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Vocational training and its role in the rehabilitative process : a review of three penal institutions… Clark, Duncan Leslie 1954

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VOCATIONAL TRAINING AND ITS ROLE IN THE  REHABILITATIVE PROCESS A Review of Three Penal Ins t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia by DUNCAN LESLIE CLARK Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of So c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Soc i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work The University of B r i t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT Vocational Training and Its Role  i n the Rehabilitative Process The subject matter of thi s study i s an a n a l y t i c a l review of the vocational t r a i n i n g programmes operative i n three penal i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, namely: New Haven, Young Offenders' Unit, and Oakalla Prison Farm. Vocational t r a i n i n g i s examined i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l programme as a whole, but more p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l i g h t of i t s s p e c i f i c contribution to the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process. The a c q u i s i t i o n of marketable s k i l l s on the part of the inmate i s s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n that he i s able to return to c i v i l i a n l i f e and an area of gainful employment. In addition to his a b i l i t y to maintain himself, he i s able to accept his family and community r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and to re l i e v e society of the burden. The methods used i n a r r i v i n g at the conclusions found i n the study have been those of comparison and evaluation. The three penal i n s t i t u t i o n s i n question have been examined, and th e i r vocational t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s considered and analyzed f o r t h e i r effectiveness i n thi s area. As a r e s u l t of the study, i t has become evident that there i s very l i t t l e vocational t r a i n i n g a c t u a l l y done. That which has been c a l l e d vocational training, however, i s ess e n t i a l at the present time i n that i t represents a s o c i a l work service. Vocational t r a i n i n g i s used i n the way s o c i a l work services are intended to be used. When enough s o c i a l work services have been introduced, and the inmate i s receiving the treatment he requires, vocational t r a i n i n g may not play as v i t a l a role i n the programme as a whole, and may be considered as merely one of many approaches to the entire problem of r e h a b i l i t a t i v e therapy. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks are extended to: Mr. E. G. B. Stevens, Inspector of Gaols; Mr. Hugh G. C h r i s t i e , Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm and the Young Offenders' Unit; Mr. S. Rocksborough Smith, Director of New Haven; Mr. D. H. Goard, P r i n c i p a l of the Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e ; s t a f f members i n the three i n s t i t u t i o n s under study; and fellow s o c i a l workers - i n the various areas of contact for t h e i r encouragement and assistance. Special thanks are owing to Dr. L. G. Marsh and Mr. W. Dixon of the School of So c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia; and to Mr. Hugh G. C h r i s t i e , Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm and the Young Offenders' Unit, for t h e i r valuable encouragement and guidance. TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter 1 . Desirable Characteristics of a Vocational Page Training Programme Introduction: d e f i n i t i o n of vocational t r a i n i n g , types of t r a i n i n g units, student. Physical f a c i l i t i e s : l o c a t i o n and buildings, equipment. S t a f f : q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , method of selection, remuneration, provision f o r further t r a i n i n g . Programme: general, curriculum. Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : f l e x i b i l i t y , improved methods and tech-niques, a v a i l a b i l i t y of guidance and counselling s e r v i c e s . . . 1 . Chapter 2. Impediments to Treatment i n a Correctional  Setting Custody: i s o l a t i o n , armed guards, uniforms, security, lack of trust, impersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p . Attitude: punitive and a n t i s o c i a l , need for leadership, developing s o c i a l climate. S t a f f : emphasis on custody and treatment, need f o r highly s k i l l e d and capable people. F a c i l i t i e s : inadequate. P e c u l i a r i t i e s of general setting: time element, conglomerate nature of group, adult s e n s i t i v i t y , mal-adjusted group, i s o l a t i o n from community. Conclusion: need for synthesis of training, treatment, and custody 1 9 . Chapter 3. Vocational Training Programmes at New Haven, Young Offenders' Unit, and Oakalla Prison Farm New Haven: orientation, physical f a c i l i t i e s , s t a f f , programme. Young Offenders' Unit: orientation, physical f a c i l i t i e s , s t a f f , programme. Oakalla Prison Farm: orientation, physical f a c i l i t i e s , s t a f f , programme 35-Chapter LL. Conclusions Philosophical issues: Canadian lag, no stated p h i l o -sophy, no clear statement of programme, no p o l i c y on prison labour. Problems i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n : dilemma of the i n s t i t u t i o n , advantages of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Issues i n vocational programme: focus of training, vocational pro-gramme, physical f a c i l i t i e s , s t a f f , types of t r a i n i n g units, expansion of vocational programme, f l e x i b i l i t y , expansion of academic programme, need for diagnostic services, student p a r t i c i p a t i o n , labour-management p a r t i c i p a t i o n , after-care programme, partnership of educational and s o c i a l work programme f?l. Appendices: A. Report on Vocational School Inspection T r i p . B. Bibliography. in the  Rehabilitative Process A Review of Three Penal Institutions in British Columbia Chapter I Desirable Characteristics  of a Vocational Training Programme Vocational t r a i n i n g i s that type of tr a i n i n g which leads to "gainful employment" i n any occupational sphere for which 1 professional school graduation i s not required. The general objective of such t r a i n i n g i s the ac q u i s i t i o n of marketable s k i l l s , useful knowledge and appropriate employment attitudes. An additional but nonetheless important objective, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the cor r e c t i o n a l setting, i s an increased ad a p t a b i l i t y i n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The forerunner of vocational t r a i n i n g was the apprentice-ship system, which has a long history, going back to the guilds of medieval Europe. But, i n a new form, vocational t r a i n i n g came into the school system, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the late l 8 th century, when the expanding i n d u s t r i a l system and i t s r a p i d l y developing mechanical processes created the need f o r s k i l l e d workers of many kinds. Since then there have been a great variety of developments, some of the most recent, f o r example, being the tr a i n i n g projects f o r unemployed youths i n Canada and the United States during the depression years of the t h i r t i e s , and the intensive t r a i n i n g schemes of a l l kinds organized i n 1 Goard, D. H., "Report on Vocational School Inspection T r i p " , Vancouver School Board, June, 19V7, P« 10» (see Appendix "A") the defence industries and a l l branches of the m i l i t a r y services during the Second World War. The introduction of vocational t r a i n i n g into penal i n s t i t u -tions i s a comparatively recent development with i t s own s p e c i a l implications. It was part of the change i n the thinking of penologists and of society at large. After centuries of emphasis on the negative aspects of prison l i f e , the p o s s i b i l i t y that a programme designed to eliminate the causes of delinquency, rather than to repress or punish the symptoms, might actually r e h a b i l -i t a t e the offender gradually won recognition. Interest i s s t i l l growing i n programmes directed toward treating rather than punishing the a n t i s o c i a l i n d i v i d u a l , and i n measures aimed at the prevention of a n t i s o c i a l behaviour i n the f i r s t place. Types of Training Units There i s no uniform method of defining the various types of t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , and there i s a resultant confusion of names applied to vocational t r a i n i n g schools. They are c a l l e d technical schools, vocational schools, trade schools, i n d u s t r i a l schools, and various other names. Adding to this confusion i s the fact that some vocational t r a i n i n g i s given as a part or d i v i s i o n of the curriculum i n composite high schools, some i n commercial high schools, and some i n separate schools organized s o l e l y for vocational t r a i n i n g . A l l of these variously named i n s t i t u t i o n s , however, are i n whole or part devoted to training f o r g a i n f u l employment i n a variety of occupations, and can be r e f e r r e d to generally as vocational t r a i n i n g units. In a report addressed to the Vancouver School Board, based on a study of - 3 -twenty-seven vocational schools across Canada and the United States, the problem was approached by d i v i d i n g a l l such 1 i n s t i t u t i o n s into three main groups. The d i v i s i o n i s applicable to the presentation of this study, and w i l l be used accordingly. The f i r s t group includes the ungraded junior vocational .schools f o r non-academic students from Grade 8 to approximately Grade 10 l e v e l . The students have demonstrated c l e a r l y by t h e i r performance i n elementary school that they are not capable of absorbing a general high school education by reason of t h e i r slow rate of academic learning, and are generally "problem cases". The average age on admission i s f i f t e e n or sixteen years. It should be understood that although the student body i s made up of "problem cases" unsuited to other school settings, obstreperous students are not admitted. The second group includes the high schools o f f e r i n g pre-employment vocational t r a i n i n g for students from Grade 9 to Grade 12 i n c l u s i v e . Students are admitted at the Grade 9 or Grade 10 l e v e l , and the course carries them to the end of Grade 12. No vocational t r a i n i n g i s attempted at the Grade 9 l e v e l . There i s some t r a i n i n g introduced at the Grade 10 l e v e l , but most of the s t r i c t l y vocational t r a i n i n g i s carried on i n Grades 11 and 12. The course leads to a high school diploma. The t h i r d group includes the ungraded post-high school pre-employment vocational t r a i n i n g schools f o r students from Grade 12 to approximately Grade llj. l e v e l . The majority of students are 1 Goard, "Report on Vocational School Inspection Trip", p. 1. - k -high school graduates when admitted. The age range for a given school was from f i f t e e n to s i x t y years during the year , 1 and the median grade for the same group was Grade 12-B. The Student Not too many years ago, vocational t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s were considered to be a haven for the weaker students whose interests and learning a b i l i t i e s are not of the academic variety, but who possess vocational or p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s which are just as useful and valuable as the academic s k i l l s i n which they have no i n t e r e s t . During more recent years, however, these i n s t i t u t i o n s have been recognized as having an important place i n the educational programme, and t h e i r true value has been more r e a l i s t i c a l l y made use of. This value, with a subsequent growth i n prestige, has attracted a much higher qu a l i t y of student. Admission require-ments vary, but i n many of these t r a i n i n g schools they are s u f f i c i e n t l y demanding that only those applicants who show the most promise of success i n t h e i r chosen f i e l d are accepted, insofar as the degree of success can be predetermined. Further-more, they must maintain a s p e c i f i c l e v e l of achievement. In most modern schools, student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning of vocational courses i s non-existent. The content of the basic courses, as well as that of related courses, i s selected by the school i n conjunction with the labour-management committees concerned. I n d i r e c t l y , i t i s possible f o r a student 1 Goard, "Report on Vocational School Inspection Tr i p " , p. k» or group of employees to influence the planning of courses by working through labour or management. Student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n general, however, i s r e s t r i c t e d to a choice of courses offered as the r e s u l t of consideration by labour, management and the school. Although there i s no uniform method of testing applicants, some testing i s done. At the Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e , f o r example, a l l applicants are subjected to a battery of three tests, and additional tests i f necessary. The r e s u l t s are used as a guide or i n d i c a t i o n as to the individual's true interests and general aptitude or a b i l i t y . On the strength of these tests, the school i s able to d i r e c t the various applicants into the s p e c i f i c f i e l d s of t r a i n i n g to which they are most suited. It, w i l l be observed from the preceding comments, with reference to types of t r a i n i n g units, that students to some extent are selected f o r junior vocational t r a i n i n g schools on the basis of t h e i r slow academic learning a b i l i t y . They are admitted to these schools because they are incapable of absorb-ing a general high school education, but appear to possess a mechanical a b i l i t y which may and often does exceed what normally would be expected of t h e i r academic peers. In the majority of high schools o f f e r i n g pre-employment vocational t r a i n i n g , students are selected from the top h a l f of the elementary school graduates only. The remaining high schools only demand that t h e i r students have successfully completed th e i r elementary schooling. As indicated i n the report referred to e a r l i e r , i t i s evident that the easy way to develop a good school i s to i n s i s t on accepting only good students, and that th i s p a r t i c u l a r group of schools do. t h e i r best to exclude a l l the poorer students they can. In the graduate schools, requirements f o r admission are only p a r t i a l l y academic, and a re determined on the basis of each i n d i v i d u a l involved. At the Vancouver Vocational Institute, students are selected from four main groups of applicants: (1) students who have completed t h e i r high school education, and who wish to take short, intensive, p r a c t i c a l courses before entering desired trades; (2) people who require upgrading i n t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r trades; (3) people who, due to injury or lack of inte r e s t i n t h e i r present occupations, wish to r e h a b i l -i t a t e themselves i n some new l i n e of endeavour; and New Canadians who wish to f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with the l o c a l 1 conditions and customs before seeking employment. Applicants fo r t r a i n i n g at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t e must be at least sixteen years of age and have a Grade 10 educational standing, or i t s equivalent. Physical F a c i l i t i e s Although the buildings and equipment required for the e f f i c i e n t operation of a vocational t r a i n i n g programme should be designed to meet the needs of a planned curriculum and a given number of p o t e n t i a l students, the actual procedure is too often makeshift i n nature. In the majority of successful i n s t i t u t i o n s , the planning of plant and programme i s a co-1 Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e , Calendar, e f f e c t i v e July 1, 195k* Vancouver, B. C , p. 1 . ordinated arrangement, one influencing the other. During h i s inspection of twenty-seven operating vocational schools, the P r i n c i p a l of the Vancouver Vocational In s t i t u t e noted that the buildings f o r the most part are of 1 the factory type. Power, l i g h t , heating and other f a c i l i t i e s are carried i n the main walls of the building, and i n t h i s way do not i n t e r f e r e with the f l e x i b i l i t y of classroom and shop accommodation. Many of the buildings are b u i l t i n the form of a hollow square, while others are b u i l t i n the form of a series of "H" sections. Both these types of architecture i n -crease the amount of natural l i g h t i n g , but i t i s noted that they are much more expensive to b u i l d than the more standard type of structure, . Recreational f a c i l i t i e s , gymnasiums, auditoriums and conference rooms are considered necessary i n the high schools for purposes of mass meetings of the adolescent student body, physical t r a i n i n g and a t h l e t i c functions, and as part of the o v e r - a l l curriculum. In the post-high school t r a i n i n g units, however, such f a c i l i t i e s generally are not considered necessary, as the student body i s mainly adult i n make-up and i s not i n need of the psychological boost so essential to the younger element. It i s inte r e s t i n g to note that i n most schools, regard-less of the type, storage space for supplies and equipment i s inadequate. 