UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Dostoevsky and his influence upon the philosophy of Nicolas Berdyaev Price, Arthur David 1953

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DOSTOEVSKY AND H I S INFLUENCE UPON THE PHILOSOPHY OF NICOLAS BEKDYAEV  by Arthur David  A thesis  Price  submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r t h e degree of Master  o f . . A r t e ...  i n t h e Department of Slavonic Studies  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g  to the  standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r the d e g r e e o f MASTER OF  Members o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H S e p t e m b e r , 1953  COLUMBIA  Abstract Dostoevsky--the master  novelist--is a  p r o d u c t o f t h e R u s s i a n t r a d i t i o n . He v a l u e s of Orthodoxy,  unique  inherited the  of S l a v o p h i l i s m , of Westernism,  of r a t i o n a l i s m and of r o m a n t i c i s m and i n h i s t u r n c o n t r i b u t e d t o almost every subsequent  manifestation  i n l i t e r a t u r e from t h e e n l i g h t e n e d m y s t i c i s m of Aldous H u x l e y and the. pessimism  of Hardy t o t h e d e s p a i r of  modern a t h e i s t e x i s t e n t i a l i s m optimism of Berdyaev  and t h e p e s s i m i s t i c  and M a r c e l .  Dostoevsky's work i s the j o y of a l l those who d e l i g h t  i n paradoxes--and  Berdyaev  revels  i n them .  H i s g r e a t n o v e l s a r e a t t h e same t i m e d i f f e r e n t  from  and more t h a n t h e y seem . T h e y a r e s y m b o l i c a l and allegorical  on t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l .  At least that i s  how t h e y a f f e c t me a n d how t h e y seem t o a f f e c t I would  Berdyaev.  l i k e a t t h i s t i m e t o e x p r e s s my  deep  a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . J . S t . C l a i r S o b e l l , Head o f t h e Department of S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r h i s g r e a t g e n e r o s i t y and encouragement; t o D r . C y r i l B r y n e r f o r h i s u n f l a g g i n g a s s i s t a n c e , c o o p e r a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; a n d t o M r . 'K.W Wainman,,who was t h e f i r s t  t o c o n f r o n t me -  w i t h the 'tortured q u e s t i o n i n g s ' of Dostoevsky .  )  Preface  D o s t o e v s k y has p l a y e d a d e c i s i v e p a r t i n my s p i r i t u a l l i f e . W h i l e I was s t i l l a y o u t h a s l i p f r o m him , s o t o s a y , was g r a f t e d upon me . He s t i r r e d a n d l i f t e d up my s o u l more t h a n a n y o t h e r w r i t e r o r p h i l o s o p h e r has d o n e , a n d f o r me p e o p l e a r e a l w a y s d i v i d e d i n t o " d o s t o e v e k y i t e s " and t h o s e t o whom h i s spirit is foreign. I t i s u n d o u b t e d l y due t o his "cursed questioning" that p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r o b l e m s w e r e p r e s e n t t o my c o n s c i o u s n e s s a t s o e a r l y a n a g e , a n d some new a s p e c t o f h i m i s r e v e a l e d t o me e v e r y t i m e I r e a d h i m . "The L e g e n d o f t h e G r a n d I n q u i s i t o r " , i n p a r t i c u l a r , made s u c h an i m p r e s s i o n on my y o u n g m i n d t h a t when I t u r n e d t o J e s u s C h r i s t f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e I saw h i m u n d e r t h e a p p e a r a n c e t h a t he b e a r s i n t h e L e g e n d .  1. N i c o l a s B e r d y a e v , D o s t o e v s k y , S h e e d & W a r d , 1 9 3 4 , p . 7.  ( t r . by D o n a l d A t t w a t e r  T a b l e of C o n t e n t s  Page  Abstract  Preface Introduction: A Short B i o g r a p h y of N i c o l a s Chapter I . : Slavophilism  Berdyaev  i - xv  and R u s s i a n T h o u g h t  Chapter I I . : Dostoevsky—an  interpretation  1  of h i s  philosophy C h a p t e r I I I . : The  Impact  of D o s t o e v s k y  C h a p t e r I V . : The  P h i l o s o p h y of Berdyaev  C h a p t e r V .:  Romantic  The  C h a p t e r V I .: The  19 on B e r d y a e v . ..  Existentialism  35 50  of D o s t o e v s k y  66  Existentialists  Chapter V I I . : Berdyaev  72  and E x i s t e n t i a l i s m  83  Conclusion Chronology: L i s t Bibliography  87 of W r i t i n g s  o f D o s t o e v s k y and B e r d y a e v . i - x  INTRODUCTION  Introduction  A Short B i o g r a p h y of N i c o l a s  1 .  Berdyaev  Background (a) B e r d y a e v as a  child  (b) D o s t o e v s k y a s a 2 . Early  child.  Readings  ( a ) The l u r e o f M a r x i s m (b) D o s t o e v s k y ' s a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l i s m o f Sand . 3 . B e r d y a e v a s an i d e a l i s t i c M a r x i s t (a) A r r e s t and e x i l e (b) T h e p a p e r , P r o b l e m s o f L i f e (c) M y s t i c a l Anarchism. 4.  A S p i r i t u a l Renaissance (a)  R e a c t i o n i n the Orthodox  (b)  Back t o R e l i g i o n .  5 . B e r d y a e v and B o l s h e v i s m . 6 .  E x i l e and Death.  Church  A Short Biography of N i c o l a s  Berdyaev  Background Nicolas Alexandrovitch 1874  of an a r i s t o c r a t i c  B e r d y a e v was b o r n i n  family i n Kiev . His f a t h e r ,  A l e x a n d e r M i k h a i l o v i t c h , w a s a man o f w i d e c u l t u r e , particularly well-read  i n the f i e l d  of h i s t o r y . As a  y o u n g man he h a d b e e n a c a v a l r y o f f i c e r . ment h e became " M a r s h a l l created  by Catharine  nobility  On  retire-  of t h e N o b i l i t y " , an  office  t h e G r e a t t o a t t r a c t more o f t h e  into public affairs .  religious tendencies at a l l .  H i s f a t h e r showed no A s he grew o l d e r he  seemed t o become o n l y more a n d more l i b e r a l  i n outlook.  B e r d y a e v ' s m o t h e r , A l i n a S e r g e e v n a , was h a l f F r e n c h by birth..  H e r m o t h e r was a C o u n t e s s a n d h e r f a t h e r  Kudashev.  Prince  A l i n a S e r g e e v n a was d i s t i n c t l y W e s t e r n .  T h o u g h s h e was b o r n a n O r t h o d o x , h e r s y m p a t h i e s w e r e w i t h Roman C a t h o l i c i s m  a n d , as h e r son r e m a r k e d ,  always  p r a y e d f r o m a l i t t l e F r e n c h C a t h o l i c p r a y e r - b o o k ?" spoke h a r d l y a n y t h i n g  She  but French, finding i t d i f f i c u l t  t o compose e v e n a n e l e m e n t a r y s e n t e n c e i n R u s s i a n . I t was w i t h h i s m o t h e r  t h a t Berdyaev , a t t h e age of s e v e n ,  1. N i c o l a s B e r d y a e v , Dream a n d R e a l i t y , A n E s s a y i n A u t ob i o g r a p h y , M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 5 1 , p p . 2 - 5 . i  ii first  travelled  to Vienna.  o u t s i d e o f R u s s i a — t o K a r l s b a d and  Berdyaev's g r a n d f a t h e r and g r e a t - g r a n d f a t h e r  had b o t h h e l d t h e o f f i c e  of Governor-General i n South  R u s s i a , w h i l e h i s grandmother run  and g r e a t - g r a n d m o t h e r  had  away t o become nuns . (a)  Berdyaev The  the  then  as a  child  tradition  o f t h e army c o m p r i s e d b y f a r  g r e a t e r p a r t of Berdyaev's background.  t h e r e f o r e l o g i c a l t h a t young N i c o l a s  I t was  Alexandrovitch  s h o u l d be s e n t t o t h e K i e v C a d e t C o r p s t o r e c e i v e h i s early education .  Of t h i s p e r i o d he was  to w r i t e :  To t h i s d a y I c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e r e a r e few t h i n g s more r e v o l t i n g t h a n t h e k i n d o f c o n v e r s a t i o n w h i c h g o e s on among y o u n g b o y s : i t i s a s o u r c e o f c o r r u p t i o n . The c a d e t s seemed t o me p a r t i c u l a r l y u n c o u t h , c o m m o n p l a c e , and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c a l l o w . M o r e o v e r my c o m r a d e s sometimes laughed a t t h e nervous t i c from w h i c h I had s u f f e r e d s i n c e c h i l d h o o d . I d i d not d e v e l o p a n y f e e l i n g s o f c o m r a d e s h i p , and t h i s a f f e c t e d my w h o l e l i f e r The members o f t h e B e r d y a e v n e u r o s e s and B e r d y a e v was nervousness  f a m i l y were prone t o v a r i o u s  the i n h e r i t o r  "which e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f  o f an  acute  i n spasmodic  movements" . H i s e r r a t i c , y e t c o m f o r t a b l e f a m i l y had  life  "as i t w e r e , a f f i n i t i e s w i t h t h e T o l s t o y a n w o r l d  and y e t had s o m e t h i n g 3 of D o s t o e v s k y  2 . I b i d ., p .  11.  3 . I b i d . , p.  1?.  of the i n t e n s i t y  and c o m p l e x i t y  iii :()b)  D o s t o e v s k y as a  child  Dostoevsky w r i t e s : I descended from a p i o u s R u s s i a n f a m i l y . As f a r as I c a n remember m y s e l f , I r e c a l l m y p a r e n t s ' a f f e c t i o n f o r m e . We, i n o u r f a m i l y , h a v e known t h e G o s p e l a l m o s t e v e r s i n c e o u r earliest childhood . The  first  b o o k D o s t o e v s k y r e a d was  f r o m t h e O l d a n d New  Testament,  F o u r Hundred  Stories  replete w i t h faded  l i t h o g r a p h s o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d , Adam and  Eve  5  in paradise, the deluge, e t c . Dostoevsky read Zhukovsky's  A t an e a r l y  p o e t r y and t h e  age occasional  w o r k by P u s h k i n . He w r i t e s : I was o n l y t e n when I a l r e a d y knew v i r t u a l l y a l l the p r i n c i p a l episodes i n Russian h i s t o r y - frora K a r a m z i n whom, i n t h e e v e n i n g s , f a t h e r u s e d t o r e a d a l o u d t o us . E v e r y v i s i t t o t h e K r e m l i n and Moscow c a t h e d r a l s w a s , t o me, something solemn . Early  Readings A t t h e age o f f o u r t e e n B e r d y a e v  Schopenhauer's of  read  W o r l d as W i l l and I d e a , K a n t ' s  Critique  P u r e Reason, and H e g e l ' s Phenomenology of M i n d — a l l  4. D o s t o e v s k y , The D i a r y o f a W r i t e r , ( t r . b y B o r i s B r a s o l ) , C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1949, V o l . 1 , p. 1 5 2 . 5 . Henry T r o y a t , F i r e b r a n d , t h e L i f e of D o s t o e v s k y , P u b l i s h e r s , 1946, p . 29 .  Roy  6. J.A.T. L l o y d , F y o d o r D o s t o e v s k y , C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s 1947 , p . 5 . 7. D o s t o e v s k y , D i a r y o f a W r i t e r , V o l . 1, p .  152.  Sons,  iv o f w h i c h he h a d f o u n d i n h i s f a t h e r ' s library.® t i m e a l s o he p l u n g e d d e e p l y  into the novels  a n d D o s t o e v s k y w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g  At this  of T o l s t o y of g r e a t e r  importance t o him t h a n p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l schools  o f t h o u g h t a n d f r o m w h i c h he d e r i v e d h i s  Christianity .  9  I n h i s S l a v e r y and F r e e d o m ( p p . 1 1 - 1 2 ) , B e r d y a e v w r i t e s : " I am n o t a p h i l o s o p h e r o f t h e s c h o o l s and I do n o t a n d I d i d n o t b e l o n g t o a n y s c h o o l . S c h o p e n h a u e r was t h e f i r s t p h i l o s o p h e r whom I t o o k i n d e e p l y . , . w h i l e s t i l l a b o y . . . . I f e e l a s p e c i a l a f f i n i t y w i t h the dualism of Kant, w i t h h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e realm of freedom and t h e realm of n a t u r e , w i t h h i s d o c t r i n e of freedom as of a c h a r a c t e r w h i c h i s apprehended by t h e mind, w i t h t h e Kantian d o c t r i n e of the w i l l , w i t h h i s view of t h e world o f phenomena a s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e r e a l w o r l d . . . . I f i n d m y s e l f c l o s e a l s o t o Schopenhauer's d i s t i n c t i o n of w i l l and ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ' , t o h i s d o c t r i n e o f t h e o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e w i l l i n t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d , w h i c h c r e a t e s an u n r e a l w o r l d a n d t o S c h o p e n h a u e r ' s i r r a t i o n a l i s m ." 9. I b i d . , p . 8 0 . "M.y own i n i t i a t i o n i n t o p h i l o s o p h y h a s b e e n l a r g e l y due t o D o s t o e v s k y , whose c r e a t i v e w o r k h a s f a r - r e a c h i n g a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s " ( p . 3 0 4 ) . " I f e e l u t t e r l y one w i t h I v a n K a r a m a z o v , who was d r i v e n mad b y t h e t e a r s o f a s i n g l e l i t t l e c h i l d . The p r o b l e m o f t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f God i n f a c e o f t h e m e a s u r e l e s s p a i n i n t h e w o r l d has always been a source of i n f i n i t e t o r m e n t t o me" ( p . 5 7 ) . A n d i n S l a v e r y a n d Freedom ( p . 1 2 ) B e r d y a e v shows h i s d e b t t o L e o T o l s t o y : " T o l s t o y ' s r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e f a l s e standards of greatness and t h e f a l s e s a n c t i t i e s o f h i s t o r y , a g a i n s t t h e f a l s i t y of a l l s o c i a l p o s i t i o n and t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f mankind, p e n e t r a t e d my v e r y b e i n g . "  V (a) The L u r e o f M a r x i s m At  t h e age of twenty, Berdyaev entered t h e  U n i v e r s i t y of K i e v w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of studying science.  natural  H i s i n t e r e s t , however, l a y i n p h i l o s o p h y .  H e r e he came u n d e r t h e sway o f M a r x i s m — a f a s h i o n a t the time f o r those for  social justice.  s t u d e n t s w i t h any k i n d of p a s s i o n B e r d y a e v r e c a l l s how a t t h i s a g e  p e o p l e u s e d t o c a l l h i m S t a v r o g i n a n d how much h e secretly relished the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . " I liked the a r i s t o c r a t  being  of the R e v o l u t i o n , the dark-haired  n o b l e m a n , g l e a m i n g w i t h l i f e a n d w e a r i n g t h e mask o f cold aloofness."  1 0  B e r d y a e v was a t t r a c t e d t o M a r x i s m  because, l i k e Herzen, I b s e n deeply  1 1  and D o s t o e v s k y , he was  concerned w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i e t y .  10.  B e r d y a e v , A u t ob i og r a p h y , p . 25 .  11.  F o r Ibsen, t h i n k i n g revolved around p r i v a t e e t h i c a l p r o b l e m s . S o c i e t y was t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e of e v i l . "He saw i n i t n o t h i n g b u t t h e r u l e o f s t u p i d i t y , of p r e j u d i c e and f o r c e . " ( A r n o l d Hauser, The S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f A r t , R o u t l e d g e & K e g a n P a u l , 1951, V o l . 2, p . 916).  What a t t r a c t e d me m o s t o f a l l was i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e moving f o r c e s below t h e s u r f a c e of h i s t o r y , i t s consciousness of t h e h i s t o r i c hour, i t s b r o a d h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s and i t s u n i v e r s a l ism (b) D o s t o e v s k y ' s a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l i s m o f Sand I n h i s t r i b u t e t o George Sand, D o s t o e v s k y felt an but  t h a t s h e b a s e d h e r s o c i a l i s t c o n v i c t i o n s n o t upon  "ant-±necessity"--a f a v o u r i t e D o s t o e v s k i a n  rebuke--  upon a m o r a l f e e l i n g f o r man, "upon t h e s p i r i t u a l  thirst  of mankind and i t s l o n g i n g  f o r p e r f e c t i o n and  13 purity."  The n o v e l i s t e x c l a i m s ,  " I must h a v e b e e n  a b o u t s i x t e e n y e a r s o l d when I f i r s t  read her....  I 14  r e c a l l t h a t I was i n a s t a t e o f f e v e r a l l n i g h t ." Dostoevsky, looking at the s o c i a l of h i s day from t h e v i e w p o i n t was p r o f o u n d l y  of t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a ,  d i s t u r b e d by t h e deepening g u l f between  the c l a s s e s and t h e e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g society.  w i t h the simple, become e s t r a n g e d .  12.  4  of  of the educated  f a i t h f u l p e o p l e , f r o m whom t h e y h a d F o r Dostoevsky, the people  a n " a l l - u n i f y i n g , u n i v e r s a l human p r i n c i p l e  Qp. c i t . p . 1 1 7 .  13. Dostoevsky, D i a r y 1  atomization  He saw a s o l u t i o n i n r e u n i o n  represented  problems  • I b i d . , pp .345-6 .  of a W r i t e r , p. 349.  w h i c h i n a l l s i n f u l n e s s a n d h u m i l i a t i o n embrace God." Berdyaev  as an i d e a l i s t i c  Whilst  still  Marxist  i n the Marxist  a t t e m p t e d " t o show t h e p o s s i b i l i t y c r i t i c a l Marxism and p a r t l y  ranks,  of a s y n t h e s i s of  and t h e I d e a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y  of F i c h t e ,"  1 6  Berdyaev  of Kant  He was a n i d e a l i s t i c  Marxist  who m a i n t a i n e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t r u t h a n d g o o d n e s s a s idealist refused  values  independent o f t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e and  to subject philosophy  revolutionary class struggle.  and e t h i c s t o t h e 17 Accordingly,  Berdyaev  was r e p r i m a n d e d b y P l e k h a n o v who i n s i s t e d t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e to remain a M a r x i s t w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g an independent  idealistic  philosophy. ® 1  15 . V y a c h e s l a v I v a n o v , Freedom a n d t h e T r a g i c H a r v i l l P r e s s , 1952, p. 8 0 .  Life,  16. B e r d y a e v , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , p . 122. 17. N i c o l a s B e r d y a e v , S l a v e r y and Freedom, S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1944, p. 1 3 . 1  8  • I b i d . , p. 14.  Charles  viii (a) A r r e s t and E x i l e In one to  1898 B e r d y a e v was a r r e s t e d a l o n g w i t h  hundred f i f t y  o t h e r S o c i a l Democrats and e x i l e d  t h e northern province of Vologda.  was  not a hard  one s i n c e t h e g o v e r n o r  t e r r i t o r y was a d i s t a n t  Here h i s l o t of t h i s  northern  r e l a t i v e of Berdyaev's  grand-  19 father.  I n 1901,  a f t e r h i s r e t u r n from  exile,  B e r d y a e v w e n t t o Germany w h e r e he e n r o l l e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f H e i d e l b e r g . Here he c o n t i n u e d h i s activities 1904  i n l i b e r a l a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements.  h e l e f t Germany a n d r e t u r n e d t o S t . P e t e r s b u r g £ ® T h i s was t h e t i m e  and  In  o f t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e War  t h e m a r c h o f F a t h e r Gapon upon t h e W i n t e r  Palace—  of s t r i k e s , pogroms, a s s a s s i n a t i o n s , m u t i n i e s and t h e f i r s t Duma--a t o o - l a t e a t t e m p t democracy t o R u s s i a .  to bring  liberal  A s B e r d y a e v r e m a r k e d , i t was  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l democracy t h a t was U t o p i a n Bolshevism,  i n t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e , became  in Russiarealistic  politics . 1 9 . M a t t h e w S p i n k a , N i c o l a s B e r d y a e v : C a p t i v e o f Freedom . Westminster P r e s s , 1950, pp. 14-5. 20. A t t h i s time Berdyaev m a r r i e d L y d i a Y u d i f o r v n a Trushev, t h e daughter o f a b r i l l i a n t and w e a l t h y l a w y e r . She h a d , a t one t i m e , b e e n a c t i v e i n r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements and h a d t w i c e b e e n a r r e s t e d a n d i m p r i s o n e d . She was y e t c o n t e m p l a t i v e and m y s t i c a l by n a t u r e . A f t e r h e r m a r r i a g e she became a Roman C a t h o l i c a n d d e v o t e d h e r s e l f t o writing poetry.  ix ( b ) The P a p e r P r o b l e m s  of L i f e  D u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1904-6 B e r d y a e v S e r g i u s E u l g a k o v a r e v i e w named The New Way i t s q u i c k f a i l u r e , the magazine Problems  edited and  with  after  of L i f e , a  p a p e r w h i c h c o m b i n e d many t e n d e n c i e s . P o l i t i c a l l y the paper belonged t o the l e f t , t h e r a d i c a l s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t , b u t i t was t h e f i r s t i n t h e h i s t o r y of R u s s i a n p e r i o d i c a l s t o c o m b i n e t h a t s o r t o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i d e a s w i t h r e l i g i o u s enquiry, w i t h a metaphysical o u t l o o k a n d a new t e n d e n c y i n l i t e r a t u r e . I t was an a t t e m p t t o u n i t e t h o s e who h a d been M a r x i s t s a n d , becoming i d e a l i s t s , were moving t o w a r d s C h r i s t i a n i t y , w i t h M e r e z h k o v s k y and t h e s y m b o l i s t s , i n p a r t w i t h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e a c a d e m i c p h i l o s o p h y o f the' i d e a l i s t and s p i r i t u a l s c h o o l and w i t h j o u r n a l i s t s o f t h e r a d i c a l tendency.21 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Berdyaev  concludes , "the s y n t h e s i s  was  22 not  o r g a n i c e n o u g h and c o u l d n o t b e d u r a b l e ." (c) M y s t i c a l A n a r c h i s m A f t e r t h e R e v o l u t i o n o f 1905 B e r d y a e v  particularly  r e c e p t i v e t o a movement known as  a n a r c h i s m ' whose p r i n c i p a l  was  •mystical  spokesmen w e r e t h e p o e t  C h u l k o v and V y a c h e s l a v I v a n o v .  