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Indian housing and welfare : a study of the housing conditions and welfare needs of the Mission Reserve… Toren, Cyril Kirby 1957

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INDIAN HOUSING AND WELFARE A Study of the Housing Conditions and Welfare Needs of the Mission Reserve Indians. by CYRIL KIRBY TOREN Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1957 The University of British Columbia - iv -ABSTRACT The survey arose out of the interest of the Indian Affairs Branch in present and future housing needs of the Squamish Band. The information gathered was to be used for the purpose of planning an ade-quate housing scheme and for the development of a modern community. The plan of the study was to present some historical background of the Squamish people, to show through the survey of the reserve, the need for better housing, and the rehabilitation possibilities of the people through the development of a modern community project on the Capilano Reserve. Implicit in the study of housing needs were the welfare needs of the people. Two surveys were made, and two schedules were involved in the gathering of the material. The method used was that of visiting the homes and families on the reserve, and having the questionnaires com-pleted. There was thus a day to day v i s i t to the reserves, and a continu-ous contact with the people over a considerable period of time. Although almost a l l homes on the reserve were visited, the information used in the tables was based on a random selection of twenty-seven homes. The study revealed in its broad outline that the second-class status of the Indian people has resulted in second-class living conditions. Housing conditions are sub-marginal and overcrowding i s general in almost every instance. The welfare program lacks coordina-tion and i s inadequate to the needs of the families. Breakdown of family l i f e is general. - V -It appeared obvious that only a comprehensive program meeting the social and psychological needs of the people could ade-quately solve the many inter-related problems of the Squamish people. In addition i t seemed clear that no program could really succeed unless the people themselves were intimately involved i n I t s development. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Grateful acknowledgement is made to Mr. Arneil, Indian Commissioner for British Columbia, and to Dr. Leonard Marsh and Dr. Harry Hawthorn of the University of British Columbia who had most to do with the initiation of this study. Professor W. G. Dixon of the School of Social Work also gave help in the latter stages of the thesis, and to him we tender our thanks. Special thanks are due to Mr. Murray Poison, of the firm of Poison and Siddall, Architects, for professional assistance in the design and model of the proposed community plan for the Indian Reservation. In the field work, the assistance rendered by Mr. Harry F. Taylor, formerly Indian Superintendent of Vancouver, and later Mr. F. Earl Anfield, present Indian Superintendent, was invaluable. It is a pleasure also to thank Mr. Tim Moody, Mr. Simon Baker and others of the Squamish tribe for their friendly cooperation. - ix -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter 1. Background The European invasion of North America and i t s effect upon the native population. The conflict of cultures. The administration of Indian A f f a i r s . The methods used i n the survey .. 1 Chapter 2. Past and Present Patterns Geographic background. Economy and culture of the Squamish. General effects of European settlement. Social problems on the Mission Reserve. 10 Chapter 3. Mission and Capilano Reserves Description of Mission Reserve; land and services. Description of Capilano Reserve; i t s size compared with Mission Reserve 21 Chapter l i . H ousing and Welfare Substandard housing on Mission Reserve. Seven Indian homes. Economics and Welfare. Related factors of health. Welfare services. Indian " r e l i e f " and population comparisons. Child welfare 31 Chapter 5. Rehabilitati on Problems involved. Housing project and estimates of cost. Methods of financing. Welfare recommendations. Public welfare program. Recreational needs. New deal needed 53 - i i i -TABLES IN THE TEXT Page Table 1. Plumbing facilities of twenty-seven homes 3k Table 2. Comparison of relief and social assistance grants •• U7 Table 3. Comparison of relief and social assistance case loads •• U8 Fig. 1. Row of homes on Mission Reserve 22a Fig. 2. Single dwelling on Mission Reserve 22a Fig. 3* Drainage pipe from kitchen 31a Fig. U. Outdoor washing facilities on Mission Reserve . 31a Fig. 5. Drainage ditch on Mission Reserve 31a Fig. 6. Interior, Mission Reserve 32a Fig. 7. Interior, Mission Reserve 32a Fig. 8. Toilet faci l i t i e s , outdoor, Mission Reserve ... 33a Fig. 9. Toilet faci l i t i e s , outdoor, Mission Reserve ... 33a Fig. 10. Toilet faci l i t i e s , outdoor, Mission Reserve ... 33a Fig. 11. Slum dwelling, Mission Reserve 36a Fig. 12. Slum dwelling, Mission Reserve 36a Fig. 13. Slum dwelling, Mission Reserve 36a Fig. l l u Architect's model of proposed village 5Ua Chapter I. Background When Columbus crossed the vast Atlantic Ocean and dis-covered America, he altered two worlds, the old and the new. The discovery of America quickened the new industrialism struggling to birth i n England and the continent. By the beginning of the sixteenth century permanent settlement i n the new world was ac-complished. The frontiers of the new colonies began moving westward u n t i l at last there was continuous communication between the people of the Atlantic seaboard and the people of the Pacific. But the development and extension of western c i v i l i z a -tion on the North American continent did not occur without problems. The struggle for independence and constitutional government needs no discussion here, nor does the socio-economic history which ac-companied the ri s e of the modern North American culture. Yet i t must be said that i t was the European invasion that overwhelmed and almost t o t a l l y destroyed the Indian culture of North America. The Indian problem, as we see i t today, i s the result of this early relationship between the colonists and the Indian. The spread of western c i v i l i z a t i o n across America inevitably meant a diminution i n power and status of the native Indian. So quick was the expansion of the new colonialism that the Indian was i n danger of losing whatever rights and identity he had l e f t . In order to protect them from the more aggressive entrepreneur the government made a series of treaties with the - 2 -Indians, and established the present system of reserves i n which the Indian was guaranteed parcels of land, and certain other " p r i -vileges" relating to the health and welfare of the Indian people. In 186? the Canadian Parliament passed the f i r s t Indian Act form-alizing the relationship between the Indians of Canada and the government. It was a well-intentioned act, designed at the time to protect the interest of the native Indian, but i t tended to iso-late the Indian from the main stream of Canadian culture, and i t gave him a status lower than that enjoyed by the newest immigrant in the country. The f i r s t impact of European culture on the Indian was to disorganize his primitive economy, and this i n turn, led to the gradual destruction of the great institutions which composed the culture pattern of the native people. The more sensitive withdrew into a dignified silence, but the overall effect was to disorganize Indian family l i f e and t r i b a l traditions. In addition, through disease which came with the white man, the Indian population declined rapidly. The Indian popula-tion i n B r i t i s h Columbia, prior to the European invasion, was estimated to be i n the neighborhood of 125,000. Today i t i s approximately 2 8 , U 7 8 . ^ Contrary, however, to the general opinion, the Indian population i s increasing year by year. This fact makes i t a l l the more urgent for far-reaching and constructive plans to be made on their behalf. It may well (1) The Canada Year Book, 1955, Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa, p. 155« - 3 -be that a fresh approach to the problem of the Canadian Indian is now required in order that the Indian people themselves may become a truly strong and integral part of the Canadian mosaic. Although this paper deals with a special group of West Coast Indians, i t is generally agreed that poor housing, unemploy-ment, poor health, and a general all-round lower standard of living than that enjoyed by most Canadians is common among the Indian people. The Canadian Welfare Council and the Canadian Association of Social Workers in a Joint Submission to the Government stated that "the evidence presented to this committee confirms the impression, given to us by organizations and individuals concerned with social welfare a l l across Canada, that the native population is being given less consideration than any other group in Canada with respect to the improvement of social conditions."^ Since this report was submitted ten years ago there is growing evidence that the people of Canada are more aware of their responsibility to the Indian people. Possibly in the not too distant future a comprehensive plan for the advancement of the Indian people will be clearly outlined. (1) Joint Submission by The Canadian Welfare Council and  The Canadian Association of Social Workers to The Special Joint Committee of the Senate and the House of Commons appointed to examine and consider The Indian Act, Ottawa, January, 191+7. - h -"In our judgement," states the same report, "the only-defensible goal for a national program must be the f u l l assimila-tion of Indians into Canadian l i f e , which involves not only their admission to f u l l citizenship, but the right and opportunity to participate freely with other citizens i n a l l community a f f a i r s . In the meantime, an examination of what can and i s being done for the Indian within the framework of the present Indian Act, and with reference to his present socio-economic status i s not amiss. Administration of Indian Affairs "The primary function of the Indian Affairs Branch, under the Citizenship and Immigration Act and the Indian Act, i s to ad-minister the affairs of the Indians of Canada i n a manner that w i l l enable them to become increasingly self-supporting and independent. The functions of the Branch include the management of Indian Reserves and surrendered lands, trust funds, welfare projects, r e l i e f , family allowances, education, descent of property, rehabilitation of Indian Veterans on reserves, Indian treaty obligations, enfranchisement of Indians and other matters." Indian Affairs i n British Columbia are under the j u r i s -diction of a Commissioner of Indian Affai r s . Responsible to him (1) Ibid, p. 2. (2) The Canada Year Book. 1955. Queen's Printer, Ottawa, p. 156. - 5 -are the various Indian Superintendents who are i n effect regional administrators. In addition, and responsible to the Commissioner are the Regional Inspector of Schools, Regional Inspector of Indian Agencies, Indian Agricultural Superintendent, Fur Supervisor, and the engineering division of the branch. In addition the branch now has one social worker who services the entire province. Indian health services are administered separately but are co- -ordinated on a regional basis with the Indian Affairs Branch. Powers of Indian Superintendent The powers of an Indian Superintendent are those con-ferred upon him by the Indian Act and the Superintendent General of Indian Affa i r s . The superintendent has legal powers, and i t could be said, traditional powers, or powers which have grown up around him because of the Indian's need to gain the superintendent's approval for any project involving property and money. The superintendent has veto powers. For instance, the band council could grant an Indian family on i t s reserve, " r e l i e f " ; the super-intendent could refuse to issue the " r e l i e f " i f he f e l t the family i n question was not eligible or was "undeserving." The superintendent, because of his position, can dis-courage or encourage Indian projects. An enlightened superinten-dent can advance the welfare and general interest of the Indians i n his region. On the other hand, i t cannot be forgotten that i t - 6 -i s the Indian Act i t s e l f that i s the point of reference i n the entire administrative function of the Indian Department. Indian superintendents must administer the act and i t s regulations whether they are i n entire agreement with them or not. In many cases they carry out policies which they f e e l are not i n the