1 Goard, op_. c i t . , p. 6. - 8 -The construction of buildings for vocational t r a i n i n g purposes i s conditioned by many d i f f e r e n t factors, but i t should be noted that much expense may be avoided i n the long run I f the buildings are made as f l e x i b l e as possible, so that classrooms and shops used for one purpose may be converted to other uses as t r a i n i n g requirements fluctuate with the c y c l i c a l changes that occur i n economic conditions. I f vocational t r a i n i n g s chools are to meet the challenge of the constantly changing supply and demand of the i n d u s t r i a l world, the equipment i n use must be kept up to date. Most i n s t i t u t i o n s of this nature i n the United States are well equipped with modern machinery, through the a c q u i s i t i o n of war surplus stock of every description at a n e g l i g i b l e cost, but i n Canada the s i t u a t i o n i s generally much d i f f e r e n t . Steps have been taken to a l l e v i a t e the need for modern machinery i n t h i s country, but there has been l i t t l e evidence of any t r u l y e f f e c t i v e progress on an extensive basis. Shop equipment varies a great deal, p a r t l y because of the catch-as-catch-can means of obtaining this equipment that p r e v a i l , but i n many instances because of the stated p o l i c y of schools that, where more than one machine of a c e r t a i n type i s required, they d e l i b e r a t e l y choose machines of a varied make i n order to provide a greater t r a i n i n g experience f o r the students. This preference for a variety of equipment appears to be the accepted p o l i c y i n most vocational t r a i n i n g schools. - 9 -S t a f f The p r i n c i p a l of a school, and p a r t i c u l a r l y of a vocational t r a i n i n g school, i s always very r e a l i s t i c a l l y aware of the d i r e c t r a t i o that exists between the q u a l i t y of his teaching s t a f f and the competence of his graduates. E f f e c t i v e organization i s necessary, but buildings, equipment and the t r a i n i n g course i t s e l f are l i f e l e s s without the spark of good i n s t r u c t i o n . "Experience has shown again and again that the only man who i s worth selecting for a prospective instructor, i s a 1 thorough master of his job". He i s the most important single element i n the vocational t r a i n i n g programme. He should not be too young or too old, he should be a f i r s t class man on his job, and should be adaptable and able to change from production to i n s t r u c t i o n a l conditions. In summary, the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a vocational t r a i n i n g instructor should include the following: (1) he must be acceptable to the trade (normally at least f i v e years trade experience i s required); (.2) he must be a master of-his c r a f t ; (3) he must not be too old (he must be capable of absorbing further education and of adapting himself to changes i n techniques of the trade); and (i|) he must have q u a l i t i e s which mark him as p o t e n t i a l l y a good 2 teacher. For the most part, vocational t r a i n i n g instructors are selected from the trade. A trade committee selects four or 1 Allen, C. R., "The Instructor The Man and The Job", J. B. Lippincott Company, New York, 19k$> P« 3 1 . 2 Goard, "Report on Vocational School Inspection Trip", p. 12. - 10 -f i v e candidates, and the school selects the one they f e e l i s most suited to the job i n question. At the Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e , an advisory trade committee i n which ^labour and management are both represented, must agree with the Institute's choice before the applicant i s f i n a l l y accepted. The salary range quoted below represents the average salary paid to vocational t r a i n i n g instructors i n twelve out of a t o t a l of fourteen Canadian and American c i t i e s v i s i t e d i n the course 1 of the study of twenty-seven schools. Minimum Salary Increment Maximum Salary $2ij.9.1j.2 per month $10 per month $14.1IL,75 per month In the majority of vocational t r a i n i n g units, new instructors acquire "professional t r a i n i n g " i n one of two ways, or a com-bination of both: (1) they are instructed by s t a f f "teacher tr a i n e r s " , or (2) they take further t r a i n i n g at a recognized school. Opportunities f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t a f f to maintain contact with outside industries vary a great deal. In the more academic schools, there are no opportunities provided; whereas i n the schools directed more s p e c i f i c a l l y toward vocational t r a i n i n g , arrangements are made f o r such v i s i t i n g from one h a l f day per week up to "as much as i s required". Programme A l l planning f o r programmes, regardless of the type of tr a i n i n g unit, must be done i n terms of s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . 1 Goard, "Report on Vocational School Inspection T r i p " , p. 11+ - 11 -No two areas of employment w i l l be i d e n t i c a l , nor w i l l the conditions i n any one area remain s t a t i c . Programmes, l i k e buildings, equipment, and s t a f f should be s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x -i b l e to permit or allow for change when change i s warranted. To be e f f e c t i v e , programme planning requires the co-operative e f f o r t s of a l l persons concerned. "The operation of a programme i s frequently successful or otherwise i n accordance with the 1 care with which the planning i s done." In general, the types of t r a i n i n g offered i n the junior schools involves trades requiring no great mental a g i l i t y , or sections only of a s k i l l e d trade suited to the l e v e l of the student. These schools are set up i n an attempt to meet the educational need of students with a slow academic learning rat e . This group of students Is unsuited to the regular type of education offered at secondary l e v e l s . They are numerous enough that an attempt must be made to devise a programme to f i t t h e i r a b i l i t i e s rather than to expect them to f i t an a r b i t -rary curriculum which makes no concessions to t h e i r less than average academic a b i l i t y . The junior vocational t r a i n i n g school idea i s founded on the f a c t that a special vocational a b i l i t y can and usually does exis t i n spite of an apparent academic lack, and that many types of occupations are accessible to and best f i l l e d by students of this type. The report referred to previously i s s u f f i c i e n t l y cautious, however, to point out that (1) the trainee must be 1 Federal Security Agency, "Vocational-Technical Training f o r I n d u s t r i a l Occupations", United States Office of Education, Washington, 191^, p. 256. - 12 -a l e r t enough to p r o f i t by the tr a i n i n g and become employable, otherwise the t r a i n i n g i s wasted, and that (2) the number of occupations applicable to this group i s not unlimited. It i s emphasized that this type of vocational t r a i n i n g can be offered only to a f r a c t i o n of the slow academic learning students found i n any school population. The remainder of these students w i l l eventually f i n d t h e i r way into occupations suitable to thei r capacities but which require no preliminary school t r a i n -ing to make them av a i l a b l e . This l a t t e r group, therefore, •should not be i n a vocational school. Their place i s i n a de f i n i t e d i v i s i o n of the regular school system, or i n a separate school, devoted to the general education of slow learners• . In the majority of high schools o f f e r i n g pre-employment vocational t r a i n i n g , regular monthly meetings of trade committees are held i n order to correlate the school programme with the c y c l i c a l changes that occur i n economic conditions. P u l l time "co-ordinators" are employed i n thi s regard, and i t i s also t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to ensure that graduates are s u i t -ably employed. The length of courses leading to a high school diploma i s either three or four years, dependent upon whether the student i s admitted to the school at the Grade 9 or Grade 10 l e v e l . The actual shop course, however, extends over the l a s t two years. Some preliminary work leading to the sel e c t i o n of the course takes place i n Grade 10, but i n general the complete s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of the student i n his elected shop course occurs i n Grades 11 and 12. The programme emphasis i s on a d a i l y three hour shop period, and the remainder of the school day i s devoted to the s tudy of science, mathematics, drafting and other subjects related to the trade which has been elected. The provisions of the Smith-Hughes Act of 1 9 1 7 set the pattern 1 f o r t r a i n i n g i n a l l vocational schools i n the United States. One of the conditions imposed by this Act i s that not less than three consecutive hours of the six hour school day s h a l l be spent i n actual shop work i n the trade elected, and, although some American schools are not covered by this Act, no vocational school offers less than a two hour shop period per day. The high school vocational t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s also o f f e r courses for apprentices, either i n the day or evening. In general, the schools i n the eastern part of Canada and the United States o f f e r apprentice t r a i n i n g during the daytime, while i n the western h a l f of the Continent this t r a i n i n g i s carried on i n the evening. The length of these apprenticeship courses i s four hours per week, t h i r t y - s i x weeks per year for four years. The content of the courses, f o r the most part, includes related trade information pertaining to the p a r t i c u l a r trade the apprentice i s following. It i s noted that the trend i n t h i s type of t r a i n i n g i s very d e f i n i t e l y toward day rather than evening courses. In the graduate schools, the length of the course i s determined l a r g e l y by the time required for i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t -ion. Every e f f o r t i s made to integrate the t r a i n i n g with the demands of industry, and the dominant atmosphere i s one of 1 G-oard, "Report on Vocational School Inspection T r i p " , p. 8. - Ik -trade t r a i n i n g rather than schooling. Instructors are selected from the ranks of the trade being taught, and a l l courses are subject to the approval of trade committees. Prom the viewpoint of the student, the measure of success or f a i l u r e i n this type of t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i s the success or f a i l u r e of the e x i s t -ent job placement f a c i l i t i e s . As f a r as the general programme i s concerned, the length or brevity of any one course i s dependent upon the type of course and the type of t r a i n i n g school i n question. The more highly technical the trade or s k i l l , the longer the course; and, conversely, the less s k i l l required, the shorter the course. The example used to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s point, i n the report referred to previously, was that i n one s p e c i f i c school a course i n baking requires only four months, whereas i t requires eighteen months to complete a course i n the machine shop. In the junior school f o r slow learners, a l l courses are short term, and usual-l y terminate af t e r a twelve month period or when the student i s placed on a job. The high school courses are a l l long term, and usually extend over a three year period because they are given i n conjunction with general high school education. Although there are some two year courses i n graduate schools, the great bulk of them are short term i n nature. At one such school, ninety percent of the courses are short term. As indicated above, the length of the courses i n the junior schools i s from one to two years, or u n t i l suitable employment can be obtained. Approximately one h a l f of the school day i s spent i n active shop work, while the balance of the day i s - 1 5 -u t i l i z e d f o r remedial reading, remedial English, remedial arithmetic, and general t r a i n i n g for c i t i z e n s h i p . The pro-gramme includes the following types of shop t r a i n i n g : Cobbling Elementary Sheet Metal T a i l o r i n g Elementary Machine Shop and Cleaning and Pressing Motor Mechanics (body and Barbering fender work mainly) Elementary Woodwork In the high schools, a wide var i e t y of courses i s offered as shown i n the following table. The f i r s t column indicates the courses offered i n a l l twenty-seven schools v i s i t e d by the P r i n c i p a l of the Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e , the second column indicates those offered i n a majority of the s chools, and the t h i r d column indicates those offered i n a lesser number of the schools v i s i t e d . 1. 2. 