H a r k i n g back t o t h e  w o r d s o f I v a n K a r a m a z o v , " I a c c e p t God, b u t I do  not  accept h i s w o r l d " , the m y s t i c a l a n a r c h i s t s preached a  2 1 . N i c o l a s B e r d y a e v , The 1947 , p . 246 . 22. Loc. c i t .  Russian Idea, Geoffrey Bles,  X  t o t a l break w i t h the e x t e r n a l world the  i n order t o f r e e  spirit A Spiritual  Renaissance  Among t h e more c u l t u r e d M a r x i s t s t h e r e h a d b e e n a more a n d more v o c i f e r o u s demand t h a t art  philosophy,  and r e l i g i o n b r e a k f r e e f r o m t h e d e s p o t i s m  dialectic.  B e r d y a e v h a d b e e n one o f t h e s e .  a l s o a marked r e t u r n t o r e l i g i o n and a r e a l rebirth in literature.  T h e r e was spiritual  S u c h w r i t e r s as M e r e z h k o v s k y and  Rozanov g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d t h e young B e r d y a e v . poetry  of symbol ism--Alexander  Ivanov appealed  T h e new  B l o k , B e l y and V y a c h e s l a v  t o t h e y o u t h f u l p h i l o s o p h e r a n d became  a most p e n e t r a t i n g f a c t o r ment .  of the  in his intellectual  environ-  A n d o f c o u r s e t h e r e was B e r d y a e v ' s e a r l y m o v i n g  encounter w i t h Dostoevsky which l a t e r l a r g e l y  determined  h i s a c t i o n s and thoughts .  23. T h i s view i s i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h a t w h i c h Dostoevsky through Father Zossima revealed i n The B r o t h e r s K a r a m a z o v , w h e r e a l l t h a t i s u n c o n s c i o u s i n t h e w o r l d i s good i n e s s e n c e - - t r e e s , f l o w e r s , a n i m a l s , c h i l d r e n , e t c . B u t on man a d i f f i c u l t m o r a l i t y i s p l a c e d s i n c e , endowed w i t h c o n s c i o u s n e s s , he h a s t h e a b i l i t y t o c h o o s e b e t w e e n r i g h t and w r o n g . I f s i n e x i s t s i t i s b e c a u s e man h a s n o t b e e n g o o d e n o u g h . T h e r e i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s h i f t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t o an u n j u s t God a n d an e v i l w o r l d .  xi (a) R e a c t i o n  i n the Orthodox Church  I n 190? P a r i s w h e r e he m o d e r n i s m and  Berdyaev l e f t  St . P e t e r s b u r g  spent the w i n t e r studying C a t h o l i c French syndicalism .  At  t h i s time  b r o k e w i t h t h e s y m b o l i s t M e r e z h k o v s k y and and  on  r e t u r n i n g from P a r i s ,  than S t . P e t e r s b u r g . had  settled  i n Moscow , r a t h e r  By t h i s t i m e t h e O r t h o d o x C h u r c h  r e a c h e d i t s z e n i t h of r e a c t i o n even t o t h e  pogroms o f t h e fully  t h a t t h e C h u r c h was i n t e r e s t , and  o f t h i s and  Berdyaev  agreed w i t h Dostoevsky  paralyzed, that insincerity,  self-  c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y were everywhere apparent .  "The  m o s t c r e a t i v e and v a l u a b l e , e l e m e n t s  left  t h e C h u r c h and  mental  point  nefarious  "Black Hundred" o r g a n i z a t i o n .  conscious  he  his circle  of c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h the government i n the  was  for  of s o c i e t y  O r t h o d o x y assumed a w h o l l y  had  govern-  character."  (b) B a c k t o R e l i g i o n I n M a r c h 1909  a group of e x - M a r x i s t s  "God-seekers" p u b l i s h e d a book, M i l e s t o n e s which proclaimed  and  other  (Vyekhy) ,  d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h a l l forms  of  xii humanism a n d p o s i t i v i s m intellectuals  24  a n d a t t e m p t e d t o summon t h e  "back t o r e l i g i o n " .  Berdyaev, along w i t h  P r a n k , S t r u v e , T e r n a v t s e v and Gershen zon , was one o f L  the chief c o n t r i b u t o r s t o M i l e s t o n e s.  I n 1911 he w r o t e  P h i l o s o p h y o f F r e e d o m — a w p r k w h i c h showed h i s e v e r increasing  interest  i n m y s t i c a l r e a l i s m w h i c h had been  m o r e o r l e s s t a k e n o v e r f r o m J a c o b Boehme, A n g e l u s S i l e s i u s , John T a u l e r and Franz von Baader . The y e a r b e f o r e t h e R e v o l u t i o n Berdyaev  p u b l i s h e d The M e a n i n g o f  the Creative A c t , i n which f o rt h e f i r s t e s c h a t o l o g i c a l note i s i n t r o d u c e d .  time an  I n t h i s work  Berdyaev  l a y s p a r t i c u l a r s t r e s s on r e m o t e n e s s i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n 25 of t h e C h r i s t i a n i d e a l . The y e a r a f t e r t h e r e v o l u t i o n  24. S p i n k a , Berdyaev. P P . 30-3. I n h i s Autobiography ( p p . 91-2) , B e r d y a e v s a y s : " I h a v e n e v e r b e e n a m a t e r i a l i s t o r a p o s i t i v i s t , a l t h o u g h a t one t i m e I d e n i e d God . E v e n m y a a t h e i s t i c c o n v i c t i o n s h a d o t h e r r o o t s t h a n t h o s e p r o v i d e d by m a t e r i a l i s m and s h a r e d b y my f e l l o w * s t u d e n t s : i t w a s , i n f a c t , an i n v e r t e d r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n , an a n t i - t h e i s m r a t h e r t h a n an a t h e i s m , i m p l y i n g a d e n i a l n o t o f God b u t o f t h e man-made image o f G o d , o f w h a t I b e l i e v e d t o be the t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s c o n c e p t i o n s and t r a v e s t i e s o f Him ." 2  5  • I b i d ., p p . 4 5 - 6 .  xiii Berdyaev  produced a p i e c e of p o l e m i c a l d i a t r i b e  the t i t l e — T h e Philosophy of I n e q u a l i t y .  2 6  Written  b e f o r e t h e author had experienced a " s p i r i t u a l Berdyaev  a f t e r w a r d s r e g a r d e d i t h i s most  under  catharsis",  unsatisfactory  book .  26.  A t y p i c a l passage from F i l o s o f i a Neravenstva;Pisma k nedrygam po s o t s i a l n o i f i l o s o f i , O b e l i s k , 1 9 2 3 , p .44: " I n e q u a l i t y i s r e p e a t e d l y j u s t i f i e d r e l i g i o u s l y as t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e s t i n y o f t h e human p e r s o n a l i t y f o r eternity.... I n e q u a l i t y i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n of t h e cosmic system and o f harmony, and i s t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f human p e r s o n a l i t y i t s e l f a n d t h e s o u r c e o f e v e r y c r e a t i v e movement on e a r t h . . . . Out o f i n e q u a l i t y e v e n man was b o r n . An a b s o l u t e e q u a l i t y w o u l d l e a v e b e i n g i n an i n c o m p l e t e s t a t e , without d i s t i n c t i o n - - t h a t i s not-being." Goncerning t h e e v e n t s o f 1 9 1 7 , B e r d y a e v w r i t e s on P a g e 1 2 : "A s p i r i t u a l r e v o l u t i o n h a s n o t h i n g i n common w i t h y o u r outward m a t e r i a l i s t i c , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n s . M a r x n e v e r was a r e v o l u t i o n a r y o f t h e s p i r i t . . . b u t D o s t o e v s k y w a s . . . a n d y o u h a v e a l w a y s deemed h i m a c o n s e r v a t i v e and r e a c t i o n a r y . "  27 .  I b i d . , p . 243  XXV  Berdyaev and B o l s h e v i s m 1919  f i n d s Berdyaev  l e s s b i t t e r a n d more 28 h u m b l e . " B o l s h e v i s m i s my s i n , my g u i l t , " he c o n f e s s e d . The R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n h a s f u l f i l l e d D o s t o e v s k y ' s a n t i c i p a t i o n s . He h a s p r o p h e t i c a l l y l a i d b a r e i t s i d e o l o g i c a l d i a l e c t i c and has d e p i c t e d i t s image. Dostoevsky understood that Russian socialism i s a r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n , a q u e s t i o n of atheism; that Russian r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n t e l l e c t u a l s a r e not concerned w i t h p o l i t i c s , but w i t h t h e s a l v a t i o n of h u m a n k i n d w i t h o u t God..29 From 1919-20 B e r d y a e v d e l i v e r e d a s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s on •z.r\  The M e a n i n g  of History  a t t h e F r e e Academy o f S p i r i t u a l  C u l t u r e w h i c h he h a d f o u n d e d i n 1918 b y t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n of of  Kamenev . I n 1920 B e r d y a e v was a p p o i n t e d t o t h e c h a i r 31 p h i l o s o p h y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Moscow and t h e same 32  y e a r was a r r e s t e d by t h e C h e k a . a b l y lukewarm  Because  of h i s n o t i c e -  a f f e c t i o n f o r B o l s h e v i s m , B e r d y a e v was  summoned a n d i n t e r r o g a t e d a t m i d n i g h t b y t h e f a n a t i c a l head of t h e Cheka, D z e r z h i n s k y and h i s deputy c h a i r m a n , Menzhinsky.  A t t h i s m e e t i n g Kamenev was a l s o p r e s e n t  2 8 . N i c o l a s B e r d y a e v , T h e End o f O u r T i m e , S h e e d a n d W a r d , 1933, p. 7 1 , p u b l i s h e d f i r s t a t B e r l i n i n 1924. 29 . I b i d ., p . 84 . 30. P u b l i s h e d  i n B e r l i n , 1923.  3 1 . S p i n k a , Berdyaev, pp. 63-4. 32. Berdyaev, Autobiogranhy, p. 236.  XV a n d h e a r d B e r d y a e v t a l k f o r more t h a n h a l f an h o u r , s t a t i n g h i s r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e a s o n s f o r r e j e c t i n g Communism.  Berdyaev, perhaps because of h i s  f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Kamenev, was s u m m a r i l y r e l e a s e d . the  w i n t e r o f 1920-1 he d e l i v e r e d a s e r i e s  on D o s t o e v s k y 3 3 and i n 1922 was o n c e more t h i s t i m e by t h e G.P.TJ.  During  of l e c t u r e s arrested—  34  E x i l e and D e a t h In Berlin.  1922 B e r d y a e v b e g a n h i s l i f e  in exile in  Here, w i t h t h e h e l p of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Y I  C.A.,  he o r g a n i z e d t h e R e l i g i o u s P h i l o s o p h i c a l Academy a n d t a u g h t , as d e p a r t m e n t a l dean, a t t h e R u s s i a n I n s t i t u t e o f 35 Sciences.  I n 1924 he t r a n s f e r r e d  the Religious  P h i l o s o p h i c a l Academy t o P a r i s w h e r e two y e a r s l a t e r he founded t h e r e l i g i o u s - p h i l o s o p h i c a l review P u t , (The Way), w h i c h he c o n t i n u e d t o e d i t u n t i l t h e o u t b r e a k o f W o r l d W a r I I . On M a r c h 2 4 , 1 9 4 8 , a f t e r o n l y a b r i e f s p e l l o f i l l - h e a l t h , Nicolas Alexandrovitch died at h i s d e s k — amongst h i s p a p e r s a n d b o o k s . 33. Published  i n B e r l i n , 1923.  34 . B e r d y a e v , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , p . 2 3 9 . 3 5 . S p i n k a , B e r d y a e v , p . 66 .  CHAPTER I .  DOSTOEVSKY AND HIS INFLUENCE UPON THE PHILOSOPHY OF NICOLAS BERDYAEV  Chapter I . S l a v o p h i 1 i s m a n d Rues i a n T n o u g h t The O r t h o d o x B a c k g r o u n d . Moscow a s t h e " T h i r d Rome" a) E a r l y e x p o n e n t s b) C h a a d a e v . Khomyakov ( a ) F o u n d e r o f t h e S l a v o p h i l movement (b) ' S o b o r n o s t ' . Kireevsky (aV R o m a n t i c S l a v o p h i l i s m ( b ) K i r e e v s k y a n d Khomyakov . Other S l a v o p h i l s (a) The A k s a k o v s (b) P o g o d i n (CJ Tyutchev (d) D a n i l i e v s k y . N i c o l a s Fedorov . The a n i m a t i n g s p i r i t Philosophy .  of Russian Nineteenth Century  DOSTOEVSKY AND  HIS  INFLUENCE UPON THE  PHILOSOPHY  OF NICOLAS BERDYAEV  S l a v o p h i l i s m and R u s s i a n T h o u g h t The  Orthodox  background  An a n a l y s i s Berdyaev of and of  of the thought  of Dostoevsky  i s impossible without acknowledging  t h e power  the Russian Orthodox Church, f o r Orthodox a s c e t i c i s m religious t h e s e two  in thought  d o c t r i n e has  penetrated to the very  Christian thinkers .  of the R u s s i a n Church  The  B y z a n t i u m , has  e v e r s i n c e 9 8 8 , when  b e e n p r i m a r i l y a n e t h i c a l one ?~  t h e q u e s t i o n : How  i s one  core  dominating trend  P r i n c e V l a d i m i r of K i e v a c c e p t e d C h r i s t i a n i t y  1.  and  b e s t t o l i v e and how  from I t asked i s one  to  Most Russian r e l i g i o u s t h i n k e r s c l a i m t h i s i s e x c l u s i v e to Orthodox C h r i s t i a n i t y . They regard the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h a s l e g a l i s t i c and t h e P r o t e s t a n t as p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l . The e t h i c a l c o n t e n t , h o w e v e r , seems p r i m a r y i n m o s t r e l i g i o n s .  1  procure s a l v a t i o n ? its  2  A characteristic  c o n c e p t i o n o f s a l v a t i o n as  divinization  o f man  it  "theosis"—the  and t h e t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e  cosmos . R u s s i a n r e l i g i o u s t h a t man  of Orthodoxy i s  thought c o n s i s t e n t l y teaches  must h i m s e l f be a c r e a t o r .  A t t h e same t i m e  r e g a r d s s a l v a t i o n as i n s e p a r a b l e from e s c h a t o l o g y .  I n t h e E a s t , t o be a member o f t h e C h u r c h means , a b o v e a l l , t o merge one's own heaven  life  i n t h e f l o w of g r a c e from  a n d t o a c q u i r e t h e r e b y s u c h g i f t s as  h o l i n e s s and h u m i l i t y .  faith,  I t i s t h e tendency of  t o r e g a r d t h e v i s i b l e w o r l d as a r e f l e c t i o n o f some s p i r i t u a l e n t i t y e l s e w h e r e  4  or  Orthodoxy symbol  which i t i s the  t a s k o f t h e C h u r c h t o r e f l e c t w i t h an e v e r c l o s e r approach to p e r f e c t i o n ,  perhaps here l i e s  of t h a t s e a r c h f o r meaning i n h i s t o r y , t h a t  the  origin  straining  f o r a world-wide outlook that  i s so n o t i c e a b l e a 5 f e a t u r e of R u s s i a n thought . Such a q u a l i t y i n R u s s i a n  2 . G e o r g e P. F e d o t o v , The R u s s i a n R e l i g i o u s M i n d , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1946 , pp .388-90 . f e d o t o v ' s t h e s i s has b e e n s u b s t a n t i a t e d by numerous w r i t e r s . , i n c l u d i n g F a t h e r E u l g a k o v , F l o r i n s k y and o t h e r s . 3 . O l i v e r F i e l d i n g C l a r k e , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Berdyaev , G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 5 0 , p p . 24-5 . 4. S i r J o h n M a y n a r d , R u s s i a i n F l u x , M a c m i l l a n Co ., 1948, p p . 439-440 . 5 . T h i s i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e l i b e r a l a n d S l a v o p h i l w i n g o f t h e Church... Many, o f t h e o r t h o d o x O r t h o d o x w o u l d n o t s u b s c r i b e t o i t . Numerous w o r k s o f s u c h w e l l - k n o w n S l a v o p h i l s a s K i r e e v s k y , Khomyakov and even D o s t o e v s k y w e r e s u p p r e s s e d by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s as dangerously r e v o l u t i o n a r y .  3 O r t h o d o x y was t o p r o v i d e the b e l i e f God  that  thetalk  continuing  t h e R u s s i a n Empire had r e c e i v e d  from  o f defending t h e t r u e F a i t h and of  t h e work begun by C o n s t a n t i n e  Constantinople philosophy  a s u b s t a n t i a l foundation f o r  t h e Great i n  . Above a l l , i t gave impetus t o t h a t  o f h i s t o r y w h i c h w a s t o r e g a r d Moscow a s  t h e T h i r d Rome . Moscow a s t h e " T h i r d Rome" (a) E a r l y The first  exponents i d e a o f Moscow a s t h e " T h i r d Rome" w a s  propounded b y an e l d e r o f a monastery i n Pskov ,  Philotheus, a f t e r the f a l l  of t h e Orthodox  Byzantine  E m p i r e i n 1453 . I n h i s e p i s t l e t o t h e G r a n d Duke B a s i l I I I . (1505-33) , P h i l o t h e u s  asserts that the Russian  T s a r i s t h e , o n l y C h r i s t i a n r u l e r on e a r t h a n d t h e n remarks  that:  . ..In t h e G o d - b e a r i n g c i t y o f Moscow t h e C h u r c h o f t h e M o s t H o l y M o t h e r o f God s t a n d s a s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e E c u m e n i c a l and A p o s t o l i c Throne , i t shines w i t h l i g h t s i d e by s i d e w i t h Rome a n d C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , i t i s u n i q u e i n t h e whole ecumenical world and shines b r i g h t e r than the-8un<5 .. .. T h e f i r s t Rome c o l l a p s e d o w i n g t o i t s h e r e s i e s , t h e s e c o n d Rome f e l l a v i e t i m t o t h e T u r k s , b u t a new a n d t h i r d Rome h a s s p r u n g up i n t h e N o r t h , i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e w h o l e - u n i v e r s e l i k e a s u n . . . . T h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d Rome h a v e f a l l e n , b u t t h e t h i r d w i l l s t a n d t i l l t h e end o f h i s t o r y , f o r i t i s t h e l a s t Rome. Moscow h a s no s u c c e s s o r ; a f o u r t h Rome i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e /  6 . Quoted i n N i c o l a s B e r d y a e v , The R u s s i a n Idea , G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1947 , p . 8 . 7 . Q u o t e d i n N i c o l a s Z e r n o v , Moscow t h e T h i r d Rome , S .P.C .K. , 1937, p . 36'.  4 In  1589  a t the  installation  i n Moscow o f t h e P a t r i a r c h  J o b , t h e h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t y of the E a s t e r n pronounced almost verbatim  Church  the d a r i n g w o r d s o f t h e monk  Philotheus. ... B e c u a s e t h e s e c o n d Rome, w h i c h i s Cons'tant i n o p l e , i s now i n p o s s e s s i o n of t h e godless-Turks , thy great kingdom, 0 pious T s a r , i s t h e T h i r d Rome . I t s u r p a s s e s i n d e v o t i o n e v e r y o t h e r , and a l l C h r i s t i a n k i n g d o m s a r e now. m e r g e d i n t h y r e a l m . T h o u a r t the only C h r i s t i a n sovereign i n the w o r l d , t h e m a s t e r of a l l f a i t h f u l C h r i s t i a n s ? (b) C h a a d a e v This  i d e a o f Moscow a s t h e  underlie a l l l a t e r Russian Chaadaev, a l t h o u g h  thought .  " T h i r d Rome" was  to  Even the p a r a d o x i c a l  a W e s t e r n i z e r , showed h i m s e l f  eloquently conscious  of R u s s i a ' s  unique d e s t i n y .  I h a v e a p r o f o u n d c o n v i c t i o n t h a t we h a v e a v o c a t i o n t o s o l v e a g r e a t many o f t h e p r o b l e m s of s o c i a l o r d e r , t o b r i n g about the f u l f i l m e n t o f a g r e a t many o f t h e i d e a s w h i c h h a v e t a k e n t h e i r r i s e i n s o c i e t i e s of t h e p a s t , and t o g i v e an a n s w e r t o q u e s t i o n s o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e w i t h w h i c h m a n k i n d i s concerned. ® 1  C h a a d a e v was  a t t r a c t e d by  "the  international, non-racial,  and m o r a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r of t h e t r u e religion" .  He  Christian  c r e d i t e d the C a t h o l i c Church w i t h  having  8 . Tsar Fyodor , ( 1 5 8 4 - 9 8 ) .  9 . Quoted in Nicolas Zernov , The S.P.C.K. , 1 9 4 5 , p . 7 1 .  Russians and Their Church :  10 .Prom Peter Chaadaev's (1793-1856) , Apology of a Madman, quoted in Berdyaev , Russian Idea, p . 37 .  5  done f a r more than Orthodoxy to promote i t . The Slavophils were to leap upon t h i s idea of Chaadaev to attempt to d i s c r e d i t the Catholic Church in order to show that i t s mantle had now was  f a l l e n on 'Holy  Russia'Solovyev  to describe this as "the pseudo-Orthodoxy of a n t i -  12 Catholic theologians" . Khomyakov (a) Founder of the Slavophil Movement Along with Kireevsky, the f i r s t modern and secular Church and the chief founder of the Slavophil movement was  a r e t i r e d o f f i c e r of the Royal Guard,  Alexei Khomyakov (1804-60).  In his Notes Upon World  History, Khomyakov describes the c o n f l i c t of two  11 . Richard Hare , Pioneers of Russian S o c i a l Thought , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1951, p. 16. 12 . In his work, Russia and the Universal Church, Geoffrey Bles , 1948, p. 46, Vladimir-Solovyev (18531900) , describes h i s fellow patriots and t h e i r infatuation with what is called "The Russian Idea": "According to them Orthodoxy, or the r e l i g i o n of the Greco-Russian Church, in contrast- to the religious bodies of the West, constitutes the true basis of our national being. Here,to begin with,is an obvious vicious c i r c l e . I f we ask how the separated Eastern Church j u s t i f i e s i t s existence we are t o l d : By having formed the Russian people and provided i t s s p i r i t u a l nurture. And when we enquire how that people j u s t i f i e s i t s existence , the answer i s : By belonging to the separated Eastern Church" .  