best interests of the Indian. Many superintendents disagree, for i n -stance, i n the amount of r e l i e f paid to Indian families, and the man-ner i n which i t i s given. They may also have considerable feeling about the manner i n which children are admitted to residential schools. But u n t i l the department develops a sound program of child care and social allowances the arbitrary separation of families w i l l continue. Thus the regulations that bind the Indian, bind the superintendent as 0 well. The Vancouver Agency The Vancouver Agency, under whose jurisdiction f a l l s the re-serve under study, covers the north and west shores of Burrard Inlet, Squamish and the Sqnamish Valley to Creekside, and the area from Vancouver to Ghurchhouse, which l i e s just below Cape Mudge. This includes the Sechelt Peninsula. Under the agency are nine Indian Bands tot a l l i n g 2,f>00 people. Providing services to these people are the superintendent and one assistant. Inasmuch as the needs of the Indian people are both great and demanding, the situation i s analogous to having two social workers with a caseload of 2,3>00. The responsibility of the agency i s to administer the Indian Act, to generally - 7 -assist the Indian in the exercise of his rights and obligations, and to meet his needs consistent with the Act. Present Study The present study i s focused on a group of Squamish Indians l i v i n g on the Mission Reserve, one of the smallest and most congested reserves on the coast, lying almost i n the centre of the City of North Vancouver. The study proposes to indicate the housing needs of the people, and to compare the health and welfare programs for the Indians with that of the white community. The Mission Reserve was chosen as an area of study for several reasons. One, because of i t s special urban character; two, because of the large number of families known to be l i v i n g i n the area i n an overcrowded condition; three, because of i t s accessibility; and four, because the Indian Department i t s e l f was interested and concerned over the conditions on the reserve. There was one other reason which might be mentioned here. Not far from the Mission Reserve is the Capilano Reserve. This reserve, belonging to the same band, i s considerably larger than the other, has fewer families, and lends i t s e l f i n every way for the development of a comprehensive housing project. Consequently there has been embodied i n this paper a description of the Capilano Reserve, together with a proposed project designed to meet the housing needs of the band. An integrated housing plan i s necessary to meet band needs, i f i t i s the intention of the government to perpetuate the "reservation culture." - 8 -The Methods used i n the Survey The methods used i n the survey were those of the ques-tionnaire and the interview technique. Thirty-eight percent, or twenty-seven homes out of the seventy on the reserve were vi s i t e d . The homes were selected at random from a l l points on the reserve. The dwellings thus used are truly representative and form a re a l i s -t i c picture of housing and family composition. In each instance the purpose of the survey was made as clear as possible to each family. The f i r s t survey was made i n 1950-51 under the guidance of Dr. Leonard Marsh of the School of Social Work at the University of British Columbia, but since then, the Squamish Indians have voted some $175,000.00 from their band funds to be used for housing purposes. As a result a number of old and discarded wartime houses, formerly used by the shipworkers during the war, were purchased and placed on both the Mission and Capilano Reserves. Those families not receiving a "new home" were allowed a grant from $lj00.00 to #700.00 for the rehabilitation of their homes. For this reason i t was f e l t that another, survey would have to be made to assess the nature of this new development. This was done during the winter of 195U. When the results were compared, i t became obvious that while individual families are - 9 -somewhat more comfortable, the Mission Reserve is s t i l l a con-gested, overcrowded and disorganized community. The need for new housing, a new village, and a fresh approach s t i l l remains, unaltered by the expenditure of $175,000.00 of Indian funds. Chapter 2 Past and Present Patterns Hie present day Squamish Indians are descendents of the Coast Salish people of the Pacific Northwest who inhabited villages from Puget Sound i n the State of Washington to Bute Inlet i n British Columbia, and the east coast of Vancouver Island as far north as Campbell River. There i s some uncertainty as to the original home of the Coast Salish people, but i t i s generally believed that they migrated from the inland areas centuries before the European inva-sion. It seems certain that they are of different stock from the people of the north for there i s marked contrast between the pre-historic finds, such as axes and hammers, of the north and south coast people. Evidence would seem to bear out that the Interior Salish and the Coast Salish had common origins. Broadly speaking the Coast Salish people have been sub-divided into four main groups, on geographic and lin g u i s t i c lines, although, "It must be remembered that intermarriage and the periodic movement of whole villages - occurrences which were not infrequent even up to quite recent times - makes i t impossible to draw r i g i d l i n g u i s t i c boundaries." ^ The four sub-divisions are the Comox group, the Cowichan group, the Sanetch and the Squamish people. (1) Coast Salish s British Columbia Heritage Series @ar Native Peoples, Series 1, Volume 2, Social Studies Bulletin, Department of Education, p. 17. - 1 1 -The Squamish Indians were those occupying certain sections and the lower reaches and delta of the Eraser R i v e r . ^ Economy and Culture It was natural that the food economy of the Squamish and other Coast Salish people should be built largely around the products of the sea, mainly the salmon. The salmon was supplemented by other fish and sea foods, such as the halibut, cod, sturgeon, eulachon or candle-fish and clams. There was a certain amount of specialization in the fishing process which was largely determined by the location of the various tribes. Thus there were the fresh water fishermen up the river, and the salt water people who lived down river. Among the higher ranks of the Salish, whales were hunted, but as few whales were seen there was no systematic attempt to get them. Other mammals such as the seal and porpoise, were abundant, however, and their catch was highly prized. Supplementing their diet of fish was the water-fowl, which was ingeniously hunted by day and by night. The deer, elk and mountain goat were also hunted, the mountain goat principally for its wool, from which the Indian wove his blankets. (1) Coast Salish, British Columbia Heritage Series Our Native Peoples, Series 1, Volume 2, Social Studies Bulletin, Department of Education, p.17. - 12 -The vegetable foods, which were mainly gathered by the women and children of the tribe, consisted of a long l i s t of "edible roots, berries, green leaves and seaweed."^ Bread was made from the acorn and from the inner bark of "certain trees such as the (2) maple and alder." K J This was done by a process of "scraping out the inner bark and laying i t in criss-cross fashion until a thick (3) cake was formed."x ' The cake was then left to dry or bake in the sun. A prime characteristic of a culture pattern is that i t persists in its broad outlines, and that i t is composed of two aspects which are closely inter-related, the material and the non-material. Within the culture are the great institutions which command the acceptance of a l l members of the society in question. This involves languages, writing systems, food habits, methods of shelter, transportation, weapons and occupational traits, art work, religious practices, family and social systems, method of social control and so on. It involves such things as property, real and personal, and the method of government, their political forms and the legal procedures. (1) Coast Salish, British Columbia Heritage Series Our Native Peoples, Series 1, Volume 2, Social Studies Bulletin, Department of Education, p. 22. (2) Ibid, p. 23. (3) Loc. cit. - 13 -It is not the intention of this study to deal with this highly complex material but i t is of some importance that the broad outlines of the Coast Salish culture should be mentioned. It serves to indicate the contrast between the meaningful exis-tence of the Salish and Squamish people prior to the invasion, and the wretched purposeless way of l i f e they now have on the reserves, completely isolated from their original culture, and yet not a living part of North American culture of today. The social unit of the Salish people was the patri-linear family. "Groups of three or four families, a l l belonging to the same kinship group, inhabited one house and formed a household, which in turn, belonged to one of the various clans, every member of which was supposedly descended from a common ancestor, no matter how mythical or remote." W Blood ties were all-important, and al]. members of a family were obligated to assist each other in the important aspects of family l i f e . Family l i f e was therefore an important part of Salish society. Within the context of his kinship and his class within the social structure, the Indian member had a clear idea of his rights and his place. His rank was clearly defined, as were his obligations. Supporting and reinforcing the economic basis of his l i f e and the mores of his society were the secret societies (1) Coast Salish, British Columbia Heritage Series Our Native Peoples, Series 1. Volume 2, Social Studies Bulletin, Department of Education, p. 1(0. - 11; -and ceremonies of the tribe. The one blended with the other to give him a sense of security and a sense of belonging. "The members of the Salish stock were, before contact with the Europeans, a well-regulated, peace-loving virtuous people, whose existence was far from being squalid or miserable I t was no uncommon thing a generation or two ago to see four or five generations of the same family l i v i n g together under the same roof The aged were always sure of kindness and consideration at the hands of their kindred—family affection being a strong t r a i t among these tribes. "The l i f e then of the Western Indian, as i t was lived i n the earlier days, was not that of a vicious and degraded savage. He had advanced many stages beyond that when we f i r s t came i n contact with him, and his l i f e , though simple and rude, was on the whole well-ordered and happy, and i f his wants and aspirations were few, so also were his cares and worries"'*' General Effects of European Settlement This pattern of l i f e , showing a well-regulated and orderly arrangement of Salish society began to fade and disinte-grate soon after the settlement of the white man. Slowly and inexorably the socio-economic base of Salish culture began to crum-ble and with i t the structure of his primitive society. In time he became almost total l y dependent upon the white settlers for his means of existence, and yet i n the process of identifying with the new culture, the Indian fa i l e d to achieve either inde-pendence or equality i n the new society brought by the white man. (1) Hill-Tout, Charles, Native Races of the Br i t i s h  Empire, B r i t i s h North America, London, Archibald Constable and Company, Ltd., 1907, p. U7. - 15 -The divorce of the Indian from his own culture and his v i r -tual denial of admission to the Canadian community on an equal footing has created of i t s e l f social and economic problems of a serious nature to the over 151,558^"^ Indians i n Canada. It has led to a lower stan-dard of l i v i n g , to a waste of the productive power of the Indian, to his i n a b i l i t y to compete on equal terms i n the labor market, to a generally lower standard of health and education. It has disorganized family l i f e , and turned the Indian people into a race of slum dwellers: "Housing of the Indians, i n terms of the extent of dilapidation, sanitary arrangements, household equip-ment, l i v i n g accessories, and over-crowding, not only appears to be less adequate, but in many instances very appreciably worse than that of adjacent white communities. Our Indian people, insofar as they l i v e i n settled com-munities, are a race of slum dwellers. "(2) Not only has the shattering of his original pattern of cul-ture reduced him to a "race of slum dwellers", but i t has affected his health. This i s the old co-relation between the slum dweller and health that i s now so obvious. The report which was quoted from above, recognizing that the prevalence of tuberculosis i s one of the reliable indicators of l i v i n g standards, goes on to say that: "In 19kh the tuberculosis death rate among Indians was 579.2 per 100,000 population. Among a l l other groups, i t was U2.2 per 100,000 population....If half-breeds were (1) Th_e Canada Year Book, Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationery,.Ottawa, 1956, page, 31• (2) Joint Submission by Canadian Welfare Council and the  Canadian Association of Social Workers to The Special Joint Committee of the Senate and The House of Commons, appointed to examine and consider The Indian Act, Ottawa, 1 9 U 7 , p. u. - 16 -included with Indians, the rate for 19hh was 665.6. per 100,000 population and for the population excluding Indians and half-breeds ljl.6 per 100,000 population.Kl) While the death rate among the Indians is appreciably down today, i t is s t i l l greater than the general Canadian population. In 1952 the rate for other than Indian population was 15.6 per 100,000 population. The rate per 100,000 for the Indian population was 167.5• In British Columbia for the same year the rate per 100,000 population other than Indian was 15•3; the rate per 100,000 Indian population was 115*8; almost seven and a half times as much.