3. Machine Shop Foundry Linotype Sheet Metal Aeroengines Steam Engineering Motor Mechanics Air Frame Mechanics Barbering Auto Body and Fender Plumbing Refrigeration Mechanical Drafting Upholstery Forging Building Construction Cleaning Radio Broadcasting Cabinet Making and Pressing Patternmaking Watch Repairing Welding R e t a i l S e l l i n g Radio Repairing Photography House Wiring Nurse Assistant Baking Plastering Cooking Bricklaying Tea Room Painting and Decorating T a i l o r i n g Telegraphy Power Sewing Janitor-Engineer M i l l i n e r y Stenography Business Machines Bookkeeping Home Service Cosmetology Commercial Art Arc h i t e c t u r a l Drafting I n d u s t r i a l E l e c t r i c i t y P r i n t i n g Trades (except linotype) - 1 6 -In the graduate schools, t r a i n i n g i s offered i n a great var i e t y of occupations, including day and night apprentice-ship t r a i n i n g and trade extension courses. The majority of courses offered at the Vancouver Vocational In s t i t u t e , for example, are related primarily to the service trades because of the economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l o c a l area i n which most graduates w i l l be employed. I f job placement becomes too d i f f i c u l t i n any one f i e l d , the course i s dropped from the curriculum a f t e r the issue has been discussed with the Advisory Trade Committee created to a s s i s t and advise i n a l l matters per-taining to the t r a i n i n g programme. The Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e , a graduate type of t r a i n i n g school, i s operated by the Vancouver Board of School Trustees. The number of students admitted at any one time i s l i m i t e d i n order that i n d i v i d u a l attention and close supervision may be possible. Courses given i n this p a r t i c u l a r school vary i n length from ten weeks to twelve months. They are a l l p r a c t i c a l i n nature, but are supplemented by a thorough study of the p r i n -c i p l e s involved. The student i s considered ready f o r employment when he has achieved a s u f f i c i e n t l y high standard to q u a l i f y for a job placement i n his chosen trade. The courses now being offered 1 at t h i s Institute are shown i n the following table. Auto Body and Pender Repair Auto Mechanics Barbering Beauty Culture Marine Engineering Navigation Plumbing and Heating Power Sewing 1 Vancouver Vocational In s t i t u t e , Calendar, e f f e c t i v e July 1 , 1 9 5 ' k , Vancouver, B. C. p. k. - 17 -Bookkeeping P r a c t i c a l Nursing Carpentry S e c r e t a r i a l Practice Chef Training Shoe Repairing D i e s e l Operation Stationary Engineering and Maintenance Te l e v i s i o n Drafting Watch Repairing E l e c t r i c i t y Welding - Gas or E l e c t r i c Machine Shop Other Characteristics Although the buildings used for vocational t r a i n i n g are generally of the factory type, there has been some v a r i a t i o n i n the methods used to provide classroom and shop space. The use of steel p a r t i t i o n s , s ecured by means of bolts to the f l o o r and c e i l i n g , i s one method of providing classroom and shop space, and a second involves the use of high s t e e l mesh fences to en-close the shop areas. These fences are r e a d i l y dismantled and moved from one p o s i t i o n to another. In the same i n s t i t u t i o n s , classroom accommodation i s provided by the use of l i g h t wooden frame walls and c e i l i n g s . This s tyle of architecture provides poor insulation f o r sound and/or fumes, but does duplicate factory and i n d u s t r i a l conditions and i s , therefore, considered to be quite suited to the job of vocational training,. Largely as a r e s u l t of experimentation i n tr a i n i n g programmes during the Second World War, new aids to teaching have been developed waich have had a marked influence on the f i e l d of vocational t r a i n i n g . The use of f i l m s t r i p s , motion pictures, and other means of v i s u a l education are methods and techniques which should not be overlooked i n planning programmes for the future. - 18 -The average r a t i o of students to counsellors and co-ordinators i n the various vocational t r a i n i n g schools i s reported as 29k 1 to 1, but the figures are somewhat deceiving. In most s chools, the counselling i s done by the P r i n c i p a l , and the r a t i o i s ar-r i v e d at on this basis. In many schools, however, the Vice-P r i n c i p a l i s responsible f o r guidance and placement, and i n s t i l l others there are Personnel Officers wio handle this p a r t i c -ular, aspect of administration. There are c e r t a i n fundamental p r i n c i p l e s to follow which are part of generally accepted vocational guidance programmes. A l l vocational t r a i n i n g schools follow some of these procedures, and a few employ many. As one authority expresses the need for more comprehensive planning, however, the essence of the need l i e s i n the requirement that vocational t r a i n i n g be supplied only "for jobs e x i s t i n g either at that time or when the t r a i n i n g i s completed; f o r jobs ex i s t i n g i n the area which the t r a i n i n g provisions serve; and to persons able to take advantage of the 2 t r a i n i n g supplied". 1 G-oard, "Report on Vocational School Inspection T r i p " , p. 10. 2 Federal Security Agency, "Vocational-Technical Training fo r I n d u s t r i a l Occupations", United States Office of Education, Washington, 19kk., P« 27k. Chapter II Impediments to Treatment i n a Correctional Setting Gainful employment i s v i t a l to the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process, and i s the objective of vocational t r a i n i n g both i n and out of prison. The correctional setting, however, presents im-pediments to treatment and t r a i n i n g , which are not applicable to the outside community. Custody In spite of a l l i t s negativism, custody i s e s s e n t i a l i n one degree or another i n a l l correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s . The inmate of a prison i s a d i f f e r e n t person than he would be i n the community, and, because of t h i s phenomenon, what would be a normal population i n the community becomes an abnormal group peculiar to the prison world. I s o l a t i o n from the community, as the combined res u l t of distance and the use of walls and fences, adds to the problem of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The fact that the public and the delinquent are emotionally i s o l a t e d from each other i s fundamental i n the a n t i s o c i a l behaviour on both sides, and physical i s o l a t i o n obviously further detracts from the ultimate objective, which i s to get them together. The walls and fences can be removed, and have been i n the case of the younger and more normal population, as evidenced i n the use of Borstal i n s t i t u t i o n s and minimum security i n d u s t r i a l schools. With the increasing use of f i n e s , suspended sentences, - 20 -and the p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e , however, the more normal group are no l o n g e r being sentenced to c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . There w i l l always be treatment s e r v i c e s which can o n l y be p r o v i d e d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g , but as the a l t e r n a t i v e s to imprison-ment are expanded s t i l l f u r t h e r , the make-up of the "prison pop-u l a t i o n may tend to d e t e r i o r a t e to the p o i n t where a group of more s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d o f f e n d e r s w i l l be i n c a r c e r a t e d . With t h i s t r e n d , the need f o r w a l l s a n d f e n c e s may i n c r e a s e , r a t h e r than decrease, out of pure n e c e s s i t y . The n e g a t i v i s m w i l l remain i n s p i t e o f the obvious b a r r i e r to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i t p r e s e n t s . The presence of f i r e a r m s p r e s e n t s a seemingly insurmountable o b s t a c l e to that r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s the v e r y essence o f treatment and t r a i n i n g . For the h o s t i l e , a g gressive psychopath, an armed guard adds f u r t h e r emphasis to h i s c o n v i c t i o n that s o c i e t y hates him. In the case of the more normal inmate, he i s looked upon as an unnecessary i r r i t a t i o n . There i s n o t h i n g r e p r e s e n t e d by f i r e a r m s which can be c o n s i d e r e d as a g a i n f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n to t reatment and t r a i n i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , when work-i n g w i t h c e r t a i n groups of o f f e n d e r s , the absence of f i r e a r m s i n v i t e s breaches of custody, wi i c h i n t u r n l e a d to g r e a t e r l i m i t a t i o n s i n l i b e r t y . To the degree that armed guards and s i m i l a r c u s t o d i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s are necessary, t h e n e g a t i v i s m which u s u a l l y surrounds t h e i r use t i 11 remain. The d i f f i c u l t y o f b u i l d i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e atmosphere f o r the a b s o r p t i o n o f the maximum of t r a i n i n g i s a l s o r e l a t e d to such problems as the a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p centred around the use of u n i f o r m s . The s t a f f i n u n i f o r m becomes c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d ~ 21 w i t h the hated policeman, and the n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s are l i k e a w a l l which wt 11 not a l l o w any flow or acceptance o f knowledge from the uniformed s t a f f to the inmate. The i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n s u r r o unding the use of uniforms i s unique to the problem of t e a c h i n g i n the c o r r e c t i o n a l s e t t i n g . The immediate answer would appear to be the e l i m i n a t i o n of the uniform, and t h i s has been done with success i n t h e . c o r -r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r youngsters and the l e s s d i s t u r b e d a d u l t s . O b s e r v a t i o n of the experience of two hundred new r e -c r u i t s at O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm over the past two years, some w i t h and some without uniforms, has i n d i c a t e d t h a t two very c l e a r cut s i t u a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y e v o l v e . In some i n s t a n c e s , the inmate a s s o c i a t e s the " c i v i l i a n " w i t h an a n t i - u n i f o r m , a n t i -a u t h o r i t y , psychopathic or c o n v i c t philosophy, and the i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n t h a t takes p l a c e i s d e s t r u c t i v e to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In other i n s t a n c e s , the p l a i n ^ c l o t h e d i n s t r u c t o r , faced with the problem of c o n t r o l l i n g a dozen or more psychopathic and h o s t i l e inmates, f i n d s that without the v e s t i g e of a u t h o r i t y represented by the uniform, he f r e q u e n t l y i s unable to c o n t r o l the s i t u a t i o n , and t h i s r e s u l t s i n . a consequent d i s r e s p e c t , l a c k of d i s c i p l i n e and g e n e r a l l y degenerative atmosphere. Within the group of r e c r u i t s who wore uniforms, i t was found at O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm th a t those w i t h an a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n a l i t y and approach had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e a l warmth of r e l a t i o n s h i p and even a r e s p e c t f o r themselves, and subsequently f o r the u n i f o r m or the a u t h o r i t y which i t r e p r e s e n t s . In the p r i s o n s e t t i n g , the s t a f f member who can wear a uniform or r e p r e s e n t a u t h o r i t y or s o c i e t y and a l s o e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p , can t r a i n - 22 -and produce progress i n his inmates. The instructor who i s dependent on c i v i l i a n garb to creat a relationship i s too frequently i d e n t i f i e d by the inmate as a person who i s a n t i -s o c i a l , and cannot move from th i s s i t u a t i o n to allow personality change. When control i s found.necessary, or when he d i f f e r s with the inmate, he i s also helpless and inadequate. The uniform i s a help to many staff' i h providing that necessary i n i t i a l control, and, where the uniform i s not i d e n t i c a l to the p o l i c e -man's garb and i s properly worn and supported by a r e a l warmth of f e e l i n g f o r the inmate, i t can serve a useful purpose i n the long run. The deciding factor i n whether or not the use of uniforms i s an impediment to treatment and t r a i n i n g , i s dependent upon the personality of the s t a f f member involved and upon the types of inmates under supervision. As i n the case of most aspects of custody, the use of bars as a means of confinement i s both a curse and a blessing. The e f f e c t of the bars f o r the novice may well be detrimental to the point of being traumatic. Their ever-present shadow i s a constant reminder of a punishing, punitive society. The im-personal r e l a t i o n s h i p involved between the guard and inmate as a r e s u l t of t h i s physical b a r r i e r i s not conducive to treatment, and tends rather to unite the inmate population i n i t s h o s t i l i t y toward the administration and the society i t repre-sents . As time goes on, however, many inmates evidence an under-standing of some of the more po s i t i v e features inherent i n the use of bars as opposed to other means of confinement. As - 23 -d i f f i c u l t as i t may be to accept this f a c t , most prison architects maintain that bars are f a r superior to any other form of prison architecture. The maximum i n v e n t i l a t i o n and natural l i g h t which i s attainable, as compared with the use o f . s o l i d walls, for example, i s an obvious advantage that cannot "be achieved under any other a r c h i t e c t u r a l design or structure. Bars meet a l l the requirements for good custody, without unnecessary i r r i t a t i o n to the inmates, many of whom l i t e r a l l y cannot stand l i v i n g i n the c l o s e t - l i k e cubicle type of c e l l f o r extended periods. Nevertheless, i n spite of the comparative advantages of bars, the endless confinement they symbolize as they clash i n the inmate's face, tends to over-shadow what p o s i t i v e value has evolved as the r e s u l t of treatment and t r a i n i n g . The- general lack of trust implied i n custody, whether i t be walls, r i f l e s or uniforms, i s at i t s peak i n the prison philosophy of riever l e t t i n g an inmate out of sight at any time unless he i s confined within his own c e l l or i s i n some po s i t i o n where he has no l i b e r t y to abuse. Although the p r i n c i p l e i s modified to the degree that the administration i s c e r t a i n no abuse w i l l take place, the Inmate must s t i l l f e e l the apparent absence of any f a i t h i n him during his progress to the point where he can be trusted. The r e a l i z a t i o n that this oppressive atmosphere i s not conducive to either the easiest methods of control or the maximum i n therapy or educational absorption has induced many administrations to relax t h e i r controls. The r e s u l t , i n terms of rampant sex - 2k -abuse i n a setting where adults do not see or mix with the opposite sex for years at a time, i s i n e v i t a b l e . Gang control, and the forced subserviance.of the weaker inmate to the cunning tyranny of the professional convict, i s common i n penal i n s t i -t utions. "Homosexuality causes more quarrels, fights,oknifings 1 and punishment i n prison than any other problem". The sex Q rSy* the. b r u t a l i t y , the protection rackets, the pay-offs, the indescribable fear of the many inmates who must submit to the "con" boss and his gang's methods are not worth the freedom of movement and absence of scrutiny,.detrimental as they may be to the prison educational and treatment programme. The protection of the i n d i v i d u a l , therefore, requires a type of supervision s u f f i c i e n t l y r e s t r i c t i v e that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to interpret i t to the new or disturbed inmate as anything but a complete lack of f a i t h . Such supervision, however, i s a basic p r i n c i p l e i n any wellrrun i n s t i t u t i o n . Without i t , treatable individuals would be educated vocationally only to be degraded morally. The negativeness of complete supervision must be accepted as a part of the problem of the inst r u c t o r who must deal with the incar-cerated offender. The impersonal relationship which i s so evident i n the con-tact between prison o f f i c e r s and inmates i s also recognized as a detriment to t r a i n i n g . The t r a d i t i o n a l prison o f f i c e r has had drummed into him the absolute necessity of remaining impersonal, detached, and uninvolved to the extent that any rela t i o n s h i p which could be associated with treatment, warmth, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , 1 Martin, J.B., "Prison: The Enemy of Society", Harper's Magazine, New York, A p r i l , 195k> P.31. - 25 -or an acceptance which might further the communication of knowledge, becomes almost impossible. This s i t u a t i o n i s not an administrative-error. The current stage of development of prisons requires this method of operation. The prison o f f i c e r of today, and of the next decade at least, i s not trained i n education or s o c i a l work. He i s not s k i l l e d i n the art of using relationships i n a constructive way, or i n recognizing what might be a relationship which would be destructive to personality. I f he becomes involved, therefore, he can do immeasurable harm to the inmate and, what i s more to the point, to himself and the administration. The series of steps from an expression of warmth to a sympathetic extra e f f o r t to con-tact a r e l a t i v e , to an outside message, and to smuggling contraband, has placed more than one o f f i c e r i n the clutches of a psychopathic group. It i s not the rare exception. It i s the l o g i c a l outcome of a contact between a psychopathic inmate and an untrained guard. His only protection, short of pro-f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n handling disturbed people, i s the im-personal r e l a t i o n s h i p which, though i t stands i n the way of the easiest type of t r a i n i n g , i s not i n contradiction to s o c i a l work and education. This impersonal relationship i s only an elementary stage i n the development of good s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s . An example of how an impersonally trained o f f i c e r would react to a s i t u a t i o n i s demonstrated as follows: The o f f i c e r i n the presence of other inmates who would l i k e to challenge his authority i s profanely chastised by an inmate: - 26 -He does not become involved i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p , therapeutic or otherwise, with the inmate: He q u i e t l y waits u n t i l the inmate has expressed himself thoroughly: He then q u i e t l y says, "Go to your c e l l " : I f he does not go, he says, "You w i l l be disobeying an order i f you do not go to your c e l l " : He refers the s i t u a t i o n to higher authority i n the rare cases that have not conformed by that time. The o f f i c e r has not been abusive. He has treated the inmate with respect. He has not antagonized him unduly. He i s not out of harmony with education or s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s , but he i s at his optimum l e v e l - an elementary stage, which, because of i t s impersonal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , minimizes the greatest single element i n the encouragement of treatment and t r a i n i n g and the positive r e l a t i o n s h i p . Attitude Vocational t r a i n i n g cannot eventuate i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the offender unless there i s a qu a l i t y of acceptance existent i n the public group with whom he comes i n contact, which supple-ments and f i n a l i z e s the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process. In spite of the popular b e l i e f that the public's attitude toward the delinquent i s so punitive and a n t i s o c i a l that he has l i t t l e or no opportunity to use his vocational s k i l l , or to achieve a harmonious relationship with society i n general, i t can be argued that i t may not be as necessary to influence the public at large as i t i s to provide leadership. Public apathy may not be as much a question of lack of sympathy fo r penal reform as i t i s a lack of understanding. The point i s made that - 27 -leadership from sources of power within the government, supported by an informed opposition party, and from key people i n the com-munity who would have some influence on the government, should provide the incentive f o r public support. Due to the complexity of government today, the public has d i f f i c u l t y i n expressing i t s e l f adequately on a l l public issues. However, because of the developing s o c i a l climate, the public i s ready f o r leadership i n areas of s o c i a l concern. In some i n -stances, with reference to penal administration, public p o l i c y may lag behind public opinion, and i t i s rather necessary that p o l i t i c a l leaders and top administrators should be s a t i s f i e d that they are giving the kind of programme which the public approves, but are not a r t i c u l a t e about i t . Bromberg makes the point that the public are so a n t i s o c i a l toward the offender that, i n spite of modern treatment and t r a i n i n g , he very frequently cannot be convinced that society w i l l 1 ever accept him. Confronted with an attitude that i s v i n d i c t i v e and punitive, the delinquent does not have the opportunity to discover that society could support him, and he them, i f only they were both emotionally free to understand t h e i r mutual problem. I t i s Interesting to note that, as a r e s u l t of the c l i n i c a l study of hundreds of convicted offenders and of community groups, i t was demonstrated that the personality differences within the a n t i s o c i a l group are very s i m i l a r to those encountered among the law-abiding population. The same study established the f a c t that the offender himself does not recognize his attitude as being 1 Bromberg, Walter, "Crime and the Mind", J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 19^8, p. 19. - 28 -a n t i s o c i a l , and that he i n s i s t s on being considered c l o s e r to the law-abiding c i t i z e n than to another offender. In b r i e f , the theory expounded on t h i s s p e c i f i c aspect of delinquency i s that the offender i s not u n l i k e the non-offender; that h i s problem i s one of personal c o n f l i c t , the e s s e n t i a l features of 1 which are only s e c o n d a r i l y r e l a t e d to s o c i e t y . Adequate l e a d e r s h i p may provide the s o l u t i o n . P u b l i c enlightenment i s n o t ^ e n t i r e l y wanting, as evidenced by the growing acceptance of s o c i a l workers, probation o f f i c e r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , p s y c h i a t r i s t s , and the good work of many groups and s o c i e t i e s operative w i t h i n the community. S t a f f The f i n a l key to the success or f a i l u r e of any r e h a b i l i -t a t i v e programme i s the s t a f f a v a i l a b l e to do the job. E f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and adequate f a c i l i t i e s are e s s e n t i a l , but these alone w i l l not r e h a b i l i t a t e the delinquent. The a t t i t u d e of the p u b l i c and of governments w i l l determine the c a l i b r e of personnel h i r e d to s t a f f c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . I f the emphasis i s on custody only, there w i l l be guards. I f , however, the emphasis i s on treatment and t r a i n i n g , there w i l l be c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s . The l a t t e r term i s used to describe the o f f i c e r employed i n modern treatment and t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s today who has knowledge, not only of custody, but a l s o of the s p e c i f i c area i n which he c o n t r i b u t e s to treatment and t r a i n i n g . Although s t a f f members are p r e s e n t l y being h i r e d and p a i d as 1 I b i d . , pp. 1-2. - 29 -guards, the c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t i n treatment and t r a i n i n g l o c a l l y i s such that they are expected to do the work of h i g h l y s k i l l e d and capable p e o p l e . The i n s t r u c t o r i n a community v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l , where personnel standards are at a much h i g h e r l e v e l than they are i n p r i s o n s today, must be both a tradesman and a t e a c h e r . He i s expected to be a f i r s t c l a s s man on h i s job, but at the same time be adaptable and able to change from pro-d u c t i o n to i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . The modern c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r must be a tradesman, a teacher, and more. He has the added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of foremanship, the use of a u t h o r i t y , and the maintenance of good custody at a l l t i m e s . More trade t r a i n -i n g shops have been the scene of v i o l e n c e and d e s t r u c t i o n , as the r e s u l t of inadequate c u s t o d i a l p r e c a u t i o n s , than any other area of our p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The cost i n d o l l a r s alone i n the r e c e n t r i o t s at the Walla Walla or K i n g s t o n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s has been estimated to be over one m i l l i o n i n each case. There has been no attempt to estimate the cost from the viewpoint of the i n e v i t a b l e d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n p u b l i c or government support of treatment and t r a i n i n g programmes across the e n t i r e c o n t i n e n t . These r i o t s , l i k e most o t h e r s , l e f t the trade shops i n a shambles. As i f h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a tradesman, teacher, and c u s t o d i a n were not more than s u f f i c i e n t , the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r must a l s o be a s o c i a l worker i n p a r t , as he i s expected to understand the causes of maladjustment and to p l a y h i s p a r t w i t h the v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l members of the l a r g e r treatment team. A l l of these he must be, but with no more f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e than the wage of an u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r . 0 - 30 -F a c i l i t i e s The f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t e n t i n the c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of today are u s u a l l y u n b e l i e v a b l y inadequate f o r the job of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . The average p r i s o n i s a honeycomb of c e l l s , w i t h no space f o r the expansion o f v o c a t i o n a l work. The academic work that i s accomplished f r e q u e n t l y must be done i n the inmate's c e l l . The l a s t v o c a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t e d at O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm, now the Young Offenders' U n i t , was made i n t o l i v i n g accommodation before shops c o u l d be i n s t a l l e d . In most i n s t a n c e s , the b u i l d i n g s a t O a k a l l a were b u i l t years ago, a f t e r the p a t t e r n of the o l d e r p e n i t e n t i a r y systems, when i t was b e l i e v e d that repentance and s o l i t u d e or work i n c e l l s was 1 the answer to the delinquency problem. Shops and c l a s s rooms f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g were unheard of, and completely new b u i l d i n g s must be e r e c t e d , t h e r e f o r e , b e f o r e much can be accomplished i n t h i s a r e a . P r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s have been made over, but even when these approach being adequate, the absence of equipment, v i s u a l a i d s , and other modern methods of e d u c a t i o n are conspicuous by t h e i r absence. P e c u l i a r i t i e s of the g e n e r a l s e t t i n g In a d d i t i o n to the p e c u l i a r problems of a c u s t o d i a l nature which beset the i n s t r u c t o r and t h e r a p i s t , there are f a c t o r s more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the man and h i s sentence which bear comment. Although inmates of c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s can be s e r v i n g sentences of from days to l i f e , the m a j o r i t y are s e r v i n g sentences o f s i x months or l e s s . The time element, t h e r e f o r e , i s 1 Barnes, H.E. and Te e t e r s , N.K., "New Horizons i n Criminology", P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., New York, 1 9 5 3 . p. 1+03• - 3 1 -a problem i n presenting a complete course or programme of t r a i n -ing. The problem of working with a minimum of time for adequate tr a i n i n g opportunities i s further complicated by the f a c t that the men are a r r i v i n g at a l l times to commence t h e i r studies. A course can seldom be set up with any hope that the beginning group w i l l remain intact u n t i l i t i s completed. Inmates are continuously being admitted and released throughout the course, making any continuity of i n s t r u c t i o n d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to achieve, and reducing the t r a i n i n g process to the most costly and i n e f f i c i e n t type of operation. The i n d i v i d u a l nature of i n s t r u c t i o n i s i n some ways an advantage, but the d i f f i c u l t y involved i n providing i t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the prison s e t t i n g . The conglomerate nature of the student body i s another factor to be dealt with. In the larger i n s t i t u t i o n s , the selection of a more homogeneous grouping i s possible. In the smaller i n s t i t u t i o n s , which are considered e s s e n t i a l to treatment, the class too frequently includes the old, the young, and the middle aged. The normal i n d i v i d u a l , the neurotic, the psychotic, and the psychopath are represented i n the class as i n the general population, but with an i n t e n s i t y of problem which makes t h e i r conglomerate make-up a factor to be reckoned with In attempting to f i n d s t a f f who can handle the s i t u a t i o n and' make i n s t r u c t i o n e f f e c t i v e . Another d i f f i c u l t y faced by instructors i n the correctional i n s t i t u t i o n i s the fact that many of the students are adults, and quite sensitive about being taught from the same text books or by the same methods as the younger element. The Canadian - 32 -Legion courses were of great assistance i n this regard, both to the men i n the armed forces and to some prison administrations, where they were used for purposes of inmate t r a i n i n g . At Regina Gaol i n Saskatchewan, under authority of the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s , the courses i n question were used extensively. The veteran group i n the gaol at that time (19k9) represented seventy per cent of the t o t a l inmate population. The average disturbed prisoner i s l i k e the older man who thinks he i s beyond the age when he can learn r a p i d l y . The fact that vocational t r a i n i n g i s usually an afterthought rather than something he has planned for, and the fact that i n many instances i t i s a case of r e - t r a i n i n g to the point that i t becomes a patch job rather than a basic change, are both of great consequence i n the prison s e t t i n g . A l l the problems discussed heretofore are increased i n i n t e n s i t y by the p a r t i c u l a r problem of the i n d i v i d u a l inmate. His personality disorders handicap him, and so reduce the effectiveness of the training programme. His family and the community are so distant that he does not gain the support from them that he would i n the normal community t r a i n i n g programme. Many i n s t i t u t i o n s are b u i l t to increase t h i s i s o l a t i o n and detachment. The b a r r i e r to community support for the student inmate i s no less a problem than that of h i r i n g good s t a f f to work i n remote locations. The r u r a l or inaccessible area faces a con-siderable handicap i n labour market s i t u a t i o n s . It i s d i f f i c u l t to hire teachers f o r remote areas even though the salary may be - 33 -att r a c t i v e enough. I n s t i t u t i o n a l s a l a r i e s are not s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e to counteract adverse or d i f f i c u l t l i v i n g conditions. There i s l i t t l e incentive, therefore, for q u a l i f i e d i n struc-t i o n a l s t a f f to give up the i r ready contact with the normal community, university, summer school, conventions, and other obvious advantages of urban l i f e . This p a r t i c u l a r problem i s not as relevant to the s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia as i t i s in other areas, but i t cannot be ignored. Regina Gaol, for example, i s only seven miles away from the centre of town, yet there are periods during the winter months when the highways are impassible, and the only means of t r a v e l i s by the use of snow shoes. B r i t i s h Columbia i s not without i t s severe winters, and, although transportation i s seldom at a s t a n d s t i l l , the remote areas are the f i r s t to su f f e r . There w i l l always be some applicants who prefer a r u r a l s e t t i n g , but the problem Is one that must be considered i n a study of correctional administration. Conclusion The foregoing discussion of the increased d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n the operation of an e f f e c t i v e vocational t r a i n i n g programme i n correc t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s was not intended to imply that the job i s impossible. Rather, i t was intended to define the problems c l e a r l y In order that they might be dealt with. Though overcome to a degree i n some programmes, they have not been met to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of a l l the d i s c i p l i n e s working i n the correctional setting to date. The newness of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area of treatment and tr a i n i n g , therefore, i s a factor to be acknowledged. One of the most recent attempts to eliminate these - 3k -problems of the correctional setting, which continue to plague the vocational instructor, has been the separation of i n s t i -t u t i o n a l s t a f f into two or more d i s t i n c t groups. In the Ontario Reformatory at Guelph, where vocational work i s at a peak, the guard operates as an overseer i n the shop. As a representative of society and the administration, he represents authority. The vocational i n s t r u c