6  p r i n c i p l e s i n history--freedom and necessity, s p i r i t u a l i t y and materialism  'Kushitstvo' was the term he used to  describe Western Rationalism and Roman Catholicism, which f o r him represented necessity and materialism. On the other hand, he applied the term 'Iranstvo' to Russia , which he believed s i g n i f i e d freedom and s p i r i t u a l i t y Khomyakov had an i n d e l i b l e f a i t h in the destiny of Russia. He was convinced that Russia's vocation was not to be the richest or most powerful country, but to become "the most 15 Christian of a l l human s o c i e t i e s " .  In the middle of  the Nineteenth Century at a time when b e l i e f in progress , science and individualism was universal, Khomyakov was almost alone in prophesying the impending doom of an order based on the s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y of man and overconfident trust In the power of human reason . (b)  'Sobornost' However, i t i s in the conception of Russian  'sobornost' that the value of Khomyakov's ideas is most  13 . Berdyaev , Russian Idea, pp . 44-5 . 14 . "Though the few c r i t i c a l minds among the early Slavophils were p a i n f u l l y aware how f a r from perfect Russia a c t u a l l y was , they were ready to take the undisputed 'fundamental' perfection of Russia f o r an a c t u a l i t y . They compared the idea of Russia, as they constructed i t , with Europe's r e a l i t y , and a r r i v e d , naturally enough, at self-complimentary conclusions." Hans Kohn , The Twentieth Century, Macmillan Co., 1949, p . 101. 15. N. 0. Lossky, History of Russian Philosophy, International U n i v e r s i t i e s Press Inc ., 1951, p. 40 .  7 apparent.  For Khomyakov, 'sobornost' implied the  harmonious conjunction of human freedom and unity based on a common love f o r the same absolute values . He stressed the i n t e r r e l a t i o n in C h r i s t i a n i t y of love and freedom .  -Since C h r i s t i a n i t y is a r e l i g i o n of love i t  is also a r e l i g i o n of freedom .  In the words of  Khomyakov 'sobornost' which he believed the unique feature of Orthodoxy i s "opposed both to authoritarianism and to individualism . It is a unanimity, a synthesis of 18  authority. . .liberty in love which unites believers." 16 . Ibid ., p. 41. 17 . That the Slavophil movement has been profoundly influenced by the "Non-possessor" heritage and the teachings of St . N i l of Sorsk i s shown by the stress on freedom in r e l i g i o n . The t r a d i t i o n of the "Nonpossessors" (the mystic followers of S t . N i l , who in the middle of the Sixteenth Century were opposed to the stern ritualism of the Josephites) made a noticeable reappearance in the Eighteenth Century i n the person of St . Tikhon of Zadonsk (1724-83) who was to serve as the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r Dostoevsky's 'starets' Father Zossiraa in The Brothers Karamaaov. 18. Quoted by Sergius Bulgakov, The Orthodox Church, Centenary, 1935, p. 74. "Sobornost constitutes a t h i r d p r i n c i p l e absolutely d i s t i n c t from religious individualism as represented by Protestantism and the authoritarianism of Catholicism" (Berdyaev , Tjoroards a New- Epoch. Geoffrey Bles , 1949, p. 54) . Berdyaev interprets •sobornost' as the " i n t e r i o r concrete universalism of personality" (Berdyaev , Slavery and Freedom, pp. 68-9); "the inward, organic and harmonious aspect of C a t h o l i c i t y " (Berdyaev, The Origin of Russian Communism . Geoffrey B l e s , 1948, n . p . 87j and as freedom enlightened by grace (Berdyaev, The Beginning and the End. Geoffrey B l e s , 1952, p. 131.  8 In 'sobornost' the g i f t of the s p i r i t i s conceived as an undivided and i n d i v i s i b l e whole, present in the council or the congregation I  9  The g i f t of truth i s attributed  to the whole Church, not to isolated individuals nor to 20  the hierarchy..  Truth and love reside in the brethren 21  not in any of them taken separately .  In the words of  Vladimir Solovyev: "There i s no kingdom of Heaven f o r the individual . His salvation must be a corporate one 22  along with his fellows" . Kireevsky U)  Romantic Slavophilism The ideas of Ivan Kireevsky (1806-56) showed  more Romanticism than those of any other Slavophil . Kireevsky was a religious mystic imbued with "a strong love of Russia and f a i t h in her great destiny ." Kireevsky "wholeness" was  To  the peculiar v i r t u e of the  Russian character. This p r i n c i p l e of "wholeness" OA  dominates his philosophy.  In 1856,  in Koshelev's  revue Russian Russia Conversation Kireevsky 19. Maynard, in Flux, p. 51. elaborated the 20 . Ibid ., p . 59 . 21.  I b i d . , p . 51.  22 . Quoted by Maynard, Russia in Flux, p. 99. 23.  To Kireevsky is attributed the remark: "the best thing to be found in the world i s a v i s i o n , " (Berdyaev, Russian Idea, p. 48 .)  24.  Lossky, Russian Philosophy, p. 19 .  9 concept of collectedness in his a r t i c l e The P o s s i b i l i t y and Necessity of New, P r i n c i p l e s in Philosophy ,  25  (Man) should not regard his l o g i c a l capacity as the one and only instrument f o r the apprehension of truth;...the promptings of aesthetic thought taken in i s o l a t i o n should not be considered independently of other concepts as a sure guide to the comprehension of the ultimate nature of the world; not even must the ruling love of the heart be thought of separately from the other claims of the s p i r i t as an i n f a l l i b l e instructor in the achievement of the highest good; man must constantly seek in the depth of his soul that inner root of understanding, where a l l the separate f a c u l t i e s unite in one l i v i n g whole of s p i r i t u a l v i s i o n .26 Only through i n t u i t i o n , "life-knowledge" as Kireevsky c a l l e d i t , the "idea f e e l i n g " as Dostoevsky named i t , can man  2 5  26.  a r r i v e at true understanding ,  27  According to  • I b i d . , p. 17 .A.Koshelev (1806-1883) .. I b i d . , quoted p. 20 . Cf . Dostoevsky's -Letters from the Underworld, published in 1864. "Reason "is" an exeeTIent t h i n g — I do not deny that f o r a moment; but reason is reason and no more, and s a t i s f i e s only the reasoning faculty in man, whereas v o l i t i o n is a manifestation of a l l l i f e . It is true that, in this p a r t i c u l a r manifestation of i t , human l i f e is a l l too frequently a sorry f a i l u r e ; .yet i t nevertheless is l i f e , and not the mere working out of a square root . For my own part , I naturally wish to s a t i s f y a l l my f a c u l t i e s and not my reasoning faculty alone (that is to say a mere twentieth portion of my capacity f o r l i v i n g ) . For what does reason know? Reason only knows that man possesses a c e r t a i n c a p a b i l i t y of apprehension" . (Letters from the Underworld, Everyman's Library, 1945, pp .33-4) .  27 . Hans Kohn , Prophets and People, Macmillan Co., p. 146 .  1946,  10 . Dostoevsky  that "deep understanding which transcends a l l  reason" was peculiar to the Russian people "rooted in t h e i r . . .feeling of sobornost."  28  Once than has united a l l  his s p i r i t u a l powers into a harmonious whole only then Kireevsky believes does man  a t t a i n a mystical i n t u i t i v e -  ness into the understanding of superrational truths . Man must conduct h i s thought "through the domain of l o g i c " --yet the knowledge gained i s not true knowledge — rather a stepping-stone to the summit of hyperlogical knowledge which i s " i n e x p r e s s i b l e " .  29  For Kireevsky only the  presence of such metalogical p r i n c i p l e s as the Absolute or God makes possible the earthly joys of love, sympathy, intuitiveness and mystical experience  3 0  The mind which  ignores the superrational truths abstracts purely the r a t i o n a l elements and f o r Kireevsky this must end in chaos as f o r Dostoevsky  i t ends in atheism, n i h i l i s m and s u i c i d e .  Kireevsky's metalogical p r i n c i p l e combined with his concept of the "wholeness" of existence appears again in the philosophy of Floreasky, Bulgakov and p a r t i c u l a r l y 31  Berdyaev . •zo  man ."  "The whole t r u t h i s only revealed to the whole  This ideal of integral knowledge as an organic  28. "The West has taken the " I " as the start ing point, the Russians the "We"; the West, the thinking i n d i v i d u a l , Russia the concrete and immediate experience of community." (Simon Frank, Die Russische Weltanschauung, Rolf Heise, 1926, p. 21). 29. Lossky, Russian Philosophy, p. 21. 30. Loc . c i t . 31. I b i d . , p. 29. 32 . I b i d . , p. 404 .  11 all-embracing unity i s brought about only through the combination of a l l man's powers--the senses, r a t i o n a l i t y , aestheticism, morality and r e l i g i o n . (b) Kireevsky and Khomyakov Both Kireevsky and Khomyakov exaggerated the s p i r i t u a l l y unifying q u a l i t i e s of the Russian people and set them in opposition to the s t e r i l i t y and formality of a "soulless" Europe.  At the same time  they rejected any idea of a r i g i d , s t a t i c and despotic State . Rather they desired a peaceful, p a t r i a r c h a l monarchy which would allow the greatest amount of autonomy to the people.  They were firmly convinced  that Russia was presaging the true C h r i s t i a n society . Neither Kireevsky nor Khomyakov  34  worked out a systematic  philosophy but they l a i d the s p i r i t u a l foundation of l a t e r philosophical thought in Russia which was to concern i t s e l f primarily with the systematic development of a Christian 'Weltanschuung'.  33.  Armand C o q u a r t D m i t r i Pisarev et 3.'ideologic du Nihilisme Russe. I n s t i t u t d'§tudes Slaves, 1946, p. 15 .  34.  "With Khomyakov philosophy depends upon religious experience as the primary Thing, to such an extent that he even speaks of the dependence of philosophical apprehension upon b e l i e f in the Holy T r i n i t y ! " (Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p .161).  12 Other Slavophils (a) The Aksakovs In a l e t t e r to Dostoevsky the famed Russian d i a r i s t Sergei Aksakov lefined Slavophilism as the 3  35  "Christian idea pushed to i t s furthest l i m i t s ." •57  son Konstantin Aksakov  who  His  carried on the Slavophile  t r a d i t i o n f e l t that the Russian people continually aspired not to the building of a perfect state, but to the creation of a Christian s o c i e t y .  Consequently he  considered the Russian ideal to be i n f i n i t e l y harder and more impracticable than that of the purely p o l i t i c a l , state-minded Western nations In the West , they k i l l souls and replace them by the perfecting of p o l i t i c a l forms and the establishment of good order and by police a c t i o n . Conscience i s replaced by law; regulations become a substitute f o r the inward impulse; even charity i s turned into a mechanical business in the West; a l l the anxiety i s f o r p o l i t i c a l forms.... At the foundation of the Russian State there l i e s spontaneity, freedom and peace 1 39 3 8  35 . Sergei Aksakov (1791-1859) , great Russian prose writer and father of Constant in and Ivan Aksakov. 36. Janko Lavrin, Dostoevsky and His Creation, W. C o l l i n s & Co. Ltd., 1920, p. 177 . 37 . Konstantin Aksakov (1817-1860) , one of the most talented Slavophiles. In the F i f t i e s he expounded his views in a Moscow weekly. The Rumor (Molva) . 38. Hare, S o c i a l Thought. p. 141, and Berdyaev, Russian Idea, p. 49 . 39 . Berdyaev, Russian Idea, quoted on p . 43 . On p. 48 Berdyaev refers to K. Aksakov disparagingly as"a growing infant...believing in the perfection of pre-Petrine i n s t i t u t i o n s ."  13 (b) Pogodin In 1838-Mikhail  Petrovich Pogodin ,  u  a professor  of Russian history at Moscow University wrote i n h i s History: The time of European nations i s past, t h e i r strength runs out . They can produce nothing higher i n r e l i g i o n , law, science, or a r t , nor have they carried mankind to i t s moral good. How the future belongs to the Slavs who w i l l serve mankind. Russia, as the representative of the Slav race, w i l l fuse ancient and modern c i v i l i z a t i o n , reconcile heart and head, e s t a b l i s h everywhere law and peace, and prove that mankind's goal i s not only l i b e r t y , a r t , and science, or industry and wealth but something higher--the true enlightenment in the s p i r i t of C h r i s t i a n i t y , the guidance by God's word which i s assurance of a l l happiness • (c) Tyutchev In 1848 the great Slavophils poet Tyutchev*"* wrote in his Russia and Revolution: The West i s dying, everything crumbles,everything collapses in the general conflagration, the Europe of Charlemagne as w e l l as the Europe of the treaties of 1815, the Roman papacy, and a l l the Western  40.  Pogodin (1800-75), noted p u b l i c i s t and h i s t o r i a n . In 1841 he founded in Moscow a conservative monthly magazine Moskvitianin markedly Slavophile in tone. This magazine continued u n t i l 1855 .  41.  Kohn , The Twentieth Century, quoted on p. 103.  42.  Fyodor Tyutchev (1803 - 73), one of Russia's foremost l y r i c a l poets. In his Diary of a Writer ( V o l . 1, p.425), Dostoevsky quotes approvingxy toUr Tines by Tyutchev addressed to Russia . "Thee, my land, in days d i s t r e s s i n g , C h r i s t , our Lord, in s l a v i s h dress , Burdened with the c r u c i a l s t r e s s . To and f r o traversed blessing ." Cf . In Dostoevsky's w r i t i n g s , " C h r i s t roams throughout the Russian land clothed as a beggar ."  14 kingdoms, Catholic and Protestant, f a i t h long since l o s t and reason reduced to absurdity. Above this vast shipwreck, appears, l i k e an Ark of the Covenant, the Russian Empire, more vast than ever,^ Then who w i l l dare to doubt the Russian m i s s i o n ? 43  (d) Danilievsky The n a t u r a l i s t and founder of s c i e n t i f i c Slavophilism N i k o l a i D a n i l i e v s k y  44  believed Russia was  d i f f e r e n t and d i s t i n c t l y unique because God had w i l l e d each race or nation to be different . Just as each species of birds i s d i s t i n c t i v e and preserves i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , so also does each nation preserve i t s individual i n s t i t u t i o n s , i t s p a r t i c u l a r characteristics , 45  i t s concept of j u s t i c e and i t s d i s t i n c t i v e ideals . Thus, f o r Danilievsky, the Slavs constitute a species of t h e i r own—a family led by "Big Brother" Russia which i s endowed with the s p i r i t of God and destined to lead the 43. Quoted in Hare, S o c i a l Thought, p. 136, and also Kohn , Twentieth Century, p. 10"6. It i s not d i f f i c u l t to understand why Tyutchev was so much admired by the l a t e r Pan-Slavists . Here i s a sample from his poem Russian Geography written as early as 1829 . (p .132 Hare, S o c i a l Thought) "Seven inland seas and seven mighty rivers , Prom the N i l e to the Neva, from the Elbe to China, From the Volga to the Euphrates, from the Ganges to the Danube, That i s the Russian Empire ." 44. N. Y. Danilievsky (1822-85) belonged with Dostoevsky to the Petrashevsky group (see below) . He was an authority on Darwinism and on the habits of f i s h . He was the author of a h i s t o r i c o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t i s e Rossiya i jgy&opa (1871) . 45 . Anatole Mazour, Russia Past and Present, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc ., 1951, p. 35.  15 46 Slav nations along the path of glory . During the middle of the Nineteenth Century Russian i n t e l l e c t u a l s came under the influence of French Utopian Socialism. The philosophical ideas of Cabet, George Sand, Louis Blanc, Sain-Simon, Proudhon, and p a r t i c u l a r l y Fourier were much in fashion . From 1845-9 such figures as Dostoevsky, Danilievsky, Saltykov-Shedrin and Pleshcheev would gather weekly at the home of Petrashevsky and discuss current p o l i t i c a l tendencies . 47  There were no attempts at violence or revolution amongst the Petrashevsky Circle, ® only an academic desire to 4  arouse the dormant public to think .  46. Danilievsky sets up " c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i c a l types as he sets up types in the animal world. There i s no c i v i l i z a t i o n which holds good f o r a l l mankind, no common history of man. A l l that there can be i s a rieher c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i c a l type which associates more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s within i t s e l f . " (Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, pp . 65-66) . ~" 47. To Petrashevsky i s attributed the statement: "Finding nothing worthy of my attachment either among women or among men, I have vowed myself to the service of mankind ." (Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p. 99; and also Berdyaev, Origin of Russian Communism, p. 32). 48 . The figure of Stavrogin i n The Possessed i s supposedly based oh the f i g u r e of N. Speshnev--an extreme revolutionary of the Petrashevsky c i r c l e .  16 Nicolas Fedorov The influence of the enigmatic philosopher N i k o l a i Fedorov  (1828-1903) should not he ignored.  Fedorov was a " s e l f l e s s s o u l , who f e l t acutely that each was  responsible f o r a l l , who desired men to l i v e neither  f o r themselves  nor f o r others, but, in the s p i r i t u a l .  sense of the word, with a l l . "  4 9  Like T o l s t o i he exposed  the f a l s i t y of culture and desired a complete change of the world .  "He was a Russian searcher a f t e r universal  salvation i n whom the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a l l f o r a l l reached i t s ultimate and most trenchant e x p r e s s i o n . " ^ Dostoevsky was to write of Fedorov: "He aroused my interest more than enough . I am e s s e n t i a l l y in complete agreement with his ideas, I have accepted them, so to 51  speak, as my own ."  Fedorov's philosophy was projective  KC  and active  not contemplative or t h e o r e t i c a l . In his  Philosophy of Common Work Fedorov does not passively r e f l e c t the world but a c t i v e l y s t r i v e s to transform and improve i t . Everything can be accomplished by active 49. Avrahm Yarmolinsky, Dostoevsky, A L i f e , Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1934, p. 350 . 50. Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p. 208. 51. Ibid., p. 209 . 52. Fedorov advocated a unity of theory and practice l i k e Marx and Engels and Berdyaev himself (see his introduction to Slavery and Freedom) .  17 53 work but not by passive thinking and knowledge.  Death,  f o r N i k o l a i Fedorov, is the one and ultimate evil--the true vocation of man i s to resurrect l i f e .  Fedorov's  Philosophy of Common Work i s sharply tinged with Messianism.  The Russian people are to commence the  54 common work of redeeming the world's s p i r i t u a l l y dead. Although Berdyaev has described Fedorov's philosophy as "naively r e a l i s t i c and simple-minded" l n d his ideas as 6  belonging "rather to natural science than to philosophy"^ he sees i n Fedorov's desire f o r universal salvation not only a deep manifestation of love and 'sobornost' but a r e a l v i c t o r y over what he c a l l s "transcendent religious 57 egoism" . The animating s p i r i t of Russian Nineteenth Century Philosophy It i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable from Slavophil* thought that the fundamental idea of Russian philosophy is "the idea of the concrete existent, of the underlying 58 r e a l existence which precedes r a t i o n a l thought!' In 53. Nicolas Berdyaev, "N. P. Pedorov" , The Russian Review V o l . 9 , No. 2 ., A p r i l 1950 , p. 129 . 54 . I b i d . , pp. 125-30 . 55 . Berdyaev, The Beginning and the End, p. 233 . 56. Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p. 210. 57. Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t , Charles Scribner's Sons, 1935 , p. 324 . 58. Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p. 160 .  18 Russian philosophy f a i t h i s contrasted with knowledge in the same way as s p i r i t u a l i t y i s contrasted with 5Q  materialism .  The animating s p i r i t of Russian philosophy  is P l a t o , c l a s s i c German idealism and mysticism E s s e n t i a l l y i t s interests are r e l i g i o u s and i t s s e l f acquired mission i s to mediate somewhere between r e l i g i o n and science. Thus i t can be said that Russian philosophy aims, in i t s own d i s t i n c t i v e way, at the objectivication of mysticism . The varied contribution of Slavophil thought such as the rationalism of Khomyakov, the romanticism of Kireevsky, the idealism of Tyutchev  and the empiricism of  Danilievsky finds a form of synthesis in the works and philosophy of Russia's giant novelist Dostoevsky.  59. Thomas G. Masaryk, The S p i r i t of Russia, V o l . 2, George A l l e n & Unwin Ltd., 1919, p. 477 . 60 . Ibid ., p. 487.  CHAPTER I I .  Chapter I I .  Dostoevsky—An Interpretation of His Philosophy  1 . Irrationalism and the ' w i l l ' . 2.  The 'Man-God' .  3.  The Russian Idea.  4 . Suffering . 5 . Love. 6 . Beauty.  