^ Statistical information in relation to the Squamish people specifically is not available, but the number of active cases of tuberculosis on the Mission Reserve with its estimated $h0 popula-tion is six. If this ratio was applied to the population of the City of North Vancouver i t would mean that out of i t s estimated population of 17j000, 218.k would be classed as active tuberculosis cases. The Squamish People Today The Squamish people today are those who occupy the reserve (1) Loc. cit. (2) Tuberculosis Association BULLETIN, March, 1951;, Vol. 3 2 , No. 3 , p. U. - 17 -on the n o r t h and west shore of Burrard I n l e t and the area from the head of Howe Sound t o Pemberton Meadows. T h e i r p o p u l a t i o n i s estimated a t between 650 and 680 people. The g r e a t e s t number of these are concen-t r a t e d on the M i s s i o n Reserve. P r i o r t o 1915 the Squamish were a group of separate bands, each l i v i n g independently of each other. S h o r t l y a f t e r 1915 these separate and smaller bands were amalgamated i n t o the Squamish Confederacy. A c o u n c i l was formed of a l l the heredit/try c h i e f s and head men. This c o u n c i l i n i t s o r i g i n a l form i s s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e a l -though i t has ceased t o command the r e s p e c t and l o y a l t y of a l l band members. Under the Indian A c t the band c o u n c i l s had c e r t a i n powers granted t o them, but these powers almost without exception were s u b j e c t to the p r i o r approval of the o f f i c e r s of the I n d i a n Branch. As a r e s u l t the power and s t a t u s of the c o u n c i l d e c l i n e d i n the eyes of the Indian people. I n a d d i t i o n the power of the c h i e f s which was inherent i n the c u l t u r e of the I n d i a n , could not s u r v i v e the gradual d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t y out of which the t r a d i t i o n a l power arose. The new Indian A c t of 1951, has attempted t o give back t o the Band Co u n c i l some of the prestigejl.ost t o them. Band c o u n c i l s can now be e l e c t e d by the members of the band. "The Indian A c t provides a measure of s e l f government on reserves through Band Councils chosen according t o t r i b a l custom or under an e l e c t i v e system of s e c r e t b a l l o t The r i g h t t o v o t e i n band e l e c t i o n s and other votes i s - 18 -extended to a l l members of a band."^^ The Squamish Indians, however, have yet to accept the elective basis for its council. There appear^to be some fear on the part of the present council that they might not be popular. They also have some fear that any new members to the council may lack the ability to safe-guard the traditional interests of the band. However, i t might be closer to the meaning of things, to suggest that being a member of the band council is one of the few things that gives status, however small, to a member of the band. Those who are council members now will find i t difficult to give this up. Social Problems Poverty, ignorance and social maladjustment of themselves create special problems. Poor housing often means poor nutrition, poor nutrition generally low income. Poor housing is apparent on the Mission Reserve. Unemployment or partial employment seems to be the rule among the Mission people. Among the seventy families dwelling on the reserve, twenty are permanently on "relief", five are drawing temporary relief, while seven families "normally on relief" are added to the "relief r o l l " when the winter season sets in. These figures added together make a total of thirty-two families dependent upon relief for their survival. In addition, there are two members of the band drawing Old Age Assistance, and fifteen drawing Old Age Security.(2) (1) The Canada Year Book, Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationery,.Ottawa, 1951, page l£6. (2) Figures supplied from Indian Superintendent, Vancouver Agency, letter October 28, 195U. - 19 -Family life on the Mission Reserve is becoming increas-ingly disorganized. Desertions of parents, common-law relationships are an almost everyday occurrence. Unmarried mothers present a real problem. Among the total births registered on the Mission Reserve for the year 1953, seventeen percent, were illegitimate. The percentage for the entire Province of British Columbia is under five percent.(2) The figures on the ages of the unmarried mother on the Mission Reserve are not available, but i t is of significance to report that of the 378 unmarried Indian mothers in 1951, 1U5 of -them were 2 0 years of age or under. Of the married Indian mothers who gave birth to infants in 1951, 169 of them were under 2 0 years (3) of age or under; indeed 73 of them were 18 or under. The Mission Reserve represents a familiar pattern of depressed areas. A high degree of economic dependency, considerable family disorganization, a higher than average incidence of tuber-culosis; a higher than average incidence of infant mortality and (1) Figures supplied from Indian Superintendent, Vancouver Agency; letter datedjOctober 2 8 , 195U. ( 2 ) Vital Statistics of the Province of British Columbia; eighteenth report for the year 1951; Department of Health and Welfare; Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty; Victoria, 1953, page c. 18. (3) Ibid, Table 39, page c. 110. - 20 -a higher than average incidence of unmarried mothers. These facts serve to indicate the urgency of the lo c a l Indian problem, and the need for a total and fresh approach to the socio-economic problems which confront the native Indian. Chapter 3. Mission and Capilano Reserves The Mission and the Capilano Reserve, lying within a mile of each other on the north shore of Burrard Inlet, house most of the Squamish people. Eighty percent of the estimated six hundred and f i f t y band members l i v e on the Mission Reserve. The rest of the Squamish people, with the exception of a few families further up the i n l e t or i n Howe Sound, reside on the Capilano Reserve. The two reserves taken together form a common unit. Families intermingle socially and are related to each other through kinship and marriage. The younger families on the Capilano and occupying the wartime units, came largely from the Mission Reserve. Sports events, especially those to which the public are invited, are held on the Capilano Reserve, as the Mission Reserve lacks space. Winter activites, which are few, but which have to be held indoors, are held on the Mission Reserve where accommodation i s available. In either case, the f a c i l i t i e s are restricted. Though geographically separate, both reserves have problems i n common and changes i n one reserve are reflected i n the other. Both reserves are i n an urban setting. Both rely on the surround-ing industry for employment and they share common transportation with the white conimunity. A number of families send their children to the public schools. - 22 -In innumerable ways, the people of the Mission and Capilano make contact with and share i n the l i f e of the community surrounding them. This close relationship has on the one hand awakened the desire for the same status as the white community, and on the other has created i n the Indian a deeper frustration and re-sentment over the inequality between themselves and the larger community. The problem appears to be less an ethnic one, as i t was i n the beginning, but i s today a socio-economic one. The existence of the reservation i t s e l f i s a barrier to assimilation, and i s no doubt partly responsible for the static condition of the Indian. The urban setting of the Mission Reserve i n particular appears to emphasize the basic problem of the native Indian, i n his relation-ship with the white community. His lower standard; of l i v i n g , his lack of continuous employment, his lower educational standard, his sub-standard housing and his segregation, a l l serve to remind him of his invidious position. The Mission Reserve Most Indian reservations are situated either on the re-mote outskirts of the urban areas of the lower mainland, or several miles from the centre of the towns and villages. This, however, i s not the case with the Mission Reserve. Its location i n the heart There i s no conanunity or village quality i n haphazardly-placed, poorly-built structures l i k e these. - 23 -of a city is one of the unique features of this reserve. Its naturally superb setting is offset by the rising tide of industri-alism which threatens to engulf and make untenable the lower por-tion of the reserve. At the turn of the century the reserve had a comparative isolation. Few homes dotted the north shore and the City of Vancouver was in its infancy. Communication between the two shores, for the Indian, was by canoe. Contact with his original culture could be sustained, so long as the urban and industrial forces did not press themselves upon himj so long as there was isolation and the sense of a separate destiny. The reserve, situated immediately opposite the City of Vancouver, was bound by its very nature, how-ever, to be drawn into the ongoing processes of western society. The population of the City of Vancouver is now close to 3 5 0 , 0 0 0 , ^ that of the City and District of North Vancouver together is 39,000 people. Already the reserve is cut into two parts by Third Street, along which there is a constant flow of traffic; and soon the Pacific Great Eastern Railway will cut across the front of the reserve. Ships from all parts of the world sail into the inlet. Commercial and industrial enterprises stretch on either side of the reserve. The view facing the Indian today as he looks south from his reserve, (1) Canada Year Book, Queen's Printer"and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa, 1955, p. 139, table 6. - 2k -is that of ships, docks, smoke stacks, and the cataphony of office buildings across the inlet. The Mission Reserve covers an area£>f 35*2 acres. The northern boundary extends along Sixth Street, the southern boundary along Burrard inlet. The eastern line is along Forbes Avenue along which has recently been built a t a l l green fence. Forbes Avenue i s scarcely three blocks away from Lonsdale Avenue, the main street of the City of North Vancouver. The boundary on the west is Bewicke Road from Marine Drive to the inlet. On either side of the reserve, extending east and west along the water front is an expanding industrial and comraerm.al area composed in the main of ship-building trades, supply depots, shingle and lumber mills, and smaller trades and shops allied to the larger enterprises. The land in the vicinity of the reserve has been zoned for light industry and commercial purposes. It is there-fore highly probable that an increasing concentration of industry around the reserve will make i t untenable. The question of re-organizing the living space on the Mission Reserve, or of re-establishing the families in some other area may have to be faced within the next decade. The Land The soil on the reserve is an admixture of sand and gravel, and according to most Indian families, unfit for any sort of - 25 -agriculture. Only one home had attempted to grow a vegetable garden, and i n t h i s there appeared to be some success. With the exception of two or three homes, none had attempted to have flower gardens. Some homes had attempted to define t h e i r l o t s by buil d i n g fences, but i n a l l cases the