t o r on the other hand, with no custodial and a minimum of administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i s free to play a much more charitable r o l e . To the inmates, he i s unrelated to the guard and a l l he stands for, and may be favoured because he i s one of them rather than a member of society. It i s e s s e n t i a l , therefore, i n the f i n a l analysis, to synthesize the concepts of t r a i n i n g , treatment and custody. Without th i s synthesis, l i t t l e of a r e h a b i l i t a t i v e nature i s gained. Teachers, guards, and s o c i a l workers must be part of a team or family who do the t o t a l r e h a b i l i t a t i v e job. Their s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s only a part of that t o t a l i t y . Chapter III Vocational Training Programmes at New Haven, Young Offenders' Unit, and Oakalla Prison Farm New Haven The New Haven Borstal i n s t i t u t i o n , from a vocational t r a i n i n g point of view, i s the most intensively operated i n s t i t u t i o n under consideration. I t accepts f o r t r a i n i n g a population of f o r t y youths selected from the six thousand or more people committed to i n s t i t u t i o n s i n this province each year. Because these boys have l i t t l e i n the way of deep personality problems, they can measure up to a high standard of performance with a minimum of p s y c h i a t r i c support. The New Haven Borstal then, i s characterized by s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e , i n d i v i d u a l attention, counselling services of a father and son type, but l i t t l e i n the way of intensive s o c i a l case work, group work or psychiatry usually found necessary i n i n s t i t u t i o n s dealing with more disturbed people. The abnormalities found i n corr e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are existent i n t h e i r least damaging degree i n this type of i n s t i t u t i o n . New Haven was patterned a f t e r the English Borstal System, and, a f t e r some preliminary d i f f i c u l t i e s , became well established under the leadership of Mr. Rocksborough Smith i n 19i+7. The s i t e was located i n the greater Vancouver area, but i n one of the less central and more r u r a l sections of the large municipality of Burnaby. The buildings used centre around a large old residence made over to provide o f f i c e s , kitchen and dining room space. A large - 36 -two-storey b u i l d i n g nearby provides trade shop space on i t s lower f l o o r , and dormitory space above. A small gymnasium i s b u i l t on the east side of the dormitory building and, except fo r small farm buildings, a l i n e of four small one-room cottages, extending west of the main building, complete the plant. The atmosphere of the setting i s u n o f f i c i a l , relaxed and, i f a l i t t l e haphazard looking, i t s plan and appearance represent modern ideas concerning a s o c i a l i z i n g type of s e t t i n g . New Haven i s small and comparatively c o s t l y . Its per capita cost i s approximately $7»5>0 per inmate per day. The s t a f f at New Haven are, for the most part, non-professional people, and in-service t r a i n i n g has been the accepted method of preparing new s t a f f members for duty. They t o t a l f i f t e e n i n number. The administration i s headed by a Director, who was i n i t i a l l y responsible to the Attorney-General, but now reports to the Inspector of Gaols. He i s a graduate of the Toronto School of S o c i a l Work, and has had extensive experience i n Borstal work as i t Is practised i n England. Under the Director are four Instructors, s i x Supervisors, a Bursar, a Chief Supervisor, a Housemaster, and a S o c i a l Worker. The farm i n s t r u c t o r has a u n i v e r s i t y degree i n agriculture, the cooking and baking instructor i s a master cook, the two trades instructors are q u a l i f i e d i n d u s t r i a l arts men, and the s o c i a l worker i s a Bachelor of S o c i a l Work. Apart from the Director and the S o c i a l Worker, however, none of the s t a f f has professional t r a i n i n g In any of the s o c i a l d i s c i p l i n e s . - 3 7 -New Haven's general programme i s reminiscent of a private school. The d a i l y routine i s wholesome and a c t i v e . The "lads", as they are c a l l e d , r i s e at 6 * 3 0 A.M. and report f o r morning c a l i s t h e n i c s . They have breakfast at small tables, with a headmaster i n charge of the blessing and dining room behaviour. They report to woik at 8 : 0 0 A.M. sharp, have lunch i n the d i n i n g room at 1 2 : 0 0 noon, lounge u n t i l 1 : 0 0 P.M. and carry on again u n t i l the dinner hour. The evening period includes regular school classes, hobby work, physical t r a i n i n g , sports, and general recreation, and a l l the lads are i n bed and quiet by 1 0 : 0 0 P.M. The private school atmosphere i s increased by the use of such terms as headmaster, lads, et cetera, and by the use of d i f f e r e n t coloured t i e s to designate the stage of progress they have achieved toward t h e i r release or parole allowed during the l a t t e r part of t h e i r indeterminate sentences. This i n s t i t u t i o n i s reasonably well equipped with vocational shops. There are only four trades offered, but the Administra-t i o n maintains that these are s u f f i c i e n t to cover every possible need. I t i s the Director's contention that character building and the formation of good work habits are more important than trade t r a i n i n g . His expressed philosophy i n this regard is that the trade t r a i n i n g which may be acquired as a r e s u l t of the programme at New Haven i s i n c i d e n t a l to the end objective, which i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and that this can b e s t be achieved through the building of character t r a i t s and the development of good work habits. He admits that a complete absence of vocational t r a i n i n g i n favour of a routine maintenance work programme would - 38 -make the job of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n much more d i f f i c u l t , but makes the point that i f trade t r a i n i n g does nothing but teach a trade i t does not contribute to the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process. A l l new admissions to New Haven undergo a period of orien-t a t i o n l a s t i n g approximately one month. During this period they are employed as cleaners and general maintenance workers. They are exposed to a l i m i t e d amount of psychological testing, aimed c h i e f l y at determining t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s and needs, and f i n a l l y are assigned to a shop or t r a i n i n g area chosen as a r e s u l t of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process. The actual o r i e n t a t i o n period may fluctuate, according the number of new admissions a r r i v i n g , but, once the assignment has been made, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and subsequent placement tend to remain f i x e d . The only recognized reason f o r changing the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n or placement i s that a boy has been misplaced as a r e s u l t of poor screening i n the f i r s t place. The reasoning behind this rather r i g i d p o l i c y i s based on the Director's conviction that r e-c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and the resultant change of placement, disrupt the treatment programme to the extent that i t i s not conducive to the teaching of good work habits, and that the s p e c i f i c nature of the trade t r a i n i n g Is r e l a t i v e l y unimportant. In addition to the recognition of i n d i v i d u a l interests and needs, the length of sentence and the i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g are also used as guides i n determining placement. I t i s considered to be more or less a waste of time, both for the i n s t i t u t i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l concerned, to place a boy i n a t r a i n i n g area i f his sentence i s very li m i t e d or i f his i n t e l l i g e n c e rating f a l l s - 39 -below the accepted standard. In either s i t u a t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l i s assigned to a shop, not for t r a i n i n g purposes, but i n order to work on a routine production basis. The metal-work shop offers i n s t r u c t i o n i n bench t o o l work, lathe operation, and the turning and planing of surfaces, et cetera. In addition to t h i s universal shop routine, i n s t r u c t i o n i s also offered i n various sub-trades such as sheet metal, forging, acetylene welding, and ornamental i r o n work. The wood-work shop deals c h i e f l y with cabinet making, but includes some t r a i n i n g i n the theory and p r a c t i c a l aspects of construction. Both of these shops are capable of providing machine shop drawing for the occasional trainee who may be interested i n this s p e c i a l t y . The i n s t r u c t o r i n charge has his I n d u s t r i a l Arts School C e r t i f i -cate, and he also has had t r a i n i n g i n the regular c u r r i c u l a r routine. His assistant i n s t r u c t o r does not have these academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , but they are both experienced tradesmen i n their own r i g h t . The Administration places a boy i n a shop on the basis of his expressed i n t e r e s t i n a s p e c i f i c trade, but this i s not done for vocational reasons. They are adamant i n t h e i r contention that the a c q u i s i t i o n of good work habits and acceptable character t r a i t s are f a r more important than trade t r a i n i n g . They agree that trade t r a i n i n g i s useful, but only as a means to an end. Hence the deliberate l i m i t a t i o n i n the trades that are a v a i l a b l e . The metal and wood-work shops are considered valuable as a medium fo r teaching good work habits. The farm, and i t s associated sub-trades, are used to accommodate those boys who are considered - ko -to be incapable of learning a s k i l l e d trade. The kitchen appeals to others, and at the same time provides a learning experience f o r those boys found suited to that medium. A boy who tests high i n the personal-social f i e l d i s c l a s s i f i e d as kitchen material. According to the Administration, this leaves only the business and s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d s of endeavour uncovered. The Director states that they are at a b i t of a loss as to what they should do with boys who f a l l into this c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , but they are able to accommodate one or two i n the Bursar's o f f i c e as a means of meeting t h e i r needs. He agrees that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area of the New Haven programme i s one that would benefit from expansion. Young Offenders' Unit The Young Offenders' Unit, unlike the New Haven Borstal, accepts, a group of up to seventy-eight disturbed youths for treatment and t r a i n i n g . Although an attempt i s made to reach the same high standards of performance before the completion of t r a i n i n g of each inmate, the method of achieving that objective i s much d i f f e r e n t . This group, because i t i s made up of d i s -turbed people, must be given a continuing case work service to make i t possible for the i n d i v i d u a l to absorb t r a i n i n g . Without t h i s intensive case work and group work, the continuation of a successful vocational t r a i n i n g job would be exceedingly d i f f i c u l t . As the t r a i n i n g programme develops, however, i t supplements the ps y c h i a t r i c help to the point where the i n d i v i d u a l , at the time of release, should be able to. manage on a s u f f i c i e n t l y independent basis to carry on i n the community. The obvious problem i s the - k l -r e c r u i t i n g and t r a i n i n g of a calibre of s t a f f capable of synthesizing the custodial, educational, and s o c i a l work functions of t h e i r jobs. This synthesis i s d i f f i c u l t , but i t does appear to provide the most hopeful p o s s i b i l i t y for the successful treatment and t r a i n i n g of the true delinquent. The Young Offenders' Unit i s located on the grounds of Oakalla Prison Farm. The building, l i k e the programme, i s quite separate from the main section of the larger i n s t i t u t i o n . The architecture i s modern, and the general outside e f f e c t i s one of e f f i c i e n c y , neatness, and attractiveness i n structure. The ground f l o o r centre front i s the entrance, which leads d i r e c t l y to the o f f i c e section. Immediately above, on the second f l o o r , i s the kitchen u n i t . On either side of this central portion on both f l o o r s are units housing thirteen boys each. Each unit has i t s own bath and t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s , and a table for general use and the partaking of meals. The basement area houses the motor mechanics, carpentry, and book binding shops, and two Quonset buildings outside and behind the main building house upholstery and radio shops. Half of the ground f l o o r of the main b u i l d i n g i s used f o r academic classes, church groups, and indoor rec r e a t i o n a l programme. A play f i e l d , f o r use by the boys of t h i s Unit only, adjoins the buildings, a l l being enclosed and separated from the other Oakalla buildings by a high chain l i n k wire fence. The s o c i a l work and vocational programme of this i n s t i t u t i o n Is intensive and expensive. The per capita cost i s approximately $7.00 per inmate per day. The s t a f f of the Young Offenders' Unit, l i k e New Haven, are - J+2 -p r i m a r i l y non-professional people, and in-service t r a i n i n g has been the acceptable method of preparing new s t a f f members for duty. They t o t a l twenty-nine i n number. The Unit functions as an i n t e g r a l part of the Oakalla Prison Farm administration, but enjoys a good deal of independence i n Its d a i l y operational routine. Following the administrative pattern of the parent i n s t i t u t i o n , the treatment and custodial personnel operate as a team, and are j o i n t l y responsible for the programme as a whole. The senior treatment person i s the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r . He i s the only graduate s o c i a l worker on the s t a f f . The Chief Custodial O f f i c e r , i n addition to custody, is. also responsible f o r the administrative routine. The dual administration throughout i s unique and important, but since i t bears l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the discussion of vocational t r a i n i n g i t need not be developed here. The large group of nine group workers who team up with the twelve instructors i s the main difference between the organization of the s t a f f i n the Young Offenders' Unit and that at New Haven. The morning work programme i s directed by the Chief Vocational O f f i c e r , who operates i n the capacity of a t r a i n i n g supervisor. He i s a v e r s a t i l e and competent tradesman, as well as an experienced i n s t r u c t o r . There are ten Supervisors i n charge of the various shops and classrooms. The afternoon s o c i a l i z a -t i o n programme i s directed by the Senior Group Work Supervisor. His group work s t a f f consists of eight Supervisors. The dual nature of the general administration carries through Into the operation of both morning and afternoon programmes. A custodial - k 3 -o f f i c e r completes the team i n charge of either s h i f t . The remainder of the s t a f f consists of the cook and the custodial o f f i c e r s i n charge of the night s h i f t . The general programme at the Young Offenders' Unit deals primarily with t r a i n i n g and. s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The d a i l y routine i s more closely related to l i f e i n the community than i t i s to the private school atmosphere of New: Haven. The inmates are up at 7 : 0 0 A.M. Breakfast i s served "family s t y l e " i n that each group eats at one table, much as i t i s i n most f a m i l i e s . They report to th e i r shops or classrooms at 8 : 0 0 A.M., and work through u n t i l 1 1 : 3 0 A.M. Lunch, l i k e a l l other meals, Is served to them i n groups, and they are back at w> rk from 1 2 : 3 0 PIM. u n t i l 2 : 3 0 P.M. The afternoon and evening hours are occupied with sports, hobbies, and a v ar'iety of s o c i a l i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The more active programme