spi r i t u a l freedom.... After freedom has led through s e l f - w i l l to wrongdoing, punishment follows by an inner f a t a l i t y , punishment which tracks man in the deepest part of his nature 4 6 Berdyaev supplies his answer to the tortured question-47 ings of Ivan's "euclidian" mind in one highly imaginative sentence . If there is a divine meaning, i f there is a redeemer, i f earthly l i f e is i t s e l f an atonement, i f the definitive harmony of the world is in the kingdom of God and not in a worldly kingdom, then this world can be accepted and its history with a l l its number-less sufferings can be j u s t i f i e d . 43 . Ibid ., p. 185 . 44. Berdyaev, Russian Idea, p. 124. 45 . Berdyaev , Dostoevsky, p. 144 . 46. Ibid.. p. 89. 47. "I have a Euclidian earthly mind, and how could I solve problems that are not of this world?... A l l such questions are utterly inappropriate for a mind created with an idea of only three dimensions." (Ivan in The Brothers Karamazov, p. 279 .) 4 8 • OP. c i t ., p. 157 . 47 (b) A l l things are not lawful In commenting on the Kararaaz ovs' amoral creed 49 " a l l things are lawful," Berdyaev writes: A l l things are not allowable because, as immanent experience proves, human nature is created in the image of God and every man has an absolute value in himself and as such. The spiritual nature of man forbids the arbitrary k i l l i n g of the least and most harmful of men: i t means the loss of one's essential humanity and the dissolution of personality; i t is a crime that no 'idea' or 'higher end' can j u s t i f y . Our neighbour is more precious than an abstract notion, any human l i f e and person is worth more here and now than some future bettering of society. That is the Christian conceptions, and i t is Dostoevsky's . For Berdyaev, Dostoevsky was Russia's greatest meta-physician and anthropologist . His was an anthropology that treated man "as a self-contradictory tragic creature, in the highest degree unhappy, not only 50 suffering but in love with suffering" . For Dostoevsky, suffering was not only profoundly inherent in man, but was the sole cause for the awakening of 51 conscious thought . Suffering redeemed e v i l . 49 . Ibid., p. 97 . 50. Berdyaev, Russian Idea, p. 179 51 . Loc . c i t . 48 If the world consisted wholly and solely of goodness and righteousness there would he no •need' for God, for the world i t s e l f would be God . God is , because ev i l is . And that means that God is because freedom is £2 Immortality For Dostoevsky man must have the conviction that his soul is immortal, otherwise man's attachment to this planet would be abolished and the loss of any higher meaning to l i f e would force him to suicide , 5 3 "If there is no immortality, there can be no virtue, and i f there is no virtue, everything is lawful."^ 4 What do (our Russian boys) talk about in that momentary halt in the tavern? Of the eternal questions , of the existence of God and immortality. And those who do not believe in God talk of socialism or anarchism, of the transformation of a l l humanity on a new pattern, so that i t a l l comes to the same .they're the same questions turned inside out .... Yet the passionate concern of Ivan did not extend "to the sublime plane of immortality". If Ivan had 52. Quoted by Lampert in Berdyaev , p. 349 . 53. Lavrin, Dostoevsky and His Creation, p. 146. 54. Spoken by Ivan in The Brothers Karamazov . 55 . Spoken by Ivan to Alyosha, p. 278. 56..Berdyaev, Meaning of History, p. 100. 49 only believed in immortality he could have looked soberly on t e r r e s t r i a l l i f e , Berdyaev believed, and realized the impossibility of achieving any conclusive victory on this earth over "the dark irrational 57 principle" . He would come to see that "sufferings, 58 e v i l and imperfections are the inevitable lot of man'? . For Berdyaev comes to the conclusion that: If man is not a free, immortal, personal being he may do anything, he is responsible for nothing, he has no intrinsic value.... The l i f e and destiny of the least of human beings has an absolute meaning in respect of eternity: his l i f e and his destiny are everlasting . For that reason one may not do away with a single human creature and escape punishment; we must consider the divine image and likeness in every-one, from the most noble to the most despicable . 9 This notion of the absolute worth of the individual lies at the heart of Dostoevsky's ethical teaching and is the basic theme in a l l Berdyaev's writings . 57. Cf. The'dark'forces of D. H. Lawrence—blood, ses:,, v i r i l i t y and violence . 58. Berdyaev, Meaning of History, p. 100 . 59 . Berdyaev, Dostoevsky. p. 106. CHAPTER IV. Chapter IV. The Philosophy of Berdyaev 1. Philosophical Personalism . 2 . The problem of Man . 3 . The problem of Personality (a) As seen by Berdyaev (b) As seen by Dostoevsky. 4. The problem of Freedom . 5 . Berdyaev's Metaphysic of freedom (a) Materialistic and religious determinism (b) Doctrine of the 'Ungrund'. 6. Freedom or Necessity. The Philosophy of Berdyaev I saw in Dostoevsky, whom I had loved from childhood , the depth of the problem of person-a l i t y and of personal destiny 1... I saw the sp i r i t of the Grand Inquisitor displayed both from the right and from the l e f t , in authori-tarian religion and statecraft as well as in authoritarian revolutionary socialism . The problem of man, the problem of freedom, the problem of creativeness came to be the funda-mental problems of my philosophy .2 Berdyaev by no means follows his admired master in a l l details. He finds that Dostoevsky characteristically represents a typical Russian tendency to swing between the extreme of n i h i l i s t i c skepticism and the extreme of apocalyptic f a i t h — a n all-or-nothing, either-or attitude which is inconsiderate to contemporary problems of culture and ethics .3 Berdyaev, also, is far from 1. Berdyaev, Slavery and Freedom, p. 14. 2 . Ibid ., p . 16 . 3. Berdyaev found this same tendency present in Dialectical Materialism . Although he accepted the social truths of Marxism , he reacted vigorously against the demands of 'orthodox1 Marxists that philosophy, art, religion, etc., be interpreted in terms of economics . Because of this view , Berdyaev became known as an 'autonomist' and soon passed from being an exponent of idealism in philosophy to become a religious thinker. 50 51 sharing the novelist's faith in an earthly millenium which is to come "out of the East" through the faith of the Russian peasants . Berdyaev correctly feels that contemporary events have rudely shattered Dostoevsky's dream. Philosophical Personalism Paul Miliukov refers to Berdyaev's philosophy as "the philosophy of the liberated s p i r t " . 5 The ethics of Berdyaev could be summarized in one sentence--Q Man is redeemed from the law in order to create. Compassion, freedom and creativeness are his ethical 7 cornerstones. Berdyaev discovers throughout the course of history the constant clash between two antithetical principles: "subject, s p i r i t , prime reality , freedom, truth, justice, love, humanity, are a l l opposed to object, world, external causality, u t i l i t y , adaptability, violence Q and power" . Dualism exists , not between es;oul: and body 4 . Walter Marshall Horton , Contemporary Continental  Theology . Harper & Bros. , 1938, p. 13. 5. Paul Miliukov , Outlines of Russian Culture. Part V, University of Penn .Press , 1942, pp. 146-7. 6 . Clarke, Berdyaev , p . 133 . 7. Berdyaev , Destiny of Man ,p. 192. 8 . Berdyaev , Spirit and Reality, p. 169 . 52 as for Descartes , but between s p i r i t and nature , freedom and necessity, subject and object, personality and g society, the individual and the general. In postulating his "tragic philosophy" Berdyaev is consistent in main-10 taining "the primacy of freedom over Being!1 . He believed that philosophy must at no time be abstracted from l i f e and purely theoretical , i t must be activist and endowed with a sense of creation . Philosophy must also be essentially anthropological since " i t s knowledge of being is derived from man."11 The Problem of Man The problem of man as Berdyaev sees i t , is the curse of isolation brought about through separation from God. Because be f e l l away from God, man's essential nature is distorted . Instead of a direct experience to reveal the l i f e of the subject, of the "existential self" , man's distorted reason develops a way of understanding the world in an exteriorized objectified form. This interpretation is nature as opposed to s p i r i t . It is something like the Platonic 9 . Berdyaev , Slavery and Freedom, p. 31. 