fences were broken and ugly. Homes that a t one time might have had a simple d i g n i t y , and a certain sturdiness about them, are now simply shacks. The land slopes from the i n l e t to over one hundred feet above sea l e v e l at Si x t h Street. Due to t h i s angle of i n c l i n e there i s a series of small streams flowing down the reserve during the f a l l and winter periods making the whole area damp. Many of these small streams flow beside homes; and p r i o r to the i n s t a l l a t i o n of fl u s h t o i l e t s i n 195U many outhouses were erected over these streams. Land contours i n general are i r r e g u l a r and flow i n a south-westerly d i r e c t i o n . The land not occupied by a dwelling i s either studded with second growth trees, shrubbery, or wild berry bushes. One modest creek, the McKay eats i t s way into the north-west corner of the reserve before emptying i n t o the i n l e t . The view from the reserve i s panoramic i n scope. As a natural setting f o r a pr i m i t i v e Indian v i l l a g e i t was undoubtedly w e l l chosen. Services Normal services such as e l e c t r i c power are available on the reserve, and most, but not a l l , homes are wired. Telephones are - 26 -available but few homes have this service. Nearly a l l homes have water piped i n , and most of them now have flush t o i l e t s . Few homes are properly l a i d out or equipped with bathrooms, and only a handful have a hot water system. Fire protection services, and "garbage collections are provided by special agreement between the City of North Vancouver and the Indian Department. Street lighting on the reserve i s barely adequate. Sidewalks do not exist. Gravel roads and footpaths running l a t e r a l l y from these roads provide the means of communication between the dwellings. Educational and religious services are available on the reserve. The Indian population i s predominantly Roman Catholic. Most of the children attend the residential school either as day pupils or as boarders. Vocational guidance i s not available to the Indian student i n the normal course of events. Play schools and kindergartens are needed but not planned for. Recreational areas are very limited, and apart from an inadequately equipped school, play grounds are non-existent. The shopping centre for the Mission people i s the lower portion of Lonsdale. Most of the families shop at Safeway stores, or take the ferry across to Vancouver to shop at Woodwards' Department Store. The Capilano Reserve Approximately a mile to the west of the Mission Reserve - 27 -lies the Capilano Reserve. This reserve is in the District of West Vancouver whose population in 1951 was given as 13,999; today i t is estimated to be in the neighborhood of 19,000. Here again, there is a rapid process of urbanization going on, but l i t t l e industrial activity. West Vancouver is predominantly a residential community; its impact upon the Indian community so far has not been dramatic, nor as incisive as that of North Vancouver on the Mission Reserve. The Capilano Reserve, largely because of its magnitude, has enjoyed a measure of isolation denied the Mission. Where the Mission Reserve has thirty-five acres of land, the Capilano has over three hundred acres. The Capilano River divides, the reserve into two parts, but each section is large enough to permit the development of a reasonably large housing project for the band. The most suitable area, however, would appear to be that which lies east of the river. It has greater depth, and is less likely to be affected adversely by the growth of the municipality itself. The reserve is a fairly level area with a good deal of tree coverage. The oldest homes are close to the waterfront, with the newer homes concentrated in the area between two pipe line roads of the Vancouver Water Board, south of Marine Drive and north of the Pacific Great Eastern right of way. In this area a new housing project has been started with the use of the old wartime units. "Shile i t has resulted in relieving some of the housing congestion on the Mission Reserve, the planning has been ill-conceived - 28 -and unimaginative. The. use of the Capilano Reserve should not be on a piece-meal basis. It i s large enough to permit the development of an integrated village project, that would meet the immediate needs of the band and yet would permit for ease of expansion to take care of future needs. The i n i t i a l cost would no doubt be greater, but i t i s the piece-meal method that i n the long run i s more costly and wasteful. The boundaries of the reserve run north along Marine Drive, south along Burrard Inlet, east on the l i n e between the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver and the Dis t r i c t of West Vancouver, and West along Ambleside Park, Services F a c i l i t i e s to the people on the Capilano Reserve are limited. Electric power i s available and most homes have this service. Telephones are available to those who can afford i t . v The wartime units have small equipped bathrooms, but the older homes lack these. Fire and garbage services are available on the same basis as on the Mission Reserve. There are no side walks, and access to the reserve i s by the pipe l i n e roads, which are rough. School f a c i l i t i e s are not available on the reserve. Most of the children attend the residential school i n North Vancouver, but a spall number attend the public schools i n both West Vancouver and the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. - 29 -The Problem of Isolation Bherever people are isolated, from the main stream of a nation's l i f e , set apart from the other citizens, whether this sep-aration be psychological or geographic, problems arise automatically out of such situations. Reserve l i f e , or the policies of reserva-tions for a special group of people, has created a serious problem for the nation. These problems for the Indian are sociological i n character involving many mutually related forces. These forces are ethnic, socio-economic and psychological. The outward personality of the modern Indian, as reflected i n the Mission people, i s a mixture of hope, despair and cynicism. The Indian child, who i s the Indian adult of tomorrow, i s suspended between two worlds, largely incom-patible with each other, and i n neither of which does the child feel at home. Simple questions seem to remain unanswered. Are the Indians housed properly? Are they being fed properly? Are the welfare services available to other Canadians available to them? Are the rights of Indian parents being neglected? Is the policy of using residential schools as a catchall for neglected children or for families who have too many children, a good one, or the only one? The question must be asked i f the time i s not propitious for abolishing the reservations; what alternatively can be done - 30 -to add meaning and dignity to the people of the reservations. I t would appear that either there be an immediate abol i t ion of the Indian reservation as such, or an immediate plan for the rehabi l i tat ion of Indian l i f e on the reservation. Chapter h "Housing and Welfare Housing on the M i s s i o n Reserve f a l l s i n t o two general groups, s i n g l e and two-storey d w e l l i n g s t h i r t y - f i v e years of age and over, and s i n g l e and two-storey d w e l l i n g s under t h i r t y - f i v e years of age. In t h i s group are i n c l u d e d the r e c e n t l y purchased wartime u n i t s . A l l d w e l l i n g s are of frame c o n s t r u c t i o n , and w i t h the exception of one, are without basements. Only the wartime u n i t s have cement foundations. No homes are i n s u l a t e d . B r i c k chimneys are r a r e , w i t h the exception of the wartime houses. Most homes have no chimneys and i t i s not unusual t o see a stove pipe p r o t r u d -i n g through a window or the s i d e of a house. The d w e l l i n g s are l a i d out i n i r r e g u l a r l i n e s , although i t would appear as i f a t some time i n the l i f e of the community there was an attempt t o give coherence t o the v i l l a g e . The l a r g e s t number of d w e l l i n g s l i e south of T h i r d S t r e e t . The a n c i e n t M i s s i o n Church, f a c i n g south-ward, i t s t w i n s p i r e s r i s i n g h i g h above the v i l l a g e , dominates the e n t i r e surrounding area. Housing, as r e v e a l e d by the survey, was sub-standard. Only the wartime u n i t s could meet any s o r t of housing standard, and then i t i s t o be remembered t h a t the Indians a c q u i r e d them because the C i t y and D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver considered them und e s i r a b l e i n t h e i r community. The Band purchased them t o r e -l i e v e the problem of overcrowding, and t o permit the newly Washing f a c i l i t i e s are frequently p r i m i t i v e , and the water supply e a s i l y subject to contamination. - 32 -married couples to have a home of their own, but while i t did this to some extent, overcrowding i s s t i l l a major problem. The average size of twenty-seven families sampled was 6.3 persons. The average number of rooms occupied by these families was 2.9. A l l homes sampled were sub-marginal i n character, lacked adequate l i v i n g space, and had a marked deficiency i n kitchen fixtures and plumbing f a c i l i t i e s . Hot water systems, bathtubs and washbowls were confinedjto the wartime units only. Shelving, stor-age space for food, cupboard space for other normal purposes were inadequate and i n some homes practically non-existent. Floors were made of f i r , and i n many cases were so badly splintered that where they were not covered by some low grade congoleum, they were hazardous to the children. Kitchen, l i v i n g room and bedroom furniture for the most part was tawdry and of poor quality. Few homes had an adequate supply of furniture and i n many cases members of a family had to use ancient chesterfields as beds. In one home year old twins slept head to foot i n a dilapidated baby carriage; i n another, two sets of bunk beds, i n addition to a sagging double bed were i n one room ten by twelve. Because there was a lack of bed covers, the c h i l -dren slept i n their clothes. Interior lighting was as a rule poor and usually consisted of a bulb at the end of a cord hanging from the centre Some typical interiors: often for large families - 33 -of the room. Most homes had a radio and on occasion i t was the best piece of furniture i n the room. Heating which i s a major problem i n west coast frame houses i s complicated for the Indian because their homes are not insulated, have no source of central heat and must depend largely on heat either from the kitchen range or from a t i n heater placed i n the l i v i n g room. Often homes were excessively warm during the evening, but once the family went to bed and the f i r e died down, the cold became intense. Fire i s a constant danger i n the home. Plumbing One of the major indices of housing conditions i n urban areas i s related to plumbing facilities. Is there a bathroom, t o i l e t , hot-water system, kitchen sink? The question i s of major importance since i t involves the health, cleanliness and comfort of families and of communities generally. Much of the decrease i n disease epidemics i s attributable to modern sanitary conveniences and personal hygiene. In any organized community these f a c i l i t i e s are available without question and standards respecting the home and i t s f a c i l i t i e s are incorporated into by-laws. These by-laws are enforced by a system of inspections and thus the individual home owner or occupant, as well as the community, i s protected. The Indian reserve, because of i t s federal character, does not have to abide by the by-laws of the community i n which .-. . , — ; Toilet facilities as existing in 195k were deplorable, and a constant menace to health. - 3h -i t i s situated. There are no written, enforceable laws respecting housing standards for the Indian population; there i s no inspection to see that individual family homes are appropriate for the needs of the family occupying them. This i s one area i n which i t appears that both the Indian council and the Indian Department have f a i l e d to apply themselves with proper vigour. Although most Indian homes on the reserve now have flush t o i l e t s , four out of the twenty-seven homes sampled were s t i l l using outhouses* The following table summarizes the plumbing f a c i l i t i e s of twenty-seven homes sampled: Table 1. Plumbing f a c i l i t i e s of twenty-seven homes sampled on the Mission Reserve.  No. Wo. Equipment With Without . . . 23 h . . . u 23 . . . 26 1 . . . U 23 . . . 