terminates at 9 : 0 0 P.M. and a l l i s quiet by 1 0 : 1 5 P.M. The Young Offenders' Unit i s reasonably well equipped with vocational shops, and they do have a number of men on s t a f f who are there to i n s t r u c t inmates i n a variety of trades, yet there appears to be good reason to doubt that vocational t r a i n i n g i s an important part of the unit programme as a whole, a t t h i s time. The motor mechanics shop can accommodate a group of t h i r t e e n or fourteen boys. Although each boy i s shown a l l parts of an automobile i n considerable d e t a i l , and i s instructed i n the operation and repair of same, he i s not given a "course" i n motor mechanics. He cannot become a tradesman under these conditions no matter how long or how detailed i s his i n s t r u c t i o n . His formal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are not recognized by management or labour groups, as he has nothing to offer as evidence, other than the casual s k i l l he may be able to demonstrate. A s i m i l a r problem exists i n the other shops. There i s no woodworking course, as-such, and although the woodwork shop can accommodate thirteen or fourteen trainees, the learning acquired i i s the r e s u l t of working under supervision on construction pro-jects f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n , f o r s t a f f , and for outside inter e s t s , rather than the planned objective of a tr a i n i n g course. In the upholstery shop, the boys gain a certain amount of knowledge, but the range of the i r experience i s li m i t e d by the type of work being done, which i s presently r e s t r i c t e d to various projects for the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service, for s t a f f , and for outside i n t e r e s t s . The book bindery, u n t i l very recently, was under the supervision of a f u l l y q u a l i f i e d book binder. He has now accepted a higher paid p o s i t i o n elsewhere, however, and the shop i s not functioning as a tr a i n i n g u n i t . However, the value of thi s t r a i n i n g to a boy can well be queried, since the union's r e f u s a l to "recognize" an instr u c t o r working for less than union wages meant that the tr a i n i n g provided had no status i n the community. As was the case i n the book bindery, the kitchen Is supervised by a q u a l i f i e d instructor, but no attempt i s being made to t r a i n anyone i n the highly technical art of good cooking. The most productive unit, i n terms of actual guidance and tra i n i n g , i s the combined school and radio shop. The instructor i s a q u a l i f i e d teacher, and, although he i s not licensed to teach i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r province, his interest and a b i l i t y i n the art have made a de f i n i t e impression on the programme. The - kS -shop can accommodate from ten to f i f t e e n students taking cor-respondence courses i n a v a r i e t y of academic subjects, and s t i l l others who are studying radio and wireless telegraphy. Inasmuch as the i n s t r u c t i o n i n these technical subjects follows a s p e c i f i c routine based on recognized teaching procedures, i t can be accepted that this shop i s a c t u a l l y o f f e r i n g vocational guidance and t r a i n i n g . Production i s l i m i t e d to the repairing of radios for the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service and for s t a f f , but the i n s t r u c -t i o n a l methods i n use are such that a 'course' i n radio and wireless telegraphy i s available for the boy who i s fortunate enough to be assigned to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r shop. True, there i s s t i l l no recognition of the graduate by management or labour, for reasons si m i l a r to those described e a r l i e r , but he has had an appreciable degree of formal t r a i n i n g . Oakalla Prison Farm The main section of Oakalla Prison Farm, besides operating the treadmill that admits, releases, and sends back and f o r t h to court eight thousand people a year, cares f o r a group of s i x hundred or more sentenced.men. This i n s t i t u t i o n faces the s p e c i a l problems found i n correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e i r most extreme form. Although vocational t r a i n i n g i s encouraged where ever possible, the d i f f i c u l t i e s are so great that whatever t r a i n i n g time i s available i s f e l t to be most appropriately used for the improvement of s t a f f . Correspondence courses for inmates, and job placement to allow vocational t r a i n i n g are encouraged, but the study which follows w i l l probably be more important f o r the discrepancies i t makes obvious rather than the - k6 -t r a i n i n g process i t describes. Oakalla Prison Farm was completed i n 191k, and neither the choice of architecture nor the philosophy showed an appreciable difference from that used i n New York State's Auburn Prison, b u i l t one hundred years e a r l i e r . In both i n s t i t u t i o n s , c e l l s were b u i l t back-to-back i n the centre of a cellhouse s h e l l , f i v e t i e r s high. Under the Auburn system, silence was enforced both day and night. Inmates worked together during the day under a s t r i c t rule of silence, and at night were locked up i n t h e i r single c e l l s . Work was intended to punish and regenerate. Silence was intended to prevent moral contamination. Although the s i l e n t system was not enforced at Oakalla, the philosophy of introspection and repentance was i n vogue. Fortunately, there have been some changes for the better i n recent years. The physical handicap, however, remains to l i m i t and r e s t r i c t any attempt to i n s t i t u t e a programme which might r e f l e c t a less punitive and more po s i t i v e approach. A good number of the present Oakalla s t a f f , l i k e the buildings, programme and t r a d i t i o n s , were inherited from the previous a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ^ ) , and i n many respects represent equivalent or even greater obstacles to a modern approach to treatment. Apart from a mere handful of treatment personnel In the upper ranks of the administration, the s t a f f of 276 are non-professional. In-service t r a i n i n g has been the accepted method of preparing new s t a f f members for duty, but the bulk of the s t a f f have been "prepared" for duty by orientation - k7 -primarily to the maintenance of good custody rather than to a dual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for treatment and custody. The idea of a "dual approach" i n prison administration was unknown at Oakalla p r i o r to the a r r i v a l of the present Warden three years ago. Since that time, however, the in-service t r a i n i n g programme has been further developed to the point where a l l s t a f f , new and old, are receiving i n s t r u c t i o n i n the basic p r i n c i p l e s of both treatment and custody. The administration i s headed by a Warden, who i s d i r e c t l y responsible to the Inspector of Gaols, and wi o i n turn i s responsible to the Deputy Attorney-General. He i s a graduate of the School of S o c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and has had considerable experience i n penology and s o c i a l work generally, both i n this province and other parts of Canada. D i r e c t l y under the Warden are two deputy wardens, one i n charge of treatment and the other i n charge of custody,; and administration. The Deputy (Treatment) i s also a graduate of the School of S o c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and has had some general experience i n the f i e l d s of s o c i a l work and probation. The Deputy (Custody) i s an o f f i c e r with twenty-two years' experience covering a l l aspects of custody and administration at Oakalla. The two deputies are the senior personnel representing the "dual approach" to prison administration i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . Unless they are able and w i l l i n g to work as a team, they are not considered q u a l i f i e d to f u l f i l l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e i r respective p o s i t i o n s . The administrative pattern - k 8 -supports the p r i n c i p l e of the "dual approach" throughout the entire operation of the prison. Treatment and custody must work as a team. Below the deputy l e v e l , there are two assistant deputies (custody) responsible to the deputy f o r morning and afternoon custody. A p o s i t i o n of assistant deputy (treatment) was recently established but has not as yet been f i l l e d . Each wing i s controlled by a senior custodial o f f i c e r , and he i s turn has a senior prison guard i n charge of each s h i f t . The administrative pattern i s such that a treatment person should be established at both these l e v e l s i n order to balance the "team". In r e a l i t y , however, only two of the four wings are operating i n thi s manner. A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r and a senior prison guard, both of whom are graduate s o c i a l workers, are the two remaining members of the treatment s t a f f . Below th i s l e v e l are the various classes of guards, from f i r s t class down to probationary. L i f e i n prison i s a monotonous routine at i t s best, and Oakalla Prison Farm i s no d i f f e r e n t than any other prison i n this respect. The day begins at 6 A.M. Breakfast, l i k e a l l other meals, i s served on a "feed l i n e " basis and i s eaten i n the c e l l . The work gangs are out from 8 * 0 0 u n t i l 1 1 : 3 0 A.M. They are back i n the i r c e l l s f or lunch, and then out to work again from 1 : 0 0 u n t i l k : 3 0 P.M. From 6 : 3 0 u n t i l 7 : k 5 P.M. the inmates are allowed the use of an exercise yard, weather and season permitting. At 7 : ^ 5 P.M. they are locked i n their c e l l s for the night. The l i g h t s are turned o f f at 9 : 3 0 and the radio at 1 0 : 0 0 P.M. Silence i s the rule from 1 0 : 0 0 P.M. u n t i l morning. - k 9 -The programme emphasis at O a k a l l a i s p r i m a r i l y on p r o d u c t i o n and maintenance, although i t i s hoped, that some v o c a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g w i l l accrue as a r e s u l t o f the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y on the p a r t of those inmates f o r t u n a t e enough to f i n d themselves i n a shop where they are employed at a r e c o g n i z e d t r a d e . General maintenance makes the g r e a t -e s t demands, on the inmate l a b o u r f o r c e , and i n c l u d e s the o p e r a t i o n o f the k i t c h e n , laundry,, t a i l o r shop, shoe shop, plumbing shop, c a r p e n t r y shop, b l a c k s m i t h shop a i d p a i n t shop. The o p e r a t i o n o f the farm and gardens i s a second major and time-consuming p r o j e c t . The p-late shop, although the number of inmates i n v o l v e d i s s m a l l , p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the i n t e r e s t e d inmate to acq u a i n t h i m s e l f w i t h a p r o d u c t i o n r o u t i n e . Licence, p l a t e s are produced,for the Motor V e h i c l e Branch o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government on a year round b a s i s , but the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g value i s r e c o g n i z e d as l i m i t e d . A r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n i n the new Westgate u n i t at O a k a l l a , i s the experiment being conducted w i t h three hundred and f i f t y inmates of a l e s s s e l e c t type than those u s u a l l y sentenced to New Haven and the Young Offenders' U n i t . Although the emphasis i s s t i l l on p r o d u c t i o n and maintenance, the work tempo i s e q u i v a l e n t to that which would be r e q u i r e d f o r an i n t e n s i v e v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programme.= A s i m i l a r pace would not be forthcoming under the normal p r i s o n r o u t i n e , but i t appears to have been maintained throughout t h i s experiment as the r e s u l t of continuous support through the a p p l i c a t i o n of case work, group work, and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . U n l i k e the other - 50 -sections of the main gaol at Oakalla, the programme i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r unit i s also directed toward the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the inmate body, c o l l e c t i v e l y and as i n d i v i d u a l s . The hours of operation are similar, but meals are eaten "family s t y l e " , much as they are i n the Young Offenders' Unit, and the evening i s devoted to sports, hobbies, studies and a va r i e t y of other s o c i a l i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s * This method of using s o c i a l work services to support a high l e v e l of work performance, may well be the shape of things to come i n the correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s of the future. Chapter IV Conclusions Philosophical Issues In assessing any programme related to penal a f f a i r s i n Canada, i t must be recognized that C anada has lagged i n i t s development of modern correctional services. I t is only i n recent years that there has been some e f f o r t at the federal l e v e l , and also on the part of c e r t a i n p r o v i n c i a l govern-ments, to do something about the offender. B r i t i s h Columbia happens to be one of the provinces which i s moving i n penal reform. The existence of New Haven and the Young Offenders' Unit; the construction of a new Boys' In d u s t r i a l School; and, above a l l , the appoint-ment of a s o c i a l worker as Warden at Oakalla, one of the largest prisons i n the country, a l l indicate the growth that i s taking place. However, i t must be acknowledged that there i s no stated philosophy of approach yet evident i n B r i t i s h Columbia. There i s no l e g i s l a t i o n which r e a l l y defines the intent of the government with reference to penal a f f a i r s . There i s the desire to do the right thing f o r the offender, but the methods have not yet been c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d . Bound up with this question of philosophy, and cl o s e l y r e l a t e d to the subject under discussion, vocational t r a i n i n g , i s the lack of any clear p o l i c y on prison labour. While i t is true that vocational t r a i n i n g may be developed without a strong prison labour programme, i t i s apparent that a production - 52 -programme w i l l give meaning to t r a i n i n g . Problems i n Rehabilitation This study has given emphasis to the dilema of endeavour-ing to f o s t e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n within a prison s e t t i n g . Any environment where people are forced to operate against t h e i r w i l l i s hardly conducive to the learning process, yet i t would be defeatism to say that the obstacles cannot be overcome and that there can be no value to prison t r a i n i n g . There w i l l be some o f f s e t t i n g advantages to i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . For one thing, the offender may experience a sense of r e l i e f when imprisoned, because, i n a sense, h i s battle wi th the community i s over, at l e a s t temporarily. From the point of view of the properly run i n s t i t u t i o n , he can be i n s t a n t l y available for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a treatment programme. With proper grouping, he may be able to s o c i a l i z e at h i s own pace. Even i n the face of scanty knowledge, these considerations provide encourage-ment f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n idea. Issues.in Vocational Programme Keeping these philosophical considerations i n mind, i t i s now necessary to review s p e c i f i c aspects of the vocational programmes within the three i n s t i t u t i o n s under observation. It i s recognized that the study may simply appear to be' an examination of lacks within the programmes, but this may have a value i n pointing up what should be done by way of improve-ment, and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , what should be planned for future projects. The New Haven Borstal i n s t i t u t i o n appears, at f i r s t glance, - 53 -to s a t i s f y the f i r s t objective of good vocational training, the development of a marketable s k i l l , i n that a l l the lads released are immediately placed on jobs. A closer view of the placement made, however, indicates that lads are not placed on jobs which require the use of :the trades