10. Nicolas Berdyaev, Solitude and Society, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1938, p. 24. 11. Ibid .. p . 30. 53 world of appearance, phenomena, and reflected r e a l i t y . Berdyaev used the Greek word 'noumena' to describe the world perceived through spi r i t u a l rather than objectivized experience. 1 2 When the old national religious conceptions were beginning to disintegrate, and the human s p i r i t began to be tormented by the problem of man's individual destiny which had failed to f u l f i l i t s e l f within the limits of either the Old Testament or paganism, the Christian truth was revealed to man!3 ,, Christianity affirms man's-primordial nature, independence and, above a l l , his freedom from the baser elemental processes . This made possible the apprehension for the f i r s t time of both the human personality and its high inherent dignity. Thus the development of the human personality constitutes the peculiar achievement of the Christian period of history , 1 4 Before the advent of the machine "an organic t i e had existed between man and n a t u r e " T h e machine stepped in and conquered "not only the natural elements for the benefit of man, but also, in the process, man 16 himself" . Berdyaev views technology as a change in 17 human existence from organic l i f e to organization . 12 . Lossky, Russian Philosophy, p. 237 . 13. Berdyaev, Meaning of History, p. 102. 14 . Ibid ., p. 125 . 15 . Ibid . , p. 152 . 16 . Loc. c i t . 17 . "The supremacy of technique and the machine is primarily a transition from organic to organized l i f e , from growth to construction." (p .39 "Man and Machine" in The Bourgeois Mind and other Essays , Sheed & Ward Inc ., 1934) . "~ This technology has k i l l e d a l l that is "organic" in l i f e and has instead placed human existence under the banner of "organization". Nevertheless, Berdyaev welcomes the process of technology and like Nicolas Fedorov before him, believes that the s p i r i t can transform and revivify i t , thereby opening the way to 18 a new and integral l i f e . In The Meaning of the 19 Creative Act Berdyaev, with genuine feeling, writes: It is strange to think that God could have created something small and insignificant as the crown of his creation. It is impious and blasphemous to have a low opinion of God's idea , and to hold i t in contempt as despicable and of no account . Throughout his works Berdyaev shows himself a Christian Humanist . In his Autobiography he wrote: "The idea of 20 God is the greatest human idea, and the idea of man is 21 the greatest divine idea." For Berdyaev that distinctive quality which constitutes man's relation 18. Lampert, Berdyaev . pp .354-7 . 19 . Ibid., p. 342 . 20. Cf . Ivan's remark to Alyosha: "And what's strange, what would be marvellous, is not that God should really exist; the marvel is that such an idea, the idea of the necessity of God , could enter the head of such a savage, vicious beast as man . So holy i t i s , so touching, so wise and so great a credit i t does to man." (The Brothers Karamazov , p. 278) . 21. Berdyaev, Autobiography . p . 209. and response to God is creativity. Man's willingness to create is not an autonomous right , hut rather his duty "before God. Failure to take part in God's creative action Berdyaev regarded as disobedience and 23 the equivalent to rebellion against God . What is of God in l i f e is revealed in creative acts, in the creative l i f e of the s p i r i t , which penetrates even the l i f e of nature. 2.. The creative act always calls up the image of something different; i t imagines something higher, better and more beautiful than this — than the 'given'. This evoking of the image of something different, something better and more beautiful, is a mysterious power in man. ... The Problem of Personality (a) As seen by Berdyaev Ivan KaramzoVs tragic conflict between personality and "world harmony" is the fundamental theme of existential philosophy for, Berdyaev points out , i t cannot be solved within the bounds of history. History ought to come to a conclusion, because i t turns human personality into a means to an end, because in i t every living generation merely manures the s o i l for the benefit of the generation which follows, and for which the same fate awaits . 2° 22. Ibid . , p . 207. 23. Lampert, Berdyaev, p. 342. 24 . Berdyaev, Beginning and the End, p. 155 . 25 . Ibid., p. 174 . 26 . Ibid. , p. 148. 56 Human personality is a value because i t is the bearer of the divine principle in l i f e , as God's idea and God's image, i t is the centre of moral consciousness and of 27 supreme value . Berdyaev distinguishes carefully between individuality and personality. The individual is produced by the biological generic process, he is born and he dies . Individuality therefore is a naturalistic and biological category, while personality is a religious and s p i r i t u a l one. It is not generated 28 but created by God . If there is no such thing as personality there can be no place for love because love 29 is always a relationship between personalities . It is love which transforms the Ego into a personality,^ "Only love can effect that complete fusion with another 30 being which transcends solitude." It is "the intuition of personality" . Above a l l , personality is "a spiritual energy of qualitative originality, a spiritual activity which is the very centre of creative 32 power". 27. Berdyaev. Destiny of Man, p. 34 . 28. "I want to build up a personalietic but certainly not an individualistic system of ethics ." (Berdyaev, Destiny of Man, p. 55). 29 . Berdyaev, Freedom and the Spirit , p . 281 30 . Berdyaev, Solitude and Society, p. 120 . 31. Ibid., p. 182. 32. Op. c i t . , p . 16 . 57 (b) As seen by Dostoevsky There is one occasion, and one occasion only, when man can w i l f u l l y , consciously choose for himself what is foolish and harmful . This is the occasion when he yearns to have the right to choose for himself what is foolish and harmful, and to be bound by no obligation whatsoever to choose anything that ie sensible. It is his crowning f o l l y ; i t is wherein we see his ineradicable waywardness . Yet such f o l l y may also be the best thing in the world for him, even though i t work him harm, and contra-dict our soundest conclusions on the subject of interests . This is because i t is possible for his f o l l y to preserve to him, under a l l circumstances, the chief, the most valuable of a l l his pos8essions--namely, his personality, his individuality . 3 3 Dostoevsky's attention is concentrated intensely on the 34 human person, on the human personality. He was bitter in his attacks upon the revolutionary movement of his time because he believed its morality was an affront to the dignity of the human personality . Revolutionary morality does not recognize personality as the foundation of every moral estimate and judgment; i t is wholly impersonal and denies a l l moral autonomy, admitting that i t uses human persons as a means and material, that i t allows the employment of any means that w i l l forward the victory of the revolu-tionary thing. The revolution is by nature 'amoral' , placing i t s e l f above any considera-tion of good and e v i l . . . . Man in revolt loses his autonomy: he comes under the power of an impersonal inhuman force. There lies the secret of the revolution, the inhumanity from 33. Dostoevsky, Letters from the Underworld, p. 34. 34. Berdyaev, Towards a New Epoch, p. 59. 58 which arise dishonour, absence of private opinion, the tyranny of some and the subjection of others. 