16 11 26 Table 1 makes i t reasonably clear that most homes on the reserve are without essential f a c i l i t i e s to safeguard the health of the people. Lack of hot water systems, bathtubs, sinks and laundry tubs i s obvious. It takes no high degree of imagina-tion to realize the problems of hygiene thus created, nor the d i f f i c u l t i e s the mother must have i n bringing up her children i n a home not only overcrowded but lacking i n decent plumbing - 35 -f a c i l i t i e s . The problem i s not only one of an added chore for the mother, but represents another psychological restraint i n the l i f e of the Indian family. It reinforces his resentment of the white community and marks a difference between f u l l citizenship and his own second-class status. This feeling could not be otherwise i n a culture that tends to venerate the objects of wealth. One Indian teen-ager commented rather b i t t e r l y to the writer that, "They give us a t o i l e t and think we are happy." Seven Indian Homes In 1953 the Qquamish Band spent almost $175,000.00 for "new" housing, and the rehabilitation of older homes. High p r i o r i t y families received wartime units; low p r i o r i t y families were granted sums of $hD0 to $700 for rehabilitation of their existing homes, i . e. the installation of septic tank and flush t o i l e t , with the balance going to additions or repairs and painting of the outside. Homes considered to be beyond rehabilitation were to be l e f t untouched and their occupants granted wartime units as they became available. The plan then was to tear down the dwelling con-sidered unfit for rehabilitation. In practice, however, as soon as one family moved out, another family moved i n . In most cases the family moving i n had just l e f t a home that was less f i t for habitation. The summary of the following seven homes, chosen at random w i l l i l l u s t r a t e that i n spite of the large expenditure on housing, a serious problem remains. - 36 -House Number One i s a two-storey unpainted frame build-ing, situated i n the south-east corner of the reserve. Close to i t i s the marine basin and the Harbor Commission railway tracks. The house, said to be between sixty and seventy years old, i s badly weathered, and i n obvious need of major repair. I t i s a four-room house, occupied by a cheerful family of seven. There i s no t o i l e t , bathroom, nor hot water system. The coal and wood range and a barrel type stove i n the l i v i n g room supply the heat. House Number Two i s a two-bedroom wartime unit occupied by another family of seven. Though the family i s overcrowded i t considers i t s e l f lucky because for the f i r s t time they have a flush t o i l e t , bathtub and hot water system. The rooms are re-la t i v e l y small. Heat i s supplied from the kitchen range and barrel type stove situated i n the l i v i n g room. House Number Three shelters three adults and three children. It i s a kinship group constituting three families. The house i s a two-storey, unpainted, frame structure considered to be one of the worst on the reserve. The house i s generally dilapidated, having rotting back and front stairs, loose boards and broken windows. The roof i s moss covered, and shingles are rotting. The upstairs interior was gutted by f i r e some years ago and i s unusable. The remaining three rooms on the ground floor are shared by the three families. The rooms are dark, dreary and dirty. The furniture was old and inadequate to family needs. There i s no bathroom nor hot water system. Heat i s -supplied by an old coal and wood stove. House Number Four i s occupied by a widow, her two married daughters and their six children. The house i s an old single-storey, four-roomed dwelling. Like most other homes i t i s plain and dark inside, unkempt and disorganized outside. It has a sink, flush t o i l e t , but no hot water nor bathtub. House Number Five i s a single-storey, three-room dwelling on the north side of Third Avenue. The walk up to the house i s overgrown with weeds and grass. The steps to the ver-andah sag badly. The house looks squat and cramped. The interior i s dark and seems cold and damp; there i s very l i t t l e furniture i n the house and what there i s , i s old. The house has a flush t o i l e t , but lacks hot water and proper heating syste$. R. G. lives alone i n the house. His wife and one of his four children are hospitalized for tuberculosis. The other"three children are i n residential school. A l l the elements of a slum, without even the minimum amenities of the city. - 37 -House Number Six i s the smallest house on the reserve. It i s occupied by a family of f i v e . The house i s a single storey, two-room dwelling. It i s not wired for e l e c t r i c i t y , has no water in the house and lacks a l l plumbing f a c i l i t i e s . House Number Seven has been condemned but because there i s no' other occommodation for the family they were allowed to use i t . There are eight children i n this family, but because of poor housing and lack of funds, six of the children are staying i n the residential school. The house i s a two-storey frame structure with each floor constituting a room. The upstairs, however, cannot be used and the family i s confined to the main floor.v Because the house i s condemned there i s no flush t o i l e t nor hot water system. Windows throughout the house were broken, and the paper peeling from walls and c e i l i n g . Mr. and Mrs. M. who were just moving in , appeared to accept their housing situation calmly as i f they had no right to expect more. Income and Rent The co-relation between income and rent requires no elaboration. Marginal and low income groups l i v e i n marginal type housing. Middle to high income groups share i n correspondingly better homes. This relationship between income and goods and ser-vices available, i s a basic one i n almost a l l cultures, and has been especially so i n the west, where the outward manifestation of wealth means status. No Indian family pays rent for his dwelling on the reserve except where i t might be a private arrangement between one memher of the band and another. In such cases the rent agreed upon i s usually ten dollars per month. Wartime units - 38 -are purchased at a rate of $5>.00 per month over a twenty-year period. The question of whether rent-free housing i s the best plan for the Indian people i s a subject that might well be discussed by those responsible for the management of Indian Af f a i r s . Is i t possible that such a policy has contributed toward the present sub-marginal dwellings? Against this question i s that of whether the average Indian family on the Mission Reserve can afford to pay rent. The general opinion is that most families on the Mission Reserve have no adequate economic guarantee to enable i t to take on the responsibilities of rent. The lack of f u l l employment, of economic adequacy i s reflected i n their present sub-marginal dwellings, and their general lack of modern f a c i l i t i e s . Indian security, such as i t i s , i s patterned on his reservation culture. The Indian knows that while on the reserve he has a roof over his head and that he i s among his own people. Under existing relationships with the white community he has no guarantee of a roof over his head or reasonable employment opportunities should he leave his reservation. The pattern of his existence i s tied i n with his status i n Canadian society. The - 39 -measure of that status to a very large extent i s revealed i n the incongruous arrangement of their housing. Economics and Welfare The kind of home one lives i n , the kind of clothing one wears, their general state of health and the degree of education enjoyed by a person i s to a very great extent dependent on the economic security provided by his family. It can be said that the number of children i n a family has some relation to i t s economic position. The costs of maintaining a large family are greater than those for a small family. As wealth adds comfort, security, status and privilege i t i s conversely true that the lack of ade-quate income adds an almost intolerable burden to the people who face this economic uncertainty. They are confronted with daily anxieties and constant hardship. Lack of continuous employment prohibits f u l l p a r t i c i -pation of the individual and family i n the normal amenities shared by the community. Such individuals and families lack food with an adequate nutritional level; they lack adequate housing, clothing, household equipment and other apparatus which prevent the daily task of caring for a family from be-coming a burdensome chore; and they are unable to participate i n adequate recreational a c t i v i t i e s . - ho -The Indian mother, with three or four small children, l i v i n g i n a dwelling having neither bathroom f a c i l i t i e s nor hot water, faces continuous frustration i n her daily household duties. When, i n addition, her husband lacks steady employment she i s unable to plan for her family, and i s bereft of that security which ought to be the right of a l l persons. The Indian, because of his status i n the community, has lacked the educational vocational opportunities to f i t him for f u l l participation i n the economic l i f e of the nation. The potential a b i l i t y and s k i l l of the Indian remains untapped. Apart from fishing, trapping, longshoring and logging, the Indian i s ill-equipped to face the demands of modern industry and manufacturing. It i s among the younger generation, however, that the greatest d i f f i c u l t y occurs. It i s among this group that unem-ployment i s more serious. The young Indian leaves school by the time or before he reaches grade eight. He i s unskilled, untrained and unable to compete with the average Canadian for a job. In many cases he i s unwanted by the employer, especially i n the white collar occupations, where a degree of sophistication i s required. Among thirty-seven families originally surveyed i n 1951 there were twenty-one young people under the age of - la -twenty-five and over sixteen who were unemployed, and who had no fixed means of livelihood. The problem of employment for the Indian is more complex in a community like the Mission Reserve because he is divorced from an environment which lends itself to trapping, hunting and fishing. The Mission Reserve Indian is economically part of an urban commun-ity which derives its employment from the surrounding industrial and commercial l i f e . If he cannot obtain employment longshoring, in the local sawmills, or factories, neither can he go hunting, or trapping. Most of the families on the reserve obtain seasonal employment in the berry fields of Washington and the hop/ fields of the Eraser Valley. This type of employment, while having certain social compensations, is not adequate to meet the needs of the individual f a m i l i e s . ^ Apart from those who obtain fairly steady work longshor-ing, or in the surrounding mills, Indian labor is mobile. This is especially true among the younger Indians who can move more easily. A number of them attempt to combine work in the woods with fishing, while many, including entire families, will spend a greater part of the summer and early f a l l in the berry or hop fields. (1) Seasonal Labour of British Columbia Indians in Washington State, 19U8, Report of a study made by Dr. H. B> Hawthorn, Professor of Anthropology, and students of anthro-pology, The University of British Columbia, February, 19^0. - hz -"More than anything else, the migration i s a hopeful but rather unrewarding f l i g h t from the drab l i f e of some reserves. More to the point might be the planning of some enrichment of reserve l i f e so as to replace the forbidden or forgotten excitements of the past."