they have learned i n more than f i v e per cent of cases. The F i e l d Secre-tary of the Borstal Association reports that the majority are unwilling to work for apprenticeship wages, and are often not s u f f i c i e n t l y s k i l l e d i n t h e i r trade to take a responsible job i t . The fact that a high proportion of parolees are reported to be successfully r e h a b i l i t a t e d , f o r a temporary period at least, suggests that an increased adaptability i n human relationships has taken place. Improved employment attitudes and useful knowledge are no doubt acquired; i n t h e i r average sentence of s i x to eight months, but i t would appear that very l i t t l e i n terms of a marketable s k i l l or trade can be credited to the programme. The Young Offenders' Unit programme i s not set up to emphasize vocational training, but rather stresses i t s case work and group work functions. Vocational t r a i n i n g Is given a recognized place i n the programme, however, and the inmates do learn something of a trade, although not to the degree that i t i s considered a marketable s k i l l . The knowledge gained i s recognized as useful, but the facts regarding i t s usefulness i n future placement are probably most c l e a r l y indicated i n the National Employment Service's complete indifference to the trade classes attended. In the process of locating - 5k -jobs for these boys, the National Employment Service f i n d t h e i r previous work h i s t o r y more useful than the report of trades t r a i n i n g i n the i n s t i t u t i o n ^ P r a c t i c a l l y a l l Young Offenders' Unit releases are directed to jobs of one form or another, and i t has been found that alarge percentage 1 e s t a b l i s h themselves successfully f o r a reasonable period. The fact that they have been able to r e h a b i l i t a t e themselves again indicates that something useful has happened, and that there has probably been an increase i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to get along with people. The breakdown when i t comes, however, seems to centre around a lack of a b i l i t y to remain employed during slack seasons or to compete f o r an improvement i n status. The contribution of the vocational t r a i n i n g pro-gramme, as i n the case of New Haven, i s very i n d e f i n i t e other than i n i t s role as a medium to promote therapeutic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The contribution made by the vocational t r a i n i n g programme has some value from a soeial work or an employment fi n d i n g point of view, but there i s no doubt that the trades s k i l l provided i s not up to standard. Oakalla, t y p i c a l of the older custodial prison, has no provision f o r a vocational training programme. Its only r e -lated a c t i v i t y i s a series of maintenance shops, which operate f o r the express purpose of keeping the i n s t i t u t i o n going and nothing e l s e . Men are selected for these shops because they already know something about the work or are 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Attorney-General, Annual Report of the Inspector of Gaols f o r the Year Ended  March 3 1 s t , 1953 . V i c t o r i a , 195k, P. 1 7 . - 55 -interested i n the trade represented i n a p a r t i c u l a r shop,, Because shop jobs have a much higher p r i o r i t y than shovel jobs, the attitude to the trade maintenance work is'most enthusiastic. Men work hard to get these shop jobs, and work hard to hold them. L i b e r t i e s are greatest on trade jobs, and only the most r e l i a b l e men are selected. The degree of s k i l l acquired i s unquestioned, as a man who cannot learn to do his share of the work i s soon replaced by one of the many more interested or capable applicants waiting. The actual experiencevon p r a c t i c a l jobs under s k i l l e d tradesmen i s almost the equivalent of a fast apprenticeship, and the degree of p r a c t i c a l s k i l l which can be considered marketable when jobs are sought i s probably greater than i n either of the two vocationally equipped i n s t i t u t i o n s . Men are on the i r own i n Oakalla, and i t i s therefore impossible to say whether the tra i n i n g received results i n gai n f u l employment i n a l l cases, but there are s u f f i c i e n t placements by the National Employment .Service d i r e c t l y from the trade shop to trade work i n the community to suggest that vocational t r a i n i n g of a very useful type has taken place. Over f i f t y per cent of these men are either recognized trades-men or men wi o have worked mostly at one trade p r i o r to t h e i r commitment to Oakalla. Of the t o t a l group, a high proportion obtain employment i n th e i r i n s t i t u t i o n trade when they return to c i v i l i a n l i f e , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to esta b l i s h how much of the credit should be given to the Oakalla programme. Although the method of selecting men f o r shop work i s of - 56 -a less formal type i n Oakalla than that used i n the c l a s s i f i -cation f o r New Haven or the Young Offenders' Unit, a very d e f i n i t e weeding process ensures a picked group for each trade maintenance shop. The r e s u l t i n g relationships are usually quite close, and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n factor i s probably not completely overlooked, i n spite of the emphasis on top trade performance. As previously stated, physical f a c i l i t i e s can be an en-couraging or l i m i t i n g factor i n establishing an adequate pro-gramme. The f a c i l i t i e s at New Haven have been praised, and r i g h t l y so, f o r t h e i r relaxed atmosphere. From a purely vocational t r a i n i n g point of view, however, It must be said that the p r i n c i p l e of building to sui t programme was not car r i e d out, and that a properly constructed and neat appear-ing vocational building, though less informal, would have many advantages over the structure now i n use. The placement of the Young Offenders' Unit building near the main Oakalla building has some unfortunate aspects, i n that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to produce the p o s i t i v e and relaxed atmosphere required, while so close to the shadow of the Oakalla c e l l block. The fort r e s s no doubt helps at times to remind the Young u f f e n d e r s ' Unit lad of his good fortune, but the proximity of the two buildings does increase the problem. The Young Offenders' Unit buildings themselves are bright and modern, and remind one of the neatness and e f f i c -iency associated with the good craftsman. The areas i n the building which would normally be ide a l for shop space, are, however, used for dormitories, and the shops are located i n - 57 -the basement and i n two small and. rather drab Quonset buildings. The equipment provided i n the Young Offenders' Unit i s more extensive i n most areas than i n New Haven, but again f a l l s short of the standard expected i n a modern vocational i n s t i t u -t i o n . The main building at Oakalla i s s t r i c t l y custodial i n architecture and atmosphere. The a t t i t u d e and f e e l i n g i n the shops that are located i n the main building i s f u r t i v e , and i s dominated by a negative "convict" a t t i t u d e . In the laundry and t a i l o r shop, this may be explained i n part as the r e s u l t of placing confirmed "convicts" on these jobs. Strangely enough, however, the attitude i n a l l the shops which are located i n buildings outside and around the main building i s the most p o s i t i v e possible. The freedom gained through the shop experience adds a value to the work, and the men apply themselves with r e a l industry. These buildings used by the main Oakalla i n s t i t u t i o n include a large neat Quonset type structure f o r the carpentry and paint shops. The blacksmith shop i s a reinforced concrete structure, though spoiled i n appearance by metal roofing and- wooden additions. The shoe shop and plumbing shop are part of an old wooden gaol b u i l d i n g . The equipment i n the Oakalla shops has to be good to do the continuous p r a c t i c a l job of maintaining a large amount of buildings aa d machinery. Equipment, l i k e buildings, however, i s f a r short of the standard required for vocational t r a i n i n g today. In summing up the situations i n the three i n s t i t u t i o n s , - 58 -with regard to buildings and equipment, i t must be concluded that only the barest e s s e n t i a l s are available. Equipment i s far short of that required i n modern t r a i n i n g schools. The f l e x i b i l i t y demonstrated i s good i n that d i e s e l shop equipment can be replaced with carpentry equipment, f o r exam-ple, when a change i n demand i s indicated, but i t i s i n -s u f f i c i e n t to overcome the basic inadequacies i n this area. Instructors i n the average vocational t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u -t i o n should be required to have technical knowledge equiva-lent to that required i n the trade, a comprehensive experience i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r trade, s u f f i c i e n t teacher t r a i n i n g to ensure the use of proper teaching methods, and personality t r a i t s appropriate to the correctional f i e l d . In other words, they must have a good understanding of the theoret i c a l and p r a c t i c a l aspects of their subject, backed up by an a b i l i t y to teach, as well as an a b i l i t y to adjust to the special s i t u a t i o n where the classroom or shop frequently throbs under the impact of h o s t i l e , aggressive, and generally a n t i s o c i a l student f e e l i n g s . Theoretically, the s t a f f at New Haven are expected to measure up to C i v i l Service q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , but i n many cases they are recruited f a r beyond the normal qua l i f y i n g age f o r C i v i l Servants. They are, however, hand picked by the Director f o r their maturity and p o t e n t i a l as treatment people i n a Borstal s e t t i n g . At Oakalla and the Young Offenders' Unit a l l s t a f f vacancies are f i l l e d on the basis of open competition, and C i v i l Service q u a l i f i c a t i o n s apply. - 5 9 -Every candidate f o r appointment must be generally i n t e l l i g e n t , over twenty-one and under t h i r t y - f i v e years of age, not less than f i v e feet ten inches i n height, not less than 1 6 5 pounds i n weight, i n good health, and of good moral character and habits. In a l l three i n s t i t u t i o n s , the emphasis i s on person-a l i t y , i n t e l l i g e n c e and physical development. The f a c t that an applicant may have certain q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as a tradesman or i n s t r u c t o r i s secondary at best. In spite of the fundamental q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a vocational t r a i n i n g instructor should possess, applicants who ultimately become instructors are s e l e c t e d i n the same manner as a l l guard s t a f f i n a l l three i n s t i t u t i o n s . The value of this method of selecting personnel i s that i t leads to the develop-ment of a good, well-rounded s t a f f , who are capable of performing adequately i n the general administration of the i n s t i t u t i o n . It does not lead to the development of an e f f i c -ient vocational t r a i n i n g u n i t . Inasmuch as the objective of a l l three programmes i s the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the maladjusted i n d i v i d u a l , the development of a s t a f f well-endowed with personality, i n t e l l i g e n c e and physical q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i s to be recommended. I f vocational t r a i n i n g i s expected to make i t s contribution to the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process, however, the s t a f f wh. o w i l l be expected to do the t r a i n i n g should also be selected on the basis of t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l vocational knowledge, as well as on t h e i r a b i l i t y to impart that knowledge to others. Staff s a l a r i e s at New Haven and the Young Offenders' - 60 -Unit ($255 - $309) are higher than i n most Canadian correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s , but do not compare favourably with the wage of a tradesman i n the community, or with the salary paid to instructors i n vocational t r a i n i n g schools. The salary at Oakalla ($225 - $ 2 8 l ) can only be compared with the wages paid for un s k i l l e d labour i n the s ame commun-i t y . In a l l three i n s t i t u t i o n s , in-service t r a i n i n g i n general correctional work i s provided for s t a f f , but trades or teacher training i s non-existent. The only other training medium provided i s the l i b r a r y , but s t a f f development programmes must be furthered before the majority of s t a f f members w i l l know how to use this service e f f e c t i v e l y . It i s obvious, from our preceding narrative, that none of the three i n s t i t u t i o n s i n question can be c l a s s i f i e d as one of the three t r a d i t i o n a l types of vocational i n s t i t u t i o n s . New Haven and the Young Offenders' Unit most closely resemble the junior s chool type of programme, i n that academic standing i s at a minimum and the younger people are enrolled. The degree of disturbance usually found i n most inmates of correc t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s would unquestionably bar them from the usual junior school type of programme, but by ap-proaching this problem through the use of more intensive s o c i a l work services, the vocational part of the programme could be considered as s i m i l a r . Oakalla has l i t t l e s i m i l a r i t y to any standard vocational t r a i n i n g programme, other than apprenticeship i t s e l f . - 61 -In s p i t e o f s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t can be d e t e c t e d , the g e n e r a l l y lower e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f p r i s o n inmates, and the g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y of emotional problems, appear to be f a c t o r s which would make v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g on the b a s i s found i n any standard v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programme r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t . To be e f f e c t i v e , a t r a i n i n g u n i t would have to supply s u f f i c i e n t s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s to o f f s e t the abnor-m a l i t i e s i n the s i t u a t i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l . The degree o f s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s necessary to o f f s e t p e r s o n a l and environmental d i f f i c u l t i e s seems to i n d i c a t e that these s e r v i c e s would have to p a r a l l e l i n s t a t u r e the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programme i t s e l f . Reference was made i n chapter one to the c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r e d i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g schools and, o f the three i n s t i t u t i o n s u n d e r s t u d y , i t appears that i n O a k a l l a at l e a s t , being a l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n , the programme could be expanded to i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : B a r b e r i n g J a n i t o r - E n g i n e e r F i r s t A i d and time Machine Shop keeping P l a s t e r i n g I n d u s t r i a l E l e c t r i c i t y Sheet M e t a l There are fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r expansion i n New Haven and the Young Offenders' U n i t , but t h e r e does appear to be some scope f o r t r a i n i n g i n the f o l l o w i n g t r a d e s : B a r b e r i n g Machine Shop D r a f t i n g Sheet Metal In the o p i n i o n o f the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , any t r a i n i n g the inmate r e c e i v e s i s to h i s advantage. T r a i n i n g - 62 -p r o v i d e s some s k i l l which the employer can e x p l o i t and improve on. Anything of a mechanical nature w i l l enhance employa-b i l i t y i n t h a t I t removes the i n d i v i d u a l from the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s . I t makes the former inmate more accept a b l e to an employer. Although he cannot be c l a s s e d or h i r e d as a t r a d e s -man, he can be h i r e d as a h e l p e r , and t h i s can prove to be the f i r s t step