Dostoevsky—An Interpretation of His Philosophy  Irrationalism and the ' w i l l ' In 1854 , in a l e t t e r from the penal colony at Omsk to the devout Mme . Ponvizina, Dostoevsky wrote: ... I have formulated my creed wherein a l l i s dear and holy to me. "This creed i s extremely simple: here i t i s : I believe that there i s nothing l o v e l i e r , deeper, more sympathetic , more r a t i o n a l , more human and more perfect than the Saviour; I say to myself that not only is.there no one else l i k e Him, but that there could be no one . I would even say more: I f anyone could" prove tome that Christ i s outside the t r u t h , and i f the t r u t h r e a l l y did exclude C h r i s t , I should prefer to stay with Christ and not with the truth.. .. In The Possessed there i s a character s t r i k i n g l y akin to-Dostoevsky in the f i g u r e of Shatov . When asked by Stavrogin i f he believed in God Shatov r e p l i e s :  2  'I believe in Russia...I believe in her orthodoxy...1 believe i n the body of Christ ....I believe that the new advent w i l l take place in Russia...,! believe...' Shatov muttered f r a n t i c a l l y . 'And i n God? In God?' •I...I w i l l believe in God.' A l l his l i f e Dostoevsky fluctuated between b e l i e f and non-belief.  He could think with Ivan Karamazov but  f e e l with Alyosha . He who could experience the  1. J . Middleton Murry, Pyodor Dostoevsky, A C r i t i c a l Study. Martin Seeker, 1923, p. 78 . 2. Pyodor Dostoevsky, The Possessed. Modern L i b r a r y , 1936, p. 253. 19  20 s p i r i t u a l p u r i t y of an Alyosha only the next moment would he seared by Ivan.  the ruthless skepticism  of an  " I f i t happens that I t r y to explain an  idea  I believe i n , i t almost always happens that I cease to believe what I have explained ."  3  psychological insight and  By means of  incomparable s k i l l Dostoevsky  projects the reader into the mind of one of his "doubles*.  1  Yes, I am r e a l l y s p l i t in two mentally, and I'm h o r r i b l y a f r a i d of i t . I t ' s just as though one's second s e l f were standing beside one; one is sensible and r a t i o n a l oneself, but the other s e l f i s Impelled to do something p e r f e c t l y senseless, and sometimes very funny; and suddenly you notice that you are longing to do that amusing thing, goodness knows why; that is what you want t o , as i t were, against your w i l l ; though you f i g h t against i t with a l l your might, you want t o . I once knew a doctor who suddenly began w h i s t l i n g in church, at his father's f u n e r a l . In Letters from the Underworld Dostoevsky  emphatically  defends human personality as something d i s t i n c t  and  autonomous . As the 'undergroundling' he expresses his unequivocal b e l i e f in free w i l l : Would i t not be a good thing...to l i v e our l i v e s again according to our own stupid whims ?... .Man loves to act as he l i k e s , and not necessarily as reason and s e l f - i n t e r e s t would have him do. Yes, he w i l l even act straight against his own i n t e r e s t s . Indeed, he is sometimes bound to do B O . . . . " Science w i l l in time show man that he does not possess any  3. Pyodor Dostoevsky, A Raw Youth, Macmillan Co., Chapter 2 — V e r s i l o v speaks .. 4. I b i d . , V e r s i l o v , with perfect frankness, undisguised schizophrenia.  1916,  confesses his  5. Dostoevsky, Letters from the Underworld, pp.30-1.  21 w i l l or i n i t i a t i v e of hie own, and never has done, but that he i s as the keyboard of a piano, or as the handle of a hurdy-gurdy"... .What but the handle of a hurdy-gurdy could a human being „ represent who was devoid of desires or v o l i t i o n ? ...Every human act arises out of the circumstance that man i s forever s t r i v i n g to prove to h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n that he i s a man and not an organ handle .° Already i n The Landlady i n 1847 Dostoevsky had introduced i n embryo the f i r s t spasms of the s e l f w i l l e d and proud Man-God mentality i n the person of old Murin when he asserts: "Let each man l i v e the l i f e he wills" .  9  The 'Man-God  1  Behind a l l Dostoevsky's creative a r t l i e s the unceasing search f o r an Absolute Value .  1 0  Throughout  his work he shows that personalities are moved, not only by science and reason, but by an i r r a t i o n a l force  6. Ibid., p. 29 . 7 . Ibid ., p. 32. 8. I b i d . , p. 37, Berdyaev, along with Andre Gide, Henri Troyat, Leon Chestov, 1. H. Carr, E. J . Simmons and Janko Lavrin,affirm that Letters from the Underworld is the keystone to Dostoevsky's entire work. As indeed did Dostoevsky's contemporary, the c r i t i c Apollon Grigoriev, who exhorted the author to write only in such a vein . . 9. Dostoevsky, The Landlady. Everyraans Library, 1945, p .290 . 10. Janko Lavrin, Dostoevsky and His Creation, p . 57.  22 which "sways and dominates them the origin of which is unknown and inexplicable...the longing f o r an absolute s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , the eternal search f o r an Absolute ValueV In The Possessed Stavrogin succeeds  in the " k i l l i n g " of  God and ends up not with absolute freedom but in an absolute v o i d . Stavrogin i s another one of Dostoevsky's 'Man-God' creations who would have been l i k e l y to shout w i t h Nietzsche "God  i s dead—long  l i v e the Superman."  Not the "Man-God" but the "God-Man" i s Dostoevsky's  ideal  superman, one f o r whom: God, the.Universe and E t e r n i t y are l i v i n g r e a l i t i e s .  Dostoevsky emphatically repeats  that man has no right to exist i f God does not e x i s t . If God e x i s t s , a l l i s His w i l l and from His w i l l I cannot escape. If not, i t ' s a l l my w i l l and I am bound to show s e l f - w i l l . . . , .1 am bound to shoot myself because the highest point of mys e l f - w i l l i s to k i l l myself with my own hands .12 The titanism of the extreme 'Man-God' K i r i l l o v shows i t s e l f once more in his passionate conversation with Stavrogin.. 'There w i l l be a new l i f e on earth. History w i l l be seen divided into two vast epochs, the f i r s t from the g o r i l l a to the a n n i h i l a t i o n of the conception of God, and,, secondly, from the extinction of God to?-' 'To the g o r i l l a ? ' suggested Stavrogin, with cold mockery . 'To the transformation of the earth and of man physically,' resumed K i r i l l o v calmly. 'Man w i l l be a God and be p h y s i c a l l y transformed in his powers. The world w i l l be changed, and a l l things w i l l be changed, including thought and emotion .'13  11. I b i d . , p. 113 . 12. Dostoevsky, The Possessed, p. 627. 13 . I b i d . , p . 114 .  23 K i r i l l o v i s in many ways a development of the  'Man-  God' Terentev in The Idiot and a forerunner of Ivan Karamazov.  In his impassioned  to deny God f o r the sake of man  outbursts K i r i l l o v seems "and almost  i n a Christ-  l i k e sense offers himself as a s a c r i f i c e f o r the greater glory of man  ."^  I have no higher idea than d i s b e l i e f in God. I nave a l l the history of mankind on my s i d e . Man has done nothing but invent God so as to go on l i v i n g and not k i l l himself: that's the whole of universal history up t i l l now . I am the f i r s t one in the whole history of mankind who would not invent God .I 5  K i r i l l o v escaped humiliation by committing  suicide .  Not so Verkhovensky whose appetite f o r humiliation and devotion i s extreme f o r a confirmed atheist Verkhovensky recognizes the necessity of bowing to someone greater than himself.  He expresses this  f e e l i n g with s n i v e l l i n g s e r v i l i t y before his god, Stavrogin: You are my i d o l I You injure no one, and everyone hates you. You treat everyone as an equal, and yet everyone is a f r a i d of you—that's good. Nobody would slap you on the shoulder. You are an awful a r i s t o c r a t . An a r i s t o c r a t i s i r r e s i s t i b l e when he goes i n f o r democracy I To s a c r i f i c e l i f e , your own or another's is nothing to you. You are just the man that's needed. It's j u s t such a man as you that I need. I know no one but you. You are the leader, you are the sun, and I am your worm  14. Ernest J . Simmons, Dostoevski, the Making of a Novelist. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1940 , p. 283 . 15 . Dostoevsky, The Possessed, p. 580 . 16. Troyat, Firebrand.the L i f e of Dostoevsky, p. 1 7  • On. C i t ..p. 426.  351.  24 Thie i s the humiliation of a 'Man-god'. In opposition to such as K i r i l l o v , Verkhovensky and Stavrogin, Dostoevsky sets up the prototype of the 'God-man' such as Alyosha, Father Zo&sima and Prince Myshkin in whom humility conquers  humiliation.  The Russian Idea ~\  Dostoevsky firmly "believed that 'fsyechelovechnost' — t h e a b i l i t y to share the point of view of a l l nations-§was "the p r i n c i p a l personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and 19 designation of a Russian ."  In a l e t t e r to the  Tsarevitch Alexander, enclosed with a copy of The Possessed , Dostoevsky wrote: " , . .We have forgotten that in the depths of the Russian national s p i r i t dwells the a b i l i t y to say something new to the entire world, on »20 condition that we maintain our own separate development." That "something new" was Russia's genuine contribution to the world because "the lost image of Christ i n a l l . . . i t s purity i s conserved in Orthodoxy". 18. Berdyaev, Origin of Russian Communism, p. 36. 21  19. Dostoevsky, The Diary of a Writer, p. 342. In his Pushkin apeech Dostoevsky, with the greatest solemn i t y , proclaimed his formula of an all-embracing, a l l uniting and a l l - r e c o n c i l i n g Russian and Christian ideal. According to Soloviev, Dostoevsky, in the realm of ideas was"a visionary and an a r t i s t , rather than a l o g i c a l thinker, consequent with himself." (Lossky, Russian Philosophy, p. 119) . 20. Stanislas Mackiewicz, Dostoevsky. Orbis Ltd., 1947, p. 171. 21. Dostoevsky, Diary of a Writer, p. 906.  25 It i s from the East that the new word w i l l he uttered to the world in opposition to future socialism, and this word may again save European mankind. Such i s the mission of the East .33. Every great people "believes and must believe i f i t intends to l i v e long, that in i t alone resides the salvation of the world; that i t l i v e s i n order to stand at the head of the nations, to a f f i l i a t e and unite a l l of them, and to lead them in a concordant choir toward the f i n a l goal preordained f o r them .23 Using Shatov as his mouthpiece in The Possessed, Dostoevsky maintained that man could be redeemed only by the healing properties of the Orthodox f a i t h . Dostoevsky meant hot the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d but the idealized Orthodoxy as conceived by Solovyev and l a t e r , Berdyaev and Bulgakov—a r e l i g i o n to be marked by freedom and devotion.  No matter what "ism" people  profess , i f they have no r e l i g i o u s f a i t h Dostoevsky believed that their foundation was b u i l t upon the sand. Por Dostoevsky the only firm foundation was r e l i g i o n — p a r t i c u l a r l y Orthodoxy, without which man becomes 24 "possessed". The object of every national movement, in every people and at every period of i t s existence i s only the seeking f o r i t s god, who must be i t s own god, and the f a i t h in Him as the only true one. God i s the synthetic personality of the whole people, taken from i t s beginning to i t s end... .When gods begin to be common to several nations the gods are dying and the f a i t h i n them, together with the  22 . Lo.c . c i t . 23. Ibid ., p. 575 . 24. Ivar Spector, The Golden Age of Russian L i t e r a t u r e , Canton P r i n t e r s Ltd ., 1943, p. 133 .  26 the nations themselves . The stronger a people the more i n d i v i d u a l t h e i r God.... Every people is only a people so long as i t has i t s own god and excludes a l l other gods on earth i r r e c o n c i l ably-; so long as i t believes that by i t s god i t w i l l conquer and drive out of the world a l l other gods.... If a great people does not believe that the t r u t h i s only to be found in i t s e l f alone (in i t s e l f alone and in i t exclusively) ; i f i t does not believe that i t alone i s f i t and destined to raise up and save a l l the rest by i t s truth, i t would at once sink into being ethnographical . material, and not a great people. A r e a l l y great people can never accept a secondary part in the history of Humanity, nor even one of the f i r s t , but w i l l have the f i r s t p a r t . A nation which loses t h i s b e l i e f ceases to be a nation. But there i s only one t r u t h , and therefore., only a" single one out of the nations may have great gods of their own. Only one nation i s 'god-bearing'? that's the Russian people . Vladimir Solovyev r e c a l l s that on one occasion Dostoevsky spoke of "the woman arrayed with the sun" mentioned in Revelation, and of her crying out"in pain to be delivered" of a man-child.  For Dostoevsky, Solovyev declared, the  woman was Russia and the c h i l d the message she carried for the world .  2 6  Do you know who are the only 'god-bearing' people on earth, destined to regenerate and save the world in.the name of a new God, and to whom are given the Keys of l i f e and of the new world..,. Do you know which i s that people and what is i t s name?*' For  Dostoevsky that 'god-bearing' people i s the Russian  people;  The author found in Europe not C h r i s t i a n i t y but  a dead a n d - r a t i o n a l i s t i c formula of the Christian doctrine.  25. Dostoevsky, The Possessed,, pp. 254-5 . 26 . Avrahm Yarmolinsky, Dostoevsky, p.357 . 2  7  • OP.  P i t ., p. 250 .  It was i n the r e l i g i o u s s p i r i t of the Russian peasants that he' found Christ as a l i v i n g symbol, a mystical r e a l i t y in man's consciousness.^ Berdyaev ,  8  In the words of  2 9  Dostoevsky was the herald of the 'Russian Idea' and of the consciousness of his nation, w i t h a l l i t s antinomies and restless uneasiness, i t s humility and arrogance, i t s universal compassion and i t s national exclusivism . In his many writings Dostoevsky revealed more than any other w r i t e r before or a f t e r him a r e l i g i o u s populism and a Messianic people-worship . Suffering The fundamental s p i r i t u a l quest of the Russian people i s , Dostoevsky believed, t h e i r craving f o r s u f f e r i n g — " p e r p e t u a l and unquenchable  suffering—  everywhere and i n everything ." It seems that they have been affected by this t h i r s t f o r martyrdom from time immemorial. The suffering stream flows through t h e i r whole history--not merely because of external calamities and misfortunes: i t gushes from the people's very h e a r t . 3 2  Dostoevsky's greatest characters go through four stages: crime, followed by the punishment  of s u f f e r i n g .  28. Lavrin, Dostoevsky and His Creation, p. 184. 29. Nicolas Berdyaev . Dostoevsky, Sheed & Ward, 1934, p.160. 30 . I b i d . , p. 184 . 31. Dostoevsky, Diary of a Writer, p . 36 . 32 . Loc . c i t .  28 repentance, and through love, forgiveness.  It was  Dostoevsky's b e l i e f that man's heart possessed the greatest and most poignant p i t y f o r a l l creatures and that through " u r a i l e n i e " o r "melting of the heart", what 33  had formerly been strange and a l i e n becomes part of the i n d i v i d u a l himself, becomes "dear" to him and he comes to love a l l creatures, has compassion f o r t h e i r s u f f e r ing, and shares i n t h e i r destiny.  For Dostoevsky, the  greatest thing i n the world was love , which he conceived of as evolving only from suffering .  It has been frequently  maintained that Dostoevsky made a f e t i s h of suffering . However, he did not advocate s u f f e r i n g f o r i t s own sake, but rather as the most important means whereby an i n d i v i d u a l , society or nation could reach the highest end. Pulcheria Alexandrovna i n Crime and Punishment i s one of Dostoesky's h e r o i c a l l y suffering figures Raskolnikov  3  4  The mother of  has endured almost every misfortune, has been  c r u e l l y tormented by l i f e , yet within her there i s an unworldly s p i r i t which cannot be extinguished.  In the  same book the wry p o l i c e inspector says to Raskolnikov: "I am convinced  that you w i l l decide to 'take your  33. L. A. Zander, Dostoevsky, ( t r . by Natalie Duddington), S.C.M. Press Ltd., 1948, p. 24. 34. Richard Curie, Characters of Dostoevsky, William Heinemann Ltd., 1950 , pp. oD-6.  29 suffering'....  For suffering Rodion Romanovitch, i s  a great thing....  Don't laugh at i t , there's an idea  ^5  in s u f f e r i n g . "  In the author's greatest work,  The Brothers Karamazov, Mitya shouts to his accusers: "I accept the torture of accusation and my public shame, I want to s u f f e r and by suffering I s h a l l be purified." It i s p l a i n that man feels- i l l at ease when the end of his labor has "really been reached . That i s to say, he loves to a t t a i n , but not completely to a t t a i n ^ . . May i t not also be that he loves adversity? And may not adversity be as good f o r him as i s happiness?... I am not altogether f o r adversity, any more than I am altogether f o r prosperity; what I most stand f o r israypersonal f r e e w i l l , and f o r what i t can do f o r me when I f e e l i n the right mood to use i t . . ' . . I f e e l certain that man never wholly rejects adversity; f o r adversity i s the mainspring of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n ?^ The impact of Dostoevsky's remorseless experiences i s 3  f e l t in these l i n e s : I can bear everything, any s u f f e r i n g , i f I can only keep on saying to myself 'I l i v e ; I am in a thousand torments, but I l i v e . I am on the p i l l a r , but I exist . I see the sun, or I do not see the sun, but I know that i t i s . And . to know that there i s a sun, that i s l i f e enough." 1  35. Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, Everyman's Library, 1948, Part VI., Chapter I I . 36. Dostoevsky, Letters from the Underworld, p. 40. 37. I b i d . , p. 41. 38. Quoted in Dmitri Merejkowski, T o l s t o i as Man and A r t i s t . with an essay on Dostoevsky, Archibald Constable & Co. Ltd., 1902 , p. 143 .  3G "Dostoevsky's work',' Berdyaev remarks, " i s permeated by compassion to a degree to be found nowhere else i n the whole of world l i t e r a t u r e ."  39  He had a deep reverence f o r human s u f f e r i n g , yet not without reason he i s c a l l e d 'a c r u e l genius'. The element of cruelty in him is connected with his f a i t h in the redemptive power of s u f f e r i n g . He regarded man as a contradictory being who needs to suffer . His was not an optimistic sort of humanism: i t was t r a g i c . At the heart of a l l his works are to be found the themes of man and his sad destiny. Dostoevsky's outlook on suffering can best be summed up in his own words, "Friends, do not fear l i f e .  Only by  suffering can we learn to love l i f e ." Love "Christ is the only love of the Russian and they love His image in t h e i r own way, 41 of was  suffranee ." to love God.  people,  to the l i m i t  For Dostoevsky, man's greatest duty For, i f there be no God, to love man  would be to deify him, regard him as an Absolute  and  hence a 'man-god' . Dostoevsky believed that i t was impossible to love man apart from God. 39 . Berdyaev , Towards a New  He even makes  Epoch, p. 59 .  40 . Loc . c i t . 41. Dostoevsky, Diary of a Writer, p. 39.  31 Ivan Karamazov declare that he cannot love hie fellows. Outside of the C h r i s t i a n conception love becomes an AO  i l l u s i o n and a l i e - - i t degenerates into a r b i t r a r y s e l f 43  w i l l and a sense of t o t a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . Dostoevsky' s characters, i t manifests  In  i t s e l f in depraved  sensuality or i n t e l l e c t u a l n i h i l i s m ^"both of which have as t h e i r end result insanity or s u i c i d e . In Letters from the Underworld Dostoevsky underlines the marked contrast between the r a t i o n a l skepticism, with a l l i t s resultant contradictions, of the 'undergroundling' the naJve p i t y and love of the p r o s t i t u t e , L i s a . he who  is damned, she who  and It is  is saved . Dostoevsky believed  that only one's resolution t o do everything fortthe M  sake of active love. . .is obligatory and important . One must s a c r i f i c e , to the extent of giving everything and not even wishing that anything be given in return... .How is this to be done? It is impossible to do i t , but i t must be done in and f o r i t s e l f , i t must be in one's nature, unconsciously existing in the nature of the whole t r i b e . In a word, there ought to be a foundation of brotherly l o v e — t h e r e ought to be love.45  1,44  42. Berdyaev, Dostoevsky, p.  131.  43 . I b i d . , p. 123 . 44. Dostoevsky, Diary of a Writer, V o l . 2, p. 622. 45. Dostoevsky, Letters from the Underworld. pp. 86-7.  