(l) Related Factors of Health Low economic standards, lack of continuous and adequate employment are not alone reflected i n poor housing but i n lower standards of education and health. Such a situation i s the l o t of the Canadian Indian. In 1°U7 i n the brief submitted to the Government, the Canadian Welfare Council and the Canadian Associ-ation of Social Workers made the following comment: " i t i s a shocking commentary on the extent of poverty and ignorance which we have permitted to exist among the Indians 11 (2) Later on the brief comments on the infant death rate i n the following manner: "Comparative infant mortality rates bear testimony to the same situation. In 19hh the death rate for a l l children under one year of age was £U per 1,000 l i v e births. Among the.Indians the rate was 180.3 per 1,000 l i v e b i r t h s . " ^ (1) Seasonal Labour of British Columbia Indians i n Washington State, ISfrS, Report of a study made by Dr. H. B. Hawthorn, Professor^Anthropology, and students of anthropology, The University of Bri t i s h Columbia, February, 19^0, p.6. (2) Joint Submission of the Canadian Welfare Council  and Canadian Association of Social Workers. I9lt7. p.k. (3) Ibid, pp.U and 5. - U3 -In other words the infant death rate among Canadian Indians was more than three times that of other Canadians. In British Columbia the picture is even more shocking. In 195U the infant mortality rate in British Columbia excluding Indians was 22.h per 1,000 live births. The infant mortality rate for the Indian in British Columbia was 10$.2 per 1,000 live births. This is more than four times as great. Although the total Indian population in British Columbia is estimated to be 28,1+78 , the neo-natal death rate of Indian babies is almost exactly the same rate for other than Indian population in British Columbia. For the Indian the rate is lh*9 per 1,000 live births, while for the other than Indian population the rate is 15.7 per 1,000 live births.^) The same comparative picture appears in the maternal mortality rate, where, for other than Indian population in British Columbia, the rate in 19$h was .3 per 1,000 live births, as com-pared with the Indian rate of 2.8 per 1,000 live births, or almost nine times as h i g h . ^ (1) Provincial Board of H ealth, Vital Statistics of the  Province of British Columbia, Eighty-third Report for the year iy5U, Queen's Printer, Victoria, p. T.3U. (2) The Canada Year Book, 1955, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1955, p. 155. (3) Ibid. (1+) Provincial Board of Health, Vital Statistics of the  Province of British Columbia, Eighty-third Report for the Year 195U, Queen's Printer, Victoria, p. T. 3U. - hh -There are no doubt many reasons to explain the magnitude of the difference between figures for the Indian population and the other than Indian population. Many w i l l contend i t i s due to a combination of poor diet and a lack of good housing and normal sani-tary arrangements. These factors are among the more obvious i n the Mission and Capilano Reserves. In any event these three factors would appear to negate to a large extent, the preventive health measures of the Indian medical services. Many broad public health measures of a preventive nature are s t i l l lacking. There appears to be l i t t l e doubt that i f the standard of l i v i n g i n terms of better housing, better diet, and better education and mental health were available, the medical program would be more effective. Welfare Services The modern Canadian community, rural or urban, i s buttressed, helped and served by both federal and provincial health and welfare services. In Bri t i s h Columbia welfare services are among the most comprehensive i n Canada and are provided by both public and private agencies. Family, child welfare, psychiatric, medical and rehabili-tative services, i n addition to social allowances, are provided on a professional casework l e v e l . One of the unique contributions of modern welfare services i s i t s casework orientation and emphasis upon rehabilitation of the individual. It i s recognized that needs of individuals and communities are not exhausted with the granting - h$ -of financial helpj that along with the need for basic financial help are the needs for status, for belonging, and the right to be self-supporting and independent. Part of the problem of Indian Welfare Services is that i t has to a large extent failed to use the welfare resources avail-able to i t . ^ Consequently welfare services to the Indian are almost non-existent, with the exception of a "relief" program, which does nothing to rehabilitate the individual. Except in the field of child welfare, provincial welfare services are not given to a person of Indian status. Even welfare services for the tuber-cular patient of white and Indian status are different. Though both Indian and white patients get excellent medical care, the welfare services available to the person of white status are comprehensive and orientated to the patient's rehabilita-tion. This is not the case with the Indian, who, apart from his transportation to hospital and extra financial or "relief" grant while at home, receives no other help, such as assistance in planning for his family, or the care of his children, should such be needed. This is only one of many gaps in welfare services to the Indians. Another is among the medically unemployable, or the physically handicapped. Another i s in child welfare. A problem of great concern to members of the Indian (1) The Indian Affairs Branch is now, however, employing professional social workers, one of whom is attached to the Vancouver office of the Department. - U6 -Department is the use of residential schools as the catchall for a l l child welfare programs. Children who cannot be cared for in their own homes, or who manifest behaviour problems are placed in residential schools. This not only puts an unfair burden on the school, but i t fails to meet the real needs of the child or the family. Many families place their children in resi-dential schools because they lack accommodation for their families, and lack financial resources to care for them. In some cases, i t is a way of avoiding parental responsibility. Relief An Indian in need of " r e l i e f " ^ must fi r s t get the approval of the band council and then of the Indian Superintendent. Relief is paid, in the majority of cases, in the form of a grocery order, limiting the family to staple foods only, such as flour, sugar, milk, beans and potatoes. The amount granted is based on a scale of ten dollars to each parent and five dollars per month for each child in the family. As the Indian does not pay rent the scale is specifically a food allowance. Although provincial welfare allowances include rent, in the following table we are for the purpose of comparison excluding rent. (1) The term "relief" is used by the Indian Department; in modern public welfare services, the word "assistance" is generally used. - h7 -Table .2: Monthly rate of assistance payable to Indian families, as compared to monthly rate paid by Provin-c i a l Government and municipalities to other citizens, excluding rent. Unit Indian White 1 $10.00 135.00 2 20.00 • 56.5o 3 25.00 67.50 h 30.00 89.50 5 35.00 100.50 The r e l i e f caseload for the Mission Reserve averages twenty-five per month. Of these, fourteen are classed as family cases, that i s , families with children* the remaining eleven are single grants. The number drawing r e l i e f increases during the winter months, with a gradual decrease taking place during the spring and summer months. The 195U budget for direct r e l i e f to families on the Mission Reserve was $12,000.00, or an average expenditure of $1,000.00 per month. A caseload of twenty-five from a community of seventy dwellings indicates that at least 35 percent of the dwellings were occupied by some person or persons drawing r e l i e f . The Provincial Government accepts .U5 as a normal percentage of the other than Indian population that can be expected to be dependent upon allowances. The Mission Reserve has U.U5 percentage of population - H8 -on "relief". The following table comparing population figures, social allowance caseload and average social allowance monthly budget be-tween the Mission Reserve and the three surrounding municipalities, although not clearly applicable, has nevertheless some interesting inferences. Table 3. Showing comparison between Mission Reserve Indian population and "relief caseload" with the surrounding municipalities of North Vancouver, District of North Vancouver and District of West Vancouver, with their approximate populations and their caseload for 1$Sh»  Reserve and Approximate Average Percentage of Municipalities Population Caseload^1' Caseload to Population Mission Reserve 550 25 U.U5 City of North Vancouver 17,000 175 1.0 District of North Vancouver 22,000 122 .5 District of West Vancouver 17,000 60 .3 Social Insurance A l l Indians are included in the broad social security (1) Province of British Columbia, Annual Report of The Social Welfare Branch of the Department of H ealth and Welfare, 1?5U p. J 36 - U9 -programs of both provincial and federal governments. Indian children l i v i n g at home or with relatives are eli g i b l e for family allowances subject to a l l the regulations under that act. Indians seventy years or over are covered under the Old Age Security Act of 19$2 as are any other Canadians who have had twenty years' residence i n Canada. Indians under seventy but over sixty-five years of age are also eligible for old age assistance on a means test basis. Two such cases are on the Mission Reserve, while fifteen members of the band are drawing old age security. Indians are covered by workmen's compensation on the same basis as are any other workmen. The problem here, as was previously indicated, i s that Indian labor i s less employed than other categories, and the work they pursue, because of the many social factors, tends to limit them to occupations which are not covered by workmen's compensation or unemployment insurance. Thus these programs have a limited value to the Indian at the present time. Child Welfare Program The child welfare program of the Province of Br i t i s h Columbia, involving the protection of children, children of unmarried parents, adoptions and foster homes i s available to the Indian population. Because, however, of the special status - 50 -of the Indian, and the general lack of lia i s o n between the Indian Department and the Welfare Department of the Province, the f u l l resources of the Indian and white community are never brought into play. Finding adoption and foster homes for white children does not, on the whole, present a major problem. To find an adoption home or a foster home for children of Indian parents i s almost impossible. In some ways the Indians have developed their own foster home program by a system of passing children from one relative to another; those children for whom no home can be found are placed i n residential schools. The residential school thus becomes a catchall for a l l the child welfare problems of the Indian Department. Neglected, unwanted or problem children i n the vast majority of cases end up i n the school. The Indian Superintendent, while not happy over this use of the school, finds that placement there becomes the easy and often the only answer to his problem. Adoption of Indian children becomes a special problem in that few adoption homes are available and because of the conflict i n determining the status of the child. A child of an unmarried Indian mother, but whose father has white status, presents special problems to the Indian mother who cannot secure Indian rights for her child, and special problems to the white community i n finding adoption homes for these children, i f so - 51 -requested. Indian mothers who wish to keep such children w i l l conceal the identity of the putative father i n order to give the child her own status. It i s not uncommon to see children who have a l l the appearances of being white sharing the l i f e of the Indian people. These problems reflect again the burden which second-class citizenship places upon any minority group. Indian status in i t s e l f inhibits the normal growth, development and assimila-tion of the Indian people. As a group, they have the greatest need for a well-integrated welfare program, and yet of a l l people i n Canada they have the least i n these resources. There i s no integrated welfare program for these people, no housing standard for them and l i t t l e attempt to provide for the recre-ational needs of the young children and the teen-ager. While medical services to the Indian, on a formal basis, appear to be reasonably comprehensive, the public health program as i t relates to housing and sanitation i n the adjacent community, say, of North Vancouver i n relation to the Mission Reserve, i s not applicable to the Indian. As i n housing, the Indian Department's approach to health and welfare problems appears to be on a piecemeal basis. The reason for this situ-ation appears to be not i n the unwillingness of the members of - 52 -the Indian Department, but rather i n the fact that the Indian Department has yet to come to grips with the problem i n a comprehensive way. Chapter 5 ' . Rehabilitation Solutions to social and economic problems are never ready-made. Those i n socio-economics involve social traditions and patterns of culture* they implicate the past and the future. Individual problems become group problems, and group problems, community problems. No two are exactly alike. For instance, the Doukhobors of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Indian