3 5.. For with the revolutionary denial of personality there goes a complete break with our forefathers and the past, we are given a religion of k i l l i n g in place of a religion of a rising from the dead. 3 6 Writing once again on the subject of personality in his Essay on the Bourgeoisie, Dostoevsky says: To offer one's l i f e for others, to suffer for others on the cross or at the stake, is possible only when there is a powerful develop-ment of the personality . A strongly-developed personality, conscious of its right to be such, having cast out fear, cannot use i t s e l f , cannot be used except in sacrifice for others, that these become like unto i t s e l f , self-determinate and happy. It is Nature's law and mankind tends to reach i t . Berdyaev sees in Dostoevsky's dialectic about the tears of a child and the return of Ivan's admission ticket to world harmony , "a revolt against the idea of being as the realm of the universally 'common'"38 Berdyaev finds eternal truth in this revolt . This idea that the particular, single personality is of i n f i n i t e l y greater value than the hypothetical world order and 35. Berdyaev, Dostoevsky, p. 151. 36. Ibid., p. 153 . 37. Quoted in Andre Gide, Dostoevsky, J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1925 , pp. 190-1 . 59 harmony of the whole Berdyaev describee as Christian personalism . Freedom of personality is a duty, i t is a fulfillment of vocation, the realization of the divine idea of man, an answer to the divine c a l l . Man ought to he free, he dare 3 g not he a slave, because he ought to be a man . ^ The Problem of Freedom Berdyaev regarded Dostoevsky as !?the most passionate and extreme defender of the freedom of man 40 which the history of human thought has ever known." Even the problem of suffering for Dostoevsky was solved entirely by freedom and in particular by Christ , who 41 took upon Himself the suffering of the world. However, Dostoevsky never hesitated in disclosing the fa t a l results of "empty freedom", of "human self-assertion" 42 A'h and of "godlessness". It was freedom wrongly directed ^ that motivated the downfall of such self-made giants as Raskolnikov, Stavrogin, K i r i l l o v and Ivan Karamazov . 39 . Ibid ., p. 48. 40 . Berdyaev, Russian Idea, p. 89 . 41. Ibid., p. 79. 42 . Ibid . , p. 90. 43, Berdyaev, Dostoevsky. p. 77. 60 "Only the way of God-manhood and the God-man leads to the affirmation of man, to human personality and freedom." This is what Berdyaev describes as the "existential 45 dialectic" of Dostoevsky. In The Brothers Karamazov Dostoevsky eloquently gives expression to his idea that freedom i f i t is based purely on s e l f - w i l l and self-affirmation must inevitably end in the negation of God, 46 of man, of the world and even of freedom i t s e l f . -I am perplexed by ray own data and my conclusion is a direct contradiction of the original idea with which I start . Starting from unlimited freedom , I arrive at unlimited despotism .4? The doctrines of such as Shigalev and the Grand Inquisitor are born of s e l f - w i l l and godlessness . "Freedom becomes s e l f - w i l l , s e l f - w i l l becomes compulsion . That is the 48 process." The solution of true equality and true liberty is to be found only in following the way of the 49 "God-made-man", in following the path of Christ . "Any 44 . On . c i t . , p. 90 . 45 . Loc . c i t . 46. Berdyaev, DoBtoevsky, p . 82. 47 . Spoken by Shigalev in The Possessed, (Part II , Chapter VII ., i , i) . 48 . Op. cit ., p . 82 . 49 . Ibid., p. 84 . 61 idea of world-wide happiness and the common unity of mankind from which God is excluded means disaster for 50 man and the loss of his freedom of sp i r i t ." Dostoevsky is not so dramatic,but just as emphatic, when he writes» 51 in The Landlady, "Liberty is better thah bread , and more beautiful even than the sun." It is not for "feeble 52 53 souls." In his Dream of a Ridiculous Man Dostoevsky gives three possible alternatives to the question of world harmony. There is f i r s t that harmony without freedom or suffering—a state of b l i s s f u l ignorance which results in nothing creative and original . There is secondly that harmony purchased at the price of numberless suffering built up through laws of iron necessity. This is the society of the ant-heap. However, there is always the possibility of that third, and ultimate harmony which is arrived at through freedom and suffering—the Kingdom of God. Dostoevsky, particularly in his "Legend of the Grand Inquisitor" advocated a peculiarly theocratic utopia in which the Church would swallow up the State and bring into effect a kingdom of freedom and love . 50. Loo, c i t . 51. Spoken by the ward Katherine in The Landlady, p. 230. ;52 . Spoken by old Murin in The Landlady .p . 302 . 53 . In Dostoevsky's Diary of a Writer . 62 Berdyaev's Metaphysic of freedom (a) Materialistic and Religious determinism Berdyaev discovered while attempting to formulate a philosophy that was both existential and Christian that materialistic and religious determinism were both equally hostile to personality. Materialism presents man with laws of natural necessity, with a blind fate . Religious determinism insists that a l l is God's w i l l and man is but a puppet in the hands of God. Both forms of determinism are a negation of freedom and personality. To escape from this dilemma Berdyaev set up an elaborate metaphysic of freedom in order to show that freedom must exist parallel with God and even independent of Him . (b) Doctrine of the 'Ungrund' 54 From Jacob Boehme he borrowed the doctrine of the 'Ungrund' . "The Ungrund must be understood above a l l as freedom.. .which has its roots in nothing-ness , in the meon . .. in . , .the Ungrund ."^ 54. Berdyaev refers to Boehme as the founder of meta-physical voluntarism . "To Boehme, chaos is the root of nature, chaos, that is to say, freedom", (Berdyaev, Beginning and the End, pp. 107-9) . 55 . Loc. c i t . This idea of the 'Ungrund' is in some respects related to Heidegger's ontology of 'Nothingness'. 63 'Ungrund' is the primal, irrational, dark and indeterrained freedom. It is not i t s e l f e v i l , hut makes e v i l possible 5?.. Since freedom derives from the Ungrund, God did not create freedom and is therefore in no sense responsible for its consequences .57 "My philosophical thinking," writes Berdyaev, "does not take a sci e n t i f i c form...it belongs intuitively to l i f e . Spiritual experience lies at the very foundation of i t , and its driving power is a passion for freedom." 5 8 Berdyaev's passion for freedom has led him into a most elaborate rationalization as to i t s primordial existence. The essence of the ego is freedom,and freedom is the beginning and the end of a l l philosophy59 # t Free-dom is not something which man demands of God, but that which God requires of man6Q ., It is the inner dynamic of the s p i r i t , the irrational mystery of being, of l i f e and of destiny. 6! Freedom or necessity The interplay between freedom and necessity or the spiritual and the natural world takes place within the human soul, Berdyaev believes. "When the spiritual 56. Quoted by Spinka in Berdyaev . p. 119 . 57 , Ibid., p. 120. 58 . Berdyaev , Beginning and the End, Preface, p . v . 59 . Ibid., p . 23 . 60 .. Ibid., p . 216 . 61. Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t , p . 121. 64 is operative within the psychical, the freedom of the s p i r i t is revealed; when i t is the natural which is active, then necessity once more asserts its sway ." Berdyaev scorns the estrangement of the object from the subject; the absorption of the personal in the impersonal; the rule of necessity which crushes freedom; the increased levelling down to the lowest common denominator. He would replace these with communion in sympathy and love, voluntarism, personalism and creativeness . The obj ectivication of knowledge in aiming at the establishment of general-validity for the average normal mind of the majority of men has a limiting effect upon both knowledge and reality i t s e l f . It is bent upon crowding out everything which demands a great spiritual effort, and a sense of spi r i t u a l community. The average man, and human society especially, is always exercising violent pressure upon men. They find shelter from danger, they find self-preservation, in concepts and laws of logic in the f i e l d of cognition, in the laws of the State, in fossilized formulae of family l i f e , of class, of the external l i f e of the Church as a social institution. In these defensive measures, intuition, inspiration, love, humanity and living f a i t h are crushed and s t i f l e d , the flame of the s p i r i t is extinguished .64 62 . Ibid., p. 123 . 63 . On. c i t . , p. 62 . 