32 Dostoevsky advocates a unique type of Christian Socialism. Supreme freedom i s not to hoard money and not to "base one's security upon i t , but'to d i s t r i b u t e one's property among a l l people and to go and serve everybody.' I f a man i s capable of t h i s , i f he i s capable of overcoming himself to such an extent--isn't he free a f t e r that? This i s the supreme manifestation of will-power 1 4  7  In The Brothers Karamazov Dostoevsky's most supreme ode to love i s spoken by the s a i n t l y Father Zossima: Brothers have no fear of men's s i n . Love a man even in his s i n , f o r that i s the semblance of Divine Love and i s the highest love on earth. Love a l l God's creation, the whole and every grain of sand in i t . Love every l e a f , every ray of God's l i g h t . Love the animals, love the plants,, love everything. I f you love everything, you w i l l perceive the divine mystery i n things..,. And you w i l l come at l a s t to love the whole world with an all-embracing love4§.. God took seeds from d i f f e r e n t worlds and sowed them on t h i s earth, and his garden grew up and everything came up that could come up, but what grows l i v e s and i s a l i v e only through the f e e l i n g of i t s contact with other mysterious worlds . I f that f e e l i n g grows weak and is destroyed i n you, the heavenly growth w i l l die away in you. Then you w i l l be indifferent to l i f e , and even grow to hate i t , 4 9  46. Although he "denies the p o s s i b i l i t y of setting up heaven on earth without the a i d of God, without the recognition that s i n i s a r e a l i t y and not something which w i l l disappear with the operation of an improved system of the production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of commodities" (lex Warner, The Cult of Power, John Lane the Bodley Head Ltd.-, 1946, p. 83) . 47 .Dostoevsky, Diary of a Writer, p. 623. 48 . Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Brothers Karamazov, Modern Library, 1950 , pp . 382-3 . ' :  49 . I b i d . , p . 385.  33 In his eloquent "Legend of the Grand Inquisitor" Dostoevsky makes i t abundantly c l e a r that the only worthwhile a l t e r n a t i v e to a ruling elect which offers mankind miracle, mystery and authority i s the incompar50 able anarchy of love . Beauty "Beauty," Dostoevsky said, " w i l l save the world."  I t " i s the Christianized cosmos in which chaos  is overcome....  Beauty i s the goal of a l l l i f e , i t i s 51  the d e i f i c a t i o n of the world."  But t h i s same beauty  f o r Dostoevsky was at the same time t e r r i b l e and mysterious.  " I t is here," he wrote, "that the d e v i l  s t r i v e s with God, and the f i e l d of battle i s the hearts of men ." How are we to understand t h i s ? . . . Externally harmonious beauty may be deceptive and f a l s e , i t may screen ugliness. Beauty may pass over into i t s opposite, as may every other p r i n c i p l e too, when i t breaks away from the source of l i g h t . It may, therefore, be said w i t h equal t r u t h , that i t i s harmony and rest from painful struggle and that i t may become a ' f i e l d of b a t t l e ' between God and the devil.** Dostoevsky's " t r a d i t i o n a l mysticism of love" pervades a l l his works . In The Brothers Karamazov, through the 2  53  50. Ivan Roe, The-Breath, of Corruption, an Interpretation of Dostoevsky. Hutchison & Co. L t d . . 1950. p. 86. 51. Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t . p. 333. 52. Nicolas Berdyaev , The Divine and the Human, Geoffrey Bles , 1949 , p . 140 . 53. Qp. c i t . , p . 263.  personality of Ivan , the author writes: I want to see with my own eyes the hind l i e down w i t h the l i o n and the victim r i s e up and embrace hie murderer. I want to be there when everyone suddenly understands what i t has a l l been f o r . A l l the religions of the world are b u i l t on t h i s longing and I am a believer .54  54. Dostoevsky, The Brothers Karamazov. p. 289.  CHAPTER III .  Chapter III .. The Impact of Dostoevsky on Berdyaev  1.  Mysticism .  2.  Messianism .  3.  Humanism (a) I t s bankruptcy (to) The twofold nature of progress.  4 . Democracy . 5.  Asceticism, atheism and n i h i l i s m .  6 . Evil 7 .  (a) As non-being (b) A l l things are not l a w f u l . Immortality.  The Impact of Dostoevsky on Berdyaev  Mysticism The foundation and source of a l l creative movement, according to Berdyaev, i s mysticism. I t i s that "knowledge which has i t s source in v i t a l and immediate contact w i t h the ultimate r e a l i t y . . .derived from 'mystery' .  m 1  Berdyaev distinguishes between two  kinds of mysticism . There i s f i r s t the s a i n t l y mysticism.of perfection or elevation of the soul to God and secondly the mysticism of p e n e t r a t i o n — a kind of second sight or insight into the supreme meaning of a l l things.  Into t h i s second category Berdyaev  places Jacob Boehrae, Baader, Soloyev , Leon Bloy and 2  Dostoevsky.  The following c i t a t i o n from The Possessed  would be f o r Berdyaev an instance of Dostoevsky's prophetic mysticism which has as i t s aim the d i v i n i z a t i o n of man and the transfiguration of everything created . 1 . Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t , p. 2 5 3 . 2 . Lampert, Evgeny-, "Hicolas Berdyaev", Modern Christian Revolutionaries, ed . Attwater, Devin-Adair Co., 1 9 4 7 , p . 336 . 3  •  O P . cit  ., pp  . 254-5  .  35  36 Every earthly woe and every earthly tear i s a joy f o r us . And when you water the earth with your tears a foot deep, you w i l l rejoice at everything at once, and your sorrow w i l l he no more, such i s the prophecy. In such a passage Berdyaev would find'fei transcendence of the created w o r l d "  in which the transcendental 5 becomes s p i r i t u a l l y immanent . 4  Mess ian ism Mysticism and Messianism are closely linked in Berdyaev's writings . He discovers four types of Messianism: National or universal messianism , messianism of this world or the next, Victorious or suffering messianism and Personal or impersonal messianism . These four Mess ian isms converge to produce Christian Messianism which "not only postulates the existence of the transcendent, but also recognizes the possibility  of changing our world by means of the 7  transcendent."  Berdyaev regards C h r i s t i a n i t y as both  4. Nicolas Berdyaev , S p i r i t and R e a l i t y , Geoffrey Bles, 1946, p. 119 . 5. I b i d . . p. 120. Professor Lavrin regards Dostoevsky as a transcendental or symbolic r e a l i s t , as a visionary rather than a v i s u a l r e a l i s t who sees i n a c t u a l i t y only a v e i l of the inner r e a l i t y . (Dostoevsky—A Study and Dostoevsky and His Creation, p. 33). 6. Berdyaev, The Divine and the Human, p. 175 . 7 . I b i d . , p. 177 .  37 Messianic and eschat©logical, "that i s to say, dynamic and progressive in the s p i r u t a l or deepest sense of the g word ." For Berdyaev, the Messianic idea gives meaning 9 to h i s t o r y , especially to Russian history . Russia remained outside the great modern humanist movement; she has had no Renaissance.... She has never "been able wholly to accept humani s t culture, with i t s r a t i o n a l i s t concepts, formal logic and law, neutrality i n r e l i g i o n , and general secular compromise.... But the Russians took over the l a s t f r u i t s of European humanism at the moment of i t s decay, when i t was destroying both i t s e l f and the divine image in man.... Russia, situated midway of East and West, i n a t e r r i b l e catastrophic way has taken on the most considerable significance of a l l - ^ l nations: the eyes of the whole world are on her. In "The New Middle Ages"—the coming period of history and c u l t u r e , Berdyaev reserves a s p e c i a l place f o r Russia because he f e e l s she "looks to the future". has remained r e l a t i v e l y free of standardized  She  "civiliza-  t i o n " and as yet has been unwilling to s a c r i f i c e content 12 f o r form . Above a l l , l i k e Dostoevsky, Berdyaev f e e l s 8. Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t , p. 304 . 9  » Ou • c i t . , p. 171.  10 . Quoted in Lara pert, Berdyaev, p. 363. 11. I b i d . , pp. 364-5. 12 . Loc . c i t .  38 the Russian people are the most u n i v e r s a l i s t . Humanism (a) Its bankruptcy Over and over again Berdyaev remarks that the creative powers and inner p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the Renaissance are "played out", "exhausted", "used up" 14 and "bankrupt" . The Middle Ages with t h e i r asceticism, monasticism, and chivalry had economized human forces and thus allowed t h e i r creative flowering in the age of the Renaissance. Humanism, on the other hand, repudiated both ascetic d i s c i p l i n e and submission to supernatural p r i n c i p l e s . It dissipated and exhausted human f o r c e s , and thus undermined the authority of human personality.... Once the personality has lost a l l idea and consciousness of i t s e l f , i t seeks f o r a s p i r i t u a l authority to restore i t s f a i l i n g strength.... Humanist atheism leads to humanist s e l f repudiation, or anti-humanism, and that freedom becomes compulsion.... Modern man, in pursuit of his aim to dominate the world has become i t s s l a v e d . . (Russian thought w i t h ) i t s deep sense of anguish and suffering i s in complete contrast to the spontaneous joy and exuberance of Renaissance humanism. Dostoevsky in p a r t i c u l a r penetrated to the very depths of European humanism . In his works the humanist ideal appears t r a g i c a l l y bankrupt .  13. Cf . Doestoevsky's Pushkin speech in which he describes the task of coming generations in Russia to be that of uttering "the ultimate word of great universal harmony, of the brotherly accord of a l l nations abiding by the law of Christ's gospel." (Diary of a Writer. Vol.2, p .980) . 14 . Monroe C. Beardsley, "Berdyaev: S i b y l in Wasteland" , The Russian Review. V o l . 2, No. 2, Spring 1943, p. 15 . 15 .Nicolas Berdyaev, The Meaning of History. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936, p. 180. 16. I b i d . , p. 181. 17 . I b i d . , p. 184 .  39 The d i a l e c t i c of humanism, as Berdyaev traces i t , i s summed up by Lisaveta Prokofievna in Dostoevsky's The I d i o t , in her words to the "lunatics" who aspire 18 to love each other without loving God: "You are so eaten up with pride and vanity that y o u ' l l end by ..19 eating up one another, that's what I prophesy.." Berdyaev concludes that in the absence of b e l i e f i n OA  the humanity of God, man must needs become inhuman . "Man's s e l f - a f f i r m a t i o n leads to his perdition; the free play of human forces unconnected with any higher aim brings about the exhaustion of man's creative powers Berdyaev sees in Dostoevsky a great Christian w r i t e r who denounced as the e s s e n t i a l defect of Humanism i t s powerlessness to f i n d a solution to the tragedy of 22 human destiny .  Berdyaev's metaphysics of history  may be summed up in his own words: 18. Op. c i t . , p . 15 . 19 . Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Idiot , Modern Library, 1935, p. 270 . 20 . Berdyaev , Autobiography , p . 180. 21. Berdyaev, Meaning of History, p. 142. 22. Berdyaev , Dostoevsky, p . 39 .  40 Man i s the c h i l d of God and suffers a tragic destiny.... At the foundations of t h i s destiny l i e s the o r i g i n a l freedom w i t h which God's c h i l d has been endowed and which i s the true r e f l e c t i o n and image of the c r e a t o r . 2 3  The source of man's "tragic destiny" i s that he i s endowed with freedom f o r e v i l as w e l l as f o r good . 24 In other words, "destiny depends on freedom". (b) The twofold nature of progress Berdyaev i s convinced that h i s t o r i c a l progress in human happiness i s impossible.  He perceives progress  only " i n .the tragic sense of the inner p r i n c i p l e s of being, of the good-evil, divine-demonic a n t i t h e s i s , of 25 the p r i n c i p l e s of good and e v i l in collaboration." Ivan Karamazov i s brought about to a repudiation of God because he saw history as a progression in human happiness—others were to s u f f e r in order that t h i s generation might bring about a new s o c i e t y .  Progress ,  as Berdyaev interprets i t , i s twofold i n nature; either 23 . On. c i t ., p. 77 . 24. Ib i d . , p. 79. "Disciplined h i s t o r i c a l pessimism frees us from a l l earthly Utopias and i l l u s i o n s of a perfect s o c i a l order.... It i s not easy to overcome the r a d i c a l e v i l of human nature and of the nature of the world, but the ultimate v i c t o r y over e v i l i s the transfiguration of the w o r l d — a 'new heaven' and a 'new earth'". (Berdyaev, P i l o s o f i a Ueraventsva, p. 246). 25 . Berdyaev , Meaning of History, p.192 .  41 i t i s orientated ...to the resolving end, to the Kingdom of God, to the immanent and the transcendent , or i t may "be an endless process to which there can be no solution , which contains nothing of value in i t s e l f and in which everything i s turned into a means . Democracy Berdyaev i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p l i c i t y i n his denunciation of Democracy which he regards as Renaissance s e l f - a s s e r t i o n in the p o l i t i c a l sphere ?^  Only a  voluntary subjection of the w i l l of the people to the w i l l of God can overcome the disintegrating effects of i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c autonomy with i t s a l t e r n a t i v e of tyrannical c o l l e c t i v i s m .  Berdyaev would have the  Kingdom of God as the goal not only of s p i r i t u a l l i f e , but also of p o l i t i c a l l i f e .  Shatov's accusation  against liberalism^!n The Possessed i s mild compared  26. Berdyaev, The Divine and the Human, p. 179. 27 . Spinka, Nicolas Berdyaev, p.  168.  28 . Shatov accuses the l i b e r a l s of offering nothing but " s e n i l i t y , a glorious mediocrity of the most bourgeois kind, contemptible shallowness, a jealous equality, equality without individual dignity, equality as i t i s understood by flunkeys." (The Possessed, p. 589) .  to Berdyaev s b i t t e r polemic against Democracy . 1  Democrats t a l k a l o t about l i b e r t y , but no respect f o r the human s p i r i t and personality is entailed: i t i s a love of l i b e r t y expressed by people who are not interested in t r u t h . . . . There was probably more r e a l l i b e r t y of the s p i r i t in the days when the f i r e s of the Spanish Inquisition were blazing than in the middle class republics of to-day.29 Even Berdyaev's sense of humour was exposed to h i s anti-democratic bias . Both i n h i s Autobiograpfay and The End of Our Time he relates an anecdote attributed to Louis Blanc designed to expose the hypocrisy of bourgeois l i b e r a l i s m . A well-to-do Parisian approaches a cab-driver and asks, "Are you f r e e ? " , to determine i f the cab was engaged.  "Yes ," replied the cabbie .  "Long l i v e freedom ," replied the prosperous c i t i z e n and passes on. Berdyaev's philosophy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y lacks a democratic s p i r i t .  I t aspires rather toward a 30 31 mystical form of aristocracy. In h i s Autobiography Berdyaev approves the statement of some c r i t i c s that he speaks f o r the a r i s t o c r a t i c meaning of socialism . His main c r i t i q u e of Democracy i s that he finds i n i t a model of mankind's s p i r i t u a l decline through the  29. Quoted by Lampert, Nicolas Berdyaev, p. 374. 30. Masaryk, The S p i r i t of Russia, V o l . 2 , p. 527. 31. Berdyaev, Autobiography, p. x i v . Preface .  43 assertion of the w i l l to power, organization and earthly happiness . For Berdyaev the higher s p i r i t u a l  l i f e can  come about only through asceticism and resignation . Asceticism, Atheism and Nihilism In r e l i g i o u s asceticism i t i s possible to d i s t i n g u i s h two main v a r i e t i e s .  There i s the asceticism  of a Father Zossima, devotional in origin and a l t r u i s t i c in practice,and that asceticism which i s escapist in origin and anti-humanist in p r a c t i c e , whose advocates "are so preoccupied with themselves , with t h e i r purity and salvation, that they come to hate humanity and have 33 no compassion to waste on i t . "  An outgrowth of t h i s  type of mentality i s n i h i l i s m , which Berdyaev  describes  as "Orthodox asceticism turned inside out, asceticism without Grace."  At the base of Russian n i h i l i s m l i e s  the Orthodox rejection of the w o r l d — t h e idea that "the whole world l i e t h in wickedness ." Dostoevsky has l e f t us such monumental n i h i l i s t s as the a n t i - s o c i a l and amoral Raskolnikov, the demented fanatic K i r i l l o v and the moral psychopath Stavrogin.  Under the category of  32. Berdyaev, Meaning of History, p. 216 . 33 . Berdyaev , S p i r i t and R e a l i t y , p. 79 . 34. Berdyaev, Russian Communism, p. 45 .  44 "mild" n i h i l i s m the names of Dostoevsky, Leontiev, Solovyev, Tolstoy and Berdyaev would inescapably appear, especially  i f Dostoevsky were right when he  wrote, "we are a l l n i h i l i s t s . "  The "mild" n i h i l i s t  Dostoevsky protested vehemently against those "extreme" n i h i l i s t s who had f a l l e n into atheism and anthropoid o l a t r y . Such extremists of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a preached "a n i h i l i s t i c r e l i g i o n of purely mundane wellbeing , "  35  "A new r e l i g i o n i s coming instead of  the old one" shouts Verkhovensky i n The Possessed .  At  the basis of t h i s "new r e l i g i o n " i s the ego—separated from God--and hence, f o r Dostoevsky, an ego conceived •zg  as naught .  Dostoevsky ,, as an enemy of n i h i l i s m ,  revolted against the Schilleresque idea of "the high •zw  and the b e a u t i f u l " .  And this very hatred f o r the  conventional l i e of c i v i l i z a t i o n led the author to search f o r truth in the l i f e of the people .  "Only the  people and t h e i r future s p i r i t u a l power w i l l convert our atheists who have torn themselves away from t h e i r 38 , nativesso.il ." 35 . Masaryk, S p i r i t of Russia, V o l . 2, p . 487 . 36 . Ibid ., p. 451. 37. Berdyaev considers this exposure of the "exalted l i e " as one of the e s s e n t i a l l y Russian motifs . (The Russian Idea, p. 130). 38. Spoken by Father Zossima i n The Brothers Karamazov.  45  Evil (a)  As non-being Dostoevsky's greatest f i g u r e , the atheist  Ivan Karamazov, could f i n d no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the e v i l , i n j u s t i c e and suffering in the world.  In his  eloquent t a l e of the tears of a l i t t l e c h i l d , Ivan, l i k e other Russian atheists, shows that he considers suffering to be e v i l .  To recognize God, therefore,  would be an attempt to j u s t i f y this e v i l .  3 9  In  Freedom and the S p i r i t , Berdyaev makes an attempt to r a t i o n a l i z e Ivan's p l i g h t : The source of e v i l is not in God, but i n the unfathomable i r r a t i o n a l i t y of f reedom .Q .. The cause of e v i l l i e s in a f a l s e and i l l u s o r y s e l f - a f f i r m a t i o n and in s p i r i t u a l pride which places the source of l i f e not in God but in s e l f , to the a n n i h i l a t i o n of human personality in so f a r as i t bears the divine image .41 4  E v i l was considered by Berdyaev to be "non-being" , whereas Love he considered to be "the affirmation of 42 l i f e and being in everything and everybody ."  The  l i v i n g experience of e v i l , the denunciation of i t s non-being can lead man to the highest good.  Once he  39 . Nicolas Berdyaev , E l Cristianismo y e l problema del Comunismo , Espasa-Calpe, 1944, p. 95. 40 . Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t , p. 165 . 41. I b i d . , p. 167 . 42 . Loc . c i t .  46 has overcome the experience  of e v i l he can more c l e a r l y 43  perceive the fulness of t r u t h and goodness. points out that man rather"he  is not enriched by e v i l  Berdyaev itself,  is enriched by that s p i r i t u a l strength which  is aroused in him f o r the overcoming of e v i l . . . . It is 44 e v i l that puts man's freedom to the test ." Freedom of s p i r i t means freedom f o r e v i l , and not f o r good only; but freedom f o r e v i l results in s e l f - w i l l , a n d s e l f - w i l l leads to insurrection against the source of s p i r i t u a l freedom.... A f t e r freedom has led through s e l f - w i l l to wrongdoing, punishment follows by an inner f a t a l i t y , punishment which tracks man in the deepest part of his nature Berdyaev supplies his answer to the tortured question4 6  47  ings of Ivan's "euclidian" mind imaginative sentence .  in one highly  If there i s a divine meaning, i f there is a redeemer, i f earthly l i f e i s i t s e l f an atonement, i f the d e f i n i t i v e harmony of the world i s in the kingdom of God and not in a worldly kingdom, then t h i s world can be accepted and i t s h i s t o r y with a l l i t s numberless sufferings can be j u s t i f i e d .  43 . Ibid ., p. 185 . 44. Berdyaev, Russian Idea, p.  124.  45 . Berdyaev , Dostoevsky, p. 144 . 46. I b i d . . p. 89. 47. "I have a E u c l i d i a n earthly mind, and how could I solve problems that are not of this world?... A l l such questions are u t t e r l y inappropriate f o r a mind created with an idea of only three dimensions." (Ivan in The Brothers Karamazov, p. 279 .) 4 8  • OP. c i t ., p. 157 .  