population both present socio-economic problems, but their solution, while having possible parallels, are nevertheless different i n their application to each other. The problem of the Indian i s national i n scope, and deals with a com-munity of people whose historical background i s vastly different from the Doukhobor. Different situations c a l l forth different solutions. It i s generally conceded, however, that a l l social problems involving the needs and rights of people can be adequately solved, i f the approach combines science and humanism. The problem of the people on the Mission Reserve i s tied up with that of a l l Indians across Canada* yet the Mission people have a unique and specific problem of housing and welfare needs that can be met immediately and without reference to the total problem of the Canadian Indian. Two plans are needed, one on the national level envisaging a total study of the Indian problem, i n which recommendations leading to the complete emancipation of the Indian people would be made. - 5U -The other plan should be on the local level with a view to an immediate raising of the standard of l i v i n g for the Indian. It i s the specific problem of housing and welfare for the Mission Reserve that i s being considered here. Housing and Planning Project In August 1950 Dr. Leonard Marsh of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia compiled a report for the use of the Indian Department dealing with a housing project for the Worth Shore R e s e r v a t i o n . I t proposed the use of the Capilano Reserve as the site for a new and comprehensive village scheme for a l l the Squamish Indians. Those who cared to remain on the smaller Mission Reserve could do so, but the main project would be to create a new community on the Capilano Reserve. The plan envisaged family dwellings, schools, playgrounds, community centre, roads, street lighting and other resources required by modern community l i v i n g . The plan i n effect would be a self-contained community, designed to give strength to the Indian family and a sense of purpose. Whether the Indians should have their own school, i s a ' matter that should be thought through very carefully. It i s generally agreed that Indian children attending non-parochial schools are better educated, and achieve a degree of assimilation not shared by others of the band. For instance, teachers employed in residential schools need (2) not be certificated. N ' (1) Marsh, Dr. Leonard C , North Shore Reservation; Housing  and Planning Project, Report No. 2, August, 1950; Departments of Social Work and Architecture, University of Br i t i s h Columbia. (2) The Department of Indian Affairs has no control over h i r i n g of teachers at residential schools. - 55 -The new community was to be developed by stages, with those families having the greatest need being accommodated f i r s t . A schedule of cost was worked out at the;time, and a model of the planned village prepared by Mr. Murray Poison, an architect and part-time lecturer at the School of Architecture. The report was held in abeyance pending the result of the . housing survey shown in Chapter four; this, however, need not have interfered with any basic plans for the rehabilitation of the Indian families. The subsequent purchases and placing of wartime units on the Capilano Reserve, while partially meeting an immediate need, has tended to perpetuate a policy that leads to blighted homes of the future. In spite of these developments i t should s t i l l be possible to proceed with such plans as originally presented by Dr. Marsh.. The plan was not conceived simply to meet a housing shortage, but to provide the physical basis for raising the standard of living of the Squamish Indian, to prevent the disintegration of family l i f e , and to promote a more rapid assimilation of the Indian people into the pattern of Canadian l i f e . Proposed Plan The plan proposed that, over a period of time, ninety-five homes should be built, along with a school and "utilities" building which would house a workshop, craft shop, laundry and health and - 56 - * welfare c l i n i c . T h r e e stages of development were suggested, with the f i r s t recommending a total of thirty homes for construction and in addition a home for six old people. The f i r s t stage also includes a two-room school and an all-purpose building to house the workshop, craft shop, etc. The next phase would see thirty more dwellings built, with additions to the school, and the third phase to complete another thirty-five dwellings, making a total of ninety-five, dwellings in a l l . Of this number forty-four were two-bedroom homes, eighteen three-bedroom homes, twenty-five four-bedroom homes, and eight to be five-bedroom homes. The old people's unit is to house twelve persons. The new village would be properly serviced with water, light and roads. Tree belts would be developed to enhance the natural features of the area, to allow for sunlight, and to give a maximum view of the sea, at the same time shielding the village from the r a i l -way line of the Pacific Great Eastern. Construction Costs Construction costs were estimated to be in the neighborhood of $ljll,000. No firm cost could be given until final details of the village plan were laid down, and the cost of material and labor de-termined. The estimated cost of the f i r s t phase, including the preparation of the site and the laying Out of the services, such as (1) Marsh, Dr. Leonard C, North Shore Reservation; Housing  and Planning Project, Report No. 2, Schedule B, August, 1950; Departments of Social Work and Architecture, University of British Columbia. - 57 -roads, water and drainage, was $175,600.^ This included fourteen two-bedroom homes, four each of three- and four-bedroom homes, and four each of four- and five-bedroom homes. To add community f a c i l i -ties at this time, such as the home for the old people, the school and u t i l i t y block, would add another estimated $52,000.00. These figures are estimated only, and based on building estimates for the year 1°50. Methods of Financing Once there has been general agreement on the need for a new village, and construction costs established, one other step becomes necessary, that of financing the project. Dr. Marsh has suggested two possible ways i n which this might be done. The f i r s t method involves an outright capital grant from the federal government, a housing loan from Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation at three percent or less, and the balance of the loan from the band funds of the Squamish people. This i s a three-way sharing of the cost and participation i n the project. The second suggested way of financing was the sharing of the cost on a two-way basis. It i s suggested that the federal government increase i t s outright grant say from $100,000 to $150,000, while the balance required be met directly from band funds, i f sufficient are available, repayable at three percent over a (1) Maijen', Dr. Leonard C , North Shore Reservation; Housing and Planning Project, Report No. 2, Schedule B, August, 1950; Departments of Social Work and Architecture, University of Br i t i s h Columbia. - 58 -fifteen-year repayment period. The revenue required to pay the principal and interest can be derived from mortgage payments assessed against each dwelling i n the new vil l a g e . Ownership and Participation While ownership of homes may not be universal i t i s univer-sally strived for, and home ownership both i n Canada and the United States i s common. Its importance i n the material culture of the nation cannot be underestimated. To own a home i s to acquire a status denied to most of those who must rent. This possessive sense of owner-ship i s one which the Indian can appreciate as much as anyone. Any new housing project, therefore, should provide a guarantee and certificate of entitlement to the original occupant, i n much the same way as other home owners. If the occupant has f a i t h f u l l y carried out his financial and other responsibilities i n acquiring his home, i t should be registered i n his name, and should cease to be the property of the band. The owner /would s t i l l have, however, a financial obligation which could be i n the form of a property tax, with such taxes to be used for improvement and maintenance of village services. To ensure Indian participation i n any major plans affecting their community, and to encourage leadership and a sense of the demo-cratic process, a Housing Administrative Committee should be set up, composed of band members, together with representatives from finan-c i a l l y contributing bodies, representative from the Welfare Services Section of the Indian Affairs Branch, and a representative from the - 59 -municipality i n which the reserve l i e s . This person should have some knowledge of Indian problems, and be sympathetic toward the Indian people. This committee, with an Indian chairman, should be respon-sible for setting up a permanent administrative process^o carry on the management of the new v i l l a g e . It would ultimately be respon-sible to the freely elected band council. In broad outlines the operations of the band should be parallel to that of municipal govern-ment. The f i n a l goal would be the integration of the Indian pattern of l i f e into the surrounding municipality. Welfare Recommendations To construct a new village without at the same time meeting the psycho-social needs of the band would be to condemn the people to a limited experience and the rehousing plan to fail u r e . The problem of the band cannot be met on a piecemeal basis. The aim of any plan should be comprehensive and two-pronged; one to build adequate houses and community resources, the other to assist the Indian to achieve equal status with his fellow Canadians, and a sense of personal worth. This cannot be achieved overnight, nor without meaningful experience to the participants of the project. Dignity, freedom and responsibility are experienced, not imposed. With an increasing sense of responsibility w i l l grow the Indian's sense of freedom and dignity. In relation to the village project the Squamish Indians must be drawn into an active participation with the development of the - 60 -plans, the type of housing they want, the type of village they want, the costs involved, and, where possible, be employed i n i t s construc-tion. They could be used i n the preparation of the site, for rough carpentry and painting, and should be paid the prevailing rate of wages. Active participation can be the beginning of a sound vocational program for the Indian, especially among the younger generation. Few Indians go beyond grade eight, and none on leaving school are equipped to compete i n the labor market for sk i l l e d or semi-skilled jobs. With a soundly based vocational guidance program the Indian would not only acquire a better feeling about himself but he would be able to work i n more diverse f i e l d s of occupation. This vocational training program, with federal backing, could be tied i n with the National Employment Service program. Welfare programs, i f they are to be constructive, must be positive i n their aims, must ensure adequate financial assistance where such assistance i s required, and must provide a counselling or casework service on a professional l e v e l . The provincial welfare program of Bri t i s h Columbia, although having some gaps, i s nevertheless among the best i n Canada. The Indian should come under this program, with the cost shared between the federal and provincial governments. Administration of this program could come under the Provincial Social Welfare Branch i n agreement with the federal government or i t could be administered by the Indian Affairs Branch i n li n e with provincial standards. - 61 -With a co-ordinated system of public welfare administration adhering to the provincial social welfare program, and the application of a sound vocational and rehabilitation program, there would be i n time, a decrease i n unemployment among the Indian people, and an increase i n the general well-being and standard of l i v i n g i n the Indian community. Recreational Needs The Indians are known for their love of games, and i t i s also well known that children have a need to play for the sheer joy of playing, yet having a need also to learn how to play constructively. A program of recreational services should be developed, along with a program of group activity to meet the needs of a l l age groups i n the band. Either the Indian Affairs Branch should encourage Indian children to belong to local play groups, or they should assist i n the development of such a program on the reserve. This