64 . Ibid ., p. 80 . The individual is a part of society and subject to i t , but personality is not. Rather Berdyaev sees society 65 as i t s e l f a part of personality. With a certain characteristic dogmatism he propounds his idea that the source of human freedom cannot be in society, but is in the s p i r i t . "Everything which proceeds from society is enslaving; everything which issues from the sp i r i t is li b e r a t i n g . " 6 6 To counteract sentimentality, hypocrisy and a l l forms of "necessity" Berdyaev suggests that we substitute an . . .heroic love of freedom which lays stress upon the value of every human creature and of every creature in general, which is f i l l e d to the f u l l with compassion and sympathy but a stranger t^oifalse sentiment , 6 7 65. Berdyaev, Slavery and Freedom, p. 103. 66 . Ibid., p . 166 . 67 . Ibid ., p. 153. CHAPTER V . Chapter V. The Romantic Existentialism of Dostoevsky 1 . Romanticism . 2 . Disease and the "Double" . 3 . Anguish as Existential.. 4 . Possibilities for an Age of Crisis . The Romantic Existentialism of Dostoevsky Romant ic ism The philosophical speculation of Dostoevsky revolves around the problem of individual liberty and themenace of moral relativism with its accompanying anarchy and crime. Dostoevsky saw the crucial question in Europe "of the estrangement of the individual from society, the loneliness and isolation of modern man, as the problem of freedom" ?~ With incomparable anguish, Dostoevsky attempted to resolve the problem that man faces when he attempts to be himself in a world of urgent mental and moral conflicts . His characters are like drowning men in danger of going under. Their whole existence is a desperately emphatic assertion of their right to be. ...Dostoevsky's interest begins from the moment that man sets himself up against the objective established order of the universe, cuts himself off from nature and his organic roots, and manifests his arbitrary w i l l . When he has repudiated nature and the organized l i f e he casts himself into the h e l l of the city and there treads his miserable path in expiation of his sin .2 1. Hauser, The Social History of Art, Vol.2, p. 846. 2. Berdyaev, Dostoevsky, p. 46. 66 67 The Undergroundling, Raskolnikov, K i r i l l o v , Ivan Karamazov--all battle against the danger of being submerged in an abyss of unrestricted freedom and egoism. They are impassioned, fearless, maniacal thinkers , tugging and wrestling with their ideas and visions for which they suffer and murder and die . For them l i f e is a philosophical problem-thought, their one constant occupation, l i f e ' s only content. In Dostoevsky's writings the power of thought to influence the emotions has almost the same force as the flood and stress of feelings had for the Romantics . 3 Indeed, Dostoevsky's art could be described as a synthesis of intellectualism and romanticism . Disease and the "Double" Dostoevsky revealed many of the characteristics, of Romanticism in his attitude toward disease and in the use of his literary mechanism "the double". In his writings Dostoevsky showed that he had a strongly Romantic concern for his "sacred" disease—epilepsy . For him , i t represented something extraordinary, some-thing unique, abnormal and irr a t i o n a l . Immediately preceding an attack i t treated him to sublime content-ment and affirmation of l i f e , only to expose him the 3. Op. c i t •. pp. 855-6. 68 next moment to intense suffering, a feeling of guilt and the w i l l to die. This strong consciousness of disease influenced and dominated his whole conception of l i f e . Anticipating the findings of Freud, Adler and Jung, Dostoevsky pioneered in the murky f i e l d of pBycho-analysis . He discovered the source of wish-fulfilment dreams, the source of i r r a t i o n a l i t y — t h e subconscious. Here he found that two souls could dwell within the same breast—both a demon and a judge. "The double" is a development of the painfully introspective underworld man whose second self becomes what he would like i t to be, in other words—his sublimated ego . Dostoevsky's work abounds with this essentially Romantic device of "the double", possibly the influence, as E. J. Simmons suggests, of the fantastic tales of E.T.A. Hoffman. Berdyaev is greatly impressed by the inward division of man that Dostoevsky eo remarkably shows in his "doubles". "We are not aware," he writes, "that we live in madness which is but superficially concealed . Human conscious-ness l i e s between two abysses, the upper and the lower, 5 the superconscious and the subconscious." 4 . Gide, Dostoevsky, p. 117 . 5 . Berdyaev, The Destiny of Man , p. 77 69 Anguish as Existential The great l i b e r a l c r i t i c of German romanticism, Arnold Ruge, writes that: "Romanticism is rooted in the torment of the world and so one w i l l find a people the more romantic and elegiac, the more unhappy its condition i s . " Just as melancholy is to the Romantic, so is anguish to the Exis t e n t i a l i s t . Melancholy makes the 7 Romantic, anguish makes the Ex i s t e n t i a l i s t . In the creations of Dostoevsky, however, there is the feeling of anguish rather than melancholy . By this criterion Dostoevsky is beyond doubt not a Romanticist . Sartre and Berdyaev8 unequivocally classify him as an existentialist. Sartre distinguishes two classifications for man's moral attitudes. He opposes anguish tosseriousness . As 9 Bobbio writes: This opposition is far more than the opposition of two states of mind. It is the opposition of two ethical codes--the existentialist ethic of freedom and the materialistic ethic of determina-tion. By Sartre's terminology, therefore, the "serious" man is not free but determined. Thus Dostoevsky, the apostle of freedom, could never be classified as a 6. Quoted in Hauser, Social History of Art, p. 663. 7. Noberto Bobbio, The Philosophy of Duadentism, ( t r . by David Moore), Basil Blackwell, 1948, p.58. 8. "The greatest Russian metaphysician and the most existen-t i a l was Dostoevsky" (Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p. 159). 9 . Op. C i t . , p. 58 . 70 "serious"man . Of particular appeal to Sartre is Dostoevsky's deep awareness of complicity in the world's guilt . Each man, according to Father Zossima, is accountable for the sins of a l l men . Such a position, contrary to that of the Grand Inquisitor's, "throws moral responsibility back on man, with a vengeance." 1 0 It is precisely this aspect of the equal blame of a l l men that Sartre reSchoes in his philosophy. Possibilities for an Age of Crisis "Unamuno once said',' writes Berdyaev, "that Spanish philosophy is contained in Don Quixote. In the same way we can say that Russian philosophy is contained in Dostoevsky." 1 1 Dostoevsky sees three p o s s i b i l i t i e s 1 2 open to this age of c r i s i s : one of man's alternatives is to get over the idea of God and create a social tower of Babel, a second alternative is one of decadence --the era of the superman or the man-God represented in f i c t i o n by K i r i l l o v and in real l i f e by Nietzsche, the third and Dostoevsky's own choice is the religious alternative of a second coming and a voluntary end of a l l . This apocalyptic, either-or attitude of Dostoevsky is inimical to Berdyaev and to most of the novelist's greatest admirers . 10. Helen Muchnic, An Introduction to Russian Literature, Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1947, p. 170. 11. Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p. 159 . 12. Merejkowski, Tolstoi as Man and A r t i s t , p. 297. 71 Yet. as E. H. Carr w r i t e s : ± C The -belief of Dostoevsky in the irrationality both of the world of phenomena and of human nature was balanced by his belief in a rational, or at any rate a moral force somewhere control-ling the universe. The latter belief was, both actually and logically, the sequel to the former. His conviction of the necessity of f a i t h in God issued from his conviction of the irrationality of mankind . The modern world has been quick to accept Dostoevsky's premise of irrationality but not, and with tragic consequences, his conclusion of a rational, moral force. 13. E. H. Carr, Dostoevsky, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1931, p. 322. CHAPTER VI. Chapter VI. The Existentialists 1 . Religious and Aesthetic Existentialism . 2. The Religious Existentialism of S/ren Kierkegaard . 3 . Transcendence and Ontology . 