to f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g i n the t r a d e . Some trade t r a i n i n g can l e a d to employment i n a l l i e d trades-. For example, furnace work i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h the sheet metal t r a d e , and t r a i n i n g i n sheet metal work means tha t the t r a i n e e can, without too much d i f f i c u l t y , make h i s way i n t o furnace work. In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , j a n i t o r i n g and s t a t i o n a r y e n g i n e e r i n g can be combined to p r o v i d e dual s k i l l s which have employment v a l u e . P l a s t e r i n g i s a t r a d e which i s i n constant demand. An i n d i v i d u a l who obtains some grounding i n t h i s trade can f i n d g a i n f u l employment. There i s an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y to e s t a b l i s h a b a r b e r i n g course. The present system of h a i r c u t t i n g i n v o l v e s the use of inmate barbers, some of them experienced and others not, but no a t -tempt has been made to c a p i t a l i z e on the obvious t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h i s a r e a . I n d u s t r i a l e l e c t r i c i a n s , time keepers with f i r s t - a i d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and g e n e r a l c o n s t r u c -t i o n workers are a l s o i n demand i n B r i t i s h Columbia's expand-i n g economy. Although the need f O r f l e x i b i l i t y has been i n d i c a t e d s e v e r a l times throughout the p r e c e d i n g pages, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the b u i l d i n g s and equipment i n a l l three - 63 -i n s t i t u t i o n s , i t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t i t i s d e s i r a b l e i n a l l aspects of the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p r o c e s s . "Wars, depres-s i o n s , and the constant f l u c t u a t i o n o f the su p p l y and demand c y c l e i n the w_ r i d o f i n d u s t r y , a l l make f o r changing needs and problems. Change i s i n e v i t a b l e , and an a b i l i t y to a d j u s t i s the formula f o r succe s s . V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i s handicapped by a l l the unique f a c t o r s mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , but the problem of p l a n n i n g a programme t h a t w i l l be adequate i n the face o f the f l u c t u a t i n g market f o r the product o f the i n s t i t u t i o n , i s t y p i c a l of a l l t r a i n i n g u n i t s . The c u r r i c u l u m f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n the c o r r e c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s h o u l d be no l e s s f l e x i b l e than the programme i n any other t r a i n i n g a r e a . The need to have a b a s i c academic e d u c a t i o n to make v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g e f f e c t i v e should be re c o g n i z e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s s t u d i e d and i n any f u t u r e programme. I t i s not s u f f i c i e n t to have i t as an o p t i o n a l correspondence course s e l f taught as i n O a k a l l a , o r as a course which e l i m i n a t e s v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g as i n the Young Offenders' U n i t , or as a n i g h t s c h o o l e x t r a as i n New Haven. Moreover, a t t e n t i o n must be d i r e c t e d to a p p r o p r i a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p f o r the t o t a l e d u c a t i o n a l programme. I t appears that there i s a case f o r the appointment at O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm of a D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s who would a l s o p r o v i d e c o n s u l t a n t s e r v i c e s to New]'Haven and the Young Offenders' U n i t . - 6 k -Too o f t e n the absence of an acceptable academic st a n d i n g i s misjudged as an i n d i c a t i o n of the off e n d e r ' s i n a b i l i t y to absorb an academic e d u c a t i o n , or h i s l a c k o f • i n t e l l i g e n c e . Although the l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y i s o f t e n a cause f o r academic d i s c r e p a n c i e s , i t i s a common occur-rence i n modern c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to f i n d t h a t t h a t has been co n s i d e r e d to be a l a c k of i n t e l l i g e n c e , i s i n r e a l i t y ai emotional b l o c k i n g . The need f o r adequate d i a g n o s t i c f a c i l i t i e s i s t h e r e f o r e an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of any e f f e c t i v e c o r r e c t i o n a l programme. Proper c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n methods, which i n c l u d e the use of psychometric s e r -v i c e s , tend to e l i m i n a t e the above-mentioned p e r s o n a l mis-judgements. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g , as minimal as d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s t u d y , cannot be e f f e c t i v e and only tend to d i s c r e d i t the d i a g n o s t i c team. F a c i l i t i e s f o r thorough c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should be Increased i n our present i n s t i t u t i o n s , and budgeted f o r adequately i n any new programme. Any good c l a s s i f i c a t i o n programme sho u l d encourage the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the inmate i n h i s own treatment p l a n . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d that the system as p r a c t i s e d i n New Haven and the Young Offenders' U n i t c o u l d be i n s t i t u t e d i n O a k a l l a . Because of the great number of Inmates, the process would have to be more xie c h a n i c a l , but could provide f o r a w r i t t e n request s i m i l a r to other request forms a l r e a d y i n use, and co u l d a l l o w an acknowledgement i n a l l cases and an explan-a t i o n i n a s u f f i c i e n t number of cases to make the e f f o r t worthwhile. In any new programme, i t would appear e s s e n t i a l - 65 -f o r the inmate involved to be brought into a discussion, which could allow s ome latitude p r i o r to the decision con-cerning his vocational programme. A basic point to be considered i s the need for the vocational programme i n a l l three i n s t i t u t i o n s to have a l i a s o n with both management and labour. It i s clear that job opportunities for the former inmate w i l l be enhanced when business firms have some knowledge of, and confidence i n , the kind of t r a i n i n g provided within the i n s t i t u t i o n . It. i s equally evident that any h o s t i l i t y on the part of organized labour wL 11 be a serious handicap to the man seeking a job. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n by labour i n the planning of an expanded prison labour programme, i t s assurance that t r a i n i n g i s of good quality, and that instructors are not a threat to labour standards, w i l l do much to f a c i l i t a t e acceptance of the former inmate into the i n d u s t r i a l commun-i t y . Closely a l l i e d to the l a t t e r point is the whole quest-ion of after-care i n Canada. On the part of the federal government, at least, the Canadian versions of parole are regarded as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of privage agencies, notably the John Howard Society. But i t i s no r e f l e c t i o n on this organization to say that i t should not be asked to bear what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a public function and, i n fact, i t may be said that the present arrangements d i s t o r t the function of private agencies, which should be concerned with pioneer-ing and intensive treatment of selected offenders, among - 6 6 -other things. It i s to be hoped that the present ferment i n corrections a t the federal l e v e l w i l l r e s u l t i n a new and imaginative approach to after-care i n Canada. While the federal government might conceivably inaugurate a programme of i t s own, i t appears that a more desirable administrative arrangement would be a programme of grants-i n - a i d to the provinces which, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, could r e s u l t i n integration of parole with the high q u a l i t y pro-bation administration now v i r t u a l l y extended throughout the province. Although the permanent value of the e x i s t i n g educational programmes should never be underrated, i t i s obvious from the preceding discussion that more intensive t r a i n i n g for inmates i s required. The increase i n the pace of tra i n i n g can only be achieved i f support for the in d i v i d u a l i s sup-p l i e d during his t r a i n i n g period through case work and group work services designed to meet his ind i v i d u a l needs. In any modern correctional i n s t i t u t i o n , therefore, i t i s necessary to envisage a partnership of the two great rehab-i l i t a t i v e forces, the educational and s o c i a l work programmes. The good vocational t r a i n i n g programme, besides providing a marketable s k i l l , and l a s t i n g personal values, w i l l pro-vide an i n s t i t u t i o n a l climate which wl 11 be i n i t s e l f thera-peutic. The good s o c i a l case work and group work programme •t w i l l provide an in d i v i d u a l f e e l i n g and attitude, without which the educational process would be limited to a s p e c i a l class l e v e l . An important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to be fostered - 67 -i n any successful correctional programme of the future, there-fore, w i l l be the acknowledgement by a l l that treatment i s not reserved f o r any single d i s c i p l i n e . Methods of treatment must be varied, but a l l must be dominated by a desire for team work which must permeate the t o t a l organization, from the warden to the lowest guard, and, what i s more important, must reach the consciousness of any i n d i v i d u a l to be r e h a b i l i t a t e d . Appendices A - Report on Vocational School Inspection T r i p . B - Bibliography - 68 -Appendix A Report on V o c a t i o n a l School I n s p e c t i o n T r i p The m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n chapter one c o n t a i n s p r i n c i p l e s d e r i v e d from a review of s e v e r a l books on the s u b j e c t of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , as w e l l as from i n t e r v i e w s with l e a d i n g people i n the f i e l d . The main source of i n f o r m a t i o n , however, was the "Report on V o c a t i o n a l School I n s p e c t i o n T r i p " , a p e r s o n a l study of twenty-seven v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s , i n v a r i o u s c i t i e s across Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , c a r r i e d out i n A p r i l and May of 191+7, by Mr. D . H . Goard, P r i n c i p a l of the Vancouver V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e . A l i s t o f c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p r i n c i p l e s proved d i f f i c u l t to f i n d in- w r i t t e n form, and most of the m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d was o b t a i n e d i n d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Mr. Goard, who p o i n t e d out that h i s c o n c l u s i o n s were a l s o shared by Mr. E . D. King, A r c h i t e c t f o r the Van-couver Sch o o l Board, and Mr. H. A. Jones, D i r e c t o r of T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, who reviewed these i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h him and j o i n e d w i t h him i n p r e s e n t i n g the r e p o r t to the Vancouver Sc h o o l Board. - 6 9 -Appendix B BIBLIOGRAPHY Books and Pamphlets 1. Aichorn, August, Wayward Youth, ^Viking Press, New York, 191+5. 2. Allen , Charles R., The Instructor The Man and the Job, J.B. Lippincott Company, Chicago, 1 9 4 - 5 • 3 . American Prison Association, Manual of Suggested Standards  for a State Correctional System, New YorkJ October, 1 9 k 6 . 1+. American Prison Association, Proceedings of the Eighty- t h i r d Annual Congress of Correction, Toronto, 1 9 5 3 < T 5. American Prison Association, A Manual of Correctional  Standards, New York, 1 9 5 k . 6. Barnes, H.E. and Teeters, N.K., New Horizons i n Criminology, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1 9 5 ~ 3 l 7 . Bridges, Clark D., Job Placement of the Phy s i c a l l y Handi- capped, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 191+6. 8. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Attorney-General, Annual Report of the Inspector of Gaols for the Year  Ended March 3 1 s t , 1 9 5 3 , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 5 1 + . : 9 . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Attorney-General, Report of the Director of New Haven For the Year Ended  December 3 1 s t , I 9 5 3 , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 5 1 + . 10. Bromberg, Walter, Crime and the Mind, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1 9 1 + 8 • 11. C a l i f o r n i a , State Department of Corrections, Manual of  Procedures i n Education, Vocational Tra i n i n g and Recreation, Sacramento^ C a l i f o r n i a , July, 191+8• 12 8 C a l i f o r n i a , State Department of Corrections, Seven Years  of Progress, Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a , July, 1 9 5 1 . 13. Canadian Youth Commission, Youth and Jobs i n Canada, Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1 9 l + 5 ~ » lk. E l l i o t t , Mabel A., Crime i n Modern Society, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1 9 5 2 . - 70 -l 5 » Federal Security Agency, Vocational-Technical Training  for I n d u s t r i a l Occupations, United States Office of Education, Washington, 19kk» 1 6 . Froehlich, C P . and Benson, A.L., Guidance Testing, Science Research Association, Chicago, 191+8. 1 7 . Glueck, Sheldon and Eleanor, Unravelling Juvenile De- linquency, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1 9 5 0 . 1 8 . Glueck, Sheldon and Eleanor, Delinquents i n the Making, Harper & Brothers, NewYork, 1 9 5 2 . 1 9 . Goard, D.H., Report on Vocational School Inspection Trip, Vancouver School Board, June, 1 9 k 7 . 2 0 . Lindner, Robert M., Stone Walls and Men, Odyssey Press, New York, 1 9 k 6 . 2 1 . MacCormick, Austin H., The Education of Adult Prisoners - A Survey and a Program, National Society of Penal Informa tion , New York, 1 9 3 1 . 22. Martin, J.B., Break Down the Walls, Ballantine Books, New York, 1 9 5 k . 2 3 . Menefee, Selden C , Vocational Training and Employment of  Youth, Federal Works Agency, United States Government Pr i n t i n g Office, Washington, 1 9 k 2 . 2 k . McGraw, Peg and Walter, Assignment: Prison Riots, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 195k• 25« Ohlln, Lloyd E., 'Selection for Parole, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1 9 5 1 . 26. Sutherland, Edwin H., P r i n c i p l e s of^Criminology, J.B. Lippincott Company^ Chicago, Ifq.7 • 2 7 . Tannenbaum, Frank, Crime and the Community, Columbia University Press, New York, 1 9 5 1 . 2 8 . Tappan, Paul W., Contemporary Correction, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1 9 5 1 . 29. Teeters, N.K. and Reinemann, J.O., The Challenge of  Delinquency, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1 9 5 0 . 3 0 . Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e , Calendar, e f f e c t i v e July 1, 1 9 5 k . - 71 -Journals 3 1 . Clende'nen, Richard, "Training Schools and the Future", C a l i f o r n i a Youth ''Authority Quarterly, v o l , 7* no, 1, Spring, 195hT» 32. Dobson, David, "The Contribution of Vocational Guidance to Personal Adjustment", Journal of S o c i a l Casework, v o l . 3 0 , no. 7 , July, 19^9. 3 3 . Groneman, C.H., "Effective Training of Industrial-Arts Teachers", I n d u s t r i a l Arts and Vocational Education, v o l . 1+3 no. i+, A p r i l , 1 9 ^ 31+. Grumer, Morris, "Aims and Scope of Vocational Counselling", Journal of S o c i a l Casework, v o l . 3 0 , no. 8 , October, 19l|9. 35« Hofstein, Saul, "Co-operation Between S o c i a l Work and Vocational Guidance", Social Casework, v o l . 3 1 , no. 1 0 , December, 1 9 5 0 . 3 6 . Kirkpatrick, A.M., "Issues i n the Rehabilitation of Prisoners", The S o c i a l Worker, v o l . 22, no. 3 , Ottawa, March, 19 51+. 3 7 . Martin, J.B., "Prison: The Enemy of Society", Harper's  Magazine, New York, A p r i l , 1951+. 3 8 . Schnur, A.C, "The Educational Treatment of Prisoners and Recidivism", American Journal of Sociology, September, 191+8. 

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