would involve active participation of the Indian mothers. A proper play area, equipped with slides, swings, sand boxes, as well as indoor play material should be made available to the Indian children. This type of program has the virtue that i t does not depend on whether there i s a new vi l l a g e or not. Indian play-group supervisors could, i n time, be trained to do the work. Direct encouragement should be give n to the Indian arts and crafts. This could be done with a survey of local talent, a stimulation of art and craft groups, and through subsidies or grants to the Indian - 62 -who has both the interest and a b i l i t y for expression through the medium of the arts. The po s s i b i l i t i e s i n the development of this side of Indian l i f e are many. Through a revival of Indian art may well come a new stimulation to the people themselves. A program designed to meet the needs of the teen-ager on the reserve i s badly needed. This program should have two aims, one to provide vocational guidance and job placement, the other to meet his need for status i n the community. There are no ready-made answers as to how this might be done, but there are enough professional re-sources i n the country to assist i n the development of a program of group activity. At present the Indian teen-ager i s without purpose, and without guidance at a time when he needs i t most. No program designed to rehabilitate the Indian community can afford to ignore the psycho-social problems of the young Indian boy or g i r l . A New Deal Needed. To increase the standard of l i v i n g for the Indian people, to provide better housing and welfare services, and to return to them some of their lost dignity and independence, a new deal for the Indian i s essential. The Mission Reserve with i t s overcrowded and mean homes, i t s high incidence of unemployment, and the gradual breakup of family l i f e among the families on the reserve i s but a reflection of the cultural conflict and socio-economic problem of these people. - 63 -The perpetuation of this problem would appear to indicate the inadequacy of present policies. The conditions call for a fresh approach on a massive scale, in which the Indian must be helped toward goals which will make his l i f e satisfying and meaningful. The new village in itself is not enough* along with i t must go a program aimed at meeting the social, economic and psychological needs of the Squamish Indians. No amount of sophistication, however, can erase the fact that the Indian is a second-class citizen. His general standard of living is considered among the lowest in the nation. Nothing would seem to indicate this more than the type of dwelling he occupies, and the fact that he does not share to the same degree the welfare ser-vices available to the non-Indian population. The findings of this study indicate the Indian's need for an integrated village project, and his need to be part of a total program aimed at his rehabilitation. BIBLIOGRAPHY A. GENERAL REFERENCES 1. Carver, Humphrey, Houses for Canadians, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 19U8. 2. Collier, John, Indians of the Americas, The New American Library (Mentor Book), New York, 19U7. 3. Malinowski, Branislaw, A Scientific Theory of Culture and Other Essays, The University of North Carolina Press, 19kk» k. Marsh, Dr. Leonard C , Fleming, Grant, A., Blackler, C. F., Health and Unemployment, Oxford University Press, Toronto, 1938. B. SPECIFIC REFERENCES 1. B r i t i s h Columbia Heritage Series, Our Native Peoples, Series 1, Vol. 2, Coast Salish, prepared by Provincial Archives, for Depart-ment of Education, The Government of the Province of British Columbia, Victoria, 1952. 2. Canada, Department of Citizenship and Immigration, The Indian Act, Chapter 29, Statutes of Canada, 1931: 3. Hill-Tout, C , The Native Races of the B r i t i s h Empire, North America, 1, The Far West, The  Home of the Salish and Dene, Archibald Constable and Company, Ltd., London, 1907. h* Hill-Tout, C , Notes on the Cosmogony and History  of the Squamish Indians 3 from the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 1897-98, V o l . I l l , Section II, S. Durie. and Son, Ottawa, The Copp Clark Company, Toronto, 1897. 5. Tuberculosis Association Bulletin, Vol. 32, N o. 3, . March, 195h, p. k. C. REPORTS 1. Canadian Welfare Council and the Canadian Association of Social Workers, Joint  Submission to the Special Joint Committee  of the Senate and the House of Commons, appointed to examine and consider The Indian Act, Ottawa, January, 19^7. 2. Hawthorn, Dr. H. B., and others, ed. Report of Conference on Native Indian Affairs at Acadia Camp, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19hQ. 3. Hawthorn, Dr. H. B., Seasonal Labour of Brit i s h Columbia Indians i n Washington  State, University of British Columbia, 19U8. U. Marsh, Dr. Leonard C , North Shore Reservation;  Housing and Planning Project, Departments of Social Work and Architecture, University of British Columbia, Report No. 2, 19^0. 5. Provincial Board of H_ealth, V i t a l Statistics of the Province of Bri t i s h Columbia, Seventy-F i f t h Report for the year 19h&, Provincial Legislative Buildings, Victoria, B. C , King's Printer, 19U6. 6. Underhill, Ruth, Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Education Division of the United States Office of Indian Affairs, 19Uu D. LETTERS 1. Anfield, F. Earl, l e t t e r to the writer, October 28, 195U. QUESTIONNAIRE ON HOUSING AND WELFARE NEEDS OF THE SQUAMISH INDIANS, NORTH VANCOUVER RESERVE v December 191+9 Health and Welfare Needs (Mother or homemaker i n family) Have you lived here a l l your married l i f e ? How long i n this house? How old i s this house? yrs yrs How many children? School or Work Name Sex Age Health Food (General) How much mile purchased per day? .. How much meat purchased per week? .......... Cheese per week? Eggs per week? ................... Other? . . . . . . . . . . . . Main vegetables used? Do you eat one or more vegetables a day,(other than potatoes) Do you use whole wheat or white flour? " * or » bread? Parent-Child Relationship How many children have been born to you? ........... Are they a l l living? ........... Remarks? When pregnant do you- attend a c l i n i c or v i s i t your doctor regularly? .................... I f not why? Do you have a private doctor? ........... Indian Health Doctor? ...... Do you usually f e e l well during pregnancy? Do you go into hospital to have your baby?-If not, why? Do you breast feed the baby i f you can? .............................. How long do you feed him this way? . .................................. Do you put the baby on a schedule or do you feel him whenever he wants to be fed? ................ At what age do you usually begin to t o i l e t train the child? •••••••••• Did you have a baby carriage? ............. If not, why? ............. Do you ever spank your children? 1 ........... How Often? .............. Why? What would you l i k e your children to be when grown up? . . . . . . . . . . . . . i . - 2 -Health (Family) How often do you see the public health nura£' In the l a s t five years have you had a doctor i n the house when he was needed? Have any members of the family been i n the hospital? ................ Who? Why? Where?' Special Illnesses? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vaccination? Mother? ....... Father? ........ .Children? V i s i t s to dentist. How often? Last V i s i t ? Father ......... ................. Mother ......... Children ......... ................. Do you f e e l yourself to be i n good health? School and Education What school did you attend? Father Mother What grade? Father ................. Mother Where do the children go to school? What grades? (Page 1) Do they l i k e school? What do you think of (a) Classes .................... Instruction* Other remarks (b) Buildingg ...................... distance from home ..................................... Do you know the teacher (s) ? «. Are the older children learning a trade? ................. Do you think they should learn a trade? .................. Do they speak'or learn the Indian language? How much is spoken i n the family? Community Activities and Participation (Father or Mother) Where do you do your shopping?. .. Do you find the stores too far away? Do you see much of your neighbours?...... ...... On what occasions? How often?,.. Do you go into town for movies? ...How often? Do you belong to any clubs? »• Does the family go together to socials and dances? Where does the family gather i n the evening?......-......... Where are most socials and dances held? .................. Are you interested i n handicrafts?.......................... What games do the children play?,.., Do you l i k e football? Baseball?, Basketball? Other?.... What game do you like best?? Would you l i k e to see a playground on the reserve? Do you l i k e singing?......... Acting?. Concerts? Are you interested i n a community centre?.... Other interests HOUSING SURVEY FOR NEW COMMUNITY PLAN Dwelling Address:.......... .......... Name of owner .............. Occupied by how many families? Main tenant .. Total number of persons?......... Adults Children Single ....... Duplex * One Storey ....... Two Storey... Other Frame ....... Brick .......... Stucco ........... Other .............. Chimneys: Number .............. Material Basement ( 0, F, U,) C,W, E, Porch 0,J,,S)#... .Roof material .. Attic (B, S, V) Lot: Frontage ...... Depth ........ Other structures ...... Front garden (0,T,U,) ?2?2......... Back garden (0,T,.U,) .. Fencing: C or P ............ N or U Material ... Vegetables ..... Flowers .... Trees .... Woodlot..... Lawn Living room faces: E..... W.....» S..... N«»... General appearance of property Roof leaks ..... Walls leaning ...... Window (s) broken Unpainted ...... Damp basement ...... Windoxre (S, L ) .. Other deficiencies (external) Kitchen (S, L) Bathroom (B,S,W,T) ..... Toilet (0,F,S„T,)... Total rooms (ex K,B) ....... Rooms used as bedrooms ................. Water Supply: well ..... cold pipe ......... hot::, pipe K....* B ..... Heating: Furnace (W,C,Q,S) stove (s) W,,C.,0,,S) ................ Cooking: Range ............... Stove (as above ) Laundry Tubs Sink *. .Washing Machine ........... Iron .......... Place for children to play .......................... Remarks: - u -Father (or chief wage earner) What kind of work do you do? Do you have a regular trade (or occupation) .............. Have you any special skills? .. ...................... Are you a member of a trade union (which) ? How many; months or weeks have you worked this year?........ Do you get regular employment in the spring, summer, fall? What do you usually do in the winter months ?.. • Do you go to the berry fields in summer? What parts of the job could you do i f you had a chance to help build your own house ? .... Are you interested in gardening? ........ Farming?. ..Forestry... In a housing plan properly designed for the Indian community do you think there should be provision for some farming or market gardening etc ............. cutting from a properly looked-after woodlot?... What do you think is the most important thing for the dbmmunity? Have you savings you would like to put into a house?................ Or are you dependent on what you earn from month to month*.....,..... Have you had much unemployment in the last 3 years?...,.............. Have you any dependent older relatives (other than your wife and children) . If they could be given accommodation of their own in a new housing project would you prefer that they have a separate home?*.........* an apartment in a duplex dwelling?......* remain part of your household?................................................. Are yiiur older sons and daughters (over lU), i f any, (a) at school (b) in regular work Are they able to contribute much to the family income? ............ Are they likely to marry in the near future, and will -they be looking for a place of their own? Relatives on pension....;. ................................ Relatives receiving allowance » Relatives receiving social assistance................................ QUESTIONNAIRE - MISSION RESERVE September 23rd, 1953 NAME;  HOUSE NUMBER; 1 MARRIED; SINGLE; NUMBER OF CHILDREN  NUMBER OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN; .. OTHER CHILDREN IN PUBLIC SCHOOL; RESIDENTIAL;  EMPLOYED; UNEMPLOYED: UNEMPLOYABLE;  OCCUPATION; MAN; WAGES;  WOMAN; WAGES:  CHILDREN; WAGES;  TOTAL NO. LIVING IN HOUSE; FAMILIES: ADULTS: CHILDREN;  TOTAL NUMBER OF ROOMS; ROOMS USED AS BEDROOMS: IS THERE A TOILET? BATHTUB? HOT WATER? COLD-WATER? .. RENT PER MONTH?;  BRICK CHIMNEY?  BASEMENT?  STOREYS? 

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