4 . The Aesthetic Existentialism of Jean-Paul Sartre . 5. Berdyaev's Affirmation of Religious Existentialism. Chapter VI. The Existentialists Modern Existentialism as is represented by Heidegger and Jaspers, Gabriel Marcel, Sartre and Albert Camus has its roots firmly in the Nineteenth Century—in Kierkegaard, the lonely Dane, Dostoevsky, the suffering Russian and Nietzsche, the Teutonic superman . Yet as far back as the Seventeenth Century a melancholy mathematician, Pascal, had given expres-sion to the mood that was to i n f l i c t a l l later existentialists . It does not need a very elevated soul to understand that we have no true and solid satisfaction, that a l l our pleasures are but vanity, that our i l l s are in f i n i t e , and that at last death, which menaces us at every instant, shall in a few years i n f a l l i b l y put us in the horrible necessity of being either eternally annihilated or eternally miserable. There is nothing surer than that, nothing more t e r r i b l e — p l a y the brave as we w i l l , there is the end which awaits the finest l i f e in the world .1 1. Hector Hawton, The Peast of Unreason, Watts & Co., 1952, quoted p . 52. 72 73 Religious and Aesthetic Existentialism The only traits commonly shared by a l l existentialists are an awareness of l i f e ' s tragedy and a sense of extreme anxiety. Religious existen-t i a l i s t s , such as Marcel and Kierkegaard, believe that man is created in the divine image. Although man is greatly isolated from God , he need not end in despair i f he has f a i t h in God's ultimate victory. Existen-t i a l i s t s , without exception, stress l i f e ' s pathos as experienced through unrelieved dread and despair 2 or the burning desire to share in God's i n f i n i t y . The main difference between religious existentialism and aesthetic 3 existentialism can be seen in Sartre's idea 2. "Choose Despair," writes Kierkegaard, "the more the suffering, the more the religious existence —and the suffering persists." (lb id., p. 70) . For religious man suffering was an essential, whereas for aesthetic and ethical man—the two lower stages of religious man, suffering was accidental. 3 . William Hubben , Four Prophets of our Destiny, Macmillan Co., 1952, pp. 30-3. 74 of the "free" man. For Sartre, man is "condemned to he 4 free" . For Kierkegaard, as for Berdyaev, man is ennobled through God's grace to l i v e in freedom. The Religious Existentialism of Sjerren Kierkegaard Existentialism is to a great extent a reaction against the speculative idealism of Hegel--a reaction which encourages "an awakening to acceptance in 5 individual isolation of the necessity of freedom". Kierkegaard emphatically opposed the pursuit of objectivity and the passion for totality which he found in Hegel and substituted the notion that truth lay in subjectivity and that true existence can be achieved only through intensity of feeling. . . .The true is not higher than the good and the beautiful but the true and the good and the beautiful belong essentially to every human existence, and are unified for an existing individual, not in thought but in existence For Kierkegaard the existent individual is in an infinite relationshippwith himself and has an infinite 4. Jean-Paul Sartre, L'Etre et le Heant. l i b r a i r i e Gallimard, 1943, p. 515.. 5. H.J. Blackham, Six Existentialist Thinkers, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1951, p. 162. 6 . Jean Wahl, A Short History of Existentialism , Philosophical Library, 1949, pp. 3-4. 7. Sjzfren Kierkegaard, Concluding Unscientific Postscript . ( t r . by Walter Lowrie), Oxford University Press, 1949, p. 311. 75 interest in himself and his destiny . He feels himself always to he in Becoming. For instance, one is not a Christian, but becomes a Christian through continued and sustained effort. Above a l l , the existent individ-ual is impassioned and inspired by a "passion for g freedom". Since existential thinking is concerned with "the reality of personal existence"9, i t i s , therefore not objective but highly subjective. It is thinking that is profoundly personal—"inwards" thinking . Existential thinking is not dispassionate as philosophy would require—rather i t is extremely passionate . "Passion is the real thing, the real measure of man's powers" 1 0 Since "passion and feeling are open to a l l men in an equal degree"^Hhis forms the basis of an existential universalism—the unifying factor of which is not reason but feeling . In his writings Kierkegaard 8. On. c i t . , p . 4 . 9. Chaning-Pearce, "Kierkegaard" in Modern Christian  Revolutionaries, p. 26 . 10. Kierkegaard, Journals, (ed. and trans, by Alexander Drul 0 . U . P. , 1938, p. 396. 11 . Loc . c i t . 76 shows himself as strongly anti-intellectualist: "the intelligence and a l l that goes with i t has done away with Christianity.. .the fight is against intelligence." 1 Yet he does not suggest that reason is a t r i v i a l means to his absolute goal of eternity: "the race must go 13 through reason to the absolute". Passion, which he idealizes, is caused by the clash of contraries in l i f e , by the "tension of life"«feeling which is opposed by the intellect--the realm of freedom versus the realm of necessity. This is the paradox. A l l reasoning which attempts to smooth out this paradox Kierkegaard contemptuously dismisses as both unrealistic and arrogant . The conscious man, he considers a "synthesis of the i n f i n i t e and the f i n i t e , of the temporal and the 14 eternal, of freedom and necessity ." Philosophers who followed the tradition of Descartes sought to be detached observers of l i f e . Kierkegaard desperately wished to refute this concept of the philosopher who found himself "above the battle" and dubbed himself a "Christian thinker" rather than a philosopher. The 12. Ibid., p. 925. 13 . Ibid. , p . 1256. 14 . Op. c i t . p . 39. 77 very basis of the Christian f a i t h for Kierkegaard was its "leap" beyond reason into the realm of f a i t h in the 15 "absurd" . Belief alone could comprehend the absolute paradox of Christ as both God and Man . In The Brothers  Karamazov Father Zossima suggests to the doubting woman that the reality of God would be revealed to her the more she practised Christian love . Dostoevsky, like Kierkegaard, interprets Christianity as an existential faith—something to be lived, not intellectualized . With hie strong emphasis on "inwardness" Kierkegaard tremendously extended man's consciousness of the subconscious regions of the human psyche . A century later, the "inwardness", which Kierkegaard was practically alone in exploring has been treated more and more—by Freud in psychology, by Dostoevsky in literature, and by Berdyaev and Sartre in philosophy. Transcendence and Ontology Be i t the despair of Kierkegaard or the 16 derision of Nietzsche, 15 . Ibid., p. 61. 16. Bobbio, The Philosophy of Decadent ism, p. 6. 78 A l l existentialists, whether admitting the religious solution or not, make allowance for some sort of movement of transcending or seeking "beyond the immanent structure of human nature A ' Contemporary existentialists hesitate whether to view transcendence as a relation to a transcendent Cod as is the case with Kierkegaard or as a restless search after a foundation within the world as is the case 18 with Nietzsche. In criticism of Nietzsche's philosophical nihilism, Karl Jaspers asks: "How shall one interpret the ultimate frustration which being-19 oneself encounters in the world?" "The option l i e s , " he suggests, "between despair, l i f e in the world is not really possible, and the treatment of frustration as revealing the hidden secret of the world, and this option is only kept open by the possibility of f a i t h in 20 Transcendence...." Faith comes from choice which has 17. James Collins, The Existentialists, Henry Regnery Co., 1952 , p . 10 . 18 . Ibid., p. 24. 19 . Karl Jaspers regards himself as an existentialist philosopher who is concerned with the three aspects of being. Briefly described—(l) Being-there is the empirical world; (2) Being-oneself is the thinker in transcendence; and (3) Being-in-itself is the world in transcendence. 20. Quoted in Blackham , Six Existentialist Thinkers, p .62. 