47  (b) A l l things are not lawful In commenting on the Kararaaz ovs' amoral creed 49 " a l l things are lawful," Berdyaev writes: A l l things are not allowable because, as immanent experience proves, human nature i s created i n the image of God and every man has an absolute value in himself and as such. The s p i r i t u a l nature of man forbids the a r b i t r a r y k i l l i n g of the least and most harmful of men: i t means the loss of one's e s s e n t i a l humanity and the d i s s o l u t i o n of personality; i t i s a crime that no 'idea' or 'higher end' can j u s t i f y . Our neighbour is more precious than an abstract notion, any human l i f e and person is worth more here and now than some future bettering of s o c i e t y . That i s the Christian conceptions, and i t i s Dostoevsky's . For Berdyaev, Dostoevsky was Russia's greatest metaphysician and anthropologist . His was an anthropology that treated man "as a self-contradictory tragic creature, in the highest degree unhappy, not only 50 suffering but in love with s u f f e r i n g " .  For  Dostoevsky, suffering was not only profoundly inherent in man, but was the sole cause f o r the awakening of 51 conscious thought . Suffering redeemed e v i l . 49 . I b i d . , p. 97 . 50. Berdyaev, Russian Idea, p. 179 51 . Loc . c i t .  48 If the world consisted wholly and solely of goodness and righteousness there would he no •need' f o r God, f o r the world i t s e l f would be God . God i s , because e v i l i s . And that means that God i s because freedom is £2 Immortality For Dostoevsky man must have the conviction that h i s soul i s immortal, otherwise man's attachment to this planet would be abolished and the loss of any higher meaning to l i f e would force him to suicide ,  5 3  "If there i s no immortality, there can be no v i r t u e , and i f there i s no v i r t u e , everything i s l a w f u l . " ^  4  What do (our Russian boys) t a l k about i n that momentary halt i n the tavern? Of the eternal questions , of the existence of God and immortality. And those who do not believe in God t a l k of socialism or anarchism, of the transformation of a l l humanity on a new pattern, so that i t a l l comes to the same .they're the same questions turned inside out .... Yet the passionate concern of Ivan d i d not extend "to  the sublime plane of immortality".  I f Ivan had  52. Quoted by Lampert i n Berdyaev , p. 349 . 53. L a v r i n , Dostoevsky and His Creation, p. 146. 54. Spoken by Ivan i n The Brothers Karamazov . 55 . Spoken by Ivan to Alyosha, p. 278. 56..Berdyaev, Meaning of History, p. 100.  49 only believed in immortality he could have looked soberly on t e r r e s t r i a l l i f e , Berdyaev believed, and realized the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of achieving any conclusive v i c t o r y on t h i s earth over "the dark i r r a t i o n a l 57 p r i n c i p l e " . He would come to see that " s u f f e r i n g s , 58 e v i l and imperfections are the inevitable l o t of man'? . For Berdyaev comes to the conclusion that: If man i s not a f r e e , immortal, personal being he may do anything, he i s responsible f o r nothing, he has no i n t r i n s i c value.... The l i f e and destiny of the least of human beings has an absolute meaning in respect of eternity: his l i f e and his destiny are everlasting . For that reason one may not do away with a single human creature and escape punishment; we must consider the divine image and likeness in everyone, from the most noble to the most despicable .  9  This notion of the absolute worth of the individual l i e s at  the heart of Dostoevsky's e t h i c a l teaching and i s the  basic theme in a l l Berdyaev's writings .  57. Cf. The'dark'forces of D. H. Lawrence—blood, ses:,, v i r i l i t y and violence . 58. Berdyaev, Meaning of History, p. 100 . 59 . Berdyaev, Dostoevsky. p.  106.  CHAPTER IV.  Chapter IV. The Philosophy of Berdyaev  1.  Philosophical Personalism .  2 . The problem of Man . 3 . The problem of Personality (a) As seen by Berdyaev (b) As seen by Dostoevsky. 4.  The problem of Freedom .  5 . Berdyaev's Metaphysic of freedom (a) M a t e r i a l i s t i c and religious determinism (b) Doctrine of the 'Ungrund'. 6. Freedom or Necessity.  The Philosophy of Berdyaev  I saw i n Dostoevsky, whom I had loved from childhood , the depth of the problem of persona l i t y and of personal d e s t i n y . . . I saw the s p i r i t of the Grand Inquisitor displayed both from the right and from the l e f t , i n authorit a r i a n r e l i g i o n and s t a t e c r a f t as w e l l as i n authoritarian revolutionary socialism . The problem of man, the problem of freedom, the problem of creativeness came to be the fundamental problems of my philosophy . 1  2  Berdyaev by no means follows his admired master in a l l details.  He finds that Dostoevsky c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  represents a t y p i c a l Russian tendency to swing between the extreme of n i h i l i s t i c skepticism and the extreme of apocalyptic f a i t h — a n all-or-nothing, either-or a t t i t u d e which i s inconsiderate to contemporary problems of culture and ethics .  3  Berdyaev, a l s o , i s f a r from  1.  Berdyaev, Slavery and Freedom, p. 14.  2.  Ibid ., p . 16 .  3.  Berdyaev found t h i s same tendency present in D i a l e c t i c a l Materialism . Although he accepted the s o c i a l truths of Marxism , he reacted vigorously against the demands of 'orthodox Marxists that philosophy, a r t , r e l i g i o n , e t c . , be interpreted in terms of economics . Because of this view , Berdyaev became known as an 'autonomist' and soon passed from being an exponent of idealism in philosophy to become a religious thinker. 1  50  51 sharing the novelist's f a i t h in an earthly millenium which is to come "out of the East" through the f a i t h of the Russian peasants .  Berdyaev correctly feels  that contemporary events have rudely shattered Dostoevsky's dream. Philosophical  Personalism  Paul Miliukov refers to Berdyaev's philosophy as "the philosophy of the liberated s p i r t " .  The  5  ethics of Berdyaev could be summarized in one sentence-Q  Man  is redeemed from the law in order to create.  Compassion, freedom and creativeness are his e t h i c a l 7 cornerstones.  Berdyaev discovers throughout the course  of h i s t o r y the constant clash between two  antithetical  p r i n c i p l e s : "subject, s p i r i t , prime r e a l i t y , freedom, t r u t h , j u s t i c e , love, humanity, are a l l opposed to object, world, external c a u s a l i t y , u t i l i t y , a d a p t a b i l i t y , violence Q  and power" . Dualism exists , not between es;oul and body :  4 . Walter Marshall Horton , Contemporary Continental Theology . Harper & Bros. , 1938, p. 13. 5.  Paul Miliukov , Outlines of Russian Culture. Part University of Penn .Press , 1942, pp. 146-7.  6 . Clarke, Berdyaev , p . 133 . 7.  Berdyaev , Destiny of Man ,p.  192.  8 . Berdyaev , S p i r i t and R e a l i t y , p. 169 .  V,  52 as f o r Descartes , but between s p i r i t and nature , freedom and necessity, subject and object, personality and g  s o c i e t y , the i n d i v i d u a l and the general. his  In postulating  "tragic philosophy" Berdyaev i s consistent in main10  taining "the primacy of freedom over Being! . 1  He  believed that philosophy must at no time be abstracted from l i f e and purely t h e o r e t i c a l , i t must be a c t i v i s t and endowed with a sense of creation . Philosophy must also be e s s e n t i a l l y anthropological since " i t s knowledge of being i s derived from man."  11  The Problem of Man The problem of man as Berdyaev sees i t , i s the curse of i s o l a t i o n brought about through separation from God. Because be f e l l away from God, man's essential nature i s distorted . experience  Instead of a direct  to reveal the l i f e of the subject, of the  " e x i s t e n t i a l s e l f " , man's distorted reason develops a way of understanding the world in an exteriorized o b j e c t i f i e d form. opposed to s p i r i t .  This interpretation i s nature as I t i s something l i k e the Platonic  9 . Berdyaev , Slavery and Freedom, p. 31. 10. Nicolas Berdyaev, Solitude and Society, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1938, p. 24. 11. Ibid .. p . 30.  53 world of appearance, phenomena, and reflected  reality.  Berdyaev used the Greek word 'noumena' to describe the world perceived through s p i r i t u a l rather than objectivized experience.  12  When the old national r e l i g i o u s conceptions were beginning to disintegrate, and the human s p i r i t began to be tormented by the problem of man's individual destiny which had f a i l e d to f u l f i l i t s e l f within the l i m i t s of either the Old Testament or paganism, the Christian truth was revealed to man!3 ,, C h r i s t i a n i t y affirms man's-primordial nature, independence and, above a l l , h i s freedom from the baser elemental processes . This made possible the apprehension f o r the f i r s t time of both the human personality and i t s high inherent d i g n i t y . Thus the development of the human personality constitutes the peculiar achievement of the Christian period of history , 1 4  Before the advent of the machine "an organic t i e had existed between man and n a t u r e " T h e in and conquered  machine stepped  "not only the natural elements f o r  the benefit of man, but a l s o , in the process, man 16 himself" . Berdyaev views technology as a change i n 17 human existence from organic l i f e to organization . 12 . Lossky, Russian Philosophy, p. 237 . 13. Berdyaev, Meaning of History, p. 102. 14 . Ibid ., p. 125 . 15 . Ibid . , p. 152 . 16 . Loc. c i t . 17 . "The supremacy of technique and the machine i s primarily a t r a n s i t i o n from organic to organized l i f e , from growth to construction." (p .39 "Man and Machine" in The Bourgeois Mind and other Essays , Sheed & Ward Inc ., 1934) . "~  This technology has k i l l e d a l l that i s "organic" in l i f e and has instead placed human existence under the banner of "organization".  Nevertheless,  Berdyaev  welcomes the process of technology and l i k e Nicolas Fedorov before him, believes that the s p i r i t can transform  and r e v i v i f y i t , thereby opening the way to 18 a new and integral l i f e . In The Meaning of the 19 Creative Act Berdyaev, with genuine f e e l i n g , writes: It i s strange to think that God could have created something small and i n s i g n i f i c a n t as the crown of his creation. I t i s impious and blasphemous to have a low opinion of God's idea , and to hold i t in contempt as despicable and of no account . Throughout his works Berdyaev shows himself a Christian Humanist . In his Autobiography he wrote: "The idea of 20 God i s the greatest human idea, and the idea of man i s 21 the greatest divine idea."  For Berdyaev that  d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t y which constitutes man's relation 18. Lampert, Berdyaev . pp .354-7 . 19 . I b i d . , p. 342 . 20. Cf . Ivan's remark to Alyosha: "And what's strange, what would be marvellous, i s not that God should r e a l l y e x i s t ; the marvel i s that such an idea, the idea of the necessity of God , could enter the head of such a savage, v i c i o u s beast as man . So holy i t i s , so touching, so wise and so great a credit i t does to man." (The Brothers Karamazov , p. 278) . 21. Berdyaev, Autobiography . p . 209.  and response to God i s c r e a t i v i t y .  Man's willingness  to create i s not an autonomous right , hut rather his duty "before God.  F a i l u r e to take part i n God's  creative action Berdyaev regarded as disobedience and 23  the  equivalent to rebellion against God . What i s of God in l i f e i s revealed in creative acts, i n the creative l i f e of the s p i r i t , which penetrates even the l i f e of nature. .. The creative act always c a l l s up the image of something d i f f e r e n t ; i t imagines something higher, better and more b e a u t i f u l than t h i s — than the 'given'. This evoking of the image of something d i f f e r e n t , something better and more b e a u t i f u l , i s a mysterious power in man. ... 2  The Problem of Personality (a)  As seen by Berdyaev Ivan KaramzoVs t r a g i c c o n f l i c t between  personality and "world harmony" i s the fundamental theme of e x i s t e n t i a l philosophy f o r ,  Berdyaev points  out , i t cannot be solved within the bounds of h i s t o r y . History ought to come to a conclusion, because i t turns human personality into a means to an end, because in i t every l i v i n g generation merely manures the s o i l f o r the benefit of the generation which follows, and f o r which the same fate awaits . ° 2  22. Ibid . , p . 207. 23. Lampert, Berdyaev, p. 342. 24 . Berdyaev, Beginning and the End, p. 155 . 25 . I b i d . , p. 174 . 26 . I b i d . , p. 148.  56 Human personality i s a value because i t is the bearer of the divine p r i n c i p l e i n l i f e , as God's idea and God's image, i t is the centre of moral consciousness and 27 supreme value .  of  Berdyaev distinguishes c a r e f u l l y  between i n d i v i d u a l i t y and personality.  The i n d i v i d u a l  is produced by the b i o l o g i c a l generic process, he i s born and he dies . I n d i v i d u a l i t y therefore  is a  n a t u r a l i s t i c and b i o l o g i c a l category, while personality is a r e l i g i o u s and s p i r i t u a l one.  It i s not generated  28  but created by God . If there i s no such thing as personality there can be no place for love because love 29 is always a relationship between personalities . It is love which transforms the Ego  into a personality,^  "Only love can effect that complete fusion with another 30 being which transcends solitude." of personality" .  It is "the  intuition  Above a l l , personality i s "a  s p i r i t u a l energy of q u a l i t a t i v e o r i g i n a l i t y , a s p i r i t u a l a c t i v i t y which i s the very centre of creative 32 power". 27. Berdyaev. Destiny of Man, p. 34 . 28. "I want to b u i l d up a personalietic but c e r t a i n l y not an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c system of ethics ." (Berdyaev, Destiny of Man, p. 55). 29 . Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t , p . 281 30 . Berdyaev, Solitude and Society, p. 120 . 31. I b i d . , p.  182.  32. Op. c i t . , p . 16 .  57 (b) As seen by Dostoevsky There is one occasion, and one occasion only, when man can w i l f u l l y , consciously choose f o r himself what i s f o o l i s h and harmful . This i s the occasion when he yearns to have the right to choose f o r himself what i s f o o l i s h and harmful, and to be bound by no obligation whatsoever to choose anything that ie sensible. It i s his crowning f o l l y ; i t is wherein we see his ineradicable waywardness . Yet such f o l l y may also be the best thing in the world f o r him, even though i t work him harm, and contrad i c t our soundest conclusions on the subject of interests . This is because i t is possible for his f o l l y to preserve to him, under a l l circumstances, the c h i e f , the most valuable of a l l his pos8essions--namely, his personality, his i n d i v i d u a l i t y . 3 3  Dostoevsky's attention is concentrated intensely on the 34 human person, on the human personality.  He was  bitter  in his attacks upon the revolutionary movement of his time because he believed i t s morality was  an affront to  the dignity of the human personality . Revolutionary morality does not recognize personality as the foundation of every moral estimate and judgment; i t is wholly impersonal and denies a l l moral autonomy, admitting that i t uses human persons as a means and material, that i t allows the employment of any means that w i l l forward the v i c t o r y of the revolutionary thing. The revolution is by nature 'amoral' , placing i t s e l f above any considerat i o n of good and e v i l . . . . Man in revolt loses his autonomy: he comes under the power of an impersonal inhuman f o r c e . There l i e s the secret of the revolution, the inhumanity from 33.  Dostoevsky, Letters from the Underworld, p.  34.  Berdyaev, Towards a New  Epoch, p.  59.  34.  58  which arise dishonour, absence of private opinion, the tyranny of some and the subjection of others. .. For with the revolutionary denial of personality there goes a complete break with our forefathers and the past, we are given a r e l i g i o n of k i l l i n g in place of a r e l i g i o n of a r i s i n g from the d e a d . 35  36  Writing once again on the subject of personality in his Essay on the Bourgeoisie, Dostoevsky says: To offer one's l i f e f o r others, to suffer f o r others on the cross or at the stake, i s possible only when there i s a powerful development of the personality . A strongly-developed personality, conscious of i t s right to be such, having cast out f e a r , cannot use i t s e l f , cannot be used except in s a c r i f i c e f o r others, that these become l i k e unto i t s e l f , self-determinate and happy. It i s Nature's law and mankind tends to reach i t . Berdyaev sees in Dostoevsky's d i a l e c t i c about the tears of a c h i l d and the return of Ivan's admission ticket to world harmony , "a revolt against the idea of being as the realm of the universally 'common'"  38  Berdyaev  finds eternal t r u t h in t h i s revolt . This idea that the p a r t i c u l a r , single personality i s of i n f i n i t e l y greater value than the hypothetical world order and  35. Berdyaev, Dostoevsky, p.  151.  36. Ibid., p. 153 . 37. Quoted in Andre Gide, Dostoevsky, J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1925 , pp. 190-1 .  59 harmony of the whole Berdyaev describee as Christian personalism . Freedom of personality i s a duty, i t i s a f u l f i l l m e n t of vocation, the r e a l i z a t i o n of the divine idea of man, an answer to the divine c a l l . Man ought to he free, he dare not he a slave, because he ought to be a man . 3  g  ^  The Problem of Freedom Berdyaev regarded Dostoevsky as !?the most passionate and extreme defender of the freedom of man 40 which the history of human thought has ever known." Even the problem of suffering f o r Dostoevsky was solved e n t i r e l y by freedom and i n p a r t i c u l a r by Christ , who 41  took upon Himself the suffering of the world.  However,  Dostoevsky never hesitated i n d i s c l o s i n g the f a t a l results of "empty freedom", of "human s e l f - a s s e r t i o n " 42 A'h and of "godlessness". I t was freedom wrongly directed ^ that motivated the downfall of such self-made giants as Raskolnikov, Stavrogin, K i r i l l o v and Ivan Karamazov .  39 . Ibid ., p. 48. 40 . Berdyaev, Russian Idea, p. 89 . 41. Ibid., p. 79. 42 . Ibid . , p. 90. 43, Berdyaev, Dostoevsky. p. 77.  60 "Only the way of God-manhood and the God-man leads to the affirmation of man, to human personality and freedom." This is what Berdyaev describes as the " e x i s t e n t i a l 45 dialectic"  of Dostoevsky.  In The Brothers Karamazov  Dostoevsky eloquently gives expression to his idea that freedom i f i t is based purely on s e l f - w i l l and s e l f affirmation must inevitably end i n the negation  of God, 46 of man, of the world and even of freedom i t s e l f . -I am perplexed byrayown data and my conclusion is a direct contradiction of the o r i g i n a l idea with which I start . Starting from unlimited freedom , I a r r i v e at unlimited despotism .4? The doctrines of such as Shigalev and the Grand Inquisitor are born of s e l f - w i l l and godlessness . "Freedom becomes s e l f - w i l l , s e l f - w i l l becomes compulsion . That i s the 48 process." The solution of true equality and true l i b e r t y i s to be found only i n following the way of the 49 "God-made-man", in following the path of Christ . "Any 44 . On . c i t . , p. 90 . 45 . Loc . c i t . 46. Berdyaev, DoBtoevsky, p . 82. 47 . Spoken by Shigalev in The Possessed, (Part II , Chapter VII ., i , i) . 48 . Op. c i t ., p . 82 . 49 . I b i d . , p. 84 .  61 idea of world-wide happiness and the common unity of mankind from which God i s excluded means disaster f o r 50 man and the loss of his freedom of s p i r i t ." Dostoevsky is not so dramatic,but just as emphatic, when he writes» 51 in The Landlady, "Liberty is better thah bread , and more b e a u t i f u l even than the sun." souls."  52  It i s not f o r "feeble  In h i s Dream of a Ridiculous Man  53  Dostoevsky  gives three possible alternatives to the question of world harmony. There i s f i r s t that harmony without freedom or s u f f e r i n g — a state of b l i s s f u l ignorance which results in nothing creative and o r i g i n a l . There i s secondly that harmony purchased at the price of numberless suffering b u i l t up through laws of iron necessity. is the society of the ant-heap.  This  However, there i s always  the p o s s i b i l i t y of that third, and ultimate harmony which is arrived at through freedom and s u f f e r i n g — t h e Kingdom of God.  Dostoevsky, p a r t i c u l a r l y in his "Legend of the  Grand Inquisitor" advocated a p e c u l i a r l y theocratic utopia in which the Church would swallow up the State and bring into effect a kingdom of freedom and love .  50. Loo, c i t . 51. Spoken by the ward Katherine in The Landlady, p. 230. ;52 . Spoken by old Murin in The Landlady .p . 302 . 53 . In Dostoevsky's Diary of a Writer .  