79 its roots in being, since there is "no choice without decision, no decision without w i l l , no w i l l without 21 duty, no duty without being ." Only in man does existence precede essence—because he alone is free. 22 " A l l other beings are pre-determined ." It is only after he has made his choice that we know what he has indeed chosen, and what the choice has made him, that 23 i s , his essence. In other words, man decides his own essence, man chooses himself. A knowledge of essence may be derived in objectivity, but only in subjectivity may we know existence, never in objectivity. Berdyaev finds this idea present in Kierkegaard but totally absent in the ontology formulated by Heidegger and Sartre . "Why is an ontology impossible?" asks Berdyaev2,4 "because i t is always a knowledge objectifying existence ." In an ontology the idea of Being is objectified, and an objectification is already an existence which is alienated in the objectification . So that in ontology—in every ontology—existence vanishes. There is no more existence because existence cannot be ob j e c t i f i e d . 2 5 21. Ibid., p . 50 . 22. Paul Poulquie'', Existentialism , Denis Dobson Ltd., 1948, p. 51. 23 . Ibid., p. 52 . 24. Quoted in Wahl, Existentialism, p. 36. 25. Ibid .. pp.36-7 . 80 For Heidegger the chief character of human existence is care and anxiety which ends in physical death. Heidegger's is a philosophy of despair and absolute pessimism—human l i f e is only a preparation for death which ends existence. In Heidegger's system, man's personality is almost totally blotted out . "Worry turns out to be more significant than the man who worries. Man is constructed out of worries, just as human p A existence is built up from death." The Aesthetic Existentialism of Jean-Paul Sartre Heidegger's philosophy paves the way for Sartre's startling pronouncement "Man is not a substance that thinks, but a separation from a l l substance: I am 27 not, therefore I think." Kierkegaard reversed the Cartesian dictum to read, "I am, therefore I think." Sartre's postulate negates not only the Cartesian tradition but that of Kierkegaard as well . L'Etre  et le meant, Sartre's essay on "phenomenological ontology" , ends with the remark, "man is a useless 26. Nicolas Berdyaev, The Fate of Man in the Modern World, ( t r . by Donald Lowriej , S.C.M. Press,1935, p. 31. 27. Quoted in Blackham, Six Existentialist Thinkers, p .113 . 81 28 passion." In Sartre's system man cannot be regarded in any other way, since human nature is supposedly constituted by a f u t i l e and yet i r r e s i s t i b l e longing to be God . "The dynamic ideal of a l l human striving is to realize a state of being that is i n t r i n s i c a l l y 29 contradictory and incapable of realization ." It is Sartre's claim that he is embracing the challenge 30 offered by Dost oevsky—if there be no God, then a l l things are lawful. For Sartre, man's denial of God is the prime step towards his development. Sartre bases his postulatory atheism on the assumption that only after the idea of God has been abandoned w i l l man really become free. However, Sartre's freedom is morally anarchic—he is tragically doomed to be free. He must choose what to do but w i l l never know whether his choice was right. Man can never be defined as long as 31 he lives because "he is his l i f e and nothing else ." L i f e , for Sartre, has no pattern, no meaning, no purpose — i t is barren and a l l that remains is despair, anxiety and loneliness. 28. Sartre, L'Etre et le Meant, p. 708. 29. Collins, Existentialists, p. 71, 30.. Ibid., p. 72 . 31. Quoted in Hubben , Four Prophets, p. 24 . 82 Berdyaev's affirmation of Religious Existentialism The atheism of Heidegger and the existentialism of Sartre would probably be regarded by Kierkegaard as expressions of excessive aestheticism--for Kierkegaard ' the very lowest form of spiritual l i f e . 3 2 Berdyaev emphatically removes himself from the company of Heidegger and Sartre, tracing his existential ancestry through Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Pascal and Boehme . In 1934 he noted that "the melancholy and tragic Kierke-gaard is now exerting on modern philosophy an influence toward an ontology of nihilism which is not found in 34 Kierkegaard himself ." 32. In his work. Either-Or, Kierkegaard distinguished three stages of man's evolving spi r i t u a l l i f e — t h e aesthetic, the ethical and the religious stages. 33. Jacob Boehme, the German mystic of the late Sixteenth Century, had a great influence on Berdyaev and as lampert says, "was the cause of considerable ambigu-it i e s in his Christian philosophy" (Lampert,"Berdyaev", Modern Christian Revolutionaries, p. 317) . The Doctrine of Sophia which Berdyaev accepts in part is summarized bri e f l y by him as follows: "Boehme's doctrine of Sophia is a doctrine of eternal virginity and not of eternal femininity. Sophia is virginity, the completeness of man, the androgynous image of man. It was man's f a l l into sin which was his loss of his virgin—Sophia. After the P a l l Sophia flew away to heaven and upon earth Eve appeared. Man yearned for his virgin—Sophia, for integrality. Sex is a sign of dividedness and f a l l " (Berdyaev, The  Russian Idea, pp. 175-6) . 34. Berdyaev, Pate of Man in the Modern World, p. 31. CHAPTER VII . Chapter VII. Berdyaev and Existentialism Berdyaev's Existentialism. A Philosophy of Crisis . Berdyaev and Existentialism Berdyaev's Existentialism: The basic principle of Berdyaev's existential-ism is that of the primacy of personality of the existent subject . Being is regarded as secondary because i t is a product of thought—an ontological object, a rationalized concept. Understanding, for Berdyaev, is integralr-not merely intellectual, conceptual or rationalistic . Here Berdyaev emphatically follows the tradition of Khomyakov and Solovyev . For Descartes i t was the int e l l e c t , for Berdyaev i t is the whole personality in its human predicament that is dominant and decisive. Where Descartes naturally tended toward rationalism and intellectual ism, Berdyaev tends toward vitalism and intuition . 1. Spinka, Berdyaev. p. 102. 83 84 A philosopher of the existentialist type does not proceed in the experience of knowing by means of obj ect i f icat ion , does not place the object against the subject . His philosophy is the expression of the subject i t s e l f as i t is engrossed in the secret of being 2 Since, Berdyaev states , man lives both in the phenomenal world and in the noumenal, he is a divided being and hence a suffering being . For Berdyaev the very existence of personality represents a paradox, since "the personality is the incarnated antinomy of the individual., and the social, of form and matter, of the infinite and the f i n i t e , of freedom and destiny." 4 Berdyaev insists that the existence of personality is ever accompanied by yearning, since "yearning always indicates something lacking and movement towards the fulness of l i f e . " 5 A Philosophy of Crisis The peculiarity of existentialism is that i t deals almost exclusively with the problem of man's 2 . Berdyaev , Autobiography, p. 2 9 7 . 3. Berdyaev, Beginning and_the End, p. 81. 4. Berdyaev, Solitude and Society, p. 174. 5. Berdyaev, Slavery and Freedom , p. 53. 85 'separation from himself and from the world . It does not attempt to solve the problem by some universal rationalization,but rather enlarges and expands upon the separation i t s e l f . Separation becomes the primordial stuff of personal existence. The philosophy of existentialism does not attempt so much to answer the questions raised, as i t does to restate the questions emphatically "until they engage the whole man and are made personal, urgent and anguished ." That these questions cannot be given definite, objective, universal answers is not so much man's lack of knowledge but because man, as being, remains a paradox, a question, a personal choice. Man and the objective world "both are at any time other than and more than , anything that can be said of them."7 Existentialism represents a kind of stalemate in philosophy. It is a philosophy of c r i s i s 8 and is symptomatic of a c r i s i s in philosophy. 6. Blackham, Six Existentialist Thinkers, p. 152. 7. Loc. c i t . 8. Bobbio, Philosophy of Decadentism, p. 6. 86 Man to-day lives in fear: his l i f e is as i t were suspended over an abyss and he is threatened on a l l sides. He has lost the hopes which so recently he tried to substitute for the Christian faith. He no longer believes in progress, in humanism, in science, in salvation to be brought by democracy and democratic c i v i l i z a t i o n ; he lenows the injustice of capitalism,and has become disillusioned about the U t o p i a s of ideal social orders; he is eaten away by cultural and spiritual scepticism 9 In the words of Berdyaev, "we can see a l l things naked and undeceiving ." 9. Lampert, "Berdyaev" , Modern Christian Revolutionaries, p . 352 . CONCLUSION Conclusion In B-erdyaev , more than in any other writer and philosopher, can be seen the intellectual application of Dostoevsky's philosophy—in part rejected, but mostly accepted and reinterpreted for a new generation . In an age where liberalism, humanism and rationalism seem to be increasingly neglected and despised, Berdyaev's emphasis on Dostoevsky's irrationalisra and 'the w i l l ' is perhaps only too well-known and too well tried . It was not by chance that the psychopathic Dr. Goebbels marvelled at what a nation could do that lived out Dostoevsky's novels instead of just reading them . What an insult to an artist and what a denigration of genius '. But then the greater the genius the more abuse received from later generations. Dostoevsky never preached a 87 88 gospel of nihilism. He depicted i t s state of mind, objectivized the subjective in man, and rationalized the i r r a t i o n a l . Inescapably, at the bottom of a l l his thinking is love. It is inseparable from his work— it floods the pages . The fanatics of intolerance and bigotry embrace everything which is negative in Dostoevsky and unconditionally reject a l l that is positive . This state of mind was not Berdyaev's and, i f only for this reason, admirers of Dostoevsky can ever be grateful to him . CHRONOLOGY Chronological List of Berdyaev's Writings 1900 F. A. Lange and the C r i t i c a l Philosophy. 1901 Subjectivism and Individualism in Social Philosophy. 1907 The New Religious Consciousness and Society. Sub Specie Aeternitas. 1910 The Spiritual Crisis of the Intelligentsia . 1911 The Philosophy of Freedom . 1912 A. S. Khomyakov. 1915 The Soul of Russia. 1916 The Fate of Russia. The Meaning of the Creative Act . 1923 The Meaning of History. The Philosophy of Inequality. Dostoevsky . 1924 The End of Our Time . 1926 K. Leontiev . Freedom and the S p i r i t . 1931 The Destiny of Man. The Russian Revolution . Christianity and Class War. 1933 The Bourgeois Mind and other essays. 1934 The Fate of Man in the Modern World. Solitude and Society. 1937 Spirit and Reality . The Origin of Russian Communism. 1940 Slavery and Freedom. 1946 The Russian Idea . 1947 The Divine and the Human . Creation and Objectivization . Towards a New Epoch- ) 1949 Dream and Reality. ( Published posthumously 1950 Truth and Revelation . 1952 The Beginning and the End. Chronological List of Dostoevsky's Writings 1846 Poor Folk. Goliadkin (The Double). Mr. Prochartschin. 1847 A Novel in Nine Letters . The Landlady . 1848 The Stranger-Woman . A Weak Heart (A Faint Heart). Christmas and Wedding . White Nights. A Jealous Husband (Another Man's Wife) . 1849 Netochka Nesvanova . 1858 The L i t t l e Hero. 1859 Uncle's Dream. Stepanchikovo . 1861 The Insulted and Injured. The House of the Dead . A S i l l y Story. 1863. Winter Notes on Summer Impressions . 1864 Letters from the Underworld . 1865 An Unusual Happening (An Unpleasant Predicament) . Crime and Punishment. 1866 The Gambler. 1868 The Idiot . 1870 The Eternal Husband. 1871 The Possessed. 1873 Diary of a Writer (Chapters 1 - 16). 1875 A Raw Youth (Adolescent) . 1876 Diary of a Writer. 1877 The L i t t l e Girl*. 1879 The Brothers Karamazov. 1880 The Speech on Pushkin. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography Nicolas Alexandrovitch Berdyaev Books by: Per Sinn des Sehaffens , (The Meaning of the Creative Act), Tubingen, Verlag Mohr, 1927 . The Meaning of History, ( t r . by G. Reavey) , New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936. Fi l o s o f i a Neravenstva .Pisma k nedrugam po sotsialnoi  f i l o s o f i i , Berlin, Obelisk, 1923 . Dostoevsky: An Interpretation,, ( t r . by D. Attwater) , London , Sheed & Ward, 1934 . Freedom and the Spirit , ( t r . by O.F. Clarke) , New York, Charles Scribner's Sons , 1935 The Destiny of Man , ( t r . by N. Duddington) , London, Geoffrey Bles, 1948. E l Cristianismo y la lucha de clases , ( t r . by Maria de Cordoha)J,T Buenos Aires"*7"Es~pasa-Calpe , 1946 . The Bourgeois Mind and Other Essays, New York, Sheed & "Ward Inc., 1934 T The Fate of Man in the Modern World, ( t r . by D. Lowrie) , London, S.C.M." Press, 1935. Solitude and Society, ( t r . by G. Reavey) , New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1938. Spirit and Reality, ( t r . by G. Reavey), London, Geoffrey Bles, 1946. The Origin of Russian Communism, ( t r . by R.M. French), London, Geoffrey^Bles", 1948. Slavery and Freedom, ( t r . by R.M. French) , New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1944. i i i B l Cristianismo y el problema del comunismo,(tr . by Maria de Cordona) , Buenos Aires, Espasa-Calpe, 1944 . The Russian Idea, ( t r . by R.M. French), London, Geoffrey Bles, 1949 . Towards a New Epoch, ( t r . by O.F. Clarice), London, Geoffrey Bles , 1949 . Dream and Reality, An Essay in Autobiography, ( t r . by Katharine Lampert) , New York, Macmillan Co., 1951. The Beginning and the End, ( t r . by. R.M. French), London, Geoffrey Bles, 1952. Books about: Clarke, Oliver Fielding, Introduction to Berdyaev, London, Geoffrey Bles, 1950. Spinka, Matthew, Nicolas Berdyaev: Captive of Freedom, Philadelphia, The Westminster Press, 1950. Articles by: "Communist Secularism", Christianity and the C r i s i s , (ed.Dr. P. Deairaer), London, Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1933 . "N. F. Fedorov" , The Russian Review, Vol 9 , No . 2 ,(April 1950) . "Russia and the New World Era", The Russian Review, Vo l . 7, No. 2, (Spring 1948JT ~ Articles on: Beardsley, Monroe C., "Berdyaev: Sibyl in Wasteland", The Russian Review, Vol. 2, No. 2, (Spring 1943). Bolshaya Sovietskaya Entsiklopedia, "Berdyaev", Moscow , Soviet Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, 1950. Lampert, Evgeny, "Nicolas Berdyaev", Modern Christian  Revolutiqnaries , (ed . D. Attwater) , New York, Devin-Adair Co. 1947 . Fyodor Mikhailovitch Dostoevsky i i i Books by: Poor Folk, ( t r . by C.J. Hogarth), London, Everyman's Library, 1948 . Short Novels of Dostoevsky, ( t r . by Constance Garnett) , New York, Dial Press, 1945 . White Nights and other Stories , ( t r . by Constance Garnett), New York, Macmillan Co., 1918. An Honest Thief and Other Stories, ( t r . by Constance Garnett) , New York, Macmillan Co., 1923 . The Insulted and Injured, ( t r . by Constance Garnett) , New York, Macmillan Co., 1915 . The House of the Dead, ( t r . by Julius Bramont) , London, Everyman's Library, 1915 . Letters from the Underworld^, including The Gentle Maiden, " The Landlady, ( t r . by "C.J. Hogarth) , Everyman's Library, 1945 . Crime and Punishment, ( t r . by Constance Garnett), London, Everyman's Library, 1948 . The Idiot , ( t r . by Constance Garnett), New York, Modern Library, 1935 . The Possessed, ( t r . by Constance Garnett), New York, Modern Library, 1936. Diary of a Writer , (Vol. 1 and 2) , ( t r . by Boris Brasol) , New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1949. A Raw Youth, ( t r . by Constance Garnett) New York, Macmillan Co., 1916. The Brothers Karamazov, ( t r . by Constance Garnett), New York,-Modern Library, 1950. Correspondance de Dostoievsky, Paris, Calmann-Levy, 1949. iv Books about: Baring, Maurice, An Outline of Russian Literature, London, Williams & Norgate, 1915 . Berdyaev, Nicolas A., Dostoevsky: An Interpretation, ( t r . by D. Attwater) , London, Sheed & Ward, 1934 . Carr, Edward Hallett , Dostoevsky, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd ., 1931 . Curie, Richard, Characters of Dostoevsky, London, William Heinemann Ltd., 1950. Dost oiewskaia, Anna Grigorievna, Dosto'iewski par sa f emme , ( t r . by A. Beucler), Paris, Librairie Gallimard, 1924. Dostoyevsky, Aimee , Pyodor Dostoyevsky, A Study, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1922. Payer, Misha Harry, Gide, Freedom and Dostoevsky. Burlington, Vermont Lane Press, 1944 . Fueloep-Miller, Rene, Fyodor