62 Berdyaev's Metaphysic of freedom (a) M a t e r i a l i s t i c and Religious determinism Berdyaev discovered while attempting to formulate a philosophy that was both e x i s t e n t i a l and Christian that m a t e r i a l i s t i c and r e l i g i o u s determinism were both equally h o s t i l e to personality.  Materialism  presents man with laws of natural necessity, with a b l i n d fate . Religious determinism i n s i s t s that a l l i s God's w i l l and man i s but a puppet in the hands of God. Both forms of determinism are a negation of freedom and personality.  To escape from t h i s dilemma Berdyaev  set up an elaborate metaphysic of freedom in order to show that freedom must exist p a r a l l e l with God and even independent of Him . (b) Doctrine of the 'Ungrund' 54 From Jacob Boehme  he borrowed the doctrine  of the 'Ungrund' . "The Ungrund must be understood above a l l as freedom.. .which has i t s roots in nothingness , in the meon . .. in . , .the Ungrund ."^ 54. Berdyaev refers to Boehme as the founder of metaphysical voluntarism . "To Boehme, chaos i s the root of nature, chaos, that i s to say, freedom", (Berdyaev, Beginning and the End, pp. 107-9) . 55 . Loc. c i t . This idea of the 'Ungrund' i s in some respects related to Heidegger's ontology of 'Nothingness'.  63 'Ungrund' i s the primal, i r r a t i o n a l , dark and indeterrained freedom. It i s not i t s e l f e v i l , hut makes e v i l p o s s i b l e ? . . Since freedom derives from the Ungrund, God did not create freedom and i s therefore in no sense responsible f o r i t s consequences .57 5  "My philosophical thinking," writes Berdyaev, "does not take a s c i e n t i f i c form...it belongs i n t u i t i v e l y to l i f e . S p i r i t u a l experience l i e s at the very foundation of i t , and i t s driving power i s a passion f o r freedom."  58  Berdyaev's passion f o r freedom has led him into a most elaborate r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n as to i t s primordial existence. The essence of the ego i s freedom,and freedom i s the beginning and the end of a l l philosophy59 Freedom is not something which man demands of God, but that which God requires of man Q ., It is the inner dynamic of the s p i r i t , the i r r a t i o n a l mystery of being, of l i f e and of d e s t i n y . ! #t  6  6  Freedom or necessity The interplay between freedom and necessity or the  s p i r i t u a l and the natural world takes place within  the human soul, Berdyaev believes.  "When the s p i r i t u a l  56. Quoted by Spinka in Berdyaev . p. 119 . 57 , Ibid., p. 120. 58 . Berdyaev , Beginning and the End, Preface, p . v . 59 . Ibid., p . 23 . 60 .. Ibid., p . 216 . 61. Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t , p . 121.  64 is operative within the psychical, the freedom of the spirit  is revealed; when i t is the natural which is  a c t i v e , then necessity once more asserts i t s sway ." Berdyaev scorns the estrangement of the object from the subject; the absorption of the personal in the impersonal;  the rule of necessity which crushes freedom;  the increased l e v e l l i n g down to the lowest common denominator.  He would replace these with communion in  sympathy and love, voluntarism, personalism  and  creativeness . The obj e c t i v i c a t i o n of knowledge in aiming at the establishment of g e n e r a l - v a l i d i t y f o r the average normal mind of the majority of men has a l i m i t i n g effect upon both knowledge and r e a l i t y i t s e l f . It is bent upon crowding out everything which demands a great s p i r i t u a l e f f o r t , and a sense of s p i r i t u a l community. The average man, and human society e s p e c i a l l y , is always exercising v i o l e n t pressure upon men. They f i n d shelter from danger, they f i n d s e l f preservation, in concepts and laws of logic in the f i e l d of cognition, in the laws of the State, in f o s s i l i z e d formulae of family l i f e , of c l a s s , of the external l i f e of the Church as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . In these defensive measures, i n t u i t i o n , i n s p i r a t i o n , love, humanity and l i v i n g f a i t h are crushed and s t i f l e d , the flame of the s p i r i t i s extinguished .64  62 .  I b i d . , p. 123 .  63 .  On. c i t . ,  64 .  Ibid ., p. 80 .  p. 62 .  The i n d i v i d u a l i s a part of society and subject to i t , but personality i s not. Rather Berdyaev sees society 65  as i t s e l f a part of personality.  With a certain  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c dogmatism he propounds his idea that the source of human freedom cannot be i n s o c i e t y , but i s i n the s p i r i t .  "Everything which proceeds from society i s  enslaving; everything which issues from the s p i r i t i s liberating."  6 6  To counteract  sentimentality, hypocrisy  and a l l forms of "necessity" Berdyaev suggests that we substitute an . . .heroic love of freedom which lays stress upon the value of every human creature and of every creature in general, which i s f i l l e d to the f u l l with compassion and sympathy but a stranger t^oifalse sentiment , 6 7  65. Berdyaev, Slavery and Freedom, p. 103. 66 . I b i d . , p . 166 . 67 . Ibid ., p. 153.  CHAPTER V .  Chapter V. The Romantic Existentialism of Dostoevsky  1 . Romanticism . 2 . Disease and the "Double" . 3 . Anguish as Existential.. 4 . P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r an Age of C r i s i s .  The Romantic Existentialism of Dostoevsky Romant ic ism The philosophical speculation of Dostoevsky revolves around the problem of i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y and themenace of moral relativism with i t s accompanying anarchy and crime. Dostoevsky saw the c r u c i a l question in Europe "of the estrangement of the individual from society, the loneliness and i s o l a t i o n of modern man, as the problem of freedom" ?~ With incomparable anguish, Dostoevsky attempted to resolve the problem that man faces when he attempts to be himself in a world of urgent mental and moral c o n f l i c t s . His characters are l i k e drowning men in danger of going under.  Their  whole existence i s a desperately emphatic assertion of t h e i r right to be. ...Dostoevsky's interest begins from the moment that man sets himself up against the objective established order of the universe, cuts himself off from nature and h i s organic roots, and manifests his a r b i t r a r y w i l l . When he has repudiated nature and the organized l i f e he casts himself into the h e l l of the c i t y and there treads his miserable path in expiation of his s i n .2  1. Hauser, The S o c i a l History of A r t , Vol.2, p. 846. 2. Berdyaev, Dostoevsky, p. 46. 66  67 The Undergroundling, Raskolnikov, K i r i l l o v , Ivan Karamazov--all b a t t l e against the danger of being submerged in an abyss of unrestricted freedom and egoism. They are impassioned, f e a r l e s s , maniacal thinkers , tugging and wrestling with t h e i r ideas and visions f o r which they suffer and murder and die . For them l i f e is a philosophical problem-thought, t h e i r one constant occupation, l i f e ' s only content. In Dostoevsky's writings the power of thought to influence the emotions has almost the same force as the flood and stress of feelings had f o r the Romantics .  3  Indeed, Dostoevsky's  art could be described as a synthesis of intellectualism and romanticism . Disease and the "Double" Dostoevsky revealed many of the characteristics, of Romanticism in his attitude toward disease and in the use of his l i t e r a r y mechanism "the double".  In his  writings Dostoevsky showed that he had a strongly Romantic concern f o r his "sacred" d i s e a s e — e p i l e p s y . For him , i t represented something extraordinary, something unique, abnormal and i r r a t i o n a l .  Immediately  preceding an attack i t treated him to sublime contentment and affirmation of l i f e , only to expose him the  3. Op. c i t •. pp. 855-6.  68 next moment to intense suffering, a f e e l i n g of g u i l t and the w i l l to d i e . This strong consciousness of disease influenced and dominated his whole conception of l i f e .  Anticipating the findings of Freud, Adler and  Jung, Dostoevsky pioneered in the murky f i e l d of pBychoanalysis . He discovered the source of wish-fulfilment dreams, the source of i r r a t i o n a l i t y — t h e subconscious. Here he found that two souls could dwell within the same b r e a s t — b o t h a demon and a judge.  "The double" i s  a development of the p a i n f u l l y introspective underworld man whose second s e l f becomes what he would l i k e i t to be,  in other words—his sublimated ego .  Dostoevsky's  work abounds with this e s s e n t i a l l y Romantic device of "the double", possibly the influence, as E. J . Simmons suggests, of the fantastic tales of E.T.A. Hoffman. Berdyaev man  is greatly impressed by the inward d i v i s i o n of  that Dostoevsky eo remarkably shows in his "doubles".  "We are not aware," he w r i t e s , "that we l i v e in madness which i s but s u p e r f i c i a l l y concealed . Human consciousness l i e s between two abysses, the upper and the lower, 5 the superconscious and the subconscious."  4 . Gide, Dostoevsky, p. 117 . 5 . Berdyaev, The Destiny of Man , p. 77  69 Anguish as E x i s t e n t i a l The great l i b e r a l c r i t i c of German romanticism, Arnold Ruge, writes that: "Romanticism i s rooted i n the torment of the world and so one w i l l f i n d a people the more romantic and elegiac, the more unhappy i t s condition is."  Just as melancholy i s to the Romantic, so i s  anguish to the E x i s t e n t i a l i s t .  Melancholy makes the 7  Romantic, anguish makes the E x i s t e n t i a l i s t .  In the  creations of Dostoevsky, however, there i s the f e e l i n g of anguish rather than melancholy . By t h i s c r i t e r i o n Dostoevsky i s beyond doubt not a Romanticist . Sartre and Berdyaev  8  unequivocally  c l a s s i f y him as an e x i s t e n t i a l i s t .  Sartre distinguishes two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r man's moral attitudes.  He opposes anguish tosseriousness . As  9 Bobbio writes: This opposition i s f a r more than the opposition of two states of mind. It i s the opposition of two e t h i c a l codes--the e x i s t e n t i a l i s t ethic of freedom and the m a t e r i a l i s t i c ethic of determination. By Sartre's terminology, therefore, the "serious" man is not free but determined.  Thus Dostoevsky, the  apostle of freedom, could never be c l a s s i f i e d as a  6. Quoted i n Hauser, S o c i a l History of A r t , p. 663. 7. Noberto Bobbio, The Philosophy of Duadentism, ( t r . by David Moore), B a s i l Blackwell, 1948, p.58. 8. "The greatest Russian metaphysician and the most existent i a l was Dostoevsky" (Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p. 159). 9 . Op. C i t . , p. 58 .  70 "serious"man . Of p a r t i c u l a r appeal to Sartre i s Dostoevsky's deep awareness of complicity in the world's g u i l t . Each man, according to Father Zossima, i s accountable f o r the sins of a l l men . Such a p o s i t i o n , contrary to that of the Grand I n q u i s i t o r ' s , "throws moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y back on man, with a vengeance."  10  It i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s aspect of the equal blame of a l l men that Sartre reSchoes i n h i s philosophy. P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r an Age of C r i s i s "Unamuno once said',' writes Berdyaev, "that Spanish philosophy i s contained in Don Quixote.  In the  same way we can say that Russian philosophy i s contained i n Dostoevsky."  11  Dostoevsky sees three p o s s i b i l i t i e s  1 2  open to t h i s age of c r i s i s : one of man's alternatives is to get over the idea of God and create a s o c i a l tower of Babel, a second alternative i s one of decadence --the era of the superman or the man-God represented in f i c t i o n by K i r i l l o v and in r e a l l i f e by Nietzsche, the t h i r d and Dostoevsky's own choice i s the r e l i g i o u s alternative of a second coming and a voluntary end of all.  This apocalyptic, either-or attitude of Dostoevsky  is inimical to Berdyaev and to most of the novelist's greatest admirers . 10. Helen Muchnic, An Introduction to Russian L i t e r a t u r e , Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1947, p. 170. 11. Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, p. 159 . 12. Merejkowski, T o l s t o i as Man and A r t i s t , p. 297.  71 Yet.  as E. H. Carr w r i t e s :  ± C  The -belief of Dostoevsky in the i r r a t i o n a l i t y both of the world of phenomena and of human nature was balanced by h i s b e l i e f in a r a t i o n a l , or at any rate a moral force somewhere controll i n g the universe. The l a t t e r b e l i e f was, both actually and l o g i c a l l y , the sequel to the former. His conviction of the necessity of f a i t h in God issued from his conviction of the i r r a t i o n a l i t y of mankind . The modern world has been quick to accept Dostoevsky's premise of i r r a t i o n a l i t y but not, and with tragic consequences, h i s conclusion of a r a t i o n a l , moral force.  13. E. H. Carr, Dostoevsky, George A l l e n & Unwin Ltd., 1931, p. 322.  CHAPTER VI.  Chapter V I . The E x i s t e n t i a l i s t s  1 . Religious and Aesthetic Existentialism . 2.  The Religious Existentialism of S/ren Kierkegaard .  3 . Transcendence and Ontology . 4 . The Aesthetic Existentialism of Jean-Paul Sartre . 5.  Berdyaev's Affirmation of Religious E x i s t e n t i a l i s m .  Chapter V I . The E x i s t e n t i a l i s t s  Modern Existentialism as i s represented by Heidegger and Jaspers, Gabriel Marcel, Sartre and Albert Camus has i t s roots f i r m l y i n the Nineteenth C e n t u r y — i n Kierkegaard, the lonely Dane, Dostoevsky, the suffering Russian and Nietzsche, the Teutonic superman . Yet as f a r back as the Seventeenth Century a melancholy mathematician, Pascal, had given expression to the mood that was to i n f l i c t  a l l later  existentialists . It does not need a very elevated soul to understand that we have no true and s o l i d s a t i s f a c t i o n , that a l l our pleasures are but v a n i t y , that our i l l s are i n f i n i t e , and that at last death, which menaces us at every instant, s h a l l i n a few years i n f a l l i b l y put us in the horrible necessity of being either eternally annihilated or eternally miserable. There i s nothing surer than that, nothing more t e r r i b l e — p l a y the brave as we w i l l , there i s the end which awaits the f i n e s t l i f e in the world .1  1.  Hector Hawton, The Peast of Unreason, Watts & Co., 1952, quoted p . 52. 72  73  Religious and Aesthetic Existentialism The only t r a i t s commonly shared by a l l e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s are an awareness of l i f e ' s tragedy and a sense of extreme anxiety.  Religious existen-  t i a l i s t s , such as Marcel and Kierkegaard, believe that man i s created in the divine image. Although man i s greatly isolated from God , he need not end in despair i f he has f a i t h in God's ultimate v i c t o r y .  Existen-  t i a l i s t s , without exception, stress l i f e ' s pathos as experienced through unrelieved dread and d e s p a i r the burning desire to share in God's i n f i n i t y .  2  or  The  main difference between r e l i g i o u s existentialism and aesthetic  3  existentialism can be seen in Sartre's idea  2. "Choose Despair," writes Kierkegaard, "the more the s u f f e r i n g , the more the r e l i g i o u s existence — a n d the suffering p e r s i s t s . " (lb i d . , p. 70) . For r e l i g i o u s man suffering was an e s s e n t i a l , whereas f o r aesthetic and e t h i c a l man—the two lower stages of r e l i g i o u s man, suffering was accidental. 3 . William Hubben , Four Prophets of our Destiny, Macmillan Co., 1952, pp. 30-3.  74 of the "free" man.  For Sartre, man  i s "condemned to he  4  free" .  For Kierkegaard, as f o r Berdyaev, man i s  ennobled through God's grace to l i v e in freedom. The Religious Existentialism of Sjerren Kierkegaard Existentialism i s to a great extent a reaction against the speculative idealism of Hegel--a  reaction  which encourages "an awakening to acceptance in 5 individual i s o l a t i o n of the necessity of freedom". Kierkegaard emphatically opposed the pursuit of o b j e c t i v i t y and the passion f o r t o t a l i t y which he found in Hegel  and substituted the notion that truth lay in  s u b j e c t i v i t y and that true existence can be achieved only through intensity of f e e l i n g . . . .The true i s not higher than the good and the beautiful but the true and the good and the beautiful belong e s s e n t i a l l y to every human existence, and are u n i f i e d f o r an existing i n d i v i d u a l , not in thought but in existence For Kierkegaard the existent i n d i v i d u a l i s in an i n f i n i t e relationshippwith himself and has an i n f i n i t e  4. Jean-Paul Sartre, L'Etre et l e Heant. l i b r a i r i e Gallimard, 1943, p. 515.. 5. H.J. Blackham, Six E x i s t e n t i a l i s t Thinkers, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1951, p. 162. 6 . Jean Wahl, A Short History of Existentialism , Philosophical Library, 1949, pp. 3-4. 7. Sjzfren Kierkegaard, Concluding U n s c i e n t i f i c Postscript . ( t r . by Walter Lowrie), Oxford University Press, 1949, p. 311.  75 interest in himself and his destiny . He f e e l s himself always to he in Becoming.  For instance, one is not a  C h r i s t i a n , but becomes a Christian through continued and sustained e f f o r t .  Above a l l , the existent i n d i v i d -  ual is impassioned and g  inspired by a "passion f o r  freedom".  Since e x i s t e n t i a l thinking i s concerned with  "the r e a l i t y of personal existence" , i t i s , therefore 9  not objective but highly subjective.  It i s thinking  that is profoundly personal—"inwards" thinking . E x i s t e n t i a l thinking is not dispassionate as philosophy would r e q u i r e — r a t h e r i t is extremely passionate . "Passion powers" men  is the real thing, the real measure of man's 10  Since "passion and f e e l i n g are open to a l l  in an equal degree"^Hhis forms the basis of an  e x i s t e n t i a l universalism—the  unifying factor of which  is not reason but f e e l i n g . In his writings Kierkegaard 8.  On. c i t . , p . 4 .  9.  Chaning-Pearce, "Kierkegaard" in Modern Christian Revolutionaries, p. 26 .  10. Kierkegaard, Journals, (ed. and trans, by Alexander Drul 0 . U . P. , 1938, p. 396. 11 . Loc . c i t .  76 shows himself as strongly a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l i s t : "the i n t e l l i g e n c e and a l l that goes with i t has done away with C h r i s t i a n i t y . . .the f i g h t i s against i n t e l l i g e n c e . "  1  Yet he does not suggest that reason i s a t r i v i a l means to his absolute goal of eternity: "the race must go 13 through reason to the absolute". Passion, which he i d e a l i z e s , i s caused by the clash of contraries in l i f e , by the "tension of life"«feeling which i s opposed by the i n t e l l e c t - - t h e realm of freedom versus the realm of necessity.  This i s the paradox.  A l l reasoning which  attempts to smooth out this paradox Kierkegaard contemptuously dismisses as both u n r e a l i s t i c and arrogant . The conscious man,  he considers a "synthesis  of the i n f i n i t e and the f i n i t e , of the temporal and the 14 eternal, of freedom and necessity ."  Philosophers  who  followed the t r a d i t i o n of Descartes sought to be detached  observers of l i f e .  wished to refute t h i s concept  Kierkegaard desperately of the philosopher who  found himself "above the b a t t l e " and dubbed himself a "Christian thinker" rather than a philosopher. 12. Ibid., p. 925. 13 . I b i d . , p . 1256. 14 . Op. c i t . p . 39.  The  77 very basis of the Christian f a i t h f o r Kierkegaard was i t s "leap" beyond reason into the realm of f a i t h i n the 15 "absurd" . B e l i e f alone could comprehend the absolute paradox of Christ as both God and Man . In The Brothers Karamazov Father Zossima suggests to the doubting woman that the r e a l i t y of God would be revealed to her the more she practised Christian love . Dostoevsky, l i k e Kierkegaard, interprets C h r i s t i a n i t y as an e x i s t e n t i a l faith—something to be l i v e d , not i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d . With hie strong emphasis on "inwardness" tremendously  Kierkegaard  extended man's consciousness of the  subconscious regions of the human psyche . A century l a t e r , the "inwardness", which Kierkegaard was p r a c t i c a l l y alone in exploring has been treated more and more—by Freud i n psychology, by Dostoevsky in l i t e r a t u r e , and by Berdyaev and Sartre i n philosophy. Transcendence and Ontology Be i t the despair of Kierkegaard or the 16 derision of Nietzsche, 15 . I b i d . , p. 61. 16. Bobbio, The Philosophy of Decadent ism, p. 6.  