Dostoevsky, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons,1950. Gide, Andre, Dostoevsky, London, J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd.,1925. Gide, Andre, Dostoievsky, Paris, plon .Nourrit et Cie, 1923. Hare, Richard, Russian Literature, London, Methuen & Co.Ltd., 1947 . Hubben , William, Four Prophets of our Destiny, New York, Macmillan Co., 1952 . Ivanov , Vyacheslav, Freedom and the T_ra&ic Li f e , London. Har v i l l Press, 1952 . Kohn, Hans, Prophets and Peoples, New York, Macmillan Co., 1946. Lavrin, Janko, An Introduction to the Russian Novel, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1950. Lavrin, Janko, Dostoevsky and His Creation, London, W. Collins Sons & Co .Ltd . ,1920 . Lavrin, Janko, Dostoevsky, A Study, London, Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1943 . Lloyd, J.A.T.. Fyodor Dostoevsky. New York , Charles Scribner's Sons , 1947 . V Mackiewicz, S tan is law , Dostoevsky, London, Orbis Ltd.,1947. Meier-Graefe, Julius, Dostoevsky the Man and His Work , ( t r . by H.H. Marks), New York, Harcourt Brace & Co.,1928 . Merejkowski, Dmitri S., Tolstoi as Man and Artist , with an Essay on Dostoevsky. London, Archibald Constable & Co.Ltd. 1902 . Mirsky, D.S., A History of Russian Literature, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1949 . Muchnic, Helen, An Introduction to the Russian Novel, New York, Doubleday & Co. Inc., 1947. Murray, J . Middleton, Fyodor Dostoevsky, A C r i t i c a l Study, London, Martin Seeker, 1923 . Phelps, William Lyon, Essays on Russian Novelists, New York, Macmillan Co., 1915. Roe, Ivan, The Breath of Corruption, -An Interpretation of  Dostoevsky , London, Hutchison & Co. Ltd., 1950. Simmons, Ernest J., Dostoevski, the Making of a Novelist , New York, Oxford University Press, 1940. Slonira, Marc, The Epic of Russian Literature, New York, Oxford University Press, 1950. Spector, Ivan, The Golden Age of Russian Literature, Caldwell, Idaho, Caxton Printers Ltd., 1943. Troyat, Henri, Dostoievsky, Paris, Librairie Artheme Fayard, 1938 . Troyat, Henri, Firebrand, the Life of Dostoevsky, (tr.by N. Guterman ), New York, Roy Publishers, 1946. Warner, Rex, The Cult of Power, London, John Lane the Bodley Head Ltd. , 1946. Woodhouse, C.M.. Dostoevsky, London, Arthur Barber Ltd.,1951. Yarmolinsky, Avrahm, Dostoevsky, A L i f e , New York, Harcourt Brace & Co., 1934. Zander, L.A., Dostoevsky, (tr.by Natalie Duddington), London, S.C.M. Press Ltd., 1948. Zweig, Stefan, Three Masters: Balzac, Dickens and Dostoevsky, ( t r . by Eden and Cedar Paul), New York, Viking Press, 1930. v i Articles on: Chamberlin, William Henry, "Dostoevsky.Prophet and Psychologist", The Russian Review, Vol.7, No .2 , (Spring 1948) . Chestov, Leon, "Dostoievski ou la lutte contre les evidences", Nouvelle Revue Francaise, XVIII. (fevrier 1922) . Hapgood, Isabel P., "Dostoevsky", Library of the World's Best Literature, (ed. C.D.Warner), New York, R.S.Peale and J.A.Hill, Vol.8, 1897. Lo Gatto, Ettore, "Genesis of Dostoevsky's 'Uncle's Dream'", The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol JCXVI. ,No .62 , (April 1948). Maugham, William Somerset, "Dostoevsky", Great Novelists and  Their Novels, Philadelphia, Winston, 1948. Neumann, Alfred, "Peodor Dostoevski", The Torch of Freedom, (ed. Emil Ludwig and Henry B. ICranz) , New York, Parrar and Rinehart Inc., 1943. Powys, John Cowper, "Dostoevsky", Enjoyment of Literature, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1938. Roubiczek, Paul, "Dostoevsky: The Return to Man" , The Mia interpret at ion of Man, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1947. Smith, S. Stephenson,and Isotoff, Andrei, "The Abnormal from Within: Dostoevsky", Studies in Psychology, I., Bulletin 7 , (1935). Spender, Stephen, "Dostoevsky's Ninth Symphony", The New Statesman and Nation. September 16, 1950. v i i Existentialism Books on -Blackham, H.J., Six Existentialist Thinkers, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1951. Bobbie, Noberto, The Philosophy of Decadent ism, ( t r . by David Moore^ , Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1948 . Collins, James, The Existentialists, Chicago, Henry Regnery Co., 1952. Douglas , Kenneth, A C r i t i c a l Bibliography of Existentialism, New Haven, Conn , Yale French Studies, 1950. Foulquie', Paul, Existentialism, ( t r . by Kathleen Raine) , London, Dennis Dobson Ltd., 1948. Grene, Marjorie , Dreadful Freedom , A Critique of Existentialism , Chicago7 University of Chicago Press, 1948 . " Harper, Ralph, Existentialism, Cambridge .Mass., Harvard University Press, 1948. Hawton, Hector, The Feast of Unreason, London, Watts & Co., 1952. Kierkegaard, S/*ren, Concluding Unscientific Postscript, ( t r . by Walter LowrieJ^Oxford University Press . Kierkegaard, S^ren, The Journals of Sgfren Kierkegaard , (ed.and t r . by Alexander DruJJ? O.U.P., 1938.' Sartre, Jean-Paul, L'Etre et le N^ant: Essai d'ontologie  ph^nomeno 1 ogique, Paris, Librairie Gallimard, 1943. Wahl, Jean, A Short History of Existentialism, ( t r . by Forrest Willians and Stanley Maron), New York, Philosophical Library, 1949. Articles on: Chaning-Pearce, Melville, "Sjzfren Kierkegaard", Modern  Christian Revolutionaries, (ed. D. Attwater), New York, Devin Adair Co., 1947. General Bibliography v i i i Bulgakov, Sergius, The Orthodox Church. London, Centenary, 1935~T Casey, Robert P., Religion in Russia, New York, Harper & Bros.,"1946. Coquart, Armand, Dmitri Pisarev et l'ideologie du Nihilime Russe, Institut d 1 Etudes slaves de 1'university de Paris, 1946. Pedotov, George P., The Russian Religious Mind, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1946. Prank, Simon, Die Russische Weltanschauung, Charlottenburg, Rolf Heise, 1926 . Pueloep-Miller, Rene, The Mind and Pace of Bolshevism, London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1927. Gershenshon, M.O. , and Ivanov V ., Perepicka iz dvookk uglov, Berlin, Ogonki, 1922. Hare, Richard, Pioneers of Russian Social Thought, London, Oxford University Press, 1951. Hauser, Arnold, The Social History of Art, Vol.2, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951. Horton, Walter Marshall, Contemporary Continental Theology, New York, Harper & Bros., 1938. Hyde, Nina and Fillmore, Russia Then and Always. New York, Coward-McCann Inc., 1944. Iswolsky, Helene, The'Soul of Russia. New York, Sheed & Ward, 1943. Kahler, Eric, Man the Measure, New York, Pantheon Books Inc., 1943 . Kohn, Hans, The Twentieth Century, New York, Macmillan Co., 1949. Kunitz, Joshua, Russia, New York, Dodd Mead & Co., 1947. Lossky, N.O., History of Russian Philosophy, New York, International Universities Press Inc., 1951. ix Masaryk, Thomas G., The Spirit of Russia, ( t r . by Edeh and .Cedar Paul), London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., Vol.2, 1919 . Maynard, Sir John, Russia in Flux, New York, ffiacmillan Co., • 1948. Mazour, Anatole, Russia Past and Present, New York, D. Van NostrandCo. Inc., 1951. Miliukov, Paul, Outline of Russian Culture, Part I, Philadelphia, University of Pennyslvania Press, 1942. Mumford, Lewis, Technics and Civil i z a t i o n , New York, Hareourt-Brace, 1934. Solovyev, Vladimir, Russia and the Universal Church, ( t r . by H. Rees) , London, Geoffrey Bles, 1948. Sorokin, pitirim A., Social Philosophies of an Age of  Crisis , Boston, Beacon Press, 1950. Spector, Ivar , An Introduction to Russian History and  Culture, Toronto, D. Van Nostrand Co., 1949. Sumner, B.H., A Short History of Russia, London, Reynal & Hitchcock, 1947 . Tompkins, Stuart Ramsay, Russia Through the Ages, New York, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1940. Walsh, Warren B., Readings in Russian History, Syracuse University Press, 1950 . Zernov, Nicolas, The Church of the Eastern Christians, London, S.P.C.K., 1947. Zernov, Nicolas, Moscow: The Third Rome, London, S.P.C.K., 1937 . Zernov, Nicolas, The Russians and Their Church. London, S.P.C.K., 1945 . X Articles: Karpovitch, Mikhail M., "Church and State in Russian History", The Russian Review, Vol.3, Ho .3, (Spring 1944) . Lampert, Evgeny, "Some Trends in Russian Social Thought of the Nineteenth Century" , Russian Review ,, 3 , London, Penguin Books Ltd., 1947. Yakohsen, Serge, "The Rise of Russian Nationalism", Nationalism , Royal institute International Af f a i r s , London, Oxford University Press, 1939 . 

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