78 A l l e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s , whether admitting the r e l i g i o u s solution or not, make allowance f o r some sort of movement of transcending or seeking "beyond the immanent structure of human nature A ' Contemporary e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s hesitate whether to view transcendence as a r e l a t i o n to a transcendent Cod as is the case with Kierkegaard or as a restless search a f t e r a foundation within the world as i s the case 18 with Nietzsche. In c r i t i c i s m of Nietzsche's philosophical n i h i l i s m , K a r l Jaspers asks: "How s h a l l one interpret the ultimate f r u s t r a t i o n which being19 oneself  encounters  in the world?"  "The option l i e s , "  he suggests, "between despair, l i f e in the world i s not r e a l l y possible, and the treatment of f r u s t r a t i o n as revealing the hidden secret of the world, and t h i s option is only kept open by the p o s s i b i l i t y of f a i t h in 20 Transcendence...." F a i t h comes from choice which has 17. James C o l l i n s , The E x i s t e n t i a l i s t s , Henry Regnery Co., 1952 , p . 10 . 18 . Ibid., p. 24. 19 . K a r l Jaspers regards himself as an e x i s t e n t i a l i s t philosopher who i s concerned with the three aspects of being. B r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d — ( l ) Being-there i s the empirical world; (2) Being-oneself i s the thinker in transcendence; and (3) B e i n g - i n - i t s e l f i s the world in transcendence. 20. Quoted in Blackham , Six E x i s t e n t i a l i s t Thinkers, p .62.  79 i t s roots i n being, since there i s "no choice without decision, no decision without w i l l , no w i l l without 21 duty, no duty without being ." Only in man does existence precede essence—because he alone i s f r e e . 22  " A l l other beings are pre-determined ."  I t i s only  a f t e r he has made his choice that we know what he has indeed chosen, and what the choice has made him, that 23 i s , h i s essence.  In other words, man decides his own  essence, man chooses himself. A knowledge of essence may be derived in o b j e c t i v i t y , but only i n s u b j e c t i v i t y may we know existence, never in o b j e c t i v i t y .  Berdyaev  finds t h i s idea present in Kierkegaard but t o t a l l y absent in the ontology formulated by Heidegger and Sartre . "Why i s an ontology impossible?" asks Berdyaev , 2  4  "because i t i s always a knowledge objectifying existence ." In an ontology the idea of Being i s o b j e c t i f i e d , and an o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n i s already an existence which i s alienated in the o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n . So that i n o n t o l o g y — i n every ontology—existence vanishes. There i s no more existence because existence cannot be o b j e c t i f i e d . 2 5  21. I b i d . , p . 50 . 22. Paul Poulquie'', Existentialism , Denis Dobson Ltd., 1948, p. 51. 23 . Ibid., p. 52 . 24. Quoted in Wahl, Existentialism, 25. Ibid .. pp.36-7 .  p. 36.  80 For Heidegger the chief character of human existence is care and anxiety which ends i n physical death. Heidegger's i s a philosophy of despair and absolute pessimism—human l i f e i s only a preparation f o r death which ends existence.  In Heidegger's system, man's  personality is almost t o t a l l y blotted out . "Worry turns out to be more s i g n i f i c a n t  than the man who worries.  Man i s constructed out of worries, just as human pA  existence i s b u i l t up from death." The Aesthetic Existentialism of Jean-Paul Sartre Heidegger's philosophy paves the way f o r Sartre's s t a r t l i n g pronouncement "Man i s not a substance that thinks, but a separation from a l l substance: I am 27 not, therefore I think."  Kierkegaard reversed the  Cartesian dictum to read, "I am, therefore I think." Sartre's postulate negates not only the Cartesian t r a d i t i o n but that of Kierkegaard as w e l l . L'Etre et l e meant, Sartre's essay on "phenomenological ontology" , ends with the remark, "man i s a useless 26. Nicolas Berdyaev, The Fate of Man i n the Modern World, ( t r . by Donald Lowriej , S.C.M. Press,1935, p. 31. 27. Quoted in Blackham, Six E x i s t e n t i a l i s t Thinkers, p .113 .  81 passion."  28  In Sartre's system man cannot be regarded  in any other way, since human nature i s supposedly constituted by a f u t i l e and yet i r r e s i s t i b l e  longing  to be God . "The dynamic ideal of a l l human s t r i v i n g is to r e a l i z e a state of being that is i n t r i n s i c a l l y 29 contradictory and incapable of r e a l i z a t i o n ." It is Sartre's claim that he i s embracing the challenge 30  offered by Dost o e v s k y — i f there be no God, then a l l things are lawful.  For Sartre, man's denial of God i s  the prime step towards his development.  Sartre bases  his postulatory atheism on the assumption that only a f t e r the idea of God has been abandoned w i l l man become f r e e .  really  However, Sartre's freedom is morally  a n a r c h i c — h e i s t r a g i c a l l y doomed to be f r e e .  He must  choose what to do but w i l l never know whether his choice was r i g h t .  Man can never be defined as long as 31  he l i v e s because "he i s h i s l i f e and nothing  else ."  L i f e , f o r Sartre, has no pattern, no meaning, no purpose — i t is barren and a l l that remains i s despair, anxiety and l o n e l i n e s s . 28. Sartre, L'Etre et l e Meant, p. 708. 29. C o l l i n s , E x i s t e n t i a l i s t s , p. 71, 30.. I b i d . , p. 72 . 31. Quoted in Hubben , Four Prophets, p. 24 .  82  Berdyaev's affirmation of Religious Existentialism The atheism of Heidegger and the existentialism of Sartre would probably be regarded by Kierkegaard as expressions of excessive aestheticism--for Kierkegaard ' the very lowest form of s p i r i t u a l l i f e .  3 2  Berdyaev  emphatically removes himself from the company of Heidegger and Sartre, tracing h i s e x i s t e n t i a l ancestry through Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Pascal and Boehme . In  1934 he noted that "the melancholy and tragic Kierke-  gaard i s now  exerting on modern philosophy an influence  toward an ontology of n i h i l i s m which i s not found in 34 Kierkegaard himself ."  32. In his work. Either-Or, Kierkegaard distinguished three stages of man's evolving s p i r i t u a l l i f e — t h e aesthetic, the e t h i c a l and the r e l i g i o u s stages. 33. Jacob Boehme, the German mystic of the late Sixteenth Century, had a great influence on Berdyaev and as lampert says, "was the cause of considerable ambigui t i e s in h i s C h r i s t i a n philosophy" (Lampert,"Berdyaev", Modern Christian Revolutionaries, p. 317) . The Doctrine of Sophia which Berdyaev accepts in part is summarized b r i e f l y by him as follows: "Boehme's doctrine of Sophia i s a doctrine of eternal v i r g i n i t y and not of eternal femininity. Sophia i s v i r g i n i t y , the completeness of man, the androgynous image of man. It was man's f a l l into s i n which was his loss of h i s v i r g i n — S o p h i a . A f t e r the P a l l Sophia flew away to heaven and upon earth Eve appeared. Man yearned f o r his v i r g i n — S o p h i a , f o r i n t e g r a l i t y . Sex i s a sign of dividedness and f a l l " (Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, pp. 175-6) . 34. Berdyaev, Pate of Man  in the Modern World, p. 31.  CHAPTER VII .  Chapter V I I .  Berdyaev and Existentialism  Berdyaev's  Existentialism.  A Philosophy of C r i s i s .  Berdyaev and Existentialism  Berdyaev's Existentialism: The basic p r i n c i p l e of Berdyaev's e x i s t e n t i a l ism i s that of the primacy of personality of the existent subject . Being i s regarded as secondary because i t i s a product of thought—an ontological object, a rationalized concept.  Understanding, f o r Berdyaev, i s integralr-not  merely i n t e l l e c t u a l , conceptual or r a t i o n a l i s t i c . Here Berdyaev emphatically follows the t r a d i t i o n of Khomyakov and Solovyev . For Descartes i t was the i n t e l l e c t , f o r Berdyaev i t i s the whole personality in i t s human predicament that i s dominant and d e c i s i v e . Where Descartes naturally tended toward rationalism and i n t e l l e c t u a l ism, Berdyaev tends toward v i t a l i s m and intuition .  1. Spinka, Berdyaev. p. 102.  83  84 A philosopher of the e x i s t e n t i a l i s t type does not proceed in the experience of knowing by means of obj ect i f icat ion , does not place the object against the subject . His philosophy i s the expression of the subject i t s e l f as i t i s engrossed in the secret of being 2  Since, Berdyaev states , man l i v e s both i n the phenomenal world and in the noumenal, he i s a divided being and hence a suffering being . For Berdyaev the very existence of personality represents a paradox, since "the  personality i s the incarnated antinomy of the  individual., and the s o c i a l , of form and matter, of the i n f i n i t e and the f i n i t e , of freedom and d e s t i n y . "  4  Berdyaev i n s i s t s that the existence of personality i s ever accompanied by yearning, since "yearning always indicates something lacking and movement towards the fulness of l i f e . "  5  A Philosophy of C r i s i s The p e c u l i a r i t y of existentialism i s that i t deals almost exclusively with the problem of man's  2 . Berdyaev , Autobiography, p. 2 9 7 . 3. Berdyaev, Beginning and_the End, p. 81. 4. Berdyaev, Solitude and Society, p. 174. 5. Berdyaev, Slavery and Freedom , p. 53.  85 'separation from himself and from the world .  It does  not attempt to solve the problem by some universal rationalization,but rather enlarges and expands upon the separation i t s e l f .  Separation becomes the  primordial s t u f f of personal existence.  The philosophy  of existentialism does not attempt so much to answer the questions raised, as i t does to restate the questions emphatically " u n t i l they engage the whole man  and are made personal, urgent and anguished ."  That these questions cannot be given d e f i n i t e , objective, universal answers i s not so much man's lack of knowledge but because man,  as being, remains a paradox, a question,  a personal choice. Man and the objective world  "both  are at any time other than and more than , anything that can be said of them."  7  Existentialism represents  a kind of stalemate in philosophy. of c r i s i s  8  It i s a philosophy  and i s symptomatic of a c r i s i s  in philosophy.  6. Blackham, Six E x i s t e n t i a l i s t Thinkers, p. 7. Loc. c i t . 8. Bobbio, Philosophy of Decadentism, p. 6.  152.  86  Man to-day l i v e s in fear: his l i f e is as i t were suspended over an abyss and he is threatened on a l l sides. He has l o s t the hopes which so recently he t r i e d to substitute f o r the Christian f a i t h . He no longer believes in progress, in humanism, in science, in salvation to be brought by democracy and democratic c i v i l i z a t i o n ; he lenows the i n j u s t i c e of capitalism,and has become d i s i l l u s i o n e d about the U t o p i a s of ideal s o c i a l orders; he i s eaten away by c u l t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l scepticism 9  In the words of Berdyaev, "we and  can see a l l things naked  undeceiving ."  9. Lampert, "Berdyaev" , Modern Christian p . 352 .  Revolutionaries,  CONCLUSION  Conclusion  In B-erdyaev , more than in any other w r i t e r and philosopher, can be seen the i n t e l l e c t u a l application of Dostoevsky's p h i l o s o p h y — i n part rejected, but mostly accepted and reinterpreted f o r a new generation . In an age where l i b e r a l i s m , humanism and rationalism seem to be increasingly neglected and despised, Berdyaev's emphasis on Dostoevsky's irrationalisra and 'the w i l l ' i s perhaps only too well-known and too w e l l t r i e d . It was not b y chance that the psychopathic Dr. Goebbels marvelled at what a nation could do that l i v e d out Dostoevsky's novels instead of just reading them . What an insult to an a r t i s t and what a denigration of genius '. But then the greater the genius the more abuse received from l a t e r generations.  Dostoevsky never preached a  87  88  gospel of n i h i l i s m . He depicted  i t s state of mind,  objectivized the subjective in man, the i r r a t i o n a l . thinking i s love.  and r a t i o n a l i z e d  Inescapably, at the bottom of a l l his It i s inseparable from his work—  i t floods the pages . The fanatics of intolerance  and  bigotry embrace everything which i s negative in Dostoevsky and unconditionally reject a l l that is positive . This state of mind was  not Berdyaev's  and,  i f only f o r t h i s reason, admirers of Dostoevsky can ever be g r a t e f u l to him .  CHRONOLOGY  Chronological L i s t of Berdyaev's Writings 1900  F. A. Lange and the C r i t i c a l Philosophy.  1901  Subjectivism and Individualism in S o c i a l Philosophy.  1907  The New  Religious Consciousness and Society.  Sub Specie Aeternitas. 1910  The S p i r i t u a l C r i s i s of the I n t e l l i g e n t s i a .  1911  The Philosophy of Freedom .  1912  A. S. Khomyakov.  1915  The Soul of Russia.  1916  The Fate of Russia. The Meaning of the Creative Act .  1923  The Meaning of H i s t o r y . The Philosophy of Inequality. Dostoevsky .  1924  The End of Our Time .  1926  K. Leontiev . Freedom and the S p i r i t .  1931  The Destiny of Man. The Russian Revolution . C h r i s t i a n i t y and Class War.  1933  The Bourgeois Mind and other essays.  1934  The Fate of Man  in the Modern World.  Solitude and Society.  1937  S p i r i t and Reality . The Origin of Russian Communism.  1940  Slavery and Freedom.  1946  The Russian Idea .  1947  The Divine and the Human . Creation and Objectivization . Towards a New Epoch-  )  1949  Dream and R e a l i t y .  1950  Truth and Revelation .  1952  The Beginning and the End.  ( Published posthumously  Chronological L i s t  1846  of Dostoevsky's Writings  Poor F o l k . Goliadkin (The Double). Mr. Prochartschin.  1847  A Novel in Nine Letters . The Landlady .  1848  The Stranger-Woman . A Weak Heart (A Faint Heart). Christmas and Wedding . White Nights. A Jealous Husband (Another Man's Wife) .  1849  Netochka Nesvanova .  1858  The L i t t l e  1859  Uncle's Dream.  Hero.  Stepanchikovo . 1861  The Insulted and Injured. The House of the Dead . A S i l l y Story.  1863.  Winter Notes on Summer Impressions .  1864  Letters from the Underworld .  1865  An Unusual Happening (An Unpleasant Predicament) . Crime and Punishment.  1866  The Gambler.  1868  The Idiot .  1870  The Eternal Husband.  1871  The Possessed.  1873  Diary of a Writer (Chapters 1 - 16).  1875  A Raw Youth (Adolescent) .  1876  Diary of a Writer.  1877  The L i t t l e G i r l * .  1879  The Brothers Karamazov.  1880  The Speech on Pushkin.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Bibliography Nicolas Alexandrovitch Berdyaev Books by: Per Sinn des Sehaffens , (The Meaning of the Creative A c t ) , Tubingen, Verlag Mohr, 1927 . The Meaning of History, ( t r . by G. Reavey) , New Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936.  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Attwater) , London, Sheed & Ward, 1934 . Carr, Edward H a l l e t t , Dostoevsky, London, George A l l e n & Unwin Ltd ., 1931 . Curie, Richard, Characters of Dostoevsky, London, William Heinemann L t d . , 1950. Dost oiewskaia, Anna Grigorievna, Dosto'iewski par sa f emme , ( t r . by A. Beucler), P a r i s , L i b r a i r i e Gallimard, 1924. Dostoyevsky, Aimee , Pyodor Dostoyevsky, A Study, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1922. Payer, Misha Harry, Gide, Freedom and Dostoevsky. Burlington, Vermont Lane Press, 1944 . Fueloep-Miller, Rene, Fyodor Dostoevsky, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons,1950. Gide, Andre, Dostoevsky, London, J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd.,1925. Gide, Andre, Dostoievsky, P a r i s , plon .Nourrit et Cie, 1923. Hare, Richard, Russian L i t e r a t u r e , London, Methuen & Co.Ltd., 1947 . Hubben , William, Four Prophets of our Destiny, New York, Macmillan Co., 1952 . Ivanov , Vyacheslav, Freedom and the T_ra&ic L i f e , London. H a r v i l l Press, 1952 . Kohn, Hans, Prophets and Peoples, New York, Macmillan Co., 1946. Lavrin, Janko, An Introduction to the Russian Novel, New McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1950.  York,  Lavrin, Janko, Dostoevsky and His Creation, London, W. C o l l i n s Sons & Co .Ltd . ,1920 . Lavrin, Janko, Dostoevsky, A Study, London, Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1943 . Lloyd, J.A.T.. Fyodor Dostoevsky. New York , Charles Scribner's Sons , 1947 .  V  Mackiewicz, S tan is law , Dostoevsky, London, Orbis Ltd.,1947. Meier-Graefe, J u l i u s , Dostoevsky the Man and His Work , ( t r . by H.H. Marks), New York, Harcourt Brace & Co.,1928 . Merejkowski, Dmitri S., T o l s t o i as Man and A r t i s t , with an Essay on Dostoevsky. London, Archibald Constable & Co.Ltd. 1902 . Mirsky, D.S., A History of Russian L i t e r a t u r e , New A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1949 .  York,  Muchnic, Helen, An Introduction to the Russian Novel, New York, Doubleday & Co. Inc., 1947. Murray, J . Middleton, Fyodor Dostoevsky, A C r i t i c a l Study, London, Martin Seeker, 1923 . Phelps, William Lyon, Essays on Russian Novelists, New York, Macmillan Co., 1915. Roe, Ivan, The Breath of Corruption, -An Interpretation of Dostoevsky , London, Hutchison & Co. Ltd., 1950. Simmons, Ernest J . , Dostoevski, the Making of a Novelist , New York, Oxford University Press, 1940. Slonira, Marc, The Epic of Russian L i t e r a t u r e , New York, Oxford University Press, 1950. Spector, Ivan, The Golden Age of Russian L i t e r a t u r e , Caldwell, Idaho, Caxton Printers Ltd., 1943. Troyat, Henri, Dostoievsky, P a r i s , L i b r a i r i e Artheme Fayard, 1938 . Troyat, Henri, Firebrand, the L i f e of Dostoevsky, (tr.by N. Guterman ), New York, Roy Publishers, 1946. Warner, Rex, The Cult of Power, London, John Lane the Bodley Head L t d . , 1946. Woodhouse, C.M..  Dostoevsky, London, Arthur Barber Ltd.,1951.  Yarmolinsky, Avrahm, Dostoevsky, A L i f e , New Harcourt Brace & Co., 1934.  York,  Zander, L.A., Dostoevsky, (tr.by Natalie Duddington), London, S.C.M. Press Ltd., 1948. Zweig, Stefan, Three Masters: Balzac, Dickens and Dostoevsky, ( t r . by Eden and Cedar Paul), New York, V i k i n g Press, 1930.  vi A r t i c l e s on: Chamberlin, William Henry, "Dostoevsky.Prophet and Psychologist", The Russian Review, Vol.7, No .2 , (Spring 1948) . Chestov, Leon, "Dostoievski ou l a l u t t e contre les evidences", Nouvelle Revue Francaise, XVIII. ( f e v r i e r 1922) . Hapgood, Isabel P., "Dostoevsky", Library of the World's Best L i t e r a t u r e , (ed. C.D.Warner), New York, R.S.Peale and J . A . H i l l , Vol.8, 1897. Lo Gatto, Ettore, "Genesis of Dostoevsky's 'Uncle's Dream'", The Slavonic and East European Review, V o l JCXVI. ,No .62 , ( A p r i l 1948). Maugham, William Somerset, "Dostoevsky", Great Novelists and Their Novels, Philadelphia, Winston, 1948. Neumann, A l f r e d , "Peodor Dostoevski", The Torch of Freedom, (ed. Emil Ludwig and Henry B. ICranz) , New York, Parrar and Rinehart Inc., 1943. Powys, John Cowper, "Dostoevsky", Enjoyment New York, Simon & Schuster, 1938.  of L i t e r a t u r e ,  Roubiczek, Paul, "Dostoevsky: The Return to Man" , The Mia interpret at ion of Man, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1947. Smith, S. Stephenson,and Isotoff, Andrei, "The Abnormal from Within: Dostoevsky", Studies in Psychology, I., B u l l e t i n 7 , (1935). Spender, Stephen, "Dostoevsky's Ninth Symphony", The New Statesman and Nation. September 16, 1950.  vii Existentialism Books on Blackham, H.J., Six E x i s t e n t i a l i s t Thinkers, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1951. Bobbie, Noberto, The Philosophy of Decadent ism, ( t r . by David Moore^ , Oxford, B a s i l Blackwell, 1948 . C o l l i n s , James, The E x i s t e n t i a l i s t s , Chicago, Henry Regnery Co., 1952. Douglas , Kenneth, A C r i t i c a l Bibliography of Existentialism, New Haven, Conn , Yale French Studies, 1950. 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Solovyev, Vladimir, Russia and the Universal Church, ( t r . by H. Rees) , London, Geoffrey Bles, 1948. Sorokin, p i t i r i m A., S o c i a l Philosophies of an Age of C r i s i s , Boston, Beacon Press, 1950. Spector, Ivar , An Introduction to Russian History and Culture, Toronto, D. Van Nostrand Co., 1949. Sumner, B.H., A Short History of Russia, London, Reynal & Hitchcock, 1947 . Tompkins, Stuart Ramsay, Russia Through the Ages, New York, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1940. Walsh, Warren B., Readings in Russian History, Syracuse University Press, 1950 . Zernov, Nicolas, The Church of the Eastern Christians, London, S.P.C.K., 1947. Zernov, Nicolas, Moscow: The Third Rome, London, S.P.C.K., 1937 . Zernov, N i c o l a s , The Russians and Their Church. London, S.P.C.K., 1945 .  X  Articles: Karpovitch, Mikhail M., "Church and State in Russian History", The Russian Review, Vol.3, Ho .3, (Spring 1944) . Lampert, Evgeny, "Some Trends in Russian S o c i a l Thought of the Nineteenth Century" , Russian Review ,, 3 , London, Penguin Books Ltd., 1947. Yakohsen, Serge, "The Rise of Russian Nationalism", Nationalism , Royal i n s t i t u t e International A f f a i r s , London, Oxford University Press, 1939 .  

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